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VOL. 11. 




I ins 






Dragon and Devil distinguished — Dragons' wings — War in Heaven — 
Expulsion of Serpents — Dissolution of the Dragon — ^Theological 
origin of the Devil— Ideal and Actual — Devil Dogma — Debase- 
ment of ideal persons — ^Transmigration of phantoms . . I 



Respect for the Devil— Primitive Atheism — Idealisation — Birth of new 
gods — New gods diabolised — Compromise between new gods and 
old — Foreign deities degraded — Their utilisation . . .13 



Mr. Irving's impersonation of Superstition — Revolution against pious 
privilege — Doctrine of ' Merits ' — Saintly immorality in India — 
A Pantheon turned Inferno— Zend avesta on Good and Evil— 
Parst Mythology — ^The Combat of Ahriman with Ormuzd — Opti- 
misme-Pd £ tol f— Figli Ri 'a .20 






Deified power — Giants and Jehovah— Jehovah's manifesto— The various 
Elohim — ^Two Jehovahs and two Tables — Contractictions — Detach- 
ment of the Elohim from Jehovah ..... 46 



The Shekinah— Jewish idols — Attributes of the fieiy and cruel Elohim 
compared with those of the Devil — The powers of evil combined 
under a head— Continuity — ^The consuming fire spiritualised . 54 



Herakles and Athena in a holy picture — Human significance of E^en 
— The legend in Genesis puzzling— Silence of later books con- 
cerning it — Its Vedic elements — Its explanation — ^Episode of the 
Mah^bhirata — Scandinavian variant — The name of Adam — The 
story re-read — Rabbinical interpretations . • ^3 



The Fall of Man— Fall of gods — Giants — Prajipati and Rahu— Woman 
and Star-Serpent in Persia— Meschia and Meschiane — BdLhman 
legends of the creation of Man — The strength of Woman — Elohist 
and Jehovist creations of Man — The Forbidden Fruit — Eve re- 
appears as Sara — Abraham surrenders his wife to Jehovah — The 
idea not sensual — Abraham's circumcision — The evil name of 
Woman — ^Noah's wife — The temptation of Abraham — Rabbinical 
legends concerning Eve — Pandora — Sentiment of the Myth of Eve 73 



Madonnas — Adam's first wife — Her flight and doom — Creation of 
Devils — Lilith marries Samael — ^Tree of Life — Lilith's part in 
the Temptation — Her locks — Lamia — Bodeima — Meschia and 
Meschiane— Amazons — Maternity — Rib- theory of Woman— Kdii 
and Durga— Captivity of Woman ..... 






The • Other Tiamat, Bohu, ' the Deep Ra and Apophis—Hathors 
—Bel's combat— Rerolt in Hearen— Lilith— My th of the DevU at 
the creation of Light • . ^ .105 



The Abode of Devils—Ketef— Disorder— Tahnudic legends— The 
restless Spirit— The Fall of Lucifer— Asteria, Hecate, Lilith— 
The Dragon's triumph— A Gipsy legend — Csedmon's Poem of the 
Rebellioas Angels — Milton's version — The Puritans and Prince 
Rupert — Bel as ally of the Dragon— A * Mystery* in Marionettes 
—European Hells ....... 115 



Hebrew God of War— Samael— The father's blessing and curse— Esau 
—Edom— Jacob and the Phantom — ^The planet Mars— Tradesman 
and Huntsman— * The Devil's Dream' . .130 



Jacob, the ' Impostor '—The Barterer- Esau, the * Warrior '—Bar- 
barian Dukes — ^Trade and War — Reconciliation of Jacob and Esau 
— Their Ghosts — Legend of Iblis— Pagan Warriors of Europe — 
Russian Hierarchy of Hell ...... 138 



Hebrew Polytheism— Problem of Evil— Job's disbelief in a future life 
—The Divider's'reahn— Salted sacrifices— Theory of Orthodoxy 
— Job's reasoning — His humour — Impartiality of Fortune between 
the evil and good — ^Agnosticism of Job— Elihu's Eclecticism — 
Jehovah of the Whirlwind— Heresies of Job— Rabbinical legend 
of Job— Universality of the legend . . • . • '47 






Public Prosecutors — Satan as Accuser— English Devil- WonUpper — 
Conversion by Terror— Satan in the Old Testament— The trial 
of Joshua — Sender of Plagues — Satan and Serpent — Portrait of 
Satan— Scapegoat of Christendom— Catholic 'Sight of Hell'— 
The ally of Priesthoods . . . . . • I59 



Pharaoh and Herod — Zoroaster's mother — Ahriman's emissaries — 
Kansa and Krishna — Emissaries of Kansa — Astyages and Cyrus 
-i-Zohdk— Bel and the Christian . . . . .172 



Temptations — Birth of Buddha — Mara — Temptation of Power — 
Asceticism and Luxury — Mara's menaces — Appearance of the 
Buddha's Vindicator — Ahriman tempts Zoroaster — Satan and 
Christ — Criticism of Strauss — Jewish traditions — Hunger — 
Variants ........ 178 


A 'Morality ' at Tours— The * St. Anthony' of Spagnoletto— Bunyan's 
Pilgrim — Milton on Christ's Temptation — An Edinburgh saint 
and Unitarian fiend — A haunted Jewess — Conversion by fever — 
Limit of courage — Woman and sorcery — Luther and the Devil— 
The ink-spot at Wartburg — Carlyle's interpretation — The cowled 
Devil— Carlyle's trial— In Rue St. Thomas d'Enfer— The Everlast- 
ing No — Devil of Vauvert — The latter-day conflict — New condi- 
tions — The Victory of Man — ^The Scholar and the World 190 



Hindu myth — Gnostic theories — Ophite scheme of redemption — Rab- 
binical traditions of Primitive Man — Pauline Pessimism — Law of 
death — Satan's ownership of Man — Redemption of the Elect- 
Contemporary statements — Baptism — Exorcism — The * new 



man's* food — Eucharist — Herbert Spencer's explanation — Primi- 
live ideas — Legends of Adam and Seth — Adamites — A Mormon 
' Mystery ' of initiation • . • . • • 



A Hanover relic — Mr. Atkinson on the Dove — The Dove in the Old 
Testament — Ecclesiastical symbol — ^Judicial symbol — A vision of 
St Dunstan's — The witness of chastity — Dove and Serpent — The 
unpardonable sin — Inexpiable sin among the Jews — Destructive 
power of Jehovah — Potency of the breath — Third persons of 
Trinities — Pentecost — Christian superstitions — ^Mr. Moody on the 
sin against the Holy Ghost — Mysterious fear — Idols of the cave . 226 


The Kali Age — Satan sifting Simon— Satan as Angel of Light — 
Epithets of Antichrist — The Caesars — Nero — Sacraments imitated 
by Pagans — Satanic signs and wonders— Jerome on Antichrist — 
Armillus — ^Al Dajjail — Luther on Mohammed — *Mawmet' — 
^h g N^^aXriMoi^S^SSSE^ mSlbTi — Witc^^ n — lAt. 



he looketh upon it, shall live.' 
(This serpent was worshipped 
until destroyed by Hezekiah, 
2 Kings xviii.) Compare Jer. 
riii. 17, Ps. cxlviii., * Praise ye the 
Lord from the earth, ye dragons.' 

Gen. xix. 24. * The Lord rained 
upon Sodom and Gomorrah 
brimstone and fire from the Lord 
out of heaven.' Deut iv. 24. * The 
Lord thy God is a consuming fire.' 
Ps. xi. 6. ' Upon the wicked he 
shall rain snares, fire and brim- 
stone.' Ps. xviii. 8. * There went 
up a smoke out of his nostrils.' 
Ps. xcvii. 3. * A fire goeth before 
him, and bumeth up his enemies 
round about.' Ezek. xxxviii. 19, 
&c. ' For in my jealousy, and in 
the fire of my wrath, have I 
spoken. ... I will plead against 
him with pestilence and with 
blood, and I will rain upon him 
. . . fire and brimstone.' Isa. 
xxx. 33. * Tophet is ordained of 
old ; yea, for the king is it pre- 
pared : he hath made it deep 
and wide ; the pile thereof is fire 
and much wood ; the breath of 
the Lord, like a stream of brim- 
stone, doth kindle it.' 

Matt. xxv. 41. 'Depart from me, 
ye cursed, into everlasting fire, 
prepared for the devil and his 
angels.' Mark ix. 44. 'Where their 
worm dieth not, and the fire is 
not quenched.' Rev. xx. 10. * And 
the devil that deceiveth them was 
cast into the lake of fire and 
brimstone.' In Rev. ix. Abaddon, 
or Apollyon, is represented as the 
king of the scorpion tormentors ; 
and the diabolical horses, with 
stinging serpent tails, are de- 
scribed as killing with the smoke 
and brimstone issuing from their 

In addition to the above passages may be cited a notable 
passage from Paul's Epistle to the Thessalonians (ii. 3). 
' Let no man deceive you by any means : for that day (of 
Christ) shall not come, except there come a falling away 
first, and that man of sin be revealed, the son of perdition ; 
who opposeth and exalteth himself above all that is called 
God, or that is worshipped ; so that he, as God, sitteth 
in the temple of God, showing himself that he is God. 
Remember ye not that, when I was yet with you, I told you 



these things ? And now ye know what withholdeth that 
he might be revealed in his time. For the mystery of 
iniquity doth already work : only he who now letteth will 
let, until he be taken out of the way : and then shall that 
Wicked be revealed, whom the Lord shall consume with 
the spirit of his mouth, and shall destroy with the bright- 
ness of his coming : even him whose coming is after the 
working of Satan, with all power, and signs, and lying 
wonders, and with all the deceivableness of unrighteous- 
ness in them that perish ; because they received not the 
love of the truth, that they might be saved. And for this 
cause God shall send them strong delusion, that they should 
believe a lie ; that they all might be damned who believed 
not the truth, but had pleasure in unrighteousness.' 

This remarkable utterance shows how potent was the 
survival in the mind of Paul of the old Elohist belief. 
Although the ancient deity, who deceived prophets to 
their destruction, and sent forth lying spirits with their 
strong delusions, was dethroned and outlawed, he was 
still a powerful claimant of empire, haunting the temple, 
and setting himself up therein as God. He will be consumed 
by Christ's breath when the day of triumph comes; but 
meanwhile he is not only allowed great power in the 
earth, but utilised by the true God, who even so far co- 
operates with the false as to send on some men ' strong 
delusions' (* a working of error,* Von Tischendorf translates), 
in order that they may believe the lie and be damned. Paul 
speaks of the * mystery of iniquity;' but it is not so very 
mysterious when we consider the antecedents of his idea. 
The dark problem of the origin of evil, and its continuance 
in the universe under the rule of a moral governor, still threw 
its impenetrable shadow across the human mind. It was 
a terrible reality, visible in the indifference or hostility 
with which the new gospel was met on the part of the 


cultured and powerful; and it could only then be ex- 
plained as a mysterious provisional arrangement connected 
with some divine purpose far away in the depths of the 
universe. But the passage quoted from Thessalonians 
shows plainly that all those early traditions about the 
(Jivinely deceived prophets and lying spirits, sent forth 
from Jehovah Elohim, had finally, in Paul's time, become 
marshalled under a leader, a personal Man of Sin; but 
this leader, while opposing Christ's kingdom, is in some 
mysterious way a commissioner of God. 

We may remark here the beautiful continuity by which, 
through all these shadows of terror and vapours of specu- 
lation, ' clouding the glow of heaven,' ^ the unquenchable 
ideal from first to last is steadily ascending. 

' One or three things,* says the Talmud, ' were before 
this world — Water, Fire, and Wind. Water begat the 
Darkness, Fire begat Light, and Wind begat the Spirit 
of Wisdom.' This had become the rationalistic transla- 
tion by a crude science of the primitive demons, once 
believed to have created the heavens and the earth. In the 
process we find the forces outlawed in their wild action, 
but becoming the choir of God in their quiet action : — 

I Kings xix. 11-13. 'And he said, Go forth, and stand 
upon the mount before the Lord. And, behold, the Lord 
passed by, and a great and strong wind rent the moun- 
tains, and brake in pieces the rocks before the Lord; 
but the Lord was not in the wind : and after the wind an 
earthquake; but the Lord was not in the earthquake: 
and after the earthquake a fire ; but the Lord was not in 
the fire : and after the fire a still small voice. And it was 
so, when Elijah heard it, that he wrapped his face in his 

^ Name ist Schall und Ranch, < 
Umnebdnd Himmelsgluth. — Gokthb. 


' Our God also ! ' cries each great revolution that ad- 
vances. His consuming wrath is not now directed s^ainst 
man, but the errors which are man's only enemies: the 
lightnings of the new Sinai, while they enlighten the earth, 
smite the old heaven of human faith and imagination, 
shrivelling it like a burnt scroll 1 

In this nineteenth century, when the old heaven, amid 
which this fiery pillar glowed, is s^ain shaken, the ancient 
phrase has still its meaning. The Russian Tourgeniefi 
represents two friends who had studied together in early 
life, then parted, accidentally meeting once more for a 
single night They compare notes as to what the long 
intervening years have taught them ; and one sums his 
experience in the words — I have burned what I used to 
worship, and worship what I used to burn.' The novelist 
artfully reproduces for this age a sentence associated with 
a crisis in the religious history of Europe. Clovis, King of 
the Franks, invoked the God of his wife Clotilda to aid 
him against the Germans, vowing to become a christian if 
successful ; and when, after his victory, he was baptized 
at Rheims, St. Remy said to him — * Bow thy head meekly, 
Sicambrian ; burn what thou hast worshipped, and worship 
what thou hast burned 1 ' Clovis followed the Bishop's 
advice in literal fashion, carrying fire and sword amid his 
old friends the ' Pagans ' right zealously. But the era has 
come in which that which Clovis' sword and St Remy's 
theology set up for worship is being consumed in its turn. 
TourgeniefT's youths are consuming the altar on which 
their forerunners were consumed. And in this rekindled 
flame the world now sees shrivelling the heavens once 
fr^h, but now reflecting the aggrf ^ajg §tl^f^ne^of man- 
^ tClttiith f n n iS Wj^bn ^ ^^^ds^s^ ^ 


m o ^ tSt bfi an 

vs # St a ^ 



origin and design there is now no doubt, is significant 
The fable of Paradise and the Serpent is itself more diffi- 
cult to trace, so many have been the races and religions 
which have framed it with their holy texts and preserved 
it in their sacred precincts. In its essence, no doubt, the 
story grows from a universal experience ; in that aspect it 
is a mystical rose that speaks all languages. When man 
first appears his counterpart is a garden. The moral 
nature means order. The wild forces of nature — ^the 
Elohim — build no fence, forbid no fruit They say to 
man as the supreme animal, Subdue the earth ; every 
tree and herb shall be your meat; every animal your 
slave; be fruitful and multiply. But from the conflict 
the more real man emerges, and his sign is a garden 
hedged in from the wilderness, and a separation between 
good and evil. 

The form in which the legend appears in the Book of 
Genesis* presents one side in which it is simple and 
natural. This has already been suggested (vol. i. p. 330), 
But the legend of man defending his refuge from wild 
beasts against the most subtle of them is here overlaid by 
a myth in which it plays the least part. The mind which 
reads it by such light as may be obtained only from 
biblical sources can hardly fail to be newly puzzled at 
every step. So much, indeed, is confessed in the endless 
and diverse theological theories which the story has 
elicited. What is the meaning of the curse on the 
Serpent that it should for ever crawl thereafter? Had 
it not crawled previously.? Why was the Tree of the 
knowledge of Good and Evil forbidden ? Why, when its 
fruit was tasted, should the Tree of Life have been for the 
first time forbidden and jealously guarded ? These riddles 
are nowhere solved in the Bible, and have been left to the 
fanciful ^inventions oL theologians and the ingenuity of 



rabbins. Dr. Adam Clarke thought the Serpent was an 
ape before his sin, and many rabbins concluded he was 
camel-shaped ; but the remaining enigmas have been 
fairly given up. 

The ancient Jews, they who wrote and compiled the 
Old Testament, more candid than their m6dern de- 
scendants and our omniscient christians, silently confessed 
their inability to make anything out of this snake-story. 
From the third chapter of Genesis to the last verse of 
Malachi the story is not once alluded to ! Such a pheno- 
menon would have been impossible had this legend been 
indigenous with the Hebrew race. It was clearly as a 
boulder among them which had floated from regions little 
known to their earlier writers ; after lying naked through 
many ages, it became overgrown with rabbinical lichen and 
moss, and, at the christian era, while it seemed part of 
the Hebrew landscape, it was exceptional enough to 
receive special reverence as a holy stone. That it was 
made the corner-stone of christian theology may be to 
some extent explained by the principle of omne ignotum 
pro mirifico. But the boulder itself can only be explained 
by tracing it to the mythologic formation from which it 

How would a Parsi explain the curse on a snake which 

condemned it to crawl ? He would easily give us evidence 

that he tiraX w br * , ^ 

. oee 

w s * e .1 a dl hnh b 



of the Avesta, which in turn is Ahi, the great Vedic 
Serpent-monster whom Indra * prostrated beneath the 
feet' of the stream he had obstructed— every stream 
having its deity. He would remind us that the Vedas 
describe the earliest dragon-slayer, Indra, as ' crushing 
the head ' of his enemy, and that this figure of the god 
with his heel on a Serpent's head has been familiar to his 
race from time immemorial. And he would then tell 
us to read the Rig- Veda, v. 32, and the Mahdbhdrata, 
and wc would find all the elements of the story told in 

In the hymn referred to we find a graphic account of 
how, when Ahi was sleeping on the waters he obstructed, 
Indra hurled at him his thunderbolt. It says that when 
Indra had 'annihilated the weapon of that mighty beast 
from him (Ahi), another, more powerful, conceiving him- 
self one and unmatched, was generated,' This ' wrath-born 
son,' ' a walker in darkness,' had managed to get hold of 
the sacred Soma, the plant monopolised by the gods, and 
having drunk this juice, he lay slumbering and envelop- 
ing the world,* and then * fierce Indra seized upon him/ 
and having previously discovered 'the vital part of him 
who thought himself invulnerable,' struck that incama- 
tion of many-formed Ahi, and he was * made the lowest of 
all creatures' 

But one who has perused the philological biography of 
Ahi already given, vol. i. p. 357, will not suppose that this was 
the end of him. We must now consider in further detail 
the great episode of the Mahdbhdrata, to which reference 
has been made in other connections.^ During the Deluge 
the most precious treasure of the gods, the Amrita, the 
ambrosia that rendered them immortal, was lost, and the 
poem relates how the Devas and Asuras, otherwise gods 
^ See pp. 46 and 255. The episode is in Mahibhdrata, 1. 15.- 

mahabhArata episode, 67 

and serpents, together churned the ocean for it. There 
were two great mountains, — Meru the golden and beau- 
tiful, adorned with healing plants, pleasant streams and 
trees, unapproachable by the sinful, guarded by serpents ; 
Mandar, rocky, covered with rank vegetation, infested by 
savage beasts. The first is the abode of the gods, the last of 
demons. To find the submerged Amrita it was necessary 
to uproot Mandar and use it to churn the ocean. This 
was done by calling on the King Serpent Ananta, who 
called in the aid of another great serpent, Vdsuki, the latter 
being used as a rope colling and uncoiling to whirl the 
mountain. At last the Amrita appeared. But there also 
streamed forth from the ocean bed a terrible stench and 
venom, which was spreading through the universe when 
Siva swallowed it to save mankind, — the drug having 
stained his throat blue, whence his epithet ' Blue Neck.' 

When the Asuras saw the Amrita, they claimed it ; but 
one of the Devas, Narya, assumed the form of a- beauti- 
ful woman, and so fascinated them that they forgot the 
Amrita for the moment, which the gods drank. One of 
the Asuras, however, Rdhu, assumed the form of a god 
or Deva, and began to drink. The immortalising nectar 
had not gone farther than his throat when the sun and 
moon saw the deceit and discovered it to Naraya, who cut 
off Rdhu's head. The head of Rdhu, being immortal, 
bounded to the sky, where its efforts to devour the sun and 
moon, which betrayed him, causes their eclipses. The 
tail (Ketu) also enjoys immortality in a lower plane, and 
is the fatal planet which sends diseases on mankind. A 
furious war between the gods and the Asuras has been 
waged ever since. And since the Devas are the strongest, 
it is not wonderful that it should have passed into the 
folklore of the whole Aryan world that the evil host are 
for ever seeking to recover by cunning the Amrita. The 



Serpents guarding the paradise of the Devas have more 
than once, in a mythologic sense» been induced to betray 
their trust and glide into the divine precincts to steal the 
coveted draught This is the Kvdsir^ of the Scandinavian 
Mythology, which is the source of that poetic inspiration 
whose songs have magical potency. The sacramental sym- 
bol of the Amrita in Hindu Theology is the Soma juice, 
and this plant Indra is declared in the Rig- Veda (i. 130) 
to have discovered " hidden, like the nestlings of a bird, 
amidst a pile of rocks enclosed by bushes," where the 
dragon Drought had concealed it. Indra, in the shape 
of a hawk, flew away with it In the Prose Edda the 
Frost Giant Suttung has concealed the sacred juice, and 
it is kept by the maid Gunlauth in a cavern ovei^rown 
with bushes. Bragi bored a hole through the rock. 
Odin in the shape of a worm crept through the crevice; 
then resuming his godlike shape, charmed the maid into 
permitting him to drink one draught out of the three 
jars ; and, having left no drop, in form of an eagle flew to 
Asgard, and discharged in the jars the wonder-working 
liquid. Hence poetry is called Odin's booty, and Odin s 

Those who attentively compare these myths with the 
legend in Genesis will not have any need to rest upon the 
doubtful etymology of ' Adam ' * to establish the Ayran 

* Related to the Slav Kvas^ with which, in Russian folklore, the Devil 
tried to circumvent Noah and his wife, as related in chap, xxvii. part iv. 

' In Sanskrit Adima means ' the first ; ' in Hebrew Adam (given almost 
always with the article) means 'the red,* and it is generally derived from 
adamaA, mould or soil. But Professor Max Miiller (Science of Religion, p. 
320) says if the name Adima (used, by the way, in India for the first man, as 
Adam is in England) is the same as Adam, ' we should be driven to admit 
that Adam was borrowed by the Jews from the Hindus.' But even that 
mild case of * driving * is unnecessary, since the word, as Sale reminded the 
world, is used in the Persian legend. It is probable that the Hebrews im- 
ported this word not knowing its meaning, and as it resembled their word for 



origin of the latter. The Tree of the knowledge of Good 
and Evil which made man ' as one of us ' (the Elohim) is 
the Soma of India, the Haoma of Persia, the kvdsir of 
Scandinavia, to which are ascribed the intelligence and 
powers of the gods, and the ardent thoughts of their 
worshippers. The Tree of Immortality is the Amrita, the 
only monopoly of the gods. * The Lord God said, Be- 
hold the man is become as one of us, to know good and 
evil: and now, lest he put forth his hand, and take also of 
the tree of life, and eat, and live for ever : Therefore the 
Lord God sent him forth the garden of Eden to till the 
ground whence he had been taken. So he drove out 
the man ; and he placed on the east of the garden of 
Eden cherubim, and a flaming sword which turned every 
way, to guard the way of the tree of life.' 
This flaming sword turning every way is independent 

mould, they added the gloss that the first man was made of the dust or mould 
of the ground. It is not contended that the Hebrews got their word directly 
from the Hindu or Persian myth. Mr. George Smith discovered that Admi 
or Adami was the name for the first men in Chaldean fragments. Sir Henry 
RawlinsoD points out that the ancient Babylonians recognised two principle 
races, — the Adamu, or dark, and the Sarku, or light, race ; probably a dis- 
tinction, remembered in the phrase of Genesis, between the supposed sons of 
Adam and the sons of God. llie dark race was the one that felL Mr. Herbert 
Spencer {Prhuiples of Sociology, Appendix) offers an ingenious suggestion that 
the prohibition of a certain sacred fruit may have been the provision of a light 
race against a dark one, as in Peru only the Yuca and his relatives were 
allowed to eat the stimulating cuca. If this be true in the present case, it would 
still only reflect an earlier tradition that the holy fruit was the rightful pos- 
session of the deities who had won in the struggle for it. 

Nor is there wanting a survival from Indian tradition in the story of Eve. 
Adam said, 'This now is bone of my bone, and flesh of my flesh.' In the 
Mann Code (ix. 22) it is written : ' The bone of woman is united with the 
bone of man, and her flesh with his flesh.' The Indian Adam fell in twain, 
becoming male and female (Yama and Yami). Ewald (Hist, of Israel, i. i) 
has put this matter of the relation between Hebrew aud Hindu traditions, as 
it appears to me, beyond doubL See also Goldziher's Heb. Mythol., p. 326 ; 
and Professor King's Gnostics^ pp. 9, 10, where the historic conditions under 
V * iBonl ortation would at r 11 h t,er n tl tf 

ed A beco 




d 00 






of the cherub, and takes the place of the serpent which 
had previously guarded the Meru paradise, but is now an 
enemy no longer to be trusted. 

If the reader will now re-read the story in Genesis with 
the old names restored, he will perceive that there is no 
puzzle at all in any part of it : — ' Now Rdhu [because he 
had stolen and tasted Soma] was more subtle than any 
beast of the 6eld which the Devas had made, and he 
said to Adea Suktee, the first woman, Have the Devas 
said you shall not eat of every tree in the garden ? And 
she said unto Rdhu, We may eat of the fruit of the trees of 
the garden; but of the Soma-plant, which is in the middle 
of the garden, the Devas have said we shall not eat or 
touch it on pain of death. Then Rdhu said to Adea, You 
will not suffer death by tasting Soma [I have done so, and 
live] : the Devas know that on the day when you taste it 
your eyes shall be opened, and you will be equal to them 
o. in knowled eof c^dpnd i . nd /TWilLe t i at 



race of both gods and men, had not Siva drank it up. If 
anything were required to make the Aryan origin of the 
fable certain, it will be found in the fact which will appear 
as we go on, — namely, that the rabbins of our era, in ex- 
plaining the legend which their fathers severely ignored, 
did so by borrowing conceptions foreign to the original 
ideas of their race, — notions about human transformation 
to animal shapes, and about the Serpent (which Moses 
honoured), and mainly of a kind travestying the Iranian 
folklore. Such contact with foreign races for the first 
time gave the Jews any key to the legend which their 
w aAriarchs nd, ro hiis were som 11 r in 


serpent, and then came forth as a handsome man, and after 
uttering compliments that she could not understand, pre- 
sented Eve with a small oval mirror which explained them 
all. Mile. Abingdon as Eve displayed consummate art 
in her expression of awakening self-admiration, of the 
longing for admiration from the man before her, and the 
various stages of self-consciousness by which she is brought 
under the Tempter's power. This idea of the mirror was 
no doubt borrowed from the corresponding fable of Pan- 
dora. On a vase (Etruscan) in the Hamilton Collection 
there is an admirable representation of Pandora opening 
her box, from which all evils are escaping. She is seated 
beneath a tree, around which a serpent is coiled. Among 
the things which have come out of the box is this same 
small oval mirror. In this variant, Hope, coming out last 
corresponds with the prophecy that the seed of the woman 
shall bruise the serpent's head. The ancient Etruscan and 
the modern Parisian version are both by the mirror finely 
connected with the sexual sense of the legend. 

The theological interpretation of the beautiful myth of 
Eden represents a sort of spiritual vivisection ; yet even 
as a dogma the story preserves high testimony : when 
woman falls the human race falls with her; when man 
ri^s above his inward or outward degradations and re- 
covers his Paradise, it is because his nature is refined by 
the purity of woman, and his home sweetened by her 
heart. There is a widespread superstition that every 
Serpent will single out a woman from any number of 
people for its attack. In such dim way is felt her gentle 
bruising of man's reptilian self. No wonder that woman 
is excluded from those regions of life where man's policy 
is still to crawl, eat dust, and bite the heel. 

It is, I fuppose, the old Mystery of the Creation which 
left Coventry its legend of a Good Eve (Godiva), whose 



nakedness should bring benefit to man, as that of the first 
Eve brought him evil. The fig-leaf of Eve, gathered no 
doubt from the tree whose forbidden fruit she had eaten, 
has gradually grown so large as to cloak her mind and 
spirit as well as her form. Her work must still be chiefly 
that of a spirit veiled and ashamed. Her passions sup- 
pressed, her genius disbelieved, her influence forced to seek 
hidden and often illegitimate channels, Woman now out- 
wardly represents a creation of man to suit his own con- 
venience. But the Serpent has also changed a great deal 
since the days of Eve, and now, as Intelligence, has found 
out man in his fool's-paradise, where he stolidly maintains 
that, with few exceptions, it is good for man to be alone. 
But good women are remembering Godiva ; and realisingr 
that, the charms which have sometimes lowered man or cost 
him dear may be made his salvation. It shall be so when 
Woman can face with clear-eyed purity all the facts of 
nature, can cast away the mental and moral swathing- 
clothes transmitted from Eden, and put forth all her 
powers for the welfare of mankind, — a Good Eva, whom 
Coventry Toms may call naked, but who is 'not ashamed * 
of the garb of Innocence and Truth. 

( 91 ) 



Madonnas — Adam's first wife— Her flight and doom— Creation of 
devils — Lilith marries SamaSl — Tree of Life — Lilith's part in 
the Temptation — Her locks — Lamia — Bodeima — Meschia and 
Meschiane — Amazons — Maternity — Rib-theory of Woman — Kdli 
and Durga — Captivity of Woman. 

The attempt of the compilers of the Book of Genesis to 
amalgamate the Elohist and Jehovist legends, ignofing 
the moral abyss that yawns between them, led te some 
sufficiently curious results. One of these it may be well 
enough to examine here, since, though later in form than 
some other legends which remain to be considered, it is 
closely connected in spirit with the ancient myth of Eden 
and illustrative of it. 

The differences between the two creations of man and 
woman critically examined in the previous chapter were 
fully recognised by the ancient rabbins, and tijeir specula- 
tions on the subject laid the basis for the further legend 
that the woman created (Gen. i.) at the same time with 
Adam, and therefore not possibly the woman formed 
from his rib, was a first wife who turned out badly. 

To this first wife of Adam it was but natural to assign 
the name of one of the many ancient goddesses who had 
been degraded into demonesses. For the history oi 
M * 'n th Nortlt9t et r n man tim 



the first smile of love upon social chaos, availed to give 
every race its Madonna, whose popularity drew around 
her the fatal favours of priestcraft, weighing her down at 
last to be a type of corruption. Even the Semitic tribes, 
with their hard masculine deities, seem to have once wor- 
shipped Alilat, whose name survives in Elohim and Allah. 
Among these degraded Madonnas was Lilith, whose name 
has been found in a Chaldean inscription, which says, when 
a country is at peace ' Lilith (Lilatu) is not before them.' 
The name is from Assyr. la^lA, Hebrew Lil (night), which 
already in Accadian meant 'sorcery.* It probably per- 
sonified, at first, the darkness that soothed children to 
slumber; and though the word Lullaby has, with more 
ingenuity than accuracy, been derived from Lilith Abi, the 
theory may suggest the path by which the soft Southern 
night came to mean a nocturnal spectre. 

The only place where the name of Lilith occurs in the 
Bible is Isa. xxxiv. 14, where the English version renders 
it ' screech-owl.' In the Vulgate it is translated ' Lamia,' 
and in Luther's Bible, ' Kobold ;' Gesenius explains it as 
' nocturna, night-spectre, ghost' 

The rabbinical myths concerning Lilith, often passed 
over as puerile fancies, appear to me pregnant with signi- 
ficance and beauty. Thus Abraham Ecchelensis, giving a 
poor Arabic version of the legend, says, * This fable has 
been transmitted to the Arabs from Jewish sources by 
some converts of Mahomet from Cabbalism and Rabbin- 
ism, who have transferred all the Jewish fooleries to the 
Arabs.' * But the rabbinical legend grew very slowly, and 

h f relatgfi r W > le rv« dr of fo^l^jjo} i wh se 
ku fnBiRijhenhi. s nei r 



gives ample references to rabbinical authorities, I will 
relate it without further references of my own. 

Lilith was said to have been created at the same time 
and in the same way as Adam ; and when the two met 
they instantly quarrelled about the headship which both 
claimed. Adam began the first conversation by asserting 
that he was to be her master. Lilith replied that she had 
equal right to be chief. Adam insisting, Lilith uttered a 
certain spell called Schem-hamniphorasch — afterwards con- 
fided by a fallen angel to one of * the daughters of men ' with 
whom he had an intrigue, and of famous potency in 
Jewish folklore — the result of which was that she obtained 
wings. Lilith then flew out of Eden and out of sight.^ ^ - 
Adam then cried in distress — * Master of the world, the 
woman whom thou didst give me has flown away.' The 
Creator then sent three angels to And Lilith and persuade 
her to return to the garden ; but she declared that it could 
be no paradise to her if she was to be the servant of man. 
She remained hovering over the Red Sea, where the 
angels had found her, while these returned with her 
inflexible resolution. And she would not yield even after 
the angels had been sent again to convey to her, as the 
» altema i f n ^ re urnin the d m th sh sfl 

V ue ae e> sb "udSlik^^ ^ 

dh «ic c t r ofi t h /edfc ,t ni 1 g v 

e ^ d ^ghs h 



charm (Camea) against Lilith hung round the necks of 
Jewish children bore the names of these three angels — 
Sen6i, Sansen6i, and Sammangel6f, Lilith has special 
power over all children born out of wedlock for whom she 
watches, dressed in finest raiment ; and she has especial 
power on the first day of the month, and on the Sabbath 
evening. When a little child laughs in its sleep it was 
believed that Lilith was with it, and the babe must be 
struck on the nose three times, the words being thrice 
repeated — ' Away, cursed Lilith I thou hast no place 

The divorce between Lilith and Adam being complete, 
the second Eve (f>., Mother) was now formed, and this 
time out of Adam's rib in order that there might be no 
question of her dependence, and that the embarrassing 
question of woman's rights might never be raised again. 

But about this time the Devils were also created. 
These beings were the last of the six days' creation, but 
they were made so late in the day that there was no 
daylight by which to fashion bodies for them. The 
hu I e n P o.>e.ed)iniqtthtf^eP& viHth^ilgimise £ e 



badly treated in not having been provided with flesh and 
blood, and they were envious of the carnal pleasures 
which human, beings could enjoy. So long as man and 
woman remained pure, the Devils could not take posses- 
sion of their bodies and enjoy such pleasures, and it was 
therefore of great importance to them that the first human 
pair should be corrupted. At the head of these Devils 
stood now a fallen angel — Samael. Of this archflend 
more is said elsewhere ; at this point it need only be said 
that he had been an ideal flaming Serpent, leader of the 
Seraphim. He was already burning with lust and envy, 
as he witnessed the pleasures of Adam and Eve in Eden, 
when he found beautiful Lilith lamenting her wrongs in 

She became his wife. The name of Samael by one 
interpretation signifies ' the Left * ; and we may suppose 
that Lilith found him radical on the question of female 
equality which she had raised in Eden. He gave her a 
splendid kingdom where she was attended by 480 troops ; 
but all this could not compensate her for the loss of Eden, 
— ^she seems never to have regretted parting with Adam, 
— ^and for the loss of her children. She remained the 
Lady of Sorrow. Her great enemy was Machalath who 
presided over 478 troops, and who was for ever dancing, 
as Lilith was for ever sighing and weeping. It was long 
believed that at certain times the voice of Lilith's grief 
could be heard in the air. 

Samael found in Lilith a willing conspirator against 
Jehovah in his plans for man and woman. The corrup- 
tion of these two meant, to the troops of Samael, bring- 
ing their bodies down into a plane where they might 
be entered by themselves (the Devils), not to mention at 
present the manifold other motives by which they were 
actuated. It may be remarked also that in the rabbinical 


traditions, after their Aryan impregnation, there are traces 
of a desire of the Devils to reach the Tree of Life. 

Truly a wondrous Tree I Around it, in its place at 
the east of Eden, sang six hundred thousand lovely angels 
with happy hymns, and it glorified the vast garden. It 
possessed five hundred thousand different flavours and 
odours, which were wafted to the four sides of the world 
by zephyrs from seven lustrous clouds that made its 
canopy. Beneath it sat the disciples of Wisdom on 
resplendent seats, screened from the blaze of sun, moon, 
and cloud-veiled from potency of the stars (there was no 
night) ; and within were the joys referred to in the verse 
(Prov. viii. 2i), 'That I may cause those that love me to 
inherit substance ; and I will fill their treasures.' 

Had there been an order of female rabbins the story of 
Lilith might have borne obvious modifications, and she 
might have appeared as a heroine anxious to rescue her 
sex from slavery to man. As it is the immemorial pre- 
rogative of man to lay all blame upon woman, that being 
part of the hereditary following of Adam, it is not wonder- 
ful that Lilith was in due time made responsible for the 
temptation of Eve. She was supposed to 
have beguiled the Serpent on guard at 
the gate of Eden to lend her his form for 
a time, after which theory the curse on 
^ iWagaSiftitelfcnWvrtEhleiz n 'fe ^ ^| 4 


is traceable in the eighth century. In this picture we 
have an early example of those which have since become 
familiar in old Bibles. Pietro d'Orvieto painted this ser- 
pent-woman in his finest fresco, at Pisa. Perhaps in no 
other picture has the genius of Michael Angelo been more 
felicitous than in that on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, 
in which Lilith is portrayed. In this picture (Fig. 2) 
the marvellous beauty of his first wife appears to have 
awakened the enthusiasm of Adam; and, indeed, it is quite 

Fig. 9.— TsMPTATioN AND EXPULSION (Michael Augelu, Sistine Chapel). 

in harmony with the earlier myth that Lilith should be of 
I greater beauty than Eve. 

An artist and poet of our own time (Rossetti) has by 

both of his arts celebrated the fatal beauty of Lilith. 

His Lilith, bringing * soft sleep,* antedates, as I think, the 

fair devil of the Rabbins, but is also the mediaeval witch 
I against whose beautiful locks Mephistopheles warns Faust 
I when she appears at the Walpurgis-night orgie. 

The rose and poppy are her flowers ; for where 
Is he not found, O Lilith, whom shed scent 
And soft-shed kisses and soft sleep shall snare ? 
Lo I as that youth's eyes burned at thine, so went 
I Thy spell through him, and left his straight neck bent. 

And round his heart one strangling golden hair. 






The potency of Lilith's tresses has probably its origin in 
the hairy nature ascribed by the Rabbins to all demons 
{shedim), and found fully represented in Esau. Perhaps 
the serpent-locks of Medusa had a similar origin. Nay, 
there is a suggestion in Dante that these tresses of 
Medusa may have once represented fascinating rather 
than horrible serpents. As she approaches, Virgil is 
alarmed for his brother-poet : 

' Turn thyself back, and keep thy vision hid ; 
For, if the Gorgon show, and then behold, 
'T would all be o*er with e'er returning up.' 
So did the master say ; and he himself 
Turned me, and to my own hands trusted not, 
But that with his too he should cover me. 
O you that have a sane intelligence, 
Look ye unto the doctrine which herein 
Conceals itself 'neath the strange verses* veil.^ 

If this means that the security against evil is to veil the 
eyes from it, Virgil's warning would be against a beautiful 
seducer, similar to the warning given by Mephistopheles 
to Faust against the fatal charms of Lilith. Since, how- 
ever, even in the time of Homer, the Gorgon was a 
popular symbol of terrors, the possibility of a survival 
in Dante's mind of any more primitive association with 
Medusa is questionable. The Pauline doctrine, that the 
glory of a woman is her hair, no doubt had important 
antecedents : such glory might easily be degraded, and 
every hair turn to a fatal 'binder,' like the one golden 
thread of Lilith round the heart of her victim ; or it might 
ensnare its owner. In Treves Cathedral there is a curious 
old pictur.e of a woman carried to hell by her beautiful 
hair ; one devil draws her by it, another is seated on her 
back and drives her by locks of it as a bridle. 

In the later developments of the myth of Lilith she 
* Inferno, ix. 56-64. 


was, among the Arabs, transformed to a Ghoul, but in 
rabbinical legend she appears to have been influenced by 
the story of Lamia, whose name is substituted for Lilith 
in the Vulgate. Like Lilith, Lamia was robbed of her 
children, and was driven by despair to avenge herself on 
all children.^ The name of Lamia was long used to 
frighten Italian children, as that of Lilith was by Hebrew 

It is possible that the part assigned to Lilith in the 
temptation of Eve may have been suggested by ancient 
Egyptian sculptures, which represent the Tree of Life in 
Amenti (Paradise) guarded by the Serpent-goddess Nu. 
One of these in the British Museum represents the Osi^ 
rian on his journey to heaven, and his soul in form of a 
human-headed bird, drinking the water of Life as poured 
out to them from a jar by the goddess who coils around 
the sacred sycamore, her woman's bust and face appear- 
ing amid the branches much like Lilith in our old 

The Singhalese also have a kind of Lilith or Lamia 
whom they call Bodrima, though she is not so much 
dreaded for the sake of children as for her vindictive feel- 
ings towards men. She is the ghost of a woman who died 
in 'o idiidis sa h o n e he rm Sift- ^ un Edag 


and often leave a lamp and some betel leaves where she 
may get some warmth and comfort from them. If Bod* 
rima be fired at, there may be found, perhaps, a dead 
lizard near the spot in the morning. 

As protomartyr of female independence, Lilith suffered 
a fate not unlike that of her sisters and successors in our 
own time who have appealed from the legendary decision 
made in Eden : she became the prototype of the * strong- 
minded ' and ' cold-hearted ' woman, and personification of 
the fatal fascination of the passionless. Her special relation 
to children was gradually expanded, and she was regarded 
as the perilous seducer of young men, each of her victims 
perishing of unrequited passion. She was ever young, and 
always dressed with great beauty. It would seem that 
the curse upon her for forsaking Adam — that her children 
should die in infancy — was escaped in the case of the chil- 
dren she had by Samael. She was almost as prolific as 
Echidna. Through all the latter rabbinical lore it is re- 
peated, * Samael is the fiery serpent, Lilith the crooked 
serpent,* and from their union came Leviathan,. Asmodeus, 
and indeed most of the famous devils. 

There is an ancient Persian legend of the first man 
and woman, Meschia and Meschiane, that they for a long 
time lived happily together : they hunted together, and 
discovered fire, and made an axe, and with it built them a 
hut But no sooner had they thus set up housekeeping 
than they fought terribly, and, after wounding each other, 
parted. It is not said which remained ruler of the hut, 
but we learn that after fifty years of divorce they were 

These legends show the question of equality of the 
sexes to have been a very serious one in early times, 
tfd osiMoiMshi firr r 



man entering on the work of agriculture. In neither of 
these occupations would there be any reason why woman 
should be so unequal as to set in motion the forces which 
have diminished her physical stature and degraded her 
position. Women- can still hunt and fish, and they are 
quite man's equal in tilling the soil.^ 

In all sex-mythology there are intimations that women 
were taken captive. The proclamation of female subor- 
dination is made not only in the legend of Eve's creation 
out of the man's rib, but in the emphasis with which her 
name is declared to have been given her because she was the 
Mother of all living. In the variously significant legends 
of the Amazons they are said to have burned away their 
breasts that they might use the bow : in the history of 
contemporary Amazons — such as the female Areoi of 
Polynesia — ^the legend is interpreted in the systematic 
slaughter of their children. In the hunt, Meschia might 
be aided by Meschiane in many ways ; in dressing the 
garden Adam might find Lilith or Eve a * help meet * for 
the work; but in the brutal regime of war the child dis- 
ables woman, and the affections of maternity render her 
man's inferior in the work of butchery. Herakles wins 

^ The martial and hunting customs of the German women, as well as their 
equality with men, may be traced in the vestiges of their decline, ffexe 
(witch) is from hag (forest) : the priestesses who carried the Broom of Thor 
were called Hagdissen. Before the seventeenth century the Hexe was called 
Drud or Trud (red folk, related to the Lightning-god). But the famous female 
hunters and warriors of Wodan, the Valkyries, were so called also ; and the 
preservation of the epithet (Trud) in the noble name Gertrude is a connecting 
link between the German Amazons and the political power so long maintained 
by women in the same country. Their office as priestesses probably marks a 
step downward from their outdoor equality. By this route, as priestesses of 
diaboliscd deities, they became witches; but many folk-legends made these 
w' h still eat riders and th 1 S o n ac ' 

Id fru d 



great glory by slaying Hyppolite ; but the legends of her 
later reappearances — as Libussa at Prague, &c., — follow the 
less mythological story of the Amazons given by Hero- 
dotus (IV. 112), who represents the Scythians as gradually 
disarming them by sending out their youths to meet them 
with dalliance instead of with weapons. The youths went 
off with their captured captors, and from their union sprang 
the-Sauromatae, among whom the men and women dressed 
alike, and fought and hunted together. But of the real 
outcome of that truce and union Tennyson can tell us 
more than Herodotus : in his Princess we see the woman 
whom maternity and war have combined to produce, her 
independence betrayed by the tenderness of her nature. 
The surrender, once secured, was made permanent for ages 
by the sentiments and sympathies born of the child's 
appeal for compassion. 

In primitive ages the child must in many cases have 
been a burthen even to man in the struggle for existence ; 
the population question could hardly have failed to press 
its importance upon men, as it does even upon certain 
animals ; and it would be an especial interest to a man 
not to have his hut overrun with offspring not his own, — 
turning his fair labour into drudgery for their support, and 
so cursing the earth for him. Thus, while Polyandry was 
giving rise to the obvious complications under which it 
must ultimately disappear, it would be natural that devils 
of lust should be invented to restrain the maternal instinct. 
But as time went on the daughters of Eve would have 
taken the story of her fall and hardships too much to 
heart. The pangs and perils of childbirth were ever- 
resent monitors whose warninors mi ht be followed t^ 
hreivad o «h hih xln iMo-ye 
Pnct dbs« 



stances it would be natural that the story of a recusant 
and passionless Eve should arise and suffer the penalties 
undergone by Lilith, — the necessity of bearing, as captive, 
a vast progeny against her will only to lose them again, 
and to long for human children she did not bring forth and 
could not cherish. The too passionate and the passionless 
woman are successively warned in the origin and outcome 
of the my th.^ 

It is a suggestive fact that the descendants of Adam 
should trace their fall not to the independent Lilith, who 
asserted her equality at cost of becoming the Devil's bride, 
but to the apparently submissive Eve who stayed inside the 
garden. The serpent found out the guarded and restrained 
woman as well as the free and defiant, and with much 
more formidable results. For craft is the only weapon of 
the weak against the strong. The .submissiveness of the 
captive woman must have been for a long time outward 
only. When Adam found himself among thorns and 
briars he might have questioned whether much had been 
gained by calling Eve his rib, when after all she really 
was a woman, and prepared to take her intellectual rights 
from the Serpent if denied her in legitimate ways. The 

ha m . 



demonolatry. Diirga sacrificed herself for her husband's 
honour, and is now adored. The counterpart of Durga- 
worship is the Zenana system. In countries where the 
Zenana system has not survived, but some freedom has 
been gained for woman, it is probable that Kili will pre- 
sently not be thought of as necessarily trampling on man, 
and Lilith not be regarded as the Devil's wife because she 
will not submit to be the slave of man. When man can 
make him a home and garden which shall not be a prison, 
and in which knowledge is unforbidden fruit, Lilith will not 
have to seek her liberty by revolution against his society, 
nor Eve hers by intrigue ; unfitness for co-operation with 
the ferocities of nature will leave her a help meet for the 
rearing of children, and for the recovery and culture of 
every garden, whether within or without the man who now 
asserts over wdHAan a lordshi unnatural end un' s 

( I05 ) 



The 'Other'— Tiamat, Bohu, *the Deep — Ra and Apophis— Hathors 
—Bel's combat— Revolt in Heaven— Lilith— Myth of the Devil 
at the creation of Light 

In none of the ancient scriptures do we get back to any 
theory or explanation of the origin of evil or of the 
enemies of the gods. In a Persian text at Persepolis, of 
Darius L, Ahriman is called with simplicity *the Other* 
{Aniya), 2Lnd *the Hater' {DuvaisaUt, Zend tltaisat), and 
that is about as much as we are really told about the 
devils of any race. Their existence is taken for granted. 
The legends of rebellion in heaven and of angels cast 
down and transformed to devils may supply an easy 
explanation to our modern theologians, but when we 
trace them to their origin we discover that to the ancients 
they had no such significance. The angels were cast 
down to Pits prepared for them from the foundation of 
the worle Z i n fell i w s in o 



maneser the word is used for 'abyss of chaos.* ^ Bahu 
is otherwise Gula, a form of Ishtar or AUat, ' Lady of the 
House of Death/ and an epithet of the same female 
demon is Nin-cigal, * Lady of the Mighty Earth/ The 
story of the Descent of Ishtar into Hades, the realm of 
Nin-cigal, has already been told (p. 77) ; in that version 
Ishtar is the same as Astarte, the Assyrian Venus. But 
like the moon with which she was associated she waned 
and declined, and the beautiful legend of her descent (like 
Persephone) into Hades seems to have found a variant in 
the myth of Bel and the Dragon. There she is a sea- 
monster and is called Tiamat (Thalatth of Berosus), — ^that 
is, 'the Deep,' over which rests the darkness described in 
Genesis i. 2. The process by which the moon would share 
the evil repute of Tiamat is obvious. In the Babylonian 
belief the dry land rested upon the abyss of watery chaos 
from which it was drawn. This underworld ocean was 
shut in by gates. They were opened when the moon was 
created to rule the night — therefore Prince of Darkness. 
The formation by Anu of this Moon-god (Uru) from 
Tiamat, might even have been suggested by the rising of 
the tides under his sway. The Babylonians represent 
the Moon as having been created before the Sun, and he 
emerged from *a boiling' in the abyss. 'At the beginning 
of the month, at the rising of the night, his horns are 
bre kiig h^^^Q^dj^ shinee<wi heav#3o.F dltfr .noehe 



female emanation of Tiamat, and to have fallen from a 
•ruler of the night' to an ally of the night. This female 
corrupter, who would correspond to Eve, might in this 
way have become mistress of the Moon, and ultimately 
identified with it. 

