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A Valuable Contribution to the Early History 
of Dentistry 


Dr. Samuel Greif 

Author of "Who's Who in Dentistry' 



COPYRIGHT, 1 91 8, BY 



The Talmud is a big voluminous work 
written in the Chaldaic language about two 
thousand years ago. It is the great Jewish 
encyclopedic work cf knowledge, comprising 
the Jewish learnings and literature between 
about 20-0 b. c. e. and 300 c. E. It is the great 
reference book, employed for two thousand 
years, always rendering abundant material 
of both interest and value for topics of every 

The contributions of the Talmud to the 
history of dentistry are entirely new to the 
English reading public. They have found no 
mention in any of our historical works hereto- 
fore published. The author wishes to present 
this treatise as an interesting and complete ac- 
count of Dentistry in the Bible and Talmud. 


The "tooth" is mentioned in numerous 

passages in the Bible. Upon a great raw ,_ 

of these are based the comments of the Tal- 

31] ..... y is hi re 


. meet him. : nd e .braced 
him, and fell on his neck, and kissed him; 
and th ■- wept, Midrash Rabbah and Tar- 
gum Yonah explain Esau's weeping to have 
been due to loose and painful teeth). — Gen. 
xxxiii, 4- 

His eyes shall be red from wine, and his 
teeth white from milk. — Gen. xlix. 12. 

Eye for eye. teeth for tooth ( ;«• ^nfl W > - 
: fcr hai ' 31 For Foot.— Ex. xxi. 24. 

And if strike out ins man-servant's 

tooth, er his maid-servanfs tooth, he shall let 
him go free fcr the sake of his tooth.— lex. 
xxi. 27. 

Breach for breach, eye for eye, tooth for 
tooth ; in the manner as he hath caused a 
bodily defect in a man. so shall it be done to 
him. — Lev. xxiv. 20. 

The flesh was yet between their teeih, it 
was not yet chewed.— Num. xi. 33. 

And the eye shall have no pity; but life 
(shall go) for life, eye for eye, tooth for 
tootfi(ifcrj jp), hand for hand, foot for foot.— 
Deut. xix. 21. 

No man shall take the mill or upper mill- 
stone to pledge ; for he taketh a man's life to - 
pledge. (The millstones are explained by 
Philo-Judeus as having reference to the molar 
teeth or grinders. See: Kiddushin, 24a-b). — 
Deut. xxiv, 6. 

Also the tooth of beasts will I let loose 
against them. —Deut. xxxii. 24. 

With a fork with three teeth in his hand. — 
I Sam, ii. 13. 

Behold, I have rendered thee a threshing 
instrument, sharp, new, having many teeth 
( rmtPB ?io ;>—f^a. xli. 15. 

In those days shall they not say any more, 
the fathers have eaten sour grapes, and the 
children's teeth are set en edge ; but every one 
shall die for his iniquity ; every man that eateth 
the sour grapes —his teeth shall be set on 
edge. — Jer. xxxi. 28-9. 

And the word of the Lord came unto me, 
saying. What mean ; .-. that ye use this proverb 
in the country of Israel, saying, The Fathers 
have eaten sour grapes and the teeth of the 
children are set on edge ? As I live, saith the 
Lord Eternal, ye tot have any more lo 

use this proverb in Israel. Behold, all the 
souls are mine; as the soul of the father, so 
also the soul of the son — mine are they; the 
soul which sinneth that alone shall die. — Eze. 
xviii. 1-4. 

Its teeth are the teeth of a lion, and it 
hath the cutting-teeth ( ;-• ;".-..: ) of the 
lioness. — Joel i. 6. 

But I also had indeed given yen cleanness 
of teeth in all your cities, and want of bread 
in all your places ; and yet ye have not return- 
ed unto me, saith the Lord — Am. iv. 6. 

(Ye) that lie upon beds of ivory ( j^ ^^^ ) 
— Am. vi. 4. 

Thus hath said the Lord concerning the 

prophets that mislead my people, who, when 
they have something to bite with their teeth, 
cry, Peace ; but who prepare war against him 
who putteth nothing in their mouth. — Mic. iii. 


And I will remove their bloody (sacrifices) 
out of their mouth, and their abominations 
from between their teeth. — Zee. ix. 7. 

Arise, O Lord, help me, O my God; for 
Thou smitest all my enemies upon the cheek 
bone ; the teeth of the wicked dost Thou break. 
— Ps. iii. 8. 

With hypocritical babbling mockers, they 
gnashed upon me with their teeth. — Ps. xxxv. 

The wicked pursueth evil against the just, 
and gnasheth against him with his teeth. — Ps. 
xxxvii. 12. 

Sons of men whose teeth are spears and 
arrows, and whose tongue is a sharpened 
sword.- — Ps. Ivii. 5. 

O God, break out their teeth in the mouth ; 
the jaw teeth ( nijtftfo ) of the young lions 
tear thou out, O Lord. — Ps. lviii. 7. 

The wicked shall see it and be vexed; he 
will gnash with his teeth and melt away. — 
Ps. cxii. 10. 

Blessed be the Lord, who hath not given 
us up as a prey to their teeth. — Ps. exxiv. 6. 

As vinegar is to the teeth, and as smoke 
is to the eyes : so is the sluggard to those that 
send him. — Prov. x. 26. 

Like a carious tooth ( ^^ ^ ) and a 
foot out of joint, so is confidence in a treach- 
erous man in a time of distress. — Prov. xxv. 

There is a generation, whose teeth are as 
swords, and whose cutting-teeth are as knives, 
to devour the poor from off the earth, and the 
needy from among men. — Prov. xxx. 14. 

.-end the teeth of the young lions are brok- 
en. — Job iv. 10. 

Whatever it may cost. I will put my flesh 
y teeth, and my life will I put in my hand. 
— Job xiii. 14. 

He gnasheth over me with his teeth. — 
Job xvi. 9. 

To my skin and to my flesh my bones do 
cleave, and I must sustain myself with the 
gums of my teeth (vjp 71573) — Job xix. 20. 

And I broke the cutting-teeth ( rul^re. J 
of the wrong-doer, and out of his teeth I cast 
down his prey. — Job xxix. 17. 

Who hath ever laid open the front of his 
garment? or who can penetrate into his double 
row of teeth ( ):D1 ) ? — Job xli. 5. 

Thy teeth are like a flock of well-selected 
sheep, which are come up from washing, all 
of which bear twins ( niD^KJlQ )» anc * there 
is not one among them that is deprived of her 
young. — Cant. iv. 2. 

His body is like an image made of ivory 
( fp ) overlaid with sapphires. — Cant. v. 14. 

Thy teeth are like a flock of ewes, which 
are come up from the washing, all of which 
hear twins, and there is not one among them 
that is deprived of her young. — Cant. vi. 6. 

All thy enemies open wide their mouth 
against thee; they hiss and gnash their teeth. 
— La. ii. 16. 

He hath also broken my teeth with gravel- 
stones.— La. hi. 16. 

On the day when the watchmen of the 
house will tremble, and the men of might will 
be! 1 themselves, and the grinders ( nun&n ) 
stand still, because they are become few. — 
Ecc. xii. 3. 


And three ribs were in its mouth between 
its teeth. — Da. vii. 5. 

And it hath great iron teeth. — Da. vii. 7. 

Then I desired what is certain concerning 
the fourth beast, which was different from all 
these others, exceedingly dreadful, whose teeth 
were of iron and whose nails of copper. — Da. 
vii. 19. 


Berackotii, 40a. — Whoever has eaten a 
meal without having eaten salt therewith, who- 
ever has drunk a beverage without having 
drunk water thereafter, will be worried during 
the day by the fetid odor from the .mouth, 
and during the night by the quinsy. 

R. Man said in the name of R. Jochanan : 
"Whoever was accustomed to ea.t lentils once 
every thirty days, kept quinsy away from his 
home; every day, however, (if one should 
eat) he would not.'' For what reason? be- 
cause of the fetid odor from the mouth. 

Note. — The quest: on of oral hygiene, as 
well as hygiene in general, seems to have been 
a prevalent one with the Talmud. As a mat- 
ter of fact the science which has recently be- 
come so prominent has had its principles 
masterfully laid down by the great Jewish 
instructor. Moses. The numerous references 
to hygiene in the Talmud are naturally the 
result of emphasis ]aid upon tlr.s science of 
health preservation in the Bible. 

Ber. 44b. — The Rabanan have learned : 
The spleen is good for the teeth but bad for 
the entrails ; bran is bad for the teeth but 
good for the entrails. The Master said : "The 


spleen is good for the teeth but bad for the 
entrails. What remedy is there? It is chewed 
and thrown away (being injurious to the 
digestive apparatus). Bran is bad for the 
teeth but good for the entrails. What remedy 
is there? It is cooked well and swallowed (be- 
ing injurious to the teeth)." (See Sabb. noa). 
R. Yitzchak said: "Those who eat cab- 
bage before the fourth hour must not be 
spoken to." For what reason? because of the 
odor from the mouth. Said R. Yitzchak: "It 
is forbidden for every man to eat cabbage be- 
fore the fourth hour." 

Note. — RasM says: "Not being the usual 
time for a meal, the odor will be offensive to 
those who may talk with him, his stomach be- 
ing otherwise empty at the time." Evidently 
the hygiene taught by the Talmud is of a two- 
fold nature. It is 1) preventive, warning 
against the use of bran which is injurious to 
the teeth, and even prohibiting the use of 
cabbage because of the offensive odor; and 
2) curative, advising the use of milt for the 
teeth to keep them in perfect condition. As 
a means also for disguising the offensive 
breath the Talmud advises the use of various 
aromatic substances. (See Sabb. 62a, 65a, 
99a; Baba Metz. 113b.) 

