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Full text of "Department of State bulletin"



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THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



BULLETIN 



VOLUME X: Numbers 236-261 



January 1-June 24, 1944 



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UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1944 



U. S. SUPERINTEKOENT OF DOCUMENTS 

AUG 25 J944 



7 



t'ubllcation 2lS6 



INDEX 



Volume X: Numbers 236-261, January 1-June 24, 1944 



Accounts, Division of. See Budget and Finance, Divi- 
sion of. 
Acheson, Dean : 

Designations in tlie State Department, 46, 47, 61. 
Participant in radio broadcast, 100. 
Achilles, Theodore C, designation in the State Depart- 
ment, 55. 
Addresses. See under Acheson ; Berle ; Connally ; Dunn ; 
Grew ; Harkness ; Hawkins ; Hull ; Long ; McDermott ; 
Messer.smith ; Murphy ; Pasvolsky ; Rayburn ; Roose- 
velt ; Russell ; Shaw ; Stettinius ; Taf t ; Vandenberg ; 
Winant (Frederick) ; Winant (John G.). 
Administrative Instructions, new State Department series 

of, 436. 
Administrative Management, Division of, 59. 
Administrator of Export Control, Office of, 153. 
Advisory Council on Post War Foreign Policy, 47, 72. 
Afghanistan, treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Exchange of ofhcial publications, with U.S. (1944), 

230. 
Opium convention, international (1912), adherence 
(1944), 543. 
Africa (see also North Africa), conference of French 

African Governors at Brazzaville, 239. 
African Affairs, Division of, 58, 195. 
African Affairs, Eastern and, Office of, 57, 194. 
Agreements, international. See Treaties. 
Agricultural Service, Foreign, transferred to the State 

Department, 152. 
Agriculture {see also Food; Treaties) : 

Convention on Inter-American Institute of Agricultural 
Sciences (1944), 90, 162, 195, 230, 294, 306, 400, 461, 
522, 567, 593. 
International Labor Conference, recommendations re- 
garding production and distribution, 320. 
Technical expert (Phillips), return from China, 327. 
West Indian laborers, furnishing to U.S. for summer 
work, 512. 
Air force, U. S., accidental bombing of Schaffhausen, 314. 
Airmail service between U.S. and South America, 15th 

anniversary, 5(X). 
Airplanes, statistics on export under lend-lease and on 
U.S. production, statement by President Roosevelt, 
510. 
Alaska, fuel supply for U.S. Army in, agreement with 

Canada (1942, 1943), 85. 
Alaska Highway, agreements with Canada (1942, 1943) 

regarding construction, 134-136. 
Albania : 

Representation of U.S. interests by Switzerland, 269. 
Secretary Hull on status of, 510. 
Struggle for freedom from Nazis, 315. 



Alcan Highway. See Alaska Highway. 

Aldridge, Clayson W., death, 304. 

Alexander, Gen. Sir Harold, correspondence with President 

Roosevelt regarding the fall of Rome, 529. 
Alexander, Robert C, designation in the State Depart- 
ment, 48. 
Alexander, Virginia, designation in the State Department, 

48. 
Algeria, closing of U.S. consulate at Bone, 91. 
Alinement of the nations in the war, tabulations, 373, 413. 
All America Cables, Inc., interruption of operations in 

Argentina, 292. 
Allen, George V., designation in the State Department, 58. 
Allied Control Commission for Italy, duties, organization, 

and appointment of U.S. official, 573. 
Allied Ministers of Education. See under Conferences. 
Allied nationals. See United Nations. 
Ailing, Paul H., designation in the State Department, 57. 
American Drug Manufacturers Association, address by Mr. 

Russell, 405. 
American Federation of Labor Forum, address by Mr. Long, 

342. 
American Mexican Claims Commission, appointment of 

General Counsel (Maktos), 542. 
American Republic Affairs, Office of, 53, 400, 443. 
American republics (see also Commissions; Conferences; 
Cultural relations; Treaties; and the individual coun- 
tries) : 
Address by Secretary Hull before the Pan American 

Union, 349. 
Airmail service between U.S. and South America, 15th 

anniversary, 500. 
Bolivia, concerted action in respect to new Government 

of, 584. 
Controls, local, applied against Axis commercial firms, 

410. 
Cultural leaders, visit to U.S., from : Brazil, 110, 194, 
302, 536; Colombia, 416; Cuba, 327, 501 ; Haiti, 435; 
Honduras, 5S5 ; Mexico, 385, 435 ; Nicaragua, 501 ; 
Peru, 435; Uruguay, 513. 
Exchange of nationals with German nationals via the 

Gripsholm, 180, 189, 238, 511, 535. 
Fellowships open to applicants from, 416, 584. 
Newsprint, U.S. efforts to facilitate production and 

transportation to other American republics, 88. 
Recognition of new governments instituted by force, 
resolutions of Emergency Advisory Committee for 
Political Defense, 20, 28. 
Representation at celebration of Day of the Americas 

in Chile, 327. 
Status in relation to the war, 380, 413. 

597 



598 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



American Republics, Interdepartmental Committee on 
Cooperation with, appointment of Chairman (Zwem- 
er), 585. 
American Republics Analysis and Liaison, Division of, 

443, 444. 
American Republics Requirements Division, 51. 
Americans. See United States citizens. 
Anglo-American Caribbean Commission: 

Laborers from West Indies, arrangements for supplying 

to U.S. for summer work, 513. 
West Indian Conferences, under auspices of, 37, 262, 384. 
Anglo-American Caribbean Commission, U.S. Section: 
British Colonies Supply Mission, relations with, 588. 
OflBcers of, designation, 503. 

Relationship to State Department (D.O. 1274), 502. 
Announcements, new State Department series of, 436, 437. 
Arbitration, Permanent Court of, U.S. members (Stlmson 

and Doyle), 212. 
Argentina (see also American republics) : 

All America Cables, Inc., interruption of operations, 292. 
Ambas-sador to U.S. (Escobar), credentials, 191. 
Relations with Germany and Japan, severance, 116-117. 
Relations with U.S., 205, 225. 
Armed forces : 

American troops in the British Isles, 237. 

Criminal offenses committed by, agreement with Canada 

regarding jurisdiction (1944), 306. 
Presentation of Soviet awards to members of, 347. 
Arms, control of international traflSc in, article by Mr. 

Ludlow, 576. 
Art, Science, and Education Division, (>5. 
Assassination of President of Mexico, attempted, 351. 
Assistance and salvage at sea, international convention 
for the unification of rules relating to (1910), ad- 
herence of Egypt (1943), 39. 
Assistant Secretaries of State, 46, 47. 

Proposal for appointment of two additional, 226. 
Atrocities, Japanese, r(5sume of U.S. protests, 145, 168. 
Australia : 

Fall of Rome and invasion of Europe, correspondence 
between Prime Minister Curtin and President 
Roosevelt, 529, 551. 
Prime Minister Curtin, visit to U.S., 3S5. 
Representation of interests by U.S. in certain places, 

268. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Cooperation and collaboration with New Zealand 

(1944), 490. 
Mutual-aid agreement with Canada (1944), 504. 
Whaling, protocol (1944), signature, 271, 592. 
Automotive traffic, regulation of, inter-American conven- 
tion on (1943), 22, 162, 366, 422, 567. 
Auxiliary Foreign Service, function of, 589. 
Aviation. See Civil aviation ; Commissions ; Treaties. 
Aviation Division, State Department, 49, 303. 
Avila Camacho (President of Mexico), attempted assas- 
sination of, 351. 
Axis countries (see also Germany; Japan) : 
Declaration by British, Soviet, and U.S. Governments 

regarding Axis satellites, 425. 
Espionage activities in Chile, repression of, 205. 



Axis countries — Continued. 
Relations with Argentina, 225. 

Representatives in Ireland, U.S. request for removal 
of, 235. 

Bacon, J. Kenly, designation In the State Department, 54. 
Badoglio, Pletro, correspondence with President Roosevelt 

on the fall of Rome, 528. 
Bagwell, Omar C, return from China, 194. 
Bahamas : 

Inter-American radiocommunicatlons convention and 
North American regional broadcasting agreement 
(1937), adherence (1943), 162. 
Laborers, furnishing to U.S. for summer work, 513. 
Baker, George W., designation in the State Department, 

52. 
Ballantlne, Joseph W., designation In the State Depart- 
ment, 57. 
Barbados, furnishing of laborers to U.S. for summer work, 

513. 
Barrett, Willis C, return from China, 538. 
Barron, Bryton, designations in the State Department, 64, 

399. 
Beaulac, Willard L., confirmation of nomination as U.S. 

Ambassador to Paraguay, 281. 
Begg, John M., designation in tlie State Department, 65. 
Belgian Congo, visit of Governor General to U.S., 384. 
Belgium : 

Civil administration of liberated areas, agreement with 

U.S. and U.K., (1944), 479. 
Fall of Rome and Invasion of Europe, correspondence 
of Prime Minister Pierlot with President Roosevelt, 
531, 551. 
Representation of Interests by U.S. In certain places, 

268. 
Representation of U.S. Interests by Switzerland, 269. 
U.S. Ambassador (Biddle), resignation, 110. 
Berle, Adolf A., Jr. : 
Addresses : 
Commissions of Inter-American Development, 1st 

Conference of, 427. 
Duke University, 176. 
Foreign Press Association, N. T., 574. 
International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union Con- 
vention (25th), 539. 
National Conference of Jewish Social Welfare and 

other organizations, 484. 
Pan American Conference of National Directors of 

Health, 398. 
Participant In radio broadcast, 100. 
Schoolmen's Week Convention, Philadelphia, 278. 
United Nations Forum, Washington, 97. 
Designations in the State Department, 46, 47, 61. 
Visit to London regarding civil aviation, 301. 
Bevans, Charles I., designation In the State Department, 

399. 
Biddle, Anthony J. Drexel, Jr., resignation as Ambassador- 
Minister to Allied governments in London, 110. 
Bills of lading, international convention for the unification 
of rules relating to (1924), adherence by Egypt (1&13), 
39. 