Although the cause of the original conflict between the 
Abyss beneath and the Heaven above is left by ancient 
inscriptions and scriptures to imagination, it is not a very 
strained hypothesis that ancient Chaos regarded the upper 
gods as aggressors on her domain in the work of creation. 
'When above,' runs the Babylonian legend, 'were not 
raised the heavens, and below on the earth a plant had 
not grown . . . the chaos (or water) Tiamat was the pro- 
ducing mother of the whole of them/ ' The gods had not 
sprung up, any one of them.' ^ Indeed in the legend of the 
conflict between Bel and the Dragon, on the Babylonian 
cylinders, it appears that the god Sar addressed her as 
wife, and said, 'The tribute to thy maternity shall be 
forced upon them by thy weapons.' * The Sun and Moon 
would naturally be drawn into any contest between Over- 
world (with Light) and Underworld (with Darkness). 

Though Tiamat is called a Dragon, she was pictured by 
the Babylonians only as a monstrous Griffin. In the 
Assyrian account of the fight it will be seen that she is 
called a 'Serpent.' The link between the two— Griffin 
and Serpent — will be found, I suspect, in Typhonic 
influence on the fable. In a hymn to Amen-Ra (the Sun), 
copied about fourteenth century B.C. from an earlier com- 
position, as its translator, Mr. Goodwin, supposes, we have 
the following : — 

r 1 la , p 



Thy servants rejoice : 
Beholding the overthrow of the wicked : 
His limbs pierced with the sword : 
Fire consumes him : 
His soul and body are annihilated. 

Naka (the serpent) saves his feet : 
The gods rejoice : 

The servants of the Sun are in peace. 

The allusion in the second line indicates that this hymn 
relates to the navigation of Ra through Hades, and the 
destruction of Apophis. 

We may read next the Accadian tablet (p. 256) which 
speaks of the seven Hathors as neither male nor female, 
and as born in * the Deep/ 

Another Accadian tablet, translated by Mr. Sayce, 
speaks of these as the * baleful seven destroyers ; ' as 
' born in the mountain of the sunset;' as being Incubi. 
It is significantly said : — ' Among the stars of heaven their 
watch they kept not, in watching was their office.' Here 
is a primaeval note of treachery.* 

We next come to a further phase, represented in a 
Cuneiform tablet, which must be quoted at length : — 
Days of storm. Powers of Evil, 

Rebellious spirits, who were born in the lower part of heaven. 
They were workers of calamity. 

(The lines giving the names and descriptions of the 
spirits are here broken.) 

The third was like a leopard, 

The fourth was like a snake. . . . 

The fifih was like a dog . . . 

The sixth was an enemy to heaven and its king. 

The seventh was a destructive tempest. 

These seven are the messengers of Anu* their king. 

» ' Records of the Past,' ix. 141. 

* Anu was the ruler of the highest heaven. Meteors and lightnings are 
simil^fl«^^^si4e.rf)fcinr Hebrew oet^ as the ijpes|en |>T ^^saT 



From place to place by turns they pass. 

They are the dark storms in heaven, which into fire unite themselves. 

They are the destructive tempests, which on a fine day sudden dark- 
ness cause. 

With storms and meteors they rush. 

Their rage ignites the thunderbolts of Im.^ 

From the right hand of the Thunderer they dart forth. 

On 'the horizon of heaven like lightning they . • . 

Against high heaven, the dwelling-place of Anu the king, they plotted 
evil, and had none to withstand them. 

When Bel heard this news, he communed secretly with his own heart. 

Then he took counsel with Hea the great Inventor (or Sage) of the 

And they stationed the Moon, the Sun, and Ishtar to keep guard over 

the approach to heaven. 
Unto Anu, ruler of heaven, they told it 
And those three gods, his children, 

To watch night and day unceasingly he commanded them. 
When those seven evil spirits rushed upon the base of heaven, 
And close in front of the Moon with fiery weapons advanced, 
Then the noble Sun and Im the warrior side by side stood firm. 
But Ishtar, with Anu the king, entered the exalted dwelling, and hid 
themselves in the summit of heaven. 

Column II. 

Those evil spirits, the messengers of Anu their king . . . 
They have plotted evil . . . 

From mid-heaven like meteors they have rushed upon the earth. 
Bel, who the noble Moon in eclipse 
Saw from heaven, 

Called aloud to Paku his messenger : 

my messenger Paku, carry my words to the Deep.* 

Tell my son that the Moon in heaven is terribly eclipsed ! 

To Hea in the Deep repeat this ! 

Paku understood the words of his Lord. 

Unto Hea in the Deep swiftly he went. 

To the Lord, the great Inventor, the god Nukimmut, 

Paku repeated the words of his Lord. 

^ Im, the god of the sky, sometimes called Rimmon (the Thunderer). He 
answers to the Jupiter Tonans of the Latins. 
* The abyss or ocean where the god Hea dwelt 



When Hea in the Deep heard these words, 
He bit his lips, and tears bedewed his face. 
Then he sent for his son Marduk to help him. 
• Go to my son Marduk, 
Tell my son that the Moon in heaven is terribly eclipsed ! 
That eclipse has been seen in heaven ! 
They are seven, those evil spirits, and death they fear not ! 
They are seven, those evil spirits, who rush like a hurricane, 
And fall like firebrands on the earth 1 

In front of the bright Moon with fiery weapons {they draw nigh) ; 
But the noble Sun and Im the warrior {are withstanding them). 

[The rest of the legend is lost.] 

Nukimmut is a name of Hea which occurs frequently : 
he was the good genius of the earth, and his son Marduk 
was his incarnation — a. Herakles or Saviour. It will be 
noted that as yet Ishtar is in heaven. The next Tablet, 
which shows the development of the myth, introduces 
us to the great female dragon Tiamat herself, and her 
destroyer Bel. 

. . . And with it his right hand he armed. 

His flaming sword he raised in his hand. 

He brandished his lightnings before him. 

A curved scymitar he carried on his body. 

And he made a sword to destroy the Dragon, 

Which turned four ways ; so that none could avoid its rapid blows. 

It turned to the south, to the north, to the east, and to the west. 

Near to his sabre he placed the bow of his father Anu. 

He madcMt whirliibb ibflnd rb ,^ ar^ ^ ^ ' o b 



[Bel now offers to the Dragon to decide their quarrel by 
single combat^ which the Dragon accepts. This agrees 
with the representations of the combat on Babylonian 
cylinders in Mr. Smith's • Chaldean Genesis/ p. 62, etc.] 

(Why seekest thou thus) to irritate me with blasphemies ? 

Let thy army withdraw : let thy chiefs stand aside : 

Then I and thou (alone) we will do battle. 

When the Dragon heard this, 

Stand back ! she said, and repeated her command. 

Then the tempter rose watchfully on high. 

Turning and twisting, she shifted her standing point. 

She watched his lightnings, she provided for retreat. 

The warrior angels sheathed their swords. 

Then the Dragon attacked the just Prince of the gods. 

Strongly they joined in the trial of battle. 

The King drew his sword, and dealt rapid blows, 

Then he took his whirling thunderbolt, and looked well behind 

and before him : 
And when the Dragon opened her mouth to swallow him. 
He flung the bolt into her, before she could shut her lips. 
The blazing lightning poured into her inside. 
He pulled out her heart ; her mouth he rent open ; 
He drew his (falchion), and cut open her belly. 
He cut into her inside and extracted her heart ; 
He took vengeance on her, and destroyed her life. 
When he knew she was dead he boasted over her. 
After that the Dragon their leader was slain, 
Her troops took to flight : her army was scattered abroad, 
And the angels her allies* who had come to help her, 
Retreated, grew quiet, and went away. 

They fled from thence, fearing for their own lives, * 

And saved themselves, flying to places beyond pursuit. 

He followed them, their weapons he broke up. 

Broken they lay, and in great heaps they were captured. 

A crowd of followers, full of astonishment, 

Its remains lifted up, and on their shoulders hoisted. 

And the eleven tribes pouring in after the battle 

In great multitudes, coming to see, 

Gazed at the monstrous serpent . . . 

In the fragment just quoted we have the 'flaming sword 
which turned every \»^ay ' (Gen. iii. 24). The seven distinct 



forms of evil are but faintly remembered in the seven 
thunderbolts taken by Bel : they are now all virtually 
gathered into the one form he combats, and are thus 
on their way to form the seven-headed dragon of the Apo- 
calypse, where Michael replaces Bel.^ * The angels, her 
allies who had come to help her/ are surely that 'third 
part of the stars of heaven * which the apocalyptic dragon's 
tail drew to the earth in its fall (Rev. xii. 4). Bel's dragon 
is also called a * Tempter.* 

At length we reach the brief but clear account of the 
'Revolt in Heaven' found in a cuneiform tablet in the 
British Museum, and translated by Mr. Fox Talbot : * — 

The Divine Being spoke three times, the commencement of a psalm. 
The god of holy songs, Lord of religion and worship 
seated a thousand singers and musicians : and established a choral 

who to his hymn were to respond in multitudes . . . 

. With a loud cry of contempt they broke up his holy song 
spoiling, confusing, confounding his hymn of praise. 

The god of the bright crown with a wish to summon his adherents 
sounded a tnimpet blast which would wake the dead, 
which to those rebel angels prohibited return. 

he stopped their service, and sent them to the gods who were his 

In their room he created mankind. 

The first who received life, dwelt along with him. 

dialm^r md>it aiah t.a*vh wtws n hmevoastftn lec hi w rd 

. comuatn .r 1001 



gods had in their employ many ferocious monsters. Thus 
in the Book of Hades, Horus addresses a terrible serpent : 
'My Kheti, great fire, of which this flame in my eye is the 
emission, and of which my children guard the folds, open 
thy mouth, draw wide thy jaws, launch thy flame against 
the enemies of my father, burn their bodies, consume 
their souls ! ^ Many such instances could be quoted. In 
this same book we find a great serpent, Saa-Set, ' Guardian 
of the Earth.' Each of the twelve pylons of Hades is 
surmounted by its serpent-guards — except one. What has 
become of that one.^ In the last inscription but one, 
quoted in full, it will be observed (third line from the last) 
that eleven (angel) tribes came in after Bel's battle to 
inspect the slain dragon. The twelfth had revolted. These, 
we may suppose, had listened to 'the serpent's voice ' men- 
tioned in the last fragment quoted. 

We have thus distributed through these fragments all 
the elements which, from Egyptian and Assyrian sources* 
gathered around the legend of the Serpent in Eden. The 
Tree of Knowledge and that of Life are not included, and 
I have given elsewhere my reasons for believing these to 
be importations from the ancient Aryan legend of the war 
between the Devas and Asuras for the immortalising 

In the last fragment quoted we have also a notable 
statement, that mankind were created to fill the places that 
had been occupied by the fallen angels. It is probable 
that this notion supplied the basis of a class of legends 
ofwt' • 

fi w 1 

° s e g % 

3& s n & 


h rp n s 



the serpent Samael would be the Darkness which was 
upon the face of Bahu, * the Deep/ in the second verse of 
the Bible. 

The Bible opens with the scene of the gods conquering 
the Dragon of Darkness with Light There is a rabbi- 
nical legend, that when Light issued from under the throne 
of God, the Prince of Darkness asked the Creator where- 
fore he had brought Light into existence ? God answered 
that it was in order that he might be driven back to his 
abode of darkness. The evil one asked that he might see 
efiaet - n * or n i ht he saw acr ^ ime 

( "S ) 



The Abode of Devils— Ketef — Disorder— Talmudic legends— The 
restless Spirit— The Fall of Lucifer — Asteria, Hecate, Lilith — 
The Dragon's triumph — A Gipsy legend — Caedmon's Poem of 
the Rebellious Angels— Milton's version— The Puritans and 
Prince Rupert — Bel as ally of the Dragon — A 'Mystery' in 
Marionettes — European Hells. 

'Rejoice, ye heavens, and ye that dwell in them I Woe 
to the earth and the sea I for the devil is come down to 
you, having great wrath, because he knoweth that he hath 
but a short time.* This passage from the Book of Revela- 
tions is the refrain of many and much earlier scriptures. 
The Assyrian accounts of the war in heaven, given in the 
preceding chapter, by no means generally support the 
story that the archdra'gon was slain by Bel. Even the one 
that does describe the chief dragon's death leaves her 
comrades alive, and the balance of testimony is largely in 
favour of the theory which prevailed, that the rebellious 
angels were merely cast out of heaven, and went to swell 
the ranks of the dark and fearful abode which from the 
beginning had been peopled by the enemies of the gods. 
The nature of this abode is described in various passages 
of the Bible, and in many traditions. 

'Out of the north an evil shall break forth upon all the 
inhabitants of the land.* So said Jeremiah (L 14), in pur- 
suance of nearly universal traditions as to the region of 



space in which demons and devils had their abode. ' Hell 
is naked before him/ says Job (xxvi. 6), 'and destruction 
hath no covering. He stretcheth out the north over the 
empty place.' According to the Hebrew mythology this 
habitation of demons was a realm of perpetual cold and 
midnight, which Jehovah, in creating the world, purposely 
left chaotic; so it was prepared for the Devil and his 
angels at the foundation of the world. 

Although this northern hell was a region of disorder, so 
far as the people of Jehovah and the divine domain were 
concerned, they had among themselves a strong military 
and aristocratic government. It was disorder perfectly 
systematised. The anarchical atmosphere of the region is 
reflected in the abnormal structures ascribed to the many 
devils with whose traits Jewish and Arabic folklore is 
familiar, and which are too numerous to be described here. 
Such adevil, for instance, is Bedargon, *hand-high,* with fifty 
heads and fifty-six hearts, who cannot strike any one or be 
struck, instant death ensuing to either party in such an 
attack. A more dangerous devil is Ketef, identified as 
the 'terror from the chambers' alluded to by Jeremiah 
(xxxii. 25), 'Bitter Pestilence.' His name is said to be 
from kataf, 'cut and split,' because he divides the course 
of the day ; and those who are interested to compare 
Hebrew and Hindu myths may find it interesting to note 
the coincidences between Ketef and Ketu, the cut-off 
tail of Rdhu, and source of pestilence.^ Ketef reigns 
neither in the dark or day, but between the two; his 
power over the year is limited to the time between June 17 
and July 9, during which it was considered dangerous 
to flog children or let them go out after four P.M. 
Ketef is calf-headed, and consists of hide, hair, and eyes ; 
he rolls like a cask ; he has a terrible horn, but his chief 
^ See i. pp. 46 and 255. Concerning Ketef see Eisenmenger, it p. 435. 



terror lies in an evil eye fixed in his heart which none can 
see without instant death. The arch-fiend who reigns over 
the infernal host has many Court Fools — probably meteors 
and comets — who lead men astray. 

All these devils have their regulations in their own 
domain, but, as we have said, their laws mean disorder in 
that part of the universe which belongs to the family of 
Jehovah. In flying about the world they are limited to 
places which are still chaotic or waste. They haunt such 
congenial spots as rocks and ruins, and frequent desert, 
wilderness, dark mountains, and the ruins of human habi- 
tations. They can take possession of a wandering star. 

There is a pretty Talmudic legend of a devil having 
once gone to sleep, when some one, not seeing him of 
course, set down a cask of wine on his ears. In leaping 
up the devil broke the cask, and being tried for it, was 
' condemned to repay the damage at a certain period. The 
period having elapsed before the money was brought, the 
devil was asked the cause of the delay. He replied that 
it was very difficult for devils to obtain money, because 
men were careful to keep it locked or tied up ; and ' we 
have no power,' he said, ' to take from anything bound or 
I sealed up, nor can we take anything that is measured or 
! counted ; we are permitted to take only what is free or 

According to one legend the devils were specially 
angered, because Jehovah, when he created man, gave 
him dominion over things in the sea (Gen. i. 28), that 
being a realm of unrest and tempest which they claimed 
as belonging to themselves. They were denied control of 
the life that is in the sea, though permitted a large degree 
of power over its waters. Over the winds their rule was 
I supreme, and it was only by reducing certain demons to 
slavery that Solomon was able to ride in a wind-chariot. 

Out f these several te 1ms of oi«d roei t'ellawa mo 


family on eai 
the offspring i 
traditions of* 

d to 



selves,' and that such independence continued ' unto this 
day* (2 Kings viii. 20, 22). There was thus no room for 
the exhibition of Jacob s superiority, — ^that is of Israels 
priority over Edom, — in this world ; nor yet any room 
to carry out Isaac's curse on all who cursed Jacob, and 
the saying: 'Jacob have I loved, Esau have I hated, and 
' laid his mountains and his heritage waste for the dragons 
of the wilderness' (Mai. i.). 

Answers to such problems as these evolve themselves 
slowly but inevitably. The agonised cry of the poor 
girl in Browning's poem — * There may be heaven, 
there must be hell ' — marks the direction in which 
necessity led human speculation many ages before her. 
A future had to be invented for the working out of the 
curse on Esau, who on earth had to fulfil his father's 
blessing by enjoying power, wealth, and independence 
of his brother. In that future his greatness while living 
was repaid by his relegation to the desert and the rock 
with the he-goat for his support. Esau was believed to 
have been changed into a terrible hairy devil.^ But still 
there followed him in his phantasmal transformation a 
ghostly environment of his former power and greatness ; 
the boldest and holiest could not afford to despise or set 
aside that 'share' which had been allotted him in the 
legend, and could not be wholly set aside in the invisible 

Jacob's share began with a shrewd bargain with his 
imprudent brother. Jacob by his cunning in the breed- 
ing of the streaked animals (Gen. xxx.), by which he 
outwitted Laban, and other manoeuvres, was really the 

wci^ owssosti nc ra ris i of d vi • e > . vtm ' naw aaiee . a 


* cause of bringing on the race called after him that repute 

for extortion, affixed to them in such figures as Shylock, 
which they have* found it so hard to live down. In 
becoming the great barterers of the East, their obstacle 
was the plunderer sallying forth from the mountain 
fastnesses or careering over the desert These were the 
traditional descendants of Esau, who gradually included * 
the Ishmaelites as well as the Edomites, afterwards 
merged in the Idumeans. But as the tribal distinctions 
became lost, the ancient hostility survived in the abstract 
form of this satan of Strife — SamaeL He came to mean 
the spirit that stirs up antagonism between those who 
should be brethren. He finally became, and among 
the more superstitious Jews still is, instigator of the 
cruel persecutions which have so long pursued their 
race, and the prejudices against them which survive 
even in countries to whose wealth, learning, and arts 
they have largely contributed. In Jewish countries 
Edom has long been a name for the power of Rome and 
Romanism, somewhat in the same way as the same are 
called 'Babylon* by some christians. Jacob, when pas- 
sing into the wilderness of Edom, wrestled with the in- 
visible power of Esau, or Samael, and had not been able 
to prevail except with a lame thigh, — a part which, in 
every animal, Israel thereafter held sacred to the Op- 
posing Power and abstained from eating. A rabbinical 
le end re resents acob as havinor been bit. nni li vu .- 1 


n o o VI a .ae e o " ao 




As I write, fiery Mars, ixear enough for the astronomer 
to detect its moons, is a wondrous phenomenon in the 
sky. Beneath it fearful famine is desolating three vast 
countries, war is raging between two powerful nations, 
and civil strife is smiting another ere it has fairly re- 
covered from the wounds of a foreign struggle. The 
dismal conditions seem to have so little root in political 
necessity that one might almost be pardoned even now 
for dreaming that some subtle influence has come among 
men from the red planet that has approached the earth. 
How easy then must it have been in a similar conjunc- 
tion of earthly and celestial phenomena to have imagined 
Samael, the planetary Spectre, to be at work with his 
fatal fires I Whatever may have been the occasion, the 
red light of Mars at an early period fixed upon that 
planet the odium of all the burning, blighting, desert- 
producing powers of which it was thought necessary to 
relieve the adorable Sun. It was believed that all ' born 
under ' that planet were quarrelsome. And it was part 
of the popular Jewish belief in the ultimate triumph of 
good over evil that under Mars the Messias was to be 

We may regard Esau-Samael then as the Devil of 
Strife. His traditional son Cain was like himself a 
* murderer from the beginning ; " but in that early period 
the conflict was between the nomad and the huntsman 
on one side, on the other the agriculturist and the 
cattle-breeder, who was never regarded as a noble figure 
among the Semitic tribes. In the course of time some 
Semitic tribes became agriculturists, and among them, 
in defiance of his archaeological character, Samael was 
saddled with the evils that beset them. As an ox he 

' Buslaef has a beautiful mediseyal picture of a deyil inciting Cain to hurl 
stones on his prostrate brother's fonn. 


brought rinderpest. But his visible appearance was still 
more generally that of the raven, the wild ass, the hog 
which brought scurvy ; while in shape of a dog he was 
so generally believed to bring deadly disease, that it 
would seem as if ' hydrophobia ' was specially attributed 
to him. 

In process of time benignant Peace dwelt more and 
more with the agriculturists, but still among the Israelites 
the tradesman was the ' coming man,' and to him peace 
was essential. The huntsman, of the Esau clan, figures in 
many legends, of which the following is translated from 
the Arabic by Lane: — ^There was a huntsman who from a 
mountain cave brought some honey in his water-skin, 
which he offered to an oilman ; when the oilman opened 
the skin a drop of honey fell which a bird ate ; the oil- 
man's cat sprang on the bird and killed it ; the huntsman's 
hound killed the cat ; the oilman killed the dog ; the hunts- 
man killed the oilman ; and as the two men belonged 
to different villages, their inhabitants rose against each- 
other in battle, 'and there died of them a great multi- 
tude, the number of whom none knoweth but God, whose 
name be exalted ! ' ^ 

Esau's character as a wild huntsman is referred to in 
another chapter. It is as the genius of strife and nomadic 
war that he more directly stands in contrast with his 
* supplanter.' 

From the wild elemental demons of storm and tempest 
of the most primitive age to this Devil of Strife, the 
human mind has associated evil with unrest 'The 
wicked are like the troubled sea when it cannot rest' 
Such is the burthen of the Japanese Oni throned in the 
heart of the hurricane, of the wild huntsman issuing forth 
at the first note of war, of Edom hating the victories 
^ Forty-one Eastern Tales. 



Other people ; the elder shall be subject to the younger/ 
What peoples these were is described in the blessings of 
Jacob on the two representatives when they had grown 
up to be, the one red and hairy, a huntsman ; the other 
a quiet man, dwelling in tents and builder of cattle- 

Jacob — cunning, extortionate, fraudulent in spirit even 
when technically fair — is not a pleasing figure in the 
eyes of the nineteenth century. But he does not belong 
to the nineteenth century. His contest was with Esau. 
The very names of them belong to mythology ; they are 
not individual men ; they are conflicting tendencies and 
interests of a primitive period. They must be thought of 
as Israel and Edom historically; morally, as the Barter 
principle and the Bandit principle. 

High things begin low. Astronomy began as Astro- 
logy ; and when Trade began there must have been even 
more trickery about it than there is now. Conceive of a 
world made up of nomadic tribes engaged in perpetual 
warfare. It is a commerce of killing. If a tribe desires 
the richer soil or larger possessions of another, the method 
is to exterminate that other. But at last there rises a 
tribe either too weak or too peaceful to exterminate, and 
it proposes to barter. It challenges its neighbours to a 
contest of wits. They try to get the advantage of each 
other in bargains ; they haggle and cheat ; and it is not 
heroic at all, but it is the beginning of commerce and 

But the Dukes of Edom as they are called will not 
enter into this compact. They have not been used to it ; 
they are always outwitted at a bargain ; just like those 
other red men in the West of America, whose lands are 
bought with beads, and their territorial birthright taken 
.omess of otta e.h t ,xPehvd h t..' 

d. t 



the bartering tribe all the more dependent on their cun- 
ning. They had to match their wits against the world ; 
and they have had to do the same to this day, when it 
is a chief element of their survival that their thrift is of 
importance to the business and finance of Europe. But 
in the myth it is shown that Trade, timorous as it is in 
presence of the sword, may have a magnanimity of its 
own. The Supplanter of Edom is haunted by the wrong 
he has done his elder brother, and driven him to greater 
animosity. He resolves to seek him, offer him gifts, and 
crave reconciliation. It is easy to put an unfavourable 
construction upon his action, but it is not necessary. 
The Supplanter, with droves of cattle, a large portion of 
his possessions, passes out towards perilous Edom, un- 
armed, undefended, except by his amicable intentions 
towards the powerful chieftain he had wronged. At the 
border of the hostile kingdom he learns that the chieftain 
is coming to meet him with four hundred men. He is 
now seized with a mighty spirit of Fear. He sends on the 
herdsmen with the herds, and remains alone. During the 
watches of the night there closes upon him this phantom 
of Fear, with its presage of Death. The tricky trades- 
man has met his Conscience, and it is girt about with 
Terror. But he feels that his nobler self is with it, and 
Idt fatoi6rtttllNS1Xifii«l shts tsfaHib s^WndedlC:l a s 

srrsrrrr sssrrsrrsr 


ferocities, and the glory of them. The Mussulman fable 
relates that when Allah created man, and placed him in a 
garden, he called all the angels to worship this crowning 
work of his hands. Iblis alone refused to worship Adam. 
The very idea of a garden is hateful to the spirit of No- 
madism.^ Man the gardener receives no reverence from 
the proud leader of the Seraphim. God said unto him 
(Iblis), What hindered thee from worshipping Adam, since 
I commanded thee ? He answered, I am more excellent 
than he : thou hast created me of (ethereal) fire, and hast 
created him of clay (black mud). God said. Get thee 
ref A ro i P" * ' 


pondcnce with the attitude of Christ on the Father's knees, 
Satan supports the betrayer of Christ. Beside the king of 
Hell, seated in its Mouth, are personages of distinction, 
some probably representing those poets and sages of 
Greece and Rome, the prospect of whose damnation filled 
some of the first christian Fathers with such delight 

In Spain, when a Bishop is about to baptize one of the 
European Dukes of the Devil, he asks at the font what 
has become of his ancestors, naming them — all heathen. 
•They are all in hell!' replies the Bishop. 'Then there 
will I follow them,' returns the Chief, and thereafter by no 
persuasion can he be induced to fare otherwise than to 
JlelL Gradually the Church made up its mind to ally 
itself with this obstinate barbaric pride and ambition. It 
was willing to give up anything whatever for a kingdom 
of this world, and to worship any number of Princes of 
Darkness, if they would give unto the Bishops such king- 
doms, and the glory of them. They induced Esau to be 
baptized by promise of their aid in his oppressions,' and 
free indulgences to all his passions; and then, by his help, 
they were able to lay before weaker Esaus the christian 
alternatives — Be baptized or burnt I 

Not to have known how to conquer in bloodless victories 
the barbaric Esaus of the world by a virtue more pure, a 
heroism more patient, than theirs, and with that * sweet 
reasonableness of Christ,' which is the latest epitaph on 
his tomb among the rich ; not to have recognised the true 
nobility of the Dukes, and purified their pride to self- 
reverence, their passion to moral courage, their daring and 
\ w • h e' 1 



to a hypocritical imitator of the Esau whose birthright 
it stole by baptism. It speedily lost his magnanimity, 
but never his sword, which however it contrived to make 
at once meaner and more cruel by twisting it into thumb- 
screws and the like. For many centuries its voice has 
been, in a thin phonographic way, the voice of Jesus, but 
the hands are the hands of Esau with Samael's claw 

( 147 ) 



Hebrew Polytheism — Problem of Evil— Job's disbelief in a future life 
—The Divider's realm— Salted Sacrifices— Theory of Orthodoxy 
— ^JoVs reasoning — His humour — Impartiality of Fortune between 
the evil and good — ^Agnosticism of Job — Elihu's eclecticism — 
Jehovah of the Whirlwind— Heresies of Job— Rabbinical legend ^ 
of Job— Universality of the legend. 

Israel is a flourishing vine, 
Which bringeth forth fruit to itself ; 
According to the increase of his fruit 
He hath multiplied his altars ; 
According to the goodness of his land 
He hath made goodly images. 

Their heart is divided : now shall they be found guilty ; 
He will break down their altars, he will spoil their images. 

These words of the prophet Hosea (x. i, 2) foreshadow 
the devil which the devout Jahvist saw growing steadily 
to enormous strength through all the history of Israel. 
The germ of this enemy may be found in our chapter on 
Fate ; one of its earliest developments is indicated in the 
account already given of the partition between Jacob and 
Esau, and the superstition to which that led of a ghostly 
Antagonist, to whom a share had been irreversibly pledged. 
From the principle thus adopted, there grew a host of 
demons whom it was believed necessary to propitiate by 
offering them their share. A divided universe had for its 
counterpart a divided loyalty in the heart of the people. 
The growth of a belief in the supremacy of one God was 
far from being a real monotheism ; as a matter of fact no 


that in the end such trials would be repaid. And when 
observation, following the theory, showed that they were 
not so repaid, it was said the righteousness had been 
unreal, the devotee was punished for hidden wickedness. 
When continued observation had proved that this theory 
too was false, and that piety was not paid in external 
bounties, either to the good man or his family, the solution 
of a future settlement was arrived at. 

This simple process may be traced in various races, and 
in its several phases. 

The most impressive presentation of the experiences 
under which the primitive secular theory of rewards and 
punishments perished, and that of an adjustment beyond 
the grave arose, is found in the Book of Job. The solu- 
tion here reached — a future reward in this life — is an 
impossible one for anything more than an exceptional 
case. But the Book of Job displays how beautiful such 
an instance would be, showing afflictions to be temporary 
and destined to be followed by compensations largely 
outweighing them. It was a tremendous statement of 
the question — If a man die, shall he live again ? Jehovah 
answered, ' Yes ' out of the whirlwind, and raised Job out 
of the dust But for the millions who never rose from 
the dust that voice was heard announcing their resurrec* 
tion from a trial that pressed them even into the grave. 
It is remarkable that Job's expression of faith that his 
Vindicator would appear on earth, should have become 

th a h 1 Testam n whi h ha s ^r 71 s 

an o 



And though its trunk be dead upon the ground. 
At the scent of water it will bud, 
And put forth boughs, like a young plant. 
But man dieth and is gone for ever 1 

Yet I know that my Vindicator liveth, 

And will stand up at length on the earth ; 

And though with my skin this body be wasted away, 

Yet in my flesh shall I see God. 

Yea, I shall see him my friend ; 

My eyes shall behold him no longer an adversary ; 

For this my soul panteth within me.^ 

The scenery and details of this drama are such as must 
have made an impression upon the mind of the ancient 
Jews beyond what is now possible for any existing people. 
In the first place, the locality was the land of Uz, which 
Jeremiah (Lam. iv. 21) points out as part of Edom, the 
territory traditionally ruled over by the great invisible 
Accuser of Israel, who had succeeded to the portion of 
Esau, adversary of their founder, Jacob. Job was within 
the perilous bounds. And yet here, where scape-goats 
were offered to deprecate Samael, and where in ordinary 
sacrifices some item entered for the devil's share, Job 
refused to pay any honour to the Power of the Place. 
He offered burnt-offerings alone for himself and his sons, 
these being exclusively given to Jehovah * Even after 
his children and his possessions were destroyed by this 
great adversary. Job offered his sacrifice without even 
omitting the salt, which was the Oriental seal of an 
inviolable compact between two, and which so especially 
recalled and consecrated the covenant with Jehovah.' 

^ Noyes' Translation. ' Eisenmenger, Entd. Jud. i. 836. 

> ob. I 22 the literal renderin of wbioh is t* In all this oh i t f 


Job's reply is to man and God — Point out the error I 
Grant my troubles are divine arrows, what have I done to 
thee, O watcher of men I Am I a sea-monster — and 
we imagine Job looking at his wasted limbs — that the 
Almighty must take precautions and send spies against 

Then follows BUdad the Shuhite, — ^that is the ^conten- 
tious/ one of the descendants of Keturah (Abraham's 
concubine), traditionally supposed to be inimical to the 
legitimate Abraham ic line, and at a later period identified 
as the Turks. Bildad, with invective rather than argu- 
ment, charges that Job's children had been slain for their 
sins, and otherwise makes a personal application of Eli- 
phaz's theology. 

Job declares that since God is so perfect, no man by 
such standard could be proved just; that if he could 
prove himself just, the argument would be settled by the 
stronger party in his own favour ; and therefore, liberated 
from all temptation to justify himself, he affirms that the 
innocent and the guilty are dealt with much in the same 
way. If it is a trial of strength between God and himself, 
he yields. If it is a matter of reasoning, let the terrors be 
withdrawn, and he will then be able to answer calmly. 
For the present, even if he were righteous, he dare not lift 
up his head to so assert, while the rod is upon him. 

Zophar 'the impudent' speaks. Here too, probably, is 
a disguise : he is (says the LXX.) King of the Minaeans, 
that is the Nomades, and his designation ' the Naam- 
athite,' of unknown significance, bears a suspicious 
resemblance to Naamah, a mythologic wife of Samael and 
mother of several devils. Zophar is cynical. He laughs 
at Job for even suggesting the notion of an argument 
between himself and God, whose wisdom and ways are 
unsearchable. He (God) sees man's iniquity even when 



it looks as if he did not He is deeper than hell. What 
can a man do but pray and acknowledge his sinfulness ? 

But Job, even in his extremity, is healthy-hearted enough 
to laugh too. He tells his three * comforters ' that no doubt 
Wisdom will die with them. Nevertheless, he has heard 
similar remarks before, and he is not prepared to renounce 
his conscience and common-sense on such grounds. And 
now, indeed. Job rises to a higher strain. He has made 
up his mind that after what has come upon him, he cares 
not if more be added, and challenges the universe to name 
his offence. So long as his transgression is 'sealed up in 
a bag,' he has a right to consider it an invention.^ 

Temanite Orthodoxy is shocked at all this. Eliphaz 
declares that Job's assertion that innocent and guilty suffer 
alike makes the fear of God a vain thing, and discourages 
prayer. * With us are the aged and hoary-headed.' (Job 
is a neologist.) Eliphaz paints human nature in Calvinistic 

Behold, (God) putteth no trust in his ministering spirits. 
And the heavens are not pure in his sight ; 
Much less abominable and polluted man, 
Who drinketh iniquity as water 1 

The wise have related, and they got it from the fathers 
to whom the land was given, and among whom no stranger 
was allowed to bring his strange doctrines, that affliction 
is the sign and punishment of wickedness. 

Job merely says he has heard enough of this, and finds 
no wise man among them. He acknowledges that such 
reproaches add to his sorrows. He would rather con- 
tend with God than with them if he could i usi hn 


Bildad draws a picture of what he considers would be 
the proper environment of a wicked man, and it closely 
resembles the situation of Job. 

But Job reminds him that he, Bildad, is not God. It 
is God that has brought him so low, but God has been 
satisfied with his flesh. He has not yet uttered any com- 
plaint as to his conduct ; and so he. Job, believes that his 
vindicator will yet appear to confront his accusers — ^the 
men who are so glib when his afflictor is silent^ 

Zophar harps on the old string. Pretty much as some 
preachers go on endlessly with their pictures of the terrors 
which haunted the deathbeds of Voltaire and Paine, all 
the more because none are present to relate the facts. 
Zophar recounts how men who seemed good, but were not, 
were overtaken by asps and vipers and fires from heaven. 

But Job, on the other hand, has a curious catalogue of 
examples in which the notoriously wicked have lived in 
wealth and gaiety. And if it be said God pays such off in 
their children. Job denies the justice of that It is the 
offender, and not his child, who ought to feel it. The 
prosperous and the bitter in soul alike lie down in the 
dust at last, the good and the evil ; and Job is quite con- 
tent to admit that he does not understand it One thing 
he does understand : ' Your explanations are false.' 

But Eliphaz insists on Job having a dogma. If the 

orthodox dogma is not true, put something in its place ! 

Why are you afflicted ? What v&your theory } Is it because 

God was afraid of your greatness ? It must be as we say, 

^ The much misunderstood and mistranslated passage, xix. 25-27 (already 
quoted), is certainly referable to the wide-spread belief that as against each 
man there was an Accusing Spirit, so for each there was a Vindicating Spirit 
These two stood respectively on the right and left of the balances in which 
the good and evil actions of each soul were weighed against each other, each 
tqring to make his side as heavy as possible. But as the accusations against 
him are made by living men, and on earth, Job is not prepared to consider 
a celestial acquittal beyond the grave as adequate. 



and you have been defrauding and injuring people in 

Job, having repeated his ardent desire to meet God face 
to face as to his innocence, says he can only conclude that 
what befalls him and others is what is 'appointed' for 
them. His terror indeed arises from that : the good and 
the evil seem to be distributed without reference to human 
conduct How darkness conspires with the assassin ! If 
God were only a man^ things might be different ; but as it 
is, ' what he desireth that he doeth/ and ' who can turn 
him ?• 

Bildad falls back on his dogma of depravity. Man is a 

* worm/ a ' reptile.' Job finds that for a worm Bildad is 
very familiar with the divine secrets. If man is morally 
so weak he should be lowly in mind also. God by his 
spirit hath garnished the heavens ; his hand formed the 

* crooked serpent ' — 

Lo ! these are but the borders of his works ; 
How faint the whisper we have heard of him I 
But the thunder of his power who can understand ? 

Job takes up the position of the agnostic, and the three 
' Comforters' are silenced. The argument has ended where 
it had to end. Job then proceeds with sublime eloquence. 
A man may lose all outward things, but no man or god 
th a .m h' eJt 

• ^ a-^^^'^ .SktS has e?!^''^^ der. 

ncrat . 


to want Men hiss them. And with guilt in their heart 
they feel their sorrows to be the arrows of God, sent in 
anger. In all the realms of nature, therefore, amid its 
powers, splendours, and precious things, man cannot find 
the wisdom which raises him above misfortune, but only 
in his inward loyalty to the highest, and freedom from 
moral evil. 

Then enters a fifth character, Elihu, whose plan is to 
mediate between the old dogma and the new agnostic 
philosophy. He is Orthodoxy rationalised. Elihu's name 
is suggestive of his ambiguity; it seems to mean one whose 
' God is He^ and he comes fVom the tribe of Buz, whose 
Hebrew meaning might almost be represented in that 
English word which, with an added z, would best convey 
the windiness of his remarks. Buz was the son of Milkah, 
the Moon, and his descendant so came fairly by his theo- 
logic * moonshine ' of the kind which Carlyle has so well 
described in his account of Coleridgean casuistry. Elihu 
means to be fair to both sides 1 Elihu sees some truth in 
both sides! Eclectic Elihu! Job is perfectly right in 
thinking he had not done anything to merit his sufferings, 
but he did not know what snares were around him, and 
how he might have done something wicked but for his 
affliction. Moreover, God ruins people now and then just 
to show how he can lift them up again. Job ought to have 
taken this for granted, and then to have expressed it in 
the old abject phraseology, saying, * I have received chas- 
tisement; I will offend no more! What I see not, teach 
thou me!' (A truly Elihuic or 'contemptible' answer to 
Job's sensible words, 'Why is light given to a man whose 
way is hid V Why administer the rod which enlightens 
as to the anger but not its cause, or as to the way of 
amend ?) In fact the casuistic Elihu casts no light what- 
ever on the situation. He simply overwhelms him with 


metaphors and generalities about the divine justice and 
mercy, meant to hide this new and dangerous solution 
which Job had discovered — ^namely, that the old dogmatic 
theories of evil were proved false by experience, and that 
a good man amid sorrow should admit his ignorance, but 
never allow terror to wring from him the voice of guilt, 
nor the attempt to propitiate divine wrath. 

When Jehovah appears on the scene, answering Job out 
of the whirlwind, the tone is one of wrath, but the whole 
utterance is merely an amplification of what Job had said 
— ^what we see and suffer are but fringes of a Whole we 
cannot understand. The magnificence and wonder of the 
universe celebrated in that voice of the whirlwind had to 
be given the lame and impotent conclusion of Job ' abhor- 
ring himself,' and 'repenting in dust and ashes.' The con- 
ventional Cerberus must have his sop. But none the less 
does the great heart of this poem reveal the soul that was 
not shaken or divided in prosperity or adversity. The 
burnt-offering of his prosperous days, symbol of a worship 
which refused to include the supposed powers of mischief, 
was enjoined on Job's Comforters. They must bend to 
him as nearer God than they. And in his high philosophy 
Job found what is symbolised in the three daughters born 
to him: Jemima (the Dove, the voice of the returning 
Spring); Kezia (Cassia, the sweet incense); Kerenhappuch 
(the horn of beautiful colour, or decoration). 

^ 1 ^ . ' Pe ' ' o. t a 


formally, they must cease when their powerlessness is 
proved. Hence the Rabbins have taken the side of Job's 
Comforters. They invented a legend that Job had been 
a great magician in Egypt, and was one of those whose 
sorceries so long prevented the escape of Israel He was 
converted afterwards, but it is hinted that his early wicked- 
ness required the retribution he suffered. His name was 
to them the troubler troubled. 

Heretical also was the theory that man could get along 
without any Angelolatry or Demon-worship. Job in his 
singleness of service, fearing God alone, defying the 
Seraphim and Cherubim from Samael down to do their 
worst, was a perilous figure. The priests got no part 
of any burnt-offering. The sin-offering was of almost 
sumptuary importance. Hence the rabbinical theory, 
already noticed, that it was through neglect of these 
expiations to the God of Sin that the morally spotless 
Job came under the power of his plagues. 

But for precisely the same reasons the story of Job 
became representative to the more spiritual class of minds 
of a genuine as contrasted with a nominal monotheism, 
and the piety of the pure, the undivided heart. Its mean- 
ing is so human that it is not necessary to discuss the 
question of its connection with the story of HariSchan- 
dra, or whether its accent was caught from or by the 

le ends of Zoroaster and of Buddha who e s - w 
sibe oA , s t w, JD 1 uotePsa i s no ut 

® . es art 
a et rt s to 

^ ii^nsik'^^^ IS r ui % to 

usn sOfi^i^ • ? a s, n 

( ^59 ) 



Public prosecutors — Satan as Accuser — English Devil-worshipper — 
Conversion by Terror— Satan in the Old Testament— The trial 
of Joshua— Sender of Plagues — Satan and Serpent— Portrait of 
Satan — Scapegoat of Christendom — Catholic 'Sight of Hell' — 
The ally of Priesthoods. 

There is nothing about the Satan of the Book of Job 
to indicate him as a diabolical character. He appears as 
a respectable and powerful personage among the sons of 
God who present themselves before Jehovah, and his office 
is that of a public prosecutor. He goes to and fro in the 
earth attending to his duties. He has received certificates 
of character from A. Schultens, Herder, Eichorn, Dathe, 
Ilgen, who proposed a new word for Satan in the pro- 
logue of Job, which would make him a faithful but too 
suspicious servant of God. 

Such indeed he was deemed originally; but it is easy to 
see how the degradation of such a figure must have begun. 
There is often a clamour in England for the creation of 
Public Prosecutors ; yet no doubt there is good ground for 
the hesitation which its judicial heads feel in advising such 
a step. The experience of countries in which Prosecuting 
Attorneys exist is not such as to prove the institution 
one of unmixed advantage. It is not in human nature 
for an official person not to make the most of the duty 



intrusted to him, and the tendency is to raise the interest 
he specially represents above that of justice itself. A 
defeated prosecutor feels a certain stigma upon his 
reputation as much as a defeated advocate, and it is 
doubtful whether it be safe that the fame of any man 
should be in the least identified with personal success 
where justice is trying to strike a true balance. The 
recent performances of certain attorneys in England 
and America retained by Societies for the Suppression 
of Vice strikingly illustrate the dangers here alluded ta 
The necessity that such salaried social detectives should 
perpetually parade before the community as purifiers of 
society induces them to get up unreal cases where real 
ones cannot be easily discovered. Thus they become 
Accusers, and from this it is an easy step to become 
Slanderers ; nor is it a very difficult one which may make 
them instigators of the vices they profess to suppress. 

The first representations of Satan show him holding in 
his hand the scales ; but the latter show him trying slyly 
with hand or foot to press down that side of the balance 
in which the evil deeds of a soul are being weighed 
against the good. We need not try to track archaeologi- 
cally this declension of a Prosecutor, by increasing ardour 
in his office, through the stages of Accuser, Adversary, 

^flPsi lo 

o r 

nh t 

e^^S^cdtho &Pc 

.s ""r^^^^ 

•'bini I 




of a farmer, who had to support a wife and eleven children 
on from 7s. to 9s. per week, and who sent him for a short 
time to school. 'My schoolmistress reproved me for 
something wrong, telling me that God Almighty took 
notice of children's sins. This stuck to my conscience a 
great while; and who this God Almighty could be I 
could not conjecture; and how he could know my sins 
without asking my mother I could not conceive. At 


revealed in my heart, and every curse in his book levelled 
at my head/ (That seems his only evidence of God's exis- 
tence — his wrath I) * The Devil answered that the Bible 
was false, and only wrote by cunning men to puzzle and 
deceive people. 'There is no God,' said the adversary, 
* nor is the Bible true.' ... I asked, * Who, then, made 
the world ? ' He replied, ' I did, and I made men too.' 
Satan, perceiving my rationality almost gone, followed 
me up with another temptation ; that as there was no 
God I must come back to his work again, else when he 
had brought me to hell he would punish me more than 
all the rest. I cried out, * Oh, what will become of me I 
what will become of me ! ' He answered that there was 
no escape but by praying to him ; and that he would 
show me some lenity when he took me to hell. I went 
and sat in my tool-house halting between two opinions ; 
whether I should petition Satan, or whether I should keep 
praying to God, until I could ascertain the consequences. 
While I was thinking of bending my knees to such a 
cursed being as Satan, an uncommon fear of God sprung 
up in my heart to keep me from it.* 

In other words, Mr. Huntington wavered between the 
petitions * Good Lord ! Good Devil ! ' The question 
whether it were more moral, more holy, to worship the 
one than the other did not occur to him. He only con- 
siders which is the strongest — which could do him the 
most mischief — ^which, therefore, to fear the most ; and 
when Satan has almost convinced him in his own favour, 
he changes round to God. Why } Not because of any 
superior goodness on God's part. He says, *An uncom- 
mon fear of God sprung up in my heart.' The greater terror 
won the day ; that is to say, of two demons he yielded to 
the stronger. Such an experience, though that of one 
living in our own time, represents a phase in the develop- 


world is necessarily severe. Thus simple is the sense of 
those temptations which make the almost invariable ordeal 
of the traditional founders of religions. As in earlier 
times the god won his spurs, so to say, by conquering 
some monstrous beast, the saint or saviour must have 
overtcmie some potent many-headed world, with gems for 
scales \nd double-tongue, coiling round the earth, and 
thence, like Lilith's golden hair, round the heart of all 
surrendered to its seductions. 