Ber. 54b. — "The stone that Og, King of 
Bashan, wanted to throw upon Israel." The 
explanation is this. He spoke : "How large is 
the camp of Israel?" — "Three partisans." "I 
will go then and tear out a mountain of three 
parasans and throw it upon them and kill 
them." He went and tore out a mountain of 
three parasans and carried it on his head. 
But the Holy One, blessed be He, caused the 
ants to eat it through, so that it fell upon his 
neck. As he wanted to throw it off, his teeth 
bent themselves upon one side and upon the 
other, and he could not throw it off. And 
therefore it is written (Psalms iii, 8), "The 
teeth of the wicked dost thou break." This 
is according to R. Simeon ben Lakish : for R. 
Simeon b. Lakish said : "What is meant by 
that phrase, 'The teeth of the wicked dost 
thou break'? — do not read 'break' (shibarta) 
but 'distend' (shirbabta) " 

Noted — Og, king of Bashan, has won his 
fame as a man of gigantic height. We do not 
know how tall he was, but he has been made 
the standard of measure for anything un- 
usually big. "He is as big as Og melech ha- 
Bashan," is an idiom most common in the 
Yiddish language. Og melech ha-Bashan was 


the "leviathan" of man. His biblical descrip- 
tion is as follows: "For only Og, king or 
Bashan, had been left of the remnant of the 
Raphaim; behold, his bedstead was a bedstead 
of iron; lo! it is in Rabbah of the children of 
Ammon: nine cubits is its length, and four 
cubits its breadth, after the arm of a man." 
(Deut iii, 11). The agadic tale in the Talmud 
of his abnormal teeth is well in conformity 
with his description in the Bible. 

Ber. 56a. — Said he: "I have seen my an- 
terior and posterior teeth falling out." Said 
the other: "Your sons and daughters will 

Note. — This is on odd interpretation of a 
dream. The Talmudic words for "anterior and 
posterior teeth" are ^ 155*1 ^33 . The singular of 
each is ^33 and f£'« The latter is com- 
monly the word signifying tooth. Both are 
used in the Talmud interchangeably for one 
another. The word R32 (kakko), however, 
has received the special signification of 
"molar-tooth" including the pre-molar or "bi- 
cuspid." Hence kakka usually stands for the 
posterior teeth and shen for the anterior teeth. 
Rashi here defines kakke as the "lateral teeth 
railed (in French) mechalieres." Frequently 
the word kakka and shen stand together as in 
the above instance (kakke v'shine). They 


then seem to have the collective meaning of 
"denture" rather than anterior and posterior 
teeth. (See Sabb. 63b; Ab. z. 2Sa; ChOll. 59b.) 
I have arranged the following "Nomen- 
clature": j;» '(before Maq. -jg? with Suf. «;;;; 
dual DOB7 ) a t00th °~ man or animal (Ex. xxi 
24); ivory, hence jp nij*lp horns of a teeth, 
i. e., elephant's tusks (Am. vi. 4; Cant. v. 14; 
Ez. xxvii. 15.). Chald. |p with Suf. -yy 
dual pj5j> with Suf. j-pjP (Dan. vii. 5, 7, IS). 
Also |Q3 with Suf ^3 PI. 133 • < See alB0 
fiVEPB ^ sa « x ^- 16). 
mj^V'nn central incisors (Bech. 39a). 
nVD^fifl la^ral incisors (Been. 39a.). 
ny^DD (ny^JTID) cuspid, canine, cheek or jaw- 
tooth. (Contraction from y?» to devour). 

pi rmtfnc. Also npnfo pl - nwrtfo (J<> el 

i. 6; Job xxix. 17; Ps. viii. ). 

S3^3 (Chald.) cuspid, canine. With Suf. «2*; 

PL »2*J (Sabb. 63b). 

♦The twenty-first letter of the Hebrew al- 
phabet is known as shin p which is analog- 
ous to shen and has the shape of a three- 
rooted tooth. The names for the characters 
were chosen with reference to near-by things, 
Rich as parts of the body and other objects 
of the daily life peculiar to the Bedouins, the 
name of each of wh : ch began with the very 
sound the letter indicated. In a few cases the 
nanaes seem to have been derived from the 
form which the sign represented. 


mQiMfia bicuspids, twin-teeth; also molars. 
(Cant. iv. 2). 

^33 molar. With But. 133 PI. 133 Also 
DIjIID tne grinedrs, i. e., molar teeth. (Ecc. 
xii. 3; Sabb. 152a). 

jqI denture, double row of teeth. (Job xii. 5\ 
D"0^ 11 y gums of the teeth. Also p^ 
DWPI (Keth. 60a). and Qij^n 2B>1» DIPS 
(Rashi, Ab. Z. 28a). 

3^m \W milk-tooth, deciduous or temporary 
"tooth (Kidd. 24b). 
"•3Jn (D^D^n) jaws. (Keth. 39b). 
W T))21p (horns of a tooth) cusps of a tooth. 
£TD£ socket of a tooth, alveolus (so-called 
for its shape: a mortar). (Judg. xv. 9). 
-jn palate, roof of the mouth. (Job xii. 2; 
Prov. xiii. 7.) 

Sabbath 41a. — After eating, if one does 
not go four ells, the food is not digested, and 
this is the beginning of a bad odor. 

Note. — Unfortunately R. Samuel, who knew 
a remedy to all sicknesses, could find no rem- 
edy to "one who takes his meal and immed- 
iately goes to sleep without walking four ells." 
(See: Eaba Met*. 113b). 

Sabb. 62a. — R. Eliezer permitted to carry 
cachou boxes, because, he said, "Who general- 

ly carries cachou boxes? Women whose 
breaths emit a bad odor, and surely they will 
not take them off to show them; hence there 
is no apprehension that they will carry them 
four ells or more on public ground. 

Note. — It appears from this that the carry- 
ing of things farther than four ells on public 
ground on the Sabbath, is prohibited only 
when the act is done openly or befressiah, 
and that otherwise it is permitted. 

Sabb. 63b. — Once a woman went into a 
certain house to bake, and a dog, through bark- 
ing at her, caused her to have a miscarriage. 
Said the landlord of the house: "Fear him 
not, I have deprived him of his teeth and 
claws." But the woman answered: "Throw 
thy favors to the dogs, the child is already 
gone !" 

Note. — The above agada has been brought 
to illustrate the saying, "Whoso raises a vici- 
ous dog in his house prevents charity to go 
therefrom." The word "teeth" is here ren- 
dered as nibe (see "nomenclature" to Bef. 
56a), and is applied to the teeth of animals 
only. They are the four canine teeth promin- 
ent In the dog. 

Sudden dread cm not only cause pregnant 
women to miscarry, but may even cause the' 


teeth of one to fall out. A case like this is 
narrated in Chullin 59a. The Midrash records 
a case where the hair have fallen out during 
a similar experience. Surely we are aware of 
hair "standing up" during an exciting Mo- 

Sabb. 64b. — (Miskna.) A woman may go 
out with a grain of pepper or of salt, or with 
whatever she may be accustomed to keep in 
her mouth, provided she does not put it in her 
mouth on the Sabbath to commence with ; if 
it fell out of her mouth she must not replace 
it. As for a metal or a golden tooth, Rabbi 
permits a woman to go out with it, but the 
sages prohibit it. 

(Gemara. Sabb. 65a.) "With a grain of 
pepper or a grain of salt." The former to 
take away any bad odor of the breath and the 
latter as a remedy for toothache. — "Or with 
whatever she is accustomed to keep in her 
mouth," meaning ginger or cinnamon. — "A 
metal or a golden tooth." Rabbi permits and 
the sages prohibit it. Said R. Zera: "The 
difference of opinion only concerns a golden 
tooth, for a silver tooth is unanimously per- 

*"The hair of my body stood up." (Job iv. 15). 

mitted." This is also proven by the follow- 
ing boraitha: A silver tooth is permitted by 
all, while as to a golden one Rabbi permits 
it; the sages, however, prohibit it. 

Note. — Kashi says: The s.-^g-s prohibit the 
tooth of gold, rs it is different in appearance 
from all the rest of the teeth, while the silver 
tooth reseml s :!;' rest of the teeth and is 
iroanl 1 by all. The latter is 

■ Lso less valuable than the golden tooth, and 
there is no appreheiiSjon that the woman will 
remove it from the mouth to show it to her 

A grain ef salt as a remedy for toothache. 
We must not expeeL the therapeutics of the 
Talmud to be o£ a rational character. Often- 
times it is neither rational nor empirical. The 
medicine of the Talmud is a fo^k-medicine. 
and is seldom based upon a correct under- 
standing of the pathology of the case under 
treatment, or upon a knowledge of the physio- 
logic action of the drug employed. The tooth- 
ache here referred to is rendered by the word 
•J'tSHVl (dorshine). Rashi defines it as "ach- 
ing teeth." Etymologists, however, differ con- 
sider..!.';:,- as to its exact meaning. Aruch and 
Arm •: Completum take it as the "row of the 
teeth." or the process of bone containing the 
teeth, hence to apply the remedy to the gum* 
or alveolar process of the teeth. The Persian 


darad signifies "pain" — to apply to the point 
where the pain is felt. Doro also has the 
meaning "worm," and this appears to he the 
most satisfactory explanation of all. Ever 
since ancient times, all through the middle 
ages, till the present day, there existed the 
common and widespread helief that tooth- 
ache was due solely to the horing action of 
some worm. The Romans have even gone to 
the extent of actually applying a worm to the 
aching tooth, in order to hasten the loss of it. 
The Chinese similarly attribute the decay of 
teeth to the action of worms. The remedies 
against this affection are most numerous. 
One of them presents a certain interest, its 
basis being arsenic: "Arsenic, gr. 1.8, houang- 
ian, gr. 3.6; pulverize, mix with water, and 
with a part of the mass form a small 
pill, which put close to the aching tooth, 
then sleep. Cure certain." With such an un- 
derstanding of the etiology of toothache, 
therapeutics eventually could not have gone 
too far. (See also: Sabb. 67a; Ilia; Yoma 
34a; Ab. Z. 28a; Gittin 69a; Betz. 18b; Baba 
Kama 35aV 

A silver tooth is permitted by all, whereas 
a golden one is permitted only by Rabbi and 
prohibited by the sages. The fact that gold 
and silver teeth were common in the days of 
the Talmud is indeed both pleasing and in- 
teresting to us. This leads us to the subject 


of "Dental Prosthesis." The discovery of the 
art of prosthetic dentistry is attributed to the 
Egyptians. Artificial teeth artistically made 
and set have been found in mummies. In the 
Talmud the use of artificial teeth appears to 
have been more for cosmetic purposes, being 
listed among numerous articles of dress that 
were either prohibited or permitted to be 
worn by women on the Sabbath. The teeth 
referred to here are rendered in the text: 
2i"!T 5W \W rnnin VZ % There is considerable 
doubt as to the correct meaning of shen-tothe- 
beth. It is translated above "a tooth of met- 
al." Th*s, however, appears to be incorrect. 
Being thus translated by M. L. RodMnson). 
Shen-tothebeth was an artificial tooth taking 
the place (tothab — toshab) of a m'ssing tooth 
and was not an expensive tooth. According 
to the commentators the tothebeth-tooth was 
either a natural tooth of man. an animal 
tooth, or a tooth made of wood (Nachmanides. 
Sabb. 64b). As to the golden tooth, the 
Rambam (Maimonides) expresses the opinion 
that they were golden shells placed by women 
upon bad-looking teeth, being anxious to con- 
ceal their deficiency. The manner in which 
the artificial teeth were fastened is unknown. 
Presumably they were attached to the ad- 
joining teeth by means of rings. It seems 
certain, however, that they were not too well 


fastened, having been feared that the woman 
will remove them to show them to her friends. 
It leads to the supposition that the mechan- 
ical construe tion of these teeth was some 
kind of a removable bridge work. (See also: 
Nedarim 6Gb). 

