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• «. 

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Cited as Univ. Calif. Publ. Am. Arch. Ethn. 


NuHBKB 1. — Elements of the Eato Language, Pliny Earle Ooddard, pages 


Number 2. — Phonetic Elements of the Dieguefio Language, A. L. Kroeber 

and J. P. Harrington, pages 177-188. 

NuHBEB 3. — Sarsi Texts, Pliny Earle Goddard, pages 179-277. 

NiTHBKB 4. — Serian, Tequistlatecan, and Hokan, A. L. Kroeber, pages 279- 


Number 5. — ^Diehotomous Social Organization in South Ontral California, 

Edward Winslow Gifford, pages 291-296. 

Number 6. — The Delineation of the Day-Signs in the Aztec Manuscripts, 

T. T. Waterman, pages 297-398. 

Number 7. — The Mutsun Dialect of Costanoan Based on the Vocabulary 

of De La Cuesta, J. Alden Mason, pages 399-472. 




Vol. 11, No. 1, pp. 1-176, pl8. 1-45 October 31, 1912 






Phonology 4 

Individual Sounds . 4 

Voweki - 4 

Semi-VowelB 5 

Gontinnants 5 

Nasals 6 

Spirants 7 

Labial ..- _ 9 

Dentals 9 

Palatals 11 

« ^7ACv* «••••••••••»•«••*••«••«»••••••■•••«••••*«•••«»«••■•••••■«•«*••*««••••■*••■••■•■*•«••••••••••«•••««•••« A^m 

\7X\/ wVCvA ••«•••••••••«««•••••«•••■••••«■••••••«•«••*••••••••••■••**•«•«•••••••«•■•••■••••*•••*«•••**•«••« JLwf 

xaolo Ox oonnui ...~....~......~...»...........~..^.m^....................m...^............. 13 

Comparison of Kato and Hupa Sonndi 14 

Assimilation of Soundi 17 

Modification of Sjllablos ... ...... .. .. . . ... . 17 

Moix^ologj 19 

A flpaiiO "a vUw A^^^^LW •«•««••••••••••*•••••••■•■»•«••••■•••*•«••••«••*••••««••«••••••«•«•••■•«•••• ml ^ 

Plural and Glass SuflSxss ........ — ....... ... ............ — . ...... 24 

Sofiz with Instnunental Moaning ......^....^...........................».... 26 

8 University of CdHforniaPMbUcati(m8 in Am, AreK and Ethn. [YoLll 


Suffixes of Temporal-Modal Force ^ 2(J 

Suffixes of Sise, Shape, and Color 26 

Nouns compounded with Nouns 27 

First Noun qualifies the Second 27 

With Possessive Prefix for Second Component 27 

With Second Component modifying the First 27 

Nouns compounded with Adjectives 28 

Nouns compounded with Verbs _ 29 

Adjectives and Verbs used as Nouns 29 

Verbs with Instrumental Prefix used as Nouns 31 

Polysyllabic Nouns Unanalyzed 81 

Pronouns ...~..........~.....^^~^..„..........„..........„........^......„......^......^............ 32 

Personal .......... 82 

Personal Demonstratives 33 

Demonstratives „ 34 

Interrogative and Indefinite Pronouns 34 

Adjectives 35 

Pronominal Adjectives 35 

MultipUcatiyes 36 

Directional Wordi ^ ^ 37 

Place 38 

Time 38 

Postpositions 30 

Particles and Interjections ~ 41 

PT6fiZ6B .....—..—; ••••••^ —..•—..•.••...•••...—••••... ..•^•••...—••^.^ 42 

First Position „ 42 

Adverbial 43 

Deictic 49 

Objective 51 

First Modal 62 

Second Modal — ......... — .. — .. ........... . ..... 53 

Subjective 55 

Third Modals 57 

Stems . — — - 59 

Sufiixes 80 

Source of Information 80 

Modal .„ 81 

Temporal 83 

Tenses and Modes « ~ 84 

Table of Analyzed Verbs 85 

Interpretation of Tracings 86 

Explanation of Plates 88 

1012] Qoddard: EUmenU of the Kato Language 8 


In general stmctore all the Athapascan languages have great 
uniformity. The nouns, when not monosyllabic, are built upon 
monosyllables by suffixes, or are sentence verbs used as substan- 
tives. The verbs have adverbial prefixes expressing spatial rela- 
tions, subjective and objective prefixes expressing syntactical 
relations, stems which often indicate the character and number 
of the subject or object, and suffixes with temporal, modal, and 
conjunctional force. 

This general structure has been rather fully discussed in the 
treatment of the Hupa dialect.^ As has been said in another 
place,' the Kato dialect differs from Hupa sufficiently to make 
them mutually unintelligible. While this is due chiefly to 
phonetic changes, in a lesser degree it is due to differences in 
vocabulary, particularly nouns of descriptive meaning. The 
suffixes of the verbs also differ considerably. The elements which 
compose the words of each dialect are nearly all identical except 
for the phonetic changes which exist. 

It has been thou^t sufficient, considering the treatment 
already given the Hupa language, to provide descriptions of the 
individual sounds occurring in Kato, illustrated as fully as pos- 
sible with tracings; and to list\ the morphological elements, 
accompanying each with a few examples. This has been done 
with the expectation that the chief use made of the work would 
be comparative. 

The material employed is chiefly that contained in Kato 
Texts,* to the pages and lines of which the numerals after the 
examples refer. The tracings* used were selected from about one 
thousand made in the spring and fall of 1908 by Bill Bay, from 
whom the texts also were obtained. 

^Uniy. GaUf. Pabl. Am. Arch. Etlm., m, 1905. Bureau of American 
Ethnology BuUetin 40, 87-158, 1910. 

s Univ. Calif. Publ. Am. Arch. Ethn., y, 56, 1909. 

• Uniy. Calif. PubL Am. Arch. Ethn., y, 65-238, 1909. 

4 For a deeeription of the apparatus and methods oonsvlt Amer. Anthrop., 
BA yn, 618-619; and y, 1-4, of this series. 

UniverHty of CdUfomia PubUoaiiona in Am. Arch, atid Ethn. [Vtd. 11 




Tbe vowqLs occurring in Kato are a, %, e, §, e, i, i, 5, ft, and u. 
Of these, ^, ^, are evident modifications of a and e ; and i is not 
at all common. 

a in quality is the wide-mid-back in English father. It has a 
very uniform length of .17 seconds. 

^ is narrow-mid-back much like the vow^l in English what. 
It occurs only in closed syllables, the same morphological element 
when rendered open having unmodified a, e.g., -kwi|n, -kwa n%fi, 
The converse, however, is not true that a becomes $ in closed 
syllables. The stem of verbs often has i| in the present and a in 
the past: tc'nnoLt'^, **cut them"; tc'n ne sIl t'ats, **I cut it 
up." It is probable that the stem is more strongly stressed in 
the latter case. The duration is usually les9 than that of a, 
being about .11 seconds. 

e is open in qualify as in English net. It is of frequent occur- 
rence and stable in its character. In a few cases only does it 
become narrowed to ^ as in English err. Its duration is very 
uniform, being about .17 seconds. In less stressed syllables it 
19 morphologically equivalent to Hupa e of the same quality. 

I always has the closed, continental sound as in English pique^ 
"When stressed it is the morphological equivalent of Hupa e. 

i, thQ open ^ound in English in, is but rarely heard. It ia 
extremely short in duration and is detected with some difficulty. 
It has been uniformly written in tc'in, "be s«iid." That it was 
as uniformly uttered is not certain. 

5 with the close qualify in English note is of frequent occur- 
r^ce, and is fairly constant in its character, with a duration of 
.17 seconds. It has frequently been vrritten in place of tl as a 
possessive prefix, when its duration is only about .1 second. 

fi hfus the sound of u in English but. It is always short 
in duration, about .067 seconds. It corresponds in its use in 

1912] Ooddard: Elements of the Kato Language 5 

morphological elements with i in Hnpa; Eato Lilt, Hnpa lit, 

a, dose in qualify as in rule, Occurs as a possessive prefix 
where one might suspect its origin to be connected with yo and 
yi, the demonstrative. That it is not a vowel originally inde- 
pendent of seems probable. The closeness of quality may be 
due to neighboring semi-vowek. Even in this prefix it is often 
heard as o. Its duration is usually short, about .1 second. 


y initially seems to begin as a surd and to pass very quickly 
into a sonant glide. It adds very little if any duration to 
syllables. When final it is written i and seems in some cases to 
have belonged to a separate syllable. 

w seems to have developed in most instances from completely 
sonant g under the influence of back vowels. In a few morpho- 
logical elements w does appear without such influences, but in 
certain Athapascan dialects g appears even in these. When the 
w-like glide after k is not followed by a vowel it is surd and 
written ti;. 



The only sonant liquid is the lateral one, 1. Initially in the 
word and after a surd spirant the first half of the 1 is surd and 
the latter half sonant. The first portion of the tracings (pi. 1, 
figs. 1, 2) shows the effect of a single flap of the tongue followed 
by a distinct rise of the tracing point, probably due to a greater 
opening of the passage. In form, the tracing resembles that tot 
the surd spirant l (pi. 1, fig. 9) but is much smaller. 

Between vowels (pi. 1, fig. 4; pi. 3, fig. 3; pi. 7, fig. 9) and 
final in the syllable (pi. 1, figs. 3, 5; pi. 9, figs. 1, 7) the sonancy 
is uninterrupted. When 1 is followed by a glottal stop the 
sonancy and apparently the duration of the sound itself are 
much shortened. The sound under this condition makes but 
little impression upon the finglish ear, and it is often heard as 
a surd. The tracings in plate 1, figures 7-9, do show a degree of 


6 Uf^er8ityofCaUfomiaPubHoaH(msiHAm.Areh,andEthn, [YoLll 

sonancy. These interrupted sonants seem to be the representa- 
tives of Hupa final L.* 

The duration of 1 is about .18 seconds. 


m. — The bilabial nasal seems to occur only where b has been 
assimilated to a dental or palatal nasal. Examples of such 
assimilation are plainly seen in cases where the initial sound of 
a verb-stem is b. Whenever it is preceded by n or n, b becomes 
m and usually the preceding nasal becomes m (pi. 6, figs. 6, 8). 
The postposition bl« when it follows a nasal becomes mi« (pi. 4, 
fig. 9). There is one word with an initial m which is unex- 
plained, main, ''weasel" (pi. 6, fig. 5). The duration of this 
sound is about .1 second. 

In common with several Athapascan dialects, Eato has b, 
apparently preserved, where Hupa and other dialects have m. 
Perhaps the change toward m began with these words where 
assimilation took place and afterwards was carried through the 
language by analogy. 

Syllabic n. — ^In many words in Eato n stands by itself in a 
syllable (pi. 4, figs. 2, 3), particularly when it is the first modal 
prefix of verbs and adjectives, and the second personal posses- 
sive prefix before a consonant. Under these circumstances Hupa 
has a vowel i preceding the n. Such a vowel was imagined to 
exist in Eato and was at first written. This n, unlike the con- 
sonant, has no sound accompanying the release. Its duration is 
about .12 second. 

n. — The dental consonantal n when initial usually has the 
sonancy beginning about .05 seconds before the release of the 
tongue (pi. 1, fig. 8; pi. 2, fig. 3; pi. 3, figs. 5, 6). In some 
instances the sonancy seems to follow the release in about .01 
second (pi. 4, fig. 7), in this respect agreeing with g and d when 

When n occurs within a word it is sonant throughout (pi. 4, 
figs. 6, 7). Its duration is about .1 second. 

The final nasal seems usually to be palatal rather than dental. 

• Present series, ▼, pL 6, fig. 9. 

1912] Ooddard: BlemenU of the Kato Language 7 

bat it becomes dental when another syllable beginning with a 
vowel is suffixed. In that case the n is often heard doubled as 
the final and initial sounds of the adjoining syllables. This is 
revealed in the tracings of plate 3, figure 1 of which shows a 
more complete closure of the mouth passage for the second n. 
Figure 6 of the same plate shows a decided increase in the 
amplitude of the vibrations of the nasal tracing, apparently due 
to the lower pitch of the final syllable, which happens to be 
favored by the tambour in use. 

n. — The palatal nasal seems to be characterized by an incom- 
plete closure of the mouth passage, or by its closure sometime 
after the lowering of the velum. This results in a nasalized 
sonant, palatal spirant, or a nasalized vowel, according to the 
degree of elevation of the back of the tongue, but since the 
earlier part of the vowel and the latter part of nasal are pure, 
the mixed character is not particularly noticeable to the ear. 
Final g also has a similar incompleteness of contact. 

Often the palatal n is followed by a glottal stop (pi. 3, figs. 
3-5). The sound is somewhat obscured in that case and at first 
the glottal stop was supposed to precede the nasal. None of the 
tracings reveal such an order. The glottis seems to open and 
the velum to fall at the same instant, causing a simultaneous 
raising of both tracing points. Eato seems to differ from Hupa 
as to the order of the glottal stop and nasal, as appears from 
plate 5 of volume 5 in this series. 


The spirants of Eato are four in number, s, c, l, and h, all 
of them normally voiceless. In a few instances the initial por- 
tion is voiced at a low pitch, probably due to the gradual separa- 
tion of the vocal chords. This low-pitched voicing of the initial 
portion impressed the hearer, in some cases, rather than the 
middle and last surd portion, and the sound was accordingly 
recorded as a sonant. In a number of cases intervocalic h 
appears with low pitch vibrations of great amplitude continuing 
throughout its duration. If it be true that the glottal spirant 
is caused by the friction of the air current as it passes the true 


8 UniverHtyofCdlifarniaFfiblioati4}MinAm,AreKandEthn. [YoLll 

vocal chords, there may well be degrees of their retraction and 

s.— When initial, the tracing of s is usually a regular para- 
bolic curve (pi. 5, fig. 1; pi. 6, fig. 7), showing a duration for 
the sound of about .22 second. In an intervocalic position (pi. 1, 
fig. 7) it may appear as a straight line or as an upward curve 
according to the elevation of the adjoining vowel tracing. Final 
in the syllable, which is a frequent position because of its occur- 
rence as a suffix, it usually appears as a reg^ular descending 
parabolic curve (pi. 3, figs. 5, 6; pi. 5, fig. 2; pi. 8, figs. 2, 8; pi. 
10, figs. 1, 4, 7) of from .16 to .25 of a second in leng^. When 
final in the word, s is sometimes quite prolonged (.33 second) 
and shows a depression followed by a regular elevation. The 
form of the curve is due to variation in breath pressure con- 
trolled in the last analysis by the size of the opening between 
the tongue and the palate, and possibly, though not probably, to 
increase in the lung pressure. 

c. — ^When initial before a consonant c (sh) seems to be syllabic 
(pi. 5, fig. 4; pi. 11, fig. 5). It is distinguished from s with 
difficulty by ear and its tracings closely resemble those of that 
sound. In other situaticms in the syllable and word the remarks 
above concerning s apply to c. In Hupa the corresponding 
sound is huf (-w) .* 

L. — The position for this sound seems identical with that 
for L The tracings of it (pi. 2, figs. 1, 2, 4; pi. 11, fiig. 3) 
usually show evidence of a single fiap or movement of the tongue 
and sometimes (pi. 42, fig. 12) the slighter movements which 
may represent the spirant character. In a few cases (pi. 10, 
jBg. 2 ; pi. 8, fig. 1 ) the sonancy of the preceding vowel continues 
into the 1, but in all other respects it is surd. The sound is of 
the same character as that. found in Hupa.^ The average length 
is a little less than .2 of a second. 

h, \ — ^Tracings of this sound in the initial, medial, and final 
C ) positions are to be seen in plate 5, figures 7-9. In duration 

• Work died, v, 10. 

T Ibid., pL 6, figs. 2, 4, 5, 6. 

l§lfi] Qoddard: Slernrnti of the Kaio Language % 

h 18 comparable to s and c. As had been remarked above, when 
medial it often has low-pitched vocal chord vibrations. 

G. — ^A sonant spirant in the postpalatal position occurs be^ 
tween vowels and finally. It has probably resulted from a stop, 
the closure being incomplete. 


Six positions and three kinds of stops may be distinguished 
in Kato. The positions are bilabial, dental, prepalatal, post- 
palatal, velar, and glottal. The dental and palatal ones occur as 
sonants or intermediates, aspirated surds, and surds accompanied 
by glottal action. 


b. — In the bilabial position only one kind is found, which from 
its resemblance to the corresponding members of other series may 
be called a sonant. The sonancy, however, does not occur until 
after the separation of the lips (pi. S, fig. 3) ; the impulse for 
their separation and for the approximation of the vocal chords 
seeming to be synchronous. In regard to the tracings it should 
be observed that the lips, being tightly confined within the speak- 
ing funnel, often compress the air and elevate the recording point 
during the closure, obscuring the effect of the release, a result 
quite different from that produced by the other stops. 

When b is preceded by a nasal it is assimilated to m. It does 
not occur in the final position of the syllable. 

Its duration averages about .18 seconds. 


d. — The sonancy of d occurs about .04 seconds after the witii- 
drawal of the tip of the tongue from the sockets of the teeth. 
Perhaps that interval is required for the adjustm^it of the chords 
after the nervous impulse is received (pL 7, fig. 1). It will be 
observed that laryngeal adjustment of some sort is synchronous 
with the initial adjustment of the tongue marked by the first 
vertical lines in figures 1, 2, 3 of plate 7. Since only the latter 
third of the sound is sonant, and since its strength of enunciation 
does not differ from the surd so much as is usual in European 

10 UnivenityofCaUforniaFubHcaiioi^imAm.Ar<ai.midBthn. [YoLll 

languages, it is heard by many as a surd. The sound is not found 
in the final position of the syllable, nor could it be expected since 
in that situation the sonant portion, the end glide, is wanting. 

t. — In the sound represented by t, the final glide is surd 
breath resulting in an aspiration perhaps a little stronger than 
in accented English syllables (pi. 7, figs. 4-6). In several cases 
t by itself composes a syllable (pi. 6, fig. 3; pi. 7, fig. 2). In 
similar situations Hupa has d if the sound be initial, and t if it 
be final, with a weak vowel if necessary. Where t and d occur 
in the same word t appears as a higher tracing, indicating its 
somewhat stronger character. In duration the closure is about 
.1 second and the glide about as long. 

t'. — The third member of the dental series is one of those 
peculiar American sounds often called fortes or exploded. The 
upper larynx line (pi. 7, figs. 7-9) shows a rather marked depres- 
sion beginning as the tongue reaches the position of closure, 
culminating an instant after its release, and gradually returning 
during the glide, the latter portion of which is sonant. In 
figure 9 both t' and t occur, with a definite depression for t' but 
none for t, although it is nearly twice as high in the lower breath 
tracing. The initial sound also has the depression for tc', of the 
same character as the sound under discussion. 

It will be noticed that the recording point does not ascend so 
high as for d even, and immediately returns to the line marked 
by the preceding closure or even below it. It seems probable that 
the larynx tracing records a bodily movement of that organ 
which normally occurs when the glottis is closed by the depres- 
sion of the epiglottis. The glottal stop (pi. 7, fig. 7) has a similar 

It seems that while the tongue is against the teeth closing the 
passage through the mouth the velum is raised, closing the nasal 
passages, and the glottis is closed by the epiglottis. The mouth 
and throat form at that time a closed chamber filled with com- 
pressed air which escapes as the tongue is withdrawn, causing the 
moderate elevation of the tracing point. Immediately after the 
release, of the tongue, while the glottis is at least partly closed, 
some movement, perhaps the lowering again of the larynx, causes 

1912] Goddard: BlemenU of the Kato Language 11 

a degree of suction. These sounds have a characteristic harsh 
effect on the ear. Examples of this sound in the final position 
may perhaps be seen in plate 11, figures 5 and 6. In the lower, 
breath, line of the latter the tongue release may be seen about 
4 mm. after the last vertical line and a second one, probably the 
glottal release, 10 mm. after the first one. That the laryngeal 
movement is synchronous with, not posterior to, the dental stop, 
appears from the depression in the larynx line of figure 5 of this 


The palatal stops seem mostly to be in the postpalatal position, 
the prepalatal stops apparently having become affricatives. In 
many cases it is rather difficult to be sure whether tc is uttered 
or a prepalatal k with, perhaps, a glide. There are three sorts 
of the postpalatal stops of the same general character as those of 
the dental series, and in addition considerable variation in the 
scmant depending upon the position in the syllable. 

g. — ^Initially the sonancy of g begins, as in d, about .02 seconds 
after the release of the tongue (pi. 8, fig. 1). Between vowels, 
and in some cases even between vowel and consonant, the sonancy 
is continuous, and the contact slight and of short duration (pi. 8, 
figs. 2, 3) . If an o or ft follows, it is often heard as w. In Hupa, 
in both the initial and medial positions, w occurs in all vowel 
settings. Finally in a word and before a surd spirant the contact 
is incomplete and a sonant continuant is heard (pi. 8, fig. 9) 
written o.*' 

k. — The aspiration of the palatal surd is more noticeable than 
in the case of the corresponding dental. The duration of this 
aspiration, between the release of the tongue and the beginning 
of the vowel, averages .08 seconds (pi. 9, figs. 1-3). In numbers 
of cases this consonant is syllabic, representing the pronoun of 
the third i>erson either as a possessive prefixed to a noun or the 
object prefixed to the verb. In this case and in some others the 
aspiration sounds as a surd w. A sound of this kw sort occurs 
finally and between a vowel and consonant (pi. 11, fig. 1). It is 

7a It now seems eertain tliat two g's liave been eonfused: one, not very 
frequent, is intennediate; the other k fuUy sonant, eorresponding to w in 

It UniverHtff of CaUfomia PubHoatians in Am. Arch, and Ethn, [YoL 11 

quite probable that the w-tinge iB imparted by the remains of an 
5 or u vowel. It appears that the ordinary aspirated k when 
final usually loses its third or aspirated portion and resembles 
an unaspirated k. Hupa has a surd palatal continuant (x) as 
the corresponding sotmd in all situations. 

k'. — The third member of the series is of the same character 
as t'. Its tracings show the same depression in the lar3mx line 
and a similar reduction in the height attained by the breath 
tracing with the following retraction. It has a harsh, cracking 
sound, still more noticeable than that of t'. A k of this sort fol- 
lowed by w is also found (pi. 9, fig. 9). When final it is rather 
hard to be sure which k should be written, but it almost certainly 
occurs in plate 11, figure 8, and perhaps in many other words. It 
corresponds to the only k of Hupa, in which language the palatal 
sonants seem to have become w, and the aspirated surd palatal 
stops the surd palatal spirant x. 


q. — ^A few words have a sound dearly different from the 
palatal sounds discussed above. This difference seems to be one 
of position. The sound appears to be a velar, unaspirated and 
intermediate as to sonancy (pi. 8, figs. 7, 8). 


That the glottal stop («) occurs in the initial position in a word 
is not certain. It is initial in the verbal stems -«a, -«ai, and -«an, 
but these stems of course are never the first syllable of words. 
When intervocalic (pi. 11, fig. 9) the stop is usually heard as a 
short pause between the two sounds, and is likely to be over- 
looked as insignificant or not even noticed until attention is called 
to it. When it is final (pi. 1, figs. 2, 6) it is much more promi- 
nent, for in that situation its release is plainly heard as an 
aspiration. Its duration in this situation is much longer. Its 
presence may also be detected by its effect upon the vowel or 
consonant which it follows (pi. 11, fig. 3). It has the result of 
reducing the duration of a preceding sonant (vowel, liquid, or 
nasal) to be about one-half of the usual length. 

1918] Goddard: EUm^mU of t1^ Kaio Language 1$ 



The classification of the afiMcatives (stops plus spirants) 
is rather difficult in Kato. A sonant dj occurs in a number of 
syllables (pi. 10, figs. 1, 4), but there is usually some question 
as to the sonancy and also the position ; dj, g, tc, and ky at first 
having been written for the same sound. An unmistakable surd 
tc also occurs with aspiration which takes place through the 
sh (c) position (pi. 10, figs. 2, 5). 

A surd with glottal accompaniment (tc'} is frequent (pi. 10, 
figs. 3, 4, 6, 9) ; a deictic prefix of this sort being present in a 
large number of verbs. It is often syllabic. 

It is rather doubtful if ts occurs in any large number of 
cases. The diminutive suffix, of very frequent use in Kato, often 
sounds as much like ts as it does like tc. This is probably due 
to the fact that the second part of the sound is formed in a 
position or in a manner between s and sh as heard in English. 

L. — In some cases a lateral surd consonant of an 1 character 
seems to be accompanied by the same sort of glottal or epiglottal 
action which aflFects the surd stops and the aflFricative tc'. This 
is especially plain in the tracing plate 2, figure 7. The effect, as 
in the other sounds of this character, is to reduce the energy of 
the breath, as is uniformly shown by the height of the tracings, 
and at the same time to impart a harshness which is strikingly 

Stops OoBtinm«atf 



« "9 S S 


Bilabial b m<b 

Apl«al-4«iital 4 t t' 8 ts ts'.a' « 

Median-prepi^ta] e dj t« t«' 

Lateral-prepalatal l L 

Post-palatal g k k' g ft 

Velar q 
Glottal « W 

Semirowels: y, w. 

14 University of CaUfomia FubUcaUans in Am, Arch, and Bthn. [YoL 11 


e 9 


Eatx) a and % iorrespond to Hupa a and % (written A) . 

Kato a% eloud; Hupa a, dovd. 

Kato ytLgdLgslf he threw up; Hupa jawiLwaL, he threw through 
the air. 

Eato e ; Hupa e. 

Kato fee, eoal; Hupa, tofiw, eoaL 

Kato tee del'; Hupa tcittesdeL, they went. 

Eato i ; Hupa e. 

Kato ci, I; Hupa, htoe, L 

Kato ddgisiil, one eould not see; Hupa ddxddAweeen, it eould 
not be seen. 

Eato 5 ; Hupa 5. 

Kato Ld% grass; Hupa Ld, grass. 

Kato ndtc'^td', water reached; Hupa n5itt5, the water eomes. 

Eato ti ; Hupa i. 

Kato Ldt, smoke; Hupa lit, smoke. 

Kato nas fits, he ran about ; Hupa nas its ei, he ran about. 

Kato giUliit, it bums; Hupa willit, it bums. 

Eato y ; Hupa y . 

Kato j&*f louse; Hupa ya, louse. 

Kato yenat ja, he went in; Hupa yenawityai, he went in. 

Eato 1; Hupa 1. 

Kato l^t, seaweed; Hupa la, seaweed. 

Kato tetm li*, he eaught in a noose; Hupa tsis loi, he tied in bundles. 

Kato tc'ttelds, he led; Hupa natelSs, she dragged baek. 

Eato L; HupaL. 

Kato i/dn, squirrel; Hupa Ldn, mouse. 

Kato Lelyits, he tied together; Hupa Leilloi, he tied together. 

Kato tc'enanLa, he jumped out; Hupa teeilLat, he jumped out. 

1912] Goddard: Elements of the Koto Language 15 

Eato L ; Hnpa L. 

Kato AliOly its straps; Hnpa Uh, strap. 

Kato teljoitdigi, she is making a basket; Hupa keitLd, she used 
to make baskets. 

Kato syllabic n ; Hupa n and i or other vowel. 

Kato ntcel*y jour younger brother; Hmpa nittai, jour paternal 

Kato ndass!, it is heaTj; Hnpa nit das, it is heaTj. 

Kato n ; Hupa n. 

Kato ne', land; Hnpa nin, ground. 

Kato naniinyaiy she started aeross; Hnpa nanifijai, he erossed. 

Kato n ; Hupa n or n.* 

Kato dtc'fkfi*, toward it; Hupa xdteifi, toward her. 
Kato detgto'afi, he put it in the fire; Hnpa dedfiwifian, he put 
in incense. 

Katos; Hupas. 

Kato dsftts, its skin; Hupa sits, skin, bark. 

Kato ddkionesM, I was insensible; Hupa ainesen, I thought. 

Kato ; Hupa hw, 

Kato ca, moon; Hupa hioa, moon. 

Kato nee in tS le, let me look; Hupa nQw ill, let me look. 

Kato nLcftfi', black; Hupa Luhioin, black. 

Kittob; Hupam. 

Kato bOfik'iit, lake; Hnpa mtSk, lake. 

Kato bee ya htlt, he climbed up when; Hnpa me is La dei, he ran up. 

Kato na^be, swim (pin. imp.); Hnpa nautrme, let me swim. 

Kato d; Hupa d.* 

Kato Ada*, his month; Hnpa x5tda, his mouth. 

Kato dan51a, she put it up; Hnpa danawillai, she put it. 

Kato bS daii, let us climb; Hupa wei diL, we will go. 

Kato dj ; Hupa dj. 

Kato dje% pitch; Hupa dje, pitch. 

Kato dje* giiLtceL, he split open; Hnpa djewiLkil, he tore open. 

Kato t, Hupa t. 

Kato t5, water; Hupa i6, ocean. 

Kato te^tc'gtotal', he stepped in water; Hupa te n5 dfi win taL, he 
stepped in water. 

8 It is not certain that this is a phonetic change. The occurrence of 
n and fi in Hupa stems regularly marking tempond-modal changes may 
have been extended by analogy. 

• When a prefix such as follows de-, in fire, stands alone, it becomes t 
in Kato, e.g., de t gfifi '%n (Hupa de dQ win an), he put on the fire; but 
otherwise it is d also in Kato, as in de dtbi *^, put on the fire. 


16 Unwenity9fC€Mf<>rmaFuhKoaU(m$inAm.AreKandBihn. [YoLll 

Kato t' ; Hupa *." 

Kato t'e', blanket; Hupa te, blanket. 

Kato tagAtt'ats, ke butehered; Hnpa kit te lata, he eat tkem. 

Eatotc; Hupatc. 

Kato LtcCic, dnst; Hupa littcnu?! sand. 

Kato wa niin tei btlfi, it will blow through; Hnpa da kjli wee tee, the 
wind blew. 

Eatx) tc ; Hupa tew. 

Kato ctcoy my grandmother; Hupa mitctcwd, its grandmother. 

Kato iiLtci, make it; Hnpa iLtewe, make it. 

Kato tc'dn gCUi tee Ge, he cried; Hnpa tcftwintewti, he cried. 

Eato tc; Hupa k (prepalatal). 

Kato tctoif tree; Hupa kin, tree. 

Kato nteel', jour brother; Hupa mikkil, her brother. 

Kato giUtcdt, he caught than; tcexdLkit, he caught him. 

Kato tc' ; Hupa tc, ky." 

Kato tc' nee tifi, he la j down ; Hupa tcin nee ten, he lay down. 
Ejito tc' g^n yan*, he ate of it; kyu win yan, he ate it . 

Eato g; Hupa w. 

Kato giiLgel*, it was evening; Hupa wilweL, dark, night. 
Kato selgin, he killed; Hupa tceseLwen, he killed. 

Eato k ; Hupa x. 

Kato kaihit', winter time; Hupa zai, winter. 

Kato kaya^*, they dug; Hupa zakehioe, she commenced to dig. 

Kato wa'Mkan, she gave him; Hupa x5 wa tcifi zan, she gave her. 

Eato kw ; Hupa z. 

Kato kwdft', Are; Hupa xoft, lire. 

Kato ktona*, his eyes; Hupa xonna, his eyes. 

Kato kwa^la, you did; Hupa xadlle, do that. 

Eato k' ; Hupa k. (The same sound.) 

Kato k'%tde*, soon; Hupa ktltde, soon. 
Kato k'e tc'tks t'ats, he cut; Hupa kit te tats, he cut them. 
Kato niin iin diUE k'e*, get up (imp. sing.); Hupa in na is diUs ka, 
she got up. 

Eato k'w ; Hupa k. 

Kato k'wAt', on; Hupa kiit, on. 

Eato q ; Hupa q. 

Kato qd, worm; Hupa <fi, worm. 

Kato iifiqdt, spear it; Hupa yaaqdt, they always stuck them. 

10 Hupa i is bat an earlier orthography for t' used in Kato. 

11 In Hupa tc with glottal accompaniment was not differentiated from 
the few occurrences of simple tc 

1912] Chddard: ElemenU of the Kato Language 17 


The instances of assimilation noticed are the following : 
b following n or n becomes m : 

kw6fi*mi« (for kw6fl«bi«), lire in. 119-13." 
kw5fi< m6fi a (for kwdfi^ hM a), fire before. 119-16. 
ttUnmie (for tiinbic), swim. 118-16. 

t final in verbal stems followed by b or k is assimilated : 

tlLtc^kwan (forC^te^tkwan), 70a shouted. 164-17. 

na sdL Liik kw^lL (for nasdLL^tkw^fi), you have burned f 174-4. 

u na niin Ldb btlii (for finaniiiiLtltbiUi), around you must bum. 

ndlkabbM (for n51katb{UEL), will float ashore. 85-10. 

t' of k'wiit', on, becomes n before words beginning with n : 

kViin na gai, on it he walked. 78-1. 
k'wiin ndL tifi, she put it on. 181-8. 

g preceded by n becomes n or disappears : 

na htlii ^t (for na hfLfi g^t), you untie. 123-7. 
te'eii a ni (for tc'efi ga ni) , killed. 157-5. 
te'nnfkfiifi (for tc'nnfUELgifi), he brought. 135-11. 


It is well known that syllables of greater importance of mean- 
ing are rendered more emphatic by methods which are character- 
istic of the languages in which they occur. English, in common 
with other languages of Germanic origin, has a strong stress 
accent. Ancient Greek and certain modem Slavic languages 
have a variation in pitch. Variations of stress are undoubtedly 
due to changes in the pressure exerted by the lungs upon the 
air column and are brought about by an unusual incitation of 
muscles controlling breathing. The increase of pitch, in like 
manner, is due to an extra forcible incitation and contraction 
of certain muscles of the larynx. 

It seems that in Kato and other Athapascan dialects there are 
similar grades in the force exerted by the muscles in closing and 
adjusting the mouth passage. It was formerly held that these 
were secondary effects of stress accent, although such accent is 

12 The references are to the pages and lines of the author's Kato Texts, 
Univ. Calif. Publ. Am. Arch. Ethn., v., 65-238, 1909. 

18 University of Calif amia Puhlioations in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 11 

nearly absent at the present time. It seems more reasonable to 
look upon these differences of enunciation as coordinate with, if 
not independent of, stress and pitch. 

Such differences in muscular tension of the walls of the 
mouth, and of the tongue should alter the resonance of the buccal 
cavity, and the quality of the vowels, render stops and affricatives 
simple spirants, and cause final consonants to disappear. 

The following diphthongs lose their final component : 

.«ai becomee -'a, stem, to have, position, 
-yai becomes -ya, stem, to go. 

The quality of the vowels changes in the following : 

ta- becomes t^t-, prefix, relating to water, 
ka- becomes k^-, prefix, np. 
ye- becomes yi-, prefix, in. 
-del'- becomes -diiL, stem, go. 
-sil' becomes -sCUi, stem, to strike. 
k6- becomes kwfit-, prefix, down. 

The sonant 1 becomes a surd spirant l : 

•dCd becomes -dfiL, stem, of swimming fish, 
•kal becomes -kaL, stem, to break, 
-qal becomes -qaL, stem, to walk. 

Affricatives become spirants : 

-yats becomes -yas, stem, to snow, 
-jitc becomes -yie, stem, to rest, 
-gets becomes -gfic, stem, to look, 
-k'ats becomes -k'as, stem, of long object. 

Final stops disappear : 

-Lat becomee -La, stem, to jump, 
-ydt becomes -yd, stem, to chase, 
-yeo becomes -ye^ stem, to drive deer, 
-lao becomes -la% stem, to do. 
-k'ao becomes -kV, stem, to be fat. 

Not only is the duration of the entire syllable lessened in 
these instances in which a diphthong becomes a simple vowel, an 
affricative a simple spirant, and a final stop disappears, but 
vowels in the weaker forms are shorter. 

Stress and pitch seem to vary but slightly except that at the 
conclusion of a sentence or any part of it spoken separately the 
voice falls much as in English. 

1912] Goddard: BlemenU of the Koto Language 19 



The nouns of Eato are of the same sort and fall intx) the same 
classes as Hupa nouns already fully discussed.^' In the first 
clasSy monosyllables without evidence of formative elements, 
there have been found sixty-eight. Of such Hupa nouns forty- 
eig^t have been listed.^^ Of these Eato nouns sixteen are believed 
not to exist in Hupa either as simple words or elements of words, 
while seven of the Hupa monosyllables are not known in Eato. 
The Hupa have descriptive names in the place of these Eato 
nouns, the apparently original ones. In several instances the 
change appears to be recent. The ordinary Hupa word for water 
is tanan, what one drinks, but td is still employed in com- 
I>ounds. Nouns similar to these Eato words are generally in use 
throughout the territory intervening between Hupa and Eato 
territory and are to be considered Athapascan nouns that have 
disappeared in Hupa. 


The following nouns seem to have no formative elements. 

aSdoud. 74-6. (PL 12, fig. 1.) 

^ firewood. 137-16. 

yaS sky. 77-18. (PL 12, fig. 2.) 

ya<, head louse. 152-5. (PL 12, fig. 3.) 

yas, snow. 74-3. (PL 12, fig. 4.) 

ye, hoiue. 97-6. (PL 15, figs. 18, 14.) 

y5S scoter. 122-6. (PL 5, fig. 9.) 

yd*, bead. 145-7. 

w6s, leg. 79-10. (PL 5, fig. 3; pL 12, fig. 5.) 

l^t, seaweed. 84-12. 

16 (165), frost 748. 

Lets, day. 80-1. 

L6n, rodent, squirreL 96-9. (PL 2, fig. 1; pL 20, fig. 2.) 

Ldk', steel-head salmon. 84-5. (PL 12, tg, 6.) 

Lfit, smoke. 141-2. (PL 12, fig. 7.) 

Le% night. 81-4. 

L6S herb, grass. 71-3. (PL 2, fig. 8; pL 12, fig. 8.) 

main, weaseL 74-2. (PL 6, tg. 5.) 

^'Present series, m, 13-29, 1905; Bur. Am. Ethn. BuU. 40, 106-110, 

1* Ibid., m, 18. 

20 Univertity of California Fuhlications in Am, Arch, and Ethn, [Vol. 11 

ne*, land, earth. 711; 74-9. (PI. 20, tg, 9.) 

sai, sand. 85-9. 

se, stone. 71-8. (PI. 5, fig. 1.) 

tSs, otter. 73-4. 

slfis, ground sqnirrel. 73-7. (PL 12, fig. 10.) 

Bk'e', mush. 110-8. 

ca, sun. 74-9. (PL 12, fig. 11.) 

eek', spittie. 154-14. (PL 12, fig. 12.) 

eic, ochre. 80-4. (PL 15, fig. 12.) 

ele', orioles. 72-13. 

bafi, doe, female. 165-9, 182-2. 

beL, rope. 101-7. (PL 12, fig. 13.) 

bfis, slide. 86-11. (PL 12, fig. 14.) 

biit', stomach. 110-1. 

dafi, pile. 13310; 181-6. 

deL, whooping crane (f). 73-14. 

dj^, mud. 155-6. 

djeS pitch. 137-13. 

djifi, day. 82-8. 

t5, water. 71-1. (PI. 7, fig, 4; pL 12, tg, 15.) 

tfits, cane. 174-7. 

ts'al, basket cradle. 113-12. 

tsV, brush. 76-7. 

ts'fifi, bone. 110-1. 

tctln, tree. 71-3. 

tc'afi, food. 85-5. 

tc'ek, woman. 83-15. 

tc%boat. 127-10. 

tc'6S black-bird. 72-15. 

tc'iifi, noise. 107-8. 

t'a«, feather. 105-14. (PL 7, Hg. 7.) 

t'e', blanket 110-5. 

fee (t'ece), coaL 143-7; 147-9. 

ges, black salmon. 84-3. (PL 12, fig. 16.) 

gV5, yew. 

ka% goose. 73-14. 

ka', a feather headdress. 176-17. 

kai, winter. 

kOs, cough. (PL 12, Hg. 17.) 

kwe*, track. 108-13. 

kwdfiS fire. 81-3. (PL 4, fig. 5.) 

kw5t, stream, creek. 90-15. 

kwoc, whitethorn (a shrub). 166-3. 

k'a*, arrow. 110-10. 

k'ai^, hazelnuts. 94-5. 

klfi*, juneberry. 133-3. (PL 4, fig. 8; pL 11, fig. 2. 

k'fifi*, hazel. 133-10. (PL 12, fig. 20.) 

ktlc, alder. (PL 12, fig. 18.) 

kVaSfat. 83-15. (PL 12, fig. 19.) 

qd, worms. (PL 8, fig. 7.) 

1912] Croddard: Elements of the Kato Language 21 


Nouns capable of intimate possession, such as parts of the 
body, and terms of relationship, seldom or never occur without a 
possessive prefix. These prefixes are : 

a-, reflexive. 

at'a, her own blanket fold. 181-9. (PL 7, fig. 8; pi. 13, fig. 1.) 

c- or S-, first person singular. 

c dji«, my heart. (PL 13, fig. 14.) 

n-, second person singular. 

nat, your sister. 132-4. (PL 13, fig. 10.) 

no'-, first person plural. 

nd*si«, OUT heads. 129-10. (PL 5, fig. 8.) 

no'-, second person plural. 

no' m*, your heads. 172-15. 
nd'n^n, your mother. 135-2. 

n h-, second person plural. 

nhfinte, your (pL) noses. 97-9. 

b- or hi-, third person of singular or plural definitely men- 
tioned or understood persons or things (pi. 14, fig. 3). 

bfintc, his nose. 80-7. 

bine*, its (feather's) back. 127-5. 

u- or 0-, third person singular or plural of persons, animals, or 
objects (pi. 13, figs. 2-9). 

fl na*, her eye. 152-10. (PL 13, fig. 5.) 
t tea*, her apron. 165-8. (PL 13, fig. 3.) 

kvh, third person singular or plural of persons or things 
referred to indefinitely. 

kw da*, his mouth. 123-2. (PI. 14, fig. 7.) 

kfic-, third person plural. 

kficnataeha*, without their knowledge. 155-8. 

tc'-, third person of detached, unassociated members. 

tc'sl*, head. 128-5. 

Parts of the Body^^ 

-finte, nose. 80-7; 98-2. 
-we ci, eggs. 111-9. 

i» m, 14-16. 

22 UfUversity of California Publicati(m$ in Am, AreK and Ethn, [YoLll 

-w6*, tooth. 181-8. (PL 4, fig. 2; pi. 14, fig. 4.) 

-w58, leg. 151-18. (PL 5, fig. 3.) 

•la% hand. 154-1; 164-1. 

•lai^, penis. 80-8. 

•La, butt 93-10. 

-na«, eye. 180-7. (PI. 13, fig. 5.) 

-ne*, back, baek-bone. 133-3. 

-ne«, lower leg. (PI. 13, fig. 12.) 

-sa ye, its shell. 131-9. 

•sa ke*, spleen. 133-4. 

-si% head. 76-1. (PL 5, fig. 8.) 

-n* da«, erown of head. 79-4. (PL 14, fig. 12.) 

-so', tongue. 110-3. (PL 13, fig. 4.) 

-sd se*, sting. 156-1. 

-sfifi% meat 134-14. 

•sAn ta*, forehead. 132-15. 

-sftts, skin. 110-4. (PL 13, fig. 7.) 

-sle*, anus. 143-13. 

-bat', stomach. 148-6. (PL 11, fig. 5.) 

-da«, mouth. 122-13. (PL 14, fig. 7.) 

-da*, Toices. 106-14. 

-da' ga*, beard. 

-de', horn. 74-10. (PL 13, fig. 9.) 

-des ke', lungs. 180-12. 

-di ce*, shoulder. 75-1. 

-dji«, heart. 125-17. (PL 13. fig. 14.) 

-djik'e*, intestines. 113-3. 

-te le«, Uver. 180-12. 

-t'a, tail. 86-4. 

-fai, neck. 153-11. 

-ts'e k'e, navel. 132-10. 

•ts'in ne, leg. 107-12. 

-ts'd*, milk. (PL 13, fig. 6.) 

•tc'ani, faeces. 142-7. 

-tci% taiL 163-1. (PL 14, fig. 5.) 

-tci*, mind. 101-14. 

-tci*, heart. 101-5. (PL 5, fig. 4.) 

•dji c!e te*, lungs. 80-2. 

-tc6 djlL, kidney. 80-2. (PL 14, fig. 11.) 

•tcdk, testicles. 80-9. 

-tc'ge«, ear. 110-2. 

•ga*, hair. 143-8. 

-ge*, marrow. 110-2. 

-ki«, butt 

•kwa ne, shoulder, arm. 102-15; 160-7. 

-kwafike, ribs. 133-9. 

-kwe% foot 96-14. (PL 14, fig. 8.) 

-qot', knee. (PL 13, fig. 13.) 

1912] Ooddard: Elements of the Kato Language 23 


-L61, strap. 97-7. 

't% poeket, blanket fold. 181-9. (PL 13, fig. 1.) 

-t'a ni, skirt. 165-6. (PI. 13, fig. 2.) 

-tea*, apron. 165-8. (PI. 13, fig. 3.) 


-at', sister. 132-4. (PI. 13, fig. 10.) 

-itc, daughter. 128-7. 

-fint, -findi, cousin. 139-4; 145-2; 146-3. (PI. 14, figs. 1, 2.) 

-jacts, young. 80-14; 182-4. 

•ja teete, daughter. 176-10. 

-ye* dfifi, husband. 132-14. 

-Id, dog. 101-6. 

-n^n, mother. 105-7. 

-ta% father. 105-7. 

-t'Sci*, sister. 144-4. 

-tcel*, younger brother. 141-12. 

-tcai, grandchUd. 97-16; 148-11. (PI. 14, fig. 13.) 

-tco, grandmother. 97-16. (PI. 13, fig. 15.) 

•tciifikanai, uncle. 172-3. 

-tc'i^, grandfather. 153-10. (PI. 13, fig. 11.) 

-ge dM, brother-in-law. 153-18. 

-gdn dan, son-in-law. 128-7. 

-ki, boy. 102-6. (PL 14, fig. 9.) 

-kik, children. 105-2. 


Nouns as such never seem to be used with prefixes other than 
the possessive ones. They take, however, a large number and 
variety of sufSxes. With the exception of those first listed, these 
suffixes have very definite meanings and most of them are trace- 
able to other parts of speech. Those indicating size, shape, and 
color differ from adjectives only in the absence of the usual pre- 
fixes before the stem. The postpositions used with nouns are not 
different from those forming phrases with pronouns, but in a few 
eases the noun does not seem to exist without the suffix. These 
X)06tpositions might easily become inflectional cases should they 
suffer obscuring phonetic changes or their use except as nominal 
suffixes cease. 

24 Univernty of CdUfamia PublicaUana in Am. Arch, and Ethn, [YoL 11 

Plural and Class Suffixes 

-ki, -k, forming the plural of terms of relationship and classes 
of people. 

ie'j%n, woman. te'j%nki. women. 110-15. 

ski, boj. 116-16. Bkik, boys, ehildren. 132-8. (PL 14, figs. 0, 10.) 

-tcun, a suffix indicating one of a class, ''that kind of a 

tc'jantcM; old woman. 152-3. 
stcdteiiSy my grandmother. 147-5. 

-ta, the plural of the last. 

k%ekit8y old man. 108-2. k^cldtsta, old men. 109-15. 

-k'dcts, of uncertain meaning. 

tc'7%n k'detSy old women. 105-1. 

')n ya hun, a class suffix used particularly with place names. 
It is the usual termination of the people of a village as dis- 
tinguished from the locality. 

t5kiyahMy water people. 175-1. 

-gun, of uncertain meaning. 

Ltsdgiifi, foxes, "the ones that are blue "(f). 73-3. (PL 8, fig. 3.) 

Locative Suffixes^^ 
-dun, at. 

ye dM, house place. 113-15. 

yl tc5 diifi, danee house place. 145-6. 

se ta* diifi, rock creek. 107-16. 

t5 n e5n dM, water good place. 173-7. 

-ta\ among. 

yebi* ta% houses among. 171-17. 

ne* k'wfit ta* , countries. 157-6. 

n c5n ta% good places. 173-6. 

ca*na'ta% creeks, creeks in. 82-14; 93-11. 

tcihi taS trees among. 171-9. (PL 15, fig. 6.) 

5 ye ta% under places. 180-1. 

-tc'M«, toward. 

t5 tc'fifi*, water toward. 176-6. 
cn%ntc'iifi*, my mother toward. 120-11. 

-bi«, in. 

yebi*, house in. 97-11. 

o da* bi*, its mouth in. 128-15; 182-5. 

IK* See also the postpositions used with pronouns, p. 39. 

1912] Goddard: Elements of the Koto Language 25 

wa tc'a mi', hole in, 156-12. (PI. 4, fig. 9.) 

sak td* bi«, spring in. 115-10. 

eie bi*, red mountain, 102-15. (PL 15, fig. 12.) 

ts'^l bi*, basket in. 115-10. 

kwd*mi% fire in. 110-4. 

-bi*', inside. 

ya'bi'k', sky in. 101-15. (PI. 15, fig. 15.) 
yebi'k', house inside. 99-5. (PL 15, fig. 14.) 
td bi'k', water inside. 155-4. 
5 ]a« bi'k', its hands in. 114-8. 

-bi« un«, toward, in. 

ya<bi«M% skyin. 81-2; 99-10. 

ye«bi'M«, house in. 110-15. (PL 15, fig. 13.) 

-k^wfit*, on. 

5 t4U« kVat', its tail on. 162-14. (PL 9, fig. 9; pL 20, fig. 1.) 
u sl^ da kVfit', crown of its head on. 76-5. 
u de* k'wfit', its horn on. 76-3. 
ne* k'wfit', land on. 92-2. 
td k'wfif , water on. 82-1. 

-u ye, -wi-ye, under. 

ea fi ye hfifi, sun under. 75-4. 
tefin w! ye, tree under. 97-3. 

-tnkgfit, between. 

5 na^ tdk g6t, its eyes between. 76-2. 

ye tdk gftt, house middle. 142-13. (PL 16, fig, 1). 

-L*fit, middle (time or place) . 

ne* L«fit, earth middle. 75-3; 104-11. (PL 16, fig. 4.) 

ein L*fit, summer middle. 121-14. 

taL'fit, oeean middle. 126-8. (PL 16, fig. 7.) 

kai L'fit, winter middle. 113-14. 

-bun a, before, alongside of. 

kwdfi' mCdi a, fire before. 119-16. 

-ne«un«, other side of, '*its back towards." 

tone* fifi«, water other side. 126-6. (PL 11, fig. 9.) 

-un6«, behind. 

ne* fl n6«, hill behind. 164-16. (PL 4, fig. 7.) 
tefi n5', tree behind. 103-5. 

-lai«, on top, ''snmmit, point." 

ne' lai', earth top. 161-14. 

fi laik', their tops. 132-15. 

kio tci« lai'k*, his taU end. 17712. 

26 UnwenityofCaUformaPvhlioation$inAm.ArelLafidEthii. [YoL 11 

Suffix with Instrumental Meaning 
-biiii, with, by means of. 

nagibdL, quiver with. 176-16. 
ts'al bOL, basket with. 148-2. 
tea' htoj, drees with. 166-6. 
k'a' bdL, arrows with. 166-7. 
k'dm m^ withes with. 167-1. 

8uffi4ces of Temporal-Modal Force 

-bM, for, will be (usually expresses purpose but sometimes 
predictions of the future only). 

a^bMy cloud will be. 79-2. 
a^bfifi, for elouds. 78-8. 
a te n« bM, its liver for. 109-6. 
sak to* bim, ''spring will be." 88-4. 

-wufi, for. 

te'a wMy food for. 123-3. 

td wM, water for. 118-4, 123-3. 

-hit', -hut, at time of. 

eifihit', summer time. 121-5. 

eifi hiit, summer time. 155-1. (PL 16, fig. 6.) 

djifi hftt, day time. 105-7. 

kaihit', winter-time. 121-11. 

-fit, at (perhaps a form of the last). 

Le« at, night in. 136-1. 

-ye, it is (simple affirmation). 

ne* ye, country is, 120-14. 
cn^ye, my mother is. 120-11. 
dd u s^* ji, it is not meat. 134-14. 
do L g6c 70, it is not rattlesnake. 177-4. 

-un giy it is (affirmation with element of surprise) . 

ea M gi, sun it is. 100-7. 

-te le, will be. 

k'ai t biiL tg le, burden baskets will be. 140-12. 

Suffixes of Size, Shape, and Color 
-tco, large, an augmentative suffix. 

L5* tc5, bunch grass. 94-7. 

diic te5, grouse. 72-5. 

g%ctcd, redwood (gae, yew). 86-8. (PI. 14, fig. 14.) 

ges tc6, elk (ges, deer in other dialects). 71-5. (PI. 14, fig, 15.) 

1012] Goddard: Elements of the Kato Language 27 

-tc, -ts, small, a diminutive sufSx also used to form terms of 
endearment. Cf . u tc^unts, close by, from -te*un«, by or near. 

dftetc, quail. 72-5. (PI. 14, fig. 16.) 

Tictc, wolf. 71-6. (PI. 15, fig. 1.) 

eteaite, my grandehild. 9716. (PI. 14, fig. 13.) 

e 15t8, my dog. 89-14. 

-yac, young, small. 

8 Idts yac, baby smalL 113-12. 

With both diminutives. 

n5 nl yaets, grizzly small. 92-5. 

ea^na'yacts, creek little. 115-13. 

Cf. eyacts, my little one. 182-4. 

Cf. seuyaets, stones small. 76-10. (With possessiye prefix fi.) 

H3(3s, slender. 

de* sdete, spike back. 108-8. 

-tel, -toL, wide, flat. 

Ld'tel, flat fi8h(f) 

Ld* teii, bear grass. 176-17. 

ts'finteL, "bone-wide'' turtles. 90-14. (PL 15, f^g. 5.) 

Cf. se n toLts, stone flat small. 133-3. (With adjective prefix.) 


The First Noun qtuUifies the Second 

in tee* bafi, deer female. 144-2. 

dfis t'e kd ne, madrono berries. 134-17. 

td a* bM, "water cloud," for dew. 79-4. 

t5 si* dfin, water-head-place. 87-6. 

tdbfittcd, water panther. 177-13. (PL 20, fig. 8.) 

tcftn w6*, ' * tree teeth, ' ' hook. 158-7. 

tcfin si* ts, ''tree head small," pine cones. 115-13, 117-12. 

tcfinsfits, ''tree skin," bark. 137-14. 

gesna*, salmon eye. 121-12. 

k'a* s'fiL tifi*, arrow-bow. 144-9. 

With Possessive Prefix for Second Component 

ne* fi ta* dfifi, earth tail place. 86-9. 
tc* kak' bi ne*, net's back-bone. 119-18. 

With the Second Component modifying the First. 

Ldnte' genes, "rodent-ears-long," a mouse. 73-10. (PL 2, fig. 1.) 
t5 nai wd* nes, ' ' fish-teeth-long. ' ' 86-1. 

i« m, 19. 

28 University of California Publications in Am, ArcK and Bthn, [YoL 11 


-n tcao, large. 

ne* n tcao, eoimtry large. 97-16. 

t5 nai n tcao, fish big. 85-11. 

w5* n teas teeth large. 86-5. (PL 4, fig. 2.) 

-nc5n, good. 

to n od nit, water is good because. 87-10. 

-nce«, bad. 

ne n ce', land bad (mud springs). 106-2. 

-nes, long. 

la« nes, "hand long," raccoon. 112-5. (PI. 1, fig. 1.) 

L5* neSy grass long. 80-3. 

tea nes, wasp. 150-14. 

ts'e k'e nects, '' navel long," an eeL 91-2. (PI. 20, fig. 7.) 

-ntelts, broad. 

kwe* n telts, ''foot broad," a heron. (PL 20, fig. 11.) 
da' ya* n tel i tc5, ''mouths are flat large," geese. 158-14. 

-n Ldts, stout, rough. 

t5nLiits, water rough. 86-6. 

-Lgai, white. 

ya' L gai, louse white. (PL 15, fig. 8.) 
Ldn L gai, woodrats. 73-9. (PL 20, fig. 2.) 
naL g! L gai, white duck. 148-3. 
seL gai, white stones. 143-4. 

-Ltcik, red. 

yd* L tcik, beads red. 176-14. 
t5 nai L tcik, fish red. 124-15. 

-Ltso, blue. 

Lo^Ltsd, grass blue. 76-6. (PL 2, fig, 8.) 
td nai L ts5, fish blue. 124-15. (PL 20, fig. 12.) 

-Lcfin«, black. 

t5 L cClfi* kw5t, black water creek. 98-14. 

ges L ciifi*, salmon black. 86-2. (PL 15, fig. 10.) 

-Lcik, shining. 

na* L cik, eye shining. 181-9. (PL 15, fig. 11.) 

-dMbai, grey. 

ne'dtdbai, (a pine). 86-13. PL 20. fig. 5.) 
Letc ba, grey clay. 76-2. 

^ulk'iis, brown(t). 

L6< dCa k'tm, grass dry. 121-13. 

1912] Goddard: Elements of the Kato Language 29 


tta L ttk, leaves die( f ). 121-13. 

-tbifiy sharp, pointed. 

ri' t bill, " heads sharp, ' ' a bulb. 149-4. 

-tc'its, rough. 

se tclta, sandstones. 77-9. (PI. 16, fig. 3.) 

-Lan, many. 

w6*Lafi, "teeth many." 149-1. 

The two following probably have descriptive adjectives. 

ta dM gai ted, hornet. 151-2. 
ta ddL k'Ots, milksnake. 178-9. 


yicte s'fiL tifi kwtlt, "wolf lies dead stream,'' Ten-mile creek. 173-14. 

JO* gtt L6fi, ' ' beads woven. ' ' 176-13. 

yo* tcil «ifi, "bead''(f), abalones. 84-12. (PI. 20, fig. 6.) 

L6« n«ai, "grass lies,'' grass game. 146-11. (PI. 20, fig. 4.) 

ne* te li*, earthquake. (PI. 20, fig. 9.) 

n^ kwos tifi, wild cherries. 131-12. 

sais'^dilfi, "sand lies place," sandy beach. 125-4. 

si«bis«an, "head(f)", head net. 113-8; 147-1. 

satsbdLn^t'ai, "skin with it flies," flying squirrel. 122-12. 

sne* bfiL gtQ li% "my leg with is tied," my garter. 176-16. 

to ka H gits, ' ' water ( f ) ' ', mud-hen. 122-9. 

ts6* kwi tlfi, * ' milk it has, ' ' a plant. 149-2. 

tcu nal dalts, ' ' tree-run-around, ' ' a bird. 124-5. 

tcfimmeLyits, "stick tied with," net stick. 169-5. 

tcfln ta^ nac t bats, "tree among(f)". The name of a monster. 

tcflnktctlfi, "tree (trunk) (f) it has," a kelp. 84-15. 
t'^tgfllyde, devil-fish. Contains stem -yds, to pulL 85-13; 124-16. 
t'akwilifi, "feathers they have," birds. 88-8. 
gac ted k'wftt kwi ya gits, * ' redwood on it runs, ' ' red squirrels. 73-7. 
k'ai t buL, ' * hazel( f ) ' ', burden-basket. 135-6. 
q6f yo *at8, * ' knee shoots, ' ' blue-bird. 122-9. 


yiLkai, morning, days. 82-10; 105-14. 
yist'ot, fog. 126-2. (PL 18, fig. 15.) 
Cf. 3d gfin t'ot, it is foggy. 121-10. 
yis kan, day. (PI. 18, fig. 14.) 

17 m, 21. A number of the words here listed have the form of verbs, 
but their meaning is uncertain. 

30 University of California Publications in Am. ArcK and Ethn, [Vol. 11 

Le ddfi'y salt. Stem -don, to be bitter. 85-3. 

L tao, blaek oaks. 89-17. (PI. 16, fig. 12.) 

L tctiCf dust. 165-1. 

naltcCa, white thorn. 91-14. (PI. 16, fig. 10.) 

naL c5t, grass-snakes. 124-11. (PI. 10, fig. 8.) 

naL tdn*ts, kangaroo-rats. Stem -tdn, to jump. 73-10. 

na nin *ai* k'wfit, '4t has horizontal position on," dam on. 168-9. 

nadil', ''they hang," sugar-pines. 86-17. (PL 1, fig. 8; pL 19, 

H' 1.) 
na gal, * * it travels, ' ' moon. 81-4. 

na* gi, "it is earned, " or " it carries, ' ' qniver. 147-1. 

ndle, deeps(f). Certain mythieal places in the ocean. 125-16. 

saktd*, springs. Stem -t5, water. 88-4. 

se Un, blood. Stem -lin, to flow. 144-6. 

SOL tc'oi, herons. 72-4. (PL 17, fig. 3.) 

seL kfit, magnesite beads. 176-13. 

seLk'fitdi, kingfishers. 92-17. 

sdaitc, "it sits smaU," cottontaU rabbit. 155-12. (PL 18, fig. 13.) 

banat'ai, "main one it stands vertical," post. 130-17. (PL 19, 

^g, 3.) 
del ktlcts, fawn. 108-9. (PL 19, fig. 5.) 

dfilnik, whistles. Boot -nl "to speak, to make a noise." 165-7. 
dfiltcik, yellow pine. Stem -tcik, red. 86-13. 
ta< tsit, low tide. 123-15. 
te lafi, whale. 83-15. 
te kfis le*, kelp. 85-10. 
tyits, sea-lion. 83-11. 
t kac ted, pelicans. 72-13. (PL 15, fig. 3.) 

t bOL, burden basket. 179-11. (PL 19, fig. 4.) * | 

t k5 icts, chestnuts. 89-8. (PL 15, fig. 2.) I 

tk'an, ridge. Stem -k'an, to be on edge. 99-3. (PL 9, fig. 8.) 
ts'Osnd*, "they are vertical," mountains. 71-2. (PL 19, fig. 6.) 
ts'k^Ldfifi, he had walked place. 116-13. 
tc'enaLdilL, comb. 172-15. 
tc'enes, thunder. 77-12. 
tc'ek'as, brush fence. 115-16. 
tc' woe, foam. 121-16. (PL 19, tg. 11.) 
tc' ga, basket pan. 113-10. (PL 19, fig. 10.) 
tcgats'e*, twine (roUed on the thigh). 116-10. (PL 19, fig. 8.) 
gun da nit, spring was. 121-13. 
kaldac, "it comes up(f)," morning star. 101-13. 
kwi yafi, old men. Stem -yafi, to grow, to pass through life. 105-1. 
kwfin tfic ka ta, shallow places. 75-2. 
kwfinteL, valley. Stem -teL, to be wide, or flat. 91-14. (PL 19, 

^g. 12.) 
k'itdaye, flowers. 78-6. 
k'fis tcL, flat way. Stem -teL, to be wide, or flat. 181-3. 

1912] Goddard: Elements of the Kato Language 31 


bALs^Lt^y seed-beater. 113-11. 

bOL te q5t; net rope. 117-14. 

btlL g^ gas, fire-sticks. 110-11. (PI. 19, fig. 2.) 


adits, grasshoppers. 94-8. 

in tee*, deer. 71-4. 

! da ki, (a kind of rope). 114-1. 

I dakio, WaUaki. 172-8. (PL 17, fig. 1.) 

a 'est', pestle. 113-9. 

An tetLn, peppemuts. 94-7. 

yai in tafi«, mole. 96-6. (PL 20, tig, 3.) 

wa te'^, hole through. 78-9. (PL 16, fig. 8.) 

la ce*, buckeyes. 94-6. (PL 1, ^g, 2.) 

naLgi, dog. 91-9. (PL 2, fig. 3; pL 16, fig. 11.) 

na nee, people. 71-7. (PL 16, fig. 13.) 

na« e6 k'a, robin. 72-9. (PL 17, fig. 2.) 

na tcftl, orphan. 102-6. (PL 10, fig. 5.) 

na tc'aitc, swallows. 73-1. 

na kofi, clover. 152-5. 

ndfiktctifi, tar-weeds. 94-4. (PL 16, fig. 15.) 

n6n tc'ftt, strings. 117-13. 

nfin ka dM, men. 165-13. 

satcM, tan-oaks. 88-9. 

sM sCbitc, chipmunks. 73-8. 

sfin Lants, a star or constellation. 99-8. 

sfil gits, lizard. 97-4. 

ca< na*, creek. 79-3. (PL 4, ^g, 6; pi. 17, fig. 4.) 

ban yd, turtle-doves. 92-16. 

ban sits, sandpipers. 73-2. 

bant6«, ocean* 86-10. (PL 17, fig. 5.) 

ban ted, mussels. 84-13. (PL 17, fig. 8.) 

be lifi, eels. 90-15. (PL 17, fig. 7.) 

bel get, spear head. 133-8. (PL 17, fig. 10.) 

bel kats, fish-spear. 128-12. (PL 17, fig. 11.) 

benic, prongs. 170-5. 

bfisbftntc, barking-owls. 92-8. (PL 17, fig. 9.) 

baste 15, owls. 72-2. (PL 17, fig. 12.) 

bate k'ai«, seagulls. 72-12. (PL 15, fig. 16.) 

das tcafi, gopher. 122-6. 

da taits, grey squirrels. 73-6. 

dateafi', ravens. 72-2. 

da tceL, storage bin. 138-2. 

ddB, bears. 71-6. 

i«m, 16. 

32 Univenity of California PublicationB in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [YoL 11 

dtdlants, salamanders. 84-4. 

dtn daiy arrowheads. 111-4. 

ta ka tee, crawfish. 91-2. 

tele«, sack. 113-7. (PL 18, fig. 1.) 

tfinni, roads.i«» 78-4. (PI. 17, fig. 13.) 

tfihnfic, manzanita berries. 94-5. 

tsfis na, yellow- jackets. 91-7. 

tcaLnly varied robiiis(f). 72-4. 

tci lil, screech-owL 92-8. 

ton U k'e, slime. 161-12. 

tcinnM*, stuffed deer heads. 177-10. 

tcitcafi, white oak. 131-11. 

tc5 h^a, poison. 163-7. (PI. 18, fig. 6.) 

tcfin nfiL tc6ntc, Lewis's woodpecker. 72-8. (PL 19, fig. 13.) 

tcfintc'bao, woodpeckers. 72-11. (PL 18, 4.) 

tcfin tc' gi ted, pileated woodpecker. 72-8. 

tc'a la, sunfiower seed. 138-6. (PL 18, fig. 2.) 

to'a h%l, frog. 112-11. (PL 18, fig. 3.) 

tclbetcifi, fir. 86-8. 

tc'5 la k!, meadow-larks. 72-10. 

tc'fintyac, condors. 72-7. 

tc'fint'afi, acorns. 88-15. 

tc'lis sai*, chicken-hawks. 72-3. 

tc'dsts, mill-basket 113-9. 

tc'fi be, firs. 90-1. 

tc' la ki, sapsuckers. 73-11. 

tc'lSlintc, hnmming-bird. 102-12. 

tc' naL dfifi, adolescent girL 175-10. (PL 19, fig. 7.) 

tc' si tciin, coyote. 72-1. (PL 18, fig. 9.) 

tc' kak', net 84-8. (PL 18, fig. 5.) 

t'ek5, girls. 111-2. (PL 17, fig. 15.) 

g5 ya ni% stars. 74-7. (PL 18, fig. 7.) 

k%cldts, old man. 108-2. (PL 18, fig. 8.) 

ke bCa, knife. 78-11. 

ki tsa*, basket-pot 113-8. 

kwiyint, pigeon. 73-12. (PL 18, fig. 10.) 

k'illek, boy. 119-7. 

k'fin ta gits, jack-rabbits. 73-6. (PL 18, fig. 11.) 



The personal pronouns seem originally to have been confined 
to the first and second persons, although it is not easy to explain 

18a Cf . Hnpa tin, road, m, p. 18. 
i«bra, 29. 

1912] Goddard: Elements of the Kato Langitage 83 

all the third persons as demonstratives. There is a simple form, 
nominative or accusative; and an emphatic x>ossessive, a dative, 
and an ablative of accompaniment, apparently formed by sofiSzes. 

First Person Singular 

ci, I. 78-14. (PI. 39, tg. 9; pi. 42, fig. 1.) 
ci ye«, mine. 141-6. (PI. 22, fig. 2.) 
ea, for me. 103-9. (PI. 22, fig. 1.) 
cfiL, with me. 187-2. 

First Person Plural 

ne hifi, we. (PL 5, fig. 8.) 

nhiye*, ours. 

nhdL, with U8. 125-2. 

Second Person Singular 

nifi, you. 79-7. 
niye*, yours. 117-1. 
na, for you. 152-6. 
nfiL, with you. 131-6. 

Second Person Plural 

ndhifi,you. 114-11. (PI. 28, fig. 13; pi. 31, fig. 11.) 
n6 hi ye*, yours. 

Third Person 

biye*, their, hers. 85-4; 88-5. 
ba, for it 113-12; 149-12. 
bfiL, with it 85-5. 

kin, himself. 88-7. 
kin yl, himself. 14913. 
kifiha% him (only). 130-3. 
kiye«, his. 91-9. 
kwa*, for him. 110-9. 
kwfiL, with him. 91-9. 


hfifi, he, him.i»« 174-1; 123-16. 
hfiL, with hioL 94-13. 
ydfi, that fellow. 167-9. 

i»m, 31-33. 

i»«It appears that a suffix fi renders a demonstratiye personal in its 
application. This also appears in Hupa adjective pronouns and numerals. 

34 Unweniiy of California Publication$ in Am, Arch, and Eihn. [ VoL 11 


hi, the (praetieally an article). 99-6. 

hai je, that. 128-12. 

ha3ri, those, that one. 171-19. (PL 21, fig. 15; pi. 45, fig. 1.) 

Gf. the personal demonstratives hM and hftL aboye. 

di,thi8. 74-9. (PI. 24, fig. 15.) 

yi, right here. (PI. 21, fig. 6.) 

yi bafi, the other side. 133-4. (PL 21, fig. 8.) 

The more remote has the vowel 5 or tL with the same initial. 

yu i, over there. 100-4. 

j6 i, yonder. 100-7. 

yd ye, there it is. 182-3. 

y6 dfi, over there. 127-14. (PL 21, fig. 7.) 

j6 dfl ha*, yonder. 75-3. 

yd yi de', far north. 77-1. (PL 21, fig. 5.) 

ydk', way. 104-9. 

Cf. ySfl, that fellow. 167-9. 


These words are usually interrelated in form. There are four 
initial syllables : da-, relating to conditions ; dan-, used of persons ; 
di-, employed with things and non-human persons ; ta-, which is 
used of both time and place. With each of these there are found 
three suffixes: -dji (-gi), the simple interrogative, asking which 
one of several; -ca, -can (-ca- plus n) with an implication of 
wonder in the question ; and c5«, used in affirmations concerning 
anything unusual or mysterious. 

datyatei, why. 129-10. 
dan dji, who. 120-15. 
di dji, what 97-14. 
ta dji, when, 102-12. 

ta dji, where. 182-3. PL 10, fig. 7; pL 22, fig. 7.) 
10, fig. 7; pL 22, fig. 7.) 

datyac^fi, what is the matter. 114-7. 
d^neafiha', who. 144-4. 
die^n, what. 79-2. 
ta e%n, where. 78-7. 

da t ya c5 kwiic, something is wrong. 114*13. 

dancdkwtle, stranger. 119-8. 

died', something. 99-15. 

tacdkwiic, somewhere I guess. 119-1. 

t%ccd*, sometime. 135-13. 

«oni, 32. 

1912] Ooddard: Elements of the Kato Language 85 

The following are also of interest : 

da fin cd, very bad. 122-12. 

da ti ea nM, what will be. 85-6. 

dae t ya CO de^, if anythiiig is wrong. 166-10. 

d^e tin dji, why does it do thatt 130-14. 

d^nteod^ something. 167-3. 

d^n te ea miifi, how will it bet 78-13. 

d^n te od kwde ctlty something wrong I guess because. 115-4. 

d^nteg^ how. 130-11. 

daja* tin ge, what did they dot 166-4. 

da ya*n dji, what they say. 153-14. 

d^ 1411 gi, how many. 166-12. 

dan ea My who is itf 170-12. 

da ni eafi, who is het 97-4. 

da hin tei^ what you say. 176-10. 

di kwdn di, what kind. 80-4. 

dd n k$ hit*, nothing too bad. 128-1. 

dddane5% nobody. 99-4. 

fa din cd' kwiic, for some reason. 136-8. 


Qualifying adjectives are conjugated after the manner of 
verbs. The stems of such adjectives are listed with the verbal 
stems. Many adjectives are listed under nouns with which they 
form compounds. 


In addition to the strictly pronominal adjectives such as La^ 
another, certain similar ones which are not conjugated are 

6 wdfi, some. 122-14. 

wan t'a% some. 91-10. 

wdn, some. 95-6. 

La', another, other. 76-3; 79-5. 

La mt&, will be many. 78-6. 

Lane, much. 120-15. 

Lanhit, much. 137-7. 

Lan dM, many. 138-8. 

L^ t§ le, wOl be many. 173-7. 

Lene* ha«, people. 83-4. (PI. 21, fig. 10; pL 37, fig. 13.) 

L ta, every way. 129-4. 

Lta^ki, kind. 831. (PL 21, fig. 11.) 


m, 33. 

36 University of California Fub\ication$ in Am, Arch, and Ethn, [YoL 11 

BdstCy slender. 123-16. 
swdltCy smaU. 116-9. 
hand^tta^ last ones. 90-17. 
tc5 ji, another. 118-2. 
ted ji ha*, again. 80-2. 
tc5 ji ta% other places. 149-9. 
tV, raw. 109-11. (PI. 11, tg, 4.) 
kwttni^n, every. 82-9. 
kwiini^fi, many. 114-12. 
kwiini4fiha% every one. 130-7. 


The Athapascan numerals are generally decimal in their ar- 
rangement. Kato follow a quinary system as far as ten. This 
undoubtedly is connected with the practice of counting the 
fingers, six being "one on the other side.'' The Yuki and Pomo 
neighbors of the Eato make use of octonary and quinary systems, 
respectively. Four n^ka«n^ka«, two-two, has displaced 
din kilt which prevails in the other Athapascan dialects nearby. 


La ha', one. 82-5. 

n%kka', two. 178-4. 

tak', three. 178-6. (PI. 20, fig. 10.) 

n^k ka' n^ ka', four. 108-3. 

la' sa ni, tve, 165-17. 

yi ban La' ha', six only. 140-9. 

yi ban n]|k ka', seven. 1661. (PI. 20, fig. 13.) 

yi ban tak', eight 103-9. 

yi ban n^ ka n%k ka, nine. 

la' L ba' fin, ten. 102-14. 

la' L ba' fin biL La ha', ten with one. 

na dfin la' L ba' fifi, twenty. 178-8. 

ta dfin, thirty. 

tak' dfifi, three times. 165-11. 


La ha' ta, one at a time. 165-15. 
n^ ka' ta ha, two in a place. 108-2. 
tak' ta, three at a time. 165-16. 

32 m, 32. 

1912] Ooddard: Elements of the Kato Language 37 


These directional words are closely connected with nouns in 
their meaning, the second syllable usually being a monosyllabic 
name of some direction or cardinal point. They differ from 
nouns in requiring a demonstrative prefix and in their use, which 
is usually adverbial. 

-n^, to the south, perhaps ''up-stream" was its original 

j6 yi nfik', way south. 75-9. (PL 20, fig. 14.) 

hinfik', south. 189-18. 

hainfik*, here sonth. 150-14. 

hain^'k'a', way south, south along. 86-15; 107-16. 

di ntk', south. 75-6. (PL 20, fig. 15.) 

-na M, from the south. 

jinafifi, from the sonth. 107-9. 
hainafifi, from south. 148-9. 

-se«, to the west, down hilL 

y6^se*, far west. 126-6. 

haise', down hilL 106-3. 

dise', west, down here. 77-11; 142-8. 

-sin tn, from the west. 

hai siii fifi, from the west. 78-10. 
di sifi fifi, in the west. 80-11. 

-de«, to the north, perhaps originally "down-stream." 

ydyide*, far north. 77-1. 

hi de«, north. 77-1. 

hai de' te'fifi', north toward. 115-7. 

di de', north. 76-12. 

-da« M, from the north. 

yi da' fifi, from the north. 75-3. 
hai da' fill, from the north. 78-8. 
di da' fill, from the north. 74-10. 

-dOk, to the east, uphill. 

ji dtk% up hilL 180-3. 
jSkynt'tkw, far above. 77-3. 
hai dfik*, up. 99-2. 
di dfik', east 75-4. 

»m, 328-330. 

38 UfmerHiyofCaUfarniaPvhUeaHofuinAm.AreKandSt1m. [YoLll 

-da My from the east, down hill. 

hai da {kfi, down MIL 180-5. 
dl da fifi, from the east. 101-9. 

-ban, the opposite side, particularly of streams. 

ji bafi, other side. 133-4. (PL 21, fig. 8.) 

haibafi, after that. 111-4. 

di bafi, to other side. 105-1. 

Cf. Lba« m, both sides. 14410. (PI. 21, fig. 9.) 


Adverbs are mostly either monosyllables having adverbial 
meaning, like k'M, recently, or such elements with demonstrative 
and negative prefixes. 


inifi, in a eomer. 132-12. 

y6k wi t'fikio, far above. 77-3. 

j6 k'fifi, way off. 107-5. 

ne se k'a, the long way. 140-17. 

nes se, is far. 167-2. 

nes dfifi, far. 75-6. 

nes dfin S, it is far. 140-17. 

nesdfifiha^ far away. 86-14. 

nfin]cwi3re, ondergroond. 75-8. (PI. 21, fig. 12.) 

haktD, right here. 160-1. 

hakw^, np there. 182-9. 

da*, np. 99-15. 

de k'a, here. 79-2. 

dl fin, np there. 109-10. 

djafiha', here. 97-9. 

t ga ma, along shore. 77-1. 

t ga mats, by the shore. 155-1. 

kfin dfin ne, close. 104-13. 

kfin dfinte, nearby. 79-6. (PL 22, fig. 12.) 

kwfin nfin fifi, np this way. 85-8. 


ban dfit, next time. 136-4. 

ha oi, long time. 134-8. 

haoe* dfifi*, long time. 106-17. 

ha oe kwfie, long time probably. 139-1. 

haku; dfifi% then. 71-2. (PL 5, fig. 7.) 

h5 ta, then. 84-10. 

Mm, 328-338. 

1912] Ooddard: Elements of the Koto Language 39 

dail% already, long ago. 78-14; 121-13. 

dants, BOOH. 136-5. (PL 22, fig. 6.) 

dok'Qfi, already, not reeently. 136-7; 175-1. 

dd rfifi has long ago. 155-15. 

f dn dOfi ha*, all the time. 113-1. 

gdnt'e, now. 81-2. 

kae bi', tomorrow. 104-9. (PI. 22, fig. 10.) 

kwtnfifi, next time. 166-9. 

k^, jnst now. 103-8. 

k'fin nfifi, before. 97-14. 

k'fin dit', before. 137-5. (PI. 22, fig. 11.) 

k'fin dfifi, yesterday. 128-7. (PL 22, fig. 13.) 

k'ane^fi, this time. 167-8. 

k'^tde', soon. 96-4. (PL 22, fig. 14.) 


Lakwa, jnst, only. 155-9; 164-11. 

La kit, for nothing. 166-9. 

Lakwit, anyway. 133-14. 

idkts (niikto), slowly. 100-13; 140-16. (PL 21, fig. 13.) 

sa^dfifi, alone. 120-16. 

sa^dfifiha', alone. 87-7. 

sa< dfifi k Va, alone. 172-3. 

sfit', little way. 161-5. 

st'5*, nearly. 123-8. 

e^fi, only. 78-6. 

eani, only. 71-2. 

ed, too mnch. 82-10. 

e5', in vain. 130-9. 

e5 n edfi, very well. 109-4. 

edfi k^, well. 166-5. 

cdfik', weU. 71-1. (PL 22, fig. 3.) 

e5fi kwa, welL 181-13. 

e5't, in vain. 159-12. 

kakio, fast. 93-12. 


The following elements when suffixed to nonns or pronouns 
make prepositional phrases.'^ 

-ye, under. 

5yeS under. 101-6. (PL 21, fig. 2.) 
Oyeta% under places. 180-1. 

Mm, 339-343. 

M« Cf. also the Loeative SoiBxes of Nonns, p. 24. 


40 Unwertity of CaUfomia Puhlioations in Am, Areh. and Eihn. [YoL 11 

-wakti;, to one side of . 

wakw, to one side. 97-4. (PL 11, fig. 1.) 
nd* wa ka, about yourselves. 173-2. 
ndwaku;, away from us. 178-5. 

-lai«, top, end, on top of. 

u lai«, its top. 10313. (PI. 21, fig. 3.) 

-L, with. 

bfiL, with it. 85-5. 
kfiL, with him. 91-9. 

-na, around, encircling. 

d na, around it. 77-2. 

-na tao ha^ without the knowledge of. 

kto na tao ha*, without his knowledge. (PI. 8, fig. 9.) 
fi na tao ha*, not knowing. 156-9. 
ndnataoha', without our knowledge. 129-15. 
kficnataoha', without their knowledge. 155-8. 

-nitc, midway of. 

5nite, half-way. 122-15. 
5 ni teat, its middle. 162-14. 

-n6«, behind. 

u n5<, behind it 103-2. 

-ne dM, base of. 

kin nS diifi, iU base. 182-10. 

-bi«, in. (The element may be -i«, b being the pronoun.) 

bi«,init. 97-13. (PI. 6, fig. 7.) 
di bi<, this in. 90-16. 

-dai«, outside of. 

5 dai<, outside. 98-4. (PI. 21, fig. 4.) 

-duk', up, on top. 

ktodOk', top. 127-9. 

-ta% among. 

bita% among. 107-14. 
di ta^ , this plaee. 157-5. 

-ttis, over, beyond. 

6 tOs, beyond it. 77-12. 
Ilw tils, over him. 156-14. 

-tukgfit, between 

dtiikgfit, between. 160-9. 

1912] Goddard: Elements of the Kato Language 41 

-tc'iin«, to, toward. 

a tc*(tfl«, to himself. 87-7. 

5 tc'tlfl', to him. 79-9. (PL 8, fig. 4.) 

u te'QfitSy close by. 156-10. 

nStc'iifi', to you. 97-7. 

Lte'Qfi'y together, toward each other. 104-1. 

kir U'iifiS to him. 174-2. 

-tc'M a, before, in front of. 

fitc'ftfia, before it 153-3; 77-7. 

-t'flktt;, above, beyond. 

6t*tikw, above, way back. 77-3; 104-11. 

-t gfin, around, behind.*' 

a te gtH^ around yourselves. 169-4. 

-kwa«, for. 

kto kwa% for him. 119-1. 
ndkwa, for ns. 181-7. 

-ke«, behind. 

ske*, after me. 97-10. 
ske' ha', behind me. 141-8. 

-k'e, back, in the opposite direction. 

atk'e, back of himself. 86-17. 

-k'wut', on (perhaps combined with a demonstrative). 

k'wftf, onit. 75-6. 


^te, come on, well. 98-6; 125-7. 

abi, stop. 100-1. ' 

§ he, that is so. 173-14. (PI. 21, fig. 1.) 

ii we, O yes. 100-10. 

fifi, it was. 182-9. 

L'fifi, so it is. 100-3. 

na «a«, here. 97-13. 

ni i, say. 164-9. 

n! Ic, say. 100-3. 

n5dd*, n5* do, go ahead, come. 103-7; 115-7. 

hen', yes. 82-2. (PL 21, fig. 14; pi. 33, fig. 9.) 

d6, no, not 79-4; 100-10. (PL 7, fig. 1; pi. 22, fig. 8.) 

tehehei, (laughing). 147-5. 

tea*, listen. 182-15. 

ka«,welL 76-12. 

>• Cf . prefix t gCbi in t g^ nas t gets, he looked back. 132-2. 
*T ra, 343. 

42 Unwer$iiyofC<aiforniaPuhli<Hitum$iHAm.AreKandEt1m. [Vol 11 


In Kato, as in other Athapascan dialects, the verbs are usually 
complete in their meaning and are really sentences. The 
adverbial concepts of place and direction are expressed by pre- 
fixes standing first in order. The object and subject pronouns 
precede the verbal stem in the order named. The relation of time 
in regard to inception, duration, repetition, completion, etc., is 
also expressed by prefixes, all of which precede the subject. 
Standing between the subject and the stem are modal prefixes 
which control to some extent the voices of the verb. 

The stems themselves often vary in the quality of the vowel 
and in the final consonants in a manner analogous to accent. 
These varying forms occur in different tenses. Many of the 
stems indicate the character and shape as well as the number of 
the object or subject. Some stems are identical with mono- 
syllabic nouns. The act itself in these instances seems not to be 
named, but is understood or inheres in the entire verb without 
an especial element for its expression. 

The sufSxes for the most part are subordinating, expressing 
the time relations, conditions, and the source of information. 
Not only is the material (prefixes, stems, and suffixes) from 
which the verbs are made identical, except for regular phonetic 
changes, with that employed in Hupa, but many of the complete 
verbs are similar. 


First Position 
a-. Certain verbs of a sort usually requiring a double object 
have this prefix when the direct object does not immediately 
precede. These verbs express the doing, saying, and thinking of 
special things.^ This prefix forms an indei>endent syllable 
except when followed by c, the first person singular. 

a ya e! lao, took me up. 158-14. 

ane, she said. 152-8. 

a nd^ t'e, you are. 139-1. 

a dde ji, I boast. 128-1. 

a kwl^elaoe, I fixed him. 182-14. 

act'eye, I am. (PI. 40, fig. 7.) 

2« ra, 90. 

1912] Ooddard: Elements of the Kato Langwige 43 


ya«-. Used of motion or position upward or into the air.*** 
The duration is .12 seconds. There is syllabic union with the 
third modal prefixes l and n, perhaps also with c, first person 
singular. A form yai- appears the probable result of accentua- 

ya 'ae, he put up. 99-10. 
jaL dae bOfiy you must jump up. 82-16. 
jail *ai'^ it stood. 156-15. 
TakwoLt'a, make him fly. 182-16. 

ya'gOLgaly he threw up. 142-3. (PI. 23, fig. 1.) 
ii5gfiLg%Ly he threw down. 92-5. 

ye'-, yl'-. Used of motion into a house or other partly 
enclosed space.^ The form yf- appears to be the result of 
accent. Duration of ye' is .25, of yi .18. Syllabic union with 
following sounds seems never to take place. 

ye nat ya, he went in. 177-13. 

jehenyae, come in. 141-9. 

yete'gihiTai, she went in. 132-13. (PI. 10, fig. 9; pi. 23, fig. 2.) 

ji he d^, yon go in. 97-10; 153-2. 

ye gi nai*, they went in. 107-17. 
te'enlnai, came out. 164-9. 

wai- or wa. Used of position over, at one side of, or near.'* 
Duration .12. 

wainyai, he went around. 97-3. 

wai te' gCbi get, he struck over. 164-2. 

wa* fifi l^il, he placed before him. 129-4. (PL 23, fig. 3.) 

wa-. Used of motion through an opening or small space.*^ 
The duration of the syllable is about .27 seconds. 

wa Qfi fiifi, she carried through. 180-2. 

wa niin t^ bfifi, shall be wind. 80-14. (PI. 23, fig. 4.) 

Le-. Used of the position near or movement toward each 
other of two or more objects.'* The duration of the vowel is 
about .15. 

Lei yits, he tied together. 174-15. (PI. 43, tg. 11.) 
Le ges *a*, encircled. 82-15. (Pl. 23, fig. 5.) 
Left <a', (water) met 83-6. 

M«m, 39. 

»ra, 41. 

M Compare the Hnpa second wa-, m, 44. 

Sim, 44. 

88 0,44. 

44 Universiiy of CaUfamia Publioations in Am, ArcK and Ethn. [YoL 11 

Lfin-. Used with verbs meaning to assemble. It is perhaps 
related to the last.'* 

lAb tee 7a h^t, they came together when. 148-9. (PL 29, fig. 4.) 

na-. Used of indefinite movements over the surface of land or 
water.'* The ordinary duration for the vowel is .13, but na ca 
and naga have .19-.25. There seems to be contraction with o\ 
the second person plural prefix, and syllabic union with s, second 

na ca«, I will go about. 133-6. (PL 23, fig. 7; pi. 35, fig. 10.) 

nagakw^, he had walked. 154-12. (PL 42, fig. 6.) 

na< be, ewim (dual imp.) 111-2. (PL 36, fig. 9.) 

na^ ke', swim (plural imp.). 172-14. (PL 45, fig. 2.) 

na w5^ nic, you played about. 134-17. (PL 8, fig. 5.) 

nas 'Ate, he ran about. 134-3. (PL 29, fig. 1.) 

nas L^t, he burned around* 79-3. 

nai-, na-. Used of horizontal position or motion as across a 
stream.*' The duration of nai- is .31, of na- .16. 

nai 'ai biUi, it wiU be across, it will have waves. 85-8. (PL 23, 

^g. 8.) 
nanicge', I will carry you across. 141-4. 
na nfifi 'ai, fish-weir, < < it is across. ' ' 133-9. (PL 28, fig. 3.) 
na ntln Lat, jump across. (PL 34, fig. 3.) 
nandnyai, she started across. 154-2. 

naid-, nait-, nad-, or nat-. Used of position or motion at 
right angles to a horizontal line or surface.'* The second 
syllable begins with d if a vowel follows, with t' if the following 
vowel is preceded by a glottal stop, and consists of t if followed 
by a consonant. The duration of the vowel is about .17, varying 
from .16 to .19. 

nai t gftij 'a', he stood up a stick. 116-6. 

na ddL 'a* bfifi, let it stand on end. 108-3. 

na t gfiL 'a', he stood it up. 76-6. (PL 28, fig. 2.) 

na t gflL '^ he stood them up along. 88-13. (PL 26, fig. 8.) 

na t'a' bCLn dja', will stand up. 91-17. 

na na-. Denoting a movement downward.'^ The duration of 
the vowel in the first syllable is about normal (.16), that of the 

88 Compare Hupa linyate, they come together, i, 295-1. 

84 m, 48. 

88 m, 49. 


8T in, 51. 

1912] Goddard: Elements of the Kato Language 45 

second syllable shorter, about .12, and probably followed by a 
glottal catch. 

na na iL d^, he moved it up and down. 150-1. 

nanagCQlifi, it runs down. 121-14. 

na na g(U dae, he jumped down. 146-8. 

na na gdfi gin, he took them down. 145-17. 

na na gtlt yai, he came down. 129-11. 

na niin dae, come down. (PI. 23, tg, 6.) 

n5-. Used of being in or coming to a position of rest on the 
ground, and also of reaching other limits of motion.*^ The 
average duration of the vowel is .16, varying from .14 to .19. 
When followed by c, first person singular, n, second modal in 
first person plural, or one of the third modals, it is joined with 
them in one syllable. 

n6««ac, put it (imp. plu.). 110-11. (PI. 28, fig. 7.) 

no nafl %t, he untied half way. 122-15. (PI. 44, fig. 6.) 

n5 na ni kats, I feU back. 182-16. (PI. 44, fig. 11.) 

n6 nftn yifi, they Hved. 160-12. (PI. 29, fig. 12.) 

nd cfiL gaL, throw me. 133-4. (PI. 25, fig. 1.) 

n5 ga *ac, he put down. 86-11. (PI. 23, fig. 11.) 

ndtc'fintd', water reached (a certain point). 75-1. (PI. 7, Hg. 6.) 

ndcge', I carried. 182-1. 

non da 'afi, we put down. 172-2. 

n51 k'48, they f eU. 152-2. 

n5L tifi, he laid him down. 80-6. 

no' fi 'an, he placed. 76-3. 

nun-. Seems to be used of pressure or impact against a sur- 
face. The vowel is short as is usual in closed syllables; from 
.06 to .1. 

nfiniegaL, let me chop. (PL 42, tg, 7.) 
nfin fin dfik k'e*, get up. 100-3. (PI. 44, tg. 8.) 
nfinjiLfogfit, she stung when. 156-15. (PI. 26, fig. 3.) 
nfin yiL tsfiL, (ocean) beats against it. 86-12. (PI. 41, fig. 2.) 
nfin ncL k'ai, he made stick in. 156-14. (PL 45, fig. 9.) 
nfin sfiL gal, you beat. 129-10. (PL 42, fig. 8.) 
nfin s'fis dfik k'e', he got up. 98-5. (PL 23, fig. 10.) 
nfin s'fis tifi, she took him up. 179-14. (PI. 39, fig. 7.) 

be-. Used of motion along a vertical or steep surface, as a 
tree or hillside.'* The duration of the vowel is .2. It unites 
with weak prefixes when they directly follow. 

s8 m, 53. 

<• Compare me- m, 46. 

46 Univenity of Calif omia Publications in Am, ArcK and Ethn. [YoL 11 

bee 7a h^t, he elimbed up when. 143-9. 

bes gifi, he carried it up. 98-16. 

beedUds, lead me up (imp. plu.). 147-6. (PL 6, fig. 1.) 

be dtL, let us dimb. (PL 23, fig. 13. 

da bes ya', he climbed up. 180-6. (PI. 6, Hg. 4.) 

ben t'a td le, you will fly up. 182-11. 

becna', I roast it (I lean it against[f]). 168-16. 

This prefix seems to be used also in a figurative sense, at 
least in one less definite in its meaning. 

beL ke<, it is finished. 172-12. 
be niL ke* e, I have finished. 78-14. 
be dfil «ai«, let us try it. 109-6. 
be giin t'eo, he taught. 122-11. 

beeyahfit, he climbed up when. 143-9. 
teeyahfit, he went because. 118-3. 

da-. Relating to a position higher than the ground.^ The 
vowel with considerable aspiration is about .18 in duration. 

da fin die ge*, I take you up. 141-4. (PL 7, fig. 8.) 

da n5 la, she put it up. 181-5. 

da bes ya*, he climbed on. 180-6. (PL 6, fig. 4; pL 23, fig. 14.) 

dandla, she put it up. 181-5. 
n5 la, he put it. 79-13. 

ded-, (t-). Used of motion into or position in a fire.** The 
duration of the vowel is about .2. 

de die t^ I will put in fire. 110-3. (PL 39, fig. 2.) 

de dfifi '^ bfifi, you may put in fire. 127-12. (PL 23, fig. 15.) 

de t gfin *afi, he put in fire. 157-13. (PL 7, fig. 2.) 
ye tc' gfin '^ kw^n, he had put in. 115-14. 

dje<-. Used of the splitting or separating a mass into two, 
perhaps more parts.*' The duration is .12. 

dje* gfiL tal*, he kicked open. 81-15. 

dje* gfil tcel, he split open. 129-3. (PL 24, fig. 5.) 

dje' giin Vats, he divided. 80-3. 

tai-, ta-. Used relating to water or other fluids.** The usual 
duration is from .15 to .18, but coming before n or d, it some- 
times takes a final n or t and shortens its vowel. 


40 m, 58. 
*i m, 61. 
4« m, 61. 
*» m, 61. 

1912] Goddard: Elements of the Koto Language 47 

tai *ac bftfi, it (water) will settle back. 85-8. 

tai n^y drink. 88-6. 

taya'dn^ii, let them drink. 123-6. (PI. 33, fig. 5.) 

ta nas t ya, he came ont of the creek. 175-3. 

Of. t^ nas dj51', rolled ont of fire. 147-9. (PL 41, fig. 3.) 

tate'a^bfiL, prepare (sonp). 123-13. (PL 24, fig. 1; pL 37, fig. 6.) 

t^ dfil sfis, we dragged out. (PL 35, fig. 6.) 

ta gfiL gal, he threw in water. 90-14. 
ya gfiL gal, he threw up. 142-3. 

tai-, ta-. Uncertain, seems only to occur with stem -t'as -t'ats, 
meaning to butcher.** 

taist'ats, he cut np. 144-3. 
taU'as, butcher (imp. plu.). 109-4. 

tagfitt'ats, they cut up. 175-4. (PL 24, ^g, 2.) 
dje« gfin fats, he divided. 80-83. 

te*-. Relating to water, but usually to motion into or position 
under water.*' The vowel including marked aspiration has a 
duration of .16. 

te^n5dfigge*, we will put in water. 139-9. (PL 7, fig. 5; pL 24, 

fig. 3.) 
te^ndl'iits, it ran in water. 174-10. 
te^te'gfintal', he stepped in water. (PL 38, fig. 10.) 
te^na tc'fiL deo, she washed them. (PL 38, fig. 3.) 

te^ n5 nl g^ ne, I put in water. 140-1. 
n5 ni gi ne, I put it down. 137-2. 

t gun-. Meaning around, back, behind. 

t gfin nais '^n, they turned around. 106-2. 

t gfin nas t gets, he looked back. 132-2. 
nas t gets, he looked around. 99-5. 

ts'un-. Meaning away from, in verbs of fleeing.** 

ts'finteLdelS they ran off. 165-10; 178-10. 

tc'e-. Meaning out of, correlative of ye-, into.*^ The vowel 
has a duration of about .12. It unites in first person with c and 
in third person with modals n, 1, and l. 

tc'e nan La, he jumi>ed out. 142-6. (PL 34, fig. 4.) 
tc'e nal 'ac, she takes out. 180-11. 
tc'e nCLnyae, come out. (PL 24, fig. 4.) 
tc'ent^, he took out. 170-14. 

««ni, 62. 

*»m, 63. 

^ Compare Hupa tsin-, m, 63. 

♦Tin, 63. 

48 Unwersity of California Puhlicaiiom in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [YoL 11 

te'e n gift, he carried out. 98-5. 
te'e ku wiU 1^, he was palled ont. 160-6. 
te'el gal, he was thrown out. 102-7. 
tc'eL t^ btlfi, you must carry out. 104-1. 
tc'en jai, he went out. 102-9. 

ka-. Used of motion up ont of the gronnd or water and also 
np a hill or the sky.** The average duration is .17, but when the 
vowel is closed it is about .1. 

kaya* c!*, they dug (bulbs). 148-12. 

k^l *ai hMf it wiU grow up. (PI. 26, fig. 9.) 

kana g(Ul§, he came up (out of water). 175-3. 

kanan^', they carried it up (the river bank). 175-4. 

ka nac, sun came up. 81-2. (PI. 24, fig. 7.) 

kasidel', we came up. 141-2. (PI. 1, Hg. 7.) 

ka giil '^ kw^, they had sprung up along. 87-6. (PL 27, fig. 7.) 

ka nac biin dja*, shall come up. 99-11. 
k'S nac bfin dja', it shall go down. 99-12. 

kai-, ka- (kwa-). Used with verbs of searching or looking 
for.** The k is strongly aspirated. The duration of the vowel 
is normal, .18. 

kai n te bfifi, (they) must look for. 173-9. 

ka ya' CLn te, they looked for it. 179-6. 

kwa nd' td, look for it. 164-11. (PI. 24, fig. 6.) 

ka ktc; n5< te, look for him. 160-1. (PL 39, fig. 1.) 

ko, kwun-. Used of general conditions, as of the weather.'® 
There seem to be two forms : kwiin- is very short, .06, and k6-, .12. 

kdwfinyan, it grew. 166-7. 

kdwiinniUi, it (ground) jarred. 177-14. 

k5wfinsfil, it was hot. (PL 1, fig. 5.) 

kd wiin teL, level. 106-6. 

dd k5 gis ifi, one couldn 't see. 81-1. (PL 24, fig. 13.) 

kwfin teL td lit, it was becoming flat. 107-3. (PL 27, fig. 2.) 

kwfin sat, deep water. 74-10. (PL 34, fig. 11.) 

kwfin I4fi, it is finished. 77. (PL 22, fig. 15.) 

k5 wfin sQl, it was hot. 81-2. 
gfin siiL, it became warm. 96-4. 

ko-, kwflt-. Meaning down, or down hill.'* 

kd tc' gfil 'fits, they ran down. 153-9. 

kwfit tc' giin yai kw^, he had come down to. 116-5. (PL 24, fig. 9.) 