INDEX 



599 



"Black list". See Blocked Nationals. 

Blair-Lee House, rehabilitation, 89, 329. 

Bliss, Robert Woods, designation in the State Department, 

184. 
Blockade against Germany and Italy, quotas for goods for 

neutrals, 493, 494. 
Blocked Nationals, Proclaimed List : 
Discussed in radio broadcast, 103. 

Inclusion of names of firms in Ireland, Sweden, and Fin- 
land, 412, 497, 511. 
Results obtained from, 40T. 
Revision VI, Cumulative Supplements 4, 5, and 6: 88, 

ISO, 239. 
Revision VII and Cumulative Supplements 1, 2, and 3: 
301, 315, 412, 511. 
Boards. See Commissions. 

Boggs, Samuel W., designation in the State Department, 60. 
Bohlen, Charles E., designation In the State Department, 

55. 
Rolivarian Affairs, Division of. State Department, 54. 
Bolivia (sec altio American republics) : 
New government in : 

Concerted action by other American republics respect- 
ing, 584. 
Question of recognition by U.S., 28, 29, 132, 501. 
Recognition by U.S., 584. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Automotive traffic, inter-American convention on reg- 
ulation of (1943), 22. 
Cultural relations, promotion of inter-American 
(1936), promulgation (1943), 212. 
Bombing of civilians in China and Spain, U. S. protests, 353. 
Bombing of Schaffhausen, accidental, 314. 
Bonbright, James C. H., designation in the State Depart- 
ment, 55. 
B6ne, Algeria, closing of U.S. consulate, 91. 
Bonsai, Philip W. : 
Article by, 125. 

Designation In the State Department, 54. 
Boundary, Ecuador and Peru, agreement, 487. 
Braden, Spruille, appointment as Special Representative 
at Inauguration of President Plcado of Costa Rica, 401. 
Brandt, George L., designation in the State Department, 46. 
Brazil [see also American republics) : 
Closing of U.S. consulate at Corumbii, 329. 
Cultural leaders, visit to U.S., 110, 194, 302, 536. 
Good oflSces in boundary question, Ecuador and Peru, 

487. 
Invasion of Europe, correspondence of President Var- 
gas with President Roosevelt regarding, 530, 549. 
Representation of interests by U.S. in international 

zone of Tangier, 268. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Automotive traffic, inter-American convention on reg- 
ulation of (1943), signature and approval (1944), 
22. 
Rubber development, with U.S. (1944), 271. 
Wolfram exports of Portugal, efforts to deprive the 
enemy of, 535, 



Brazilian Affairs, Division of. State Department, 54. 
Brazzaville, Conference of French African Governors at, 

239. 
Briggs, Ellis O. : 

Coulirmation of nomination as U.S. Ambassador to the 

Dominican Republic, 281. 
Designation in the State Department, 54. 
British Colonie.s Supply Mission, meeting to discuss sup- 
ply and shipping in the Caribbean, 588. 
British Columbia, operation of Pan American Airways 
over, agreement between U.S. and Canada (1944), 
306. 
British Commonwealth Affairs, Division of. State Depart- 
ment, 55. 
British Honduras, furnishing of laborers to U.S. for sum- 
mer work, 513. 
British Isles, American troops in, 237. 
British West Indies: 

Laborers, furnishing to U.S. for summer work, 512. 
Opening of U.S. consulate at Grenada, 522. 
Brown, Courtney C, designation in the State Department, 

50. 
Brown, James E., designation in the State Department, 

46. 
Budget and Finance, Division of, 58. 
Bulgaria : 

Axis satellite, declaration of U.S., Britisli, and Soviet 

Governments regarding, 425. 
Representation of U.S. interests by Switzerland, 269. 
Burdett, William C, death, 91. 
Burke, Thomas, resignation from the State Department, 

23. 
Burma, representation of U.S. interests in occupied areas 

liy Switzerland, 269. 
Byington, Homer M., Jr., designations in the State Depart- 
ment, 64, 209. 

Cabot, John M., designations in the State Department, 

54, 420. 
Cairo Conference, results of: 

Address by President Roosevelt, 4. 
Message of President Roosevelt to Congress, 76, 77. 
Cale, Edward G., designation as U.S. delegate to Inter- 
American Coffee Board, 512. 
Canada : 
Ambassador to U.S. (McCarthy), credentials, 75. 
Joint Economic Committees with U.S., discontinuance, 

264. 
Representation of interests by U.S. in certain places, 268. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Alaska Highway, with U.S. (1942), 134, 135, 136. 
Commercial modus viveudi with Venezuela (1941), 

renewal (1944), 400. 
Criminal offenses by armed forces, agreement with 

U.S. regarding jurisdiction (1944), 306. 
Customs, with U.S. (1942), 138. 
Double taxation, with U.S. (1944), 543. 
Extraterritorial rights in China, relinquishment of, 
with China, text (1944), 458. 



600 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Canada — Continued. 

Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued. 
Fuel supply for U.S. Army in Canada and Alaska, 
agreement for extension, exchange of notes with 
U.S. (1942, 1943), 8.5. 
Pur-seal agreement, provisional, with U.S. (1942), 

approval (1944), 230, 568. 
Halibut fishery, with U.S. (1937), 1944 regulations, 

293. 
Mutual-aid agreement with French Committee of Na- 
tional Liberation, text (1944), 456. 
Mutual-aid agreements with Australia, with China, 

with U.K., and with U.S.S.R. (1944), 504. 
Niagara River, additional diversion of waters, with 

U.S. (1944), 455. 
Operation of Pan American Airways over British 

Columbia, with U.S. (1944), 306. 
Telecommunications, with U.S., regarding construction 
and operation of radio broadcasting stations in 
northwestern Canada (1943, 1944), 139. 
Upper Columbia River Basin, with U.S., exchange of 

notes (1944), 270. 
Water power, with U.S., temporary raising of level 

of Lake St. Francis (1943), 142. 
Whaling, protocol (1944), 271, 592. 
Cannon, Cavendish W., designation in the State Depart- 
ment, 55. 
Cannon, Mary, appointment as U.S. member of Inter- 
American Commission of Women, 325. 
Canol project, expansion of, 85. 

C.A.P.A. See Permanent Ajnerican Aeronautical Com- 
mission. 
Caribbean and Central American Affairs, Division of, 

54, 420. 
Caribbean area, food for, agreement between U.S. and 

the Dominican Republic (1944), 195. 
Caribbean Commission. See Anglo-American Caribbean 

Commission. 
Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, radio in- 
terview of Mr. Hawkins, 311. 
Carr, Robert M., designation in the State Department, 53. 
Cartels, policy and action on, 365. 

Carter, Clarence E., designation in the State Depart- 
ment, 65. 
Catudal, Honors Marcel, designation in the State Depart- 
ment, 52. 
Censorship of political news, reply of Secretary Hull to 

Governor Dewey's statement, 300. 
Central European Affairs, Division of, 55. 
Central Translating Division, 65. 

Charitable Irish Society, Boston, address by Mr. Taft, 2.j4. 
Chiang Kai-shek, correspondence with President Roose- 
velt on the fall of Rome, 530, 550. 
Chief Clerk and Administrative Assistant, Office of. State 

Department, abolishment, 59. 
Chile (see also American republics) : 
Axis espionage activities, repression of, 205. 
Celebration of Day of the Americas, 327, 
Closing of U.S. consulate at Osorno, 388, 



Chile — Continued. 

Invasion of Europe, correspondence of officials of the 
Chilean Senate with President Roosevelt, 531, 550. 
Trade relations with U.S., ISO. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Commerce and navigation, with Cuba (1937), ratifica- 
tions (1944) of modifications by exchange of 
notes (1942), 594. 
Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences 
(1944), 522. 
China (see also Far East) : 

Aid from U.S. for students, 433. 