Sabb. 67a. — (Mishia). It is permitted to 
go out with eggs of grasshoppers or with the 
tooth of a fox or a nail from the gallows where 
a man was hanged, as medical remedies. 

(Gemara). The eggs of grasshoppers as 
a remedy for toothache; the tooth of a fox as 
a remedy for sleep ; viz., the tooth of a live 
fox to prevent sleep and of a dead one to 
cause sleep ; the nail from the gallows where 
a man was hanged, as a remedy for swelling. 
Note. — These are typical examples of folk- 
medicine. The articles mentioned, like all 
talismans, were supposed to work wonders. 
The selection made is a most peculiar one, 
and neither of the articles is perhaps ever 

Sabb. 81b. — R. Eiiezer said: One may 
take a splinter from the wood lying near him 
to clean his teeth with; but the sages say: 
He can take it onlv from a manger. 


^' te. — The splinter referred to is an ordi- 
nary "toothpick." The gemara discusses it 
more broadly in 3etzah 33a, b. 

Sabb. 90a. — (Mishna). The prescribed 
quantity for pepper is the least possible 

{Gemara). To what can such a small 
quantity of pepper be put? It may be used 
by one whose breath is foul. 
.Note. — See: Sabbath 65a. 

Sabb. uoa. — "It is permitted to partake 
of all usual eatables." What does the Mishna 
mean to add by the word "all"? — A milt, 
which is good for the teeth (although it is bad 
for a weak stomach), and bran, which is good 
for the stomach (but bad for the teeth). 
Note.— See: Berachoth 44b. 

Sabb. ma. — (Mishna). One who suiters 
with tooihache must not gargle vinegar for it, 
but he may dip something in vinegar and ap- 
ply it. and if the pain is relieved thereby, he 
need have no fear of the consequences. 

(Gemara). R. Asha bar Papa asked R. 
Abuha concerning the following contradiction : 


'The Mishna teaches, that one who has a 
toothache must not gargle vinegar, implying 
thereby, that vinegar is a remedy for tooth- 
ache, and still we find in the passage (Prov. 
x. 26) : As vinegar is to the teeth, and as 
smoke is to the eyes, so is the sluggard to 
those that send him." — This presents no diffi- 
culty. The Mishna refers to an injured tooth, 
whereas the passage refers to sound teeth 
which are put on edge by vinegar. 

Note. — Hippocrates in his book, "On the 
Use of Liquids," recommends vinegar in cases 
of "burning of the teeth." Aristotle in his 
"History of Animals" says: "The setting on 
edge of the teeth may be produced not only 
by eating acid things, but also simply by 
seeing them eaten. This sensation may be 
made to cease by the use of purslane and 

Sabb. 133a. — One may perform anything 
necessary for circumcision on the Sabbath, as 
circumcising, tearing open, sucking out the 
blood, applying a plaster or a caraway seed. 
If the latter had not been ground before the 
Sabbath, one may masticate it with the teeth 
and then apply it. 


Note. — To triturate medicinal substances 
a mortar and pestle is generally used. The 
teeth serve this purpose for food, hence why 
not occasionally for a caraway seen? (S«e 
end of "Note" to Gittin 69a). 

Sabb. 152a. — 'And the grinders will stand 
still' (Ecc. xii. 3) — by these are meant the 

Caesar asked R. Joshua ben Hananiah : 
"Why didst thou not come to the debating 
rooms?" and he answered: "The mountain 
is covered with snow, the surrounding paths 
are icy, the dogs do not bark any more, and the 
"millstones" grind no more." 

Note. — Rashi says: "The snow covered 
mountain, meaning his head was gray; the 
icy paths — his heard was gray; the dogs bark 
no more — his voice was inaudible; the mill- 
stones grind no more — his teeth were lost. 

The physiologic function of the teeth has 
not yet been spoken of. The above extracts 
touch the subject to the extent that it com- 
pares the teeth to millstones, serving to grind 
or triturate the food. As a matter of fact 
there is little else to be attributed to the 
teeth, excepting tbeir power of mastication. 
This function of the teeth is again mentioned 
in NIddah 65a: "Once a man loses his teeth, 


his nutrition is diminished." R. Mair advises 
(see the extract following): "Be heedful of 
thy teeth and thou wilt show it in thy step." 
Rashi comments on this: eat well (and thou 
wilt look well). (See: Baba Metziah 42b). 

Sabb. 152a. — We have learned in the name 
of R. Mair: "Be heedful of thy teeth and thou 
wilt show it in thy step."nrJ2 rOBTn »333 m 
Note. — R. Mair has thereby given us a well- 
formed proverb. He also has the credit of 
being the author of three hundred fox-fables 
based on proverbs (See: Sanhcdrin 39a). 
Another Talmudic proverb is the following 
/ (Chullin 127a): "Count your teeth when you 
are kissed by a Narashite," (hinting that a 
man of Narash was not trusty). Among the 
Biblical proverbs are the following: "As 
"' vinegar is to the teeth, and as smoke is to 
the eyes so is the sluggard to those that send 
him." (Prov. x. 26). — "Like a carious tooth, 
and a foot out of joint, is confidence in a 
treacherous man in a time of distress." (Prov. 
xxv. Vi)i — "There is a generation, whose teeth 
are like swords, and whose cutting-teeth are 
as knives, to devour the poor from off the 
earth, and the needy from among) men." 
(Prov. xxx. 14). A number of proverbs are 
common in the Yiddish language; more num- 
erous are idiomatic expressions: A kail© 

tzohn is a scinch in moll; a carious tooth is 
an enemy in the mouth. — A tzohn far a tzhon; 
a tooth for a tooth (a Biblical phrase, Ex, 
xxi. 24). — Leigen di tzeihn off der poiitzs; 
to lay the teeth on the shelf, i, e., not to have 
what to eat. — Leigen di tzeihn in a baitei 
(bag); a variation cf the preceding. — Di 
tzeihn senen ihm far shrek shiur nit aroisge- 
falen; his teeth nearly fell out for fear. — 
Warfen a tzohn on a tzohn; throw a tooth 
against a tooth (in shivering or trembling). 
— Shtziren mit di tzeihn; gnash with the 
teeth. — Nit tzu wiser! tzi fun tzeihn tzi fun 
bein; not to have the least notion of any- 
thing. — Shraien oif di tzeihn; cry on the teeth, 
i. e., cry iu vain. — Farreden di tzeihn; turn 
off one's attention in speaking. — Zain genug 
nor oif tin tzohn; suffice for but one tooth, 
i. e., a scarce meal. 

Pesachim 113a. — Rab said to his son 
ITvvah : "Do not make a habit of taking med- 
icine. Do not make long strides. Avoid hav- 
ing a tooth extracted. Never try to tease a 
snake, and do not make sport of a Persian." 
Not. — Rah was a practical physician. His 
warning to his son to avoid having a tooth 
extracted was a practical advice. The tooth 
in question is perhaps a molar tooth, being 


rendered in the text through kakka. (See 
"note" to Ber. 56a). R. Hananel adds: "If 
an eye-tooth hurts you, do not have it ex- 
tracted, because of the eye." Extraction in 
general must have been a dreadful thing in 
those days. This is evident from the descrip- 
tion of the forceps then employed (usually 
of lead, easily bending), and from their un- 
skillful manipulation. The extraction of a 
tooth was simply a torturous operation. A 
historian describes it thus: "The patient 
was seated on the floor, and his head, to in- 
sure its not moving, was placed between the 
knees of the operator. The forceps were in- 
serted, the tooth having first been isolated 
and filled about with anything to insure 
against fracture., then with repeated there- 
and-back movements the tooth was finally 
jolted from its position." From this we can 
readily understand the reason for the "anti- 
pathy" existing against the extraction of a 
tooth. It might be mentioned, however, that 
so-called painless extraction could have been 
possible, anesthesia having been known to 
the Talmud. Surgery in general was quite 
advanced in tho Talmud. Operations were 
known in dislocations of the thigh bone, con- 
tusions of the skull, perforations of the lungs, 
oesophagus, stomach, large and email intes- 
tines, and imperforate anns. 


The warning against the extraction of a 
tooth is even now common in the case of a 
pregnant woman. There is a wide-spread be- 
lief that if a woman have a tooth extracted 
during pregnancy, there will he recurrence 
of toothache during every future pregnancy. 
This eventually will necessitate the extraction 
of a tooth each time she is pregnant. The 
fear against this leads to many a woman suf- 
fering Intense pain, rather than submit her- 
self to have the troublesome tooth extracted. 

The shedding of a milk-tooth, or the ex- 
traction of a tooth in children, is especially 
interesting owing to quite an effective cere- 
mony connected with it. It is greatly amus- 
ing to children and brings rrnany a childish 
fancy. On the loss of a tooth, the child is 
directed to bring the. tooth to the oven and 
say the following three t^mes: "Malzele, 
malzele, nadir an a!t3n (or beinernem) 
tzohn, gib mir a naiem (or eizernem) tzohn " 
(little mouse, little mouse, here is an old 
tooth, give me a new tooth); then throw the 
tooth into the fire. Children are not always 
in sympathy with a little mouse; hut itB 
having dominion over tbe "new teeth" has 
perhaps many a time saved it from being 
scared back to its hole. 