It is remarkable to note the contrast between the visible 
and invisible worlds which surrounded the spiritual pil- 
grimage of Sakya Muni to Buddhahood or enlightenment. 
At his birth there is no trace of political hostility: the 
cruel Kansa, Herod, Magicians seeking to destroy, are 
replaced by the affectionate force of a king trying to retain 
his son. The universal traditions reach their happy height 
in the ecstatic gospels of the Siamese.^ The universe was 
illumined ; all jewels shown with unwonted lustre ; the 
air was full of music ; all pain ceased ; the blind saw, the 
deaf heard ; the birds paused in their flight ; all trees and 
plants burst into bloom, and lotus flowers appeared in 
every place. Not under the dominion of Mara * was this 
beautiful world. But by turning from all its youth, health, 
and life, to think only of its decrepitude, illness, and 

* 4| given in Mr. Alabaster's 'The Wheel of the Law ' (Triibner & Co., 1871X 



death, the Prince Sakya Muni surrounded himself with 
another world in which Mara had his share of power. I 
condense here the accounts of his encounters with the 
Prince, who was on his way to be a hermit 

When the Prince passed out at the palace gates, the 
king Mara, knowing that the youth was passing beyond 
his evil power, determined to prevent him. Descending 
from his abode and floating in the air, Mara cried, 

* Lord, thou art capable of such vast endurance, go not 
forth to adopt a religious life, but return to thy kingdom, 
and in seven days thou shalt become an emperor of the 
world, ruling over the four great continents.' • Take heed, 
O Mara I * replied the Prince ; * I also know that in seven 
days I might gain universal empire, but I have no desire 
for such possessions. I know that the pursuit of religion 
is better than the empire of the world. See how the 
world is moved, and quakes with praise of this my entry 
on a religious life I I shall attain the glorious omniscience, 
and shall teach the wheel of the law, that all teachable 
beings may free themselves from transmigratory existence. 
You, thinking only of the lusts of the flesh, would force 
me to leave all beings to wander without guide into your 
power. Avaunt I get thee away far from me ! ' 

Mara withdrew, but only to watch for another oppor- 
tunity. It came when the Prince had reduced himself to 
emaciation and agony by the severest austerities. Then 
Mara presented himself, and pretending compassion, said, 

* Beware, O grand Being I Your state is pitiable to look 
on ; you are attenuated beyond measure, and your skin, 

u c e h a of thr oD ur f on Q f P i 


and flowers.' Him the Grand Being indignantly answered, 
• Hearken, thou vile and wicked Mara f Thy words suit not 
the time. Think not to deceive me, for I heed thee not 
Thou mayest mislead those who have no understanding, 
but I, who have virtue, endurance, and intelligence, who 
know what is good and what is evil, cannot be so misled. 
Thou, O Mara ! hast eight generals. Thy first is delight 
in the five lusts of the flesh, which are the pleasures of 
appearance, sound, scent, flavour, and touch. Thy second 
general is wrath, who takes the form of vexation, indigna- 
tion, and desire to injure. Thy third is concupiscence. 
Thy fourth is desire. Thy fifth is impudence. Thy sixth 
is arrogance. Thy seventh is doubt. And thine eighth 
is ingratitude. These are thy generals, who cannot be 
escaped by those whose hearts are set on honour and 
wealth. But I know that he who can contend with these 
thy generals shall escape beyond all sorrow, and enjoy 
the most glorious happiness. Therefore I have not ceased 
to practise mortification, knowing that even were I to die 
whilst thus engaged, it would be a most excellent thing.' 

It is added that Mara ' fled in confusion,' but the next 
incident seems to show that his suggestion was not un- 
heeded ; for ' after he had departed,' the Grand Being had 
his vision of the three-stringed guitar — one string drawn 
too tightly, the second too loosely, the third moderately — 
which last, somewhat in defiance of orchestral ideas, alone 
gave sweet music, and taught him that moderation was 
better than excess or laxity. By eating enough he gained 
that pristine strength and beauty which offended the five 
Brahmans so that they left him. The third and final effort 
of Mara immediately preceded the Prince's attainment of the 
t ^^''^ Buddha tmok hth d ~ - £I(Si99^ sent hi hr w n 



* Lord, fearest thou not death ?* But he drove her away. 
The two others also he drove away as they had no charm 
of sufficient power to entice him. Then Mara assembled 
his generals, and said, ' Listen, ye Maras, that know not 
sorrow ! Now shall I make war on the Prince, that man 
without equal I dare not attack him in face, but I 
will circumvent him by approaching on the north side. 
Assume then all manner of shapes, and use your mightiest 
powers, that he may flee in terror.* 

Having taken on fearful shapes, raising awful sounds, 
headed by Mara himself, who had assumed immense size^ 
and mounted his elephant Girimaga, a thousand miles in 
height, they advanced ; but they dare not enter beneath 
the shade of the holy Bo-tree. They frightened away, 
however, the Lord's guardian angels, and he was left 
alone. Then seeing the army approaching from the north, 
he reflected, * Long have I devoted myself to a life of 
mortification, and now I am alone, without a friend to aid 
me in this contest. Yet may I escape the Maras, for the 
virtue of my transcendent merits will be my army.' ' Help 
me,' he cried, 'ye thirty Baramil ye powers of accu- 
mulated merit, ye powers of Almsgiving, Morality, 
Relinquishment, Wisdom, Fortitude, Patience, Truth, 
Determination, Charity, and Equanimity, help me in my 
fight with Mara 1' The Lord was seated on his jewelled 
throne (the same that had been formed of the grass on 
which he sat), and Mara with his army exhausted every 
resource of terror — monstrous beasts, rain of missiles and 
burning ashes, gales that blew down mountain peaks — to 
inspire him with fear ; but all in vain ! Nay, the burning 
ashes were changed to flowers as they fell 

* Come down from thy throne,' shouted the evil-formed 
one; 'come down, or I will cut thine heart into atoms!' 
The Lord replied, * This jewelled throne was created by 



the power of my merits, for I am he who will teach all 
men the remedy for death, who will redeem all beings, 
and set them free from the sorrows of circling existence/ 

Mara then claimed that the throne belonged to himself, 
and had been created by his own merits ; and on this 
armed himself with the Chakkra, the irresistible weapon 
of Indra, and Wheel of the Law. Yet Buddha answered, 

* By the thirty virtues of transcendent merits, and the five 
alms, I have obtained the throne. Thou, in saying that 
this throne was created by thy merits, tellest an untruth, 
for indeed there is no throne for a sinful, horrible being 
such as thou art.' 

Then furious Mara hurled the Chakkra, which clove 
mountains in its course, but could not pass a canopy of 
flowers which rose over the Lord's head. 

And now the great Being asked Mara for the witnesses 
of his acts of merit by virtue of which he claimed the 
throne. In response, Mara's generals all bore him witness. 
Then Mara challenged him, * Tell me now, where is the 
man that can bear witness for thee } * The Lord reflected, 

* Truly here is no man to bear me witness, but I will 
call on the earth itself, though it has neither spirit nor 
understanding, and it shall be my witness. Stretching 
forth his hand, he thus invoked the earth : ' O holy Earth! 
I who have attained the thirty powers of virtue, and per- 
formed the five great alms, each time that I have performed 
a great act have not failed to pour water on thee. Now 
that I have no other witness, I call upon thee to give thy 
testimony I ' 

The angel of the earth appeared in shape of a lovely 
woman, and answered, ' O Being more excellent than 
angels or men I it is true that, when you performed your 
great works, you ever poured water on my hair.' And 
with these words she wrung her long hair, and from it 


issued a stream, a torrent, a flood, in which Mara and his 
hostis were overturned, their insignia destroyed, and King 
Mara put to flight, amid the loud rejoicings of angels. 

Then the evil one and his generals were conquered not 
only in power but in heart ; and Mara, raising his thousand 
arms, paid reverence, saying, * Homage to the Lord, who 
has subdued his body even as a charioteer breaks his 
horses to his use I The Lord will become the omniscient 
Buddha, the Teacher of angels, and Brahmas, and Yakkhas 
(demons), and men. He will confound all Maras, and 
rescue men from the whirl of transmigration 1 ' 

The menacing powers depicted as assailing Sakya Muni 
appear only around the infancy of Zoroaster. The inter- 
view of the latter with Ahriman hardly amounts to a severe 
trial, but still the accent of the chief temptation both of 
Buddha and Christ is in it, namely, the promise of worldly 
empire. It was on one of those midnight journeys through 
Heaven and Hell that Zoroaster saw Ahriman, and de- 
livered from his power * one who had done both good and 
eviL'i When Ahriman met Zoroaster's gaze, he cried, 
* Quit thou the pure law ; cast it to the ground ; thou wilt 
then be in the world all that thou canst desire. Be not 
anxious about thy end. At least, do not destroy my sub- 
jects, O pure Zoroaster, son- of Poroscharp, who art bom 
of her thou hast borne 1 ' Zoroaster answered, ' Wicked 
Majesty I it is for thee and thy worshippers that Hell is 
prepared, but by the mercy of God I shall bury your work 
with shame and ignominy.' 

In the account of Matthew, Satan begins his temptation 
of Jesus in the same way and amid similar circumstances 
to those we find in the Siamese legends of Buddha. It 
occurs in a wilderness, and the appeal is to hunger. The 

^ Some say Djemschid, others Guenschesp, a warrior sent to hell for beat- 
ing the fire. 


temptation of Buddha, in which Mara promises the empire 
of the world, is also repeated in the case of Satan and 
Jesus (Fig. 6). The menaces, however, in this case, are 

Fig. 6.— Tbmptatioh op Christ (Lucaa van LeydenX 

relegated to the infancy, and the lustful temptation is. 
a nt alto etilfer 1 8 etn T ' 1 ' * or ' 


the wilderness forty days *with the beasts/ which may 
mean that Satan * drove' him into a region of danger to 
inspire fear. In Luke we have the remarkable claim of 
Satan that the authority over the world has been delivered 
to himself, and he gives it to whom he will ; which Jesus 
does not deny, as Buddha did the similar claim of Mara. 
As in the case of Buddha, the temptation of Jesus ends 
his fasting; angels bring him food (Si/rfKovow avr£ pro- 
bably means that), and thenceforth he eats and drinks, 
to the scandal of the ascetics. 

The essential addition in the case of Jesus is the notable 
temptation to try and perform a crucial act Satan quotes 
an accredited messianic prophecy, and invites Jesus to 
test his claim to be the predicted deliverer by casting 
himself from the pinnacle of the Temple, and testing the 
promise that angels should protect the true Son of God. 
Strauss,^ as it appears to me, has not considered the im- 
portance of this in connection with the general situation. 
'Assent,' he says, 'cannot be withheld from' the canon 
that, to be credible, the narrative must ascribe nothing to 
the devil inconsistent with his established cunning. Now, 
the first temptation, appealing to hunger, we grant, is not 
ill-conceived ; if this were ineffectual, the devil, as an art- 
ful tactician, should have had a yet more alluring tempta- 
tion at hand ; but instead of this, we find him, in Matthew, 
proposing to Jesus the neck-breaking feat of casting him- 
self down from the pinnacle of the Temple — a far less 
inviting miracle than the metamorphosis of the stones. 
This proposition finding no acceptance, there follows, as a 
crowning effort, a suggestion which, whatever might be 
the bribe, every true Israelite would instantly reject with 
abhorrence — to fall down and worship the devil.* 

* JLeben Jem^ iL 54. The close resemblance between the trial of Israel in 
the wilderness and this of Jesus is drawn in bis own masterly way. 



Not so ! The scapegoat was a perpetual act of 
worship to the Devil. In this story of the temptation 
of Christ there enter sotne characteristic elements of the 
temptation of Job.^ Uz in the one casre and the wilder- 
ness in the other mean morally the same, the region ruled 
over by Azazel. In both cases the trial is under divine 
direction. And the trial is in both cases to secure a divi- 
sion of worship between the good and evil powers, which 
was so universal in the East that it was the test of excep- 
tional piety if one did not swerve from an unmixed sacrifice. 
Jesus is apparently abandoned by the God in whom he 
trusted ; he is * driven ' into, a wilderness, and there kept 
with the beasts and without food. The Devil alone 
comes to him; exhibits his own miraculous power by 
bearing him through the air to his own Mount Seir, and 
showing him the whole world in a moment of dme ; and 
now says to him, as it were, ' Try your God I See if he 
will even turn stones into bread to save his own son, to 
whom I offer the kingdoms of the world ! ' Then bearing 
him into the * holy hill * of his own God — the pinnacle of 
the Temple — says, * Try now a leap, and see if lu saves 
from being dashed to pieces, even in his own precincts, 
his so trustful devotee, whom I have borne aloft so safely ! 
Which, then, has the greater power to protect, enrich, 
advance you, — he who has left yoii out here to starve, so 
that you dare not trust yourself to him, or I ? Fall down 
then and worship me as your God, and all the world is 

^ A passage of the Pesikta (iil 35) represents a tonversation between 
Jehovah and Satan with reference to Messias which bears a resemblance to 
the prologue of Job. Satan said : Lord, permit me to tempt Messias and 
his generation. ' To him the Lord said : You could have no power OTger him. 
Satan again said : Permit me because I have Uie power. God answered : 
If you persist longer in this, rather would I destroy thee from the world, than 
that one soul of the generation of Messias should "be lost.' Though the 
rabbin might report the trial declined, the christian would claim it to have 
been endured. 


yours 1 It is the world you are to reign over : rule it in 
my name I 

When St Anthony is tempted by the Devil in the form 
of a lean monk, it was easy to see that the hermit was 
troubled with a vision of his own emaciation. When the 
Devil appears to Luther under guise of a holy monk, it 
is an obvious explanation that he was impressed by a 
memory of the holy brothers who still remained in the 
Church, and who, while they implored his return, pointed 
out the strength and influence he had lost by secession. 
Equally simple are the moral elements in the story of 
Christ's temptation. While a member of John's ascetic 
community, for which * though he was rich he became 
poor,' hunger, and such anxiety about a living as victi* 
mises many a young thinker now, must have assailed him. 
Later on his Devil meets him on the Temple, quotes 
scripture, and warns him that his visionary God will not 
raise him so high in the Church as the Prince of this 
World can.* And finally, when dreams of a larger union, 
including Jews and Gentiles, visited him, the power that 
might be gained by connivance with universal idolatry 
would be reflected in the offer of the kingdoms of the 
world in payment for the purity of his aims and single- 
ness of his worship. 

That these trials of self-truthfulness and fidelity, oc- 
curring at various phases of life, would be recognised, 
is certain. A youth of high position, as Christ pro- 
bably was,* or even one with that great powet over the 
people which all concede, was, in a worldly sense, * throw- 

^ In his fresco of the Temptation at the Vatican, Michael Angelo has 
painted the Devil in the dress of a priest, standing with Jesus on the 

* ' Idols and Ideals.' London : Triibner & Ca New York ; Heniy 
Holt & Co. In the Essay on Christianity I have given my reasons for this 



ing away his prospects;' and this voice, real in its 
time, would naturally be conventionalised. It would put 
on the stock costume of devils and angels; and among 
Jewish christians it would naturally be associated with 
the forty-days' fast of Moses (Exod. xxxiv. 28; Deut. 
ix. 9), and that of Elias (i Kings xix. 8), and the forty- 
ji ' f i b c .risra^^ an 4^e Y^ildern^m r ^ f h u 


( I90 ) 



A ' Morality' at Tours— The ' St Anthony' of Spagnoletto— Bunyan's 
Pilgrim — Milton on Christ's Temptation — An Edinburgh saint 
and Unitarian fiend — ^A haunted Jewess— Conversion by fever — 
Limit of courage — Woman and sorcery — Luther and. the Devil 
— The ink-spot at Wartburg — Carlyle's interpretation — The 
cowled devil— Caylyle's trial— In Rue St Thomas d'Enfer— The 
Everlasting No — Devilof Vauvert — The latter-day conflict — New 
conditions — ^The Victory of Man — The Scholar and the World. 

A REPRESENTATION of the Temptation of St. Anthony 
(marionettes), which I witnessed at Tours (1878), had 
several points of significance. It was the mediaeval ' Mora- 
lity' as diminished by centuries, and conventionalised 
among those whom the centuries mould in ways and for 
ends they know not Amid a scenery of grotesque devils, 
rudely copied from Callot, St. Anthony appeared, and 

was tem ted in di va n that recalled theaoldi ic ur 
F e a 



The prayers of the saint and the response of the angel 
were meant to be seriously taken ; but their pathos was 
generally met with pardonable laughter by the crowd in 
the booth. Yet there was a pathos about it all, if only 
this, that the only temptations thought of for a saint were 
a sound and quiet house and a mistress. The bell-noise 
alone remained from the great picture of Spagnoletto at 
Siena, where the unsheltered old man raises his deprecat- 
ing hand against the disturber, but not his eyes from the 
book he reads. In Spagnoletto's picture there are five 
large books, pen, ink, and hour-glass ; but there is neither 
hermitage to be burnt nor female charms to be resisted. 

But Spagnoletto, even in his time, was beholding the 
vision of exceptional men in the past, whose hunger and 
thirst was for knowledge, truth, and culture, and who 
sought these in solitude. Such men have so long left the 
Church familiar to the French peasantry that any repre- 
sentation of their temptations and trials would be out of 
place among the marionettes. The bells which now dis- 
turb them are those that sound from steeples. 

Another picture loomed up before my eyes over the 
puppet performance at Tours, that which for Bunyan 
frescoed the walls of Bedford GaoL There, too, the old 
(leq^ons, giantg ^d devils took on rave and vast forms, 


To whom quick answer Satan thus returned, 
Belial, in much uneven scale thou weigh'st 
All others by thyself. • . • 
But he whom we attempt is wiser far 
Than Solomon, of more exalted mind, 
Made and set wholly on the accomplishment 
Of greatest things. . . . 
Therefore with manlier objects we must try 
His constancy, with such as have more show 
Of worth, of honour, glory, and popular praise ; 
Rocks whereon greatest men have oftest wrecked.^ 

The progressive ideas which Milton attributed to Satan 
have not failed. That Celestial City which Bunyan found 
it so hard to reach has now become a metropolis of wealth 
and fashion, and the trials which once beset pilgrims toil- 
ing towards it are now transferred to those who would 
pass beyond it to another city, seen from afar, with temples 
of Reason and palaces of Justice. 

The old phantasms have shrunk to puppets. The trials 
by personal devils are relegated to the regions of insanity 
and disease. It is everywhere a dance of puppets though 
on a cerebral stage. A lady well known in Edinburgh 

1 e ?n ^ la drWstftBwe i% h H Twh t 

Wcrhd P eyhft.BrmriJie 1 
Hh ^ d UP Tdo.dfid ao n 


pered in sweet communion with them, as they surrounded 
me, and, pointing to the throne of grace, said, ' Behold ! ' 
and I felt that the glory of God was about to manifest 
itself; for a shout, as if a choir of angels had tuned their 
golden harps, burst forth in, ' Glory to God on high,' and 
died away in softest strains of melody. I lifted up my 
eyes to heaven, and there, so near as to be almost within 
my reach, the brightest vision of our Lord and Saviour 
stood before me, enveloped with a light, ethereal mist, 
so bright and yet transparent that his divine figure 
could be seen distinctly, and my eyes were riveted upon 
him ; for this bright vision seemed to touch my bed, 
standing at the foot, so near, and he stretched forth 
his left hand toward me, whilst with the right one he 
pointed to the throne of grace, and a voice came, say- 
ing, * Blessed are they who can see God ; arise, take 
up thy cross and follow me; for though thy sins be as 
scarlet they shall be white as wool* And with my 
eyes fixed on that bright vision, I saw from the hand 
stretched toward me great drops of blood, as if from each 
finger ; for his blessed hand was spread open, as if in 
prayer, and those drops fell distinctly, as if upon the 
earth ; and a misty light encircled me, and a voice again 
said, * Take up thy cross and follow me ; for though 
thy sins be as scarlet they shall be white as wool/ 
And angels were all around me, and I saw the throne of 
heaven. And, oh ! the sweet calm that stole over my 
senses. It must have been a foretaste of heavenly bliss. 
How long I lay after this beautiful vision I know not ; 
but when I opened my eyes it was early dawn, and I felt 
so happy and well. My young friends pressed around 
my bedside, to know how I felt, and I said, * I am well 
and so happy.' They then said I was whispering with 
some one in my dreams all night. I told them angels 


were with me ; that I was not asleep, and I had sweet 
communion with them, and would soon be well/ ^ 

That is what the temptation of Jesus in the wilderness 
comes to when dislocated from its time and place, and, 
with its gathered ages of fable, is imported at last to be 
an engine of torture sprung on the nerves of a devout 
woman. This Jewess was divorced from her husband by 
her Christianity; her child died a victim to precocious 
piety; but what were home and affection in ruins com- 
pared with salvation from that frightful devil seen in her 
holy delirium ? 

History shows that it has always required unusual 
courage for a human being to confront an enemy believed 
to be praeternatural. This Jewess would probably have 
been able to face a tiger for the sake of her husband, but 
not that fantastic devil. Not long 'ago an English 
actor was criticised because, in playing Hamlet, he 
cowered with fear on seeing the ghost, all his sinews 
and joints seeming to give way; but to me he ap- 
peared then the perfect type of what mankind have 
always been when believing themselves in the presence 
of praeternatural powers. The limit of courage in human 
nature was passed when the foe was one which no earthly 
power or weapon could reach. 

In old times, nearly all the sorcerers and witches were 
women; and it may have been, in some part, because 
woman had more real courage than man unarmed. 
Sorcery and witchcraft were but the so-called pagan 
rites in their last degradation, and women were the last 
to abandon the declining religion, just as they are the 
last to leave the superstition which has followed it Their 

^ * Henry Luria ; or, the LitUe Jewish Convert : being contained in the 
Memoir of Mrs. S. T. Cohen, relict of the Rev. Dr. A. H. Cohen, late 
Rab i of th S n i Ri 


sentiment and affection were intertwined with it, and the 
threats of eternal torture by devils which frightened men 
from the old faith to the new were less powerful to shake 
the faith of women. When pagan priests became chris- 
tians, priestesses remained, to become sorceresses. The 
new faith had gradually to win the love of the sex too 
used to martyrdom on earth to fear it much in hell. 
And now, again, when knowledge clears away the old 
terrors, and many men are growing indifferent to all reli- 
gion, because no longer frightened by it, we may expect 
the churches to be increasingly kept up by women alone, 
simply because they went into them more by attraction 
of saintly ideals than fear of diabolical menaces. 

Thomas Carlyle has selected Luther's boldness in the 
presence of what he believed the Devil to illustrate his 
valour. ' His defiance of the * Devils ' in Worms,' says Car- 
lyle, * was not a mere boast, as the like might be if spoken 
now. It was a faith of Luther's that there were Devils, 
spiritual denizens of the Pit, continually besetting men. 
Many times, in his writings, this turns up; and a most 
small sneer has been grounded on it by some. In the 
room of the Wartburg, where he sat translating the Bible, 
they still show you a black spot on the wall ; the strange 
memorial of one of these conflicts. Luther sat translating 
one of the Psalms ; he was worn down with long labour, 
with sickness, abstinence from food ; there rose before him 
some hideous indefinable Image, which he took for the 
Evil One, to forbid his work; Luther started up with 
fiend-defiance ; fiung his inkstand at the spectre, and it 
disappeared I The spot still remains there ; a curious 
monument of several things. Any apothecary's appren- 
i e „an now tell ua^what we are to think of this a arinn 


higher proof of fearlessness. The thing he will quail 
before exists not on this earth nor under it — fearless 
enough ! ' The Devil is aware,' writes he on one occasion, 
'that this does not proceed out of fear in me. I have 
seen and defied innumerable Devils. Duke George/ — of 
Leipzig, a great enemy of his, — * Duke George is not equal 
to one Devil,* far short of a Devil! *If I had business 
at Leipzig, I would ride into Leipzig, though it rained 
Duke Georges for nine days running.' What a reservoir 
of Dukes to ride into ! ' ^ 

Although Luther^s courage certainly appears in this, it 
is plain that his Devil was much humanised as compared 
with the fearful phantoms of an earlier time. Nobody 
would ever have tried an inkstand on the Gorgons, Furies, 
Lucifers of ancient belief. In Luther's Bible the Devil is 
pictured as a monk — a lean monk, such as he himself was 
only too likely to become if he continued his rebellion 
against the Church (Fig. 17). It was against a Devil liable 
to resistance by physical force that he hurled his ink- 
stand, and against whom he also hurled the contents of 
his inkstand in those words which Richter said were half- 

Luther's Devil, in fact, represents one of the last phases 

in the reduction of the Evil Power from a personified 

phantom with which no man could cope, to that imper- 

• • • hS fi™^ ^ 


coining upon the weak nerves of women, vanquished their 
reason and heart; that which, in a healthy man, raised 
valour and power — may be taken as side-lights for a 
corresponding experience in the life of a great man now 
living — Carlyle himself. It was at a period of youth when, 
amid the lonely hills of Scotland, he wandered out of har- 
mony with the world in which he lived. Consecrated by 
pious parents to the ministry, he had inwardly renounced 
every dogma of the Church. With genius and culture for 
high work, the world demanded of him low work. Friend- 
less, alone, poor, he sat eating his heart, probably with little 
else to eat Every Scotch parson he met unconsciously 
propounded to that youth the question whether he could 
convert his heretical stone into bread, or precipitate him- 
self from the pinnacle of the Scotch Kirk without bruises ? 
Then it was he roamed in his mystical wilderness, until he 
found himself in the gayest capital of the world, which, 
however, on him had little to bestow but a further sense 
of loneliness. 

'Now, when I look back, it was a strange isolation I 
then lived in. The men and women around me, even 
speaking with me, were but Figures; I had practically 
forgotten that they were alive, that they were not merely 
automatic. In the midst of their crowded streets and 
assemblages, I walked solitary ; and (except as it was my 
own heart, not another's, that I kept devouring) savage 
also, as is the tiger in his jungle. Some comfort it would 
have been, could I, like a Faust, have fancied myself 
tempted and tormented of a Devil ; for a Hell, as I 
imagine, without Life, though only diabolic Life, were 
more frightful : but in our age of DownpuUing and Dis- 
belief, the very Devil has been pulled down — you cannot 
so much as believe in a Devil. To me the Universe was 
all void of Life, of Purpose, of Volition, even of Hostility : 



it was one huge, dead, immeasurable, Steam-engine, roll- 
ing on, in its dead indifference, to grind me limb from 
limb. Oh, the vast gloomy, solitary Golgotha, and Mill 
of Death ! Why was the Living banished thither, com- 
panionless, conscious ? Why, if there is no Devil ; nay, 
unless the Devil is your God ? ' . . . 

* From suicide a certain aftershine of Christianity with- 
held me.' . . . 

* So had it lasted, as in bitter, protracted Death-agony, 
through long years. The heart within me, unvisited by 
any heavenly dewdrop, was smouldering in sulphurous, 
slow-consuming fire. Almost since earliest memory I 
had shed no tear ; or once only when I, murmuring half- 
audibly, recited Faust's. Deathsong, that wild Selig der den 
er im Siegesglanze findei (Happy whom he finds in Battle's 
splendour), and thought that of this last Friend even I was 
not forsaken, that Destiny itself could not doom me not 
to die. Having no hope, neither had I any definite fear, 
were it of Man or of Devil ; nay, I often felt as if it might 
be solacing could the Arch-Devil himself, though in Tar- 
tarean terrors, rise to me that I might tell him a little of 
my mind. And yet, strangely enough, I lived in a con- 
tinual, indefinite, pining fear; tremulous, pusillanimous, 
apprehensive of I knew not what ; it seemed as if all 
things in the Heavens above and the Earth beneath 
would hurt me; as if the Heavens and the Earth were 
but boundless jaws of a devouring monster, wherein I, 
palpitating, waited to be devoured. 

' Full of such humour, and perhaps the miserablest man 
in the whole French Capital or Suburbs, was I, one sultry 
Dogday, after much perambulation, toiling along the dirty 
little Rue Sainte Thomas de VEnfer^ among civic rubbish 
enough, in a close atmosphere, and over pavements hot as 
Nebuchadnezzar's Furnace; whereby doubtless my spirits 



were little cheered ; when all at once there rose a Thought 
in me, and I asked myself, *What art thou afraid of? 
Wherefore, like a coward, dost thou for ever pip and 
whimper, and go cowering and trembling? Despicable 
biped I what is the sum-total of the worst that lies before 
thee ? Death ? Well, Death ; and say the pangs of 
Tophet too, and all that the Devil or Man may, will, or can 
do against thee ! Hast thou not a heart ; canst thou not 
suffer whatsoever it be; and, as a Child of Freedom, 
though outcast, trample Tophet itself under thy feet, 
while it consumes thee ! Let it come, then ; I will meet 
it and defy it ! ' And as I so thought, there rushed like a 
stream of fire over my whole soul; and I shook base 
Fear away from me for ever. I was strong, of unknown 
strength ; a spirit, almost a god. Ever from that time 
the temper of my misery was changed : not Fear or 
whining Sorrow was it, but Indignation and grim fire- 
eyed Defiance. 

' Thus had the EVERLASTING No pealed authoritatively 
through all the recesses of my Being, of my Me; and then 
was it that my whole Me stood up, in native God-created 
majesty and with emphasis recorded its Protest. Such a 
Protest, the most important transaction in Life, may that 
same Indignation and Defiance, in a psychological point 
of view, be fitly called. The Everlasting No had said, 
* Behold thou art fatherless, outcast, and the Universe is 
mine (the Devil's) ; ' to which my whole Me now made 
answer, * / am not thine, but Free, and for ever hate 
thee ! ' 

* It is from this hour. that I incline to date my spiritual 
New Birth, or Baphometic fire-baptism ; perhaps I directly 
thereupon began to be a Man.' ^ 

Perhaps he who so uttered his Apage Satana did not 
^ ' .ar or R rtus * n : ha man & Hall i . i6a 



recognise amid what haunted Edom he wrestled with his 
Phantom. Saint Louis, having invited the Carthusian 
monks to Paris, assigned them a habitation in the Fau- 
bourg Saint-Jacques, near the ancient chateau of Vauvert, 
a manor built by Robert (le Diable), but for a long time 
then uninhabited, because infested by demons, which had, 
perhaps, been false coiners. Fearful howls had been heard 
there, and spectres seen, dragging chains ; and, in par- 
ticular, it was frequented by a fearful green monster, 
serpent and man in one, with a long white beard, wielding 
a huge club, with which he threatened all who passed that 
way. This demon, in common belief, passed along the road 
to and from the chateau in a fiery chariot, and twisted the 
neck of every human being met on his way. He was called 
the Devil of Vauvert. The Carthusians were not frightened 
by these stories, but asked Louis to give them the Manor, 
which he did, with all its dependencies. After that nothing 
more was heard of the Diable Vauvert or his imps. It was 
but fair to the Demons who had assisted the friars in obtain- 
ing a valuable property so cheaply that the street should 
thenceforth bear the name of Rue d'Enfer, as it does. But 
the formidable genii of the place haunted it still, and, in 
the course of time, the Carthusians proved that they could 
use with effect all the terrors which the Devils had left 
behind them. They represented a great money-coining 
Christendom with which free-thinking Michaels had to con- 
tend, even to the day when, as we have just read, one of 
the bravest of these there encountered his Vauvert devil 
and laid him low for ever. 

I well remember that wretched street of St. Thomas 
leading into Hell Street, as if the Parisian authorities, 

mhihil r etK dn e TabPeune- aarun. r 
Qinieu n 



on the neighbouring Rue Dragon. All names — mere 
idle names I Among the thousands that crowd along 
them, how many pause to note the quaintness of the 
names on the street-lamps, remaining there from fossil 
fears and phantom battles long turned to fairy lore. Yet 
amid them, on. that sultry day, in one heart, was fought 
and won a battle which summed up all their sense and 
value. Every Hell was conquered then and there when 
Fear was conquered. There, when the lower Self was cast 
down beneath the poised spear of a Free Mind, St Michael 
at last chained his dragon. There Luther's inkstand was 
not only hurled, but hit its mark ; there, ' Get thee behind 
me,' was said, and obeyed; there Buddha brought the 
archfiend Mara to kneel at his feet. 

And it was by sole might of a Man. Therefore may 
this be emphasised as the temptation and triumph which 
have for us to-day the meaning of all others. 

A young man of intellectual power,- seeing beyond all 
the conventional errors around him, without means, feel- 
ing that ordinary work, however honourable, would for 
him mean failure of his life — because failure to con- 
tribute his larger truth to mankind — he finds the ter- 
rible cost of his aim to be hunger, want, a life passed amid 
suspicion and alienation, without sympathy, lonely, un- 
loved — and, alas 1 with a probability that all these losses 
may involve loss of just what they are incurred for, the 
power to make good his truth. After giving up love and 
joy, he may, after all, be unable to give living service 
to his truth, but only a broken body and shed blood. 
Similar trials in outer form have been encountered again 
and again ; not only in the great temptations and triumphs 
of sacred tradition, but perhaps even more genuinely' in 
the unknown lives of many pious people all over the 
world, have hunger, want, suffering, been conquered by 


faith. But rarely amid doubts. Rarely in the way of 
Saint Thomas, in no fear of hell or devil, nor in any hope 
of reward in heaven, or on earth ; rarely indeed without 
any feeling of a God taking notice, or belief in angels 
waiting near, have men or women triumphed utterly over 
self. All history proves what man can sacrifice on earth 
for an eternal weight of glory above. We know how 
cheerfully men and women can sing at the stake, when 
they feel the fire consuming them to be a chariot bearing 
them to heaven. We understand the valour of Luther 
mardiing against his devils with his hymn, 'Ein feste 
Burg ist unser Gott/ But it is important to know what 
man's high heart is capable of without any of these en- 
couragements or aids, what man's moral force when he 
feels himself alone. For this must become an increasingly 
momentous consideration. 

Already the educated youth of our time have followed 
the wanderer of threescore years ago into that St. Thomas 
d'Enfer Street, which may be morally translated as the 
point where man doubts every hell he does not feel, and 
every creed he cannot prove. The old fears and hopes 
are fading faster from the minds around us than from 
their professions. There must be very few sane people 
now who are restrained by fear of hell, or promises of 
future reward. What then controls human passion and 
selfishness.^ For many, custom; for others, hereditary 
good nature and good sense ; for some, a sense of honour ; 
for multitudes, the fear of law and penalties. It is very 
difficult indeed, amid these complex motives, to know how 
far simple human nature, acting at its best, is capable of 
heroic endurance for truth, and of 'pure passion for the 
right. This cannot be seen in those who intellectually 
reject the creed of the majority, but conform to its 
standards and pursue its worldly advantages. It must 


be seen, if at all, in those who are radically severed from 
the conventional aims of the world, — ^who seek not its 
wealth, nor its honours, decline its proudest titles, defy its 
authority, share not its prospects for time or eternity. 
It must be proved by those, the grandeur of whose aims 
can change the splendours of Paris to a wilderness. These 
may show what man, as man, is capable of, what may 
be his new birth, and the religion of his simple manhood. 
What they think, say, and do is not prescribed either by 
human or supernatural command ; in them you do not 
see what society thinks, or sects believe, or what the 
populace applaud. You see the individual man building 
his moral edifice, as genuinely as birds their nests, by law 
of his own moral constitution. It is a great thing to know 
what those edifices are, for so at last every man will have 
to build if he build at all. And if noble lives cannot be 
so lived, we may be sure the career of the human race will 
be downhill henceforth. For any unbiassed mind may 
judge whether the tendency of thought and power lies 
toward or away from the old hopes and fears on which 
the regime of the past was founded. 

A great and wise Teacher of our time, who shared with 
Carlyle his lonely pilgrimage, has admonished his genera- 
tion of the temptations brought by talent, — selfish use of 
it for ambitious ends on the one hand, or withdrawal into 
fruitless solitude on the other; and I cannot forbear clos- 
ing this chapter with his admonition to his young country- 
men forty years ago.^ 

' Public and private avarice makes the air we breathe 
thick and fat The scholar is deceoh ' ol S 


of this country, taught to aim at low objects, eats upon 
Itself. There is no work for any but the decorous and the 
complacent Young men of the fairest promise, who 
begin life upon our shores, inflated by the mountain winds, 
shined upon by all the stars of God, find the earth below 
not in unison with these, — but are hindered from action by 
the disgust which the principles on which business is 
managed inspire and turn drudges, or die of disgust, — 
some of them suicides. What is the remedy? They did 
not yet see, and thousands of young men as hopeful, now 
crowding to the barriers for the career, do not yet see, 
that if the single man plant himself indomitably on his 
instincts, and there abide, the huge world will come round 
to him. Patience — patience ; — ^with the shades of all the 
ii>n> sh s ede tui ret focd:o dif alb'odidbfo » tu sfiede r.a sn> f iso 

( ao6 ) 



Hindu myth — Gnostic theories — Ophite scheme of redemption — 
Rabbinical traditions of primitive man — Pauline Pessimism — 
Law of death— Satan's ownership of man — Redemption of the 
elect — Contemporary statements — Baptism — Exorcism — The 
* new man's ' food — Eucharist — Herbert Spencer's explanation — 
Primitive ideas — Legends of Adam and Seth — Adamites — ^A 
Mormon 'Mystery' of initiation. 

In a Hindu myth, Dhrubo, an infant devotee, passed much 
time in a jungle, surrounded by ferocious beasts, in devo- 
tional exercises of such extraordinary merit that Vishnu 
erected a new heaven for him as the reward of his piety. 
Vishnu even left his own happy abode to superintend the 
construction of this special heaven. In Hebrew mytho- 
logy the favourite son, the chosen people, is called out of 
Egypt to dwell in a new home, a promised land, not in 
heaven but on earth. The idea common to the two is that 
of a contrast between a natural and a celestial environ- 
ment, — a jungle and beasts, bondage and distress ; a new 
heaven, a land flowing with milk and honey, — and the 
correspondence with these of the elect child, Dhrubo or 

The tendency of Christ's mind appears to have been 
rather in the Aryan direction ; he pointed his friends to a 
kingdom not of this world, and to his Father's many man- 
sions in heaven. But the Hebrew faith in a messianic 



reign in this world was too strong for his dream ; a new 
earth was appended to the new heaven, and became gra- 
dually paramount, but this new earth was represented 
only by the small society of believers who made the body 
of Christ, the members in which his blood flowed. 

That great cauldron of confused superstitions and mys- 
ticisms which the Roman Empire became after the over- 
throw of Jerusalem, formed a thick scum which has passed 
under the vague name of Gnosticism. The primitive 
notions of all races were contained in it, however, and 
they gathered in the second and third centuries a certain 
consistency in the system of the Ophites. In the begin- 
ning existed Bythos (the Depth) ; his first emanation and 
consort is Ennoia (Thought) ; their first daughter is 
Pneunta (Spirit), their second Sophia (Wisdom). Sophia's 
emanations are two — one perfect, Christos ; the other 
imperfect, Sophia-Achamoth, — who respectively guide 
all that proceed from God and all that proceed from 
Matter. Sophia, unable to act directly upon anything so 
gross as Matter or unordered as Chaos, employs her im- 
perfect daughter Sophia-Achamoth for that purpose. But 
she, finding delight in imparting life to inert Matter, be- 
came ambitious of creating in the abyss a world for herself. 
To this end she produced the Demiurgus Ildabaoth (other- 
wise Jehovah) to be creator of the material world. After 
this Sophia-Achamoth shook off Matter, in which she had 
become entangled ; but Ildabaoth (*son of Darkness') pro- 
ceeded to produce emanations corresponding to those of 
in t I i r e c * ' S 


produced a being who had become superior to himself, 
and his envy took shape in a serpent-formed Satan, OphuH 
morphos. He is the concentration of all that is most base 
in Matter, conjoined with a spiritual intelligence. Their 
anti-Judaism led the Ophites to identify Ildabaoth as 
Jehovah, and this serpent-son of his as Michael; they 
also called him Samael. Ildabaoth then also created the 
animal, vegetable, and mineral kingdoms, with all their 
evils. Resolving to confine man within his own lower 
domain, he forbade him to eat of the Tree of Knowledge. 
To defeat his scheme, which had all been evolved out of 
her own temporary fall, Sophia- Achamoth sent her own 
genius, also in form of a serpent, Ophis, to induce Man to 
transgress the tyrant's command. Eve supposing Ophis 
the same as Ophiomorphos, regarded the prohibition 
against the fruit as withdrawn and readily ate of it. Man 
thus became capable of understanding heavenly mysteries, 
and Ildabaoth made haste to imprison him in the dungeon 
of Matter. He also punished Ophis by making him eat 
dust, and this heavenly serpent, contaminated by Matter, 
changed from Man's friend to his foe. Sophia-Achamoth 
has always striven against these two Serpents, who bind 
man to the body by corrupt desires ; she supplied man- 
kind with divine light, through which they became sensible 
of their nakedness — the misery of their condition. Ilda- 

j th's seductiv , a /nts i ^ >\uah 1 nl s Iss- v 

J d e shmfa aoo-ntrt an i 



body of Jesus on the cross, gave him one made of 
ether. Hence his mother and disciples could not recog- 
nise him. He ascended to the Middle Space, where he 
sits by the right hand of Ildabaoth, though unperceived 
by the latter, and, putting forth efforts for purification of 
mankind corresponding to those put forth by Ildabaoth 
for evil, he is collecting all the Spiritual elements of the 
world into the kingdom which is to overthrow that of the 

Notwithstanding the animosity shown by the Ophites 
towards the Jews, most of the elements in their system are 
plagiarised from the Jews. According to ancient rabbini- 
cal traditions, Adam and Eve, by eating the fruit of the 
lowest region, fell through the six regions to the seventh 
and lowest ; they were there brought under control of the 
previously fallen Samael, who defiled them with his spittle. 
Their nakedness consisted in their having lost a natural 
protection of which only our finger-nails are left; others 
say they lost a covering of hair.^ The Jews also from of 
old contended that Seth was the son of Adam, in whom 
returned the divine nature with which man was originally 
endowed. We have, indeed, only to identify Ildabaoth 
with lohim insteadi f Isah . h to r i 


h . m 


16r.f th 




shape. His general theology is a travesty of the creation 
of the world and of man. All that work of Elohim was, 
by implication, natural, that is to say, diabolical The 
earth as then created belonged to the Prince of this world, 
who was the author of sin, and its consequence, death. In 
Adam all die. The natural man is enmity against God ; 
he is of the earth earthy; his father is the devil; he cannot 
know spiritual things. All mankind are born spiritually 
dead. Christ is a new and diviner Demiurgos, engaged 
in the work of producing a new creation and a new 
man. For his purpose the old law, circumcision or un- 
circumcision, are of no avail or importance, but a new 
creature. His death is the symbol of man's death to the 
natural world, his resurrection of man's rising into a new 
world which mere flesh and blood cannot inherit. As 
God breathed into Adam's nostrils the breath of life, the 
Spirit breathes upon the elect of Christ a new mind and 
new heart 

The * new creature ' must inhale an entirely new physical 
atmosphere. When Paul speaks of 'the Prince of the 
Power of the Air,' it must not be supposed that he is only 
metaphorical. On this, however, we must dwell for a little. 

' The air,' writes Burton in his 'Anatomy of Melancholy,' 
' The air is not so full •f flies in summer as it is at all 
times of invisible devils. They counterfeit suns and 
moons, and sit on ships' masts. They cause whirlwinds 
of a sudden, and tempestuous storms, which though our 
meteorologists generally refer to natural causes, yet I am 
of Bodine's mind, they are more often caused by those 
aerial devils in their several quarters. Cardan gives much 
information concerning them. His father had one of them, 
an aerial devil, bound to him for eight and twenty years ; 
as Agrippa's dog had a devil tied to his collar. Some 
think that Paracelsus had one confined in his sword pom- 



meL Others wear them in rings ; ' and so the old man runs 
on, speculating about the mysterious cobwebs collected in 
the ceiling of his brain. 

The atmosphere mentally breathed by Burton and his 
authorities was indeed charged with invisible phantasms ; 
and every one of them was in its origin a genuine intel- 
lectual effort to interpret the phenomena of nature. It is 
not wonderful that the ancients should have ascribed to a 
diabolical source the subtle deaths that struck at them 
from the air. A single breath of the invisible poison of 
the air might lay low the strongest. "Even after man had 
come to understand his visible foes, the deadly animal 
or plant, he could only cower and pray before the lurking 
power of miasma and infection, the power of the air. The 
Tyndalls of a primitive time studied dust and disease, 
and called the winged seeds of decay and death ' aerial 

d vils^and re ared thenva ^ Anr Me hist heles devil of 
o eimdn ooetth 


our planet was mainly in their power, and the subjects of 
the higher empire always a small colony.^ Moreover, 
there was a natural tendency of demons, which originally 
represented earthly evils, when these were conquered by 
human intelligence, to pass into the realm least accessible 
to science or to control by man. The uncharted winds 
became their refuge. 

This belief was general among the Christian Fathers,* 
lasted a very long time even among the educated, and is 
still the teaching of the Roman Catholic Church, as any 
one may see by reading the authorised work of Mgr. 
Gaume on 'Holy Water' (p. 305). So long as it was 
admitted among thinking people that the mind was as 
competent to build facts upon theory as theories on fact, 
a great deal might be plausibly said for this atmospheric 
diabolarchy. In the days when witchcraft was first called 
in question, Glanvil argued ' that since this little Spot is 
so thickly peopled in every Atome of it, 'tis weakness to 
think that all the vast spaces Above and hollows under 
Ground are desert and uninhabited,' and he anticipated 
that, as microscopic science might reveal further popula- 
tions in places seemingly vacant, it would necessitate the 
belief that the regions of the upper air are inhabited.* 
Other learned men concluded that the spirits that lodge 
there are such as are clogged with earthly elements ; the 
baser sort ; dwelling in cold air, they would like to inhabit 
the more sheltered earth. In repayment for broth, and 
various dietetic horrors proffered them by witches, they 
enable them to pass freely through their realm — the air. 

^ Those who wish to pursue the subject may consult Plutarch, Philo, 

1 n. 



Out of such intellectual atmosphere came Paul's 
sentence (Eph. ii. 2) about * the Prince of the Power of the 
Air.* It was a spiritualisation of the existing aerial de- 
monology. When Paul and his companions carried their 
religious agitation into the centres of learning and wealth, 
and brought the teachings of a Jew to confront the temples 
of Greece and Rome, they found themselves unrelated to 
that great world. It had another habit of mind and feel- 
ing, and the idea grew in him that it was the spirits 
of the Satanic world counteracting the spirit sent on 
earth from the divine world. This animated its fashions, 
philosophy, science, and. literature. He warns the Church 
at Ephesus that they will need the whole armour of God, 
because they are wrestling not with mere flesh and blood, 
but against the rulers of the world's darkness, the evil 
spirits in high places — that is, in the Air. 