Aid from U.S. since 1931, 35L 

Aviation, civil, exploratory conference of U.S. and 

Chinese groups, 496. 
Cultural leaders, visit to U.S., 537, 564. 
Fall of Rome, correspondence between President Chiang 

Kai-shek and President Roosevelt, 530, 550. 
Gifts from U.S. brought by Vice President Wallace, .586. 
Good offices extended by U.S. in certain countries, 269. 
Immigration into U.S., quota, 180. 
Representation of U.S. interests in occupied areas by 

Switzerland, 269. 
Technical assistance to China since 1942, 363, 433. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Extraterritorial rights, relinquishment by Canada 

(1944), text, 4.58. 
Military service, with U.S., (1943, 1944), 593. 
Mutual-aid agreement with Canada (1944), 504. 
U.S. policy toward, history of, 351. 
U.S. technical experts, return to U.S., 194, 327, 501, 538, 

586. 
Visit of Vice President Wallace to, 465, 586. 
Chinese Affairs, Division of, State Department, 57. 
Christie, Emerson B., designation in the State Department, 

65. 
Chrome, cessation of shipments to Axis countries, 467. 
Chronology of U.S. protests to Japan against mistreat- 
ment of prisoners of war and civilian internees, 145. 
Chronology of wartime development of organizations for 
international economic operations, July 1939 to De- 
cember 1943, 152. 
Citizens, U. S. See United States citizens. 
Ciudad Bolivar, Venezuela, closing of U.S. vice consulate, 

401. 
Civil Affairs Committee. See Combined Civil Affairs Com- 
mittee. 
Civil aviation, exploratory conferences: 
U.S. and Chinese groups, 496. 
U.S. and U.K., 301. 
U.S. and U.S.S.R. groups, 301, 496. 
Civilian Affairs Division, General Staff, U.S. Army, for 
relief of civil populations in areas of military opera- 
tions, 472, 475. 
Civilian internees, U.S., in Japanese custody. See United 

States citizens. 
Civilian relief in Europe. See Relief. 
Claims payment to U.S., Mexican, 29, 



INDEX 



601 



Clark, Lt. Gen. Mark, correspondence with President 

Roosevelt on the fall of Rome, 529. 
Clattenburg, Albert E., Jr., designation in the State De- 
partment, 48. 
Clerks, Foreign Service, proposal for grading and classi- 
fication, 227. 
Code of Federal Regulations codification, sample of, 441. 
Coffee Board, Inter-American, designation of U.S. delegate 

(Cale) and alternate delegate (Walmsiey), 512. 
Collado, Emilio G., designation in the State Department, 

53. 
Collisions at sea, international convention for the unifi- 
cation of rules relating to (1910), adherence of Egypt, 
(1943), 39. 
Colombia (see also American republics) : 
Ambassador to U.S. (Turbay), credentials, 108. 
Cultural leader, visit to U.S., 416. 

Good offices extended by U.S. in Istanbul, Turkey, 269. 
Invasion of Europe, correspondence of President L6pez 

with President Roosevelt, 530, 550. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Declaration by United Nations (1942), adherence 

(1943), 108.* 
Military service, reciprocal agreement with U.S. 
(1944), 184. 
Colorado River : 
Allocation of water supply between U.S. and Mexico, 

article by Mr. Timm, 282. 
Conservation and distribution of water, treaty with 
Mexico (1944), IGl. 
Combined Boards (U.S. and U.K.), constituent boards of, 

467. 
Combined Civil Affairs Committee, organized under the 
Combined Chiefs of Staff for civilian supply, 473, 475. 
Comisifin Aeronflutica Permanente Americana. See Per- 
manent American Aeronautical Commission. 
Commerce, international. See Trade. 
Commerce and Industry Association of New York, address 

by Frederick Winant, 199. 
Commerce and navigation, Chile and Cuba (1937), ratifi- 
cations (1944) of modifications by exchange of notes 
(1942), 594. 
Commerce Service, Foreign, transferred to the State De- 
partment, 152. 
Commercial Policy, Division of, 52, 420. 
Commercial Protection, and Trade Mark, Inter-Ameri- 
can Convention (1929), ratification by Paraguay 
(1943), 248. 
Commissions, committees, etc. : 
International : 

Allied Control Commission for Italy, 573. 
American Mexican Claims Commission, 542. 
Boundary Commission, U.S. and Mexico, establish- 
ment and change of name of, 282, 288, 292. 
Caribbean Commission, Anglo-American, 37, 262, 384, 

502, 513, 5S8. 
Chronology of wartime development of organizations 
for economic operations, July 1939 to December 
1943, 152. 
Comisi6n AeronSutica Permanente Americana, 499, 
588. 



Commissions, committees, etc. — Continued. 
International — Continued. 

Emergency Advisory Committee for Political De- 
fense, 20, 28, 566. 
Inter-American Coffee Board, 512. 
Inter-Americau Commission of Women, 325. 
Inter-American Development Commission, 415, 426, 

483. 
Inter-American Indian Institute, 230, 330. 
Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences, 90, 

162, 195, 230, 294, 306, 593. 
Joint Economic Committees, discontinuance by U.S. 

and Canada, 264. 
Permanent American Aeronautical Commission, 499, 

588. 
Water Commission, U.S. and Mexico, 285. 
National : 
Federal Communications Commission, 511. 
Post-War Foreign Policy, Advisory Council on, 72. 
War Refugee Board, establishment, 95. 
War Relief Control Board, President's, 151. 
Committees, State Department : 

Policy Committee, creation, 46, 72, 293. 
Political Planning, abolishment, 46. 
Post War Programs, creation, 47, 72, 293. 
Commodities Division, State Department, 53, 365. 
Communications and Records, Division of, 59, 184. 
Conferences, congresses, etc. : 
International : 
Allied Ministers of Education in London, 293, 302, 

413, 434. 
British Colonies Supply Mission, 588. 
Cairo Conference, results of, 4, 76, 77. 
Criminology, 1st Pan American Congress on, 499. 
French African Governors at Brazzaville, 239. 
Inter-American Conference on Systems of Economic 

and Financial Controls, 410. 
Inter-American Development Commissions, 1st Con- 
ference, 415, 426, 483. 
International Labor Conference, 26th session, 316, 382, 

481, 514. 
Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the American Repub- 
lics, results of meetings (1940, 1942), 410. 
Moscow Conference, results of, 33, 76, 77. 
National Unity, Greek Conference for, 502. 
Pan American Conference of National Directors of 

Health (5th), 384, 398. 
Tehran Conference, results of, 4, 76, 77. 
United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference, 

4C8, 587. 
Visit, informal, to London of U.S. Under Secretary of 

State Stettiuius and mission, 305. 
West Indian conferences, 37, 262, 384. 
Whaling Conference, final act, 329. 

National : 

Conference on how women may share in post-war 
policy-making, 555. 

Congress, U.S. : 

Appropriation for UNRRA, statement by Mr. Stettinius 
regarding, 535. 



602 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Congress, U. S. — Continued. 
Bill to authorize appointment of two additional Assist- 
ant Secretaries of State, 226. 
Bill to extend to other countries the program of cultural 
cooperation instituted with the American republics 
by the act of Aug. 9, 1939, 218. 
Bill respecting Foreign Service (cited), to permit re- 
cruitment of technical personnel and to classify 
administrative and clerical service, 227. 
Legislation, listed, 91, 111, 142, 163, 186, 196, 231, 249, 
271, 296, 307, 331, 866, 388, 402, 422, 461, 504, 544, 
568, 596. 
Lend-lease report, letters of transmittal from President 

Roosevelt, 27, 495. 
Messages from President : 
Annual message, 76. 
International Labor Organization, with documents, 

514. 
Refugees, European, removal to U.S., 553. 
Relationship to State Department, discussed in radio 
broadcast, 117. 
Connally, Tom, participant in radio broadcast, 117. 
Consular and diplomatic personnel. See Diplomatic rep- 
resentatives ; Foreign Service. 
Consular oflJces. See under Foreign Service. 
Consular representatives. Axis, request of U.S. for removal 

from Ireland, 235. 
Controls, local, applied by American republics against 

Axis-controlled firms, 410. 
Controls, Office of, State Department, 47. 
Conventions. See Conferences ; Treaties. 
Cooperation in war supplies between U.S. and U.K., 467. 
Coordination and Review, Division of, 59, 184. 
Copyright-extension privileges, agreement between U.S. 

and U.K. (1944), texts of notes, 243. 
Corrick, Donald W., designation in tlie State Department, 

58. 
Corrigan, Frank P., designation as chairman of U.S. dele- 
gation to centennial celebration of independence of 
the Dominican Republic, 205. 
Corumba, Brazil, closing of U.S. consulate, 329. 
Costa Rica (see also American republics) : 
Ambassador to U.S. (Gutierrez), credentials, 566. 
Channel of communication by U.S. with Swiss Govern- 
ment regarding interests in enemy territory, 269. 
Convention on Inter-American Institute of Agricultural 

Sciences (1944), 90. 
Inauguration of President Picado, appointment of U.S. 

Special Representative to, 401. 
Invasion of Europe, correspondence of oflScials of the 
Costa Rican Congress with President Roosevelt, 
530, 550. 
President-elect Picado, visit to U.S., 3.S5. 
Representation of certain interests by U.S. in Sweden, 
268. 
Coulter, Eliot B., designation in the State Department, 48. 
Crane, Katharine Elizabeth, article on status of coun- 
tries in relation to the war, 373, 413. 
Credentials. See Diplomatic representatives in U.S. 



Criminal offenses committed by armed forces, agreement 

with Canada regarding jurisdiction (1944), 306. 
Criminology, First Pan American Congress on, 499. 
Crowley, Leo T., joint statement with Secretary Hull re- 
garding distribution of lend-lease material, 256. 
Cuba (see also American republics) : 

Consular services performed by U.S. in certain places, 

269. 
Cultural leaders, visit to U.S., 327, 501. 
Representation of interests by U.S. in international 

zone of Tangier, 268. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Automotive traffic, inter-American convention on reg- 
ulation of (1943), 22. 
Commerce and navigation, with Chile (1937), ratifi- 
cations (1944) of modifications by exchange of 
notes (1942), 594. 
Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences 

(1944), 162. 
Nationality of women, convention on (1933), ratifica- 
tion (1943), 39. 
Sugar crop, 1944, existing contracts and acquisition 
by U.S. of molasses and alcohol, discussions, 40, 
132. 
Culbertson, Paul T., designation in the State Department, 

55. 
Cultural and educational rebuilding of war-torn United 

Nations, U.S. participation, 299, 433. 
Cultural relations {see also under Amevica.n republics and 
China ) : 
Cooperation program of the State Department, address 

by Mr. Shaw, 429. 
Extension to other nations of program with American 
republics (1939) : 
Plans for, 433. 