Yoma 84a. — R. Yochanan had the scurvy. 
He went to a matron of Rome. She did some- 
thing to relieve him on a Thursday and the 
eve of Sabbath. He asked her, "What shall 
I do on Sabbath?" She said, "You will not 
need to do anything." He said. "But if, not- 
withstanding, I should be obliged to do some- 
thing?" She said, "Swear to me that you 
will not tell it to anyone, so I shall tell you." 
After this, when she had told him, he went 
and lectured it to everybody. But he had 
sworn not to tell? He had sworn, "To the 
God of Israel I will not reveal," but to the 
people of Israel he could. But this deception 
was a profanation of God's name? He told 
her immediately thereupon : "I had sworn 
not to say it to God, but to Israel I would." 
What was it that she told him? Said R. Aha 
the son of R. Ammi : "Water of leavened 
dough, olive oil, and salt." R. Yemar says: 
"Not the water, but leavened dough itself, 
olive oil, and salt." R. Ashi says : "Fat of the 
wing of a goose." Said Abayi : "I have used 
all these things and was not cured until an 
Arab merchant said : 'The stones of olive, 
one-third grown, should be taken and burned 


in a new mar, and be applied to the rows of 
ihe teeth.' This I have done and have been 
cured." What causes such a sickness? Eat- 
ing of hot barley-bread or the remains of a 
dish of harsana from the pervious evening. 
What are its symptoms? When something is 
put on the teeth they begin to bleed. R. Nach- 
man ben Yitzchak said : Scurvy begins in the 
mouth and ends in the entrails." 

Note. — Rashi says: "Scurvy ^--rtf) * 
sickness of the teeth and jaws beginning la 
the mouth and ending in the entrails; the 
sickness is a serious one. Harsana: fish fried 
in flour and the fish's own oil." At Ab. Z. 28*. 
Rashi renders cephidna, or as it is written 
there cephdina, with an old French term, 
"mlshga." Rashi also translates hidrokan like 
cephidna KTVBS at Erub. 41b. 

Aside from the etymological difficulties, 
the sickness referred to is one involving the 
'eeth and gums, and is well described in the 
Talmud. We learn of cephidna or cephdfna, 
its etiology, pathology, symptoms and therap- 
eutics, the latter of which seems to be suc- 
cessful resulting in the cure of R. Atari 
Cephidna has been translated by many a.* 
scurvy (Aruch, Aruch completum, Levy. Jas- 
trow). Buxtor translates it with putreds, 
attributing the disease to a putrescent condi- 


tion of one or more teeth. From the patho- 
logy of the cage we must assume that the 
disease has affected the entire oral cavity, 
and was undoubtedly a generalised inaamma- 
tion of the mouth. To think it the result of 
putrescent teeth would mean some pre-exist- 
ing alveolar abscess, a condition of which we 
Snd no mention, ending in a complication of 
the bowels. It seems more probable that the 
disease was rather a form of stomatitis. 
There are reasons to believe that the disease 
¥ras not of mere local origin. We see, how- 
ever, that the treatment was applied locally 
and has proved quite successful. This only 
proves to illustrate that local treatment can 
be possible even though there be constitu- 
tional disorders existing. Also scurvy, upon 
whieh the majority of writers are agreed, Is 
a constitutional disease, and might be accept- 
ed in as far as bleeding of the gums is con- 

Among the sufferers of the disease was 
also Rabbi, mentioned at Baba-Metzlah 85a. 
Rabbi accepted for himself cephidna as an af- 
fliction for seven years, and "during all the 
years Rabbi was suffering from his illness, 
it never happened that the country was in 
need of rain." 

At Abodah Zarah 28a. the story of R. 
Vochanan is repeated, with the addition td 

the etiology of the case, that' It is a!*o eaiUMgd 
by eating cold wheat-bread (excepting the 
hot barley-bread) , and R. Nachman remarks 
that he was a sufferer of cephidna himself, 
thus strengthening his assertion that the 
disease begins in the mouth and ends in the 

Betzah i 8b. — And we have learned: One 
who suffers with toothache must not gargle 
vinegar for it, but he may dip something in 
vinegar and apply it, and if the pain is re- 
lieved thereby, he need have no fear of the 

Note. — This is a Mishna which has already 
been explained together with its Gemara at 
Sabbath Ilia. There R. Aaha explains vine- 
gar to be good for carious teeth and bad for 
sound teeth. The Jerusalem Talmud there- 
fore comments that "vinegar is good for what 
is bad and bad for what is good." (J. Sabb. 
xiv. 14c, 76). 

Among substances injurious to the teeth, 
the Jerusalem Talmud also mentions the va- 
por of bath-houses (J. Ab. Z. iii. 42d. 59). R. 
Yehudah was relieved from a toothache by 
the laying on of the hand of the prophet Eli- 
jah (J. Keth. xii. 35a. 51. Gen. R. 33). Thia 
sort of cure which belongs under the heading 


at Psychic Medicine, though somewhat singu- 
lar in character, is yet an important factor ia 
therapeutics, and includes the so-called "roy- 
al touch," as well as hypnotism, music sug- 
gestion, faith cure, and Christian Science. 
While the laying-on of hands and the royal 
touch might have worked more effectively in 
the days of the Talmud, yet there are reasons 
to believe that any kind of suggestion that 
can possibly be practiced to-day will give 
equally wonder-working results and will prove 
equally beneficial. To the dentist the practice 
of mental suggestion in whatever form will 
always prove the most effective means for 
relieving many kinds of pains and for calm- 
ing nervous patients, where the use of ano- 
dynes, counter- irritants and nerve sedatives 
would generally fail. Many a patient has 
come to the dentist with a throbbing tooth- 
ache and has lost it the moment he seated 
himself upon the operating chair. 

Betz. 33a, b. — (Mishna). R. Eliezer says: 
One may take a splinter from the wood lying 
near him for the purpose of cleaning his teeth 

(Gemara). R. Yehudah said: To take 
straw or other fodder of cattle, and break it 
for cleaning the teeth, is permitted. R. Kahana 


objected him: If one breaks branches of 
spice-trees for the purpose of cleaning the 
teeth with them, he is liable to a sin offering. 

(It is permitted to break the branches of spice- 
trees for the purpose of enjoying their odor, 
but only when they are soft. To clean the 
teeth with them they must necessarily be hard, 
when it is prohibited to break them ) . R. 
Eliezer said : One may take a splinter from 
the wood lying near him to clean his teeth 
with ; but the sages say : He can take it only 
from a manger. All agree that he shall not 
break it oft, and if he does so. to clean the 
teeth or to open the door with it, then if un- 
intentionally on a Sabbath, he is liable to a 
sin offering, and if intentionally on a festival, 
he is liable to the punishment of stripes. So 
is the decree of R. Eliezer. The sages, how- 
ever, say : In both cases he is free, because 
this is only a shbuih (Sabbath-rest, rabini- 

Note. — We have already found the splinter 
or toothpick at Sabbath 81b. The tooth- 
pick (or cd^P ) * s again referred to at Baba 
Bathra 15b: He said, "Take out the splinter 
from thy teeth;" they answered. "Take out 


the beam from thy eyes." Probably the 
■plinter between the teeth was kept there as 
a means for straightening irregular teeth, or 
for some similar orthodontic purpose. (See 
also Arak. 16b). Another form of toothpick 
is mentioned at Chullin 16b, where it is pro- 
hibited to pick the teeth with a broken piece 
of pipe. 

Meggillah 15b. — You find it also with 
reference to the teeth of the wicked, as it is 
written : "The teeth of the wicked dost thou 
break" (Ps. iii. 8), and Resh Lakish said: 
Do not read "break" (shibarta) , but "distend" 
(shirbabta). See Berachotii 54b; also Suta 


Chaggigah 22b. — His teeth became black 
because of his fastings. (See also: Nazir 

Note. — It is rather difficult to account for 
the blackening of the teeth through fasting. 
Undoubtedly these were lifeless teeth in a 
gangrenous condition. The Jerusalem Tal- 
mud similarly tells us that "through continued 
fasting the teeth become black." (J. Sabb. y. 
7c, 30). Ths commentators tell us also of red 
teeth (Rambam, Hilchoth Sabb. 19, 7; Ram- 
ban, to Sabb. 64b). which might have been 

the cause of some hemorrhage cf the t«<L-ife, 
thus coloring them red. Besides the bls-ck 
and red teeth, exceptional large teeth were 
also known to the Talmud. Such w&s the 
case with R. Jehudah who, on account of his 
sxtraordinary large teeth, received the nick- 
aame Shinnana ( mjip ) Sometime the name 
Yehudah is entirely dropped and only Shin- 
nana appears. (See: Ber. 36a; Sabb. 152a; 
Erub. 54a; R. H. 24b; Kcth. 12b. 14a, 53a; 
Gitt. 78b; Kldd. 32a; B. K. Ha, 15b, 36b; 
B. B. 133b; Sanh. 84b; Nidd. 25b. Also Chag. 
15b; Ker. 19b; Nidd. 13a, 17a). 

Ketkubotii 59b. — According to Beth* 
Shaxranai : He put a finger between her teeth. 
According to Beth-Hillei: She put a finger 
between her teeth. 

Note. — These are idiomatic expression!, 

such as: To put a finger into the mouth, i. e., 

to hint at something. 

Ketk. 60a. — As we have learned: When 
one bites into anything and blood appears on 
the bite, one shall break the blood-portion of? 
and eat the rest. But when there is bleeding 
between the teeth, one may suck the blood into 
the mouth without any harm. 

Note. — This clearly illustrates that eating 
of blood is strictly prohibited; not even one's 
own blood after it appears on a mortal of 
food. When there is hemorrhage between 
the teeth, the loss of blood might prove fatal 
to the individual, therefore it is permitted to 
return the blood into the system. Has this 
passage ever been referred to in the ritual 
murder accusations, in the attempt to prove 
that eating of blood is permitted according 
to the Talmud? 

Keth. 71a. — In the opinion of Rabi Mair, 
he put a finger between her teeth. Again we 
have learned: A woman who vows to be 
separated, and her husband hears it and does 
not object, then Rabi Mair and Rabi Yehudah 
say, she put a finger between her teeth. — Rabi 
Yosi and Rabi Eiiezer say, he put a finger be- 
tween her teeth. (See Keth. 59b.). 