48 Compare Hupa xa-, ni, 56. 
40 Compare Hupa xa-, m, 66. 
•0 Hupa x6-, m, 94. 
»i ra, 57. 

1912] Ooddard: Elements of the Koto Language 49 

kwHn-. Used with a stem -yot, the verb as a whole meaning 
to pursue. The vowel has a duration of .09. 

kwiin t gi ydt, they pursued him. 145-14. 

kwCbi till 75t, they ran after him. (PI. 30, fig. 13.) 

kwCbiyaydl, they followed. 179-8. 

kwa-. Seems to be used with the meaning of ' ' manner like. ' '•* 
The duration varies from .08 to .12. The glottal stop is usually 

kwaMa, yon (plu.) did. 109-4. 

kwaL i mftfiy yon mnst do it. 136-2. 

kwaL ifi, he did. 129-4. 

kw^ *i ne, I always do that. (PI. 28, fig. 12.) 

dikwa«Lsifi, he did this way. 7912. (PL 24, fig. 15.) 

eofik' kwa< lao, he did weU. Gf. 104-6. (PL 22, fig. 3.) 

kwunye'-.^ Under the ground or water. The first vowel is 
short, .06; the second syllable ends in an aspiration which may 
be identical with ye' on p. 43 above. 

kwfin ye 1 dfiL kwfic, underground we will go. 138-10. 

kwfin ye dfil tfie tel, we will bnry it. 115-8. 

kwCbi ye gfil lat, it has sunk. 174-12. (PI. 24, fig. 8.) 

kwfin ye hi dfiL td le, we will go (underground). 140-15. 
tl dfiL tg le, we will go. 136-5. 

kV. Of severing as in biting and cutting."' 

k'e te' fis fats, he cut. 146-11. 
- k'e te'iin y^ kw^, bitten off. 161-7. 
k'e tein nac bM, yon must bite off. 101-7. 

k'e-. Apparently means down, used only of setting of heavenly 

k'e nae bfin dja', it (sun) shall go down. 99-12. 
k'e nin yae bfifi, you must go down. 101-15. 


The third person of the verb does not have a subjective prefix 
of the sort and in the position found in the first and second 
persons, but is marked by the absence of such a prefix. In many 
cases, however, a prefix with demonstrative force is found. 

The singular subject when indefinite or not named in con- 
nection with the verb is referred to by tc'-. This follows the 

6« Hupa xa-, ra, 77. 
Mm, 85. 
Mm, 99. 

50 Unwersiiy of CaUfamia Publications in Am, Areh. and Ethn, [VoL 11 

adverbial but precedes the first modal prefixes. Usaally it forms 
or begins a syllable which contains no vowels. A following 
consonant often seems to close the syllable. 

tc'Asqdt, he speared it. (PI. 8, fig. 8.) 

tc'iiB t'6k', he flaked. 156-7. (PL 11, fig. 8.) 

te'nneLjil', she eats up. 180-9. (PI. 1, fig. 9.) 

te' nes tifi, he lay down. 175-11. (PI. 5, fig. 2.) 

tc'niinyai, he came there. 142-14. (PL 25, fig. 6.) 

te'n ne gfiL <ifi«, he looked at it. 156-16. (PL 25, fig. 12.) 

te' sin fifi gi, he is standing. (PL 26, tg. 2.) 

te't teL bafi, he walked lame. 133-6. (PL 24, fig. 14.) 

te't teL bfiL kw^, he had hung up. 176-3. (PL 27, fig. 8.) 

te'q^ ja* ni, she was walking they say. 93-12. (PL 2, fig. 5.) 

tc'ganyic, he broke it. 7912. (PL 10, fig. 3.) 

ye tc' gftnyai, he went in. 97-11. (PL 10, fig. 9.) 

What seems to be this prefix was often recorded ts'-. 

ts'fiL san, he saw him. 97-4. 
ts'fis H«, he tied. 145-8. 
ts' sifi, stood. 75-10. 

With no apparent distinction in meaning s'- was frequently 
heard in place of tc', and ts'. 

s'fis ji', he made a house. 168-7. (PL 30, fig. 9.) 

s'fis lifi*, he became. 84-11. (PL 32, fig. 3.) 

s'fis tc'afi, he shot it. (PL 41, fig. 7.) 

niin s'ds dfik k'e', he got up. 98-5. (PL 23, fig. 10.) 

nfin s'fis tm, he picked him up. 179-14. (PL 39, fig. 7.) 

A subject which is named, or the last mentioned of two or 
more nouns, is referred to by yi-. This often unites with the 
third modals. 

ye yi gfin *^, came in. 130-16. 

yiLB%n, he fonnd« 184-14. 

yiLsfit, (water) broke. 75-3. 

yis t'^ts, he cut it. 162-10. 

niin jiL t'5 gfit, when he stung. 156-15. (PL 26, fig. 8.-) 

yi n§l ifi', one man looked. 165-11. 
tc'nneLin^ he looked. 88-16. 

The plural and the dual when not distinguished by the stem, 
have ya«- in the position occupied by the other deictic prefixes.*' 

ya'n ya« ni, they said they say. 82-11. (PL 4, fig. 4.) 
be ya'L «ai», they tried it. 85-2. (PL 28, fig. 5.) 
taya< dn^fi, let them drink. 123-6. (PL 33, fig. 5.) 

ka ya' fin te, they looked for it. 179-6. 
kafintS, she looked. 114-9. 

ss m, 99. 

1911] Ooddard: ElemenU of the Kato Language 51 

The deictic prefixes tc'-, yi-, and ya«- occur not only referring 
to the subject but to the object, in which case they are found in 
all persons of the verb. The Hupa prefix corresponding to tc'- 
when used of the object is k- or ky, giving evidence of separate 
origins for forms now indistinguishable in Kato.'^« 

te'eL na'y roast. 109-6. 

te'ic t'a te le, I will make. 156-5. (PL 40, fig. 5.) 

tc'6* y§fi, you (plu.) eat. 148-6. 

te'd* siit, pound. 110-5. 

tc' w6< bftL, carry it (plu.). 110-15. (PI. 37, fig. 4.) 

yiste'^fikw^, who shot. 141-12. 

yigfinyafi, (they) ate it. 113-16. 

te' ofi gi la n§, I went after. 136-10. 
to dn £^ la ne, water I brought. 137-1. 


The object, except when of the third person and definitely 
named, is incorporated in the verb, occupying a position between 
the deictic prefixes and the first modals. These weaker forms of 
the pronoun are found also as possessive prefixes with nouns; 
first person singular c-, first person dual and plural n5-, or 
n h-, second person singular n-, second person plural n5- or n h-, 
third person singular kti;-, third person plural ya« kti;. 

In the case of verbs of speaking with the stem -nl, -n, the 
pronoun is combined with l, "with," and precedes the deictic 
prefixes. The pronoun also precedes the prefix ga-, wa-, meaning 
"to,** of which it is considered to be the object rather than that 

of the complete verb. 

efhi sOb e, (nobody) sees me. 176-1. 

endLifi', look at me. 103-9. 

egiyal, I am sleepy. 164-4. (PL 29, fig. 7.) 

nd* eOL gaL, throw me. 133-4. (PL 25, fig. 1.) 

be ed* Ids, lead me up. 147-6. (PL 6, fig. 1.) 

te'end' nMane, he kiUed us. 117-6. (PL 25, fig. 4.) 

n he dL ka kwie, we wiU pass the night 105-3. (PL 27, fig, 10.) 

nhdctge*, let me see you. 142-6. (PL 43, fig. 2.) 

ne 6 dfifi, you will die. 177-4. 

da< n die ge*, I take you up. 141-4. (PL 7, fig. 3.) 

kwniLifi*, she looked at him. 134-2. (PL 9, fig. 5.) 

Gf . cQOj te'm, he asked me. 182-3. 

e gaL teds, give me. 97-13. 

Mm, 84. 

52 Univeraity of California Publications in Am, Arch, and Bthn. [YoL 11 

First Modal 

6, — There are a few verbal stems which seem to require this 
prefix, but it has not been possible to isolate it sufficiently to find 
its meaning. Its position is after the objective and before the 
following prefixes. 

5c 1^% I will get 137-2. (PI. 24, fig. 11.) 

dHgdc, look at them (imp. pin.). 164-9. (PL 25, fig. 13.) 

nhdctge', let me see you. 142-6. (PI. 43, Hg, 2.) 

tc'o na gdt giie, he looked back. 87-13. (PI. 43, fig. 4.) 

te'dL yi kw%n hfit, he had named when. 117-12. 

na-. With an iterative force indicating that the act is repeated 
or the direction is reversed."^ 

nas K«, he tied up. 145-7. (PI. 32, fig. 6.) 

nas diil Hn ng, we have got back. 95-12. (PI. 3, fig. 6.) 

nS na ni kats', I f eU back. 182-16. (PI. 44, fig. 11.) 

tc'e nan La, he jumped out. 142-6. (PI. 34, fig. 4.) 

tc'e na gfit dac, he came out again. 149-13. (PI. 37, fig. 10.) 

ka nagftll^, she digs out. (PI. 81, fig. 1.; 

nas lifi', it became (again). 107-8. 
slifi*, it became (first time). 76-9. 

t-, te-. With a distributive or progressive force as regards 
the act itself, its object or subject.** The form te- is found in 
tenses expressing definite action. In other cases the vowel ii, 
short and weak, is found, or the vowel is that required by a 
following prefix. 

ti dOL, let us go. 141-6. (PI. 88, fig. 2.) 

tficge«, I wiU carry. 135-4. (PI. 8, fig. 4.) 

n td laL, let him sleep. (PI. 31, fig. 8.) 

tc' tdL k'^ dja', let him drop acorns. 129-8. (PI. 10, fig. 4.) 

tfit bta, it rains. 74-4. (PI. 86, fig. 12.) 

te siL tc51«, I stole. Cf . 141-15. (PI. 42, fig, 1.) 

tc't te gfis tei% nearly daylight; the east was reddening. (PL 41, 

fig. 12; pi. 8, fig. 2.) 
tc't te 16s, he led. 175-2. (PL 32, fig. 10.) 
d5 ha« tc't teL kfit, they did not go. 167-17. (PL 45, fig. 7.) 
tc't teL bafi, he walked lame. 133-6. (PL 24, tg, 14.) 
n tes laL ya* ni, he went to sleep they say. 83-4. (PL 31, fig. 10.) 
tc'tes yai, he went. (PL 29, fig. 2.) 
tc't tes de 15, they went on. 108-12. (PL 38, fig. 1.) 
tc't tes gift, he carried. 101-9. (PL 43, fig. 8.) 

»T m, 67. 
»8 ra, 78. 

1912] Goddard: Blemenia of the Kaio Language 53 

A prefix consisting of d-, the syllable completed by other 
elements, frequently occurs. No meaning has been discovered. 
It is, however, required by prefix de-, relating to fire, and na-, to 
be perpendicular. 

na del tea miiii, they shall eat. 85-5. 

nadeLgalkw^n, he had poured in. 125-13. (PL 42, Hg, 12.) 

na des bil% he sprinkled. 123-2. (PI. 23, fig. 9.) 

na de giit tsan, they heard again. 107-6. 

na die tea, let me eat. (PI. 24, fig. 12.) 

na dSL «a«, pile up. 103-11. 

na doL 'a' bM, let stand on end. 108-3. 

de dM *%c, you put on the fire. 131-9. (PL 23, fig, 15.) 

-he, -h-. A prefix with he- or h- follows ye'- (yi), in, na-, 
back, and stands by itself. It has not been possible to assign any 
meaning for it. 

yi he *%e, take them in. 113-4. 

jeheLa, come in. 143-1. 

yi he dfiL, you go in. 97-10. 

ya' hes gifi, they earned it. 129-14. 

nai hes 'tfi, they took it baek. 107-10. 

na hae g^t, I will untie it. 79-1. 

na hes le oe, it swam along. 128-8. 

na he sftn t ya de*, if you go back. 187-10. 

na he siL '(its kwafi, I ran back. 182-6. 

na hdn das, you go back. 120-12. 

lu tes gin, she carried them. 135-7. 

ka hes di ifi', we will look. 173-17. 

Second ModaP^ 

There are a few verbs which have the second modal prefixes 
throughout, but in the greater number they do not occur in the 
indefinite present. It is in these few present tenses without other 
prefixes that the force of these second modals is most clearly 
seen. It is quite clear in these forms that n- indicates comple- 
tion, s- progression, and g- inception of the act or state. In the 
great majority of verbs one of these three prefixes is required in 
the definite or past tense; in most cases, in fact, it is by the 
presence of one of these second modals that the definite tense is 
distinguished from the indefinite. They are regularly used with 

»» Cf . Hupa W-, HI, 95. 

54 Universiiy of CaUfomia PubUeationM in Am, Arch, and Eihn, [YoL 11 

certain adverbial prefixes without much regard to their mean- 

These second modals directly precede the subjective prefixes 
in the first and second persons and the third modals in the third 
person with which they form syllables. The progressive s-, how- 
ever, may stand alone in the syllable, be joined to the stem, or 
close a syllable of which a first modal is the initial. 

g-, in a few verbs seems clearly to have an inceptive force; 
in others it seems to occur regularly with certain adverbial pre- 
fixes with which its tie seems to be formal rather than logical. 

gi d{iL, we will go. 96-13. 
giifi eL, you cany. 187-13. 
gdc caL, I walk. 163-10. 

ya« gftLgal, he threw up. 142-3. (PI. 23, flg. 1.) 
ye< tc' giin yai, he went in. 132-13. (PI. 23, fLg. 2.) 
to gilt fats, he butchered. 175-4. (PL 24, fig. 2.) 
dje* gOL tcel, she split open. 129-3. (PI. 24, fig. 5.) 
kwiinye' gCQlat, it sank. 174-12. (PI. 24, fig. 8.) 
kwdt tc' giin yai, he went down. 116-5. (PI. 24, fig. 9.) 
gOL teat, he shouted. 165-9. (PI. 25, flg. 10.) 
gClnnes, it became long. 87-1. (PI. 25, fLg. 8.) 

S-. Verbs employing s- are usually of acts or states which con- 
tinue for some time. 

n da ye, I sit. 140-7. 

si tine, I lie. 175-16. 

sgin, it was. 138-18. 

st^n, lay. 176-18. 

stifi, lay. 100-2. 

sta, he sits. 123-7. 

stbi da, you live. 79-7. 

be ne siL git de, I am becoming afraid. 180-15. (PI. 6, fig. 2.) 

bi' sta, he was sitting in. 132-3. (PI. 6, fig. 7.) 

tc'ds li*, he caught in a noose. 108-4. (PI. 1, fig. 6.) 

tc'fis qot, he speared it. 128-18. (PI. 8, fig. 8.) 

kandel*, we came up. 141-2. (PI. 1, fig. 7.) 

eo Examples of aU three of the second modal prefixes may be seen on 
▼, 188. In line 14, mgine, I bring, occurs without a prefix. In the next 
line it occurs in the same form with the prefix n5. In both of these the 
completion of the act is clear. In line 15 g occurs in d5 ha' ge gin, she did 
not bring it in. The inceptive force is not particularly clear, but the 
statement may well mean that she did not begin the carrying. The fol- 
lowing line has s and the stem without other prefixes, sgin, it was, and 
here the meaning is clearly that of remaining in position with no refer- 
ence tu the beginning or end of the act. 

1912] Ooddard: ElemenU of the Kato Language 65 

n-. Seems to be exactly parallel in its use with g- above, 
haying however the opposite meaning, completion.*^ 

ni ja 76, 1 came there. 186-17. (PI. 29, fig. 6.) 

nigine, I bring. 138-14. (PI. 43, fig. 8.) 

nd' 'ac, you (plu.) put it. 110-11. (PI. 28, fig. 7.) 

na nim <ai, a fish-weir (it is across). 133-9. (PI. 28, fig. 3.) 

ii6< «ac, you (plu.) put it. 110-11. (PI. 28, fig. ^) 

beniLke'e, I have finished. 78-14. (PI. 23, fig. 12.) 

tc'nnoLyoL, let it blow. 80-13. (PI. 30, fig. 11.) 

te'n nOl kfit, they came. 154-12. (PL 45, fig. 6.) 

tc'niinTai, he came there. 142-14. (PL 25, fig. 6.) 


The subjective prefixes are, with some exceptions, those used 
with nouns and postpositions. They stand between the second 
and third modal prefixes. In the third person the subject is 
referred to, if at all, by deictic elements. 

The first person singular has two prefixes. In the indefinite 
tense c- is used. It is evidently connected with ci, the inde- 
pendent pronoun.** 

ficyit, I wiU make a house. (PL 30, fig. 8.) 

fie tei 06, I cried. 140-6. (PL 8, fig. 6.) 

6c l4fi% I wiU get. 137-2. (PL 24, fig. 11.) 

na ea«, I go about. 133-6. (PL 35, fig. 10.) 

nftc *ine, I saw it. 137-1. (PL 28, fig. 10.) 

bee «ai% I wUl try it. 1099. (PL 5, fig. 5.) 

bee na«, I will roast. 168-16. (PL 33, fig. 2.) 

da'ndicge*, I wiU pick you up. 141-4. (PL 7, fig. 8.) 

tftc ge*, I wiU carry. 135-4. (PL 8, fig. 4.) 

tc'ic t'a te le, I will feather arrows. 156-5. (PL 7, tg. 9.) 

kw%e ^i ne, I always do that. (PL 28, fig. 12.) 

nahficda, I will go back. 132-8. 
na hiin dac, go back. 115-7. 

The definite tense has the vowel i, with no known connection 
with an independent pronoun form.*' 

nijaye, I came there. 136-17. (PL 29, fig. 6.) 

nigine, I bring. 138-14. (PL 43, fig. 8.) 

nd na ni kats', I f eU back. 182-16. (PL 44, fig. 11.) 

a 71 ne, I stand. (PL 25, fig. 7.) 

si ti ne, I lay. 175-16. (PL 39, fig. 9.) 

•1 m, 95. 

•2 Compare Hupa -iuw, -uio, and -w, m, 97. 

•9 m, 100. 

56 UniverHty of Calif amia Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [YoL 11 

CO* ^ la Ge, I fixed it good. 76-12. (PI. 31, fig. 5.) 
ddyihe* e, I am tired. 98-1. (PL 36, fig. 6.) 
be ne siL get de, I am getting afraid. 130-15. (PI. 44, fig. 3.) 
te 8iL tcdl*, I stole. (PI. 42, fig. 1.) 

81 ti ne, I lay. 175-16. (PI. 39, fig. 9.) 
stifi, she lay. 100-2. 

The first person dual and plural has a syllable immediately 
before the stem beginning with d. The vowel is the weak short 
<i followed by the third modal prefix when it is present, surd 1 
becoming sonant. In its absence the initial of the stem is taken 

n%n dfil 'a', we will make a dam. 163-11. (PI. 28, tg. 1.) 
nadiUyic, let us rest. 140-18. (PI. 30, fig. 5.) 
doyidehe* e, we are tired. 116-17. (PI. 36, fig. 8.) 
dd dCa siis he, we did not see. 116-18. (PI. 26, fig. 7.) 
te'nSdiigge*, we will put in water. 189-9. (PI. 24, fig. 3.) 
ka' dat tca«, well, let us cook. 149-7. (PL 25, fig. 11.) 

When the stem of the dual and plural is different from that 
of the singular, instead of the prefix d- the first person in all 
tenses has !-, not to be distinguished in sound from that found 
in the first person sin^ar in the definite tense. 

bg diiL, let us climb. (PL 23, fig. 13.) 

ti dfiL, let us go. 141-6. (PL 38, fig. 2.) 

ka si del', we came up. 141-2. (PL 1, fig. 7.) 

The second person singular has -n, undoubtedly connected 
with the independent pronoun nin, completing the syllable which 
precedes the stem. It appears to be dropped before the third 
modals 1, l, and d.** 

Mqdt, spear it. 128-12. (PL 44, fig. 7.) 

naniin dac, come down (imp.). (PL 23, fig. 6.) 

de diln «%c, put on the fire (imp.). 127-12. (PL 23, fig. 15.) 

tc'enOnyac, come out (imp.). (PL 24, fig. 4.) 

Hl tci, make it. 79-8. (PL 41, fig. 8.) 

nOn siiL gal, you hit. 12910. (PL 42, fig. 8.) 

tc'iiLdiik, crack it. 138-2. (PL 38, fig. 8.) 

k'wiin nCa Wc,«« put it on. (PL 31, fig. 7.) 

tc'dnyafi, you eat. 125-7. (PL 29, fig. 13.) 

tcV y%fi, you (plu.) eat. 148-6. (PL 29, fig. 10.) 

The prefix appearing in the second person dual and plural is 

M m, 98. 
w ni, 98. 
^ n assimUated to the following 1. 

1912] Goddard: EUmenU of the Kato Language 57 

-o% in which the aspiration is quite marked. The third modal l 
completes the syllable when present. In certain cases the vowel 
seems to be contracted, resulting in aspirated a. 

nate'd^ Lo, set snares. 108-2. (PI. 25, fig. 5.) 

n W 1%L, go to sleep. 110-16. (PI. 31, fig. 11.) 

be CO* las, take me np. 147-6. (PI. 6, fig. 1.) 

tate'd* boL, make sonp. 123-13. (PI. 24, fig. 1.) 

tc'6« y%fi, you (plu.) eat. 148-6. (PI. 29, fig. 10.) 

dLk'afi, make a fire. 103-7. (PI. 3, fig. 7.) 

na COL na bfifi, you must doctor me. 166-10. (PI. 33, fig. 4.) 

nesoLy^, you ate up. 136-16. (PI. 24, fig. 10.) 

tc'nnSLt'^, cut them. 166-15. (PI. 40, fig. 11.) 

6Hgfic,«T look at them. 164-9. (PI. 25, fig. 13.) 

na* be, swim. 111-2. (PI. 36, fig. 9.) 

Third Modals"^ 

6. — ^When it is desired to convey a command or permission to 
a third person 5 is found directly preceding the prefixes discussed 
below. By its logical limitation it can only be used in the third 

tc'og%e, let him chew it. (PI. 5, fig. 6.) 

tc' toL k'as dja«, let him drop it. 129-8. (PI. 10, fig. 4.) 

tc'dL tci dja*, let him make. 140-2. (PL 27, fig. 6.) 

she dLkakwic, we will spend the night probably. 105-3. (PL 27, 

fig. 10.) 
tc'nnoLyoL, let it blow. 80-13. (PL 30, fig. 11.) 
ntdl%L, let him sleep. (PL 31, fig. 8.) 
taya'dn^, let them drink. 123-6. (PL 33, fig. 5.) 
d t yats, let it snow. 93-5. 

A number of prefixes occur between the subjective prefixes 
and the stems. In the case of only one of these, l, is it ever pos- 
sible to discover any meaning or force imparted by it. Certain 
stems seem always to be preceded by t or d and others by one 
of the other third modals. 

It would seem that l in a few cases has a transitive force, 
since the same stems when they occur without it have intransitive 
meaning. In many other cases it is impossible to observe the 
transitive meaning because the real force of the stem itself is not 

The stem -t§L, -t^l«, referring to movement of the feet has 

•7 5 is a prefix, see p. 52. 
•a ni, 34. 

58 University of California Pvblicatians in Am. Arch. and Ethn. [ VoL 11 

L when transitive and is without it when used of walking or 

na dn gdL t^L, he kicked ont. 89-7. 
nodiln^L, you step. 82-1. 
ndtgdnt^lS stood. 82-8. 

The stem -tin, -tie, used of persons, animals, and things of 
animate origin, has l when transitive or when used of the dead 
or sick, but does not have l otherwise. 

s'tLLtin, he sick lay down. 158-4. 
ndL tifi, he laid him down. 80-6. 
stifi, lay. 100-2. 
ndUic, lie down (plu.). 96-13. 

It seems impossible to distinguish fully between the use of 
L and 1. The latter is used always in the first person plural and 
the former in the second person plural. This difference is almost 
certainly due to phonetic causes. Occasionally 1 seems to be used 
of the passive but it may be that these passives belong to a set of 
forms with 1, neutral in force, that seem to exist for many or all 
verbs with l. 

no wil k'as, fell. 1521. 

tc* t6L k'v dja«, let him drop. 129-8. (PL 10, fig. 4.) 

gCQ k'^, a fire was. 108-2. (PI. 45, fig. 10.) 

gfils^n, it was found. 83-13. 

But compare giiltc^t, they shouted. 114-3. 

gdUiitcat, they (elk) shouted. 165-9. 

gCQtcifi, they made. 178-3. 

gfiLtcifi, were made(t). 162-8. 

On the other hand, the many transitive verbs treating of 
the movement of objects classified by the stem as to shape and 
number, do not have l, except -tcos, relating to flat flexible 

A number of Kato verb stems are always preceded by t. The 
iterative prefix, na-, requires t in the same position. It is pos- 
sible that t also has an iterative force in all cases. 

dHgiltc, look at them. 164-9. (PI. 25, fig. 13.) 

n hoc t ge*, let me see you. 142-6. (PI. 43, fig. 2.) 

wfin gUt t yac, some became old. 107-11. (PI. 30, fig. 6.) 

bfiL tc' gilt t yifi, he doctored. (PL 30, fig. 3.) 

do ha' ka non t y^fi, do not be ashamed. 141-8. (PI. 30, fig. 2.) 

tetbn«, it rained. 81-1. (PL 36, fig. 18.) 

tc' on t gets', he looked at them. (PL 43, fig. 5.) 

yenagfitya, he went again. 99-4. 

tc'e na giit dac, he came up again. 149-13. (PL 10, fig. 6.) 

1912] Goddard: Elements of the Koto Language 59 

When L and t (due to preceding na) both occur, the l pre- 
cedes the t. 

naheLtk^t, they went baek. 163-6. 
nagQltbafi, he limped along. 138-13. 


The verbal stems of Eato in many cases have two forms 
differing phonetically. The present usually has the shorter and 
weaker form.** In a number of cases the variation in the form 
of the stem is due to what appear to be reduced sufBxes -n, -1 and 
-L, and -c. It is possible that the glottal stop (<) which seems in 
some cases to characterize the definite past is also a remnant of a 

Some stems phonetically identical have no discoverable sim- 
ilarity in meaning. Since the complete verbs built upon these are 
usually quite different, no confusion arises. It is possible that a 
number of these could be shown connected in meaning if the 
history of the language were known. 

-«ai«, -«a«, to have position.^® 

bee *ai«, I wiU try it. 109-9. (PI. 5, fig. 5.) 

ka l«a*, it sprang up. 76-10. (PI. 9, tg, 1.) 

Le gee 'a*, it was encircling. 82-15. (PI. 23, Hg, 5.) 

nai 'ai bOfi, it wiU be across. (PL 23, fig. 8.) 

di «iin es *a*, up there in a row. 109-10. (PI. 28, fig. 4.) 

-«^, -«^c, to transport or give position to round objects.^^ 

det gdn ^Qfi, he put in the fire. (PI. 7, fig. 2.) 
no ga '4C, he put along. 86-11. (PI. 23, fig. 11.) 
de dfifi '^, put on the fire. 127-12. (PI. 23, fig. 15.) 
n6« «ac, put it (plural). 110-11. (PI. 28, fig. 7.) 

•• These are discussed above, p. 18. 

^••In many cases it is difficult or impossible to establish the exact 
form of the stem. There are several with endings -c and -n as -tc'an 
and te'ac, to shoot; -tcan and -tcic, to leave. It seems probable that -c 
is a suffix. It may be that -n is also a suffix and that the stem ends in 
a YOweL If the -n belongs to the stem its disappearance before c would 
occasion no surprise. There are several stems, however, which have the 
simpler form occurring. In both Hupa and Kato the stem meaning to 
carry on the back has the forms: -ge', -gfic, -geL, -gin (Kato); -we, -wuv;, 
-weL, -wifi, -wen (Hupa). 

TO in, 203. 

71 m, 206. This is probably the stem above to which -fi and -c are added. 

60 Unwergiiy of California Pvblieation$ in Am, Arch, and Ethn. [VoL 11 

-al«, -aL, to chew.^* 

tc' gCbi al^ 7a' Hi, he chewed it they say. 109-7. (PI. 26, fig. 4.) 
na te' aL, he was chewing. 143-3. (PI. 41, fig. 5.) 

-ate, -ac, to walk, to crawl.^* 

ta tc'ClL ate e kwa n^, (tnrtles) have eome oat of water. 95-8. 
tiU ac bi!Lfi, (turtles) must walk. 121-4. 
tc'ttfilacb^, (crawfish) mast walk. 121-4. 

-«Il, -«il«, to sit (plural only). 

nd'il, yoa stay. 168-1. 

tc'nfifi «a«, they sat down. 170-8. (PI. 28, fig. 9.) 

no^'ilbfifi, yon most stay. 105-2. (PI. 28, fig. 8.) 

-«in«, to look.^* 

n dOl *ifi«, let us look. 168-1. (PI. 3, fig. 3; pi. 28, fig. 11.) 

k«;niLin«, he looked at him. 134-2. (PI. 9, fig. 5.) 

ddkdgisifi^ one couldn't see. 81-1. (PI. 24, fig. 13.) 

ya tc' k«; neL ifi% they saw him. (PI. 25, fig. 3.) 

tc'n ne gOL «ifi% he looked at it. 156-16. (PI. 25, Ag. 12.) 

nee «ifi« t§le, I wiU look. (PL 27, fig. 8.) 

nac nne, I saw it. 137-1. (PI. 28, fig. 10.) 

-«in«, to do." 

kwac 'i ne, I always do that. (PL 28, fig. 12.) 
kwaLifi*, you (plu.) do that. 113-4. (PL 28, fig. 13.) 

-•iits, to run, to move aimlessly.^* 

nas 'fits, he ran about. 134-3. (PL 29, fig. 1.) 

-•fits, to shoot." 

te 'fits, he shot along. 144-9. 

-yai, -ya, -yac, to goJ^ 

dabesya', he climbed up. 180-6. (PL 6, fig. 4; pi. 23, fig. 14.) 

ye< tc' gfinyai, he went in. 97-11. (PL 10, fig. 9; pL 23, fig. 2.) 

tc'e nfin yac, come out. (PL 24, fig. 4.) 

kwfit tc' gfin yai, he went down. (PL 24, fig. 9.) 

tc'nfinyai, he came there. 142-14. (PL 25, fig. 6.) 

te'nfinyahfit, when he came. (PL 26, fig. 6; pL 29, fig. 8.) 

tc'tesj^, he went. 116-9. (PL 29, fig. 2.) 

Lfin tes yai, they came together. (PL 29, fig. 4.) 

ca k'efi yai, sun went down. (PL 29, fig. 5.) 

niyaye, I came there. 136-17. (PL 29, fig. 6.) 

T2ra, 206. 
7»ni, 209. 
T*ra, 209. 

75 in, 211. 

76 in, 212. 
7T in, 211. 
78 in, 212. 

1912] Ooddard: Elements of the Kato Language 61 

-yal, relating to sleepiness. Used with person affected as 

egiyal, I am sleepy. 164-4. (PI. 29, fig. 7.) 
e^yalS, I am sleepy. 114-10. 

-yan, -yac, -y^ to grow, to become old.^* 

nesyanl kwan%fi, it had grown. 

wdngattyae, some became old. 107-11. (PI. 30, fig. 6.) 

k5 wi y^, they were growing. 88-15. 

-yan, to like (used with possessive prefix and -dj!<, heart). 

d5 kw dji yan, he didn 't like. 91-7. 

dd s tei kio yan t&gi,I don 't like him. 142-16. 

-yan, to clear off. 

nifi y%iL kw%fi fifi ^, it has cleared off. 168-1. (Pl. 26, fig. 1.) 
nifiyan de*, when it cleared off. 167-17. (PI. 27, fig. 1.) 

-yan, to be ashamed. 

dd ha' ka n5n t y^fi, do not be ashamed. 141-8. 
ka nd t yan, she was ashamed. 180-8. 

-yan«, -yfl*, to eat.*** 

nesdLy^n, you ate apt 186-16. (Pl. 24, fig. 10.) 
tc'giinyan', he ate of it. 129-5. (Pl. 29, fig. 9.) 
tc* 6< y%ft, you (pin.) eat. 148-6. (Pl. 29, fig. 10. 
tc*finy%n, you (sing.) eat. 125-7. (Pl. 29, fig. 13.) 
tc' neL yil«, she eats up. 180-9. (Pl. 1, fig. 9.) 
Gf. nesyidja', let me eat. 181-12. 

-yats, to snow.** 

5 1 yats, let it snow. 93-5. 

-yel«, to stop crying (T). 

te't defi yel', he stopped crying. 148-4. (PL 29, fig. 14.) 

-yea, -ye' , to make a deer drive. 

te'n na dtl yeo, we will driye. 110-9. 
tc'n na dfil yeo, she always hunts. 181-7. 

-yi, to name, to call by name. 

tc'dL yi kw^ hfit, he had named when. 117-12. 
dlyibfindja% shall be caUed. 99-7. 

-yin, to stand.** 

si yi ne, I stand. (Pl. 25, fig. 7.) 

Gf . tc* sifi fifi £^, he is standing. (Pl. 26, fig. 2.) 

T* ra, 219. 

aom, 217. 

•1 Cf . yas, snow, ra, 19. 

82 m, 220. 

62 Universiiy of Calif amia PublicaiionM in Am, Arch, and Ethn. [YoL 11 

-yin, to live at a place.*' 

nS nftnyill, they UvecL 16012. (PL 29, Ag. 12.) 

-yie, yi, to speak. (First and second persons only).'* 

kftn nte jie, I will speak. 120-9. 
a doc 71, I boast. 128-1. 
kwinftnjie, you will talk. 174-3. 
kd nd* ic, speak (plu.). 120-8. 

-yic, to break.*' 

tc' gCbiyic, he broke it. 79-12. (PI. 10, flg. 8.) 

-yic, to whistle." 

kwoLTie, he whistled. (PL 30, flg. 7.) 

-yitc, -yic, to rest.'^ 

nadtdyic, let us rest. 140-18. (PL 30, Ag. 5.) 
nagesyitc, he rested. 161-4. (PL 30, tg, 4.) 

-yit, yik, -yi«, to build a house." 

He Jit, I will make a house. 168-6. (PL 30, fig. 8.) 
B*(lmji(k)'f he made a house. 168-7. (PL 30, fig. 9.) 
gOl yi* jsl' nl, he built a house they say. 83-11. (PL 30, fig. 10.) 

-yol, -yoL, yo, to blow.'* 

te'nndLyoL, let it blow. 80-13. (PL 30, fig. 11.) 
Gf. dwiyd, she fanned. 153-3. 

-yds, to lead, to drag. 

ye* kwil y5s, they took her in, 158-15. 

-yot, -yo, -yol, ySL, to chase.** 

kwfin tin ydt, they ran after him. (PL 30, fig. 13.) 
bftn ti gi yd, they chased it. 174-10. 
kwfin I y51, they followed him. 98-11. 
na bfin y6L, they drove. 170-16. 

-lai, -la, -l^c, to move several objects. 

ka na gill 1^, she digs out. (PL 31, fig. 1.) 

fina* tc'enalai, her eye she took out. 152-9. (PL 31, fig. 2.) 

k'wfinnfill^, put it on (sing. imp.). (PL 31, fig. 7.) 

belget k'wfinndn^, spear points put on. 168-11. (PL 31, fig. 6.) 

8s m, 220. 

84 m, 246. See -ni, -n below, p. 65. 

SB Cf . Hupa -yefiw, to rub, to knead, m, 220. 

•« Cf . Hupa -yefiv;, to rest, to get one 's breath, m, 220. 

8T in, 220. 

88 See ye, yik, house, p. 19. 

8» in, 221. 

•0 in, 221. 

1912] Ooddard: BlemenU of the Koto Language 63 

-lal, -1^ to sleep, to dream.*^ 

n t5 I4L, let him sleep. (PL 81, fig. 8.) 

n tes laL 7a' ni, he went to sleep they say. 83-4. (PL 31, fig. 10.) 
ii5hiii ntdU^, 70a (plu.) go to sleep. 110-16. (PL 31, Ag. 11.) 
a nas laL, he dreamed about. 145-2. 

-l^n, to laugh. 

7a 's h|ii, they laughed. 155-2. 
do slafi, he did not laugh. 103-15. 

-1^<, to get. 

6c 1^«, I will get. 137-2. (PL 24, fig. 11.) 
5< l%ft, you get. 133-14. (PL 1, fig. 4.) 

-lat, to float." 

kwiin 7e< gOl lat, it sank. 174-12. (PL 24, fig. 8.) 
te'n nta lat, it fioated there. 1481. 

-lag, -la',-le',todo.»« 

kwai W 7a* ni, he did it the7 say. (PL 31, fig. 3.) 
dlkwa* lao, he did this way. 154-5. (PL 31, fig. 4.) 
cd« gilaoe, I fixed it good. 76-12. (PL 31, fig. 5.) 
a ed' fil le* , dress yourself. 103-1. 

-le«, to sing. 

te'e 1§% he sang. 149-11. (PL 32, fig. 1.) 

te'egftlle', he eommeneed singing. 105-11. (PL 32, fig. 4.) 

-leo, -le', to swim nnder water.** 

na giil leo, fish were swinuning down. 164-1. (PL 32, fig. 2.) 
w%nnileget, I swam to because. 175-5. 

-li«, to snare.** 

tc'fis li«, he caught in a noose. 108-4. (PL 1, fig. 6; pi. 32, fig. 7.) 
nas li«, he tied up. 145-7. (PL 32, fig. 6.) 

-lin, to flow. 

nanagftlline, it runs down. 121-9. 

-lin*, -le, to become.** 

nas diil lin ne, we have got back. 95-12. (PL 3, fig. 6.) 
s'fis lifi«, he became. 84-11. (PL 32, fig. 3.) 

•i m, 232. 

•s m, 232. 

•* ra, 230. 

•4 ra, 237. 

M Gf . Hupa -loi, to tie, m, 236. 

•« ra, 233. 


64 rnfVM^tyo/CaIi/ofniaPti5)Mattoii«ifi^fii.^reJLafidJlPt^. [YoLll 

-Id, to hail. 

5 15, let it haiL 93-6. 

-16, to deceive. 

te' kioL ld« fit, when he fooled him. 136-14. (PI. 26, fig. 5.) 
sko 15 5 kw%Cl, he was pretending. 134-6. 

-168, to lead.*^ 

be o5* 158, take me up. 147-6. (PI. 6, fig. 1.) 
gOl los t5 le, he wiU bring it. (PI. 32, fig. 9.) 
tc'ttel58, he led. 159-9. (PI. 32, fig. 10.) 

-Iflt, -Lfit, to bum (see Lut, smoke) .•• 

i £^ Ifit fifi gi, we are burning. 104-13. 

gfillfit, it was burning. 173-16. (PI. 32, fig. 8.) 

nais Lfit, is bumingt 119-6. 

na^Lfit, you bum. 119-1. 

Cf . de IfiG, bums. 100-6. 

-Kits, to urinate. 

bi« 5' Ifits, in it urinate. 188-14. 

-Iflk, to tell, to relate.** 

w%n tc' k5 Ifik, he told about it. (PI. 32, fig. 11.) 

d5 ha' wan kwfil Ifik bfifi dja% you must not tell him. 139-13. 

-La, to shoot. 

5 n5^ La bfifi, you must shoot. 173-4. 
te La, he shot. 144-12. 

-Lan, to be many. 

gfin L^, became many. 83-14. (PI. 33, tg, 10.) 
gfiuLane, have become many. 169-10. (PL 33, fig. 11.) 

-Lat, -La (-LagT), to jump.^*^ 

nanfiuLat, jump across (sing. imp.). (PL 34, fig. 3.) 
tc'e nan La, he jumped out. 142-6. (PL 34, fig. 4.) 
na nfin La gfit, he jumped across when. 147-7. 

-Leo, he\ relating substances of dough-like consistency.^*^ 

bin5< LeS soak them. 110-6. (PL 34, fig. 1.) 

bi' n5 gfiL Leo, they soaked them. 179-1. (PL 34, fig. 2.) 

-L^ts, to be rough, to be strong. 

n Lfits, it is stout 78-12. (PI. 34, fig. 5.) ' 

»T ra, 237. 

M m, 236, 239. 

•» ra, 236. 

100 in, 238. 

101 m, 239. 

1912] Ooddard: Elements of the Kato Language 65 

-L5i, -L6, -L6n, to twine a basket, to braid.^*** 

te' Ldi {^ ^ she is making a basket (PI. 2, fig. 7.) 
na te'd* Ld, set snares. 108-2. (PI. 25, fig. 5.) 
5' Ld, braid. 113-8. 

a de^ tc'CLs Ld kw%n, he had girded himself. 103-3. 
natgiitLdn, he set snares. 108-4. 

-na, relating to hunger. (It has the person affected as an 

eg^na', I am hungry. 141-14. 
e g^ na e, I am hungry. 168-15. 

-nai«, -na«, to roast.^®' 

te'eL nai', it is roasted. 113-15. 

bee na% I wiU roast 168-16. (PL 33, fig. 2.) 

te'geL na*, he roasted. (PL 33, fig. 1.) 


ndLtinna', were left. 158-10. 

-n^, to drink.^*** 

ta ya* 5 n^, let them drink. 123-6. (PL 33, fig. 5.) 
tain^n, drink. 88-6. 
tan%n, he drank. 79-2. 

-nac, -nai, -na, to go. (Third person only.)"' 

kanac, it came up. 81-2. (PL 24, fig. 7.) 

ka gdn n^e, he came up. 75-2. (PL 33, fig. 8.) 

yegdnnae, went in. 165-15. 

ye £^ nai', they went in. 107-17. 

ye nl na, came in. 143-11. 

-nat', to lick with the tongae. 

te'fiLnaf, licked. 103-14. 

-nes, to be long. 

gfinnes, it became long. 87-1. (PL 25, tg. 8.) 

-ni, -ne, -n, -nee, -niL, to speak. 

he fi' tc'n ni, yes he said. (PL 33, fig. 9.) 

tc'tegMni, it makes a noise, thundered. 77-10. (PL 33, figs. 

6, 7.) 
a dd^ ne kw%n n^, you talk. 166-9. 
ya*nya*ni, they said they say. 82-11. (PL 4, fig. 4.) 
kwfiL dn ya' ni, he told him they say. 151-9. (PL 3, fig. 2.) 
tc' kiln nee, he talked. 160-1. (PL 25, fig. 14.) 
do kin nee, didn't speak. 141-16. 
tgdnniL, it kept hooting. 179-7. 

102 ni, 239. 
los m, 242. 

104 m, 243. 

105 ra, 242. 


66 UfwverHtyofCaUfarniaPfU>licaii(>n$inAm,Ar6h.andBthn. [YoLll 

-nic, to play.*^ 

HA 05* nie, 70a played with. 134-17. 

HA g6a nic kw%n, he had been playing. 115-10. 

-nuk, to relate. 

wiin kit; n^ de', 70a tell about when. 176-2. 

-888, to pull, to drag. 

ta nas sas, he pulled it out. 132-7. 

t^t dtQ 8^, we dragged out. (PI. 35, fig. 6.) 

-8at, to be deep. 

kwiin 8^, deep water. 74-10. (PI. 34, fig. 11.) 

-8at, -8^t, to sit. 

nOn 8%t, sit down. 140-18. (PI. 34, fig. 10.) 
na n5* 8%t, 70U (plu.) camp. 173-7. 

-8i<, relating to one's head and its position. 

betgfinsi*, had her head close. 152-3. 
t gdn na si', turned heads. 165-12. 

-sil, tosteam(t)."^ 

nd sil, I am sweating. (PI. 35, fig. 1.) 

-sil«, -suL, -tsftL, to strike (repeatedly).*^ 

naneLsn*, it struck. 162-11. 

kwiin je tc'iiL sil, it pounded into the ground. 154-10. 

5l siiL, peck. 113-9. 

niin jiL tsCiL, beats against it. 86-12. 


n5 te gCH sd, she pushed in. 153-3. 

-sfll, -sflL, to be warm.*®* 

kdwiinsiil, it was becoming hot. 81-2. (PI. 1, fig. 5.) 

g&n siil le, is hot 149-7. 

giin siiL, it became warm. 96-4. 

-sun, to think. (First and second person.) 

dd kit; ne siifi, I was insensible. 182-17. (PI. 35, fig. 5.) 
n5 niic sAfi (it, I thought you. 171-6. 

-sihi, to hide. 

be nd« siifi, you (plu.) hide it. 113-4. (PL 35, fig. 3.) 
be ndn sCln kwafi iifi gl, you were hiding it. 101-10. 
be n5 g^ sAn, she hid. 135-11. 

io«in, 247. 
lOT in, 263. 

108 Gf . -siit, to pound. 

109 See -sil above, m, 253. 

1912] Goddard: BlemenU of the Koto Language 67 

-sM, -s&s, to hang, or to be hanging. 

te' teL sail, he hung up. 176-18. (PL 85, fig. 4.) 
nBLBba, hanging. 176-16. 

-sfis, to see.^**^ 

eC^sibe, (nobody) sees me. 176-1. 

d5 dta sib he, we did not see. 116-18. (PL 26, fig. 7.) 

-«ut, to faU."« 

ndl sat, he f elL 147-8. 
te' teL sfit, he f elL 147-7. 

-sfit, to ponnd.*^^ 

fis sfit, I wiU pound. 110-8. (PL 85, fig. 8.) 
k' gtn sAt, she pounded. 185-9. (PL 35, fig. 9.) 

-fifit', to wake up."* 

tee^ sfit, wake up. 100-9. 
tcVnsat', woke up. 184-18. 

-ca«, -cac, to go. (First person only.)^** 

na ea^, I wiU go about. 188-6. (PL 28, fig. 7.) 
nan ea^, I wiU eross. 154-1. 
ta cac, I went. 182-17. 

-ca', to catch with a hook.^^* 

gfiaca}, they caught. 158-8. 

-ce*, to spit.*" 

kVfit te'e ja eeS they spit on. 154-14. (PL 85, fig. 12.) 

-cin«, -ciin«, to be black. 

et ei ng kw%n n^, it had turned black. 94-7. (PL 8, fig. 1.) 
nL cfin*, black. (PL 86, fig. 2.) 

-Ci«, to dig.*** 

ka tc* gdc ci«, they dug. 148-11. (PL 85, fig. 18.) 

ka tc' gfin ci*, they were digging. 148-8. (PL 85, fig. 14.) 

ka ya* ci<, they dug. 148-12. 

-con, to be good, to be good looking.**^ 

n c5 ne, it is good. 79-4. 

n cdfi fifi gi, it is beautiful. 100-5. 

lota See Hupa -tsis. m, 272. 

110 Hupa -tsit. m, 278. 

111 Hupa -tsit, m, 272. 
1" ra, 258. 

us Hupa -htoai, -hu^a, -hwtLUW, m, 248. 

114 Hupa -hi(;al, -hwELL, m, 248. 

118 Cf . cek, spit. 

ii« Hupa -hire, m, 249. 

117 Hupa, -htt;5fi, m, 201. 

68 l7nivtfr^<y(>/CaIi/offiiaPiiMioa<tofWffiiliii.^foKafid£<^. [YoLll 

-he«, to be tired (but only when used with a negative prefix). 

da yi he'e, I am tired. 98-1. (PI. 36, fig. 6.) 

mfi ddfihe* fifi, are j(m (nng.) tiredf 141-1. (PL 36, fig. 7.) 

ddyidehe*, we are tired. 116-7. (PL 36, fig. 8.) 

-ba, to be thirsty. 

taglba, I am thirsty. 141-10. 
tgibae, I am thirsty. 118-4. 

-ban, to walk lame. 

te't teL baft, he walked lame. 133-6. (PL 24, fig. 14.) 
naebanS, I am lame. 133-8. 
nagiiltb^fi, he limped along. 138-13. 

-bat, -b^c (-biie), to embrace ( t). 

bete'madClt, he embraced it when. 131-2. 
da kit dtQ biie, he embraced it 180-3. 

-be«, to bet. 

tc'iicbe«, I bet. 146-12. 

-be, -bil«, to pick. 

ya« tc* b€, they were picking. (PL 36, fig. 10.) 
ya* k' td bn*, they went to gather. 152-5. 
ya' tc' be dtA, they were picking where. 120-6. 
kagdmme, he gathered. 76-4. 

-be, -bin, -bic, to swim."® 

nd hin na< be, swim (plo. imp.). 111-2. (PL 86, fig. 9.) 
nl b! ne, I swam. 118-17. 
nand^bic, swim across. 96-11. 
tfimmio, swim. 118-16. 

-bil«, -bia, -bfiii, to fall, to rain (plural object). "• 

tetbn«, it rained. 81-1. (PI. 36, fig. 13.) 
ya* ga bll*, they threw over. 149-8. 
kit; na s'is bil', he sprinkled around him. 80-6. 
c5fik tatbOl, good it rains. (PL 36, fig. 12.) 
ce nan t biiL, come to me again. 143-8. 

-biiL, to handle flour ( f ). 

ta tc'film m(iL, cook mush (sing. imp.). 163-14. (PL 6, fig. 8; pL 

87, fig. 5.) 
ta tc'd< bCiL, cook mush (plu. imp.). 123-13. (PL 24, fig. 1; pi. 
37, fig 6.) 

-biiL, to hang up. 

tc'ttcLbCiL, he hung it up. 79-13. (PL 37, fig. 2.) 

tficbOL, I will hang up. 115-6. (PL 37, fig. 8.) 

tc' teL biiL kw^fi, he had hung up. 176-8. (PL 27, fig. 8.) 

118 Hupa -me, -men, m, 240. 
ii»Hupa -meL, -mil, -miL, m, 240. 

1912] Ooddard: Elements of the Eato Language 69 

-bfin, to be 8mall( f ). 

d5 bCba n§ kwa n^fi, were smalL 95-6. 
ya* da mta, they became small. 107-12. 

.bM«, to be fuU.^«» 

dgmfifi* (dinbftfi*), it was fuU. 129-12. (PI. 37, fig. 1; pL 6, 

fig. 6.) 
LtemAn*, were fulL 82-14. 
dd te htn ne, is not fall. 149-6. 
tee dfil bM, we filled. 182-2. 

-da, -dai, to sit, to remain.^** 

sfinda, you stay (sing. imp.). 79-7. (PL 37, fig. 7.) 
bi* sta, he was sitting in. 132-3. (PL 6, fig. 7.) 
si dai, I sit. 140-7. 
te^ nes dai, he sat down. 161-10. (PL 37, fig. 8.) 

-dai, to be ezhaiisted( f ). 

d5te5<dai, he didn't give out. 126-12. 

-dac, to traveL*** 

te'e na gfit dae, he eame up again. 149-18. (PL 10, fig. 6; pL 37, 

fig. 10.) 
yaL dae bfifi, you must jump up. 82-16. 

-dac, to dance. 

nfie dae, I will dance. 103-9. (PL 37, fig. 9.) 
tc* gtn dac kwafi, he had danced. (PL 37, fig. 11.) 

-del*, -dfiL, to go (dual only)."* 

tc'n nfin del*, they came up. 158-6. (PL 37, fig. 13.) 
kaudel*, we came up. 141-2. (PL 1, fig. 7; pL 37, fig. 12.) 
tc't tes de le, they went on. 108-12. (PL 38, fig. 1.) 
bS dtOj, let us climb. (PL 23, fig. 13.) 
a dfiL, let UB go. 141-6. (PL 38, fig. 2.) 

-del«, -dffli, -d^ to handle objects (plural). 

de t giil del* kw%n, had put in the fire. 131-7. 
dan5Ld§Lkw^, he had put on a frame. 135-4. 
ta ya iL dfil, she put in water. 143-4. 

-deo, -de*, to win. 

na* tc'fis deo, he won back. 147-1. 

na* tc'fis de^ , he won back. 146-14. 

k5 w%n tc' gfil deS from him he won. 146-8. 

itoHupa -men, -mifi, m, 241. 

i« in, 254. 

^ Gf . -dauir, m, 255. 

iM ni, 256. 

70 Vn%verHiyof(kUifarf^P%bUeatum8inAm.ArcKandBthn, [YoLll 

-deG, -de% to wash. 

W na te'^ dgo, he washed it. 129-2. 

W nate'gilLdeS she washed them. 153-5. (PI. 88, fig. 3.) 

te* na testis de, he washed it. 168-16. 

-din*, to shine.*** 

tein tB difi^y shone. 85-9. 

na te' nOn din bM, it will be light. 140-4. 

e^ dl ne, the sun shines. 182-13. (PL 38, fig. 4.) 

-d6«, to be none.*** 

n d5« hM, it will not be. 80-13. (PL 38, fig. 5.) 

nfitdd', all gone. 9911. 

n dd* 70, there is none. 109-1. (PL 38, fig. 6.) 

-dtdy -duL, relating to the movement of fish in numbers. 

nfin dCd, they came. 169-8. 

tfin dCiL, come. 120-17. 

tfin dCiL bfifi, must eome. 120-18. 

-diiL, to move something up and down( f ). 

na naiL dftL, he moved (a basket) up and down. 150-2. 

-dihi, to die. 

ne« 6 dfin, you will die. 177-4. (PL 25, fig. 2.) 

ee dfin ne, I died. 128-4. (PL 38, fig. 7.) 

ce e dfin td le, I will die. 177-5. (PL 38, fig. 9.) 

-diits, -diis, to twist. 

gfit diits, is twisted. 114-1. 

-diik, to crack (acorns) . 

te'fiediike, I crack them. 140-4. 
tc'iiLtfik, crack them. 138-2. 
tc'fiLt^bfifi, you must crack. 136-1. 

-djifi, to be day. 

ddjifikwic, about day probably. 184-1. 

-dj6l«, to roll. 

t^nasdjdl*, it rolled out of the fire. 147-9. (PL 10, fig. 1; pL 
41, fig. 8.) 

-tal«, t^, to step or move the foot.*** 

te^ tc' giin tal<, he stepped in water. (PL 88, fig. 10.) 

ndddnt^ you step. 82-1. 

tc't te gilL t%L, he dragged his foot along. 90-4. 

i«* m, 260. 

126 Of. dd, not, the negative prefix. 

iM ra, 261. 

1912] Qoddard: EUmenU of the Kato Langwige 71 

-J^n, -tic, to handle a large object."^ 

te'ent^n, he took out (spear-shaft). 170-14. 
ndw^nticb^, give as (fish-spear). 128-13. 

-tan, to eat (third person only).^" 

tc't tan M gi, he is eating. 174-1. (PI. 38, fig. 11.) 

-te, to look for anything.*** 

ka kio n5« te, look for him. 160-1. (PI. 89, fig. 1.) 
ka fin te, she looked. 114-9. 
ka ya' n tS, they looked. 114-8. 

-tel, -teL, to be wide or flat. 

n tel, flat. 180-14. 

kwfin teL te lit, it was becoming flat. 107-3. (PI. 27, fig. 2.) 

gfin teii, was flat. 106-11. 

tc^eteLkw%n, he had spread. 115-11. 

-teo, to teach (!)."<> 

be gfin tee, he tanght. 122-11. (PI. 89, fig. 3.) 
ke gfit fee, he taught them. 122-1. 

-tin, -tuc, relating to movement or position of an animal alive 
or dead, with transitive or intransitive meaning.*** 

nestifi, it is lying. 182-3. (PI. 39, fig. 5; pL 10, fig. 7.) 

nfin s'fis tifi, he picked him up. 179-14. (PI. 89, fig. 7.) 

t^nnastifi, she took out again. 129-2. (PL 39, fig. 8.) 

ci ^lane, I lay. 176-16. (PL 89, fig. 9.) 

nd niL t! ne, he put it. (PL 89, fig. 10.) 

tc' nes tifi, he lay down. 175-11. (PL 5, fig. 2.} 

fiLtfic, give it. 179-2. 

nanfintfic, lie down again. 100-1. 

d5 c g$L tfic, you did not give it to me. 179-5. 

-t6«, relating to position or movement of water.*** 

ndtc'fintd^, water came so far. 75-1. (PL 7, fig. 6.) 

-t6n«, to jump or to cause to jump.*** 

natc'dLtofi*, he snapped it. (PL 89, fig. 11.) 

-tdn, -te, to be cold. 

fis tfifi, it was cold. 96-1. 

fis tfin e, it is cold. (PL 40, fig. 8.) 

k5 wfin tfin, it is cold. 121-10. 

fie te H« fifi, I might be cold( f ). 138-8. 

"T m, 262. 

iMm, 268. 

i*» m, 264. 

ISO Cf. Hupa -tu, -te, -tel, to sing, in a ceremony, m, 267. 

i»i m, 264-6. 

iMCf. td, "water," p. 20, and in, 267. 

i»» ni, 267. 

72 UfMivenityofCaHforfUaPubl%cati<m$%nAm.AreKaHdEihn. [YoLll 

-tdky to burst. 

gOLtdk, it bunt 182-5. (PL 8, fig. 1; pL 40, fig. 1.) 

-tak, to kiIL^»* 

BdjidLtfik, kiU me (plu.) "my heart(»)" 151-8. (PL 40, fig. 4.) 

-t% to use a sling. 

na kio nie f a kwie, I am going to sling at him. 122-14. (PL 40, 
fig. 9.) 

-t'an, relating to wax-like substances.^*^ 
k'we ja* hoL f afi, they stuek on. 170-6. 

-t'ats, -t'as, to cut.*** 

jisf^tB, he ent it. 162-10. 
ta gat fats, he butehered. 175-4. (PL 24, fig. 2.) 
te'nnesiLt'ats, I cut it up. 138-15. (PL 40, fig. 12.) 
te'nndLt'^, cut them (plu. imp.). 166-15. (PL 40, fig, 11.) 

-t'ao, .tV,tofly."*» 

nfin f ao, it flew. 182-11. (PL 40, fig. 6.) 

te'ic t'a t$ le, I wiU feather. 156-5. (PL 7, fig. 9; pL 40, fig. 5.) 

-t'e, to have an appearance or disposition.**^ 

ac i% I am. 159-10. 

a nd^ t'e, you are. 189-1. 

%n dfit t'd ye, we are. 132-5. 

^ t'd, it ia. 100-10. 

kfin i% she is like. 181-11. 

-t'e, to cook. 

tdLt'e, you cook (plu. imp.). 167-16. (PL 40, fig. 10.) 
fis t'e yeS it is cooked. 163-15. (PL 40, fig. 8.) 

-fin, to do."* 

da kwa f ifi, he never did that. 130-14. (PL 9, fig. 4.) 
kw^ tlft, I did that 147-5. 

-t'6t, to suck."* 

k'fiL t'dt, he sucked it 159-2. (PL 40, fig. 2.) 
tc'iLt'at, (make) it suck. 115-3. 

-t'6G, -tV, to sting. 

natc'eLt'd, she stung. 156-14. 

nfinyiLfd gfit, she stung them when. 156-15. (PL 26, fig. 3.) 

tc't d(iL t'd* kwfic, something stung I guess. 114-14. 

184 Cf . -tftk, to burst 

185 m, 268. 
iw ra, 268. 

it«a Ct. t'a', feathers, and Hupa -tau, m, 268. 

i»T m, 268. 

iss m, 269. 

!•• Cf . Hupa -tdt, to drink, to suck, ni, 267. 

1912] Ooddard: Elements of the Koto Language 73 

-t'ok', to flake flint. 

te^t'dk', he flaked. 156-7. (PI. 11, fig. 8.) 

-tsai, -sai, to be cby.^*** 

alnddja*, let them dry. 136-3. 

gOL tsai, it was dry. 123-4. (PL 34, fig. 8.) 

tetis sai, she dried it. 181-4. 

-ts^n, -8^, to find, to see.^^^ 

te'fiLts%n, he found. 97-4. (PI. 34, fig. 6.) 

dd ha* te'fiL tsa ne, he did not find. (PI. 34, fig. 7.) 

fiLs^ do you seef 141-2. 

ddgaisafi, it was never found. 179-6. (PL 34, fig. 9.) 

-tsan, to hear. 

detsafi, I heard. 182-8. 

ya* ted sfil safi, they listened. 178-1. 

-t85, to be blue. 

dfiltsd, blue. 113-13. (PL 35, fig. 2.) 
-tsfit, to know. 

dd 5 dfil tsfit de, we didn't know him. 119-8. 

-ts'eg, -tsV, to eat soup. 

k gilL ts'ee, he ate soup. (PL 41, fig. 1.) 

-ts'eG, -tsV, -s'uL (-tsl*), to hear. 

na ya* d! ts'eo, they heard again. 106-16. 
kan%Lt8^*, they heard again. 106-14. 

-teai, -tea, to bury, to cook by burying.*** 

tc^gfintcai, he buried it. 129-2. 

ka« dfit tea«, weU, let us eook. 149-7. (PL 25, fig. 11.) 

betegfiLca% she put in sand. 152-8. 

-tc^n, to eat in company.*** 

na dtQ tcafi kwafi, he had eaten. (PL 41, fig. 4.) 
na die tcan ne, I ate. 171-9. (PL 41, fig. 6.) 
na die tea, let me eat a meaL (PL 24, fig. 12.) 

-tc^n, to defecate."* 

ts'gfinte^ he defecated. 142-7. 

140 m, 270. 

141 m, 270. 

i^Hupa -tcwai, -tcwa, m, 275. 
148 Hupa, -tewan, -tcwfiil, m, 275. 
iM Cf . Hupa -tcwen, -tcwifi, m, 278. 

74 Univenity of Calif amia Pyblicatu>n$ in Am, AreK and Bthn. [YoL 11 

-tcan, -tcic, to leave one. 

5te5n5*teleb^ jou may leave it. 118-1. 

d5 teds tde td le, I will not leave. 139-18. 

5 tsdfi gat tcafi, they left them. 178-11. 

5 te'd nl tea ne, I left him. 117-17. (PL 41, fig. 10.) 

-teat, -tea, to be sick.*** 

tgiinteade, is sick. 140-5. 
dttn tea bfifi, will be sick. 79-5. 

-teat, -tc^t, to shout. 

giiLte^, they shouted. 165-9. (PL 25, fig. 10.) 
fie teat, I will shout 164-12. 
fiLte^t, shout. 164-18. 
gfiltc^t, they shouted. 114-8. 

-tcaa, -tea' , to be large.*** 

gfin teao kw%]i, had beeome large. 116-4. 

dtea% let be large. 98-7. 

w5* iitca% teeth large. 86-5. (PL 4, fig. 2.) 

-tce«, -ce«, to be bad."^ 

n tee* e, bad. 140-18. 

d5 ha« n tee* mfin dja% let it not be bad. 171-10. 

.tcel«(t), -tcfiL (-tceL), to split."* 

dje* gfiL teel, she split open. 129-3. (PL 24, fig. 5.) 

gfiltefiL, were opened. 125-6. 

dje« kfiL tefiL, split it. 80-9. 

dje* gfiL teeL, he split open. 129-3. 

-tceo, -tee', (-ce'), to cry."* 

te' gfin tee ge, he eried. 138-1. (PL 41, fig. 11.) 
fiet<^ oe, I eried. 140-6. (PL 8, fig. 6.) 
fintee^biifi, you may ery. 115-7. 
d5 ha* ku; fin ee% do not for it ery. 117-8. 

-tcl, to blow, said of the wind.**® 

wa nfin te! bfifi, it will blow through. 80-14. (PL 23, fig. 4.) 

-tci«, to be red, to dawn. 

te' t te gfis tel*, it was about dawn. (PL 8, fig. 2.) 
te'gfistd*, it was red. 148-5. 

i4» m, 274. 

iM Cf . Hupa -kya 9, -kya, m, 201. 

14T Of. tc'fifi gfin tee*, he was angry. (PL 41, fig. 13.) 

i*« Cf . Hupa -kil, -kiL, in, 282. 

!*• Hupa -tcwfi, -tewe, ra, 280. 

ISO Hupa -tee, ni, 274. 

1912] Goddard: EUmenU of the Kato Language 75 

-tcin, -tci, -tciL, to make.^'^ 

ftL USi, make it. 79-8. (PI. 41, fig. 8.) 
te' giil teil, it is growing. (PI. 41, fig. 9.) 
kio na* fiL tea, make him live. (PI. 10, fig. 2.) 
te'dLt^dja*, let him make. 140-2. 
giiltdfi, they made. 178-3. 
jA* heL tcin, they made. 170-4. 
te'ifl tein, he made. 77-6. 
gieteiL, I place along. 88-1. 

-teds, relating to flat, flexible objects, such as skins.^^* 

naL teds, she put. 180-7. 
egaLteos, give me. 97-13. 

-tedt, -tcol, to steal. 

k't teL tedt, he stole. 11811. (PI. 9, fig. 6.) 
ei te UL teal«, I stole. (PL 42, fig. 1.) 

-tcok (-cuk), to arrange in a row, to string.^** 

tc' giin te5k kw%n, he had filled. 169-6. 
te' gfin eiik kw%n, he had strong. 136-1. 

-tcul, -tcuL, to be wet or damp. 

nagilLtcfiL ja'ni, he got wet they say. 126-16. (PI. 42, fig. 3.) 
naLtcftliit, it was wet beeaose. 126-11. 

-tciin, -tcic, to smell. 

yegfintcfin, he smelled it. 114-4. 
gdLL efin ne, it smells. 109-6. 
sfiL tcie, yon smell. 141-5. 

-tcut, -tci, to catch hold of."* 

yiL tefit, caught it. 114-4. 

gCa teat, he caught them. (PI. 42, fig. 2.) 

tc'eL t^* ya' ni, he caught it they say. 142-5. (PI. 42, fig. 5.) 

naLtcebiifi, you must catch. 116-16. 

-tcfif , to feed."» 

ku wa gat teat', they fed her. 151-15. (PI. 36, fig. 4.) 

-tciit, to stretch. 

nfiLtefit, yon stretch. 78-15. 

tc'eLtcat, stretch it out. 77-13. (PI. 42, fig. 4.) 

1*1 Hupa -tcwen, -tcwifi, -tcwe, m, 276. 
!•> Hupa -kySs, m, 284. 
i»» Hupa -tcwdk, ni, 279. 
iM Hupa, -kit, m, 283. 
iM Hupa -kit, m, 283. 

76 UniverHty of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Bthn. [VoLll 

-tc'afi, -tc'ac, to shoot with a bow. 

B'tB te'afi, he shot it. (PL 41, fig. 7.) 

gat to'afi% he shot. 110-18. (PL 25, fig. 9.) 

fin tc'ac, 70a shoot 178-1. 

-ga, -gai, to walk (third person only)."* 

na ga kw^n, he had walked. 154-12. (PL 42, fig. 6.) 
na gai bfin dja', shall traveL 99-18. 

-gal«, -gal, -gaL, to throw."^ 

n5teLgal*, she threw it. 181-4. 

ka tc'el gal<, he tipped it 154-8. 

k'egfiLgal', she threw away. (PL 42, fig. 11.) 

na* deL g^ kw%n, he had poured. 125-18. (PL 42, fig. 12.) 

ya* gfiL gal<, he threw up. 142-8. (PL 28, fig. 1.) 

nandLgaL, put aeross. 158-18. 

n5' efiL gaii, throw me. 188-4. (PL 25, fig. 1.) 

-gal<, -g^, -gaL, to drop, to beat. 

nafi gfil gal<, he beat it. 177-6. 
nfin ie g%L, let me chop. (PL 42, fig. 7.) 
nfinsfiLgal, you hit 129-10. (PL 42, fig. 8.) 
naLg%L, hit again. 177-7. 

-gan<, to be mouldy. 

te't gafi«, it is mouldy. 167-16. (PL 42, fig. 9.) 

-gan, -gaL, to kill (with plural object). 

fieg^, I kiUf 96-10. 

5< g^fi, kiU. 118-6. 

to' gfifi ga ne, he was killed. (PL 42, fig. 10.) 

to'end^nfifiane, he kiUed us. (PL 25, fig. 4.) 

naij^gaLbfifi, must kilL 178-2. 

-g^, to chew. 

te'9 g^ let them chew it (PL 5, fig. 6.) 
y5g^, let him ehew them. 110-7. 

-gat, to sew. 

te'e naiL gat de, he sewed up. 122-18. (PL 44, fig. 5.) 
nd na«fi fi%t, he untied it 122-15. (PL 44, fig. 6.) 
nahegat, he loosened. 122-14. 
nahfifiabfifi, you must untie it. 78-15. 
na hfifi %t, you untie. 128-7. 

-gats, -g^, to scrape.^** 

9* g^ scrape. 113-7. 

te^ ge gats, she scraped them. 158-5. 

iM Hupa -wai, -wa, ra, 221. 

i»T Hupa -waL, -wfil, -wfiL, m, 222. 

IBS Cf. Hupa -was, m, 224. 

1912] Goddard: Elements of the Kato Language 77 

-ge«, to whip. 

5l ge*, whipped f 102-9. 

-gel% -fi?ei^ -^> relating to the passing of night.*** 

gdl ge le, it was getting late. (PI. 48, fig. 1.) 
tea kw6L gel«, very dark. 127-3. (PI. 2, fig. 4.) 
(iLgfil, evening. 82-9. 

-get, to thunder. 

ddnaitget, it didn't thunder. 74-4. 

-get, -ge, to spear.**^ 

wai tc' gfin get, he Btmck over. 164-2. 
ya* tc* ofi ge, they speared. 166-16. 

-gets, -guc, -ge«, to look, to see. 

nhdctge*, let me see you. 142-6. (PL 43, fig. 2.) 
te'd na gilt gdc, he looked back. 87-13. (PI. 43, fig. 4.) 
tc'ontgets*, he looked at them. (PI. 43, fig. 6.) 
6' t gfie, look at them. 100-9. (PI. 25, fig. 13.) 
dntgfie. look. 95-12. 

-gin, to kiU."* 

sel gifi ya' ni, he killed they say. (PL 43, fig. 10.) 

-gin, -gfic, -ge«, -geL, to carry on the back.*** 

te< n5dfigge% we wiU put in water. 139-9. (PL 7, fig. 5; pL 24, 

fig. 3; pL 43, fig. 6.) 
tc'n nfig gde, she brings in. 180-9. (PL 43, fig. 7.) 
nig^ne*, I bring. 138-14. (PL 43, fig. 8.) 
te'n nfifi fiifi, he brought it. 135-11. (PL 43, fig. 9.) 
da n die ge*, I will pick you up. 141-4. (PL 7, fig. 3.) 
tficge*, I win carry. 135-4. (PL 8, fig. 4.) 
te'ttesgin, he carried. 101-9. 
gfic geL, I will carry. 141-1. 
gfifi eL, you carry. 137-13. 

-git, -gfic, to be afraid.*** 

be nd siL git de, I am getting afraid. 180-15. (PL 6, fig. 2; pL 44, 

fig. 3.) 
wfin ye nel git, they were afraid of it. 154-6. 
wfin tdL gfic fifi, might be frightened. 99-15. 

-gits, to tie. 

Le gits*, he tied together. 

tcfim meL^ts, a stick he tied. 169-5. (PL 80, fig. 12.) 

i5»Hupa -weL, -wil, -wiL, in, 224. 
i«o ct bel get, spear head. 133-8. 

161 Hupa -wen, -wifi, -we, m, 225. 

162 Hupa -wen, -wifi, -wfiw, -we, ra, 226. 
i6sin, 280. 

78 Unwersity of Calif ortUa Publications in Am, Arch, and Eihn. [VoL 11 

-guts, to bite. 

be te gilts, he bit it 109-7. 

-kai, to be alive. 

nakai, alive. 114-2. 

-kal, -kaL, to break. 

taskal, break. 81-11. 

tiic kaL, I will break. 110-1. 

-kan, -ka, -kai, -kaL, relating to the passing of the night.^*^ 

nheskani, we spent the night. 167-7. (PI. 44, fig. 10.) 

n he dL ka kwie, we will spend the night probablj. 105-3. (PI. 27, 

fig. 10.) 
dd yiL kai, not daj. 178-12. 
yigfilk^L, it was daylight. 105-5. 
yi gCLL ka lit, it got light when. 114-5. 

-k^, -kac, -ka, to move a vessel containing liquid.^*^ 

wa* fifi k^, she gave him. 129-4. (PL 23, fig. 8.) 

kd wa kac, give him (a basket of food). (PL 45, fig. 1.) 

Used of fishing with a net, probably the same stem. 

Gf. d< kan, net it. 168-14. 

ts' giin kan, he had caught. 120-1. 

dd ya« kac, they didn 't net it. 168-14. 

kwa tc ^g(iB t ka, for him they dipped. 155-7. 

-k^, -k&i, to be sweet.^** 

L kfin, is sweet. 166-11. 
tfilkamfindja% sweet will be. 91-5. 

-ke«, to finish.^*^ 

be nlL ke<e, I have finished. 82-15. (PL 28, fig. 12.) 
bel ke«, he finished. 172-12. (PL 45, fig. 8.) 
be iL ke get, he finished when. 149-15. 
be gee ke oe, I am finishing. 76-7. 

-ke«, to bathe (plural only). 

na' ke<, bathe. 172-14. (PL 45, fig. 2.) 

-ket, to trade.^** 

Leto'dfiket, they traded. 172-6. 

-kut, to ask, to question.^** 

do ha' cd ddL kfit, do not ask me. 166-8. (PL 45, fig. 8.) 

iM Hnpa -xa, -xal, -zaL, -zfifi, m, 250. 
lOB Hnpa -zan, -xfifi, -zanw, m, 250. 

166 Hupa -zan, -zfin, m, 250. 

167 Hupa -ze, -zu, m, 252. 

iM Cf . Hupa -zait, -zai, to buy, m, 251. 
i«» Hupa -zfit, -ztQ, m, 252. 

1912] Goddard: BlemenU of the Eato Language 79 

-kut, to travel (plural only). 

te'nnaikat, they came. 154-12. (PL 45, fig. 6.) 

d6 ha« te't teL Wt, they did not go. 167-17. (PI. 45, fig. 7.) 

-kut, to swallow. 

te'gdlkat, he swaUowed. 109-7. (PI. 1, fig. 3; pi. 45, fig. 5.) 
nde kAt, may I swallow you. 181-14. 
tw sal kAt, his mouth he put in. 157-15. 

-kflt, to fall. 

wal kiit, fell through. 158-1. 
na te'fifi kiit, it f eU. 83-4. 

-kfit, -kus, to float. 

yalkfit, fioated. 143-7. 

teL kfit, were washed away. 71-7. 

ndniikkfis, it floated about. 127-8. 

-k'ao, -k'a% to be fat."^ 

L kV bfin d ja«, let it be fat. 85-14. (PI. 26, fig. 10.) 
Lk'ao, is fat 83-15. 

-k'ai, to hit (with an arrow) ."^ 

nan neL k'ai, he hit. 156-14. (PL 45, fig. 9.) 

-k'an, to build a fire.^^* 

dLk'afi, make a fire. 103-7. (PL 3, fig. 7.) 

gta k'^n, there was a fire. 162-18. (PL 45, fig. 10.) 

fiLk'afi, make a fire. 127-11. (PL 45, fig. 11.) 

-k'ats, -k'as, -k'aL, relating to i>osition and movement of long 
objects only. 

tc' tdL k'^ dja«, let him drop. 129-8. (PL 10, fig. 4.) 

ya* giiL k'as, he threw up. 154-5. 

w%n t gai k'%e, she threw up. 144-7. 

ndwilk'as, feU. 152-1. 

niin ya'L k'as, they pushed them in. 154-14. 

tc' gfil k'aL, it f eU. 154-10. 

telLk'^L, it struck. 154-11. 

-k'e^, to brace oneself in getting up from a sitting or lying 

nfin s'Os dfik k'e«, he got up. 98-5. (PL 23, fig. 10.) 
nOn an dak k'e<, get up. 100-8. (PL 44, fig. 8.) 

-k'ots, to be sour, to be bitter. 

dafik'ots, sour. 139-11. 

do dfifi k'5 tdt, it is not salt because. 87-10. 

170 Hupa -kau, -ka, m, 202. 

iTiin, 281. 

ITS Cf . Hupa, wil kan nei, a fire is burning, i, 151, L 4. 

ITS Gf . Hupa -kai, -ka, m, 280. 

80 rfifV6r«<tyo/(?aU/onitaPii&licat{oii«{fi^m.ilr0^afid£<^. [YoLll 

-k'fiCy to lighten. 

dd te't ttL k'H it did not lighten. 74-6. (PL 44, fig. 9.) 

-k'uns to twist."* . 

6<k'ftll«, twist. 163-12. 
natc'k'ftfi*, it is writhing. 177-8. 

-k'iits, to push in. 

w^k'ftts, put in. 105-14. 

nai neL k'Clts kw^y had stnek in. 158-4. 

t%t tB k'tts, he palled it out. 127-9. 

-qal, -qaL, to walk (third person only).*^* 

tc' qaL ja* id, he was walking they say. 98-12. (PL 2, fig. 5^ 
pL 44, fig. 1.) 

-q6t, to penetrate with a point, to spear .*^* 

te'iis qdt, he speared. 128-13. (PL 8, fig. 8.) 
afi qdt, spear it. 128-12. (PL 44, fig. 7.) 
fie qdt, I will spear it 164-2. 


The source of the information upon which the statement is 
based, the degree of probability, and the time and stage of com- 
pletion are indicated by suffixes which stand after the stem of the 
verb. In some cases it is a matter of doubt whether these should 
be treated as separate words or as word parts merely. In most 
cases they do not seem to carry definite meaning when disjointed 
from the verb. Several of them are affixed to nouns and other 
parts of speech. 

Source of Information 

-e, -e are used of facts directly observed or in which the 
speaker is concerned and has personal knowledge. The forms 
with -e seem to be more emphatic. 

be ne siL git di, I am becoming afraid. 180-15. (PL 6, fig. 2.) 

be niL ke<e, I have finished. 82-15. (PL 23, fig. 12.) 

nyine, I stand. (PL 25, fig. 7.) 

ye s'ane, house stands. (PL 28, fig. 6.) 

fie ga n$, I kiU. 138-4. 

na fifi gfiL *a* d, he put across. 184-5. 

nasdiUHnne, we have got back. 95-12. (PL 3, fig. 6.) 

tc'dfigilane, I went after. 136-10. 

1T4 Cf. k'fifl*, withes. 163-12. 
iToni, 284. 
iT«ra, 285. 

1912] Ooddard: Elements of the Kato Language 81 

-Mgi states the fact as undonbtedly true and directly 
observed but seems to indicate a degree of surprise. 

te'LoiiUlg^ she ia making a basket. (PL 2, flg. 7.) 

nifi 7^ kw^ Afi fi^ it has cleared off. 168-1. (PL 26, fig. 1.) 

te' sin tlfi giy he is standing. (PL 26, fig. 2.) 

te't tan« fifi ^ he is eating. 1741. (PL 88, fig. 11.) 

ya«nl, tc'in, are in form independent verbs. The former is 
the regular qnotative nsed in myths and tales and is quite in- 
definite as to its subject. 

te* q^ ya* nl, he was walking they say. 98-12. (PL 2, fig. 5.) 
te' ffiSi al* y%* ni, he chewed it they say. 109-7. (PL 26, fig. 4.) 
kwai' la' ya< n!, he did it they say. (PL 31, fig. 8.) 
na gt^ tedL ya* ni, he got wet they say. 126-16. (PL 42, fig. 8.) 
sel gifi ya< ni, he killed they say. (PL 48, fig. 10.) 

-kw^ refers to acts which while not directly observed, are 
inferred with certainty from the nature of the evidences observed. 

ka gfiL *^ kwi|fi, they had sprang np along. 87-13. (PL 27, fig. 7.) 
tct tOL bfiL kwi|fi, he had hung np. 176-8. (PL 27, fig. 8.) 
tc' giin dac kwi|fi, he had danced. (PL 87, fig. 11.) 
na ga kw^, he had walked. 154-12. (PL 42, fig. 6.) 
na*deLg%lkw^, he had ponred. 125-18. (PL 42, fig. 12.) 

-kwa n^ seems to be used with suffix -e, -S and indicates that 
the evidence but not the act is directly observed. 

et^nSkwan^n, were black. 94-7. 

et ga ye kwa naft, were getting white. 94-5. 

ta tc'fiL ate S kwa n%fi, turtles have come ont of water. 95-8. 

tcteL te5t ye kwa n%&, someone had stolen. 138-15. 

-kwiic, -kwic, is used with the first person only, and denotes 
conjecture as to past, present, or future happenings. 

afi kwiic, it cries I guess. 115-4. 

na hfic da kwiic, I will go back. 137-10. 

nakiDnicfakwic, I am going to sling at him. 122-14. (PL 40, 

. fig. 9.) 
n he 5l ka kwic, we will spend the night probably. 105-8. (PL 27, 

fig. 10.) 
kwfin s'fis noL ke* kwiic, might track ns. 142-11. 

-kwfil luc. This suffix seems to be related to the last in both 
form and meaning. 

fift C^ kwiil Ific, is I think. 170-18. 

fis f e kwfil liic M, it is done I guess. 169-1. 

-bM predicts the act or happening with more or less deter- 
mination on the part of the speaker that it shall come to pass. 

82 UnwerHtyof(kiUf<Hrn4aPvhlicatuni$inAm.Arch.andBthn. [VoLll 

wa nftn tei bdii, it will blow through. 80-14. (PL 23, fig. 4.) 

nai 'ai htdH, it will be across. 85-8. (PL 28, fig. 8.) 

k%l <ai bafi, it will grow up. 84-11. (PL 26, fig. 9.) 

n5<*Ilb^, you must staj. 105-2. (PL 28, fig. 8.) 

na cdL na bdfi, you must doctor me. 166-10. (PL 38, fig. 4.) 

-dja« is used of future predictions in which determination or 
desire on the part of the speaker that the events shall come to 
pass is usually evident. For this reason it occurs more fre- 
quently in the first person. 

te' tdL k'^ dja<, let him drop. 129-8. (PL 10, fig. 4.) 
tc'dL tc! dja', let him make. 140-2. (PL 27, fig. 6.) 
kiic na* dja«, I want to live. 171-7. (PL 27, fig. 5.) 
L k'a' bfin dja', let it be fat. 85-14. (PL 26, fig. 10.) 
a dfil le' dja% we wiU do it. 83-2. 
5c t ge< dja', I will look at. 149-13. 

-tcL, -te le. The simple future prediction without an implica- 
tion of duty, necessity, or intention is expressed by teL; tele 

is used when the information is on the speaker's authority, 
tc'ic t'a tS le, I will feather arrows. 156-5. (PL 7, fig. 9.) 
niio ifi tS le, I will look. 165-4. (PL 27, fig. 3.) 
benao *ai* t§le, I will try again. 139-1. (PL 27, fig. 4.) 
gdl Ids td le, he will bring it. (PL 32, fig. 9.) 
ce dihi t§ le, I wiU die. 177-5. (PL 38, fig. 9.) 
nan dth teL, are you going homef 120-13. 
na h5 tiin n%c teL, will you movef 140-8. 
nCd lin teL bdfi, will flow for. 89-5. 
fiL tci tel, you will make. 139-10. 

na hihi dac teL, will you go backf 137-9. 
na hfie d%c t§ le, I will go back. 117-18. 

-iit, -hut, when, because. This suffix subordinates the verb 
to which it is attached either as to time or cause as the context 
may require. It is confined in its use to the past. The suffix 
usually takes over as the initial of its syllable the final consonant 
of the stem. An h may be the final aspiration of the preceding 

fiL giil liit, it was evening when. 105-6. 

yai ntLL ti niit, they brought it when. 128-16. 

ya* giil k'a sit, he threw up when. 154-11. 

yiL t'5 gdt, stuck him when. 156-1. 

Lfintesyahfit, they came together when. 148-9. 

na nCUi La giit, he jumped across when. 147-7. 

5 d ji tc'fts tiik (it, he killed because. 157-7. 

w%nnileget, I swam to because. 175-5. 

naLoiiliit, it was wet because. 126-11. 

nas li* niit, he was tied because. 146-5. 

te si ya hiit, I went because. 118-5. 

1912] Ooddard: Elements of the Kato Language 88 


-de«, when, if. This suflSx is used of events in the future, 
whether certain to occur or not, fixing the time of another act or 

6 dji b6l tftk de«, you kill it if. 177-5. 

wftn k«7 niik de', you tell about when. 176-2. 

naLkiitde', you come back if. 117-18. 

nan^gaLde*, when you put across. 153-11. 

na he sihi t ya de^, if you go back. 187-10. 

ts'ds qot de', if he spears it. 128-9. 

te'nftnyade*, if he comes. 142-11. 

gdL gel' de', night when. 97-10. 

gOn d5' de', is gone if. 140-2. 

kdw^ttbide', it is cold when. 172-15. 

kd tc' gM 'ftts de', when she runs down. 158-11. 

-un expresses a contingency as less certain than -de«. 

at te li< t£, I might be cold( f ). 183-8. 

wftn t5L giic Oil, might be frightened. 99-15. 

na 5n te le* M, may come. 133-9. 

tat btLL M, it may rain. 168-6. 

Of. na nd tc'^ ke' u left', he might track us. 138-10. 

ta nan 6 da H lefi', he might come again. 135-8. 

-kwa< denotes the continuance of the act until a stated time.^^* 

na hftc ga kwa', I am untying yet. 123-10. 
tc'n niin dao kwa', he danced until. 130-15 

-1, -L su£Sxed to the syllable of stem is used for acts or con- 
ditions that are continuous in time or place. 

giinyaL, walk. 104-13. 

t giin niL, it kept hooting. 179-7. 

tce^gMlaL,i7» he cried along. 145-5. 

-c is used of continuous or often repeated acts. It is also 
found in the imi>eratiye of many verbs without its meaning being 
dearly manifest. 

ta cae, I went. 182-17. 
tftn yac, you go. 78-18. 
tOmmie, swim. 118-16. 

-bi^ in. This suffix common with nouns occurs with verbs 
with the sense of when. 

tea kwiiL gel' bi', very dark in. 179-8. 
tea kwtlL gel* bi* ^*y very dark in. 179-7. 

"Tin, 321. 

!»• Cf. Hupa -tbc, -X, ra, 804. 

179 The stem is tce% therefore -gtOlaL is an extended form or a 
compound suffix. 

84 University of CdHfonUaPvhUcatumi in Am. AreKandEthn, [YoLll 

-M 18 used in asking a question to be answered by yes or no. 

w%n *^ tSLf did yon givef 137-8. 

nan t ya M kw^n, have you come baekf 182-14. 

te'On jan ^ kw§n, yon have eaten f 138-8. 

-kwanhiity two of the sufBxes presented above, when com- 
bined make a relative temporal reference to the completion of 
the act. 

nas lifi dt kw^ hdt, it was again because. 107-6. 
te'is teifi kw%n htlt, he had made when. 120-1. 
te'5L 71 kw%n hiit, he had named when. 117-12. 
te'fls t'a kwipi hftty he had feathered when. 116-12. 
kd n5L get kw%n hftt, because you were afraid. 128-12. 


In addition to temporal and modal variations expressed by 
means of prefixes and su£Sxes discussed above there are two forms 
of the completed verb resulting in part from accent which have 
different temporal modal, force associated with them. The present 
indefinite is usually the shorter of the two forms and is used 
mostly for the imperative, for intended or proposed action in 
the first person, and in negative statements. It might be dis- 
tinguished as the non-indicative. The subject prefix of the first 
person singular is c, the second modals are usually absent, and 
the weaker form of the stem is usually found. 

The definite tense is usually indicative in mode, referring to 
an act or state as existing at a definite time, usually past. It is 
distinguished by I as the subjective prefix in the first i>erson 
singular, by the presence of one of the second modal prefixes, and 
by the stronger form of the stem. The glottal stop is so fre- 
quently found as the final element of the stem that it seems 
plausible that it is a morphological or phonetic characteristic of 

this form. 

Present Indefinite Poet Definite 

dc l^fi*, I wiU get. 187-2. (PI. 5n gi la ne, I brought. 137-1. 

24, fig. 11.) 
nacbe, let me swim. nibine, I swam. 118-17. 

CO* 5c leS I will fix it 77-8. c5« gi la oe, I am fixing it. 76- 

tficca*, I am going. 161-1. tesiyai, I went. 120-17. 

ta tc' 5^b^, prepare mush (imp. ta te b5* bU*, have you cookedf 

plu.). 123-18. (PI. 37, fig. 169-14. 

tat bOL, let it rain. 80-12. tet bll<, it rained. 81-1. (PI. 

36, fig. 18.) 
td gdc bftfi, let him carry. 140-1. tes gin, he carried. 101-11. 


Ooddard: Elements of the Kato Language 







04 00 

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Jl , VA ^ r^ f*i ht 00 d n ^ '*^ 9 

S 2 

^«Jm U mi rA ^ % mi 9mJ B^ eLmm "^ mi mi Km ^ ^ij O »; 

<•* ^ >^ *-<' S3 ^*' fl8 ^^ *" ^-^ -S ^*' '*^ o "^ ^3 ^*' ^*' ^^^ ^ ^"^ 

S -i a 




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t~4 t~4 Q^ 


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A4 5 04 9 04 9A4 

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86 Un4verHtyof(kU%forniaPubUeat%<miinAm.AreKandEthn. [Vol. 11 


Plates 3 and 4 have nasal tracings for the upper line. These 
are made as follows : a glass bulb open at each end is inserted in 
one nostril, from the outer end of which a rubber tube passes 
to a tambour having a rubber membrane rather tightly stretched. 
To this rubber membrane a straw lever ending in a horn tracing 
point is attached. As long as the posterior orifices of the nostrils 
are closed by the velum the line will be straight, but as soon as 
the velum falls the tracing point rises. The tracings show that 
the vibrations are recorded both in the nasal consonants and 
nasalized vowels, when the breath passes through the nose, and 
in the pure vowels, when the nasal passage is closed. In the 
latter case the vibrations must be transmitted through the soft 
and hard palate. 

In plates 1, 2, and 5-11 the upper line is from the larynx. A 
metal tube ends in a cup-shaped termination over which a sheet 
of thin rubber is stretched. This is applied to one side or the 
front of the larynx. In these tracings the attachment was in 
most cases to the front near the notch of the Adam's apple. The 
subject's neck was soft and flabby, the larynx projecting but 
slightly. The connection and tambour were the same as those 
used for nasal tracings. 

In both cases the points of the tracing levers were so adjusted 
that vertical lines drawn with the instrument cut the two trac- 
ings at synchronous points. The error due to irregularities of 
the drum does not exceed a millimeter (about .02 second). 

The lower line in the above mentioned plates and the tracings 
in the remainder of the plates are made by the air column of 
the breath taken from the lips by a metal mouthpiece fitting 
closely and transmitted by a small rubber tube to a Marey tam- 
bour. All the tracings were, with one or two exceptions, made 
with the same tambour with no material change in its adjustment. 

Vowels and semi-vowels result in more or less elevation of the 
tracing point which inscribes the vibrations; these are in most 
cases the fundamentals not the partials of the sounds. The liquid 
1 has vibrations similar to those of the vowels, but usually shows 
one or more deep notches at its beginning. The nasals result in 
straight horizontal lines at the lowest level, since no breath issues 

1912] Qoddard: Elements of the Kato Language 87 

from the mouth during the articulation. The spirants are smooth 
upward curves showing only the varying strength of the air- 
column, which is controlled by the size of the opening of the 
mouth passage and the lung pressure. The instrument is not 
delicate enough to record the agitation of the air produced by 
the rubbing against the opening which gives the spirants their 
characteristic sounds. 

The stops are shown by horizontal lines of the lowest level 
during the period of closure, and by nearly or quite vertical 
lines caused by the sudden release of air at the moment of 
explosion. If the stop be a sonant the point immediately falls 
and traces the vibrations. If an aspirated surd is spoken the 
I)oint continues to rise or falls slowly without marking regular 
vibrations. If the stop is accompanied by glottal action the 
points fall sharply to or below the level marked by the tracer 
during the closure, the vibrations beginning as it recovers from 
this descent. 

By observing the points where the vertical lines cut the 
horizontal ones in plates 1-11, the exact beginning and end of 
sonancy and nasalization can be ascertained as regards the move- 
ments within the mouth indicated by the breath tracing. The 
straight horizontal line is drawn mechanically while the pai>er is 
on the drum and constitutes a time line extremely accurate, with 
50 mm. equal to one second. The duration of words, syllables, 
individual sounds, and often their component parts may be 
quickly determined. 

Varying elevations of the tracings of the same sound in the 
same word indicate changing stress.. It is probable that vowels 
being but slightly impeded in the passage through the mouth 
regardless of their quality show stress. The amplitude of the 
vibrations in the tracings varies with both stress and pitch, since 
the natural i>eriod of the membrane and lever favors a certain 
rate of vibration which its rendered more strongly. The pitch 
can often be determined, relatively at least, by counting the 
number of vibrations in a given length of base line. 

Little can be determined as to the quality of the vowels by 
tracings such as these. 

TranmiiUed March 1, 1911. 



Upper line larynx, lower line breath. 

Fig. 1. — la* nes, raccoon. 112-5. 

Fig. 2. — I'aci*, bnckeye. 94-6. 

Fig. 8.— te'gMkdt, he swallowed. 109-7. 

Fig. 4.— 6l4fi, yon get (imp.), 188-14. 

Fig. 5. — kdwtostU, it was becoming hot. 172-14. 

Fig. 6. — tc'ftsH*, he caught in a noose. 108-4. 

Fig. 7. — ka si del*, we came up. 141-2. 

Fig. 8. — nadil', sugar-pine. 89-17. 

Fig. 9. — tc'nneLyH*, she eats up. 180-9. 




Upper line larynx, lower line breath. 

Fig. 1. — Ldn to ge nes, ' ' rodent ears long, ' ' a monse. 

Fig. 2. — naL teds, she put a blanket. 180-7. 

Fig. 8.— naL«j^ dog. 91-9. 

Fig. 4. — tcakwdLgel', very dark. 74-8. 

Fig, 5. — te'qaL ya'nl, he was walking they say. 98-12. 

Fig. 6. — L'gde, rattlesnake. 91-17. 

Tig, 7. — tc'hdltAgl, she is making basket. 

Fig. 8. — Ld< Lts5, grass blue. 76-6. 




Upi>er line from bulb in nostril, lower line breath. 

Tig, 1. — et d nfi kw%n n^fti it had tamed blaek. 94-7. 

lig, 2. — kwALiin ya' nl, they told him they say. 125-2. 

Fig. 8.— n d«a ^ifi^ let us look. 168-1. 

Fig. 4.— 6 to'Aii% to him. 79-9. 

Fig. 5. — naslilL^ he beeame. 107-8. 

J?ig. 6. — nas dtd lin ne, we have got baek. 95-12. 

Fig. 7. — dLk'afii make a Are (pin. imp.). 108-7. 




Upper line from bulb in noetnl, lower line breath. 
Pig. 1.— ya« bl« ftfl«, sky in. 81-2. 
Pig. 2. — wd'nteaS teeth large. 86-5. 
Pig. 8. — n gtibi do*, it became none. 76-12. 
Pig. 4. — ya'n 7a' nl, they said they say. 82-11. 
Pig. 6.— kw6fl«, fire. 81-8. 
Pig. 6.^ca«na«, creek. 79-8. 
lig. 7.— ne« a n5% behind the hilL 16416. 
Pig. 8.— km*, jnneberry. 188-8. 
ilg. 9. — wa tc'a mi', hole in. 156-12. 




npi>er line larynx, lower line breath. 

Fig. 1. — se, stone. 71 -S. 

Hg. 2. — tc' nes tifi, he lay down. 175-11. 

Fig. 8.— w6b, leg. 79-10. 

Fig. 4.^etel*, my heart 101-5. 

Fig. 5.— bee «ai«, I will try it 109-9. 

Fig. 6. — tc'5g^ let him chew it 

Fig. 7.— hakw dM', that time. 71-2. 

Fig. 8. — nehinn5^Bi*, onr heads. 129-10. 

^g' ••— y^S scoter (f), a bird. 122-6. 




Upper line of ilgs. 1-4, 7, larynx, of figs. 5, 6, 8, from bulb in nostrily 

lower line breath. 

Fig. 1. — becdMde, take me np (plu.), 147-6. 

iHg. 2. — be ne siL git di, I am afraid of. 130-15. 

i^g. 8. — t b5e, it is round. 80-1. 

Fig. 4. — da bes 7a', he climbed up. 180-6. 

Fig. 5. — main, weaseL 74-2. 

Fig. 6.— dd mM*, it is f uU. 129-13. 

Fig. 7. — bi* sta, he was sitting in. 132-3. 

iHg. 8. — ta tc'Clm milLy cook mush (imp. sing.). 163-14. 




Upper line larynx, lower line breath. 

Pig. 1.— d5, not 137-2. 

fHg. 2. — de t giin '^y he put in the Are. 168-17. 

IHg. 8. — da' n die ge*, I will pick you up. 141-4. 

Pig. 4.— tfi, water. 71-1. 

Pig. 5. — te' nd ddg ge*, we will put in water. 139-9. 

Pig. 6. — ndte'iintd*, water eame so far. 75-1. 

Pig. 7.— t'a«, feather. 105-14. 

fHg. 8. — a t'a, her blanket fold. 181-9. 

Pig. 9. — tele t'a td le, I will feather arrows. 156-5. 




Upper line larynx, lower line breath. 

Rg. 1.— gdh ttikf it burst 182-5. 

Ilg. 2. — te't te gftfl tcl% it was about to dawn. 

Fig. 8.— Ltsdgftfi, fox. 78-8. 

Fig. 4. — ttc ge*, I will carry. 135-4. 

Fig. 5. — naw5^ nie, you (plu.) played. 184-17. 

Ilg. 0.— te tel GO, I cried. 140-6. 

Fig. 7. — q5, worm. 

Fig. 8. — tc'ds qdt, lie speared it 128-18. 

Tig. 9. — kwnataQha% without his knowledge. 




Upper line larynx, lower line breath. 

Fig. 1. — kal^a'i it sprang up (of vegetation). 76-10. 

Pig. 2.— n^ ka«, two. 178-4. 

Tig. 8. — te'g^kt^, a boat went. 126-7. 

Pig. 4.— ddkwatlfi, lie never did that. 180-14. 

Pig. 5.— ktrnlLifi*, he looked at him. 134-2. 

Pig. 6.— k'tteLto5t, he stole. 118-11. 

Pig. 7.— gftlk'afi, there was a fire. 162-18. 

Pig. 8.— t k'an yl ddk, up the ridge. 99-8. 

Pig. 9.— 5 tei k'wat', on his tail. 162-14. 




Upper line larynx, lower line breath. 

Fig. 1.— t^n nas djdl'y it rolled ont of the fire. 147-9. 

Pig. 2. — kwna' tlLtei, make him live. 

Pig. 3.— te'giinjae, he broke off. 79-12. 

Pig. 4.— te' tdL k'%s dja<, let him drop. 129-8. 

]^g. 5. — nateM, orphan. 102-6. 

Pig. 6. — te'e na gtt dae, he came out again. 149-18. 