Text of proposed amendment to act, 218. 
"International House" at New Orleans, dedication, ad- 
dress by Mr. Messersmith, 133. 
Treaty for the promotion of inter-American (1936), pro- 
mulgation by Bolivia ( 1943) , 212. 
Cultural Relations, Division of, State Department, transfer 

of functions, (53. 
Gumming, Hugh S., Jr., designation in the State Depart- 
ment, 55. 
Cunningham, Admiral Sir John, correspondence with Presi- 
dent Roosevelt on the fall of Rome, 529. 
Current Information, Division of, 64, 209. 
Curtin, John (Prime Minister of Australia) : 

Fall of Rome and invasion of Europe, correspondence 

with President Roosevelt, 529, 551. 
Visit to U.S., 385. 
Customs agreement with Canada (1942), 138, 
Customs duties, reductions in, U.S. and Haiti and U.S. 
and Dominican Republic (1942), lapse of agreements, 
305. 
Czechoslovakia : 

Representation of U.S. interests by Switzerland, 269. 
U.S. Ambassador (Biddle), resignation, 110. 



INDEX 



603 



Dailor, Frances M., article on American seamen and the 

Foreign Service, 206. 
Daniel, Helen L., designations in the State Department, 

59, 184. 
Davis, Monnett B., designations in the State Department, 

G3, 242. 
Davis, Nathaniel P., designation in the State Department, 

62. 
Day of the Americas, celebration in Chile, 327. 
Declaration of British, Soviet, and U.S. Governments re- 
garding the four Axis satellites, 425. 
Declarations : 

Polish Government declaration of Jan. 14, 1944, 97, 116. 
United Nations Declaration (1942) : 

Adherence by Colombia and Liberia, 108, 151, 346. 
Anniversary (2d) of signing, 7. 
Status, 366, 379, 413. 
War against Germany and Japan, by Liberia, 151. 
DeCourcy, William E., designation in the State Depart- 
ment, 46. 
Defense Aid Reports, Division of, Office for Emergency 

Management, 154. 
de la Rue, Sidney, designation as special assistant to the 
chairman of the U. S. Section of the Anglo-American 
Caribbean Commission, 503. 
Denmark : 
Legion of Merit medals, presentation for three Danes, 

541. 
Representation of U.S. interests in occupied areas by 
Switzerland, 269. 
Departmental Administration, Office of, 45, 58, 184. 
Departmental designations, new State Department series 

of, 436. 
Department Orders, State Department, systematization of 

(D. O. 1269), 436. 
Department Personnel, Division of, 59, 400, 420. 
Departmental Regulations, new State Department series 

of, 436. 
De Valera, Eamon (Prime Minister of Ireland), reply 
from President Roosevelt regarding the preservation 
of Rome, 371. 
Dewey, Thomas E., statement on political censorship, reply 

of Secretary Hull to, 300. 
de Wolf, Francis Colt, designation in the State Depart- 
ment, 49. 
Dickey, John S., designation in the State Department, 63. 
Dickover, Erie R., designation In the State Department, 

57. 
Diplomatic representatives : 

Axis, request of U.S. for removal from Ireland, 235. 
U.S., in Iceland (Dreyfus), credentials, 563. 
Diplomatic representatives in U.S. : 
Credentials, 75, 108, 191, 326, 566. 

Departure of former Finnish Minister (Procop6) and 
Counselors, 585. 
Division of River Plate Affairs, State Department, 568. 
Dominican Republic {see also American republics) : 
Independence, centennial celebration, 180, 205, 242. 
Invasion of Europe, correspondence of President Tru- 
jillo Molina with President Roosevelt, 531, 551. 
601906 — 44 2 



Dominican Republic — Continued. 
Treaties agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural Sciences, Inter-American Institute of 

(1944), 195. 
Automotive traffic, inter-American convention on reg- 
ulation of (1943), 22. 
Commercial, with Haiti (1941), expiration, 305. 
Customs duties, reductions in, with U.S. (1942), lapse 

of agreement, 305. 
Food agreement with U.S. (1944), 195. 
Inter-American Indian Institute (1940), adherence 

(1943), 230, 330. 
UNRRA, agreement (1943), ratiHcation (1944), 305. 
U.S. Ambassador (Briggs), confirmation of nomination, 
281. 
Dooman, Eugene H., designation in the State Department, 

503. 
Dort, Dallas W., designation in the State Department, 51. 
Doyle, Michael Francis, U.S. member of Permanent Court 

of Arbitration, 212. 
Dreier, John C., designation in the State Department, 444. 
Dreyfus, Louis G., Jr. : 

Confirmation and credentials as Minister to Iceland, 

281, 563. 
Designation as Special Representative of President 
Roosevelt at establishment of Republic of Iceland 
and address, 522, 557. 
duBois, Coert, designation as U.S. Commissioner of U.S. 
Section of the Anglo-American Caribbean Commis- 
sion, 503. 
Duggan, Laurence, designation in the State Department, 

54. 
Duke University, Durham, N.C., address by Mr. Berle, 

176. 
Dunn, James C. : 
Designations in the State Department, 55, 56. 
Participant in radio broadcast, 30. 

Eastern and African Affairs, Office of, 57, 194. 

Eastern European Affairs, Division of, 55. 

Eastern Hemisphere Division, 51, 304. 

Eaton, Paul B., technical adviser, return from China, 501. 

Economic Affairs, Office of, 52, 293, 303, 365. 

Economic Affairs, Office of Wartime, 49, 52, 576. 

Economic Defense Board, 155, 157. 

Economic foreign policy, addresses by Mr. Hawkins, 311, 
391. 

Economic Foreign Policy, Executive Committee on, crea- 
tion of by President Roosevelt, 511. 

Economic policy toward European neutrals, article by Mr. 
Merchant, 493. 

Economic Studies, Division of. See Economic Affairs, 
Office of. 

Economic warfare : 
As practiced by the Nazi regime, address by Mr. Russell, 

403. 
Discussed on radio by Mr. Hawkins, 104. 
Problems of, addresses by Mr. Taft, 254, 465. 

Economic Warfare, Board of, 155, 157. 

Economic Warfare, Office of, consolidation Into FEA, 473. 



604 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Economics : 
Agencies and controls combating the Axis economic war- 
machine, 410. 
Chronology of wartime development of organizations 

(July 1939 to December 1943), 152. 
Committees, Joint Economic, discontinuance by U.S. and 

Canada, 264. 
Foreign economic operations State Department func- 

tion.s, 49, 52, 100, 103. 
Foreign Service ofiBcers' reports regarding develop- 
ments abroad, 181. 
Inter-American Development Commission, 415, 426, 483. 
Wartime economic problems, addresses by Mr. Taft, 
254, 465. 
Ecuador (see also American republics) : 
Airmail service, anniversary, 500. 
Closing of U.S. consulate at Manta, 420. 
Invasion of Europe, correspondence of President del 

Rio witb President Roosevelt, 551. 
Recognition by U.S. of new government, 536. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Agricultural Sciences, Inter-American Institute of 

(1944), 162. 
Automotive traffic, inter-American convention on regu- 
lation of (1943), 22. 
Boundary, with Peru (1942), 487. 
Exchange of publications, with Panama (1944), 401. 
Education, Allied Ministers of. Sec Allied Ministers of 

Education ttnder Conferences. 
Education, Science, and Art Division, 65. 
Educational and cultural rebuilding of war-torn United 

Nations, U.S. participation, 299, 433. 
Effland, Richard W., designation in the State Department, 

51. 
Egypt : 

Cairo Conference, results of, 4, 76, 77. 

Fall of Rome, correspondence between King Farouk I 

and President Roosevelt, 530, 550. 
Navigation conventions : 
Assistance and salvage at sea (1910), adherence 

(1944), 39. 
Bills of lading (1924), adherence (1944), 39. 
Collisions at sea (1910), adherence (1944), 39. 
U. S. Minister (Tuck), confirmation of nomination, 420. 
Eisenhower, Gen. Dwight D., report to President Roose- 
velt upon invasion of Europe, 549. 
El Salvador (see also American republics) : 

Channel of communication by U.S. with Swiss Govern- 
ment regarding interests in enemy territory, 269. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences 
(1944), signature and ratification (1944), 230, 
461, 567. 
UNRRA, agreement (1943), ratification (1943), 305. 
Embargo against shipment of munitions. See Munitions. 
Embassy rank, representation between U.S. and — 
Iran, 181. 
Portugal, 38S. 



Emergency Advisory Committee for Political Defense : 
Exchange of refugees on German territory witb German 

nationals in American republics, resolution, 566. 
Recognition of new governments instituted by force, 
resolutions, 20, 28. 
Emergency Management, Office for, 153. 
Equality, .sovereign, for all nations, statement by Secre- 
tary Hull, 509. 
Erhardt, John G., de.signation in the State Department, 62. 
Escobar, Adrian C., credentials as Ambassador of the Ar- 
gentine Republic to U.S., 191. 
Espionage, repression of Axis activities in Chile, 205. 
Estonia, representation of U.S. intei'ests by Switzerland, 

269. 
Ethiopia : 

Fall of Rome and invasion of Europe, corresjwndence of 
Emperor Haile Selassie I with President Roosevelt, 
551. 
UNRRA, agreement (1943), ratification (1944), 305. 
Europe (see also the individual countries) : 
Civilian relief in, plans for, 469, 471, 474, 477. 
Invasion, June 6, 1944 — 
Messages between President Roosevelt and officials of 

the United Nations, 530, 549. 
Prayer by President Roosevelt, 525. 
Report to the President by General Eisenhower, 549. 
Statements by Secretary Hull and Mr. Stettinius, 526. 
European Affairs, Office of, 54, 264. 
Examiners for Foreign Service, Board of, 61. 
Exchange of nationals with Germany and Japan. See 

"Gripsholm." 
Exchange of official publications, agreement between Ecua- 
dor and Panama (1944), 401. 
Exchange of official publications, agreement between U.S. 
and — 
Afghanistan (1944), 230. 
Guatemala (1944), 422. 
Iraq (1944), 230. 
Executive agreements. See Treaties, agreements, etc. 
Executive Committee on Economic Foreign Policy, creation 

and membership, 511. 
Executive order, establishing War Refugee Board, 95. 
Exports, newsprint production and transportation by U.S. 

to other American republics, efforts to facilitate, 88. 
Exton, Frederick, designation in the State Department, 50. 