Keth. nib. — We learn: "His teeth shall 
t>e white from milk" (Gen. xiix. 12. D^:r \2^ 
3?«3 ). Do not read D^rr *3? (white teeth), 
but D*J8> itf ("old age" or "a child of two 
years"). R. Yochanan said, "Better make 
white the teeth of thy comrade, than give him 

to drink milk ; as it is written 3$fiB &2& 13$ 

do not read rrr P$ but D*J*» H2? .(rnake 
white the teeth). 

Nedasim 50b.— She described: "He is 
short, has a big abdomen, a dark complexion, 
and large teeth.'* 

Nedarim 66b. — She had a tothebeth-tooth 
and R. Ishmael made h r -r a golden tooth. 

Note. — The tothebeth-tooth "wag fully ex- 
plained at Sabbath 64b. It is evident here 
that the tothebeth-tooth was an inexpensive 
tooth, and not a very good looking tootk. 
The golden tooth was a more becoming one, 
hence the change. 

Nazis 52b. — We have learned : His teeth 
became black on account of his fastings. (See : 
Chagg. 22b). 

Suta 12b — You find it also with reference 
to the wicked, as it is written (Ps. iii. 8) : 
"The teeth of the wicked dost thou break," 
and Resh Lakish said: Do not read "break" 
(shibarta), but "distend" (sliirbabta ) . 

Note. — For explanations, see: 3er. Mfe; 

also Meg. 15b. 


Gittin 42b. — Come and hear: If he struck 
out one of his (the servant's) teeth and blind- 
ed one of his eyes, then he is free because of 
his tooth and he must pay him damages for 
his eye. 

Note. — The Gemara here refers to the pas- 
sage in the Bible: "And if he strike out his 
man-servant's tooth, or his maid-servant's 
tooth, he shall let him go free for the sake 
of hiB tooth." (Ex. xxi. 27). The matter is 
further discussed at Klddushin 24a, 42b; 
Baba Kama 26b, 34b, 73b. 

Gittin 69a — For tooth (ache), said Rabba 
ben R. Hona, take a single clove of garlic, 
rub it with oil and salt, and place it on the 
thumb-nail of the aching side. It should, how- 
ever, be circumscribed with a rim of dough, 
and care should be taken that it touch not the 
skin, because there is danger of leprosy. For 
the palate (affections of), R. Yochanan said, 
take bertram, which is as good as mamru 
(meaning is uncertain), and the roots of bert- 
rani are even better than mamru. To check 
(the spread of inflammation), take this into 
the mouth. To ripen (the abscess), take the 
bran remaining on th<* sieve, lentih together 


with the dust ;s:;<i hops ; from this about the 
size of a nut is taken into the mouth. To 
open (the abscess ), white cresses should be 
blown in by someone through a wheat-stalk. 
To heal, earth should be taken from near a 
privy, kneaded with honey, and eaten ; this 
proves effective. 

Note. — It Ea ratber d'Qc-ult to understand 
the relationship between the thumb-nail ol 
the aching side and the aching tooth, the con- 
nection evidently being a very close one, 
since the application of the substance to the 
thumb-nail would effect a cure of the tooth- 
ache. The Chinese similarly applied their 
remedies at some distant point. For tooth- 
ache the Chinese used garlic and salpetre, 
which they pulverized and made into pill*. 
If the pains were on the left side, a pill was 
put into the right ear, and vice versa. A cer- 
tain powder was given to be snuffed up into 
the left nostril if the person suffering from 
toothache was a man; into the right If a 
woman. Another complicated medicated 
powder was to be smeit with the right nostril 
or with the left, corresponding to the side on 
which th( • was located. Still another 

remedy «ras to roast a bit of garlic, crush it 
with the teeth and afterward mix it with 
chopper torse dish seeds, reducing the 


whole to a paste with human milk; they were 
then formed into pills: these were introduced 
into the nose on the side opposed to that 
where the pain was situated. (Darby, "La 
medecine chez les Chinois"). 

Kiddusiiin 24a, b. — We have learned: He 
goes free because of his eye (which has been 
blinded by his master), or because of any other 
visible organ whose functions will not return. 
This is evident from the tooth and eye : Just 
as the (missing) tooth and eye are visible 
injuries, and they do not return, so also is 
every other visible injury, whereby (the 
organ) does not return. It seems, therefore, 
that the tooth and eye represent two teachings 
in one, (as if only one law r were twice repeat- 
ed), and wherever there are two teachings in 
one, then is there not something to infer from 
this ? — Both are necessary. Had the merciful 
have written "tooth" alone, then we might 
think that it includes even a milk-tooth (which 
is later replaced), therefore he also wrote 
"eye." And had the merciful have written 
"eye" alone, then we might think that just 
as the eye which had been created with him, 
so also every other organ that had been created 

with him; however, not the tooth (which 
makes its appearance after birth; . Therefore 
both are necessary. 

The Rabbanan have learned: It he has 
struck his servant on the eye and has weakened 
it, on a tooth and has loosened it, if he can 
yet make use of them, the servant does not go 
free because of them, but if he can not make 
use of them, the servant does go free because 
of them. We have learned elsewhere : When 
the eye oi the servant was weak and he has 
blinded it, when the tooth was loose and he 
struck it out, if he has previously made use of 
them, the servant goes free because of them, 
but if not, the servant does not go free because 
of them. 

Note. — Particular attention is paid in the 
Talmud to the teeth with their bearingi to 
Jurisprudence. The basis of the Talmudical 
discussions, of course, is the Bible. — "Ey« 
for eye. tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot 
for foot" (Ex. xxi. 24). As we hare seen, 
the Talmud explains the eye and tooth as 
representative examples of groups of organs. 
The master is liable for injuries to all organs; 
both those whose functions will return and 
those which are created with man or make 

their appearance later. Eut the hand and 
foot are also mentioned, and the explanation 
of the Talmud that each is representative of 
a definite group of organs is not very applic- 
able in these cases. It seems more probable 
that the tooth and eye (as also the hand and 
foot) were mentioned simply as organs most 
likely to be injured. 

I find a most interesting comment on these 
biblical clauses in the works of Philo-Judeus 
(born 15 B. C. E.), who considers the strik- 
ing out of a tooth as plotting against one's 

"The law also commands that if any one 
strike out the tooth of a slave be shall bestow 
his freedom on the slave. Why is this? Be- 
cause life is a thing of great value, and be- 
cause nature has made the teeth the instru- 
ments of life, as being those by which the 
food is eaten. And of the teeth some are 
fitted for eating meat and all other eatable 
food, and on that account are called incisors, 
or cutting-teeth; others are called molar teeth 
from their still further grinding and smooth- 
ing what has been cut by the inrisors. en 
which account the Creator and Father of the 
universe, who is not accustomed to make 
anything which is not appointed for some 
particular U3e, did not do with the teeth as 


He did with every other part of the body, 
and make them at once, ai the iirst creation 
of the man, considering that as while an in- 
fant he was on^y intended to ha fed upon milk 
they would be a superfluous burden in his 
way, and would be a severe injury to tbe 
breasts, filled as they are at that time with 
springs of milk, from which moist food is 
derived, as they would in that case be bitten 
by the child while sucking the milk. There- 
fore, having waited for a suitable season, 
(and that is when the child is weaned) 
rie then causes the infant to put forth the 
:eeth which Re bad prepared for it before, 
and the most perfect food now supplied to it 
requires the organs above-mentioned now 
that the child rejects the food of milk." 

"If, therefore, any one, yielding to an in- 
solant disposition, strikes out the tooth of 
his servant, that organ which is the minister 
and provider of those most necessary things, 
food and life, he shall emancipate him whom 
he has injured, because by the evil which he 
inflicted on him, he has deprived him of the 
use and service of his tooth." 

"Is then,'' some one will say, "a tooth of 
equal value with an eye?" "Each," I would 
reply, "is of equal value for the purposes for 
which they are given, the eye with reference 


to the objects of sight, the teeth with refer- 
ence to those that are eatable." But if any 
one were to desire to institute a comparison, 
he would find that the eye is entitled to the 
highest respects among all the parts of the 
body, inasmuch as being occupied in the con- 
templation of the most glorious thing in the 
whole world, namely the heaven; and that 
the tooth is useful in being the masticator of 
food, which is the most useful thing contri- 
buting to life. And he who strikes cut a 
man's eye does not hinder him from living, 
but a most miserable death awaits the man 
who has all his teeth knocked out." 

"And if any one meditates inflicting in- 
jury in these parts on his servants, let him 
know that he is causing them an artificial 
famine in the midst c ? plenty and abudance; 
for what advantage is it to a man that there 
should be an abundance of food, if the instru- 
ments by which he may be enabled to make 
use of it are taken from him and lost, through 
the agency of his cruel, and pitiless, and in- 
humane master? It is for this reason that 
in auother passage the lawgiver forbids cred- 
itors to exact from their debtors a molar 
tooth or a grinder as a pledge, (Deut. xxix, 6.) 
giving as a reason that a person who does so 
is taking a man's life in pledge; for he who 


deprives a miD of the instruments of living 
is proceeding towards murder, entrtaining 
the idea of plotting even against lire. ' (Works 
of Philo-Judeus, translated by C. D. Y r onge, 

vol. iii. p. 352). 

The conclusion to which Philo-Judeus ar- 
rives here is quite peculiar inasmuch as he 
strives to justify the law ani the great va'.ue 
attributed to a tooth in the Bible. But how 
much less would he have said had he known 
with what astonishing facility the loss of a 
tooth can be remedied — the replacement of 
an artificial one of almost equal value! With 
our present knowledge of the teeth, the dental 
expert would have to consider a number of 
things before giving his final decision as to 
the degree of liability when a man's tooth 
was knocked out. He would have to consider 
the texture of the tooth, whether it was of 
soft or hard texture, whether it was a loose 
or a firm tooth, and whether little or great 
force was used in its displacement. Again, 
whether it was an anterior or a posterior 
tooth, whether a deciduous or a permanent 
tooth, and finally whether and how an arti- 
ficial replacement is possible. 

Kidd. 24b. — The Rabbanaii have learned : 
When the master is a physician and the slave 
implores him to treat His eye and he blinds it, 


to drill his tooth and he breaks it out, then he 
has tricked his master and goes out free. 
(See: B. K. 26b). 