Pig. 7.— ta^ji nee till, where is he Ijingf 182-8. 

Fig. 8. — naLe6te, grass-snake. 84-5. 

Pig. 9.— ye'tc'giinyai, he went in. 97-11; 132-13. 




Upper line larynx, lower line breath. 

Pig. 1. — wBkfotB, one ftide, away from. 

Pig. 2.— k*Ifi«, jnneberry. 133-8. 

Pig. 3. — waLk'%t8% he put in. 105-14. 

Kg. 4.— tV, raw. 91-5. 

Pig. 5. — cbiit', my stomach. 

Pig. 6. — Be q5t', a headdress. 170-17. 

Pig. 7. — setOnai, stone-flsh (sword-fisht). 80-1. 

Pig. 8.— tc'iis t'Ok', he flaked. 150-7. 

Pig. 9.— to ne« Ofi<, water behind. 120-0. 




Fig. 1.— aS oloudB. 74-6. 

Kg. 2.— ya% sky. 77-18. 

Kg. 8.— ya«, loose. 162-6. 

Fig. 4. — yae, inow. 74-8. 

Fig. 6.— wdB, leg. 79-10. 

Fig. 6. — Ldk*, fteel-head salmon. 84-6. 

Tig. 7. — LCit, smoke. 141-2. 

Fig. 8.— L5S herb. 71-8. 

Fig. 9. — se<, stone. 71-8. 

Fig. 10. — slASy gronnd-squirret 78-7. 

Fig. 11.— ca< , sun. 74-9. 

Fig. 12. — eek', sputnuL 164-14. 

Fig. 13.— beL, rope. 101-7. 

Fig. 14.— bAs, sUde of soil. 86-11. 

Fig. 16. — 16, water. 71-1. 

Fig. 16. — ges, salmon. 84-3. 

Fig. 17. — kdSy eongh. 

Hg. 18. — k'te, alder. 

Fig. 19.— k'waS f at. 88-16. 

Kg. 20.— kHifl«, haael. 188-10. 




Fig. 1.— at% her blanket fold. 181-9. 

Fig. 2. — fi t'a m, her dress. 105-6. 

Pig. 3. — a tea*, her apron. l(M5-8. 

Fig. 4.— a sS'y his tongue. 110-3. 

Fig. 6.— a na*, his eye. 152-10. 

Fig. 6.— fl ts'6«, her milk. 

Pig. 7.— fl siits, its hide. 110-4. 

I^g. 2. — 5 di ee'y its shoulder. 75-1. 

Fig. 9.— a de«, its horn. 74-10. 

Pig. 10. — nat,' your sister. 132-4. 

Fig. 11. — c tc ge, my grandfather. 153-10. 

Pig. 12. — c ne*, my leg. 

Fig. 13. — c qdt', my knee. 

Fig. 14.— c dji*, my heart. 

Pig. 15. — s te5y my grandmother. 97-16. 





Fig. 1. — kwlbnt, coosin. 145-2. 
Fig. 2. — eihi dl, mj ooosiiL 145>S. 
Fig. 3. — baeiy his nephew. 145-8. 
Fig. 4.— kw6% his teeth. 181-8. 
Fig. 5.— kw tc!«, his tail. 
Fig. 6. — kaetc, knife. 110-10. 
Hg. 7. — kw da'y his mouth. 12S-2. 
Fig. 8. — kwkwe', his foot. 82-5. 
Fig. 9.— ski, boy. 102-6. 
Fig. 10.— sUk, children. 182-8. 
Tig. 11. — c tea djiL, mj kidney. 133-3. 
Fig. 12. — kw si' da*, his crown. 79-4. 
Fig. 18. — s tcaitc, mj grandchild. 97-16. 
Fig. 14. — g^ ted, redwood, 86-8. 
Fig. 15.— ges tc5, elk. 71-5. 
Fig. 16.— dCictc, qnaa 72-5. 




































jictc, wolf. 71-6. 
tk6cU; ehestnut. 89-8. 
tkaetc5, pelican. 72-13. 
•yited, danee house. 83-11. 
ts'M teL, turtle (bone broad). 90-14. 
tetUi ta* , among trees. 171-9. 
5 de* L gai, its horn white. 161-16. 
ja* L gai, louse white, 
ten gaite, tail white. 18812. 
gesLeAfi*, salmon blaok. 86-2. 
na L ^k, eye shining. 181-9. 
elc bi*, red earth in (a mountain). 102-15. 
je* bi^ M, house in. 110-15. 
je* bik, house inside. 99-5. 
ya^ biky sky inside. 101-15. 
bfitsrai', seaguU. 122-6. 




Fig. l.— 7i<tiU^ gat, house middle. 142-18. 

Pig. 2. — gatto5', barnacle. 

Pig. 8. — set^ts, stone rough (sand-stone). 77-9. 

Pig. 4.— ne«L«iit, world middle. 75-8. 

Pig. 5. — Liie t tc6, rotten log. 184-15. 

Pig. 6. — eifihat, summer time. 155-1. 

Pig. 7.— ta L*iit; ocean middle. 126-8. 

Hg. 8.— watc'afiy hole. 78-8. 

Pig. 9. — nilnje* taa, ground under is found (bulbs). 148-8. 

Pig. 10.— nal tc'iU, white thorn. 91-14. 

Pig. 11.— naL gi, dog. 91-9. 

Pig. 12.— L tao, black oak. 89-17. 

Pig. 13. — na nee, people. 71-7. 

Pig. 14. — sek'at'y grinding stone. 137-16. 

Pig. 15. — ndfi k UM, pounded seeds. 94-4. 




Pig. 1.— I da« kw, Wailaki or Yuki 170-9. 

Pig. 2.— na« c6 k V , robin. 72-9. 

Pig. 3. — 8eLte'5!y heron. 72-4. 

Rg. 4. — ea^na*y stream 79-3. 

Pig. 5. — ban t6', ocean. 86-10. 

I^g. 6. — eae dtA, bear elover. 94-9. 

Pig. 7.~belifi, eeL 9015. 

Hg. 8. — ban tc6, mnssel. 84-13. 

Pig. 9.— htm biinte, an owL 92-8. 

Pig. 10. — bel get, fish spear. 133-8. 

Pig.ll.— belkats, pole of fish-spear. 128-12. 

Pig. 12.— htm te 15, owl. 72-2. 

Pig. 13.— tdn n!, road. 78-4. 

Pig. 14. — da teants, erow. 72-15. 

Pig. 15.— t'e ki, girls. 111-2. 




Fig. 1.— te le«, sack. 113-7. 

Fig. 2. — te'a la, Bon-flower. 188-6. 

Fig. 8.— te'ah^, frog. 112-11. 

Fig. 4.— teftn te' bao, a bird. 72-11. 

Fig. 5.— te' kak', net. 84-8. 

Fig. 6. — tedb^, poison. 163-7. 

Kg. 7. — g6jane% stars. 74-7. 

Fig. 8. — k^ kits, old man. 108-2. 

Fig. 9.— te' s! teM, coyote. 72-1. 

Fig. 10.— kwi yint, pigeon. 78-12. 

Fig. 11.— k'ftn ta gite, jackrabbit 78-6. 

Fig. 12.— L tsd gftii, fox. 73-3. 

Fig. 18.— s taite, eotten-taU rabbit. 155-12. 

Fig. 14.— jis kan, day. 100-12. 

Kg, 15.— yis t'6t', fog. 126-2. 




lig, 1. — nadeLtey a small pine. 88-11. 

Fig. 2. — biiL gtLl gas, fire-Bticks. 110-11. 

Fig. 3. — ba na t'ai, post of danee-hoase. 180-17. 

Fig. 4.— t biiL, bnrden basket 179-11. 

Tig. 5.— ddl kiits, fawn. 108-9. 

Fig. 6. — ts'fis n5', mountain. 71-2. 

Fig. 7. — tc'n naL dM, adolescent girL 109-9. 

Kg. 8.— tc' ga ts V, twine. 116-10. 

Fig. 9. — teaLnly mountain robin. 72-4. 

Fig. 10.-> te' ga' , basket-pan. 113-10. 

Fig. 11.— tc' w6c tee*, foam. 85-3. 

Fig. 12.— kwiin teL bi*, vaUey. 1 74-9. 

Fig. 18. — teiin niiL tcihite, Lewis ' woodpecker. 72-8. 

Fig. 14. — be daiL tclk tody a woodpecker, "its head red large.'' 




Pig. 1.— 5 tcl* k'wftt', its tail on. 162-14. 

lig. 2. — L5n L gaiy wood-rat, ' ' rodent white. ' ' 78-9. 

Pig. 3. — yaiintail*, mole. 96-6. 

Pig. 4. — Ld^ n'ai, grass game. 146-11. 

Pig. 5. — ne' ddl bai, a pine. 86-18. 

Pig. 6.— yfi'tcil'ifi, abalone. 12417. 

Pig. 7. — ts'e k'e neets, day eel, ''navel long.'' 91-2. 

Pig. 8.— td bfit ted, water-panther. 177-18. 

Pig. 9. — ne' te U', earthquake. 

Tig. 10.— tak', three. 101-4. 

Pig. 11. — kwe'ntelts, black-crowned night heron, "foot broad." 

Pig. 12.— td nai L tsd, blue cat-fish( f ), < < fish blue. ' ' 124-15. 

Pig. 18. — yi ban n^ ka', seven, ' ' beyond two. ' ' 166-1. 

Kg. 14. — y6 yi nfiik*, way south. 75-6. 

Pig. 15.— di ntk', south. 75-6. 




Fig. l.-> 6 heS 80 it iB. 178-14. 

Pig. 2.— 5 yeS under it. 101-6. 

Pig. 3.-> 5 lai<, its top, on it. 10818. 

f^g. 4.— 5dai', outside. 98-4. 

Pig. 5. — j6 yi de*, way north. 77-1. 

Pig. 6. — yi, right here. 

Pig. 7. — yd 6ft, over there, further. 127-14. 

Tig. 8. — yi baft, other side. 138-4. 

Fig. 9.— Lba*ftfiha*, both sides. 75-7. 

Pig. 10.— Le ne ha', aU. 83-4. 

Pig. 11.— L ta} ki, different kinds. 88-1. 

Pig. 12. — nftn kwi ye, underground. 75-8. 

Pig. 18.— Mkts, slowly. 140-16. 

Pig. 14.— he Vl% yes. 82-2. 

Pig. 15. — hayi, those people. 171-19. 




Fig. 1. — ca tc'dn ge Ian, he got for me. 

Fig. 2. — cl ye* ye% my house. 141-6. 

Fig. 8.— oofLkkwa'kQ, he did well. 104-6; 154-5. 

Fig. 4.— tadindji, whatforf 

Fig. 5.— di, this. 74-9. 

Fig. 6. — da tUta, soon. 136-5. 

Fig. 7.— ta'dji, where! 182-8. 

Fig. 8.— dd, not 79-4. 

Fig. 9. — td 5 tcifi a, water in front of. 77-7. 

Fig. 10. — kae bi*, tomorrow. 104-9. 

Fig. 11. — k'to dit'y some days ago. 137-5. 

Fig. 12. — kftn dihite, close by. 79-6. 

Fig. 18. — k'iin dtH, yesterday. 128-7. 

Fig. 14.— k'^t de*, soon. 96-4. 

Fig. 15. — kwiini4fi, enough. 77-8. 




Fig. 1. — 7a* gdLgal, he threw up. 142-3. 

Fig. 2.— je^ tc' gfln yai, he went in. 132-13. 

Fig. 8. — wa* ^ k^ she gave him. 129-4. 

Fig. 4. — wa nOn Usl htA, it will blow through. 80-14. 

Fig, 5. — Le gea ^a*, it was eneireling. 82-15. 

Fig. 6. — na nihi dae, come down. 

Fig. 7. — na ea*, I go about. 188-6. 

Fig. 8. — nai *ai bM, it will be across. 

Fig. 9.— na des b!l*, he spilled. 128-2. 

Fig. 10.— ntn s'CUi dtk k'e*, he got up. 98-5. 

Fig. 11. — nO ga '^c, he put along. 86-11. 

Fig. 12. — benlLke'e, I have finished. 82-15. 

Fig. 18. — bd dfiL, let us elimb. 

Fig. 14. — da* bes ya*, he elimbed up. 180-6. 

Fig. 15. — de dtH *^Cf jovl put on the fire. 131-9. 




Fig. 1. — tate'$b<!Uiy make soup (pin.). 123-13. 

Fig. 2. — tagiitt'atSy they butchered. 175-4. 

Pig. 3. — te' n6 dftg ge*, we will put in water. 139-9. 

Fig. 4. — tc'e niin yae, come out. 

Fig. 5. — dje' gdL tcel, she split open. 129-3. 

Fig. 6.— -kwanS* te, look for it 164-11. 

Fig. 7. — ka nac, it came up. 81-2. 

Fig. 8.— kwfin ye« gfil lat, it sank. 174-12. 

Fig. 9. — kwAt tc' gfin yai, he went down. 116-5. 

Fig. 10. — nes5L7^y you (plu.) ate up. 136-16. 

Fig. 11.— 6c l%fi«, I wiU get. 137-2. 

Fig. 12. — na die tea, let me eat a meal. 

Fig. 13. — d6 kd gis ill, one couldn 't see. 81-1. 

Fig. 14. — tc't teL bail, he walked lame. 133-6. 

Fig. 15.— di kwa'L sifi, he did this way. 79-12. 




Fig. 1. — n5* eta gaL, throw me. 133-4. 

Fig. 2.— ne «5 dOfi, you wiU die. 177-4. 

Fig. 8. — ya* tc' kw neL ifi*, they saw him. 

Fig. 4. — te'e n$* niifi a ne, he killed us. 117-6. 

Fig. 5. — natc'5^ Ld, set snares (plu. imp.). 108-2. 

Fig. 6. — tc' nihi yai, he came there. 142-14. 

Fig. 7. — si yi ne, I stand. 

Fig. 8. — giin nes, it became long. 87-1. 

Fig. 9.— gat tc'aft*, he shot. 110-18. 

Fig. 10. — giiL teat, he shouted. 165-9. 

Fig. 11.— ka* dat tea*, well, let us bury. 149-7. 

Fig. 12.-— te'n ne giiL 'iiL, he looked at it. 15616. 

Fig. 13.— 5^ t gfte, look at them. 164-9. 

Fig. 14.— tc' kiin nee, he talked. 160-1. 




Fig. 1. — nin 7%fi kw%fi Clii gi, it hM cleared off. 168-1. 

Fig. 2. — te' sift M gi, he is standing. 

Fig. 3. — nftn jiL t'5 gfit, when he stung. 156-15. 

Tig. 4. — te'gOfial* ya^ni, he chewed it thej say. 109-7. 

Fig. 5. — tc' kwL 15 ^iit, when he fooled them. 136-14. 

Fig. 6. — tc* nfln ja htt, when he came. 

ilg. 7. — d5 dM siis he, we did not see. 116-18. 

Fig. 8. — nategi!^*^ he stood them up along. 88-13. 

Fig. 9.— k^l^aibCdi, it will grow up. 84-11. 

Fig. 10.— L kV htn dja% let it be fat. 85-14. 




Fig. 1. — nifijande*, when it eleared off. 167-17. 

Fig. 2. — kwCln teL t§ lit, it was beeoming flat. 107-3. 

Fig. 8.— ntc ifi< t$ le, I wiU look. 165-4. 

Fig. 4. — be nae *ai' t§ le, I will try it again. 189-1. 

Kg. 5. — kte na* dja*, I want to live. 171-7. 

Fig. 6. — tc'aL Ul dja*, let him make. 140-2. 

Fig. 7. — ka gi!^ *%L kwafty they had sprung up along. 87-13. 

Fig. 8. — tc' teL bdL kw%fi, he had hung up. 176-3. 

Fig. 9. — nes ja ng kwa n^, thej were ripe. 94-4. 

Fig. 10. — n he 5l ka kwie, we will spend the night probably. 105-3. 




Hg. 1. — n^ diU *a*y let us make a dam. 168-11. 

Fig. 2. — na t gi!^ *a*, he stood it up. 76-6. 

Fig. 3. — na nM *ai, a flsh-weir. 138-9. 

Fig. 4. — dl 'An es *a*, np there in a row. 109-10. 

Fig. 5.— be yaL «ai«, they tried it. 85-2. 

Tig, 6. — ye* s^ane, house stands. 141-5. 

Kg. 7.— n6'«ac n5hifl, put, you (plu.). 110-11. 

Hg. 8.— n6< «n btlfi, you must stay (plu.). 105-2. 

Fig. 9.— tc' nM «il«, they sat down. 170-8. 

Fig. 10.— nftc «I ne, I saw it. 137-1. 

Fig. 11.— n dM <ifi% let us look. 168-1. 

Fig. 12. — kw^ *! ne, I always do that 

Fig. 13.— n5 hill kwa^iifi*, you (plu.) do that. 118-4. 






Fig. 1. — nas ^ttB, be ran about. 184-3. 

Fig. 2. — tc'tesjai, be went. 116-9. 

Fig. 3. — k' g§ 'dts, be was sbooting along. 144-10. 

Fig. 4. — jJUn tee yai, tbey came togetber. 

Fig. 5. — cak'efiyai, son went down. 

Fig. 6. — niyaye, I came tbere. 136-17. 

Fig. 7. — cgijaly I am sleepy. 164-4. 

Fig. 8. — tc' nftn ya ya' ni, be came tbere tbey say. 101-10. 

Fig. 9.— tc' gftn yan«, be ate of it. 129-5. 

Fig. 10.— tc'6< y^, you (plu.) eat. 148-6. 

Fig. 11. — tc'g^nyaL, walk (sing. imp.). 

Fig. 12. — n5 nftn yifi, tbey were living. 160-12. 

I^g. 13. — te'iiny^, you eat (sing. imp.). 125-7. 

Fig. 14. — tc't defi fiel*, be stopped crying. 148-4. 




Rg. 1. — dd 8 dji' kw ja nSy I do not like him. 13643. 

Pig. 2. — do ha' ka ndn t j^A, do not be ashamed. 141-8. 

Pig. 3. — bCUii tc' gftt yifi, he doctored. 

Pig. 4. — na' gis jite, he rested. 161-4. 

Pig. 5. — na dfil ^e, let ns rest. 140-18. 

Pig. 6. — wM giittyae, some become old. 107-11. 

Pig. 7. — kwfiLyic, he whistled. 

Pig. 8. — tie jit, I will make a house. 168-6. 

Pig. 9. — s'Ctsji'y he made a house. 168-7. 

Fig. 10. — gftl yi' ja' ni, he built a house they say. 83-11. 

Pig. 11.— tc'nnfiLySL, let it blow. 80-13. 

Pig. 12. — tciim meL yits, a stick he tied. 169-5. 

Pig. 13. — kwihi tin ydt, they ran after him. 




Fig. 1. — kanagftll^y she digs out. 

Fig. 2. — (fi) na' te'e na lai, her eye she took out. 152-9. 

IHg. 3. — kwai' la' ja' ni, he did it they say. 

Fig. 4.— dl kwa' lao, he did this way. 154-5. 

Fig. 5. — 05' gi la GO, I fixed it good. 7642. 

Fig. 6. — bel get k'wCUi nd* 1%C; spear point put it on (pL imp.). 138-8. 

Fig. 7. — k'wCUi nfil ItlCy put it on (sing. imp.). 

Fig. 8. — ntdli^Ly let him sleep. 

Fig. 9.— c5' 5cleS I will fix good, 77-3. 

Fig. 10. — n tes laL ya' ni, he went to sleep they say. 83-4. 

Fig. 11. — n5hin ntO*l%Ly you (pin.) go to sleep. 110-16. 






























te'dle', he sang. 149-11. 

naigdlleOy fish were swimming down. 128-12. 

s'Clsl]fi% he became. 84-11. 

te'e gftl le'y he commenced singing. 105-11. 

kakdsile; I am sick. 

nas )i', he tied up. 145-7. 

tc'tBU'f he caught in a noose. 108-4. 

gfilldty it was burning. 178-16. 

gftlldstdle^ yon wiU bring. 186-5. 

tc't te 16S; palled repeatedly. 175-2. 

w^tc'kdliiky he told about it 161-18. 

tal Ions, soft 179-12. 

kwm lac M gi, it looks like. 170-14. 






Fig. 1. — te'geLna% he roasted. 

Fig. 2.— bee na% I will roast 168-16. 

Fig. 3. — kae iia% I want to live. 182-5. 

Fig. 4. — na edL na biifi, jon must examine me. 166-10. 

Rg. 5. — ta ja' 6 nifi, let them drink. 123-6. 

Fig. 6. — te't tdg gtbini, it makes a noise. 

Fig. 7. — te't tiig gftn ni, it thundered. 77-10. 

Fig. 8. — kagftnn%e, he came up. 75-2. 

Fig. 9.— heii< te'nni, yes he said. 82-2; 102-8. 

Fig. 10. — gta I4fi, became many. 83-14. 

Fig. 11. — gftn lA ne, have become many. 169-10. 





Fig. 1. — bind* Le% soak them (imp. plu.). 110-6. 

Fig. 2. — b! nd gfth Lek, they soaked them. 179-1. 

Fig. 3. — nanihiLat, jump across, (imp. sing.). 

Fig. 4. — te'enaniAi he ran out. 142-6. 

Fig. 5.— n L^ts, it is stout. 78-12. 

Fig. 6. — tc'fiL ts^Uy he found. 97-4. 

Fig. 7.— (d5 ha') te'tLL tsa ne, he did not find. 

Fig. 8.— gfiLtsai, it was dry. 123-4. 

Fig. 9. — ddgCQsan, it was never found. 179-6. 

Fig. 10. — nihis^t, sit down (sing. imp.). 140-18. 

Fig. 11. — kwiin sat, deep water. 74-10. 
































ndsil, I am sweaty, 
dtatsd, blue. 118-18. 
be nd^ sMy you hide (plo. imp.). 118-4. 
te'teLsiifiy he hung up. 176-18. 
dd ki0 ne sftfi, I was insensible. 182-17. 
t4t dCd vta, we dragged out. 
te' gftn siity he pounded up. 80-5. 
> tB sftt, I will pound. 110-8. 
k'gtbisiit, she pounded. 185-9. 
naca% I go about. 138-6. 

• te' gftn eai, she buried in ashes. 129-2. 
k'wtlt te'e ja ce^ , they spit on. 154-14. 
ka te' g(ie el', they dug. 148-11. 

• ka te' gtbi ei', they were digging. 148-8. 




Pig. 1. — ne5nne, it is good. 77-4, 

Fig. 2. — iiLefifi', black. 86-2. 

Fig. 8. — gCkLefdi', it smells good. 

Fig. 4.— kwa gtt te^t', they fed her. 151-15. 

Fig. 5. — d5 DEL ban ne, he was not lame. 184-5. 

Fig. 6.— dd tS he* e, I am tired. 98-1. 

Fig. 7. — nlfi ddfihe'M, are you tired (sing.). 141-1. 

Fig. 8. — d5 tS de he* e, we are tired. 116-17. 

i^g. 9. — ndlufi na^be, swim (pin. imp.). 111-2. 

Fig. 10. — ya* te'be, they were picking. 

Kg. 11.— t b5c, round. 80-1. 

Fig. 12.— c5llk ttit htl, well it rains. 74-4. 

Fig. 18.— te t bn«, it rained. 81-1. 




Fig. 1.— demim< (din b(iii<), it was fulL 12942. 

Pig. 2. — te't teL b^, he hung it up. 

Pig. 3.— taebdl, I will hang np. 115-6. 

Pig. 4. — tc'w6< bftL, carry it (plu. imp.). 110-15. 

Pig. 5. — ta te'iini mth, cook mush (sing. imp.). 163-14. 

Pig. 6. — tatc'd* bftL, cook mush (plu. imp.). 128-18. 

Kg. 7. — ftbida, you stay (sing. imp.). 79-7. 

Pig. 8. — te'n nes dai, he sat down. 161-10. 

Pig. 9. — ntit dac, I will dance. 103-9. 

Pig. 10. — tc'e na gtt dac, he came out again. 149-13. 

Pig. 11. — te' giin dac kwafi, he had danced. 

Pig. 12. — kasidel% we came up. 141-2. 

Pig. 13. — Le ne* ha* tc'n niin del*, all came up. 




Fig. 1.— te't tee dd le, they went on. 10812. 

Fig. 2. — ti dftL, let us go. 141-6. 

Fig. 3. — te^ na te'QL deo, she washed them. 

Fig. 4. — cCin di ne, the sun shines. 182-13. 

Fig. 5.— n d6« hM, it wiU not be. 80-13. 

Fig. 6. — ndS'je, there is none. 109-1. 

Fig. 7. — eedClnne, I died. 

Fig. 8. — tc'CiLdClky crack them (sing. imp.). 138-2. 

Fig. 9.— ce e dftn tfi le, I will die. 177-5. 

Fig. 10. — te* tc' giin tal', he stepped in water. 

Fig. 11.— tc't tafi «im gi, he is eating. 174-1. 




Fig. l.— kaktond^te, look for him. 160-1. 

Fig. 2. — de die t^fi, I put in the fire. 

Fig. 8.— begiinteo, he taught. 122-11. 

Fig. 4. — tein nd* niin tie, hide yoanelf (ling.). 

Fig. 5.— nee tifi, it is lying. 182-8. 

Fig. 6.— n5*tie, put it (plu. imp.). 168-13. 

Hg. 7. — niin B'tbi tifi, he pieked him up. 179-14. 

Fig. 8. — t^ nas tift, she took out again. 129*2. 

Fig. 9.— ei si tine, I lay. 175-16. 

Fig. 10. — nd niL ti ne, he put it. 

Fig. 11. — na te'dL tdfi', he snapped it 




Pig. 1.— gOL tiik, it burst. 182-5. 

Pig. 2.— k'tL t'dt', he sacked it. 159-2. 

Pig. 8. — tBttine, it is eold. 

Pig. 4.— s dji dL tdk, kill me (plu. imp.). 151-8. 

Pig. 5.— te'ic f a td le, I will feather. 156-5. 

Pig. 6.— niinfao, it flew. 18211. 

Pig. 7. — ae t'e ye, I am. 

Pig. 8.— ^ t'e jeS it is cooked. 163-15. 

Pig. 9. — na kto nic t'a kwic, I am going to sling at him. 122-14. 

Pig. 10. — ndhifi t5Lfe, jon cook (pin. imp.). 167-16. 

Pig. 11. — n5h!fi te'nndLt'y, yon cnt them (pin. imp.). 166-15. 

Pig.l2.— tc'nneslLt'ats, I cnt it np. 188-15. 




Pig. 1. — k'gftLts'eo, he ate soup. 

Pig. 2. — n^jlLtsilL, it beat against. 86-12. 

Pig. 3. — t^ nas djol*, he rolled out of fire. 147-9. 

Pig. 4. — na d€Q teafi kwail, he had eaten. 

Pig. 5. — na te'aL, he was chewing. 143-8. 

Pig. 6. — na die tean ne, I ate. 171-9. 

Pig. 7. — s*^ te'afi, he shot it. 

Pig. 8. — i!U:^teI, make it. 79-8. 

Pig. 9.— te'gai ten, he kept making. 144-8. 

Pig. 10.— 6 tc'6 ni tea ne, I left him. 117-17. 

Pig. 11. — te' giin tee Ge, he cried. 

Pig. 12.— tc* te giis tci*, nearly daylight. 

Pig. 13. — tc'^ giin tee', he was angry. 




Fig. 1. — ei tesiLtedl*, I stole. 

Fig. 2. — gOl tcdty he caught them. 

Fig. 3. — na gClL tetUi ya* ni, he got wet they say. 126-16. 

Fig. 4. — tc'eLteiity stretch it out (sing. imp.). 77-18. 

Fig. 5. — tc'eL tci* ya* ni, he caught it they say. 142-5. 

Fig. 6. — na ga kw^, he had walked. 154-12. 

Fig. 7. — ntbn ic g^, let me chop. 

Fig. 8. — nCbi st^ gal, you beat f 129-10. 

Fig. 9.— tc't gaft«, it is mouldy. 167-16. 

Fig. 10. — tc' gtn ga ne, he killed. 

ilg. 11. — k'e g^L gal*, she threw away. 

Fig. 12. — na' deL g^ kw^, he had poured. 125-13. 




Fig. 1. — gCdgeld, it was getting late. 

Fig. 2. — n hdc t ge*, let me see 70a. 142-6. 

Fig. 3.— tc't tes gift, he carried. 101-9. 

Fig. 4. — te'9 na gdt gftc, he looked baek. 87-13. 

Fig. 5. — tc'On t gets', he looked at them. 

Tig. 6. — te^ n5 diig ge', we will put in water. 139-9. 

Fig. 7. — te'n ntg gdc, she brings in. 180-9. 

Fig. 8.— n!£^ne% I bring. 188-14. 

Fig. 9.— te'n niiii fiifi, he brought. 185-11. 

Fig. 10.— s^ gin 7a* ni, he killed they say. 141-13. 

Fig. 11.— Lei Tits', he tied together. 174-15. 




Fig. 1. — te' q^ 7a' ni, he walked they say. 93-12. 
Fig. 2.— t ffin gats', it was getting thick. 126-11. 
Fig. 3. — be nS ^ git de, I am getting afraid. 180-15. 
Fig. 4. — te'geqOt, they stretched. 114-1. 
ilg. 5. — te'e naiL gat de, he sewed up. 122-13. 
Fig. 6.— nd na'fi fi%t, he untied it. 122-15. 
Fig. 7.— diiqdt, spear it. 128-12. 
Fig. 8. — nCbi On dfik k V, get up (sing. imp.). 100-8. 
Fig. 9.— dd tc't tftL k'fte, it did not lighten. 74-6. 
Fig. 10. — n hes ka n!, we spent the night. 167-7. 
Fig. 11.— n5 na nl kats', I f eU back. 182-16. 




Tig, 1. — ha 71 kdwakacy that one give him (a basket of food). 

Pig. 2.— na< ke', bathe (plu. imp.). 17214. 

Pig. 8. — bel ke', he finished. 

Pig. 4. — ndc k€kt, I want to swallow you. 181-14. 

Pig. 5.— te' giil kftt, he swallowed. 109-7. 

Pig. 6. — Le ne' ha' te'n niU kAt, aU they came. 154-12. 

Pig. 7.— d5 ba« tc't teL kiit, they did not go. 167-17. 

Tig, 8. — da ha« cd d5L kiHt, do not ask me. 166-8. 

Tig, 9. — nftn neL k'ai ya' ni, he hit they say. 156-14. 

Pig. 10. — gfii k'%n, there was a fire. 162-13. 

Pig. 11. — fiL k'afi, make a fire. 127-11. 

Pig. 12.— t gM k'ate', it got sour. 





Vol. 1 1, No. 2, pp. 177-188 April 30, 1814 




An opportunity afforded A. L. Kroeber to hear Diegueno as 
spoken by Bosendo Curo of Mesa Grande, San Diego County, 
California, in June, 1912, revealed great resemblances and some 
striking differences between its sounds and those of its sister 
tongue Mohave, likewise of Tuman family, of which a laboratory 
analysis had previously been made.^ On the whole, the experi- 
ence gained with Mohave made the phonetic elements of Diegueno 
seem easily recognizable.' Independent observations on the 
phonetics of the language courteously furnished by Mr. J. P. 
Harrington, who has had a brief opportunity to hear Diegueno, 
have been added as notes initialled by him. 


The points of articulation for consonants in Diegueno are the 
same as in Mohave. The palatal and velar stops, k and q, kw 
and qw, are i>erhaps less clearly distinguished. The dental and 
palatal-alveolar stops, t and t^ ^^^ formed as in Mohave, and 

1 Present series, x, 45-96, 1911. 

2 Some Dieguefio words recorded a number of years previously from 
Salidon and (hiorato of San Felipe, then at Pala, were also available. 
T. T. Waterman has a phonetic key in the introduction, and a nomber of 
words in the body, of his "Religious Practices of the Dieguefio Indians'' 
(Present series, vni, 271-358, 1910) and J. P. Harrington some notes in 
Joum. Am. Folk-Lore, xxi, 324, 1908. There are said to be two Dieguefio 
dialects, the southern being spoken at Manzanita, Gampo, and La Posta. 
The northern dialect is the only one referred to here. 

1 78 University of CaHfomia Fublioatums in Am. Arch, and Eihn, [VoL 11 

occur in the same stems ; only in the word for earth, number 49 
in the appended list of words, was palatal % heard in Mohave 
and interdental t in Diegueno. No general transposition of any 
sound to a more forward or backward formation is noticeable, 
except the uniform change of Mohave 8 to Diegueno y. 


The Diegueno stops, which are p, t, t> k> kw, q, qw, with 
which can be reckoned the affricative tc, are subject to the same 
rule that applies in Mohave and in a number of other native 
American languages : when initial or medial, they are half voiced, 
the explosion but not the occlusion being sonant; when final or 
followed by another consonant, they are entirely unvoiced and 
more strongly aspirated. 

The stops on the whole show little change between the two 
languages. There are a few instances of stop and nasal inter- 
changing; but they are uncommon. Such are : Mohave t becomes 
Diegueno n (nos. 1, 2 of the list)'; and Mohave m becomes 
Diegueno p (3, 4, 15, 30).* 


M, n, and ny also usually coincide in Mohave and Diegueno. 
Compare numbers 5, 10, 13, 18, 21, 22, 27, 29, 36, 37, and others 
in the list. 


In this class of sounds the two dialects show more difference, 
Mohave tf, 8, and v being lacking in Diegueno. 

s Or may it be that Dieguefio sz»iiin, recorded by me in its predicative 
form as Kz*iiink or Bz*iiui*k, contains an n-sound cognate with that of 
Mohave asentik, it is onef Mohave sito. Gocopa cit, would then be 
regarded as a separate word, although perhaps of the same origin. Or 
perhaps the Dieguefto nn stands for the Mohave nt; this would be the 
reverse of what happens in no. 30 of the list, where a long nasal in 
Mohave is represented in Dieguefio by nasal plus stop. As regards 
Dieguefio Bxann, it is probably the representative of Mohave ahot, Yuma 
azot, but one might also think of connection with Mohave ta-ahana, real, 
good.— J. P. H. 

4 Perhaps this change occurs most frequently at the be^nning or end 
of a word. Gf . the change of v to p mentioned under Fricatives below. 
The change also occurs within Mohave (cf. -motam and -potc, negative 
suffixes) and probably also within Dieguefio. — J.'P. H. 

1914] Kroeher-Harringian: Phonetio BlemenU of the Dieguefio Language 179 

Mohave sard interdental is always s in Diegaeno (4-10, 
51).' Diegaeno s, however, corresponds also to Mohave s (11- 
16). Bat in a few words (1, 17, 18) Mohave s becomes x in 
Diegaeno.* This x seems to be formed more anteriorly than 
the ordinary x of Diegaeno, which has a k or h articalation. 
It might therefore be distingaished as x. 

It shoald be stated that the word for eagle was heard as sspa 
as well as Ex-pa from two of the Diegaeno informants. Mr. 
Waterman writes expa.^ 

Diegaeno s seems ''sharper" than Mohave, that is, less like sh. 

The Mohave sonant interdental fricative 8 is y in all cor- 
responding Diegaeno stems determined (19-21, 51, 73). 

Another voiced fricative of Mohave, bilabial v, was normally 
heard as w in Diegaeno (2^27, 58). Dr. Waterman also writes 
it w. When the ending aava becomes aa in Diegaeno (33, 64), 
it probably stands for aaw, which would be regalar, final vowels 
being freqaently slarred or lost in Dieageno. In some instances 
(67, 73) Diegaeno p seems to stand for v.^ The word for no 
(72), amaa, Mohave vara, appears to show the eqaivalence 
V > m ; bat this is probably f allacioas, as the correspondence 
o > aa is well established, which woald give as the Mohave 
eqaal amo or mo, and this is apparently represented in that 
dialect by the negative safSx -mote. 

It shoald be added that the single word ''where" (22), 
Mohave maki, was heard in Diegaeno as maive, with distinct 
bilabial v.* 

The sard palatal or velar fricative x mast also be mentioned 
here. In Mohave a corresponding soand was written both h and 
X, bat was finally regarded as a breath accompanied by some pos- 

s Mohave is the only Ynman language of the Central group which 
has instead of b.—J, P. H. 

• Goeopa has e or palatalized s, showing an intermediate stage between 
s and X.— J. P. H. 

f Present series, vm, 314, 1910. 

• This change appears to occur frequently lit the beginning or end of 
a word. Of. the change of m to p (under Stops above). — J. P. H. 

• Mr. Isidro Nejo of Mesa Grande pronounced the word maipe'*, with 
p, when articulating slowly. Perhaps we have here to deal with some 
change such as in Shoshonean, where an informant will insist that such 
a word as pa, water, never can become va, and yet in talk will be heard 
to say va when the conditions require it.—-J. P. H. 

180 Univeniiy of CaHfamia Publications in Am. Arch, and Eihn. [Vol. 11 

terior narrowing rather than a true fricative, as appears to be like- 
wise the case in a number of other Calif omian languages. Hence 
the orthography h was adopted. In Diegueno the corresponding 
sound (2, 4, 9, 36, 38, 44, 47, 55, 56, 58, 75) is much more clearly 
of fricative character, and was therefore written, as also by Dr. 
Waterman, x.^** 

The labialized fricative xw corresponds to x as kw does to k. 
Perhaps X and Xw, paralleling velar q and qw, should also be 
distinguished. A sound similar to xw was found in Mohave, but 
seemed to be only h followed by a short o or u (32, 56, 62, 69). 
Possibly the orthography hw or xw, as in Diegueno, would be 
more accurate. 


Mohave has two 1 sounds: 1 and ly. Diegueno has at least 
three : 1, ly and l. Possibly Ly should be added.^^ 

Mohave sonant palatalized ly corresponds, wherever the same 
stems could be compared, to Diegueno surd l, either unpalatalized 
(9, 11, 28-^1, 34-37) or possibly palatalized (32, 33, 38). The 
only exceptions found, numbers 21 and 56, were recorded as 
sonant in Diegueno. These may be errors. The l, it should be 
added, is a spirant, not an affricative. 

No regular Mohave equivalents have been determined for 
Diegueno voiced 1 and ly, which occur both medially and finally 
(4, 7, 13, 14, 39, 40, 41, 52, 63) ." That they have not been found 

10 The Dieguefio z, like that of the neighboring members of the Central 
gronp (Tuma, Maricopa and Cocopa) is much more fricative than its 
Mohave counterpart. A Yuma Indian Uving among the Mohave once very 
naively volunteered the information that the Tumas say aza, water, while 
the Mohaves say aha. These Yuman developments are almost ezactly 
paralleled by the sound of Spanish j in various dialects of Spanish. In 
Calif omian and New Mezican Spanish the j is very h-like, and a Mohave 
renders this sound perfectly when he uses his Mohave h in talkinp^ Spanish. 
In certain dialects of old Spain, however, the i is very fricative, and I 
have felt when hearing it, as also in the ease of the Yuma and Cocopa z, 
that it is articulated farther back in the mouth than is the z of (German 
'<ach."— J.P.H. 

11 Yuma and Cocopa have both voiced 1 and ly and voiceless l and 
Ly.— J. P. H. 

12 In 4, 7, 52 Dieguefio has -ly, and Mohave has nothing. The fact 
that both Ewi and Ewily were given as meaning stone led to the supposi- 
tion that -ly is merely a separable suffiz, but the informant insisted that 
Ksily(7) is the only word meaning salt, and that Ksi(8) can mean salt 
under no circumstances but means to drink. The word meaning fly is 

1914] Kroeher-Harringion : Phonetic Elements of the Dieguefio Language 181 

initially is not surprising, since very few Mohave words begin 
with either 1 or ly. 


Diegaeno and Mohave r occur in the same stems, as in num- 
bers 3, 6, 61 of the list, but are differently formed. Diegueno r 
lacks the characteristic trill of the Mohave sound; it is soft, 
untrilled, and resembles English r. Dr. Waterman, who writes 
it R, calls it surd.^' It occurs also in the following words: 
kwE-rau, hot; pitckara, two stand; meri, penis; menura, hear; 
kosmirai, crazy; ekurr, far. In the last word it is lengthened, 
that is, prolonged, like Mohave rr. 

Another r, which is distinctly trilled and very much like 
Mohave r, though the precise point of articulation was not deter- 
mined, was found only in the words karap, hit him (imperative), 
and Expauru, bald eagle. Dr. Waterman describes this sound 
as trilled and made with the tip of the tongue dose to the front 
of the palate." He writes it r, but gives it in only a few words. 
Of these, kwinyor, red, was not found by the author, and sair, 
buzzard, was heard as sa'i.^** 


Diegueno y sometimes represents Mohave 8. In other stems 
it apparently is not the equivalent of this sound but of some 
other, probably y. No common stems in which y corresponds in 
the two languages have, however, been found.** Disregarding 
words in which y is not certain on account of neighboring i, it 
occurs in Diegueno in yaip, wind, yuwiL, thigh, oyuk, outdoors, 
kwayuk, a lizard, *uyeL, flea, and perhaps also in yimi, wild cat, 

very irregular, appearing as zalesmo in Yuma. In 39 Dieguefto has -1, 
Mohave nothing. In 13 Dieguefio appears to have either 1 or n; Isidro 
Nejo gave the pronunciation kwan*nie8ap. Nos. 40, 41, 63 appear to be 
very irregular.—J. P. H. 

18 Present series, vm, 272, 1910. 

1* Op. cit, 272. 

IB Beeorded as sa'i, with no -r. — J. P. H. 

!• May it be that Mohave Ewayu and Dieguefio Euyahomar, name of 
a mythic being, share y in common f — J. P. H. 

182 Univeraity of Calif omia Publicatian$ in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [YoL 11 

and yamatai, panther, though the latter has also been recorded 
as nyimatai, which may be more correct in view of a probable 
relationship to the Mohave stem nmne.^^ 

W occurs in Diegueno as the equivalent of Mohave bilabial v, 
probably also otherwise. While found in Mohave, it is rare in 
that language, and no certain correspondence of stems containing 
w have been determined between the two idioms. Thus Diegueno 
4tcix, heart, seems to have no connection with Mohave *iwa. 

It need hardly be pointed out that kw and xw, like ly and ny, 
are only orthographies, and not combinations containing a simple 
w or y. 


The soft, faint h sound of Mohave, written ', and frequent 
as the sign of the third person, recurs in Diegueno. The body- 
part terms written with it all contain the possessive element 
indicative of the third person. 

Mohave h is represented by Dieguefio x, already discussed. 
The difference between the sounds is not as great as the ortho- 
graphy might imply. 

Qlottal stops occur in Diegueno (16, 73), but were not noted 
as very vigorously formed.^* 


Prolongation of consonants is a feature shared by Mohave and 
Diegueno. In addition to numbers 1, 2, 39, 46, 50, 60, 66, pro- 
longation was observed in Esann, younger sister, ekurr, far, 
Expannk, whale, amokwinn, pipe, axoLL, string. It will be 
observed that nn of Exinn and Exann (1, 2) corresponds to 
Mohave t, while on the other hand Mohave hammulye is repre- 
sented by Diegueno empiL. 

17 With the change in the last syllable of Mohave numeta, Diegnefio 
nyimatai, cf. that in Mohave kwa^dd, medicineman (51), Diegnefio 
kwisiyai. — J. P. H. 

IS A glottal stop after a final vowel and followed by a very short but 
folly voiced vowel of the same quality was heard in kima'% sleep thou!, 
maipe*% where!, and probably also in piya'% this. — J. P. H. 

1914] Kroeher-Harrington : PhoneUo Elements of the Dieguefio Language 183 


The articulation is not always identical for all the sounds 

represented hj letters on one line. 






Postpalatal, labialized 


Velar, labialized 






















s § 
izi S 














I I 


- 3 



n 1 L 

ny ly (Ly) r r y 


A characteristic trait of Mohave is the slurring of unaccented 
vowels, especially initially and finally. The same tendency seems 
even stronger in Dieguefio, as numbers 9, 28, 29, 30, 31, 34, 36, 
37, 47, 49, 61, 62, 68, 71 show. It is true that many of these 
words were at first heard without the final vowel in Mohave 
also; but, on the other hand, the slighted vowels were expected 
and listened for in Dieguefio, so that their absence can hardly 
be explained by unfamiliarity alone.^* It is quite likely that 
these and other similar stems really begin or end in consonants, 
and that the additional neutral a which Mohave shows is merely 
a euphonic increment. 

This colorless and unaccented a was at first frequently heard 
as e in Mohave. The same was true of Dieguefio. In fact, the 
sound generally continued to be so heard, and if recent impres- 
sion were the only available guide, the author would have little 
hesitation in saying that Dieguefio e (written e) correspended 
to Mohave a as the neutral vowel, as in 2, 5, 7, 10, 11, 15, 17, 23, 
26, 28, 29, 33, 34, 35, 38, 42, 44, 45, 46, of the list. But in the 

i»I did not note any final vowel corresponding to the Mohave -a. — 
J. p. H. 

184 Univeraity of CaUfomia PubUoationt in Am, Areh. and Bthn. [ VoL 11 

records from the former informants a was often written instead 
of B in these same words. Dr. Waterman also writes xatca for 
xEtca, awi for Ewi (though he agrees in expa, Mohave aspE). 
It must therefore be left open whether a, as this colorless sound 
might be written, or e, is the more proper designation for the 
unaccented neutral vowel of Diegueno; but the writer inclines 
to the belief that there is the suggested difference between Mohave 
and Diegueno on this point.*® 

The Diegueno vowel system seems also to differ from the 
Mohave in the occurrence of sounds of close quality, at any rate 
i and u,*^ in addition to the open values; and perhaps of a 
third, still different i. This may be the sound that Dr. Water- 
man has indicated by u. 

More certain are several definite correspondences with Mohave. 
Accented a generally recurs with distinct quality in both 
languages (3, 6, 9, 14, 15, 17, 18, 24, 25, etc.)." 

Unaccented Mohave a is sometimes i in Diegueno: numbers 
12, 14, 15, 21, 43, 51. On the other hand i becomes a in 28, 39. 

so The determination of the quality of the vowel in these unaccented 
syllables proved so baffling that I determined to operate with a large 
number of characters. I soon found myself using nearly aU the symbols 
for mixed vowels provided for by the alphabet of the International 
Phonetic Association. Before non-palatal sounds I heard the sound of 
▲ or I, usually as the former when I listened carefully, but I was 
impressed, as was Dr. Kroeber, that the sound is often more i-like than 
in Mohave. Before palatal sounds I heard the sound even as i. Thus 
mya, sun, xitca, Pleiades, miyulyk, sweet. But I heard the word for 
eagle only as B^>a or Axpa, and find that I did not mark or note the z 
of the word as being different from the ordinary z. The p cuts off the 
offglide of the z and thus partly obscures the z. On the other hand, the 
Mohave i is certainly represented by a more open vowel than i in many 
Dieguefio words. Thus Dieguefio EkwL cloud (53), *itu, beUy(54), *kzu, 
nose(55). Gf. Yuma and Cocopa Akwi. But in Mohave the first vowel 
of these words is i Tinyam, night (48), retains, however, its i as in 
Mohave, perhaps due to the following palatalized nasal. Can it be that 
r also ezercises this palatalizing influence in such a word as kwirak, old 
man (61), Yuma kwira'akf In Walapai r sometimes takes the place of 
Mohave ly and Mohave ly is a palataUzed sound. The first vowel of this 
word in Mohave is sometimes ▲, sometimes o (due to preceding kwf). 
Also Dieguefio atimm, bow(66) has its first vowel rounded in Mohave. 
In Dieguefio au, fire(64) (Mohave a'auva) the first vowel of the Mohave 
word seemed to be entirely lacking in the Die^efio word. Certainly the 
number of more or less distinct vowel qualities is very large and it 
remains to be determined how the variations should be groped and to 
what eztent they are the result of contiguous sounds.—J. P. H. 

21 Close i was heard in tinyam, night (48), piya'% this (73) and xmily, 
leg(52), perhaps due to the following ny, y or ly. In several words a 
moderately close u was heard. — J. P. H. 

ss This a, as in Mohave, often has considerable A-quality. — J. P. H. 

1914] Kroeher-Harringtan: Phonetic Elements of the Diegue^ Language 185 

Mohave e and i become respectively i and e in Diegueno about 
as often as they retain their quality. Thus, e equals i in numbers 
5, 26, 32, 40, 45, 52, 53, 56 ; i becomes e or b in 8, 11, 18, 19, 42, 52, 
53, 54, 55 ; while i recurs as i, or e as e, in 1, 7, 8, 9, 16, 20, 23, 
31, 48, 51, 65, 66, and 73. 

Of the back vowels, o is uncommon in Diegueno. Mohave o 
is represented most frequently by u in Diegueno (4, 20, 34, 35, 
41, 46, 54, 57), or sometimes, at least when final, by au (3, 19, 

Mohave u is less often altered in Diegueno. It is preserved 
in numbers 21, 42, 55 of the list. When Diegueno alters Mohave 
u, it is usually to a front vowel (13, 30). 


So far as aural impression may be relied upon, the stress 
and pitch accents of Diegueno seem to be identical with those of 








































































MWith the 


) Mohave -o = Dieffuefio 

-au, cf. Mohave -e = 

Dieguefio -ai in 


51.— J. P. H. 

24 Also given as 

KZ'innk, it is one. — J. P. H. 

SB It is stated that the 

proper Dieguefio term for five is ^ssaLxakaL — 

J. P. H. 

2« The informant 


kwan*mesap, evidently a 

variant form. — J.P.H. 

«TExpaf— J.P. H. 

186 University of CdUfomia Publieatiotu in Am. Arch, and Bthn, [Vol 11 









































you (pi.) 
















hot, day 

' ipily-k 



















gourd, turtle 

















* iavume 

* alemi 





























axat . 


















leg, foot 




cloud, rain 
















white man 

haiqo, hiiqo 






28 Given as maipe'*.— J. P. H. 

«• Given also as Bwily.-^. P. H. 

«o Given as minyawap. — J. P. H. 

«i Given as kaLyixwi'u. — J. P. H. 

»« Recorded as kwasiyai. — J. P. H. 

«« Mohave ho < hwof— J. P. H. 

«* The pronunciation is practically identical with the Cocopa.— J. P. H. 

1914] Kroeber-Harrington: Phonetic BlemenU of the Dieguefio Langwige 187 













old man 












































































h (x tinge) 
ho (=xw> 




n (occasionally) 







p (sometimes) 

n (usually) 

ny (usually) 


8 (usually 

X* (occasionally) 


w (always when medial) 

p (sometimes) 





M Becorded as * umau. — J. P. H. 
w Becorded as piya".— J. P. H. 

1 88 Univeriity of CaHfomia PubUcatiotu in Am.ArcK and Bihn. [YoL 11 







r (trilled) 

r (untriUed) 


r (trilled) 










a (normally) 


i (occasionally) 

a (unaccented = a) 



e (frequently) 


i (frequently) 


i (frequently) 



e (frequently) 



a (rarely) 

u (usually) 


au (sometimes) 




i, e (occasionally) 






Vol. 1 1, No. 3, pp. 189-277 February 27, 1915 





Introdaetion 190 

Key to Soands 191 

Descriptions and Information 192 

Prayers ~ 196 

The Hair Parters 196 

List of Dance Properties 206 

The Dog Feast 208 

Qualifications and Duties of Chiefs 214 

Shamans 216 

JL CmAJAwAXAiC v^ a X &/XO ■■■■>—•••»■»■•••♦•»—•»*•••» »»^ ■>■>•»» —•^■■•w •••»••»• •♦■• — ■■•*»»^ »■»•■•»•••»»—»♦■»— mI^O 

Buffalo Pounds „ 220 

Trapping Beaver ~ 220 

Primitive Dishes ~- 220 

Stone Arrowheads ^ 222 

What Eagle-ribs Saw at Edmonton 222 

Medicine Bundle Rituals ~ «. 224 

Origin of the Beaver Bundle 224 

Planting Tobacco « 226 

Jackrabbit Gives Medicine for Swift Horses 226 

White Goose Gives Medicine for Horses 228 

Buffalo Bull Gives a Shield 230 

Owl Skin War Medicine 230 

Squirrel, a War Medicine 232 

Sky Person Gives a Medicine 234 

Pat Grasshopper Beceives Medicine from Hawks ^ 236 

A Knife, a War Medicine ~ 238 

Weasel Gives a War Medicine 240 

Bock Gives a War Medicine 242 

A X ainted Xipi .....».m........................^......^......^........................m..........m>« a49 

Finding a Buffalo Stone „ 242 

Wild Parsnip Gives a Medicine 244 

190 University of California Publications in Am, Arch, and Ethn, [VoL 11 


Narratives ^ 246 

Tc'a^e^LGOa, the Wise Sarsi 246 

Famine Believed by Magic 250 

Broken-Knife Relieves Famine 252 

A Captive Barsi Boy Escapes from the Sioux 258 

A Lame Man Captures Horses 260 

A Bear Brings Home a Crippled Sarsi 262 

Two Hawks Test Their Speed ^ 262 

A Bird Has its Mate Doctored „ 264 

A Fight with a Bear 264 

Curing Madness Resulting from a Wolf Bite ~ » 266 

Minor Narratives 266 

The War Deeds of Eagle-ribs » 268 

The Personal Experiences of Grasshopper 272 


The Sarsi are an Athapascan-speaking group of Indians who 
have been closely associated with the Northern Blackfoot of 
Alberta since the earliest historical reference to either tribe in 
1754. There are no traditions of a trustworthy nature which 
connect the Sarsi definitely with any other Athapascan tribe. 
Linguistically all the northern Athapascan east of the Bocky 
Mountains except the Sarsi and the Beaver on Peace River have 
certain sound shifts not shared by the latter two languages. The 
Sarsi and Beaver, however, are hardly mutually intelligible, 
although both show relationships with the languages of British 

The texts here presented were collected during the summer 
of 1905. The expenses of this visit were provided by the Amer- 
ican Museum of Natural History under an agreement that that 
institution should have the collections and the ethnological infor- 
mation and the University of California should be entitled to 
the linguistic results. The larger number of these texts were 
revised in 1911 with the aid of Charlie Crowchief, who was the 
interpreter used in obtaining them originally. Many of the 
texts were also traced with the Rousselot apparatus from his 
dictation. It was discovered that in originally recording the 
texts certain intermediate sounds were written as surds and 
thereby fell in with a series of surds from which they should 
be differentiated. The glottally affected sounds in Sarsi are 

1915] Goddard: Sarai Texts 191 

unusually hard to distinguish. Charlie Crowchief at the time 
the texts were recorded confused l and s in speaking. That all 
these errors were corrected when the texts were revised with his 
aid is not probable. 

The main informant was Eagle-ribs, a man then about 65 
years old. As he says in one of his narratives, he ranked as a 
chief according to the old order. He led the chiefs in relating 
coups during several sun dances. 

The publication of the texts is for the purpose of furnishing 
material for phonetic and grammatical study. It is intended 
that this paper shall soon be followed by a grammatical analysis 
of the material here contained. Free translations of most of 
the texts have been or will be published. 


a, e, i, (unmarked) open as in father, met, pin, not. 

8, i, d^ fi dose as in they, pique, note, and rule. 

a, S, 1, 0, fi nasalized. 

ft narrow, as u in but. 

y as in yes; sometimes written for a sonant spirant when eoming before a 
front voweL 

w as in will, seldom occurs. 

m as in met. 

n as in net. 

!1 as ng in sing. 

1 as in let. 

L a surd lateral spirant; the breath escapes between the back teeth and 
the sides of the tongue. 

l' the last sound with glottal affection; an affricative. 

z a sonant spirant; as in lizard. 

s as in sit; a surd spirant. 

j as z in azure; a sonant spirant. 

c as sh in shall; a surd spirant. 

o a palatal sonant spirant similar to the sound of g in Tage as spoken in 
Northern (Germany. 

z a palatal surd spirant; as ch in (German. 

h written in many places apparently for the preceding sound lightly artic- 

d a dental stop, intermediate as to sonancy. 

t a strongly aspirated surd dental stop. 

t' a glottolly affected surd dental stop. 

g a fully sonant palatal stop; probably often written for the following 

ff a palatal stop, intermediate as to sonancy; sometimes written k through 

* oversight. 

k a strongly aspirated surd palatal stop. 

k' a glotUiUy affected surd pidatal stop. 

dj and dz sonant affricatives. 

ts' and tc' glottally affected surd affricatives. 

^ denotes unusual aspiration. 

' glottal stop. 

192 University of Calif omia Publications in Am, Arch, and Ethn, [VoL 11 



du xat'a «a ts'is <m na t'a tiGa magddillana 
kats'I ts'iktlwa gina'f giLdiniicci <!ta* 

tsisdaL^tiwu «98La dine m^giLdila dinagilla 
dina ts^ktlwa^I gigikats'i tsis da l'u wH^ «aj3sadla 

6 glGiisnll tatsa t'lGl d5giGilla dina la t'lGl 
tsisdaL'tiwf *agis*ic zan! nli^nn! kats'i 

dldig^ ts^Gani t'lGl mltsu* Lat'a xatc'ist'^c 
•aLikats'In^ «!wat'lGl lik ka ktl dis Ga dina 

natsana«i ta^k'a gtLst'lGa gimmaGa ts'ikHwa 

10 na ts^ na 'a qH c^ na«! «aB gi nic t'l g! < tsu« «i 
k'a gi ma t'ac 

tsis da l'iI wti^ ts'azzilli nats'ittsa zitda 

«atc'iz«Ic «l8gakuwa k'aLadltc'ic ts'azzilli 

tcinna'i nagall^LLl t^Gl «a giL ka gu na ga djiL 

15 *a t^ Gi tc^ zil li 'a ts'il la hi na g! Gl I^c dl tcl «i 
nl da ts'I di tcic gunisnadi za^ <atc'icnc tc^zilll 
tsaha ditlgi djil* gtL nisnadi za* k'anlt'a 
tea ni gi L^fL nl tlGl ditcl«l tsi< Lilla tastciz 
gwatc'icnc halikuwa «Ist'lGa ktldlLtc tadidllna 

20 xa na Gi daL Li t'l Gi din na* *i8 ga ku wa 'i tcaz zil li 
«alaGina«I «itsti« Ga tc'istcuj 

tcis da L^ti wfL «a ts'il la ts'i titc'inn^c tsis da l'iI wti' 
•ats'Iladi lik ka kH die Ga nate'inn^e nats^na<I 
tazik'a nlnaGln^e gimmlnaska «a t'lGl nate'itteie 

25 gim mi te'il lie «as tsa* tsis na l'Q wti* gi na< gim ma Ga 
te'illae dina zillaBna«i didji djinnisi dugiteij 
tH nizak'aGa za' gida' tis taste'itedji za' 
gim mi zit da da ga di t'a di ta^ gim mi tsin na t'i Ga t'a* tcfL 
mikala z&* te'asitea mitsi«k'Iza daGlL'u 

30 14k ka za ts'i ka gfl y^ na l^ ka za ga sit dan na 
•itstl* maGa te'I'^te «Iwat'iGi ni teit tc'^G Ga 

k'agiste'uL nist'assi taGiGa*aLLl lilla «ita saGa 
nit'a sikala iiilla gddja dlna«isla gula 
te'innisk'a naglGi^^e «Iwat'iGi «Its1i«i dikalatsl^ 

85 na gi Gi di «^te gi Gi teiz gfl 

1915] Goddard: Sarsi Texts 193 



Not without cause they do it. Very who is sick 
for him women it is who say, ''Father, sun lodge 
I will make, this sick person he may get well/' These 
women for him sun lodge we will make those who say it, 
he dies then they do not make it. He gets well then 
sun lodge they make. Buffalo many for they hunt. 
Those they kill then their tongues all they cut out. 
They come together. Then they camp in a circle. Those 
who make the lodge middle just their tipi. Women 
sun dance who know they ask then the tongues they- 
cut up. 

Sun dance sweat-lodge they build before they make. 
Young men all mount their horses. Sweat-lodge poles 
they are bringing back then they sing. There sweat-lodge 
they are going to make they put them. The poles they put- 
in the ground. One hundred only they make. Sweat-lodge 
stones these too one hundred only there are. They- 
twine together then the poles red paint with they- 
paint. They make it. Old men all go in. They pray. 
As they come out then these young men sweat-lodge 
the makers tongues to them they give. 

Sun lodge they make toward they move camp. Sun- 
lodge where they make camp circle they came. Sun- 
dance maker middle they camp around beside her. There 
they make it. They give them first sun lodge their clothes 
to them they give. These make the dance four days 
they do not eat. Water a little only they drink. Cane 
painted only behind them it hangs. Their hats 
large feathers, her husband only crow's tail side of his- 
head is tied on. One women sensible one to her 
husband tongue to her he gives. Then small pieces 
she breaks off. Toward sky holding it with, ''Father, 
me pity. My husband with well I have lived it is." 
On ground she puts it. And the tongue to her husband 
she takes it back, they may eat it. 

194 University of California Publications in Am, ArcK and Ethn, [Vol. 11 

«aGanadiGi«a «It'u mik'a tc'icnc «iwat'ioi 
nagimdji m! U da tc'I late «Iwtu3k'a dltci «It'aj3si 
iiilla kamoa ^wiis «Ik'a •itci nitsisdi yuwti' 
«aoanadlGi«a cits'! «akanlGa Lat'a «atc'itLa 
5 «i tci nas ca oa «a tc'is 4c dl na tsin na Ga di dji 
dzinnissi kwiyiGa za* naGlt^c duhaGiyako 

tc'itdjinnf t'lGl nay^c «Itdisnr iiilla taL^ 
k'a ts^i dj! hi t'iGi nanidac hagina t'lGi 

haktldjiGa za* ktldiLtc gdtc'inij «aLlts'idaLLi 

10 giL ka da gu Gi m j ha ku dji Ga na < gim ml ts'ai yl ka 
dan! magHmlinni kugil^c dina gdnas«inna 
yiL na' i gu 

«isgakuwa mits'ilwa k'a ts'I nis t'as sin na ktly^tc 
«Iwat'iG! xaginic «Ita «isL^ka «!G!stcilt 

15 «I wa t*i Gi da tcis da l'u wa Ga kti wi ca di si ts'il wa 
xats'it'assi hatagididlihi t'iGi gimmits'tiwa 

xa tc'i t'as l'u tci di gai ye tsin na gi tic gim mil la tcin na 
das l'u' gim mi ka tcin na d jti Laz <i Lil la ta gis g^s sa 
•isg^siL gagidisL'u' «iwa gimmitcanna za' 

20 has t'i gim mi Ga na tc'in nis t'ic xa Gi ya t'i Gi 

gimmaGa ts'itdi na ts'I di nis tci&s dik'a «^la 
ginnit^tc tc'itdinidjf za gimazatdita xagistinna 
gimmits'tiwa xatc'it'ac ditci mizzana xatc'itcic 

•it'll «its'i l'ul «akiyi nakanit'i l'ul^I «itcl 

25 gim mi ts'u wa Ga ni <a •! Ga di Gi <i wa t'i Gi 'a Ga na ti Gi «a 
giGistcutc iiilla ta gi di dli xa t'a k'atagididlidigawa 
gimmaGa tc'ididjic <ikidida zitda L'dL«i gistcutc 
«iwa t'iGi gim ma sit di djic <a ha guginnedac 

gitcittci iiilla fikidisni Lil la tci tci mikatoLLi 

30 t'i Gi «!s du na ha li ku wa gim mi zam miL gis tcHtc 
<iwa t'iGi k'a da gugidisxaltc <idaLa mikatcuL 
gi ma lin na ka tc5L Li na tc'i Gis nitc «a Ga na di gi «a 
katcina nats'i^ac «at'iGikawa xanigi y^tc 

«igi ts'ukuwa nats^nal <isduna ^gakuwa 

35 gi ni i La t'i Gi du dz^n na di na gi li' 

«at'iGikawa nan! tcut'inna tsin na l'u wa ginidja 

1915] Goddard: Sarsi Texts 195 

The center tree nest on it they place. Then what they- 
offer they place in it. On forked sticks poles leaves with 
they lean against it. Forked sticks on poles very long 
there middle tree against they lean. All opposite the- 
door poles house they make. These fast four days 
inside only they sleep. He does not go out. They sing 
then he gets up. He whistles with he dances. They- 
stop singing then he sits down. Noon then chiefs 
only they come in. They tell stories. Battles about them 
they tell. The chiefs their wives food good they bring- 
in people watching them they may eat. 

Young men their breasts who are cut go in. Then 
they say, ** Father, horses may I capture then when 
sun dance lodge when I go in my breasts they will cut." 
This way they pray then their breasts they cut. (A weed) 
they tie around their heads. Their wrists they tie, their- 
ankles too. White clay with they rub themselves. Belt 
they tie around. And breech-doth only they wear. 
For them they put a lodge. He comes out. Then for them 
blanket they spread. On this back down he lies. 
Whistle only is around his neck. While he lies his breasts 
they cut. Sticks through they stick. From the nest 
ropes two hang down. The ropes sticks his breasts 
are stuck through they loop over. Then center post he- 
embraces with he prays. When he finishes praying f or- 
him they sing. He dances before ropes they pull. 
Then for him they sing. He dances. Hanging with 
he whistles with, in vain he tries to break it then other- 
persons old men his shoulders they take hold. Then 
backwards they pull him. There it tears out. His flesh 
which tears out he offers. The center tree its base they- 
place it. After that he goes out. 

The women makes sun dance other young men 
they go with then not long they live. 

This much our Sarsi sun dance its story. 

196 University of California Publications in Am, Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 11 


haiyuhfL* halitsa siL tit di nin na naoa tcazzTU 
«ats'ila^ haiytihti^ halitsa da naoa tc^zili 
«ats^la^ siL tit di nac na ^ la dina tcazzlle saoalana 
siL tit dl nac na gtlla dIna tc^zTle saoalana 

5 gim miL tX d! nas na gtL la ha li ka «a g! na hi hai ytl hu* 
«Ita siL tit dl nin na tc'a nadloits'an haiyuhti* 
«ita «I ts'^G oa k'a sa nadioists'an danlst'aooa 

kwiyioa gwagtinili dina «l8Llgula haiyuhti' 
<Ita saoa nit'a di tti gtL ma si tigi «^nilaigi 

10 dl nti k'a «^n ni la gi gQ k'a djon na di na 
«lLigaIa haiydhu' «Ita siGlLa kanigit'ahi saoa 
ylnlni haiyuhu' •ita •Istcitci saoa yinini 
saoa nit'a <!ta haiyuhtL^ <Ita tan! sin na saoa 
nl t'a sa ou yi La 

15 nanf dinati ha ml ts'i ta di s! dl! 

halitsa *!ta gwagunili dz^na dina ts'i II m 
<ita saoa nit'a ylsdjon dzana ts'innisk'a dina 
«ISLi gtlla «iwu* taglsk'issa tc'at'^ooa xanats'Itd! 
t'loi nlts^I gwagunlllnl dina *isLlgtila «ita* 

20 dl nP ts'i ka di ka la Lil la gi djon «a t'l oa oa 

t'lol kawa naoa gula« «Its(i«I naoa nlstctlt 

<Ina saoa nit'a Lat'a dln^na i Lil la saoa 

nIt'a dagtLnitinna tananlts'Idl t'loi na nis tc^c gH la 

ts'atca «!na <Ina^ haiytlhil* ts'atca sIoiLa 

25 ka nl gi t'a gwa giL nl lin nl sa oa gin nin ne <i na^ 
saoa nit'a saoa gtlyfL'a haiyflha^ ts'&tca 
sinnadjinna I Lil la dzana dina «IsLlgtila 


ma 81 14L Li Li ka dji dl ni l^c da mil le ta za tcic tc^ si 

Ligisak'a ts'Ikuwa dlstsi ma ou lI ni k'^ si «I^aktlwa 

30 dis tsl< ta tin na diz na ^s ga kti wa dis tsl «a kl na 

1 Obtained from Pat Graflshopper, who sold the hat the poeseesion of 
which confers the position of leader in organization. For a free translation 
see Anthropological Papers, American Museum of Natural History, XI, 

1915] Ooddard: 8ar9i Texts 197 


Oh, Old man, help me. For you sweat-lodge they- 
make. Oh, Old man, here for you sweat-lodge they- 
make that you may help me. These persons sweat-lodge 
who have made help them. Old men may they become. 
Oh, father, help me. Thunder may I hear again. Oh, 
father, birds' voices may I hear again. Sky in happily 
person may I be. Oh, father, me pity. This water 
is surrounded by which you made this island which- 
you made on it long person may I be. Oh, father, 
my days let them be to the end. Me give something. Oh, 
father, what I eat me give. Me pity. Father, Oh, 
father, I am poor. Me pity give me something. 

We Indians thus to him we pray. 

Old man, father, happily long time person having- 
been, father, me pity. I may be old. Long time on- 
earth person may I live. Then hot sun when it- 
comes up then from you happily person may I be. 
Father this woman her husband with may she be old. 
From this time then lodge for you they made. This- 
tongue to you I give. 

Mother me pity. All people with me pity. 
Every time when you rise then may I see you, Old- 
woman mother. Mother, oh, Old woman, my days 
to the end happiness me give. Mother me pity. Me 
give property. Oh, old woman, my relatives with long- 
time i)erson may I be. 


Wagons they place in a circle. The opening is toward- 
the overhead sun. On the left side women sit. On- 
the right side young men sit. Doorway four persons 
young men sit. Two persons sword in front of them 

198 UniverHty of California Publieationa in Am. AreK and Ethn. [ VoL 11 

m^ gimitslta nadigi<a «akina naiina gimiga 
«is Ll haL <a si ta 

ma gtL iJ ni k'as si «assatcti «itci maoa nadlGi'a 
<at'iGi <itc! maoa nadlGi«a k'a daGadi«a 
5 d! j na «is ga ku wa ^ dji na mi ga diL ts! as sa 
nitcitc^Ga ditci tazika si la <isgakuwa ts'ikuwa 
dlLtsina gimikiza 'atcitL'a ditci <tci nadiGi'a 
ditci sinnat'iGi na di gl duL «I maGadiGa cisgakuwa 
^nnak'a «aki «itci nlnadiGi^a k'a «aki 

10 gu tea da Ga di Ga «a ki na «is ga ku wa ^is ka si 

cas<inna gigizitda gisda daGadlGa dina 

mld^natasi gdn^n nsgiya ts^kuwa nas^a si da 

tsiL <^L<Inni dina n^nldacna <aGa «I da na dl tcic cl gQ 

has dtk gu na k'a si da «Isgaka nitsa tcidlnitcl 

15 c^L «I nl sit da ma Ga tci dl djI nl t'l Gi ta dil i^tc 
i^mm^nanidac die gtL 14m man! da t'lGi «!dlenie 
mlga niskane «9s«inna si da ts'Iktiwa nllaGa 
nsLihaLa «as<inne ts'Ika si da ^isgaka nItsa 
da ni 'as ^ na si da <a sa «a8 <in na <a teit L'a 

20 sit da <s t'^ nl «as <in na li ti gl *as sa *aL nn na 
^a si da cisglya ts'ukliwa go*a<a «Ilinna 
LitlGl ts'ukHwaga sit da Lakaza «lsglya gowa 
til «Inakaena <assaga sit da ^assa nIteltea'Ga 
•Is La <lLilla mlga sa<a nuga ^isglya sit da 

25 nl da na <a teiL tetkt da ku la li kl na U nl «is t^ nl 
«as«lnl «atcitVa gdt'a sit da «IteI nitsisdl 

«a kin na ns ga kH wa ma si 14L I «a Lik ka 1^ na 
masgd Ll ka kl yl dl gl l^e gut'a gIsda Litlglna 

30 Is ^a ka ka wa tsin nl da t'l Gl na gl niL tite <as kl za 
gIniLtie Litlgl ^isgaka nas'aGa kwIylGa sinnida 
t'iGl kwIylGa«I gUdja naguglla I4kgagldlgie 
«Itinna«I xaGlla tal kwIylGa Laniti* gwagdglL«ie 
•iL'Igl sinnida t'iGi •Ik'atti kida dagiLgu^I 

35 dl na «is ga ku wa < d jl na ^ ta za ka na gl ml tel l^e 
«Iwa t'iGi «assa sitL'a dlgl«l L'utsin miGa 
teitdlsk'^te Iwat'lGl maGa gltell^te 

1915] Ooddard: Sarsi Texts 199 

stands in the ground. Two persons others beside horse- 
whip lies. 

Right side big drum sticks for it are stuck in the- 
ground. Then sticks for it stuck up on it hangs. 
Four young men who sing beside it they sit. Drums 
small four in the middle lie. Young men women 
who sit between them opposite the doorway four sticks 
stand up. Four hats tall hang. Young men behind 
two sticks stand up on two tails hang. Two 
young men belts who own in front of them they sit. 
Where it hangs those among who dance give order 
young man women in front he sits. 

Axe who owns those who dance for them he fiUs- 
their pipes beside the speaker he sits. Young men among 
whistle who owns sits. For him they sing then he- 
dances. He dances around a circle. Four times he has- 
danced around then he whistles. By him shield who- 
owns sits. Women at the end horse whip who owns 
woman sits. Men among gun who owns sits. Drum 
who owns opposite the door he sits. Arrow who owns 
same place drum who owns by he sits. Young man 
women work who are same place beside women he- 
sits. One young man to them water who takes around 
beside drum he sits. Pail small cup with beside- 
him stands. Beside him young man sits. Those who- 
dance he brings in food. One another arrow who owns 
opposite the door among than he sits. Sticks long 
he holds. 

Two young men wagons who gather like a ring 
they put in a circle, among them they sit. The same 
young men tipi they dance then they put up. Side- 
by side they put them up. The same young men house 
inside they dance then inside good they make it. 
They sweep. Rubbish they take out. Bed blankets inside 
they put around. They make it. At night they dance 
then lamps in they put (oil). These young men who- 
sing in the middle they put them. Then drum small 
this sweet grass under they bum. Then to them 
they give them. 

200 Unweriity of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn, [Vol. 11 

nagidicGa Lilla didji xin «igidiyitc miL 
^t'a xin«I gitdloi t'iGi ts'ukuwa dijna 
sinnatigi «as«!na nadlLtc *!wa ts'ukuwa Lat'a 
«^nltsa nagidiLtc ts'uktlwa na «i daL di k5 wa 

5 La t'a «is ^a ktl wa na diLtc na g! daL dl ga wa La t'a 
ts'tikuwa gidjin ts'tikuwa«I didahitl ^isLihaLa 
«as«innl ^gaktlwa ts'fLkuwa klza gddila <!wa 
dicgil masgCL dl ma tcl ni dac din! ts'Ika «isLihaLa 
<as«in! gtinasi <ldldac ts'tlktlwa cisgakuwa 

10 <a k'a si dan na dl n! ts^I ka <is lI ha La «as nn ni 

gULhaL tiGi ts'tikuwa ^isgaka yishaLna<i <isLi 

gQwact^tc <iwa «IsaGagit!zidi t'iGi dti gd wa yi nitc 

hasdagtLna<i tazaka <Ididac ^is^akfLwa 

«IsLihaLa «aL<Inina yflwtlk'^ssi naklsit ts'ilktiwa 

15 ha gi yi na ts'ti ktL wa diL tsi «i k'a si «is ga ktl wa 
m^s «^L«Inina nazit 'at^Gina dju ts'ukfLwa 
hagigina ii9gakflwa stlktiwa «ila «iLtctlna 
win ni t'^n na k'a gi mi tcis ctLz dil kin ni da ktl k'a tsin ni da hi 
t'iGi dina ^isgaktlwa ts'tiktlwa «!la tci na giLL tcfL di na 

20 ta za k'a na gi mi tcis cfLz has da gtL na <i nai y^tc 

hanic Laiyika dini« tazak'a sit da yiiwti 
ts'ika <ilatcinna gdL tcfL tea ga nad^ttsa La t'a 
miza naLt'a mil la tadaLLa ^iwa t'iGi La t'a 
mil la ta tci di «atc <i Lil la mi za sin ni tatc <i wa 

25 ha na tci cHj di ni has da gQ na hi ha guL nitc 

dahanaguLna hi gdL hanadjana gtllilada LasgtLla 
dd na n^L da ha«a «iwa disgd ts'dkdwa tadi diLtc 
•is ga ka dju di j gd ta di diLtc «a t'i Gi k6 wa ts'd kd wa 
<i Lil la Ld ka ta na tcit di diLtc 

30 dicna kat'dnaGa gdL «a l! gi dal na sitdi gimaGa 
tazak'a na tcis ted ci k'a gidiniltcitc «isgakdwa 
dijna gimaGa didjinna na diLtc didji xin 
gimaGa «ItcidilGitc miL gdta«i t'iGi «igididatc 
ydwd sinnatigi nadigiduL*! didji tsi 

35 «i 1^ di date ta za k'a da ni «i wa gd tcis gi ma Ga 
natcill^tc gi giL tcdte tee gd na gi gi dil l^tc sid^na 
sitL'a nitcaw^nna tazak'a gin! dac gwa gi mi tcic •ie 
dina kat'dnaGa*! sitda<! gimi^ ta tci n! date 

1915] Goddard: Sarsi Texts 201 

They gtand while four songs they sing. Then 
among the songs they sing then women four hats 
who own get up. Then women all afterwards get up. 
Women after they get up aU men get up. After they- 
get up all women sing. The women they dance horse- 
whip who owns young men women between he- 
places. Then four times like a ring they dance around. 
This woman horse whip who owns opposite way she- 
dances. Women young men still who are sitting this 
woman horse whip who owns strikes them hard. 
Women men whom she hits horse she gives them. Then 
they become angry then she does not give them. 

The one who speaks in the middle dances. Young mei» 
horse whip who own yonder side (outside) they stand. 
Women who looks after women they sit that side 
young men sword who own stand. Those too women 
they look after young men women her hand who holds 
behind the ring they pull them they may not dance. They- 
finish dancing then these young men women their- 
hands who held in the middle they put them. The speaker 
gets up. He says, ''My friends, this person in the middle 
sitting yonder woman her wrist because he held he- 
is foolish. All his mouth kiss, his hand shake." Then 
all his hands shake with his mouth they kiss. Then 
they take him out. This one the speaker tells them ''Do- 
not do that again. Who does that again if there is one never 
he wiU dance again. Then four times women they dance. 
Young men too four times they dance. After that 
women with together they dance. 

Four men who have fought blanket for them in the- 
middle they spread on it they sit. Young men four 
for them who sing they get up. Four songs for them 
they sing then fifth then they begin to dance. Those 
hats high four toward they dance. In the middle guns 
and scalps for them they put on the ground. Then one- 
who captured them takes them up. Boy small large 
middle he sits they make. These men the boy by them 
he sits. Knife with they cut him up they pretend. His- 


202 University of California Publications in Am. Areh. and Ethn, [Vol. 11 

m^ cfiilla ta M mi tci t'ac gwatcidl«!c gimftcis 
dju tsitdistcuL gwa tcit di «!c dis gtL gimaoa 

n! na sin m da hi t'ioi ha na gim mi tci «!c sltda^i 

dina dijna kat'unaGa«! ^isi^kka maoa tcillatc 
5 ha gi na dl tci na ti g! «! tci na gi die gi giL La na di d^tc 
gu gi nitc tci t'i Gi 

•Iwa «l8Le gutsia dani •Icictcu gini t^iGi 
gimaoa «a8sa tcichaLtc dIna zisisoi ginitc 
ni i^n ni tea k^ t'in ne ka gu ki nitc gii Lat di gwa Li gis dal 

10 dju gi nic ni i^n ni «is l^ ka djfL «i cLs tcti dju 

ginic ^at^iGikowa sukuwa go«a«a<I tsimatigi«i 

da Ga na di l^itc su kti wa mi tain na^ ti oa na tsi la «i na 

«a na gi diL diLtc «isL^ka gusiLa magunilinni 

«a na tsit diL diL «a na tsiL diL diL ^ niLa «at'ic 

15 has da gii na «i «is ga ktL wa haL nitc na nl «is t'a 
tadasdaL ^anad^Ld^iL gusiLa«i sini yinizinna 
«isLi guL «anad^LhaL «isLigu «itci da«i Litigi 
na tsil la 

Lakazagtl «isgaka tadilL^tc «asts^a gCLstioa 

20 «as sa «as «i ni ta diL L^tc mi tsis di na ^s ka se 

«^«inna<i tagidilL^tc «i8kasi «its'i nagididatc 
^Lsdilwa xin <iLilla kagidiLLtitc <iwa Lagididatc 
di j gtl na gi ni date <is ga si «i da oa na gi dil L^tc m^ 
«as«inna«i naginidac gtlk^a Lakaza •isgaktiwa 

25 tci si Li ka sil ktL wa teis i <i ^ di dae «aL t'as si 
ha na gi ni date di j gtl ha gi t'ie m^ ^ zil l^c ci 
ta gi yi yis ni 

<iwa dug5wa^ ginic na gini date <isLahaLa 

«aL«innina^ tagidilL^tc Lat^a «§iLnitsis gini da 

SO sil kQ wa «is ga ktL wa zi da« di j gu ha gi ditc 

na gini date hagina t'iGi hasdagiina«i tadili^tc 
liMz^ <ili« tai^tc tsiL «§iLnnna ^t'a 

ta dil Late dij gii La ma ni d^tc ha na t'i Gi na ni date 
tcidinitci «§iL<ini «ist'a tadilL^tc «akagu 

35 da ma ni da t^i Gi ka wa t'i Gi *i diL nitc «i wa 

«i diL ni ti k5 wa Lat^a •isgaktLwa nanidatc k'a 
sitd^na teidlnidji iLilla giiLhaL hagula t'iGi 
gu Ga gi nic dij gtl <i diL nitc «i wa na ni date 

1915] Goddard: Sarsi Texts 203 

scalp too they take off they pretend. Four times to- 
them they dance then they do that again. The boy 
these four men horses him they give. When they- 
have done that hats they put on with them they dance- 
around. They tell stories. 

Then "Horse, scalp, gun I captured," they say 
then for them drum they hit. ** Person I killed'' 
they say. Many different things they have done they tell- 
about. "Many times I fought too," they say. "Many 
horses too I captured too," they say. After that women 
who works for hats they hang up women their hats 
which had been taken down. 

They give away property. Horses, clothes good they- 
throw away. Those which are' thrown away many get them. 
The speaker young men he says to, "Your turn, you- 
dance. You throw away clothing. Those (T) who wish 
horse even they throw away. Horse for sticks any 
same place they put. 

One by one young men they dance. First very drum 
who owns dances. Next to him belts who own they- 
dance. The belt toward it they dance back and forth. 
Different songs with they tie around their waists. Then 
they dance around a circle four times. They sit down. Belts 
they hang up again. Swords who own they dance. By it 
middle young men toward one of women toward 
they dance. Past each other they dance. Four times they- 
do that. The swords upwards they hold. 

Then they quit. They sit down. Horse whip those- 
who own they dance. All one after the other they dance. 
Women young men in front four times they dance that- 
way. They sit down. They do that then the speaker 
dances one being he dances. Axe who owns in turn 
dances. Four times he dances around. He does that then 
he sits down. Whistle who owns in turn he dances. 
Twice he dances. After that then he whistles. And 
when he whistles all young men get up. Still who- 
are sitting he whistles when he hits. He does that then 
to them he gives something. Four times he whistles. Then 
he sits down. 

204 University of California Publications in Am, Arch, and Ethn, [ VoL 11 

•ist'^ni «§iL«inniDa «&t'a tagidili^tc «§iLk^tdI 
•Iginada* hiLilla «lLt'^m«i «isgaka «Iwa 

sukuwa nioa yioa «ist'anni L^katiL 

«I da dl tciL na La m oa gi di tci j dl j gtl La ma gi m date 
5 gii ni« ha di tsin na <I has da gu na« ts^i na y^itc 
hanic ytiwilnl maoa dinistsi «isLi «isLig^la 
ma Ga n!s La 

•isgaknwa nagut'inna<I «ist'a tagidili^to 

dijga La ma gin! date tfL wanayatelna tadili^te 

10 <9S sa ta gi yi8 ni hi <! lil la di j gtl La ma m date 

«i wa nis ka ne «aL •! ni «ifl t'a di j gu La ma ni date 

ts'uka*! «!sLihaLa «as«innl «!st'a «98nit8i 

tadili^te Lat'a «i8gakuwa ^igigiiilla tadilL^tetci 

xin nsduwa dalinne gimanita «iwa dijna 

15 cis ga kH wa ta zi k'a ni na tell L^te xin <iL k^ na 
mik'assa dfL «ii9 da n^ na silktLwa «aGa didjinna 
^didjihi t'io! «i8kiya suktiwa gu«a«a«I 

sinnat!gi<i nal^ie s^kuwa sinnadasti<i stikuwa 
zitda fisgiyaci <inada teat'^Ga na di teii9 tei k'a si 

20 gu ni Ga da« ns gi ya la ka na dli ni <i8 Li ha La 

casein ne ^isgakfLwa stikuwa giza gQdila ts'ika 
ns Li haL a «as nn ne gtl nas si na di dae dij gtl 

La ma na sin ni da t'iGi 'is^iya^ tsinnatigi «isdtlna 
stlktlwa tein na na dis na miga ninadiLte Lat^a 

25 stl kH wa «i tein na dite «a t^ Gi k5 wa «is ga kti wa 

•ist'a Lat'a sin na gi yi tite Lat'a «§iLteisse 

gunisnatigu tateididiLte tsinnatigi*! «iLilla 

<!wat'i. hasdagtlna«i naiy^ite gtln^Lnnnina 
<!haenie dan! miL tsin ni da' hi «i wtl sis si daL a 

30 mi tsis na «i wa fl Gi has da gtl na «i d! ^ gii siL a 
«!wa «isL^ka«i djtl gun^<inna«! ha^la «iwa 
<is^akuwa «akina«i dan! ktlgil^te miL natsinl«i 
xin didj! «iteidiyie gtlwa teistetlti t'iGi hau 
teinite du«isninna La Lat'a dani«i 

35giika nateill^te di^ dani«! «a tsin nis ta t'iGi 
Lat'a «isLi guGa teist^te dH «a tsin nIs t'a t'iGi 
gflni «isL! guGa teist^te natsikwiyi t'iGi 
gimmaGa teiet^te <!wa dtihatsinna t'iGi Lat'a 

1915] Qoddard: Sarsi Texts 205 

Arrows who own in turn they two dance. One be- 
hind the other they dance then arrows young men and 
women their eyes below arrows they hold. Who moves- 
away immediately their faces they poke. Four times 
they dance around. Their faces who pokes speaker 
toward he walks. He says, ** Yonder person's face him 
I poked. Horse saddle him I give." 

Young men who work in turn they dance. Four times 
they dance around. Water who brings he dances, pail 
holding up with four times he dances around. Then 
shield who owns in turn four times he dances around. 
The woman horse whip who owns in turn last of all 
she dances. All young men with her dance. 

Songs different kinds all have. Then four young- 
men in the middle they place. Songs who sing their- 
voices do not give out women for them who sing they- 
sing. Then young man women worker hats he takes- 
down. Women he puts them on. Women in front 
young man he dances. Sun the way it goes he leads- 
th^n. Young man one another horse whip who owns 
young men women between he places. Woman horse- 
whip who owns the other way she dances. Four times 
when they dance around then the young man hats 
other women whose turn to wear them beside them they- 
stop. All women wear them then young men in turn 
all wear them. All together one hundred times they- 
dance hats with. 

Then the speaker gets up. Those who own them 
he tells, **Food with the dancing you bring. We- 
are going to eat." Then the speaker these clothes 
and horses too those looking on he gives to. Then 
young men two food they bring in then they take it- 
around, songs four they sing. By them they put food 
then "hau," they say. Who does not say it immediately 
all the food by him they put down. This food they- 
eat up then all horse to him they give. He does not- 
eat it up then he himself horse to him he gives. He- 
vomits then to him he gives it. And he does not vomit 

206 University of Calif omia Puhlioaiions in Am. Arch, and Bthn. [YoL 11 

gu wa tcic tcfiz <Ita8itfLwa gQnlsn^nl «as8a kitda 
nltsit^sse Lakaz& hast^ooa kowa tcistio 

ma dl wQ tsa oa gtita «I tci has t^ oa da nit! ddtioa 
niLa djidja tagigiiyi «a8sa gUt'a kitda Liki 

5 da nl gH nas «! na «! ha tcic tcuz 

k'atsisna t'lOl sfLk^wa ^wa «i8gakuwa «aLiia 
naginfdac didji xin k'anatciGihl t^oi «aLna 
has dti gii na «I naiy^tc hanic k^ananadac <Isn! 
t^o! natcidiLtc miL hanatsIdaL^I oina <Itcid!yic 

10 La na ha dl ka na sin na ti g! gi ma oa tci «atc gi Lil la 
dij gtl da mil le «a na tcin ni dac miL dl dji «! t'i oi 
<IL hanay^c Iwat'io! ts'a «a miL nn nana 

hanatci'ac «Iwat^ ta natcidiLtc hadikana niddwa 
t'ioi mit sin ni t'i oa na« ^iL hanagiini^dac 

List of Dance Properties 

15 Likiza sinatigi dit'^nitca^ tcaktLyiooa tioa 
maoa niLa «!wa m^s^i nami<i mikagQ 

nigisL'fLsi maoa dagiL'fL mitcinnaoa dagiL'il 
«is tea zi t'a ga ma oa da gi L^fL 

«iwa <isLihaLa dit^^nitca <Udji maoa 

20 da gi L'a di na sis oa na z&* ma oa da gi gi l'CLc 
dina diiina «iLhaLna djfL «ioa dagigiL'uc 
dani <iLtcilna z&^ giiwa «isLahaLa diiic 
nsiIhaLa «ik'a dani tci <U lie namiya dikada 
ka^tc^da miLfLlagti datci^L^uc tcak^zaga 

25 mi k'a si« da dis t'a «a tcis nc 

«iwa <iLt'^ni gQsiLa mika digisdiz gwatcicic 
•ist^^ni«i ^aLtc^niskaL minil^oa «aki dit'^netca 
da gi L'a 

«iwa niskani«i giiy^ni «igisLa ^itci 

SO di ma tsa oa mi t'a yi dji tic di dji di t^^ ne tea 
maoa dagiL'il Lastcu «iLilla Lat^a tastciz <iwa 
Layigatcisli «isgaka «a^L<inlna« Lat'a giitsita 
Las tcu ta tsis tcai 

<iwa tcasizali^i tea si da mit'^o mi tea *ak'a 

35 ni ois teae tcti hwu wa <i Lil la 

1915] Goddard: Sarsi Texts 207 

then all they take the food around. Tea ten pails in. 
Bread one sack for them they bake. Crackers five 
boxes, beef not very much, berry soup pails five 
in. Some food those who look on they give. 

They finish eating then women and young men 
in turn they dance. Four songs they finish singing 
then in turn the speaker stands up. He says, ''You- 
make an end of dancing," he says then all get up then 
they go out its song they sing. One of them who has- 
been wounded hat to him they give. With it four times 
entrance he dances up and back then after the fourth time 
with he goes out. Then outside to the owner he gives- 
it back. Then they go home. Wounded person there is- 
none then whose hat it is with he leads them out. 

List of Dance Properties 

One hat hawk tail, weasels very on it many. 
And sword otter skin on it sewed up to it tied on. 
Its handle tied on hawk feathers on it are tied. 

And horse whip hawk tails four to it are tied. 
Person who has killed only to it ties them on. Person 
somebody who has whipped too to it he ties the on. Oun 
who has captured only for it whip paints. Horse whip 
on gun he draws. Otter skin beaded stripped long way 
for the handle they tie on. Weasel skin along it in bunches 
they make it. 

And arrow beads on it they twist around they make- 
it. Arrow forked at the end two hawk tails they- 
tie on. 

And shield deer skin stick circle inside they- 
place. Four hawk tails to it they tie on. Yellow paint 
with all are painted. And across the breast young men 
who own it all their bodies yellow they paint them. 

And crow neck lace crow its wings, its tail on it 
is beaded porcupine quills with. 

208 University of Calif omia Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn, [YoL 11 

<!wa «lBka8l<I dit^^netca mlt'^oa niLulda 

gusitL^a ml ka di gis tiz gfltcaga haGi'a «atcic«ic 

tclgica ma gum lit da Ikicgwagu tcicnc maGa 
da <I da tsa tsa da <a tcic nc 

The Dog Feast 

5 namdacna minadjlna tiGa ^agutila t'lGi 
hanic li caiGisLahl dim dinaGila <!wa guwa 
tatsididli Litca mtcitc^tda ta La tcl yi l'uc sakuwa 
guLg^na caigiL<Ic minlgi ku <aka tcitdi«!l^c 
«iwa ha tcit die k'atc maGatsigina «^ttciLntc «as8a 

10 ma gtl m lit da kl da tcil l^tc dij gu ml til na tc! die gue 
«at'iGikowa Likani ml ki da teie gue sukuwa 

eaigii^nm*! digiGa kwiyiGa «aLugu8a«a 

teana «astca« tsinmda« dam miL tsinmdah!^ 
midaka mjakaga si la 'ateie^ic hasdagflna«I 

15 ha nic «I wa Li «I kw^iL a tei ju ni '^iL ^ ni gi ts'i 
diy^itc «iwa ktiteil^te duLanatsi'a sukuwa 
gu«a«a^ L'titsin yioa tsitdi tagiisk'is «ik*a 
naGi«ae L'Htsin natsi<a zi|;da tslyioa 

ta mi tei die n!e tazateijti giits'i ta mi tcit die nic 

20 La Ga teiz di gu teis «i dju < wa win ni t'as si dju 
ta mi tei die nie Li«i na tei dilate L^utsinna tsi*ahi 
nidatatstsa«aL dijgu mits'i nakayitsa«aL 

*at^Gikowa miga nagitci'atc sitdi'kahi magunilitda 
nukata teictcue ^skasi «aL«inna Likiza maGa 

25 ta tin na tsi di na tcie teue «a t'i Gi k'a ni date 

gimifikassa giminaka nateil^ie 

dijna kat'unaGa «atcitL'a gidiniltcite *assak'a 
Li mikidasila^ tsitdi 4 k'izza nateiLtcflz ^iskasi 
«aL<ini maGa teiditeite nanidahi t'iGi *akagu 

30 «as t'a si «i di dac «is ka si «at di na ni dae dij gu 
hat'ie «at'iGikowa «isduwa xin maGa nateitdiyie 
•Iwa yits'i «ididae tagii yi«i n^nidae miL 
didji^it'iGi yinigi nidagat'aka «ididae «itdida 
zitda ciLt^^ni miGa teitite Li tazilla 

35 kit da teie di ni ka t'i ne «i ni la Ga sit da <e za ka 

1915] Ooddard: Sarsi Texts 209 

And belt hawk tail its feathers long ones beads 

twisted around like a tail sticking out they make. Cloth 

good hanging they make. On it in rows crosswise 
they make it. 

The Dog Feast 

Those who dance their relatives very are sick then 
he says, *'Dog I will make feast this person may be- 
well." Then for him he says a prayer. Dog small 
they hang. Woman who is neat cooks it. For it fire 
for it they kindle. Then they bum the hair oflf. Care- 
fully (T) they do it. Pail good in it they put it. 
Four times its water they pour out. Then sugar they- 
pour in. Women who cook it their tipi inside they- 
leave it. 

Long time first they dance. Food with they dance 
for it few lies there they make. The speaker 

says, ''Then dog bring in.'' The sword who owns 
to it goes. Then he brings it in. He does not put it down. 
Woman who works for sweet grass under it charcoal 
burning on it he puts. Sweet grass he puts it before 
last he holds it up. Noon place toward he holds it up. 
Where it sets toward too. Then toward north too 
he holds it up. The dog he puts down. Sweet grass where- 
it is they hold it above. Four times to it they move it 
then beside it they put it down. On blanket good one 
on it they spread down. The belts who own one of them 
for him before the doorway blanket they spread. On that 
he sits. His belt beside him they put. 

Four men opposite the door they sit down. The pail 
dog is placed in blanket one side they move. Belts 
who own for them they sing. He dances then twice 
back and forth he dances. Belt without he dances. 
Four times he does that. Then another song for him 
they sing. Then to it they dance. Three times the side- 
of it he dances then the fourth time to it prairie- 
chicken like he dances. He starts dancing before arrow 
to him they give. Dog soup he pokes it in. This man 

210 Univeriity of Calif omia PubHeaiions in Am. Arch, and Ethn, [VoL 11 

ktigitcitc ganasa tadiy^c <IsdagQ tanadlli^tc 
tagQ yi<m n^nidatc miL didjitloi n! da oa t'a ka 
nadidao litazila*! kit da n^ gl tcitc hadlkana 

t^Gl gii wtis La dat tsti kaglLdltc dijgu hat^ic 
5 di j na ka t^ti na oa dis tsin na «! hac «!c iJ tea <I 
nLt'^nm «lLilla takasilla m^s «98«inna ytL wu 
dijna kat'ilnaoa<I mtcitca gimaoa yItciLtcilj 
gflnilaoa sitdana^I Litsitsinna «atciLtcuj <Iwat^oI 
gi g^t tcl ga dll duL il tcitsinna^I tazak'a natcl'atc 

10 •Iwat'iGi «isgak11wa suktLwa Lat^a Li«I 

«Itcisna dan! «Il LfLka natsinna «Itcisna«! 
«Inik! . fitlk^wa tcinatigi <aL«inmiia hanic 

«ad!naka ^Isina «at'io!kowa Lat'a hau tclnic 
dfL hau <isniniia Lat'a daiil«! maoa tcill^tc 

15 cf tcis na zit da xin gl ma oa <! tcl d! Gic sfL ktL wa 
sinatigi «aLnnn!na tagili^tc «at^ioIkowa 

naginidatc <at^io!k5wa «It8!na Lat'a «at'iGl 
Litffltsinna ^Its'i didatc dijna kattinaoa tazak'a 
distsinna yits'! <!<Udac ilMza 'astca tciditcitc 

20 La t'a «is ^a ka na ! diLtc ma gii il nl gii la zil ^s s! 
tazitdani tcijiLtcdj! na tc! d! ni djitc «at^oikowa 
ilkiza kat^In!«! La ma didatc nLt'^m ^Lilla 
di j gii mi tsl tsin na nL t'^ ni «I Lil la kas gO 

manadjikic dijgtl dina kat'tlnaoa«! hakit'ic 

26 La t'a ha ^ nl da ha gi m! ka «a na tsit diL diLtc 

si ni yi ni zin na «isL^ka ha na tcit diL haLtc tcijuni 
«aL4nna«i tcigica sitt^naga ^iiilla Lamadiy^c 
li tsin na <! ml k! da tn la 

il calahi <inizinmna tasitdidlihi *ak^c^na 

80 mis t'd ti «a gi tic gi ma oa ta sit di dli gQ na sa 
gi na dac gu ha gi nio di ni li *i ni zin ni 

gwagQnili dina<iligtlla dinatcina «iLilla 

si na ti gi ^ ma Ga sit di na si di niL(s) tcdtc <a t^i Gi 
yik'a sinnaligi natcill^tc sinatigi^ <aGa 

35 ta tsi di dli «a t'i Gi mi yi Ga L'ti tsin tcit diL k'atc 
ci wa da Ga na tci dil l^tc 

La ka k'a tsis na t'iGi dijna mits'i di diLtc 

«iskassi«i ninatsilla t'iGi tatinna gigiLilla 
'as da diLtc tazatcizdi giitsis<i nagi diLtc 'iwa 

1915] Qoddard: 8ar$i TexU 211 

at the end who sits his mouth he pokes it in. Before him 
he walks. Again he dances. Three times the side of it 
he dances then four times prairie chicken like he dances. 
The dog soup in he pokes, a wounded person then his- 
cheek he wipes it on. Four times he does that. Four 
men who are sitting he does it to. Dog arrow with 
he takes out. Sword who own those four men small- 
pieces to them he gives. At the end who sits the dogs- 
head he gives. Then they take the meat off. Dog its- 
head bone in the middle they place. 