Far East {see also the individual countries) : 
Military objectives of U.S., statements by President 

Roosevelt, 4, 145. 
U.S. prisoners of war and civilian internees in the Far 

East. See vnder United States citizens. 
War and post-war problems, address by Mr. Grew, 8. 
Far Eastern Affairs, Office of, 56, 420, 503. 
Farouk I, of Egypt, correspondence with President Roose- 
velt on the fall of Rome, 530, 550. 
FE.\. See Foreign Economic Administration. 
Federal Communications Commission, opening of direct 
radio circuit to Uruguay, 511. 



INDEX 



605 



Federal Regiilations, Code of, sample of codification, 441. 
Fellowships for citizens from the other American republics, 

416, 430, 5S4. 
Ferro-alloys, efforts to stop shipments by neutrals to 

Germany, 467. 
Finance {see also under Conferences; Economics) : 
Assistance to U.S. citizens detained in the Philippine 

Islands, 83. 
Claims payment to U.S. by Mexico, 29. 
Inter-American Development Commission, organiza- 
tion of, 415, 426, 483. 
Loans to China by U.S. since 1931, 356. 
Silver purchases from China, 357. 

United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference, 
498, 587. 
Financial and Monetary Affairs, Division of, 53, 328. 
Finland : 
Axis satellite, declaration of U.S., British, and Soviet 

Governments regarding, 425. 
Firms, inclusion in Blocked Nationals, Proclaimed List, 

511. 
Minister to U.S. (Procop4) and counselors of legation 

requested to leave U.S., 565, 585. 
War, position in, 179, 253. 
Finletter, Thomas K., designation in the State Department 

and resignation, 45, 211. 
Fiscal and Budget Affairs. See Budget and Finance, Divi- 
sion of. 
Fisher, Ernest M., designation in the State Department, 51. 
Fisheries, halibut fishery of Northern Pacific Ocean and 
Bering Sea, with Canada (1937), approval of 1944 
regulations, 293. 
Flaherty, Francis E., designation in the State Department, 

63. 
Fleming, H. Kingston, designation in the State Depart- 
ment, 51. 
Food {see also Agriculture) : 
Agreement with the Dominican Republic (1944), 195. 
Relief in Europe, estimates, 475, 476. 
Shipments, lend-lease, to the Soviet Union, 224. 
Foreign Activity Correlation, Division of, 48, 400, 543. 
Foreign affairs of the United States in wartime and after, 

address by Mr. Long, 342. 
Foreign Buildings Operations, Division of, 488, 490. 
Foreign Commerce Service, transferred to the State De- 
partment, 152. 
Foreign Economic Administration : 
Activities of, 195. 

Establishment of by consolidation of certain other agen- 
cies, 473. 
Foreign Economic Coordination, OflJce of, establishment 

and abolishment, 472, 473. 
Foreign Press Association, N.T., address by Mr. Berle, 574. 
"Foreign Relations of the United States, 1929", publica- 
tion of vols. II and III, 387. 
Foreign Relief and Rehabilitation Operations, Otflce of. 
See OFRRO. 



Foreign Service, Office of the: 
Joint Survey Group, formation, 590. 
Name changed from Foreign Service Administration, 

Ofiiceof (D.O. 1273), 488. 
Planning Staff, creation (D.O. 1234), 241, 590. 
Foreign Service, U.S. (see also State Department) : 
American seamen and the Foreign Service, article by 

Miss Dailor, 206. 
Consular offices : Bone, Algeria, closing of, 91 ; Ciudad 
Bolivar, Venezuela, closing of, 401 ; Corumbd, Brazil, 
closing of, 320; Grenada, B.W.I., opening of, 388, 
522 ; Hull, England, reopening of, 401 ; Manta, Ecua- 
dor, closing of, 420; Osorno, Chile, closing of, 388; 
Palermo, Sicily, reopening of, 195; San Sebastian, 
Spain, opening of, 388; Southampton, England, re- 
opening of, 461. 
Death of : Aldridge, Clayson W., 304 ; Burdette, William 
C, 91 ; Foster, Julian B., 591 ; Neville, Edwin Lowe, 
329; Weber, Theodore C, 304; Williams, Edward 
Thomas, 132. 
Embassy rank for representation between U.S. and — 
Iran, 181. 
Portugal, 388. 
Functions, under law, 589. 

Minister to Iceland (Dreyfus), presentation of creden- 
tials, 563. 
Nominations, confirmation of, 132, 281. 
Post-war period, preparation for, 589. 
Report by Mr. Stettiuius accompanying bill to permit 
recruitment of technical personnel and to classify 
administrative and clerical personnel, 227. 
Reporting from the field, 181, 589. 
Representation of foreign interests, listed by countries 

and by Foreign Service oflSces, 265, 268. 
Resignation of Ambassador-Minister (Biddle) to Allied 

governments in London, 110. 
Work of, discussed in radio broadcast, 68. 
Foreign Service Administration, Division of, 62, 242. 
Foreign Service Administration, Office of, 61, 241, 488. 
Foreign Service Buildings Office, 63. 
Foreign Service Examiners Board, 61. 
Foreign Service Furnishings, Office of, 63. 
Foreign Service Officers Training School Board, 61. 
Foreign Service Personnel, Board of, 61. 
Foreign Service Personnel, Division of, 62, 229. 
Foreign trade. See Trade. 

Foreign-trade week, statement by Secretary HuU, 479. 
Foster, Julian B., death, 591. 

Fowler, William A., designation in State Department, 52. 
Fox, Homer S., designation in the State Department, 420. 
France ; 

Armistice with Germany and with Italy (IWO), 380. 
Collaboration between U.S. and Vichy regime, false 

rumors of, 278. 
Exchange of nationals via "Grlpsholm," 180. 
French Committee of National Liberation. See French 

Committee of National Liberation. 
Landing of Allied forces in, 526, 530, 549, 



606 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



France — Continued. 
Kepresentation of U.S. Interests in occupied areas by 

Switzerland, 269. 
U.S. policy toward, address by Secretary Hull, 337. 
Warship, transfer from U.S. to, 167. 
Frank, Laurence C, designation in the State Depart- 
ment, 46, 242. 
French Committee of National Liberation : 

Conference of French African Governors at Brazzaville, 

239. 
Mutual-aid agreement with Canada, text (1944), 456. 
U.S. representative (Wilson), postponement of return 
to Algiers, 444. 
French Indochina, representation of U.S. interests by 

Switzerland, 269. 
Freyre y Santander, Manual de (Peru), death, 302. 
Fuel supply for U.S. Army in Canada and Alaska, agree- 
ment with Canada for extension (1942, 1943), 85. 
Fulbright, J. William, 413. 
Fullerton, Hugh S., designation In the State Department, 

55. 
Fuqua, John H., designation in the State Department, 293. 
Fur-seal agreement, provisional, U.S. and Canada (1942), 
approval by U.S. and Canada (1944), 230, 568. 

Gange, John F., designations in the State Department, 

54, 503. 
Garand, John C, recipient of Medal for Merit, 301. 
Geist, Raymond H., designation in the State Department, 

59. 
General Federation of Women's Clubs, address by Mr. 

Hawkins, 391. 
Geography and Cartography, Division of, 60. 
George, W. Perry, designation in the State Department, 55. 
George II, of Greece, correspondence with President 
Roosevelt on fall of Rome and invasion of Europe, 
529, 549. 
Gerig, O. Benjamin, designation in the State Depart- 
ment, 56. 
Germany : 

Armistice with France (1940), 380. 

Diplomatic relations with Argentina, severance by 

Argentina, 116-117. 
Economic penetration throughout the world by Nazi 

regime, 405. 
Exchange of prisoners of war and civilians with U.S., 
other American republics and the U.K. See 
"Gripsholm." 
Invasion of Hungary, 278. 
Military operations In Italy, 2.53. 
Policy of Allies toward, address by Secretary Hull, 335, 

340. 
Relief of liberated areas, not Included in plans for, 475. 
Religion, attitude toward, 253. 

Representation of U.S. interests by Switzerland, 269. 
Representatives in Ireland, request of U.S. for removal 

of, 235. 
War against, declaration by Liberia, 151. 
Gie, S. F. N., credentials as Minister of the Union of 
South Africa to U.S., 326. 



Glassford, Admiral William A., designation as President 
Roosevelt's representative at inauguration of the 
President of Liberia, 89. 
Good-neighbor policy : 

Address by Mr. Berle, 176. 

Extension to other nations of program with American 

republics, text of proposed amendment to act of 

1939, 215. 

Water utilization, treaty between U.S. and Mexico 

(1944), 161. 