As heirs of this new nature and new world, with its new 
atmosphere, purchased and endowed by Christ, the Pauline 
theory further presupposes that the natural man, having 
died, is buried with Christ in baptism, rises with him, 
and is then sealed to him by the Holy Ghost. For a 
little time such must still bear about them their fleshy 
bodies, but soon Christ shall come, and these vile 
bodies shall be changed into his likeness; meanwhile 
they must keep their bodies in subjection, even as 
Paul did, by beating it black and blue (vTrwTrtaZja)), 
and await their deliverance from the body of the dead 
world they have left, but which so far is permitted to 
adhere to them. This conception had to work itself out 
in myths and dogmas of which Paul knew nothing. 
*If any man come after me and hate not his father 
and mother, and his own (natural) life also, he can- 
not be my disciple.' The new race with which the new 
creation was in tr i 1 «y' H ' 



new Mother as well as a new Father. Every natural 
mother was subjected to a stain that it might be affirmed 

Fig. 7.— Adam Signing Contract for his Posterity to Satak. 

that only one mother was immaculate — she whose con- 


ception was supernatural, not of the flesh. Marriage 
became an indulgence to sin (whose purchase-money sur- 
vives still in the marriage-fee). The monastery and the 
nunnery represented this new ascetic kingdom ; that 
perilous word 'worldliness' was transmitted to be the 
source of insanity and hypocrisy. 

Happily, the common sense and sentiment of mankind 
have so steadily and successfully won back the outlawed 
interests of life and the world, that it requires some re- 
search into ecclesiastical archaeology to comprehend the 
original significance of the symbols in which it survives. 
The ancient rabbins limited the number of souls which 
hang on Adam to 600,000, but the christian theolo- 
gians extended the figures to include the human race. 
Probably even some orthodox people may be scandalised 
at the idea of the fathers (Irenaeus, for example), that, at 
the Fall, the human race became Satan's rightful property, 
did they see it in the picture copied by Buslaef, from an 
ancient Russian Bible, in possession of Count Uvarof. 
Adam gives Satan a written contract for himself and his 
descendants (Fig. 7). And yet, according to a recent state- 
ment, the Rev. Mr. Simeon recently preached a sermon in 
the Church of St. Augustine, Kilburn, London, *to prove 
that the ruler of the world is the devil. He stated that the 
Creator of the world had given the contrbl of the world to 
one of his chief angels, Lucifer, who, however, had gone to 
grief, and done his utmost to ruin the world. Since then 
the Creator and Lucifer had been continually striving to 
checkmate each other. As Lucifer is still the Prince of 
this world, it would seem that it is not he who has been 
beaten yet'i A popular preacher in America, Rev. Dr. 
Talmage, states the case as follows ; — 

* 'Eastern Morning News,* quoted in the 'National Reformer,' Decern- 
tjer 17, 1877. 



in the name of the Father, of the Son, and of the Holy 
Ghost, that thou come out, and depart from, these infants 
whom our Lord Jesus Christ has vouchsafed to call to his 
holy baptism, to be made members of his body and of his 
holy congregation,' &c. 

A clergyman informed me that he knew of a case in 
which a man, receiving back his child after christening, 
kissed it, and said, ' I never kissed it before, because I 
knew it was not a child of God ; but now that it is, I love it 
dearly/ But why not ? Some even now teach that a white 
angel follows the baptized, a black demon the unbaptized. 



reappears as a religious observance. Sahagun and Herrera 
describe a ceremony of the Aztecs called * eating the god.' 
Mendieta, describing this ceremony, says, * They had also 
a sort of eucharist. . . . They made a sort of small idols 
of seeds, . . . and ate them as the body or memory of 
their gods.' As the seeds were cemented partly by the 
blood of sacrificed boys; as their gods were cannibal 
gods; as Huitzilopochtli, whose worship included this 
rite, was the god to whom human sacrifices were most 
extensive; it is clear that the aim was to establish commu* 
iiity with gods by taking blood in common.' ^ 

When, a little time ago, a New Zealand chief showed 
his high appreciation of a learned German by eating his 
eyes to improve his own intellectual vision, the case 
seemed to some to call for more and better protected mis- 
sionaries ; but the chief might find in the sacramental 
communion of the missionaries the real principle of his 
faith. The celebration of the ' Lord's Supper ' when a 
Bishop is ordained has only to be * scratched,' as the pro- 
verb says, to reveal beneath it the Indians choosing their 
episcopal totem. As Israel observed the Passover — eating 
together of the lamb whose blood sprinkled on their door- 
posts had marked those to be presented from the Destroy- 

h h e eipn ss«s e <r , ^ 1 n» in * n 

S.^CC^ S4; . d , M ef Ch s 



dwelleth in me and I in him.' These were to tread on 
serpents, or handle them unharmed, as it is said Paul did 
They were not really to die, but to fall asleep, that they 
might be changed as a seed to its flower, through literal 
resurrection from the earth. 

We should probably look in vain after any satisfactory 
vestiges of the migration of the superstition concerning 
the mystical potency of food. It is found fully developed 
in the ancient Hindu myth of the struggle between the 
gods and demons for the Amrita, the immortalising nectar, 
one stolen sip of which gave the monster Rdhu the im- 
perishable nature which no other of his order possesses. 
It is found in corresponding myths concerning the gods of 
Asgard and of Olympus. The fall of man in the Iranian 
legend was through a certain milk given by Ahriman to 
the first pair, Meschia and Meschiane. In Buddhist mytho- 
logy, it was eating rice that corrupted the nature of man. 
It was the process of incarnation in the Gilghit legend (i. 
398). The whole story of Persephone turns upon her hav- 
ing eaten the seed of a pomegranate in Hades, by which 
she was bound to that sphere. There is a myth very similar 
to that of Persephone in Japan. There is a legend in the 
Scottish Highlands that a woman was conveyed into the 
secret recesses of the *men of peace* — ^the Daoine Shi', 
euphemistic name of uncanny beings, who carry away 
mortals to their subterranean apartments, where beautiful 
damsels tempt them to eat of magnificent banquets. This 
woman on her arrival was recognised by a former acquaint- 
ance, who, still retaining some portion of human benevo- 



unfortunate friend had elapsed, a disenchantment of this 
woman's eyes took place, and the viands which had before 

Fig. 8.— Sbth Offkring a Branch to Adam. 

seemed so tempting she now discovered to consist only of 
the refuse of the earth.' 

^ Dr. James Browne's ' History of the Higblands,* cd. 1855, i. 108. 


Dr. Faust, and Jacob RameL The two latter are written 
in cypher. It teaches everything appertaining to 'sign- 
ing/ conjuring, second sight, and all the charms alluded 
to in Deuteronomy xviii. 10-12. The person possessing 
Cyprianus' book is said never to be in need of money,, and 
none can harm him. The only way of getting rid of it is ■ 
to put it away in a secret place in a church along with a 
clerk's fee of four shillings. 

In Stockholm I saw the so-called Devil's Bible, the 
biggest book in the world, in the Royal Library. It is lite- 
rally as they describe it, ' gigas librorum ' ; no single man 
can lift it from the floor. It was part of the booty carried 
off by the Swedes after the surrender of Prague, A.D. 1648. 
It contains three hundred parchment leaves, each one 
made of an ass's hide, the cover being of oak planks, 
\\ inches thick. It contains the Old and New Testa- 
ments ; Josephi Flavii Antiquitates Judaicce; Isidori Epis- 
copi L. XX. de diversis materiis ; Confessio peccaiorum ; 
and some other works. The last-named production is 
written on black and dark brown ground with red and 
yellow letters. Here and there sentences are marked 
* Ikbc sunt suspecta^ * superstitiosa* ^ prohibita^ One MS., 
which is headed, ' Experimentum de furto et febribusl is 
a treatise in Monkish Latin on the exorcism of ghosts and 
evil spirits, charms against thieves and sickness, and 
various prescriptions in * White Mag^c' The age of the 
book is considerably over three hundred years. The 
autograph of a German emperor is in it: 'Ferdinandus 
Imperator Romanorum, A.D. 1577.' The volume is known 

%^'.,'p c ? 'r a e' ° « * 'I " ? 

. s 1 S 1 r m . 



and in this vast size. The monk invoked the Devil's 
assistance, and the ponderous volume was written in a 
single night This Devil must have been one who prided 
himself more on his literary powers than his personal 
appearance ; for the face and form said to be his portrait, 
•frontispiece of the volume, represent a most hideous ape, 
green and hairy, with horrible curled tusks. It is, no 
doubt, the ape Anerhahn of the Wagner legends ; Bums's 
' towzie tyke, black, grim, and large.' * 

I noticed particularly in this old work the recurrence of 
deep red letters and sentences similar to the ink which 
Fust used at the close of his earliest printed volumes to 
give his name, with the place and date of printing. Now 
Red is sacred in one direction as symbolising the blood of 
Christ, but it is also the colour of Judas, who betrayed 
that blood. Hence, while red letters might denote sacred 
days and sentences in priestly calendars, they might be 
supposed mimicry of such sanctities by * God's Ape' if 
occurring in secular works or books of magic It is 
said that these red letters were especially noted in Paris 
as indications of the diabolical origin of the works 
so easily produced by Fust ; and, though it is uncertain 
whether he suffered imprisonment, the red lines with his 
name appear to have been regarded as his signature in 

For a long time every successive discovery of science, 
every invention of material benefit to man, was believed 
by priest-ridden peoples to have been secured by compact 
with the devil. The fate of the artist Prometheus, fettered 

* Tertullian*s phrase, * The Devil is God's Ape,' became popular at one 
time, and the Ape-devil had frequent representation in art — ^as, for instance, 
in Holbein's ' Crucifixion ' (i477)i now at Augsburg, where a Devil with head 
of an ape, bat-wings, and flaming red legs is carrying off the soul of the im- 
penitent thief. The same subject is found in the same gallery in an Altdorfer, 
where the Devil's face is that of a gorilla. 


by jealous Jove, was repeated in each who aspired to 
bring light to man, and some men of genius — such as Cor- 
nelius Agrippa, and Paracelsus — appear to have been fright- 
ened away from legitimate scientific research by the first 
connection of their names with sorcery. They had before 
them the example of the greatest scientific man of the 
Middle Ages, Roger Bacon, and knew how easily, in the 
priestly whisper, the chemist's crucible grew to a wizard's 
cauldron. The time may come when Oxford University 
will have learned enough to build a true memorial of the 
grandest man who ever wrote and taught within its walls. 
It would show Roger Bacon — rectifier of the Julian Calen- 
dar, analyst of lenses, inventor of spectacles and achro- 
matic lenses, probable constructor of the first telescope, 
demonstrator of the chemical action of air in combustion, 
inventor of the mode of purifying saltpetre and crystallis- 
ing it into gunpowder, anticipator of the philosophical 
method with which his namesake is credited — looking on 
a pile of his books for whose researches he had paid two 
thousand French livres, to say nothing of a life's labour, 
only to see them condemned by his University, their cir- 
culation prohibited ; and his sad gaze might be from the 
prison to which the Council of Franciscans at Paris sen- 
tenced him whom Oxford gladly delivered into their hands. 
He was condemned, says their historian Wadding, 'propter 
novitates quasdam suspectas! The suspected novelties were 
crucibles, retorts, and lenses that made the stars look larger. 
So was it with the Oxford six hundred years ago. Unde- 
niably some progress had been made even in the last gene- 
ration, for Shelley was only forbidden to study chemistry, 
and expelled for his metaphysics. But now that it is 
claimed that Oxford is no longer partaker with them that 
I ^§ ^^vdin^sti tnr » * a — takv hoo i r^ca c 
n e f ^ hn Ynfe .\f o^^r c h re s 



science a memorial, that superstition may look on one 
whom it has pierced. 

Referring to Luther's inkstand thrown at the Devil, Dr. 
Zerffii, in his lecture on the Devil, says, ' He (the devil) 
hates nothing so much as writing or printer's ink.' But 
the truth of this remark depends upon which of two devils 
be considered. It would hardly apply to the Serpent who 
recommended the fruit, of knowledge, or to the University 
man in Lucas van Leyden's picture (Fig. 6). But if we 
suppose the Devil of Luther's Bible (Fig. 17) to be the one 

monkish execrations of the time, indeed of many times 
since, have an undertone of Jahvistic jealousy. ' These 
Knowers will become as one of us.' It must also be 
admitted that the clerical instinct told true: the Uni- 
versity man held in him that sceptical devil who is 
always ^he desjg^cer of the nest's paradise. These 

Fig. 17.— Luther's Dbvil. 

at which the inkstand was thrown, the 
criticism is correct. The two pictures 
mentioned may be instructively com- 
pared. Luther's Devil is the reply of 
the University to the Church. These 
are the two devils — the priest and the 
scholar — who glared at each other in 
the early sixteenth century. *The 
Devil smelled the roast,' says Luther, 
*that if the languages revived, his 
kingdom would get a hole which he 
could not easily stop again.' And it 
must be admitted that some of the 


cognise Luther's devil when, at the annual assembly of 
Lutheran Pastors in Berlin (Sept. 1877), he reappeared 
as the Rev. Professor Grau, and said, ' Not a few listen 
to those striving to combine Christ with Belial, to recon- 
cile redeeming truth with modern science and culture/ 
But though they who take the name of Luther in vain 
may thus join hands with the Devil, at whom the Re- 
former threw his inkstand, the combat will still go on, 
and the University Belial do the brave work of Bel till 
beneath his feet lies the dragon of Darkness whether dis- 
guised as Pope or Protestant. 

If the Church wishes to know precisely how far the 
roughness pardonable in the past survives unpardonably 
in itself, let its clergy peruse carefully the following trans- 
lation by Mr. Leland of a poem by Heine; and realise 
that the Devil portrayed in it is, by grace of its own pre- 
lates, at present the most admired personage in every 
Court and fashionable drawing-room in Christendom. 

I called the Devil, and he came : 

In blank amaze his form I scan. 

He is not ugly, is not lame. 

But a refined, accomplished man, — 

One in the very prime of life, 

At home in every cabinet strife, 

Who, as diplomatist, can tell 

Church and State news extremely well. 

He is somewhat pale—and no wonder either, 

Since he studies Sanskrit and Hegel together. 

His favourite poet is still Fonqud 

Of criticism he makes no mention. 

Since all such matters unworthy attention 

He leaves to his grandmother, Hecat^. 

He praised my legal efforts, and said 

That he also when younger some law had read, 

Remarking that friendship like mine would be 

An acqo^sition, and bowed to me, — 

( «88 ) 



Minor gods— Saint and Satyr — ^Tutelaries — Spells — Early Christianity 
and the poor — Its doctrine as to.pagan deities — Mediaeval Devils 
— Devils on the stage — An Abbot's revelations — The fairer 
deities— Oriental dreams and spirits — Calls for Nemesis — Lilith 
and her children — Neoplatonicism — Astrology and Alchemy — 
Devil's College — Shem-hamraphordsch — Apollonius of Tyana — 
Faustus— Black Art Schools — Compacts with the Devil — Blood- 
covenant — Spirit-seances in old times — The Fairfax delusion — 
Origin of its devil— Witch, goat, and cat — Confessions of Witches 
— Witchcraft in New England — Witch trials — Salem demonology 
—Testing witches— Witch trials in Sweden — Witch Sabbath- 
Mythological elements — Carriers — Scotch Witches— The cauldron 
— Vervain — Rue — Invocation of Hecat^ — Factors of Witch per- 
secution — Three centuries of massacre — Wurzburg horrors — Last 
victims — Modern Spiritualism. 

St. Cyprian saw the devil in a flower.^ That little vision 
may report more than many more famous ones the con- 
sistency with which the first christians had developed the 
doctrine that nature is the incarnation of the Evil Spirit 
It reports to us the sense of many sounds and sights which 
were heard and seen by ears and eyes trained for such and 
no Other, all showing that the genii of nature and beauty 
were vanishing from the earth. Over the iEgean sea were 
heard lamentations and the voice, ' Great Pan is dead ! ' 

^ S. Cyp. ap. Muratori, Script, ii. i. 295, 545. The Magicians used to csll 
their mirrors after the name of this flower-devil— /I'^^fvif^. M. Mauiy, * La 
Magic,' 435 n. 



Augustus consults the oracle of Apollo and receives 
reply — 

Me puer HebrsuSy Divos Deus ipse gubemans, 
Cedere sede jubet, tristremque redire sub orcum ; 
Aris ergo dehinc tacitis abscedito nosUris. 

But while the rage of these Fathers towards all the 
great gods and goddesses, who in their grand temples 
represented ' the pride of life/ was remorseless, they were 
comparatively indifferent to the belief or disbelief of the 
lower classes in their small tutelary divinities. They 
appear almost to have encouraged belief in these, perhaps 
appreciating the advantages of the popular custom of 
giving generous offerings to such personal and domestic 
patrons. At a very early period there seems to have 
arisen an idea of converting these more plebeian spirits 
into guardian angels with christian names. Thus Jerome 
relates in his Life of the first Hermit Paul, that when St. 
Anthony was on his way to visit that holy man, he en- 
countered a Centaur who pointed out the way ; and next 
a human-like dwarf with horns, hooked fingers, and feet 
like those of a goat. St. Anthony believing this to be an 
apparition of the Devil, made the sign of the Cross ; but 
the little man, nowise troubled by this, respectfully ap- 
proached the monk, and having been asked who he was, 
answered : ' I am a mortal, and one of those inhabitants 
of the Desert whom the Gentiles in their error worship 

or h h n f Fauns at rs nd In u 

..adss .ed e laedSo %v me hr is 

n w 1 1 cs eu 

ra -e ^^^^ , 



Perhaps the evolution of these desert demons into good 
christians would have gone on more rapidly and com- 
pletely if the primitive theologians had known as much of 
their history as comparative mythology has disclosed to 
the modern world. St Anthony was, however, fairly on 
the track of them when he turned towards Alexandria. 
Egypt appears to have been the especial centre from 
which were distributed through the world the fetish 
guardians of provinces, towns, households and individuals. 
Their Scrapes reappear in the Teraphim of Laban, and 
many of the forms they used reappear in the Penates, 
Lares, and genii of Latin countries. All these in their 
several countries were originally related to its ancient 
religion or mythology, but before the christian era they 
were very much the same in Egypt, Greece, and Italy. They^ 
were shaped in many different, but usually natural forms, 
such as serpents, dogs, boys, and old men, though often 
some intimation was given of their demonic character. 
They were so multiplied that even plants and animals 
had their guardians. The anthropomorphic genii called 
the Patrii, who were supposed to preside over provinces, 
were generally represented bearing weapons with which 
they defended the regions of which they were patrons. 
These were the Averrunci or Apotropaei. 

There are many interesting branches of this subject 
which cannot be entered into here, and others have already- 
been considered in the foregoing parts of this work. It is 
sufficient for my present purpose to remark, that, in the 
course of time, all the households of the world had tradi- 
tional guardians ; these were generally represented in some 

Q3on am lets an 

air ef 


^ ^cbt h 




from the vicinity of good engravers — might be marked 
only with the verbal charms ; these again were, in the end, 
frequently represented only by some word or name. This 
was the 'spell/ Imagination fails in the effort to conceive 
how many strata of extinct deities had bequeathed to the 
ancient Egyptians those mystical names whose exact 
utterance they believed would constrain each god so named 
to appear and bind him to serve the invoker's purpose 
whether good or evil.^ This idea continued among the 
Jews and shaped the commandment, ' Thou shalt not take 
the name of the Lord thy God in vain.' 

It was in these diminutive forms that great systems 
survived among the common people. Amid natural con- 
vulsions ancient formations of faith were broken into 
fragments ; in the ebb and flow of time these fragments 
were smoothed, as it were, into these talismanic pebbles. 
Yet each of these conveyed all the virtue which had been 
derived from the great and costly ceremonial system from 
which it originally crumbled ; the virtue of soothing the 
mind and calming the nerves of sufferers with the feeling 
that, though they might have been assailed by hostile 
powers, they had friendly powers too who were active in 
their behalf — ^Vindicators, to recall Job's phrase — who at 
last would stand by them to the end. In the further ebb 
and flow of generations the mass of such charms are 
further pulverised into sand or into mud ; but not all of 
them : amid the mud will be found many surviving speci- 
mens, and such mud of accumulated superstitions is always 
susceptible of being remoulded after such lingering models, 
should occasion demand. 

Erasmus, in his 'Adages,' suggests that it was from these 
genii of 'the Gentiles' that the christians derived their 

^ This whole subject is treated, and with ample references, in M. Maury's 
* Magie/ p. 41* 


notion of each person being attended by two angels, a 
good and a bad. Probably he was but half right. The 
peoples to whom he refers did not generally believe that 
each man was attended by a bad spirit, a personal enemy. 
That was an honour reserved for individuals particularly 
formidable to the evil powers, — Adam, Jacob, Hercules, 
or Zoroaster. The one preternatural power attending each 
ordinary individual defended him from the general forces 
of evil. But it was Christianity which, in the gradual 
effort to substitute patron -saints and guardian -angels 
of its own for the pagan genii, turned the latter from 
friends to enemies, and their protecting into assailing 

All the hereditary household gods of what is now called 
Christendom were diabolised. But in order that the 
masses might turn from them and invoke christian guar- 
dians, the Penates, Lares, and genii had to be belittled on 
the one hand, and the superior power of the saints and 
angels demonstrated. When Christianity had gained the 
throne of political power, it was easy to show that the 
'imps,' as the old guardians were now called, could no 
longer protect their invokers from christian punishment, 
or confer equal favours. 

Christianity conquered Europe by the sword, but at 
first that sword was not wielded against the humble 
e a ma ses It wa^wie^de^ % §i%stetl|f!ir e r^u^ oe re w e 


Tours which St. Martin had consecrated, or in little St. 
Martin's Church at Canterbury where Bertha was baptized, 
could not see the splendid cathedrals now visible from 
them, built of their bones and cemented with their blood. 
King Ethelbert surrendered the temple of his idol to the 
consecration of Augustine, and his baptized subjects had 
no difficulty In seeing the point of the ejected devil's talons 
on the wall which he assailed when the first mass was 
therein celebrated. 

Glad tidings to the poor were these that the persecuted 
first missionaries brought to Gaul, Britain, and Germany. 
But they did not last. The christians and the pagan 
princes, like Herod and Pilate, joined hands to crucify the 
European peasant, and he was reduced to a worse serfdom 
than he had suffered before. Every humble home in 
Europe was trampled in the mire in the name of Christ. 
The poor man's wife and child, and all he possessed were 
victims of the workman of Jerusalem turned destroyer of 
his brethren. Michelet has well traced Witchcraft to the 
Despair of the Middle Ages.^ The decay of the old reli- 
gions, which Christianity had made too rapid for it to be 
complete, had left, as we have seen, all the trains laid 
for that terrible explosion ; and now its own hand of 
cruelt brou ht Jthe torch to i nite them. Let us, at 

ne ^4>o . ^a&fi^ 

hSd ^ s 
a na 


s e 








o oh 




Baptism could exorcise them, and a crucifix put thoa- 
sands of them to flight This tuition was not difficult 
The peasantries of Europe had readily been induced to 
associate the newly announced (christian) Devil with 
their most mischievous demons. But we have already 
considered the forces under which these demons had 
entered on their decline before they were associated with 
Satan. Many conquered obstructions had rendered the 
Demons which represented them ridiculous. Hence the 
' Dummeteufel ' of so many ' German fables and of the 
mediaeval miracle-plays. *No greater 
proof/ says Dr. Dasent, 'can be given 
of the small hold which the christian 
Devil has taken of the Norse mind, than 
the heathen aspect under which he con- 
stantly appears, and the ludicrous way 
in which he is always outwitted.' ^ ' The 
Germans,' says Max Miiller, * indoc- 
trinated with the idea of a re^l devil, 
the Semitic Satan or Diabolus, treated 
him in the most good-humoured tnan- 
ner.' * A fair idea of the insignificance 
he and his angels reached may be 
gained from the accompaning picture 
(Fig. 1 8), with which a mediaeval Missal 
now in possession of Sir Joseph Hooker is illuminated. 
It could not be expected that the masses would fear 
beings whom their priests thus held up to ridicule. It 
is not difficult to imagine the process of evolution by 
which the horns of such insignificant devils turned to the 
asinine ears of such devils as this stall carving at Corbeil, 
near Paris (Fig. 19), which represented the popular view 

* Dasent's * Norse Tales,' Introd. du. 
•* Chips,' ii. 

Fig. 18.— DSVILS 

(Old MU»1). 


Hodge, As long as your two armes. Saw ye never 
fryer Rushe 
Painted on cloth, with a side long cowe's tayle 
And crooked cloven feet, and many a hooked nayle ? 
For all the world (if I should judge) should reckon him 
his brother ; 

Loke, even what face fryer Rushe had, the devil had 
such another. 

In the scene of Christ's delivering souls from purgatory, 

the Devil is represented as blowing lustily a horn to alarm 

his comrades, and crying, 'Out, out, aronzt !' to the 

invader. He fights with a three-pronged fork. He and 

his victims are painted black,^ in contrast with the souls 

of the saved, which are white. The hair was considered 

very important* When he went to battle, even his fiery 

nature was sometimes represented in a way that must 

been more ludi rodt^iiiedun r s iv ' 

*P.a .a a e 



Devil already far gone in his process of diminution. The 
Devil here concentrates the energies which once made the 
earth tremble on causing nausea to the Abbot, and making 
the choir cough while he is preaching. 'When I sit 
down to holy studies/ he says, * the devils make me heavy 
with sleep. Then I stretch my hands beyond my cuffs to 
give them a chill. Forthwith the spirits prick me under 
my clothes like so many fleas, Which causes me to put my 
hands on them ; and so they get warm again, and my 
reading grows careless.* 'Come, just look at my lip; for 
twenty years has an imp clung to it just to make it hang 
down.' It is ludicrous to find that ancient characteristic 
of the gods of Death already adverted to — ^their hatred of 
salt, the agent of preservation — descended from being the 
sign of Job's constancy to Jehovah into a mere item of the 
Abbot's appetite. * When I am at dinner, and the devil 
has taken away my appetite, as soon as I have tasted a 
little salt it comes back to me ; and if, shortly afterwards, 
I lose it again, I take some more salt, and am once more 
an hungered.'^ 

One dangerous element was the contempt into which, 
by many causes, the infernal powers had been brought. 
But a more dangerous one lay in another direction. 
Though the current phrases of the New Testament and 
of the Fathers of the Church, declaring this world, its 
wealth, loves, and pleasures, to be all the kingdom of 
Satan, had become cant in the mouths of priests ruling 
over Europe, it had never been cant to the humble 

» nhstd dequ-tded man devils 


paternity had been transferred from Soetere to Satan, 
there was an array of beautiful deities — gentle gods and 
goddesses traditionally revered and loved as protectors of 
the home and the family — which had never really lost their 
hold on the common people. They might have shrunk 
before the aggressive victories of the Saints into little 
Fairies, but their continued love for the poor and the 
oppressed was the romance of every household What 
did these good fairies do ? They sometimes loaded the 
lowly with wealth, if summoned in just the right way; 
they sang secrets to them from trees as little birds, they 
smoothed the course of love, clothed ash-maidens in fine 
clothes, transported people through the air, enabled them 
to render themselves invulnerable, or invisible, to get out 
of prisons, to vanquish 'the powers that be/ whether 
•ordained of God* or not Now all these were benefits 
which, by christian theory, could only be conferred by 
that Prince of this World who ministered to • the pride 
of life.' 

Into homes which the priest and his noble had stripped of 
happiness and hope, — whose loving brides were for baptized 
Bluebeards, whose hard earnings were taken as the price 
of salvation from devils whose awfulness was departing, — 
there came from afar rumours of great wealth and splen- 
dour conferred upon their worshippers by Eastern gods and 
goddesses. The priests said all those were devils who 
would torture their devotees eternally after death ; yet it 
could not be denied that the Moors had the secret of 
lustres and ornamentation, that the heathen East was 
gorgeous, that all Christendom was dreaming of the 
wealth of Ormus and of Ind. Granted that Satan had 
come westward and northward, joined the scurvy crew of 
Loki, and become of little importance ; but what of Baal 
or Beelzebub, of Asmodeus, of the genii who built Solo* 



moil's temple, of rich Pluto, of august Ahriman ? Along 
with stories of Oriental magnificence there spread through 
Christendom names of many deities and demons ; many 
of them beautiful names, too, euphemism having generally 
managed to bestow melodious epithets alike on deities 
feared and loved. In Faust's ' Miraculous Art and Book 
of Marvels, or the Black Raven' (1469), the infernal heir- 
archy are thus named: — King^ Lucifer; Viceroy , Belial; 
Gubematores, Satan, Beelzebub, Astaroth, Pluto; Chief 
Princes, Aziel, Mephistopheles, Marbuel, Ariel, Aniguel, 
Anisel, Barfael. Seductive meanings, too, corresponding to 
these names, had filtered in some way from the high places 
they once occupied into the minds of the people. Lucifer 
was a fallen star that might rise again ; Belial and Beelze- 
bub were princes of the fire that rendered possible the 
arts of man, and the Belfires never went out in the cold 
North; Astarte meant beauty, and Pluto wealth; Aziel 
(Asael) was President of the great College of occult arts, 
from whom Solomon learned the secrets by which he 
made the jinni his slaves; Marbuel was the artist and 
mechanic, sometimes believed to aid artisans who pro- 
duced work beyond ordinary human skill ; Ariel was the 
fine spirit of the air whose intelligence corresponded to 
tliat of the Holy Ghost on the other side ; Aniguel is the 
serpent of Paradise, generally written Anisel ; Anizazel is 
probably a fanciful relative of Azazel, ' the strong god ;' 
and Barfael, who in a later Faust book is Barbuel, is an 
orientalised form of the 'demon of the long beard' who 
holds the secret of the philosopher's stone. 

In a later chapter the growth of favourable views of 
the devil is considered. Some of the legends therein 
related may be instructively read in connection with the 
development of Witchcraft. Many rumours were spread 
abroad of kindly assistance brought by demons to persons 


in distress. But even more than by hopes so awakened 
was the witch aided by the burning desire of the people 
for vengeance. They wanted Zamiel (Samael) to help 
them to mould the bullet that would not miss its mark. 
The Devil and all his angels had long been recognised by 
their catechists as being utilised by the Deity to execute his 
vengeance on the guilty ; and to serfs in their agony that 
devil who would not spare prince or priest was more 
desired than even the bestower of favours to their starving 
minds and bodies. 

Under the long ages of war in Europe, absorbing the 
energies of men, women had become the preservers of 
letters. The era of witchcraft in Europe found that sex 
alone able to read and write, arts disesteemed in men, 
among the peasantry at least. To them men turned when 
it had become a priestly lesson that a few words were 
more potent than the weapons of princes. Besides this, 
women were the chief sorcerers, because they were the 
chief sufferers. In Alsace (1615), out of seventy-five who 
$-ishe# aUevitcI|^li^:U: hi^gi|eMlliflMllieil.ntThe famous d > 


Psalter' (1553) there is a picture of the Fall of Man 
(Fig. 20) which possesses far-reaching significance. It is a 
modification of that idea, which gained such wide currency 
in the Middle Ages, that it was the serpent-woman Lilith 
who had tempted Adam to eat the forbidden fruit In 
this picture, while the beautiful face and ample hair of 
Lilith are given, instead of the usual female bust she has 
the body of a cat. This nocturnal animal, already sacred 
to Freyja, the Teutonic Venus, whose chariot it drew, 
gained a new mythological career in the North by the 

Fig. 90.— LiUTH AS Cat. 

large number of Southern and Oriental stories which 
related it to the lunar and amorous demonesses. When 
the gods fled before the Titans, Diana, as Ovid relates, 
changed herself to a cat, and as infernal Hecate that 
animal was still beside her. If my reader will turn to 
vol. i. p. 130, some of the vast number of myths which 
prepared the cat to take its place as familiar of the 
witch may be found. Whether the artist Had Lilith in his 
mind or not, the illumination in ' Queen Mary's Psalter * 


represents a remarkable association of myths. For Lilith 
was forerunner of the mediaeval mothers weeping for their 
children ; her voice of perpetual lamentation at the cruel 
fate allotted her by the combined tyranny of God and man 
was heard on every sighing wind ; and she was the richly 
dressed bride of the Prince of Devils, ever seeking to tempt 
youth. Such stories floated through the mind of the 
Middle Ages, and this infernal Madonna is here seen in 
association with the cat, beneath whose soft sparkling fur 
the goddess of Love and Beauty was supposed to be still 
lurking near the fireside of many a miserable home. 
Some fragrance of the mystical East was with this feline 
beauty, and nothing can be more striking than the con- 
trast which the ordinary devils beside her present Their 
unseductive ugliness and meanness is placed out of sight 
of the pair tempted to seek the fruit of forbidden know- 
ledge. They inspire the man and woman in their evidently 
eager grasping after the fruit, which here means the con- 
sultation of fair fortune-tellers and witches to obtain that 
occult knowledge for which speculative men are seeking 
in secret studies and laboratories. 

Those who have paid attention to the subject of Witch- 
craft need not be reminded that its complexity and vast- 
ness would require a larger volume than the present to 
deal with it satisfactorily. The present study must be 
limited to a presentation of some of the facts which induce 
the writer to believe that, beneath the phenomena, lay a 
profound alienation from Christianity, and an effort to 
recall the banished gods which it had superseded. 

The first christian church was mainly Jewish, and this is 
g th i inherited th n nl dt nd the 

thv ^r mdah 



form of Neoplatonicism. This mongrel mass, constituted 
of notions crumbled from many systems, acquired a certain 
consistency in Gnosticism. The ancient Egyptians had 
colleges set apart for astrological study, and for culti- 
vation of the art of healing by charms. Every month, 
decade, day of the year had its special guardian in the 
heavens. The popular festivals were astronomic. To the 
priests in the colleges were reserved study of the sacred 
books in which the astrological secrets were contained, 
and whose authorship was attributed to the god Thoth, in- 
ventor of writing, the Greek Hermes, and, later, Egyptian 
Hermes Trismegistus. The zodiac is a memorial of the 
influence which the stars were supposed to exert upon the 
human body. Alchemy (the word is Egyptian, Kimi 
meaning * black earth') was also studied in connection 
with solar, lunar, and stellar influences. The Alchemists 
dreamed of discovering the philosopher's stone, which 
would change base metals to gold ; and Diocletian, in burn- 
ing the Alchemists' books, believed that, in so doing, he 
would deprive the Egyptians of their source of wealth.^ 

Imported into Greece, these notions and their cult 
had a twofold development. Among the Platonists they 
turned to a naturalistic and allegorical Demonology; 
among the uncultivated they formed a Diabolarchy, which 
gathered around the terrible lunar phantasm — Hecate. 

The astrological College of Egypt gave to the Jews 
their strange idea of the high school maintained among 
the devils, already referred to in connection with Asmo- 
deus, who was one of its leading professors. The rabbi- 
nical legend was, that two eminent angels, Asa and Asael, 
remonstrated with the Creator on having formed man 
only to give trouble. The Creator said they would have 
done the same as man under similar circumstances ; where- 
^ See M. Maury's 'Magie^' p. 4& 



upon Asa and Asael proposed that the experiment should 
be tried. They went to earth, and the Creator's prediction 
was fulfilled : they were the first ' sons of God * who fell in 
love with the daughters of men (Gen. vi. 2). They were 
then embodied. In heaven they had been angels of espe- 
cial knowledge in divine arts, and they now used their 
spells to reascend. But their sin rendered the spells 
powerless for that, so they repaired to the Dark Moun- 
tains, and there established a great College of Sorcery. 
Among the many distinguished graduates of this College 
were Job, Jethro, and Bileam. It was believed that these 
three instructed the soothsayers who attempted to rival 
the miracles of Moses before Pharaoh. Job and Jethro 
were subsequently converted, but Bileam continued his 
hostility to Israel, and remains a teacher in the College. 
Through knowledge of the supreme spell — the Shem^ 
hammpfiordschf or real name of God — Solomon was able to 
chain Professor Asmodeus, and wrest from him the secret 
of the worm Schimir, by whose aid the Temple was built. 

Traditions of the learning of the Egyptians, and of the 
marvels learned by Solomon from Asa and Asael by which 
he compelled demons to serve him, and the impressive 
story of the Witch of Endor, powerfully influenced the 
inquisitive minds of Europe. The fierce denunciations of 
all studies of these arts of sorcery by the early Church 
would alone reveal how prevalent they were. The 
wonderful story of Apollonius of Tyana,^ as told by 
PhilostratuSy was really a kind of gospel to the more 
worldly-minded scholars. Some rabbins, following the out- 
cry against Jesus, * He casteth out devils by Beelzebub,' cir- 
culated at an early date the story that Jesus had derived his 
power to work miracles from the spell Shem-hammphordsch^ 

* The history has been well related by a little work by Dr. Albert R^ville : 
'Apollonius of Tyana, the Pagan Christ.' Chatto & Windus. 


which he found on one of the stones of the Temple where 
Solomon had left it. Though Eusebius cast doubt upon 
them, the christians generally do not appear to have denied 
the miracles of Apollonius, which precisely copy those of 
Jesus from the miraculous birth to the ascension, but even 
to have quoted them as an evidence of the possibility of 
miracles. Celsus having attributed the miracles of Jesus 
to sorcery, and said that magic influenced only the igno- 
rant and immoral, Origen replies that, in order to convince 
himself of the contrary, he has only to read the memoirs 
of Apollonius by Maeragenes, who speaks of him as a 
philosopher and magician, who repeatedly exercised his 







e-<? vdtgpoc^bc 




. eo rhXn .e 









There was a call for some kind of ApoUonius, and 
Faustus arose. Side by side flourished Luther and 
Faustus. To Roman Catholic eyes they were twin sons 
of the Devil ; ^ that they were characteristic products of 
one moral age and force appears to me certain, even as 
to-day the negations of Science and the revival of * Spirit- 
ualism 'have a common root in radical disbelief of the 
hereditary dogmas and forms of so-called religion. It is, 
however, not surprising that Protestantism felt as much 
horror of its bastard brother as Science has of the ghostly 
seances. Through the early sixteenth century we can 
trace this strange Dr. Faustus auspicious,' he had chosen 
that name) going about Germany, not omitting Erfurth, 
and talking in taverns about his magic arts and powers. 
More is said of him in the following chapter ; it is sufficient 
to observe here, and it is the conclusion of Professor 
Morley, who has sifted the history with his usual care, 
that about him, as a centre of crystallisation, tales ascribed 
in the first place to other conjurers arranged themselves, 
until he became the popular ideal of one who sought to 
sound the depths of this world's knowledge and enjoy- 
ments without help from the Church or its God. The 



ready to sign the compact if they could secure some little 
earthly joy. As for Heaven, if it were anything like what 
its ministers had provided for the poor on earth, Hell might 
be preferable after all. 

Dr. Wuttke, while writing his recent work on German 
superstitions, was surprised to learn that there still exist 
in France and in Wurtemberg schools for teaching the 
Black Art. A priest in the last-named country wrote 
him that a boy had confessed to having passed the lower 
grade of such a school, but, scared by the horrid cere- 
monies, had pronounced some holy words which destroyed 
the effect of the wicked practices, and struck the assembled 
Devil-worshippers with consternation. The boy said he 
had barely escaped with his life. I have myself passed 
an evening at a school in London ' for the development of 
Spirit-mediums,' and possibly Dr. Wuttke's correspondent 
would describe these also as Devil-worshippers. No doubt 
aril such circles might be traced archaeologically to that 
Sorcerers' College said by the rabbins to have been kept 
by Asa and Asael. But what moral force preserved them ? 
They do but represent a turning of methods made familiar 
by the Church to coax benefits from other supernatural 
powers in the hope that they would be less dilatory than 
the Trinity in bestowing their gifts. What is the differ- 
ead a dw e W Ifram's od andt in tt m 'o lydal 

^aea qin rPrX 

sfla »au 


It is no wonder that the people began to appeal to the 
gods of their traditional Radbots, nor that they should 
have used the ceremonial and sacramental formulas around 

But to these were added other formulas borrowed from 
different sources. The * Compact with the Devil' had iu 
it various elements. It appears to have been a custom 
of the Odinistic religion for men to sign acts of self- 
dedication to trusted deities, somewhat corresponding to 
the votive tablets of Southern religion. It was a legend 
of Odin that when dying he marked his arm with the 
point of a spear, and this may have been imitated. In 
the 'Mysteries* of pagan and christian systems blood 
played an important part — the human blood of earlier 
times being symbolised by that of animals, and ultimately, 
among christians, in wine of the Eucharist. The primitive 
history of this blood-covenant is given in another chapter. 
Some astrological formulas, and many of the deities in- 
voked, spread through Europe with the Jews. The actual, 
and quite as often fabulous, wealth of that antichristian 
race was ascribed to Antichrist, and while christian princes 
thought of such gold as legitimate spoil, the honest peasants 
sought from their astrologers the transmitted 'key of 
Solomon,' in virtue of which the demons served him. The 
famous 'Compact' therefore was largely of christian- 
judaic origin, and only meant conveyance of the soul in 
consideration of precisely the same treasures as those 
promised by the Church to all whose names were written 
in the Lamb's Book, — the only difference being in the 

. ."o h J . a . i .* oidi\^^i ^v„ ikst o 

V eer rn r 5>weeeP 

n n o 


dreams did that child, supposed to have been snatched 
away by diabolic malice, return as a pure spirit uplifted in. 
light, yet shadowed by the anxiety and pain of the bereaved 
family I A medium is at hand, one through whose mind 
and heart all the stormy electricities of the time are playing. 
The most distinguished representative of the Fairfax family 
is off fighting for Parliament against the King. Edward 
Fairfax is a zealous Churchman. His eldest daughter, 
Helen, aged twenty-one, is a parishioner of the Rev. Mr. 
Smithson, yet she has come under the strong influence of a 
Nonconformist preacher, Mr. Cook. The scholarly clergy- 
man and his worldly Church on one side, and the ignorant 
minister with his humble followers on the other, are 
unconscious personifications of Vice and Virtue, while 
between them poor Helen is no Heraklea. 

Nineteen days after the burial of her little sister Anne, 
as mentioned above, Helen is found ' in a deadly trance.' 
After a little she begins to speak, her words showing that 
she is, by imagination, ' in the church at Leeds, hearing a 
sermon by Mr. Cook.* On November 3, as she lies on 
her bed, Helen exclaims, *A white cat hath been long 
upon me and drawn my breath, and hath left in my mouth 
and throat so filthy a smell that it doth poison me ! ' 
Next we h?.ve the following in the father's diary : * Itern^ 
Upon Wednesday, the 14th of November, she saw a black 
dog by her bedside, and, after a little sleep, she had an 
apparition of one like a young gentleman, very brave, his 
apparel all laid with gold lace, a hat with a golden band, 
and a ruff in fashion. He did salute her with the same 
compliment as she said Sir Fernandino Fairfax useth when 
he cometh to the house and saluteth her mother. . . . He 
said he was a Prince, and would make her Queen of Eng- 
land and of all the world if she would go with him. She 

refused and said ' In the nania of Goh wh tho 

^ txnree 



He presently did forbid her to name God ; to which she 
replied, 'Thou ^rt no man if thou canst not abide the 
name of God ; but if thou be a man, come near, let me 
feel of thee ; * which he would not do, but said, ' It is no 
matter for feeling.* She proceeded, ' If thou wert a man, 
thou wouldst not deny to be felt ; but thou art the devil, 
and art but a shadow/ 

It is possible that Helen Fairfax had read in Shakspere's 

* Lear,' printed twelve years before, that 

The Prince of Darkness is a gentleman : 
Modo he's called, and Mahu.^ 

But the reader will remark how her vision anticipates 
that of Faust, the transformation of the poodle to finely- 
dressed Mephistopheles. On the next apparition a bit 
from Patmos is interpolated, the Devil appearing as a 
beast with many horns; but the folklore of Yorkshire pre- 
vails, and 'presently he was like a very little dog, and 
desired her to open her mouth and let him come into her 
body, and then he would rule all the world.' Lastly, he 

* filled the room with fire/ 

In the account thus far we have the following items of 
ancient mythology: — i, the Cat ; 2, the Dog; 3, the Pride 
of Life (Asmodeus), represented in the fine dress and man- 
ners of the fiend; 4, the Prince of this World, offering its 
throne ; 5, the Egyptian belief in potency of the Name ; 

6, the Hunger-Demon, who dares not be felt, because his 
back is hollow, and, though himself a shadow, casts none ; 

7, the disembodied devil of the rabbins, who seeks to enter 
a human form, in order to enjoy the higher powers of 
which man is capable ; 8, the fiend of fire. 

The period in which Helen Fairfax lived supplied forms 

^ King Lear, iii. 4. Asmodeus and Mohammed are, no doubt, corrupted in 
these names, which are given as those of devils in Harsenet*s ' Declaration of 
Popish Impostures.' 



for the 'materialisation' of these notions flitting from 
the ancient cemeteries of theology. The gay and gallant 
Asmodeus had been transformed into a goat under the 
ascetic eye of Europe ; his mistress is a naked witch ; her 
familiar and slave is a cat This is the conventionalised 
theologic theory, as we find it in many examples, one 
of which is here shown (Fig. 21), as copied from a stone 
panel at the entrance of Lyons Cathedral. This is what 
Helen's visions end in. She and her younger sister of 

Fig. 31.— A Witch (Lyons CathedralX 

seven years, and a young neighbour, a girl of twelve, who 
have become infected with Helen's hysterics, identify six 
poor women as witches, and Edward Fairfax would have 
secured their execution had it not been for the clergyman 

Cats played a large part in this as in other witch-trials. 
They had long been regarded as an insurance of humble 
h^^sehpbds. Inhmuh r^nionet^ lU iBi drmvoc e. 


is the favourite bridal gift to procure a happy wedded 
life. One who kills a cat has no luck for seven years. 
The Yorkshire women called witches remembered these 
proverbs to their cost. Among the cats regarded by the 
Fairfaxes as familiars of the accused, some names are not- 
able. One is called * Gibbe.' This is the Icelandic gabba^ 
to * delude/ and our gibber ; it is the ' Gib ' cat of Reinicke 
Fuchs, and of the ' Romaunt of the Rose.' In ' Gammer 
Gurton' we read, * Hath no man gelded Gyb, her cat;' 
and in Henry IV. i. 2, * I am as melancholy as a gib cat.' 
Another of the cats is called Inges. That is, ignis, fire — 
Agni maintaining his reign of terror. 

Helen's devil hates the dissenter, and says, * Cook is a 
lying villain/ because Cook exorcises him with a psalm. 
On the other hand, the devil praises the clergyman, but 
Helen breaks out with ' He is not worthy to be a vicar 
who will bear with witches.* Amid the religious con- 
troversies then exciting all households, mourning for his 
dead child, humiliated by the suspicions of his best 
R « fee r shf e V » fa u' . 

ho iD s ^ 



recorded in ' substance,' the phraseology in such case reflect- 
ing the priest's preconceived theory of witches and their 
orgies. It is to be feared, for instance, that 'devil' is often 
written instead of some name that might now be interest- 
ing. Nevertheless, there seems to be ground for believing 
that in many cases there were seances held to invoke 
supernatural powers. 