Then young men, women all dog they eat. Food 
with together they serve. Those who eat for them 
women hats who own says, ''My friends, let us eat." 
Then all "hau,'' they say. Not "hau," who says all 
the food to him they give. They eat before song for it 
they sing. Women hats who own dance. Then they- 
dance. Then the bones all there dog head bone to- 
ward they dance. Four men in the middle who sit 
to it they dance. One first they sing. All young men 
stand up. Bight hand upward they hold they shout. 
They sit down again. Then one man dances around a- 
cirde. Arrow with four times its head bone arrow 
with gently he pokes. Four times these men do that. 
All while he dances on them they throw away. Those- 
who want to horses they throw away. The sword who- 
owns cloth thin with he goes around. Dog bones 
on it they put. 

Dog who makes feast who are called on they pray. 
Who knows how pipe they give. For them he prays. 
In front of him they sit. For them he says, * * This dog 
who called on happily may he live his relatives with.'* 
The hats for them blanket they spread. Then on it 
hats they put. Hats for they pray. Then under them 
sweet grass they bum. Then they hang them up again. 

They finish eating then four to it go. Belt they- 
bring back in, then doorway with it they stand. Noon 
toward they stand. Then sunset toward. Over there 
toward north too. Then they come in. Belts who own 

212 University of Calif omia Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [VoLll 

Lagatclzdi gutsis«i yuwu« winnet^assl dju 

•afiGikowa kugidiLtc «iskassi «aL«inmna«i 

ka La gi gi dil tcitc gi nu n§ik ka tsit di na tsit dl ni l^tc 
«i wa «is kas si «i da ml tcl dil i^tc «i wa t*i Qi gi gi ma oa 

6 di dji xin «i tcit di yic gim miL Lil la gim mi kal- 
tcit dil L^Htc <at'iGik5wa Lanaginidac hagina 

t'i oi La t'a ^ ga kti wa mi Lil la ka tci diL L'CLtc 
<at'ioik5wa ma na tcit L^tc <iwa hanatcill^tc kawa 
kunatcill^tc «i8kasi tcinatigi <iLilla gQtsillasi 

10 t^i 01 tcin na tciL titc La tcit di date 

mi li tci ka ni i^n na «a t^i Gi na ka gi mi tci die cuj 
sinnatigi <aL«innina k'a ginidac gwa gi mi tciL «itc 
kigidji magQnilitda ^maGa tciLtcuc ^wa 

«isLa magtinilitda gimaoa tcill^te tsidi kahida 

15 gi ma Ga tci gi nic ka da nis tcac da gi ma Ga 

tciginic tsola gimitsola gwatcicnc gimaGa 
tcit di tcit <iwa tagimi tcidiyii^tc guk'a nagisni 
<inizinna gtL ka tagidilL^tc stikuwa sillasinna 
gimikalak'a gimik'a tadilL^tc ^isL^kka «aki<kakawa 

20 ta )n ka ka wa ma gii ni lin ni k'a na tci giL nitc gu ziL La «i 
tiGa niLa na tci giL nitc ka tci dji hi t'iGi sakuwa^ 
naginidatc tsil la sin na <i gimaGa gutcinij 

sinatigi ^ulla gutsillasi t'iGi didji <iL'igi 
tiza tci ni date <iwa didji dji nisi ha^itsinida 

25 ha gti za 

g^L^aLidaLna za <at'iGina tsinnatiGa nid5na 
za zinnatiGa sin ni data miL naxinnatsi«a miL 
hakHtciga silli miL gasillasi t'iGi Likiza 
dina tai^c maGa yitsi«ana maguLini gula 

30 tcin na <i Lil la na gu tci cuj dij gu La ma gtL tcic cuj 
guga gin nidae gula sinnaka <iwat'iGi gu tci ni tcitc 
di ka ha li tsa ha <iLilla Lat'a guni gu wus La da tsu k'a 
mas gu ta Li gi tsa tci di Lie <a t'i Gi ko wa na tci y^itc 
gula sin na dju naiy^itc guwa djudjin dijgu 

35 La tci ni date <a t'i Gi k5 wa na tci ni date ta zi ka 

tsisda ditci «iL'agi teas din na natcit^c 

•a t'i Gi ko wa «a guL «in na «at t'ic 

1915] ' Goddard: Sarsi Texts 213 

they place in the middle. Behind them blanket they spread. 
Then belts they bring. Then for them four songs 
they sing. With them they tie them aromid their waists. 
Then they dance around the circle. They do that then 
all young men with them they tied on. Then they- 
give them back. Then they take them out. Tipi they- 
take them in. Belt hat with they give some one. Then 
they put them on. They dance around the circle. 

His horses whose are many those they put in the middle. 
Hats who own beside he sits they make. Coat good him 
they give. Then trousers good him they give. Blanket 
new to him they give. Moccasins beaded to him they- 
give. Earrings their earrings they make to him they- 
give (T). Then in front they dance. On them I will- 
oflPer who thinks on them they dance. Women to whom- 
it is given their husbands on them they dance. Horse two 
three good ones they oflfer. Clothes very many they- 
oflPer. They finish singing then women get up. To- 
whom it is to be given for them they talk. 

Hat with who is to receive then four nights 
only they sleep. Then four days dancing this way 
they keep on. 

Those who fight only those hat dances only hats 
when they dance with it they give orders. With it chiefs 
they become. With it they give it then one person 
dances. To him to whom it is given right his hand wrist 
with they pull him up. Pour times they lead him around. 
Beside him he sits, beside the one who gives it. Then 
they paint white man's paint with all their faces. 
On their cheeks like rings blue paint they paint. 

After that he gets up. He who gives it too gets up. 
For them they sing. Pour times they dance around. 
After that they sit down again. In the center they sit. 
Pour nights by himself he sleeps. After that the owner 
he becomes. 

214 Univeriity of Calif omia Publications in Am. Areh. and Eihn. [YoL 11 


Lat'a ^sgaka ^wa kat'fLnaGa za yiLtadiLtc 

Lat'a t'a gim mi tsi Ga dagiL^o^ 'aLt'ati <aglt^ 

<!ts^aoa kagana gim ma la tcin na ^aigiaj/o tai^ 

tagididiLtc ^asts'a miL didjl«! t'iGl xagiltic 

5 gi ga na L^a na <I ka ga na «i «I lil la gH ts! xa git dl tc^ j 


«l8^aka <!wa kat'dnaGa z& yiLtadiLtc taLaginnidahi 
t^Gi xagiltic gigistcona ts'itda tea gota 
ta gi gis tc'tlLtc 'ast'ati «a^t^ •akiyi t'a 

gim m! tsi Ga da giL l^o 


10 kat'tLnaGa cfwa ts^ktLwa yiLtadiLtc kat'flnaGa*! 
mitcadit^Gi 'akasigigida «!gididahl tlGi 

ts^ktiwa«! tci gi ca <! la Ga giigitani lilla «!ginnada 

na gOl tc'tLj na 

Isgaka ^wa kat'tlniGa iff yiLtadiLtc 

^ast'atl 'agit'i tak^ t'a gimmitsi'Ga da^L'5 

15 ta gd ta gi di diLtc miL di dji <i t'i Gi xa gil tic 
gi gic tc5 na gi na ni ta ta ga giL tc'ilLtc 


«is^akuwa za yiLtadiLtc ^ts^ilsa za 

gimmitsi'Ga daigitL'o tc'idinitci ^mizala m^sgtl 

tagididiLtc minaGa ts'ist'una gistsahi t'iGi 

20 ta la gi dil gic «a t'i Gi k5 wa ta na gi diLtc 


nahine <Unati «isdugii'a dinasadli «a Li ts^ daL L'i 
t^iGi gtidja gOst'iGa ts'in n§u3 ^i gu di ma tc'i djin na 
na siL G^ na «i wa da ni ti «iL tcu na^ ha kn tci Ga ti 

1915] Goddard: Sarsi Texts 215 



All young men and men only dance. All 
feathers their hair are tied on. Naked they are. Bird 
claws their wrists are tied on. Three times they dance, 
first then fourth time then they go among the people. 
Those they catch their claws with their heads they- 


Young men and men only they dance. They dance 
then they go among the people. Those they catch blankets 
breech cloths for they tear up. Naked they are. Two 
feathers on their heads are tied on. 


Men and women they dance. The men red cloth 
they put around their shoulders. They dance then the- 
women end of cloth they hold with they dance. 


Young men and men only they dance. Naked 
they are. Three feathers on their heads are tied on. 
Three times they dance then fourth then they go- 
among the people. Those they catch their clothing they- 
tear to pieces. 


Young men only dance. Soft feathers only ontheir- 
heads are tied on. Whistles around their necks in a circle 
they dance around. His eye who is shot they see then 
they run away. After that they quit. 


We Indians different ways when we were living, when- 
we were fighting each other then well just when he was- 
looking at him his enemy who killed; and gun who- 

216 University of Calif omia Publications in Am, Arch, and Ethn, [ VoL 11 

«a gi t'ic di ma' kn «is 14k ka ni La nl' ni «i« na' 

«at'ioina dju hakutcloa «agit'ic mitts^n^oa 
gu d jan na gu yl la gu dl nic na dd ka ts'i dli na <a t'l 01 na 
dju* hakutcaoa ^agit'ic ts'asdina nadllna 

5 mis t'o kas «as nn na* «a t'l 01 na djti ha ku tea oa 

^agit'ic maoa gQLa gud^tdlicna* «at'ioina* djti 
hakatcioa <agit^c «ak'a du gu tsis dis tcoL na 

tsa oa k'i Gi d ji du wi yi ya* gu tsis gi dis tcuL lI t*i oi 
tsa oa k*i gi dji yigiyaitc «iwat'i haktitciaa «agit'ic 

10 «a t'i oi na ha kti tci Ga t'i na tsa oa k'i gi dji <i da ha ktl tci oa 

gina«i didilli<i lilla nistc'atci iiilla <asdaLt'a 

ha ku tci Ga na <i maGa <its'isnagu gigilanagu 

mits'i ^ts^kanagu dina mataguii na gQ ts'us fi hi 

t'i Gi min na oa tc'in nic na ku ni <i ni gQ ha ku tea Ga 

15 si lin ni t'i Gi za di na gi Lin na «a Li ts'i zi Ga t'i Gi 
hakutcaGa<i guts'i diy^c guzisG^na<i hastc'inic 
yHwu<i ts'izicGini minadjinna* <isL^ka niL^ni 
guziLLa niL^ni gimaGa nil la gQcnic 

minnadjinna* ts'iz zis Gi ne na gimaGa ts'illa t'iGi 

20 na nis si dd «a i^n na ts'i gi ni la 


tiGa gwa gii di la t^ Gi «izilni «iwat*iGi 

«a Ga gQ yi lin na «as tc'in nitc xagiya t'iGi guts'i 
^^ly^te ma gtl di la na <i tal gimmaGa na ts'is tcus si 
k'a ginnit^tc na ga gQ git dil nitc •iwa t'iGi gidjin 

25 gwa gQ dil la <e xa ^ ^l t'5t La yi gi Gic k'ac xa gi na 
t'iGi zanagiy^tc giGina gudja guLntctci 

ha ni da t'iGi ^isL^kka gimma tc'iLl^tc ha ni da t'iGi 
gu siL La gim ma Ga te'i l^tc «a ka ko go «a gu dja gu gi la 
t'iGi dinatc'il^tc ha ni da t'iGi tagd gu dja gtL Gila 

30 t'i Gi di na tc'il l^tc «a k5 ha <a Ga ja tc'i gi litc 

Lik'i giits^GGa kwiyiGa ^a gu di la t'i Gi «iwat'i 
l'o Li tc'it di «atc gimiga naGits'i«atc L'o^i «isL'a 
kita giGik^tc giGiziz <at'iGig5wa gotsaga«i 
dina tc'il 1^ <iwa mitsi< ^agudil^nna tiGa 

35 <a t'i Ga kii gi mi na sa na tc'a «^tc l'iL mi k'a 
tatc'e«^tc «iwa t'iGi yinatda giyiLtsin «a t'iGi 

1915] Ooddard: Sarsi Texts 217 

captured chiefs they became. Scouts horses many 
they stole those too chiefis they became. His heart 
kind, fond of inviting, not stingy, those too chiefs 
became. By themselves another kind, pipes who own 
those too chiefs became. His tipi many who had painted 
those too chiefs became. Tet who had not taken scalps 
scalps shirts they did not wear. Scalps those having taken 
tJien scalp shirts they put on. Then chiefs they became. 
Those who are chiefs scalp shirts chiefs their uniforms 
metal with beads with they are like. 

The chief his tipi to eat he invites. From him they- 
may ask anything. Person bad thing who commits then 
to him he tells him he must stop it. Chief who becomes 
then he lives this way. They kill one another then chief 
to him he goes. The murderer he tells, ** That one you- 
murdered his relatives horses many, clothing much 
them give," he tells him. His relatives who was killed 
to them he gives. Then in the future they do not hate- 
each other. 


Very he is sick sickness then medicine man he asks. 
He comes out then to him he goes in. Sick person 
blanket for him they spread on it he lies. He feels- 
over him. Then he sings. Where the sickness is he sucks. 
He throws it in the fire. He does this then he goes out. 
For it well making him sometimes horses to him 
they give. Sometimes clothes to him they give. Twice 
he has doctored him then he gets well. Sometimes three- 
times he doctors him then he gets well. This way we- 
doctor each other. 

Another kind his chest inside when he is sick then 
herb he puts on the fire. Beside him he puts it. Herb 
cup inside he dips. He drinks it. Then his chest 
gets weU. And his head when it aches very much then 
fire in front he puts it. Herb on it he puts. Then 
over it he smells. Then they do that they get well. And 

218 Univeniiy of California Puhlieations in Am. Areh. and Ethn, [VoL 11 

di 01 ga ts*! •! gii dja na t'ic •Iwa gCLts'itta gCLlwiLLi 
t'lOl L'a^ gioI<aL gulwiLi l'u iiilla gigidijatc 
•fwat*! gtl dja na t'itc diL'1i<T gCLziLa niLane 
gtlGa gfginic gCLtsIga g^a gCL dl la •! t'i oi l'Q 
5 gCL tc'i dl jtLc ^ wa t'l gI gtl dja na t'ltc gtl ziz za tcfl 

<atsagakahi t^iol L^tL tc'adlt'ada mi da 

ts'itdi<ahi t^ol midlida dtl gtl xa yil niLtc <at'ioIk5wa 
dlnatc'il^ digl ^ztUinI<I gudjatc'is<T «in|iigiiL 
Lana tatcatc •Iwa gtldja tc'Ic^na^ nli^nna 
10 d! n^ l^tc <T wa <a ktl gu dja «a Li ts^i <in 


^akiaka 'aLits'i ta za ts'is ta ta ka zillasi 

dagigiLL^u <a U yi gim mic ylLtc kawa gtlmaiya 

tsiflk'a ka ts'a oi diLtc gCLziLLa kats'itdila* <ast'adi 
gflstiGa <iskaka gimik'a tats'innidac gOzzagu 

15 na ^i L'a ta gi di lij ga wa ha La ta k'a gtlL ziL La •! La t'a 
na ki di Lac 

nsgaktlwa tiGa yiLL^^Lna <aLitts'i tazadit^nna 
kawa gflmaiya nats'itdiltc dat'igikawa didille 
ha kit dja Ga gCLts'i zagiiGiflsa gidilLitc giiwahad^inna 

20 gCL ziL La ka ts^t dil la ci na gi di l^tc 

gudja •iditc'acna 'asat^ <isnina «iwat^Gi 
«a tc'innic t'iGi gtlziLLa kats'idil^c sa^ani 
tc'ict'ats'i nats'i^atc digidana t'agidjitc Lana 
«anni nine ^astsa •IniLt'11' "iwafiGi «aGa 

25 sa <a ni giL t'Qtc gQ gi tc'a ta <i tci na gi di tcitc <i wa 
LikV ist'a «idist'utc 8a<ani<i «itc*^na 

tc^a gilL ditc gu ziL la na gi dil 1^ ca «a 


gutcidiLicci t'iGi tn ^isL^ka didji kida 
<^ttciL<itc tsi dijna ^isgaka didji mas 

30 ta ka l^L tsi ^ mas ^i tsi ki da toil l^tc <a ki na 
tatin nazi <atcitL^a <akina nazi mas takatiL 
kawa gtlts^i mas<i tagigiLni miL didji tsi 
kawa gwa gi yiL tctiz •iwa <agit^Gi kawa 

1915] Goddard: SarH Texts 219 

part of his body swells then herb he chews. The- 
swelling herb with he blows. Then it gets well. His- 
herb clothing much him they give. His ear it aches 
herb he blows in then it gets well. His large veins one- 
cuts then herb holy its opening he puts in then 
its blood does not flow. After that he gets well. This 
sickness they doctor even some die. And well 
who are made many they get well. Then this way well 
they make each other. 


Two horses to each other praising heads (t) they- 
tie up. Two days after camp away on a hill they- 
go up. Their clothes they bet. Naked just young men 
on their horses they mount. Far where they stop they- 
race. The winner clothing all he takes. 

Young men very who run fast to each other praising- 
themselves camp from they gather. From here money 
chief's house from that far they start. Who wins 
clothing which they have bet he takes. 

Well who shoots, **Let us bet," he says. Then 
*'Ye8," he says. Then their clothes they bet. Target 
side of the hill they place. Their guns they load. One- 
of them says, "You, first shoot." Then the target he- 
shoots. Where it strikes stick they stick up. And the- 
other in turn he shoots. The target who shoots he wins. 
Clothing he takes. 


They paint a tipi then paint in cups four in side 
they make paint. Four young men four rings holding 
paint the rings paint in they dip. Two persons before- 
doorway stand. Opposite the door two persons stand. 
Rings they hold. Tipi to it the rings holding up with 
fourth time tipi they put on the cover. And there tipi 


University of Calif amia Publieations in Am, ArcK and Ethn, [VoL 11 

gutcidiLic «iwa kuwioa didjl «!8La kit'a 

s! ka «a tc! L'a 
tsa si ha du wa 
guL tcit djin ni 
5 dl na kwi yi Ga 
t'l Gi tci tea «I 

di j dl if^ tsin sa <a kwi yi oa sa «a 
ta tin na kwi yi oa gu gi dis k'an 

t'l 01 Likiza nanitcitcai likiza 
diLtsinna kawa gtloa tciLtcudi 
mi tea gu lin ni dij gQ za gu za ka 
z! ka <! wa ka tsit tsa di t'l oi guL dl djin gu oi na 
<!wat'iGi kat'dnaga kawa<i maoa gutsa^ahi 
guiilla kamloa tsasdina kuyioa nitate didji 
10 <i L'a gi ni tate ka miL guL di ka wa k'a ni ta t'l ol 
«iwa «at*ioik6wa mits'i ktl na teit diLte •at'ioikowa 
mi Lil la ka gu teil lite 


nas «a oa «a tsi la t'i of 


^a ka ^ tie na mi tsin na wtlL li t'l oi 

1^ «i tei dl te'ae *al tsin ni oa na da li t'l o! 

«a teie <!e taz na nakQjij <Twa ktl diLte 

dina kateinnitie kQgisi miteiLt'd 

mikatelgae *iwat'lGl natsiL<aL Lat'a 
<! Lil la ta na teit diL 

•is ga ka xa m 





«a lin ni 


20 taoa minna didilli <steiltsi minna 

«a La te! dl <ae mas tsi <i tel sit L'a n! da sit di tsi 
didilli ns ted tsi ^atitigi <itei maoa na teit diL nite 
«at'ioioa dateigiL'fle •iL'atsi «It'ioi nuts'! 

nateitdiy^e mika teiLdjUs tsizneo^ 


^ dzanagQ ts'atea eidjonni didille mil 

na gu ts'i tin ni ni dd wa gu <^ sa< di dil li mi oa 
sate'isinne nidtiwagu gtlL'is «9ssa<gii «ate'is< 
di kas ku na kan t'i oe gi gi kit da da ni i kit da gi la 
m^ its'inna m^ <agis<i di tei ted «itei kuda 

30 k'in nis t'as si gim mi ts'is La za xa ni da <9S sa* ki da oi la 
«it'ioe <iLitda «agis«ini t'ioe «a ts'a ki gi suz «isL'a 
gwa *a gi gie «ie 

1915] Goddard: 8arsi TexU 221 

they paint. Then inside four cups inside stand. 
Opposite the door four places sweet grass is placed. 
Inside it is placed. Cedar doorway inside they bum, 
then they sing, then one our berries each one person 
inside who is sitting tipi to them they give to eat. 
Then the berries spoon four times only in their mouths 
they put. Then they finish eating then they sing its- 
songs. And then man tipi for him to whom it is given 
with on the prairie by himself inside he sleeps. Four 
nights he sleeps. When the day ends he finishes sleeping 
then after that to him they go in. After that with it 
everything ends. 


Buffalo corral they make then young men buffalo 
for ride. They drive them then over them they shoot. 
Beside the hedge they go then both sides those who hide 
get up. Then they go in around them people everybody 
from the outside shoot them. All they kill. Then 
they butcher them. All meat with they go home. 


In the water its hole iron trap its hole they put- 
outside. Both sides sticks small they stick up. Iron 
trap the wire stick for it they drive in the ground. 
There it is tied. In ihe morning then to it they go. 
Its legs are caught. They kill it. 


Long ago old woman aged iron with made from 
when was not, pot iron in it one cooks was not clay 
pot she made. This she fired (t) then in it food 
she put in. Enife bone knife she made. Large stick 
stick inside she hollows out, their plate. Buffalo horn 
pot they put in. There it is soaked they make it, then 
they split it. Cup they made. 

222 Unwenity of Calif omia Publications in Am, AroK and Ethn. [VoL 11 


«!st'9nn6 «agfla <at'ioe (Udilll nidtlwa tsa 
dadHwagd «agi8< tsa Glyiiilla itc'^Lii 

«aGiBno tsa didtlLiI k'asL^a gigitcinna «!t^ii! 
t'l ol ^ ts'in na ta gin niL tsaL 


5 ^oe nas «a oa tcH wa zani diglicsl yis4 

•afioe xanltl* yis«I «at'ioe gSts'l nas^aoa 
yis4 «at^Ioe gtltcaoa nas^aoa iiaGis< gCLtcaoa 
nas'aoa naG!s4 naiJ gtlts'i naclna <aL!ts'ldaLi 
maginica nats^mahi «!tci nas^aoa guts'! 

10 *a gu ni ca da ni ti gtl dja ma gCL n! ca tc'i oe ca 
giidja< y!s< gCLcicatl gtlts'! ^i^kka 

ma gtl ni lin ni 7!s4 yiGl gtlzadi gCLts'I danitcCL 
yi8«I lit'ioe tanak^e yia^ yiwu *Igahali 
haladji yis^ maxayi«aiye yls4 masyiLL'aLi 

16 yis «I di na ti «iB d5 na yDs «I da tcis i yis «I 

d§gahali tcadit'^na yis4 didilli yis^ dinati 
gdts'i yiB4 naclnna gCLts'i yis< mItc'aGa 
<asdja diGinidji gilts'i yis4 taLi^ts'a gtlt'inna 
yis4 dzanagtl halikdwa yis<I dzannagCL 

20 ts'a kH wa yis 4 dzan na gfl ts'i ktl wa yis 4 

dzanagtl •Igahali ts'ikQwa yis< dzanagtl 

mi ts'i Ga ni tctl wa y!s< dzanagtl na dtis zi Ga ten 

yis! maGazinna yis< dzanagQ <its'aGoa 

yis< tsiskagu yis*! tfltctlgii yis4 tanak^csi 

25 cl kaj ji yis •! ts*a Ga k'i yi dji jris «I tea gtiz za Ga 
k'iyidji yis< gtlts'i gtl ci cat! yis<!nna kawa 
gddadlicci yia^ guts'i tc'afaGGa yis«I 

s The suffix -ti is used of primitiye objects and native animals to dis- 
tinguish them from newly introduced ones. 

1915] Goddard: Sarsi Texts 223 


Arrows they made. Then iron was not. Stone 
arrowpoint they made. Stone with sharp they made. 
Stone oval tied on its handle he holds then bones 
he pounds up. 


There Edmonton cattle spotted I saw. There 
buffalo I saw. There afterward houses I saw. There 
east houses I saw again. East houses I saw again. 
Again after that Cree they fought I knew about it. 
Hunting wood corral afterward I knew about. Musket 
very well I knew. Cloth well I saw. I have sense. 
There horses good I saw. Over there far away there 
large gun I saw. The same place boat I saw. Over- 
there white man chief I saw. Flag I saw. Wagon 
I saw. Indians another tribe I saw. (Name of tribe) 
I saw. White man priest I saw. Money I saw. Indians 
from there I saw. Cree from there I saw. His hair 
in the middle parted there I saw. Nez Perc4 tribe 
I saw. Long ago old men I saw. Long ago old women 
I saw. Long ago young women I saw. Long ago white 
women I saw. Long ago donkey I saw. Long ago 
rattlesnake I saw. Long ago birds I saw. Long ago 
wolves I saw. Rivers I saw. Lakes I saw. Boat 
flat I saw. Scalp shirt I saw. Weasel shirt I saw. 
There I have sense. I have seen. Tent painted I saw. 
There sun I saw. 

224 University of California Publications in Am, Areh, and Ethn, [VoL 11 



kawa guts'! kat'ine tarns da la dizahe' 

disL^alla xani yi«I «isLi daGlsL'ula •Iwat'iGi 
xani<i •iniLt'u yiziLoi •Iwa •isii yioa 

naolssut •Iwat*iGi d^GGioisL'u' •Iwat'i xani'i 
5 n^s <aL «a lin ne <i gws, d! Gl la «! wa gtus ti Ga 

minnasga* tutcula' tutakagii na (Urn Gila la 

tcadLsdl tazats'it <igust'lGa minnada dzill^Ga 
nak'us tsitL^a taGistiL nasguwiissi «isnasitda 
ta Gl di <a ts'i m dza 

10 min niG Ga <^ na tas 1411 nl <a La gi t'l ma Ga nl dza 
imda< dlnisdj^cci xaGi^a* tas 1411 ne<i dinl 

dina* cits'! gud!cnaj La dinagisLa ^It'aka 
s! na n! dj! di <!s nil la La yti wtL* tc'a s! n^G Ga diL ga 
d! na g!s La« <a ku <!l n! na kal La* tc'a tcV «! ts'ao Ga ^ 

15 tas i^n ni ma L'a dis ts'! d! n! tc'a ^ gu die naj 
La m^td! «isdQts'! diya ^tc'IdzaGa mils'! 
nakanica "iLnl tc'a«! dl tc'a«I Lat'a' 

taglsdjacla ^tcizgH nuts'! nakanica t'lGl 
«it'aka nits'! 8!tdisdla«a' mltc'^ nlya tc'a«I 

20 *^ n! 

«Iwa tasL^ne* «Ist'a gu die naj La maGa 
SI Gis taL <I guL dti tc'a d! t'a <a t'a^ <asslsn! sinn! z&* 
tc'^t dl nls t'a *a t'a* La siLtldlnlna guwa slglst^LlguL 
La siL tl dl nl na da siLlGlssa «agis<Inneda Lat'a 

25 d! na «I lin na* si l! gIs sa dd gH wa nis *a ha t'a 
tasL^ne*! «IsnI dlna*l tc'a has nil la La dinf 
dinala* sInlGa«I c^stclz «!wat'lGi tc'a«! «a 
gisnl tc'a*! dlsniti lilla nlst'^na disdal 
dz^ na da da nl «I n! du wa tc'a* «! na g! d! la 

30 LlGis«i t'asl«anni tumiL tcltc'a dits'inne* 
ts'aslt'aga maGa da gIIl'u* <iwa La tasL^nnel 
<^ni di^ sit tumiL La «i8 du dl gu t'in na GaGl'aLlguL 
•idtigu tcut'inna za* «aGls«Ig(ila tc'a d! t'a 

nlduwa^a sit tumiL La za* «a tc'a d! t'a «a 

1915] Ooddard: Sarsi Texts 225 



Camp from it man mounted a horse. He hunt he- 
rode. Buffalo he saw. Horse he tied. Then buffalo 
he shot. He killed it. And horse to it he led. Then 
he tied the horse. Then buffalo he cut open. The meat 
he arranged. Then just beside him a lake was. On the- 
shore he had spread the meat. It was hot. Noon just 
above him in the sky cloud small floated. With his- 
head down he was eating then he looked up. 

His food around water serpent lay in a circle. Its- 
forehead its horn blue stuck up. Water serpent this 
man to him he spoke, **My son, may I live. Why 
are you afraid of met*' he said. '*My son, yonder 

thunder is thinking about me. May I live." Thus he said. 
It came down, thunder. Thunder birds water serpent 
around him sat. This thunder spoke, "My son, from him 
some other way go. That I might eat him to him I came- 
down," he said, thunder. These thunders all were- 
blue. ''That I might eat to it I came down. Then 
on that account to you it ran. From it go away," 
thunder said. 

Then water serpent in turn spoke, ''My son, to him 
do not give me. He is not holy. I say I only am holy. 
My son, help me. To him do not give me. My son, 
if you help me, my bag you may have. All people 
who may be my bag not to them I have given. ' ' Water- 
serpent spoke. This thunder he told, "My son, this 
you save my food you may eat. Then thunder, "Yes," 
said. Thunder made a noise with up they went. Already 
food was gone. The thunder took it up. 

The bag was in bottle small hard crow feathers 
over it tied. Then "My son," water serpent said, "this 
my bottle other tribe do not give. Other Sarsi only I let- 

226 University of Calif omia Publications in Am, ArcK and Ethn, [YoL 11 

<l8 dti di gu t'in na situmiLLa ganl«alada tsut'inna 
niduwa gwa gu na ha t'a <!gi li^s sittumlLLa 
mitt'a sa^anna^a^ namlyi dju mit'a'a <its'^Ga 
Lat'a tc'asts'itti mit'a^atV miL tc^djinne 

5 xal ten di dji mi t'a t'a La «a ka tcin na 

«a na ts^ di I^tc ci mlt'a «akatcinna <adila t'lGi 
ts'i d^ na ka tci tc'a ka min nas ga na gi «a 

gwa nis'Ic xa^nlgowa t^Ioi xa tc'is tc'uLtc ^wafioi 
ts'i t'at 

Planting Tobacco 

10 ha gu tc'i diL k'^tc *iwat'iGl ts'itd^naka tcitc'a 
gtlk'a tUniclzna ^a ka na ha ci gis natc •Iwat'i «!tci 
taste! tci iLilla maoa kdtc'idicdi kUts'itda 
td w^L «aL nn na na gi dl djitc si ne gi ni zin na «a di na 
dju nadjic i^nna ^t'a <!sd(lna yinlzina 

15 na tc'itc ka mi k'a ts^ oi y! zit t^ Gi La m^t di 

titc'in^c sit d^ na ka ka <! gikats'a «id(lwut 

<ita nidasi <^tt'a di <a na ts'i di l^tc tci da 
dig! «ats^dila gwagHnili xaGidal gwa gQ nil! 
zaGidaL gwagtlnili Lat'a dina n^nit'tit dina 

20 La t'a na xa Gi na <a t'i g5 wa «a k5 


mi da wflsissat'a mita <! L^a tsi yis t'a dilitcaka 
kamadiwtLt <at'iGi gtl^ tcisk'a sit da la tcusL^a 
LasinistsiL <idiga naGiniLti sis ka ka «a ts'^ Ga 

yi tci tci yi niz zin la *a kd nal ts'i* na dis dja <i tci j gQ 

25 tens L^a <i ta giL t^L mi k'a si gu za ts'iL <aL t'^ si ya 
nazi ni L^a ti Ga tcfl mik'aiya kit da <a tcin nis til la 
«at'iGi <a tcin nis tin ne yik'a nazilla «iskanidaLLa 
li Gi dis cat tci <at^Gi ^iskanid^L^i halitsa<i 

k'asdinna yitsi< «adiGinaLLa tat'aciiilla dinilla 

30 dii yi Ga na Gi naL La di ni <i ts'^ Ga •! dis djin 

k^anidjindi gUdicnajla La k'iGits'i naniya 

cictciz mits'i •isdazdja La mik'a tcistc'itdl 

dani «istcatda*a^ saGa niLta «istcij ylnagiL^in 

s This time of day. 

1915] Goddard: Sarsi Texts 227 

own it. Holy nothing is, my bottle only is holy. Other- 
tribe my bottle if you give Sarsi none will become. This 
bag my bottle inside it lies. Otter too is in it. Birds 
all different kinds are in it. With it they sing large- 
rattles four are inside. My son, tobacco seeds inside. 
Tobacco you sow then boys small mocassins beside it 
stand up make." Autumn then they pull it up. Then 
they smoke it. 

Planting Tobacco 

They burn off the grass. Then boys small over it 
who tread it down run back and forth. Then sticks 
pointed with for it where they make holes they put in- 
seed. The owners they sow. Who wish to those too 
sow. Others in turn other persons who wish to sow it. 
On it they put the dirt then away they move the camp. 
Boys' mocassins their spirits drive away. 

''Father from you it is this that is planted. Here 
this may it grow. Happily may it grow. Happily may- 
it grow. Happily all people may they smoke you. 
People all you look after." This is all thus. 


His horn bent over his father early in the morning 
his horses drove away. Then beside on the hill he sat. 
Squirrel he killed. By himself he laid it down. **My- 
children's birds will eat it," he thought. This time he- 
went home to eat. The squirrel he was holding. Behind- 
him he heard something. He stopped. He stood. Jack- 
rabbit his legs between hid itself. Then where it hid- 
itself over it he stood. Hawk was chasing it. Then 
the hawk the old man nearly his head it touched. 
While flying it sang. Not from it he moved. This 
bird sang. 

When he stopped singing he spoke. ''My son, from it 
move. I will eat it, to it it made me tired. My son, 
from it seven guns you will capture. To me give it. 

228 University of California Publioatiom in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [VoL 11 

nl dza mi t'^ oa <! lil la tcis tcit de da dti wa 

m! tsi« k^ za da gi l'u La t'a <! ts'^o oa ta sin ne za 
tc'a din nis t'a «a «a «i gl ml ts!< k'lz za da g! l'5 nl gi oa 
nil la 

5 nl L'a U oa ted «I <st'a gtldicnaj La mioa 

81 GiL t^L i guL du sa tc'a tl t'a «a «a ma oa si oil taL i guL 
halitsa niL'atioatcu nagisTni nit dza mitca 
i Lil la mi ts'I oa tas tsu wQ nu tsl k^ za da oi l'u la 
sinni t'aoa digi naoa nisLa<a«a maoa 

10 SI oiL t^L 1 gilL si nl t'a oa tcis tc'it di da ni 

«iLtcutda<a^ du sa tc'a di t'a <a «a La nil! tea ka 

sa gl gil l'^l La <a^ 

di ne ha li tsa «i ni L^a ti oa ten •! I Lil la tl di na 
<Twa Tts'aooa^I dju nLtldlnalla dim din^lla 

15 cB teds L'a za ni teiz «is nil la «i wa t*i oi tetis L*a «i 
na distil la «isduts'i i Lil la dist'ai «at'ioi 

halitsa^i ni L'a di oa teu <i <inna kuoiyistilla gutdi 
nadisdjala hall tsa <i nuliteaka tioa haeaenaLLi 
din ni te'a di t*a ti gwa «at dja la 


20 Ladi halitsa Lit'ioi<i* diskaka <aoa tsiz 
«aoa diy^lla teiz <ast'ahi tdtctLoa k'anita 
yioa naoly^la yits'i disduz yioa naoidtiz 
teiz gut'inna* tasi «ate'atdinij gust'ioa «at'ioi 
La din nis ta la 

25 ytlwtL gatsitLala yitsli gtlcUenaj La «it'aka 
dd gimaoa nit'a gimite'at dininidji La 
<igisi nilitteaka naniL^innana gtLn^L«inne 

nidza Lat'a gidilgaila gimlts'ioa diLk^e tazik'a 
nazidi<i Li^si muwtis wtissi diLk^e miga 

80 ni na oi zi d! md kus k'a dil gai ye ted ga tsit La <i 
«^ni diyika «akiyika za tioa gali^LLa^a 
La naoa gdn^nniL^T gdnaoiL^ini nidza kawa 
gdnisdj^na gd dil gai 'ateitL^a ts'a 4s Li tea 
dil gai ye daoitL'd «iwa ni li tea ka oa «a •iwa nini 

85 na oa «a gd dja na oa gd d^t dlie gd la gdL <i wa 

* When used of people means tribe or nation. 

1915] Goddard: Sarai Texts 229 

IwiUeatit." He looked then its feathers with seven 
arrowpoints side of its head were tied. "All birds I 
only I am holy." That side of its head was tied to him 
it gave. 

Jaekrabbit in turn spoke. *'My son, to him do not- 
give me. It is not so holy as I. To it do not give me." 
Old man jaekrabbit he looked at then its tail with 
its ears painted yellow side of its head were tied. **I 
too these to you I will give. To it do not give me. I 
too seven guns you will capture. He is not so holy as I. 
My son, your horses will run like me." 

This old man jaekrabbit with he helped. And 
bird too he helped. "This you save this squirrel 
only you may eat," he said. Then the squirrel betook. 
Another way with it he flew. Then the old man jaek- 
rabbit hole he put in. From it he went home. Old man 
his horses very ran fast. This holy became. 


Another time old man the same his children for 
ducks for them he went. Ducks different kinds at a lake 
he found. To them he came. Toward them he crept. To them 
he crept up. Ducks many among them he aimed just as 
then he fell asleep. 

Yonder white goose to him spoke. ''My son, why 
not them you pity. At them you aimed. My son, 
here your horses look at." He looked at them then all 
were white. Their ears were black. In the middle the- 
one stood left its leg front was black. Beside it 
another stood its mane white large. The goose said, 
''These two horses only very run fast. My son, your- 
tipi look at." He looked then tipi high was white. 
Opposite the door outside horse tail white was tied. 
"And your horses' tipi and you your tipi it is. Your- 
tipi is not painted. And do not paint yourself. Your- 

230 Universiiy of Calif omia PubUoatiom in Am, ArcK and Ethn, [VoL 11 

ta di gi ts'l gu la guL nits'lda za' Laz «!Ltasdlaz 
<Twa nldjonna^a <aku xamik'ana gUtc'Initc 
«a t*! Gl k5 wa 


<akinna •Isgakuwa taoinisda ^isi^kka k'a 

5 ta gin nis da •II k'ai ye Li ka za^ za di d^o oa nl La 
gigidissanl ytlwtl 48X1 tigilL'^L<T k'a tasida 
did^Ga •ilk'aiyega ts'lgilL^^Ll «ilk'aiye ts'idiwtic 
«isMya«I «Ilk'aiye yidissa tc'i g! dl giL L^a 

ha iJ gl di c^tc tea «isLi«I «isdadja <islaya nateigilL'a 

lO'aflGi «Ilk'aiye «isLi«I te'a niL tc'Ol «isii«! 

ta sit ts'a <a t'l gi ma Ga zin na na" ku ts'i Gil L^a 

•il k*ai ye «i nn na •! «aL k*a gQ niL dla guL n^t diL ts'it di 
«aL da na gCL dla «iwa tagH xa gCL lai gl niL k'a mtiwus 
git'I naguniLte'ul k'a na gu nis kai ye yik'a 

15 gu diL tc'lU yi na da na zit di Lil la xa ta la yis tin na 
gi ts'a ga na k'a <i liz 

•ilk'aiye'i ha nil la La da niL tin na din nis na 

c^stsa nits^ nz za Ga di sis sit siGa k'asdinna 
saGa zi sis gin na ka la sin n^ nis «in na na nnnagiLnn 

20 mi da Ga nis kan ne t^ dja ei da ga dit ta La 

(U niskane dudinna ganistiha^a ninne da naGa 
nisti didji dani nLtetlda'a ha ki dji ni tea wQ* 
«^ninaha*a ninanidjadi niskani<i <alla 

«^t Li ts'i d^L di didji dani nLtcflt •iwa 

25 ha ki dji ni tea wtL *^t dja 


dijna «isgaka «aginila <at^iGi tanastsai 
Lastsu iiilla •iwat'iGi miditdlieea guganak'asi 
<iwa gQwusk'asi t'as Axilla tasteij k'a na di ni dli ei 
t'iGi •iwat'iGi ku^nada yicBLdie «iwat'iGi t'as 
80 mi ts'i dis k'an xa gi la gi na L^a yi Ga giL t'i t^ Gi 
ts'atea naGa Ginila^i dani didji dicUt'ani 
digi mit^a ts^gila mi si k'a di ts'in ni Ga 

In eompoundfl na. but when alone 'in na, as in the next line, is used 
for the underground den of an animal. 

1915] Ooddard: Sarsi Texts 231 

blanket only white clay make white with. Then you- 
will be old." Thus the story they tell. This is all. 


Two young men rode. Horses on they rode. Bull 
one only calves many they chased. That one horse 
good runner on he rode. Calf beside bull was running. 
The bull was lowing. The young man bull chased. He- 
ran in front. While he chased it the horse got tired. 
Young man jumped oflf. Then the bull the horse tore- 
open. The horse died. Then wolf 's hole he crawled in. 
The bull the hole tore open. When he came at it again 
he tore it open again. Then three times he tore it open. 
His leg he saw. He tore the ground again. He gored it- 
again. On him he tore it off. Above him while standing 
on his back he was lying. His chest on he urinated. 

The bull said, **My son, I will help you. At first 
at you. I was angry. My son, nearly by me because- 
I killed you look at me. ' ' He looked. On his horns shield 
painted blue was hanging. ''My son, this shield nobody 
I have given. You now to you I will give it. Pour 
guns you will capture. Great chief you will become." 
When he came back the shield he made. When they were- 
fighting four guns he took. Then great chief he- 


Four young men she gave it. Then she painted us 
yellow with. Then its painting along the arms and 
along the legs gunpowder with she painted. When she- 
finished painting us then then above fire she shook it. 
Then gunpowder from it burned. When she had done- 
that across the breast she put it. Then old woman 
to us she gave it. Guns four bullets these in it she put. 
Owl whole skin she wore. Near she sat. Then guns 

282 Unwersity of Calif omia PubUoaiioHB in Am. AreK and Ethn. [Vol. 11 

tsinn^Lt'i gus tea na nisda <!wat'ioi dam didji 
•fiilla mioat'ucU dlt'^ni*! mikanagiki 

du ma xa oi ni ts'It dit'^ni^I hat'a ts'inisk'a cidjaj 

na hi ts'iL t'uL La da mitc'a naL dzti gu la goL dina 

5 SI nis t'l ol ma oa nis 1411 na yti wa wu sa dza na di na 

glligula gi gi ni diL ka da dudlnagistsigQla •atigida<I 

giLtcuzgula dig! mt'udina gwagunila dina 

gi li gu la gi ma lin na niL tis gu la 

^ts'^OGa mitsanatiga nini ^y^niligula 

10 ka ni dai da si na ni ni 


halitsa'i ga^ldl La da dani «iLtcudata <iwa 
La nicina kat'tlnaga siLoa'a Iwa La gutsis 
nii^nni diLtc'uLa^a <!wa La gtlLa ^isi^kka 
ni«!gilla 'iwa La ha kite! «^ninnahat'a ^wa 

15 La din na ni ma tcit djin na dtl ni k! ziL oa 'a ^ wa 
La dl «ididjit'ioi Iwa La aska zuni 
<a gQ t'in ni gilL dtl niLk'a nitta'a dina nil! za^ 
gulasa «iwa La ni djon na «a 'at t'a dinisLahat'a 
•a t'i oa oa '^ niL dis si ni djon 'a t'a 'a t^i oi ko wa 

20 ha gUL di gi ni la 

giziLgini t'ioi naginiLLu saoa oitacU Lat'a 
tasistcai 'ikahalitsiha <!Lilla L^igisi k'asi 

sizsa naga*atciz magQiinni k'asi sinnaoa 

hagitciz «aktLhat'a cictcic ku* nada yidicdicci 

25 ni dza t'as mi tsi dis k'an ha gi lai gi sa oa 

gin niL ti «isLi minna gtloa nisti saoa 

ginniLtidi guts'i ta di gu t'a mi t'a s^ «^«inni 
ta di gil t'a mi t'a k'^niLtaki gns t'i oa naoa 

gin niL ti mitdasi dani «isistcut mitdasi nicina 

30 z^ 01 mit da si *a kin na tsis dis tc'uL mit da si 
guLa ^isL^kka <istcQt mitdaci cicdja mitdasi 
ha ki tci «is Li 

haiyuhu di diltcilzja miLtidininagula ha kite! 
«agina haiyuhu diltcuja halitsanahi ^iiilla 

85 miL ti di ni na gH la dza na di na <! lin ni Lil la 

1915] Goddard: 8arsi Texts 233 

four with when they shot her bullets dropped from her. 
They did not penetrate her. Bullets just on the ground 

When one shoots you from him do not move away. This 
my medicine to them I give in the future long time 
persons will be. What they want they will not fail to get. 
Those things they will capture. Those who smoke this 

vrtll be happy, persons they will live. Their flesh will- 
be strong. 

Bird her head you you be ashamed if you are lying 


The old man when he saw it, ''My scm, this time, 
guns you will capture. And, my son, Cree men 
you will kill. And, my son, scalps many you will take. 
And, my son, many times horses you will steal. And, 
my son, chief you will become. And, my son, people 
your enemies they will not kiU you. And my son, this 
you vrill sing. And my son, even sickness although- 
it is about not on the ground you will lie. You wOl live 
only it will perhaps be. And, my son, you will be old 
as I am ( T). Because of this I am saying it to you. You- 
willbeold." This is aU it said to him. 

When he killed it then he made it. To me when he- 
gave it all over he painted me yellow. White man red paint 
with. Left side my mouth he painted horizontal. Bight 
side my eyes he painted. This is the way he painted me. 
Fire over he shook it then powder from it burned. 
When he had done that to me he gave it. Horse for it 
to him I gave. To me when he gave it from that time 
thirty-five winters I had it. Thirty-five is ended just- 
then to you I give it. From it gun I captured. From it 
Cree I killed. From it two men scalps I took. 
From it many horses I captured. From it I became old. 
From it chief I became. 

Oh, this squirrel help him. Chief he may become. 
Oh, squirrel he is old man when help him. Long time 
he lives then with that help him. Misfortunate without- 

234 University of Calif omia Publications in Am. ArcK and Ethn. [Vol. 11 

^at'ioiiilla miL ti di na gQ la matagtlLl «atcigtLcagu 
dinallgtLla haiyuhu diltcuzja halitsa tsillinnl 
ma oa y! nin m 

haiyuhu dl na tail la hi dlla siLtidinina niclna 

5 dtl cT gl tc'a gu di na gis La hai yfL hu dil tcuz ja sa oa 

nit'a cinadjinawa gl ml dlla gwagunili dInagisLa 


halitsa sit til la nak'CLsk'a dina «!lilla 

halitsa «Ili mitsaoa di^ yits'i nakaniyadi 
has tin na yi ziL oi ha nil la La di g! ml si ka 

10 na oa nis La mi ka tsin nis li ha ta da na oa nis La 
«isduna nits'i ginihalata «isL^ka gtLziLa 
naoa tsin nil lata gtioa gill^L «!wa 'at'lolna 
•amiLnnna tl gwanahata sinna nist'a nak'fLsk'a 
dina «isLinat'a nis tsl ni tctl wti sizzat'a Lat'a 

15 di na La ga I^l na gi ml na gi tc! di gtlL La t'a sis ka ka «a 
•^t da di La «a «^ siL «in na 

misikaiy^oa dim ts'ika da maoa yinilla 
gwagdnili ts'atca «iligCLla ytLwtl tfL damasit^oi 
wtLnasdinna Likaza dikahali kasti <!wa 

20 ni ci na ta La ka za kas ti da ni ni ni kas ti 
niL ka sin nas hi t'ioi nazisslkata Lat'a ^its'iiooa 
nak'usk'a cUna siskaka git'a nisk'a dina 
tad^dli t^oi nadlstcitc nahioa nata sinna da 
•innaoa die cite haiyHhtL gimis^Lti tad^Ldlihi 

25 yd wtL na hi ta ts'i ta sit di dliz z& tea di t'a «a 
wHnat'a dzanagtl gwagunilinni dtLhagQt'a da 
niLk'a gwatagHyiLi Lat'a da niLk'a 

gd ma na dis date gtln^«I dtl niLk'a gwanagHnlLi 
anagHnaha'a 'at'ioaoa tad^LLi liilla gimis^ti 

80 da ta d^L Li na hi ta na hi Lil la ti di na 'a 

•Ita niLtsin nite5wtL dim ts'ika maoagdta 
miLtldininna di misikaiyioa mits'l tea di t'a gd la 
ts'ateaigina di nagiL«inna misikaiyioa ginnahi 
gudja nahala nsi^kka •agdnili «isLagala dju 

85 ti oa ma gu ni li miL ti di ni na 

1915] Goddard: Sarsi TexU 235 

knowing may he live. Oh, squirrel, old man he being 
to him give. 

Oh, being saved alive with help me. Cree never- 
shooting me may I be saved. Oh, squirrel me pity. My- 
relatives with them happily may I live. 


Old man was sleeping. On the sky person it was. 
Old man he was. His hair was white. To him when- 
he came while he slept he killed him. He said, ''My son, 
this owl claws to you I will give. I have not wanted- 
to give it away, this time to you I give it. Some one- 
else from you if he buys it, horses clothes to you 
if he gives to him give it. And those persons will own it. 
Very it will be theirs. I am sky being I am. Big- 
wind my name is. All people who take away do not- 
be afraid of them. All my children they are. It is mighty. 
It is my own. 

Owl's claws this woman now to her you are- 
giving happily old woman she will be. Yonder water 
surrounds the other side one white man I stay with. 
And among Cree one person I stay with. Now you 
I stay with. You call upon me then I will listen to you. 
All birds on the sky beings my children they are. 
On beings you pray then I hear you. For you 
our father above me for you I tell him. Oh, keep on ( T) 
you pray. That our father to praying only is holy. 
In the past long time it was happy. Not like that now 
on earth bad all now on earth I walk around I look- 
at. Not on earth happy it will be. That is why 
you pray with keep on. Now pray our father with- 
you I will help. 

My father, wind great, this woman is poor. 
Help her. These owl 's claws to her let them be holy. 
Old woman may she become. These . your own owl's claws 
for them well she paid. Horses good, saddle too 
very good. Help her. 

236 University of California Publicaiions in Am, Arch, and Etkn. [ VoL 11 

A, First Narrative 

kuzltda ^ama^gtl tazasit i^nnistciki i^nna 
na guB tin di tcut'inna nagugitindl sinni gimits'i 
dlcicc^tdi sinnada «atca «is^anidaL <!wa 

^ts^Ldiskasi zillaoa na gi di na t'a La dti gim mis tc^L a 
5 si ts'i na ka gil La si ts^ gu za siL a oa «! na gis «! n! 
ni dza g! mi gis <f tsa gi mi ni g! na dis sis 'a 

gi mi nis tsill^ SI sika gatagidilLa yiiwtL sitdika 
sill^ssi niLt'a gist'ail tag& siiilla na^ditcij 
miL didjitsi niLt'^ giLt'ai gtL satsi dugimmistsa 

10 gwa gi tea «a k'a na gi caL na gQ ti na ts'i gd wa 
nadicicca gfbstioa sik'a gidilLa «l8g^mdaL«i 
maoa guiinik'asi sizz^onmiLa gadacUcnij <wa 
<as tc^L diL k^c ci su k'us ka da Ga da die nij gu dli ta 

15 «at'iGikowa ta sis tsa gtlzatsi niLt'a sikistilla 
n^ si giL di gi sit di na gis sit di gwa tei gu ni ea dz^ na 
gu te'a ki nit tsa ni na gd cie dja ni na cie dja na gi dis ti ei 
nidza 'ak'a simmaoa Ligidit'acla nagtitina 
•its'i dieieea «at'iGina «iguLi gimin^L^i 

20 gi ni tsa k'as di na si lil la na ka na gi di tsit 

«a t'i 0i ko wa na di gis e^t ti ha gu t'a di dji djin nis si 
sai gi tan gu za sa oa kwi yi Ga sis da 

guLi sinada gidini gimidistcie Luk'a ka 
dicieeadi tdgiLa sinnasga Luk'a sinnasga 

25 na giL haL ha na gi La di lu k'a <! ni n^ nis ti di da tsa < 
gihadadistsi sistidi «iL'igi gimigis^I hassisgini 
nitsit'a miL nanitsitdi naGa gininiti «It'aka 
tsa «iLilla nahinnisaLi dtihanalala tiGa miL 
na tsit tsit di na 6a yi gi niL a 

B, Second Narrative 

30 ukagidiLLati ninagissitdi ta sis tsa siga 

gin nis da nitetiwii «its'^Ga hasiLni cUgi 

sikagana «^niL«I maGayinagula yiiwu dzana 
di na ni li gii la ha lit tsa <^ ni na ha «a du ma t'a gu La «a 
digi naGa nis La tiGa tea di fata midatsi 

1915] Goddard: Sarsi Texts 237 


A. First Narrative 

Before last summer noon fence some when they- 
were working at Sarsi where they were working I to them 
when I was going above me it was (a hawk) and (a hawk) 
above me were flying around. I did not see them. To me 
they came down. To me I heard them coming. I looked- 
around then I saw them. Stone for them I picked up. 
I threw at them. Over me they skimmed. Yonder west 
upwards up they flew. Three times with me they came 
when fourth time up they flew. Far I could not see- 
them they became. Still I walked down. Those working 
near them I was coming just as on me it lit, ^Isg^nnidai. 
To it right side my shoulder it put its claws in. Then 
^^stc^LdiLkacci back of my neck he put its claws in. The- 
blood flowed. 

After that I was dead. Far up they took me. When- 
they let me fall down ; when I fell I did not know anything. 
Long time afterwards I came to my senses. I got up. 
I look around then still around me they were circling. 
Those working to them I went. They too were looking- 
at them. Among them nearly with me they came down. 

After that I felt rather crazy. Four days with me ( T) 
all the time ( f ) my tipi inside I sat even above me 
screaming I heard them. Fish for when I went I went- 
in water beside me flsh beside me it threw. When it- 
came out fish when I brought back everybody saw 
where it put its claws. While I slept at night I saw them. 
They said to me, ''Your body with it our strength to you 
we give. Why stone with did you throw at us T If you- 
had not done that very with strength to you wewould- 
have given." 

B. Second Narrative 

They picked me up. Where I fell, I fainted. By me 
they sat. Big one bird said to me: ''These my claws 
you may have. Take care of them. Then long time you- 
will live. Old man you will become. Not bad these 
to you I give. Very they are holy. Prom them I am- 

238 Unwertity of Calif omia PublicatioHB in Am, Arch, and Ethn. [VoL 11 

dina^TsiJna^a sin! gtlLi da nikadagisLi dtl 
gtldja naoa ginisnidji ni tsi na ti oa ha maguLini 
k'asi da^L^ugdla L^iki «l8ganIdaL«! «iat'a 
ham ytLwtl Li 7a naoa gigimdji Lit'ioi 

5 na hi giL «in na 'a <! 01 na hil la «a dl da na oa 
mfgfnicmtc cU dat'a ts'innlLk'a wtLda 

mag&catca*a <Iwa tloa dzana cU na ni lin na «a 
dat'a manlsdata mdQwaha'a dig! Lat'a 

•^Lt'ah! ^Its'^oa siskaka'a min^gadlskata 

10 dtl d! n^s ts! ta «a wu sa gH n! n! 7a gQ la «is gam d^i. 
saL t'an na s! g!L q^l ! gClL g! mi s! 8!s a! la da s! ka ga na 
naoa n!nad!sLa*a <! ts'^ oa tctl <! Lak'a<! ^Ist'a 
hanl sinn! djfL saLt'^na s! sis 01 da s!kag^nna 
ninnadisLa^a TiLwawtlsa d!g! naoa n!oa<! 

15 ma oa g! na gil la ^Is dtl na ha nil la da ha g! la min na 
naoa t8!g!g!n! 'at'lolna maoa g!n!lana wtLsa 
dz^ na d! na g! U na «a g! m! n^ «! gu la sa *a t'! 0! ko wa 
n! ts'! k'a gu na naj 


<!ta na g! nis l5 na 'a 7!l g&las! t'lo! «isL! 

20L^kaza mina natc!g!Ln!c mo!na jatca dQ 

mliilla «aha tcltc! n! Lata 'a LagtL za* niclna 

j^ttca miLilla dlsistsit mitsisk'izza disistc'ul 

di j gti ml z! sis gQt gtl nis na is t'! oa miL dis ma 

cUg! slm^ssa «akagu «isL^kka miL nstctlt 

25 na cU s! dal d! *is la miL na ois tcQt La d! na d! sis ma d! 

«a kin na miL na d! nil s! «a k! 7! m^s ^^t t'a 

L!kizza tsinnisk'a nagisc!cnio <ist'a na sis t! naoa 

•!ta naginiLLQ millad!kad! das! giL tcill^s! 

ta d! dli h! Lil la sa «aoina*a da cic tcltc! t'io! 

80 gu guL •! «! Lil la s! n! oai 

mist'ut! <!Lilla tadldl! gwagdmU s!oa 

wUsa dlnaUgdla s!n!st'!oa mioa nisist!na«a 
d! g! ma oa g! nis 'a 

millacUkad! saoa gin!*^na*a «af!o! das! 
85 na n! sis I4n na 'a 

gwagtiml! dInagisLa c!nadj!na nagistsan 

1915] Goddard: Sarsi Texts 239 

living. I although ( T) now I am sorry for you. Not 
good to you gift (T). Your dancing hat right side 
tie it on." The other one hawk in turn said: ''That 
my friend to you he gave the same we two own. Those 
are ours. These now to you I give this all on earth 
soon you will learn. And very long time you will live. 
Things I cannot do there is none. These all different- 
kinds birds are my children. The one I want I do not- 
lose. In the future be wise. Hawk like me do not kill. 
If you kill them my claws from you I will take away." 
The large bird, the other one in his turn said : ''I too 
like me if you kill my claws I will take away. In the- 
future these you we give take care of. Another person 
if you give you may do it. For it to you he gives some- 
thing. That person to him you give it in the future 
long time he will live. I will look at him. Here to you 
we finish talking." 


My father made it. With he gives it then horse 
one for it they offer. Cree dead body not with it 
back ( T) in vain he runs. Once only Cree dead body 
with it I ran up. One side of its scalp I tore. Four times 
his back I stabbed. Ten times with it I went to war. 
This my knife twice horses with I captured. When- 
we went home horse with it I captured again. Another- 
time when I went to war two men with it we killed. 
Two knives used to be. One on the ground I offered 
bad because I dreamed. My father made it. Bear 
from with it toward sky praying to me he gave it. 
He painted me then the knife with he threw at me. 

Pipe with he prayed. ** Happily my son in the- 
future may he live. By myself of it I dreamed this 
to him I give." 

Bear to me he gave it. That from I made it. 

"Happily may I live. My relatives may I see again." 

240 University of Calif omia Publicatiana in Am, ArcK and Ethn. [Vol. 11 


ginnioa naginiLLu sinnis LidiL^cdl ga*! 
fwat'iGi tasittsa din! gfnioa tsakusiggaci 
hanilla La dan! «!Lilla dihagtiyisa 

ni tsiL t'uL La da hagilLada mkigltca za hadikatda^a 
5 ni ni nl lin na du ha di ka da «a n! na m y^t dl «a gi la 
dismadl saoa yista ha sis n! naaa nista 
ni ts'i guB tin na gugunatcitsi diya di«^nlL«! 

ml! tea minna saaa niLta 

sisLasaka Lat'a yiduwa sinn! za <ak*a 

10 gis na sa aa tciL ta d! La t'a ka t'u na ga ku g! dal 
tc!nn^L<! s!m ginnaoa ^iiilla «atcitL'a sada 
^datcinicuL <!t'!oi cltcana za din! glnaoa 
tasistsQ saoamtsa La da miL gwatsisL^u 

slganak'as! mk^ka tatcistclz «!kahal! tsaha 

15 < Lil la s!s z^m miL a *a ka t'a m! na sa oa ta ka k'a 
yln^ooa k'a tanadilsitdl dikasitda saoamka 
tea t^G oa d! ka sit da 

m!nasa n! sis da natsinnaL<! ma na d! n! teu dj! 
dizaka giteaz y!*aL «!wa naL«! «!Ln! Lat'a 

20 na tsin n^L < d! g! tsu ! gtlL sil la ns tetl d! za ka 
gtlts'! silaL^^ka nag! gis k^ dldilt'^n! taglssilla 
sil la «aLan!g!steu ha sis n! diLna sizzaka 

g!yi*^n! te!te! d!sna g! m! sis t'! o! gtlL «!dinni 
zSl nagldlLn! y!G!nna «iLdiLoin k'amdjin! 

25 ha sis ne na ma teit djin na ^^ ka d! ha gtl g!s sa da n! 

nits'! dtlxaLat'a^a hag!lLada du nil linn! 

had!kata<a ha ta n! djon na «a siLn! 'at'Io! gimoa 

•a Lam Laiyaka katsisoa sinn! za dae!edja 

<! g!s «!n n! gH had!n!«! gu ha nl nista d!n! g!djon 

30 (Repeated as follows : ytL wti n! gis «in n! <! wa da gu oa 
nin nis ta di n! g! djon) 

ginna cadln!*! 'at'lo! daglsL'u 

1915] Goddard: Sarsi Texts 241 


My older brother made it. Daytime when he was- 
riding around he saw it. Then he fainted. This my- 
brother weasel said, '*My son, gun with short dis- 
tance if he is shooting if it comes out your coat only 
it will enter. Your flesh it will not enter." When he- 
came back he made it. When I was going to war to me 
he gave it. He said to me, * * To you I will give it. I do- 
not want to lose you. Dreadful place you are going. This 
you may have. Your horse for it to me give. ' ' 

My friends all are not. I only still I live. To me 
when he gave it all men came in. They looked on. I 
my brother with him back of fire we sat. I took oflf my- 
dothes then my breech cloth only this my brother 
painted me yellow. My front hair in the middle ( T) with it 
he tied it. Along my arm its tracks he painted red. 
White man's paint with my shoulders both its holes, 
on my chest moon still when it is new he painted. 
On my back sun he painted. 

In front of him I sat. They were looking at us. (A grass) 
in his mouth he put. He chewed it. Then, **Look," 
he said. All looked at us. **This do not let go." My- 
hands he held. His mouth from my palm he threw 
bullet. It was hot. My hands he held together. He- 
told me, * ' Swallow it. ' ' My mouth when I put it in vain 
I tried to swallow, although I tried. He himself cmly 
could swallow it. Its song he sang. When he finished- 
singing he said to me, ''Your enemy even short distance 
gun at you will not wound you. If it shoots not your- 
fiesh it will enter. You will become old," he said to me. 
Then my brother said truly. My friends are all killed. 
I only I am old. 

As when I first saw you you told me I will give you- 
away. This person will be old. 

That place I saw you then now to him I will give- 
you away. This person will be old. 

My brother, where you said there, I will tie it. 

242 Untvertity of Calif omia PublicaiioHB in Am. ArcK and Ethn, [ VoL 11 


ttltctLoa tsatctlka yiga tc^zill •^ladi yiga 
n^ttac dldji djinnissi yi^ yitta tCL dtlt^nni 
dtLtcItc! <!iilla tagfzit tsa<! hanilla La 
naoast'a dit'aka siga n^nitatci ^isklya^ 
5 ha nil la «! ta^ ha li tsa 'a tcin na sa oa gin nin nl 
ha kite! 'atsinna saoa gfninni •at'ioi *aki 
«aka niga nat^tc tca< hanilla gunlya La 
halitsa f^nlnaha^a hakitci '^nlnaha^a 

tcistcitdi dan! nLtctLt La sillinna '^niL^Inna 
10 La sin na 'a si z! tsa ta gal gai di d! t'^ nl n! ka 
nakag&la naoast'a si^ nanitaci 

tsa f^nl*! has! hadja ha kite! nitcawa 
•adja halitsa 'adja tcistcitdi dan! nLtctlt 
sist'tL t'lo! didit'^n! m!ka naka 


15 Laoadistsi «!wat'iG! sisziso! Liklzan! dzinnis<! 
ta sis tsa la <!wa kawa ktLyloa sis da la •at'io! 
kat'lni '^ssisn! naoada dakdwa ciwat'ioi saoa 
disdjin «!wa nagtldlkaila nag&sisdjaLa *isLi 
mika tasisda nldQwaLa «isLig^la si sit da 

20 ffl ki gi tea sis La i^ ka La t'a ni da wa La 


tsa xani k'at'Ine mits'ayika «akinna 

ma ta nas din na ts'idatsa ta sin na la gtL ku'ts'i cUya 
li Lilla kwala* «iwat'iGe tc^djinla mlnasga 
yidists'ala yit'ioi tc'idjinni gtits'i cUyalla tsa 

25 xa n! na di <a la dl ti ^ la yi djin ni xa ni cU tci 
xani nas^aoa «a ts'is *in m dl tc'itclzdji niduwala 
dim ts'ika ninadja nagUdlgai xan! ntduw5* 
kudaLLi yisnila xani gidiL «isn!la <Iwat'ioe 
tsa xani^i nani'ala yi djin la xani kuyidalla 

30nascaGagai tadinists'is din! ts'idatsa tasinna<! 
k'at'inni yiaanlsda^ «! wat'ioe yiwii' ts'ika 

1915] Goddard: Sarsi Tfixts 243 


At a lake large rock beside it sweat-house when he- 
made beside it he slept. Four days by it he slept. 
Water he did not drink. He did not eat when he 
became thin. The stone said, *'My son, I pity you. 
Why beside me do you sleep T" The young man said, 
**My father, old man being me give. Chief being me 
give. These two for them by you I sleep." The stone 
said, ** You are wise, my son. Old man you will become. 
Chief you will become. Seven guns you will capture. 
My son, my flesh you may have. My son, it is I. My- 
name 'stone goes in the water.' Bullets from you 
will fall off. I pity you, beside me because you slept. ' ' 

Stone what it said so it happened. Chief great 
he became. Old man he became. Seven guns he cap- 
tured. One shot him then bullets from him fell off. 


Evening (f). Then I was killed. One day I was- 
dead. Then tipi inside I was sitting. Then man 
told me your tipi this tipi. Then for me he sang. 
Then it was morning. I woke up. Horse on it I was- 
riding was gone, saddle, my blanket, my coat, my- 
leggings, my moccasins, all were gone. 


Stone buffalo. Man his wives two. The opposite- 
side girl poor for wood she went. Dog with she- 
got it. Then some one singing close to her she heard. 
That place some one singing to it she went. Stone 
buffalo she picked up. It was this was singing. Buffalo 
wood buffalo corral where they made what they ate 
was none. This girl came back. ''At dawn buffalo 
you drive they will go in," she said. "Buffalo are- 
coming," she said. Then stone buffalo she put down. 
She sang. Buffalo went in. Corral they filled. This 
girl poor man he married. Then that one girl 

244 University of California Publioationa in Am, Arch, and Eihn, [Vol. 11 

nitcdwtli miL'aoa Lad! da •at'ioi guts^ yidjinnl 
t'lQi xani kudiLtc yidjinnl t'ioi nit^ai 
guts'i xani niLa 'agudja «at'iGe gats^ xani 
kudaL gwagddja yigi ts'lka das! tsa xani 
5 yi oin na yi gin ni t'i oi 


halitsa gidtlwa sinni magunicani kamak'a 
Lididacci ctlL'ata* nlyalla 'at'ioi nats'izzi 
gwa<la halitsa mitsaoa digucaoa nagddatizla 
<!oi cdL'ata halitsa gwadjagi La sinna^a ctiL^a 
10 mi tis sa na gin na gi <in di otL L^a gu ni na di oi *a la 
La saninaha'a halitsa tcitc'a gwaninaha«a 
cQL'a halitsa 'adja xanadtLcca 'a dj^k gi t'i ol 
za' yi dti wa 

^Heracleum lanatum, Michz. 


Goddard: Sarai Texts 


elder her place she sat. Then after that she sang 
then buffalo used to go in, she sang. Then after that 
buffalo plentiful became. Then after that buffalo 
came in it became. That girl from her stone buffalo 
its song they sang. 


Old man has died, I I knew on the prairie he was- 
wandering in the wild parsnip he went in. Then one- 
standing he saw. Old man his hair very white he- 
was leaning on a cane. There among the wild parsnip 
old man he had become. "My son, it is I, Parsnip 
its cane." When he looked again parsnip like it stood- 
again. ''My son, like me you will be. Old man small 
you will be." Parsnip old man he became. He was- 
crawling out when he became only he died. 

246 Univeriiiy of Calif omia Publieatians in Am. ArcK and Bihn. [YoL 11 



y^wQ dz^na halitsa tc'agiLc^Ga mizza«la 
gunisn^nna miskaka Lat'a ts'it don na^ <l8t'^ni 
guGa Lat'a <alla k'ast'a catcloa dadaoilL^u^ 
<9S m ts*! gOs ts'n wa <aoa ^Its'inna <!tcldanf 

5 <a 1^ la yi oa cas tsi sit L'a lun na t'i Gi ^^ yi Ga 
«^l^la Lat'a k'as«! kanagigi<at guGa Ginila 
xasadaL ^iLnilla <!8gaka< xagigidaLiI t'iGi 
k'as Lai yi Ga giL t'l halitsa^ <!dlni djtL 

diLt'^na k'ast'a LaiG!gaLlJ halitsa*! L^a Ga na tc'is tc'i 

10 gu m ts'l na nl ya mis ka ka < gi gi ni ts'l xa na to'is tsis se 
naginldalla^ halitsa^ ha nil la «aiJsid^LLa*a 

cfts'aha ^asts'a siLdiltsHt sinni nahlst'tL <wa 
nani dtL na his tc'a ^ saGa naGili^nna i to! dam 
1 Lil la Las SI s! GaL xaL I <! ts'a ha < «!^ jiL dji lil la 

15 ^ wa < tc! da ni i lil la giL dis tsit yi Ga na dis La ti 
gusfiGa yigana zana «idis8i halitsa^ hagiisnilla 
tinniya^ dtl <at da din ni dla tigiy^la nistilla 

<aL ts'Is din na gigiiilla gidiltsitda t'lGl giLwadassi 
Li k'u yi Ga na ga niL t'tL 

20 <9S nit ts'i gus ts'fl wa za* k'a na zit ha U tsa < 
yits'i giLnaLLa ha nil la sa Gil Gfhi ni giLL sinni 
djtL nist'tLha<a' ts'itda^i <a <Isnilla ditcidani 
taditanni Lil la <ask'anadao yiyiLiiiilla «iwa 
giL diL tsit yissihiguL GakagilL'a itcidani iiilla 

25 na GiL gil «i t'a ka dH ha 14L La na hi si hi guL < t'a ka 
halitsa ts'isd^GGa danatc'ati hai^LLa halitsa 
nagisnaLLa «as ni ts'i gOs ts'u wa «ila «is tout di lil la 
LiGidictij yiGa «anit'i data gil la ha ki tci ni ten wti' 
<isnilla «iLt'^ni gHwa xanigilla nadad^L 

30 «iL ni kii na gi Gi da la La gi niL taz «a t'i Gi ^ l'^ Gi 
ginlLtazdi tata^diditsaLLa gimita ha gi miL nil la 
ha t'a B9S ts'it ts'i la ta di das tsa giL 

1915] Qoddard: Sarsi Texts 247 



Over there long ago old man Tcaguc^Goa was his- 
name. Ten hia children, all boys. Arrows for them 
all he made. Quivers tipi i>oles ( t) he tied on. The- 
youngest for him bone bow he made. For him bears- 
head small like a hat for him he made. All quivers 
when he untied to them he gave them. **Let us go out," 
he said. The young men went out then quivers they- 
tied on. The old man himself too his arrows in quiver 
he tied on. The old man west toward he stood. His sons 
towards him east they stood. The old man spoke, 
**We are going to fight each other. The oldest first will- 
attack me. I will shoot you. And you when I do not- 
hit to me who runs up bow with he may club me- 
down." The oldest shouting with and bow with 
attacked him. To him as he was coming just then his arm 
through he shot. The old man said to him, ''Walk away. 
You are not strong.'* He walked away. He lay down. One- 
after another with them when be fought then he hit- 
them. Nine he shot. 

The youngest only still stood. The old man to him 
spoke. He said, ''You will not care for me. I too will- 
shoot you.'* The boy, "Yes,*' said. His bow taking up 
with he walked back and forth while shooting. Then 
he attacked him. Although he shot him he ran to him. 

Bow with he clubbed Imn. "Why did you do thatt 
Even if he was shooting at you, why old man like that 
when he shot you you do thatt" Old man when he came- 
to his senses the youngest his hands while he held he led- 
him around. Of him he was proud. "This one great- 
chief," he said. Arrows for them he took out. "Let- 
us go home, " he said. They went in. They lay down. Then 
in the night when they were lying they were groaning. 
Their father said to them, "Why you have not boils 
do you groant" 

248 Univertiiy of California PublieaiioTis in Am, Arch, and Eihn, [VoL 11 

•at'lGi guts'i tc'asdinna nicina iiilla 

naiigildiLtc «as ni tsl gOg ts'a wa «i nicina ^tcudi 
t'lGi tsiL iLilla za' La si da gus tsaL hat'inni 
dzana nicina Las si das tsaL hanidanidza 

5 «as ni ts*! g^ ts'u wa «i ga ti Gis mai gim mit ta gi ma 
za gis da <at'iGi nicina gimik'acGa* dzana 
tcitci ninagidaLLa ^wat'iGl gimmita gimm^kka 
diya nicinaGa naGiyalla halitsa hat'anit'i 
•ists'inilla siskaka «aka daca«a hasts'innilla 

10 da gtlL du wa ha tc'a gH c^ Ga mis ka ka La t'a 
gaGa halitsa'i ha nil la <a gwa gu ni lin na ka 
<aginniLala <at1[Gi gunisn^ni nicina yiGala 
mis ka ka <a gi ni t V 

nadisdjala di ts'ai ya ts'i kanagidja ha nil la 

IS ts'a tea na bis ka ka La t'a ts'i Gi Ga^ «i wa si ni 
gtinisn^na nicina yisGa* mits'aiya<i ha nil la 
halitsa da< za na ts'i zis Ga la halitsa«i xaGiy^la 
«itcita niy^la kuk'a •adagdla Lat'a «itcita 
ka nidasilla gadi kQnagidjala ha nil la yuwa 

20 da dil tsa dl i tci ta na ni na* dtL na gi zis Ga <a •i wa 
mits'aiya «at'iGi naninala Lat'a nicina«i 

m^ka ts'idlsdala maGa Li xastiLla ts'a«!lla 
mi«i L'aiyik'a tsit din niL tsil la «iL'aiGid& mits'i 
sitdldaLla •at'iGi «iL'aiGi halitsa«i kuk'a 

25 <a ta ga lai gi ka Lit ta di gi 1^ la La t'a di li tea ka 
da da gis L'a la La fa itci«i «akanidi hasdaganaLLa 
<at'iGi nicina«i ha nil la kawa gaLa nadad^L 
^ nil la gimaGa tsaztsit i^nnisa glGinizinni 
<a t'i Gi La na gi dis yiz <a t'i Gi «i L'a tsi ha li tsa <i 

30 ni ci na ka k'a ga wa na gi y^ la na dis dja la 

kanagiya dits'aya has nil la «^n nlL dis si da nicina 
Lana giszisla <at'iGi dinagilila gadja 

Li gi di n^c 

<9t tsin niL t'^n na <i <atdi nsdana tcistc'inna 

35 sit d^ na n^t cUt dis dai gi di ma t'i Gi ni na gi daL Li 
t'iGi kadaL g^Ginits'i kagaginij giGini«ahaka 
tcitci giGini<aLLa *ita* «idalt'a ts'i dad^L 
<Iszi<agitta '^lllni nanaG^LLaL <at'iGi nagina 

1915] Goddard: Sarsi Texts 249 

Then after that by themselves Cree with theywent- 
to fight. The youngest Cree when he caught then axe 
with only he knocked him down. He did that long time 
Cree he knocked down. After a while the youngest led- 
the war party. Their father, their mother only stayed. 
Then Cree killed them. Long time not they were- 
coming back. Then their father for them went. Cree- 
camp he came. *'01d man, what do you want!" they- 
asked. ' * My sons for them I came. ' ' They said, * ' Here 
Dear Tcaguc^Goa his sons all were killed." The old- 
man said, ''Yes, well you did to them." Then ten 
Cree he killed, his boys as many. 

He went home. To his wife he went in. He said, 
**01d woman, our children all they have killed, but 
I ten Cree I killed." His wife said, "Old man 
this time only they will kill us." Old man went out. 
In the brush he went. Camp ground he fixed. All 
brush firewood he placed about. From it he went in. 
He said, ''Yonder in the middle in the brush put the- 
tipi. They will not kill us." Then his wife there moved- 
the tipi. All the Cree for them came. His tipi smoke 
coming out they saw. This side of him where he could- 
not see they stopped. At night to him they went. Then 
that night the old man fireplaces which he had made 
fires he lighted. All his dogs he tied up. All 
the trees were lighted up. He kept talking loud. Then 
the Cree said, "Tipis are many. Let us go home," 
they said. Of him they were afraid. There were many 
they thought. Then those they ran home. Then next- 
morning the old man Cree camp place to it he went. 
He went back. He went in. His wife he said to, "As I- 
toldyou Cree those ran home.'* Then they were save^. 
Well they camped about. 

Those who were killed after them others seven bo3rs 
were bom. They went to hunt. Then they came back 
then lies to him they told. They tried to fool him. 
In vain they tried to fool him. "Father we shoot to 
we are going. Where we kill meat we will put there then 

250 University of Calif onUa PubUeatians in Am. Arch, and Ethn, [YoL 11 

halitsa«! <a ^ nil la gidisdala tcatciga 

«igi8iLgila halltsa^ m^ti za ga nan^cla 
gQllLtfi za^ <!dala '^tt'agtl gay^naka 

haiginilla nahita hascUnf m^stfl^ '^lllnl 

6 na nal oa gu Ul ttL dju <a t'l o! m! ga da ni gi nil la 
mnaginldaldi digita ^naoa gfdiglni «aLitt'a 
giGlnioI<al halitsa^ <a <isnilla nlt'iol nagisna 
<!wat^Gi nanlna «alin! silla ^ts'! ganan^Ldi 
dam«!ga nag! git da miskaka*! hag! nil la da^^ttV 

10 ha li tsa «! ha nil la ha t'a m^ ti ha t'a d^L ni ! 
guliLtH*! «asdaga dl L^uk'a ttL «aLdan! 
•ats^n^tda sImg^L«ai <isni <!wa Lat'a ditcl 
gH li ^! dl 018 stLz halitsa<! ha nil la Lat'a '^llinn! 
«!k'a IgtiLi ^aLt'^ «Iwa Lat'a k'anitt'a 

15 gi g! oa nis tctlt La t'a «a ol niL t'a La t'a <is tciz 
di s! «i da na n^L La 

miga nagisinilla <a gi di di n^L t'aL ! gust^oa 
mfk'asatctl ^agln^L hasna«a dl^ana tadidiLnis 
giLilla «! ts'a oa t'ak ka disn!* miskaka haiglLnilla 

20 dfl ts'is na di gwa t'l oI «i ts'aa oa t'a ka ts'it d! nil la 
dan!<! <^niLt'agi gOflt'ioa ^tc^zlgtl gwadi 
nat'ai dzill^id dtL g! giis tsa ktl nanlt'ai 'at'lol 
din! za^ g!gizists'! siskaka maka nadlgaLt'ad! 
d! na dfl oas t'a gd la sa 


25 dzanagd sinne <ita m!ta <at'iG! tc'adita 
mats'innala mioa tsitL'a m! tea na oa zu la dits'itda 
kagisdla k'anlt'attsi L!G!G!cn!c didaoaka tdtL^a 
gu8!t'ala* m!oa g^tt8^t didj! djinnis! hag! la 
mloa g!Lna* dtLwtls k'agiLtctlz dit'ann! t'^oa 

80 iL dtL wtLs k'a n! t'az mu wus «! dz^ z! wu8 gwa dja 
ts'!ka oa ginlta «98 tc'^ niL t8^L gisnilla *!wa 
<9 ts'^t ts! giL tail mloa ha oi ts'in ni ta g^nagtldita! 
g^tdlnisda Lat'a g!gitci8ga 14m ma gi o! dis ta 

du «a gi g! niL ta ^wat^o! maoa nai g! ts'in m ta ts'itdi 

85 gi k'a giL ka mu wlla k'a na t'a ka na dl dU ^az 

1916] Goddard: SarH Texts 251 

we will move there. " The old man, ''Yes," he said. They- 
went. Beside Cottonwood they killed. "The old man 
willow only by he camps, slough water only he- 
drinks. Let us see he is wise," they said. "Our father 
we will tell, 'Beside willow tree meat we put. Slough- 
water too there by it food,' " they said. 

When they came back their father to him they said it. 
At last they fooled him. The old man "Yes," said. 
"Over there I will camp." Then he moved camp. Meat 
lies to it when they moved, to the food they came. 
His boys said, "This is the place." The old man said, 
"Where willow tree where you spoke oft . Slough water 
where is itt This prairie water do you meanf At last ( t) 
you fooled me," he said. Then all wood he put on the- 
fire. The old man said, "All meat fat even cook." 
Then all was cooked. To him they gave it. All he ate. 
"All I will eat, I said. Here put it." 

Beside him they put it. He had nearly eaten it then 
his neck large became. While he ate his arms he lifted 
with bird like he sang. His boys said, "Not you eat 
while bird like you sing." The food when he had eaten 
just then like a hawk from them he flew. To the sky 
where they could not see him he flew up. Then singing 
only they heard. "My children on account of it you- 
acted foolishly people I will not pity. ' ' 


Long ago I my father his father then was holy. 
There was famine. His son small was hungry. His blanket 
foot skin he cut off. He put it in the Are. Calf's foot small 
it was cooked. His son ate it. Four days he did this. 
His son ate it. His leg he covered. Hawk feathers 
with his leg he cut off. His leg deer leg became. 
Woman to her he gave it. "Chop it in half," he said. 
Then she chopped it in half. His son she gave it. He- 
ate the marrow. He had enough. All ate. They passed- 
it around. They did not eat all of it. Then to him they- 
gave it back. Blanket on it he put. His leg as before 
he put out again. 

252 University of California Puhlieations in Am. ArcK and Bthn, [YoL 11 

tc'at'inni niclna gidists'ala Lakaza nicina 
halitsa l'u Ganatala l'u <iLilla <!mLt'u 
ma gu dis dla ti didj! dzinnisn gust'iGa taioiswuts 
dis dj^c gwa dja mi na* dji na ha giL nil la «! t'a ka 
5 di n^ m la ha ka gim mi nil tl ha nil la ts'a ku tl oa 
Lidastls ku< nadiliat! iJlla I d! d! d^t L'ic 

xaglya LidlGlya k1i< miLdisnflc li taoigaL 
nidflwa gu ts'i L^a ts^n na gOs t'loa kata takanacidja 
milinna«i kanat'a dtlmaguiUla <asda nadja 

10 ma na gH dis La d! djI djin nis si ka wa dij gn 

Li di gi ya <aL da na t'itc ma na gH di dl^ ci <a t'i Gi ka wa 
dtL gH dja <U dla du gu Ga ylL nl 

gtidisGaldi mitts'aiya ha giL nil la yuwQ halitsa 
mits'I dica miga nista gddja <a na nin na ha ka 

15 ha nil la ha nl nas s! gi ts^ kfL gi y^l la ha ll tsa «i 
ha nil la hat'a nidjagH ts^ka'T ha nil la niga 
nistagti nits'! dicica ^L^ats! sikalats'i na dis dja 
sTkala gUdja nan! la halitsa^ <a <isnilla 
halitsa*! <isL! magtinllinne <!wa gusiLLa djtL 

20 gu Ga nil la ha nil la da na d! dja ni ka la d! n^ la 
ninlyad! mikala gUdja nadja la 

din! kat'inn!«! L^aiylka ^zzagadlssit xan! 
«al yi wa I Lil la I niL t'tL <ai yu wa gi tsa da ta ts'a 
<isnilla hall tsa «i l'u I Lil la dina haL in nl gtl d! nitc 

25 ts'^ n^L dl xa ni ts'is sis gl dl ns ga ktl wa haL nil la 
•aiyfiwa «istc!dj! k'an^Lgls saGa hagigil^la 
«aiyuwa diLnlk'l mitsaGa «Its'innaga mItsaGa 
taglnlkai <at'lGi La tasts'a halitsa^ maGa 
Lat'a l! gQ ts'is sin la <Itc!ta miL'fLwa Iiilla 

30 <a na ts'it dis xal 


tcQt'innala mizzi m^smlkaltfini kagudlcUylsnala 

ma tsin na <a t'l Gis sin na gH gis Laj la kH tsl g! da la 

ha nil la Lat'a han^Ld^L nahidan! t'assa da 

•Itclt'a nica 'aflGl guts'! dinldjigtl kawa 

35 gtl mai ya tcit dis La «! wa sas t'Qt gu la yu wQ 

1915] Goddard: Sarsi Texts 253 

Doing wonders Cree heard about it. One Cree 
old man herb he dreamed about. Herb with he shot. 
He became sick. Four days then he became thin. 
Black he became. His relatives said to him, *'Why 
do you not get well! Try your best ( t)," they said. ** Out- 
side fire very make." Fire it was started when 
he painted himself. He went out. He went in the fire. Fire 
blazed with him. Smoke went up. He was not. Short time 
then fire he came out. His flesh was as before. He- 
was not sick. As before he became. He was sick again. 
Pour days after four times he went in the fire. He- 
became same again. He was sick again. After that he did- 
not doctor himself. He stopped. 

When it was night his wife said to him, * * That old- 
man to him I will go. By him I will lie. Well 
you will become." He said, ** You may do that." To him 
she went in. The old man said, **What you come fort" 
The woman said, **By you I will lie to you I came. 
Tomorrow to my husband I will go back. My husband 
well make him." The old man *'Yes," said. The old- 
man horse good and clothes too to her he gave. 
He said, **Now you go home. Your husband will get- 
well. ' ' When she came home her husband well was again. 

This man secretly became angry. Buffalo marrow 
with he shot him. ** Marrow when he eats he will die," 
he said. The old man herb with people he always- 
does with. When they moved camp buffalo when they- 
killed young man he said to, '^ Marrow may I eat 
break off to me give it." Marrow when he swallowed 
his throat like a bone his throat stuck in. Then right- 
there he died, the old man. At him all laughed. In the- 
brush his herb with they threw him in. 


It was a Sarsi. His name knife-broken. He led the camp. 
There was famine. Then he invited them. They came in. 
He said, * * All go out. Your guns load. Here in the- 
brush I will go. There from moose like camp from 

254 Univer»ity of Calif omia Publicatiant in Am, Arch, and Bthn. [VoL 11 

gulagu ni'adi kawa <aLnitt^ yinist'ana 

sIzisGa hadjalati tcizziLGi mittsisna nattsis^aL 
Lat'a tanatsisLa mitsiLna millinna tcitca za 
k'a tsin m t'az mis Lai a Itclt'a nagini^alla gr^tdi 

5 ka na di ya gus ti Ga gH k'a ka na d! La La ka na gi dla la 

LadlnaLidi nagHdiyisna gadji ma tain na la 

naguyisLaj ha nil la natsagamzudila «a ^tslnilla 

«!wa <aiyiga naoa <asLa ha tsit dis tsi 'a tsitdi 

dlwns kaigiLtc^ m^s n^tdl^a diwtls k'anlt'az 

10 ta tin na na gi g!s l^s tc^ zi wtis gwa dja la mai yl wa 
<a na gu tsit dl tsi gwaniLta maoa na g! tain nit tal la 
tsitdi yiGa nayinittalla tsitdi^ k^za nl na nis tctis si 
m! wtis «i ka na dja la 

LadinaLltdl matsinna na gH w^n n^L <a «ikaiyiga 

15 ka tcit d!l La gwa di 14I la «! toi t'a gCL ts^ mi tciL t'u 
•aLnitsi yIdist'tLwa gizisGi n^ttsi<aLLa milinna 
sitL^a Itcit'a nats^na«ani kanadidja daGa 
k^ nag! dja 

•is ga kawa kattLnaga dIt'aLza nahaGa kah! 

20 nas 14c na ga wil ga «is nil la I tci t'a m y^ la 
kahigtl nadlGltasla mitsiLt'tlLa gClLkaditsit 

nagubaL it'lGi gutcIdi^aL dCl guLita<alla 

k'amiiilla nagHtsiga t'lGl ^tcit'a gUts'i dInagQ 
ka na d! y^c 

25 hanidat'iGi gCLgila ViGl hanlc Laiyika 
hassaL'a «isnio •iwat'iGi tcasL^tlL «!tc! mastsi 
dItciL'tLo «!wa t'lGl has da a 'akinna natzinna 
maLdlstltti gustaGa datoitL^tLc <akinna«I tlGa 
tciLtic <aLasiL'ugd za mizana haigitcic «at'iGi 

30 *a k'a du <a t'a sit da 

Latdi nsgiya gUdjalaLa magddilala din! 
^g!ya ma«! y!ts'! dly^la hag!snilla s!za 
gudjamla nikanag!ca! «isLl magdnilinn! nlGa 

1915] Ooddard: Sarsi Texts 255 

I will run. Then shoot at me. Over there the last one 
where it stands camp the last who shoots me will- 
kill me. ' ' When he did that he killed him. They to eat him 
butchered him. All took it home. They ate his meat. 
Small only they cut off. His friends in the bushes 
they put it. Prom it he came back. Just then towards him 
he came running back. He went in again. 

Another time he was leading the camp again there was- 
f amine. He invited them again. He said, ^'You are- 
hungry t'* **Yes," they said. **Then marrow for you 
I will make. ' ' While they were sitting there blanket his leg 
he covered. Knife he took up. His leg he cut off. 
Doorway he threw deer leg it turned into. Its marrow 
they got out. They all had it. To him they gave it back. 
Blanket under it he put it. Blanket one side when- 
he took his leg had become again. 

Another time there was famine. He was leading the camp. 
Bull like he ran out, he made himself. In the brush 
from it they shot at him. The last one who shot him 
killed him. They butchered him. His meat small piece 
in the brush when he put he came out again. His tipi 
he went in. 

''Young men, men load your guns. For you bear 
I will be. We will play," he said. In the brush 

he went. Like a bear he stood straight up. They shooting- 
at him he charged them. He threw them down then he- 
pretended to bite them. Not the blood was. When he- 
was done playing then in the brush from like a man 
he walked out again. 

Sometimes he invited them then he said this, ''My- 
friends do this to me," he said. Then bow string 
sticks both ends they tied. While he sat two men 
strong ones across his breast just they tied it. Two men 
very they pulled it. It was tied together only through him 
it came out. There still nothing wrong he sat. 

One time young man he was doctoring. He was sick. 
This young man his mother to him she went. She told- 
him, **My son you doctor. I will marry you. Horse 

256 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [YoL 11 

aata^a ^isnilla sitLaka «!t8^na lidilla tsa 
•akiyi kunilla nits'i dica <isnilla gwa<i 
hadjala kfLyfy^la tc^zi yisia na di ni gis tcti 71 
ga «isgiya«i tagilta gwaigil^la td kit'a 
5 Las tcfl yi kit da yi djaj tc^ zi gis La <! k'a 
naganikala <iwat'iQi tsa «akiyi<! natdi<anni 
<!ts^na disk'am«i yik'a tasi<^la yistsiLd! 
dan! ^anazists^la <at'!Gl hadjagi tu«I 

nazists^lla tagu hadjala tu< kit da taiki 

10 gwat tsa mas gin na si 1^ la ts'a kfi <a k'a tsl dl yl la 
cfiilla nu ka tsi dis k'a <!sgiya<! dinali 

<ak'a xani gull m^s mi ka tfl ni dit'^nni- 

dil glic c! •! Lil la ta nl kas si ka ki t'az la <! gis La 
na ka tsit dls ka <ikabali nas'a Gated guts'! tutcuGa 

15 na tci dl k^c yn wu ga k^L d! ka ha li ha ki dj! 

mfts'aiya nak^Ld^LLaka ntlk'a <a na tsit dis hal la 
m%t dl miL Lai ya < lil la hat tsis kil la yi t'! g! 
ktL Gi g! gi kil la •at'!g! «! ka ha l! tcu t'in na ^s!na 
haigisnilla bakHtcaga n!g!lata mist'dte daGadig^td! 

20 ku ni tin g! y! ya ha <a 'a t'l g! ha nis tsin na <a di j gu 
'^t dit la d! g! mis t'u t! di t'a <^ niL <in n! n!s tsin na <a 
ha dl g! ni d! g! ha na tcis dji da Ga d!t t^n ni <! na dls t! 
«i ka ha l! tctL t'in na «i yis nil la <a t'! g! sin na ha ktl tea Ga «i 
y!g!L8kLa mist'ut! «!t8'! kti mi ts'! g! g! y^l la 

25 ha tsin nil la '^t d! da d! g! mis t'd t! n^t d! «a h! 
ha nil la d!gi^ hanatc!zts! daGaditt^ni n^tdist! 
<!s nil la has tsit d! gi nil la d!j gH <a t'l g! ma Ga 
y! ts! n! ta la 

•at'!G! ^ Lil la nadiy^Jla mis Lai ya^ <ak'a 

30 tu da ka l! d! y^s la ma tsin na na tci gis kil la 

<!wat'!Gi ha nil la LQSsats'! tak^cca <isnilla 
«at'!Gi m! teas! nil la gutsldiz^lla <aL!ta takas!ya 
<atsill^la gim^tdi ha na tsis kil la «!wat'iG! 

ha tsin n! tea s! ha giL <a «! Lil la d! t'^ n! d! glie ei 

35 'an na gim m! tsiL diL hal <a t'! g! gu ts'! g!s da la d! n! 
tsa s! ha g!s <a mit tsit d! gai y! gu <a d! L^l la d! t'^ n!- 
d!lglieei tulgaiye gwadlLalla nak!faila nis ga gut! 

1915] Ooddard: SarH Texts 257 

good to you I will give/' she said. ''Before I come 
manure put in the fire. Stones two take in. To you 
I will go," he said. The mother did it. He went in. 
Deer its skin he spread beside it young man stand- 
on all fours he made. Water in it yellow paint in it 
he poured. Deer skin on he placed it. Thai stones 
two he picked up. The manure burning on it he placed. 
When he hit it a gun it sounded like. There when he- 
did it water made a noise. Three times he did that. 
Water inside three times a lump from the body was in it. 
Outside fire still was burning. With it he burned it. 
Young man got well. 

Still buffalo were knife broken, hawk varigated with 
steamer they two went on board. Hides they shipped down. 
White man Edmonton from to the large water they- 
sailed. Over there while sailing white man captain 
his wife because he made free with island he threw him- 
away. Prom him his friend with he sailed off. There 
they came in. There white man Indian^ was there. He- 
told them, ** Chiefs when they invite you pipe where it- 
hangs they will take you. There they will ask you four- 
times which of these pipes will you have, they will say- 
to you. Tou say this where the sun rises which hangs 
I will take, ' ' the half-breed said. Then chiefs they invited 
pipes to they took them in. He was asked, ''Which 
these pipes will you have t" he said. "This where it- 
goes up it hangs I will take," he said. They said it to him 
four times then to him they gave it. 

Then with it he went home. His friend still on the- 
shore was walking around. He was hungry. He sailed up- 
to him. Then he said, ' ' To my friend I will go ashore, ' ' 
he said. Then they would not let him. He struggled (t). 
At last he went ashore they let him. Prom them they- 
sailed on. Then some one said, "Crow who lifted up and 
hawk variegated they threw away . " After that they stayed- 
there. This crow who lifted up white headed eagle he- 
made himself. Hawk variegated big goose he made him. 

f Halfbreed. 

258 Univernty of Calif omia PubUeatioiu in Am. ArcK and Eihn. [VoL 11 

ni na gi nl t'ai la <a fl oi ga ts'I kahl 'adii^lla tsasl- 
liagiL«a diLLai«a natdlsgilla viBdana t'loi 

cisduwa <aiiadI<!o 'ak'astLkii L^nk'a mnamnaglnigilla 
«a t^i Gi gtl ts^i na ka t'as 

5 nicina sasdinna maoala ts'i kti gi g! t'az la 
giGika 'attsala tsasIhagiL^I ha nil la zaoa 

mitts'aiya ^Iiilla tsitdag^ mis Lai <a hagisnilla 
ts'ikaka <anim tsldishald! ^t'aka ^^tdini «Isnilla 
«! wa t'l 01 ha na Ids t'az la ktl yi na gi gl t'az la mis t'a ti <I 

10 nas 'a Ga tcfl Ga na tsin n! ta la gi gi ts'i dis Id la gu ziL a 
gimaGa tsin nil la la dijgiL mist'tLta^ gigiiilla 
nat di y^ la 


yiwtl' ts'asstlwa tstLt'inna ts'itda yictctit 
yit^Ge hatitdjiti dim< ts'itda diGa gwala 

15 ha kit dji < ts'it da <i «as nil la La sin nas tl k'a 

nadiGidjag5L nadisda yininnizinda sinaGa 

diGini La sinaGa diGini nadisda yininnizinda 
^wat'iGeda <akiyik'a ^isi^kka ma gH ni lin ni ka 
nadigidja «at'iGi gw^tdi ^isi^kka ka diya 

20 gwa di dla «a t'i Gi gH ts'i nis k V na tsi dis L^a ka 
<aldye zff nadil^la yitcitdji nidtiwa hat'a 
ts'asdinna disdja tsata^ naGidaLLi <iw{| 

•itciL^tdlnasa <anna tcisk'a nis da m^ttsinna 
diGiLit ma«ana gtLctcanna ts*itdask^na kawa 

25 giL j^k'a 

dijna tadists'inna <isLi gassClLla maGa 

na xa ci Gi na da t'^n na '^n ni t'a i «is ts'in nil la 

tstit'inna <anist'a <isnilla i^kkaza <isgiyala 
tagisti giGiiilla natila kawa gigiLLilla 

30 ni niin ni dal da ni ta zil le «i lil la gi Ga nis tctlt 
^wat'iGi diGi tazille gizizla disdjaila 

«is 14k ka t'^ k'a «inilltLwQ' miz^k'a xaiGigu«i 

tcistc'itdi «ililla mizitda yLsdl^la dine k'at'inne 
yits'i kaGiya«i «igisnilla ninadidza «idaga 

35 n^t di na < wa t^ Gi na git dis nik^ t^ zil li «i da si la 

1915] Qoddard: 8ar$i Texts 259 

They flew up. Main land they flew across to. Prom there 
bear he made himself. Crow he lifted up his friend he- 
carried on his back. He was tired then another heturned- 
himself into. At last prairie he brought him to. From- 
there they two walked back. 