Kidd. 25a. — Rabbin related in the name of 
R. Ada as in the name of R. Yitzchak, that a 
maid of the house of Rabbi, who once came 
out of the dip-bath, found a bone between her 
teeth, and Rabbi therefore made it necessary 
for her to dip herself once more. 

Note.— The dip-bath (rrz~) is taken bj 
religious Jewish women after menstruation. 

Bab.a Kama 13b, 14a. — Said R. Hisda in 
the name of Abimi : In a partnership court 
one partner is liable to the other partner for 
damages done by the tooth and the foot. — 
Also R. Joseph taught: In a partnership court 
and an inn, one is liable for damages done 
by the tooth and the foot. — R. Eliezer, how- 
ever, makes them free and explains the mishna 
that there is no liability for foot and tooth 
when it belongs to the plaintiff or to both the 
plaintiff and the defendant. 


Note— Saba Kama is the first tract of the 

"Seder Nazikin. ' (damages, jurisprudence). 
The subject of jurisprudence has already been 
discussed in the note under the extract of 
Kiddushin 24a, b, relative to the loss of the 
tooth and eye. Under the section Nezikin are 
listed the tracts Baba Kama, Saba Metzfah, 
Baba Bathra, and Sar.hedrin. 

B. K. 16a. — {Mishna). There are five 
cases which are considered vicious and five 
which are considered non-vicious. — The tooth 
(of an animal) is considered vicious. 

(Gemara). Therefore said Rabhina : The 
mishna is not completed, and should read as 
follows : There are five cases which are con- 
sidered non-vicious until they are declared to 
be vicious; the tooth and foot, however, are 
considered vicious from the very beginning, 
and this is called the vicious ox. 

B. K. 1 6b. — When a lion seizes anything 
(on public ground) and eats it, then (the 
owner) is not liable, because it is his nature 
to seize things. It is then like the eating of 
fruits and herbs (by cattle). So is it with 
tooth-damages on public ground which need 
not be paid for. 


-We have learned: When the 
master is a physician and (the slave) implores 
him to treat his eye, and he blinds it, or to 
drill his tooth, and he breaks it out, then he 
has tricked his master and goes out free. 
(See: Kidd. 24b). 

B. K. 27b, 28a. — R. Kahana objected: 
Ben-bag-bag said, "Never enter the yard of 
your neighbor unpermitted to take what may 
belong to you (in case the latter refuses to 
return it to you) in order that you do not ap- 
pear like a thief to him. Better strike his teeth 
out, and say to him : I take what belongs to 
me." The other replied : "Keep this to thy- 
self ; Ben-bag-bag is alone in his opinion and 
the Rabbanan dispute him. Rabhina explains : 
Under strike his teeth out it is to be under- 
stood, bring suit against him. 

B. K. 34b. — (Mishna). If his ox blinded 
the eye of his slave or knocked out his tooth 
the owner is not liable (*. e., the slave is not 
to be manumitted), but if he himself blinded 
the eye of h:s slave or knocked out his tooth, 
he is liable. (See: B. K. 73b). 


B. K. 35a.— There was an ox that belonged 

to R. Papa who when he once suffered from 
toothache removed the cover from thc j beer- 
barrel and drank from the beer to be eured. 
(See: Sabb. 64b). 

B. K. 73b. — If a man blinds the eye of his 
slave and thereafter strikes out one of his 
teeth, he shall manumit the slave for the sake 
of his eye, and pay him the value of his tooth. 
If it occurs vice versa, i. c, if a man strikes 
out the tooth of his slave and thereafter blinds 
one of his eyes, he shall manumit him for the 
sake of his tooth, and pay him the value of 
the eye. He must do so because it is written, 
"for the sake of his eye," which does not mean 
for the sake of his eye and his tooth, and "for 
the sake of his tooth," which does not mean 
for the sake of his tooth and his eye. 

B. K. 83a. — Once a woman went into a 
certain house to bake, and a dog, through bark- 
ing at her, caused her to have a miscarriage. 
Said the landlord of the house: "Fear him 
not, I have deprived him of his teeth and 
claws." But the woman answered : "Throw 


thy favors to the dogs, the child is already 
gone!" (See: Sabb. 63b). 

B. K. 92b. — The people used to say: 
"Sixty-fold pain does a tooth experience when 
it hears another (eating) and does not eat 

Baba Metziah 42b. — There was a guard- 
ian of orphans who brought an ox for the or- 
phans and transferred it to the shepard. The 
ox had no teeth and could not eat and finally 
died. (See: Sabb. 152a). 

B. Metz. 85a.— Said Rabbi: "I see that 
chastisements are favored." And he accepted 
for himself afflictions for thirteen years, six 
of them with cold chills and seven of them with 
ccphidna (an oral disease — see Yoma 84a). 
And during all the years Rabbi was suffering 
from his illness, it never happened that the 
country was in need of rain. 

B. Metz. 113b. — Samuel said: "To all 
sicknesses I know a remedy excepting the fol- 
k-wing three: — and if one takes his meal and 


immediately goes to si r-ep without walking 
four ells (which causes offensive breath)/' 
(See: Sabb. 41a). 

Baba Battira 15b. — R. Yochanan said: 
It is written ( Ruth i. 1 ) , "And it came to pass 
in the days when the judges judged," etc. It 
means, it was a generation that judged the 
judges. If, e. g., the judge said to them : "Take 
out the splinter from thy teeth," they answer- 
ed, "If thou wilt take the beam out of thy 
eyes, I will remove the splinter from my teeth." 
• See: Sabb. 81 b, Betz. 33a, Arak. 16b). 

Sanhedrix 39a. — From R. Mair's three 
hundred fox fables we have only three : ( 1 ) 
"The fathers have eaten sour grapes and the 
teeth of the children were set on edge" (Ezek. 
xviii. 2) ; (2) "Just balances, just weights" 
(Lev. xix. 36); (3) "The righteous is de- 
livered cut of distress and the wicked cometh 
in his stead" (Prov. xi. 8). 

Note. — In the text nothing is mentioned 
what the fables were. Rashi, however, ex- 
plains it thus: "The fox said to the wolf. 
If you would go in a Jewish yard on the eve 
of Sabbath to assist them in the preparation 


of meals for Sabbath, they would invite you 
for their test raeal on Sabbath day. And 
when the wolf was severly beaten while doing 
so, he wanted to kill the fox. He, however, 
told him: This was because your father, in 
assisting them to prepare their meal, consum- 
ed the best of it and ran away. And to his 
question, Should I be beaten because of my 
father? he answered: Yea, the fathers have 
eaten sour grapes and the teeth of the chil- 
dren are set on edge. However, if you will 
follow me I shall show you a place where you 
can eat to satiation. And he led him to a 
well in which two pails v> r ere pulled up and 
down by means of a rope attached to a 
beam. And the fox entered in one pail, which 
dropped down to the bottom. And to the 
question of the wolf. For what purpose did 
you enter the pail? he answered: I see here 
meat and cheese which will be sufficient for 
both of us. And he showed him the reflection 
of the moon on the water, which the wolf 
mistook for a round cheese. And asking the 
fox how he ran get it. he was told to enter 
the other pall which was on top. And to the 
cry of the wolf. How can I come out? he 
answered: The righteous is delivered out of 
distress and the w'cked cometh in his stead." 


.Sanhedrin 39a.- — An atheist said to Rah- 
man Gamaliel: "It reads (Vs. cxlvii. 4). 'V 
counteth the number of the star?.' etc. What 
peroga'tive is this? I also can do this." R. 

Gamaliel answered him: "Can you tell me 
how many teeth are in your mouth V s And 
he put his hand in his mouth and began to 
count them. Rejoined R. Gamaliel : "You 
are not aware of the number of teeth in your 
mouth, and yet you claim to knew hew many 
stars there are in heaven." 

Note. — It was not only the atheist who 
showed his ignorance on questions concern- 
ing the teeth, but even Aristotle in his "Hii- 
tory of Animals" writes: "The teeth are not 
always equal in number in both jaws; the 
animals provided with horns have no teeth 
in the front of the upper jaw; this, however, 
is also to be observed in animals without 
horns, as for example in the camel; the molar 
teeth are never changed either in man or in 
any known animal: the pig never changes it* 
teeth; the man has more teeth than the 
woman." Also Hippocrates in his second 
book on "Epidemics" tells us: "Long-lived 
individuals have a greater number of teetb," 
which is as much as to say that the haying of 
a greater numbp- of teeth !a a sign of long- 


Abodah Zarah. — R. Eliezer asked: "How 
is it with the jaw-teeth and the cutting-teeth; 
are they to be considered as an external wound, 
being that they are hard, or are they an in- 
ternal wound, being located internally?" 
Abayye replied, "Come and hear: If one has 
a toothache he must not gargle vinegar for it 
(as a remedy on Sabbath) ; this only if it is 
an ordinary toothache, but if the pains are 
great, then it is permitted." "Perhaps the 
author also meant great pains?" "So come 
and hear: R. Yochanan had the scurvy." (Here 
follows the story of R. Yochanan's sickness 
which is fully described at Yoma 84a). 

Chullin 1 6b.— R. Hisda said in the name 
of R. Yitzchak, others claim that it was learn- 
ed in a boraitha, "Five things they say con- 
cerning a piece of metal pipe : You must not 
slaughter with it. you must not perform cir- 
cumcision with it you must not cut meat with 
it, you must not pick the teeth with it, and you 
must not clean yourself with it. (See : Betzah 
3&, b). 


Chul. 59a. — If an animal is ruminant, then 
it is certain that it has no upper cutting-teeth, 
and it is clean. "Is this a fast rule? A camel 
is ruminant, and has no upper cutting-teeth, 
and vet it is unclean?" "A camel has canine 
teeth." "The young camel neither has canine 
teeth? Again, the rabbit and the hare are 
ruminant and have no upper cutting-teeth, and 
yet they are unclean? And besides, is there 
anything spoken of the cutting-teeth in the 
laws ? Indeed, he meant as follows : Every 
animal that has no upper cutting-teeth is surely 
ruminant, and has split hoofs, and is therefore 
clean." R. Hisda said : "When one walks 
through a desert and finds an animal with 
split hoofs, one should examine its mouth ; if 
it has no upper cutting-teeth, than it is surely 
clean, otherwise it is surely unclean; but one 
must know that it is no camel." "But a camel 
has canine teeth?" "Indeed, but one must 
know that it is no young camel." 