Gordon, George A., designations in the State Department, 

48, 400. 
Gowen, Franklin C, designation in the State Department, 

48. 
Gray, Cecil W., designation in the State Department, 45. 
Great Britain. See United Kingdom. 
Greece : 
Fall of Rome and invasion of Europe, correspondence 
between — 
King George II and President Roosevelt, 529, 549. 
Prime Minister of Greece and Secretary Hull, 552. 
Fighting Greece, Conference for National Unity, message 

to President Roosevelt, 502. 
Refugees from, camps for, 533. 

Representation of U.S. interests by Switzerland, 270. 
Green, Joseph C, designation in the State Department, 45. 
Greenland, Legion of Merit medals to three Danes for meri- 
torious service in, 541. 
Grenada, B.W.I., opening of U.S. consulate, 388, 522. 
Grew, Joseph C. : 
Addresses and statements: 

Mistreatment of U.S. prisoners of war in the Far 

East, 115. 
War and post-war problems in the Far East, 8, 219. 
Designations in the State Department, 45, 420. 
Gripsholm (ship) : 

Exchange, second, of civilly nationals with Japan, 
(voyage of Sept.-Dec. 1943), basis of selection, 77, 
79. 
Exchange of American and German ofl3cials and others 

(voyage of Feb.-Mar. 1944), 180, 189, 205, 238. 
Exchange of prisoners of war and civilians between 
Germany and the U.S., other American republics, 
and the U.K. (voyage of May- June 1944), 413, 478, 
511, 535. 
Gromyko, Andrei A., remarks at presentation of Soviet 
awards to members of U.S. armed forces and merchant 
marine, 348. 
Guatemala (see also American republics) : 

Channel of communication by U.S. with Swiss Govern- 
ment regarding interests in enemy territory, 269. 
Fall of Rome, correspondence of President Ubico with 

President Roosevelt, 551. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural Sciences, Inter-American Institute of 

(1944), 294. 
Automotive traflBc, inter-American convention on regu- 
lation of (1943), 22. 
Exchange of oflBcial publications, agreement with U.S. 
(1944), 422. 



INDEX 



607 



Guests of U.S., aecommodalions for, S9, 329. 
Gufler, Bernard, designation in the State Department, 48. 
(Jutlie, Otto E., designation in the State Department, 60. 
( Juti^rrez, Francisco de Paula, credentials as Costa Rican 
Ambassador to U.S., 566. 

Hackworth, Green H., designation in the State Depart- 
ment, 46. 
Halle Selassie I, Emperor of Ethiopia, correspondence with 

President Roosevelt, 551. 
Haiti (see also American republics) : 
Consular services performed by U.S. in Kingston, Ja- 
maica, 269. 
Cultural leader, visit to U.S., 435. 

Fall of Rome and invasion of Europe, correspondence of 
President Lescot with Presidpnt Roosevelt, 531, 550. 
Representation of interests by U.S. in certain places, 268. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Automotive traffic, inter-American convention on regu- 
lation of (1943), 22. 
Commercial, with Dominican Republic (1941), ex- 
piration, 305. 
Customs duties, reductions in, with U.S. (1942), lapse 

of agreement, 3(X5. 
UNRRA, agreement (1943), ratification (1944), 329. 
U.S. Ambassador (Wilson), confirmation of nomina- 
tion, 281. 
Haines-Champagne Highway, Alaska and Canada, agree- 
ment with Canada authorizing construction (1942), 
136. 
Haley, Bernard F., designation in the State Department, 

184. 
Halibut fishery of Northern Pacific Ocean and Bering 

Sea, 1944 regulations, 293. 
Halla, Blanche R., designations in the State Department, 

45, 184. 
Harkness, Richard, participant in radio broadcasts, 30, 

68, 100, 117. 
Harris, David, designation in the State Department, 56. 
Harris, William, participation in radio broadcast, 311. 
Havens, Harry A., designation in the State Department, 

63. 
Hawkins, Harry C. : 
Addresses on economic foreign policy, 100, 311, 391. 
Designation in the State Department, 52. 
Health. See Pan American Conference of National Di- 
rectors of. 
Helium gas, regulations on export, 580. 
Henry, R. Horton, designation in State Department, 242. 
Hickerson, John D., designation in State Department, 55. 
Hicks, Knowlton V., designation in the State Department, 

48. 
Hiss, Alger, designations in the State Department 57, 400. 
Hiss, Donald, designations in the State Department, 46, 

293. 
Historical studies, convention between Peru and Vene- 
zuela for the promotion of (1942), exchange of rati- 
fications (1943), 212. 
Hodgdon, A. Dana, designation in the State Department, 
513. 



Holcomb, Gen. Thomas, confirmation of nomination as 

U.S. Minister to the Union of South Africa, 281. 
Holy See. See Vatican City. 
Honduras {see also American republics) : 
Channel of communication by U.S. with Swiss Gov(?rn- 

ment regarding interests in enemy territory, 269. 
Cultural leader, vi.sit to U.S., 585. 
Invasion of Europe, correspondence of President Aridino 

with President Roosevelt, 530, 550. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural Sciences, Inter-American Institute of 

(1944), 195. 
Automotive traflic, inter-American convention on regu- 
lation of (1943), signature (1944), 422. 
UNRRA, agreement (1943), approval (1944), 305. 
Hong Kong, representation of U.S. interests by Switzer- 
land, 270. 
Hooker, John S., designation in the State Department, 53. 
Hooker, Robert G., Jr., designation in the State Depart- 
ment, 46. 
Hornbeck, Stanley K., designations in the State Depart- 
ment, 57, 420. 
Hull, Cordell (sec also State Department) : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 
Albania, status of, 510. 
Anniversaries — 

Nazi assault upon the Soviet Union, 3d anniver- 

.sary, 573. 
New Year message, 21. 
Argentina, severance of relations with Germany and 

Japan, 117. 
Bolivia, new government in, 29, 501. 
Bombing, accidental, of Sehauffhausen, 314. 
British Minister of Production, error of, 573. 
Censorship of political news, reply to Governor 

Dewey's statement, 300. 
Commissions of Inter-American Development, 1st Con- 
ference of, 426. 
Conference of Allied Ministers of Education in Lon- 
don, 293. 
Death of— 

Knox, Prank, Secretary of the Navy, 396. 
Peruvian Ambassador (Freyre y Santander), 302. 
Williams, Edward Thomas, 132. 
Equality for all nations, irrespective of size, 509. 
Finnish position in tlie war, 179. 
Foreign policy <if U.S., 275, 335. 
German invasion of Hungary, 278. 
International Labor Conference, 383. 
International Stabilization Plan, 371. 
Invasion of Europe, 520. 
Japanese atrocities on U.S. citizens in Far East, 

115, 168. 
Joint statement with Foreign Economic Administra- 
tor (Crowley) regarding distribution of lend- 
lease material, 250. 
Liberia, declaration of war against Germany and 

Japan, 151. 
Military operations in Italy, 253. 
Neutral countries, aid to Axis, 336. 



601906—44 



608 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Hull, Cordell — Continued. 

Addresses, statements, etc. — Continued. 
Pan Aimerican Day, 349. 
Participant in radio broadcast, 117. 
Peace, international, preliminary discussion of plans, 

510. 
Polish-Soviet relations, U.S. offer of good oflSces, 

96, 116. 
Soviet awards to members of U.S. armed forces and 

merchant marine, 3-19. 
Soviet military operations in Rumania, 315. 
Trade, post-war, 341, 42G, 479. 
Trade relations, U.S. and Chile, 180. 
Visit of Mr. Stettinius to Loudon, 2.56. 
Correspondence : 

Attempted assassination of President of Mexico, 351. 
Brazil, good offices in boundary difference between 

Ecuador and I'eru, congratulations, 488. 
Death of— 

Burdett, William C, 91. 
Neville, Edwin Lowe, 329. 
Emergency Advisory Committee for Political Defense 
in Montevideo regarding rescue of refugees from 
German territory, 566. 
Greek Prime Minister regarding fall of Rome and 

invasion of Europe, 552. 
Iceland, President of Republic of, 557. 
Recognition of new governments instituted by force, 

21, 28. 
Resignation of Hunter Miller, 264. 
Uruguay, opening of direct radio circuit, 511. 
Proclamation, death of Prank Knox, Secretary of the 
Navy, 396. 
Hull, England, reopening of U.S. consulate, 401. 
HuUey, Benjamin M., designation in the State Department, 

48. 
Hungary : 

Axis satellite, declaration of U.S., British, and Soviet 

Governments regarding, 425. 
Invasion by Germany, 278. 
Representation of U.S. interests by Switzerland, 270. 

Iceland : 
Confirmation and credentials of LT.S. Minister (Drey- 
fus), 281, 563. 
Establishment of republic, U.S. representative (Drey- 
fus), 522, 557. 
Good offices extended by U.S. in certain places, 269. 
Icelandic independence movement, article by Mr. Trim- 
ble, 5.j9. 
Messages to President of Republic by President Roose- 
velt and Secretary Hull, 557. 
Illinois Education Association, Chicago, address by Mr. 

Grew, 8. 
Immigration of Chinese, annual quota, 180. 
Indochina, French : 
Japanese invasion of, U.S. attitude, 354. 
Representation of U.S. interests by Switzerland, 269. 
Independence of the Dominican Republic, centennial cele- 
bration, 180, 205, 242. 