Cree by himself his tipi was to it they went in. 
With them they ate. Crow lifted up said, "Let us kill- 
him; his wife with let us run away." His friend said- 
to him, ** Because of a woman since they threw you away 
why do you say thatt" he said. Then they went on. 
They came in. Pipe Edmonton they left. To it they went. 
Clothing to them they gave four times. Pipe with 
they went home. 


Over there Sioux Sarsi boy captured. Then chief 
this boy his son he made. The chief the boy he told, 
**My son, without my knowledge do not go home. I will go- 
home, if you think me tell. My son me tell, I will- 
go home, if you wish. Then two horses good ones you- 
may go.'' Then from him horses for he went he- 
pretended. Then after that on foot he ran back. 
Moccasins two only he took. Food was none. That- 
way just himself he started back. Through the mountains 
he was coming back. Over there High river other side 
hill he sat down. He was starving. He was weak. Beyond- 
him little ways Piegan tipis few were. 

Four people were riding. Horse they were leading. 
To him they rode up. ** What tribe areyout" theyasked- 
him. ''Sarsi I am,'' he said. One young man put- 
him on a horse. With them he took him back. Tipis 
with them he came back. Food, soup with him he- 
gave. Then this soup he drank. He breathed out 
like horses. Hail stones from his mouth came out. Seven 
there were before him they lay. This man to him 
he went in he asked him, **Will you pick them upt" 

'' Certainly. " He put them in his mouth again. Then he- 
swallowed them. The soup it was came out again. His- 

260 Univertiiy of Calif omia Publieations in Am, ArcK and Ethn, [YoL 11 

nadiskayi yisLaiya •aUyik'a ^Dsi^kka 

ma ga nl lin ne k'a <!wa gdziLLa yioa nlla 

^wat'iGl tstit^nats'i nadisL^a <wu tsut'innaGa 

ts'innl dine tstLt'inna ts'ltda*! dlBLaiya«i 

5 <as nil la yu wa* tsu t'in na ts^ na da L^a na gi dis L'a 

•Iwat'iGi kuwagaL'a tstlt'inna ts'itdal 
mi ta l! tc'^ ka niLanlt! dita «ati giofta din! 

ts'it das ka na «i «l8t^a nadiy^LLa •atiyik'a 

ma gu ni lin ni k'a yioa nisti tciGica nii^nniti 

10 yi Ga ni la <a t'i Gi gd wa na ts'a t'in nl ni nai dja di 


halitsa tstLt'inna dik'ahi giziLGi dzanakQ 
sini «ak'a dtididissit 'afiGi halitsa*! ^Idya 
^l! «a Li ts'i daL di muwtls k'a ts'in niL tc'a 

L*! Gi si k'as si miiwtis n^nistcfUc gUnaninicca 

15 mtL wtls «a ta gtl li lil la ta nis da gtl di Gis ma* 
ytlwQ gCLzadi nicinaoa <!L'aiGi IsL^kka 

gini^kfL gHwa nagiyidal halitsa*! gust^nnika 
<isL^kka nis<r <at'iGi *iL'iGi gtizats'i naguniwut 
nagtidigaiye «akV giLnawClL dilitca*! 'akV 

20 ta si da 

hanaguniGi wuLa nicina mana gtinisit k'ada 
<inagiL*inni nidza gwa<!* mana gd ts'i nis sit 
natciGilL^a «isLi tc'azitda diya ts'iyioa nisti 
nis ts'it <a t'i Gi sit tin ne g^ l'Q wa za* diL nti 

25 ni ci na •! yi ka na gu ni cite •! wa t'i Gi yti wu 

winnasdinna* maGazinnagu ka tei di GiL L^a ts'a<i 
nicina<i ha nil la maGazinna gwadjala «isL^kka 
za' na* gi di wd la ni ei na *i «a t'i Gi di na gu 

•anna dja la na dis dja yiLilla «a La ta nin na «! yiGa 

80 ni na ha ci GiL na ta ts'is til la ka wa mi lil la 

ni na ha ei ni na 

•aLisidaLdi si da i Lil la guk^nana Lil la 
nieina «iLt'uLLa nieina tc'istc'a mizana 

diLLa«iguLi dut'aguli «akV «idite'asla mizik'a 

85 te'is tc'a la <U di t'^ ni «! mi zi k'a dza t'a ga da di niL k'a 
•igust'iGa nieina diLGiz miL na ts'it diL dal 

1915] Goddard: 8arH Texts 261 

friend two horses good ones and clothes to him 
he gave. 

Then from Sarsi one came. ' * Over there Sarsi camp, ' ' 
he said. This Sarsi boy his friend said, ** Over there 
to Sarsi we will go.'' They went. Then they came in. 
Sarsi boy his father's horses very many his father. 
Two he slept. This Piegan in turn was going back. 
Two horses good ones to him he gave. Cloth very much 
to him he gave. Then they saw him again when he- 
came back. 


Old man Sarsi smallpox killed him. Long ago I 
yet was not bom. Then the old man young man was. 
When they were fighting his leg was shot. Left side his leg 
crooked it grew. His leg even then with he rode. 
He led a war band yonder far away Cree camp at night 
horses they were to steal there they came. Old man 
six horses he stole. Then that night far away he- 
drove them. At daybreak still he was driving them. 
His own horse still he was riding. 

While he was driving them Cree him overtook. Behind 
he looked then he saw them. Him they overtook. He- 
jumped off. Horse away from he walked. Face down 
he lay, his eyes shut. Th^i he was lying grass only 
a bunch stood. Cree for him were running about. Then 
yonder across the river like a wolf he ran up the hill. 
They saw him. The Cree said, '* Wolf he has made him- 
self." Horses only they drove back the Cree. Then 
like a person he made himself again. He went back with 
those accompanying him him they overtook. They put- 
him on a horse. Camp with him they came back. 

When they were fighting he was sitting with defending- 
them with Cree while he was shooting Cree shot him. 
Through him though it went nothing was wrong. Still 
he was shooting. In his back he was shot. Bullet on his- 
back like gum it stuck on. Just then Cree withdrew, 
then they went home. 

262 Univeriiiy of Calif omia Publicaii(m$ in Am. ArcK and Eihn. [YoL 11 

gititsanni gAdii winniga dadismana ts'a stl wa t8^< 
nagadiLdI •isglyala nats'itdi tsa mtlw^ 

'a x^n na dis t'as glGaoa nanist'idi giGadl nadlsdal 
nii^niil kwiyiGa yita •Tgftst'iGa nlniGa yits'i 

5 kli yi g^t <i wa t'l Ge di gi nl ni Ga <I <a Gis nil la 
naGast'a nadit'as «Twat'!Gi <S yisnilla •Iwat'iG! 
nlniGa^I yiGa nagala ^Isi^k kat'^k'a ylk'a 
^nniisdala <Is da gi dj^t dl <at^Gi giGittala 

tl na gi Gi t'as di ylk'a tananlsdala gadjlGa gCLka 

10 na gi dis gil la tl ga l'^ gl gOs t'l Ga ka wa 

nl na g! n! gil la kawa gUta^ nagiya <a Gila la 

Gad! ^Tfldflts'I nadlJsg^la ts'S xaGiy^la maGa 
na Gl yal la <I wa t^i gI ml na djin na Ga k^ na ts'i Gis til la 
<Iwat'iGi xasts^nilla dan! nan!dja«a<a ha nil la 

15 n! n! Ga k'a ta sis da <a <a yl t^ g! na s! ts'ln nls t! n! 

guts'! «it^Gi guts'! nasag^LLat'a •Is nil la 


IzfLLtctl «Twa «is^an!daL 'aLlts'i tazag!d!t^LLa 
katinn! g! m! zis ts'! la «i8gan!daL^ ha nil la 

sax^na ^^tdadldla Llk'a^ ha nil la d!da«a 

20 n! x^ na ^a da d! dla *aL din n! «is ^a ni daL <! ha nil la 
tcis t'a gOs t! ga «at'!G! «a dad! dla L!k'a<! ha nil la 
dtihat'a <^tdad!dla •is nil la •Iz^Ltctl'! ha nil la 
sinn! saxanna z^tca za^ '^t dad! dla •Is^anldaL^ 
ha nil la •Itc! ts! ylt'at'a ylGa nat'ah! zitda 

25 •! g!s teat la da ha t'a «at da d! dla tcis t'a gOs ta g! 

y!Ga <aL!ka niGiGiila d!n! «is^n!daL<! 

•IzuLtctl^I g!Ld!Lts'!la dtlziLGila «i8gan!d^L<! 

ha nil la sltdaga sit da da naGa saxana zisG& 
«isnilla yiL diL ts'il la n!i4nn! naiGlLdal <!z^Ltctl^ 

30 ha niL tctlt da gi ziL g! na ka za tea *a ka g! dis t'ai la 
kadlt'aid! «is^an!daL<! liilla dlstsilla «!tc!ta 
dlst'aid! gOsflGa ylkadiLLala ylziLGf <!z^Ltca«I 
<ag!n!stcat y!Ga za^ ylGala da*atdad!dla 


1915] Goddard: Sarsi TexU 263 


Several Blackfoot south went to war. From Sioux 
when they were coming back a young man was. When he fell 
stone his leg cut oflf. For him they made a shelter. 
Prom him they went back. Many times in it he slept 
then bear to him went in. Then this bear said- 
to him, '*I pity you. Let us go home." Then, ''Yes," 
he said. Then the bear for him stood. Like a horse 
on him he mounted. "When they were tired there they- 
slept. When they started again on him he mounted. 
Blackfoot camp to it he brought him back. Late- 
at night just camp he brought him back. Tipis among 
he get off he made. From him different direction he- 
went off. Outside he went out. To him he went up. 
Then his relative's tipi he carried him in. Then he- 
asked him, **How did you come back?" he said. **0n- 
a bear I rode. Over there where they left me from there 
then from there he carried me," he said. 


«IzaLtcii and «isganidaL to each other while they- 
were bragging a man was listening to them. «!sg^idaL 
said, ** My buffalo are swift." The other said, '*Which- 
ones your buffalo are swift do you mean?" ^IsganidaL 
said, ''Swallows those are swift." The other said, 
Not at all they are swift," he said. fz^tcu said, 
I my buffalo zutca only are swift." ^isganidaL 
said, "Tree to it it flies there it flies before I can- 
catch it. Not at all it is swift." Swallows for him 
together he drove, this <TsganidaL. <Iz^Ltcu flew at- 
them. He did not kill them. <isganidaL said, "Where- 
you are sitting sit ; this time for you my buffalo I will- 
kill," he said. He flew at th^n. Many he threw down. 
^iz^Ltcu he gave them to because he did not kill. zutca 
for them they flew. When they flew out <!sganidaL then 
flew at them. Trees were flying to just then he caught- 
them. He killed them. ^iz^Ltcu he gave them. For him 
only he killed th^n. He was not swift cfzaLtcu. 

264 University of California Puhlications in Am. Arch, and Bthn. [YoL 11 


kat'inne tasida mi tsl dil gai ye «iLt'iigu diLL'a 
ml tsi dil gai ye diskakaga tasida <ald miskaka 
kat'inni<I <IniLt'u mi mi zona <IdiLLa nat'aidi 
win nas din na tutcdoa nisda tsi yl gl tsl gi 8l guts'! 
smikala k'anadlt'ai diskakaga t^nisda miskaka 
mi na Ga dl gin ni sil la <iwat'lGi dits'aiye ka didist'ai 
ylga nisda ditc'aiy!^ «aoagigill! gunnisdja 
tsiyigak'asi ditc'aiyi «^tdi LagilLa gutsitL'a 
dzana <agudjaki «!sgamdaL<I Lilla k'anadit'ai 

10 da ts'i ka siL ti ne gu ^a na gi nis da 4s ga ni daL «i 
ts'ika«i mai ya Li 14L di dl daL <idjini Lilla ninaLatida 
<aigila dzana hagiL*inne <aLita dinali 

nagigit'aits nag! nis da ninagit'aidi «at'ioi 

ts'ika<i gtidja nadja kat'inni<i mitsidigaiye 

15 niL t'a si t'ai du gi t^ na ni t'ai <a t'i oi na ka diL La 
tu <igilLa tudaka k'a tasi^nni tagagisti 
«is g^ ni d^L ts'i nagigiLnij «i8ganid^L«i nLna 

k'anits^tdi mitsidigaiyi ka«!y!st'a <igiLna 

k'aginitcadi gwadi nadist'ai dina <akinna 

20 di git t'tl ts'i na gi dis t'ai di na ti ^ ka t'in ni «i 

ha gi ni zin na yti wil ta ka gi gis tin ni n^ <i gi ni zin na la 
gits'i diya yioa nagiy^tdi tas I4n ni tcu la 

gi gi zit tsi gw^t tsa 


Likizai k'at'ine dzazi <i3t'uku disL^a dz^zi 
25 yi GUL li yi «I na sa di ya gus t'iG Ga mi ni ts'i 
niniGa miLdistsit yits'aGa daoadiststLk ditci 
ni La ni gi L'as si yi tea Ga ts'i L'a di ni di na <i <! tci 
•initctit nineGa<i ditci«i za* «asL'a yini 

yi<aL «it'iGe yits'aGa k'ada <idadisdjiL mas 
30 xa Gi ca gi ts^L Li nit dza di tsi Ga na niis tsiL ni ni Ga 
tsinna tsigudi GiisL'a yits'i gudisn^tc nanizit 
gisni gunits'i dikadi nisL'a «iwat'iGe gistcdt 
yi ziz Gl m^ i Lil la 

1915] Goddard: Sarsi Texts 265 


Man mounted. Its head white he to shoot rode off. 
Its head white beside her children was sitting. Two 
her children. The man shot her. Through her belly it- 
went. When she flew up the other side by the lake 
she sat. From the east after that her husband flew back. 
Beside his children he sat. His children told him. Then 
his wife after he flew. Beside her he sat. His wife 
to fix her he tried in vain. East side his wife without 
he flew. Short time when it had been hawk with 
he flew back. There woman lay beside her they sat. 
The hawk the woman around sitting sang when she- 
sat up he made. Long time he did that, finally she- 
was well. They flew up. They lit again. When they flew- 
up again then the woman well became. The man 
its head white sky flew up, he could not see it. It flew up. 
Then it came down again. Water it went in. Shore on 
water serpent it dragged out. To hawk he offered it. 
The hawk began to eat it. When he finished eating it his- 
head white in his turn began to eat it. When he finished- 
eating it from it they flew away. These two to their- 
nest flew back. The Indian the man thought, ** That- 
yonder which they dragged out I will see," he thought. 
To it he went. To it when he came up large water serpent- 
it was. Its upper part they had eaten. 


One man moose he shoot he rode. Moose walking 
he saw. In front he started just then in front of him 
black bear chased him. Prom it he ran. Three leaning- 
on a stump behind he ran. This man tree he caught. 
The bear the tree only he ran against. Its face he bit. 
Then from it back he moved. Knife he drew. He- 
struck it then his nose he cut off. Bear old away- 
from him ran. To it bespoke. ** Stand stiU," he said. 
To him back it ran. Then he took hold of him. He- 
kiUed him knife with. 

266 University of California Publications in Am, AroK and Ethn, [Vol. 11 

halitsa mistiwa tsitda sitL'a kutas! 

yidiststila kawa g^wa, nagidisLatsI gast'ioa 
maoazinna nis^lni gimika nagilLaLa tsitda 
sitL'a<I «Itci makatugilLa sit da I dissioa 

5 ka dl gis tcu l! gas t'l oa ma Ga zin na <I mi tcil tci 

k'aniLtcti hagilaigi «aLata kagldClz maGazinna«i 
gwadi «isduts'i diLLa kawa kfl gi yi t'as dl 

halitsa^i kii siLsitd! nisgil mitc'a hatcagiz 
ku Litdastis saoa tc'a kii li tsi ti gi la dl Liyigiya 
10 dti ta gti li ta ka na cl dja «a t'f ol di na ll 


ttitctiwa dik'a ts'inna nistinhi k'a tazlk'a 
^da xaGl«a «Twat*iGe ts'ida tcitc'a li 

GaG^LLl yinitctit yiGanl dtlyfditsit ma 

yik'^nlstsiL <Iwat'lGe tH yiga naGlsnat 

15 nis tin ne ta nls Gits' y! wa t'l Ge in wl gl gi ki l^ na 
niwa takasGiz I4nna tak^nasGis 


tdtctlGa xani dik'asitda tu da kadi <akinna 
tasidana^ dinatctl ^^Lt'^td! ts^yiGa sit! la Ga 
nagalL^la Lika ha nil la nasiminni nani«a 
20 Li k'a ha nil la ta ga di na «a* ns nil la li k'a «i 

ha nil la 'aLadini Lik'a^ <Itci iLilla yits'uzak'a 
gwanigizla naya« giLnilla gCL na gis gaz di minaoa 
da di k'az la ta Ga na dis dja la Li k'a <i ta Ga na Gi diL gil 
ta za k'a gH wa na dd wa la ta Ga di na la 


25 yiGe tutcu xanniti ts'iz ziz Gi na «a* «akinna 
dinnana'a giyizisGi «iwat'iGe nagiGiL^aL 

gi Gi tea nis <aL gi Gi tea nis <aL di mi tean ni xa Gi gu i di 
tuteugu «adja «a tei teik k'a La yiwat'iGe tutcu 
gwadja giGitea tatea^Gidit disL^tdi nagiGinnila 

30 mi te^ ni yi mi k'^ si« tu dis na *i wa t'i Ge tsis ka 

1915] Goddard: Sarsi Texts 267 


Old man his grandson boy small to the camp he- 
led him. Tipi to they nearly came just as wolf mad 
after them ran. Boy small tree climbed up. The boy 
his grandfather as he pulled him up just then the wolf 
his hips he caught. He was doing that at last he climbed- 
up. Wolf from them another direction ran. Tipi 
when they two went in the old man fire when he smelled 
he became mad. Prom him they ran. **Fire make for me 
outside. ' ' Fire when they had made it he walked in the fire. 
Nothing wrong he came out again. Then he was well. 


Lake on they went ice on. Middle horn stuck- 
up. Then boy small dog was dragging he took hold- 
of it. He let go (?) he would not (?). His mother 
chopped it off. Then . water from it he moved. Ice 
broke to pieces. Then water they fell in. Some over- 
there ran ashore. Some ran back ashore. 


By a lake, buffalo painted by the shore two persons 
were riding. Large man naked face down was lying. 
To him they rode up. One said, ' * He has been swimming. 
He is one of us. " The other said, ' ' He is a water person, ' ' 
he said. The other said, **You are right." The other 
stick with his loin he poked him. **Get up," he told- 
him. When he looked his eyes were red. He ran in the- 
water. The other hit him as he ran into the water ( ?) . The- 
middle he disappeared. He was a water being. 


Over there lake buffalo was killed. Two men people 
killed it. Then they butchered it. They took the entrails- 
out. When they opened it its entrails flowed out like- 
a lake it became each way. Then lake became its intes- 
tines where they dragged them they put them on the- 
ground. Its intestines where they dragged water flowed. 

268 Univeriity of California Publicationa in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [VoL 11 

gutsiL'a 'adja na gi Gin ni la di tutcugu <anadja 
Luk'a tutcu its'i Luk'a <ask9nna«6L tsiska 
ga tci L'a yi ts'a 


ta din niL tsl na ha ci gilL naL d! tcisk'a kahaLci 

5 gi giL na La ka za ta sit da xa ni ha g! caL «a U nl 

nadisailoa gini gigitsi «iltil nakahaci gInlLna 

kahaci gl giL nan! dina<I nidtlwa Ltlna za 

guL'tlwa mizzana xag!<a <at'iGi siLti 


dinne k'at'inne ^dissadi xani m^ka 

10 zis oil la na ts'is <aL di tea gas da la tea giis da «i 

nats'itdisti <akats'ila<I zitda ml tea ts'in nil la 

ni dza te'a na gus d^ la 


ka gi zi ma zin na ts'ikagH <adi<ici «iskiya 

<is 14k ka ka di y^ la na gi d^L di mi zit da na gi zil la 
15 ts'i ka ma gCL ni lin ni gCL <a di d^J la «i wa t^ oe 

yiGanisdalla dini <iskiya<i nisgila tasitsala 


niLtsi sitL'a didiLadi t'ioi dika ^abigii^nna 
«aka gigidi^in ^wat'ioi gCLtea kugidijij 


«akadl gut'inna gadji tetlt'inna nicina 

20 na ka ea xa ^1 ziz «i wa da nas «i oa *^n na Lan na 

ku gi ziz teis iL gi ni ci na siL ti <i wa si ni ga d ji 

halitsa sat'a mis^tsa dina *aGa <igisni 

mi tsis La tsis si digiste'ul da gu ni t'a gu na mi si 

sisgu m^ iiilla sisgua <iwa sinii dtieiste'a 

25 siL t'u guL di t'i Gi ka ha ki tei nL djin nie na «a nis t'a 

yHwu si La «akadi natsinniLdi tana 'isaLi 

wussa hahaeiseana gin^Lgu gis<! k'anatsinnis 

t'lGi gtist'iGa ninahaeinana «iwati hadissi 

1915] Goddard: Sarsi TexU 269 

Then creek small was formed. Where they put it like- 
a lake became again. Fish lake toward it fish swam- 
back and forth creek small from. 


Men who were riding as they were riding along on a hill 
up they rode. One was riding, buffalo he was chasing. 
Meat we will get they said. To him they rode. Down- 
the hill they rode. Up the hill when they rode the person 
was gone. Mouse only straw through it was stuck. 
There it was lying. 


This man when hunting buffalo cow he killed. 
When he opened it unborn calf was in it. He took it home. 
They put it in the pot before they opened it then another 
was inside of it. 


Wolverine girl turned itself into. Young man horses 
he looked for. When he came back in front of him she stood. 
Oirl handsome she made herself. Then he married her, 
this young man. He went crazy. He died. 


Wind small it whirls then their mother they own 
for her they look. And in her abdomen they go in. 


Two tribes Blackfoot Sarsi Cree to fight they- 
ran out. Then here fort they had made they went in. 
They killed. Cree was lying dead. Then I Blackfoot 
old man with me his dead body this one for I caught. 
One side of his scalp I tore. How many times his back 
I stabbed. Enife with I was stabbing him. Then me 
they did not shoot although they were shooting at me. On- 
account of this chief those they call I auL 

Over there I was. Two places there were tipis. Three 
we were ahead we went. Coming toward us I saw. 
They were finishing putting up the tents then just we- 

270 University of California Publications in Am. AreK and Ethn. [YoL 11 

naoa natsigidal <It'aka nai^sna Iiilla dlsfist^Gl 
ml nits! <lslldal nicina kat'Inl dits'aiya «isLlk'a 
tasiszal tcitdiLLadl «isgaka gfinnagCLnissi t^^ 
gizlLGi un! ginagagina ^Iiilla mikala sissIlGi 
5 ka t^i n! <i na <Il sit dl gOs t^ Ga mit tsa Ga «I gis nl 
mitslk'izza nadlglstc'ul akagu za^ mizi sisgCLt 
m^s iiilla <I wa t'l Gi k5 wa *akfl has! La 

<Iwa ytLwH nadisisma naii gCLnisnana za* 
•issaLl «at'iGi <L'aGi wilsa daca^ nicina 

10 ^ nl ga U tea ^l tcQ la gadiLd! nana tsflLa 

nicina ^saiinisa yinizin •IgCLt'lGa maGa 
<a di nlL sil tsi ytl nsLi dagisL^tln! t^Gl nahits'i 
dani •Iiilla dlya sinl k'as LaiylGa sisti 
naGa . nagiya gtLst^Ga •IsIldfiL ^Li dagiL'tlni 

15 ts'I n^L sit diL La gl mig gis liL tcl tcl n ni ts'I 

tanlda «i8Ll<I yldlGitsii sinnlts'i siLt'Q^ 
LikadinniLLa <IgilLl mits^ gis LiL didlgistcuLl 
sitdlLLa dasinniLt'a IgfLL«I k'a gIsiiL 4b li 
giLtctltl minlgl tatsinnisda miL gitsitdissa 

20 ga dji yl k'a ta nis da ni cl na •I ts'i da nl 
dfixagilLa nicina*! UnatsilLa ^wa yiLn^LdiLtsI 
nagilt'tLdl dani dtixanagilLa nici na«I zanatsilLa 
gul nal La di na gil t'tl dl da ni dfL xa na gil La ni cl na ^ 
giLdiLtsI <i8Ll «itsaGa natsfL tcl tcl giLt'd 

25<igat'lGa «isLi zazlka kasitdilLa nicina<I 
IdiLt'tl gitsiltsi cidj^t gadj!«i m^ iLilla 
giLdiLtsI ylGa nadiLLadi gflst^Ga nlcina«l 
m^s xagiLLa gadji^ gits^LsiLLa ^wa nicina«i 
sit diL La gadjil tsa nadi'ani Axilla gidisa 

30 «i gu t'l Ga gCL ni tsil Li ka ni din niL La tsa ^ «i Lil la 
ginittsil ylGa gigiLtsildi natsilLa nicina^ gadji^ 
nis da sinni za* hasissa «iwa mana nis La 

1915 J Goddard: 8arH Texts 271 

came back. Then I said, **To us they are coming." 
Anyway putting the tipi down with we hurried (t). 
At them we charged. Cree man his wife on horse 
he threw. While she ran young men came up to her 
then they killed her. I my brothers with her husband 
we killed. The man when he fell just his scalp I caught. 
One side of it I tore oflf. Twice only his back I stabbed 
knife with. At that time thus we did. 

Then over there I went to war. Again ten only 
we were. Then at night ahead I went. Cree my- 
brother's horse had captured. When we were going to us 
he caught up. Cree perhaps we were he thought. Just- 
then in front of him we hid ourselves. There horse 
he tied then toward us gun with he walked. I 
quiver over my shoulder it was. To us he walked up 
just as we charged at him. Horse where he tied to 
he ran back. In front of them I was running. Not towards- 
me he could mount. The horse he letting go at me 
he might shoot he turned around although toward him 
I ran. As I was about to catch him he ran. He did not- 
shoot me although still I chased him. Horse which- 
he had captured against him somebody mounted with it 
he chased him. Blackfoot on it mounted. Cree toward 
gun did not go off. The Cree ran again. Then he- 
charged at him. When he was going to shoot gun did not- 
go off. The Cree ran again. When he caught up, when- 
he was going to shoot gun did not go off. Cree he- 
charged at him. Horse behind he jumped around. Not 
he could shoot. Just then horse under its neck he ran out. 
The Cree he shot. His hip he hit. The Blackfoot knife 
with he charged. To him when he ran up just then 
the Cree knife he pulled out. The Blackfoot ran from- 
him. Then the Cree ran. The Blackfoot stone which- 
he picked up with it he chased him. Just as he threw it 
he turned around again. The stone with he threw. By him 
when he threw he ran on the Cree. The Blackfoot sat- 
down. I only chased him. Then to him I caught up. 

272 University of California Pvblioationi in Am. Arch, and Ethn, [VoL 11 

•iLt'^ni •Iiilla mizi zana xagfetsi k'ast'a 
Lukwiyioa «iLt'^m Lat'a miL gisfa yiduwa 
tci tcl ta tsa tea di t'a nis tsa di da ni mil la La ka 
•Igisnik miL dagal'aga nagisxal •at'iGikowa 
5 Las ga la nis k'a nis ti 


«as ts'a gas t'l Ge xan! yik'aiye <Iskaka nakagfgica 
djinis Iwat'lGe dani «TLilla miL xayists'it 
disistcit t'lGl xaguyissa^da dam lilla <Inist'u 
^da tcaiidl«a ^Iiilla sina^«innl lilla dists'it 

10 nis t'a sis xal ci jatc dja za m na oi ts'it xa ni I 

djanada tasits'ala sini! na cl ts^ dis ti la slwtis 
dlitda sa dit! kfl na si ts'f g!s ti 

Ladinaiinne «isttldi ylk'aiye nadlslssa 

mananisLat! «inist'Q mininna <Isteoa namiclctc'a 

15 yi gOs t'l oa dl gi xa n! ^ n! na La na tsi dis L^a 
«i t'a na ols dj^tc miL nadlssistsit <Iwat'ioe 

<as t'a gOs dlat maoa sisLatl siLdLstsit «a t^ oe gQs t'l Ga 
si yi Ga y! Lat yis lI «T Lil la nis t'a sis xal «is lI 
zIsGi naglsts'itdi ninaslsdja sldanna«l nisk'a 

20 g5 Ga ni kai la xan nas tl hi nl dza «a ka su gti 

xanaGlstc'Ql gutL^is tadlnlsdtiLa «at'lGaxa 

dtl zls sis Gi sa Ga na tsl dIs L^a 

xani tc'lGatasI mizitda *a tc'I nl sis ti nas«! 
mita naGldist'Ic nidza Lakazatctl gQ Ga nl tea wd* 

25 yis «i wa t'l mi tsa ni Ga «is t'l Ga cis te'a •! wa t'i G€ 
nisti I t'a na gis djatc tcitt'lGe maGa naGieca 
^wat'i nas«inne nidza «Ik'alinne «lLilla t^Gl 
xani m^ka naiilla <Iwat'lGl si tsl ts'aL^^LgCL 
yis«! saGa naglL^adl zasGinnI gK •iwatlGl 

80 has siis nl xa nl tc'as tslt ti zis sis Gil la na <a n^ na 
nltc'5na yika nagCLniccIla mi ci tc'u zi ka la ca 

ic tc'i ni ci la 

«itci ylGa xanni nazitgH yis<! ditci 

m) na da <a ka Gi ci ca m^ xa gIs *S mi dl^t da ma Ga 

35 di nis tsit na tslt di mi tea nis La mi tea ku nai Gis La 
t^'Gl gists^t yuwa nlLGa haeidisina :it^ni 
kadidislGa didaGa tcitc'a leitcut sits'itda* 
sistcuzdi guwa nln^nnisut La si mi nis tslL «atlGe 

1915] Ooddard: Sarsi TexU 273 

Arrow with his back through I shot. In quiver nine 
arrows all with I shot. They were gone. Not he died. 
He was holy. Where he sat gun his hand from I- 
eaught hold. With it on his back I threw him. Then 
right off on the ground he lay. 


The very first buffalo bull young men were teasing 
daytime. Then gun with then I ran out. I chased it. 
Then when I came near gun with I shot it. Its tail 
sticking up with, staring at me with it charged me. 
It threw me in the air. My senseless body only fell. The- 
buffalo already was dead. Me they carried home. My- 
leg its blood for me flowed. They carried me in. 

Another time I shoot bull I chased again. When I- 
overtook him I shot. Its back right in I shot him down. 
Just then this buffalo got up. He ran again. I loaded 
when I ran after him. Then he stopped. By him I ran. 
He charged me. Just then against me he ran. Horse 
with he threw me in the air. Horse he killed. When I fell 
I got up. My gun ground in it was sticking. I tried- 
to pull it up then finally I pulled it up. Dirt fiUed it 
because of that I did not kill it. From me it ran away. 

Buffalo were in a herd. In front of them I hid. I- 

looked at them. Among them I looked around when 
large one, the largest I saw. Then its heart exactly 

I shot. Then it lay down. I loaded again. Then by it 
I walked. Then I looked then male with then 
buffalo female with. Then to me one coming I saw. 
To me when he came what I had killed he saw. Then 
he said to me, ** Buffalo wonderful you have killed." 
Than us older ones about it tell stories. Hermaphrodita 
is that way. 

Tree under buffalo standing I saw. Tree above it 
I went up. Enife I took out. Middle of its back in it 
I stabbed. When it fell I cut it open. Its entrails I took 
out. Then I ate them. That way on foot we ran 
Buffalo we chased. Calf small I caught. My blanket 

274 Univer$ity of Calif omia Publicaiiom in Am, Areh, and Ethn. [YoL 11 

nasifl^aL tadisisge sigisLaoa nlnanisgini t'loe 
kfltslgila tlol «akat8'igila 

tcis dtlnat'agtl mit'aoa nadlGiM mits'I 
t^Ganlca takasGlz nii^nni GlsGa kfi* Lilla 
5 sis t'a «a fl gI gis ts^t 

na dis fi^ sa dl zani m^ka kanaGlsi^t «akiyi 
yist'^ne miGa mssi minaska gisiiLdi ^iJ 
yiGa tciGatcfLt «!wat^Gi «isLl L^ats'i tagudlsxai 
dtl na g!s ts'it «a gCL dis ts'tU la Ga <I n^ gas k^ts <I nidza 

10 xa n! «I na ts'it mi da* tsl di k'az gH yis < Is li ^ 
k'anagica ml team xagit^la •IsLi*! tasitsa 

Lad! sask'ada •Inn! tsiska «at^G! xanlts'i 
GisadI dlt'^ne mits'itda ^Iiilla <a Las! tan 
xan!t!<! disd^ ^wat'! mika nag!i4t m!ta 

16 na g! d!s flc «a t'l g! gtis t'! Ga dl d^ Ga l! d! ts5 wQ^ 
•ast'a yis< man^n n!sLatI «!n!st'u namiclstc'a 
«at'!G! maGa sis La «I t'^ na giis dj^tc <!sdtlwti 
zan! nistsinne naziisG! 4wat'!G! «ak! z!sisGinne 
nasis^oL dld^GGa gisdla Ina ttltctl «!gisdla 

20 ta din na ts'is gCL sa Ga ts'in na *a «! wa nils tin nl tcu 
djtl saGa ts'inna'a minna 

dijna <!saL! ^dat'fL ts^ d!sadaL! «!stsisd!ta 
misdaka d!dats! L!kaza «!lkaiye nats^ tc!g!lL^L 
s!k!«!tca nanistctLz dan! «! Lilla m!n!ts'! 

25 dl sis La min n! ts'! tc! yl Ga sis t! sa nn n! «aL t'aL Ga 
siLdlJssitd! nstclsd! ylka d! g! y!s tstLk d! y!ka 
na tsin n!s La d! gOst^Ga sanaLa s!kad! 

da na na gCL dl gis La saGa nisda^I na mid! 

glsiststl Sana diLLadI mini si dikad! nicica 

80 ml ts'a Ga <a na L^a gl gl caL si ka d! gtis t'l Ga ml ts! 

dak'a ^nist'fL maGa ylgust'tlla mlganatcd 

tanlcicdja dln^siJ nanisftldi zIsisGl na^Iltsi 

dat'lGe L'tlk'a «ld!slssannl «!wa <at'lGe 

dan! <lLilla «!d!fi^sa «!d!s!ssSdI m^s «! Lilla 

86 lAi sis Gf •! wa fl Gl ml nl gI <a bi na si dll< na s! «aL 

1915] Ooddard: 8arH TexU 275 

where it lay from there I dragged it. I clubbed it. Then 
I cut it open. I put it on my back. My tipi I brought it- 
back. Then they carried it in. Then they put it in a pot. 

Ducks not flying, their feathers fallen off after them 
I went in the water. They swam ashore. Many I killed. 
Fire with I roasted than. Then I ate them. 

When I was hunting again buffalo female I ran after. 
Two arrows in it stuck in. Beside it when running 
horse under it put its head. Then horse hips it lifted. 
It did not fall. Tearing sound I heard. I looked around 
when buffalo fell. Its horn red I saw. Horse I- 
got off. Its intestines were sticking out. The horse died. 

Once winter time there Berry river there for- 
buffalo we went. Eagle his blanket with we went. 
Buffalo ran. Then after them we ran. Among them 
I looked around. Bight there calf dog yellow like 
I saw. To it I ran up. I shot it. I shot it down. Then 
by it I ran. I loaded again. Another buffalo fat I- 
killed. Then two which I had killed I butchered. 
Calf its skin for it whisky skins full tome he gave 
and large bottle too to me he gave for it. 

Pour persons we were we to shoot toward we started. 
Valley its edge we were sitting. One bull to us was- 
running. My coat I put on the ground. Gun with 
toward its face I ran. Toward it on my belly I lay down. 
When it saw me it stopi)ed. When it charged me valley 
its bottom when I ran down the bottom when I ran- 
down just then it caught up to me. When it hooked at me 
I jumped to one side. By me it hooked. Again from it 
I ran. To me when it ran facing it I turned around. 
From it backward I walked. When it hooked me just- 
then its head on it I shot. By it I shot. Its shoulder 
I smashed." I saved myself. When I shot again I killed it. 

It fell. 

Here prairie I went to hunt. And then gun with 

I chased them. When I chased them knife with I killed it. 

And by it two we were, we butchered it. Our horses on 

> I shot to pieces (f). 

276 University of Calif omia Publioatiom in Am, Arch, and Ethn, [YoLll 

^sL^ka k'a tasioa nata'aiylkats^I ninanila 
ts'ika naoiolla kfits'lolla yiwat'iGl miGina* 

bid! ts^da <!8l! mi kadi dicica m! tea dl kadi 
tcasizoa tsiska gCLts^LLadl mina inlna^ ditci 

5 «a La dl na tsl dl nl ha li tsa 4 yi na kfl ol duz 

•iwat'iGl sistazdl jriwus «aLadiyi8L'u yiwat*i 

gnnlnSn! ma^ats'e Likiza xaoila mi tea di kat di 

lidlQl hal!tsa«I dlt^nits'a kfLla mis tciak'a 

gCLdlGalgCL xagQyTst'^s mik'a ditci ta s! sQz gwa gCL la 

10 gfi L'fL wa yi k'a tas dla kfl gQ da tcin na «a «a gCL la dl 
maoazinna tclsi xaoltinnf ^fna yitastiic 

mizikakk'a «alinnl xaoltsan gwagQc^c dlt'^ni 
maoa nat'a hit'! of ^dldldliij kada gasuLiJ 
t'lGe miw^ glt'inm t'ioi «a La gis tofLtc ktLGicQz 

15 La dl Lfl kwi y! oa ktL oi la 

Lidlcasdi •Ina gQtcfl gtlkacica < sis talk! 
nldza kwiyioa maoazinna miskaka nagiLa 
•1 da tcl n! cfiL dja t^Gl ktLgbdOz mInaGa kfi 
•ast'a ka g! nis sis «az «at'iG! xa na tsl gb La sitsitda 

20 min na «a La din nis tcfkz si m^ za 4 lil la min na da 

sinniska gdganist'az has tin na mizl Gadinnistsl« 

sittsitda xanaglstctLz •at'lGl xadiLga «at*lGl 

tazittsa ha tsl giL tl gCL miskaka gOst'^nnl xagbLa 

sigana kattbidl Idlssissadl xanlta gbuLLa 

25 gtis t'l Ga Is li siL Lil la I na* ktL dl gI t'ats si 

siLLilla nats^it si ga na ts^in na ts'innisk'a ktldaGlkai 
midlitda xadaGlk'at Iwat^lGe 4 da djl« gCL cl cSk* 
na si ts^t dis til la 

1915] Goddard: Sarsi Texts 277 

we loaded it. To our wives we brought it back. Women 
unloaded it. They brought it in. Then we ate it. 

I boy I was after him I went. Its tail broad, 
beaver creek where it is small its hole. Its hole stick 
we closed. This old man hole crawled in. Then 
where they were asleep their legs he tied together. Then 
ten besides one he took out, its tail broad. 

The same old man eagles pulled in. Bank top of hill 
circular place he cut out. On it wood close together- 
he made it. Grass on it he put. Place to sit in when- 
he had made wolf skin he took out. The hole he put- 
it on. Its armpit meat sticking out he made. Eagle 
to it it flew. Then it pecked it back he drew it, then 
its legs he could see then he held them together. He- 
pulled it in. Once nine he pulled in. 

When I was walking about hole large I came to. 
I was listening then inside wolf its children were- 
making a noise. I took off my clothes then I crept in. 
Its eyes fire like I saw. Then I hurried out. My- 
blanket its hole I blocked. My knife with above it 
on the ground I cut a hole. While lying down in its back 
I stuck my knife. My blanket I took out. Then while- 
it walked out there it died its head sticking out. Its- 
children six I took out. 

My arm when it broke I was hunting. Among buffalo 
I was running just then horse with me hole stepped in. 
With me he fell. My arm bone in the ground it stuck in. 
Its blood flowed out. Then I lost my senses. They car- 
ried me home. 




Vol. 11, No. 4, pp. 279-290 February 10, 1915 




Daniel Garrison Brinton many years ago afiSrmed a genetic 
connection between the Seri^ language of Sonora, the Chontal 
or Tequistlatecan^ idiom of Oaxaca, and the Tuman group of 
dialects, which Dr. R. B. Dix(m and I recently united with six 
other Califomian languages into the new Hokan family.' Assum- 
ing the validity of Hokan as a single group, Seri and Chontal 
would therefore be members of it if Brinton 's assertion of their 
relationship with Tuman is true. As his contentions have not 
been generally accepted, the present essay is a re-examination 
of the evidence. 

Brinton 's union of Tequistlatecan and Tuman has hardly 
elicited a reaction. It must be admitted that the twenty-three 
Chontal words available to him were not enough for very con- 
vincing efFect. The unsatisfactory quality of his word parallels 
was also in part due to the poor material accessible to him from 
the Tuman group of dialects. The enormous geographical dis- 
tance between the two languages was a further obstacle to accept- 
ance of his findings. The Tuman idioms do not reach farther 
east than longitude 112^ nor farther south than latitude 31^^^ 
in Sonora or 26^ in the peninsula of Lower California. Tequist- 
latecan is spoken on the Pacific Coast in the vicinity of longitude 
96^ and latitude 16^, near the isthmus of Tehuantepec. Brin- 
ton 's remarks have therefore been ignored by nearly all of his 

1 The American Baee (1901), 110, 113, 335. 

« Ibid,, 112, 148. 

s Science, n. 8., xxxvn, 225, 1913; American Anthropologist, n. e., xv, 
647-655, 1913. 

280 Univeriiiy of CdUfamia Piiblieations in Am. AreK and Ethn. [Vol. 11 

colleagues and successors. Thomas and Swanton in their map 
of linguistic stocks of Mexico^ retain Chontal as an independent 
family under Brinton's provisional name Tequistlatecan. 

Seri has provoked one discussion. In a linguistic appendix 
to the late W J McGtee's famous monograph on the Seri, Mr. 
J. N. B. Hewitt has compared in detail a considerable number of 
Seri and Tuman stems, with consistently negative findings as to 
original similarity. A careful examination of this report at the 
time of its publication, however, left me with a strong belief 
that genetic relationship existed. Several American anthropol- 
ogists have expressed to me the same conviction. Mr. Hewitt's 
conclusion seemed not unnatural in view of his affectionate 
friendship with Dr. Mc(}ee, who was strongly attached to the 
impression that the Seri were in every respect a thoroughly 
unique and isolated people; and also because Mr. Hewitt and 
Dr. Brinton were scientific antagonists in other fields. These 
early misgivings as to the distinctness of Seri and Yuman were 
fortified by the change of point of view which I underwent in 
the course of my recent collaboration with Dr. Dixon, which 
resulted in the unexpected union of Tuman with so many other 
languages. The geographical barrier is also wanting for the 
Seri. Their habitat, between parallels 28^ and 30^ and longitude 
111^ and the Gulf of California, is almost in contact with the 
territory of the Cocopa and directly across the narrow strait 
from the Cochimi, both admitted Yuman tribes. 

For Tequistlatecan there is available Francisco Belmar's 
E studio de El Chonidl (Oaxaca, 1900). For Seri there is, be- 
sides the various vocabularies drawn on and cited by Mr. Hewitt, 
a compilation by F. Hernandez in his Ouerra del Yaqui, These 
two works together provide vocabularies by or from McG^ee, 
Pinart, Loustanou, Penafiel, Tenochio, and Bartlett. The sounds 
of Seri evidently gave the European ears of these hearers much 
trouble. A process of averaging, however, allows a probably fair 
reconstruction of the spoken sounds. These have been expressed 
in an orthography used in my rendition of the Yuman Mohave 
dialect. In essentials this is the alphabet used by professional 
American ethnologists. Certain details are explained below. 

« Indian Langnagee of Mexico and Central America, Boreau of Ameri- 
can Ethnology, BuUetin 44, 1911. 

1915] Kroeher: Serian, Tequistlatecan, and Hohan 281 

Fortunately both Spanish and English spellings were employed 
by the six recorders of Seri, and they included native Frenchmen. 
The averages strack from their variant forms are therefore nearer 
the troth than if all six had been of one nationality. To rep- 
resent the Tuman group of languages, Mohave was chosen be- 
cause of personal familiarity." I have not heard other Tuman 
idioms except Diegueno, and not much of that. The attempt 
to combine the rendition by other workers of other Tuman dia- 
lects with the author's spelling of Mohave would have been 
difficult, and left many doubtful points. For that matter, just 
because Mohave is one dialect of many, and apparently a some- 
what specialized one, any similarity between it and Ghontal or 
Seri that may be accepted as established will only be reinforced 
when satisfactory comparisons with the entire Tuman group 
are instituted. Senor Belmar's orthography has been somewhat 
altered, but not materially, to conform to that used for Seri and 
Mohave. The comparative table of words from the three lan- 
guages has been enlarged by selections of parallel forms from 
the Hokan languages of California other than Tuman : Esselen, 
Porno, Tana, Shastan, Chimariko, and Earok.* 

In detail the orthography needs little elucidation. Following 
American usage, c stands for sounds of the sh-type ; tc there- 
fore equals English ch ; x is a surd palatal fricative, l a surd 
1; and $ and S are surd and sonant interdental fricatives 
derived in Mohave from original s and y. Chontal ng and gh, 
and Seri gh, are as written in the original sources. Mohave ly 
and ny are simple sounds, palatalized; and kw and xw in 
all the languages referred to are probably simple labializations 
of palatals. The apostrophe indicates the glottal stop, except 
after stopped consonants, of which it denotes the glottalization. 
Mohave v is bilabial: the same quality appears to attach to f 
and V in the other Califomian Hokan languages, and may be 
looked for in Seri and Chontal. 

B Present series, x, 45-96, 1911. 

• For Esselen, see present series, n, 29-80, 1904; for Porno, 8. A. Bar- 
rett, ibid., VI, 1-332, 1908; for Chimariko, B. B. Dixon, ibid,, v, 293-380, 
1910. The Shastan material is Dr. Dixon's; it covers Shasta, Aehomawi, 
Atsngewi, and minor dialects. Tana and Karok are mainly from manu- 
script notes by myself; there is published material on these languages in 
the present series, ix, 1-235, 1910 (by Dr. £. Sapir), and a, 273-435, 1911. 

282 UniverHty of Caiifomia PfibUcatiom in Am, Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 11 

Even without discuasion, this comparative table may be ad- 
mitted to make the case for the relationship of Chontal and Seri 
to Hokan at least plausible. It is hoped that the following sound 
equivalences, many of which occur repeatedly, will convince even 
the skeptical. To save space and detail, the words adduced are 
not written out, but referred to by the numbers prefixed to them 
in the table. Unless otherwise noted, references are always in 
the order: Chontal, Seri, Mohave. 

The correspondence m : m : m is found in words number 2, 
3, and 6. In 4, 21, 27, Chontal and Mohave retain m, but Seri 
has p, V, or nothing. Seri v : Mohave m in 29 probably be- 
longs to the same class: a corresponding Chontal stem has not 
been found. The formula f : p : m occurs in 9 and again in 23, 
and therefore is probably regular ; p : m : m is found only in 14. 
Five of these ten Mohave stems containing m have been traced 
in other Hokan languages : the corresponding forms all show m. 
The same is true of 17, m : m : w, m in Calif omian Hokan, which 
throws light on the origin of the rather uncommon and hitherto 
uneiplained w of Mohave.^ 

Chontal f does not always correspond to Mohave m: 33 
shows the equivalence f : x : p. This Chontal-Seri correspond- 
ence f : X is corroborated by Seri-Mohave f : h in number 15 — 
the fricative character is retained, but the point of articulation 
changed. Other cases of correspondence between labials and 
palatals will be encountered; the dentals and alveolars seem to 
shift less frequently. The obvious course of a change from pal- 
atal to labial or reverse is through labialized palatals, especially 
if the palatal articulation is distinctly posterior. But it is not 
certain that the f : x : p of 33 represents original f : x : f < f : f : f , 
for Esselen agrees with Mohave in this stem in showing p. 

Unvarying p occurs in 5 and 7. In the former of these, p 
or b persists in the Califomian cognates. 

Mohave v occurs in seven of the stems available for compar- 
ison. In these it shows a variety of correspondences : 

7 Present series, xi, 182, 1914. 























































a-huL ! 
















































1 1 



* Leg or foot. 


' Cloud. Identity 

of the sten^ 

xkwi) TftiiL 


*01d man. 



1915] Kroeber: Serian, Tequistlatecan, and Hokan 288 


h : k : V 

California : w, (m) 


k : k : V 

California : x, h, k 


k : k : V 

California : b, m 


p : 8 : V 

California : b, f, ', - 


m : p : V 

California : w, h, hp 


ng : m : y 

California : m, p, h 


ng : V 


w : V 

California : m, n, - 

The remarkable correspondence k : k : v seems reasonably 
established, in spite of the fact that two of the Hokan cognates 
have labials and one palatals. The same may be said of Chontal 
ng as equated to Seri and Mohave v. This correspondence is 
corroborated by the occurrence of both labials and palatals in 
the Califomian cognates. See in this connection also 32. In 
fact, the entire v group evidences the close relationship of labials 
and palatals throughout Hokan. Number 13 is uncertain, the 
Chontal w being only the present writer's hypothetical render- 
ing of several variants in the original. 

Other instances of Chontal w occur in 16, where the formula 
is w : V : hw, with consistent x in the Califomian languages, and 
in 24 and 26, where none of the other tongues show a correspond- 
ence and the Chontal sound may be of parasitic or vocalic origin. 

The palatal stop k is found less frequently in other relations 
than in that with v. Number 30 has k common to Seri and 
Mohave. Number 10 shows the formula k : k : ^. Mohave $ is 
from Diegueno^ and general Tuman s ; in this stem other Hokan 
words also have dentals. The equivalence is, however, probable 
on account of an established s — ^h — ^k shift in Hokan.* 

Chontal kw : Mohave kw occurs in 8 and 11 ; in the former 
case the equivalent is pk in Seri, tc in several Califomian 

For h : X : h see 1 and 31 ; for k : h : ', 20 ; the Seri-Mohave 
correspondence f : h in 15 has already been mentioned. Mohave 
h is produced with some stricture;^** the diflference between it 
and Seri x (**jj", **chk") is therefore probably not great. 

S, with which I have included c, is in many cases persistent 
throughout Hokan: see 6, 13, 21, 24, 27. Mohave is shown 

8 Present eeries, xi, 179, 1914. 

9 Am. Anthropologist, n. s., xv, 651, 1914. 

10 Present series, x, 62, 1911; xi, 179, 1914. 

284 University of CdHf&mia Piiblioatians in Am. Areh, and Ethn. [Vol. 11 

by its Diegaeno equivalent s to be a recent mutation, and the 
occasional California variants ts, tc, h, are what might be 
anticipated in a large array of diversified dialects. 

T is not very common in the stems used. The equation s : t : t, 
Calif omian t, d, is found in 16 ; t : t : t in 35 ; gh : t : ^, Die- 
gueno s, Califomian k or t, in 12. The variation of the Cali- 
fomian languages between palatal and dental in this last word 
makes the Chontal-Seri-Mohave equivalence practically certain. 

Two of the compared Mohave words, 2 and 31, contain the 
alveolar-prepalatal stop t»" which occurs also in Diegueno. In 
place of this, Chontal shows ts in one case, Seri once t and 
once s. It is not impossible that ts and t may here stand for 
a sound similar to t» the rendition of which has puzzled recorders 
in several Hokan and non-Hokan languages of California. 

For laterals there is a well defined equivalence l : l : ly in 5, 
7, 27, 28, varied only once by the apparent substitution of ts in 
Chontal. This correspondence is the more pregnant because 
Diegueno, and apparently the Yuman dialects in general, agree 
with Chontal and Seri in retaining surd l where specialized 
Mohave has acquired sonant palatalized ly. The Califomian 
Hokan languages in the same stems have 1, or its variants r, 
n, or -. 

Mohave trilled r in 11, 13, 29 is without Chontal or Seri 
equivalent, except that one orthography of Seri 29 shows a final 
d, perhaps written for a sonant fricative corresponding to r. 

The vowels of the three languages agree even more consist- 
ently than their consonants. A is unchanged in 1, 2, 3, 16 
(twice), 18, 19, 25, 30, 31, 33. The Califomian languages also 
show a in the great majority of their forms for these stems. 
The equivalence a : - : a occurs in 1, 2, 5, 6, 31. Mohave and 
Diegueno unaccented vowels are often very light, so as to be 
easily missed by an observer unfamiliar with the languages ; but 
this hardly explains the situation in Seri, as in all of the above 
five cases the missing Seri vowel corresponds to the most mark- 
edly accented one in the equivalent Mohave word. 

Fewer instances appear of .the agreement a : o : a, namely, 
numbers 17, 27, 28, 34; but the correspondence is equally posi- 

11 Present series, x, 57, 1911. 

1915] Kroeber: Serian, Tequiatlateean, and Hokan 285 

tdve. Seri o in these cases is clearly a special formation, as the 
Galifomian languages regularly show a. In the first three of 
the four words the equivalent Mohave a is accented. Ghontal 
o and u, so far as comparable at all, correspond to Mohave a, 
Seri and the Galifomian languages showing less regular forms: 
9, 10, 12, 18, 25. 

Ghontal has a where Seri and Mohave show a, e, or i in 
3, 7, 10, 14, 24. Galifomian analogues vary between a and i. 
This appears to be an instance of assimilation in Ghontal of 
originally distinct vowels. 

Ghontal e seems reducible to two types : e : e : a in 20, 29, 
32, and e:i (t) :i in 7, 12, 22. Galifomian analogues are so 
variable that several original vowels may be involved. 

Number 4 shows i : e : e, with which I am inclined to unite 
the i : a : e of 8, on account of the Galifomian equivalents i and 
e. More frequently, however, i is unchanged in the three south- 
em languages, as in 4, 5, 26, and, for Seri and Mohave at least, 
in 15, 28, 30. In every instance at least some of the Galifomia 
dialects also show i, but others do not ; it is worthy of note that 
in 5, 15, and 26 apparent metathesis of vowels occurs. In 6 the 
formula i : i : i is modified by loss of vowel in Ghontal and in 
19 in Seri. The lost Ghontal vowel is unaccented; that of Seri 
corresponds, like lost Seri a, to an accented vowel in Mohave. 

These correspondences cover fully three-fourths of all com- 
parable vowels in the list. 

The Ghontal initial vowels separated in the list by a hyphen 
are included by Senor Belmar in a series of noun prefixes indi- 
cative of number. Thus he writes le-maa, sky, as if le were the 
morphological element and maa the noun stem. The equiva- 
lences of these ** prefix" vowels with the initial vowels of the 
stem in the Seri and Mohave words are, however, so close that 
it is clear they are not part of the prefix at all. The division 
should be 1-emaa. In the same way, under ''Other Hokan Lan- 
guages" I have written Ghimariko i-pen, u-sot, i-sam, i-ta. When 
Dr. Dixon studied Ghimariko as an independent^' language, these 
initial sounds seemed to be connecting vowels of the possessive 
prefixes of body part terms. But it is clear that here also the 

It Present series, v, 326, note 12, 1910. 

286 Univeriity of CkUifomia PuhUeations in Am, Arch, and Ethn, [VoL 11 

division should be h-ipen, his tongue, not hi-pen. At one time 
it seemed possible to Dr. Dixon^' and myself^^ that such forms 
were all from monosyllabic radicals; but a comparison of Chontal 
ipaL^ Seri ipii, Mohave ipalya, Chimariko ipen, Pomo hiba, 
Shastan ipli, proves the initial i to be part either of the original 
stem or of a prefix which became definitely associated with the 
stem before the diverse and long separated Hokan languages 
became detached from one another. 

Apart from correspondences of specific sounds, one general 
phonetic fact is clear about Hokan: fricatives, both surd and 
sonant, and in labial as well as in dental and palatal articu- 
lation, are exceptionally well developed. The contrast on this 
point is marked with Penutian, which is as bare of fricatives 
as it is at present the fashion to depict original Indo-European 
speech to have been, and with Uto-Azetaken, where stops also 
largely outnumber fricatives. Labial fricatives have long been 
noted as excessively imcommon in American languages; yet 
within the limits of the Hokan group f occurs in Chontal, Seri, 
Esselen, Pomo, and Earok, and v in Seri, Mohave, and Earok. 
It is not to be argued that this f and v correspond directly 
in the several languages or represent survivals of original f 
and V. In fact, the reverse is the case. Mohave v equates 
with Seri-Chontal k and north Hokan m, w, b; Chontal f is 
a development from labial stops or nasals, Seri at least some- 
times from palatal fricatives. But the tendency for fricatives 
to appear is evidently deep-rooted in the family, and must be 
regarded as a significant character. This is confirmed by the 
fact that those languages, such as Tana and some of the Pomo 
dialects, which are weakest in fricatives, are the ones in which 
sonant stops are most pronoimced. The theory of an underlying 
impulse toward fricatives would also explain the development 
of two such closely related and rare sounds as Mohave and S 
from such unrelated ones as s and y. I feel very strongly that 
it is impossible to institute even slight comparisons among the 
Hokan languages as a group, once this impulse has been per- 
ceived, without attaining to an ineradicable conviction of their 
original unity. 

IS Am. Anthropologist, n. a., xv, 651, 1913. 
i« Present series, xi, 183, 1914. 

1915] Kroeber: Serian, Tequistlatecan, and Hokan 287 

It may be worth while to add a few general Hokan parallels 
for Chontal and Seri for which no direct equivalents are known 
in Mohave. 

Night: Seri, amok; Chimariko, hime, himok-ni; Achomawi Shastan, 
mahektca; Esselen tumas; Porno, duwe. 

Sun: Seri, sax (moon: isaz, sic); Esselen, asi; Chimariko, asi, day; 
Atsogewi Shastan, asiyi, day. 

Navel: Chontal, a-tu; Shasta, edau; Achomawi Shastan, a la; Atsu- 
gewi Shastan, tsup'-; Chimariko, o-napu; Tana, -lakU. 

Person: Chontal, acans; Shasta, ic; Pomo, atca, tcatc; Chimariko, 
itei, man; Tana Uhsi, man; Esselen, ezi-. 

I trust that this presentation will both establish the original 
unity of Tequistlatecan, Serian, and Yuman, and help to allay 
the doubts of those who may have remained unconvinced by the 
announcement of Dr. Dixon and myself that seven Calif omian 
languages heretofore considered distinct could be united into the 
one family which we denominated Hokan. No one is better 
aware than we of the slendemess of the evidence as yet pre- 
sented in support of our assertion ; but our first serious suspic- 
ions of relationship are only recent, and each further hesitating 
inquiry into the question has thrown open such vistas that the 
material has accumulated faster than we could handle it, and 
a delay in our promised proof has been inevitable. The present 
little treatise may reveal some glimpses of the possibilities be- 
fore us. 

There was a time when the merging of one of the accepted 
North American linguistic stocks into another was a rare and 
notable event in American anthropology, and the simultaneous 
wiping out of two was not heard of. That time is past. The 
Hokan family as here treated comprises what a few years since 
were regarded as nine families. That two others, Chumash and 
Salinan, might be includable was suggested a year ago by Dr. 
Dixon and myself. Since then Mr. J. P. Harrington has afBurmed 
the genetic unity of Chumash and Yuman.*' As his studies in 
recent years have made him the best informed authority on both 
languages, his verdict must at least be taken seriously. If Chu- 
mash is Yuman, it is Hokan ; and as Salinan will almost certainly 

15 American Anthropologist, n. s., zv, 716, 1913. 

288 University of CdUfomia PuhUcaiions in Am. AreK and Ethn. [VoL 11 

go where Chumash goes, eleven^* former families are now ranged 
under the banner of one. The new Penutian family takes care 
of five other former stocks. Two are eliminated by Dr. Sapir's 
daring but unquestionably valid recognition of Wiyot and Yurok 
as Algonkin. The same investigator is also giving proof, suffi- 
ciently critical and detailed to satisfy the most pedantic, of the 
relaticmship of Shoshonean, Piman, and Nahuatlan, as first 
affirmed by Brinton, and accepted by the late Dr. Chamberlain 
and myself. Dr. Swanton has shown Natchezan to be Musk- 
hogean. His comparison of Athabascan, Haida, and Tlingit, on 
a suggestion of similarity long ago made by Dr. Boas, is incon- 
clusive, but in the light of events elsewhere forces the suspicion 
that a re-examination may result in a positive establishment of 
relationship here also. The same may be said of Dr. Boas' other 
demonstration of resemblance of morphological type between 
Salishan, Wakashan, and Chemakuan. Still other unions and 
inclusions will undoubtedly be made. Hokan now stretches from 
southern Mexico to southern Oregon. Inquiry in the complex 
linguistic field of the latter state and of the coast to the north 
may result in determinations at the very first touch. 

We may accordingly be confident that the language map of 
North America will be thoroughly recolored in a few years. For 
a long period the Powell-Henshaw list of 58 stocks in Canada 
and the United States stood almost unaltered. The convenience 
of this first exhaustive and entirely definite classification was 
so great that it was soon looked upon as fundamental, and the 
incentive to tamper with it was lost. The revision of the map 
in the Handbook of American Indians in 1907 reduced the 58 
stocks only to 56. With the additional families formulated in 
1911 by Thomas and Swanton for Mexico and Central America, 
the total for the continent was 82. In a few years this has 
shrunk to 64, with most of the field still lying under the old ban. 
At a chance gathering of anthropologists in Washington a few 
months since, predictions were made, informally, it is true, and 
in part perhaps not very seriously, but with an undercurrent of 
conviction, as to the number of families that would be generally 

i^Beally twelve, as Shasta and Achomawi-Atsugewi (Palaihnihan) 
were long considered distinct and only recently connected by Dr. Dixon, 
ibid., n. s., vii, 213, 1905. 

1915] Kroeher: Serian, Tequisilaiecan^ and Hokan 289 

recognized in ten years. The estimates ranged from 15 to 30. 
Surely anthropologists may b^^ to realize that in these matters 
a new order is upon them, merely through the progress of knowl- 
edge and without any abandonment of the safely conservative 
principles of the past. 

It has been suggested to me that while there is probably some 
underlying truth in most of the recent mergings of stocks, the 
kind of relationship involved may be of a different sort from 
what has heretofore been regarded as the relationship binding 
together the members of a linguistic family. I wish to express 
my absolute opposition to this attitude. If Chontal and Seri 
are not related just as thoroughly and just as completely to 
Yuman and Pomo and Ghimariko as Omaha is to Dakota or as 
Cherokee is to Iroquois or as Arapaho is to Delaware, they are 
not related at all, and the present essay has entirely failed of 
its purpose. I recognize only one criterion of relationship: 
reasonably demonstrable genetic unity. Either two languages 
can be seen to have been originally one, or they cannot be seen 
to have been one. The evidence may be of such kind and quan- 
tity as to leave us in doubt for a time ; but there can be no such 
thing as half-relationship. Philosophically, the concept of the 
linguistic family may be of little moment or validity, like the 
concept of species in biology; but for the organization and prac- 
tical control of knowledge both these categories are indispensable. 
And they can be of use only if they stand for something definite 
and if as categories they are inflexible. 

It is to me a particular gratification that the outcome of this 
investigation re-establishes the findings of Brinton made by him 
on so much slighter evidence. Brinton was dogmatic beyond a 
doubt, and his attitudes seem at times inconsistent. But his 
work is permeated by a clear grasp and a lucidity of thought 
and expression ; and these qualities are given their full value by 
a remarkable basic understanding, an instinctive feeling for phe- 
nomena of the human mind that has rarely been equaled in the 
field of ethnology or linguistics. On the points here discussed 
Brinton 's material was nearly worthless; we must bear him the 
greater tribute for his power of intuitive sane insight and inter- 

290 Univeniiy of CdUfomia PubUeaiians in Am. AreK and Bihn. [Ycd. 11 

I should have liked to examine Brinton's further prognosis 
that the Waikuri language of the southern portion of Lower 
California was also Yuman. The available informati^m on this 
idiom^ however, all goes back to (me very tenuous source, the 
picturesquely abusive and spirited description of Baegert. The 
few words contained in this do not look like Yuman or even 
Hokan ; but they are too few and too specialized to allow of any 
very certain conclusions. Unless new records from Lower Cali- 
fornia can be discovered, a final judgment as to the positicm of 
Waikuri will not be possible until the comparative analysis of 
the Hokan languages has progressed so far that they can be 
successfully measured against the fragments of this obscure 
tongue. Pending this decision, Waikuri must be regarded as 
of unproved afSnities and therefore held tentatively distinct. 

Transmitted October tl, 1914. 




VoL 1 1, No. 5, pp. 291-296 February 1, 1916 




Since 1913 the writer has been engaged in a study of the 
social organization of the Indians of South Central California. 
The first product of this study, a report on the exogamous moie- 
ties of the Central Sierra Miwok, is now in press. Following 
the completion of this work, the writer set out to make a pre- 
liminary investigation of other tribes to determine the geographic 
limits of the moiety organization. This preliminary survey,, 
which is to be followed by careful study of each group, has not 
been entirely completed to date. The following brief statements 
summarize the data obtained, especially with reference to tribes, 
which, like the Miwok, are organized on the basis of dual 

The survey so far shows that the area in which moieties 
exist extends from Amador County in the north to Kings County 
in the south. In the southern counties the area extends from 
the eastern foothills of the Coast Range on the west to the high 
Sierra Nevada on the east, thus embracing both plains and 
mountain tribes. In the north moieties have been found only 
in the Sierra Nevada. 

Aside from the Miwok, the tribes which have been visited 
are the Chukchansi, the Oashowu, and the Tachi of Tokuts 
stock ; and the North Pork Mono, the Inyo Mono, the Bridgeport 
Mono, the Tiibatulabal, and the Eawaiisu of Shoshonean stock. 
Of these the Chukchansi live in Madera County north of the 

292 University of CdUfomia PubUoaiion$ in Am. Areh. and Ethn. [Vol. 11 

San Joaquin River, the Gashown in Fresno County south of the 
San Joaquin River, and the Tachi in Kings County north of 
Tulare Lake. Of the Shoshoneans, the North Fork Mono live 
in Madera County north of the San Joaquin River, adjoining 
the Chukchansi, but higher in the mountains and more to the 
east. The Inyo Mono inhabit Owens Valley, Inyo County, east 
of the Sierra Nevada. The Bridgeport Mono dwell in the vicin- 
ity of Bridgeport in Mono County, also east of the Sierra Nevada. 
The Tiibatulabal occupy the Kem River region, and the Ea- 
waiisu, who speak a dialect of Ute-Chemehuevi, inhabit the 
Tehachapi Mountains. 

The principal facts concerning social organization among the 
tribes, where positive data were obtained, are as follows : 

The tribes exhibiting a moiety organization are the Chuk- 
chansi, the Oashowu, and the Tachi. The North Fork Mono 
have, instead of indivisible moieties, two phratries composed of 
two clans each. The other tribes appear to have no moiety 

Personal names among all of the groups, with the exception 
of the Bridgeport Mono and possibly the Eawaiisu, are usually 
meaningless ; at least the Indians can give no interpretations for 
them. Furthermore, names are transmitted, except perhaps 
among the Chukchansi, a child usually being named after either 
a living or a dead relative of the father. Frequently when an 
individual is named after a living relative the name is changed 
upon the death of the namesake. Miwok names invariably have 
very full meanings and are not transmitted. A majority of the 
Bridgeport Mono names also have meanings. 

The kinship systems of the three Tokuts tribes (Chukchansi, 
Oashowu, and Tachi) resemble closely in application the Miwok 
system, which is described in detail in the forthcoming paper 
on Miwok moieties. The characteristic features are, first, the 
possession of but one term for grandchild, one for grandfather, 
and one for grandmother ; second, the grouping of cross-cousins 
in two generations, one older and one younger than that of the 
speaker. On the other hand, the kinship system of the North 
Fork Mono on the western slope of the Sierra Nevada is quite 
unlike the Miwok and Yokuts systems. It is almost identical 

1916] Gifard: Diehotomoui Social Organigation 293 

with that of the Inyo Mono and the Bridgeport Mono, who live 
east of the Sierra Nevada. These fifystems are characterized by 
a distinct term for each of the f onr grandparents ; furthermore, 
the same term is applied by the grandparent to the grandchild. 
Cross-cousins are classified as brothers and sisters, hence in the 
g^eration of the speaker. 

The names of the moieties among the Miwok are kikua, or 
water moiety, and tunuka, or land moiety. The three Yokuts 
tribes (Chukchansi, Oashowu, and Tachi) examined employ the 
names nutuwic (also given as nutuwuts) and toxelyuwic for 
their moieties. Like the Miwok moieties, the Yokuts moieties 
are exogamous. A child belongs to the moiety of the father. 
Among the North Fork Mono also descent is paternal, but there 
is no rule of exogamy. A child belongs to the clan and to the 
phratry of the father, and may marry within his own clan or 
not, as he chooses. 

The names of the two phratries of the North Fork Mono are 
pakwihu and yayantci. The pakwihu phratry is subdivided into 
two clans, tiibahinagatu and puzaots. The yayantci phratry is 
composed of the two clans dakats and kunugetci. 

The arbitrary division of nature into two categories, **land'' 
and *' water*', is a feature of the Central Sierra Miwok moiety 
complex. The land side of nature is associated with the land 
moiety, the water side of nature with the water moiety. The 
water moiety (kikua) of the Miwok finds its analogue in the 
nutuwic or nutuwuts moiety of the three Yokuts tribes men- 
tioned, and the Miwok land moiety (tunuka) finds its analo^e 
in the toxelyuwic moiety of the Yokuts tribes. Among the 
Yokuts tribes certain animals are associated with each moiety, 
but it has not been ascertained that the whole of nature is 
divided and associated with the moieties as among the Miwok. 
In the Miwok organization the connection between moiety and 
animal is through the personal name, each individual being 
named after an animate or inanimate object. The eponym, how- 
ever, is not transmitted to the descendant as a rule. Among 
the Yokuts tribes and the North Fork Mono, where personal 
names are meaningless, the connection between animal and 
moiety or phratry is naturally not through the personal name. 

294 Univenity of CdUfomia Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 11 

Each individual in these tribes has a ''pet" or ''personal totem," 
which is inherited from the father, and seems to have no con- 
nection with the personal name. 

Among the Chukchansi the following animals are associated 
with the nntnwic moiety: coyote, turkey vulture, falcon, and 
quail. With the toxelyuwic moiety are identified the following 
animals: bear, eagle, raven, crow, jay, and jackrabbit. The 
Gkusihowu classify the following animals as connected with 
the nutuwuts moiety: coyote, turkey vulture, and hawk 
(speciesf). With the toxelyuwic moiety the following animals 
are connected: eagle, wildcat, and fox. Among the Tachi the 
largest list of moiety animals was obtained. For the nutuwuts 
moiety the animals are coyote, prairie falcon, ground owl, great 
homed owl, skunk, seal, and several other species of hawks and 
owls. The animals of the toxelyuwic moiety are eagle, crow, 
roadrunner, killdeer, fishhawk, raven, antelope, and beaver. 
Among the North Fork Mono matters are not so sharply de- 
fined. The privilege of changing one's phratry and the custom 
of capturing young birds, which are kept as real pets, have 
added to the complexity, so that an animal is associated some- 
times with a member of one phratry, sometimes with a member 
of the other. 

The North Fork Mono clans appear to be functionless. Cere- 
monial functions seem to be centered in the phratries, just as 
similar functions are in the Miwok and Yokuts moieties. Among 
the Miwok, the Yokuts, and the North Fork Mono, reciprocity 
on the part of the dual divisions in funeral and mourning cere- 
monies is the rule, and when games are played one division op- 
poses the other. Among the Yokuts tribes an eagle ceremony, 
which is a moiety affair, was held. There seems reason to believe 
that similar ceremonies were perhaps held for other moiety ani- 
mals. The ceremony was in the nature of a purchase or redemp- 
tion of a moiety animal from the opposite moiety. 

Ceremonial paints distinctive of each moiety were used by 
the Yokuts tribes and the Southern Sierra Miwok, but have not 
so far been found among the North Fork Mono. 

Dual chieftainship, that is, a chief for each moiety or phratry, 
was found among the Tachi Yokuts and the North Fork Mono. 

1916] Gifard: Diehoiomaus Soeial Organization 295 

Doubtless other tribes will prove to have a similar division of 
the chieftainship. 

An organization, which will perhaps prove to be on a moiety 
basis, is reported by Dr. J. Alden Mason among the Salinan 
Indians of Monterey County. A bear and a deer ** totem'' are 
mentioned.^ Among the Central Sierra Miwok the bear is the 
chief animal of the land moiety, the deer of the water moiety. 
It seems quite probable that a continuation of Dr. Mason's in- 
vestigations among the Salinan will show that the bear and deer 
*' totems" really stand for moieties, which may prove to be sim- 
ilar to those of the Tachi Yokuts, who were the closest neighbors 
of the Salinan on the east. 

Mr. J. P. Harrington for some time past has been investi- 
gating the Chumash of the Santa Barbara region. The details 
of Chumash social organization will perhaps prove to be quite 
similar to those of the Yokuts tribes, mentioned in the present 
paper, who lived to the northeast of the Chumash region. 

The next task is to extend the survey to the Washo and the 
Southern Maidu in the north and, if results among these stocks 
warrant it, also to the Southern Wintun. The examination of 
the Lake Miwok will perhaps prove instructive as to the origin 
of the moiety institution among the Sierra Miwok. The rem- 
nants of the Plains Miwok and of the Costanoan stock have so 
far yielded no positive results as to a clan or moiety organi- 
zation. There are still other informants to be examined, how- 
ever. In the south the Mono living on the western slope of the 
Sierra Nevada south of the San Joaquin River have yet to be 
visited, as have also the other Yokuts tribes not already men- 
tioned. Information obtained from the Tachi Yokuts indicates 
that at least the following Yokuts tribes inhabiting the San 
Joaquin Valley probably had an organization akin to that of 
the Tachi : Chunut, Nutunutu, Telamni, Wechikhit, and Wowol. 

The elucidation of the relations between the type of social 
organization found in South Central California and the type of 
organization found among the Luiseno, the Mohave, and the 
Pima, all tribes possessing clans, is one of the ultimate aims of 

iThe Ethnology of the Salinan Indians, Univ. Calif. Publ. Am. Arch. 
Ethn., X, 189, 1912. 

296 Univeraiijf of California Publications in Am, ArcK and Ethn. [Vol. 11 

the survey. Another equally important matter, to be clearly 
established, is the interrelations within the South Central Cali- 
fornia area itself. Although it is still too early to make a posi- 
tive statement, yet it seems that the Miwok organization, judging 
from its simpler character, as compared with the Tachi, lies on 
the periphery of the moiety area, not only geographically, but 
also in point of complexity. A consideration of the North Fork 
Mono complex conveys a similar impression. The absence of 
exogamy and the presence of a kinship system totally unlike 
that of the other groups having a dual organization seem to 
warrant the conclusion that the ceremonial features of the Yokuts 
and Miwok moieties have been borrowed, while the two social 
features, exogamy and kinship i^stem, have not. It is therefore 
not unlikely that, in South Central California, the dichotomous 
social organization was primarily a valley institution, which 
spread to the mountains. 

TranamiUed January g9, 1916. 




Vol. 1 1, No. 6, pp. 297-398 March 8, 1916 






Introdnction 298 

The Mannscripts 299 

The Aztee Calendar System „.. ~ ^ 300 

The Time-periods 300 

Method of Determining the Time-periods 302 

System of Dating 303 

The Twenty Day-symbols 304 

The Numerals * 308 

The Method of Writing Dates 309 

The Tondlamatl, or Book of Indexes 310 

The Book of Indexes Applied to the Time-periods 311 

Corrections of the Calendar 316 

Origin of the Calendar System 321 

The Reason for Twenty as a Factor 322 

The Reason for Thirteen as a Factor _ 323 

Derivation of the Calendar Symbols 327 

Probable Line of Evolution 327 

The Delineation of the Calendar Symbols in the Manuscripts 328 

The Twenty Day-signs; their Characteristics and Variations 332 

Water-monster (dpactli) 334 

Wind (Ehecail) 337 

House \Cctll%) »...........— ...^.......^.^.^......^...^...............^.....^..................M 342 

Lizard (Ctieiepiilin) 343 

Snake (Coatl) _. 346 

Death (MiquietU) 347 

Deer (Maeatl) 351 

X*aDDlw t X Ot/Av4v 1 ••.......•.•.••,....•... ...••.•...........•^^•••••••••. ••••—•••••••••••«•••..••••• OiiO 

WftfAT f jHV\ ^'ST 

Dog (ItecuintU) 360 

Monkey (Ozomatli) 362 

298 UniverHty of California PMbUeationg in Am, AreK and Bihn. [VoLll 

Ocelot (Oeelotl) 370 

Eagle (Qua%ihili) 374 

King-Yulture (CoBoaquauhtU) 376 

Flint (Teopail) 382 

Borrowing of OharacteriBtics 392 

Conclusion 393 


A very noteworthy achievement of the ancient Aztecs was 
their peculiar calendar system. Even the Aztecs themselves seem 
to have looked upon this calendar as the central fact of their lives. 
It was not only of importance from a practical point of view, 
but it filled a very large place in the ceremonial life of the people. 
Thus ''calendar" had a meaning for them which the word quite 
fails to carry for us. While their calendar system was in a sense 
peculiar, its peculiarity lay chiefly in one or two unusual features. 
In many ways the system was after all not unlike our own. This 
does not, of course, mean that the two systems, theirs and ours, 
had any historical connection. The development of the Aztec 
calendar was undoubtedly independent of any influence from the 
Old World. I am inclined to think that the Aztec system is not 
so mysterious, and the history of its development not nearly so 
abstruse, as the many commentaries written on it would lead us 
to suppose. 

It is a well-established fact that the particular system identi- 
fled with the Aztecs of Mexico was merely an outgrowth, a sort 
of special form, of one fundamental calendar concept which had 
a very wide vogue in Middle America. This system is un- 
doubtedly more ancient, for example, in Honduras, than it is in 
the Mexican plateau. The Aztecs merely developed their own 
special nomenclature for the various elements of this calendar, 
and evolved certain special symbols. The system in its broad 
outlines is very much older than the Aztec civilization proper. 

1916] Waterman: DeHneatian of Day-signs in Asftee ManiucripU 299 


Calendar symbols of one sort or another occur on a surprising 
variety of monuments, both of early and late periods. The most 
important of these monuments for the study of the workings of 
the calendar system in detail are certain remarkable picture- 
books or manuscripts, made on folded strips of deerskin, or on 
paper made of the fibre of the maguey (Agave americana). 
These manuscripts are usually spoken of as *' codices." Only 
a few of these native manuscripts survived the introduction of 
European civilization into America. Those which were pre- 
served were taken to Europe as curiosities, and often preserved 
through mere luck. The ones still extant have received a great 
deal of attention since the early part of the last century. All 
but a few of the originals are still in Europe, and are at the 
present time considered priceless. 

The earliest effort at publishing or reproducing them on a 
large scale is a work by Lord Eingsborough, in nine magnificent 
volumes, called Mexican Antiquities} The arrangement of the 
material in this work betrays almost complete ignorance of the 
composition of the original manuscripts; and more than that, 
the work of reproduction itself is, in a great many particulars, 
inexact. The nine volumes, however, imperfect as they are, have 
been the foundation of a great deal of later study. The American 
scholar Cyrus Thomas,* has written several papers on Aztec 
matters which are based largely on Eingsborough 's work. The 
same might be said of at least one well-known monograph written 
by the Mexican archaeologist Antonio Penafiel.' Reproductions 
very similar to Eingsborough 's in general type, but rather better 
in details of execution, have been published from time to time in 
Mexico. Thus Penafiel's enormous work (noteworthy at least 
in size and weight), called Monumentos del arte mexicano 
an%tiO,* contains two Aztec manuscripts, namely, the "Book of 
Tributes," and the '*Zapotec Codex," both reproduced in fac- 

iFor fnU titles of all works referred to, see bibliography at end of 

s See his '^ Numeral Systems of Mexico and Central America," 1893. 

sNombres geogr&ficos, 1885. 

« Berlin, 1890, two volumes of plates and one of text. 

300 Unwersity of California PubUeatiant in Am. AreK and Bthn. [ VoL 11 

simile, including color. A more recent work, edited by Chavero, 
Antigiiedades mexicanas,* contains several pictographic texts in 
color. Since the year 1883 there have become available, due 
principally to the Duke of Lonbat, a number of very beautiful 
facsimiles of ancient texts, which reproduce, in every respect, 
the original picture manuscripts. A list of the facsimile texts 
on which the present study is based will be found in the bibli- 
ography below. A few '^ codices'' like the Codex Borbonicus, 
edited by Hamy, have not been used in the present study simply 
because copies were not locally available. Moreover, those manu- 
scripts are most interesting which seem to be purely Aztec, or 
which show few traces of Spanish influence. Hence such sources 
have been most emphasized in the following pages. 



It seems necessary to begin a discussion of the treatment of 
the calendar in the manuscripts by pointing out the most essen- 
tial features of the calendar system itself. That will accordingly 
be our first concern. A good deal of uncertainty has always 
existed concerning some of the details of the ancient Aztec 
calendar. Discussion about certain points began only a few 
years after the Conquest. Bernardino de Sahagun, for example, 
whose Historia general de las cosas de Nueva Espana* is perhaps 
the most valuable literary source for the study of conditions 
among the Aztecs, was already involved in the year 1539 in an 
acrimonious dispute with another monk concerning the ques- 
tion of whether or not there were ** corrections" or ** intercala- 
tions" in the Aztec system. Other features of the system have 
always been surrounded with mystery. Certain facts, on the 
other hand, are quite clear and have never been the subject of 
dispute. Prominent among them is the fact, which must never 
be lost sight of, that the basis of everything calendrical was 
the solar year of 365 days, representing (though the Aztecs, 

B Mezieo, 1892, one volume of plates and one of text. 
• See bibliography. 

1916] Waterman: Delineaiian of Day-iigns in Aztec ManusonpU 301 

of course, never dreamed of the celestial mechanics involved) 
approximately the period of the earth's revolution about the sun. 
This is the starting-point and basis for all the other features of 
their calendar. 

Their calendrical computations seem, to be sure, to reflect 
knowledge of other periods, based not on the sun but on the stars. 
Seler,^ and Forstemann" have said a great deal about a so-called 
' ' Venus year, ' ' a period of 584 days based on the movements of 
the second planet of our system. Seler has also discovered what 
seem to his own mind traces of a period based on the revolution 
of Mercury. It may readily be assumed that the Aztecs had 
considerable knowledge of the stars, and the recognition of star- 
periods is by no means impossible. It is a very notable fact in this 
connection that the ancient peoples of Mexico paid little regard 
to the most conspicuous body in the heavens, aside from the sun, 
namely the moon. This is especially interesting because the 
moon's phases are employed almost the world over, as marking off 
convenient periods of time. An important woi^ of the middle 
seventeenth century, the Manual de las ministros de las Indias, 
by a Jesuit, Jacinto de la Sema,* states that certain month- 
periods were actually reckoned by the Aztecs, beginning with 
each new moon. These are said to have been used by women, 
especially in connection with the period of pregnancy. Periods 
based on the moon, however, do not appear in the manuscripts, 
and even moon symbols are noticeably infrequent.*® 

There was recognized in ancient Mexico, in addition to the 
year mentioned above, a period of twenty days, a cempodUi, 
employed as a subdivision of the year-period. Such twenty-day 
units were regularly employed in speaking of a lapse of time of 
less than a year's duration. Eighteen of these centpoiMis, or 
twenty-day periods, with a group of five special days added at 
the end, made up the regular year of 365 days. The five days 
thus added to the eighteen *' twenties" are the often-mentioned 
nemontemi referred to in every account of the Aztec calendar. 

f 1898. 

8 1893. 

• Published in 1899. See bibliography. 

10 See GyniB Thomas, 1897, p. 954. 

302 UniverHtjf of CaUfornia PubUeatumi in Am. AreK and Bthn, [ VoL 11 

Many of the statements made concerning these nemontemi by 
the older authors lead to confusion. The five days in question 
were considered unlucky, and the Aztec refrained, as far as pos- 
sible, from all activity during the period. Considered collec- 
tively, they had no name, though each of the preceding eighteen 
periods had one. It is often said, therefore, that they ''were not 
counted." Seler has shown^^ that this means that they were 
''of no account," since all activities were, as far as practicable, 
suspended until the five-day period was safely over. We know 
for a fact that the separate nemontemi days were duly reckoned 
in their reg^ulftr places in all calendrical computations. The 
concensus of modem opinion is that they are not to be looked 
upon as intercalations or corrections. The Aztecs, then, in refer- 
ring to the passage of time, employed (1) a period of 365 days, 
broken up into (2) subdivisions or cempoMis of twenty days 
each, each subdivision having a name. Besides the cempoaUis 
there was a nameless five-day period. Such twenty-day periods 
are often called months. It is, I think, worthy of some reiteration 
that our English word "month" is philologically based on the 
word moon, just as, from the practical point of view, the month- 
period is approximately one "moon" of 291^ days. Obviously, 
therefore, the word month cannot be appropriately applied to 
these twenty-day Aztec periods.** Our best resource is to fall 
back, in mentioning these subdivision of the Aztec year, on the 
native word cempodUi, which means simply a "period of twenty." 
They were not of prime importance in calendrical computations. 


A point to be re-emphasized is that the one fundamental 
element at the bottom of the Aztec calendar system is the 365- 
day solar year. 

The question which next arises is: how did the Aztecs come 
to note so exactly the periods of revolution of certain of the 
heavenly bodies such as the sun, and perhaps of some of the 
planets t It seems that they had a simple but rather effective 

11 1891. 

12 Seler, 1900-1901, p. 5, makes this point. 

1916] Waterman: Delineation of Day-Hgna in Asftee ManusoripU 303 

method of making observations. Mrs. Niittall in the Boas Anni- 
versary Volume refers to a picture showing how celestial move- 
ments were registered. A priest, to describe it briefly, sits inside 
a temple door and notes, with the aid of a notch on the lintel, the 
position of the rising or setting of a planet. The planet rises, of 
course, in a slightly different place day after day. By observing 
the rising of this planet until it got back to its original point, 
he could determine its ** period.'* Probably the approximate 
length of the solar year was established in this way — ^by noting 
the variation of the point of sunrise, day by day, until the 
return of a summer or winter solstice marked the completion 
of a given period. The priest could meanwhile keep a tally 
of days by notching a stick, or in some other way. Apparatus 
for making more exact observations than this certainly never 
existed among the ancient Mexican peoples. The general situa- 
tion as regards astronomy and their attitude towards it is brought 
out in a rather interesting way in an address reported to have 
been delivered to Montezuma on the occasion of his assumption 
of the office of principal war-chief. This exhortation is chronicled 
by Tezozomoc," and is referred to by Seler." The war-chief is 
urged ''to rise at midnight and look at the stars; toward morn- 
ing he must carefully observe the constellation Xonecuilli, St. 
Jacob's Cross; and he must carefully observe the morning star." 
Sahagun also, in the seventh book of Historia general gives an 
elaborate accoimt of Aztec astronomy. They had therefore 
enough knowledge to realize the importance of the heavenly 
bodies for recording the passage of time. It seems quite natural 
that their time-periods should have a basis in the movements of 
certain celestial bodies. 


The Aztecs seem to have recognized, then, a number of time- 
periods, the most important of which is the solar year. Now 
comes the question of how they wrote down dates. 

Perhaps the simplest way of understanding the Aztec i^stem 
of indicating dates within the year is to recall the salient fea- 

is Cr6nica mexieana, chapter 82; see Kingsborongh, 1881, vol. 9. 
i« 1898, p. 346. 

304 UnwerHty of Calif omia PubUoatumi in Am.AreK and Bthn, [Vol. 11 

tures of our own system. We recognize, first of all, our year of 
365 days (disregarding for the moment leap-year and other 
** corrections"). We divide this year up into twelve unequal 
periods. These periods were, in the youth of our calendar, much 
more uniform than they are at present. A number of perfectly 
trifling considerations have from time to time been allowed to 
alter the length of certain months. Within each of our months 
the days are numbered in order, beginning with 1. We identify 
days, then, by using twelve names, each name in combination with 
twenty-eight, twenty-nine, thirty, or thirty-one numerals as the 
case may be. Considered from this point of view, our system 
offers many points of resemblance to the Aztec. The latter, how- 
ever, employed not twelve but twenty names, and used each of 
these names in combination with thirteen numerals. They did 
not utilize the ''months" or cempoaUis for writing dates. It 
is best perhaps at this point to have these day-names used in 
dating and their symbols clearly in mind. 

The Twenty Day-symbols 

The Aztec words which were used as day-names are all names 
of actual animals, objects, or phenomena. In writing or record- 
ing these words the Aztec made use of pictures. This gives us 
a series of twenty ''day-symbols," which are of fundamental 
importance in all calendar reckonings. It is very much as though 
we ourselves used our present names for the twelve divisions of 
the year, but represented them by pictures — perhaps a picture of 
Janus for the month of January, of Mars for March, and so on. 
The twenty day-names of the Aztecs, in the order in which they 
usually appear, are given in the following list. In this list the 
English equivalent of the Aztec word is given first, with the 
native term following it. The orthography used is that adopted 
by the Spanish on their first contact with the Aztecs, since that 
orthography has become classical, and is now a fixed tradition 
among Americanists. The pronunciation of the Aztec words here 
written is practically that of modem Spanish, except that x has 
the value of English sh, and z that of English ts. The double-1 
has more nearly the value of the symbol as used in English than 
in Spanish. 

1916] Waterman: Delineation of Day-tigns in Aztee ManuscripU 


The Aztbo Day-nakss 



























Ocelot (' 















The graphic symbols corresponding to these names will be 
found in figure 1. The name of the sign is in each case written 
under it in English, with the original Aztec word in italics. The 
drawings used in this figure are taken from various Aztec manu- 
scripts, as follows : 

a, NnttaU(Zonche),"p.46 

h, NnttaU (Zonehe), p. 83 

e, NnttaU (Zouche), p. 47 

d, NnttaU (Zonche), p. 42 

e, NnttaU (Zonche), p. 44 
/, NnttaU (Zonche), p. 48 
g, Vatican B, p. 66 
h, NnttaU (Zonehe), p. 57 
♦, Fejervary, p. 28 
j, NnttaU (Zonche), p. 72 

h, NnttaU (Zonchey 

I, NnttaU (Zonche) 

m, NnttaU (Zonche) 

n, NnttaU (Zonche) 

o, NnttaU (Zonche) 

p, NnttaU (Zonche) 

q, NnttaU (Zonche) 

r, Vatican B, 

a, NnttaU (Zonche) 

t, NnttaU (Zonche) 

p. 72 
p. 48 
p. 46 
p. 72 
p. 1 
p. 54 
p. 47 
p. 50 
p. 39 
p. 47 

The effort has been made in this figure to exhibit a typical 
form of each of the signs. The drawing has been selected in each 
case, out of the large number available, as being perhaps the 
most characteristic form and the one most frequently encountered. 
Many of the graphic symbols in this figure are, as regards their 
meaning, self-explanatory. The symbols for House, Lizard, 

IS For the citations, consult the list of mannscripts in the first part of 
the bibliography. 


Unwersitjf of Calif omia PublicaUans in Am, Arch, and Bthn, [ VoL 11 





























q r s 

Motion Flint Bain 

Olin Tecpatl Quiahuitl 

Fig. 1. — The Twenty Day-signs, Typical Forms 


1916 J Waterman: Delineation of Day-Hgns in Agiec ManiueripU 307 

Snake, Deer, Babbit, Water, Dog, Monkey, Ocelot, Eagle, Vul- 
ture, and Flower (c, d, e, g, h, i, j, k, n, o, p, and t, in the 
figure) are fairly realistic pictures in each case of the thing 
itself. The remainder are more or less puzzling. The first drawing 
(a) represents a head, probably that of the ** cayman,*' either the 
alligator or the crocodile. Both animals are very common along 
the southern borders of the Qulf of Mexico. The second symbol 
in the figure (6), standing for the idea ''wind'' is a representa- 
tion of the wind-god Quetzal-coatl, or ** Feathered Serpent." 
In this drawing he is shown, as is often the case, in human form. 
The long beak shown in the figure is thought by some students 
to be connected in some way with the idea of blowing. The sixth 
sign {f)y called ** Death," is very appropriately drawn as a 
human skull. The twelfth sign (I), ''Qrass," possesses, as it is 
usually drawn, at least one curious feature. Underneath a very 
realistic representation of a bunch of grass, with a seed stalk in 
the center, there appears a human jawbone. The next symbol 
in the list, '"cane" (m), is a representation of the cane shaft 
of an arrow or javelin, probably the latter. The appendages 
on this ''cane" figure apparently represent the feathering and 
ornamentation of the missile. The cane-plant itself seems never 
to occur as a day-sign. The idea is always represented by the 
cane shaft. The seventeenth sign (g) is very much of a 
puzzle. It represents the idea "motion"; but why motion should 
be s3nnbolized in this particular way seems impossible to say. 
Seler^* does, to be sure, advance the notion that it represents, 
in one place, the sun between the sky and the earth (see p. — , 
below). For aU the certain knowledge we have, it must be con- 
sidered an arbitrary symbol. The eighteenth symbol (r) stands 
for the word "flint." It is quite a realistic picture of a double- 
pointed flint knife of the type found in use among nearly all 
uncivilized peoples. The design at the middle of the edge of 
this knife is the remnant of a picture of a human face.^^ The 
nineteenth symbol. Bain, represents the face of the rain-god (see 
page 385, below). More specific comment on the forms of these 
symbols will be found in another part of this paper. 

i« 1900-1901, p. 14. 
IT See fig^ure 35, below. 

308 UnwenUfofCaUforfMPubUcaUansinAn^AreKandBthn. [YoLll 

The Numerals 

The second principal factor in the calendar system is a series 
of thirteen numerals. There are a number of interesting opinions 
as to why the list of numerals should have been limited to thir- 
teen. Some of these opinions are noticed and compared in 
another section of the present paper. The mere writing of these 
numerals is a very simple matter. The value is indicated in 
every case by a series of dots. Very little is^rstem is apparent 
in the placing of these dots. They seem to be placed around 
the day-sign according to the taste of the artist, in the x>osition 
which gives the best artistic effect, or where there is convenient 
space (fig. 2). Other ways of indicating number than the rather 

d 6 f 

Fig. 2. — ^The Method of Writing Calendar Numerals 

a, The day 12 Death (NnttaU (Zonche), p. 76); h, 18 Bain 
(NnttaU (Zonche), p. 46); 0, 6 Monkey (NnttaU (Zonehe), p. 44); 
d, 13 Cane (NnttaU (Zonehe), p. 44) ; 0, 6 Snake (NnttaU (Zonohe), 
p. 44); f, Motion (PelLafiel, 1890, voL 2, p. 288). 

awkward method of writing down dots, were perfectly well 
known to the Aztecs.** In the *'Book of Tributes" and other 
places where considerable quantities of commodities are to be 
enumerated, a number of devices are used. Thus ** twenty" is 
represented by a picture of a pantli, or battle-flag. A picture 
apparently representing a feather stands for the quantity **two 
hundred." There are other symbols for larger quantities. In 

18 See Cyms Thomas, 1897, pp. 945-048. 

1916] Waterman: DelineatUm of Day-iigns in Aztec Manuseripia 309 

the Bologne Codex, ''five** is indicated by a straight line, and 
ten by two parallel lines. Such short-cuts were not customarily 
applied to the ¥n-iting of dates. We have in the two principal 
factors just discussed, then, the raw materials on which the whole 
writing-out of the calendar was founded: (1) a set of twenty 
symbols or ** day-signs,** used with (2) a set of thirteen numerals, 
indicated by dots. 

The Method of Writing Dates 

At this point there appears one of the curious features of the 
Aztec system, to the existence of which reference was made above. 
The Aztecs, in writing a series of consecutive dates, changed for 
every date in the series both the day-sign and the numeral. More- 
over, as soon as they came to the end of either list, they at once 
began at the beginning, regardless of how far along they were in 
the other list. Certain remarkable results follow from this, as 
will be apparent when it is remembered that the list of numerals 
was very much shorter than the list of day-signs. Suppose the 
Aztec were writing our dates according to his own system. He 
would represent January first by a name and a numeral. For 
the next day, however, he would have written, not January-tiw, 
but February-two. Thus, he uses throughout the s3nnbols and 
numerals in double progression. The twelfth day of our year, 
according to the Aztec system, would have been written Decern- 
ber-twelve, and the thirteenth, January-thirteen. The fourteenth 
would, afwuming that our names were to be used in the Aztec 
fashion, however be February-one, February would be the 
''sign,*' following January, and the given date would take the 
numeral "one** because after the thirteenth numeral has been 
used, it is necessary to begin again with the first. A good many 
different illustrations of the Aztec system have been brought 
forward from time to time.^* As a matter of fact, there is nothing 
complicated about it, though it would be the last thing probably 
to suggest itself if one of us were inventing a calendar system. 
Its difficulty is entirely due to the fact that it is utterly different 

19 See Tylor, 1863. p, 239. Seler Bupplies eomplete tables of the dates 
written out in the order in whieh they ocenr (1891, p. 1). 

310 Unwersity of Calif amia FubUoatumt in Am.AreK and Bthn. [ VoL 11 

from what we happen to do ourselves. No reason for the Aztec 
custom in regard to the numerals has so far been advanced. 

The Tonalamatl, or ''Book of Indexes'' 

Every day in the Aztec calendar, then, had what might be 
called an index, consisting of a symbol used in conjunction with 
a numeral. The twenty day-signs, every one of which could be 
written with one of the thirteen numerals, make up a series of 
20 X 13, or two hundred and sixty indexes, all told. This series 
of compound terms for dates was known to the Aztecs as the 
tonalamatl, literally **Book of Days.'* It has become customary 
to use the native term tonalamatl in speaking of the series, since 
the Aztec word has no exact equivalent in any of the European 
tongues. This ''Book of Indexes" is really the one important 
achievement of the Aztec and all related calendar syBtems. All 
the other features of the system (and many of them are both 
curious and interesting) really follow in a perfectly mechanical 
way from the application of these 260 day indexes, which is all 
the Aztec had or could supply, to the solar year of 365 days. 
The solar year is, in a sense, a ''discovery,'' since it is based 
on the actual revolution of the earth about the sun, but the 
tonalamatl of 260 signs is apparently an artificial device. One 
point demands decided emphasis in this connection. The 260 
date symbols mentioned above do not correspond to any period 
used in recording the passage of time. The time-periods are 
(first) the year, and (second) its subdivisions, the "twenties." 
One of the many things that make the literature on the Aztec 
calendar hard to follow is the habit which authors have of 
recognizing the point just emphasized, that the tonalamatl is 
not a time-period, but meanwhile referring to it in a loose and 
inconsistent way.*® The tonalamatl represents merely the number 
of indexes or labels that the Aztec had at his disposal in writing 
dates. It is precisely from this fact — ^that the tonalamatl was not 
a period for reckoning time — ^that the most typical features of 
the calendar system follow. 

so For example, Seler, 1901, p. 16, or Nattall, 1904, p. 494. 