Note. — The above dispute concerns ani- 
mals that are either prohibited or permitted 
(kosher) to be eaten by the Jewish people. 


Chul. 59b. — The King spoke to R. Je- 
hoshua ben Chananya: "Your God is likened 
unto a lion, as it is written (Amos iii. 8). 'The 
lion hath roared, who will not fear? the Lord 
Eternal hath spoken, who will not prophesy?' 
Where is the greatness in this, a hunter can 
kill a lion?" The latter replied: "Not unto 
an ordinary lion is He likened, but unto the 
lion of Be-Ilay." The former spoke : "I 
would like that you show him to me." The 
latter replied : "You cannot see him." Here 
he uttered for mercy, and the king was car- 
ried away from his place. As he was four 
hundred parasans away, the lion burst out so 
great a roar that all bridges and walls of Rome 
fell into ruins, and as he was three hundred 
parasans away, he burst out a second roar, and 
it caused the teeth of all the people to fall out, 
and he himself fell from his throne to the 
■*arth. He spoke : "I implore thee to have 
him return to his hiding." Here he again 
uttered for mercy, and brought him back to 
his place. (See: Sabb. 63b.) 


Cbul. 127a. — R. Giddel said in the name 
of Rub : "You must count your teeth when 
you are kissed by a Narashite" (as he might 
have stolen some, since the people of Narash 
are very distrustful). 

Note. — At Sabbath 64b we saw that arti- 
ficial teeth were quite common in the days 
of the Talmud Undoubtedly it was the arti- 
ficial teeth made of gold and silver that were 
feared would be stolen by a Narashite. This 
also points to the fact that the artificial teeth 
were not too well fastened, and if made in 
bridgework would be some form of a remov- 
able bridgework. 

Becii. 44a. — A Hebrew priest whose teeth 
have fallen out becomes unfit for his office 
because of his bad looks. 



Agada. The part of the Talmud consisting 
of legends, tales, and proverbs, in contra- 
distinction to the part known as halachah 
which comprises the Jewish laws and cus- 

Aruch. A Talmudical dictionary composed 
by Nathan ben Jehiel of Rome, and com- 
pleted in iioi. 

A.RUCH Completum. Kohut's "Aruch ha- 

b. ben. 

B. C. E. Before the common era. 
Boraitha. An Aramaic word designating 

a tradition, or collection of traditions, not 
incorporated in the Mishna. 

C. E. Common era. 

Chaldaic. The Chaldaic or Babylonian 

Gemara. The second part of the Talmud 
containing commentaries to the first part 
the mishna. 


umonides. Moses b. Maimon (RaMBaM). 

One of the most celebrated of the 
Jewish rabbis. Born 1131 c. e. He was 
also physician to the sultan of Egypt. 
Among his works are, a commentary on 
the Mishna, an abridgment of the Talmud, 
and the Book of Precepts. Died 1204. 

. \ster. Rab, rabbi, rabbin, or rabban. 

Midrash. Exegetic works of the Scriptures. 

Midrash Rabbah. A collective name for the 
midrashim of the five books of the Penta- 
teuch and the five Rolls. 

Mishna. The first part, or text, of the Tal- 
mud. The second part, or the gemara, is 
a commentary on the mishna text. 

N vchmanides. Moses ben Nachman (RaM 
BaN). A celebrated Spanish rabbi and 
physician, living in the century following 
the death of Maimonides. Born 1195. 
died 1270, C. e. 

R. Abbreviation of rab, rabbi, rabbin, rab- 
ban. or rabbam. Titles of dignity given 
to Hebrew masters, doctors, and chiefs 
of classes. 


Rab. Master, e-r one who excels in anything. 

The title is Babylonian, and is considered 
of greater dignity than rabbi which is 
Palestinian. There were several grada- 
tions before the dignity of Rab or Rabbi. 
The head of a school was called Hacham, 
or wise. He who aspired to the doctor- 
ship, had the name Bachtir, or Elou; and 
he frequented the school of the Hacham. 
When further advanced he had the title 
of Chabar to the Rab, or master's compan- 
ion, and when perfectly skilled in the 
knowledge of the law and traditions, he 
was called Rab or Rabbin, and Morenu. 
(our master). 

Rab (Rabh). The popular name of R. Abba 
Areka, as called by his disciples. 

Rabban (PL Rabbanan). Master; one who 
excelled in the knowledge of the law. (The 
title Rabban is of greater dignity than Rab 
or Rabbi). 

Rabbi. Master. (Properly my master.) Ra- 
bi, as well as Rab, is also the popular name 
of R. Abba Areka. 


Rambam. Abbreviated Hebrew name of Rab- 
bi Moses ben Maimon (RaMBaM). See 

Ramban. Abbreviated name of Rabbi Moses 
ben Nachman (RaMBaN). Sec "Nach- 

Rashi. The Hebrew abbreviated name of 
Rabbi Shelomo Itzchaki (R SH I). One 
of the most popular of the Jewish rabbis. 
Born in France in 1040. His chief works 
are voluminous commentaries on the Bible 
and the Talmud. He died in 1105. 

Sages. The Hachamim, the wise. 

Ta»gum. A common name given to the 
Chaldaic paraphrases of the Bible. There 
is the Targum Onkelos and the Targum 
Yonah. The former is the paraphrase on 
the Pentateuch or the books of Moses, th* 
latter on the Prophets. 



Abnormal teeth, ] 6 
Abaesss, siveobsr, 34 

Abseeea, nail from gallows 
for, 24 

remedies for 42-43 
Aching teeth are enemies of 

the mouth (proverb), 29 
Alphabet, Hebrew letter shiu 

analogous to ahen (tooth), 

Alveolar process, 21 
Alveolus, Hebrew nomencla- 
ture of, 18 
Ancient extraction of teeth, 

Anesthesia, known in clays of 

Talmud, SO 
Animals, kosher, teeth in, 59 
Animals, toothache in, 53 

teeth In. 19, 59 

teeth vicious of, 51 
Anterior t?eth, nomenclature 
of, 16 

falling out of, in drer.m, 
Aristotle on teeth, 67 

men hss more teeth than 
woman, 57 

molars are never changed, 

nvmber unequal in both 
jaws, 67 

pig never changes teeth, 67 
Artificial famine, cansed 

through loss of teeth, 48 
Artificial teeth, 28-24 
Arsenic, 22 

Bag, lay teeth In C proverb), 

Bar'ey-brer.d, cause of era! 

disease. 88 

Bi»th (dip-fcttth), bone foui «i 

bet-Ate.; teeth vi maid 
Bath-hem ses, vapor of, Ih- 

juricus to teeth, 35 
Beer, for toothache. £3 
Bending of teeth, 15 
Bible, dentistry in the, 6-11 
Bicuspids (twin-teeth), 10, lh 

Hebrew nomenclature of, 
Biack teeth, result of testing, 

Boi.e, between teeth of mail 

in, 60 
Bran, bad for teeth, 13, 14, 
for ripening abscess, 42 
Bread, of wheat or barley. 

cause of oral disease, 85 
Breath, offensive odor of, 13, 

14, 18, 20, 25, 64-56 
Bridgework, £8-24, 61 

Cabbage, rausing fetor of 

breath. 14 
Cachou, to diBguise fetor of 

breath, 18-19 
Camel, canine teeth in, 69 
Canines, Hebrew and Chel- 
daic nomenclature, 17 

in the dog, 19, 63 

in the came!, 59 
Carious tooth. 9. 28. 29 
Centra! incisors, nomencla- 
ture, 17 
Cephidns, sn era! disease, 

Ceremony in shedding of 

milk-teeth. 3! 
ChsMaic and Hebrew r.ome'- 

elature, 16-18 
Chrifl^nn *-i<-nce, hi ther - 

peutics, 36 


Cianamon, for fetor of 

braath, 20 

Circumcision, grinding medi- 
cines for, with teeth, 26-2? 
a~t of, prohibited with 
broken pipe, 58 

1 detains of teeth, of com- 
rade, a friendly daed, 40-41 
with toothpicks, splinter, 
straws, etc., 24-25. 86-88, 55 

'leanness of teeth, biblical 
phrase 7 

Cosmetics of teeth, 28 

. ousting of teeth, 28, 67 
after kissing, 61 

Cresses, for opening of abs- 
cess, 43 

( t7 on the teeth (proverb), 

Cuspids, see "canines" 

Cusps of teeth, Hebrew term 
for, 18 

Catting teeth, nomenclature 
of, 7, • 
absent in ruminant ani- 
mals, 59 

Damages, for striking out of 
teeth, 53 
by tooth, in part nership 

court, 50 
by tooth of lion, 51 
Death, following loss of 

teeth, 48 
Deciduous tooth, Hebrew for, 
■ ^remory in shedding of, 31 
in jurisprudence, 44 
Dental jurisprudence, 5, 6, 
*2, 44-49. 52 
PMlo-Judens en. 46-49 
Dentore, Hebrew nomencla- 
ture of, 18 
Dfn-bttfh, bont fou^d be- 
tween teeth of msid in. SO 
Draw's ** the mouth, 82- 
85, W, it 

Diseases of the palate, 42 
Dog, canine teeth in, 19, 53 
Double row of teeth, 10, 18 
Dough, leavened, for oral 

disease, 32 
Dream, falling out of teeth 

in, sign of death, 16 

Ear, application of remedies 
in, in toothache, 43 

E&rth and honey, for abscess, 

Edge, setting of teeth on, 
6, 7, 26, 55-66 

Eggs of grasshoppers, for 
toothache, 24 

Enemies of the mouth, ach- 
ing teeth ts, (proverb), 

Eruption of teeth, time of, 
46, 46-47 

Eyes, of equal value with 
teeth, Phi'.o-Judeus on, 

Eye-tooth, warning against 
extraction of, 80 

Extraction, ancient method 
of, 80 
of eye-tooth, warning 

against. 30 
of molar tooth, warning 

against, 29-80, in times of Tal- 
mud, 30 
Rab's warning against, 29 
a torturous operation, 80 
warning against in preg- 
nancy, 81 