Among the vast number of trials and confessions, I 
have found none more significant than the following. 
In February 1691 a daughter and niece of Mr. Parris, 
minister in Salem (Massachusetts), girls of ten or eleven 
years, and several other girls, complained of various 
bodily torments, and as the physicians could find no 
cause for them, they were pronounced bewitched. The 
Rev. Mr. Parris had once been in business at the Bar- 
badoes, and probably brought thence his two slaves, 
Spanish Indians, man and wife. When the children were 
declared bewitched, the Indian woman, Tituba, tried an 
experiment, probably with fetishes familiar in the Bar- 
badoes, to find out the witch. Whereupon the children 
cried out against the Indian woman as appearing to them 
and tormenting them. Tituba said her mistress, in her 
own country, had taught her how to find out a witch, but 
denied being one herself; but afterwards (urged, as she 
subsequently declared, by her master) she confessed ; and 
the marks of Spanish cruelty on her body were assumed 
to be the Devil's wounds. The Rev. Mr. Parris in a 
calmer time might have vindicated poor Tituba by taking 
for text of his sermon on the subject Christ's saying about 
a house divided against itself, and reminding the colony, 
which held public fast against Satan, that the devil was 

or ith ouga • .db 
adn ea lor 1 u do t 




this sermon a woman left the church ; she was sister of a 
woman who had also been accused by the children, and, 
being offended by something Mr. Parris said, went out of 
meeting ; of course, also to prison. There were three other 
women involved with Tituba, in whose fetish experiments 
a well-informed writer thinks the Salem delusion began.^ 
The examination before the Deputy-Governor (Danforth) 
began at Salem, April ii, 1692, and there are several 
notable points in it. Tituba's husband, the Indian John, 
cunningly escaped by pretending to be one of the afflicted. 
He charged Goody Proctor, and said, *She brought the 
book to me.' No one asked what book ! Abigail Williams, 
also one of the accusers of Goody, was asked, * Does she 
bring the book to you? A. Yes. Q. What would she 
have you do with it ? A. To write in it, and I shall be 
well.' Not a descriptive word is demanded or given con- 
cerning this book. The examiners are evidently well 
acquainted with it. In the alleged confessions preserved 
in official reports, but not in the words of the accused, the 
nature of the book is made clear. Thus Mary Osgood 
' confesses that about eleven years ago, when she was in a 
melancholy state and condition, she used to walk abroad 
in her orchard, and, upon a certain time she saw the 
appearance of a cat at the end of the house, which yet 
she thought was a real cat. However, at that time it 
diverted her from praying to God, and instead thereof 
she prayed to the Devil ; about which time she made a 
covenant with the Devil, who, as a black man, came to 
her, and presented her a book, upon which she laid her 
finger, and that left a red spot. And that upon her sign- 
ing that book, the devil told her that he was her god.' 

W L 1 Lb, * m am ind b 


This is not unlikely to be a paraphrase of some sermon 
on the infernal Book of Satan corresponding to the 
Book of Life, the theory being too conventional for the 
court to inquire about the mysterious volume. Equally 
well known was the Antichrist theory which had long 
represented that avatar of Satan as having organised a 
church. Thus we read : — * Abigail Williams, did you 
see a company at Mr. Parris's house eat and drink ? A. 
Yes, sir; that was their sacrament. Q. What was it? 
A. They said it was our blood.' * Mary Walcot, have you 
seen a white man ? A. Yes, sir, a great many times. Q. 
What sort of man was he ? A, K fine grave man, and 
when he came he made all the witches to tremble.' When 
it is remembered that Mary Osgood had described the 
Devil as ' a black man ' (all were thinking of the Indians), 
this Antiblackman suggests Christ resisting Antichrist. 
Again, although nothing seems to have been said in the 
court previously about baptism, one of the examiners 
asks ' Goody Lagcy how many years ago since they were 
baptized.? A, Three or four years ago 1 suppose. Q. 
Who baptized them } A. The old serpent. Q, How did 
he do it? A, He dipped their heads in the water, saying 
they were his, and that he had power over them ; . . . there 
were six (who) baptized. Q. Name them. A, I think they 
were of the higher powers ' 

There are interspersed through the proceedings sug- 
gestions of mercy on condition of confession, which, 
joined to these theoretical questions, render it plain 
that the retractations which the so-called witches made 
were true, and that in New England, at least, there 
was little if any basis for the delusion beyond the ex- 
periment of the two Spanish Indians. The terrible mas- 
sacre of witches which occurred there was the result ol 
tlie decision of English judges and divines that witch- 



craft is recognised in the Bible, and there assigned the 

It will be observed here that ancient mythology to 
Salem is chiefly that of the Bible, modified by local con- 
ditions. White man and black man represent Christ and 
Antichrist, and we have the same symbols on both sides, — 
eucharists, baptisms, and names written in books. The 
survivals from European folklore met with in the New 
England trials are — the cat, the horse (rarely), and the dog. 
In one case a dog suffered from the repute of being a 
witch, insomuch that some who met him fell into fits ; he 
was put to death. Riding through the air continues, but 
the American witches ride upon a stick or pole. The old- 
fashioned broom, the cloud-symbol of the Wild Huntsman, 
is rarely mentioned. One thing, however, survives from 
England, at least ; the same sharp controversy that is 
reflected in the Fairfax case. Cotton Mather tried one of 
the possessed with the Bible, the * Assembly's Catechism,' 
his grandfather's * Milk for Babes,' his father's * Remarkable 
Providence,' and a book to prove there were witches. 'And 
wheil any of those were offered for her to read in, she 
would be struck dead and fall into convulsions.' But 
when he tried her with Popish and Quaker books, the 
English Prayer-Book, and a book to prove there were no 
witches, the devil permitted her to read these as long as 
she pleased. One is at a loss which most to admire, the 
astuteness of the accused witch in bearing testimony to 
the Puritan religion, or the phenomenon of its eminent 
representative seeking a witness to it in the Father of lies. 

If now we travel towards the East we find the survivals 
growing clearer, as in the West they become faint 

In 1669 the people of the villages of Mohra and Elfdale 
in Sweden, believing that they were troubled by witches, 
were visited by a royal commission, the result of whose 



investigations was the execution of twenty-three adults 
and fifteen children ; running of the gauntlet by thirty-six 
between the ages of nine and sixteen years ; the lashing 
on the hand of twenty children for three Sundays at the 
church* door, and similiar lashing of the aforesaid thirty- 
six once a week for a year. Portions of the confessions 
of the witches are given below from the Public Register 
as translated by Anthony Horneck, D.D., and printed in 
London, anno 1700. I add a few words in brackets to 
point out survivals. 

* We of the province of Elfdale do confess that we used 
to go to a gravel-pit which lay hard by a cross-way 
(Hecate), and there we put on a vest (Wolf-girdle) over 
our heads, and then danced round, and after this ran to 
the cross-way, and called the Devil thrice, first with a still 
voice, the second time somewhat louder, and the third 
time very loud, with these words — Antecessor^ come and 
carry us to Blockula. Whereupon immediately he used to 
appear, but in different habits ; but for the most part we 
saw him in a grey coat and red and blue stockings : he 
had a red beard (Barbarossa), a high-crowned hat (Turn- 
cap), with linen of divers colours wrapt about it, and 
long garters upon his stockings. 

* Then he asked us whether we would serve him with 
soul and body. If we were content to do so, he set us 
upon a beast which he had there ready, and carried us 
over churches and high walls; and after all we came to 
a green meadow where Blockula lies. We must procure 
some scrapings of altars, and filings of church clocks; 
and then he gives us a horn with a salve in it, where- 
with we do anoint ourselves (chrism) ; and a* saddle 
with a hammer (Thor's), and a wooden nail, thereby to 
fix the saddle (Walkyr's) ; whereupon we call upon the 
Devil and away we go.' 


' For their journey, they said they made use of all sorts 
of instruments, of beasts, of men, of spits, and posts, 
according as they had opportunity : if they do ride upon 
goats (Azazel) and have many children with them, that 
all may have room, they stick a spit into the backside of 
the Goat, and then are anointed with the aforesaid oint- 
ment. What the manner of their journey is, God only 
knows. Thus much was made out, that if the children did 
at any time name the names (Egyptian spells) of those 
that had carried them away, they were again carried by 
force either to Blockula, or to the cross-way, and there 
miserably beaten, insomuch that some of them died of it/ 

' A little girl of Elfdale confessed that, naming the name 
of Jesus as she was carried away, she fell suddenly upon 
the ground, and got a great hole in her side, which the 
Devil presently healed up again, and away he carried her; 
and to this day the girl confessed she had exceeding great 
pain in her side.' 

' They unanimously confessed that Blockula is situated 
in a delicate large meadow, whereof you can see no end. 
The place or house they met at had before it a gate 
painted with divers colours; through this gate they went 
into a little meadow distinct from the other, where the 
beasts went that they used to ride on ; but the men whom 
they made use of in their journey stood in the house by 
the gate in a slumbering posture, sleeping against the 
wall (castle of Waldemar). In a huge large room of this 
house, they said, there stood a very long table, at which 
the witches did sit down ; and that hard by this room was 
another chamber where there were very lovely and delicate 
beds. The first thing they must do at Blockula was, that 
they must deny all, and devote themselves body and soul 
to the Devil, and promise to serve him faithfully, and 
confirm all this with an oath (initiation). Hereupon they 


cut their fingers (Odinism), and with their blood write 
their name in his book (Revelations). They added that he 
caused them to be baptized, too, by such priests as he had 
there (Antichrist's Sacraments).' 

* And he, the Devil, bids them believe that the day of 
judgment will come speedily, and therefore sets them on 
work to build a great house of stone (Babel), promising 
that in that house he will preserve them from God's fury, 
and cause them to enjoy the greatest delights and plea- 
sures (Moslem). But while they work exceeding hard at 
it, there falls a great part of the wall down again.' 

* They said, they had seen sometimes a very great Devil 
like a Dragon, with fire round about him, and bound with 
an iron chain (Apocalyptic), and the Devil that converses 
with them tells them that if they confess anything he will 
let that great Devil loose upon them, whereby all Sweede- 
land shall come into great danger. 

* They added that the Devil had a church there, such 
another as in the town of Mohra. When the Commis- 
sioners were coming he told the Witches they should not 
fear them ; for he would certainly kill them all. And they 
confessed that some of them had attempted to murther 
the Commissioners, but had not been able to effect it. 

* Some of the children talked much of a white Angel 
(Frigga as christian tutelary), which used to forbid them 
what the Devil had bid them do, and told them that those 
doings should not last long. What had been done had 
been permitted because of the wickedness of the people. 

' Those of Elfdale confessed that the Devil used to play 
upon an harp before them (Tannhauser), and afterwards 
to go with them that he liked best into a chamber, when 
he committed venerous acts with them (Asmodeus) ; and 
this indeed all confessed, that he had carnal knowledge 
of them, and that the Devil had sons and daughters 


by them, which he did many together, and they . . . 
brought forth toads and serpents (Echidna). 

* After this they sat down to table, and those that the 
Devil esteemed most were placed nearest to him ; but the 
children must stand at the door, where he himself gives 
them meat and drink (Sacrament). After meals they 
went to dancing, and in the meanwhile swore and cursed 
most dreadfully, and afterwards went to fighting one with 
another (Valhalla). 

* They also confessed that the Devil gives them a beast 
about the bigness and shape of a young cat (Hecate), 
which they call a carrier ; and that he gives them a bird 
as big as a raven (Odin's messenger), but white ; ^ and these 
two creatures they can send anywhere, and wherever they 
come they take away all sorts of victuals they can get, 
butter, cheese, milk, bacon, and all sorts of seeds, what- 
ever they find, and carry it to the witch. What the bird 
brings they may keep for themselves, but what the carrier 
brings they must reserve for the Devil, and that is brought 
to Blockula, where he doth give them of it so much as he 
thinks fit. They added likewise that these carriers fill 
themselves so full sometimes, that they are forced to spue 
(' Odin's booty ') by the way, which spuing is found in 
several gardens, where colworts grow, and not far from the 
houses of these witches. It is of a yellow colour like 
gold, and is called butter of witches. 

' The Lords Commissioners were indeed very earnest, 
and took great pains to persuade them to show some of 
their tricks, but to no purpose; for they did all unani- 
mously confess that since they had confessed all, they 
found that all their witchcraft was gone, and that the 

* The delicacy with which these animals are alluded to rather than directly 
■amed indicates that they had not lost their formidable character in Elfdale 
far as to be s ak n of 

™ ml e rXwh. 



probability is further suggested by the fact that some of 
these uncanny events happened at Elfdale, a name which 
hints at a region of especial sanctity under the old religion, 
and also by the statement that the Devil had a church 
there, a sort of travesty of the village church. About the 
same time we find John Fiene confessing in Scotland that 
the Devil appeared to him in * white raiment,' and it is 
also testified that John heard * the Devil preach in a kirk 
in the pulpit in the night by candlelight, the candle burn- 
ing blue/ ^ 

The names used by the Scotch witches are often sugges- 
tive of pagan survivals. Thus in the trial at the Paisley 
Assizes, 1678, concerning the alleged bewitching of Sir 
George Maxwell, Magaret Jackson testified to giving up 
her soul by renouncing her baptism to a devil named Locas 
(Loki ?) ; another raised a tempest to impede the king's 
voyage to Denmark by casting into the sea a cat, and 
crying Hola (Hela ?) ; and Agnes Sampson called the 
Devil to her in the shape of a dog by saying, ' Elva (Elf?), 
come and speak to me ! ' 

It is necessary to pass by many of the indications con- 
tained in the witch-trials that there had been an effort to 
recur to the pleasures and powers traditionally associated 
with the pagan era of Europe, and confirmed by the very 
c r tnunSiati^s of conteni, ora acranism with its om 

r u ihaelanDan 






the Alchemists, a rude Zodiac was marked, some alchemic 
signs being added ; and in the cauldron were placed ingre- 
dients concerning many of which the accounts are con- 
fused. It is, however, certain that the chief ingredients 
were plants which, precisely as in ancient Egypt, had 
been gathered at certain phases of the moon, or seasons of 
the year, or from some spot where the sun was supposed 
not to have shone on it It was clearly proved also that 
the plants chiefly used by the sorceresses were rue and 
vervain. Vervain was sacred to the god of war in Greece 
and Rome, and made the badge of ambassadors sent to 
make treaties of peace. In Germany it was sacred to 
Thor, and he would not strike with his lightning a house 
protected by it. The Druids called it * holy herb ; ' they 
gathered it when the dog-star rose, from unsunned spots, 
and compensated the earth for the deprivation with a 
sacrifice of honey. Its reputation was sufficient in Ben 
Jonson's day for him to write — 

The charm which vervain had for the mediaeval peasant 
was that it was believed, if it had first touched a Bel-fire, 
to snap iron ; and, if boiled with rue, made a liquid which, 
being poured on a gunflint, made the shot as sure to take 
effect as any Freischutz could desire. 

Rue was supposed to have a potent effect on the eye, 
and to bestow second sight So sacred was it once in 
England that missionaries sprinkled holy water from 

Bring your garlands, and with reverence place 
The vervain on the altar. 



By this route it came into the cauldron of the wizard and 
witch. In Drayton's incantation it is said — 

Then sprinkles she the juice of rue, 
With nine drops of the midnight dew 
From lunary distilling. 

This association of lunary, or moon-wort, once supposed 
to cure lunacy, with rtie is in harmony with the mythology 
of both. An old oracle, said to have been revealed by 
Hecate herself, ran thus : — ^ From a root of wild rue fashion 
and polish a statue ; adorn it with household lizards ; 
grind myrrh, gum, and frankincense with the same reptiles, 
and let the mixture stand in the air during the waning of 
a moon ; then address your vows in the following terms ' 
(the formula is not preserved). 'As many forms as I 
have, so many lizards let there be ; do these things 
exactly; you will build me an abode with branches of 
laurel, and having addressed fervent prayers to the image, 
you will see me in your sleep.' ^ 

Rue was thus consecrated as the very substance of 
Hecate, the mother of all European witches. M. Maury 
supposes that it was because it was a narcotic and caused 
hallucinations. Hallucinations were, no doubt, the basis 
of belief in second sight But whatever may be the cause, 
rue was the plant of witchcraft ; and Bishop Taylor speaks 
of its being used by exorcists to try the devil, and thence 
deriving its appellation * herb of grace.' More probably 
it was used to sprinkle holy water because of a traditional 

* Porphyry, ap. Euseb. v. 12. The formula not preserved by Eusebius is sup- 
posed by M. Mauiy (' Magic,* 56) to be that contained in the ' Philosophumena,' 
attributed to Origen : — * Come, infernal, terrestrial, and celestial Bombo I 
goddess of highways, of cross-roads, thou who bearest the light, who travellest 
the night, enemy of rtfte da , friend and com anion of darkness ; thou re- 

on e ha6ifr.o.e 

o T 


sanctity. All narcotics were supposed to be children of 
the night; and if, in addition, they were able to cause 
hallucinations, they were supposed to be under more 
especial care of the moon. 

After reading a large number of reports concerning the 
ordeals and trials of witches, and also many of their alleged 
confessions, I have arrived at the Conclusion that there 
were certainly gatherings held in secret places ; that some 
of the ordinary ceremonies and prayers of the Church 
were used, with names of traditional deities and Oriental 
demons substituted for those of the Trinity and saints ; 
that with these were mingled some observances which 
had been preserved from the ancient world by Gnostics, 
Astrologists, and Alchemists. That at these gatherings 
there was sometimes direct devil-worship is probable, but 
oftener the invocations were in other names, and it is for 
the most part due to the legal reporters that the * Devil ' is 
so often named. As to the * confessions,' many, no doubt, 
admitted they had gone to witches' Sabbaths who had 
been there only in feverish dreams, as must have been the 
case of many young children and morbid pietists who were 
executed { others confessed in hope of escape from charges 
they could not answer ; and others were weary of their 

The writer of this well remembers, in a small Virginian 
village (Falmouth), more than thirty years ago, the terrible 
persecutions to which an old white woman named Nancy 
Calamese was subjected because of her reputation as a 
witch. Rumours of lizards vomited by her poor neigh- 
bours caused her to be dreaded by the ignorant; the 
negroes were in terror of her; she hardly dared pass 
through the streets for fear of being hooted by boys. One 
morning she waded into the Rappahannock river and 
drowned herself, and many of her neighbours regarded the 


suicide as her confession. Probably it was a similar sort 
of confession to many that we read in the reports of witch 

The retribution that followed was more ferocious than 
could have visited mere attempts by the poor and igno- 
rant to call up spirits to their aid. Every now and then 
the prosecutions disclose the well-known animus of heresy, 
persecution, and also the fury of magistrates suspicious of 
conspiracies. In England, New England, and France, 
particularly, an incipient rationalism was revealed in the 
party called * Saducees,' who tried to cast discredit on the 
belief in witchcraft. This was recognised by Sir Mathew 
Hale in England and Cotton Mather in New England, 
consequently by the chief authorities of church and state 
in both countries, as an attack on biblical infallibility, 
since it was said in the Bible, ' Thou shalt not suffer a 
witch to live.* The leading wizards and witches were 
probably also persons who had been known in connection 
with the popular discontent and revolutionary feeling 
displayed in so many of the vindictive conjurations which 
were brought to light. 

The horrors which attended the crushing out of this 
last revival of paganism are such as recall the Bartholomew 
massacre and the recent slaughter of Communists in Paris, 
so vividly that one can hardly repress the suspicion that 
the same sort of mingled panic and fanaticism were repre- 
sented in them all. Dr. R^ville has summed up the fear- 
ful history of three hundred years as follows : — * In the 
single year 1485, and in the district of Worms alone, 
eighty-five witches were delivered to the flames. At 
Geneva, at Basle, at Hamburg, at Ratisbon, at Vienna, 
and in a multitude of other towns, there were executions 

ry ' sy a e^^^^^ ^^^^'"'^ * 


woman who had been given up by the midwife. In Italy, 
during the year 1523, there were burnt in the diocese of 
Como alone more than two hundred witches. This was 
after the new bull hurled at witchcraft by Pope Adrian 
VI. In Spain it was still worse; there, in 1527, two little 
girls, of from nine to eleven years of age, denounced a 
host of witches, whom they pretended to detect by a 
mark in their left eye. In England and Scotland political 
influence was brought to bear upon sorcery ; Mary Stuart 
was animated by a lively zeal against witches. In France 
the Parliament of Paris happily removed business of this 
kind from the ecclesiastical tribunals ; and under Louis 
XL, Charles VIII., and Louis XII. there were but few 
condemnations for the practice of magic ; but from the 
time of Francis I., and especially from Henry II., the 
scourge reappeared. Jean Bodin, a man of sterling worth 
in other respects, but stark mad upon the question of 
witchcraft, communicated his mania to all classes of the 
nation. His contemporary and disciple, Boguet, showed 
how that France swarmed with witches and wizards. 
* They increase and multiply on the land,' said he, * even 
as do the caterpillars in our gardens. Would that they 
were all got together in a heap, so that a single fire 
might burn them all at once.' Savoy, Flanders, the Jura 
Mountains, Lorraine, B^arn, Provence, and in almost 
all parts of France, the frightful hecatombs were seen 
ablaze. In the seventeenth century the witch-fever some- 
what abated, though it burst out here and there, cen- 
tralising itself chiefly in the convents of hysterical nuns. 
The terrible histories of the priests Gaufridy and Urban 
Grandier are well known. In Germany, and particularly 
in its southern parts, witch-burning was still more fre- 
quent. In one small principality at least 242 persons 
were burnt between 1646 and 1651 ; and, horribiU dictu, in 



the official records of these executions, we find that among 
those who suffered were children from one to six years of 
age! In 1657 the witch-judge, Nicholas Remy, boasted 
of having burnt 900 persons in fifteen years. It would 
even seem that it is to the proceedings against sorcery 
that Germany owes the introduction of torture as an 
ordinary mode of getting at the truth. Mr. Roskoff 
reproduces a catalogue of the executions of witches and 
wizards in the episcopal town of Wiirzburg, in Bavaria, 
up to the year 1629. In 1659 the number of those put 
to death for witchcraft amounted, in this diocese, to 900. 
In the neighbouring bishopric of Bamberg at least 600 
were burnt. He enumerates thirty-one executions in all, 
not counting some regarded by the compilers of the cata- 
logue as not important enough to mention. The number 
of victims at each execution varies from two to seven. 
Many are distinguished by such surnames as 'The Big 
Hunchback, The Sweetheart, The Bridge-keeper, The 
Old Pork-woman,' &c. Among them appear people of 
all sorts and conditions, actors, workmen, jugglers, town 
and village maidens, rich burghers, nobles, students, 
magistrates even, and a fair number of priests. Many 
are simply entered as *a foreigner.' Here and there is 
added to the name of the condemned person his age and 
a short notice. Among the victims, for instance, of the 
twentieth execution figures * Little Barbara, the prettiest 
girl in Wiirzburg ;' ' a student who could speak all manner 
of languages, who was an excellent musician, vocaliier 
et instrtimentaliter ; ' * the master of the hospice, a very 
learned man.' We find, too, in this gloomy account the 
cruel record of children burnt for witchcraft ; here a little 
girl of about nine or ten years of age, with her baby sister, 
younger than herself (their mother was burnt a little while 
afterwards) ; here boys of ten or eleven ; again, a young 


girl of fifteen ; two children from the poorhouse; the little 
boy of 2l councillor. The pen falls from one's hand in 
recapitulating such monstrosities. Cannot those who 
would endow Catholicity with the dogma of papal infalli- 
bility hearken, before giving their vote, to the cries that 
rise before God, and which history re-echoes, of those 
poor innocent ones whom pontifical bulls threw into 
flames ? The seventeenth century saw the rapid diminu- 
tion of trials and tortures. In one of his good moments, 
Louis XIV. mitigated greatly the severity of this special 
legislation. For this he had to undergo the remonstrances 
of the Parliament of Rouen, which believed society would 
be ruined if those who dealt in sorcery were merely con- 
demned to perpetual confinement. The truth is, that 
belief in witchcraft was so wide-spread, that from time to 
time even throughout the seventeenth century there were 
isolated executions. One of the latest and most notorious 
was that of Renata Saenger, superior of the convent of 
Unterzell, near Wiirzburg (1748). At Landshut, in Bavaria, 
in 1756, a young girl of thirteen years was convicted of 
impure intercourse with the Devil, and put to death, Seville 
in 178 1, and Claris in 1783, saw the last two known 
victims to this fatal superstition.*^ 

The Reformation swept away in Northern countries, for 
the upper classes, as many christian saints and angels as 
priestcraft had previously turned to enemies for the lower. 
The poor and ignorant simply tried to evoke the same ideal 
spirit-guardians under the pagan forms legendarily asso- 
ciated with a golden age. Witchcraft was a pathetic appeal 
against a cruel present to a fair, however visionary, past 
r nti m h T w 

o'^.Vt ect i?7 a 

1 nv 1 e ,r e 

c so vr o sR b . a? al 


the process has been a vast increase in enterprise, science, 
and wealth, man cannot live by these alone. Modern 
spiritualism, which so many treat with a superciliousness 
little creditable to a scientific age, is a cry of starved senti- 
ment and affections left hopeless under faded heavens, 
as full of pathetic meaning as that which was wrung from 
serfs enticed into temples only to find them dens of thieves. 
Desolate hearts take up the burthen of desolate homes, 
and appeal to invisible powers for guidance; and for attes- 
tation of hopes which science has blighted, ere poetry, art, 
and philanthropy have changed these ashes into beauty. 
Because these so-called spirits, evoked by mediums out 
of morbid nerves, are really longed-for ideals, the darker 
features of witchcraft are not called about them. That 
fearful movement was a wronged Medea whose sorrows 
had made Hecate — to remember the dreadful phrase of 
Euripides — 'the chosen assistant dwelling in the inmost 
recesses of her house.' Modern spiritualism is Rachel 
weeping for her children, not to be comforted if they are 
not. But the madness of the one is to be understood by 

r i rf. elof ^tf)fec% J r P , eWr sE P 

( 332 ) 



Mephisto and Mephitis— The Raven Book— Papal sorcery — Magic 
seals — Mephistopheles as dog — George Sabellicus alias Faustus 
— The Faust myth — Marlowe's Faust — Good and evil angeb — 
El Magico Prodigioso — Cyprian and Justina — Klinger's Faust — 
Satan's sermon — Goethe's Mephistopheles — His German charac- 
ters — Moral scepticism — Devil's gifts— Helena — Redemption 
through Art — Defeat of Mephistopheles. 

The name Mephistopheles has in it, I think, the priest's 
shudder at the fumes of the laboratory. Duntzer^ finds 
that the original form of the word was ' Mephostophiles/ 
and conjectures that it was a bungling effort to put 
together three Greek words, to mean ' not loving the 
light' In this he has the support of Bayard Taylor, Vho 
also thinks that it was so understood by Goethe. The 
transformation of it was probably amid the dreaded gases 
with which the primitive chemist surrounded himself. He 
who began by * not loving the light ' became the familiar 
of men seeking light, and lover of their mephitic gases. 
The ancient Romans had a mysterious divinity called 
Mephitis, whose grove and temple were in the Esquiliae, 
ae n e mdl tht h d hi is iff aht 



were of old regarded as ebullitions from hell, and both 
Schwarz and Roger Bacon particularly dealt in that kind 
of smell. Considering how largely Asmodeus, as 'fine 
gentleman/ entered into the composition of Meplysto- 
pheles, and how he flew from Nineveh to Egypt (Tobit) to 
avoid a bad smell, it seems the irony of mythology that 
he should turn up in Europe as a mephitic spirit. 

Mephistopheles is the embodiment of all that has been 
said in preceding chapters of the ascetic's horror of nature 
and the pride of life, and of the mediaeval priest's curse on 
all learning he could not monopolise. The Faust myth is 
merely his shadow cast on the earth, the tracery of his ter- 
rible power as the Church would have the people dread it 
The early Raven Book at Dresden has the title : — * t t t 
D. J. Fausti t t t Dreifacher HoUen-Zwung und Ma- 
gische (Geister-Commando) nebst den schwarzen Raaben. 
Romse ad Arcanum Fontificatus unter Papst Alexander 
VI. gedruckt Anno (Christ!) MDI.' In proof of which 
claim there is a Preface purporting to be a proclamation 
signed by the said Pope and Cardinal Piccolomini con- 
cerning the secrets which the celebrated Dr. Faust had 
scattered throughout Germany, commanding ut ad Arca- 
num Pontificatus ntandentur et sicut pupilla oculi in archivio 
Nostra serventur et aistodiantur^ atque extra Valvas Vati- 
canas non imprimantur neque inde transportentur. Si vera 
quiscunque temere contra agere ausm fuerit, DiVlNAM male- 
dictionem lata sententice ipso facto servatis Nobis Solis reser- 
vandis se incursurum sciat, Ita mandamus et constituemus 
Virtute Apostolicce Eccksice JESU Christi sub poena Ex- 
communicationis ut supra. Anno secufub Vicariatus Nostri. 
Romce Verbi incamati Anno M,D,L 

This is an impudent forgery, but it is an invention 
which, more than anything actually issued from Rome, 
indicates the popular understanding that the contention of 



the Church was not against the validity of magic arts, but 
against their exercise by persons not authorised by itself. 
It was, indeed, a tradition not combated by the priests, 
that various ecclesiastics had possessed such powers, even 
Popes, as John XXIL, Gregory VII., and Clement V. 
The first Sylvester was said to have a dragon at his com- 
mand ; John XXII. denounced his physicians and courtiers 
for necromancy ; and the whispers connecting the Vatican 
with sorcery lasted long enough to attribute to the late 
Pius IX. a power of the evil eye. Such awful potencies 
the Church wished to be ascribed to itself alone. Faust 
is a legend invented to impress on the popular mind the 
fate of all who sought knowledge in unauthorised ways 
and for non-ecclesiastical ends. 

In the Raven Book just mentioned, there are provisions 
for calling up spirits which, in their blending of christian 
with pagan formulas, oddly resemble the solemn proceed- 
ings sometimes affected by our spiritual mediums. The 
magician {Magister) had best be alone, but if others are 
present, their number must be odd ; he should deliberate 
beforehand what business he wishes to transact with the 
spirits; he must observe God's commandment; trust the 
Almighty's help; continue his conjuration, though the 
spirits do not appear quickly, with unwavering faith ; 
mark a circle on parchment with a dove's blood ; within 
this circle write in Latin the names of the four quarters of 
heaven ; write around it the Hebrew letters of God's name, 
and beneath it write Sadan; and standing in this circle he 
must repeat the ninety-first Psalm. In addition there are 
seals in red and black, various Hebrew, Greek, and Latin 
words, chiefly such as contain the letters Q, W, X, Y, Z. — 
e,g,^ Yschyros, Theos, Zebaoth, Adonay. The specimen 
1 , i 2 1 lyed <lc i s ' fi 7 ' le n is 



friar, in whose guise Mephistopheles appears, been his 
actual familiar, he could hardly have done more to bring 
learning into disgrace. Born at the latter part of the 
fifteenth century at Knittlingen, Wurtemberg, of poor 
parents, the bequest of an uncle enabled him to study 
medicine at Cracow University, and it seems plain that he 
devoted his learning and abilities to the work of deluding 
the public. That he made money by his * mediumship/ 
one can only infer from the activity with which he went 
about Germany and advertised his ' powers.' It was at a 
time when high prices were paid for charms, philtres, 
mandrake mannikins ; and the witchcraft excitement' was 
not yet advanced enough to render dealing in such things 
perilous. It seems that the Catholic clergy made haste 
to use this impostor to point their moral against learning, 
and to identify him as first-fruit of the Reformation ; while 
the Reformers, with equal zeal, hurled him back upon the 
papists as outcome of their idolatries. Melancthon calls 
him 'an abominable beast, a sewer of many devils.' The 
first mention of him is by Trithemius in a letter of August 
20, 1507, who speaks of him as 'a pretender to magic* 
(* Magister Georgius Sabellicus, Faustus Junior'), whom he 
met at Gelnhaussen ; and in another letter of the same 
year as at Kreuznach, Conrad Mudt, friend of Luther and 
Melancthon, mentions (Oct 3, 15 13) the visit to Erfurth 
of Georgius Faustus Hemitheus Hedebeyensis, *a braggart 
and a fool who affects magic,' whom he had * heard talk- 
iq (in a tavern ' and who ha$i * a i t ferr It i n ^ ' 

s a 

b .G a 

n s n 


• d> 

hail d 

9 1 

r a 



provinces, and kingdoms, made his name known to every- 
body, and is highly renowned for his great skill, not alone 
in medicine, but also in chiromancy, necromancy, phy- 
siognomy, visions in crystal, and the like other arts. And 
also not only renowned, but written down and known as 
an experienced master. Himself admitted, nor denied 
that it was so, and that his name was Faustus, and called 
himself pkilosophum philosophorunt. But how many have 
complained to me that they were deceived by him — verily 
a great number ! But what matter ? — hin ist hin! 

These latter words may mean that Faust had just died. 
He must have died about that time, and with little notice. 
The rapidity with which a mythology began to grow 
around him is worthy of more attention than the subject 
has received. In 1543 the protestant theologian Johann 
Gast has (* Sermones Convivialium') stories of his diabolical 
dog and horse, and of the Devil's taking him off, when 
his body turns itself five times face downward. In 1587 
Philip Camerarius speaks of him as ' a well-known magican 
who lived in the time of our fathers.^ April 18, 1587, two 
students of the University of Tubingen were imprisoned 
for writing a Comedy of Dr. Faustus : though it was not 
permitted to make light of the story, it was thought a very 
proper one to utilise for pious purposes, and in the autumn 
of the same year (1587) the original form of the legend 
was published by Spiess in Frankfort. It describes Faust 
as summoning the Devil at night, in a forest near Witten- 
berg. The evil spirit visits him on three occasions in. his 
study, where on the third he gives his name as * Mephosto- 
philcs,' and the compact to serve him for twenty-four 
years for his soul is signed. When Faust pierces his hand, 
the blood flows into the form of the words O homo fuge / 
Mephistopheles first serves him as a monk, and brings him 
fine garments, wine, and food. Many of the luxuries are 




brought from the mansions of prelates, which shows the 
protestant bias of the book ; which is also shown in the 
objection the Devil makes to Faust's marrying, because 
marriage is pleasing to God. Mephistopheles changes 
himself to a winged horse, on which Faust is borne through 
many countries, arriving at last at Rome. Faust passes 
three days, invisible, in the Vatican, which supplies the 
author with another opportunity to display papal luxury, 
as well as the impotence of the Pope and his cardinals to 
exorcise the evil powers which take their food and goblets 
when they are about to feast. On his further aerial voyages 
Faust gets a glimpse of the garden of Eden ; lives in state 
in the Sultan's palace in the form of Mohammed ; and at 
length becomes a favourite in the Court of Charles V. at 
Innsbruck. Here he evokes Alexander the Great and 
his wife. In roaming about Germany, Faust diverts him- 
self by swallowing a load of hay and horses, cutting off 
heads and replacing them, making flowers bloom at 
Christmas, drawing wine from a table, and calling Helen 
of Troy to appear to some students. Helen becomes his 
mistress ; by her he has a son, Justus Faustus ; but these 
disappear simultaneously with the dreadful end of Dr. 
Faustus, who after a midnight storm is found only in the 
fragments with which his room is strewn. 

Several of these legends are modifications of those 
current before Faust's time. The book had such an 
immense success that new volumes and versions on the 
san)e subject appeared not only in Germany but in other 
parts of Europe, — a rhymed version in England, 1588; 
a translation from the German in France, 1589; a 
Dutch translation, 1592 ; Christopher Marlowe's drama 
in 1604. 

In Marlowe's 'Tragical History of Doctor Faustus,' the 
mass of legends of occult arts that had crystallised around 



a man thoroughly representative of them was treated with 
the dignity due to a subject amid whose moral and historic 
grandeur Faust is no longer the petty personality he really 
was. He is precisely the character which the Church had 
been creating for a thousand years, only suddenly changed 
from other-worldly to worldly desires and aims. What 
he seeks is what all the energy of civilisation seeks. 

Evil Angel. Go forward, Faustus, in that famous art 
Wherein all Nature's treasure is contained : 
Be thou on earth as Jove is in the sky, 
Lord and commander of these elements. 

Faust. How am I glutted with conceit of this ! 
Shall I make spirits fetch me what I please, 
Resolve me of all ambiguities, i 
Perform what desperate enterprise I will ? 
I'll have them fly to India for gold, 
Ransack the ocean for orient pearl, 
And search all comers of the new-found world 
For pleasant fruits and princely delicates ; 
rU have them read me strange philosophy, 
And tell the secrets of all foreign kings ; 
I'll have them wall all Germany with brass, 
And make swift Rhine circle fair Wertenberg ; 
ril have them fill the public schools with silk, 
Wherewith the students shall be bravely clad. 

For this he is willing to pay his soul, which Theology 
has so long declared to be the price of mastering the 

This word damnation terrifies not him, 
For be confounds hell in Elysium : 
His ghost be with the old philosophers ! 

The * Good Angel ' warns him : 

O Faustus, lay that damned book aside, 
And gaze not on it, lest it tempt thy soul. 
And heap God's heavy wrath upon thy head ! 
Read, read the Scriptures : — that is blasphemy. 

So, dying away amid the thunders of the Reformation, 



were heard the echoes of the early christian voices which ex- 
ulted in the eternal tortures of the Greek poets and philo- 
sophers: the anathemas on Roger Bacon, Socinus, Galileo; 
the outcries with which every great invention has been 
met. We need only retouch the above extracts here and 
there to make Faust's aspirations those of a saint. Let 
the gold be sought in New Jerusalem, the pearl in its 
gates, the fruits in paradise, the philosophy that of 
Athanasius, and no amount of selfish hunger and thirst 
for them would grieve any 'Good Angel' he had ever 
heard of. 

The * Good Angel ' has not yet gained his wings who 
will tell him that all he seeks is included in the task of 
humanity, but warn him that the method by which he 
would gain it is just that by which he has been instructed 
to seek gold and jasper of the New Jerusalen, — not by 
fulfilling the conditions of them, but as the object of some 
favouritism. Every human being who ever sought to 
obtain benefit by prayers or praises that might win the 
good graces of a supposed bestower of benefits, instead of 
by working for them, is but the Faust of his side — ^be it 
supernal or infernal. Hocus-pocus and invocation, blood- 
compacts and sacraments, — they are all the same in origin; 
they are all mean attempts to obtain advantages beyond 
other people without serving up to them or deserving them. 
To Beelzebub Faust will ' build an altar and a church;' 
but he had probably never entered a church or knelt 
before an altar with any less selfishness. 

A strong Nemesis follows Self to see that its bounds 
are not overpassed without retribution. Its satisfactions 
must be weighed in the balance with its renunciations. And 
the inflexible law applies to intellect and self-culture as 
much as to any other power of man. Mephistopheles is ' the 
o • ' ve ' h i 11 ■ 'ne 


hunger for knowledge because of the power it brings. 
Or, falling on another part of human nature, it is pride 
making itself abject for ostentation ; or it is passion selling 
love for lust. Re-enter Mephistopheles with Devils, who give 
crowns and rich apparel to Faustus, dance, and then depart. 
To the man who has received his intellectual and moral 
liberty only to so spend it, Lucifer may w6ll say, in 
Marlowe's words — 

Christ cannot save thy soul, for he is just : 
There's none but I have interest in the same. 

Perhaps he might even better have suggested to Faust 
that his soul was not of sufficient significance to warrant 
much anxiety. 

Something was gained when it was brought before the 
people in popular dramas of Faust how little the Devil 
cared for the cross which had so long been regarded as the 
all-sufficient weapon against him.* Faust and Mephisto- 
pheles flourish in the Vatican despite all the crosses raised 
to exorcise them. The confession of the cross which once 
ineant martyrdom of the confessor had now come to mean 
martyrdom of the denier. Protestantism put its faith in 
Theology, Creeds, and Orthodoxy. But Calderon de la 
Barca blended the legend of Faust with the legendary 
temptation of St Cyprian, and in ' El Magico Prodigioso ' 
we have, in impressive contrast, the powerlessness of the 
evil powers over the heart of a pure woman, and its easy 
entrance into a mind fully furnished with the soundest 
sentiments of theology. St. Cyprian had been a wor- 
shipper of pagan deities * before his conversion, and even 

ttr this he ha^ jp]g:£cteiBe^d^)9|^eV^^^^^^^^ c^r^^feAft-iihe x a e h 


were suffering martyrdom. It is possible that out of this 
may have grown the legend of his having called his earlier 
deities — theoretically changed to devils — ^to his aid ; a 
trace of the legend being that magical ' Book of Cypri- 
anus* mentioned in another chapter. In his tract *Dc 
Gratia Dei ' Cyprian says concerning his spiritual con- 
dition before conversion, * I lay in darkness, and floating 
on the world's boisterous sea, with no resting-place for my 
feet, ignorant of my proper life, and estranged from truth 
and light.' Here is a metaphorical * vasty deep' from 
which the centuries could hardly fail to conjure up spirits, 
one of them being the devil of Calderon's drama, who from 
a wrecked ship walks Christ-like over the boisterous sea to 
find Cyprian on the sea-shore. The drama opens with a 
scene which recalls the most perilous of St. Anthony's 
temptations. According to Athanasius, the Devil having 
utterly failed to conquer Anthony's virtue by charming 
images, came to him in his proper black and ugly shape, 
and, candidly confessing that he was the Devil, said he 
had been vanquished by the saint's extraordinary sanctity. 
Anthony prevailed against the spirit of pride thus 
awakened ; but Calderon's Cyprian, though he does 
not similarly recognise the Devil, becomes complacent at 
the dialectical victory which the tempter concedes him. 
Cyprian having argued the existence and supremacy of 
God, the Devil says, * How can I impugn so clear a con- 
sequence } ' * Do you regret my victory ? ' * Who but 
regrets a check in rivalry of wit He leaves, and Cyprian 
says, ' I never met a more learned person.' The Devil is 
equally satisfied, knowing, no doubt, that gods worked out 
by the, wits alone reqiain in their abode of abstraction 
and do not interfere with the world of sense. Calderon is 
artful enough to throw the trial of Cyprian back into 
his pagan period, but the mirror is no less true in reflect- 



ing for those who had eyes to see in it the weakness of 

' Enter the Devil as a fine gentleman/ is the first sign 
of the temptation in Calderon's drama — it is Asmodeus^ 
again, and the * pride of life ' he first brings is the conceit 
of a clever theological victory. So sufficient is the door- 
way so made for all other pride to enter, that next time 
the devil needs no disguise, but has only to offer him a 
painless victory over nature and the world, including 
Justina, the object of his passion. 

Wouldst thou that I work 
A charm over this waste and savage wood, 
This Babylon of crags and aged trees* 
Filling its coverts with a horror 
Thrilling and strange ? . . . 

I offer thee the fruit 
Of years of toil in recompense ; whatever 
I hy wildest dream presented to thy thought 
As object of desire, shall be thine.* 

Justina knows less about the philosophical god of 
Cyprian, and more of the might of a chaste heart. To 
the Devil she says — 

Thought is not in my power, but action is : 
I will not move my foot to follow thee. 

The Devil is compelled to say at last — 

Woman, thou hast subdued me, 
Only by not owning thyself subdued. 

He is only able to bring a counterfeit of Justina to her 

Like Goethe's Mephistopheles, Cyprian's devil is unable 
to perform his exact engagements, and consequently does 

^ I have been much struck by the resemblance between the dumpy monkish 
dwarf, in the old wall-picture of Auerbach*s Cellar, meant for Mephistopheles, 
and the portrait of Asmodeus in the early editions of ' Le Diable Boiteux.* 
But, as devils went in those days, they are good-looking enough. 

* Shelley's Translation. 


not win in the game. He enables Cyprian to move moun- 
tains and conquer beasts, until he boasts that he can 
excel his infernal teacher, but the Devil cannot brings 
Justina. She has told Cyprian that she will love him in 
death. Cyprian and she together abjure their paganism 
at Antioch, and meet in a cell just before their martyr- 
dom. Over their bodies lying dead on the scaffold the 
Devil appears as a winged serpent, and says he is com- 
pelled to announce that they have both ascended to 
heaven. He descends into the earth. 

What the story of Faust and Mephistopheles had 
become in the popular mind of Germany, when Goethe 
was raising it to be an immortal type of the conditions 
under which genius and art can alone fulfil their task, 
is well shown in the sensational tragedy written by his 
contemporary, the playwright Klinger. The following 
extract from Klinger*s 'Faust' is not without a certain 

* Night covered the earth with its raven wing. Faust 
stood before the awful spectacle of the body of his son 
suspended upon the gallows. Madness parched his brain, 
and he exclaimed in the wild tones of dispair : 

' Satan, let me but bury this unfortunate being, and 
then you may take this life of mine, and I will descend 
into your infernal abode, where I shall no more behold 
men in the flesh. I have learned to know them, and I 
am disgusted with them, with their destiny, with the 
world, and with life. My good action has drawn down 
unutterable woe upon my head ; I hope that my evil ones 
may have been productive of ood. Thus should it be in 


. s h Itt 

Jilf Te 1 h 

n a h 



e <P 

^ n a bs 

oe e 



But Satan replied : * Hold 1 not so fast — Faust ; once I 
told thee that thou alone shouldst be the arbiter of thy 
life, that thou alone shouldst have power to break the 
hour-glass of thy existence ; thou hast done so, and the 
hour of my vengeance has come, the hour for which I 
have sighed so long. Here now do I tear from thee thy 
mighty wizard-wand, and chain thee within the narrow 
bounds which I draw around thee. Here shalt thou stand 
and listen to me, and tremble ; I will draw forth the terrors 
of the dark past, and kill thee with slow despair. 

' Thus will I exult over thee, and rejoice in my victory. 
Fool ! thou hast said that thou hast learned to know man ! 
Where ? How and when } Hast thou ever considered 
his nature ? Hast thou ever examined it, and separated 
from it its foreign elements.^ Hast thou distinguished 
between that which is offspring of the pure impulses of 
his heart, and that which flows from an imagination 
corrupted by art? Hast thou compared the wants and 
the vices of his nature with those which he owes to society 
and prevailing corruption.? Hast thou observed him in 
his natural state, where each of his undisguised expres- 
sions mirrors forth his inmost soul ? No — thou hast 
looked upon the mask that society wears, and hast mis- 
taken it for the true lineaments of man ; thou hast only 
become acquainted with men who have consecrated their 
condition, wealth, power, and talents to the service of 
(jv ^r^e ^H^c have sacrificed their ure nature to our 


^ Had I a thousand human tongues, and as many years 
to speak to thee, they would be all insufficient to develop 
the consequences of thy deeds and thy recklessness. The 
germ of wretchedness which thou hast sown will continue 
its growth through centuries yet to come; and future 
generations will curse thee as the author of their misery. 

' Behold, then, daring and reckless man, the importance 
of actions that appear circumscribed to your mole vision ! 
Who of you can say, Time will obliterate the trace of 
my existence I Thou who knowest not what beginning, 
what middle, and end are, hast dared to seize with a bold 
hand the chain of fate, and hast attempted to gnaw its 
links, notwithstanding that they were forged for eternity ! 

* But now will I withdraw the veil from before thy eyes, 
and then — cast the spectre despair into thy soul.* 

' Faust pressed his hands upon his face ; the worm that 
never dieth gnawed already on his heart' 

The essence and sum of every devil are in the Mephis- 
topheles of Goethe. He is culture. 

Culture, which smooth the whole world licks. 
Also unto the Devil sticks. 

He represents the intelligence which has learned the 
difference between ideas and words, knows that two and 
two make four, and also how convenient may be the 
dexterity that can neatly write them out five. 

Of Metaphysics learn the use and beauty ! 

See that you most profoundly gain 

What does not suit the human brain ! 

A splendid word to serve, you'll find 

For what goes in —or won't go in — ^your mind. 

On words let your attention centre ! 
Then through the safest gate you'll enter 
The temple halls of certainty.* 

^ Bayard Taylor's Translation. Scene iv. 



He knows, too, that the existing moment alone is of any 
advantage ; that theory is grey and life ever green ; that 
he only gathers real fruit who confides in himself. He is 
thus the perfectly evolved intellect of man, fully in posses- 
sion of all its implements, these polished till they shine in 
all grace, subtlety, adequacy. Nature shows no symbol 
of such power more complete than the gemhied serpent 
with its exquisite adaptations, — freed from cumbersome 
prosaic feet, equal to the winged by its flexible spine, 
every tooth artistic. 