1916] Waterman: DeUneaUan of Day-$ign9 in Axiee ManweripU 311 

The **Book of Indexes'* Applied to the Time-periods 

Let us suppose, for example, that we are at the beginning of 
an Aztec year. The dates, according to the Aztec custom, are to 
run in one continuous series. The division into months is of no 
significance as far as the writing of dates is concerned. The 
tofuUamatl of 260 symbols, as a little reflection will show, reaches 
only two-thirds of the way through the year. At the end of 260 
days we begin to use the tondtamatl over again. There is no 
help for this, as there are no additional indexes for dates beyond 
the 260th, on which the Aztec could draw. Certain indexes will 
occur twice, then, in any given year. The 261st date in each 
year, to go no further, will be exactly the same as the first. If 
the Aztec wanted to distinguish between the two, he had to adopt 
some indirect method.^^ If we began a year, then, with the begin- 
ning of the tonalamatl, at the end of that year we would find 
ourselves well embarked on our second voyage through the 
tonalamatl. The first turn through the tonalamatl would take 
us to September 17, and in the remainder of the year we would 
use 105 of the 260 indices over again. It is a point for immediate 
emphasis that at the end of the year the Aztec did not begin a 
new ton<Uamatl, but went right on in the new year with the 
remainder of the tonalamatl which he had already partly used. 
Eternity for the Aztec consisted of an endless series of dates, 
occurring in regular cycles of 260, irrespective of how these 
cycles conformed or failed to conform to the actual year-periods. 
We see, therefore, that the same principle is applied to the 
tonalamatl as a whole, that was applied in the case of the two 
factors mentioned above, the twenty symbols and the thirteen 

It must be remembered that the list of day-symbols, and the 
numeral series, are used over and over again in two independent 
cycles, ad infinitum. It is obvious, therefore, that in a year of 
365 days the list of twenty day-symbols will be used eighteen 
times, with the addition of five signs out of the nineteenth 
revolution (365 = 20X18, plus 5). If a given year begins 
with the first day-symbol, then the next year will begin with 

SI See page 314 of the present paper, note 23. 

312 UniverHtjf of Calif amia Publieatumi in Am. AreK and Bthn, [Vol. 11 

the sixth. The next year after that must begin with the 
eleventh, and the year after that with the sixteenth. All this 
follows mathematically from our premises. The year after the 
one last mentioned (that is, the fifth year reckoning from a 
given point) begins with the sixth day-sign succeeding the one 
last mentioned, which is again the first of our series of twenty. 
It must be remembered that there is no twenty-first in the 
series. The sign following the twentieth is of necessity the 
first. Hence, no matter how often the tonalamatl is used, the 
only symbols which will appear on the initial days of years are 
the first, the sixth, the eleventh, and the sixteenth of our list. 
This follows as a mathematical result merely of applying a series 
of twenty day-signs in rotation to a year of 365 days. The 
Aztecs were accustomed to name the year after its initial day.^ 
There were, therefore, only four of the twenty signs which could, 
in the nature of the calendar, stand at the beginning of the year 
and serve for year-names. It might be well to follow an estab- 
lished custom and call these four the dominical day-signs. As a 
matter of fact, the Aztecs named their years after the thirteenth, 
the eighteenth, the third, and the eighth symbols of the list as 
it is given above. Every year must begin either on the sign 
Acatl (cane), Tecpatl (fiint), CaUi (house), or Tochtli (rabbit). 
If we assume that the year begins with one of these signs, the 
other three follow mechanically. The reason for the shift from 
the use of the first, sixth, eleventh, and sixteenth day-signs as 
dominicals, to the third, eighth, thirteenth, and eighteenth is not 
known. The facts concerning the beginning or initial day-signs 
were first rendered absolutely certain, I believe, by Mrs. Nuttall 
at a meeting of the International Congress of Americanists at 
Huelva, Spain, in 1892. It must simply be admitted that the 
first sign in the list, according to the usage of the Aztecs at the 
time of the Discovery, never fell on the first day of the year. 

Applying to the numerals a procedure similar to the one 
we have just applied to the day-signs, it becomes evident that 

ss NnttaU, 1903, p. 13. Seler (1893, p. 142) advances the opinion that 
they named the year after the first day of the fifth month. Without dis- 
eossing this point, it is a fact that in ffeneral the Aztecs caUed the year 
after the index of one particular day m that year. It seems altogether 
likely that they would select the first day for this purpose. 

1916] Waterman: Delineation of Day-tigm in Agttc ManiucripU 313 

the whole series of thirteen numerals would be used twenty- 
eight times in a year and still have one day unaccounted for 
(28 X 13 = 364, only, while there are 365 days in the year). 
Remembering the Aztec principle of reverting to the first as soon 
as a series is exhausted, it is evident that if the first day of a 
solar year had the numeral 1, the last day of that year would 
also have the numeral 1. The next year would therefore begin 
with the numeral 2. This second year, like the preceding one, 
would end on the same numeral as the one it began with; and 
hence the third year in the series would begin with the numeral 
3. Thus the years in their flight begin with the various numerals 
in order — a very curious thing, depending on the fact that (1) 
the year has 365 days, and (2) the numeral series is contained in 
the year a certain number of times with a remainder of one. 
Assuming that the Aztecs, before their calendar i^stem was in- 
vented, were familiar with the length of the year, it is almost con- 
ceivable that they chose thirteen numerals on account of the very 
consideration that every successive year would in that way begin 
with a different numeral. Fourteen numerals, however, would 
of course have served this particular purpose quite as well as 
thirteen. Such a reason for the selection of thirteen is about as 
good as any so far offered. To recapitulate : The Aztecs had for 
calendrical calculations twenty day-signs, thirteen numerals, and 
a certain number of year-signs, the latter consisting of the 
indexes which fall on the day on which the year begins. There 
are only four day-signs which faU on the beginning days of 
years, according to the Aztec system of revolving the calendar; 
but each of these four signs combines in regular order with one 
of their thirteen numerals. The total number of indexes which 
can fall on the initial days of years is therefore four times 
thirteen, or fifty-two. 

It might be well to take some definite examples of the work- 
ing of this system. Let us assume that the first year of a period 
begins with the date 1 Cane ; the next must begin with the date 
2 Flint ; the next with the date 3 House ; and the next with the 
date 4 Babbit; and so on, until every one of the four signs has 
occurred with each of the thirteen numerals. It will be remem- 
bered that the Aztecs named the year after its initial date (see 

314 University of Caiifomia TubUoaiUmt in Am, Arch, and Ethn, [ VoL 11 

page 312, above). The Aztecs could with propriety speak of the 
day 3 House, in the year beginning with 4 Babbit. Such a com- 
bination ''3 House, 4 Rabbit" could not occur again until a whole 
series of fifty-two years was passed over.** As a matter of fact, 
the Aztec dates were written in precisely this manner, naming 
both the day-index and the year in which it occurred. The index 
falling on the beginning day of a year is regularly found asso- 
ciated with a peculiar ''year" sign, looking like a monogram 
composed on an incomplete A and O (fig. 3). It is obvious that 
at the end of fifty-two years there are no new ''year" signs to 

a h 

Pig. 3. — The Year-Bymbol or Tear-sign 

a, 7 House (NuttaU (Zonehe), p. 52) ; h, 6 Oane (Xuttall (Zouche), p. 44). 

be employed, since all the possible initial day-signs have com- 
bined with all thirteen numerals. It becomes necessary after 
fifty-two years to begin with the first again. At the end of such 
a fifty-two year period the Aztecs celebrated what is called a 
"tying of the years." The priests kindled new, clean fire with 
the fire-drill, which was distributed broadcast, and a fresh start 
in reckoning was taken. Such a fifty-two year period is called 
a "cycle" (in the Maya calendar of Central America, a "calendar 
round"). There seems to have been no way known to the Aztecs 
of distinguishing the dates in a given cycle from those in other 
cycles. The Aztecs, then, had no fixed point from which they 
reckoned, and every fifty-two years really represented a new 
calendar. Their records could hardly be said to cover a longer 
period than this. Tradition or legend might go back enormously 
further, but a point never to be too much insisted upon is that 

ss Bearing always in mind the proviso that there might, in eertain 
cases, be two dates "8 House" in the same year. If the Aistee had 
wanted to be specific in snch a case, he could do so only by stating how 
much time had elapsed since the beginning of the year, or by putting with 
the day-index a picture of the special divinity who ruled over that day 
and no other (Seler, 1891, p. 18). 

1916] Waterman: Delineation of Day-aigns in Agtec ManuscripU .315 

when the Aztec chronicler spoke of what had happened a couple 
of centuries before his own time, he was imparting essentially 
mythological information, and was not dealing with historical or 
chronological facts. In spite of their complex calendar system, 
the Aztecs, at the time of the Conquest, were a people without 
a history.^* It seems entirely probable that the archaeologist will, 
within the course of the next few years, know vastly more about 
the history and antecedents of the peoples and tribes known 
collectively as the Aztecs, than they ever knew themselves. This 
history will be reconstructed from their archaeological remains, 
not from their writings. 

This calendar system would, therefore, seem in a sense to be 
a failure. In justice to the Aztecs, however, it must be remarked 
that their calendar was not devised for the purpose of keeping 
chronological records. If an Aztec knew in a general way that 
a given event happened in the time of his grandfather, he seems 
to have considered himself amply informed. Their calendar was 
a matter, not of the past, but entirely for the present and the 
future. Certain combinations of signs used in dating were held, 
for reasons we can no longer fathom, to imply good fortune. 
Certain other combinations spelled disaster and woe. The 
calendar was very generally employed, in accordance with this 
notion, as a means of soothsaying or divination. Every date had 
a meaning of its own, irrespective of its relation to other dates. 
It was in this aspect of the calendar that the Aztec found himself 
most vitally interested. Their attitude is brought out very nicely 
by the fact that they gave a man, for his personal name, the index 
of the day of his birth.*' This date served him for a name until 
he won so much distinction and honor that he deserved a better 
one — ^an attitude that in general is quite in line with the customs 
of the American Indians in other parts of the New World. The 
260 indexes of the tondlamati, then, appear quite commonly in the 
Aztec manuscripts as the personal names of heroes. So far as I 
know, however, they kept no record of how old any individual 
was. The fact that he was bom under certain auspices was 
important. Nobody cared about his actual age. The calendrical 

S4 Brinton in his varioiiB works insists on this point. 
2B Codex Magliabeeehi (Nuttall, 1903), p. 12. 

310 Umver$ityof(kaiforn4aP%blieatumi%nAm.AreKandBthn. pToLU 

achievements of the Aztecs, then, are not to be measured by their 
snccess in writing chronological history. There are certainly not 
to be adjudged as having made a failure of something which they 
after all rarely dreamed of attempting. 


We saw above that the Aztec year had a length of 365 days. 
The actual length of our solar year is appreciably greater than 
that — 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes and 46 seconds, to be exact. 
The ancient Mexicans, then, made the mistake every year of 
beginning the new year more than five hours too soon. Such a 
habit as this leads in the long run to some confusion. In the 
course of four years the accumulated error makes a difference of 
practicaUy a full day. At the end of a century of such continual 
and unrectified miscalculation, the New Year's festival, assuming 
that one exists, will be celebrated almost a month before the 
proper time. Such matters take on an appearance of some im- 
portance when we reflect that the Aztecs were, above everything, 
an agricultural people. If conditions found to-day among the 
agricultural Indians of the United States (for example, in the 
Southwest) are any criterion, it seems rather likely that the 
ancient Aztecs took a fanatical interest in the maturing of certain 
crops. To the sedentary Indian of the United States the center 
of everything is his cornfield. That the attitude of the ancient 
peoples of middle America was, as a matter of fact, not essentially 
different is shown by a passage in the famous ''Franciscan 
Chronicle''** referring to the Cakchiquels of Guatemala: 

If one looks elosely at these Indians, he wUl find that everything 
they do and say has something to do with maize. A little more, and 
they would make a god of it. There is so much conjuring and fnssing 
about their eomflelds that for them they will forget wives and children, 
and any other pleasure, as if the only end and aim in life was to secure 
a crop of com.s7 

It seems entirely probable that the most important religious 
festivals in Mexico, as among the recent agricultural Indians in 

s« Gr6nica de la 8. Provincia de Quattemala, etc. See bibliography at 
end of this paper. 

S7 Op. cit., chapter vn, quoted by Brinton, 1885, p. 14. 

1010] Waterman: Delineaiion of Day-aigns in Aztec Mamuoripts 317 

eastern and southwestern North America, were connected with 
the crops.*® The religions 83n[nbolism of the ancient Aztecs is 
aknost as thoroughly pervaded with references to corn-deities 
and rain-godSy as are the rituals of the modem Pueblo Indians. 
The festivals of a x>^ple so interested in crops must necessarily 
have reference to certain fixed seasons of the year. It seems 
likely, therefore, with regard to the Aztecs, that very serious 
discrepancies arose at a very early period between the time for 
the ceremonies, as shown by the progress of the calendar, and 
the occasion for these observances, as indicated by the state of 
the crops. The calendar system, it must be remembered, in 
the form in which we know it, has a history of many centuries 
behind it. Its symbols occur on some very ancient monuments. 
Time enough had elapsed, therefore, by the period when our 
record opens, for such discrepancies to have become acute. The 
Aztecs, owing to this *' precession" of their calendar, might well 
have found themselves at times celebrating harvest-home festivals 
before the crops were so much as put into the ground. Each 
generation must have discovered, from its own experience, that 
their year of 365 even days was too short. From what we know 
of Aztec life, then, we should expect to find some provision in 
their calendar for corrections of some sort or other. 

No marked success, however, has met the numerous efforts 
which have been made to prove that a system of periodic correc- 
tions or ' * intercalations ' ' really existed. The present writer, more- 
over, cannot but feel that all the theories so far advanced concern- 
ing the Aztec system of correction have been founded more or less 
frankly on the knowledge which civilized students have of what 
the correction ought to have been. Our system of adding a day 
every four years produces a calendar very nearly correct. The 
error between the time of Julius Caesar and the year 1752 
amounted to only eleven days all told. We can say at once, how- 
ever, that the probabilities are all against the Aztecs having made 
this correction of one day in every four years, or any equivalent 
interpolation. Lacking instruments of precision and chrono- 
metric appliances, and being also without real written records, 

s^See, for example, the Codex MagUabeechi (NnttaU, 1903), pp. 03, 
79, etc 

318 University of California T%bUcat%on$ in Am, Arch, and Bihn. [ VoL 11 

sach an interpolation on their part would have been a most 
surprising accident. 

All the theories and commentaries written by modem scholars 
on the question of Aztec intercalation are based on relatively 
few original sources. By an original source is meant, in this 
connection, accounts obtained by people who were actually in 
contact with the Aztecs before their calendar lore was lost. The 
following list represent a few of the most frequently quoted of 
these ''original" authorities (page 319, upper half). 

On the soil afforded by the sources named, a number of curious 
and interesting theories have blossomed. The theories concerning 
intercalation are distinguished, first, by their variety, and 
secondly, by their ingenuity. No one of them seems to my mind, 
under the conditions given, to be plausible. It is only fair to 
state that the most ancient accounts exhibit about as much 
diversity as the most recent critiques. In the case of Sahagun, 
for example, we find the original author virtually contradicting 
himself.^ The variety of the modem opinions in the matter of 
intercalation is brought out quite clearly by putting them side 
by side in the form of a tabulation (page 319, lower half). 

So much for the evidence of intercalation on the positive 
side. There is certain evidence, however, that seems to indicate 
that the Aztecs must have been unacquainted with the whole 
principle of calendar correction. Of first importance is the 
curious fact mentioned by Seler*^ that when Sahagun talked with 
certain ''old men, the most skilful possible," at Tlaltelolco, forty 
years after the Conquest, their reckoning of the events of that 
Conquest were already ten days in error. It seems impossible 
to over-emphasize the importance of such evidence as this. It 
is of vastly more significance than any number of statements 
from the Indians as to what their custom was or was not. The 
hard facts in the case seem to partake of the nature of a 
demonstration, either that they had no intercalation, or, if any 
such principle was employed, that they applied it only to periods 
of over forty years duration. Another bit of negative evidence 

M Compare the doubtful Btatements in the seeond book, chapter 19, 
with the yigoroQB ones contained in the Appendix to the fourth book. 

«i 1891, p. 19. 

1916] Waterman: Delineation of Day-signa in Asftee Mamucripta 


320 UmveriityofCaHforn4aPMbUeaHaHiinAm.AreK€mdBthn. [Vol 11 

is of an equally uncompromising natore: None of the ancient 
manuscripts show any trace of intercalation, thou^^ some of 
them involve rather longer periods of time. This latter statement 
applies with particular force to the Vatican manuscript 3738 
(Vatican Codex A). »* 

All the arguments for intercalation seem to involve one funda- 
mentally wrong conception. There exists a school of thought 
which sets up, in this part of the New World, a strong centralized 
government, with a king at its head, whereas there existed in all 
probability merely a weak confederation of utterly democratic 
Indian pueblos, directed by a war-chief who was elected to super- 
vise military operations merely. Some of the ideas expressed con- 
cerning the calendar seem to hinge on this misconception. Not 
enough attention has been paid in this connection to Bandelier's 
papers.'* The works of many European writers on American 
institutions still involves thrones and principalities, crowns and 
scepters, very much as though Bandelier had never written. The 
usual assumption is that, granted the existence of an empire, there 
must have been in ancient Mexico some one universal system of 
calendar correction, and that it is our duty to find out what this 
system was. There is, as a matter of fact, some reason to believe 
that there was in the last analysis no fixed, authoritative calendar, 
to say nothing of an official system for correcting it. Considerable 
evidence is available that the whole Mexican system was in a 
formative and somewhat chaotic condition. It may be well to 
enumerate some of the points that would suggest this conclusion 

Sahagun tells us, for example, that the beginning of the Aztec 
year differed greatly in different places. When he himself wished 
to find out with what day the year began, he had to call a 
conference of ''old men" and ''scholars," and they disputed 
over the matter "for many days." Finally, apparently as a 
compromise, they decided on February 2.** In other words, the 
required date was not a matter of fact; it was a matter of 

ss Consult Seler, in the passage just mentioned. 

88 <<0n the art of war and mode of warfare of the ancient Mexicans''; 
''On the distribution and tenure of lands and the customs with respect 
to inheritance among the ancient Mexicans''; "On the social organiza- 
tion and mode of government of the ancient Mexicans." 1880. 

M 1831, p. 192. 

1010] WaUrtnan: Delweatian of Day-Hgm in Agtee ManuscripU 821 

opinion, and involved the reconciliation of conflicting reckonings. 
In this connection it is furthermore worth noting that even the 
names for the day-signs varied apparently from pueblo to pueblo. 
A very interesting Ust of day-signs from Mezitlan, quoted by 
Seler,*' has a sign ''Earth Ctoddess" in the place usually occupied 
by Water-monster. This same list differs from that of Mexico 
City in having ''Young Maize Ear" in place of Lizard; "Mill- 
ing-stone" in place of Vulture, and "Tooth" instead of Grass. 
It seems probable that additional lists from independent locali- 
ties, or from a number of different pueblos, would reflect even 
greater variety in the names for the separate days. In view of 
these facts, it does not seem proven that there was any universal 
or regular system of calendar reckoning among the Aztecs. We 
must remember, also, that intercalation is hardly more than a 
novelty in Europe. Until the time of Julius Caesar, our own 
European calendar was a very helter-skelter institution. The 
pontifib of republican Bome "squared" the calendar with the 
seasons as the emergency arose, and as opportunity seemed to 
offer. From what we know of Mexican civilization in general, 
with its independent towns and distinct linguistic areas, it seems 
highly unlikely that the ancient peoples there had ai^y better 
arrangement than the Roman one. The evidence and the proba- 
bilities are vastly in favor of the idea that no regular system of 
calendar correction existed in ancient Mexico.** 


It remains to discuss the origin and basis of this series of 
calendar symbols. Concerning the actual evolution of the signs, 
nothing is known. To discuss the matter with any degree of 
profit, access to considerable collections of the more ancient 
Mexican monuments would be necessary. Perhaps with a study 
of such monuments it would be possible to establish the evolution 
of the system in a general way. It is also impossible to say why 
the particular twenty objects which appear in the ordinary 

«» 190O-1901, p. 7. 

M Compare Preuss, in the Oyelopaedia of Beligion and Ethies, artiele 
''Oalendar: Meziean," where similar conelnsionB are briefly e^reesed. 

322 Univer$iiff of CdHfomia PubUeaiions in Am, ArcK and Bihn. [Vol 11 

tonalamatl were chosen. Besemblances of a rather striking sort 
exist between the calendars of Mexico and, for example, China. 
The analogy embraces not only the arrangement of dates in 
cycles, and the method of combining signs with numerals, but 
in some cases even identity of the signs employed. For that 
matter, there are undoubted points of analogy between the Aztec 
signs and certain of the signs of our own zodiac. However, 
to put forward the claim, which is occasionally heard, that such 
resemblances are proof of contact, or of a migration from 
China, is to run counter to the entire trend of the evidence of 
Mexican archaeology as a whole. It becomes constantly more 
obvious that the civilization of Middle America was really an 
autochthonous development, though discussion on the matter is 
still heard. It may be taken for granted, therefore, that we 
must look for the development of the Middle American calendar 
system on the spot. So far as I know, however, no one has tried 
to treat the subject historically. The effort so far has been to 
account for the development of the calendar, especially its 
numerical elements, on a psychological basis. 

The Reason for Twenty as a Factor 

The one solitary point on which students of the Aztec calendar 
agree concerns the reason for the selection of twenty day-signs. 
This factor twenty is assumed to have its foundation in the 
Aztec numeral system. The Aztecs, that is to say, like many 
nations of ancient and modem times, had a system of numbers 
based on twenty instead of on ten. A very interesting discussion 
of this system may be found in Cyrus Thomas' paper ** Numeral 
systems of Mexico and Central America."*^ It stands quite to 
reason that their numeral system must have developed much 
earlier than their peculiar calendar. No further explanation is 
needed, therefore, in the opinion of many scholars, for the fact 
that they chose twenty day-signs. It seems, on first glance, to 
be just what would have been expected from a knowledge of 
their arithmetic. 

«T 1897-1898, h. 

ISlfl] Wateman: BeUntationofDay-tigntinAtteoUanittieri^U 323 

The Reason for Thirteen as a Factor 
When we consider the fact, however, that the twenty day- 
signs were combined with thirteen numerals we are confronted 
by a genuine puzzle. Opinions about the reason for the exist- 
ence of a series of thirteen numerals are almost as numerous as 
the authors who have discussed the subject. If, as a matter of 
fact, the existence of a vigesimal numeral system led to a selec- 
tion of twenty symbols, we should certainly expect it to lead to 
the selection of twenty calendar numerals. Why do we find only 
thirteen t The artificial character of most of the hypotheses con- 
cerning this point is made evident by merely putting them side 
by side. 

Vabioub SuoazsTtoNs to Acoount roB the Elekznt Thirteen 
IN THE Calendak 

1. The factor thirtean appears because the most important parte of the 

hoij are tbirteen in number: namely, the ten fingers, one ear, 
one eya, and the month. (FSretamaiui.)*i 

2. Thirteen repreeents the period of the moon's waxing, or waning.!* 

3. Thirteen was ehoson b«cauae the ancient Mexicans had a eoQceptlon 

of thirteen heaTens. (Fdratemann.)*o 

4. The title-page of the Tro-Corteeian eodez haa a lepreeentation of 

the four eardinal points, eoonting in both direetiona, foUowed 
by the symbols for the aeuith and nadir, and another one nn- 
fortunatelf obliterated. Above these are written the numhera 
one to thirteen. Does this aocoout for the thirteen of the 
calendatf (Cym* Thomaa.}«i 

5. The Aztecs established a year of 364 days, because they needed for 

the year a qoantity diTisible by 4. The quantity (364) factors 
into 4 X 91, also into 28 X 13. Henee 13. (Forstemann).«a 
4. Thirteen is derived from the fact that 8 solar years are equivalent 
to 6 "Venos" years. The Aztecs, in devising their calendar, 
chose a unit consisting of a combination of 8 and 5. Henee 13. 

»• 1893, p. 4B4. 

•• This suKgeetion is mentioned by Freuss in his article on the Calendar 
to which reference was made above (footnote 37), and by Bowdlteh 
<1912, p. 266). 

*o 1693, p. 404. 

«i 1807-1698 b, p. 954. 

u 1893, p. 494. 

«* 1900-1901, p. 17 (following Tronooso). 

324 Univer9ityofCaHfarniaP%blieai%ansinAm.AreKandBihii. [YoLll 

These suggestions, while more or less ingenious, are rather 
obviously artificial. The points involved in the first suggestion, 
for example, would, if logically carried out, have resulted not in 
the selection of thirteen numerals, but of some other number. 
If, in making up a list of the most important parts of the body, 
they were to count all ten fingers, half at least of which are 
exactly like the other half, and which are not individually organs 
of supreme importance, they would certainly have counted both 
eyes. As regards the second suggestion, considerations of fact 
thrust themselves forward. The actual period of the moon's 
waxing is not thirteen days. Besides, if the moon had had any 
effect on the evolution of the Aztec calendar, we would certainly 
look for some traces of a lunar month. Nothing is simpler than 
to count from one full moon to the next. The Aztecs would 
hardly have made half of the moon's period an element in their 
calendar and ignored the full period. The next two suggestions 
in the list involve what is probably a logical inversion. It seems 
likely that if the Aztecs conceived of thirteen heavens, or thirteen 
gods of the day, it was because, for calendric or other reasons, the 
number thirteen was already uppermost in their consciousness. 
The number thirteen seems, as a matter of fact, to be rather im- 
portant in their institutions. Thus there were thirteen divisions 
in the Mayan armies; there are thirteen serpents in the Tzental 
mythology ; and to the Cakchiquel the thirteenth day was sacred.** 
It is, however, as plausible to consider these ideas a derivative 
from the calendar as to turn the proposition the other way about. 

The most abstruse theory is that of Forstemann (number 5 
in the list just given). He assumes that the Middle American 
peoples began by having a year of 360 days. Finding it too 
short, they increased its length not to 365 days, but to 364, 
because for personal (and it must be added, quite mysterious) 
reasons they wished the number of days in the year to be divisible 
by four. But a year of 364 days naturally divides itself into 
subdivisions of twenty-eight days, and there are thirteen of these 
subdivisions. Hence the thirteen of the calendar. Aside from 
its highly elaborate character, this theory does not account for 

M Cyrus Thomas, 1807-1898 b, p. 953. 

1010] Waterman: DeUneatian of Daff-tigns in Agteo ManuicripU 325 

the fact that the Aztecs selected the thirteen rather than the 
twenty-eight, or for that matter, rather than ninetj-one, which is 
as much a factor of 364 as are the other two quantities. 

If Forstemann 's theory is the most abstruse, the one advanced 
by Seler enjoys the distinction of being the most complicated. 
His hypothesis involves his favorite idea that the Mexicans laid 
stress on a ^^Yenus" year of 584 days. He is struck with the 
fact, which is in a sense a curious one, that five of these Venus 
years make up a period exactly equivalent to eight solar years. 
He then makes the assumption that the Aztecs chose, as the basis 
of their calendar, a period consisting of these two periods taken 
together, or 949 days. The greatest common divisor of 365 and 
584 is 73 ; the solar year is five times, the Venus year eight times, 
and the ''basic" period thirteen times tMs factor. Hence the 
element thirteen. If Seler 's theory is true, it must be borne in 
mind that while these computations were being carried out in the 
mind of the ancient inventor of the calendar, the days were still 
nameless. They derive their names by the combination of certain 
signs with these very thirteen numerals whose origin we are 
discussing. Seler assumes therefore that the Aztec dealt with 
such large numbers of days as 949, and traded such groups of 
days about in their minds, before they had names for any of 
them. In other words, he assumes that the Aztecs became skilled 
mathematicians, noted carefully the length of solar and planetary 
periods, and only after that sat down to invent names for 
their day& There is no evidence in the whole of human history 
that institutions develop in this way. The probabilities of such 
a development having occurred with the calendar of the Aztecs 
are, it seems to me, too remote to make the theory worth 

Some scholars try to explain, not the occurrence of thir- 
teen as an element in the calendar, but the occurrence of the 
tondtamatl of 260 units. If for the first step the Aztecs recognized 
260 as a fundamental quantity, and for the second step selected 
twenty day-signs because the vigesimal character of their 
numerals suggested such a course, they would derive the third 

<• It is only fair to remark that Seler, judging from his phraseology, 
seems to feel somewhat the same way about it himself. 

326 Univenity of Calif omia PublieatuniB in Am. Arch, and Ethn, [Vol 11 

element by dividing 260 by 20, thus getting 13. Several ex- 
planations, as a matter of fact, have been advanced which account 
for the element 260 directly. Someone has suggested that nine 
was a sacred number, and that 260 represents the total number 
of days in nine lunations. This hypothesis has been mentioned 
favorably by Mrs. Nuttall.** Aside from other objections, nine 
lunar months give, as a matter of fact, not 260 but approxi- 
mately 265^^ days. Another hypothesis, which dates from very 
early times (possibly from Motolinia)^^ is based on the idea 
that 260 days represented the period of visibility of Venus. This 
hypothesis might at least be discussed if Venus really were 
visible for 260 days. Unfortunately, nothing of the sort is 
the case. As remarked by Beuchat,^* the 260-day period does 
not correspond to the duration of any known astronomical 
phenomenon. Still another hypothesis derives the importance 
of 260 days, and the use of that period in the calendar, from 
the fact that pregnancy occupies that time. This last suggestion 
would perhaps be the most plausible of the lot if pregnancy lasted 
for that period. It has been advanced by Mrs. Nuttall,** before 
her by Porstemann,'* and before him by Torquemada. Aside 
from its relative simplicity, it seems to have little in its favor. 

GkxKlman, whose monograph was probably the most important 
single contribution to the subject,*^ holds the opinion that the 
260 is not necessarily based on the combination of twenty and 
thirteen, but that it became established because it was a unit 
that divided up very conveniently in a number of ways. 

Everything considered, I am inclined to advance the convic- 
tion that the factors thirteen and twenty are the original ele- 
ments in the tonalafnatl. It would seem most plausible, other 
things being equal, to suppose that these two simple factors 
evolved in some way, and that the tonalamatl is the product of 
them. Very likely there was a simple and practical reason which 
led to the selection of these two factors in the first place. It may 

4« 1904, p. 495. 

47 See Seler, 1900-1901, p. 16; NuttaU, 1904, p. 495. 

«8 1912, p. 334. 

*• 1904, p. 495. 

BO 1895, p. 532. 

81 1897, p. 29. 

1910] Waterman: Delineation of Day-ngna in Agteo Mawuaoripia 327 

safely be said, however, that this reason is not obvious at the 
present time. 

Derivation of the Calendar Symbols 

Reference has been already made to the fact that the calendars 
of all the more highly civilized peoples of Middle America have 
many points in common, and are constructed along practically 
the same lines. It is obvious at once, therefore, that there is 
opportunity offered for the most interesting comparative study. 
Such investigations have been carried out with gratifying results 
by Professor Seler. Two of his works are of especial interest 
from this point of view, namely, his *' Mexican chronology with 
especial reference to the Zapotec calendar,""^ and his monograph 
on ''The tonalamatl of the Aubin collection."^* Discussion as 
to the probable place of origin of the calendar, and the deriva- 
tion of its signs, is therefore unnecessary here. Of the two papers 
mentioned, the latter in particular contains a systematic presen- 
tation of the afSliations of the whole series of symbols, in order."^ 
The matter may be dismissed in the present connection with the 
remark merely that Professor Seler 's evidence in these two 
papers is almost entirely of a linguistic character. Archaeological 
evidence has never been applied to this question. 

Probable Line of Evolution 

There are really two types of explanation possible for the 
existence of this complex calendar — gradual evolution or sudden 
creation. Of the two hypotheses I vastly prefer the first, on 
general principles. Discussion will be out of place, however, 
until we have some actual data to discuss. Some of the most 
distinguished Americanists, on the other hand, seem to regard 
the calendar as a sudden invention. Seler, as quoted above, 
views the calendar in its entirety as the product of some one 
author or set of authors, working consciously toward the elabor- 
ation of a system. Mrs Nuttall^" also voices the belief that the 

52 1891. 

5» 1900-1901. 

•* Op. cit,, pp. 9-16. 

»8 1904, p. 494. 

328 Unwer$ityofCaUforniaPyhlieatiaiuinAm.AreKandBiJm. [VoLU 

system had an inventor (not to describe him more definitely) 
who actually had in view, and provided for, an epoch of 1040 
years. He is supposed to have made provision in his calculations 
for 260 Venus periods, rectified by 260 separate five-day cor- 
rections, and to have provided for twenty intercalations. She 
seems to regard the twenty day-symbols, the tonalamatl, the whole 
complex institution, as the product of one tremendous cerebra- 
tion. Though I profess myself unable to discuss the evolution 
of the system in definite terms, I wish to register my profound 
unbelief that it took any such line as this. The chances are, it 
seems to me, that the calendar has an actual history — a history 
of gradual accretion, change, and elaboration. I am inclined to 
think that this Aztec calendar system frequently suffers from 
being considered apart from its setting. It is important to 
remember that it was the work of Indian tribes who had hardly 
passed beyond the threshold of civilization. While elaborate, 
it is, like many primitive achievements, rather awkward and 
inefficient even in its perfected form. The operation of the Mex- 
ican calendar system recalls the faults of their method of picture- 
writing. Both institutions impress one with a sense of their 
futile ingenuity. Any writer who treats of the Aztec calendar 
ought, I think, to preserve in his mind a very lively picture of 
the Indian pueblos in which it developed. It is certainly absurd 
to put the Mexican calendar on a plane of equality with the 
calendar systems of those nations of the Old World who had 
written records, and at least the beginnings of science. Further 
than to insist that the calendar probably has a history, it seems 
impossible to go. 



We have seen that the various calendar symbols represent, 
at bottom, actual objects or phenomena. A possible exception 
occurs in the case of the ''Motion" or Olin symbol, in which the 
graphic element seems to be obscured, if it ever had one. A 
good many tendencies operate in the case of most Aztec calen- 
drical signs to change their original character. The simplest 

1916] Waterman: Delineatum of Day-Hgna in Aeteo ManusoripU 


of these tendencies is perhaps the mere desire for ornamentation 
or decoration. The native artist at times seems to regard the 
calendar signs as an admirable field for the expression of artistic 
taste. This is illustrated very well by the treatment of the 
serpent's head, used as the day-sign Snake or Coatl. Figure 4 
represents the various manners in which this design is elaborated. 
In the drawings shown in the figure the general outline has not 
been seriously modified. The various artists do, however, show 
considerable discrimination in the choice of different styles of 
ornament which they apply. 



Fig. 4 — ^Different Styles of Ornamentation applied to the 

Serpent Head 

a, Vatican B, p. 4; h, Nuttall (Zouehe), p. 4; e, Nuttall (Zouehe), 
p. 61; d, Vatican B, p. 4; e, Vatican B, p. 5; f, Vatican B, p. 81.»« 

The same point is brought out very clearly in the case of the 
different representations of Water-monster {Cipacili). This is 
illustrated in figure 5. The head in every case is reptilian in 
contour, possesses a prominent eye-plate, and is characterized by 
the presence of a row of enormous triangular teeth. The surface 
of the head is elaborated into spots, vertical lines, bars and dots 
in a variety of arrangements. 

The first point in the study of the day-signs, as they are 
delineated in the manuscripts, is therefore that there is evident 
considerable play of the artistic impulse. As a result, many 
fanciful modifications of the original idea are in each case to be 
looked for. 

Another point deserving emphasis is this: that the native 
artists, in delineating day-signs, were dealing with subjects per- 

B< See note 15, p. 305. 

330 UfUver9iiyofCMforniaPiihUeati<nuimAiiLAreKandEihn^ [Vol.11 

fectly familiar to themselves and their audience. They were at 
liberty therefore to reduce their pictures to the most naked 
symbols without danger of being misunderstood. Moreover, the 
signs in many manuscripts occur in a regularly established 
sequence, and in many cases the identity of a symbol may be 

Fig. 5. — Ornamental Elaboration in the Decoration of the 

Water-monater Head 

a, Vatican B, p. 4; h, Vatican B, p. 7; o, Vatican B, p. 67; d, Vatican B, 
p. 71; e, Vatican B, p. 1; f, Vatican B, p. 2. 

determined as readily by its place in the series as by its appear- 
ance. In many cases, accordingly, we encounter symbolism run 
rampant. The symbols occur, in fact, in all stages of denudation. 
It would be easily possible, on the basis of the material in the 
manuscripts, to ''trace the development" of the more simple and 
mnventionalized desig^is from the more complicated and realistic 
ones, by the old device of putting the realistic at one end of a 
series and the conventional at the other. It is, however, worthy 
of note in this connection that we often encounter a highly com- 
plex form of a sign and a highly simplified one, side by side, on 
the same page (see fig. 6). In other words, the native artist 
apparently had complete forms of these day-signs always in his 
mind. Sometimes in writing do¥Fn a given sign he would choose 
one or two features only, and in other cases would put them all 
down, with elaborate ornament in addition, if the space permitted 
and the humor struck him. One thing is perfectly evident from 

1916] Waterman: Delineation of Day-signs in Aetec Manworipts 


a study of the available manuscripts: that in the execution of the 
day-signs, a considerable part is played by caprice. 

These conditions permit almost unlimited convergence in the 
various designs, making it practically impossible in some cases 

Fig. 6. — ^Two Forms of the Day-sign Bain (Quiahuitl), 
representing the Baln-god, Tlaloc 

a, Human face with a goggle eye and long teeth; h, the same 
simpUfied. (Both from Nuttall (Zouche), p. 9.) 

to identify a symbol when taken from its context. This is illus- 
trated in figure 7. There is general similarity between the first 
two drawings (a and b), yet they represent quite independent 
day-signs, Flower and Cane. An even more extreme case is 
shown in c and d of this figure, c represents a human jawbone 
surmounted by an eye, and the whole accompanied by a tuft of 
grass. The whole composite figure represents the day-sign Grass. 

Fig. 7. — ^Drawings Similar to Each Other but Standing for 

Distinct Ideas 

a, Flower (Xochitl), Vatican B, p. 7; b, Oane (Aoatl), Vati- 
can B, p. 11; e, Grass {Mdlin<Uli), Vatican B, p. 18; d, Water 
(Atl), Vatican B, p. 82. 

332 Universiiy of Calif amia PubUeatiom im Am. Arch, and Bihn, [ YoL 11 

d is a conventionalized representation of a vessel of water with 
a shell in it (see figs. 20 and 25) and stands for the day-sign 
Water. Yet the two symbols c and d certainly look as though 
they were intended to represent the same idea. This variability 
and convergence may be best discussed in connection with indi- 
vidual studies of each of the day-signs, and the various forms 
assumed by them. The tendencies just pointed out will be found 
to operate in the case of each of the day-sig^is taken up in the 
remainder of the paper. 


The effort has been in the following pages to collect the most 
divergent examples possible of the twenty day-symbols and to 
put them side by side for comparison. A good many Mexican 
manuscripts have been omitted from the returns submitted in 
this paper because they contained drawings of Europeans and 
European objects, and were therefore obviously late. Prominent 
among the manuscripts of this class which have not been con- 
sidered are the Vatican Codex A (3738), and the manuscripts 
mentioned above, published in facsimile by the Junta Colombina 
in Mexico City"' (the Codex Porfirio Diaz, the Codex Baranda, 
the Codex Dehesa, etc.). A good deal of material has thus been 
passed over as too inexact for the present purpose. Conspicuous 
in this category are the reproductions in Lord Eingsborough's 
enormous Mexican Antiquities already mentioned. Here the 
day-signs are so imperfectly drawn that any discussion of their 
forms would be wasted effort. The drawings in the Aubin 
manuscript, some of them reproduced below, are much worse 
than any of those in Eingsborough. The peculiarities of the 
day-signs in it are obviously the mere effect of ignorance and bad 
draughtsmanship. The Loubat edition of this manuscript con- 
stitutes a perfect copy of a defective specimen. The variant 
forms it contains have therefore a certain interest. 

Wherever possible, the day-signs illustrated below have been 
compared with realistic drawings of corresponding objects. 
Study of these graphic drawings throws considerable light on 

B7 See Ghavero, Antiguedades mexieanae, 1892. 

1916] Waterman: Delineation of Day-signs in Aztec Manuscripts 


features of the day-«igns which might otherwise be obscure. It 
is only fair to assume that the day-sign, where it is not realistic, 
is a simplified and conventional version of the graphic represen- 
tation. It wiU in some cases be seen that the drawings which 
appear as day-signs are curious, not purely because they are day- 
signs, but because the Aztec artist had limitations even where 
he tried to be realistic. The realistic drawings which appear 
below are selected in every case from the list of original manu- 
scripts which supplied the day-signs illustrated. 





Pig. 8.— <i-o. The Day-sign Water-monster (CipactU) ; 

334 Unwersiiy of California PubUeaiiont in Am. AroK and Bthn, [YoLll 

Water-monster (CipactU) 

8owree$ of drawings (fig. 8): 

a, Nattall (Zonche), p. 76 i, NattaU (Zonehe), p. 47 

h, Vatican B, 

p. 47 

i, Yatiean B, 

p. 80 

e, Nuttall (Zoucne), 

p. 35 

Ic, Yatiean B, 

p. 60 

d, Yatiean B, 

p. 87 

2, Yatiean B, 

p. 59 

e, Yatiean B, 

p. 73 

Illy Aubin, 

p. 13 

f, Bologne, 

p. 3 

n, Yatiean B, 

p. 58 

g, NuttaU (Zonehe), 

p. 4 

0, Yatiean B, 

p. 5 

h, Fejervary, 

p. 28 

Pf Nuttall (Zouehe), 

p. 75 

The drawings in figure 8 represent various forms of the day- 
sign Water-monster {CipactU). The final drawing in the series 
(p) gives what must be regarded as an attempt at representing 
this animal realistically. This latter drawing (p) was selected 
from a page of the Codex Nuttall (Zouche manuscript) which 
represents a group of warriors moving in canoes to the assault 
of an island t0¥Fn. In the scene as given in the manuscript 
there is drawn a lake, containing in its depths, in addition to 
the present figure, a fish, several shells, and a snail (Codex 
Nuttall (Zouche manuscript), p. 75). The resemblance between 
the different forms of the first day-sign and this realistic draw- 
ing of a monster in the water, lend ample color to the name 
Water-monster applied to the day-symbol. The word CipactU^ 
the Aztec name of the day-sign, seems to mean first of all 
''prickly."^* It is applied in the old vocabularies to an animal 
described as a ''big fish like a cayman" (alligator). The 
corresponding day-sign of the Zapotecs of southern Mexico has 
a name defined as ''great lizard of the water." It seems 
rather likely, all things considered, that the realistic drawing 
shown below (p, fig. 8) and the day-signs which so closely 
resemble it, are all intended to represent some of the American 
crocodilia. A glance at figure 8, p, however, will show that it 
is possible for even the realistic drawings of the animal to 
represent him as lacking a lower jaw. This absence of the lower 
jaw is quite a constant feature of this day-sign wherever it 
occurs. Other prominent features of the day-sign are a large 
eye-plate, which occurs quite uniformly, and large sharp teeth. 
In the realistic picture the creature is represented with spines 

B« Seler, 1900-1901, p. 9. 

1916] Waterman: Delineation of Day-signs in Aetee MoMUcripts 335 

along his back, and on top of his snout. The spines along the 
backbone are a counterpart of those which occur on the actual 
animal. Those along the nose and head, however, are artificial 
additions. A study of figures c, f, and p of figure 6 makes it seem 
rather likely that these latter * * spines * ' are in their origin merely 
additional teeth which have wandered up from the lower part 
or mouth part proper. On the other hand, they may be additions 
suggested to the Mexicans by their familiarity with homed 
lizards or ''homed toads," which, barring size, are animals 
somewhat like the alligator but possessing homy or spiny heads. 
The teeth sho¥Fn in the different forms of this day-sign are 
worthy of remark in a general way. Figure 8, d, comes nearest 
to representing realistically true crocodilian dentition. The 
triangular teeth shown in &^ a more usual type in the manuscripts 


than the others, seem to be merely conventionalized forms. The 
Water-monster signs have in their outlines at least a family 
resemblance to the sign Snake, or Coatl (see fig. 13). This 
resemblance has apparently affected the dentition given to the 
Water-monster, who is often provided not only with teeth, but 
with serpent fangs. The distinction between the two types of 
teeth is clearly made in the drawings lettered a, e, f, figure 8, 
and is perhaps suggested in p. In nt we see not only a snake- 
like fang, but the forked tongue of the serpent as well. These 
points, suggested by or accompanied by an approximation in 
general form to the serpent type, seem to be purely a case of 

In a few of the drawings a nose-plug is exhibited (g and m). 
This is a purely human article of adornment, and one that is 
seen in many warrior and priestly figures in the manuscripts. 
In figure 8, I, the combination of a spine and an eye-plate looks 
almost like a sort of cap. The tail in figure 8, p, terminates in 
a fiint knife, or a figure very much like the fiint knives illustrated 
in figure 35. 

In connection with the symbol Water-monster, Seler makes 
a remark which is in my opinion a sample of what ought to be 
avoided. He observes that the spikes on the top of the Water- 
monster 's head are intended to represent stone knives. He 
** proves" that this is their original meaning by referring to a 

336 UfUver$ity of CdUfomia PubUeatians in Am, Arch, and Bthn. [Vol. 11 

page in the Codex Borbonicas, in which the spikes have the form 
of stone knives. There is a logical weakness here. In some mann- 
scripts we find the Eagle's feathers also taking the form of flint 
knives (fig. 32, g). That does not prove that the feathers were 
originally drawn as fiint knives. There is in general so much 
arbitrary simplification and elaboration in the representation of 
all the signs, that to light on any one variant and call it the 
original form is a waste of time. The only means we have of 
judging what the original form may have been is to find a rep- 
resentation of a given object which is evidently intended to be 
g^phic. When, for example, the artist in the case of the 
Cipactli sign, which we are discussing, draws a monster in the 
midst of a lake surrounded with realistic representations of fish, 
snails, and bivalve shells, as in the case with the original of 
figure 8, p, it is only a fair guess that he intends his drawing to 
be realistic ; and such a drawing probably represents his idea of 
what the animal really looks like. It is at least plausible to refer 
to the features of such drawings as the original ones. Even this 
is not really conclusive. The characteristics of the g^phic 
representation may be affected by features borrowed from the 
familiar day-symbols. It would certainly be more plausible in 
the case of Seler's fiint knives to make an assumption directly 
the contrary of Seler's, and say that his fiint knives of the Codex 
Borbonicus are elaborated and re-interpreted teeth or spikes. It 
is hard to believe that the day-sign Water-monster could have 
begun its career in a form so peculiar as that of an animal set 
about with stone knives. 

Seler's papers show another tendency which deserves com- 
ment. He often refers categorically to certain traits as char- 
acteristic of a given day-symbol. If one deliberately coUects as 
many variant forms as possible of one day-sign, it is hard indeed 
to find any one feature which occurs in all of them. To give a 
specific example, Seler says that in representations of Cipactli 
* * a row of spikes runs . . . along the vertical line of the head. ' "• 
The drawings a, b, e, g, h, and i in the present figure, all six of 
them very beautifully drawn, are without this feature. The 

69 1900-1901, p. 9. 

1916] Waterman: Delineation of Day-gigna in Aetec Manuscripts 337 

absence of hard and fast rules of this sort will be emphasized in 
discussing others of the signs below. 

One other feature of the Water-monster designs is worth men- 
tioning. I refer to the artistic value of most of the heads as 
decorative objects. Most of these heads present a thoroughly 
picturesque appearance. The eye-plate is nearly always more or 
less flamboyant, as is, in many cases, the figure as a whole. 
Figure 8, a^, are more typical in this respect than are the others. 

Wind (Ehecatl) 

Sources of drawings (fig. 9): 

a, Vatican B, p. 52 j, NattaU (Zouche), p. 1 

b, Vatican B, p. 7 h, Vatican B, p. 71 
e, Bologne, p. 1 I, Nnttall (Zouche), p. 16 

d, Vatican B, p. 71 m, NuttaU (Zouche), p. 16 

e, NuttaU (Zouche), p. 5 n, NuttaU (Zouche), p. 18 
/, Vatican B, p. 3 o, Fejervary, p. 35 
g, Vatican B, p. 1 p, NuttaU (Zouche), p. 3 
h, NuttaU (Zouche), p. 62 q, NuttaU (Zouche), p. 65 
i, Vatican B, p. 87 

The various forms of this day-sign represent the wind-god, 
Qiietzalcoatl, a name meaning literally, ''Feathered Serpent." 
The symbol is associated however with the word ehecail, or 
"breeze." Figure 7, q, gives an idea of the way in which the 
deity is represented realistically. He has here the form of a 
human being, running, and carries on his left arm a shield, with 
javelins, and in his right hand the atlatl,^^ or spear-thrower. His 
straight hair and a full beard are shown in the picture. His nose 
is prodigiously elongated, and the parts of his face around the 
mouth have the form of a bird's beak. It is rather hard to tell 
by inspection whether these two features are supposed to repre- 
sent the actual facial peculiarities of the god, or simply a mask 
worn by him. On his head is a pointed cap, represented in many 
places as made of tiger skin, and at the back of his neck is a 
very characteristic fan-shaped ornament. The remainder of his 

•0 Consult NuttaU, 1892. 

8SS Uitivenit]/ of Calif onia FubUeatvma iit Am. Are\ and Sthm. [ToL 11 

Fig. 9. — a-p, The Day-rign Wind (Ehecatl) ; q, BmUiUc 
Drawing of the Wind-god 

1916] Waterman: Delineation of Day-signs in Asiec ManusoripU 339 

costume is of the usual Aztec sort, consisting of a breech-doth 
and sandals. The present drawing, however, shows in addition 
a necklace and a conspicuous ear-ornament. When we turn to 
the day-symbols shown in this figure, it is noticeable that they 
represent only the head of the divinity. A good many of 
the day-symbols in the manuscripts represent the head as de- 
scribed, with the hair, beard, cap, and mask or snout. Some 
of the manuscript drawings, on the other hand, are very much 
simplified. It would be quite easy to see in the present figure 
a ''descending series" of drawings. Figure 9, a, for example 
which is a complete representation of the god with all the fea- 
tures, might be considered to represent the beginning of a process 
of degeneration, and figure 9, p, which is denuded of almost 
everything, the end of the process. It is even possible to fill in 
all of the steps between these two extremes, and to show how one 
by one the features might have dropped off. Figure 9, a, for 
example, has cap, beard, eye, ear-ornament, and snout. Figure 
9, e, has lost the cap ; % lacks the cap, and in addition has lost the 
ear-ornament. Figure 9, g, has lost, in addition to the foregoing 
the pupil of the eye ; m has lost the eye altogether, retaining, of 
the original features, only the snout and beard. In o and p even 
the beard vanishes, and of the whole god nothing but the snout 
is left. The mouth of a degenerates in p to a mere line. 

Such a series has, however, very little real meaning. The 
elaborate head shown in e was drawn by the artist who drew the 
simplified form shown in p, and the two drawings are on adjacent 
pages of the original text. Our text-figures therefore do not 
represent actual genetic series. It does seem possible, however, 
to interpret certain of the features present in the signs by a 
process of comparison. For example, some of the realistic draw- 
ings of the god represent him with a fang at the comer of his 
mouth. It seems likely that the fang is elaborated from a notch, 
which often occurs in exactly the same place and has very much 
the same appearance. If an ''original" form is to be looked for, 
the notch might be interpreted as the down-curved mouth, which 
is the usual sign of old age, shown for example in figure 10, b. 
The fang form is especially clear in figure 9, c, d, and I. It 
seems rather likely that the notched disk below the comer of the 

840 Vnivertity of CaUfonua PwbltMfwnt in Jm. Jreh. and Btlm, [ToL 11 

month in figure 9, o, represents this moath-DotcIi or fang, wbidk 
has in this drawing wandered oat of its proper place. 

The eye in these representations of the Wind symbol does 
some curious things. In b, figure 9, it wanders out on the beak, 
and in d mounts up on a stalk. In drawings / and k this stalk 
becomes much elongated. The beard, too, shares in these changes. 
In figure 9, /, it loses its likeness to hair, retaining however its 
outline. In g the hair is replaced by speckles, and in k and k 
the whole beard degenerates into a mere sausage-shaped tag. 
Such series as are shown in figure 9, whether they represent 

Fig. 10.— <i, Tb« Pace of tha Wind-god, ahowing doini-euiTed month 

(Nnttkll) ; i, a fkM with a eorred month, a 

featare ugnifyiiig old age 

accurately the origin of the simpler forms of the day signs or 
not, at least enable us to recognize in the simpler forms many 
of the elements which make up the more complicated ones. A 
person, for example, who in examining a text encounters a form 
like q, figure 9, would certainly have some trouble in recognizing 
it as a form of the wind-god. Yet, by comparison with the more 
complicated figures it is possible to recognize in the simpler 
drawing the various elements which stand for tiie hair, the snout, 
and the beard. The proportions and the positions of the various 
parts merely are changed, while the identity of the figure remains 

1916] Waterman: Delineation of Day-gigna in Astec ManuicripU 341 




lii izd 




Fig. 11. 

> The Day-sign Honae (CaUi) ; q, Bealistie 
Drawing of a House 

342 Unwersity of California PubUeationi in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [VoL 11 

House (OaUi) 

8ouree$ of drawings (fig. 11): 

a, Vatiean B, p. 87 

i, Vatican B, 

p. 5 

h, Nuttall (Zouehe), p. 56 

j, Vatican B, 

p. 4 

e, NuttaU (Zouche), p. 20 

Jc, Fejervary 

p. 30 

d, Nuttall (Zonche), p. 34 

1, Vatican B, 

p. 64 

e, Fejervary, p. 18 

m, Vatican B, 

p. 3 

f, Nuttall (Zonche), p. 31 

n, Nuttall (Zouche), 

p. 84 

g, Aubin, p. 1 

0, Vatican B, 

p. 71 

h, Vatican B, p. 8 

p, Nuttall (Zouche), 

p. 6 

There are probably few day-signs in which the original forms 
are so completely obscured as in the case of the day-sign House. 
In its extreme form the day-sign appears merely as a hook (fig. 
11, nt), on a sort of a pedestal. The drawings in k, I, m, seem 
to show how this ''hook" appearance evolves. A; is a fairly con- 
vincing picture of a stone structure, I should say, with a thatched 
roof. If the evidence of the manuscripts is good for anything, 
this is the usual form of architecture in the Aztec or Plateau 
region, even for ceremonial edifices. Comparison with figure 
11, q, brings out the principal features of such a structure. This 
latter represents, like a, e, and k-p, a cross-section through such 
a temple. To the. right is the stairway leading up to the temple 
doorway. The doorway was made up of two uprights, either 
stones or timbers, with a third lying horizontally on them for a 
lintel (see fig. 11, b-d). According to Seler,^^ these posts and 
lintels are of wood. The artist, it seems, wished to exhibit this 
doorway but was not equal to drawing it in perspective, so he 
compromised by dragging it around to one side, and represent- 
ing only part of it; that is, with only one of the uprights in 
place. The front wall of the temple, or at least the position of 
this wall, he represented by a mere thin line. The thatching, 
however, is plainly and quite correctly represented, for the 
temples had, as here indicated, ''hip" roofs, thatched on all four 
slopes. The ridge seems to have been elaborated into some sort 
of ornament. This is shown at the top of figure 11, g. On the 
base or pyramid of the structure we see an earthquake or oUn 
symbol (for which see fig. 34). In figure 11, k, the roof is rather 

•1 1900-1901, p. 10. 

1916] Waterman: Delineation of Day'Signs in Asiee Manuscripts 343 

bulging or convex. In I the ''peak" effect is reduced to a rudi- 
ment, and the drawing as a whole is more cursive in style. In 
figure 11, m and n, the artist seems to have had in mind not the 
original idea of a house, but such degenerate symbols of it as I, 
figure 11, which he permitted himself to reproduce in still more 
cursive fashion. In fact, in m, I, n, o, and p the likeness to a 
house is almost or entirely lost. 

In b, figure 11, the front view of the house, or calii, is repre- 
sented. We see here the thatched hip-roof, and the doorway of 
dressed stones or timbers. The artist, however, was apparently 
not equal to drawing a stairway in front view, so left it out. 
In d this doorway is drawn still more plainly. Here the artist 
seems to have tried to draw at the same time both the front and 
the gable ends of the roof, giving up, however, without being 
successful. In g the structure has been reduced to a remnant. 
We see here apparently a side view showing half of the door 
construction (compare a) and a line representing the back wall. 
Figure 11, h-j, represent this same front view of the structure, 
dra¥Fn, however, in cursive lines. The T-shaped inclosure seems 
to represent the outside line of the door construction, the open- 
ing having vanished. In this case, a study of the more compli- 
cated forms readily explains the simple ones such as g. 

Lizard (Cuetzpalin) 

Sourees of drawings (fig. 12): 

a, NuttaU (Zouehe), p. 56 


Yatiean B, 

p 16 

h, NuttaU (Zouehe), p. 49 



p. 37 

e, NuttaU (Zouehe), p. 13 


Yatiean B, 

p. 7 

d, Yatiean B, p. 3 



p. 2 

e, NuttaU (Zouehe), p. 5 



p. 19 

f, Yatiean B, p. 64 


Yatiean B, 

p. 70 

This is probably the least interesting of all the day-symbols, 
for the reason that it is nearly alwa3rs carelessly drawn, and does 
not exhibit much variety at best. It is usually a sprawling figure 
with an uncertain number of legs straggling about, and a taiL 
I should say that the most characteristic thing in the drawing 
of the lizard is the loose- jointed way in which it sprawls on the 
page. One feature is noticeable in the drawings of lizard when 

344 Unwer$Uyof(M%f&rniaPubUeationsinAm.AroKandEthii. [YoLll 

they can be examined in color. Half of the animal is normally 
red, the other half a sky bine. The division into two colors is 
represented by the line across the lizard's body in figore 12, 
a, b, c, e, and g. Seler's statement** that ''the lizard symbol is 

i * I 

Fig. 12.^The Day-sign Lizard (CMeUpaUn) 

normally blue" does not apply to all the manuscripts. The 
arrangement of colors would possibly indicate that one of those 
species is intended whose under-surface is bright blue. To 
economize time, perhaps, the artists painted the animal half 
reddish and half blue, without bothering to be more realistic. 
At least this is a possible explanation of the curious arrangement 
of colors. 

•« 1900-1901, p. 10. 

1018] W^wman: DeUntatUmofDog-tigntbtAxttcUamueTipf 

Rg. 18. — o-I, The Dk^-sigii Bnkke (Coatl) ; m, Bealiitie 
Drswing of a Bnake 

346 Unwer9UyofCdUformaP%bUoaii(m9%nAm.AreKandBthn. [YoLU 

Snake {Coatl) 

Sowreei of drawin^M (fig. 18): 

a, Borgia, p. 5 h, Yatieaii B, p. 67 

h, Aubin, p. 18 i, Yatieaii B, p. 66 

e, Bologae, p. 7 h, Nuttall (Zouehe), p. 77 

e, Bologae, p. 4 I, Yatiean 15, p. 71 

f, Yatiean B, p. 74 m, Yatiean B, p. 45 

g, Nuttall (Zouehe), p. 75 

Figure 13, m, represents a realistic drawing of a serpent 
chosen from a page in Vatican Codex B (manuscript 3773 in the 
Vatican library). The scene, or whatever it may be called, rep- 
resents a human figure holding a serpent in its outstretched hand. 
The hand and part of the arm are reproduced in the present 
illustration, the rest of the human figure being omitted. The 
meaning of the device around the serpent just above the hand 
is not dear. The snake in this drawing, as in many of the day- 
signs, is plainly the rattlesnake. It is moreover quite accurately 
represented. The head exhibits, however, in place of one fang, 
a whole series of enormous ones projecting from the mouth. The 
plate over the eye is elaborated also into a sort of crest. It is 
interesting to note that figures of people holding snakes are 
fairly common both in Aztec and Maya art.** One can hardly 
help thinking in this ccmnection of the well-known Snake Dance 
of the sedentary Indians of the southwestern part of the United 
States, in which performers dance holding serpents. 

Many of the day-signs representing the serpent show the same 
characteristics as the realistic drawing just mentioned (for 
example, a and b, figure 13). The former of these two has an 
added feature, however, namely a plume at the end of the tail. 
Figure 13, c and d, represent the same serpent-figure knotted up 
in a sort of coil. In / the serpent is likewise complete, except 
that his rattles have degenerated to a mere button, and his outlines 
are not so conspicuously ophidian. In the remainder of the day- 
sign figures there is represented only the serpent's head. (Heads 
in general appear more frequently in the manuscripts as a day- 
sign than whole animals.) Many of these heads are thoroughly 

«* For the latter see Maudslay, 1889-1902, for example, voL 4, pL 33; 
Spinden, 1913, p. 49. 

1916] Waterman: Delineatum of Day-Hgna in Aaitee ManworipU 847 

8erx)ent in character. In one of fhem however (g, figure 13), we 
find a human nose ornament consisting of a ''plug" with a flow- 
ing plume attached. In a few of the drawings the serpent head 
is very much debased. The one shown in h, for example, might 
well pass for the head of some other animal. In j we have only 
a jumble of lines, so formless that it is hard to recognize in them 
even such parts as the eye and the mouth. As a special instance 
of ''debasement," attention is drawn to the figure shown in { 
which lacks the fang, though the fang is perhaps the most char- 
acteristic feature in the other serpent drawings. 

Death (Miquiztli) 

Sources of drawings (fig. 15): 

a, Nuttall (Zouehe), p. 79 i, Vatican B, p. 3 

h, Borgia, p. 4 J, Pejenrary, p. 33 

e, Vatican B, p. 25 1c, NnttaU (Zouche), p. 31 

d, Vatican B, p. 96 I, Vatican B, p. 54 

e, Nuttall (Zouche), p. 75 m, Bologne, p. 4 

f, Vatican B, p. 52 n, Bologne, p. 2 

g, NuttaU (Zouche), p. 13 o, Vatican B, p. 63 
h, NuttaU (Zouche), p. 13 p, NuttaU (Zouche), p. 82 

As already mentioned, the sign for death is a human skull. 
This is drawn in many cases with some degree of fidelity to the 
facts. It is, on the other hand, one of the symbols showing most 
marked distortion. Figure 15 shows its principal variations. 
p of this figure shows a realistic scene from an Aztec funeral 
ceremony. The practice seems to have been to expose the body 
until only the bones were left, which were then gathered and 
burned. We have here the representation of such a cremation 
scene. Piled upon a circular mat are the long bones tied up in 
a faggot, and surmounted by the skull. Sticking up on each side 
are decorated slats of wood. To one side stands the figure of a 
priest, with black face and black body-paint, usual in the case 
of people taking part in religious ceremonials. In his hands he 
holds a torch with which he ignites the pyre. The fire may be 
seen spreading to right and left in the drawing, and in the center 
there mounts a thick column of smoke. The drawing of the 
skull is the point of particular interest for us. There is con- 

348 Unwenityof(kMformaP%a>UoatianiinAm.Areh.andSihn. [YoLll 

siderable realism in the sketch. The staring ^e-orbit, the teeth 
and jaw, and the zygomatic arch are shown, though not perfectly. 
This type of drawing seems to have been the original model for 
the day-i^ymbol Death. 

I should like to emphasize some curious points in the Aztec 
artist's treatment of the lower jaw of the skull. Perhaps we 
can discuss this best by calling to mind the outlines of the jaw 
as it really is (fig. 14, a). We notice the teeth and chin on the 
one hand, and on the other the ascending '^ramus'' with the 
sigmoid notch at the top. On one side of this notch (to the left 
in the sketch) rises the coronoid process, and on the other, the 
hinge of the jaw, or ' * condyle. ' ' The Aztecs represent all of these 
features in their jaw-bones, esx>ecially the sigmoid notch and the 
hinge. The hinge itself they expand into a sort of circular tag, 
very prominent in all jaw figures. We can discuss the features 
of their jaw drawings to best advantage by citing places where 
the jawbone is drawn alone. For this we can turn to the 
''Grass" symbols (fig. 28, below), in which a human jawbone 
plays a conspicuous part. This is also shown in figure 14, b. 
Here especial attention is drawn to the conspicuous ''hinge" 



Fig. 14. — Corioiu Features of the Drawings representing the Skull, 

and a possible explanation of them 

a, Drawing of an aetnal jaw-bone; h, a jaw-bone from a day- 
sign, Nnttall, p. 79; <;, drawing of an aetnal sknll (Chinook Indian, 
artificially flattened); d, Nnttall, p. 82, and 0, Nnttall, p. 13, the 
sknll as drawn in day-signs. 

1916] Waterman: DeUneaium of Daf-Hgna in Agtec Manuscripts 349 

When we turn to the representations of the whole skull, with 
brain-case and jaw, we find the delineation very much affected 
by this fondness for emphasizing the hinge of the jaw. Figure 
14, c, shows a sketch of an actual skull. An artificially flattened 
Chinook (Columbia River) cranium was chosen for the sketch, 
because it most nearly corresponds in outline to the Aztec draw- 
ing. We have around the eye a bony ridge which fuses below 
into the zygomatic arch, running across the sketch horizontally. 
All of these features can be recognized in the corresponding 
Aztec design (fig. 14, d) , though rudely drawn in. I should like 
to emphasize in this latter figure (d) the fact that when the jaw 
is fitted by the artist into the skull, as shown in the dotted lines 
(actually following the original drawing), the flamboyant treat- 
ment of the maxillary condyle, or hinge process, leaves only 
the back part of the cranium showing. The occipital part of 
the cranium runs around the jawbone in the form of a hook. 
When the artist draws a skull without the jaw he preserves this 
hook, which leaves a space or socket where the jaw hinge would 
fit if it were present. This hook in skulls which are drawn with- 
out jaws becomes rudimentary and apparently loses its original 
meaning. I am otherwise at a loss to account for the curious 
hook which appears at the rear of many skull drawings (such as 
e, fig. 14). In the collection of skull drawings used as day-signs 
(fig. 15) many will be found (h, o) where the hook is quite mean- 
ingless. On the other hand, in some of them (f, I) the skull is in 
perfect shape for the reception of a jaw with an expanded hinge. 
We have in the drawings standing for the idea ^' Death" a case 
where, it seems to me, a very curious and puzzling feature of a 
day-sign is really explained by reference to an original graphic 
style of delineation. 

Many minor variations will be noticed in the skull symbols. 
For one thing, the skull often has, as an ornament, a flint knife 
stuck in the nostril (fig. 15, d, i). This flint knife seems to 
degenerate in other cases to a mere point or lobe (g, j, I). The 
eye also becomes less realistic in certain drawings (g, j). In 
k we find a jaw with the usual hinge, but there is no correspond- 
ing notch in the skull. On several of the skulls are found lines 
suggesting a cap, possibly representing a painted design (f, k). 

360 nim>eT»U]/ofCaiifoTiuaPitbKeationtinAin.AreKMdSthit. [T«l. 11 

Fig. IS.— o-o, The Daj'-rign DMth (Jfi^titotU) ; p, BeftlUtie 
Drawing of ft Skull 

1916] Watemutn: DeUMaii(m of Day-Hgna in Agtec MamuoripU 851 

The three last figures show a skoll with ornament attached, 
prominent among them in each case an ear-ornament. The 
absordily of an ear-ornament where there are no ears does not 
seem to strike the artist. The meaning of the curious tuft on the 
top of is unknown. 

Deer (Mazail) 

Sources of drawings (fig, 16): 

a, Yatieaii B, p. 64 h, Bologne, p. 3 

b, NuttaU (Zouehe), p. 26 i, KuttaU (Zouehe), p. 45 
e, NuttaU (Zonehe), p. 49 j, KuttaU (Zouehe), p. 51 

d, Yatiean B, p. 1 h, Fejervary, p. 20 

e, KuttaU (Zonehe), p. 48 I, Fejervary, p. 36 

f, Yatiean B, p. 67 m, Fejervary, p. 13 

g, Yatiean B, p. 89 n, Fejervary, p. 26 

Before discussing the illustrations which show the various 
forms of this day-sign (fig. 16), it will be well to get certain 
characteristics of the deer in mind. It is possible to form a con- 
clusion as to which of the characteristics were most conspicuous 
in the minds of the native artists by considering which are most 
frequently in evidence in the delineations. The most important 
one is the long, slender muzzle (fig. 16, a, b, c, d, e, g, i, j, n). 
The next in importance is the antler. Another point which is 
emphasized in many drawings is the deer's large incisor teeth in 
the lower jaw, a trait which deer has, of course, in common with 
many other ungulates. The cloven hoof is also very strongly 
emphasized in some drawings. The realistic drawing at the 
bottom of the figure (fig. 16, n) exhibits most of the deer's actual 
peculiarities — ^muzzle, long ears, cloven hoofs, and short tail. 
Neither teeth nor antlers are represented in n. The former occur, 
however, very well drawn, in 6, c, d, and h. I think the deer's 
antlers would be considered by ourselves his most distinctive 
possession. These antlers appear in a, b, c, and d. The illus- 
trations are here arranged in descending order, exhibiting a 
successive deterioration of the antler. A series like this, whether 
it accounts for the development of the simpler forms or not (and 
it probably does not), enables us, at any rate, to identify these 
simpler forms. The little excrescence in d can, for example, be 

3Si Unitiwitpof(Mifoni*aPtMioationti»A».Arat.andmh». [ToLU 

identified as an antler hy looking at the more folly delineated 
drawingB in a and b. Peiiu^ the next drawing worthy of remark 
is k. Like many of the figores in the Bolofpie Codex from which 
it is taken, it represents a well-drawn head, with a tiny leg 

I, TIm D»7-ilgii Dmt (Voiall) ; 
Drawing of a Dew 

1916] Waterman: DeUMation of Day-ngnt in Aiteo ManfuoripU 853 

attached. In this case the head has teeth in the upper jaw, and 
there might be some diflScoIty involved in identif3ring it as deer, 
if it were not for the presence of the antler. It will be noted 
that in the drawings of the deer the ears assume all sorts of 
shapes and configorations, from erect to drooping (fig. 16, i). 
We shall revert to this point in a moment. In k the artist drew 
not a deer but merely an antler, which passes as a symbol for 
the whole animal. In { and m he drew the cloven hoof merely. 

Bdbhit (Tochtli) 

Sources of drawingi (fig. 21) : 

a, Yatiean B, p. 61 

g, Aubin, 

p. 18 

h, Pejervary, p. 42 

h, Yatiean B, 

p. 27 

c, Yatiean B, p. 96 

ft, Yatiean B, 

p. 60 

d, Nuttall (Zouche), p. 80 

i, Bologne, 

p. 2 

e, Yatiean B, p. 68 

h, Borgia, 

p. 8 

f, Yatiean B, p. 49 

The Mexican artist, if he set about the task seriously, found 
no difficulty in drawing the rabbit in a very realistic fashion 
(witness figure 21, %). Here the animal is given a characteristic 
rabbit-posture — sitting cm its haunches. The drawing moreover 
shows the elongated ears, the abbreviated tail, and the large and 
prominent incisors so characteristic of the rabbit in life. It is 
worth noting that the rabbit's big incisors are drawn in the upper 
jaw, in this respect offering a contrast to the drawings of the deer. 
In figure 21, g, teeth are entirely omitted. Certain curious ten- 
dencies, however, show themselves in the delineation of these 
teeth. In a they are conspicuous, but more like fangs than is really 
necessary. In c and d they are unduly prominent ; in the latter 
figure, indeed, notably exaggerated. In e the two teeth have been 
fused into a sort of ribbon hanging out of the mouth. In f this 
ribbon takes on the appearance of a tongue, and may have been 
so interpreted by the artist. In A we have a tongue plainly 
shown, but it comes out over the upper teeth. How the artist 
reconciled this drawing with his knowledge of the facts cannot be 
explained. Figure 21, j, is another figure from the Bologne 
manuscript — a head with tiny legs attached. It might be worth 

854 UniverHtyof(kU%forniaP%blioaHaniinAm.AreKandBi1m. [YoLU 

mentioning in connection with these two plates that some of the 
drawings of the deer are hardly to be distingoished from some 
of the pictores of the rabbit. Compare, for example, g of figure 
16 with / of figure 21. The many points of identity between 
different drawings of these two figures deserves some further 

We have said already that the most characteristic (or at least 
the most constant) thing in the deer drawings is the represen- 

a hod 

Fig. 17. — ^Day-figns representing Four Different Animals, 

all resembling the Deer 

a, Deer, Yatiean, p. 52; h, Babbit, Yatican, p. 52; o, Dog, Yatiean, 

p. 55; d, Ocelot, Yatiean p. 71. 

tation of the deer's long muzzle. Stated baldly, the top line of 
the deer's head is, in the pictures, concave. The rabbit, on the 
contrary, has a short, rounded snout, and the top line of his head 
is usually rounded over toward the nose. These traits are 
brought out clearly in the realistic pictures (fig. 16, n; fig. 21, k). 
It is now important to recognize that even such a constant dis- 
tinction is often forgotten by the native artist. Figure 17, a, for 
example, represents the deer, but b of the same figure, with 
entirely similar outlines, represents not the deer but the rabbit. 
For the sake of comparison a picture of dog (c) and ocelot {d) 
are added, which, from the general outline, might be taken just 
as readily for rabbit or deer. In other words, there is no type 
to which the drawings of one animal necessarily conform. 

Fig. 18. — ^Day-sisna representing Four Distinct Animals, 

all resembling the Babbit 

a, Babbit, Knttall, p. 47; h, Deer, Yatiean, p. 61; e, Dog, Yatican, 

p. 6; d, Ocelot; Kuttall, p. 23. 

1916] Waterman: Delineaticn of Daysigm in Agtee Man/UBcripU 855 

It is quite as easy to pick out a series of animals all drawn 
on the model of the rabbit. Figure 18 shows such a series. Here 
the same four animals, rabbit, deer, dog, and ocelot (''tiger") 
are represented, but they all have the form of the rabbit. The 
drawing of the deer in b, figure 18, would certainly be interpreted 
as the rabbit, except for the horns. If the deer's horns were 
always delineated in representations of the deer, there could, of 
course, be no confusion, but as often as not they are omitted. 

The same point might be made about the ears of the two 
animals. The deer's ears are often erect, while the rabbit's often 
cling dose to the head, or drop down. Figure 19, a, shows what 

a h c 

Fig. 19. — ^Day-signs representing the Deer and the Babbit, 
showing the commingling of traits 

a, Babbit, KnttaU, p. 58; h, Deer, Vatican, p. 3; 
e, Babbit, Vatican, p. 57. 

might be regarded as a very characteristic drawing of the rabbit. 
Figure 19, ft, however, represents the deer, though the ears droop. 
On the other hand, c in this same figure, though the ears are 
erect, represents not the deer but the rabbit. In other words, I 
should like to make the point that statements such as those made 
by Seler,** to the effect that absolute critera can be set up by 
which each figure can be recognized, are not borne out by a study 
of the manuscripts. If it were not for the occurrence of the 
day-signs in regular series, it would be quite impossible in many 
cases to distinguish one from another. 

Fig. 20. — ^Day-sign Deer drawn with the Incisor 

Teeth belonging to the Babbit 

Vatican, p. 4. 

To the zoologist the point most worthy of emphasis would be, 
I think, the fact already referred to, that the rabbit has large 

«* 1900-1901, pp. 9-16. 

866 Uf^eni^ofCaUfarniaPybUeat%an$iiiAwi.Areh.andSi1m. [VoLll 

incisor teeth in his upper jaw, while the deer has them only in 
his lower jaw. This is associated, of coarse, with the distinction 



Fig. 21.— o-i, The Daj-dgn Babbit {ToeMM) ; Ic, Realistic 

Drawing of a Babbit 

between rodents and nn^riilAtes. While this difFerence is noted 
by the artists in most of the figures, we find occasional breaches 
of the rule. For example, in figure 20 we find a representation 

1916] Watemutn: DelineaiUm of Day-iigm w Agtee ManworipU 


of the deer, with the large upper incisors proper to the rabbit. 
The point here discussed will come up again in connection with 
some of the other day-signs. 






q r 8 

Fig. 22.— a-«, The Day-Bign Water (Atl) 


8<mroe$ of drawingi (fig. 22): 

a, Nuttall (Zouche), p. 44 
h, KuttaU (Zouehe): 


c, NuttaU (Zouehe) 

d, KuttaU (Zonehe), 

e, KuttaU (Zouehe), 
/, Bologne, 
g, Fejenrary, 
h, KuttaU (Zouehe), p. 18 
i, Aubin p. 20 
j, Yatiean B, p. 24 

p. 25 
p. 35 
p. 53 
p. 66 
p. 6 
p. 42 

k, FejerTary, 
{, Yatiean B, 
m, Fejervary, 
n, KuttaU (Zouehe) 
0, KuttaU (Zouehe) 
p, KuttaU rZouehe 
q, KuttaU (Zouehe 
r, KuttaU (Zouehe 
s, KuttaU (Zouehe 


p. 40 
p. 6 






p. 81 
p. 8 
p. 82 

858 Unieeraitjf of CaUfonia Pfthlioationi in Ant-Areh. anS Bthit. [ToL 11 

Fig. SS.— o-I, The Day-sign Wat«T {Atl), additional tonna; 
ffi, Beftlistie Drewing of & Lake 

1916] Waterman: Delineation of Dafsigm in Agteo MamuoripU 359 

Bowreee of drawings (fig. 28): 

a, Yatiean B, p. 71 h, Yatiean B, p. 54 

hf Yatiean B, p. 47 i, Nuttall (Zouehe), p. 58 

e, Nuttall (Zouche), p. 72 j, Nuttall (Zouehe), p. 13 

d, Fejervary, p. 85 Ic, Bologne, p. 30 

e, Yatiean B, p. 49 I, Yatiean B, p. 70 

f, Yatiean B, p. 25 m, Nnttall (Zouehe), p. 74 

g, Yatiean B, p. 4 

There is a rather greater variety of forms of the symbol 
^' Water" than is the case with most day-signs (figs. 22 and 23). 
The most graphic of these represents a dish of some sort, full of 
water, with foam or waves on the surface and a shell in the 
center. For such a drawing the reader is referred to figure 22, a. 
The same details come out in the scene or landscape at the bottom 
of figure 23 (m). The principal thing in this latter representa- 
tion is a lake with waves on top, a river flowing out of it, a fish 
in its depths, and on the shore a temple. The scrolls represent- 
ing the ripple or foamy surface of water are a very common 
feature of the drawings. 

Turning now to some of the variations of the water drawing, 
we find a good deal of shifting and lack of uniformity of design. 
In some of the designs, as might be expected, the waves are lack- 
ing, others lack the shell, and others lack the containing vessel 
mentioned above as very common. The drawings in the figure 
are arranged in order according to the degree of completeness 
with which these vessels or containers are delineated. This 
method of arrangement, as before, serves merely for convenience 
in identifying the simpler drawings. It is interesting to see how 
rude and merely suggestive of the original elements some of the 
figures are. Figure 22, r^ for example, has lost all external 
resemblance to a dish full of water; the dish has been reduced 
to a rudiment, and the water has taken on the appearance of a 
solid object of some sort. Comparison with the more perfect 
representations (figure 22, anr) will show, nevertheless, that all 
the essential features of the graphic drawing are present. In 
figure 23, c, the containing dish, which no longer actually '^ con- 
tains'' the water, is itself bordered with water or wave symbols. 
In the case of some symbols we see the whole drawing turned 
upside down. This has happened in figure 23, e^ in which the 

360 Un^er$UfofCaUforniaPyhUcaUan8inAm.Arck,aiidBt1in, [VoLll 

water seems to stream down from a sky. Figure 23, /, is a still 
more extreme ease of the same thing. Even in this latter ease, 
however, the original dish and shell may be recognized. We 
have finally, in the water symbol as shown in figure 23, h, merely 
a formless collection of lines. 

A few curiosities come to light in making such a collection of 
water-symbols. For example, the dish and the escaping water 
take in figure 22, p, almost exactly the form of an animal's head 
with an eye, a fang (the leg of the pot or dish originally), and 
two ears. The scroll designs representing the wavy or foamy 
surface of water take on at times the forms of other objects. 
Thus in figure 22, e, we have springing up on the surface of the 
water a semi-circular knob. In figure 22, /, this excrescence takes 
on the appearance of the ''Flower" symbol (see fig. 32, below). 
In figure 22, h, it assumes another and very different form, but 
one unlike any object the present writer can name. In figure 
23, k, the excrescence becomes almost exactly like the Aztec 
i^ymbol for smoke. In figure 23, {, finally, we have the vessel 
under the shell clearly drawn, but the water has shot up out of 
this vessel and hangs in the form of disks above it. 

The form shown in figure 23, i, is something of a puzzle. 
There is scarcely any resemblance to water left, but the curious 
patterns around the edge correspond to the marks around the 
margin of the water in the realistic picture illustrated in m, 
figure 23. Identification of the various water-symbols is made 
easier by the fact that in the manuscripts the part representing 
the water itself is normally painted blue. This aid to identifica- 
tion is of service only in the case of colored reproductions of the 
original manuscripts. 

Dog {lizcuintli) 

Sources of drawings (fig. 24): 

a, Nnttall (Zonehe), p. 57 

h, Bologne, p. 1 

e, NnttaU (Zooebe), p. 79 

d, NnttaU (Zonebe), p. 82 

e, NnttaU (Zonebe), p. 3 

f, Vatiean B, p. 66 

g, Vatiean B, p. 51 
hf Teierr^Tj, p. 41 

i, Vatican B, p. 90 

j, Fejenrary, p. 44 

k, Fejervary, p. 36 

I, Bologne, p. 8 

tn, Vatican B, p. 68 

n, Bologne, p. 3 

o, NnttaU (Zonebe), p. 72 

1916] Waterma*: DalineatUm of Day-tigng in Agtee liamuoripU 301 


^ ^ 

Fig. 24.— a-fl, The Day-aign Dog (lUcvmtU) ; o, Beallitie 
Drawing of s Dog 

862 UmvenityofCMforniaP%bUoatian8inAm.AreKandBthn. [VoLU 

Comment has already be^i made on the fact that the symbols 
for Dog, Babbit, Deer, and Ocelot are so drawn as to be very 
mnch alike. Perhaps the most distinguishing feature of the dog 
head, as it is usually drawn, is a black i>atch around the eye. 
This patch appears in figure 24, b, c, d, e, h, n, and o. The 
fact must however be noticed that ocelot C'Tiger'^ is some- 
times represented with this i>atch (fig. 25, a). Seler^ says 
that a characteristic thing about the dog, drawn in the manu- 
scripts, is a '* double-pointed" black patch about the eye. The 
present figure will show at least that this i>atch is not uniformly 
'^ double-pointed." Another trait usually found in the delinea- 
tion of the dog is a sort of lip (fig. 24, a, n, o, etc.). This lip 
is however often represented in the drawings of other animals. 
(Compare the tiger and deer drawings shown in figure 25, a, and 
b.) In figure 24, o, and appearing in a good many places in the 

Fig. 25. — ^Various Day-aigns, showing confuaion or 

commingling of traits 

a, Ocelot, with an eye-patch nsoaUy characteristic of the Dog 
(Vatican B, p. 66); h, Ocelot, resembling the Dog in teeth, lips, 
and form (NnttaU (Zoche), p. 80); c, a drawing of the Deer with 
the lip which is characteristic of the Dog (Vatican B, p. 69). 

manuscripts, is a sort of beard or fringe under the dog's chin. 
Seler makes the additional remark that there were two varieties 
of dog known to the Aztecs, and represented in the manuscripts 
—one brown, and one spotted. Inspection of the present plate 
makes one wonder whether they did not have some custom of 
clipping their dog's ears. In c, d, g, h, i, j, I, and m of figure 24, 
the dog is represented with a highly ornamental ear-flap. Seler 
speaks of this ear as '' mangled," and calls attention to the very 
interesting fact that dogs are represented in this way in the 
Dresden Mayu Codex.^ He is the only animal so represented. 

M 1900-1901, p. 11. 
M Loe, oit. 

1916] Waterman: Delineatian of Day-eigns in Ajtteo MoMucripU 863 

In £ of figure 24, we have nothing left of the dog, except this 
highly ornamented ear. Figare 24, n, is another of the Bologne 
Codex figures, with a tiny leg attached. It will be seen that the 
artist in o, figure 24, was unable to draw a dog's hind limb 
properly. The animal has a leg quite like that of a human being. 
This is true of most of the animals the Aztecs and the Mayas 
tried to draw.*^ The drawings of the dog supply interesting 
cases of convergence in the representation of animals. The 
prominent and sharp teeth usually shown in the dog figures are 
often represented in drawings of the rabbit. 

Monkey (Ozomatli) 

8<mroe$ of drawings (fig. 27): 

a, NnttaU (Zonehe), p. 72 h, Vatican B, p. 8 

h, NattaU (Zonehe), p. 79 i, Nnttall (Zonehe), p. 8 

c, Nnttall (Zonehe), p. 44 j, Fejervary, p. 42 

d, Borgia, p. 8 k, Vatican B, p. 66 

e, NnttaU (Zonehe), p. 4 I, Fejervary, p. 20 
/, Nnttall (Zonehe), p. 38 m, Fejervary, p. 20 
g, Vatican B, p. 8 n, Nnttall (Zonehe), p. 76 

The most nearly characteristic features of the drawings of 
the monkey are: (1) a face with an elongated snout; (2) a stifl! 
crest of hair; and (3) a conspicuous ear-ornament. The first 
two are elements derived from the actual characteristics of thp 
Central and South American monkeys. The presence of the ear- 
ornament can be explained, as is the case with many other fea- 
tures of the day-signs, on the ground that they are borrowings 
from human articles of dress or adornment. Probably such bor- 
rowings are due, at least in part, to the vague feeling which is 
quite common among savages that all animals are human beings 
essentially, with a power which enables them, for their own pur- 
poses, to assume a different likeness externally. Other creatures 
in the day-signs are represented with ear-ornaments similar to 
the one exhibited on Monkey. Compare, for example, with the 
present designs, the drawings representing Eing-vulture (fig. 

•7 See Water-monster, Deer, Babbit, and Ocelot in the present paper, 
and, for example, the splendid fignre of a jagnar from Chiehen Itza in 
Bpinden, 1918, pL 29, fig. 7. 

364 Univeniiy of Calif arnia PubUcatiom in Am. Arch, and Bthn, [ VoL 11 

26 and fig. 33, a, b, c, f, h, k) and Wind (fig. 9). In view of this 
fact, it is somewhat surprising to find that in one or two places 
(see fig. 27, { and m) the monkey is represented vicariously by 
his ear-ornament, and nothing else. This ornament, although it 
stands for the day-sign Monkey, is in nowise to be distinguished 
from the ornament worn by the Eing-vulture (fig. 26). If it 
were not for its position in a series, then, there would be no way 
of telling whether the drawning shown in figure 27, I, should be 
interpreted as Monkey or as something else. 

Fig. 26. — ^Drawing of a Day-sign representing the King- 
Ynltnre wearing an ear-ornament, the latter not to be 
distinguished from those which represent or typify 
the Day-sign Monkey. 

(Fejervary, p. 37.) 

The crest of the monkey in the present figure assumes several 
different forms. Compare, for example, a with j. In some cases 
the crest looks quite like the tuft of feathers surmounting the 
head of the eagle (see figure 32). The realistic drawing of the 
monkey (fig. 27, n) shows that all of these symbols representing 
the monkey follow the original idea very closely. 

Grass (MalinaUi) 

Sources of drawings (fig. 28): 

a, NnttaU (Zonehe), p. 79 

b, NnttaU (Zonehe), p. 79 

c, NnttaU (Zouche), p. 19 

d, Vatican B, p. 78 

e, NnttaU (Zonehe), p. 40 

f, Vatican B, p. 68 

g, NnttaU (Zonehe), p. 24 
h, Vatican B, p. 16 p, NuttaU (Zonehe), p. 71 
i, Borgia, p. 6 

This is, in certain respects, the most curious of all the Aztec 
day-symbols, for the reason that it is, in its usual form, a com- 
bination of three elements that seem to have no logical connec- 
tion with each other — a human jawbone, an eye, and a clump of 

j, Borgia, 

p. 26 

k, Borgia, 

p. 67 

I, Aubin, 

p. 17 

m, Aubin , 

p. 12 

n, Bologno, 

p. 6 

r, Borgia, 

p. 50 

0, Bologne, 

p. 3 

1916] Waterman: DeUneatian of Day-ngna in AMiec MannsoHpU 865 




Tig. 27.-0-111, The Day-sign Monkey (Osomatli) ; n, Bealistic 

Drawing of a Monkey 

SM Uiiw9nittofCaUfoniflaF*b1teaUtmti»tAm.AT0K<uttlgt1m. [YoLU 

gram. Penaflel,** quoted by Seler," calls this graas eacate del 
carhonero (because charcoal-bomere or "earboDeros" make sackg 
of it) and states that the Aztec name malituUU, or "twisted," is 


>, The Dar-Bign Qrua (VatwoHt) ; p, BMU>ti« 
Drawing of « Clomp of GraM 


M ISOO-IMI, p. 12 

1916] Waterman: DeUneatum of Day-signa in A§tec ManuseripU 867 

derived from the fact that the Aztecs were accustomed, as they 
are still, to ''twist" it into ropes and pack-straps. Such 
etymologies are, of course, always open to suspicion. What the 
specific botanical name of the zacate grass is, I have not been 
able to learn. A realistic picture of a dump of this grass on 
the side of a mountain, with leaves, seednstalks, and roots, is 
given in figure 28, p. 

The first-mentioned element in the combination, the jawbone, 
is usually quite realistically represented. It is ordinarily drawn 
in profile, with the teeth in place, and with the sigmoid notch at 
the top of the ascending ramus easily distinguishable. There is, 
however, a peculiar and exaggerated representation of the condyle 
or hinge already referred to in connection with the day-sign 
Death (see page 349). Along the middle of the bottom edge of 
the bone there is a curious collection of humps, either two or 
three. Mrs. Nuttall says somewhere that these humps were put 
wherever the artist wishes to express the idea of ''roughness." 
,The basis of this idea, and the reason why the artist should wish 
to indicate roughness on the bottom edge of a jawbone, are alike 
uncertain. Seler^^ suggests a "reason" (such as it is) for the 
association of the grass with a jawbone, namely, that the bone 
signifies that the grass is dry. 

The first four drawings (fig. 28, a, h, c, and d) give what 
might be considered four stages in the degeneration of the com- 
plete sign. In a we have jaw, eye, a clump of leaves, and a seed- 
stalk. In 6 we have, besides the jaw, two leaves and the eye; in 
c, the jaw and eye with no grass at all; and in d, plain jaw. Yet 
the position of each of the last three signs in different series 
makes it absolutely certain that they all represent the day-sign 
Grass. It is rather curious to find a bare jawbone standing as a 
symbol for vegetation, even vegetation of the driest kind. 

Figure 28, e, f, g, and h, show a curious treatment of the 
grass element. In the latter (A) all resemblance to grass is lost. 
It is worth observing that in e, figure 28, the eye and eye-stalk 
together take on an appearance identical with the ear-ornament 
in the preceding figure (fig. 27). In the four figures just men- 

70 1900-1901, p. 12. 

368 Univenity of Calif omia Publications in Am. AreK and Ethn. [ VoL 11 

tioned (e, f, g, and h, figure 28), there is progressive degenera- 
tion of the eye-stalk, which in the last figure named is only an 
empty bulb. 

Figure 28, i, j, k, show the jaw in front view. The grass in 
each of these cases receives a curious treatment, reaching a climax 
in k, where it looks more like a phonograph horn than anything 
else that could be readily named. The eye, which is quite realistic 
in figure j, vanishes completely in k. 

In I, m, n, o, the eyes are represented in combination with an 
additional feature, an upper jaw. In n we have a curious thing. 
The whole drawing assumes the form of a complete face with all 
its features, holding a ball in its gaping jaws. Flourishing 
around above this face we see the original eye and eye«talk, with 
which we started in a of figure 28. The meaning of the pair of 
jaws biting on an object is a complete puzzle to the present writer. 

Cane {Acatl) 

Souroei of drawing» (fig. 29): 

a, Nuttall (Zouche), p. 9 j, Nnttall (Zboehe), p.U 

h, Nuttall (Zonehe), p. 62 k, Vatican B, p. 47 

e, Nuttall (Zouohe), p. 1 I, Yatiean B, p. 5 

d, Nuttall (Zouche), p. 5 m, Nuttall (Zouche), p. 56 

e, Vatican B, p. 65 n, Vatican B, p. 62 
/, Vatican B, p. 51 o, Aubin, p. 8 
g, Vatican B, p. 49 p, Vatican B, p. 60 
h, Nuttall (Zouche), p. 32 q, Vatican B, p. 3 
i, Nuttall (Zouche), p. 40 r, Borgia, p. 50 

The symbols for the idea Cane (fig. 29) all represent, as 
remarked in connection with figure 1, the cane shafts of javelins. 
The first ten represent single missiles, the remaining seven 
represent bunches of several at once. Seler^^ calls the object in 
question an arrow. I am inclined to think that in most cases 
the object is a javelin (see fig. 29, r). It occurs universally in 
the hands of persons who in the other hand brandish the spear- 
thrower, or atlatP* as in the present figure. Examples of this 
combination are too numerous to quote. A device exactly similar 

Ti 1900-1901, p. 12. 

72 Consult Nuttall, 1891. 

1016] Watermatu VeUtteation of Day-tigm in Aitee itatuuoripti 969 

Fig. Zi.—a-q, Th« Day-eigu Cue {Aoatl); r, Bealiatie 
DrBwiDg of a CBne-ahkf ted Javelin 

870 Un^er$UfofCaUforniaPubUeaUan$inAm.Arch.aiidEihn. [VoLU 

to the missile we are discossing occurs in one place (C!odex 
Nnttall — ^Zonche manuscript)^' grasped in a warrior's hand 
along with a bow. The typical arrow, which appears in many 
places in Vatican Codex A (3738), is nearly always represented 
with a wooden fore-shaft, and has a series of barbs on one side. 
This arrow is not the weapon which occurs as a day-aign. The 
pictured accounts of Aztec combats^^ represent the spear-thrower, 
instead of the bow, as the important and universal weapcm. In 
the mere interest of accuracy, the device which symbolizes the 
idea Cane ought to be referred to as a javelin, not as an arrow. 
It is noticeable that in many of the drawings of the present 
figure, the javelin shaft is represented, while the head or point 
is omitted. Apparently, this point was of flint or obsidian, and 
therefore of no particular interest to the artist who was writing 
out a symbol for Cane merely. Those representations which are 
made up of several javelins together are often hard to recognize 
(see fig. 29, e, m, n, o, p, g), and, it must be added, are much 
more frequent in day-sign art than the others. The very badly 
drawn figure from the Aubin Codex (fig. 29, o) has more than a 
passing resemblance to one of the symbols (fig. 37, d) for Flower. 
The meaning of the sunbursts around the javelins in fig. 29, / 
and g, is unknown to the present writer, unless they represent 
missiles with blazing balls of cotton attached for setting fire to 
assaulted villages. The drawings in question certainly resemble 
the Aztec way of representing smoke. The resemblance of some 
of the groups of these javelins to the symbol for Flower supplies 
another instance of convergence. 

Ocelot {Ocdotl) 

8<mroe$ of drawing* (fig. 81): 

a» NuttaU (Zouebe), p. 48 i, Bologne, p. 2 

h, NuttaU (Zonehe), p. 71 i, Vatican B, p. 80 

c, NuttaU (Zouebe), p. 58 k, Bologne, p. 8 

d, NuttaU (Zouebe), p. 54 I, Vatiean B, p. 4 

e, NuttaU (Zouebe), p. 51 m, Fejervary, p. 82 
/, Vatican B, p. 51 n, Pejenrary, p. 86 
g, Vatican B, p. 74 o, NuttaU (Zouebe), p. 82 
hf Bologne, p. 7 

" P. 10. 

T«8ee Bandolier, 1892 a, for description, and references to tbe litera- 

1916] Waterman: DeUneation of Vay-tignt in ABtee ManuBoripU 371 

A certain impropriety is involved in applying to this Aztec 
day-sign, as is nsoally done, the name ''tiger/' an animal un- 
known in the New World. The use of the term has become, in a 
way, a tradition. The animal in question is the ocelot, in Aztec 
oceloil, misnamed, like many American institutions, by the 
Spaniards. These latter called the creature el tigre as a mere 
convenience. He is characterized in the drawings by a cat-like 
form, with talons and sharp teeth, and a handsomely spotted 
skin. It might be supposed that the spots of the skin would be 
the most characteristic feature in the delineation of this animal. 
As a matter of fact, this trait is often represented in a very 
spirited fashion (fig. 31, o). These spots occur not only on the 
realistic drawings but on many of the day-signs : for example, in 
a of figure 31. Like all other characteristics, however, they do not 
appear consistently by any means. Thus in b the number of spots 
has been reduced to two; in c of the same figure, but one is left; 
in d, the spots have vanished entirely, and the animal head there 
represented is hardly to be distinguished from that of the dog, 
or even the rabbit as represented elsewhere. Curiously enough, 
there is at least one case in the manuscripts where the day-sign 
Babbit is actually represented with spots (fig. 30) . We have here 

Fig. 80. — ^The Day-sign Babbit represented with the 
Spots eharaeteristie of the Ocelot 

(Nnttall, p. 77) 

still another illustration of the rule that a given animal's most 
conspicuous characteristic may, in day-sign art, be lost or loaned 
to some other creature. It is perhaps worth noting that in g, 
figure 31, we have a drawing which, though really representing 
the tiger, has an outline that might serve with equal propriety 
for the deer. It is considerably more like the deer than are some 
of the deer figures (see fig. 16). The drawing appearing in j of 
figure 31 (reproduced from fig. 24, &), looks, on the other hand, 
like the drawings of the dog. 