India : 
Objectives of U.S.. military, statement by President 

Roosevelt, 145. 
UNRRA, agreement (1943), approval (1944), 461. 
Indian Institute. See Inter-American Indian Institute. 
Industry. See Inter-American Development Commission 

under Commissions. 
Industry Branch, establishment in Commodities Division, 
Office of Economic Affairs, to develop policy on cartels 
and similar arrangements (D.O. 1254), 365. 
Informational activities and liaison, State Department, 

209. 
Inter-Allied Committee on Post-War Requirements, estab- 
lishment and activities of, 469. 
Inter-American automotive traffic, convention on regula- 
tion of (1943), 22, 162, 366, 422, 567. 
Inter-American Coffee Board, 512. 
Inter-American Commission of Women, 325. 
Inter-American convention for trade-mark and commer- 
cial protection (1929), ratification by Paraguay 
(1943), 248. 
Inter-American Development Commission : 
Conference (1st), 415, 483. 

Messages of President Roosevelt and Secretary Hull. 
426. 
Inter-American Indian Institute, convention for (1940), 
adherence by Dominican Republic (1943), 230, 330. 
Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences, con- 
vention on (1944), 90, 162, 195, 230, 294, 306, 40O, 461, 
522, .593. 
Inter-American radiocommunications convention (1937), 

adherence of Bahamas (1943), 162. 
Inter-American relations. See American republics. 
Interdepartmental Committee on Cooperation with the 

American Republics, 585. 
International commissions, conferences, etc. See Com- 
missions ; Conferences. 
International Communications, Division of, 23, 49. 
International Conferences, Division of, 61. 
International Economic Affair.s, Office of Adviser on. See 

Economic Affairs, Office of. 
"International House", New Orleans, dedication, radio 

address by Mr. Messersmith, 133. 
International Labor Organization : 
Article by Mr. MuUiken, 257. 
Conference, 26th : 

Address by President Roosevelt, 481. 
Article by Mr. Mulliken, 316. 

Message of President Roosevelt to Congress submit- 
ting docimients, 514. 
Draft declaration of aims and purposes, 482. 
U.S. membership in (1934), 345. 
International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union Conven- 
tion (25th), address by Mr. Berle, 539. 
International Security and Organization, Division of, 56. 
International Stabilization Plan, Monetary: 
Statement by Secretary Hull, 371. 
Treasury Department outline, 159. 



INDEX 



609 



Iran: 

Embassy rank for representation between U.S. and 

Iran, 181. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Military mission, with U.S. (1943), 22. 
Trade agreement, reciprocal, with U.S. (1943), 305, 
521. 
U.S. Ambassador (Morris), conflrmation of nomina- 
tion, 281. 
Iraq : 
Exchange of official publications, agreement with U.S. 

(1944), 230. 
King Faisal II, birthday message from President Roose- 
velt, 416. 
Ireland : 
Firms included in Proclaimed List of Blocked Nationals, 

412. 
Merchant ships, inability of U.S. to provide, 236. 
Rome, preservation of, reply of President Roosevelt to 

Prime Minister de Valera, 371. 
U.S. request for removal of Axis representatives in, 235. 
U.S. troojis in the British Isles, 237. 
Ireland, Philip W., designation in the State Department, 56. 
Irving, Wilbur C, designations in the State Department, 

58, 59. 
Italy (see also Rome) : 
Allied Control Commission for, officials of, 573. 
Armistice with Allied forces (1943), 380. 
Armistice with France (1940), 380. 
Civilian supply, experiences, 474. 
Military operations in, 253. 

Mussolini regime, German and Italian broadcasts al- 
leging Spanish recognition, 20. 
Refugees in, 532, 554. 

Reopening of U.S. consulate at Palermo, 195. 
Representation of U.S. interests in certain areas by 

Switzerland, 270. 
U.S. policy toward, address by Secretary Hull, 337. 

Jamaica, furnishing laborers to U.S. for summer work, 

513. 
Japan : 

Amau statement on Japanese policy toward China, 352. 
Diplomatic relations with Argentina, severance by Ar- 
gentina, 116. 
Internees and prisoners of war in the Far East, includ- 
ing the Philippines : 
Chronology of Red Cross efforts, 189. 
Chronology of U.S. protests against mistreatment, 145, 

168. 
Exchange of nationals with U.S., basis for selection, 77. 
Relief supplies for, Japanese attitude toward, 81, 496, 

536. 
Statement by Secretary HuU, 115. 
Statements by Mr. Grew, 8, 115, 219. 
Objectives of U.S., military, statement by President 

Roosevelt, 4, 145. 
Representation of U.S. interests by Switzerland, 270. 
Representatives in Ireland, request of U.S. for removal 
of, 235. 



Japan — Continued. 

Treaty of commerce and navigation with U.S. (1911), 

termination, 354. 
U.S. policy toward, address by Secretary Hull, 335, 340. 
U.S. policy toward since 1931, 352. 
War against, deiluration by Liberia, 151. 
Japanese Affairs, Division of. State Department, 57. 
Jewish Center Workers, Nati(mal Association of, address 

by Mr. Berle, 484. 
Jewish Education, National Council for, address by Mr. 

Berle, 484. 
Jewish Social Welfare, National Conference of, address 

by Mr. Berle, 484. 
Johnston, Felton M., designation in the State Depart- 
ment, 4G. 
Jones, S. Shepard, designations in the State Department, 
63, 210. 

Kauffmanu, Henrik de, remarks at presentation of Legion 
of Merit medals by U.S. for three Danes, 542. 

Keatley, G. Harold, designation in State Department, 59. 

Keeley, James H., Jr., designation in the State Depart- 
ment, 48. 

Keith, Gerald, designation in the State Department, 54. 

Kelchner, Warren, designation in the State Department, 
61. 

Kenestrick, Millard L., designation in the State Depart- 
ment, 59. 

Key, David McK., designation in the State Department, 
366. 

King, Leland W., Jr., designation in the State Depart- 
ment, 63. 

Knox, Charles F., Jr., designation in the State Depart- 
ment, 51. 

Knox, Frank, Secretary of the Navy, death, 396. 

Kohler, Foy D., designation in the State Department, 58. 

Kuppinger, Eldred D., designation in the State Depart- 
ment, 48. 

Kurth, Harry M., designation in the State Department, 58. 

Labor {see also International Labor Organization) : 
American Federation of Labor, address by Mr. Long, 342. 
Responsibility in post-war period, address by Mr. Berle, 

539. 
West Indian laborers, furnishing to U.S. for summer 
work, 512. 
Labor Relations, Division of, 53, 513. 

Labouisse, Henry R., Jr., designations in the State Depart- 
ment, 51, 264. 
Larkin, Frederick, designations in the State Department, 

63, 490. 
Latchford, Stephen, designation in the State Department, 

49, 304. 
Latin America. ySee American republics and the individual 

countries. 
Latvia, representation of U.S. interests by Switzerland, 

270. 
League of Nations, report on Chinese-Japanese contro- 
versy, statement by Secretary Hull on, 352. 



610 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



League of Women Voters (Indiana), address by Mr. 

Taf t, 465. 
Leese, Lt. Gen. Sir Oliver, fall of Rome, correspondence 

with President Roosevelt, 529. 
Legal Adviser, State Department, 40, 47, 399. 
Legion of Merit medals, presentation to the Danish Minis- 
ter for three Danes, 541. 
Legislation. See under Congress, U.S. 
Lehman, Herbert H., Director of OFRUO, 470. 
Leith-Ross Committee. See Inter-Allied Committee on 

Post-War Requirements. 
Lend-lease : 
Agreement, U.S. and Liberia, relating to construction 

of port on Liberian coast (1943), 38. 
Airplane exports, statement by President Roosevelt, 510. 
Anniversary (3d), 238. 
Assistance to China, 359. 

Countries eligible for, list quoted from report of Presi- 
dent Roosevelt to Congress, 379. 
Material, distribution of, joint statement by the Secre- 
tary of State and the Foreign Ek^onomic Administra- 
tor, 256. 
Report of operations, letters of transmittal from Presi- 
dent Roosevelt to Congress, 27, 495. 
U.S. shipments to Soviet Union, 223. 
U.S. warship, transfer to France, 167. 
Lend-Lease Act : 

Extension of (1944), statement of President Roosevelt, 

478. 
Summary of, 154. 
Lend-Lease Administration : 
Consolidation into FEA, 478. 
Liberated Areas Branch, establishment of, 471. 
Relation with OFRRO respecting funds, 470. 
Relief in Europe, stockpiles for 474. 
Lewis, Charles W., jr., designation in State Department, 58. 
Liaison and informational activities. State Department 
(see also Foreign Activity Correlation) : 
American Republics Analysis and Liaison, Division of, 

establishment (D.O. 1271), 443. 
Departmental Order 1229, 209. 

Representation with other agencies, 44, 45, 46, 48, 49, 
53, 56, 59, 60, 63, 64, 65, 194, 366, 513. 
Liberia : 

Message to U.S. Government regarding fall of Rome, 

532. 
President Tubman and Vice President Simpson, inaugu- 
ration, 89. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Declaration by United Nations (1942), adherence 

(1944), 151, 346. 
Port, construction of on Liberian coast, with U.S. 
(1943), 38. 
War against Germany and Japan, declaration of, 151. 
Liberated areas : 

Civil administration, agreements respecting certain coun- 
tries, between U.S., U.K., Belgium and Netherlands, 
and U.S., U.K., U.S.S.R., and Norway, 479. 
Supplies for, article by Mr. Stillwell, 469. 



Liberated Areas, Office of Special Adviser on. State De- 
partment, 473. 

Liberated Areas Branch, Lend-Lease Administration, es- 
tablishment of, 471. 

Liberated Areas Division (see also Financial and Mone- 
tary Affairs), 50, .51, 212. 

Libraries abroad, U.S. aid to, 431. 