From an ancient prison was this Ariel liberated by his 
Prospero, whose wand was the Reformation, a spirit finely 
touched to fine issues. But his wings cannot fly beyond 
the atmosphere. The ancient heaven has faded before 
the clearer eye, but the starry ideals have come nearer. 
The old hells have burnt out, but the animalism of man 
couches all the more freely on his path, having broken 
every chain of fear. Man still walks between the good 
and evil, on the hair-drawn bridge of his moral nature. 
His faculties seem adapted with equal precision to either 
side of his life, upper or under, — ^to Wisdom or Cunning, 
Self-respect or Self-conceit, Prudence or Selfishness, Lust 
or Love. 

Such is the seeming situation, but is it the reality? 
Goethe's 'Faust' is the one clear answer which this ques- 
tion has received. 

In one sense Mephistopheles may be called a German 
devil. The christian soul of Germany was from the first 
a changeling. The ancient Nature-worship of that race 
might have had its normal development in the sciences, 
and along with this intellectual evolution there must have 
been formed a related religion able to preserve social 
order through the honour of man. But the native soul 
of Germany was cut out by the sword and replaced with 



a mongrel Hebrew- Latin soul. The metaphorical terrors 
of tropical countries, — the deadly worms, the burning 
and suffocating blasts and stenches, with which the mind 
of those dwelling near them could familiarise itself when 
met with in their scriptures, acquired exaggerated horrors 
when left to be pictured by the terrorised imagination of 
races ignorant of their origin. It is a long distance from 
Potsdam and Hyde Park to Zahara. Christianity there- 
fore blighted nature in the north by apparitions more 
fearful than the southern world ever knew, and long after 
the pious there could sing and dance, puritanical glooms 
hung over the christians of higher latitudes. When the 
progress of German culture began the work of dissipating 
these idle terrors, the severity of the reaction was pro- 
portioned to the intensity of the delusions. The long- 
famished faculties rushed almost madly into their beautiful 
world, but without the old reverence which had once 
knelt before its phenomena. That may remain with a 
few, but the cynicism of the noisiest will be reflected even 
upon the faces of the best Goethe first had his attention 
drawn to Spinoza by a portrait of him on a tract, in which 
his really noble countenance was represented with a dia- 
bolical aspect The orthodox had made it, but they could 
only have done so by the careers of Faust, Paracelsus, and 
their tribe. These too helped to conventionalise Voltaire 
into a Mephistopheles.^ 

Goethe was probably the first European man to carry 
out this scepticism to its full results. He was the first 
who recognised that the moral edifice based upon monastic 
theories must follow them ; and he had in his own life 
already questioned the right of the so-called morality to its 

1 See Lavater*s Physiognomy, Plates xix. and xx., in which some artist 
^ own|What variations can be made to ordeij on an intellectual and ben^ 


supreme if not tyrannous authority over man. Hereditary 
conscience, passing through this fierce crucible, lay levi- 
gable before Goethe, to be swept away into dust-hole or 
moulded into the image of reason. There remained 
around the animal nature of a free man only a thread 
which seemed as fine as that which held the monster 
Fenris. It was made only of the sentiment of love and 
that of honour. But as Fenris found the soft invisible 
thread stronger than chains, Faust proved the tremendous 
sanctions that surround the finer instincts of man. 

Emancipated from grey theory, Faust rushes hungrily 
at the golden fruit of life. The starved passions will have 
their satisfaction, at whatever cost to poor Gretchen. The 
fruit turns to ashes on his lips. The pleasure is not that 
of the thinking man, but of the accomplished poodle he 
has taken for his guide. To no moment in that intrigue 
can the suffrage of his whole nature say, ' Stay, thou art 
fair ! * That is the pact — it is the distinctive keynote of 
Goethe's ' Faust' 

Canst thou by falsehood or by flattery 

Make me one moment with myself at peace, 

Cheat me into tranquillity ? — come then 

And welcome life's last day. 

Make me to the passing moment plead. 

Fly not, O stay, thou art so fair { 

Then will I gladly perish. 

The pomp and power of the court, luxury and wealth, 
t . 5 U f il tfc idBkThhliddditl r fu il AUhi i elf 



At length one demand made by Faust makes Mephisto- 
pheles tremble. As a mere court amusement he would 
have him raise Helen of Troy. Reluctant that Faust 
should look upon the type of man*s harmonious develop- 
ment, yet bound to obey, Mephistopheles sends him to 
THE Mothers, — the healthy primal instincts and ideals 
of man which expressed themselves in the fair forms of 
art. Corrupted by superstition of their own worshippers, 
cursed by Christianity, they * have a Hades of their own,' 
as Mephistopheles says, and he is unwilling to interfere 
with them. The image appears, and the sense of Beauty 
is awakened in Faust. But he is still a christian as to his 
method : his idea is that heaven must be taken by storm, 
by chance, wish, prayer, any means except patient fulfil- 
ment of the conditions by which it may be reached. 
Helen is flower of the history and culture of Greece; and 
so lightly Faust would pluck and wear it ! 

Helen having vanished as he tried to clasp her, Faust 
has learned his second lesson. When he next meets 
Helen it is not to seek intellectual beauty as, in Gretchen's 
case, he had sought the sensuous and sensual. He has 
fallen under a charm higher than that of either Church or 
Mephistopheles; the divorce of ages between flesh and 
spirit, the master-crime of superstition, from which all 
devils sprang, was over for him from the moment that 
he sees the soul embodied and body ensouled in the art- 
ideal of Greece. 

The redemption of Faust through Art is the gospel of 
the nineteenth century. This is her vesture which Helen 
leaves him when she vanishes, and which bears him as 
a cloud to the land he is to make beautiful. The purest 
rfiju — beelfr tr —A eifl n ' 

, 4 r 

> . . fV*ae eflf £ Ihe hu r 
te h n 

k el 



Faust can meet with Helen, and part without any more 
clutching, he is not hurled back to his Gothic study and 
mocking devil any more : he is borne away until he reaches 
the land where his thought and work are needed. Blind- 
ness falls on him— or what Theology deems such : for it is 
metaphorical — it means that he has descended from clouds 
to the world, and the actual earth has eclipsed a possible 

The sphere of Earth is known enough to me ; 
The view beyond is barred immortality : 
A fool who there his blinking eyes directeth, 
And o>r his clouds of peers a place expecteth ! 
Firm let him stand and look around him well ! 
This World means something to the capable ; 
Why needs he through Eternity to wend ? 

The eye for a fictitious world lost, leaves the vision for 
r learer. In eve hard chaotic '>gt s w 

( 353 > 



The Wild Hunt — Euphemisms — Schimmelreiter — Odinwald— Pied 
Piper — Lyeshy— Waldemar's Hunt — Paine Hunter — King Abel' 
Hunt — Lords of Glorup — Le Grand Vencur — Robert le Diable — 
Arthur — Hugo — H erne — Tregeagle — Der Freischiitz — Elijah's 
chariot — Mahan Bali — D^hak — Nimrod — Nimrod's defiance of 
Jehovah — His Tower— Robber Knights — The Devil in Leipzig — 
Olaf hunting pagans — Hunting-horns— Raven — Boar — Hounds — 
Horse — Dapplegrimm — Sleipnir — Horseflesh — ^The mare Chetiya 
—Stags— St. Hubert— The White Lady— Myths of Mother Rose 
— ^Wodan hunting St. Walpurga— Friar Eckhardt. 

The most important remnant of the Odin myth is the 
universal legend of the Wild Huntsman. The following 
variants are given by Wuttke.^ In Central and South 
Germany the Wild Hunt is commonly called Wiitenden 
Heere, i.e,y Wodan's army or chase — called in the Middle 
Ages, Wuotanges Heer. The hunter, generally supposed 
to be abroad during the twelve nights after Christmas, 
is variously called Wand, Waul, Wodejager, Helljager, 
Nightjager, Hackelberg, Hackelberend (man in armour). 
Fro Gode, Banditterich, Jenner. The most common belief 
is that he is the spectre of a wicked lord or king who 
sacrilegiously enjoyed the chase on Sundays and other 

e ^ gt y 



hat; is followed by dogs and other animals, fiery, and 
often three-legged ; and in his spectral train are the souls 
of unbaptized children, huntsmen who have trodden down 
grain, witches, and others — these being mounted on horses, 
goats, and cocks, and sometimes headless, or with their 
entrails dragging behind them. They rush with a fearful 
noise through the air, which resounds with the cracking of 
whips, neighing of horses, barking of dogs, and cries of 
ghostly huntsmen. The unlucky wight encountered is 
caught up into the air, where his neck is wrung, or he is 
dropped from a great height. In some regions, it is said, 
such must hunt until relieved, but are not slain. The hunts- 
man is a Nemesis on poachers or trespassers in woods and 
forests. Sometimes the spectres have combats with each 
other over battlefields. Their track is marked with bits of 
horseflesh, human corpses, legs with shoes on. In some 
regions, it is said, the huntsmen carry battle-axes, and cut 
down all who come in their way. When the hunt is pass- 
ing all dogs on earth become still and quiet In most 
regions there is some haunted gorge, hill, or castle in which 
the train disappears. 

In Thuringia, it is said that, when the fearful noises of 
the spectral hunt come very near, they change to ravishing 
music. In the same euphemistic spirit some of the prog- 
nostications it brings are not evil : generally, indeed, the 
apparition portends war, pestilence, and famine, but fre- 
quently it announces a fruitful year. If, in passing a 
house, one of the train dips his finger in the yeast, the 
staff of life will never be wanting in that house. Whoever 
sees the chase will live long, say the Bohemians ; but he 
must not hail it, lest flesh and bones rain upon him. 

In most regions, however, there is thought to be great 
danger in proximity to the hunt. The perils are guarded 
against by prostration on the earth face downward, pray* 



ing meanwhile; by standing on a white cloth (Bertha's 
linen), or wrapping the same around the head ; by putting 
the head between the spokes of a wheel ; by placing palm 
leaves on a table. The hunt may be observed securely 
from the cross-roads, which it shuns, or by standing on 
a stump marked with three crosses — as is often done by 
woodcutters in South Germany. 

Wodan also appears in the Schimmelreiter — headless 
rider on a white horse, in Swabia called Bachreiter or 
Junker Jakele. This apparition sometimes drives a car- 
riage drawn by four white (or black) horses, usually head- 
less. He is the terrible forest spectre Hoimann, a giant 
in broad-brimmed hat, with moss and lichen for beard ; he 
rides a headless white horse through the air, and his wail- 
ing cry, ' Hoi, hoi ! ' means that 'his reign is ended. He is 
the bugbear of children. 

In the Odinwald are the Riesendule and Riesenaltar^ 
with mystic marks declaring them relics of a temple of 
Odin. Near Erbach is Castle Rodenstein, the very for- 
tress of the Wild Jager, to which he passes with his horrid 
train from the ruins of Schnellert The village of Reichel- 
sheim has on file the affidavits of the people who heard 
him just before the battles of Leipzig and Waterloo. 
Their theory is that if the Jager returns swiftly to Schnel- 
lert all will go well for Germany ; but if he tarry at Roden- 
stein 'tis an omen of evil. He was reported near Frank- 
fort in 1832 ; but it is notable that no mention of him was 
made during the late Franco-German war. 

A somewhat later and rationalised variant relates that 
the wild huntsman was Hackelberg, the Lord of Roden- 
stein, whose tomb — really a Druidical stone — is shown at 
the castle, and said to be guarded by hell-hounds. Hackel- 
berg is of old his Brunswick name. It was the Hackel- 
berg Hill that opened to receive the children, which the 



Pied Piper of Hamelia charmed away with his flute from 
that old town, because the corporation would not pay him 
what they had promised for ridding them of rats. It is 
easy to trace this Pied Piper, who has become so famJliar 
through Mr. Robert Browning's charming poem, to the 
Odin of more blessed memory, who says in the Havamal, 
' I know a song by which I soften and enchant my ene- 
mies, and render their weapons of no eflfect' 

This latter aspect of Odin, his command over vermin, 
connects him with the Slavonic Lyeshy, or forest-demon of 
the Russias. The ancient thunder-god of Russia, Perun, 
who rides in his storm-chariot through the sky, has in the 
more christianised districts dropped his mantle on Ilya 
(Elias) ; while in the greater number of Slavonic districts 
he has held his original physical characters so remarkably 
that it has been necessary to include him among demons^ 
In Slavonian Folklore the familiar myth of the wild hunts- 
man is distributed — ^Vladimir the Great fulfils one part of 
it by still holding high revel in the halls of Kief, but he is 
no huntsman ; Perun courses noisily through the air, but 
he is rather benevolent than otherwise; the diabolical 
characteristics of the superstition have fallen to the evil 
huntsmen (Lyeshies), who keep the wild creatures as their 
flocks, the same as shepherds their herds, and whom every 
huntsman must propitiate. The Lyeshy is gigantic, wears 
a sheepskin, has one eye w^ithout eyebrow or eyelash, 
horns, feet of a goat, is covered with green hair, and his 
finger-nails are claws. He is special protector of the bears 
and wolves. 

In Denmark the same myth appears as King Volmers 
Hunt. Waldemar was so passionately fond of the chase 
that he said if the Lord would only let him hunt for ever 
near Gurre (his castle in the north of Seeland), he would 
not envy him his paradise. For this blasphemous wish he 



IS condemned to hunt between Burre and Gurre for ever. 
His cavalcade is much like that already described. Vol- 
mer rides a snow-white charger, preceded by a pack of 
coal-black hounds, and he carries his head under his left 
arm. On St. John the women open gates for him. It is 
believed that he is allowed brief repose at one and another 
of his old seats, and it is said spectral servants are some- 
times seen preparing the ruined castle at Vordingborg 
for him, or at Waldemar's Tower. A sceptical peasant 
resolved to pass the night in this tower. At midnight the 
King entered, and, thanking him for looking after his 
tower, gave him a gold piece which burned through his 
hand and fell to the ground as a coal. On the other hand, 
Waldemar sometimes makes peasants hold his dogs, and 
afterwards throws them coals which turn out to be gold 

The Palnatoke or Paine Hunter appears mostly in the 
island of Ftien. Every New Year's night he supplies 
himself with three horse-shoes from some smithy, and 
the smith takes care that he may find them ready for use 
on his anvil, as he always leaves three gold pieces in 
their stead. If the shoes are not ready for him, he carries 
the anvil off. In one instance he left an anvil on the top 
of a church tower, and it caused the smith great trouble 
to get it down again. 

King Abel was interred after his death in St. Peters 
Church in Sleswig, but the fratricide could find no peace 
in his grave. His ghost walked about in the night and 
disturbed the monks in their devotions. The body was 
finally removed from the church, and sunk in a foul bog 
near Gottorp. To keep him down effectively, a pointed 
stake was drove through his body. The spot is still called 
s "ni arabe. Nots^thstandin this he a ears seated bn 



the people to supply wealth to dissolute princes and pre- 
lates. The giants of Antwerp represent the power of 
the pagan monarchs who exacted tribute ; but these were 

age of such gold, and on opening it there drop out, instead 
of money, paws and nails of cats, frogs, and bears — the 
latter being an almost personal allusion to the Exchange. 
A French miser's money-safe being opened, two frogs only 
were found. The Devil could not get any other soul than 
the gold, and the cold-blooded reptiles were left as a sign 
of the life that had been lived. 

In the legends of the swarms of devils which beset St 
Anthony we find them represented as genuine ginimals. 
Our Anglo-Saxon fathers, however, were quite unable to 

replaced by such guar- 
dians of tribute-money 
as the Satyr of our 
picture (Fig. 31), which 
Edward the Confessor 
saw seated on a barrel 
of Danegeld, 

Fig. 31.— Dkvil of a Danegeld Tkcasurb 
(MS. Trin. Coll. Canub. B. x. a). 

Vit un doable saer desas 
Le tresor, noir et hidus. 

There are many good 
fables in European 
folklore with regard to 
the miser's gold, and 
'devil's money* gene- 
rally, which exhibit a 
fine instinct. A lhan 
carries home a pack- 



d> o 






tan o tof 



earth maintained by Christianity. Gradually the repre- 
sentation of the animal tempters was modified, and in- 
stead of real animal forms there were reported the bearded 
bestialities which sur- 
rounded St Guthlac 
and- St Godric. The 
accompanying picture 
(Fig. 32) is a group 
from Breughel (1565), 
representing the devils 
called around St James 
by a magician. These 
grotesque forms will 
repay study. If we 
should make a sketch 
. of the same kind, only 
surrounding the saint 
with the real animal 
shapes most nearly re- 
sembling these nonde- 
scripts, it would cease 
to be a diabolical scene. 

For beastliness is not a character of beasts ; it is the 
arrest of man. It is not the picturesque donkey in the 
meadow that is ridiculous, but the donkey on two feet ; 
not the bear of zoological gardens that is offensive morally, 
but the rough, who cannot always be caged ; it is the two- 
legged calf, the snake pretending to be a man, the ape in 
evening dress, who ever made the problem of evil at all 
formidable. It was insoluble until men had discovered 
as Science that law of Evolution which the ancient world 
knew as Ethics. 

A Hindu fable relates that the animals, in their migra- 

t n § a u v4cP< avc^o c m aa dWirff* * 

Fig. 3a.— St. Jambs and Dbvils. 



gods made man as a bridge across it Science and Reason 
confirm these ancient instincts of our race. Man is that 
bridge stretching between the animal and the ideal habitat 
by which, if the development be normal, all the passions 
pass upward into educated powers. Any pause or impe- 
diment on that bridge brings all the animals together to 
rend and tear the man who cannot convey them across 
the abyss. A very slight arrest may reveal to a man that 
he is a vehicle of intensified animalism. The lust of the 
goat, the pride of the peacock, the wrath of the lion, beau- 

tifu^^jg^heir apbrq ri^^ofp^^o^^, in fr^kgjjjgg^^ilo 


( 421 ) 



I LATELY heard the story of a pious negro woman whose 
faith in hell was sorely tried by a sceptic who asked her 
how brimstone enough could be found to burn all the 
wicked people in the world. After taking some days for 
reflection, the old woman, when next challenged by the 
sceptic, replied, that she had concluded that ' every man 
took his own brimstone.' This humble saint was uncon- 
scious that her instinct had reached the flnest thought of 
Milton, whose Satan says ' Myself am hell.' Marlowe's 
Mephistopheles also says, 'Where we are is hell.' And, 
far back as the year 633, the holy man Fursey, who be- 
lieved himself to have been guided by an angel near the 
region of the damned, related a vision much like the view 
of the African woman. There were four fires — Falsehood, 
Covetousness, Discord, Injustice — which joined to form 
one rea flam . n d ar nea ar Furse in fe r 



we go back to the atmosphere of Paganism we find that 
retribution had among them a real meaning. Nothing 
can be in more remarkable contrast than the disorderly 
characterless hell of Christendom, into which the murderer 
and the man who confuses the Persons of the Godhead 
alike burn everlastingly in most inappropriate fires, and 
the Hades of Egypt, Greece, and Rome, where every 
punishment bears relation to the offence, and is limited in 
duration to the degree of the offence. 

'The Egyptians/ says Herodotus (ii, 123), 'were the 
first who asserted that the soul of man is immortal, and 
that when the body perishes it enters into some other 
animal, constantly springing into existence ; and when it 
has passed through the different kinds of terrestrial, marine, 
and aerial beings, it again enters into the body of a man 
-that is born, and that this revolution is made in three 
thousand years/ Probably Plato imported from Egypt 
his fancy of the return of one dead to relate the scenes of 
heaven and hell, Er the Armenian (Republic, x. 614) sug- 
gesting an evolution of Rhampsinitus (Herod« ii. 122), who 
descended to Hades alive, played dice with Ceres, and 
brought back gold. The vision of Er represents a terrible 
hell, indeed, but those punished were chiefiy murderers 
and tyrants. They are punished tenfold for every wrong 
they had committed. But when this punishment is ended, 
each soul must return to the earth in such animal form 
as he or she might select. The animals, too, had their 
choice. Er saw that the choice was generally determined 
by the previous earthly life, — many becoming animals 
because of some spite derived from their experience. 
' And not only did men pass into animals, but I must also 
mention that there were animals tame and wild who 
changed into one another, and into corresponding human 
natures, the good into the gentle, the evil into the savage, 



in all sorts of combinations.' Sly Plato I Such is his 
estimate of what men's selections of their paradises are 
worth ! 

Orpheus chose to be a swan, hating to be born of woman, 
because women murdered him ; Ajax became a lion and 
Agamemnon an eagle, because they had suffered injustice 
from men ; Atalanta would be an athlete, and the jester 
Thersites a monkey; and Odysseus went about to find 
the life of a private gentleman with nothing to do. If 
Plutarch's friend Thespesius had pondered well this irony 
of Plato, he would hardly have brought back from his 
visit to Hades the modification that demons were provided 
to assign the animal forms in which souls should be born 
again on earth. They could hardly have done for the 
wicked anything worse than Plato shows them doing for 
themselves. But the meaning of Plutarch is the same. 
Thespesius sees demons preparing the body of a viper 
for Nero to be born into, since it was said the young of 
that reptile destroy their mother at birth. 

Among the Persians the idea of future rewards and 
punishments exceeds the exactness of the Koran — * Whoso 
hath done an atom of justice shall behold it, and whoso 
hath done an atom of injustice shall behold it' The 
Persian Sufis will even subdivide the soul rather than that 


HELLS imm^. 

country to stone. In the Dresden Library there is an 
illuminated Persian MS., thought to be seven hundred 
years old, which has in it what may be regarded as a 
portrait of Ahriman and Iblis combined. He is red, has a 
heavy beard and moustache, and there is a long dragon's 
crest and mane on his head. He wears a green and blue 
skirt about his loins. His tongue rolls thirstily between 
his cruel teeth. He superintends a number of fish-like 
devils which float in a lake of fire, and swallow the 
damned. Above this scene are the glorified souls, includ- 
ing the Shah sitting cross-legged on his rug, who look 
down on the tortures beneath with evident satisfaction. 
Apparently this is the only amusement which relieves the 
ennui of their heaven. 

If anything could make a rational man believe in a 
fiend-principle in the universe it would be the suggestion 
of such pictures, that men have existed who could conceive 
of happiness enjoyed in view of such tortures as these. 
This and some similar pictures in the East — for instance, 
that in the Temple of Horrors at Wuchang, China — are 
absolutely rayless so far as any touch of humanity is 
concerned. Are the Shah and his happy fellow-inspectors 
of tortures really fiends ? In the light of our present 
intelligence they may seem so. Certainly no person of 

fin 1 feclin ocoul n we car us t i n h ven 



there appeared to me, on the way that I came, as it were, 
the brightness of a star shining amidst the darkness, 
which increased by degrees/ — but we need not go on 
to the anti-climax of this vision. 

This star rising above all such visions belongs to the 
vault of the human Love, and it is visible through all the 
Ages of Darkness. It cannot be quenched, and its fiery 
rays have burnt up mountains of iniquity. 

•In the year 1322,' writes Flogel, after the 'Chronicon 
Sampetrinum Erfurtense/ 'there was a play shown at 
Eisenach, which had a tragical enough effect. Markgraf 
Friedrich of Misnia, Landgraf also of Thuringia, having 
brought his tedious warfare to a conclusion, and the 
country beginning now to revive under peace, his subjects 
were busy repaying themselves for the past distresses by 
all manner of diversions ; to which end, apparently by the 
Sovereign's order, a dramatic representation of the Ten 
Virgins was schemed, and at Eisenach, in his presence, 
duly executed. This happened fifteen days after Easter, 
by indulgence of the Preaching Friars. In the * Chronicon 
Sampetrinum ' stands recorded that the play was enacted 
in the Bear Garden {in horto ferarum) by the Clergy and 










the Gospel. Thereupon he was struck with apoplexy, 
and became speechless and powerless ; in which sad state 
he continued, bedrid, two years and seven months, and so 
died, being then fifty-five.' 

In telling the story Carlyle remarks that these 'Ten 
Virgins at Eisenach are more fatal to warlike men than 
./Eschylus' Furies at Athens were to weak women.' Even 
so^ until great-hearted men rose up at Eisenach and else- 
where to begin the work destined to prove fatal alike to 
heartless Virgins and Furies. That star of a warrior's 
Compassion, hovering over the foolish Friars and their 
midnight Gospel, beams far. The story reminds me of 

nacictent related of a^ij^inin ^is T^jj^^ .^'i^^^|e^'^'^^'%£fe^6 ^^1^1^ 

rhu a ausn u ^ 1— o n o bs 

s m a h m Iru n sic 

1 1 ma h n lu¥se ^f> eh^^iP b a c a 1 1 

r d id I P 

be a m y n as * y 

fihh eS en 1 o 


Judgment' in the Sistine Chapel. The artist was in his 
sixtieth year when Pope Clement VI 1. invited him 
to cover a wall sixty feet high and nearly as wide with 
a picture of the Day of Wrath. In seven years he had 
finished it Clement was dead. Pope Paul IV. looked 
at it, and liked it not: all he could see was a vast number 
of naked figures ; so he said it was not fit for the Sistine 
Chapel, and must be destroyed. One of Michael Angelo*s 
pupils saved it by draping some of the figures. Time 
went on, and another Pope came who insisted on more 
drapery, — so the work was disfigured again. However, 
popular ridicule saved this from going very far, and so 
there remains the tremendous scene. But Popes and 
Cardinals always disliked it. The first impression I 
received from it was that of a complete representation of 
all the physical powers belonging to organised life ; though 
the forms are human, every animal power is there, leaping, 
crouching, crawling,— every sinew, joint, muscle, portrayed 

a tjncgm leftist (jgu|^jgg|aLndftftptk^ P^gm^tcscx 

, . neaoeen a , 
raou neh t ^ easuo nPhr 

e r eo e o 

£ e e n n 

e^^anor w ^ ldciU% ^hfce anhb e 

o h TilrifndPt ^ ^ 




an h 



Cardinal at the bottom up to the furious Judge, — alights 
on a face which, once seen, is never to be forgotten. 
Beautiful she is, that Mary beside the Judge, and more 
beautiful for the pain that is on her face. She has drawn 
her drapery to veil from her sight the anguish below ; she 
has turned her face from the Judge, — does not see her 
son in him; she looks not upon the blessed, — for she, 
the gentle mother, is not in heaven; she cannot have joy 
in sight of misery. In that one face of pure womanly 
sympathy — that beauty transfigured in its compassionate- 
ness — the artist put his soul, his religion. Mary's face 
quenches all the painted flames. They are at once made 
impossible. The same universe could not produce both a 
hell and that horror of it The furious Jesus is changed 
to a phantasm ; he could never be born of such a mother. 
If the Popes had only wished to hide the nakedness of 
their own dogmas they ought to have blotted out Mary's 
face ; for as it now stands the rest of the forms are but 
shapes to show how all the wild forms and passions of 
human animalism gather as a frame round that which is 
their consummate flower, — the spirit of love enshrined in 
its perfect human expression. 

So was' it that Michael Angelo could not serve two 
masters. Popes might employ him, but he could not do 
the work they liked. * The passive master lent his hand 
to the vast soul that o'er him planned.' He could not 
hel it. The lover of^fee^tjf cjojild not paint the Da of t 



Paradise which he had seen, Dante came forth to the 
threshold opening on the world of human life, from which 
he had parted for a space, and there sank down. As he 
lay there angels caused lilies to grow beneath and around 
him, and myrtle to nse and intertwine for a bower over 
him, and their happy voices, wafted in low-toned hymns, 
brought soft sleep to his overwrought senses. Long had 
he slumbered before the light of familiar day stole once 
more into those deep eyes. The angels had departed. 
The poet awoke to find himself alone, and with a sigh he 
said to himself, ' It is, then, all but a dream.' As he arose 
he saw before him a man of noble mien and shining 
countenance, habited in an Eastern robe, who returned 
his gaze with an interest equal to his own. Quickly the 
eyes of Dante searched the ground beside the stranger to 
see if he were shadowless : convinced thus that he was 
true flesh and blood, the Florentine thus addressed him : — 

* Pilgrim, for such thou seemest, may we meet in simple 
human brotherhood ? If, as thy garb suggests, thou 
comest from afar, perchance the friendly greeting, even 
of one who in his native city is still himself a pilgrim, may 
not be unwelcome. 

'Heart to heart be our kiss, my brother; yet must I 
journey without delay to those who watch and wait for 
wondrous tidings that I bear. 

' Friend 1 I hear some meaning deeper than thy words. 
If 'twere but as satisfying natural curiosity, answer not ; 
but if thou bearest a burden of tidings glad for all human- 
kind, speak I Who art thou? whence comest, and with 
what message freighted ? 

*Arda Virif is the name I bear; from Persia have I 
come ; but by what strange paths have reached this spot 
know I not, save that through splendours of worlds 
c 'e isi 1 . e . h .P . et u I.v b n . f w<r 



countered human form till I found thee slumbering on 
this spot. 

* Trebly then art thou my brother ! I too have but now, 
as to my confused sense it seems, emerged from that vast 
journey. Thou clearest from me gathering doubts that 
those visions were illusive. Yet, as even things we really 
see are often overlaid by images that lurk in the eye, I 
pray thee tell me something thou hast seen, so that per- 
chance we may part with mutual confirmation of bur 

*That gladly will I do. When the Avesta had been 
destroyed, and the sages of Iran disagreed as to the true 
religion, they agreed that one should be chosen by lot to 
drink the sacred draught of Vishtasp, that he might pass 
to the invisible world and bring intelligence therefrom. 
On me the lot fell. Beside the fire that has never gone 
out, surrounded by holy women who chanted our hymns, 
I drank the three cups — Well Thought, Well Said, Well 
Done. Then as I slept there rose before me a high stair- 
way of three steps; on the first was written, Well Thought; 
on the second, Well Said; on the third. Well Done. By 
the first step I reached the realm where good thoughts are 
honoured : there were the thinkers whose starlike radiance 
ever increased. They offered no prayers, they chanted no 
liturgies. Above all was the sphere of the liberal. The 
next step brought me to the circle of great and truthful 
speakers: these walked in lofty splendour. The third 
step brought me to the heaven of good actions. I 
saw the souls of agriculturists surrounded by spirits of 

irtfe tre^^and nhale^jXT ^^r^^i isr e e 




' I saw indeed a lady most fair. In a pleasant grove lay 
the form of a man who had but then parted from earth. 
When he had awakened, he walked through the grove and 
there met him this most beautiful maiden. To her he said, 
'Who art thou, so fair beyond all whom I have seen in the 
land of the living To him she replied, * O youth, I am 
thy actions/ Can this be thy lady Beatrice ? 

* But sawest thou no hell ? no dire punishments ? 

* Alas 1 sad scenes I witnessed, sufferers whose hell was 
that their darkness was amid the abodes of splendour. 
Amid all that glow one newly risen from earth walked 
shivering with cold, and there walked ever by his side a 
hideous hag. On her he turned and said, ' Who art thou, 
that ever movest beside me, thou that art monstrous 
beyond all that I have seen on earth ? ' To him she 
replied, ' Man, I am thy actions.' 

'But who were those glorious ones thou sawest in 
Paradise ? 

'Some of their names I did indeed learn — Zoroaster, 
Socrates, Plato, Buddha, Confucius, Christ. 

' What do I hear I knowest thou that none of these save 
that last holy one — ^whom methinks thou namest too 
lightly among men — were baptized ? Those have these 
eyes sorrowfully beheld in pain through the mysterious 
justice of God. 

'Thinkest thou, then, thy own compassion deeper than 
the mercy of Ormuzd ? But, ah! now indeed I do remem- 
ber. As I conversed with the sages I had named, they 
related to me this strange event. By guidance of one of 
their number, Virgil by name, there had come among them 
from the earth a most powerful magician. He bore the 
name of Dante. By mighty spells this, being had cast 
them all into a sad circle which he called Limbo, over 
whose ate he wrotej tl^pu l^with e es full of te 'All 


hope abandon, ye who enter here ! ' Thus were they in. 
great sorrow and dismay. But, presently, as this strange 
Dante was about to pass on, so they related, he looked 
upon the face of one among them so pure and noble that 
though he had styled him * pagan/ he could not bear to 
abandon him there. This was Cato of Utica. Him this 
Dante led to the door, and gave him liberty on condition 
that he would be warder of his unbaptized brethren, and 
by no means let any of them escape. No sooner, however, 
was this done than this magician beheld others who moved 
his reverence, — among them Trajan and Ripheus, — and 
overcome by an impulse of love, he opened a window in the 
side of Limbo, bidding them emerge into light. He then 
waved his christian wand to close up this aperture, and 
passed away, supposing that he had done so; but the 
limit of that magician's power had been reached, the 
window was but veiled, and after he had gone all these 
unbaptized ones passed out by that way, and reascended 
to the glory they had enjoyed before this Dante had 
brought his alien sorceries to bear upon them for a brief 

* Can this be true ? Is it indeed so that all the sages 
and poets.of the world are now in equal rank whether or 
not they have been sealed as members of Christ } 

* Brother, thy brow is overcast. What ! can one so pure 
and high of nature as thou desire that the gentle Christ, 
whom I saw embracing the sages and prophets of other 
ages, should turn upon them with hatred and bind them 
in gloom and pain like this Dante ? ' 

Thereupon, with a flood of tears, Dante fell at the feet 
of Arda Virdf, and kissed the hem of his skirt * Purer is 
thy vision, O pilgrim, than mine,' he said. ' I fear that I 
have but borne with me to the invisible world the small pre- 
judices of my little Church, which hath taught me to limit 

VOL. II. 2 E 


the Love which I now see to be boundless. Thou who 
hast learned from thy Zoroaster that the meaning of God 
is the end of all evil, a universe climbing to its flower in 
joy, deign to take the hand of thy servant and make him 
worthy to be thy friend, — with thee henceforth to abandon 
the poor formulas which ignorance substitutes for virtue, 
and ascend to the beautiful summits thou has visited by 
the stairway of good thoughts, good words, good deeds/ 

In 1745 Swedenborg was a student of Natural Philo- 
sophy in London. In the April of that year his ' revela- 
tions ' began amid the smoke and toil of the great metro- 
polis. * I was hungry and ate with great appetite. Towards 
tRe end of the meal I remarked a kind of mist spread 
before my eyes, and I saw the floor of my room covered 
with hideous reptiles, such as serpents, toads, and the like. 
I was astonished, having all my wits about me, being per* 
fectly conscious. The darkness attained its height and 
then passed away. I now saw a Man sitting in the comer 
of the chamber. As I had thought myself alone, I was 
greatly frightened when he said to me, ' Eat not as 

In Swedenborg's Diary the incident is related more 
particularly. *In the middle of the day, at dinner, an 
Angel spoke to me, and told me not to eat too much at 
table. Whilst he was with me, there plainly appeared to 
me a kind of vapour steaming from the pores of my body. 
It was a most visible watery vapour, and fell downwards 
to the ground upon the carpet, where it collected and 
turned into divers vermin, which were gathered together ' 
under the table, and in a moment went ofi" with a pop or 
noise. A flery light appeared within them, and a sound 
was heard, pronouncing that all the vermin that could 
possibly be generated by unseemly appetite were thus cast 



out of my body, and burnt up, and that I was now cleansed 
from them. Hence we may know what luxury and the 
like have for their bosom contents.* 

Continuing the first account Swedenborg said, 'The 
following night the same Man appeared to me again. I 
was this time not at all alarmed. The Man said, ' I am 
God, the Lord, the Creator, and Redeemer of the world. 
I have chosen thee to unfold to men the spiritual sense of 
the Holy Scripture. I will myself dictate to thee what 
thou shalt write.* The same night the world of spirits, 
hell and heaven, were convincingly opened to me, where I 
found many persons of my acquaintance of all conditions. 
From that day forth I gave up all worldly learning, and 
laboured only in spiritual things, according to what the 
Lord commanded me'to write.' 

He 'gave up all worldly learning,' shut his intellectual 
eyes, and sank under all the nightmares which his first 
vision saw burnt up as vermin. After his fiftieth year, 
says Emerson, he falls into jealousy of his intellect, makes 
war on it, and the violence is instantly avenged. But the 
portrait of the blinded mystic as drawn by the clear seer 
is too impressive an illustration to be omitted here. 

* A vampyre sits in the seat of the prophet and turns 
with gloomy appetite to the images of pain. Indeed, a 
bird does not more readily weave its nest or a mole bore 
in the ground than this seer of the souls substructs a new 
hell and pit, each more abominable than the last, round 
every new crew of offenders. He was let down through a 
column that seemed of brass, but it was formed of angelic 
spirits, that he might descend safely amongst the unhappy, 
and witness the vastation of souls ; and heard there, for 
a long continuance, their lamentations ; he saw their tor- 
mentors, who increase and strain pangs to infinity; he 
saw the hell of the jugglers, the hell of the assassins, the 



hell of the lascivious ; the hell of robbers, who kill and boil 
men ; the infernal tun of the deceitful ; the excrementitious 
hells ; the hell of the revengful, whose faces resembled a 
round, broad cake, and their arms rotate like a wheel. . . . 
The universe, in his poem, suffers under a magnetic 
sleep, and only reflects the mind of the magnetiser. . . . 
Swedenborg and Behmon both failed by attaching them- 
selves to the christian symbol, instead of to the moral 
sentiment, which carries innumerable Christianities, hu- 
manities, divinities, in its bosom. . . • Another dogma, 
growing out of this pernicious theologic limitation, is this 
Inferno. Swedenborg has devils. Evil, according to old 
philosophers, is good in the making. That pure malignity 
can exist, is the extreme proposition of unbelief. . . . 
To what a painful perversion had Gothic theology 
arrived, that Swedenborg admitted no conversion for 
evil spirits I But the divine effort is never relaxed ; 
the carrion in the sun will convert itself to grass and 
flowers; and man, though in brothels, or jails, or on 
gibbets, is on his way to all that is good and true.' 

But even the Hell of Swedenborg is not free from the 
soft potency of our star. It is almost painful, indeed, to 
see its spiritual ray mingling with the fiery fever-shapes 
which Swedenborg meets on his way through the column 
of brass, — made, had he known it, not of angels but of 
savage scriptures. * I gave up all worldly learning ' — he 
says : but it did not give him up all at once. ' They 
(the damned) suffer ineffable torments; but it was per- 
mitted to relieve or console them with a certain degree of 
hope, so that they should not entirely despair. For they 
said they believed the torment would be eternal. They 
were relieved or consoled by saying that God Messiah is 
merciful, and that in His Word we read that *the pri- 
soners will be sent forth from the pit' (Zech. ix. 2). 


Swedenborg reports that God Messiah appeared to these 
spirits, and even embraced and kissed one who had been 
raised from * the greatest torment/ He says, * Punishment 
for the sake of punishment is the punishment of a devil/ 
and affirms that all punishment is 'to take away evils or 
to induce a faculty of doing good.' These utterances are 
in his Diary, and were written before he had got to the 
bottom of his Calvinistic column; but even in the 'Arcana 
Celestia ' there is a gleam : — * Such is the equilibrium of 
all things in another life that evil punishes itself, and 
unless it were removed by punishments the evil spirits 
must necessarily be kept in some hell to eternity/ 

Reductio ad absurduml And yet Swedenborgians 
insist upon the dogma of everlasting punishments ; to 
sustain which they appeal from Swedenborg half-sober 
to Swedenborg mentally drunk. 

In the Library at Dresden there is a series of old pictures 
said to be Mexican, and which I was told had been pur- 
chased from a Jew in Vienna, containing devils mainly of 
serpent characters blended with those of humanity. One 
was a fantastic serpent with human head, sharp snoutish 
nose, many eyes, slight wings, and tongue lolling out. 
Another had a human head and reptilian tail. A third 
is human except for the double tongue darting out. A 
fourth has issuing from the back of his head a serpent 
whose large dragon head is swallowing a human embryo. 
Whatever tribe it was that originated these pictures must 
have had very strong impressions of the survival of the 
serpent in some men. 

I was reminded of the picture of the serpent swallowing 
the human embryo while looking at the wall-pictures in 
Russian churches representing the conventional serpent 
with devils nestling at intervals along its body, as repre* 


seated in our Figure (lo). Professor Buslaef gave me the 
right archaeology of this, no doubt, but the devils them- 
selves, as I gazed, seemed to intimate another theory 
with their fair forms. They might have been winged 
angels but for their hair of flame and cruel hooks. They 
seemed to say, * We were the ancient embryo-gods of the 
human imagination, but the serpent swallowed us. He 
swallowed us successively as one after another we availed 
ourselves of his cunning in our priesthoods; as we brought 
his cruel coils to crush those who dared to outgrow our 
cult; as we imitated his fang in the deadliness with which 
we bit the heel of every advancing thinker; as» when 
worsted in our struggle against reason, we took to the 
double tongue, praising with one fork the virtues which 
we poisoned with the other. Now we are degraded with 
him for ever, bound to him by these rings, labelled with 
the sins we have committed.' 

It was by a true experience that the ancients so generally 
took nocturnal animals to be types of diabolism. Corre- 
sponding to them are the sleepless activities of morally 
unawakened men. The animal is a sleeping man. Its 
passions and instincts are acted out in what to rational 
man would be dreams. In dreams, especially when in- 
fluenced by disease, a man may mentally relapse very far, 
and pass through kennels and styes, which are such even 
when somewhat decorated by shreds of the familiar human 
environment The nocturnal form of intellect is cunning ; 
the obscuration of religion is superstition; the dark shadow 
that falls on love turns it to lust. These wolves and bats, 
on which no ideal has dawned, do not prowl or flit through 
man in their natural forms : in the half-awake conscious- 
ness, whose starlight attends man amid his darkness, their 
misty outlines swell, and in the feverish unenlightened 


conscience they become phantasms of his animalism — 
werewolves, vampyres. The awakening of reason in any 
animal is through all the phases of cerebral and social 
evolution. A wise man said to his son who was afraid to 
enter the dark, ' Go on, child ; you will never see anything 
worse than yourself.* 

The hare-lip, which we sometimes see in the human 
face, is there an arrested development. Every lip is at 
some embryonic period a hare-lip. The development of 
man's visible part has gone on much longer than his intel- 
lectual and moral evolution, and abnormalities in it are 
rare in comparison with the number of survivals from the 
animal world in his temper, his faith, and his manners. 
Criminals are men living out their arrested moral develop- 
nnents. They who regard them as instigated by a devil 
are those whose arrest is mental. The eye of reason will 
deal with both all the more effectively, because with as 
little wrath as a surgeon feels towards the hare- lip he 
endeavours to humanise. 

It is an impressive fact that the great and reverent mind 
of Spinoza, in pondering the problem of Evil and the 
theology which ascribed it to a Devil, was unconsciously 
led to anticipate by more than a century the first (modern) 
scientific suggestions of the principle of Evolution. In 
his early treatise, ' De Deo et Homine/ occurs this short 
but momentous chapter — 

• De Diabolis. If the Devil be an Entity contrary in 
all respects to God, having nothing of God in his nature, 
there can be nothing in common with God. 

* Is he assumed to be a thinking Entity, as some will 
have it, who never wills and never does any good, and 
who sets himself in opposition to God on all occasions, he 


would assuredly be a very wretched being, and, could 
prayers do anything for him, his amendment were much 
to be implored. 

'But let us ask whether so miserable an object could 
exist even for an instant ; and, the question put, we see 
at once that it could not ; for from the perfection of a 
thing proceeds its po\Ver of continuance : the more of the 
Essential and Divine a thing possesses, the more enduring 
it is. But how could the Devil, having no trace of perfec- 
tion in him, exist at all ? Add to this, that the stability' 
or duration of a thinking thing depends entirely on its 
love of and union with God, and that the opposite of 
this state in every particular being presumed in the Devil, 
it is obviously impossible that there can be any such being, 

* And then there is indeed no necessity to presume the 
existence of a Devil ; for the causes of hate, envy, anger, 
and all such passions are readily enough to be discovered; 
and there is no occasion for resort to fiction to account 
for the evils they engender/ 

In the course of his correspondence with the most 
learned men of his time, Spinoza was severely questioned 
concerning his views upon human wickedness, the dis- 
obedience of Adam, and so forth. He said — ^to abridge 
his answers — If there be any essential or positive evil in 
men, God is the author and continuer of that evil. But 
what is called evil in them is their degree of imperfection 
as compared with those more perfect, Adam, in the 
abstract, is a man eating an apple. That is not in itself 
an evil action. Acts condemned in man are often admired 
in animals, — as the jealousy of doves, — and regarded as 
evidence of their perfection. Although man must restrain 
the forces of nature and direct them to his purposes, it is 
a superstition to suppose that God is angry against such 
forces. It is an error in man to identify his little incon- 


veniences as obstacles to God. Let him withdraw him- 
self from the consideration and nothing is found evil. 
Whatever exists, exists by reason of its perfection for its 
own ends, — which may or may not be those of men. 

Spinoza's aphorism, * From the perfection of a thing 
proceeds its power of continuance,* is the earliest modern 
statement of the doctrine now called 'survival of the fittest.' 
The notion of a Devil involves the solecism of a being 
surviving through its unfitness for survival. 

Spinoza was Copernicus of the moral Cosmos. The 
great German who discovered to men that their little 
planet was not the one centre and single care of nature, 
led the human mind out of a closet and gave it a universe. 
But dogma still clung to the closet; where indeed each 
sect still remains, holding its little interest to be the aim 
of the solar system, and all outside it to be part of a 
countless host, marshalled by a Prince of Evil, whose 
eternal war is waged against that formidable pulpiteer 
whose sermon is sending dismay through pandemonium. 
But for 'rational men all that is ended, and its decline 
began when Spinoza warned men against looking at the 
moral universe from the pin-hole of their egotism. That 
closet-creation, whose laws were seen now acting now 
suspended to suit the affairs of men, disappeared, and man 
was led to adore the All, 

It is a small thing that man can bruise the serpent's 
head, if its fang still carries its venom so deep in his 
reason as to blacken all nature with a sense of triumphant 
malevolence. To the eye of judicial man, instructed to 
decide every case without bribe of his own interest as a 
rival animal, the serpent's fang is one of the most perfect 
adaptations of means to ends in nature. Were a corre- 


sponding perfection in every human mind, the world would 
fulfil the mystical dream of the East, which gave one 
name to the serpents that bit them in the wilderness axid 
seraphim singing round the eternal throne. 

' Cursed be the Hebrew who shall either eat pork, or 
permit his son to be instructed in the learning of the 
Greeks/ So says the Talmud, with a voice transmitted 
from the ' kingdom of priests ' (Exod. xix. 6). From the 
altar of 'unhewn stone' came the curse upon Art, and 
upon the race that represented culture raising its tool 
upon the rudeness of nature. That curse of the Talmud 
recoiled fearfully. The Jewish priesthood had their son 
in Peter with his vision of clean and unclean animals, and 
the command, ' Slay and eat I ' Uninstructed is this heir 
of priestly Judaism * in the learning of the Greeks/ con- 
sequently his way of converting Gentiles — the herd of 
swine, the goyim — is to convert them into christian proto- 
plasm. ' Slay and eat,* became the cry of the elect, and 
their first victim was the paternal Jew who taught them 
that pork and Greek learning belonged to tUe same 

But there was another Jewish nation not composed of 
priests. While the priestly kingdom is typified in Jonah 
announcing the destruction of Nineveh, who, because the 
great city still goes on, reproaches Jehovah, the nation of 
the poets. has now its Jehovah II. who sees the humiliation 
of the tribal priesthood as a withered gourd compared 
with the arts, wealth, and human interests of a Gentile 
city. *The Lord repented.' The first Gospel to the 
Gentiles is in that gentle thought for the uncircumcised 
Ninevites. But it was reached too late. When it gained 
expression in Christ welcoming Greeks, and seeing in 


stones possible * children of Abraham in Paul acknow- 
ledging debt to barbarians and taking his texts from 
Greek altars or poets ; the evolution of the ideal element 
in Hebrew religion had gained much. But historic com- 
binations raised the judaisers to a throne, and all the nar- 
rowness of their priesthood was re-enacted as Christianity. 