Another feature of the ''tiger" drawings which is apparently 
realistic, is the black tip of the ear (see fig. 31, o). It appears 
not only in the realistic drawing but in many of the day-signs 

87S Vniivertity of Calif ontia FublieaUoru i* An. Aroh. and Btkn. [ VoL 11 

as well (fig. 31, c, d, e, g, h, i, j, k). The drawing lettered k in 
this flgore is one of the peculiar heads with tiny legs appended 
to it which is characteristic of the Bologne Codex. In addition 
to the 1^8, the animal in this drawing is provided with a nose- 

>, Tk« Dft^r^aign Oeolot (Ooetotl) ; 
Drawing of an Ocelot 

1916] Waterman: Delineatio* of Day-^igna in AttecMaimtenptt 


plug. In I of figure 31 the animal is represented with two erect 
ears in the proper place, but bangioff down the back of his head 
is pictured a Tei7 complicated ear-ornament. The animal appears 
also to have some sort of a head-dress. The nose ornament 
appears also in figure 31, m. In I the idea "Ocelot" is symbolized 
by the drawing of an ocelot's paw merely, and in it by an object 
which comparisOD with the other drawings will show to be an 
ocelot's ear. 

t-h, The Dftj-aign E^gle (OtKHtMU} ; i, BMOiBtie 
DTawing of m Eagle 

374 UnivenitfofCMf<>rmaPubUoation8mAm.AreKandEthiL [YoLU 

Eagle (Quauhili) 

Sowreei of dtwcimgg (fig. 82): 

a, Vatiean B, p. 92 f, Nattall (Zoaehe), p. 23 

b, Nattall (Z(mehe)y p. 47 g, Nnttall (Zouehe), p. 32 
e, VaUean B, p. 50 ^ Yatiean B, p. 2 

d, Yatiean B, p. 62 i, Nnttall (Zonehe), p. 69 

e, NattaU (Zonehe), p. 6 

The various drawings of the eagle are markedly realistic. The 
drawing at the bottom of the figure is taken from a section of the 
Codex Nuttall which represents an eagle in combat with an ocelot. 
The characteristics of the bird usually chosen for emphasis in the 
day-signs are his hooked beak, and a crest of feathers on his head. 
The beak occurs in practically all the drawings, not only in those 
illustrated here. In a few cases there is some degeneration. 
Thus in f, figure 32, the beak is weakened and lacks the sharp 
curve so well represented in most of the other drawings. The 
crest is usually barred gray and white, but these barrings do not 
show in uncolored figures. There is considerable variety shown 
in the minor details of the treatment of the plumes of the crest. 
In %, figure 32, they are fairly realistic, as they are in 6 and e of 
the same figure. In a they take on the appearance of a series of 
hooks, and in d they are much elongated. In g and A, as men- 
tioned in connection with figure 8 (p. 336), the feathers take on 
appearance of stone knives. The reason for this is rather hard 
to fathom. The stone knife is itself one of the calendar symbols 
(see fig. 35) standing for the idea ''flint." Stone knives appear 
occasionally on the head and back of the water-monster in place 
of spikes. Perhaps in both cases the stone knives represent 
merely a fanciful elaboration. A bird, however, something like 
an eagle, whose plumage consists entirely of flint knives, is a 
prominent mythological figure in the southwestern part of the 
United States. So there may be some mythological idea behind 
the drawing in the present case. In one or two cases the eagle 
is represented with a tongue protruding from his mouth {c, d, 
e, g, h, fig. 32). This tongue sometimes takes on the appearance 
of a long scroll, as in figure 32, c. 

»1S] Watnmm: IMiiuaU(mi>fDa)-*iffn*iMAMteeMa»tacnpU 87S 

SC-^fe^ cc?^ 



Fig. 88.— o-fi, The Dty-tiga Eing-TDltnre (CofoaqtumhtU) ; 
0, B«aliitia Drawisg of k Tnltnre 

376 Uniner»UfofCaUf(>rtUaJhibUeaiian$inAm.Areh.andEilm, [YoLU 

King-vulture (CozcaquauktU) 

8<mree$ of drawingM (fig. 33): 

a, Nattall (Zoaebe), p. 54 i, Vatican B, p. 62 

h, Vatiean B, p. 2 j, Fejervary, p. 1 

e, Nattall (Zonebe), p. 28 k, Nuttall (Zoaehe), p. 45 

d, Nntiall (Zouehe), p. 13 I, Fejenrary, p. 40 

e, Yatieaii B, p. 6 m, Vatiean B, p. 1 

f, Nuttall (Zouebe), p. 59 n, Anbin, p. 3 

g, Vatiean B, p. 92 o, Nuttall (Zonebe), p. 74 
h, Vatiean B, p. 78 

The drawings of the vulture are rather more interesting than 
those of the eagle, since they show a greater amount of variap 
bility, and have in addition certain curious features. Perhaps it 
is best to notice first of all the realistic drawing (fig. 33, o). 
The bird is here represented with his wings outspread. The 
most characteristic thing from the Aztec point of view seems to 
be his long beak with the hook at the end, and his curious naked 
head with fine hairs on it. Everyone agrees that the bird repre- 
sented is the king-vulture or ringed vulture, called by the Mex- 
icans of today the ''Bey de Zopilotes.'' In the day-signs he is 
normally represented with an ear-ornament hanging at the back 
of his head. Seler^* advances the idea that this ornament is 
intended to represent ideographically the idea of ornament in 
general, meaning in the present case that the bird's neck is 
ringed. It is, of course, hard to see why they should not have 
drawn the creature with a ring instead of an ear-ornament if 
that was the idea to be presented. It must however be observed 
that the day-sign Vulture, as already pointed out (see fig. 26), 
has, in some cases, exactly the same ear-ornament that is flaunted 
by the monkey in the day-signs. The two animals moreover are 
represented with very much the same sort of crest. It is entirely 
possible that the similarity of the vulture's crest to the monkey's 
has induced the appearance of similar ear-ornaments in both 
animals. It is, however, not easy to state why the monkey should 
have been so represented in the first place. At any rate, if the 
ear-ornament is an ideogram for ''ringed" here, what is it in the 
case of the monkey symbol T The ear-ornament in connection 

T5 1900-1901-p. 13. 

1916] Waterman: DeUneaticn of Day-Hgns in ABtec ManiuoripU 377 

with the present day-sign takes on a variety of forms, but it 
might be noticed that in each case it is readily distinguishable 
from the ear-ornament worn by Qttetzalcoatt (see fig. 9), another 
important figure commonly wearing this article of adornment. 

The vulture's head is in actual fact almost bare. The few 
hairs or pin feathers which are represented in realistic fashion 
in figure 31, o, take on quite elaborate forms in certain of the 
day-signs. They are sometimes elaborated by the addition of 
small disks or balls (fig. 33, a and k). Sometimes they are con- 
nected by a continuous line, as in b and c. In e they take on the 
appearance of rectangles or scales. In y we see a bare head with 
a sort of aigrette or plume, which in h and t solidifies into a sort 
of peak. It seems that the artist must have had some such form 
as g vaguely in mind before he was able to produce such a form 
as «. On the other hand, it would seem that the custom of repr 
resenting the vulture's crest with ornamental balls on top, as in 
k, probably explains the curious drawing shpwn in I, where they 
have become mere knobs. In m, from another manuscript, these, 
or similar knobs, are represented in still more simplified form. 
In n we have one of the degenerate forms from the Aubin manu- 
script, which is simply unrecognizable. In j we have an abso- 
lutely bare head, without even pin-feathers or the ear-ornament. 
In d, on the other hand, we have a vulture head which is elabor- 
ated until it is scarcely, if at all, to be distinguished from the 
head of Eagle (see fig. 32). 

Motion {OUn) 

Saufces of drawings (fig. 34): 

a, Bologne, p. 1 h, Vatican B, p. 8 

b, Aubin, p. 19 i, Nattall (Zonehe), p. 61 
e, Aubin, p. 8 j, NuttaU (Zouehe), p. 45 

d, Borgia, p. 6 h, Vatican B, p. 70 

e, NuttaU (Zouehe), p. 86 I, Vatican B, p. 98 
/, Vatican B, p. 46 m, NuttaU (Zouehe), p. 85 
g, NuttaU (Zouehe), p. 20 n, NuttaU (Zouehe), p. 44 

Figure 34, b, represents what is probably the "normal" form 
of this sign. This, at any rate is the form which is of most fre- 
quent occurrence on the monuments. It consists of two figures 


U»ti>enitfofCaUfomiaPiiliUeatitmtimAm.AreJt.andEtlnt. [Vol. 11 

side by side which meet Id the center and are, so to speak, bent 
away from each other at the ends. At the middle of the outer 
edge of these two sides there are a couple of "handles," or rings. 
In the center of the whole there is a circular fignre wlGch, in the 
pveaent case, has taken on the appearance of an eye. In the 

^ ^ 

Fig. 84.— Tli« Daj-aign Uotlon (Otm) 

famous highly elaborated altar atone in the Mexican National 
Museum, which usually goes by the name of the Aztec Calendar,^* 
this central figure is filled with a great face which represents the 
sun. The meaning of this "motion" or olin design (fig. 34, b) 
is more or less of a puzzle. It sometimes occara in the form 
shown in d, consisting of two angled figures fitted t<^ther or 

T«Leoii 7 Quns, 1790; Ghsvero, 1876; PefiftfieL 1890, platea, vol. S, p. 
81E, and corrMpondiiig portioni of thi tsxt; Nnttafl, IBOl, p. S; Uaeenrdy, 
1810, p. Ml ff. 

1916] Waterman: Delineaiian of Day-signs in ABteo MantuoripU 879 

interlocked. It would be entirely possible to derive the forms like 
b, figure 34, from these simpler interlocked forms; but we know 
nothing at all about the real origin of these latter, and so we would 
be no neai-er to a true explanation. It is worthy of remark that, 
in a general way, the normal form of this sign has something of 
the form of an X. It is moreover true that while the symbol 
stands for the word ''motion," it is also associated with the sun. 
This fact may very likely be founded on a curious myth. The 
Aztecs, like a good many other peoples, have a myth which tells 
of a series of universal cataclysms. The first sun that was 
created came to an end in one of these cataclysms on the day 
Four- Wind. It was therefore named the **Wind" sun. After 
it was broken up another one was created which, at the close of 
the epoch, disappeared on the day Four-Tiger. This sun is there- 
fore spoken of as the *' Tiger" sun. Two more suns, disappear- 
ing on the days Four- Water, and Four-Bain, followed in series 
before our present sun came on the scene. In some mysterious 
way it is known that the present sun will disappear on the day 
Four-Motion, in which the sky will be broken up by an earth- 
quake. It is therefore called the ' ' Earthquake " or " Motion ' ' sun, 
or olin-tonatiuh. The present writer is inclined to see in this 
myth^^ the real explanation of the association of this oUn sign 
with the sun. It is of course possible to assume that the design 
stands for or directly represents the sun in some way, and that 
the myth was invented to explain that fact. The myth gives us, 
however, one definite reason why the sign should stand for the 
sun, and it seems a waste of time to go further afield, until there 
is more evidence. It would 'be easy to imagine half a dozen ways 
in which a graphic symbol for the sun might have degenerated 
into this sign. Imagine if you like that the original symbol for 
the sun was a disk with rays, and that these rays were gradually 
omitted until only four were left. These four, if skewed, would 
give the oUn sign. Such theories represent mere mental gym- 
nastics, unless a series of forms derived from a study of the 
monuments can be advanced to support them. The idea has 

T7 See Maceurdy, 1901, for a moet interesting paper on these mytlis and 
their representation on the monuments. Some of the most famous monu- 
ments of Mexican antiquity are connected with this story. Maceurdy 's 
paper supplies a number of references to the literature. 

380 UiUven%tyof(kaifi}rniaPybUeaiian$inAm.ArcKandEthii. [YoLU 

actually been advanced that the oUn sign represents the ^'fonr 
motions of the son/' that is, it stands for the fonr main points 
established by the son in his yearly journey — ^the points of sun- 
rise and sunset at the summer and winter solstices. If these 
points were plotted and connected diagonally by lines, we would 
have something approaching the oUn symbol. It is worth noting, 
however, that the figure naturally produced would be a parallelo- 
gram, not an X. The sun moves not from the point in the 
southeast to the point in the northwest, but from the southeast 
to the southwest. We mentioned just above that the normal 
appearance of this sign represents an X. It is of some interest 
that the kin sign among the Mayas, which is also an X, is asso- 
ciated with the sun. Possibly a careful examination of the Maya 
m3rthologies would unearth some legend there corresponding to 
the Aztec story just mentioned. 

If we take the sign shown in b as the complete or normal 
form, an idea for which there is some support in the fact that 
it is the most usual on the monuments, it is interesting to see 
which of its features are the most persistent in its career as a 
day-sign. It is obvious at once that its X-f orm readily becomes 
obscured. In e, figure 34, we have the two sides coalescing into 
a single figure with a straight line down the center. Seler^* is 
inclined to see in this a picture of the sun disappearing into a 
cleft of the earth, the circle in the center being the sun, and the 
two sides day and night. This idea is based apparently on the 
fact that in figures of this type the two sides are often differently 
colored. It is somewhat hard to follow his reasoning here. It 
is in the first place quite unnecessary to make this assumption, 
as the figure can be plausibly explained in another way, and it 
leaves us, moreover, in more of a predicament than ever to 
account for the use of the sign to mean ''earthquake" or 
''motion,'' which is certainly its literal meaning. The division 
of the sign into two differently colored surfaces is shown very 
nicely in figure 34, /. It will be seen in this figure (b) that of 
the original symbol we have the exterior outline, the circle in the 
center and the handles still remaining. It is a point of some 

78 190O-1901, p. 14. 

1U6] Waterman: D«liiteati<MofDay-iigiuinAMteoManiueripU SSI 

Fig. 85. — a-p, Th« Daj'-algu Flint {Teepatl) ; q, B«aUatie Drawing 
of % SaerUe^ Bhowing tlio Flint Knif« in vm 

382 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Bthn, [VoL 11 

interest that it is precisely these handles that are most persistent 
in all representations of the figure. They occur in simple form 
in a, very much enlarged in e and h, and double in /. Even in 
d, the interlocked figure, they appear as crinkles in a correspond- 
ing location. In drawings like n, where the proper outline of the 
figure even has disappeared, these two handles remain. In m, 
which is a rectangular design, we have two perfect handles. In 
k they are ornamented with scroll figures which look surprisingly 
like the Aztec symbols for smoke. Certainly a person encounter- 
ing for the first time a symbol like I, m, or f, would hardly asso- 
ciate it with the designs shown in h. The symbol in question, 
then, shows a great variety of form. I think we shall have to 
dismiss the whole question of the reason why ''motion" or 
''earthquake" is represented by a double figure with a circle in 
the center and handles at the sides, as a complete mystery. 

Flint (Tecpatl) 

Sources of drawings (fig. 35): 

a, Nattall (Zouehe), p. 53 j, Nuttall (Zouehe), p. 7 

h, Yatiean B, p. 98 k, Nattall (Zouehe), p. 16 

c, Bologne, p. 1 I, Bologne, p. 4 

d, Nattall (Zouehe) 

e, Nuttall (Zouehe) 
/, Nuttall (Zouehe) 
g, Nuttall (Zouehe) 
h, Nuttall (Zouehe) 
i, Nuttall (Zouehe) 

p. 62 m, Vatiean B, p. 1 

p. 56 n, NuttaU (Zouehe), p. 24 

p. 32 0, Vatiean B, p. 74 

p. 39 p, Aubin, p. 16 

p. 34 q, Nuttall (Zouehe), p. 69 

p. 32 

The drawing at the bottom of figure 35 represents a scene 
which is quite commonly portrayed in the Aztec manuscripts. 
The subject is a human sacrifice. The barefoot victim, dressed 
in the usual Aztec waist-cloth, is stretched on his back over the 
altar stone. The ofSciating priest, his face covered with the 
black paint which is usual in religious performances, bends over 
the prisoner and cuts his heart out with a stone knife. The 
priest himself wears a waist-cloth, has a large ear-plug thrust 
through the lobe of his ear, and carries hanging on his arm a 
pouch. In general, it must be said, pouches are quite usually 
represented in connection with priestly rites. The scene here 
represented is one of the best examples of Aztec draughtsman- 

1916] Waterman: Delineation of Day-iigns in Agtee ManuscripU 883 

ship. The victim's posture, his glazed, closing eyes, and the 
blood streaming from the incision are all realistically presented.^* 

The object of particular interest for the present purpose is 
the stone knife in the priest's hands. A few of these sacrificial 
knives for removing the heart in human sacrifices have been pre- 
served to the present day. The best known specimen is the one 
inlaid with mosaic work which is preserved in the Christy Col- 
lection of the British Museum — a specimen which is a favorite 
subject for illustration by writers on Mexican archaeology.^ A 
sacrifice scene similar to the one represented in the present figure 
is figured in the Magliobecchi manuscript.*^ The sacrificial knife 
as actually used consists of a double-pointed blade chipped out 
of fiint, with one of the pointed ends fitted into a wooden handle. 
A knife of the same pattern was selected by the authors of the 
calendar to stand for the idea ''fiint." It was apparently the 
most commonplace or most familiar object made of that material. 

The various forms of the day-sign are shown in figure 35, Or^. 
The first drawing, a, is perhaps the most typical. I am of the 
opinion that the other forms are derived from this one. At any 
rate, we find all the gradations from a knife with this appear- 
ance to one with merely a few simple lines where the elaborate 
design ought to be. The various drawings fit so well into a series 
that it is hard to resist the temptation to regard them as steps in 
an evolution. The most noticeable thing about a, figure 35, is 
that we have there a fiint knife with a human face, consisting of 
eye, mouth, and teeth, represented along one edge. More peculiar 
still, the face seems to represent that of the rain-god Tlaloc (see 
figure 36 for the various forms). We have in the case of the 
present figure the goggle eye and the mouth full of long teeth 
which are so characteristic of the rain-god. As to why the rain- 
god 's features should be represented on the day-sign ''Flint,'' 
I have never heard a suggestion. 

I have said that a, figure 35, represents the usual form of this 
face on the Flint day-signs. In figure 35, b, however, we have 

79 One of the moet realistic and pictoreeqne descriptions of sach a 
place of sacrifice is the one by Juan Dias (the chaplain of the explorer 
Juan de Cordoya), quoted by Mrs. NuttalL 1910, pp. 256-259. 

soPefialiel, 1890, yoL 1, p. 123; Tylor, 1861, p. 101; Joyce, 1914, p. 194. 

•i Knttall, 1903, 58. 

384 Uninersiiy of CdHfarnia Pnhlieatiom in Am. AroK and Ethn. [V oL 11 

another and quite different form. Here we see the goggle eye, 
but instead of the Tlaloc face, in which the lower jaw is uniformly 
missing, and the upper jaw armed with long, fang-like teeth, we 
have a skeleton jaw with normal human dentition. It seems at 
least conceivable that the Aztecs represented these teeth on the 
edge of the flint-knife to symbolize the fact that the flint-knife 
cuts or bites. On the other hand, the drawing may symbolize 
especially the sacrificial knife, and the instrument may have been 
represented with teeth because the Aztecs thought of it as eating 
the heart of the victim. Figure 35, c, represents a degenerate 
form of this same drawing. In figure 35, d, we have still the 
knife, and we have the two lines across it transversely as in a. 
Nothing else is present, however, except a round dot in the 
center. It would seem almost necessary to conclude that this dot 
stands for the face as shown in a. It would be most plausible to 
assume that it is a remnant of the eye, all the rest of the face 
having dropped off. In similar fashion, the curl in e, and the 
still simpler curl in f, would seem to be the remnant of the mouth 
shown in a. In p all the facial features have disappeared, and 
we have nothing left but the two transverse lines. In h, i, j, k, n 
we have a series of simple designs which occupy the place that 
the face occupies in a, and which might easily be interpreted as 
degenerate forms of the face. There has, however, been more or 
less arbitrary elaboration and simplification of these designs. 
Perhaps the simplest is k. At the bottom of n, we see a curious 
curved design that possibly represents part of a haft or handle. 
Figure 35, I, is another of the fanciful drawings which are 
rather usual in the Bologne manuscript. We have here the flint- 
knife with its face, but in this case a mannikin body has been 
fitted to it, and we have a complete person in a curious attitude, 
with both hands raised. The mannikin is dressed in waist-cloth 
and sandals, with long ornaments of a flexible sort attached to 
his wrists, and his body is painted black like that of the priest 
in sacrifices. We spoke a moment ago of the curious curl design 
which seems (fig. 35, e, f) to represent the mouth of our first 
original drawing. It is worth noting that if this is the real mean- 
ing of it, the artist in the case of m, figure 35, forgot that original 
meaning. He has drawn two of them, one on each side of the 

1916] Waterman: Delineation of Day-9ign$ in Jjftee ManutoHpU 885 

blade. These two curls appear again in the case of o, although 
this latter is a realistic drawing of a flint-knife, with its handle 
and hilt plainly shown. 

I should like to draw special attention to p, figure 35. This 
design represents the idea ''Flint." There is no question about 
its identity, which can be determined from a consideration of the 
original series in which it occurs. Moreover, it is only a com- 
paratively slight variation from some of the designs which rep- 
resent the knife quite realistically (see h, i, etc.). The curved 
design at the edge of the blade has simply been expanded rather 
unduly. However, the drawing in p has gone so far from the 
original that it approaches very close to the Aztec representation 
of the ear of maize. 

i, Vatican B, 

p. 20 

j, Borgia, 

p. 50 

h, Yatioan B, 

p. 75 

I, Bologne, 

p. 2 

m, Aubin, 

p. 3 

n, Vatican B, 

p. 94 

0, Vatican B, 

p. 71 

Bain (Quidhuiil) 

Sources of drawings (fig. 36): 
a, NuttaU (Zonche), p. 37 
h, NnttaU (Zonehe), p. 89 
e, NnttaU (Zouehe), p. 38 

d, Vatican B, p. 96 

e, Vatican B, p. 1 
/, NuttaU (Zonche), p. 46 
g, Vatican B, p. 58 
hy Vatican B, p. 1 p, NuttaU (Zoncbe), p. 37 

As already noted in several places, the day-sign Bain is rep- 
resented by the face of the rain-god. This divinity was called by 
the Aztecs TUUoc. A figure of the god is shown in p, figure 36. 
There are several things in his appearance and costume in this 
drawing that deserve special notice. In the first place he is very 
elaborately dressed. He wears not only the customary sandals 
and waist-cloth, but also a belt with some elaborate ornament 
behind, and on his breast a necklace with a large circular pendant. 
At the back of his head there seems to be an additional ornament. 
Around his wrists are bracelets, and in his hand he holds what 
may perhaps be considered a stalk of maize and a ceremonial 
pouch. The head of this divinity, however, is the part of most 
importance for our purpose, since the head only appears as a 

UniPMtUfofCalifOTiuaP%biicationtinAm.AreKiutdBtlut. [VoLll 


Fig. 36.— o-o. The Day-sign BaIu (QwahuUl) ; p, Beallatie 
Drkwing of the Bain-god, TIaloc 

1916] Waterman: DelineaUon of Day-tigns in Asiee ManmeripU 887 

day-sign. The figure we are discussing seems to represent a 
human being impersonating the god. We see in the drawing a 
human face, with hair coming down to the ear, and in this ear 
a complex ear-ornament. Part of the nose also is clearly visible. 
The facial features, however, are in large part obscured by some- 
thing suggesting a mask. The eye is covered by a sort of goggle, 
and from this goggle a strip twists down over the face, running 
along the upper lip. From this strip over the mouth there 
depends a set of long tusks or fang-like teeth. This latter feature 
is the most characteristic part of the Tlaloc regalia. On the 
head, however, is a sort of cap surmounted by an ornament in 
two parts, one projecting forward, and the other to the rear. 
This ornament is also quite characteristic of the Tlaloc figure as 
usually represented. Let us now examine some of the variations 
of this figure when used as a day-sign. 

The most complete delineation is shown in a, figure 36. Here 
we have all the important features of the god realistically repre- 
sented. We see the ear-ornament, the goggle eye, the strip or 
mask with the tusks attached, and the cap with the two orna- 
mental flai)s. In the next drawing, however (&), we have merely 
the eye and the strip with its tusks. In c we have an even 
simpler form than in b, and in d the eye looks like a simple ring, 
and the teeth like slats. The strip that carries the fangs is also 
dumi^ in this drawing and much simplified. 

The drawings in e, f, g, and h show different forms, and were 
chosen with special reference to the ornamental flai)s on the cap. 
In 6 the teeth, eye, and strip are all present, but the two flaps 
have become just a straight bar. We have a curious bar added 
just above the teeth, the origin of which I cannot explain. It 
appears, however, in / and h. In f the teeth look like a soft 
fringe. In g we have just on the head a straight bar (representing 
apparently the cap ornaments), a round eye, and the teeth. The 
teeth are not, however, the fangs proper to a Tlaloc figure, as 
usually represented, but are the triangular teeth characteristic 
of the Water-monster symbol. 

In % we see the eye, intersected by a bar, and a simplified set 
of teeth. Whether this bar is the cap ornament, or the extra bar 
which appears first in e, it is impossible to say. 

888 Univer9%tyofCaHf<>r7t4aJhiblicaUan8inAm.AreKandEthn. [VoLll 

In i^ j, and k we have these same elements very much simpli- 
fied and distorted. In t the teeth, lip-strip, eje, and another 
design, perhai)s representing teeth again, are all arranged to 
form one horizontal figure. Recognition of this maze of lines as 
Tlaloc symbols would be almost impossible, if we did not have 
intermediate stages before us. In / the three most persistent 
elements appear, teeth, eye, and cap ornament, but the teeth are 
very degenerate, hardly more than a set of scallops. In k the 
whole design is loose and formless, the teeth square at the end 
instead of pointed, and practically all similarity to the realistic 
drawing is lost. In { we have another one of the fanciful draw- 
ings from the Bologne Codex. We have the various parts of the 
Tlaloc figure, cap with fiaps, ear-ornament, goggle eye, and 
mouth. The whole takes on, however, an entirely new appear- 
ance. On the face appears a large patch of black face-paint. 
The mouth is without teeth of any kind, although the teeth are 
certainly the most characteristic of all the Tlaloc features. 

In m we have a curious design from the Aubin manuscript. 
The goggle eye, the cap, and the fringe of long teeth are all there. 
The artist has drawn them, however, upside down. In n again 
we have all the parts, but arranged to give quite a different effect 
from any of the other drawings. The teeth, moreover, are of the 
Water-monster variety. In o we have a drawing that might 
easily be mistaken for the Water-monster symbol. It would 
almost seem that the artist had the Water-monster figure in the 
back of his mind. The drawing shows the goggle eye and the 
curved lip-strip. The teeth, however, have lost their long taper- 
ing shape, and the artist has made them follow around up the 
curve of the strip, giving almost exactly the effect of Water- 
monster's upturned snout. We have, however, behind the eye, 
an ear which would not be in place on the Water-monster design. 
Altogether, there is none of the symbols which is more com- 
plicated and distinctive than the representation of the Bain 
symbol, and yet there is no design which shows more marked 
variability or greater similarity to entirely independent symbols. 

1S16] Watentan: Delin«aluM of Dajt-aignt in Aetee ManutoHpU S8S 

Fig. 87.— a-o, The Dar-rigu Ftoww {Zoehitl) ; p, Bealiatlii 
Drawing of a Plant in BloMom 

890 University of CtUifamia Publications in Am, Arch, and Ethn, [VoL 11 

Flower (Xochitl) 

Sources of drawings (fig. 37): 

a, Nuttall (Zouehe) 

h, Nuttall (Zouche) 

c, Nuttall (Zouehe) 

d, Nuttall (Zouche) 
Cf Nuttall (Zouehe) 

f, Nuttall (Zouehe) 

g, Nuttall (Zouehe) 
h, Pejervary, 

f P-43 

i, Nuttall (Zouehe), 

p. 2 

, p. 53 

/, Nuttall (Zouche), 

p. 15 

1 ?• 3 

k, Aubin, 

p. 4 

1 p.43 

I, Nuttall (Zouehe), 

p. 76 

, p. 51 

m, Nuttall (Zouche), 

p. 6 

, p. 52 

n, Aubin, 

p. 6 

, p. 16 

0, Nuttall (Zouehe), 

p. 19 

p. 17 

p, Pejervary, 

p. 5 

Figcu*^ 37 represents the various forms of the day-sign Flower. 
There is considerable variety in these drawings, but they all rep- 
resent obviously the same thing, namely a blossom. The most 
usual outline is perhaps that of the fleur-de-lis. This appears, 
for example, in a and b. In some cases, however, the blossom 
is quite painstakingly portrayed with stem, petals and stamens. 
(See, for example, e, f, and n.) In other cases this flower figure 
becomes so simplified that it can scarcely be recognized at alL 
The most extreme case of this is perhaps h, in which all likeness 
to the flower is lost. In one or two cases in the manuscripts the 
blossom is represented in a geometric fashion. An example of 
this is shown in /. The most realistic forms are possibly e and 
n, where the various parts of the blossom are shown in their 
natural relations. In j, k, and o, however, the drawings become 
quite grotesque and are hardly recognizable at all. 

Figure 37, p, shows a plant in blossom. The similarity be- 
tween these blossoms and those drawn to represent the day-sign 
Flower is so marked that a case of identity seems to be estab- 
lished. The plant represented in p is apparently a cactus, and 
in all probability the ordinary * * prickly-pear, ' ' in Aztec nochtU, 
that is quite common on the Mexican plateau. This seems to be 
indicated by the way in which the oval leaves are joined. That 
the plant is the cactus is suggested also by the presence of the 
long thorns. As in many cases, there is represented at the 
bottom of the plant the root. It seems altogether likely, then, 
that the Aztec day-sign Flower represents really the flower of 
the prickly-pear cactus. 

1916] Waterman: DelineaUim of Pay-signs in Aetec ManuscripU 391 







Fig. 38. — ^Drawings showing the Borrowing of Characterisiics 

between the Various Daj-signs 

Sources of drawings (fig, 38): 

a, Nnttall (Zonehe), p. 71 

h, Nuttall (Zonche), p. 12 

e, Vatican B, p. 88 

d, Fejervary, p. 6 

e, Nuttall (Zonche), p. 11 
/, Fejervary, p. 9 
g, Borgia, p. 57 



p. 64 



p. 5 



p. 3 


Vatican B, 

p. 81 


Vatican B, 

p. 62 


Vatican B, 

p. 96 


Vatican B, 

p. 28 

392 Univeriiiy of Calif artUa PubUeations in Am, JYch, and Ethn. [Vol 11 


Mention has been made in so many places of the borrowing of 
characteristics between different day-signs that the matter may 
deserve special illustration. Figure 38 shows a number of draw- 
ings in which this borrowing has taken place. These are par- 
ticularly picturesque examples and will serve perhaps to conclude 
the whole matter. In a and b of figure 38 we have two typical 
dayndgns. The first of these, a, represents the monkey quite 
realistically. It will be seen at once, however, that he has bor- 
rowed the flat two-flapped cap that is characteristic normally of 
the Rain sign (b). Monkey, it will be remembered, is represented 
normally with a crest (see e of the present figure). The presence 
of the cap, then, in a is simply a case of outright borrowing. On 
the other hand, in c, d, and e of figure 38, we have a case where 
the monkey loans one of his features. The first of these draw- 
ings (d) represents the day-sign Death and consists primarily 
of a skull. The skull is topped, however, by a crest which has 
been borrowed obviously from the monkey (see e of this figure). 
The monkey is the only animal normally represented with this 
feature. It will be remembered, too, that one of the characteristic 
things about the monkey is the presence of an ear. This monkey 
ear appears quite inappropriately on the skull shown in c. In 
the Death symbol shown in d, an ear-ornament belonging to the 
wind-god has been borrowed (see /, figure 36). In d, therefore, 
the artist borrowed two features, the crest from the monkey and 
also the wind-god's ear-ornament. 

In g, h, and t we have a curious example of borrowing, g 
represents the symbol for water, which is a dish with water pour- 
ing out of it, and a little circular object in the center representing 
a shell. In t we see a typical representation of rain-god, the 
central feature of which is a semi-circular eye. Figure A is a 
representation, like g, of water. Instead of a shell, however, the 
artist represents in its midst an eye which he has apparently 
borrowed from the Rain symbol. 

In j, figure 38, we have a representation of the wind-god. He 
has the usual wind-god's snout with the opened mouth and an 
eye. He has, however, borrowed from the skull sign (see k) an 

1916] Waterman: DeUneaiion of Daysigm in Jjgtee Maniueripis 893 

additional eye, and the hooked rear portion of the skull. We 
have then in i a eurionsly complicated and rather meaningless 
%are — ^a wind-god with beak and ear-ornament topped by a 
cranium and a loose eye borrowed from the symbol of Death. 

In the last three drawings of the figures I, m, and n, we see 
a curious case of interchanging of traits. Let us direct attention 
first of all to the water-monster drawing (n). The important 
things here are an upcurved snout ornamented with big tri- 
angular teeth. In { we have a representation of the rain-god 
standing for the day-sign Bain. In drawing this latter sjrmbol, 
however, the artist borrowed two things. In the first place he 
borrowed the teeth from the water-monster, and in the second 
place, the pointed cap or mitre from the god of wind. On the 
other hand, the wind-god here represented (m) is shown with 
an upcurved beak, obviously an imitation of the water-monster; 
and this curved beak is ornamented with typical water-monster 


I should say by way of summary concerning the general ten- 
dencies which operate in the delineation of the day-signs, that 
there is, in the first place, wide variation in type. It must be 
noted that this variation is not due to historical development; 
on the contrary, it is due in large part to conscious elaboration 
or abbreviation on the part of each artist. We sometimes find 
two widely variant forms in one day-sign, one perfect, the other 
degenerate, side by side on the same page of one manuscript. 
The difiSculty in recognizing the day-signs, where there is any 
difficulty, arises from the fact that there are no hard and fast 
criteria for the recognition of the symbols. One symbol may 
gradually change until it closely resembles another. To render 
this approximation still more marked, we have the curious bor- 
rowing which has just been illustrated, in which perfect features 
from one day-sign are transplanted and appear entire in the 
drawings of another. The amount of variation is so great that 
an almost unlimited number of examples could be chosen. The 
day-signs as they are drawn in the manuscripts offer many 
examples of divergence. 

394 University of California Publications in Am, Arch, and Ethn, [Vol. 11 



Aubin TonalamatL [A facsimile manuscript issued as an addendum to 

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Codex Ferj^rvdry-Mayer. Manuscrit mexicain precolombien des Free 

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Codex Nuttall. Facsimile of an ancient Mexican Codex belonging to 

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H Manoscritto Messicano Vaticauo 3773. Beprodotto in fotocromagrafia 

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1916] Waterman: Delineation of Day-signs in Aztec Manuscripts 395 

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1916] Waterman: DeUneatian of Day-iigns in Jjrteo ManuioHpU S97 


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1897-1898b. Numeral S3rBtems of Mexico and Central America. (19th 
Beport of the Bureau of American Ethnology, part 2, pp. 


1615. . . . libros rituales y monarquia Indiana, etc. Sevilla. Ed. 2, 
edited by A. Gonzales-Barcia, Madrid, 1723. 

398 Unhemty of California Pubhoations in Am, AreK and Ethn, [Vol. 11 

TGumo DB Bbneventb (called Motounu.) 

HiBtoria de los Indios de Naeva Espafia (see Kingsborongh, 1831, voL 
9, where parts of it are printed. Another edition, complete, 
will be found in Garcia Icazbaleeta, 1858-1870, voL 1.) 

Tylob, E. B. 

1861. Anahnac, or Mexico and the Mexicans, ancient and modem. 

Vbttia, M. Febnakdbz 

1907. Los calendarios Mexicanos. Mexico, published by the Museo 




Vol. 1 1, No. 7, pp. 399-472 March 9, 1916 








Pabt L Stbuotubb 402 

General CbaracteriBties . .- 402 

Phonetic Syf tern .« 402 

Parts of Speech — 405 

Etjmological Suffixes of Nouns 406 

Morphological Suffixes of Nouns 408 

Pronouns . 411 

Verbs 411 

Et3anological Sufixes of Verbs 412 

Morphological Suffixes of Verbs ....~.»^..^.^..^.»,..»..^........... .......^ 415 

Adjectives ^ 425 

Particles 426 

Pabv IL Classifizd List op Stbus . . 427 

Nouns ................................M..^........^....».~.^»,...^ ....^..^.M.^........ — ..^.....^ 427 

Animals ..^... » .....^............ — . ^......... ^ »,.^........ ...... 427 

AJ%^ ffmm 1 M A v^H .................................................................................................. ^K«fv 

Mj\KL^ JTvLiMVO .»«»...».».....««......«....»....«...».»■.»».».».«.........«.....«.«........«...............»» 40w 

Manufactures, Instruments .m.^...^...........................^...^.^......... 433 

Natural Phenomena ........................................~.... .......... — ........ — .....^ 435 

Words of More Abstract Significance 436 

Terms of Belationship and Personal Categories 437 

400 Uwweriity of CaUfamia Publications in Am, Areh, and Ethn. [ YoL 11 


ProAOUiiB . 439 

DemonstratiTes 440 

lDt6rrogatiT6 Pronoiins .~. — ....~..~..m~............~^~..^~.^^....~.»~.~~«. 440 

V«i>Ka 44.1 

JE1LUJ vw l/X V OO •>••»•••— •—^— ♦•—••»•♦»—•—••••••••••*•••■■••••»•••»•••••••■••■■■■■•• ♦^•^ *—•••■■••••■•■*•■•** *VA 

JQL^A ▼ vX i^O »♦♦»♦<♦»»»•»»»—*••••■■••••••••»»••••••••••♦—••—■■•■■■■■•»••»••••••••*••••■**••— •••■•■■■••■•■■*»**•• ^E\#\/ 

Descriptive and Miaoellaneoiis Adverbs 467 

Postscript - ~ 470 


A century ago Father Felipe Arroyo de la Cuesta, one of the 
most earnest and indefatigable members of the order of St. 
Francis, collected a mass of 2884 words, phrases, and sentences 
from the language of the Mutsun Indians, spoken at his mission 
of San Juan Bautista near Monterey, California. At about the 
same time he composed a grammar of the language, which is one 
of the branches of the Gostanoan linguistic group. These two 
manuscripts were sent by Alexander S. Taylor to the Smithsonian 
Institute, which loaned them for publication to John G. Shea, in 
whose Library of American lAnguisHcs they appear as volumes 
IV and vm, 1861 and 1862. Together they form one of the fullest 
and most complete collections of data extant on a Pacific Coast 
language. There is little doubt that the missionary knew the 
language well and interpreted its psychology and spirit fairly 
correctly. In his grammar there appears less strict adherence to 
the form and structure of Latin grammar, less subconscious 
premise of Latin as the standard par excellence than is generally 
found in grammars of this time and type. Nevertheless, in spite 
of the comparative excellence of the grammar, but because of its 
lack of scientific arrangement, unphonetic orthography, and the 
foreign tongue, it is deemed better to rearrange and formulate 
the grammar, using as a basis the phrases of the vocabulary. 

The phrase-book is likewise unfortunate in that it is at present 
almost inaccessible to the modem student, due to its faulty ar- 
rangement. This is done alphabetically according to the initial 

1916] Mason: MuUun Dialect of Coatanoan 401 

letter of the sentence, the various stems being scattered through- 
out the nearly three thousand sentences. The same difficulties 
of unphonetic orthography and Spanish language likewise obtain 

Several years ago Dr. Eroeber had the majority of the 
phrases comprising the more important of the sentences copied 
to a card-index. I have recently spent some time in working over 
the material thus secured, arranging cards according to stems and 
isolating grammatical particles. The following paper embodies 
the results of this research. 

While the grammar of De la Cuesta is the most complete ever 
published on a Gostanoan language, several more scientific 
treatises have been produced in the last few years, principally 
by the University of California. These are, ''Languages of the 
Coast of California South of San Francisco, ' '^ and ' ' The Chumash 
and Costanoan Languages."' Other pertinent works are ''Pho- 
netic Constituents of the Native Languages of California,'" 
"The Native Languages of California,"^ and "New Linguistic 
Families in California."* 

The present paper consists of two parts, first an exposition of 
the etymological and morphological elements upon which the 
structure of the language is based, and second a list of the various 
stems of all classes found in the material, though, since not all 
of the phrases were transferred to cards, this does not entirely 
exhaust all those in the original phrase-book. These are appended 
partly as reference for the examples of morphological and ety- 
mological word-structure previously cited, but more particularly 
as an aid to the larger work of comparison of Mutsun with 
kindred Costanoan and other extra-group languages. The recent 
proposal of the "Penutian" linguistic family, to which Mutsun 
would belong, renders such a glossary invaluable for purposes of 

1 A. L. Kroeber, present series, n, 29-80, 1904. 
a Ibid., IX, 287-271, 1910. 
t Ibid,, X, 1-12, 1911. 

4B. B. Dixon and A. L. Kroeber, American Anthropologist, n.s., ▼, 
1-26, 1903. 

5 Ibid., TLB., XV, 647-655, 1918. 

408 Unwenity of Calif amia PubUeaiions in Awl Areh. and Ethn. [VoL 11 


General Characteeistics 

The surprisingly close similarity between the general morpho- 
logic structure and 8pr<ichgeisi of Costanoan and other languages 
of its type and Indo-European has already been noted but is 
none the less striking. The main characteristics of the language 
may be thus summarized. Phonetic simplicity and comparative 
unimportance of rules of phonetic change; complete lack of in- 
corporation, either nominal or pronominal; complete absence of 
prefixes; independent pronouns; nominal case endings; and com- 
parative simplicity of categories of mood, tense and number, 
necessitating an immense number of dissimilar stems of relatively 
slight difference in significance. 

Phonetio System 

The phonetic system of Mutsun and of Costanoan appears to 
be relatively simple. The vowels are a, e, i, o, u, all appearing 
open in quality. The Spanish orthogri^hy is perfectly satis- 
factory for expressing these sounds and no change has been made 
in transcription. Barely a vowel is found in the phrase-book with 
circumflex accent and very rarely with acute accent, but as no 
uniformity in thus spelling any word is evident, and as the 
phonetic variation thus expressed is not described, such marks 
have been disregarded. 

The consonants seem to be only tv, y, m, n, I, r, $, c, x, h, p, 
t, tf k, and tc. tn, n, I, r, 8, p, and t (dental or interdental) are 
probably correctly expressed in De la Cuesta's Spanish orthog- 
raphy and are left unchanged, tu is generally expressed in 
Spanish by hu with following voweL De la Cuesta writes hiM, 
hue, hut, and once hiio. He further uses often gua, giie, gut, and 
guo which denote in Spanish gtua, gwe, gwi and gwo. There is 
no sonant g in Costanoan, though the k has an intermediate 
quality. We find, however, that, though the hu- and gu- ortho- 
graphies are each generally used consistently for certain stems, 

1916] Ma$on: MuttUH Diaieet of Coatanaan 408 

there are occasional cases of identity, e.g., guaUun, hualiun, 
htwlon, **be envious;" huUo, guUo, ^^signal *yes' with the eyes;" 
huipa, gilipa, * * invite ' ' ; gueren, weren,^ * * rabbit. ' ' Similarly the 
gu- orthography without the diaresis, gue, gut, is found often. 
This denotes pure sonant g in Spanish, a sound missing in Cos- 
tanoan. Instances of a stem both with and without the diaresis 
are common, e.g., gueiero, giieierogmin, ** great," and it is prob- 
able that such omissions of the diaresis are accidental. Therefore 
all Au- and gu- orthographies have been changed uniformly to w. 
Medial w is probably expressed by u with following vowel, but 
it often is difficult to decide whether a given u is vocalic or 

y is expressed correctly except in certain combinations; De la 
Cuesta's n probably denotes ny. (In a few cases of doubt it has 
been retained as n, as in suffix pan.) i and y are sometimes inter- 
changed, as yttug, ittug, ''a seed." Here also it is often difficult 
to distinguish vowel and consonant. 

c (sh) is not definitely distinguished by De la Cuesta but is 
suggested by certain sh, sch orthographies. Had he distinguished 
the sound he would probably have written it with an a; in accord 
with older Spanish usage. 

X (palatal surd fricative) presents some difficulties. Initially 
it is doubtless represented by ja, ge, gi, jo, ju. Medially the same 
orthography is utilized. Final x seems to be represented by g, 
e.g., uming, mu^ix,^ **wolf ;" eg, ex,^ ** squirrel." De la Cuesta's 
g in consonantal combinations offers the most uncertain of the 
phonetic problems, tigsin, ** skunk," is checked by Kroeber's 
tixsin,^ rendering it practically certain that g in this case repre- 
sents X. On the other hand, g before m and n probably represents 
k. Thus cma and gma are both used as a plural suffix, gne is a 
common passive suffix. Eroeber has nimikne wdkai,^ ''he hit 
me," doubtless the same suffix. Eroeber transcribes tansagte, 
**ten," tansakte, but atsiagnis, atsiaxnis.* Substitution has here 
been made on the theory that g before a surd represents the con- 
tinuant X, while before a sonant or intermediate it represents the 
palatal stop k.'' 

« A. L. Kroeber, MS. 

7 See postscript below, p. 470. 

404 UnwenityofCdUforniaP%blieati<m9inAfn.AreKamdSthn. [YoLll 

Initial and medial h may be silent, as in modem Spanish, bat 
since it is regolarly employed in certain stems, and as both h 
and X are found in most Costanoan texts, it is retained. 

t is the tongae-blade t found in the Costanoan and neighbor- 
ing languages. De la Cuesta wrote variously tr, th, thr, thrs, trs, 
etc. It is often difficult to decide whether the last consonant of 
the complex is a distinct sound or not. 

Following Spanish usage, k is denoted by De la Cuesta by c 
before a, o and u, and by qu before e and i. 

The affricative to is regularly written by De la Cuesta ch but 
often confused with f. 

Doubled letters, both consonants and vowels, are frequently 
met with in De la Cuesta 's orthography. As these are foreign to 
the Spanish language, except in the cases of II and rr^ it is as- 
sumed that the device is employed to express length or duration 
of the sound and is therefore expressed in the present paper as 
the simple sound followed by inverted period, in accord with 
modem usage. 

The Spanish language is, on the whole, a far better medium 
for the recording of unfamiliar languages by an untrained ear 
than the unrevised English. In the great majority of cases there 
is no question as to the exact phonetic rendering of the native 
words, and in a great number of cases they may be left in their 
original forms. Only in cases where sounds unfamiliar to the 
Spanish ear occur is difficulty found. Such are w. the peculiar 
tongue-blade i common to certain California languages, and un- 
Castillian combinations of sounds. Little difficulty has therefore 
been encountered in transcribing the native words to modem 
phonetic orthography, which is doubtless an advisable procedure. 

The chances for frequent error in so many transcriptions and 
changes in authorship are too great to allow any phonetic dis- 
crimination or any elucidation of the finer and less evident points 
of the language. Shea's impression is replete with errors of 
transcription from the Padre's manuscript, and these may be 
increased in the present digest. Many words are spelt variantly, 
sometimes on the authority of the original, at other times mani- 
festly due to improper reading of the manuscript. This is par- 
ticularly true with regard to the easily confused m, w, u, and ♦. 

1916] Ma$on: Mutsun Dialect of Costanoan 405 

Nevertheless, a few pertinent remarks may be made on Mutsnn 
phonetic laws. The language is phonetically smooth and simple, 
the average word being an orderly alternation of consonant and 
vowel. Either consonant or vowel may begin or end a word, but 
consonantal combinations seem to be missing initially or finally, 
the few recorded cases being probably due to error. Medially 
certain combinations are permitted, though it is not easy to de- 
termine these. Thus, lalak-na, **go for geese," becomes by meta- 
thesis lalkana. Similarly, certain suffixes are varied in order to 
avoid unwieldly and harsh complexes, as kai^, but men^e (in- 
terrogative) ; uta-kma, but ims-fnak (plural) . There appears also 
to be a feeling for vocalic harmony, and some suffixes are varied 
to the end that their vowel may correspond and harmonize with 
the characteristic or stem vowel of the word. Thus sumi-ri-ni, 
but towo-roste; xanorksa, but tare-kse. Again certain vowels 
seem to be dominants and survive in assimilation or elision. Thus 
the past tense suffixes -is and -in are dominant and -kne^s be- 
comes 'knis; -pu-in, -pin. A thorough phonetic study of the lan- 
guage would doubtless codify all these rules and elucidate many 

Pabts of Speech 

Mutsun recognizes as parts of speech the noun, pronoun, verb, 
adjective and particle, though, as in English, the division is a 
more or less artificial one, the lines of demarcation are not hard 
and fast, and it is sometimes difficult to assign properly a given 
word, which may not uncommonly function in several categories 
without change in form. 


The great majority of Mutsun nominal stems are dissyllabic 
or trisyllabic. A few of the most common stems, such as many 
body-parts, are monosyllabic, and a very few apparently poly- 
syllabic stems are found. Nominal stems appear never to be 
compounded and are varied only by the addition of a few suf- 
fixes. Stems appear to begin and end with either vowel or con- 
sonant without discrimination, and there seem to be no categories 
of stem types, such as for animate or inanimate, natural or arti- 

406 Univer$itjf of Calif amia PmbUeat%on$ in Afn. Arek. and Sthn. [Vol. 11 

ficial. That is, it is not possible to infer from the form of the 
word or from its suffix the category to which it belongs. Yet there 
are a few etymological suffixes in occasional use. Those making 
verbs are given below; those forming nouns follow here. 

Etymological Suffixes of Nouns 

1. -n, reiuUative, infinitive. Suffixed to verbal or other 
stems denotes result or phenomenon of an act. 






breath, spirit, soul 





Possible cognate : 











2. "S, 'S-e, ('Se, -si), causative, abstractive. Suffixed to verbal 
or other stems denotes cause or phenomenon of an act, and is 
generally used with words of abstract significance. 

a dream 
an embrace 














become angry 











Probable cognate is : 

3. 'pis, (-mis, -sis), instrumental. Suffixed to verbal or other 
stems denotes instrument or means for the performance of an 


cast shadow, re- 


shadow, reflection 






beard, shave 





Mason: MuUun Dialed of Coatanoan 





table-cloth, napkin 












end of cigar 

4. -msa, i-nsa), instrumental. SnfSxed to verbal or other 
steins denotes instrument or means for the performance of an act. 

humiri baptize humiri-msa 

ene ¥mte ene-msa 

ama eat ama-nsa 

tcala urinate tcala-msa bladder 

iisi owe isi-msa debts 

baptismal font 
eraser, blotter 

Probably also : 









5. -pan, -pan, agentive. SufiSxed to verbal stems denotes the 
more or less habitual doer of an act or the exponent of a quality. 

yume-pafi liar 

mazer-pan one who makes sport of another with 

the eyes 
notio-pafi one who denies the truth 

nimi-pail beater 

yoso-pail lustful, lecherous 

latue-pan one who is always making signs with 

the tongue 
ol*ue-pafi one who signals with his hand 

pitciwi-pan cleanser of hair 

li-pan hider 

nimi-pan striker, hitter 

Other isolated examples of etymological nominal suffixes are : 







doubled cord 






Lent, time of fast- 



a laugh, laughing 

give present 

mira-x, mira- 


load of meat 


bringer of load of 

make bread 



408 Unwer$ityofCaUforniaPubUeati<mtinAm.Areh.andEtJm. [YoLU 




a name 




laarel fruit 


decorate with 



feminine adorn 




act like a 



Reduplication seems to play an unimportant role in Mutsun 
morphology. A few words are found in which the first syllable is 
reduplicated but there is no evidence that the phenomenon is of 
any morphological importance. Practically all of the instances 
occur with names of animals or plants. 

















Morphological Suffixes of Nouns 

The Mutsun language is a comparatively simple one morpho- 
logically, being quite comparable to modem European languages 
in this respect. But few changes in inflection for the declension 
of nouns and the conjugation of verbs are found. These will be 
noted below. 

The noun is inflected for differences in number, case, and in 
some cases even for person. Gtender is, as commonly in Ameri- 
can languages, not recognized, unless in sporadic etymological 

Many, if not all, animate nouns take a pluralizing suffix. 
This is: 

6. 'ktna, -mdk, plural. 

sini boy 



sini-kma, sin- 














1916] Mamm: Mutsun Dialed of Costanoan 409 






the Guaehironos 









It is aLso used with substantive adjectives. 

'kma is doubtless the original fonn and is used after a vowel, 
-mdk being employed after a consonant to avoid harsh complexes, 
though there are exceptions. 

There appears to be no dual number. 

The various nominal case relations are expressed hy suffixes 
which may be interpreted as postpositions, but are probably as 
correctly explained as true case inflections. These are : 

7. -was, 'Uas, compositiondl, partitive, material, 

ores- was tap hide of bear 

xat*-was tote meat of beUy 

xnrek-war mk cord of sinew 

orpe-was etse middle of night 

8. 'tne, terminative. 

patre-me into the house of the Padre 

me-me to yon, with you 

9. 'Se, -B-e, -ne, -he, objective. 

aisa-ne (s^^) them 

kairka-s*e (try) pinole 

moro-s*e (hunt) moles 

krakat-se (know) name 

kapzan-ne (strike) three 

inu-se (take) road 

soton-he (blow) fire 

10. -sun, -sum, -urn, instrumental. 

ak-sun (die) of hunger 

mait-sun (die) of laughing 

tala-sun (die) of heat 

ekwe^-sum (conceived) in sin, (choked) with sin 

zai-um (speak) with the mouth 

urkan-um (thresh) with the mortar 

410 Unwernty of Calif amia PubUeatiant in Am, Arch, and Bthn. [Vol. 11 

11. 4ka, 4ak, locative, 







(hmig) in tree 
(grind) in mortar 
(hidden) in grass 
(speak) in ear 
(wound) in wing 
(wallow) in sin 

4ka seems to follow vowels, -iak consonants to avoid com- 

12. 'iUj comiiative. 


(eat) with jonnger brother 
(dance) with father 

A possible suffix with more the force of a postposition is : 
13. "tnuy 'turn, regressive. 

tina here tina-tun, tina- from here 


In the case of terms of relationship there are sometimes di- 
verse endings according to the grammatical person. Thns: 



14. 'S(8), 


15. 4(8), 

16. -11(8), n, 





elder brother 




younger brother 




elder sister 

























The basis of this is plainly an infixation of -s- before the char- 
acteristic vowel for the first person possessive and the substitu- 
tion of -n8n for the third person, where 8 represents the char- 
acteristic voweL The 6k of tar-ek-se and xan-ak-sa are sporadic. 
This may be the vestige of a once fully functional genitive case. 
No other instances are found in the language. The -t- of the 
second person is very dubious. 

1916] Mason: Muisw% Diaieet of Costanoan 411 


The pronoun, as before stated, is independent and never mor- 
phologically welded with the verb or other part of speech. The 
six representatives of the two numbers and three persons are dis- 
tinct and those of the third person seem to have little or no 
demonstrative force. The case endings, particularly the -s of the 
objective, are suiBxed also to the pronouns. The possessive pro- 
noun is often identical with the subjective form, though generally 
one form is exclusively subjective. The pronoun has a tendency 
toward combination with other pronouns and particles. Thus 
we find such forms as ka-mes, *'I-you," this being the most 
frequent; kat (kchet), **I in future time"; kas-hiha, **I also." 

The pronominal stems are monosyllabic or at the most dis- 
syllabic and quite dissimilar for the various persons. The first 
and second personal plural pronouns, however, commence with 
the syllable mak-, doubtless cognate with the pluralizing sufiSx 

Demonstrative and adjectival pronouns are numerous and 

Detailed lists of all classes of pronouns will be found in 
Part II. 


The typical Mutsun verbal stem is dissyllabic, ending in a 
characteristic vowel. This may even be the invariable rule, ap- 
parent infractions and exceptions being due to error or presence 
of unsuspected etymological or morphological elements. The 
characteristic vowel is not inalienably welded to the stem, since 
certain infixes are added between stem and characteristic. 

Like nouns, verb stems take no prefixes, all morphological 
mechanism being attained by means of sufiixes. A few solitary 
examples of possible verb-stem combination have been found 
which may be differently interpreted on fuller acquaintance with 
the language. 

iip-xi(xii) roll, fall (scissors) 

xixi(e) go, walk 

ap-ura(iii) slip, faU (person) 

uru(iii) 'all 

up-ki roll, seize (log) 

at-ki break, seisee (log) 

at*e, atse break 

412 UniverHty of CdUfomia PubUeationa in Am. ArcK and Ethn. [YoL 11 

Reduplication of verbal stems is practically unknown in Mut- 
sun. A few sporadic cases are found, however, which seem to have 
the iterative significance frequently denoted by this means in 
American languages. 




dotted, streaked 











It is a difficult and largely an artificial task to separate verbal 
particles into etymological and morphological elements. Never- 
theless certain of these appear to belong to the former category 
and others may be placed there merely for the lack of evidence 
of morphological significance. 

Etymological Suffixes of Verbs 

17. 'ie, possessive. Suffixed to nominal stems denotes pos- 
session of the object. 

otco-te possess ears 

kraka-te possess name 

sitnun-te have children 

pnltci-te have full breasts 

18. 'kis', i'luis', 'pwiS')y imitative. Suffixed to nominal or 
other stems denotes imitation of person or act. The reflexive 
suffix -pu is normally added. 

mam*anxa-kis-piii act like a fool 

mnkene-pwis-pn act like a man 

maknm-kis-pa act Uke women 

monsie-kis-pn, (-wis-pu) act like a sensible person 

sawe-wis-pu pretend to sing 

19. -na, purposive. The verbal suffix -na, ** go to do," func- 
tions also as an etymological suffix to noun stems, denoting in 
this case **go for." 




go for geese 




go for nuts 




go for rabbits 


Ma$<m: Mutsun Dialect of Costanoan 


20. -mi, dative. Likewise the verbal suffix -mt may be suffixed 
directly to nouns, functioning as an etymological suffix and de- 
noting gift of the object. It is generally or always used with the 
imperative and the first person singular object 




give me arrows 




give me tobacco 




give me bread 

21. 4%, substantive. A possible substantive suffix is found 

tanses brother tan8e0-ti-(8) be a brother 

22. "U-, oppositional. Infixed before characteristic vowel of 
verbal or other stems denotes significance opposite to that of 
simple stem. 








teuniy tnnnu 



seize, grab 


lock with key 


fold, pleat 












untie knot 

open with key 


open, unfold 

23. -r-, excessive. Followed by the characteristic vowel ap- 
pears to denote a psychological cause for the condition described. 


be content 


sleep from satiety 




sunocate from heat 


be rigid 


be stiff fi^m cold 




shiver from fear 

24. 'f', corporeal. Followed by a vowel in harmony with pre- 
ceding one generally refers to action with or on parts of body. 


long tongue, (he) extends his tongue 



roU (eyes) too much 



tighten (it)l make (it) fasti 



with large occiput 


shut your mouth 1 

pelfe, pete 

shut eyes 


keep mouth closed 


pluck hairs 


cross hands 

414 Uiuver*ityofCiaifontiaPubUcatioiuinAm.AreKttHdBtkn. [VoLll 

25. -<e, -«, i-it). 

tere-ti-8 i 

(7012) have cut (your hair) 

nam-tiy nam-it i 

(I have not) understood, heard 

kiUte 1 

(it) sparkles 

jsta-ti, zop*o-ti, i 

[did he give 70Q) anything, a drink, 

iM-mi-ti, olte-mi-ti 

meat, pinole f 

insu-ti, insn-te 

(you) know (it) 

upxi-ti (or npxi) i 

(let me) drink a little 

wipati 1 

[will) invite (you) 

ole-ti 1 

(I) seised (it), (what) could (you 


ina-ti-8 i 

[I) became sick 

esoni-ti \ 

[you) hate (the language) 

lopx-ti-ni-n ( 

jrew mouldy (wheat) 

Possibly the same sufiSx is found in the imperative with first 
person singular object, 4 or 'ii-t. It is a doubtful suffix ; no at- 
tempt is made to explain it. 

26. 'Wi, -we. 


remind (him)! 




(you) shorten (confession) 


(he went) to try 


(may they) gather (them) I 


he threw him 


scratch the boys' heads 1 


(have you) satisfied (him)f 


(we) have searched for (them) 


(let me) be seeing; look I 


(that which) he has in his hand 


(I) was listening (to them) 


he seeks (us) 


(I) am blowing (the fire) 


guard me I 


break itl 

xelue-si-tit (xelue-mi-tit) 

flay, strip for me I 


(child) is sucking 

This suffix may be cognate with the mandatory -si (No. 45) 
but the resemblance is not evident. 

Other possible etymological suffixes are : 


Mason: MuUun Dialect of Costtmoan 



a doubled cord 


make countless in- 


a bag 

xotio- (si) -nme 

(order to) make a 




(they have) made 




give (me) tobacco 


(he) was intoxi- 




catch fish 




bring amole 




be ashamed 



(was) married 




I went for mussels 

Morphological Suffixes of Verbs 

The verbal stem is variously modified for considerations of 
tense, voice, various modal si^ificances, and to some extent for 

The unmodified stem is used alone for the present tense and 
with temporal adverbial particles to express the future. 

The most frequent temporal suffix is -n. This is generally 
translated by the Spanish preterit, but frequently also by the 
present. It may have an indefinite or aoristic sense, or denote 
incompleteness or continuance of action, and is found mainly 
with intransitive verbs. 

28. -(t)n, indefinite. 















(whenever I) err 

(I) shoot (with my left hand) 

(whenever a house) bums 

(you will be) frozen 

(I) argue (with him) 

(he) follows (you) 

(I) am dying 

(rain) is ceasing 

(he) is cold 

(I) have peppered my throat 

(soon the river) will dry up 

(he) nauseated (you) 

(I) Uked (that) 

(when they) rest 

416 Univernty of CdUfomia PmbUeat%on$ in Atn. Arch, and Ethn. [YoL 11 

29. '{%)$, past tense. This is less common than -n. It appears 
to be a more definite past and is found mainly with transitive 

7oreti-8 (he) chased (me) 

katia-mi-8 (he) gave (you) 

mistu-s (yon) warmed yourself 

mexe-npi-s (I) have seen (them) 

wlpa-s (I) invited (yon) 

30. '{i)kun, past tense. This is the less frequent past ending 
and appears principally with transitive verbs. It is probably the 
most remote of the past tenses, but as all three of these are regu- 
larly translated by the bare Spanish preterit, it is most difficult 
to delimit their respective spheres. The examples seem to imply 
completion of action. 

nzsini-knn (yon) have increased 

nt*ni-knn (I) guarded (it) 

nzei-knn (I) have guarded (it) 

oioi-knn (he) seized (it) 

oisio-knn (it) happened again 

The distinction between the categories of intransitive and 
transitive is not as close as in many Pacific languages, and there 
is no invariable designating particle for either. Certain suffixes, 
however, pertain to one or the other type. One of the commonest 
suffixes in the language is -ni, which appears on the whole to be 
a kind of intransitive suffix. 

31. -nt, intransitive, 

orko-ni-n, (orko-ste) \,we) were frightened 

inn-ni-n (yon could not; imagine (me) 

in*u-ni-n (I) awoke 

istu-ni-n (I) dreamt ox (you) 

(wate-na) xamu-ni-n (fire) is dying, (is-going dying) 

(wate-na) lak^e-ni-n s^mux) is rising, (is-going rising) 

eme-ni-n (I was going) to forget (it) 

inxa-ni-n (I) am sick, have become sick, (you) 

are sick 

muk*ie-ni-n (I) am old woman 

semo-ni-n (it wants Uttle time for me) to die 

tursi-ni-n (he) is cold 

^pu-ni-n (I) put my finger in my eye 

suiu-ni-n (suiu-ste) it was finished, consumed, used up 

fisku-ni-n (did this) break f 

xupse-ni-n (my hair) is fixed and prepared 

xasli-ni-n (be ye not) sad 
ad infinitum 


Ma$<m: Mutsun Dialect of Coatanaan 


The nearest approach to a transitive suffix is -np, which seems 
to express action directed toward another person. 
32. -npie), traimiive. 











he defended (me) 

poU me out I 

(I will) break (your feet) 

(we wiU) amuse (70a) 

do not disturb (him) 

(ye have) soiled it 

warm ye met 

(how can I) forget (youf) 

(has he) forgotten (yef ) 

(I) put my finger in (his) eye 

Reflexive relations are very frequent and expressed by the 

33. 'pu, 'p-, reflexive. 











I wiU kiU myself 

she killed herself 

(do you) wash yourself f 

shave oneself 

praise oneself 

(have ye not) combed yourselves f 

hit yourself 

(I) measured myself 

did you frighten yourself f 

(I) am going to eure myself 

In many cases -pu appears to be used idiomatically, the re- 
flexive function being obscure. 













observe, know, see, 




they will teach 
(him never) 




play, entertain 

Reciprocal relations are expressed by the suffix : 

34. -mu, reciprocal, 

zata-mu let us fight 

lix-mu we will kill each other 

keye-mu (do not) trample each other 


play together 1 
lift each other! 

418 UniverHiy of CdHfomia Pubhoatums in Am. ArcK and Bthn. [ VoL 11 

The passive voice is of considerable importance in Mutson 
morphology and seems to be preferred to the active as a method 
of expression whenever possible. It is expressed by the 8u£Sx : 

35. 'kne, ptissive voice. 

mexe-kne (me) (you) will be seen 

mira-kne (me) (you) will be given a gift 

mupa-kne (nep*e) (this) is sucked 

ole-kne (they) are (not) caught 

like-kne (me) (you) will be killed 

lokuk-kne (zin) (the eye) is put out 

lala-kn-is (haka) (he) was thrown down 

ut'U-kne (nep*e) (this) is guarded 

liwa-kn-is (arrow) was hidden 

mat-ere-kn-in (he) was intoxicated 

Probably cognate with this is the su£Sx -ne with which it is 
in cases interchangeable, -ne often denotes a future passive, at 
other times its exact use is not clear. 

36. -ne, future passive. 

nansa-si-ne (when we) try 

meze-si-ne (you) will be seen 

yume-si-ne (you) wiU be cheated 

ziraste-pu-ne will (you) be reprimanded f 

eise-kte-ne-s have (you) ^aved yourself f 

Another su£Sx with a passive force is -stap. This seems to 
refer entirely to completed passive action, and a great number of 
the examples noted have a first person singular subject. 

37. -stap, perfect passive. 

ruta-stap (feathers) recently pulled 

pele-stap (with what) was (this) stuck f 

potsie-stap (I) was cendUred 

katia-stap they gave rations 

iztci-stap (he) was bitten by a snake 

likistap (I) was kiUed 

zise-stap (the fat ones) have been selected 

mutiku-stap (I) have been tickled 

The modal categories are considerably less extensive than 
commonly in American languages but rather better developed 
than in Indo-European. 

The imperative is expressed by suffixes varying for number 
and person of subject and object. Thus : 

1916] Maaon: Mutsun Dialect of Costanoan 419 

Intransitive or 
Imperative Ut pere. obj, 3d pen, obj, 

2d pers. sing. subj. 38. -t,4it 39. -i 

2d pers. plu. subj. 40. -tyuf, -tityut 41. '{i)yut 

zima-t seek me I 

ima-t show me (it) t 

oltemi-tit give me pinole I 

ip*e-i ttim around t 

oio-i seize it I 

zima-i seek him I 

ok< wo-i send them t 

ot-emi-tit-ynt give me pinole t 

sumua-ti-ynt give me wood t 

oto-yut go for atole t 

otciko-yut beqnietl 

laisaisi-ynt sing slowly I 

at*e-ti'yuf give him I 

ara-ti-ynt give him 1 

hutcu-m^ut lift each other 1 

Another suffix with an imperative force is -is. This implies 
going to some other place to accomplish the command and may be 
termed the 

42. -is, missionary imperative. 

monse-is go and tell (them; I 

Bak>a-is go and bring (pinole) t 

taska-is go and walk (in the field) I 

etne-is go and release (it) 1 

oi-is go and get (it) I 

zi'is go for firet 

There appear to be some terminations having the effect of a 
subjunctive. These are : 

43. 'tkuUy subjunctive^ hypothetical, 

ara-tkun (you) should give (him) 

kati-tkun thus should (I dress) 

ko-tkun (you) should tell (me) 

kO'-tkun, kwo*-tkum 

on*o-tkun (he) would have made sport (of you), 

speaking (of you) after death 

oi-tkun (I) would get (it if I wanted it) 

44. -Icanej conditional, 

ole-ti-kane if I could only catch them I 

. toko-kti-kane if the bed is of ... . 

taz-kane when it is asked 

ak-niu-kane when he is thirsty 

420 Univer9iiyofCaHfamiaP%ibUcaiian8inAm.Areh.andBthn. [VoLll 

There may be some relation to the passive particle kne. 
Iterative or frequentative relations are expressed by the suffix 
or infix -s, placed between the stem and the characteristic vowel. 

45. s, iterative. 

ak*a enter aksa many enter 

de-pn go else-pu many go 

epe paia epse many pass 

Bemo(n) die semsoCn) many die 

De la Cnesta pays considerable attention to this suffix in his 
grammar, suggesting that it is frequent with every verbal stem. 
Strangely, very few unquestionable examples of it are found in 
the phrase-book. 

Probably the same morphological element is that found in 
many cases following the characteristic vowel, particularly before 
the reflexive -pu, denoting in that case plural or iterative re- 
flexive. It is also commonly found in words denoting occupations, 
i.e., one who performs an act continually. Compare the nouns 
denoting personal categories in Part II. 

amae-s-pn (do not) amuse yourselves 

roroi-s-pu (do not) disport yourselves like boys 

siole-8-p-is (we) were talking among ourselves 

zewe-s-pu (we) both look together into the mirror 

Other usages are more idiomatic and less evident. 

ritca-is-pu recount, eonverse (ritcapn, play) 

upu-8-pu sell (upU| buy) 

siole-B-pu (they) are solitary and sad 

meze-B-pu (Uke as he) looked 

The mandatory or causative relation is expressed by the 

46. 'Si, ('8e)y mandative. 

zotio-si-nme you have ordered that they make a bag 

mana-si-s (yon) commanded to extinguish it 

a^-si-s (you) commanded (me) to steal 

pina-se-8 did (I) order thisf 

Three relations implying motion are of importance in Mutsun. 
The first, -na, daiotes motion to a distant place or outdoors. 

1916] Mason: Mutsun Dxaleet of Catanoan 421 

19. -na, purposive motion hence. 

lizni-na (he) is going to kill (it) 

ziisi-na (I) am going to catch (them) 

paita-na (let ns) go and catch (them) 

wate-na (lak>e-nin) (snn) is rising; (going-rising) 

wate-na (wetere-nin) (it) is increasing; (going-increasing) 

ereksi-na-ka I am going to bathe 

The second, -su, denotes motion to a nearby place or indoors. 

47. -8U, purposive motion hence. 

nam-isi-sn (I) am going to hear (them) 

ertse-sa (I) am going to sapper 

were-BU (I) am going to catch rabbits nearby 

etste-su (I) am going to sleep 

The third, -inyi, denotes motion hither. 

48. -inyi, (-im), purposive m/>tion hither. 

liw-inyi (I) come to kill (you) 

monse-im (I) come to advise (yon) 

nesep-inyi (we) come to beg permission 

paaip-in3ri (I) come to salute (you) 

warep-inyi (I) come to visit (you) 

A very rare and doubtful sufSx, -knit (misspelled in the gram- 
mar as guit, or toit), has been termed ''prohibitional."* This 
may be the passive kne plus the future adverb et; i.e., "you must 
not be struck." 

49. 'knit, prohibitive. 

tamta-knity xata-knit he must not strike you 

A second very obscure suffix, -ksi, is translated by De la 
Cuesta "perfectly well," perfectamente bien, and is termed by 
Kroeber "excellentive."^ 

50. 'ksi, ezcellentive. 

zeksio-ksi (let me) satisfy (him) 

ruisiu-ksi do not (ye) tremble 

misu-ksi (your hand) trembles 

nipa-ksi (we) are teaching (him) 

rinsi-ksi (they) take the lower (key) 

siaksu-ksi-t (speak) to me softly (in my ear) 

zaune-ksi (would that) someone would bring 


siru-ksi-ste (it) is pulverized 

polso-ksi (what is this) painted f 

8 The Ohumash and Oostanoan Languages, op. oii., p. 253. 

422 Unwersiiy of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Eihn, [ VoL 11 

The verbal sufSx -mt (ef . nominal sufSx -mi) seems to denote 
an indirect personal object or an action done for the benefit of a 
person. It is most frequently found with the imperative and first 
person object, ''do this for me." 

20. -mi, -me, beneficial. 


gave (food) 


gave (clothes to 


strip off bark 


strip bark (for 


advise (me) 


advise (me)! 




recount (me)l 


relate to yon 


pat selvage on 


put selvage on (for 




(you) owe (me), 




suckle, give suck 




chew (for me)! 


Two suflSxes of the greatest frequency are evidently cognate. 
These are -kte and -ste. The former is listed by De la Cuesta 
merely as a preterit tense suffix, the latter, though of frequent 
occurrence, not mentioned at all, though a suffix -miste, probably 
a hortatory, is described. 

Both seem to have the sense of a past participle, and, like the 
latter, are frequently used adjectively. They express completed 
action or achieved condition. Though little diflPerence is discem- 
able between the two, it would appear that -kte is used principally 
for transitive relations, -ste for intransitive ones. They are fre- 
quently translated by the Spanish ya, * * already. ' ' 

51. "kte, ('Xtet)y perfect transitive (participle), adjectival. 






lip*a-kte, lixwa-kte 








(bow) is unstrung 

(it is) torn, impure 

(it) is decorated with beads 

(it) is lifted, hung 

(they) have donned their regalia 

it is hidden 



pug- (nosed) 



big (mouth) 



Moion: MuUvn JHdlect of Costanoan 


52. ste, perfect intransitive {participle) y adjectival. 

(they) have (not) aniyed 

(they) have died 

(they) are seated 

he was displeased (at me) 

(he) has eyes 

(I) am tired already 

(I) am satiated 

it is soiled 

(it) has deeayed 




large (feet) 






siksa-ste, mikna-ste 
sesok-ste, snmn-ste 
nnxn-ste, (nnzn-smin) 
ad infinitum 

The interrogative is expressed by the suffixation of the en- 
clitic '8, se. This may be sofSxed to other words than the verb, 
more commonly to the initial word of the phrase. Thns : 

53. '8, 'Se, interrogative. 

kan-se is this my . . . .f 

kai-s it is painful f 

ekwe-s did not . . . .f 

lalka-na-s did (yon) go for geese f 

men-se did yon . . • .f 

-« regularly follows a vowel, -se a consonant, thus avoiding 
terminal consonantal complexes. 

The negative is formed by the independent particle ekwe. 
epsie is sometimes used with negative imperatives, but the more 
common method in this case is the use of the bare pronoun men. 

Some of the isolated and unexplained suffixes, indicated by 
italics, are: 

sim-mpi, Atxirmpe (sira-ksi-ste) 
man-t«-kte; man-toi-8>te 

(man-M, man-a«) 

grind (salt); (ground) 
it went out; is going out 

(put it out!) 
(eigar) has beeome ash 
(they) have drowned 
(boy) keeps his mouth closed 
(yon said you) went to see (him) 
(he wanted) to find (us) 
(he) can (run) weU 
(I) met (him) 
(I) lost (this) 
split it! 

424 Univenity of CdUfomia Publications in Am.Areh.and Bihn. [VoL 11 




satar-a, satar-e, sa^r-pn 



sam-atpu; anm-ianU 






TAt'XOiii; xai-xaisi 


lop-X^i-nin, lop-ce-fte 

ipi-rtf-i (ip*e-i) 

ina-<i-8; ina-ilc-pa 

we-«oIo-kt6, we^M^kmin, 

we- tan; we-iere-np^i 
matala-mu-i; matala-n^-stap; 

mup-i-pift-i ; mup-tf-i; 


mup'iM-pu-i; mup-t« 
ii'PS'iB; ii-«t-ine 

ak-€ni-iii-n ; ak-niii-kane 


nni-spn, vad-spaie, nndspdk 



itma-ni-t; itma-nii-i 



mi'SU-km; mi-mii-ksi; 

mi-Mii-ksi; roi-mo-np-in; 

nd-nga-i; rfi-ln-np-in 





wink (your eyee) 
narrow, difficult 

very well tied, very itrongly bound 
open the mouth 
dance for met 
(they all) have long hair 
(I), (they all) cut their front hair 
fire is made 

(I will not) cleanse myself 
(you will soon) be known 
satisfy (him)t 

(teach me before I) get angry! 
it is well swept; very clean 
(they will never) teach him 
(wheat) moulded 
turn (this) I (turn around!) 
(I) became sick; (will you not) be- 
come sickf 
large, great 

is great; increase it for me! 

(he is) growing old 

place face downward; (I) was placed; 

(wait for him) to place himself 
(I will not) forget 
give me that which you were given! 
shut his mouth! shut his mouth with 

your hand! (he) keeps his mouth 

shut; shut your mouth! 
(they) laugh at (your speech) 
we become sad (when . . .) 
(I) owed; (I do not) owe (you any- 

(I) am thirsty; (when) one is thirsty 
(I) have no (. . . .) 
(he wished) to agree 
(you) can (not) 
remind (him)! 
lift me! lift him! 
(we have) corrected them 
(I) am tired of journeying 
(your hand) trembles; (do not ye) 

shudder; (who) trembles f he 

moved him; move me! I moved 
(they) flew 
scratch (him)! 
(you) will arise (early) 
(he) slept (little) 


1916] MoBon: Kut9un Dialect of Costanoan 425 


Adjectives display close relations with both verbs and nouns. 
A few of them appear to be definite adjectival stems without 
terminations, a small number seem to be derived from nouns, but 
by far the greater number are akin to verbal stems. As allied to 
nouns they may take the pluralizing suffix and stand as sub- 
stantives, as weyero-maJc, "the big ones." As allied to verbs they 
commonly take the verbal perfect suffixes -kte and -ste and may 
be interpreted either as verbs or as adjectives, e.g., "the cloth 
has been soiled," "the cloth is soiled/' or ^^ soiled cloth." 

In addition to the verbo-adjectival endings -kte and -ste there 
are two others, evidentiy cognate, used solely with adjectives. 
These are -kmin and -smin. The distinction between them is not 
evident, as, for instance, both nuikorkmin and humulu-smin mean 
"black" (sing.) and natka-mdk and natka-ste "black" (plu.). 
Other suffixes likewise seem to be interchangeable under certain 
circumstances, as both orko^i^ and orko-sie mean "he was 
frightened;" urixu-sinvn and unxu-sie both mean "snotty. 
'kmin is probably cognate to -kne and -smin to -^te. 

54. 'kmin, adjectival. 
patka-kmin heavy, deep white 
pelo-kmin bald 
nntka-kmin black 
hihula-kmin something cut, as a pole 
isiwa-kmin newborn 
knti-kmin very smaU 
kipinyi-kmin a winker 
kits«u-kmin twisted 

55. 'Smin, adjectival. 

selpe-smin (are you) intoxicated? 

xop-tie-smin climber 

an*e-smin turtles 

ritca-smin liberal, generous 

waksa-smin miserable, yile 

ritcua-smin wUy, foolish 

rauta-smin with large back of neck and occiput 

samili-smin putrified 

humulu-smin black 

unxu-smin snotty 

pelso-smin large-tongued, garrulous 

paisa-smin runner 

zase-smin brave, fierce 
ad infinititm 

426 UniverHtyofCaiifortMP%ibUeaUaH$inAm.Areh.andBihii. [Vol. 11 

An infix -ti- is occasionally found before adjectival endings. 
It is placed between the simple stem and the characteristic voweL 
Its import is not d^ir but it seems to imply an adjectival- 
agentive sense. 

56. 4%-, adjeciivaJrogentive. 

zop*e climb xop-ti-e-Csmin) dimber 

temla arinate t«al-ti-a-(niiiii) nrinatar 

maze fospeet, maz-ti-e-(8te) one who makes 

miseonstnie wrong judgments 

wllo signal ''yea'' wil-ti-o-(n*in) one who signals 

with the ^^et "yes'' with the 


Another etymological element giving an adjectival signifi- 
cance is: 

57. -«6, -«t, adjectival. 

in-se tear-fol 

yer-ie torn 

polpol-si dotted 


Particles are independent and invariable. They range from 
monosyllabic to polysyllabic, the longer ones being probably o(nn- 
ponnded. For purposes of reference they are divided into loca- 
tive adverbs, temporal adverbs, descriptive adverbs, and inter- 

Two enclitics are met. The first is a conjunctive, -Kika or -hiaf 
''and, also, as well." 

kas-hiha me alio 

The second is an adjectival pronoun, -^, ''alone, only, 

men-tia yon alone 

wak-sia he alone 


Ma$on: Mvtsun Dialed of Casianoan 



The following lists are arranged in the order of the phonetic 
alphabet. First the vowels, a, e, i, o, u, then the semi-vowels w 
and y, the nasals m and n, the liquid I and the trill r, the spirants 
8, X, and h, the surd stops p, t, f, and k, and the affricative tc. 





auni-Bmin, anni-flmin 



bird like a heron 

asurian, atit 








ex, hex 





large hare 


(rattle) snake 





ofol*, ofon 

red ant 






black beetle 



wawisaee, -see, -soes, 




















black duck 




young deer 


little moulting bird (jestingly) 





muniek, mnii^ 

small bird with black feet 

428 Univeriiiy of Calif amia PubUoaiums in Am. AreK and Sihn. [Vol. 11 




blackbird with yellow head 








yearling ealves 






white lonse 




jonng coyote 


young hare 




large geese 




mole like a dormouse 






aitikna, liteiknay 

young squirrd 





bird like sensonte 


large dueks 

zakua, (zaakan) 



small dove 





penie, penik 



young quails 




maggoty inseet 




young rabbit 




black ant 


blackbird with yellow head 

pukwie, pukwi 

young deer, young fallow-deer 




leopard (pumaf) 


a small animal 















torpaea, toniepa 

gray blackbird 


Maaon: Mutsvn Dialect of Co8ia$u)an 



deer, eattle, meat 




blackbird with watery eyes 








bird with large mouth 


black louse 

















tcorena, teoltcolna 





aisaae, inkis-e 





a white tree 




bundle of fire-wood 




a seed 


seedy fruit 




very pink flower 


wild onion 


acorn sheU 


an herb 


an herb 




a small, salty seed 


acorn shell 


an edible herb 


an herb 


an herb 




acorn shell 


• • 

blackberry bramble 






an herb 


an herb 


a thicket 



480 Unwer9Uyof(kMf<>rwiaPvbUeaiian8inAm.Areh.andSihn. [VoLll 


herb with a dark, hard seed 


small pinenut 

sintotok wet«iiiak 

poisonous plant 


filberts, haselnnts 


a white root 


hole in a tree 




fmit of lanrel 

munnay famiia 

stieks of wood 


green tnle 

xireni, (xirenfty zLremi) large pine-nut 


a tree 



zitna, zitia 





shell, chaif of aeom 


larch, a red tree 




wild rice 










plant like tnle 





porpor onien 

tree like white eottonwood 


small fmit 


a dark edible root 


small, white willow 


tree, wood 







reeds, straw 


fmit tree 




sweet herb 





kiriVBmin, kiriVakin 

an herb 




a well-known tree, testicles of hog 



Body Parts 


left hand 






Mason: Muinm Dialect of Costanoan 


iga, i8*a 




iteie, itcik 



back of neck 

otcoy ote 



bullet wound 


bangs, hair on forehead 


mucus from nose 








point of the lips 

wima, wimak 



the red head of the blackbird 




tumor on neck 




spittle, phlegm 











bosom, ureasts 


front teeth 

muktiokrii, (mnxtioxris) 



breath, spirit, soul 




finger- joints 





lopohs, lop-ot8 





molar teeth 



rikex {dliu 

prepuce of penis 

romos, mteu 

pimples, wart 


spine, backbone 




right hand 




blind ^70 


pupil of eye 




heart, mind 






wind broken, flatus 





482 University of CaUfomia PubUoaiions in Am. Areh. and Ethn, [Vol. 11 

soko-rena, sioko-rena 









palm and sole 

tail (of snake) 




birth-mark, sear 






baek, ui^r part of baek 









zutUy znt*a 

belly, abdomen 










scalp sores 

posiy pilin, pat*08, patsa, 




belly, abdomen 




roof of mouth 


crown of head 









tolflo, toolos 



flesh, meat 


syphilitic sores 




throat, neck 



tup^ni^ tupoi 





chest bosom 


Adam's apple 


cheeks, face 








molar teeth 


little finger 

katak, katcak, katak 

nape of the neck, occiput 




M<i8on : MuUun Dialect of Coaianoan 




(kukas), xnkas 

anus, buttocks 






















feminine ornament 


ornament of conch shell 




blotter, eraser 

ene-kmin, enko-kmin 

writing, letter 



real, a piece of money 


dress, clothes 









sacred stick, fetish f 






clock, watch 


table-cloth, napkin 



basket with handle 



nnnpi-msa, an 








whistle, flute 


arrow-point (arrow-shaft) 


ear-ornament of feathers 


small needle 


small basket 


feather ornament 


small basket 


small basket 

yatan, lasan 



load of meat 



mater, master 





arrow-cord, spear-cord 


rabbitskin clothes 

484 Univer$iifof(kMfarniaPwhUoati4ni$iMAw^Areh.atidSi1m. [VoLU 


f eminlBe ornament 


eoane pinole 






arrows, spean 




doubled eord 






bread of aeoma and witmigo 


skirt of tnle or plants 


basket for holding water 


basket with a pTramid in the bottom 



•inpiey dnplm 



bone awl 


large eomb, brosh eomb 


ornament of beads and feathers 




small eloth 


poker, digging-stiek 


opening of poeket 

ornament of eoneh-shell 

xeLamok, xeLemoa 

eloth, rag 

zitea-mit, zitsU, 








beads, feather ornament 






baptismal font 


mnller of metate 


belt, sash 


ball for game 


eomb of straw 



iwunit, pupufe puyut 


tio-Zy tio-t 

spear, arrow withont point 

tiwiz, tiwi 

beads, feather ornament 


basket with a good base 


belt, sash 


small basket for amole 



toko, tok*o 






(ainweiiy ^inwen 

bread of aeoms and w^atngo 


wooden awl 


Mason: Muiawn Dialed of Cosianoan 




kitirox, kitiii0X| kitiixo 

kit'Cas, kiteaa 

kurka, knrea 

teakar, tcawar 





arrow with point 





seat, chair 

stringless bow 


fret, brie-a-brae 

sacred stick, fetish f 

Natural Phenomena 



at<ar, atar 


ak*eBy awes 



isin, isiin 










ynmns isir 



mnrtei, mnrteis, mnrtoeis 





rokie, rokse 




saw, BUB 






north (dedo de oaragon) 


mad| mire 



road, trail 


hole (of animal) 




lamp, clod, white paint 


river, torrent 




cinders, ashes 

dirt on hands 

earth, dirt 

dirt, filth 





rays of snn 

powder, dnst 

open hole, cavity 





shadow, reflection 


conflagration, great fire 

fine dast, atoms 

430 Univenitjf of CaHfomia Fublieaium$ in Am. AreK and Sthn, [YoL 11 


world| atmosphere, weather, etc. 


linty dust 









^ska, tatska 








kar, kat 



spring of water 


red paint 


hole in ground 






hole in ground 


place full of holee 


elody lump of mud 

Words of More Abstract Significance 



e^na puatis 

a game 



eke^, ekes^y ekaesf 


iwe, ik.e 

a method of making fun of a per- 







a method of making fun of a per- 











a method of making fun of a per- 


muifliiiy yenko 



lengthy height 


game of revolving until dizzy 


great height 


child's game 


language, speech 


putrid matter 


a method of making fun of a per- 



sting of an insect 




Mcaan: Mutsun Dialect of Coatanoan 




simky 8ime 






xasi-om, xacd-nn 



• • 








children's game 


something held in the arms 






tiSy tihs 




scent, pleasant odor 


pain, misery, sorrow 


an embrace 




a method of making fun of a per 


krak-at, (xrak-atf) 







bodily evacuations, movements 

Terms of Belationship arid Personal Categories 





a^a, atsia-knis, atcai-nis 

at maku-kmin 
ete, et*e 

inxoksima, yuxoksima 

mak'U, makas 

meres, moeres 
mirte-mak, mitte-mak 




nephew, grandson 



maternal grandfather or uncle 
son (father speaking of son) 
adult men, elderly men 
elderly men 
newly born child 
man (address term) 
bride and groom 

maternal grandmother 
nephew, grandson 
adult men, elderly men 
son (father speaking to son) 

488 UniverHtyofCaUforniaFubUoaUaniinAw^AreKandEihn. [VoLU 


muknioe-aiiiiay mnkienip 
liiii, mnji, siii-kiina 


xan*ay (xau-nan) 




tanrey tauro 
ta, taha 
taka, tak*a 
tanses, (tanses) 



^reiy tearet 























zixon, koxoeni'8 




koteino-knii, -kma 



elderly women 

boy, youth, boys 

ehild, (foetus), baby (mother 

stepchild (mother speaking) 

man, person, cultured person 
mother's grandfather (maternal 

child (mother speaking) 
elder sister 
elder brother 
younger brother or sister, elder 

younger brother or sister 

young man 

daughter (father speaking) 
paternal grandmother 

cook, toaster, roaster 
liar, cheat, bully 

wizards, witches 
angry donor, unwilling giver 
callers, shouters 
cook, roaster, toaster 
kneelers, those on knees 
servant, boys 


Mason: Mutsun Dialect of Cosianoan 



emettea, emetka, hemeftea, 


hemetea, emettca 





the one 

ntxiiiy nsfxin 



• • 



they both 



osity u^t 


parneSy pames 








watSQ, pak.i 


tanat, tansa-kte, matsu 




I (BubjeetiTe) 


I (sabjeetiTe), my (posseedTe) 

kan^ifl, kanii. 

me (objeetiTe) 

kas, (kak), (kaz) 


I (Bubjeetive with future particle) 


I . . . . yon 


you — my 


thou (subjectiTe) 


thou (subjeetiTe), thy (poaeoBBivo) 


thee (objeetiTc) 


thou (Bubjective with future par- 

waka, haka 

he (Bubjective) 

wak, hak 

he ( Bubjective), hie (poBBCBBiTe) 

haks, hakaa 

him (objective) 


we (Bubjective), our (poBBeesive), 
UB (objective) 


our (poBBOBBive), we (subjective) 

mak<e, marke 

we (subjective) (dualf ) 

mak'et, makset 

we (subjective with future par- 

you (subjective), your (poBseBsive)<|fnff 

you (objective) 

aisa, ai 

th^ (subjective), their (posses- 

aisan, aiske 

them (objective) 


it (neuter objective), him (ob- 


440 Ufmeniif of CaHfomia Pmbhoaiians in Am. Arch, and Bthn. [YoL 11 


UBf nop*o 

this (elose) 



nane, nina, aemia, ne 



onta, istar^ nep«er 


this (farther) 

minis, noniaiay nap*! 





whieh, that which (relatiTe) 


this (more distant) 

Adjectival Pronouns 



aimnkte, aixames 

all, exelnsively 


so many 


the other 

ani, an ji 



only, alone 



imin, imio, imi*n 

all (personal) 






mnehy very 

niaty nihia, aoiai nua 

only, no more 


too much 



sioky siokwey siweae 

himself, itself 







ke*8e, kes*e 


Interrogative Pronouns 

an* • • 

anpi, ampi 


at*ekin, at*ekinta 

in«at, inuat 

inxa^i, inxan 

in^, (imtis) 




where f 


whof whomf (singular) 

whof whomf (plural) 


how manyf 

whatf whyf where f 

whatf (do) 

whatf (say) 

whatf (thing), whyf 


Ma$<m: MvUvn Dialect of Coatanoan 



'The stems preceded bj the asterisk are those ocearring onlj once or 
twiee and whieh therefore are more or lees doubtful. 

aiw, ainwe, aiuwe, axuwe, 


aizu, aipu, arxuwe 

*aisa«e, inkis*e 

desire, crave 


withdraw, depart 


awake, awaken 




lose, stop 


be (substantive) 


speak truth 





ameis, amaes 


ami, ami-si 

give, bring, hold, carry, preserve 

amiu(m), amoi 


amne-ni, am*a-ni 

rain, wet 


endanger, injure 




desire to, long to 


be injured 


bend, bulge backward 




keep watch, be vigilant 

•ale, luwi 

break and leave place 

ara, arsa 



quarrel, fight (between women) 


observe, conceal 


increase, grow 


take the road 


part the hair 


flow in (water) 

asinu-n, as«nu 




aski, askin, askun 






*azi, arimi 

give again 


break a tooth 


chase flies with a branch 


break, split 




insult, grumble, quarrel 


cease talking, be silent 


view, watch 

442 University of Calif omia Publioati<m$ in Am. ArcK and Ethn, [YoL 11 






*ake, ak*e 



eorreety put right 

quarrel, fight (boyB) 


steal, cheat 


mend| fix 

crack, split (earth) 

leave, depart 

leave, permit 

look up 

rise, jump, get up 


make, finish 


eies, eis*e 

erne, emse, enen 

emre-n, hemren 



ele, else 

ertse, erfste 

esoni, esosoni 

epe, epse 




wait, detain 

be envious 

write, paint 

stay, remain 

signal with the finger 

raise, lift, arise 

goad, spur, hurry 

praise one's self 


finish, end, complete 

eat supper 




leave, depart 

pass by 

disentangle, extricate, free 


*iweke, inke 

gather plants 




dispute, quarrel 









ina, inxa-n (una) 


ina-n, insa-n 





Mason: Muisun Dialect of Coatanoan 



observe, feel, eonjeetnre, remem 

ber, recall 




speak, talk, say 


seize, grasp 



iluwiy ilpi, ili 

put on sash or cloth 


give meat 


lift skirts 



isento, i8«inte 

walk carefully, watchfully 




be hungry 

isiwa, isiwi 

give birth, be bom 

iriwe, ifluwe 


isi-m, ispan, iicd-me, iipsi 



play at hand game 

*i8iia, isa 

follow, imitate 

isto, isat 


iskani, itskani 


'iske-ni, zitske-ni 









walk in mud 


shout, cry 

ixwi, iuie 

go, walk (many) 


sting, be stung by (snake) 

ipili, ipile 

lie down, lay down 

ipire, ip*e 

turn around 


get the better of one 


cleanse, purify 


lift, raise 

ija, itu 





ite, itu 

spur, incite, urge 






bruise, mangle hand 

itOy it*co 

leave, depart 



spread (acorns in the sun) 

*it60, itn, itsku 


*itcile ' 

be ashamed 


come out 

oio, (oit), oiis 

seize, take, bring 


tie, clasp, bind 


order, instruct 


return a favor, give the thing 


444 University of Calif omia PubUeaUam in Aw^ Arch, and Sthn. [Y oL 11 











oky oke, ok*o 


sit down, seat 


hont deer 

atky inquire 

ean, be able, gain 

become blind 


kill many 




speak, reply also 

scatter manure 

discover, bring out 

mend, fix 

dirtj, render filthj 




have a pain in ike penis 


confess, be exposed 

discharge, dismiss 

de deaf, be quiet 

desire, have desire, covet 



kill someone 



*una, unpina 



quiet, cause to be silent 


desire, covet 


stop, cease 

ule, (uel) 

be sad, cry, be unable 


dig holes 


make sport of, anger, feel, cause 





have, carry 

*ur8e, use 

learn (language) 


have hang-nails on the fingers 


smell, have an odor 

usete, useti, usute 

conceive (child) 




go out (fire) 


give seeds 


surpass, conquer 


be sad 


Mason: MuUun Didleet of Cottanotm 


uspu, ngapn 





enre hj removing stiek (meking 

by shamanf) 


mend, fix, repair 

uze^ uzue, (nzwe) 

gnard; bring the object guarded 




desire, eraye, eovet 




eoveir one's self (clothes) 


pay, bny, sell 

*apziy npxiti 

sip, drink a Uttie 


bargain, trade, buy, crave, desire, 



crave, covet 


goard, place, sow (seed) 


make a grimace 


double, fold 


gnard, protect (child) 


bring water 


wish to fall, walk aronnd (di£zi- 


nk'iai, nk^esi, uk«08iy nknesi 

drink water 





nteu, utn, huteu 

carry someone, raise, lift 




wal*a-n, wolo-n 

wara, warsa 

warak, warka 


warse, warsi 

warta, wanta 
•washski, (wackif) 

waxa, waktci, wak, waxu 


>, err 
satiate, cloy 
wound one's self 
follow in file 
be envious 

weep, cry 
visit, salute 

follow, perform 
hide behind 
cut and dry meat 
beg a great deal 
hate, abandon 
pulverize (with the teeth) 
scratch, scrape 
be thirsty 
do an act slowly 
seize, bring, take atole 
come, go 

446 Univer9Ufof(kMf4>rmaPvblioati(}n$inAm.AreKandEihn, [VoL 11 


laek, fail, be wanting 

^waterei, wetare 

augment, make great 


open the stomach and entrails 


drown at ehildbirth 

wakna, waka-ni 



cover the head 


kindle, light 


shield, cover 


take out the belly 


commence, begin 


light, enlighten 




affirm with the eyes 


slope backwards above 

wilkwo, wdiko 

swell np (tale) 


blow npon, cure 


illumine with a brand 


display, show, teach 


scratch (birds) 


dress a person 


spill, scatter 


uncover, disclose 


flash lightning 


split feathers for arrows 

wizi, winiy oxi-ni 

fish, turn about, cure 


dispute, question 




bow, stoop, jump 


fall, be thrown 


break a fingernail 

wik*e, wiwe 

tremble, shake 


choke (with pinole) 





•yatan, lasun 


•yeikmi, yere-ni 

catch (moles) 


have pain in the stomach from 

not take 
give anything 
be full (net) 
follow, accompany 
be urged, impelled 
remain, continue, be suspended 
divide love (f) 


Mason: Mutiun Dialect of Costanoan 



*yim-, yumile 

jono, yons 
•yoso, yusu 



ynme, yftme 


grow old, become torn 

happen, succeed 

turn seat around 

commence^ enter (season) 

pick, prick 

grind in metate 

cut hair 

chase, pursue 

pile up 

loosen, slacken, ease 

have carnal intercourse inter se 

make, manufacture 


make sport of one 

make ash, become ashes 

remain, stay 

bathe, swim 

deceive, cheat 

kill by hand 

hope to 

break the bottom off 

run, fall, flow (tears) 



*mai-a, mai-z 


mala, male 

maxi, mawi 


matal-, matulani 

matmu, matnui 

makai, maki 


mene, (mane) 
*menomi, monomi 
*meno-ni, menso 


laugh, smile 

view, behold 

quench, put out 

soak, wet 

cover the genitals 

come down for the night 

look down, view beneath 

make sport of one with the eyes 



be blind, unable to see 

put hand over or in mouth 

place face downward 

stink, have bad odor 

be indistinct 

cover, place in order to clean 

get married 

go to eat 


sink to the bottom of the water 

drown in the water 

be ignorant of, not understand 

move from the house 

448 Umver9ityofCaUfarniaF%bUeaii4m$inAwi.Aroh,andBthn. [YoLU 

mexe, maxe 


*miwe, miwik, mixu 






mit^eiy mit^oi, mint^ni 
^moitee, moi^ 
mome-n, (monie-n) 

morke (morwe) 
mohOy molio 

mama, mapu (mnpa) 

manse, monsa 


^moxakiy ixikan 

look, tee 

hide (in the grmss) 
strike f 

spread on the groond (bread) 
rob one withoat appr^enaion 
give presents, regale 
fix the head like newborn chil- 
warm oneself 

plaek the skin on the hand, graze 
brood in nest 
fall (bread) 

test with the point of the finger 
sharpen, temper, blont (arrow) 
ran in a erowd 
gather, eolleet, eome together 
be late, delay 

plaee something faee downward 
enmesh, entangle 

relate, reeoont 
beg and aceamalate (grain) 
make sport of one by shoating 
sabmerge, sink 
dance above (women) 
make a reverence 
appear, grow (hair) 
be bom, leave 
love, desire, covet 
swallow withoat chewing 

join, combine, meet (roads) 
soil, dirty 

camp, prepare for night 
ache in molar teeth 
heat, warm 
like, covet 
tickle in the nose 
rab, palverize in the hands 
saspect, misconstrae 
be hot (weather) 
finish grinding pinole 
close the month 
tickle in the hands and feet 
eat pinole 
hawk, coagh 
eat breakfast 


Mason: MuUun Dialed of Co$tanoan 




go gathering, get 

nam, nanm 

hear, listen to, understand 

^nane, nene 

count, pass in list, miss 

nansa (nansa, namxna) 

experiment, test 


know, reeognize 


fall, break (fire, brand) 


blaeken, cause to become black 


be quiet, gentle 


ask permission 


cease doing, quit 


strike, beat, kill 






guard, hide 


lie, deny the truth 


slap face^ box ear 




desire to, wish to 




increase (pain) 


pant, breathe heavily 






lak*e, lawe 


laku-n, lauku-n, lusku-n 

letsen, lessen, lelsem 

liwa, lixwa 

liwi, (lik(.)i, Uewi, Hkni, 

lixin, lix, uwi) 


lisko-n, lisa-n 

sing rapidly 

fell, throw 

fan, winnow 

lose, miss the road, wander 

depart for another place 

signal with the tongue 

rise, climb (sun) 


gulp, eat without chewing 

change from one to another 

trip, fall, roll and lose something 

remain in one place 

turn the eyes too much 

stink, have a bad odor 

like, enjoy, please 

hide in the grass 

beat, cudgel, kill 

steal, run, return and not catch 

amuse, entertain 

slip, slide, scrape, graze 

450 UniverHty of Calif omia FublicatioM in Am. ArcK and Ethn, [ VoL 11 


*lopx6, lopkti 

lok(oi)8, lokflio, lokosi 

Inxu-n, laz*u-n 

hide in any plaee 

plaster, daub, smear, gloss 

loath, nauseate, repudiate 

cause to speak, break a speech 

be content, appeased, cease anger 

pass between 

become mouldj (wheat) 

lie, make a mistake 

put out (eye) 

fall from weight 

play the flute 

stick in mud or clay, be stuck in 

wallow (in sin) 

hang (like a swing) 

soften the hair 

get wet) soaked 







•re^e, rekte 





♦ripu, rotciwewi 




roroi-s, (roro-s) 



•rotuk, rotko 

rotcio, rotcue, rotciwe 

ruisu, rulsiu, ruisin, ruima, 
rfiki, ruinxa 



have pain in the neck 

increase, crackle 

be swelled up with plants 

go from one place to another 

interrupt, confuse 

gather, collect 

hang in a hidden place 

change oneself, move 

transform, change 

put selyage on cloth 

serve, do 

hit with the flst 

release, disentangle, cleanse, purify 


open with a knife 

cry, shout 

make dried meat 

speak, talk, converse, recount, 

play, entertain 
play, entertain, divert, amuse 
be (substantive) 

untangle, untie knot, knot, tie knot 
put in the embers 
enmesh, entangle, free, disentangle 
move, stir, tremble, shake 


spit, expectorate 

hide in the rear 


Mas<m: Muisun Dialect of Cottanoan 







speak about a person, or thing, re- 
fer to 
cat, gather (wheat, feathers, etc.) 
conceive (child) 
signal " no " with the head 
surround by water, isolate 




*samai, samia 




8atar(a), sia^r(a) 





semo-n, semso-n, (semxo-n) 

sele, sehele 





sepe (spepe) 

siaxu, siaksu 


*siurire, similile 


shout, cry 

lie face upward 

cut the forelock 

approach, draw near 

get a cinder in the eye 

hang, place in a cleft or fissure 

split, fall apart 

pray in one's room 

administer extreme unction 

patch, disappear from view 

discover, find (land) 

make sport of one by naming him 

open the mouth 


bring a little 

stick in the uvula 

bring coals, embers 

lengthen, expand 


look backward 

intoxicate with tobacco or liquor, 

be crazy 
walk in file 

swell with pride, become haughty 
cut hair 
satiate, cloy 
split a flute 
speak softly 
hit (in stones) 

talk, converse among selves, be sad 
tie hair in a tuft 
become hoarse, unable to speak 
have a ringing in the ears 
be blinded by the sun 
hunt moles 

452 Ufmeriity of Cdiiforma TubHeaiumt in Am. AreK and Ethn, [Vol. 11 

dwe-n, gik.6-n 

break wind 

•riwi-ni, iixi-ni 

disappear (smoke, tkirst) 


foffoeate with heat, bom 


become bald 




aet like a bojr, otaoer 

*giiiteii, 8ait«a 

toast, cook in earth-oyen 

Binkam, sinkam 

tickle in the body 


lift skirt, pnll shirt-tail 


grind salt 

*8izii-niy suza-ni 

msh, gosh 


have feet asleep 


cramble, chip, make small 


spread (fire) 

siksa, sikila, (tika) 

soil, dirtj 


cry with pain or weeping 


enmesh, entangle 


flow, gosh 


disappear, dim, recede, yanish, 



extend the feet 


darken, become night 


get a drop of water in the eye 

^taman, lumula 

become soiled, dirty 


sleep from satiety 

•umixi-niy sanii-iiy B>iimia 

be content 



■u-iiy fwi-ni 



drop or cinder fall in the eye 


die out, go out, extinguish (fire) 


heat, warm oneself 


be afraid, fearful 


act foolishly, play the fool 


dream of one 


tie, bind 


break, crack 


pinch the mouth 

^•atkiy mit*e 

stretch the ears 


go to meet 


smoke (tobacco) 

Bukei, snkis 

think, watch, observe, disapprove 

swi'iiy 8wi-n 

consume, use up, finish, die 


singe the hair 

swize, ftinze 

skin, take oif hide 



*8teekele (eekelef) 

set, place 


Mas<m: MuUvn Dialed of Cosianoan 


xaiskn, xaskn, (xaise-n) 

tickle, itch 


draw, fetch water 




put on a veil 


enclose, lock in 


still, quiet, be quiet 


die out, go out (fire) 

za-mpin, za-npa 

eat again 


desire, crave, covet 


strike sparks 


lie, make a mistake 




kindle, Ught (flint and steel) 


stretch, eztend 


begin, commence 


befall ill, happen badly 


disappear, fade away, become in- 



lack a bit, a little missing 


desire to, want to 

zase-n^ zasese-n 

become angry 




be ashamed, shame 

zasli-n (zarli) 

fear, be afraid 

zastitinme, zatirinine 

enter wind and cold 


cleanse, withdraw dirt 




gather, assemble (fleas) 


cleanse, purify 


go to the other side 





grumble, complain 


be flatulent, full of wind 


go for mussels 

zatei-n, zatsi-n, zati-n 

die of hunger, thirst, laughing, etc. 