F*b'<?s on teeth. 28, 55-56 

Faith cure. 36 

Falling out of te»th. 16. 69 

from fear, 20, 29 

from lion's roar, £0 
Fasting, rau?© of blackening 

of teeth. S8-», 41 
Fat of urease, for orsl di- 

ee?s*. 32 

Fear, falling oat of teeth 

from, SO, 6S 

Fetor of breath, i», 14. 18, 
20, 26, 54-55 

Fiager between the teeth 
(idiom), 40 

Forceps, of lead, 30 

Fox, tooth o£, as talisman, 

Fracture of teeth, precau- 
tions against, 30 

Freeing: of slave, for strik- 
ing: out of tooth in, 42, 
44-50, 52 

Fried fish, cause of oral di- 
sease, 33 

Garlic, for toothache, 42, 43 
Ginger, for fetor of breath, 

Gnashing with teeth, 8, 9, 

Golden shells. 23 
Golden teeth, 20-24, 41, 61 
Grasshoppers, eggs of, for 

toothache. 24 
Gravel-stones, breaking teeth 

with, 10 
Grinders (molar teeth), 6, 10 

Hebrew and Chaldaie no- 
menclature, 18 
Grinding medicines with 

teeth. 26-27 
Gums, nomenclature of, 9, 
18, 21 

diseases of, 38-34 

Hand, laving on of, remedy 
for toothaehe. 35 

Healing, of abscesses, rem- 
edies for. 4 3 

Hebrew and Chaldaie nomen- 
clature. 16-18 

Hemorrhage, of gums a»d 
t^etb, 89-40 

Honey and earth, for sfes- 
cess. 4 3 

Horns of a tooth, 16, IS 

Horseradish scssIe. for tooth- 
ache, 42-44 

Human milk, in paste for 
toothache, 44 

Hygiene, oral, IS, 14, IS, 
20, 25, 54-5o 

Hypnotism, in therapeutics, 

Incisors, 46 

central End lateral, nom- 
enclature of, 17 
Inflammation of the mouth, 

Inflammation, remedies for. 

Iron teeth, 11 
Ii-regn'ar teeth, splint foa 

straightening, S8 
Ivcxy, Hebrew term shen. 
tooth 17, 

beds of, 7 

image of, 10 

Jaws, Hebrew nomenclature 

of, 18 
Jaw-tooth, nomenclature of, 

Jav-teeth, 8, 17. 58 
Jurisprwlsnca, dental, 42, 44- 

49, 50, 51, 62 

Kskks ( molar, posterior 

tooth), 1«. 17, 18 
Kissing, '■•"•unti^g of teeth 

?ft?r, trr fear of being 

sto'en, 61 
Kosher enimals, teeth in, 69 

T srce teeth, 89, A\ 

I *teral incisors, Hebrew for. 

Ter.-e'-ed dough, for disease 

of mouth, 32 
I*ntl!s. -susing foal breath 
and r.uirey. 13, 
for rlpenir? of ?be.-f*p, 


Life, lengthened with greet. 
er number of teeth. 6/ 

plot againat, in depriving 
of teeth, 4« 
Lion, damages by teath of, 61 
Lion's roar, cauac of falling 

out of teeth, 60 
Loose teeth, 6, 44 
L >sa of teeth, causes artificial 
famine, 48 

makes unfit for Hebrew 
priesthood, 61 
Man, has more teeth than 

woman, Aristotle on, 57 
Mastication, 27 

function of teeth moat use- 
ful to life, 48 
Medicine, warning against 

habit of, 29 
Menstruation, dip-bath after, 

Mental suggestion, in den- 
tistry, 38 
Metal teeth, 20-24 
Milk, human, in paste for 

toothache, 44 
Milk-tooth, Hebrew /term for, 

18, ceremony in shedding 

for toothache, 35 

of, 31, in jurisprudence, 44 
Milk, whitening of teeth 

from, 5, 40 
Millstones (teeth), S, 27 
Millstones (molar teeth), not 

to be taken as pledge, 6, 48 
Milt, good for teeth, 13, 14, 

Miscarriage, 19, 58 
Molars, 6, 10, Ifi, 18, 48, 57 

never changed, Aristo'e on, 

57, prohibited as pledge, 48 
Mouth, diseases of. 32-3,", 54, 
odor of, 18. 18. 20. 25 
Mummies, artificial teeth in, 

Murder, depriving of teeth 

gQua! to, 49 

Nail, of thumb, remedies ap- 
plied to, in toothache, 42- 
Nomenclature, Chaidaic and 

Hebrew, 1C-18 
Nosirils, snuffing medicated 
powders into, for tooth- 
ache, 43 
Number of teeth, lack Of 
knowledge in, 57 
urecuel in both jaws, Aris- 
totle on, 57 

Odor of breath, 18. 14, 18. 
20, 25. 54 

Og, king of Bashan, his ab- 
normal teeth, 15-16 

Olive oil, for disease of the 
mouth, 32 

Olive, stores of, for oral 
disease, 32 

Operations in days of Tal- 
mud. 30 

Oral disuses, 82-35. 54, 88 

Ora' hygiene, 18, 14, 18. 20, 
25, 54-55 

Ox, relieved from toothache 
hy drinking beer, 53 
striking out of tooth by 
master not guilty, 52 

Orthodontia. 88, 55 

Painless extraction, in days 

of Talmud. 80 
Pain, sixty-fold, of a tooth. 

Palatal affections. 42 
P^'at°, nomenclature. 1.8 
Pepner. for fetor of breath, 

?0-21. 25 
Philo-Judeus, on dental juris- 
prudence, 46-49 

on. teeth of enuat valve 
with eyes. 47-48 
Physiology of teetV ?«-28 
Pine, broken, proMMted to 

pick teeth with. 18. 58 
Pier, teeth in. rev»r changed, 

Aristotle on, 57 


Pledges, prohibition of teeth 

as, 4S, equal to lakh g 
iile Is piedge, 49 
Posterior teeth, nomenclature 
of, io, falling out of, in 
dream, 16 
Pregnancy, recurrence of 
toothache in, 81, miscarri- 
ages in, 19, 58. warning 
against extraction in, 81 
PrieEt, unfit for office on 

loss of teeth, 61 
Prosthetic dentistry, 23, 41 
Proverbs on teeth, 28-29, 83 
Putrescent tooth, 38-34 

Quinsy, from eating lentils, 

Rain, plentiful during oral 
ei'ment of Ral-h', 64 

Rashi, on fetor of breath, 14 
on golden teeth, 21 
on mill-tones, 27 
on s^orvy, 88 

Red teeth, 38-S9 

Removable bridge -.rork, 24. 61 

Row of teeth, 10, 18, 21 

Royal touch, in therapeutics, 

Ruminant animals, cutting- 
teeth absent In, 69 

Sa'petre, for toothache. 43 
Bait, for offer si ve breath, 13 

for oral diseases, 32 

for toothache. 20-22, 42 
Scurvy, 82-35, 54, 58 

begins in mouth ends in 
entrails, 33 

or^l syratcms of, 32 
Si'^r teeth, 21-24, 61 
She'f, lay teeth on (proverb), 

. c he T1 -crowns. of gold, £3 
Phen (tooth), 16, 17 
Shin, letter of Hebrew al. 

P^rhet, analogous to 
"shen". 17 

Skirmana, nickname of It. 
Yehudah for his abnormal 
laige treri:., ofc 

Slave, freeing of, for strik- 
ing out of tooth in, 42, 'i- 1 - 

48, 50, 52 

Sleep, caused by tooth of a 
dead fox, 24 

prevented by a tooth of a 
live fox, 24 
Sleeping after meals caus s 

fetor of breath, 18 
Socket cf tooth, Hebrew term 

for 18 
Spleen, good for teeth, 13, 

14, 25 
Splinter between the teeth, 

for orthodonitc purpose?, 
37-38, 55 
Splinters of wo^, 83 tooth- 

picks. 24-25, 36-38 
Stomatitis, 34 

Stones, teeth broken with,, 10 
Striking out of tooth, cause 

for freeing of slave, 5, 44- 

49, 52 

by ox, master not guilty, 

damages paid for, 58 
penalties for, 42, 60 

Striking out of teeth of 
neighbor, to regain prop- 
erty. 62 

Suffice for one tooth, (pro- 
verb^, 29 

Swelling, nail from gallons 
ss remedy for, 24 

Tsilsmans, teeth of fox a*. 

Teeth, of an Instrument, 6 

as instruments of life. *6 
nomenclature of, 17 
put a finger between (Id- 
iom), 40 
Temporary tooth, Hebrew 
for, 18 
in jurisprudence, 44 


1 herapauties. Christian sci- 
ence in, So ; faith care ii», 

Sb ; hypnotism ia 35 
for toothache, 20, 22, 24, 
25-26, 8o-i*-3, 42-44, 63 
Throw tooth against tooth 

i v idiom), 29 
Thumb-nail, application of 
remedies to, In toothache, 
Tooth, damages by, in part- 
nership court, 50 
-socket, Hebrew for, 18 
for tooth, 5. 6. 29, 45 
Toothache, in animal, 58 
application cf remedies in 

ear for. 43 
application of remedies to 

thumb-nail for, 42-48 
heer for, 53 
eggs of grssihoppers for, 

srarlie for, 42, 4? 
horseradish seeds for, 43- 

recurrence of, in preg- 
nancy, 31 
laying-on of hand for. 35 
salpetre for, 43 
salt for, 20-22, 42 
sixty-fold pain of, 54 
snuffing of powder into 
aotrili for, 43 

vinegar for and agaiust. 

25-26, 36-36 
worm-theory of, 22 
Toothpicks, 24-25, 36-33, 55 
broken pipe prchibilei ua, 
38, 58 
Tothebeth-teeth, 23, 41 
Twin-teeth (bicuspids), 10, 

Vapcr, cf bath-houses, in- 
jurious to teeth, 85 
Vinegar, for "burning of th« 
teeth". 26 
harmful for the testh, 8 
for and against tooth-achs, 

25-26, 35-36 
setting on edge of teeth, 26 

Walking, after msals, pre- 
ventive of oral fetor, 18, 

Water, drinking of, after 
beverages, preventative of 
oral fetor, 13 

Wheat-bread, cause of oral 
disease, 35 

White teeth, 5, 40-41 

Woman, has less taeth than 
man, Aristotle on, 17 

Wooden teeth, 28 

Worm-theory of toothachs,