The column of brass in whose hollow centre the fine 
brain of Swedenborg was imprisoned is a fit similitude of 
the christian formula. The whole moral attitude of Chris- 
tianity towards nature is represented in his first vision. 
The beginning of his spiritual career is announced by the 
evaporation of his animal nature in the form of vermin. 
The christian hell is present, and these aminal parts are 
burnt up. Among those burnt-up powers of Swedenborg, 
one of the serpents must have been his intellect. * From 
that day forth I gave up all worldly learning.' 

Here we have the ideal christian caught up to his 
paradise even while his outward shape is visible. But 
what if we were all to become like that ? Suppose all the 
animal powers and desires were to evaporate out of man- 
kind and to be burnt up ! Were that to occur to-day the 
effect on the morrow would be but faintly told in that 
which would be caused by sudden evaporations of steam 
from all the engines of the world. We may imagine a 
band of philanthropists, sorely disturbed by the number 
of accidents incidental to steam-locomotion, who should 
conspire to go at daybreak to all the engine-houses and 
stations in England, and, just as the engines were about 
to start for their work, should quench their fires, let off 
their steam, and break their works. That would be but 
a brief paralysis of the work of one country ; but what 
would be the result if the animal nature of man and its 
desires, the works and trades that minister to the ' pomps 


and vanities/ all worldly aims and joys, should be burnt up 
in fires of fanaticism ! 

Yet to that fatal aim Christianity gave itself, — so con- 
trary to that great heart in which was mirrored the beau- 
tiful world, its lilies and little children, and where love 
shed its beams on the just and the unjust! The orga- 
nising principle of Christianity was that which crucified 
Jesus and took his tomb for comer-stone of a system 
modelled after what he hated. Its central purpose was to 
effect a divorce between the moral and the animal nature 
of man. One is called flesh and the other spirit ; one was 
the child of God, the other the child of the Devil. It rent 
asunder that which was really one ; its whole history, so 
long as it was in earnest, was the fanatical effort to keep 
asunder by violence those two halves ever seeking harmony; 
its history since its falsity was exposed has been the hypo- 
crisy of professing in word what is impossible in deed. 

Beside the christian vision of Swedenboi^, in which 
the judaic priest's curse on swinish Greek learning found 
apotheosis, let us set the vision of a Jewish seer in whom 
the humanity that spared Nineveh found expression. The 
seer is Philo, — name rightly belonging to that pure mind 
in which the starry ideals of his Semitic race embraced 
the sensuous beauty which alone could give them life. 
Philo (Praem. et Poenis, sec, 15-20) describes as the first 
joy of the redeemed earth the termination of the war 
between man and animal. That war will end, he says, 
* when the wild beasts in the soul have been tamed. Then 
the most ferocious animals will submit to man ; scorpions 
will lose their stings, and serpents their poison. And, in 
consequence of the suppression of that older war between 
man and beast, the war between man and man shall also 



Here we emerge from Swedenborg's brass column, we 
pass beyond Peter's sword called * Slay-and-eat/ we leave 
behind the Talmud's curse on swine and learning: we rise 
to the clear vision of Hebrew prophecy which beheld lion 
and lamb lying down together, a child leading the wild 
forces subdued by culture. 

* Why not God kill Debbil ? ' asked Man Friday. It is 
a question which not even Psychology has answered, why 
no Theology has yet suggested the death of the Devil in 
the past, or prophesied more than chains for him in the 
future. No doubt the need of a ' hangman's whip to haud 
the wretch in order ' may partly account for it ; but with 
this may have combined a cause of which it is pleasanter 
to think — Devils being animal passions in excess, even the 
ascetic recoils from their destruction, with an instinct like 
that which restrains rats from gnawing holes through the 
ship's bottom. 

In Goethe's * Faust ' we read. Dock das Antike find' ich 
zu lebendig. It is a criticism on the nudity of the Greek 
forms that appear in the classical Walpurgis Night But 
the authority is not good: it is Mephistopheles who is 
disgusted with sight of the human form, and he says 
they ought in modern fashion to be plastered over. His 
sentiments have prevailed at the Vatican, where the antique 
statues and the great pictures of Michael Angelo bear 
witness to the prurient prudery of the papal mind. * Devils 
are our sinners in perspective,' says George Herbert 

Herodotus (ii. 47) says, 'The Egyptians consider the 
pig to be an impure beast, and therefore if a man, in pass- 
ing by a pig, should touch him only with his garments, he 
forthwith goes to the river and plunges in ; and, in the 



next place, swineherds, although native Egyptians, are 
the only men who are not allowed to enter any of their 
temples.' The Egyptians, he says, do not sacrifice the 
goat; 'and, indeed, their painters and sculptors represent 
Pan with the face and legs of a goat, as the Grecians do ; 
not that they imagine this to be his real form, for they 
think him like other gods ; but why they represent him in 
this way I had rather not mention.* We need not feel the 
same prudery. The Egyptians rightly regarded the sym- 
bol of sexual desire, on whose healthy exercise the per- 
petuation of life depended, as a very different kind of 
animalism from that symbolised in the pig's love of refuse 
and garbage. Their association of the goat with Pan — the 
lusty vigour of nature — ^was the natural preface to the arts 
of Greece in which the wild forces were taught their first 
lesson — Temperance. Pan becomes musical. The vigour 
and vitality of human nature find in the full but not ex- 
cessive proportions of Apollo, Aphrodite, Artemis, and 
others of the bright array, the harmony which Pan with 
his pipe preludes. The Greek statue is soul embodied 
and body ensouled. 

Two men had I the happiness to know in my youth, 
into whose faces I looked up and saw the throne of Genius 
illumined by Purity. One of them, Ralph Waldo Emer- 
son, wrote, * If beauty, softness, and faith in female forms 
have their own influence, vices even, in a slight degree, 
are thought to improve the expression.' The other, 
Arthur Hugh Clough, wrote, * What we all love is good 
touched up with evil.' Here are two brave flowers, of 
which one grew out of the thorny stem of Puritanism, the 
other from the monastic root of Oxford. The 'vices' 
which could improve the expression, even for the pure 
eyes of Emerson, are those which represent the struggle 


of human nature to exist in truth, albeit in misdirec- 
tion and reaction, amid pious hypocrisies. The Oxonian 
scholar had seen enough of the conventionalised cha- 
racterless * good * to long for some sign of life and freedom, 
even though it must come as a touch of ' evil.' To the 
artist, nature is never seen in petrifaction ; it is really as 
well as literally a becoming. The evil he sees is * good in 
the making:* what others call vices are voices in the wil- 
derness preparing the way of the highest. 

' God and the Devil make the whole of Religion,' said 
Nicoli — speaking, perhaps, better than he knew. The 
culture of the world has shown that the sometime 
opposed realms of human interest, so personified, are 
equally essential It is through this experience that the 
Devil has gained such ample vindication from the poets — 
as in Rapisardi's * Lucifero,' a veritable ' bringer of Light,' 
and Cranch's ' Satan.' From the latter work (* Satan : A 
Libretto.* Boston: Roberts Brothers, 1874), which should 
be more widely known, I quote some lines. Satan says — 

I symbolise the wild and deep 
And unregenerated wastes of life, 
Dark with transmitted tendencies of race 
And blind mischance ; all crude mistakes of will 
And tendency unbalanced by due weight 
Of favouring circumstance ; all passion blown 
By wandering winds ; all surplusage of force 
Piled up for use, but slipping from its base 
Of law and order. 

This is the very realm in which the poet and the artist 
find their pure-veined quarries, whence arise the forms 
transfigured in their vision. 

To evoke Helena, Faust, as we have seen, must repair 
to the Mothers. But who may these be i They shine 


from Goethe*s page in such opalescent tints one cannot 
transfix their sense. They seemed to me just now the 
primal conditions, by fulfilling which anything might be 
attained, without which» nothing. But now (yet perhaps 
the difference is not great) I see the Mothers to be the 
ancient healthy instincts and ideals of our race. These 
took shape in forms of art, whose evolution had been 
man's harmony with himself. Christianity, borrowing 
thunder of one god, hammer of another, shattered them — 
shattered our Mothers! And now learned travellers go 
about in many lands saying, ' Saw ye my beloved ? ' Amid 
cities ruined and buried we are trying to recover them, 
fitting limb to limb— so carefully 1 as if half-conscious 
that we are piecing together again the fragments of our 
own humanity. 

• The Devil : Does Ju Exist, and what does he Do f ' 
Such is the title of a recent work by Father Delaporte, 
Professor of Dogma in the Faculty of Bordeaux. He 
gives specific directions for exorcism of devils by means 
of holy water, the sign of the cross, and other charms. 
' These measures,' says one of his American critics, * may 
answer very well against the French Devil; but our 
American Beelzebub is a potentate that goeth not forth 
on any such hints.' Father Delaporte would hardly con- 
tend that the use of cross and holy water for a thousand 
years has been effectual in dislodging the European 

On the whole, I am inclined to prefer the method of the 
Africans of the Guinea Coast They believe in a parti- 
cularly hideous devil, but say that the only defence they 
require against him is a mirror. If any one will keep a 
mirror beside him, the Devil must see himself in it, and he 
at once rushes away in terror of his own ugliness. 



No monster ever conjured up by imagination is more 
hideous than a rational being transformed to a beast. 
Just that is every human being who has brought his 
nobler powers down to be slaves of his animal nature. 
No eye could look upon that fearful sight unmoved. All 
man needs is a true mirror in which his own animalism 
may see itself. We cannot borrow for ' this purpose the 
arts of Grjsece, nor the fairy ideals of Germany, nor the 
emasculated saints of Christendom. These were but frag- 
ments of the man who has been created by combination 
of their powers, and their several ideals are broken bits 
that cannot reflect the whole being of man in its propor- 
tions or disproportions. 

The higher nature of man, polished by culture of all 
his faculties, can alone be the faithful mirror before his 
lower. The clearness of this mirror in the individual 
heart depends mainly on the civilisation and knowledge 
surrounding it. The discovered law turns once plausible 
theories to falsehoods ; a noble literature transmutes once 
popular books to trash. When Art interprets the realities 
of nature, when it shows how much beauty and purity our 
human nature is capable of, it holds a mirror before all 
deformities. At a theatre in the city of London, I wit- 
nessed the performance of an actor who, in the course of 
his part, struck a child. He was complimented by a 
hurricane of hisses from the crowded gallery. Had those 
•gods' up there never struck children? Possibly. Yet 
here each had a mirror before him and recoiled from his 
worst self. A clergyman relates that, while looking at 
pictures in the Bethnal Green Museum, he overheard a 
poor woman, who had been gazing on a Madonna, say, 
* If I had such a child as that I believe I could be a good 
woman.* Who can say what even that one glance at her 
VOL. II. 2 F 


life in the ideal reflector may be worth to that wanderer 
amid the miseries and temptations of London I 

It is not easy for those who have seen what is high and 
holy to give their hearts to what is base and unholy. It 
is as natural for human nature to love virtue as to love 
any other beauty. External beauty is visible to all, and 
all desire it : the interior beauty is not visible to superficial 
glances, but the admiration shown even for its counterfeits 
shows how natural it is to admire virtue. But in order 
that the charm of this moral beauty may be felt by human 
nature it must be related to that nature — real It must 
not be some childish ideal which answers to no need of 
the man of to-day ; not something imported from a time 
and place where it had meaning and force to others where 
it has none. 

When dogmas surviving from the primitive world are 
brought to behold themselves in the mirror held up by 
Science, they cry out, * That is not my face ! You are 
caricaturing my beliefs I ' This recoil of Superstition from 
its own ugliness is the victory of Religion. What priests 
bewail as disbelief is faith fleeing from its deformities. 
Ignorant devotion proves its need of Science by its terrors 
of the same, which are like those of the horse at first sight 
of its best friend, bearer of its burthens — the locomotive. 

Religion, like every other high feature of human 
nature, has its animal counterpart The animalised reli- 
gion is superstition. It has various expressions, — the 
abjectness of one form, the ferocity of another, the cunning 
of a third. It is unconscious of anything higher than 
animalism. Its god is a very great animal preying on 
other animals, which are laid on his altars ; or pleased 
when smaller animals give up their part of the earthly 


feast by starving their passions and senses. Under the 
growth of civilisation and intelligence that pious asceticism 
is revealed in its true form, — ^intensified animalism. The 
asceticism of one age becomes the self-indulgence of 
another. The two-footed animal having discovered that 
his god does not eat the meat left for him, eats it himself. 
Learning that he gets as much from his god by a wafer 
and a prayer, he offers these and retains the gifts, treasures, 
and pleasures so commuted, — these, however, being with- 
drawn from the direction of the higher nature by the fact 
of being obtained through the conditions of the lower, and 
dependent on their persistence. In process of time the 
forms and formulas of religion, detached from all reality — 
such as no conceivable monarch could desire — not only 
become senseless, but depend upon their senselessness for 
continuance. They refuse to come at all within the 
domain of reason or common-sense, and trust to mental 
torpor of the masses, force of habit in the aggregate, self- 
interest in the wealthy and powerful, bribes for thinkers 
and scholars. 

Animalism disguised as a religion must render the 
human religion, able to raise passions into divine attri* 
butes of a perfect manhood, impossible so long as it 
continues. That a human religion can ever come by any 
process of evolution from a superstition which can only 
exist by ministry to the baser motives is a delusion. 
The only hope of .society is that its independent minds 
may gain culture, and so surround this unextinct mon- 
ster with mirrors that it may perish through shame at 
its manifold deformities. These are symbolised in the 
many-headed phantasm which is the subject of this work. 
Demon, Dragon, and Devil have long paralysed the finest 
powers of man, peopling nature with horrors, the heart 


with fears, and causing^ the religious sentiment itself to 
make actual in history the worst excesses it professed to 
combat in its imaginary adversaries. My largest hope is 
that from the dragon-guarded well where Truth is too 
much concealed she may emerge far enough to bring her 
mirror before these phantoms of fear, and with far--darting 
beams send them back to their caves in Chaos and ancient 

The battlements of the cloisters of Magdalen College, 
Oxford, are crowned with an array of figures representing 
virtues and vices, with carved allegories of teaching and 
learning. Under the Governor's window are the pelican 
feeding its young from its breast, and the lion, denoting 
the tenderness and the strength of a Master of youth. 
There follow the professions — the lawyer embracing his 
client, the physician with his bottle, the divine as Moses 
with his tables of the Law. Next are the slayers of 
Goliath and other mythical enemies. We come to more 
real, albeit monstrous, enemies; to Gluttony in ecclesi- 
astical dress, with tongue lolling out; and low-browed 
Luxury without any vesture, with a wide-mouthed animal- 
eared face on its belly, the same tongue lolling out — ^as in 
our figures of Typhon and Kali. Drunkenness has three 
animal heads — one of a degraded humanity, another a 
sheep, the third a goose. Cruelty is a werewolf; a frog- 
faced Lamia represents its mixture with Lust ; and other 
vices are represented by other monsters, chiefly dragons 
with griffin forms, until the last is reached — the Devil, 
who is just opposite the Governor's symbols across the 

So was represented, some centuries ago, the conflict of 
Ormuzd and Ahriman, for the young soldiers who enlisted 
at Oxford for that struggle. A certain amoimt of fancy 



has entered into the execution of the figures ; but, if this 
be carefully detached, the history which I have attempted 
to tell in these volumes may be generally traced in the 
Magdalen statues. Each represents some phase in the 
advance of the world, when, under new emergencies, earlier 
symbols'were modified, recombined, and presently replaced 
by new shapes. It was found inadequate to keep the 
scholar throwing stones at the mummy of Goliath when 
by his side was living Gluttony in religious garb. The 
scriptural symbols are gradually mixed with those of 
Greek and German mythology, and by such contact with 
nature are able to generate forms, whose lolling tongues, 
wide mouths, and other expressions, represent with some 
realism the physiognomies of brutality let loose through 
admission to human shape and power. 

It may be that, when they were set up, the young 
Oxonian passed shuddering these terrible forms, dreaded 
these werewolves and succubae, and dreamed of going 
forth to impale dragons. But now the sculptures excite 
only laughter or curiosity, when they are not passed by 
without notice. Yet the old conflict between Light and 
Darkness has not ceased. The ancient forms of it pass 
away ; they become grotesque. Such was necessarily the 
case where the excessive mythological and fanciful ele- 
ments introduced at one period fall upon another period 
when they hide the meaning. Their obscurity, even for 
antiquarians, marks how far away from those cold battle- 
fields the struggle they symbolised has passed. But it 
ceases not. Some scholars who listen to the sweet vespers 
of Magdalen may think the conflict over ; if so, even poor 
brother Moody may enter the true kingdom before them ; 
for, when preaching in Baltimore last September, lie said, 
' Men are possessed of devils just as much now as they 
ever were. The devil of rum is as great as any that ever 


lived. Why cannot this one and all others be cast out ? 
Because there is sin in the christian camp.' 

The picture which closes this volume has been made for 
me by the artist Hennessey, to record an incident which 
occurred at the door of N6tre Dame in Paris last summer. 
I had been examining an ugly devil there treading down 
human forms into hell ; but a dear friend looked higher, 
and saw a bird brooding over its young on a nest supported 
by that same horrible head. 

So, above the symbols of wrath in nature, Love still 
interweaves heavenly tints with the mystery of life ; be- 
side the horns of pain prepares melodies. 

Even so, also, over the animalism which deforms man, 
rises the animal perfection which shames that ; here ascend- 
ing above the reign of violence by a feather's force, and 
securing to that little creature a tenderness that could 
best express the heart of a Christ, when it would gather 
humanity under his wings. 

This same little scene at the cathedral door came 
before me again as I saw the Oxonian youth, with their 
morning-faces, passing so heedlessly those ancient sculp- 
tures at Magdalen. Over every happy heart the same old 
love was brooding, in each nestling faculties were trying 
to gain their wings. To what will they aspire, those 
students moving so light-hearted amid the dead dragons 
and satans of an extinct world ? Do they think there are 
no more dragons to be slain } Know they that saying, 
*He descended into hell;' and that, from Orpheus and 
Herakles to Mohammed and Swedenborg, this is the bur- 
then felt by those who would be saviours of men ? 

It is not only loving birds that build their nests and 
rear their young over the horns of forgotten fears, but, alas! 
the Harpies too ! These, which Dante saw nestling in 



still plants — once men who had wronged themselves — 
rear successors above the aspirations that have ended in 
'nothing but leaves.* The sculptures of Magdalen are 
incomplete. There is a vacant side to the quadrangle, 
which, it is to be feared, awaits the truer teaching that 
would fill it up with the real dragon^which no youth could 
heedlessly pass. Who can carve there the wrongs that 
await their powers of redress } Who can set before them, 
with all its baseness, the true emblem of pious fraud 
When will they see in any stone mirror the real shape 
of a double-tongued Culture — one fork intoning litanies, 
another whispering contempt of them } The werewolves of 
scholarly selfishness, the Lamias of christian casuistry, 
the subtle intelligence that is fed by sages and heroes, but 
turns them to dust, nay, to venom, because it dares not be 
human, still crawls — these are yet to be revealed in all 
their horrors. Then will the old cry, SURSUM CORDA, 
sound over the ancient symbols whereon scholars waste 
their strength, by which they are conquered ; and wings 
of courage shall bear them with their arrows of light to 
rescue from Superstition the holy places of Humanity. 


Aarow, i. 187, 335 • ii. 47, 235 

AbaddoD, i. 182, 289 

Abel (and Cain), i. 185, 188 ; ii. 135, 

I43» 23s, 279 
Abgott, L 22 acq, ; ii. 13 aeq.^ 47 seq. 
Abraham, ii. 54, 81 aeq.f 132, 262 
Accadian Mytholc^, i. 88, 89, 1 10, 

256; ii. 108 
Accusers, i. 344 ; ii. 151, 160,165, 
Actas, the, i. 269 

Adam, i. 28, 135 ; ii. 68 fe^., 77, 85, 
88, 91 teq., 143, 209, 215, 223, 385, 
405, 411 

Belial, name of Samael, ii. 262 

Adamites, ii. 224, 225 

Adar, Chaldean Hercules, i. no 

Adder, i. 358 

Adi, Sheikb, his scripture, i. 28 
Aditi, i. 15 
Admetus, i. 285, 286 
Adod, sun-god, ii. 55 
Adonis, i. 79 

MoluBf king, L 99, 1 1 8, 119 
iEons, ii. 254 

iEschylus, Eumenides of, L 8 

MoirsD of, i. 421 

Prometheus of, i. 385, 421 

Aeshma, i. 19, 58 ; ii. 263, 264 

Aesir, i. 79, 84 

Africa, Eucharist of, ii. 219 

•> Serpeut-drama of, in America, 

i. 332 $eq, 

Agni, i. 57, 58, 61, 75, 170, 276, 350 ; 
ii- 3*3 

Agriculture and Hunting, i 188 ; ii. 

235. 136, 143 
Agrimony, ii. 324 
Agrippa, ii. 210, 285 
A hi the throttler, i. 174, 355 sc^., 

362, 407 ; ii. 29, 66, 176 
Ahmet, i. 28 

Ahriman, i. 25, 36, 60, 253, 369, 423 ; 

ii. 6, 21, 24 sf}., 34, 76, 105, 158, 
184, 235, 424, 452 

Ahura, tee Asura 

Air, Prince of, ii, 510 *fg,, 2361 39S 
Aitutaki, i 43 

Aix-la-Chapelle, legendu, ii* 397 

Akaanga, L 42 

Akhkharu, i. 49, 55 

Albach, the giant, L 199 

Albigenses, iL 252 

Albion, i. 160 

Alboordj, ii. 27 

Alcestis, i. 80, 394, 395, 424 

Alchenay, ii, 303 

Ale-wife, the wicked, ii. 390 

Alhambra, legend of, i. 160 

Alilat^ goddess of Semitic tribes, ii. 92 

Allah, i. 181, 423 ; ii. 92, 143, 261 

AUat, i. 17 ; ii. 106 

Alp, L 199 

Altmark, Teufelsee in, Deyil's altar 
at, i. 221 ; Will-o'-Wisp, I 22$; ii. 

Al Uzza, I 17 

Amalekites, source of power of, ii. 

Amalrich of Bena, ii. 255 
Amajsons, ii. loi, 102 
Ambulones, spirits called, i. 240 
Amen-Ra, Hymns to, legend of,i. 256, 

321 ; ii. 107 teq. 
Amenti, Egyptian paradise, ii. 99 
Amos, prophecy of, ii. 241 
Amrita, i. 46, 59, 356; ii. 67, 68, 

113, 221 
Anakim, ii. 405 
Ananias, ii. 236 

Ananta and Sesha, characteristics of 

Vishnu, i. 351 
Angelo, Michael, his Moses, i. 19 

his Lilith, ii. 97 

his Day of Wrath, ii. 428 

of commotion, i. 100 

of death, i. 289 

destroying, i. 252 ; ii. 233 

rebellious, ii. 123 teq. 



Aniguel, il 299 
Auimala, i. 17 ; iL 386 

legends of, i. \^\ Hq.\ il 369 

^ ' .. 

Animalisto, lu 401 •eg'., 420, 437 fe^., 

Aniael, il 229 
Annunak, i. 177 
AnnwD, I 78 
Aniya, ii. 105 
AnrOmainyua, il 263 
Antaeus, i. 407 
AnteoeMor, il 322 

Antichriat, ii. 24 316, 320, 392, 


Antwerp gianta, ii. 418 
Ann, I 109 ; ii. 106, 109, 235 
Aphrodite, L 79, 120, 214; ii. 230, 

Apocatequil, Peruvian god, I 198 
Apollo, I 81, 155. 156, 307, 310, 377, 

378, 414 ; il 289 
Apolloniua of Tyana, ii. 304 uq, 
Apollyona, I 182 ; il 191 
Apophia, I 340 ; il 108 
Apotropaei, ii. 290 
Aquinas, ii. 386 

his prayer for the devil, il 386 

Arabian legends, cit I 107, 198, 290; 

il 136 
Arbuda, I 171 
Arcadians, i. 156 ttq, 
ArdA Virttf, I 257 ; ii. 430 
Area, i. 97, 275 
Ariel, ii. 299 

Ark, Noah's, I 335, 337, 41 1 ; of 

Covenant, il 238 
AmobiuB, ii. 305 
Arnold, Matthew, ciU I 225 
Amulphus, ct^ ii. 254 
Ars moriendi, ii. 394 
Arthur, King, i. 68, 368 ; il 317 
Aryas, I 151 
Asa, ii. 265, 304, 307 
Asael, i. 17 ; ii. 265, 299, 304, 307 
Aahdahak, il 176 
Ash Mogb, i. 322 ; il 65 
Asmodeus, i. 19, 58 ; ii. 1 00, 263, 

264, 268, 303, 311, 320, 385, 415 
Asp, I 343. 352 
Ass, I 183 ; il 163, 29s 
Assyrian, Fire-god, i. 88 

Mythology, il 106 uq, 

Paalm, i. 255, 256 

Astaroth, ii. 299 
Astarte, il 106, 119 
Asteria, ii. 1 19 

Attrva, I 20; il 119 
Astrateia, il 119 
Astrological danoea, i. 251 
Astrology, I 74, 251 #0?. ; il 308. 

Astyagea, il 176 
Asuman, ii. 289 

Asura, I 26, 375, 406 ; il 4, 23, 113 
Atergatis, Syrian fiah-deity, I no 
Athene, il 235 
Atkinaon, H. Q., tk, ii. 227 
Aucassin and Nicolette, ii. 267 
Auerbach's cellar, ii. 336, 416 
Auerhahn, ii. 284 
Aurelioa, Marcus, ii. 244 
Aostndian superstition, i. 269 uq. 
Automatia, il 274 
Avallon, I 243 
ATerrunci, il 290 
Avicenna on Genii, i. 17 
Asazel, I 17, 187, 188; il 131, 187, 

Asrael I 290, 291 
Asru, I 401, 402 

Baal, i, 9, 62. 65, 78, 183 
Babylon, King of, il 118, 134 
Bacon, Roger, il 285 
Baga,l 16 
Bahirawa, il 408 
Bahman, i. 17 

Bahu, Assyrian, Queen of Hades^ il 

105, 108, 114 
Bakwains, superstition of, I 98 
Bala, I 71 
Balaam, il 163 
Baldur, i. 78 se^. 
Bali, I 161 

Balsae, anecdote of, i. 223 
Bambino of Rome, I 338 
Baptism, I 75 ; ii. 217 scg., 145, 432 
Barbarossa, i. lOl ; ii. 318 
Barbatos, wild archer, I loi ; il 299 
Barber's pole, meaning, i. 352 
Bardism, I 78 

BAring-Qould, ct<. il 279 ; I 218 
Barfael, il 299 
Barrenness, I 1 70 tcq, 
Bartel, I in 
Basilisk, I 361 ttq, 
Bavent, Madeline, ii. 268 
Bear legends, i. 145, 146, 104 
Beast in Apocalypse, ii. 5, 256, 247 
Beaumont, John, cit. ii. i 
Beauty and the beast, i. 145, 146 
Bedargon, il 1 16 

Beelzebub, I 9, 10; ii. 126, 144, 



Behemoth, i. 46, 323, 408 uq, 

Bel, i. 109, no ; ii. no 120, 

127, 176 
Belemnites, i. loi 
Beli, i. 189 

Belial, i. 18 ; ii. 191, 192, 287, 299 

Bellerophon, i. 154, 155, 382, 386 

BeloD, Dr., on gold-fish, i. 228 

Belus, ii. 99 

Beltane cake, i. 47 

Benaja, Solomon's servant, ii. 415 

Bene elohim, ii 405 

Beowulf and the dragon, i. 368 

Berchta, ut Bertha 

Berserkers, i. 162 

Bertha, i. 214, 215 

Bethgelert, i. 351 

Bh^t, i. 49 

Biam of Australia, i. 98 
Bickerstith, Dr., on the Devil, ii. 272 
Bigot, the word, i. 22 
Bildad, ii. 152, 154, 155 
Bileam, ii. 304 
Bishop's Bible, nf. i. 16 
Black Monk of the Danube, i. 116 
Black Prince, ii. 408 
Blake, William, ciU ). 13 ; iL 269 
Blasphemy, ii. 232 
Blocksberg, i. 114; ii. 322 
Blokula, i. 318; ii. 322 
Blood covenant, ii. 219, 308 
Blumenthal lake, i. 228 
Boar legends, i. 144 ; ii. 369 
Boar's head feast at Oxford, i. 90, 387 
Bob-tailed dragon, i. 105 
Booca della verita at Kome, i. 201 ; it 

Bodos, the, i. 53 

Bodrima, Singhalese lilitb, ii. 99 
Bodine, ii. 210 

Boehme's theory of Satan, ii. 272 
Bog, i. 16 
Bogey, i. 16 
Bogomiles, ii. 385 
Bqhemian superstition, i. 119 
Book-burning, ii. 281, 282 
Booin, Mimac warrior, i. 267 
Borgia, Roderio, Pope Alexander YI., 
25s. 333 

Bracon Ash, Rector of, ci<. iL 237 
Brahma, i. 24 ; ii. 23, 235 
Brahman Eden, ii. 77 

frogs, ii. 33 

Brahmans, ii 34 Hq, 

Bran, Knight, i. 365 

Breath, i 406, 407, 411 ; ii 234 tq, 

Brimir, i. 85 

Brinton, Mr., €it. i. 347 

Britons, i. 164 

Browne, Mr. J., dt. ii. 222 

Brownie, i 163, 165 

Buddha, i 24, 99, 100, 125, 152, 153; 

»• 3» 179 ^J? ! 184, 186 
Bull, legends of, ii. 29 
Banyan, description of devil, e\t, ii. 


Burmah, rain superstition, i. 356 
Buf ton, 'Anatomy of Melancholy,' tli, 

i 240, 241 ; ii 210 
Buslaef, ii. 438 
Byelbog, ii. 253 
Bythos, Gnostic, ii 207 

Cadmus, i 407 ; ii. 278 
Csedmon, eil, ii. 121 ttq. 
Csesars as gods, ii 243, 244 
Cailliach-more, i. 202 
Cain, i 185 ; ii 87, 135, 143. 235 
Cala, ii 409 

Calas, Singhalese, i 275, 276 ; ii. 408, 

Calderon de la Barca, ii. 341 
California springs, i 113, 220; story 

of, ii. 427 
Callot, pictures by, i. 417 ; ii. 190, 393 
Calmet, cit, i. 334 ; ii. 167 
Calu Cumara, ii. 408 
Cama, Lust, ii 409 
Camerarius, ii. 337 
Campbell, Colonel, ctt. ii 234 
Candaules, ii 409 
Cardan, eU, ii. 2IO 
Caricatures of gods, i 310, 31 1, 32 1 
Carlyle, T., cH. ii. 196 scj. 
Cathari, ii. 385 
Cato of Utica, ii. 433 
Cats, legends of, i 130 teg. ; ii. 301, 

Celibacy, ii. 424 
Celsus, eU. ii. 305, 401 
Centaurs, i 390 ; ii. 289 
Cerberus, i 133, 320, 391 
Ceylon Biakshasis, i. 151, 216 
Chaldssan fragments, ii. 69, 106 uq, 
Chaldsoo-Babylonian Triad, i 109 m;. 
Chalice, Hindu, 1.31 
Charlemagne, legends, ii. 228, 395 
Charms, i. 4, 256, 258 ; ii. 290, 

Charybdis, !. 20I 

Cheepichealm, Dragon of Mimacs, i. 

Cheiron, i 390 

Chem, Egyptian Pan, i. 188 

Chemosh, ii. 56 



Chenooi, demoni of Mimie IndUni, 

i. 84 

CbetiyA, the mare, ii. 373 
ChintBBn, i. 154, 382 Jfig. 
China, Fire-god, L 72 nq^, 

Genii of, i. 167 

Mermaid, i. 216 

Cbrifltmas, i. 23, 275 

Churchyard, southern part Uised, i. 87 

Cimmeriana, i. 160 

Cini, fire, ii 409 

Cinderella, i. 33 

Circassians, demonic origin of, L l6l 

Circumcision, ii. 83 uq. 

Cities, sunken, L 228 

ClaTie, the, i. 81, 82, 86 

Clement YII., Pope, and M. Angelo, 

ii. 428 

Climate, effect on mythology, i. 88 
Cloud phantoms, L 374, 375 
Clough, A. H., ett. ii. 44.6 
Clovis, legend of, ii. 62, 228 
Cobalt, derivation, i. 233 
Cockatrice, i. 361, 363 tfg. 
Cockcrow, i. 20 ; ii. 241 
Cock Lane Ohost, the, i. 309 
Colonial Dragon, i. 385 uq. 
Comets, i. 177 ; ii. 117 
Commotion, angels of, i. lOO 
Compacts wiih the Devil, i. 308 
Confucius, i. 24 
Contest in heaven, ii. 107 uq. 
Conversion, iL i6x, 162, 194 
Conyers family at Sockburn, legend, 

i. 388 
Corbeil, picture, ii. 295 
Cows, i. 126 ; lodra's, 414 
Craft, W., narrative of, i. 3 
Cranach, Lucas, design by, ii. 256 
Cranch, C. P., his Satan, ii 446 
Crooked legs of demons, i. 98 
Culloo, prsBtematural water-bird, i. 


Culpepper, astrologer, ct^ 1. 253 
Cyclopes, i. 97, 107, 164 
Cyprian, '£1 Magico Prodigioso/ ii. 

Cyprianus, book of, ii. 282 
Cyrus, ii. 176, 410 

Dagon, i. 46, no 
Dahut, legend of, Brittany, i. 228 
Daityas, enemies of the gods, i. 16 
Dame Blanche, La, Normandy, i. 203 
Damonische (Goethe), ii. 274 
Dancing, i. 250 9eq, 
Daniel, horn of, ii. 247 
Danites, i. 390 

Dano, evil spirit, India, L 285 
Dante, ii.- 393, 430 
Danube legends^ i. 115 uq, 
Dapplegrimm, ii. 371 
Darkness, i. 231 uq, 

Prince of, i. 240 ; ii. 1 14, 145 

Dartmoor, story of, i. 248 
Dasent, cit. iL 294 
Dasyus, L 151 
David, ii. 51, 163 
Death, i. 269 s«9.; 11. 2IO 

Cobbler and, i. 292 

conquered by Clurist, And Her- 

akles, i. 80 

dance of, L 293 

Deism, i. I uq. 

Deities, caricatured, i. 30 

Demonic, i. 7 9tq, 

Dotard, i. 31 1 

Night, i. 232 tq, 

Delia Bella, scientific monster of, L 

Demigods, 1. 394 
Demonic races, i. 156 wq. 
Demonolatiy, i. I uq. 
Demonology, task of, i. 38 
Demons, Agatho-, i. 24. 

of bairenness, i. 170 »cq. 

bequest to their conquerors, L 


classes of, L 35 

cold, i. 77 9tq, 

Danube, i. 115 

decline of, i. 299 aeo;. 

Delilah, L 251 ; ii. 85 

distinguished from devils, i. 36 

Drisa, i. 235 

Elean, i. 156, 1 57 

evolution of, i. 29 

generalisation of, i. 318 sfj. 

genesis of, i. 7 

germs of, i. 1 1 

hunger, i. 41 %tq. 

ink, ii. 282 

inundation, L 108, 109 

Kako-, i. 24 

long noses of, i. 196^ 197 

luminous, i. 21 

meaning of word, i. 14, 16 

meteoric, i. 20 

nondescript, i. 319 

obstructive, i. 190 wq, 

representations of, 1. 30 

Rhone, i. I17 

Serbian, i. 206 

Tidal, i 118, 119 

Tyrol, i. 198 jeg. 

water, i. 119 



Demons, wind, i. 88, 89, 99 

Denial, ii. 400 

Denmark, eustom in, ii. 589 

Destroying angels, i. 252 ; ii. 58, 266 

Deuce, the word, i. 16 

Deus, i. 16 

Dev, i. 16 

Deva, i. 16, 25, 67 

Deyaki, ii. 174, 175 

Devel, gipsy name for God, i. 16 

Deyil, ii. 197 

altar in Altmark, i. 221, 222 

appearance of, ii. 270, 271 

barley and, i. 315 

Bible of, ii. 283 

bridges, i 204, 205 

bridled, ii. 374 

Brighton, dyke of, i. I22„ 123 

Buda, ditch of, at, i. 114 

carpenter and, legend, i. 312 

compacts with, ii. 308 

complexion of, i. 150 9tq. 

ditches and dikes, i. 1 14 

• definition of, ii. i %tq, 

' entry into world, ii. 85 

flower, ii. 288 

gratitude of, ii. 389, 396 

Japanese, i. io6 

. Luther and, ii. 196, 197 

Luther's, ii. 286 

Mozambique, i. 150 

Katisbon, bridge, L 205 

strife, ii. 135 teq. 

water, i. 212 

« worship, i. 26 teq. 

Dharma, i. 61 

Dhulkamein legend, Koran, i. 168 
Diable Boiteuz, L 19, 58^ 97, 98 ; ii. 

— Le Bon, ii. 381 ieq. 

Didron, M., i. 19 ; ii. 229 

Dii Involuti, i. 336, 337 

Diocletian, daughter of, i. 164 

Dis, derivation of, i. 355 

Disease, i. 249 uq. 

Disorder, ii. 116, 1 17 

Diti, origin of, i. 15 

Dives and Lazarus, i. 281 ; ii. 394 

Dodona, dove on oaks of, ii 228 

Dog, legends, i. 131 kj. ; ii 127, 210, 

3". 335. 370 
Dogdo, ii. 173 
DomoToi, Russian, i. 37. 
Donne, Dr., on the Muses, ii. 272 
Dora's Triumpli of Christiamtyi L 

420; ii. 266. 
Dove, legends, ii. 226 §eq. 
Dragon, I 299 teq,*, ii. 4 teq., 120, 202 

Dragon, apocalyptic, ii. 4 teq.^ 320 

bob-tailed, i. 105 

British, i. 386 teq. 

brutal, i. 391, 392 

Chinese, i. 105 

Colonial, i. 385 teq. 

communal, i. 390 

conventional, i. 324, 383 

crests with, i 366 

derivation, i. 371 

distinguished from demon and 

devil, i. 320 

Durer's, i. 381 

Dygore and, i. 389 

Egyptian, i. 381 

eyes of, i. 372, 373 

French, i. 379 

Greek, i. 382 

Hal, at, i. 48 

Italian, i. 380 

medicinal, i. 370, 371 

Mimacs, i. 167 

myths, i. 403 teq. 

not primitive, i. 321 

Saurian theory of, i. 320 

slayers, i. 97, 394 teq.; ii. 454 

Turner's, i. 325, 373, 374 

Wantley, i. 388, 414 

Dreams, i. 237 

Drums, superstition of, i. 104, 344 
Dualism in nature, i. 6, 12, 305 ; ii. 

Duergar, the, i. 163 

Dummeteufel, Ii. 294 

Dtirga and xkli as Eve and Lilith, 

ii. 102 
Duzhak, ii 29 
Dwarfs, i 161, 163 

Echidna, brood of, i. 407 5 il 321 
Eclipses iu India, i. 44 
Edda, cit. i. 10, 84, 85 ; ii 68 
Edderston legend, i. 164 
Eden, i. 186 ; ii. 86, 88, 89, 64 teq. 
Edom, ii. 164, 172, 262 
Egg of serpent, i 325, 327 
Egnischen, Satan's marriage, i. 300 
^87P^ dragons of, i. 381 

plagues of, i. 177 teq. 

serpent goddess of, ii. 99 

Sheikh's ride in, i 180, 181 

wars of Ra and Set in, i 182 teq. 

Eisenach, * Mystery ' at, ii. 426 
Eleans, demonic character of, i 1 56, 

Elbiz, swan, i 223 

Elf, i 49 ; ii. 323, 218 

— derivation of , i 194, 198, 223 



Elf ihoU, I 104 

Elfdjile witcheft, ii. 322 

Eli, BODS of, ii. 233 

EliaB, i. 98 Kj. 

Elihu, i. 156 

Elipbaz, ii. 151, 154 

Eluhiin, iL 46 tq.^ 210 

Emerson, cii. i. 191, 192, 237, 327, 

403, 404 ; ii. 204, 435, 446 
Entjoia, ii. 207 

Enoch, Book of, ct<. L 131,409, 410; 

EpipbaniuB on nut«-pUyert, ii. 273 
£ra«mus, cii. ii. 291 
ErinyeB, i. 8, 421 ; ii. 402 
Erleursurtok, Greenland demoD, i. 

Erl king, i. 224, 226 

Esau (Kdoni), ii. 131 tej., 138, 139, 

142, 145, 146 
EsculapiuB, i. 370 ; ii. 278 
Etna, temple of Vulcan on, i. 156 
Eumenides, L 78 
EuphemiBm, i. 8, 224, 225 
EusebiuB, ii. 305 
EutbymuB, i. 156 

Eve, i. 224 ; ii. 73 a«7., 82 «fj., 84, 

86, 87, 90, 99, lO'i *03. 225 
Evil.i. 6, 13 

Evil eye, i. 372, 373 ; ii. 217, 334 
Excalibur, i. 97 
Exorcism, ii. 218 
Eystein the Bad, i. 137 

Fairfax family, legends, i. 309, 311 
Fairies, i. 32 

Familian, Napoleon I., L 75; doc- 

ratee^ \. J 6 
Fmiu9u«^ mid unn-spots, L 171 Hq* 
Fat4ilun^, *< 4^5 
FttUs, i. 42Q ^rg., 426 
FftUJst, L tao, 189, 190; ii. 198, 305, 

306, 3C59, 332, 333, 335 wj., 399, 

F.miitus, btogrAphy, iu 336 
Fu^r, iipirit uf, ii. 229, 238 
Fenris^ wolf, i. 14I, 413 
Fiflnil, * the Uuitarian,' ct/, ii. 292 
Vmm, Mvtliology of, L 88 
Firouuti, ii. 28S 
Fire, feast of, i. 61 

fiend, i. 64, 71,74, 75 

worship, i. 65 

Flint arrows, darts of gods, i. 104 

Flogel, dL ii. 426 

Flood, the, i. no 

Flying Dutchman, the, i. 1 1 1 

Formosa, isles of the genii, i. 167 
Fox legends, L 123, 124 
Franconia, custom in, i. 48 
Franklin, anecdote of, L 107 
Friiulein, Holy, i. 225 
Frederick the Great, incident in life 
of, L 361 

Freyja, L 32, 130, 311, 317 ; ii, 301 
Friedrich of Misiiia, ii. 426 
Friendly obstacles, L 2Gn6 
Friesack, legend, ii. 390, 403 
Friesland, legend of, i. 113 
Frigga, i. 32, 311 ; ii. 362, 376 sey. 
Kroude, J. A., ci<. ii. 401 
Funeral rite*, i. 53, 73 
Furies, tt Erinyes 
Furka glacier, Swiss legend, L 117 
Furniss, Father, cit. ii 170 
Fust, iL 278, 284 

Galkikas, African saperatition, i. 

Galileo, iL 340 

Gammer Gurton's Needle, iL 295 

Gargoyles, i. 32 

Garura, story of, iL 34 

Gast, concerning Faustut, ii. 337 

Gaume, Mgr., ct<. iL 212, 216 

Gehenna, L 62, 82 ; iL 56 

Genii, L 167 

Gentiles, ii. 405, 442 

Gergon, iL 410 

Ghiigit fiend, legend, L 396 m;. 
Giants, L 161 se^. 

conTerted, i. 200 

become fairies, L 203 

imprisoned, L 169 

become little people, L 316 

mountain pass, L 202 

Tyrol, L 198 sey. 

Gibbe, cat, iL 313 
Gimli, L 85 
Giri, L 153 

Glamour, L 213, 244«(»g., 316 
Glanvil, ci^ ii. 212, 323 
Glaucoma, L 214 
Glucksbrunn mines, iL 275 
Gluttony, ii. 416 xe^. 
Gnosticism, ii. 207 
Goat, legends, i. 122, 1 27 
Goban Saor, legend, i. 308, 309 
Goblin, i. 50 
Gods in exile, i. 306 

in new dress, i. 307, 308 

returning to nature, L 317 

Goethe, cit. 376, 377 

antipathy to dog^, i 134 nq. 

Gog and Magog, L 164, 168, 169, 423 



Goblitzee, legend, i. 222 

Gold, devil of, ii. 418 

Golden legend, the, ci<. ii. 223 

Gorgon. L 370, 377, 378, 406, 422 

Grau, Prof., ct<. it 287 

Greek Church and pigeons, i. 227 

Gregory, letter to Mellitus, i. 23 

Pope and dove, ii. 228 

Grendel and his mother, i. 120 
Gretchen, ii. 269 
Grimin, dt, i. 45 
Oriselda, ii. 1 58 

Gude man's croft, i. 54, 315, 316 
Gula, ii. 113 

Guy of Warwick, i. 388, 413, 416 

Habortm, I 74 

Hackelberend, ii. 353 

Hackelberg, ii 353 

Had ad and Solomon, ii. 164 

Hades, i. 60, 76 M9.,82, 232; ii. 113, 

235» 403 
Hair, Lilith's, ii. 98 
Hukon, Saga, i. 137 
Halcyon, i. 118 
Hallowe'en, L 66 
Hamah, the bird, i. 28 
Hanover, relic in, ii. 226 
Haoma, L 26 
Hare, legends, i. 124, 125 
Hare-lip, ii. 439 

Harischandra, the drama, ii. 35 teg., 

Harpagos, ii. 176 
Harry, Old, ii. 133 
Harsenet, ii. 295, 31 1 
Hathors. i. 7; Set and, i 256 
Hatto, Bishop, and rats, i. 129 
Havamal, i 86, 87 ; il 356 
Hawthorne, cit, i. 359; ii. 231 
Hea, Welsh, L 78 ; Egyptian, i. 77, 

Healing serpent, i 351, 552 
Heaven, i. 85, 86, 310 ; ii 67, 424, 430 
Hecate, i 139; ii 301 
Hedgehog, i 122 
Heifer, red, i. 70 
Heimo, giant, i 200 
Heimskringla, i 166 
Heine, cU, i 215, 306, 327 ; ii. 287 
Hel, i. 78, 82 

Helena of Troy, ii. 309 ; Faust's mis- 
tress, ii. 338, 351 

Helena, Empress, ii 223 

Helios at Mycens, i. 99 

Hell, the word, i. 82 ; notions of, ii. 
116, 128, 144, 424; Dante and 
Arda Viraf, ii 429 tej. 