^zeiwele, zeizeie 

earthquake, tremble (earth) 

zew6y zewi 

cast shadow, reflect 


set (sun) 


strip oif bark 



zeksio, (zeisio) 




zii, wi, zihi, ziizi, ziin 

go for fire, light fire 


arrive, bring 


take oif rope around neck 


seek, search 


roll the head 

zine, (zinkone) 

go, walk 

454 Univertity of Calif anUa PubUcaUons in Am. AroK and Ethn. [ VoL 11 


be wounded, have wounds 

ziraSy ziraf 

teoldy qnarrely lift the voice 


make dried meat 

a • • • 


lessen, be eeasing (rain, wind) 


select, choose, elect 

zisie, (xitsik) 



have pain in teeth 


disdain, reject 




rub together 

xiti, xitni, (xite) 

cleanse oneself 


catch the hand in the door 



make dried meat 


spar, prick, goad, stick 

*xite pet*o 

stop (wind) 

xitia, (xita) 




become indebted 

xito, (xifa, xikto) 

stretch, crawl 


throw, put, carrj outside 


be contented 

xiksiy xiwiSi xikoi 

tie, bind 


make cotton cloth 

xoin-we, xoixu-we, xoaxn 



shout hoi hoi 


skin, take oif hide 


evolver al aroo 

^xonkote, xonxote 

bundle, collect in a bundle 

^xolome, xauni 

ignore, not invite 


gulp, swallow 


climb, mount 


give water, give drink 

•xot'Oro, xot'Ori 

put hand in vagina 


set (sun) 


make a hole (water) 

*xuma, (xutna) 

grind (mortar or metate) 


give anything 


finish life, approach death 



kindle, Ught fire 


place inside 



play game 


remove dust, powder 

*xut8ki, xufoki 

seize, withdraw, remove 


change (song) 


carry on shoulder 



lift with one hand 

hio8*e,-hin8e| wise, ihuse-n 

wish, desire, want 


throw, cast 


Mason: Mutsun Dialect of Cosianoan 



be defiant 


join, impinge, strike 


wash oneself 

homiii, (oxniri, tumiri) 


homa-n, huniRa-ii, 


(umsu-n, nnsu-n) 


mix, stir 



hunt (geese) 


be pregnant 




slap, hit with the palm 


toast, eook 


gleam, appear light 




saw a pine 


visit, salute 


secure fire with flint and steel 

paxaf y paxtca 

know, recognize 


bet, wager 


have^ hold in hand 


release, loose 

*pat8xi]i| patski 

strike sparks 


seek, call, crack mussels 






obtain fire, make fire 


start (tears) 


give hand, shake hands 


shine, lighten (fire) 


fall dew, sprinkle 

pele, pelke 

stick, join together, loosen, sep- 


pelte, pete 

shut eyes 


remember, think 


espigar ea$teUanamenie ^ 


guard fried fish 


escape, flee, fly, go 


keep mouth closed 


keep feet together 


knock with fingers 


cleanse teeth 


have pain (neck) 

*pilpiil*e, palpul'e, tiiltal*e 

beat, palpitate (heart, pulse) 


inhume, bury 


scratch (birds) 


grind, pulverize 

piziy pize 

split, open 

450 Univertity of California Publieations in Am. Arch, and Ethn, [Vol. 11 

*pitila, pista 

pitipuy pitui-ni 

pite, pitae, pitui 


*poiBtco-ni, poiteo-ni 


posio, pasio 
*p08ol<o ats 







pu^, p^t^y putci-ri 

*put8iule, potsinle 

burst pas 
pineh, squeeze 

cleanse intestines of exerement 
flow, gush (tears) 
frighten, fri^ten away 
tie, bind, unloose, untie 
signal "no" with eyes 
shake, eleanse the hair 
break wind without knowledge 
frighten, scare 
sunt sodomicici 
paint, draw 

cut, singe hair with brand 
check, suspend, equal 
intend to dispute 
be drunk, intoxicated 
get the hives 

pull out down, fine hair, pluck 
swell, puff up 
gamble, censure 
catch (birds) 
view with close attention 
break off bottom 
quake, tremble, earthquake 
satiate, fill, cloy 
twist like a whirlwind 
recover, feed, give to eat 
cover and guard 
involve, wrap, gather 
return and go from place to place 
bring acorns, etc. 
pull hair 

make the sound **put, put" 
bum brightly, make no smoke 


*tamin, tan* 


*tanu, tanyu, tan* 

hold in arms 

go quietly 

double, fold 

warm oneself in the sun, take the 

have earache 
strike, beat 
lift skirts 
embrace, lift in arms 


Ma$<m: JfnUmi Dialect of Costanoan 



make blisters on hands 


extend the palms of the hands 


spring, jump 


wateh, dance 


display palm9 of hands 


follow, go after 


ask, question 


turn the tables, pay back in own 








extend hand 






choke, strangle 

teme-n, temo, temso 

sleep by firey warm oneself by fire 

tenpe, tempe 

dry up (water, river) 


cut hair 


smart, pucker (pepper) 

tie, tik 

grumble, complain 


shoot arrow 


flower, be in flower 


have headache 


trip, stumble 


jump, spring, lei^ 


don regalia 




cut, break 


cure the itch 


slice meat, make dried meat 


slip, slide, fall 

tipe, tiptipe 

wander, walk about 


cut hair 


rattle, make a noise (bone) 


cut hand 


coyer with shoulder 



fray, unweaye 


lie on one side 


extend hand 





harden, strengthen 


remain rigid, frozen 

tone, tonse 

lose, find 


break knees 


bring amole 


be constipated 


extend fingers and do top, top 


err, mistake, lie 


put in salt, salinify 

458 Unwer$itffofCaUformaF%bKeaU&n$inAm.Areh.andEtkn. [VoLll 


tokso, (tokse) 

'taiflOy tniu-nure 
•tume-n, tame-mels 

tiiii*e, (tank) 

tanate, (tanate) 

tule, (talk) 




pat on shawl 

ramble, make great noise, snore 

mak» wooden bridge 

tremble (hand, belly) 

make food 

finish, complete, end 

eoneeive (child) 

knock at door, call 

cover one (for the night) 

give rap, fillip 

be cold, chilly 

watch a dance 

await, expect 

finish, complete, end 

coyer one, pat on hat 


string a bow 

lift earth, (encorrar) 










*ti8«ektene, tcirsextene 






smile, chnckle, half laagh 

be hot (weather), pat in snn 

clear, clarify (sky, weather) 

possess mach, own much 

cease pain 

speak between teeth 

sit down, sink 

blaze, heat, be afire 

bum much 

go in file, follow 

pash, jostle, squeeze, hold 

tip-tooy walk on toes 


put in bag, pocket 

tighten, constrain 


listen to attentively, hear 

cover with ashes 

split, break, smash 

hide in sand, be hidden 

thresh grain 

make thongs, straps for the capote 

cat, shorten, clip, abbreviate 


chew, masticate 

be seated 

seek a dead animal 

wither, become ury (seeds) 


Mctaan: Mutsvn Dtalect of Costanoan 




pass, go by (water) 


dry up (water, riyer) 


strike in the eye 

toma-s, (tumas, tnmsa-ii) 

like, enjoy, please 

tnnkn, (tannk) 

signal "no" with nostrils, con 

stricting them 



make a hole 



*tar8n, tatsu 

walk continually, never stop 


put finger in eye 



beg, ask 

kai, (kayl, kaizi) 

smart, be strong, bitter, bite 



tighten, constrain 


advise, notify 


do, make 

kama(i), kamexe 

look, watch, see, behold 


lend (wife) 

*kamutce, xamutce 

lack a bit, be missing a piece 


go to the quarrel, fight 


dry up 






be fortunate, happen well 


grind, rub in the palms 


give tobacco 


kindle fire with small sticks 


.bargain, trade, barter 




louse, expel lice 




cross the arms, hands 


carry a large bundle under the arm 


give (clothes, food) 


kiU with teeth (lice) 


dry up (water) 

*katca, katcue 

be full of crickets, insects; expel 





gather, collect, come together 

kewe, keinwe 

obstruct, intercept 

*kelete, kelte 

frown upon, watch with disap- 


*kelok(mo), kelox(mo) 

play by pinching 


put in proper place 


argue, dispute, contradict 


shine, glare, glitter 

460 UnwerHtyofCdUfomiaFia)UcaU(m$i>nAm.Areh,andEthn. [VoLll 

*kiriwire, kiripire 


*kitea, kitena 

ko, ko.y kwo.y kwa, kna 

*kwie, knie 

kunile (kapile) 


kii^(8)y kii^(r), kntcnra, 


k2uk(*)«9 xrak(*)6 


have pain in throat 


inflate, swell cheeks 

hide in hollow of a tree 

make Are with two stieks 

elose, lock with key; open, onloek 

tire, become tired 

mmble, grumble (intestines) 


smoke (Are) 


meet, encounter, see 

hide among rocks 

double, bind, tie 

tolerate, suffer, endure 
name, call 



tcaora, tcausara, (tcaura) 


tcala, (tcalsa, tcasali) 
*tcahel-e, tcehd'C 


*tcaka, tcaksa 
*tcak.i, tcaxki 
*tcimun, tcaimun 

*tcikri-n, tcixri-n 



tcokse, tcos«o 

tcunu, tcuni, (unu; (tcun*), 



be seated, be (positional substan- 

stink, smell bad 
walk with shoulders raised 

take the higher part (song) 
prick, stick, pinch 
bring, arrive 
leave, depart 
hate, desert 
go ahead 

treat ill, hinder, impede 
bump the head 
ring bell 
cry, shout 
reside, live 

prick, punch the eyes 
water moves in intestines 
moisten, dampen 
sadden, become sad 
be in file or line 
have pain (in mouth or ear) 
wrap, extend, shorten, double, 

lift, fold, unfold 
jump, spring, leap 


Mason: Muisun Dialect of Coatanoan 



strangle, ehoke by squeezing neek 




defecate, void excrement 



saltjy saline 



sweet-toothed, gluttonous 


high, tall 


nude, naked 








distinct, different 

apsie, apeik 



so great 




silly, filthy 




soft (ground) 

elepisi elewia 

straight, in file 


very soft, gentle, easy 


lewd, unchaste 


leafless, bare 


ill, sick 



irk-ti-o, irx-ti-o 




i^8, itsa 



smaU, Uttle 


obedient, faithful 


light, without weight 


soft, easy 


filthy, vile 


snotty, filthy 


thin, rare 



Qsulay (nsona) 

deep-set (eyes) 




fuU-Upped, thick-Upped 


difficult, narrow, small (road) 

wa8.ay waska, waksa 

streaked, soiled 



we-8olOy we-jero, we-saro 

large, great 


large, great 


lean, gaunt, thin 





witeuktely witeuztel, witg'U 

narrow, small 

462 UniverHty of California Pubhcaiiom in ^m. Arch, and Bthn. [Vol. 11 




deep-set (eyes) 


unequal, different 

yatcomas, jatceme 

torn, full of holes 


torn, old, broken 

joltOy yo(»a 





fat, pot-bellied 

mam<oza, mam'Oka, 

foolish, stupid, silly 



catarrhal, expectorant 




matini, matil*i 

large, great 



mez-ely maz-ele 




cloudy, clouded 


narrow, difficult (road) 

min-miiii min-mpin. 

pretty, nice, pleasant, beautiful^ 




curved, crooked, bent 


slow, late, tardy 

muretUy mortciiy murtiiy 

dark, black, like night 










dark, black 


short, bob-tailed 




lying, untruthful 


short in time, quick 

nuxurikonin, nuxurixonin 






long in time, tall, high, long 


eyen, smooth, plain 



long, large-tongued 

lakte, lazte 




long, tenuous, stringy (phlegm) 

Le-ti-p, l.e-t.i-0, loito, 

soft, easy, loose, not hard 


lisuy liisa 

toothless, gums 


empty, clear 


wet (hair) 


firmly resolute 




equal, straight, untwisted 

latcomay laspi, Lnapi, 

wet hair 

l.utspi, Intspi 

lutcti * 

big-bellied, hairless 


Mason: MuUun Dialect of Cottanoan 



with big oeeipot, back of head 



thin, lean 




liberal, frank, generous, bene- 



silly, foolish, stupid 



protruding (eyes) 





rotciteoy ritera, roteiko 



open, uneovered, ezeavated 



sanre, (sauri) 

fat, greasy 




sweet, odoriferous 





clear, rare> thin 


woolly, fleecy, hairy 



sitLu, flit«ia 

smaD, young 


lewd, unchaste 

Botolo, sokolo, sotiteo 

big-lipped, large-mouthed 




like a bladder, blister 





xas, xase 

brave, flerce 


brunet, dark-skinned 

zat-xatsiy zat-xasti 

clean, well-swept 







content, satisfled 


leafless, sharp-pointed, keen 



tired, worn-out 

zitBUy (ritiia 

insipid, tasteless 

zontee, zonzontee 

empty, void (mussels), melan- 

choly, crestfallen 

zo8-ti-Oy zoiskore 

light, with little weight 


foolish, siUy 

zo-ti-Oy zoie 

loose, hanging 

zotpe, zot«iko 

bare, without fruit 


with deep-set eyes and bushy 



scabby, itchy 

hitnktei, hitnztei 

mized, intricate 




tardy, late 





464 UnwersiiyofCaUfi>rnMP%blicationiinAwi.AreKamdEthn. [Vol. 11 


delicate, flne, ligkt 




good at nmning 




pinky flesh-eolor, red, cream 

pel.amoy pekiek, pelek 


pelo (Sp.t) 

bald, kairloM 




soft (bread) 




paintedi colored 


pinto, spotted, full of points, 



trained (maker of onasnal things) 




prominent, bulging, protruding 



smokeless (fire) 


Ught, Uttle weight 


quick, active 

pnnta, po^ 

big-bellied, with much intestines 





pa(.Uy polfay polfo 

extremely protruding, bulging 



anxious, desirous 


partly painted, colored 


hard, tough 


drunken, reeling 


in file, in a line, straight 







tini, tirtd 

clear, limpid, pure 



tixima, tilfo 

high-browed, with a large fore- 




titira, Utini 

twisted, rounded 


shivering with eold 


ashy, ash-colored 


silly, foolish, lying, untruthful 




smooth, straight, even 



humpbacked, crooked, bent, curved 






\aBkvLf ^sas 

pink, flesh-colored, red 


Mason: Mutiun Dialeet of Coatanoan 



dear, limpid, pure 


rick, well supplied with garments 


heavy with fruit (trees) 


clear, thin, full of holes 



pink below 



with loose dothee 




good at running, swift 









narrow, difficult, small 


strong, pungent 







pot-bellied, fat 



with prominent teeth 

kakza, kaz«a 





opaque-eyed, blind 


twisted (tree) 




ready, prepared 

kirsi, kit8.i 


kipi, kipiri 

twisted, not straight, (feet, road) 

kipurorOy kiwuroro 

twisted, streaked 


• • 

creaking, grating 


one-eyed, squint-eyed 


thin, gaunt, lean 

kninn, kwinn 

narrow (road) 







very well tied, bound 


urinous, fond of urinating 




clear (sky) 


quiet, restrained 

teakulfliy tenki 

downcast, head downward 

teese, tcixu 

blue (eyed) 


torn open, ripped 


yeUow moro 


provoked, angry, in bad humor 


cowering, squat 

teoxifliy teopsoxsiy tcopBoksi 


teozorore, tcokere 

full of holes 


open, uncovered 


adorned, decorated 


white, flesh-colored 

tentsQy tentu 


466 UnwerHiyofCMfornwPfa>heation8inAm.Aroh.andSthn. [VoLU 



an*it, anit, an*i, an*epey 

anta, an 

intis, info 

itian, it^ajate 

UBiun, nsionte 
winimoi (wirimni) 
naxana, nozana, nnzn 
ne, niy nia, nitnn, niatnn, 

nn, nna 

ramai (resmai) 

sanae, taaanae 
tina (pina), tina-tnm, 

tina-tnn, titnn 
tipilikt«, tipilUe^ tikilakte 


where t 

diftanty far 

apart, another place 

far down, very distant, indiatinet 

out of sight 



there, distant 


in the middle 

farther on, farther 

below, nnder 

there (farther) 

here, hither 

there (nearer) 






end, edge 

before, preceding 


there, behind 

right here, close, hence 

roond abont 
on one side 

Temporal Adverbs 


yet, still 


a Uttle time, Uttle while 

ar, am 

already (past time) 

arata, (araa) 


artiskan, atsknn 


at, ara 

shortly, soon (near fntore or re- 

cent past) 


still, yet, althoogh 

et, ete, yete, (yote, ikte, 

soon (indefinite fatare) 


imi, ima* 

always, all the time, inaat 



Mason: MuUun Didleet of Coatanoan 


inya, inyaha, (yu'aha) 

shortly, at onee, (immediate fu- 


a little while, a short time 


after some time 


at last, today 


early in the morning 

itsia, it'ia, ipoA, itian, 

afterward, soon, shortly 

itaomtnm, i(*aiate 

osioiy oiflio 

again, another time 

ume, uni 

when, whenever 


yet, still, as yet 


past time 




ever, at any time 


shortly, soon, in a short time 

maran, marknm, markutkus 

fature time 


at once 

mes, met 

fature time 




yet, still, although 

xapuhuy xaputea 


hokse, hoke 

a long time ago, formerly 

hnyakse, wiyakse 

this afternoon 


then, therefore, in that ease 

tabaxy taba 

today, day 

kane, kaneme 

before, earlier than 

ketciwesi, (koteiwesi, 

soon, at once, ready 


koteop, (koph) 

when, whenever 


in the olden- times, once upon a 


kntis, kuti 

presently, very soon, a little while 


now, at once 


always, eontinually 

Descriptive and Miscellaneous Adverbs 

aereis, eraeis 




amun, amu, amn 



a^, ati 

ewe, ene 

ewoye, eye, etmoye 



so, thus, truly 

so many 

in truth, truly 

uninvited (t) 

in order that, concerning, because 

truly, certainly 

good, truly 

without, no 

and, but 

(past desiderative) 

but (apposition) 

just as if 

468 Univer$ity of California Publications in Am, Arch, and Eikn. [VoL 11 

esiensan, eaienem 

(indirect diseoorse) 

6X6, zeh6y he, M, hi, hexe, 



epaeis, aoepMis 

perehanee, perhaps 

6p8i6, epsik 

nol do nott 


no, not 

imatknn, imsten. 

if (contrary to fact condition) 

iaap, iflu 

tmly, certainly 

ipten, ntix 


orteo, jenko 



why, because 


without more ado, heedlessly 


feet to head and head to feet 






also, as well 


more, much more 

yuta .... ynta 

either .... or 




tell me I (interrogative) 


(among themt) 

nan, nami, nani 

perhaps, maybe 

na at*ia 

yes, of course 

nohiln, nitshim 



Uke, as if 





stepping high 







low (voice) 





hai, hahi, ain, aia, hia, hiha 

and, also (enclitic) 

pinl, pinyl, (pinya) 

perhaps, perchance 


(interrogative, final position) 


would that I (past optative) 




with this, no more 

kati, kata, katam 

like, resembling, just as if 

kna, koai, kaaw6 



high (voice) 


ain*, ainn, aoin*, anin 

give me it I bring me it I 

atena rantik 

shout at middle of dance 


shout at gambling game 


wait a momenti 

it'ie, iui6 

come on I let's go I 


Mason: MuUun Dialed of Coatanoan 





yela, yelamini 


ynpe, yu 


nami, nani 

















teit, teitdL 

wait a moment I 

nmt gol 

would that I (vehement desire) 

wait a moment I 

come on I let's gol 

mnl gol 

npon mj life! 

let's seel well seel 

get out! 

shont at gambling game 

shout at beginning of dance 

shout at gambling game 

shout at gambling game 

shout at gambling game 

look I 

shout at end of dance 

shout at gambling game 

shout of gambling game 

shout of gambling game 


shout of gambling game 

listen I look I 

who knows I 

shout at gambling game 

shout at gambling game 

470 University of California PubUcatumi in Am. AreK and Eihn. [VoL 11 


At Pleasanton, Califomia, live a small number of Indians, 
members of various central Califomian groups, gathered here by 
reason of community of interest. They speak Spanish and Plains 
Miwok among themselves. A visit was paid them for a few hours 
in January, 1916, for the principal purpose of securing terms of 
relationship and notes on social organization. One of the two 
informants visited proved to be an elderly woman from San 
Lorenzo and from her a vocabulary of a himdred odd words was 
secured. A comparison of this with De la Cuesta's Mutsun shows 
actual identity in many cases. The practical identity of so many 
words proves first, the phonetic simplicity of the language, the 
care with which it was recorded and the value of the Spanish 
language as a medium for the recording of such aboriginal speech ; 
second, the slight change which has taken place in this unliterary 
language in the past century, and third, the correctness of the 
recent transcription from Spanish to phonetic orthography. As 
regards the latter point, the correctness of the transcription of 
gm and gn to km and kn is demonstrated, while that ot gs to xs 
in accordance with tigsin, tixsin is discounted by the record of 
tugsiis as tuksus. No data were secured to elucidate the problem 
of gt and other g combinations. 

The glossary secured follows here for purposes of comparison : 

oril bear hnn wolf 

oto'imhi snake pirdwii rattlesnake 

ma'i'yan coyote TOukuti' dog 








live oak 











nrix, uri 












motel, mo*tel 










Tomii, tomfi 

leg, loins 


back of neck 







si.T, sit 





Mason: Mutsun Dialed of Costanoan 







bow and arrow 






daughter, child 




small child 


paternal aunt 


white people 








old man 


uncle or aunt 


paternal grand- 





chief, shaman 


elder brother 








younger sister 




elder sister 


wife of chief 


younger brother 





old woman 




young man 






morning star 








''sea, arroyo 












live coal 






shaman's dance 






hill near town 




it is cloudy 

makiS a^m^e 

it is raining 

yuwa'kne mak'damne 

it ceased raining 


it is hot 


it is cold 

lofikdwiS, lofiki/ii 

it is white 


it is black 


it is red 


it is large 


it is small 


give me I 

mand r5ti 

where is it? 


shouting of shaman at dance 



he died 

ka'*nak hu'tusin 

I am going to die 

me'iiem hU'tusi" 

you will die 

wa*ka hU'tuBin 

he will die 

maki.n makhu'tUBin 

we will die 

makam kamhu'tusin 

you (plu.) will die 


they will die 


I have died 

472 Un%verHiyofCiaiforniaPubUcaU4mtinAm.Areh.andBthn. [YoLU 

c/tinii ni'm i' 
ka'*na ekni'mi oril 
me«iiek* snimi 
ma'kam kimi'mi 
wa'*kamaK makisni'mi'siiii 

Ka'.na* ty.'he 

ka*na ektea^u^ra 

n6*ea tea«u^ra 

Ka'iia Ka'yin 

pf*ii ka'in 




KanaK u'tkani 


ka*na kwarka 

ka>iia eki'^wi 




ekit* Kanxana 



akwet* kiniuite takaa'ma 

ka*nak teatce 


ka^nak ete 

Ka*nak i'tma 

Ka'oak hd'pe 

Ka*nak e'son 

Ka*nak yoken 

I am going to kiU jroa 

I am going to kill the boar 

you will kill me 

yon (plu.) will kill me 

they will kill me 

I nm 

I Bit 

now I sit 

I am ill 

he ifl ill 

my tooth aehea 

my head aehea 

my back aehea 

am playing 

am singing 

am daneing 

am weeping 

am shouting 

am going to stir 

am laughing 

want to vomit 

am hungry 

am thirsty 

am going to eat 

don't know what I will eat 

am standing 

am lying down 

am sleeping 

got up 

get down 
am tired 


Titles of papers in this Tolume are printed in bold-faced type. 

Acatl (Aztec day-sign), typical 
form, 306; ornamental form of, 
331 fig. 7, 368, 369 fig. 29. 

Accent, stress, mode of emphasis, 
in language of Germanic origin, 
and in Kato and other Athabas- 
can dialects, 17. 

Achomawi, 281 footnote 6, 287, 288 
footnote 16. 

Adjectives, Mutsnn, 425, 461. See 
also Suffixes. 

Adverbs, Mutsun, locative, 466, 
temporal, 466, descriptive and 
miscellaneous, 467. 

Algonkin, 288. 

American Indians, Handbook of, 
cited, 288. 

Animals, list of names of, in Mut- 
sun language, 427. 

Antigiiedades mexicanas, 300. 

Athabascan, 288. 

Athapascan, spoken by Sarsi In- 
dians, 190. 

Atl (Aztec day-sign), typical form, 
306; ornamental form of, 331 
fig. 7, 357 fig. 22, 358 fig. 23, 
359, 360. 

Atlatl, 337, 338 fig. 7, p. 368. 

Atsugewi, 281 footnote 6, 287, 288 
footnote 16. 

Aztec calendar, 300; time-periods 
in, 300, 302; intercalations in, 
300, 317, 319, 320, 328; Venus 
year, 301, 320; Mercury year, 
301; moon not regarded, 301; 
star-periods, 301 ; cempoaUi, 301, 
302; nemontemi, 301; method of 
maldng observations, 303; sys- 
tem of dating, 303, and method 
of writing dates, 309; day-signs, 
304, derivation of, 327, deline- 
ation of symbols in manuscripts, 
328; thirteen as a factor in, 308, 
313, 323, 324, 326; numerals, 
308, 313, 322, 323, 324, 326; 
Tonalamatl, 310, 311, 315, 325; 
cycle (fifty- two year period), 
314; not devised for chrono- 
logical records, 315; as a means 
of soothsaying, 315; index of 
birthday used for personal name, 
315; corrections of, 316, 317, 

319; original sources, 318, 319; 
origin of, 321; twenty as a fac- 
tor in, 322, 326; probable line 
of evolution, 327. See also Time- 
periods, Thirteen, Day-signs. 

Aztec codices. See Codices, Aztec. 

Aztec manuscripts, delineation of 
day-signs in, 297; bibliography 
of, 394. Sef also Codices, Aztec. 

Aztec mythology, cataclysms in, 

Aztec year, initial day, 312; year- 
sign, 314; cycle of fifty-two 
years, 314. 

Baegert, cited, 290. 

Bandolier's papers on ancient 
Mexican manuscripts, value of, 

Barrett, S. A., cited, 281 footnote 

Bartlett, 280. 

Bear, totem, 295. 

Beaver language, 190. 

Bebnar, Francisco, cited, 280, 285; 
orthography altered, 281. 

Blackf oot Indians, Sarsi associated 
with, 190; Sarsi stories about, 
263, 269. 

Boas, F., cited, 288. 

Boas Aniiiversary Volume, 303. 

Bologna Codex, 309. 

Book of Indexes, 310; applied to 
time-periods, 311. 

"Book of Tributes," 299. 

Brinton, D. G., 280, 289; cited, 
279, 288. 

British Columbia, relationships of 
Indian languages of, with Sarsi 
and Beaver, 190. 

Buffalo hunting, Sarsi texts, 273, 

"Calendar round," fifty-two years 
period in Maya C^endar, 314. 

C^endar symbols in the manu- 
scripts, delineation of, 328. 

C^endar system of the Aetecs. See 
Aztec cidendar. 

California, Gulf of, 280. 

California, Lower, 279, 290. 

California, South Central, social 
organization of Indians, 291; to 
be compared to that of Luisefio, 

• Univ. Calif. Publ. Am. Arch. Ethn., vol. XL 



Mohave, and Pima, 295; inter- 
relations within its own area, 

California, University of, scientific 
publications on native Indian 
languages, 401. 

Galli (Aztec day-sign), typical 
form, 306; ornamental forms, 
341, 342. 

Campo, California, DieguefLo dia- 
lect spoken at, 177 footnote. 

Ctoe (Aztec day-sign), typical 
form, 306; ornamental form, 
331, fig. 7. 

Cempoalli, in Aztec calendar, a 
"period of twenty," 301. 

Chamberlain, A. F., cited, 288. 

Chavero, 300. 

Chemakuan, 288. 

Chimariko, 281, 285, 286, 287. 

CSiontal. See Tequistlatecan. 

Chumash, 287. 

Chumash and Cosianoan Lan- 
guages, cited, 421 note 8. 

C^pactli (Aztec day -sign), typical 
form, 306; ornamental form, 
329, 330 fig. 5, 333 fig. 8; 
sources of drawings, 334. 

davigero, original source for 
study of Aztec calendar, 319. 

Coati (Aztec day-sign), typical 
form, 306; ornamental forms, 
329, 329 fig. 4, 345 fig. 13. 

Cochimi, proximity of the 8eri to, 

Cocopa, 186 footnote 34; fricative 
X, 180 footnote 10; open vowel 
compared with Mohave and 
Dieguefio, 184 footnote 20; 
proximity of the Seri to, 280. 

Codex, Bologna, 309; Borbonicus, 
300; Tro-Cortesian, 323; Vati- 
can A, 320; Zapotec, 299. 

Codices, Aztec, publication of by 
Lord Kingsborough, 299; nu- 
merals in, 308. 

Costanoan, Mutsun dialect of, 399, 
400; structure, 402; phonetic 
system, 402; vowels, 402; con- 
sonants, 402; sonant g missing, 

Cozcaqauhtli (Aztec day-sign), 
typical form, 306; ornamental 
form, 364 fig. 26, 375 fig. 33, 

Cree, 261, 269. 

Crowchief, Charlie, interpreter, 

Cuesta, Father Felipe Arroyo de 
la, the Mutsun dialect of Cos- 
tanoan based on vocabulary of. 

399 ; collection of Mutsun words, 
phrases, and sentences, 400, 470; 
Mutsun grammar, 401, 420, 421. 

Cuetzpalin (Aztec day-sign), typi- 
cal form, 306; ornamental 
forms, 343, 344 fig. 12. 

Cure, Bosendo, Dieguefio Indian, 

Cycle, fifty-two year period in Az- 
tec calendar, 314. 

Dates, in Aztec calendar, system 
of, 303 ; method of writmg, 309 ; 
date of birthday used for per- 
sonal name, 315. 

Day-names, Aztec, 305. 

Day-signs in Aztec manuscripts, 
delineation of, 297; typical 
forms, 306; year named after 
initial day-sign, 312; dominical, 
312; local varieties, 321; se- 
quence of, 330; convergence, 
331, 354, 355, 362; ornamental 
forms, figures of: Snake, 306, 
329, 345, 346; Water-Monster, 
306, 330, 333; Bain, 306, 331, 
385, 386 fig. 36; Flower, 306; 
Cane, 306, 368 fig. 28; Qrass, 
306, 364; Wind, 306, 338, 389 
fig. 37, 390; House, 306, 341; 
Lizard, 306, 344; Death, 306, 
347, 350; Deer, 306, 351, 352, 

354, 355 ; Babbit, 306, 353, 354, 

355, 356; Water, 306, 331, 337 
fig. 22, 358 fig. 23, 359, 360; 
Dog, 306, 361 fig. 24, 362; 
Monkey, 306, 363, 364, 365 fig. 
27, King-Vulture, 364 fig. 26, 
375 fig. 33; Ocelot, ocelotl, 306, 
370, 372 fig. 31; Eagle, 306, 
373 fig. 32, 374; Motion, 306, 
377, 378 fig. 34; Flint, 306, 381 
&g. 35, 382; borrowing of char- 
acteristics between, 391 fig. 38, 

Day-symbols in Aztec calendar, 
305; derivation of, 327; delin- 
eation of, 328. 

Death (Aztec day-sign), typical 
form, 306; ornamental forms, 
347, 350 fig. 15. See Skull. 

Deer (Aztec day -sign), typical 
form, 306; ornamental forms, 
351, 352 fig. 16, 354 figs. 17 and 
18, 355 figs. 19 and 20. 

Deer totem, 295. 

Delineation, The, of the Day- 
Signs in the Aztec Manuacripts, 

Dieguefio Language, Phonetic 
Elements of the, 177. 



Dieguefio language, phonetic ele- 
ments of, compared with Mo- 
have, 283, 284; unaccented 
vowels, 284. 

Dixon, R. B., cited 279, 281 foot- 
note 6, 285, 286, 287, 288 foot- 
note 16. 

Dog (Aztec day -sign), typical 
form, 306; ornamental forms, 
361 fig, 24, 362. 

Dominical day-signs, 312. 

Eagle (Aztec day-sign), typical 
form, 306; ornamental forms, 
373 fig. 32, 374. 

Eagle-ribs, Sarsi informant, 191; 
story about, 223; war deeds of, 

Eagles, in Sarsi texts, 277. 

Edmonton, Canada, 257. 

Ehecatl (Aztec day-sign), typical 
form, 306; ornamental forms, 
337, 338 fig. 9. 

Elements of the Kate Language, 

Enclitics in the Mutsun language, 

English, parts of speech, 405. 

Esselen, 281, 286, 287. 

Fabrega, Jos^, original source for 
study of Aztec calendar, 319. 

Flint (Aztec day-sign), typical 
form, 306; ornamental form, 
381 fig. 25, 382. 

Flower (Aztec day-sign), typical 
form, 306; ornamental form, 
331 fig. 7, 389 fig. 37, 390. 

Forstemann cited, 301; on element 
of thirteen in Aztec calendar, 
323, 324, 325. 

Fortes, member of dental series of 
stops in Kato language, 10. 

Gender, in Mutsun language, 408. 

Qenitive case of Mutsun nouns, 

Goddard, P. E., 1, 189. 

Goodman, cited on the tonalamatl 
in the Aztec calendar, 326. 

Grass (Aztec day -sign), typical 
form, 306; ornamental forms, 
331 fig. 7, 364, 366 fig. 28. 

Haida, 288. 

Harrington, J. P., 177; cited, 287. 

Henshaw, H. W., cited, 288. 

Hernandez, F., work on Guerra del 
Yaqai, 280. 

Hewitt, J. N. B., cited, 280. 

House (Aztec day-sign), typical 
form, 306; ornamental forms, 

Humboldt, original source for 
study of Azt^ calendar, 319. 

Indo-European, 286; model cate- 
gories, 418. 
Inflection in Mutsun language, 

"Intercalations" in Aztec calen- 
dar system, 300, 317, 319, 320, 
Interjections, Mutsun, 468. 
International Phonetic Associa- 
tion, 184 footnote 20. 
Iroquois, 289. 

Itzcuintli (Aztec day-sign), typi- 
cal form, 306 ; ornamental forms, 
361 fig, 24, 362. 
Ixtlilxochitl, Fernando de Alva, 
original source for study of Az- 
tec calendar, 319. 
Karok, 281, 286. 

Kato language, elements of, 1; 
stress accent in, 17. 

Individual sounds: vowels, 4, 
semi- vowels, 5 ; continu- 
ants: liquids, 5, nasals, 6, 
figures of, opp. 92, 94; 
spirants, 7, figures of, opp. 
88, 90, 96; stops: labial, 9, 
figures of, opp. 98; dentals 
(fortes), 9, figures of, opp. 
100; palatals, 11, figures 
of, opp. 102, 104; velar, 12; 
glottal, 12, 13; affricatives, 
13, figures of, opp. 106; 
table of sounds, 13; com- 
parison of Kato and Hupa 
sounds, 14; assimilation of 
sounds, 17. 
Modification of syllables, 17. 
Morphology : 

Nouns : simple, monosyllabic, 
19; figures of, opp. 110; 
with possessive prefixes, 21, 
figures of, opp. 112, 114; 
parts of the body, 21 ; cloth- 
ing, 23; relatives, 23. 
With suffixes, 23, figures of, 
opp. 116, 118; plural and 
class suffixes, 24; locative 
suf^ee, 24; suffix with in- 
strumental meaning, 26 ; 
suf^es of tempor^-modal 
force, 26; suffixes of size, 
shape, and color, 26. 
Nouns compounded with 
nouns: first noun qualifies 
the second, 27; with pos- 
sessive prefix for second 
component, 27; with sec- 
ond component modifying 
the first, 27. 



Nouns compounded with ad- 
jectives, 28, with verbs, 29; 
adjectives and verbs used 
as nouns, 29; figures of, 
opp. 124; verbs with in- 
strumental prefix used as 
nouns, 31, figures of, opp. 
132, 134; polysyllabic nouns 
unanalyzed, 31; figures of, 
opp. 120, 122, 126. 
Pronouns, personal, 32; per- 
sonal demonstratives, 33 ; 
demonstratives, 34 ; inter- 
rogative and indefinite pro- 
nouns, 34; figures of, opp. 
Adjectives, 35 ; pronominal, 

Numerals, 36; cardinals, 36; 
multiplicatives, 36 ; dis- 
tributives, 36. 
Directional words, 37. 
Adverbs, place, 38; time, 38; 
manner and degree, 39; 
figures of, opp. 128, 130. 
Postpositions, 39 ; particles 

and interjections, 41. 
Verbs, 42. 

Prefixes, first position, 42; 
adverbial, 43; deitic, 49, 
51; objective, 51; first 
modal, 52; second modal, 
53; subjective, 55; third 
modals, 57. 
Stems, 59. 

Suffixes, 80; source of in- 
formation, 80 ; modal, 81 ; 
temporal, 83. 
Tenses and modes, 84; 
table of analyzed verbs, 
Tracings of speech, interpreta- 
tion of, 86 ; lateral sonant and 
spirant, 88, 90 ; nasals, 92, 94 ; 
spirants, 96; labial stop and 
nasal, 98; dental stops, 100; 
sonant palatal stops, 102; 
surd palatal stops, 104; af- 
fricatives, 106; miscellaneous, 
108; monosyllabic nouns, 110; 
nouns with possessive prefixes, 
112, 114; nouns with suffixes, 
116, 118; polysyllabic nouns, 
120, 122, 126; nouns of verbal 
origin, 124; adverbs, par- 
ticles, etc., 128; pronouns, ad- 
verbs, 130; prefixes of verbs, 
132, 134; verbal prefixes, sub- 
jectives and objectives, 136; 
verbal suffixes, 138; suffixes 
of verbs, 140; verbal stems, 

142, 144, 146, 148, 150, 152, 
154, 156, 158, 160, 162, 164, 
166, 168, 170, 172, 174, 176. 

King- vulture (Aztec day-sign), 
typical form, 306; ornamental 
form, 364 fig. 26, 375 fig. 33, 

Kingsborough, Lord, publication 
of Aztec ''codices,'* 299. 

Kroeber, A. L., 177, 279, 401; 
cited, 403 note 6, 421 note 8. 

Kuyahomar, 181 footnote 16. 

Kwayu, 181 footnote 16. 

I^ Posta, 177. 

Leon y Gama, Antonio, original 
source for study of Aztec cal- 
endar, 319. 

Library of American IAng%Mtio9f 

Lizard (Aztec day-sign), typical 
form, 306; ornamental forms, 
343, 344 fig. 12. 

Loustanou, 280. 

McG^, W J, monograph on the 
Seri, 280. 

Magic, famine relieved by, 251; 
practice of, 253. 

Maguey, 299. 

MalinaJU (Aztec day-sign), typical 
form, 306; ornamental form, 
331 fig. 7, 364, 366 fig. 28. 

Manual de los ministros de las 
Indias, 301. 

Manuscripts, Aztec, 299. See aUo, 
Ck>dices, Aztec. 

Manzanita, 177. 

Maricopa, fricative x, 180 foot- 
note 10. 

Mason, J. A., 399. 

Maya calendar, 314. 

Mazatl (Aztec day-sign), typical 
form, 306; ornamental forms, 
351, 352 fig. 16, 354, figs. 17 
and 18, 355 figs. 19 and 20. 

Mesa Grande, San Diego County, 
177, 179 note 9. 

Mexican Antiquities, 299, 332. 

Mexico, 288. 

Miquiztli (Aztec day-sign), typi- 
cal form, 306; ornamental 
forms, 347, 350 fig. 15. See 
also Skull. 

Modal categories, Mutsun, 418. 

Mohave, comparison of Dieguefio 
with, 177, 178, 180, 181, 182, 
183, 184, 185; representative of 
Tuman group, 281; w of, 282; 
k, and 6 of, 283, 284; o^er 
dialectic comparisons, 285, 286, 



Monkey (Aztec day-sign) , typical 
form, 306; ornamental forms, 
363, 364, 365 fig. 27. 
Monterey, California, 400. 
Monterey County, California, 295. 
Monumentos del arte mexicano an- 

iiguo, 299. 
Morning-star, mentioned in Aztec 

manuscript, 303. 
Morphology of the Kato language. 
See Kato language, elements of. 
Beduplication in Mutsim, 408. 
Motion (Aztec day-sign), typical 
form, 306; ornamental form, 
377, 378 fig. 34. 
"Motolinia*' (Toribio de Bene- 
vente), original source for study 
of Aztec calendar, 319. 
Mntsun Dialect, The, of Costanoan 
Based on the Vocabulary of De 
La Ouesta, 399. 
Mutsun language, 400, 401; struc- 
ture, 402; phonetic system, 402 
vowels, 402; consonants, 402 
phonetic laws, 405; de la Cues 
ta's collection of words, phrases, 
and sentences, 400, 470; his 
grammar, 401, 420, 421. 
Parts of Speech, 403. 

Nouns, 403, 405; suffixes, 406, 
410; inflections, 408; gender, 
408 ; grammatical person, 
410; genitive case, 410; class- 
ified lists, 427-439. 
Pronouns, 411, 439; demonstra- 
tive, adjectival, and interro- 
gative, 440 ; lists of, 439, 440. 
Verbs, 411, 441; suffixes, 412; 
reduplication of verbal stems, 
412; modal categories, 418; 
relations implying motion, 
420; negative particle, 423; 
lists of, 441-461. 
Adjectives, 425, 461; suffixes, 

425, 426 ; Hsts of, 461-465. 
Particles, 426; enclitics, 426. 
Adverbs, locative, temporal, 
466; descriptive and miscel- 
laneous, 467. 
Interjections, 468-469. 
See also Suffixes, Numerals. 
Nahuatlan, 288. 
Nejo, Isidro, 179. 
Nemontemi, in Aztec calendar, 

301, 302. 
Nose-plug, used in delineation of 

Aztec day-signs, 335, 373. 
Numerals in £e Athapascan dia- 
lects, 36; in the Aztec calendar, 
308, 313, 322, 323; list of, in 
the Mutsun language, 439. 

Nuttall, Mrs. Z., cited, 303; on 
initial day-signs in Aztec calen- 
dar, 312; original source for 
study of Aztec calendar, 319. 

Oaxaca, Tequistlatecan idiom of, 
279; Belmar's work on, 280. 

Ocelot, Ocelotl (Aztec day-sign), 
typical form, 306; ornamental 
forms, 370, 372 fig. 31. 

Clin (Aztec day-sign), typical 
form, 306; ornamental form, 
377, 378 fig. 34. 

Onorato, Digueno Indians, 177. 

Oregon, 288. 

Orozco y Berra, Manuel, original 
source for study of Aztec calen- 
dar, 319. 

Ozomatli (Aztec day-sign), typical 
form, 306; ornamental forms, 
363, 364, 365 fig. 27. 

PaU, 177. 

Palaihnihan, 288 footnote 16. 

Particles in the Mutsun language, 

Peace Biver, Canada, 190. 

Penafiel, A., 280, 299. 

Penutian, contrasted with Hokan, 
286; new family, 288, 401. 

Phonetic Elements of the Dieguefio 
language, 177. 

Phonology of the Kato language. 
See Kato language, elements of. 

Piegan, 259. 

Piman, 288. 

Pinart, A., 280. 

Pleasanton, California, Indians at, 

Pomo, 281, 286, 287. 

PoweU, J. W., cited, 288. 

Prefixes, in the Kato language. 
See Kato language, elements of. 

Quauhtli (Aztec day-sign), typical 
form, 306; ornamental forms, 
373 fig. 32, 374. 

Quetzal-coatl, Aztec wind-god, 
307; represented by day-sign, 
Wind, 337; realistic drawing of, 
338 fig. 9, q; figure of face, 340 
fig. 10; ear-ornament, 377. 

Quiahuitl (Aztec day-sign), typi- 
cal form, 306; ornamental forms 
of, 331, 385, 386 fig. 26. 

Babbit (Aztec day-sign), typical 
form, 306; ornamental forms, 
353, 354 figs. 17 and 18, 355 
figs. 19 and 20, 356 fig. 21. 

Bain (Aztec day -sign), typical 
form, 306; ornamental forms, 
331, 385, 386 fig. 36. 

Bay, Bill, vocal tracings of Kato 
language, 3. 



BouBselot apparatus, 190. 

Sahagun, Bernardino de, 300, 318; 
cited, 303. 

Salidon, Dieguefio, Indian, 177. 

Salinan, 287; totems, 295. 

San Diego County, OEilifomia, 177. 

Salishan, 288. 

San Felipe, C^ifomia, 177. 

San Juan Bautista, Mission, Cali- 
fornia, 400. 

San Lorenzo, California, 470. 

Sapir, E., cited, 281 footnote 6, 

Ban! Textfl^ 189; key to sounds, 
191; Sun Dance, 193; prayers, 
197, 227, 233 ; hair parters, 197 ; 
counting of coups, 203, 269 ; clog 
feast, 209; societies, 215; quali- 
fications and duties of chiefs, 
215; shamans, 217; sports, 219; 
painting of tipis, 219; buffalo 
pounds, 221; trapping beaver, 
219 ; primitive dishes, 221 ; stone 
arrowheads, 223; What Eagle- 
Bibs Saw at Edmonton, 223; 
planting tobacco, 227; Buffalo 
Bill Gives a Shield, 231 ; painted 
tipi, 243; buffalo stone, 243; 
famine relieved by magic, 251, by 
Broken Knife, 253; Two Hawks 
Test Their Speed, 263; water- 
being, 267; ghost, 269; grass- 
hopper, 273 ; buffalo-hunting, 
273, 275, eagles, 277. 

Seler, Edward, cited, 301, 303; on 
initial day-signs in Aztec calen- 
dar, 312 note 22; original source 
for study of Aztec calendar, 
319; on element of thirteen in 
Aztec calendar, 323, 324, 325; 
investigations of Mexican chro- 
nology, 327; criticism of conclu- 
sions, 335, 336. 

Berlan, Tequistlatecan and Ho- 
kan, 279. 

Sema, Jacinto de la, cited, 301; 
original source for study of 
Aztec calendar, 319. 

Shasta, language, 281, and foot- 
note 6, 286, 287, 288 footnote 

Shea, J. G., Costanoan manu- 
scripts, published by, 400, 405. 

Shoshonean, 179 note 9, 288, 291, 

Siguenza, Carlos, original source 
for study of Aztec calendar, 319. 

Sioux, story of Sarsi boy's escape 
from, 259. 

Skull, representation of in Aztec 
day-signs, 348, 349, 350; real- 
istic drawing of, 350. 
Snake (Aztec day-sign), typical 
form, 306; ornamental forms, 
329, 329 fig. 4, 345 fig. 13, 346. 
Sonora, relation of Seri language 
of, to Tequistlatecan and Yu- 
man, 279. 
Spanish spoken by some Indians in 

California, 470. 
Spanish j compared to Tuman de- 
velopments, 180 footnote 10. 
Spanish orthography used for ex- 
pressing Costanoan sounds, 401, 
402, 403. 
Star-periods in Aztec calendar sys- 
tem, 301. 
Stops in the Kato language. See 

Kato language, elements of. 
Suffixes in the Kato language. See 

Kato language, elements of. 
Suffixes of Mutsun adjectives: ad- 
jectival, 425, 426; infix occa- 
sionally found before, 426. 
Suffixes, of Mutsun nouns: 

Etymological : resultative, 406 ; 
infinitive, 406; causative, 406; 
abstractive, 406 ; instrumen- 
tal, 406, 407; agentive, 407; 
nominal, 407. 
Morphological: plural, 408; 
compositional, 409 ; partitive, 
409; terminative, 409; objec- 
tive, 409; instrumental, 409; 
locative, 410; comitative, 410; 
regressive, 410. 
Suffixes, of Mutsun verbs: 

Etymological : possessive, 412 ; 
imitative, 421 ; purposive, 
412; dative, 413; substantive, 
413; oppositional, 413; exces- 
sive, 413; corporeal, 413; 
mandatory, 414. 
Morphological : indefinite, 415 ; 
past tense, 416; intransitive, 
416; transitive, 417; reflexive, 
417; reciprocal, 417; passive 
voice, 418; future passive, 
418; perfect passive, 418; im- 
perative, 419; missionary im- 
perative, 419 ; subjunctive, 
419; hypothetical, 419; con- 
ditional, 419; iterative, 420; 
mandative, 420 ; purposive 
motion, 421; prohibitive, 421; 
* * excellentive, ' * 421 ; bene- 
ficial, 422; perfect transitive, 
422 ; adjectival, 422, 423 ; per- 
fect intransitive, 423. 



Bwanton, J. B., cited, 288. 

Taylor, A. 8., 400. 

Teagucagga, a wise Barsi, 427. 

Tecpatl (Aztec day-sign), typical 
form, 306; ornamental form, 
381 fig. 35, 382. 

Tehuantepec, California, 279. 

Tenochio, 280. 

Tezozomoc, cited, 303. 

Thirteen, as a factor in Aztec cal- 
endar, 308, 313, 323; importance 
of, 324; Forstemann's theory of 
origin, 324, 325; Seler's hy- 
po&esis of origin, 324, 325; 
factor in the tomJamatl, 326. 

Thomas, Qyrus, 299, on vigesimal 
numeral system in Aztec calen- 
dar, 322; on element thirteen in 
Aztec calendar, 323. 

Thomas, C, and Swanton, J. B., 
map of linguistic stocks of Mex- 
ico, 280. 

Tiger (Aztec day-sign), 306. 

Time-periods in Aztec calendar 
system, 300; method of deter- 
mining, 302. 

Tlaloc, rain-god, 385. 

Tlingit, 288. 

Tochtli (Aztec day-sign), typical 
form, 306; ornamental forms, 
353, 354 figs. 17 and 18, 355 figs. 
19 and 20, 356 fig. 21. 

Tonalamatl, 310, 311, 315, 325; 
factors thirteen and twenty in, 

Torquemada, Juan de, original 
source for study of Ajstec calen- 
dar, 319. 

Totems, among Salinan Indians, 
possible significance of, 295. 

Tro-Cortesian Coder, 323. 

Troncoso, original source for study 
of Aztec calendar, 319. 

Twenty, as factor in Aztec calen- 
dar, 322, in the tonalamatl, 326. 

Uto-Azetaken, 286. 

Vatican Code A, 320. 

Venus year in Aztec calendar, 325. 

Vigesimal numeral system in Aztec 
calendar, 322, 323. 

Waikuri language, 290. 

Wakashan, 288. 

Walapai, 184. 

Water (Aztec day-sign), typical 
form, 306; ornamental form, 
331 fig. 7, 357 fig. 22, 358 fig. 
23, 359, 360. 

Water being, in Sarsi texts, 267. 

Water-monster (Aztec day-sign), 
typical form, 306; ornamental 
form, 329, 330 fig. 5, 333 fig. 8 ; 
sources of drawings, 334; re- 
semblance to snake, 335. 

Waterman, T. T., 297; cited, 179, 
180, 181, 184. 

Wind (Aztec day-sign), typical 
form, 306; ornamental forms, 
337, 338 fig. 9; used to repre- 
sent Wind-god, Quetzal-coatl, 

Wind-god, Quetzal-coatl, 307; rep- 
resented by day-sign Wind, 337 ; 
realistic drawing of, 338 fig. 9, 
q; figure of face, 340 fig. 10. 

Wiyot, 288. 

Xochitl (Aztec day-sign), typical 
form, 306; ornamental form, 
331 fig. 7, 389 fig. 37, 390. 

Yana, 281, 286, 287. 

Yaqui, Hernandez's work on, 280. 

Year sign, in Aztec calendar, 314. 
See ^tec year. 

Yokuts, kinship system, 292. 

Yuma, fricative x of, 180 footnote 
10; open vowel compared with 
Mohave and Diegueno, 184 note 

Yuman, 283, 284, 290; Dieguefio 
and Mohave as members of, 177 ; 
genetic connection with Seri and 
Tequistlatecan, 279, 280, 287; 
Mohave representative of, 281. 

Yurok, 288. 

"Zapotec Codex, *' 299. 



>:. , o u> e ■ . / -^ a , ^ i 


DEC 1 1Q17 



^ Vol. 11, No. 1, pp. 1-176, pis. 1-45 October 31, 1912 





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VoL 4. 1. The Earliest Historical Eolations between Mexico and Japan, ttom 

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VoL 4. 1. The Earliest Historical Belatlons between Mtoxioo and Japan, from 

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8. Contrlboti<m to the Fhysical Anthropology of California, based on col- 
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Index, pp. 381-384. 
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!.:/n 2 51915 








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plates 1-80. September, 1008 ., $1.26 

2. Hupa Texts, by Fliny Earle Ooddard. Fp. 89-868. March, 1004 ZJOO 

Index, pp. 860-878. 
▼oL 8. 1. The Exploration of the Fetter Creek Cave^ by William J. Sinclair. 

Fp. 1-27; plates 1-14. April, 1004 . AO 

2. The Languages of the Coast of California Sooth of San FrandsoOb by 

A. L. Kroeber. Fp. 20-80, with s map. Jtme^ 1004 M 

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4. Basket Designs of the Indians of Korthwestem Calif omia» by A. L. 

Kroeber. Fp. 106-164; plates 16-21. January, 1906 .75 

6. The Toknts Language of Sonth Central California, by A. L. BIroeber. 

Index, pp. 879-392. 
Vol 8. The Morphology of the Hupa Language, by Fliny Earle Ooddard. 

844 pp. Sjxn% 1906 .......,.....««..>»....«»««.««^...»»..— ....^.....^ ■.■^.^^ 8j60 

Vol 4. 1. The Earliest Historical Belations between Mtaxico and Japan, ftom 

original documents pres e rv e d in Spain and Japan, by Zelis HnttalL 

2. Contribution to the Fhysical Anthropology of Calif onda» based on ool« 
lections in the Department of Anthropology of the UMverrity of 
California, and in the U. S. National Mnseom, by Ales Hi-^mV*^ 
Fp. 40-64, with 6 tables; plates 1-10, snd map. June, 1906 .78 

8. The Shoshonean Dialects of California, by A. L. Kroeber. Fp. 66-166. 

4. Indian Mytiis from South Central Calif omia» by A. L. Kroeber. Fp. 

167-250. May, 1007 .78 

6. The Washo Languago of East Central CaUf omia and Kevada» by A. L. 

Kroeber. Fp. 251-818. September, 1907 « .: .78 

6. The Beligion of the Indians of California, by A. L. Kroeber. Fp. 819- 

vOo. Bepwemoer, ivui ..»»«««».«»»«..—.»«»«.—«»..——..«»—«»»»«»».■«»....■.». ■ .m.... »»...■« .ov 

Index, pp. 867-374. 
VoL 6. 1. The Fhonology of the Hupa Language; Fart I, The Indivldnal Sounds 

by Fliny Earle Ooddard. Fp. 1-20, pUtes 1-8. March, 1007 J6 

2. Kavaho Myths, Frayers and Songs, with Texts snd TranslatJonSb by 

Washington Matthews, edited by Fliny Earle Ooddard. Fp. 21-68. 

oepcemDer, ivuT ...».«...^.«...»««......«...»»«.»..«......«...»«......»«.— ■»...—..«•»»».. .»...^»... — ~ .td 

8. Kato Texts, by Fliny Earle Ooddard. Fp. 66-288, plate 9. December, 

4. The Material Culture of the Klamath Lake and BCodoe ^hdiana of 
Kortheastem California and Southern Oregon, by 8. A. Barrett. 
Fp. 239-292, plates 10-St6. June, 1010 ...^ JTB 

6. The Chimarlko Indians and Language, by Bdand B. Dixon. Fp. 298- 

Index, pp. 881-384. 
Vol 6. 1. The Ethno-Oeography of the Fomo and Neighboring Indians^ by Ssai- 

ud Alfred Barrett. Fp. 1-882, maps 1-2. February, 1908 8J8 

8. The Oeography and Dialects of the Miwok Indiana by Samud Alfred 

Barrett Fp. 833-368, map 8. 
8. On the Evidence of the Occupation of Certain Beglons by the Miwdc 
Indians, by A. L. Kroeber. Fp. 869-880. Kos. 8 and 8 in one cover. 

Index, pp. 881-400. 


Vol 7. 1. The Emeryville SheUmoiind, by Max Uhle. Pp. 1-106, plates 1-12» with 

88 text figures. June, 1907 ^ 1,26 

2. Recent Inyestigations bearing upon the Question of the Occurrence of 
Neocene Man in the Auriferous Oravels of California,' by William 
J. Sinclair. Pp. 107-180, plates 18-14. Pebruary, 1908 M 

8. Pomo Indian Basketry, by S. A. Barrett Pp. 188-806, plates 16-80, 

281 text figures. December, 1908 1.76 

4. Shellmounds of the San Prancisco Bay BegLon, by N. O. Nelson. 

Pp. 809-856, plates 82-84. December, 1909 .60 

6. The Ellis Landing Shellmound, by N. O. Nelson. ^. 867-426, slates 

Index, pp. 427-448. 

VoL 8. 1. A Mission Record of the Oalif omia Indians, from a Manuscript in the 

Bancroft Library, by A. L. EIroeber. It>. 1-27. May, 1908 .25 

2. The Ethnography of the Oahuilla Indians, by A. L. Kroeber. Pp. 29- 

68, plates 1-16. July, 1908 .75 

. 8. The Religion of the Luisefio and Dieguefio Indians of Southern Oall- 
fomia, by Oonstance CK>ddard Dubois. Pp. 69-186, plates 16-19. 

4. The Culture of the Luisefio Indians, by Philip Stedman Sparkman. 

Pp. 187-284, plate 20. August, 1908 M 

6. Notes on Shoshonean Dialects of Southern Oalif omia, by A. L. Kroe- 
ber. Pp. 286-269. September, 1909 .85 

8. The Religious Practices of the Dieguefio Indians, by T. T. Waterman. 

Pp. 271-868, plates 21-28. March, 1910 .80 

Index, pp. 869-869. 

VoL 9. 1. Tana Texts, by Edward Sapir, together with Tana Myths collected by 

Roland B. Dixon. Pp. 1-286. Pebruary, 1910 2.60 

2. The Ohumash and Oostanoan Languages, 1^ A. L. EIroeber. Pp. 287- 

271. November, 1910 .86 

8. The Languages of the Coast of California North of San Prancisco, by 

A. L. BIroeber. Pp. 278-485, and map. April, 1911 1.60 

Index, pp. 487-489. 

VoL 10. 1. Phonetic Constituents of the Native Languages of California, by A. 

L. EIroeber. Pp. 1-12. May, 1911 - .10 

2. The Phonetic Elements oi the Northern Palute Language, by T. T. 

Waterman. Pp. 18-44, plates 1-5. November, 1911 46 

8. Phonetic Elements of the Mohave Language^ by A. L. EIroeber. Pp. 

46-96, plates 6-20. November, 1911 . .66 

4. The Ethnology of the Sallnan Indians, by J. Alden Mason. Pp. 97- 

240, plates 21-37. December, 1912 ^ » 1.76 

6. Papago Verb Stems, by Juan Dolores. Pp. 241-268. August, 1918 .26 

6. Notb3 on the Chilula Ihdians of Northwestern California, by Pliny 

Earl Ooddard. Pp. 265-288, plates 88-41. April, 1914 .80 . 

7. Chilula Texts, by Pliny Earle Gh>ddard. Pp. 289-379. November, 

1914 1.00 

Index la press. 

VoL 11. 1. Elements of the Sato Language, by Pliny Earle Ooddard. Pp. 1-176, 

pxaxes X-40. wCwOoer, aIiim ••••..••..••.•.•.•.•.^.••••••.••••••••■••..•••••. .»••••••••. .••••..•• a.uu 

2. Phonetic Elements of the Dieguefio Language, by A. L. Eroeber and 

J. P. Harrington. Pp. 177-188. April, 1914 ^. .10 

8. Sarsl Texts, by Pliny Earle Goddard. Pp. 189-277. February, 1915.... 1.00 
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Pebruary, 1915 ~ 10 

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^^'-^ 5 1915 




Vol. 11, No. 4, pp. 279-290 February 10, 1915 







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yolome $3.50 (VoL 1, 14.25). 

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VoL 1. 1. Life and Onltnre of the Hhpa, by Pliny Barle Ooddard. Pp. 1-88; 

plates 1-30. September, 1908 $1.25 

2. Hnpa Texts, by Pliny Earle Ooddard. Pp. 88-368. March, 1904 8.00 

Index, pp. 369-378. 
VoL 2. 1. The Exploration of the Potter Creek OaTe, by William J. Sinclair. 

Pp. 1-27; plates i-14. April, 1904 — .40 

2. The Languages of the Coast of California South of San Francisco, by 

A. L. Kroeber. Pp. 29-80, with a map. June, 1904 .60 

8. Types of Indian Culture in California, by A. L. Kroeber. Pp. 81-103. 

4. Basket Designs of the Indians of Northwestern California, by A. L. 

Kroeber. Pp. 106-164; plates 16-21. January, 1905 . .75 

5. The Tokuts Language of South Central California, by A. L. Kroeber. 

Pp. 165-377. January, 1907 . . 2.26 

Index, pp. 379-392. 
VoL 8. The Morphology of the Hupa Language, by Pliny Earle Ctoddard. 

344 pp. June, 1905 «. 8iW 

VoL 4. 1. The Earliest Historical Eolations between Mexico and Ji^pan, txom 

original documents preserved in Spain and Japan, by Zelia NuttalL 

«K^ W09 Jk^^B • # »»MF»^Je A^r^^%^ ■■■■■■■■■■T»i««Tiiaii««ii»»i»»aiBiiii«««Bi>f«w«>>BgBB»,iB»«aiB«aa» I ■■■■■■■»»■«■ — » ^VP^r 

2. Contribution to the Physical Anthropology of California, based on col- 
lections in the Department of Anthropology of the Utiven^ of 
Calif omia, and in the XS, S. National Museum, by Ales Hrdlir^a. 
Pp. 49-64, with 5 tables; plates 1-10, and map. jdne, 1906 .76 

8. The Shoshonean Dialects of California, by A. L. Kroeber. Pp. 65-166. 

4. Indian Biytiis from South Central California, by A. L. Kroeber. Pp. 

5. The Washo Language of East Central California and Neradai by A. L. 

Kroeber. Pp. 251-318. September, 1907 ^. « .75 

6. The Beligion of the Indians of California^ by A. L. Kroeber. Pp. 819- 

356. September, 1907 .50 

Index, pp. 357-374. 
VoL 5. 1. The Phonology of the Hupa Language; Part I, The Individual Sounds^ 

by Pliny Earle Ooddard. Pp. 1-20, plates 1-8. March, 1907 .85 

2. Navaho M^ths, Prayers and Songs, with Texts and Translations, by 
Washington Matthews, edited by Pliny Barle Goddard. Pp. 21-68. 

8. Kato Texts, by Pliny Earle Qoddard. Pp. 65-288, plate 9. December, 

4. The BCaterial Culture of the Klamath Lake and Modoe Indians of 

Northeastern California and Southern Oregon, by 8. A. Banett. 

Pp. 239-292, plates 10-25. June, 1910 . .78 

5. The Chimariko Indians and Language^ by Bdand B. Dixon. Pp. 298- 

880. August, 1910 ^.^...,.^....^..^.>.«.^«^.^.>i^.«iH.^.,^^ , IjOO 

Index, pp. 881-384. 
Vol 6. 1. The Ethno-Oeography of the Pomo and Neighboring Indians^ by Sam- 
uel Alfred Barrett. Pp. 1-332, maps 1-2. February, 1908 

2. The Oeography and Dialects of the Mlwok Indians^ by Samuel Alfted 

Barrett. Pp. 833-368, map 3. 
8. On the Evidence of the Occupation of Certain Begions by the Miwok 
Indians, by A. L. Kroeber. Pp. 869-880. Nos. 2 and 8 in one cow. 
February, 1908 ..^....^..^ — ^~.... 
Index, pp. 881-400. 


Vol 7. 1. Tbe Emeryrllle SheUmoimd, by M«z Uble. Pp. 1-106, plates 1-12» with 

38 text flgnres. June, 1907 1.: 

2. Becent Investigations bearing upon the Question of the Occurrence of' 
Neocene Man in the Auriferous Gravels of Oallf omla, by William 
J. Sinclair. Pp. 107-130, plates 13-14. February, 1008 M 

8. Porno Indian Basketry, by 8. A. Barrett. Pp. 133-306, plates 16-30, 

231 text figures. December, 1908 1.76 

4. SheUmounds of the San Francisco Bay Begion, by N. O. Neliion. 

Pp. 309-356, plates 32-34. December, 1909 JSO 

6. The Ellis Landing Shellmound, by K. O. Nelson. Pp. 357-426^ plates 

Index, pp. 427-443. 

VoL 8. 1. A Mission Becord of the California Indians, from a Manuscript in the 

Bancroft Library, by A. L. BIroeber. Pp. 1-27. May, 1908 .26 

2. The Ethnography of the Cahuilla Indians, by A. L. EIroeber. Pp. 29- 

68, plates 1-15. July, 1908 76 

8. The Beligion of the Luisefio and Dieguefio Indians of Southern Oali- 

fomia, by Constance Goddard Dubois. Pp. 69-186, plates 16-19. 

June, 1908 — « « 1.26 

4. The Culture of the Luirofio Indians, by Philip Stedman Sparkman. 

Pp. 187-234, plate 20. August, 1908 « ^ „ M 

6. Notes on Shoshonean Dialects of Southern Calif omia» by A. L. Eroe- 

ber. Pp. 235-269. September, 1909..^ 36 

6. The Beligious Practices of the Dieguefio Indians, by T. T. Waterman. 

Pp. 271-358, plates 21-28. March, 1910 _ ^ .80 

Index, pp. 369-369. 

VoL 9. 1. Tana Texts, by Edward Sapir, together with Tana Myths collected by 

Boland B. Dixon. Pp. 1-235. February, 1910 2.60 

2. The Chumash and Costanoan Languages, by A. L. EIroeber. Pp. 237- 

271. November, 1910 „ 36 

3. The Languages of the Coast of California North of San Francisco, by 

A. L. Eroeber. Pp. 273-435, and map. April, 1911 1.60 

Index, pp. 437-439. 

V6L 10. 1. Phcmetic Constituents of the Native Languages of California, by A. 

L. Eroeber. Pp. 1-12. May, 1911 10 

2. The Phonetic Elements of the Northern Palnte Language, by T. T. 

Waterman. Pp. 18-44, plates 1-5. November, 1911 ^ 46 

8. Phonetic Elements of the Mohave Language, by A. L. EIroeber. Pp. 

46-96, plates 6-20. November, 1911 ^ .66 

4. The Ethnology of the Salinan Indians, by J. Alden Mason. Pp. 97- 

240, plates 21-37. December, 1912 - 1.75 

5. Papago Verb Stems, by Juan Dolores. Pp. 241-263. August, 1913 .25 

6. Notes on the Chilula Ihdians of Northwestern California, by Pliny 

. Earl Goddard. Pp. 265-288, plates 38-41. April, 1914 , .30 

7. Chilula Texts, by Pliny Earle Goddard. Pp. 289-379. November, 

1914 1.00 

Index in press. 

Vol. 11. 1. Elements of the Eato Language, by Pliny Earle Goddard. Pp. 1-176, 

pxaxes JL-40. wCwODor, xVa^ .•.•.•...••••••••. .•••••••••••••••••••••••..••^^^••••••.••••••••••.••a 2fi.uu 

2. Phonetic Elements of the Dieguefio Language, by A. L. Eroeber and 

J. P. Harrington. Pp. 177-188. April, 1914 ^ .10 

3. Sarsi Texts, by Pliny Earle Goddard. Pp. 189-277 (In press) 

4. Serian, Tequistlatecan, and Hokan, by A. L. Eroeber. Pp. 279-290. 

February, 1915 10 

Volumes now completed: 

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Volume 4. 1906-1907. 374 pages, with 6 tables, 10 plates, and map 8.60 

Volume 6. 1907-1910. 384 pages, with 26 plates 8.60 

Volume 6. 1908. 400 pages,' with 8 maps 8JJ0 

Voluma 7. 1907-1910. 448 pages and 60 plates 8.60 

Vcktume 8. 1908-1910. 369 pages and 28 plates 8.60 

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Map o .^ 


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VoL 1. 1. Life and Cnttnre of the Btopa, by Fliny Earle Ooddard. Fp. 1«88; 

plates 1-30. September, 1008 . $1.25 

2. Hnpa Texts, by Fliny Earle Ooddard. Fp. 89-868. March, 1904 ZM 

Index, pp. 869-878. 
VoL a. 1. The Exploration of the Fetter Creek CaTO, by William J. Sinclair. 

pp. 1-27; plates 1-14. April, 1904 .40 

2. The Languages of the Coast of California South of San FZaadsco^ by 

A. L. Broeber. Fp. 29-80, with a map. Jone^ 1904 .60 

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4. Basket Designs of the Indians of Vorthwestem California, by A. L. 

Broeber. Fp. 105-164; plates 15-21. January, 1906 .75 

5. The Toknts Language of South Central California, by A. L. Broeber. 

Fp. 165-877. January, 1907 ..— ^.h.«»».»»»— .»«...~....^«..... »....^^...».-..- 8.90 

Index, pp. 879-892. 
VoL 8. The Morphology of the Hnpa Langnsge, by Fliny Earle Ooddard. 

VoL 4. 1. The Earliest Historical Eolations between Mexico and Japan, ttom 

original documents pre s erve d in Spain and Japan, by Zelia VnttalL 

2. Contribution to the Fhysical Anthropology of California, baaed on col- 
lections in the Department of Anthropology of the UlniTenity of 
California, and in the U. S. National Mosmim, by Ales HMUidca. 
Fp. 49-64, with 5 tables; plates 1-10, and map. J^me, 1906 .78 

8. The Shoshonean Dialects of California, by A. L. Kroebar. Fp. 65-166. 

4. Indian Myths from South Central California, by A. L. Bte^ber. Fp. 

jld /-fiOu. a&ay, ivuv «.«»»»«..»«».«».«««^w...»—....»»»»««»«.«» — ——^»«««»«»«»»«. »»■«»«««««»■ ■»»«»— .to 

5. The Washo Language of Bast Central Califomia and NoTada, by A. L. 

Broeber. Fp. 251-818. September, 1907 .78 

6. The Beligion of the Indians of California, by A. L. Sroeber. Fp. 810- 

Index, pp. 857-874. 
VoL 5. 1. The Fhonology of the Hupa Language; Fart I, The Indiildnal Sounds^ 

by Fliny Earle Ooddard. Fp. 1-20, platea 1-8. March, 1907 .88 

2. Navaho M^ths, Frayers and Songs, with Texts and Translations^ by 
Washington Matthews, edited by Fliny Earle Ooddard. Fp. 21-68. 
sopuuiiDer, jlvwy ..««».».«»»«..«»»»»».».«■»»«»—»..»»«»«».» — ■»»»—->»»—»«——■■■»««■■■»«■■»«■■■■»■■■■■■»»■ ..o 
8. Eato Texts, by Fliny Earle Ooddard. Fp. 65-288, plate 9. December, 

1909 ~ . 2JI6 

4. The Material Culture of the Blamath Lake and Modoe Indians of 

Northeastern Califomia and Southern Oregoai, by B. A. Bamtl. 

It). 289-292, plates 10-26. June, 1910 - — . .78 

5. The Chimariko Indians and Language, by Boland B. Dixon. Fp. 298- 

Index, pp.. 881-884. 
VoL 6. 1. The Ethno-Oeography of the Fomo and Neighboring Didlan% by Saa^ 

uel Alfred Barrett. Fp. 1-882, maps 1-2. February, 1908 8 JB 

2. The Oeography and Dialects of the Miwok Indians^ by Samuel Alfted 

Barrett. Fp. 883-868, map 8. 
8. On the Evidence of the Occupation of Certain Begiona by the Mlwok 
Indians, by A. L. Broeber. Fp. 869-880. Nos. 2 and 8 In one coTor. 
Feoruan^, ivUo .,»«...»««««»«—»««»—»—«»»« — »*«■■■»"»—*——»«»*■* — *■«»« — »«■■ " ■ " — ■■'■—■■■»■■■ " ■■ ^^9 
Index, pp. 881-400. 



Vol 7. 1. The Emeryrllla SheUmomid, by Max UUe. Pp. 1-106, plates 1-12» with 

88 text figures. June, 1907 . _„ 1.28 

2. Recent InTestigations bearing upon tlie Question of tbe Occurrence of 
Neocene Man In tbe Auriferous Qravels of Oallf omla, by WUllam 
J. Sinclair. Pp. 107-130, plates 18-14. Pebruary, 1908 M 

8. Pomo Indian Basketry, by S. A. Barrett. Pp. 188-806, plates 15-80, 

281 text figures. December, 1908 1.75 

4. SheUmounds of tbe San Prandsco Bay Region, by N. O. Kelson. 

Pp. 809-866, plates 82-84. December, 1909 .50 

6. Tbe Ellis Landing Shellmound, by N. O. Nelson. Tp. 857-426^ plates 

•KMHI. A>pni, XVXU >...» ■■■.■■ mm ... ■ ■■■^..«»^»..»...^..«...«.»».. .■...■««—»«».»..«„ af 6 

Index, pp. 427-448. 

VoL 8. 1. A Mission Record of the Oallf omla Indians, from a Manuscript in the 

Bancroft Library, by A. L. Kroeber. P^. 1-27. May, 1908 .25 

2. The Bthnograxdiy of the Oahuilla Indiana, by A. L. BIroeber. Pp. 29- 

68, plates 1-15. July, 1908 ^ .75 

8. The R^lgion ^f the Lirisefio and Dleguefio Indians of Southern Oall- 

fomla, by Oonstance CK>ddard Dubois. Pp. 69-186, plates 16-19. 

June, 1908 1.25 

4. The Oulture of the Lulsefio Indians, by PhlUp Stedman Sparkmaa. 

Pp. 187-284, plate 20. August, 1908 JM) 

5. Notes on Shoshonean Dialects of Southern Oallfomla, by A. L. Kroe- 

ber. Pp. 285-269. Sei^tember, 1909 ... . .. .85 

6. The Religious Practices of the Dleguefio Indians^ by T. T. Waterman. 

Pp. 271-858, plates 21-28. March, 1910 '. 80 

Index, pp. 869-809. 

VoL 9. 1. Tana Texts, by Edward Saplr, together with Tana Myths collected by 

Roland B. Dixon. Pp. 1-285. Pebruary, 1910 2.50 

2. The Ohumash and Oostanoan Languages, by A. L. Kroeber. Pp. 287- 

271. November, 1910... _. .85 

8. The Languages of the Ooast of Oallfomla North of San Francisco, by 

A. L. Kroeber. Pp. 278-485, and map. April, 1911 1.50 

Index, pp. 487-489. 

V6L 10. 1. Phonetic Oonstituents of the Native Languages of Oallfomla, by A. 

Ik Kroeoer. Pp« i~iz. ASay, 1911 .......................................................... aio 

2. The Phonetic Elements of the Northern Palute Language, by T. T. 

Waterman. Pp. 18-44, plates 1-5. November, 1911 .45 

8. Phonetic Elements of the Mohave Language, by A. L. Kroeber. Pp. 

45-96, plates 6-20. November, 1911 _ .65 

4. The Ethnology of the Sallnan Indians, by J. Alden Mason. Pp. 97- 

240, plates 21-87. December, 1912 ».. 1.75 

5. Papago Verb Stems, by Juan Dolores. Pp. 241-268. August, 1918 .25 

6. Notes on the Ohilula Ihdlans of Northwestem Oallfornla, by Pliny 

Earl Gk>ddard. Pp. 265-288, plates 88-41. April, 1914 . .80 

7. Ohilula Texts, by Pliny Earle Goddard. Pp. 289-379. November, 

1914 1.00 

Index in press. 

VoL 11. 1. Elements of the Kato Language, by Pliny Earle Goddard. Pp. 1-176, 

praxes x-vO. wCwODer, jloXjs •..........•..••...•.•.••...••..•••••.•.•.•..«•.•.....••.....••..•.•■• 2b.uu 

2. Phonetic Elements of the Dleguefio Language, by A. L. Kroeber and 

J. P. Harrington. Pp. 177-188. April, 1914 10 

8. Sarsl Texte, by Pliny Earle Gk>ddard. Pp. 189-277. February, 1916.... 1.00 

4. Serian, Tequistlatecan, and Hokan, by A. L. Kroeber. Pp. 279-290. 

February, 1915 .10 

5. Dlchotomous Social Organization in South Oentral Oallfomla, by Ed- 

ward Winslow Giflord; Pp. 291-296. Febmary, 1916 05 

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Vol. 11, No. 6, pp. 297<d98 March 8, 1916 





I t 



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VoL 1. 1. Life and Ooltnre of His Hnpa, by Pliny -Ba^ Ooddard. Pp. 1«88; 

plates 1-30. September, 1908 fU6 

2. Hnpa Texts, by Pliny Earle Goddard. Pp. 89-368. Haxeh, 1904 ZM 

Index, pp. 869-878. 
VoL a. 1. The Exploration of the Potter Greek OaTO, by William J. Sinclair. 

Pp. 1-27; plates 1-14. April, 1904 M 

2. The Languages of the Ooast of Oalif oraia South of San FZaacisco^ by 

A. L. Kroeber. Pp. 29-80, with a map. June, 1904 M 

8. Types of Indian Culture in California, by A. L. Kroeber. Pp. 81-108. 

4. Basket Designs of the Indians of Northwestern California, by A. L. 

Kroeber. Pp. 106-164; plates 15-21. Jannary, 1906 . .76 

6. The Tokuts Language of South Central California, by A. L. Kroeber. 

Pp. 166-877. January, 1907 2.96 

Index, pp. 879-392. 
VoL 8. The Morphology of the Hupa Language, by Pliny Ba^ Goddard. 

844 m>. June. 1906 - . 8.50 

Vol 4. 1. The Earliest Ettstorleal Eolations between Mexico and Japan, from 

original documents preserred in Spain and Ji^pan, by Zelia NuttaO. 

2. Contribution to the Physical Anthropology of California, based on col- 
lections in the Department of Anthropology of the Utilyerstty of 
California, and in the U. S. National Museum, by Ales HMUidca. 
Pp. 49-64, with 5 tables; plates 1-10, and map. Jdne, 1906 ^ .78 

8. The Shoshonean Dialects of California, by A. L. Kroeber. Pp. 66-166. 

4. Indian Mytbs from South Central California, by A. L. Kroeber. Pp. 

6. The Washo Language of East Central California and Nevada, by A. L. 

Kroeber. Pp. 251-318. September, 1907 .75 

6. The Beligion of the Indians of California, by A. L. Kroeber. Pp. 819- 

356. September, 1907 ^^.»..>»^....».....».~.^^.>i.».^......^..~...».^^»>.^»«».»...»..^» J50 

Index, pp. 357-374. 
Vol 6. 1. The Phonology of the Hupa Language; Part I, The IndlYldual Sounds^ 

by Pliny Earle Goddard. Pp. 1-20, plates 1-8. March, 1907 .85 

2. NaTaho M^ths, Prayers and Songs, with Texts and Translations, by 
Washington Matthews, edited by Pliny Earle Goddard. Pp. 21-68. 

8. Kato Texts, by Pliny Earle Goddard. Pp. 65-288, plate 9. December, 

4. The Material Culture of the Klamath Lake and Modoe Indians of 
Northeastern California and Southern Oregon, by S. A. Barrett. 

Pp. 239-292, plates 10-25. June, 1910 .75 

6. The Chimariko Indians and Language^ by Bdand B. Dixon. Pp. 298- 

380. August, 1910 IjOO 

Index, pp. 881-384. 
VoL 6. 1. The Ethno-Geography of the Pome and Neighboring Indians^ by Sam- 
uel Alfred Barrett. Pp. 1-332, maps 1-2. February, 1908 . 8.88 

2. The Geography and Dialects of the Miwok Indians^ by Samnel Alffeed 

Barrett. Pp. 833-868, map 8. 
8. On the Evidence of the Occupation of Certain Begions by tiie Mlwok 
Indians, by A. L. Kroeber. Pp. 869-880. Nos. 2 and 8 in one eorwr. 

^ooruary, Xvus ....»«...— »-»««^«^».»«.«—.... ».....— ^ « ■■...»■■■» .,« jom 

Index, pp. 381-400. 


Vol 7. 1. Tbe E m eryv ille Shellmoimd, by Mez UUe. Pp. 1-106, idates 1-12| with 

2. Recent InyestlgatiQiiB bearing npon the Question of the Ocenrrence of 
Neocene Man in the Aurlf erona Oravela of Oalif omia» by William 
J. Sinclair. Pp. 107-130, plates 18-14. February, 1908 M 

8. Porno Indian Basketry, by S. A. Barrett. Pp. 188-806, plates 16-80, 

281 text figures. December, 1908 „ 1.75 

4. SheUmounds of the San Francisco Bay Region, by N. O. Nelson. 

Pp. 809-866, plates 82 84. December, 1909 JSO 

6. The Ellis Landing Sh^Umoond, by N. 0. Nelson. Pp. 867-426, plates 

OO-Oil. Apm, XViLU ■■^■■■.■■■■.■■■■■■.■■■■■■■— »»■■» —— .»»■»»..»»».«— »»■.«».»»».««».»«»«»««.—. .70 

Index, pp. 427-448. 

VoL 8. 1. A Mission Record of the California Indians, from a Manuscript in the 

Bancroft Library, by A. L. Kroeber. Pp. 1-27. May, 1908 .25 

2. The Ethnography of the Cahuilla Indians, by A. L. Kroeber. Pp. 29- 

68, olates 1-16. July, 1908 „ :... .75 

8. The Religion of the Luisefio and Dieguefio Indians of Southern Oall- 
fomia, by Constance Ooddard Dubois. Pp. 69-186, plates 16-19. 

4. The Culture of the Luisefio Indians, by Philip Stedman Sparkman. 

Pp. 187-284, plate 20. August, 1908 .60 

5. Notes on Shoshonean Dialects of Southern California, by A. L. Kroe- 

ber. Pp. 286-269. September, 1909 .35 

8. The Religious Practices of the Dieguefio Ttidlans^ by T. T. Waterman. 

Pp. 271-868, plates 21-28. March, 1910 80 

Index, pp. 869-869. 

VoL 9. 1. Tana Texts, by Edward Sapir, together with Tana Myths collected by 

Roland B. Dixon. Pp. 1-286. February, 1910 2.60 

2. The Chumash and Costanoan Languages, by A. L. Kroeber. Pp. 287- 

271. November, 1910 .86 

8, The Languages of the Coast of California North of San Francisco, by 

A. L. Kroeber. Pp. 278-485, and map. April, 1911 ' 1.60 

Index, pp. 487-489. 

Vcd. 10. 1. Phonetic Constituents of the Native Languages of California, by A. 

L. Kroeber. Pp. 1-12. May, 1911 .10 

2. The Phonetic Elements of the Northern Palute Language, by T. T. 

Waterman. Pp. 18-44, plates 1-6. November, 1911 .46 

8. Phonetic Elements of the Mohave Language^ by A. L. Kroeber. Pp. 

46-96, plates 6-20. November, 1911 — .66 

4. The Ethnology of the Salinan Indians, by J. Alden Mason. Pp. 97- 

240, plates 21-87. December, 1912 1.76 

6. Papago Verb Stems, by Juan Dolores. Pp. 241-263. August, 1913 — J2B 

6. Notes on the Chilula Ihdians of Northwestern California, by Pliny 

Earl Gk>ddard. Pp. 266-288, plates 88-41. April, 1914 30 

7. Chilula Texts, by Pltny Earle Goddard. Pp. 289-379. November, 

X914 .................................................................. ........•••.^..••••.•••..•••••..••••••••..M* JL.UU 

Index, pp. 381-385. 

VoL 11. 1. Elements of the Kato Language, by Pliny Earle Goddard. Pp. 1-176, 

plates 1-45. October, 1912 2.00 

2. Phonetic Elements of the Dieguefio Language, by A. L. Kroeber and 

J. P. Harrington. Pp. 177-188. April, 1914 .10 

8. Sand Texts, by Pliny Earle Goddard. Pp. 189-277. February, 1916..„ 1.00 

4. Serian, Tequistlatecan, and Hokan, by A. L. Kroeber. Pp. 279-290. 

February, 1915 ~ .10 

5. Dichotomous Social Organization in South Central California, by Ed- 

ward Winslow Giflord. Pp. 291-296. February, 1916 — 05 

6. The Delineation of the Day-Signs In the Aztec Manuscripts, by T. T. 

Waterman. Pp. 297-398. March, 1916 1.00 

7. The Mutsun Dialect of Costanoan Based on the Vocabulary of De la 

Cuesta, by J. Alden Mason. Pp. 399-472. March, 1916 70 

Index In preparation. 

VoL 12. 1. Composition of California SheUmounds, by Edward Winslow Gifford. 

Pp. 1-29. February, 1916 „ .80 


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Cited as UniT. Calif. FnbL Am. Arch. Bthn. Pries 

ToL 1. 1. Xdfe and Culture of the Hnpa, by Fliny Earle Ooddard. Fp. 1-88; 

plates 1-SO. September, 1903 .-^ fU6 

a. Hnpa Texts, by FUny Earle Ooddard. Fp. 8»-368. Mardi, 1904 8M 

Index, pp. 369-378. 

▼oL 2. 1. The Exploration of the Fetter Creek CaTe^ by William J. Binclair. 

Fp. 1-27; plates 1-14. April, 1904 M 

2. The Languages of the Coast of California South of San Fraactsoo^ by 

A. L. Kroeber. Fp. 29-80, with a map. June^ 1904 .60 

8. Types of Indian Culture In Calif omia» by A. L. Kroeber. Fp. 81-103. 

A Basket Designs of the Indians of Northwestern Calif omia» by A. L. 

Kroeber. Fp. 105-164; plates 16-21. January, 1905 .76 

6. The Tokuts Language of South Central California, by A. L. Kroeber. 

Index, pp. 379-392. 
ToL 8. The Morphology of the Hupa Language, by FUny Earle Ooddazd. 

344 DO. June. 1006 8.60 

TdL A 1. The Earliest Historical Eolations between Mexico and Japan, fkom 

original documents preserred In Spain and Japan, by Eelia NtittaU. 

2. Contribution to the Fhysical Anthropology of Calif omia» based on col- 
lections in the Department of Anthropology of the UniTerBlty of 
California, and In the U. S. National ICnseum, by Alee HMlicka. 
Fp. 49-64, with 6 tables; plates 1-10, and map. Jime, 1906 .75 

8. The Shoshonean Dialects of California, by A. L. Kroeber. Fp. 65-166. 

A Indian Myttis from South Central Caljf omia» by A. L. Kroeber. Fp. 

5. The Washo Language of East Central CaUf omia and Nevada^ by A. L. 

Kroeber. Fp. 261-318. September, 1907 .75 

6. The Beligion of the Indians of California, by A. L. Kroeber. Fp. 819- 

8o6t BeptemDer, ivu7 .»».—^»>.»..—^.«.«.»«»««»— —.»...».»».»»— »...—~».. .■■.....■. , .ov 

Index, pp. 357-37A 
ToL 5. 1. The Fhonology of the Hupa Language; Fart I, The Individual Sounds^ 

by FUny Earle Ooddard. Fp. 1-20, plates 1-8. March, 1907 35 

8. Navaho Mirths, Frayers and Songs, with Texts and Translatfons, by 
Washington Matthews, edited by FUny Bade Ooddard. Fp. 21-68. 

i3V^^|F«^BXU8/vAs AW e - l it ■ ll ■ 1 ■ n-T-l n-lll fTl-rTTf W I ■ ■ ItTll ■■ — T i l l ■ - - ! !■ ■ '- 11B> -Tl It ll r I B -Tl r ■■ T i r» • V^P 

A Kato Texts, liy Fliny Earle Ooddard. Fp. 65-288» plate 9. December, 

A The Material CuHore of the Klamath Lake and Modoe Indiana of 
Northeastern CaUfomia and Southern Oregon, by 8. A. Barrett. 
Fp. 289-292, plates 10-25. June^ 1910 .78 

5. The Chinuuiko Ihdians and Language, by Boland B. DIxcn. Fp. 888- 

Index, pp. 881-88A 
TdL 6. 1. The Ethno-Oeography of the Fomo and Netghborlng TiuHansy by Sanh 

u«l Alfted Barrett Fp. 1-888; maps 1-8. February, 1906 

8. The Oeography and Dialects of the Miwok Indisns^ by Samuel Alflced 

Barrett Fp. 833-368, map A 
A On the ETldence of the Occupation of Certain Begiona by the Mlwek 
Indians, by A. L. Kroeber. Fp. 869-880. Nos. 8 and 8 In csM eom. 
February, 1906 


Index, pp. 881-400. 


ToL 7. 1. The EmeryriUe Bliallmonndt by ISbx UUe. Pp. 1-106, pUtas 1-18, with 

88 t6Kt flffures. June. 1907 _ l.fill 

2. Beeent Inyestigatioiis bearing upon the Question of the Ocenxxeoce of 
Keocene Man in the Anxlf enms Orayele of California, by William 
J. Sinclair. Pp. 107-180, plates 18-14. Pebmary, 1908 .86 

8. Porno Indian Basketry, by 8. A. Barrett. Pp. 188-306, plates 16-80, 

281 text flgnres. December, 1908 « _ 1,78 

4. Shellmonnds of the San Prandsco Bay Begion, by K. O. ITtfaon. 

Pp. 809-866, plates 82-84. December, 1909 M 

6. The Ellis Tiandiiig Shellmomid, by K. O. Kdson. Pp. 867-426^ j^tes 

86-60. April, 1910 .75 

Index, pp. 427-448. 

ToL 8. 1. A Blisslon Becord of the California Indians, from a Idanuscrlpt in the 

Bancroft Library, by A. L. Kroeber. I^. 1-27. Blay, 1908 .20 

2. The Ethnography of the Cahuilla Indians, by A. I». Kroeber. Pp. 29- 

68, plates 1-16. July, 1908 .75 

8. The Bellgion of the Luiseilo and Diegnefio Indians of Sonthem Cali- 
fornia, by Constance Gk>ddard Dubois. Pp. 69-186, plates 16-19. 

4. The Culture of the Luiseilo Indians, by Philip Stedman Sparkman. 

Pp. 187-234, plate 20. August, 1908 J50 

6. Kotes on Shoshonean Dialects of Southern California, by A. L. E:roe- 

ber. Pp. 285-269. September, 1909.................. .85 

6. The B^ligious Practices of the Diegnefio Tndlans, by T. % Waterman. 

Pp. 271-858, plates 50.-28. March, 1910 .80 

Index, pp. 869-869. 

▼d. 9. 1, Tana Texts, by Edward Sapir, together with Tana Myths collected by 

Boland B. Dixon. Pp. 1-285. Pebmary, 1910 2JB0 

2. The Chumash and Costanoan Languages, by A. L. Kroeber. Pp. 287- 

271. KoTon^ber, 1910 .85 

8. The Languages of the Coast of California North of San Francisco, by 

A. L. Kroeber. Pp. 273-485, and map. April, 1911 IM 

Index, pp. 437-489. 

Vd. 10. 1. Phonetic Constituents of the Natiye Languages of California, by A. 

L. ^kToeoer. *9' i*x«. s&ay, ivii ................m....m...............~.....m......m.. •lo 

2. The Phonetic Elements of the Northern Paiute Language, by T; T. 

Waterman. Pp. 18-44, plates 1-5. Noyember, 1911 .45 

8. Phonetic Elements of the Mohaye Language^ by A- I** Kroeber. Pp. 

45-96, plates 6-20. November, 1911 .66 

4. The Ethnology of the Sallnan Indians, by J. Alden Mason. Pp. 97- 

240, plates 21-37. December, 1912 1.75 

5. Papago Verb Stems, by Juan Dolores. Pp. 241-268. August, 1918 .25 

6. Notes on the Chilula Ihdians of Northwestern California, by Pliny 

Earl Goddard. Pp. 265-288, plates 88-41. April, 1914 .80 

7. Chilula Texts, by Pliny Earle GK>ddard. Pp. 289-879. November, 

Index, pp. 381-385. 
Vd. 11« 1. Elements of the Kato Language, by Pliny Earle Ooddard. Pp. 1-176^ 

pxavOo X* sO. \/vwOWv*, XvXa ......................... ........a..*........... ...... ....«....«»»...» 3S.wU 

2. Phonetic Elements of the Diegnefio Language* by A. L. Kroeber and 

J. P. Harrington. Pp. 177-188. April, 1914 .10 

8. Sarsl Texts, by Pliny Earle Goddaxd. Pp. 189-277. Pebmary, 1915.... 1.00 
A Serian, Tequlstlatecan, and Hokan, by A. L. Kroeber. Pp. 279-290. 

A eDruaxy, xvxo ». .....M........M........... ......•.•..•..•••.•.••.. ...........•...•••..-m...... .»••••...• .jlu 

5. Dichotomous Social Organization in South Central California, by Ed- 

ward Winslow aifford. Pp. 291-296. Pebmary, 1916 .05 

6. The Delineation of the Day-Signs in the Aztec Manuscripts, by T. T. 

Waterman. Pp. 297-398. March, 1916 1.00 

7. The Mutsun Dialect of Costanoan Based on the Vocabulary of De la 

Cuesta, by J. Alden llCason. Pp. 399-472. March, 1916 70 

Index in preparation. 

VoL 12. 1. Composition of California Shellmounds, by Edward Winslow Oifford. 

Pp. 1-29. Pebmary, 1916 .30 


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