Hell-hounds, i 139 

Hennessey, W. J., design by, ii 454 

Hephaistos, i 309 

Hera, i. 309 

Herakles and Alcestis, i. 285 tf^^., 
394, 403. 407 ; ii- 189, 410 

Herbert, George, 61, ii 380 

Herberstein, cit. i. loi 

Hercules, Ht Herakles 

Hermodr, i. 79 

Heme the hunter, ii 36 1 

Herod, ii 72, 158, 179 

Herodotus, dt, ii. 102, 417 ««^., 409, 

Hiawatha, i 283 
Hiisi, Finn demon, i 88 
Hildur, a Walkyr, i 336 
Him^, i. 392 
Hino Kawa, i. 392 
Hippocrates, i. 352 
Hirpini, i 155 

Ho, a tribe, their dirge, i. 53 
Hodr slays Baldur, i. 78 
Hofmann, ii 286 

Hog legends, i 144 ; form of a glut- 
ton, ii. 403 

Hogarth's * Karee Show,' ii. 399 

Hogmanay, i 90 

Holbein's Ape-devil, ii. 284 

Holy Ghost, i. 74 ; ii. 226 wg., 246 

Holy water, ii 212 

Homer, cii. i. 377 ; ii. 402, 420 

Horsel, ii 377 

Horsa, the name, ii 370 

Horse, legends, i 126, 127; Vale 
of white, ii. 370 

Horus, i 19, I4i8, 149, 184, 185 \ ii 

"3. 235 
Hosea, eU, ii. 147 

Hubert, Saint, 11. 358 ; hU legf?nd, 374 
Huelgoat, Artbur'4 oastlej ii. 359 
Hugh de Puiitcbardonj ii 360 
Hugo, spectre hunter, ii 35S 
Hulda, wit«>l]f 1. 235 
Hunger, demuna of, 41 m^* \ )i. 417 
Huntington, W., ciL ii 160, i6t 
Huorco, ii. 374 

Hur, third person of Triad, ii 335 
Hubs, ii 425 

Hydra, i i in, 1 13, 114, 407, 413 

as cuttleQab, i 3 10 

Hydrophobia, demon, i 136 
Hyppolite, ii. 102 

Ibus (or Eblis), the name, i. 18; office, 
i. 423 ; his fall, ii. 143 ; his doom, 
ii 261 ; Sddi's vision of, ii 271 ; 
decline, ii. 392 ; in Persia, ii. 424 



Iceland, legendt, &c., i. 43, 165, 166 ; 
il 218 

hone-flesh in, ii. 372 

Ichijo, Japanese emperor, ii. 406 
Idolatry, Moslem, i. 29; Jewiab, iL 

56, 148 
Idumeans, ii. 134, 173 
Iduna, i. 79 
Igema, ii 398 

Ildabaotb, ii. 121, 207, 209, 415 
Illusion, Hindu goddess, i. 210 uq,\ 

of dreams, 237, 245 ; of Luther, 

ii. 196; of witches, ii 326, 345 
Im, sky-god, ii. 109 
Incubi, ii. 403 
Index Ezpurgatorius, ii. 385 
Indra, i 26, 97, 134, 151, 170, 204, 

323. 350!» 407. 4^4 ; ii. 66, 68, 71 
Inges, the cat, ii. 313 
Ink-demon, ii 282 
Innsbruck, Faust at, ii. 338 
Inquisition, ii. 128, 382 
Intellect, a Bishop on, ii 277 
Inundations, i. 108, Hq,^ 257; ii 74 
Invisible foea, i. 338 ; rendering, ii. 

298, 318 
lo's journey, L 38$ 
lona, ii 383 
Ionia, i 385 
Iroquois, i 188, 189 
Irving, H., as Louis XL, ii 20 
Isa or JesuB, ii 236 
Isaiah, Hebrew war-god in, ii. I30 
Iscbim, ii. 405 

i- 337, 352 
Ishmael, i 161 ; ii 83, 1 34 
Ishtar, i. 49, 77, 78, 83, 106, I09, 

no, 119 
Iswara, i 262 
Isaac, ii 87, 132 

Jack the giant-killer, i, 163 
Jackson, Margaret, witch, ii* 313 
Jacob, i. 239 ; stratagems, ii 132 m^., 
138 *fq^ 

Jacobus deVoragine, ' Golden legend,' 
ii. 392 

James, St., tempted, ii. 419 
Jami, ii 363 

Japanese demons, i. 44, 123 Hq>\ Yem- 
ma,i 195; dragons, i 112, 391 
ii. 282 

Jarchi, Rabbi, on serpent, ii. 411 
Jason, ii. 409 

Jealousy, devil of, in Japan, ii. 410; 

Darwin on, ii 410 ; of Eve, ii. 410; 

of Noria, ii. 410 
Jehovah, i. II, 187, 252, 255, 289, 

408 ; ii. 46 ie^ , 54 71, 79 ar?., 

132, 163, 262 
Jephthah'a daughter, i. 417 
Jeromiab, ii. 228 

Jeremy of Strasbuiig tempted by the 

Devil, ii. 366 
Jerome, cil. ii. 246 
Jethro, sorcerer, ii. 304 
Jewess, a haunted, ii. 193 sej. 
Jezebel ii. 85 
Jima, i 283 
Jinn, i 107 

Joachim, Abbot, on Antichrist* ii. 

Joan of Arc, ii 230 

Job, the Divider, i l^<)wtq. ; his plagues, 

, i. 252 ; crooked serpen t, i 322 ; Behe- 
moth of, i. 409 ; and Harischandra, 
ii. 45 ; on future life, ii. 1 50 ; salted 
sacrifice, ii 160; Agnosticism, ii 
155; heresies, ii 157 ; a auppoeed 
sorcerer, ii. 158, 304 

John the Baptist, i. 102 

John XV., Pope, ii. 254 ; John XXIL, 

ii- 334 
Jonah, i 46, 410 ; iL 442 
Jonathan Ben Uauel, Targum, i 100; 

ii. 54 

Joseph's tribe, ii 247 
Josephus, dt. ii. 211 
Joshua, ii. 165 
Joskeha, i 188 
Joss burners, i. 73 
Jotunn, i. 45 

Judas, i 424; as winter, L 80, 81 ; 
possession, i. 424 ; on Satan's knees, 
ii. 144, 253 ; his doom, ii 38 

Judge in ' Last Judgment,' ii. 428 «^ 

J ugemath in Orissa, ii 363, 364 

Junker Jakele, ii. 355 

Jupiter, i. 402, 407 ; the name, 1. 17 ; 
and Prometheus, i 376 9tq, ;, 
ii. 109 ; title assumed by Nero, ii 
244 ; Simon Magus worshipped as^ 
ii 245 ; defeats Typhon, i 423 

Justina, Calderon'a, ii 344 

Kachchhaka ferry, Ceylon, ii 373 
Kagura, Japanese, i. 44 
Kalendar of Shepherds, i. 83 
Kali, i. 44 ; ii. 103, 104, 240 
Kalrya, invoked by woodcutters in 

Bengal, ii. 364 
Kandy, Ceylon, devil at, ii 408 
Kankato-na, i 358 9tq, 
Eansa, ii. 174 
Kappa, i 112 

'Kehama, Curse of/ Southey's, iL 362 



Kelpie, i. 112 

Kemung, demon of cold, i. 83 
Kephn, Hunger-demon, i 42 
Ketef, ii. 116 
Ketu, i. 19, 255; ii. 116 
Key, sense of, i. 102 wq, 
Khann, Persian Asmodeus, ii. 263 
Khamseen, Cain wind, L 185 
Kheti, iL 113 

King, Prof., dt, iL 169, 245 
Kiyoto, giant ravishes at, il 406 
Klabauf, i. 1 11, 112 
Klinger's * Faust,' ii. 344 «f 9. 
Knowledge, Tree of, ii, 280, 223 
Kobolds, i. 233 
Kolyadas, rich and poor, i. 90 
Kolski, i. 86 

Konigsgrabe in Sleswig, ii. 357 
Krishna, ii. 174, 236, 363 
Ku'en Lun, fairies, i. 198 
KuYera, god of wealth, i 1 53 

Labourd OascoDs, i. 18 

Lado, i. 81 

Ladon, i. 373, 374 

Lady-bug, i. 317 

Laidley Worm, i. 367 

Lambton Worm, i. 48, 387, 41 1 

Lameness of demons, i. 98 

Lamia, Lilith of Vulgate, il 99 

Laokoon, i. 357 ; Teutonic, i. 360 

Lares, i. 1 35 ; ii. 292 

Last Judgment, M. Angelo's, ii. 428 

Lausatian custom, i. 81 

Lawrence, St., saves Henry II. from 

devil, ii. 391 
Lawyer, Devil as, ii. 389 
Lasarus and Dives, i. 281 ; ii. 394 
Lu-cbau, thunder-district, i. 104 
Leipsfg. battle of, ii. 355 ; Annals of, 

ii 366 
Lm X., ii. 256 
Lernean Hydra, i. 413 
Leto, i. 81 

Leviathan, i. 46, 108, 109, 408 «eg., 

417 ; ii. 100 
Light, creation of, ii. 114 
Lightning, i. 96 uq. 
Lilith, il 92 Mg., 103, 113, 119, 179, 

301, 411 
Limbo, Dante's, ii. 433 
Lion, legends, i. 129 teg. 
Lithuanian survivals, I 312 
Livingstone, cit. i. 98 
Lloyd, W. W., il 402 
Looosts, I 176, 181 
Logi, I 75 
Loka Phayu, i. 99 

Loki, Eddaic demon, i. 10, ii ; the 
name, I 17; voracity, I 75 ; doom, 

i. 84. 317 
London Docks, Portuguese sailors at, 
L 81 

Lord's Supper, ii. 220 
Lorelei, I 215 

Louis of Thuringia and dove, ii. 228 
Lucifer, I 17 ; his fall, L 20; ii. 118, 

120 wg., 299, 393 
Lucina, i. 157 

Ludlow Church, picture of wicked ale- 
wife, ii. 390 

Lukshmi, goddess of prosperity, I 120 

Lunar theology, I 245 ; influences, 
I 251 

Luperoalia, i. 155 

Lust, I 220 ; ii. 264 

Luther, ii. cil, 32, 188, 196, 248, 256 
wg., 265, 306 

Lycanthropy, I 158 

Lycaon, i. 55 

Lycians, chiuieera, i. 154 

Lyeshy, wood devil, ii. 356 

Lyons Cathedral, picture in, ii. 312 

Lyttleton, Lord, warning of, il 231 

Macoathiel i. 17 
Maccaria, i. 55 

Madana Yaksenyo, Singhalese female 

lust devils, ii. 405 
Madness, i. 263, 264 
Madonna, black, i. 337 
Madonnas, ii. 91, 92, 236, 395, 404, 

410, 426. 429 
Magdalen College sculptures, il 452 
M'lgdebui^, nymph at, i. 112 
Mas^i and Magician, ii. 174 nq, ; SU 

James and, ii. 414 
Magog, I 164, 168, 169, 423 
Mabttbhdrata, episode, i. 356 
Mahrt, I 236 
Mahu, ii. 311 

Maitre Bernard, devil's name, il 382 

Parsin, devil's name, ii. 382 

Mai, lust devil in Ceylon, il 409 
Malleus Maleficorum, ii. 300 
Manes, i. 263 
Mania, I 263 

Manitoos, good and evil, I 167 
Manning, Cardinal, cil, ii. 257 
Mans forest, spectre in, ii. 358 
Manu, I 49 
Manutius, il 305 

Mara, ii. 158, 179 Mg., 183 Mg. ; Scand., 

ii. 371 
Marbuel, ii. 299 
Maria, i. 108 

d a 



Markgraf of HiinU, his death, ii. 427 
Harlowe'a ' Faulty' ii. 338 weq. 
Marriage, ii. 215 ; Mephiato opposes, 
ii. 338 

Mara, war-god, i. 275 ; planet, influ- 
ence of, ii. 135 
Harsh demons, i. 203 nq, 
Martel, CharleB, in hell, ii. 392 
Kartineau, Harriet, at. i. 211; ii. 

Martin, St.,L 310; ii 373 

MaruU, i. 6 

Mary, see Madonna 

Master-smiths, i. 309 

Mateer, i. ett. 44, 300 

Matter, eif. ii. 169 

Maui and Mauike, i. 75 

Mawmet, ii 250 

Maximilla, ii 246 

May, i 218 ; queen, ii. 378 

Maya, illusion, i 200, 21 1 se;. 

' Measure for Measure,' i 83 

Medea, ii 131, 409 

MedisBval death-bed, picture, ii 394 

Medicinal dragons, i 370 

Medusa, i. 386, 406 

Megsdra, Luther nursed by, ii 256 

Melite, asp, i 343 

Melusina, i J67 

Mendes, i iSS 

Mephistopheles, i. 199 ; ii 332 te^., 

299. 340 w?.. 383. 399. 416, 417 
Mercury, planet, i. 19, 60 
Merlin, i. 369 ; ii. 397 k^. 
Mermaid, Chinese, i. 216 
Merman, i. 225, 226 
Meechiaand Meschiane, Persian Adam 

and Eve, ii. icx>, loi 
Messias, ii. 187, 135 
Metapbrastus, Acta, ii. 341 
Metaphysics, i. 428 ; ii 347 
Meteors, ii. 117 

Mexico, Judas in, i 81 ; serpent 

devils, ii. 437 
Michael, archangel, ii. 142, 375 
Michelet, e\i, ii. 219, 233 
Midnight brood, i 241 
Mikado saint, i. 391 scj. 
Milkah, ii 156 

Miller, Hugh, Moriel's den, i. 20; 

Meggie, 92 
Milton, his Satan, ii 126, 191, 393 ; 

woman, ii. 409 
Mimacs, legends, i. 166, 390 
Minerva, ii. 245 

Miracle Plays, ii 128, 19 1, 295 Sf^., 

388, 393, 426 
Mirage, i 185 

Mirror used against devil, ii. 448 
Mini, hunger-demon, i 41 mq. 
Miser s gold, ii 413 
Misleaders, i 213 
Mistletoe, i 5 
Mithras, i 251 
Modo, ii. 311 

Mohammed, a stone deity, L 24, 423; 

ii 228, 248, 250 ; Faust as, ii 338 
Mohanee, Singhalese devil, ii 409 
Moira, fate, i. 420 m?. 
Moloch, i 55, 61, 66, 67 
Monk, Mephisto as, ii 337 
Monkish gluttony, ii. 417 
Monsters, i 340 
Moody, Mr., eiC. ii 227 
Moon, i 244; ii 235, 245, 369 
Mormons, i 225 
MorviduB, dragon-slayer, i. 368 
Moses, iL 235 
Mountaineers, i 194, 195 
Mountains, holy and unholy, i. 193 

wq, ; demons of, 197, 198 ; ii 245 
Mouse, legends, i. 128, 129 
MoEOomdar, et<. i. 10 
Miiller, Julius, cie. i 15 ; ii. 9 
Muller, F. Max, cii,\. 15 ; ii 294 
Murder, ii 425 
Myiagrus deus, i 10 
Myiodes, i. 10 
Mysteries, ancient, ii. i68 
Myth, meaning of, i. 28 

Naamah, ii 152, 416 
Nachash-beriach, i 344 
Nachseher, i. 52 
Naglok, Hindu hell, i 151 
Namaqua superstition, i. 98 
Napier, James, est. ii 217 
Nastrond, i. 85 

National characteristics, i 160 
Nature and Art, i. 209 ; treacheries 

of, i 212 seg. ; monsters in, i 340; 

dualism of, i 305 ; gods returning 

to, i. 317 ; deities, ii. 92, 402 
Nebo, i. no 
Nemesis, ii. 168 
Nepaul iconoclast^ i. 304 
Neroy ii. 244, 423 
Nibelungen lied, i 86 
Nick, Old, i 1 1 1 uq, ; of the woods, 

i 112 

Nickel, derivation of, i. 234 
Nickie Ben, Burns to, ii. 3(82 
Nida, i. 85 
Nightjager, ii 353I 
Nightmare, i. 236 
Nimrod, ii 176, 364 



Nin-ki-gal, queen of Hades, L 77, 287 

NixA, Baltic, i. 112, 113 

Nixy, i. no, 113 

Kizami, dl, ii. 234 

Noah, L 82, 109, no, 409; ii. 86; 

legends of, ii. 412 uq. 
Noblemen, devil and, ii. 390 
Noraita (or Noria), Noah's wife, ii. 

412 Hq. 

Noraemeij, native weapons, i. 45 ; 

ideal, L 394 
North, region of demons, i 83 uq, ; 

of devils, iL 115 
Ndtre Dame at Paris, devil on, ii. 

252 ; incident at door of, ii. 454 
Nuuah, i. 109 

Novgorod, survival at, L lOi 

Nu, Egyptian serpent goddess, ii. 99 

Nndity. L 220; disapproyed by Me- 

phistopheles, ii. 445 
Nyang devil-wonhip, i. 26 

Oaitnes, I 46 

Object-origins, 1. 321 

Obstacles, i. 190 uq. ; friendly, i. 206 

Odin, L 10, 56, 97, 162 ; church 

built by, ii. 358, 369 
Oegir, hall of, i. II, 84 
Ogres, i. 51; the word, i. 133 ; ii. 405 
Ohio, college motto in, i. i 
OlAf, Saint, ii. 367 

Omens, i. 90, II9, 124, 131, 134, 138; 

ii. 370 
Onion, i. 5 

Ophiomorphus, ii. 2o8» 402 
Ophion, ii. 402 

Ophis, the word, i. 345 ; the demon, 

ii. 208 
Ophites, ii. 208 
Ophincus, ii. 401 

^position and opponent, ii. 131, 

Orain, a universalist, ii. 383 

Orcus, i. 306 ; ii. 370 

Ordeals, Dahomey an, i. 3 ; rock, i. 

201 ; witch, ii. 317 
Origen, c»<. ii. 220, 305, 325, 383 
Ormuzd, i. 25, 36, 369; ii. 21, 26 

23s, 263, 264, 452 
Orthros, guard of Orcus, i. 38, 133, 


Osiris,!. 13.341. 343; 235 
' Othello ' in California, ii. 427 
Otto I. of Altmark, ii. 374 
Oxford, old sculptures at^ ii. 452 

Palnatoki or Palnhonter, ii. 357 
Pan, i. 188 

Pandora, ii 89 

Pandukhabayo, prince in Ceylon, ii 

Pantheism, primitive, i. 5 
Paracelsus, ii. 210, 285 
Paradise, i. 376; ii. 77 »eq. 

* Paradise Lost,' ciL i. 83 
Paries, snake called, i. 343 
Parjanya, i. 100 

Parker, Theodore, anecdote of, i. 1 1 
Passover, i. 64 
Pater, Mr., eiL ii. 267 
Patrii, ii. 290 

Paul the apostle, cit. ii. 213, 241, 
243. Ac. 

Paul lY., Pope, orders M. Angelo's 

figures to be draped, iL 428 
Paulicians, ii. 385 

Pavana, Indian messenger of the gods, 
i. 120 

Peacedale, Rhode I., yampyre, i. 52 
Peacock, i. 27 ; ii. 26 1 

* Peculiar people ' in London, i. 250 
Pelsall, survival at, i. 46 
Penates, ii. 292 

Pendragon, i. 369 
Pennant, eit. L 47 
Pentamerone, story in, ii. 374 
Pentecost, i. 64; ii. 230, 236, 397 
Penzance Common, demon riders on, 
ii 3^^ 

Pera, rock ordeal at, i. 201 
Percival, ii. 398 
Perkun, legend of, i 312 
Perkuhnsteine, thunderbolts called, i. 

Persephone, i. 355 ; ii 221 
Persian picture of hell, ii. 424 
Penin, i. 100, 101 ; ii. 356 
Peruvian mountain god, i. 198 
Peter and Christ, ii. 241 
Pharaoh, i. 119; ii 182 
Philo, cit. ii. 444 
Phoenix, i. 27 
Picard, John, ii 225 
Pied piper of Hamelin, i. 129; ii. 
35S» 367 

Pigeon, 1. 74, 75, 219; iL 227, 230 

Pilpay, ii 400 

Pindar, cU, i. iS 

Pius IX., evil eye of, ii 334 

Pixy, i III, 167 

Plato, vision of £r, ii. 422, 423 

Pliny, eit, i. 60 

Plotinus, eit, i. 35 

Pluto, ii 299 

Pneuma, ii. 207 

Poets on vice and evil, ii 446 ieq. 



Polites, Italian damon, f. 156 

Pontifez, origin of, i. 204 

Pontui, Greeks of, theory of Scy- 
thians, ii. 406 

Pope and pagan, ii. 191 

Pork-eaiing, ii. 369, 44.3 

Ptirthcumow Cove, Tregeagle*s la- 
bours, ii. 361 

Poseidon, ii. 235, 402 

Prayer for the Devil, Aquinas', ii. 3S4 

Prediger orders, ii. 248 

Pre-Munchausenite world, i. 384, 385 

Pretas (Siam) demons, i. 44 

Pride-of-Life Devil on N6tre Dame, 
Paris, ii. 252 

Prince of Darknesn, i. 240 

of this world, ii. 178 383 

Priscilla, ii. 246 

Prodicus, ii. 224 

Prologue to * Faust,' ii. 399 

Prometheus, i. 59, 376, 377, 385, 
418. 421, 422 ; ii. 380 

Prosecutors, ii. 159 

Puritanism, ii. 274 

Puspa, Singhalese lust devil, iL 409 

Pythagorean theory, i 159 

Python, i. 80 

QoBEN Mart's Psalter, pictures from, 

ii. 271, 301 
Quichuas, ViracTcha, god of, i. 107 
Quito, i. 198 

Ra and Mendes, i. 188 
Ua and Set, wars of, in Egypt, i. 182 

Ra, the sun, i. 256 
Rachel, iL 85 
Radbot, King, ii. 275 
Ragnar, i. 414 
Ragnarok, ii 240 
Rahab, ii. 416 
Rahu, i. 46, 322; ii. 116 
Rainbow, called serpent, i. 354, 355 
Rakshasis, L 15 1, 2i6 
Rasho gate, Devil of, in Japan, ii. 406 
Rat legends, I 128, 129, 145 
Ratisbon bridge, legend, i. 205 
Raum, 1. 74 
Ravana, Rajah, ii. 22 
Raven, i. 75; ii. 299. 321, 333, 368 
Rebekah, ii. 84, 85 
Rechalmus, Abbot, ctt ii. 296 
Recurrence, phenomena of, L 406 ; 
ii. 403 

Reets, ale-wife carried of, ii. 390 
Reich elsheim, ii. 355 
Renaissance, ii. 278 

Rephaim, iL 74 
Reson, Prince, iL 164 
Rhone legend, L 1 1 7 
Richard I., history, iL 252 
Riesenaltar and Riesenaule, ii. 355 
Rig Veda, oL i. 93, 407, &c 
Ripheus and Dante, ii. 433 
River Demons, i. 203 se^. 
Robber Knights, iL 365 
I Robin Hood, ii. 140 
' Rocks, L 201, 202 
> Rocky passes, monsters of, L 201 
I Rodenstein, iL 355 
I Rokb, i. 28 

. Roland at Roncesvallea, ii. 367 
I Rose, Mother, L 33 ; iL 375 
I Roskoff, c%i, ii. 329 seg. 
Rowan, i. 126 
Rudra, L 350 

Hymn to, L 93 nq. 

Rue, ii. 324 

Rum Bah&dur of Nepaul, L 304 
Rupert, Prince, and his dog, ii. 127 
Rusalkas, Nixies of Russia, L I19 
Ruskin, ct<. L 192, 403, 404 
Russia, medinval designs in, i. 281 ; 
iL 144, 214, 222, 228, 253, 254, 413, 

Rutti, Singhalese lust-devil, ii. 409 

Saa-Sbt, iL 113 
Sabbath, witches, iL 253 
Sabbatarianism, ii. 275 
Sacri6ces, L 55 
Sadi, cH, ii. 236, 271, 423 
Saints — Agatha, L 74 

Andrew, L 403 

Anthony, iL 188, 190, 289, 418 

Aquinas, ii. 386 

Augustiu, ii. 397 

Augustine, cil. i. 154 

Benedict, ii. 268 

Columba, L 165 

Dunstan, ii. 230 

Francis, iL 170, 268, 385 

Gall us, L 148 

Qatien, iL 397 

George, i. 403 #fg. 

Gerard, L 1 14 

Godric, L 7$ ; ii. 419 

Guthlac, ii. 419 

James, iL 419 

Lawrence, iL 39 1 

Margaret^ i. 403 

Martin, L 310 

— Michael, L 403 

Mikados, of the, i. 391 m^. 

Nicholas, L iii, iia 



Saints— Olaf, ii. 367 

Orain, ii. 38J 

Patrick, i. 389 ; ii. 4 

Petroz, i. 389, 414 

Philip, i. 74 

Sergius,i. 147 

Theophilus, ii. 329 

Vincent, ii. 217 

Walpurga, iu 376 

Wolfram, ii. 275, 307 

Saint Vitus' dance, i. 251 
S%i8, temple of IbIb at, i. 337 
Sakya Muni, ii. 179 stq.^ 184 
Salisbury Plain, legend of, i. 370 
Salt, i. 65 ; ii. 150, 217, 297 
Salzburg, Bishop of, ii. 417 
Samael, ii. 114, 130, 134, 135, 142, 

146, 150, 262, 361 
Samis, ii. 235 

Sand, George, story by, L 207 

Sangr^l, ii. 398 

San-nu Hut-uz, i. 321 

Santaclaus, i. iii, 112 

Sara, ii. 81 teq,, 87, 402 

Saranyu, i. 8, 20 ; ii. 283 

Satan, i. 423, 424; ii 121, 125, 128, 

143, 159. 164 wf/., 185, 186, 193, 

241, 242, 246, 299, 395 
Satan, Adam'9 contract with, ii. 


aureoled, i. 19 

Celsiis on, ii. 401 

Christ's idea of, ii. 241 

doom, iL 380, 381 

Heine's portrait of, ii. 287 

Jews' idea of, ii. 163 

Job and, i. 255 

Milton's, ii. 126 

Mohammed and, L 18 

moon-devourer, i. 48 

outwitted, ii. 395, 397 

Sadi's, ii. 271 

supposed portrait of, ii. 168 

Saturn, i. 19^ 55, 59, 253, 254 
Satyrs, i. 19 ; ii. 289 
Sauer, the dog, i. 137 
SauromatsB of Herodotus, ii. 102 
Sayages, axioms among, i. 396 
Seandra, ii. 23 
Scapegoat, ii. 131, 169, 187 
Scarabmis, i. 5 

Scelestat, De, Devil's name, ii 382 
Scheibel, cU, ii. 332 
Schem-hammphorasch, ii. 304 
Scbuellert, wild jiiger at» ii. 355 
Schwarz, ii. 333 
Science not dualistic, i. 12 
Scott, liichael, legends of, i. 118 

Scylla and Chary bdis, i. 201, 202, 

407 ; of Thuringia, i 202 
Scythians, demonic origin of, i 161 ; 

ii 410 
Sea, ii 117 

dragons, i 109 

phantoms, i. 227 

Seals, ii. 169, 335 

Sealskin maidens, i. 219 

Seance in ' Faust,' i 309 

Seasons, battle of the, i. 89 

Second-sight, i. 163, 241, 242 

Seir, mountains of, ii. 118 

Selborne, White's History of, eit. 1. 

Sephiroth, ii 31, 254 
Serapes, i. 338 ; ii. 290 
Seraphim, i 322, 323, 339 
Serbian demon, i. 206 
Serpent, i 325 Kq,, 418 ; ii. 167 

Abyssinian worship, i 343 

antidote for bite of, in India, i. 

349 •f^ 

of the Ark, ii. 238 

brazen, ii 134 

characteristics of, i 321 

Charlemagne and, ii. 396 

earliest^ i. 322 

egg of, i 325, 327 

Greek word for, derivation, i. 


healing art emblem, i. 351, 352 

India, i. 348 

legends, i. 147, 148 

meaning, i. 341 

Melite, i 343 

Persian, i. 25 

rainbow called, i. 354, 355 

romance, i. 359 

"Py. >• 345 

theories of, i. 353 teq. 

transformations, i. 339 

treading on, i. 346 

Vishnu's, i. 24 

worship of, i 13, 328 

Servetus, ii. 420 

Set and Ra, wars of, in Egypt, i. 182 

Set, Seth, i 182 teq,, 256 ; ii 87, 208, 

209, 223, 235, 279 
Setnau, tale of, Egyptian, i. 413 
Seyen spirits, ii. 229 
Sex in heaven, ii. 386 
Shadows, i. 231 mq. 
Shakers, ii. 405 

Sheikh's ride in Egypt, i. 180, 181 
Sheitan in Constantinople, i. 48 
Shekinab, ii. 54, 55 



BbeUejr, il 281 

Shemmen-NeiMm and Khamaaen, i. 


Shi'icha, man of paaoa in Sootland, i. 

229, 230 
Shipwrignta* pUy, it 414 
Shiribadatt, King, legand of, L 401 
Shudan dozi, Japanaaa demon, i. 158 ; 

legend of, ii. 406, 407 
Shylock, il 138 

Siegfried, poem of, c\i, L 370, 371 
Simaon, Hav. M., ii. 215 
Simon Magna, ii. 237, 245, 255 
Simoom, ii. 234 
Sin, i. 23s 
Sindri, i. 8$ 

Singhalaae demonology, i 355 

Rakahaaia, i. 216 

Siniatrari, eit. ii. 306 ; hia book on 

Demonialita, 384, 385 
Siren, Japaneaa, i. 222, 223 
Siriua, ii. 280 

Siva, L 17, 96, 97, 150, 151 ; ii. 23, 

228, 235, 369 
Skratii, Old Scratch, i. 86 
Slandarera, ii. 160 
Sleep, L 234» 235 

Sleepara, mythical, ii. 359 ; Sleeping 

Beauty, ii. 375 
Sleipnir, Odin'a horae, ii. 371 
Sleawig, King Abel at, il 357 
Slippera, yellow, of witchea, i. 215 
Smith, the maater, i. 309 
Snakea, children and, i. 364, 365 

milk and, i. 365 

Paries, i. 343 

Paradiae and the, i. 376 

Saint Patrick and the, i. 389 

SocinuB, iL 340 
Sockbum worm, L 388 
Socratea, ii. 427 

Solomon, i. 120, 186, 187 ; ii. 163, 164, 

223, 278, 304, 415 
Solstice, i. 65 

Somerville worm, legend, i. 389 

Sophia, ii. 207 

Sophia Achemoth, ii. 207 

Soracte, i. 155 

Soranus, i. 155 

Sorcery, i. 307 ; ii. 300, 334 

Sosiocb, prophet, ii. 29 

Sosipolis, i. 157, 339 

Souter Fell, Cumberland, apectrea, 

242 %tq, 
Spagnoletto, i. 191 
Spaniah negro madonna, i. 337 
Spectres, mountain, i. 242 aej. 
Spella, ii. 291, 319 

Spencer, Herbert, ct<. it 219 
Sphinx, L 174, 175, 180, 181 
Spieaa publiahea 'Fauat' legend, ii. 

Spmello of Aresso, ii. 271 

Spinosa, ii. 148 ; diaboliaed, IL 349, 

425 ; on the devil, ii. 439 
SpiriUialiam, i. 52 ; ii. 307, 331 
Sraoaha, ii. 263, 264 
Strausa, ciC ii. 186 
Straw Mujik of Ruaaia, i. 81 
Streatham Church, Franklin at» i. 


Steubel and Wirbel in the Danube, L 

115. 116 
Succube, ii. 403 
Su Fuh, necromancer, i. 167 
Suicide, i. 229 

Sunken citiea and treaaurea, i. 228 
Sun-apota and famine, i. 171 ae;. 
Sun-worship, L 173 
Svaldifari, ii. 371 
Svedgir, i. 162, 256 
Sviatevit, i. 97 
Swamy, Sir M. C, ii. 35 ae^. 
Swan legenda,i.ii3, 119, 2i2,2l4«e9., 

Swedenborg, et<. i. 211 ; hia viaiona, 
ii. 427 ttq, ; Emerson on, ii. 435 ; 
hell of, iL 436 

Sweden, witchcraft in, i. 317 

Syrians, ii. 148 

Tacitus, cti ii. 370 
Tai-ahan mountain, i. 197 
Talmage, Rev. Dr., cit. ii. 216 
Tannhauser, i. 223 ; IL 320 
Tannin in Old Testament, i. 322 
Taous, peacock aymbol, i. 27 
Targum, eiL i. 100 ; ii. 54, 247 
Tartar auperstition, i. 104 
Tartini, his Devil's sonata, iL 273 
Tchemibog, i. 154 ; ii. 253 
Tedworth ghost, ii. 309 
Temptation, ii. 178 ttq, 
Tenjo, mountain demon of Japan, i. 

19s teg. 
Tennyaon, iL 102 
Terah brings Abraham before Nim- 

rod, ii. 365 
Teraphim, i. 37 ; ii. 290 
Termagol, giant, i. 164 
TertuUian, c»<. L 82 ; ii. 244, 341 
Tetael and Luther, ii. 32 
Teufelsee, demon, L 221, 222 
Thebea, picture, iL 403 
Theophilus, St., ii. 395 
Thespeaitts viaita Hades, iL 423 

Thibet, hell in, i. 83 
Thokk, i. 78, 232 
Thor, i. 59, 100, 232, 317 
Thoth, ii. 303 
Thugs, i. 151 
Thummim, i. 54 
Thunder, duke, i. 104 

legends, i. lOO ; bolts, i. lOl 

Thurgau custom, L 316 
Thuringian Scylla, i 202 
Tiamat, ii. 106, no 
Tidal demons, I 118, 119 
Titans, i. 6, 74; ii. 401 
Tituba, Salem witch, ii. 314 
Titus on demons, ii. 2II 
Tiw, i. 16 
Tobit, ii. 265, 325 
Tophet, i. 62; iL 235 
Torches, feast of, i. 91, 395 nq. 
Torrents, demons of, i. 203 seq. 
Tota, i. 204 

Tours, 'Mystery at,' ii. 128, 191, 391 
Tourtak, god of Tigris, i. 108 
Trajan and Dante, il 433 
Transformations, i. 217 
Transmigration, i. 125, 126 
Travancore, demons of, i. 44 ; Holy 

Tree, i. 299 teq. 
Treacheries, natural, i. 212 teq. 
Treasures, sunken, i. 228 
Tregeagle's ghost, ii. 36 1 
Triad, i. 24 ; il 235 • 
Trinity, i. 24 ; iL 235 
Tritas, ii. 369 
Tsar Moiskoi, i. 119, 219 
Tsui-knap, i. 98 
Tsuma, hero, ii. 406 
Tiibingen students imprisoned, ii. 337 
Tumbariungona marsh, Ceylon, ii. 


Turner, J. M. W., dragons, i. 323 

Turanian metallui^gists, i. 353 

Twashtri, i. 75, 170 

« Twelfth Night,' i. 314 

Tylor, E. B., on limping deities, i. 
18 ; mixed deities, i. 24 ; Izedis, 1. 
27 ; funeral customs, i. 53 ; Judas- 
burning in Mexico, L 80, 81 

Typho, i. 251 

Typhon, i. 54; Horus and, L 184, 185, 
407, 423 ;ii. 235 


Ukko, i. 102 
Undine, i. in 
Unholdenhof, i. 199 
Universalism, Grain's, ii. 382 ; Paul's, 
^ 383 ; Sinbtrari's, ii. 383 teq. 

INDEX. 471 

Unmercifulness, ii. 254 
Unrest, spirit of, ii. 118, 137, 4CX> 
Urim and Thummim, ii. 54 
Ursel, ii. 379 
Urselberg, ii. 379 
Ursula, ii. 379 
Uru, Moon-god, ii. 106 
Uther Pendragon, i. 369 ; ii. 398 
Uzyil 149 

Vala, ii. 371 

Valhalla, i. 229 ; ii. 321, 369 
Valkyrs or Walkyrs, ii. loi, 318 
Vampyres, i. 49, 51, 52, 244, 245 
Vanland, story of, i. 235 ; ii 37I 
Vanalandi, i. 162 
Varuna, i. 4, 356 

hymn to, i. 300 

Vasishtha, ii. 32 uq. 
Vasuddva, ii. 175 
Vata, i. 99 

Vatican, Faust and Mephisto there, ii. 

338, 341 ; M. Angelo, ii. 188, 427 
Vauvert diable, ii. 201 
Vayu's wind chariot, i. 99, lOO 
Vedic hymn, i 99 
Veils, i. 337 ttq. 
Vena, ii. 240 

Venerable Bede, eit. ii. 425 
Veneur, Le Qrand, Fontainbleau, iL 

Venus, tet Aphrodite 
Venuabei^, L 223 ; iL 377 
Vervain, ii. 324 
Vespasian, iL 244 
Viddtu, iL 264 
Vii, i. 96 
Vikram, L 49 
Vilz, devil at, L 205 
Vindicatores, ii. 291 
Viracvcha, god of Quichuas, i. 107 
Virginia, incident in, i. 192, 193 
Virgin, Antichrist bom of, ii. 257 ; 
Merlin bom of, \\,y)^{tee Madonna); 
Virgin and viper, iL 410 
Virginity, ii. 2ji 

Virgins of the Parable, fatal, ii. 427 
Vishnu, L 144, 161, 418 ; iL 235, 362, 

Vishtasp, narcotic, ii. 431 
VisvAmitra, ii. 23, 32 teq. 
Vivien beguiles Merlin, iL 398 
Vladimir, ii. 356 
Voland, ii. 379 
Volmer's hunt, iL 376 
Voltaire, his deathbed, L 280; dia- 
bolised, iL 349, 425; dislike to 
raven, ii. 367 



Vortigern, i 369, 370; iL 398 
Vritra, i. 36, 151, 170, 171, 322, 355, 

356. 413 
Vulcan, i. 170, 171 

temple to, on Etna, L 156 

Vulgate, cU.\, 19 

WAQifiit, myths uaed by, i. 86 
WaldemarV hunt, ii. 276, 277 
Walpurga, St, ii. 378 
Walpurgia night, i. 190, 234 
Wandjager, ii. 353 
Wansbeck river, legend, L I18 
Waaserkelch church, ii. 396 
Watahnight, i. 90 
Water apirita, i. II3M9-, 120 
Waterspouts, i. 107 
Wauljager, ii. 353 
Waylaud, Vedic Vala, I. 19 
Wear, river, legend, i. 118 
Werewolves, i. 158, 303, 314, 315; 

girdle, ii. 318 
Wesley, his watchnight, i. 190 ; on 

Mohammed, ii. 250 ; and the Cock 

Lane ghost, ii. 309 * 
Wesleyans and theatres, iL 273 
WessMQonny, Singhalese demon, i 

97. 355 

Westminster Abbey, Hell denounced 

in, ii. 239 
Whirlwinds, i. 105 
White Lady, ii. 361, 377 uq. 
Wild Hunliman, i. 139 j ii. 353 te^. 
WillianiB, Prof. M., cit. L 50 
Will-o'-wisp, i. 212 tfj., 225 
Wilten, monk at, i. 200 
Wind demons, i. 88, 89 ; bride, i. 106 
Windeschmaun, ciu i. 283 
Wine devil, ii. 392, 415 se^. 
Winter demons, i. 77 wj. 
Wirtel, Danube, i. I15 
Witches, yellow slippers, i. 21 5 ; ii. 

288 fe^.; Salem, ii. 314; trial, ii. 315; 

confessions, ii. 218 testing, ii. 

317 ; in Virginia, il 326 ; biblical, ii. 

327 ; execution, ii. 327 386 
Wittenberg forest and Faust, ii. 337 
Wodan, i. 99, 100, 310, 313 ; ii. 353 
Wodejiiger, ii. 353 

Wolf lep^ends, i. 140^ 1 44, 1 54, 318 ; 
glen, ii. 361 

Women, protected, i. 319 je^.; fixvt in 
I ndia, ii. 75 ; Persia, i i. 77 ; diabolised, 
ii. 85 ttq, ; rib-theory of, it 103; as 
tempter, ii. 191 uq,\ why witches 
were chiefly women, ii. 195; Malleus 
Malefieorum on, ii. 300; Euripides 
and Milton concerning, iL 409 

World, Qoethe's ' Faust* on the, ii.352 

Worms, i. 332, 336 ; City of, i. 366 ; 
Laidley, L 367, 368 ; Lambton, i. 
387, 411 se^. ; Sockbum, L 388; 
Somenrille, L 389; of Time, L 342; 
poetic, ii. 393 

Wrath, Day of, Mary in, iL 429 

Wuchang, temple of horrors, iL 424 

Wustanges Heer, ii. 353 

Wuttke, Dr., cit. L 160; iL 307,353,374 

Takkos, Takshaa, i. 151 se;. 
Tama, King of Death, i. 6 
Year, old and new, i. 89, 90 
Yellow slippers of witches, L 215 
Yemma, king of Hades, Jap., i. 195 
Yeous, the giant, L 207 seg. 
Yezedis, i. 27 
Yimi, i. 283 

YngUngaSaga, L 162 ; ii. 371 
Yorimitsa, Japanese hero, iL 406 Jff. 
York Cathedral, L 32 
Yule-tide, L 23 

Yii Shut, Chinese rain-god, L 105 

Zafarana, Sicilian story, ii. 369 
Zamhor, i. 26 
Zamiel, iL 300, 361 
Zerffi, Dr., cil, ii. 286 
Zeru&ne-Akrane, ii. 235 
Zeus, i. 402 ; iL 235 

etymology, L 17 

Fates of, i. 420 %tq. 

Fly-god, i. lo 

jealous, L 59 

Lightning-wielder, L 97 

in * Iliad,* iL 402 

Zinzendorf, i. 347 < 
Zohak, i. 359 ; u. 176, 234, 363, 364 
Zophar, iL 152, 154 
Zoroaster, L 60, 154 ; iL 24, 172, 184, 

Zum Loch, Zurich, Charlemagne at, 
ii- 395 


APW 2 9 1*18 

— « — 



(Comprising the most Strikmg Passages, Allegories, and Parables 
from the Sacred Books of all Oriental Races.) 

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With an Essay on 

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for the Devil himself is hefS to he altogether ontidde 
the pale of jnstioe. The mind reyolts against it, and, with 
Aquinas, we say : 

" O God, and can it ever be, 
Thy morning star, with endless moan, 
Shall lift his fading orbs to thee, 
And thou be happy on thy throne ? 
It were not kind ; nay, Father, nay ! 
It were not just, O (xod, I say. 
Pray for the Devil, Jesus, pray I 

And can thy kingdom ever come 
While the fair angels howl below ? 
All holy voices would be dumb. 
All human eyes would fill with woe. 
To think the Lordliest peer of heaven, 
The starry leader of the seven, 
Should never, never, be forgiven ! 

Pray for the Devil, Jesus, pray ! 
O word that made thine angels speak ! 
Lord, let thy pitying tears have way : 
(rood God, not man alone, is weak. 
What is created still must fall. 
And fairest still we frailest call — 
Will not Christ's blood avail for all ? 

Pray for the Devil, Jesus, pray I 

O Savior, look upon thy cmld ! 

Turn from thine own bright world away, 

And look upon that dungeon wild. 

O God, O Jesus, see how dark 

That din of woe ! O Savior, mark 

How angels weep, how groan ! Hark ! hark I 

He will not, will not do it more ; 
Restore him to his throne again. 
Oh, open wide the prison door 
That presses on the souls in pain ! 
Then men and angels both will say — 
* Our God is good. Oh, day by day, 
Pray for the Devil, Jesus, pray !' 

All night Aquinas knelt alone. 
Alone with dark and dreadful night, 
Until before that awful throne 
The darkness ebbed away in light 
Then rose the saint, and ' God,' said he, 
* If darkness change to light with thee. 
The Devil may yet an angel be.' " 

[August 30, 1885, 


' The one," fr^m whom-G&riaiiaBS, ia the revised 

I J^ord'a Vrhyer^jpny lir deltmvtf 'biv'teenr i^alled by 
J manynameBi^rabh «i 8«l»H, Ap6ltymi; Abaddon, Bee1z9» 
I btib, BeHaf; tlie'Seri>eiit,'tbe'Dnigon, Imciftir, ibe Prince 
; of DarknriHfl, the J^rinoa of' Power 6( the Air^.tiia 
'■ Devil, the Denoe, thec»Svil Spirit, the Adversary, the 
Bnemy, the - Arebflehd; tttw** -Tempter/ Jf^'^biBtiij^iftfes, 
Old Homjr^ OId Harry, -OM Scratch, Olfl lfick, an* "ffo 
Torihl The sbodern bames, ft be noibtced, are eoiw 
oeived in a spirifc of jocular irreverence, indicative of the 
faci that hid Satanic Majeafj^ is now a popular Ian j^hiHj^- 
stock rather than the object of terror which scared mankind 
dnring the dark ages of the past. . 

when Christiana speak of ^onr ghostly enemy" as tha 
accuser or the adversary, they only translate the original 
! Hebrew word into English. Satan was so called because 
I he was supposed to be the great opponent of Jehovah, and 
of the human race generally. Whether he or Jehovah 
was the greater enemy of mankind is a disputable question. 
Perhaps the fairest conclusion will be that there was 
little to -choose between them, though Jehovah, being 
almighty, borotke greater responsibtiity. God and Satan 
indeed often appear to act in secret partnership. The Book 
of Job shows at least that the leader of his divine majesty's 
< opposition was received on very free and easy terms in 

Abaddon (Bev. ix., 11) — a name which punsters will 
regard as very appropriate for the Evil One — signifies des- 
troyer ; and ApoUyon, its Qreek equivalent, also means one 
that exterminates or destroys. Throughout the Bible, how- 
ever, it is Jehovah who is the destroyer rather than Satan, 
who is evidently not nearly so black as he is painted. It 
was Ood who drowned all living things, not Satan ; God 
destroyed the Sgyptian. and Oanaanites, not Satan; God 
creates evil (Is. xlv., 7), and then blamea Satan for it. 

Bedzehuh, or Baal-zebub, was a god whose name signifies 
master ef flies* Somehow Christians have managed to 
' identify him with Satan. When Jehovah^a name becomes 
unpopular, they will perhaps be enabled, from a comparison 
of 2 Sam. xxiv., 1, and 1 Chron xxL, 1, to identify Jehovah 
also with Satauy and thus whitewash their improved deity 
by making Satan, disfifnised as Jehovah, the real author of 

I -ooni 

rersajgrranemy^-aocuacr ; and 

the Old Testament Atrooities. It will then he Beekehnb^ 
alias Satan, who sent the plague o£ flies on the Egyptians, 
and not Jehovah, alia$ Gbd. 

BeUcd is nsed as a synonym for wickedness. The word 
is apparently derived from the name of the Ood Bel or Baal. 
ChiistiaDS of oonrse identified all the idols, or' ex-gods, 
with Satan and his imps, and if we identify their God with 
the personification of all wickedness and cruelty, we 
shall only serve him as they always served other gods. 

Bamid or Sammael, the prince of the demons, according 
to the Jewish belief, who bore away the lost souls at 
death, is also oommonly identified with Satan, as also is 
Aemodeus, the evil spirit in the apocryphal book of Tobit. 

The Serpent who tempted E ve ia almost universally assumed 
by Christians to have been the fallen angal, Satan, iu dis* 
gntse ; but the sbory in Genesis gives no hint whatever 
tiiat the tempter was anything bat an ordinary serpent If 
otherwise, why did Ood curse the whole serpent race for 
ever beoMise Satwo; ctisguised himself as- one^ of them P 
Will Ood also punish all his angels becamse *^Satan him- 
self is transformed into an angel t>f b'ght P" (2 Oorinthians 
xi., 14). 

Mephuioplui^ is a soBMwhAt more modem name, fore- 
shadowing the explanatory reHolotioB of the old Devil into 
the foul mephUic vapor and deceptive mist of unhealthy 

Boriptmtsalls S«tan the ^ angel of the bottomleas pit/' 
the prince of thid worid (Jbhn ziL, 81), and the god 
of this world " (2 Cor. iv., 4). As " prinoe of the power 
of the air " (Eph. ii., 2), he must exercise control over birds 
and balloons, and can earry people throngh the air as he 
did Jesus. We mav well wonder how it is that he allows 
God 16 ride the whirlwind and direct the storm " throagh 
his aerial territory. 

The commonest of the names 4iy wUioh.iiie " Evil Gae " 
is known appears at 'first sight te berxseMythe word evil 
with a ** D prefixed, inst as (Ml appears to be connected 
.jvrith t^e^ word good. J^t appearand . in. both oases- are 
deceptive. Devil, deuce, deus, Dieu^ divine, Jfq;iiter (Zens- 
pater), Zens, and cognate words, are traced by modern 
philologists to a common origin in the Sanscrit, the earliest 
known representative of the primitive Aryan tongoe, which 
formed the basis of the Indo-European languages. The 
original root is said to signify "shining ones.'* The 
Hindoo devas gradually developed into deities and devils 
with the most charming impartiality. Philology thus 
shows us that Grod and Satan are fundamentally akin. 
When we speak of some misfortune " playing the deuce"