Linz, Paul F., designation in the State Department, 50. 

Lithuania, representation of U.S. interests by Switzerland, 
270. 

Livesey, Frederick, designation in the State Department, 
52. 

Lockhart, Frank P., designation in the State Depart- 
ment, 57. 

Logsdon, Ella A., designation in the State Department, 58. 

Long, Breckinridge : 

Address before American Federation of Labor Forum, 

New York, 342. 
Designations in the State Department, 46, 47, 61. 
Participant in radio broadcast, 117. 

Loyola University Forum, New Orleans, La., address by 
Mr. Shaw, 429. 

Ludlow, James M., article on control of international 
traffic in arms, 576. 

Luxembourg : 
Representation of U.S. interests by Switzerland, 270. 
U.S. Minister (Biddle), resignation, 110. 

Lynch. Robert J., designation in the State Department, 46. 

Lyon, Cecil B., designation in the State Department, 54. 

Lyon, Frederick B., designations in the State Department, 
46, 48, 400. 

Lyttelton, Sir Oliver, British Minister of Production, criti- 
cism by Secretary Hull of statement by, 573. 

Macmahon, Arthur W., designation in the State Depart- 
ment, 58. 

Maktos, John, appointment as general counsel of American 
Mexican Claims Commission, 542. 

Manchuria, occupation by Japan in 1931, U.S. attitude, 
351. 

Manta, Ecuador, closing of U.S. consulate, 420. 

Maps: 

Colorado River basin and Imperial Dam, 286, 289. 
Rio Grande drainage basin, 2S3. 

Mason-Macfarlane, Lt. Gen. Noel, Deputy President of the 
Allied Control Commission for Italy, 573. 

Matthews, H. Freeman, designation in the State Depart- 
ment, 55. 

McDermott, Michael J. : 

Designations in the State Department, 45, 209. 
Participant in radio broadcast, 30. 

McGurk. Joseph F., designation in the State Department, 
54. 

McKenna, James E., designation in the State Department, 
63. 

McMillan. Hugh C, designation in the State Department, 
63. 

Medal for Merit awards, 301. 

Medina Angarita, Gen. Isaias (President of Venezuela), 
visit to U.S., 29, 89. 



INDEX 



611 



Mellen, Sydney L. W., designation in the State Department, 

51. 
Merchant, Livingston T. : 
Article on aspects of our economic policy toward the 

European neutrals, 493. 
Designations in the State Department, 51, 304. 
Merchant marine, U.S.: 

Awards to members by Soviet Union, 347. 
Hearing Units established at U.S. and foreign ports, 208. 
Merkling, Pranl£ J., designation in the State Department, 

490. 
Merriam, Gordon P., designation in tiie State Department, 

58. 
Messersmith, George S., radio address upon dedication of 

New Orleans "International House", 133. 
Metals Reserve Company, Reconstruction Finance Corpo- 
ration, 153. 
Mexican Affairs, Division of. State Department, 54. 
Mexico (see also American republics) : 
Claims payment to U.S., 29. 
Cultural leaders, visit to U.S., 385, 435. 
President Avila Camacho, attempted assassination, 351. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
UNRRA, agreement (1943), approval (1944), 305, 388. 
Water utilization, relating to Colorado and Tijuana 
Rivers and the Rio Grande, with U.S. (1944), 
161. 
Meyer, Paul T., designation in the State Department, 59. 
Middle East, address on combined Middle East supply pro- 
gram by Frederick Winant, 199. 
Middle East Relief and Refugee Administration, relation 

to UNRRA, 533. 
Middle Eastern Affairs, Division of, 58, 1C5. 
Mikolajczyk, Stanislaw, Prime Minister of Poland, visit 

to U.S., 538, 565. 
Military missions. See Missions, U.S. 
Military operations in — 

Europe (invasion of June 6, 1944), report by General 

Eisenhower, 549. 
Italy, 253. 

Rumania, Soviet statement, 315. 
Military purchases, foreign and domestic, interdepart- 
mental committee for the coordination of, 152. 
Military secrets, method of clearance for foreign use of 

articles and data involving, 583. 
Military service, agreement respecting nationals of one 
country residing in country of the other, U.S. and — 
China (1943, 1944), 593. 
Colombia (1044), 184. 
Military supplies. See China; Lend-lease; Treaties. 
Miller, Edward G., Jr., designation in the State Depart- 
ment, 51. 
Miller, Hunter, resignation from the State Department, 

264. 
Missions, U.S. to — 
Iran, military, 22. 
Panama, military, 503. 
Peru, naval, 330; naval aviation, 490. 
Venezuela, military aviation, 90. 



Mitchell, Sidney Alexander, designation in the State De- 
partment, 212. 

Moffat, Abbot Low, designation in the State Department, 
51. 

Molotov, V. M., statement regarding Soviet military opera- 
tions in Rumania, 315. 

Monetary and Financial Conference, United Nations, 498, 
597. 

Monetary stabilization plan, international post-war, 1.59, 
371. 

Monument.s and shrines in Italy, preservation of, 2,53. 

Moore, Sarah D., designations in the State Department, 

59, 184. 

Morgan, Stokeley W., designation in the State Depart- 
ment, 304. 

Morgenthau, Henry, Jr., chairman, U.S. delegation to 
United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference, 
498. 

Morin, Richard W., designations in the State Department, 
63, 210. 

Morris, Leland B., confirmation of nomination as U.S. 
Ambassador to Iran, 281. 

Moscow Conference : 

Discussed in radio broadcast, 33. 

Message of President Roosevelt to Congress, 76, 77. 

Mosely, Philip B., designation in the State Department, 56. 

Moss, Marjorie, designation in the State Department, 48. 

Motion Picture and Radio Division, 65, 209. 

Muir, Raymond D., designations in the State Department, 

60, 293. 
AluUiken, Otis E. : 

Articles on International Labor Organization, 257, 316. 
Designations in the State Department, 53, 513. 
Munitions, article on control of international traffic in, 

by Mr. Ludlow, 576. 
Murphy, Raymond E., designation in the State Depart- 
ment, 55. 
Murphy, Robert D. : 
Directive from President Roosevelt on removal of cer- 
tain European refugees to U.S., 532. 
Participant in radio broadcast, 68. 
Murray, Wallace S., designation in the State Depart- 
ment, 57. 

National Munitions Control Board, 577. 

National unity, address by Mr. Berle, 484. 

Nationality of women, convention on (1933), ratiflcation 
by Cuba, 39. 

Naval missions. See Missions, U.S. 

Navicert, permit for passage of neutral goods, 494. 

Navigation and commerce, Chile and Cuba (1937), rati- 
fications (1044) of modfications by exchange of notes 
(1942), 594. 

Navigation conventions, 39, 594. 

Near Eastern Affairs, Division of, 58, 195. 

Near Eastern and African Affairs, Office of, 194. 

Netherlands: 
Civil administration of liberated areas, agreement with 
U.S. and U.K., 479. 



612 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Netherlands— Continued. 
Good offices extended by U.S. in certain places, 269. 
Representation of U.S. interests in occupied areas by 

Switzerland, 270. 
U.S. Ambassador (Biddle), resignation, 110. 
Netherlands Indies, representation of U.S. interests by 

Switzerland, 270. 
Neuti'al countries : 
Aid to Axis countries, statement of Secretary Hull, 336. 
Economic warfare, position of European neutrals in, 
article by Mr. Merchant, 493. 
Neutrality acts, r6simi6 of, 577. 
Neville, Edwin Lowe, death, 320. 
New Year message of Secretary Hull, 21. 
New Zealand : 
Representation of interests by U.S. in certain places, 

268. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Cooperation and collaboration with Australia (1944), 

490. 
Whaling, protocol (1944), signature, 271, 502. 
U.S. Minister (Burdett), death, 91. 
U.S. Minister (Patten), confirmation of nomination, 
281. 
Newsprint production and transportation to other Ameri- 
can republics, U.S. efforts to facilitate, 88. 
Niagara River, additional diversion of waters, agreement 

with Canada (1944), 455. 
Nicaragua (see also American republics) : 

Channel of communication by U.S. with Swiss Govern- 
ment regarding interests in enemy territory, 269. 
Cultural leader, visit to U.S., 501. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural Sciences, Inter-American Institute of 

(1944), 90. 
Automotive traffic, inter-American convention on regu- 
lation of (1943), 22. 
Nichol, Frederick William, designation in the State De- 
partment, 227. 
Non-recognition, U.S. doctrine expressed at the time of 

Japanese occupation of Manchuria, 352. 
North Africa : 

Agreement by Spain with U.S. and British Govern- 
ments respecting Axis agents in, 412. 
Invasion, Allied preparations for, discussed in radio pro- 
gram, 72. 
North American regional broadcasting agreement (1937), 

adherence of Bahamas (1943), 162. 
Northern European Affairs, Division of, 55. 
Norway : 

Civil administration of liberated areas, agreement with 

U.S., U.K., and U.S.S.R., 479. 
Representation of U.S. interests by Switzerland, 270. 
U.S. Ambassador (Biddle), resignation, 110. 
Whaling, signature and ratification of protocol (1944), 
271, 400, 592. 
Norweb, R. Henry, confirmation of nomination as U.S. 

Ambassador to Portugal, 420. 
Notter, Harley A., designation in the State Department, 56. 



O'Dwyer, Col. William, appointment to the Allied Con- 
trol Commission for Italy, 573. 
OFRRO : 

Apiwintment of Governor Lehman as Director, 158, 470. 

Establishment and accomplishments of, 470, 474. 

Relationship to UNRRA and FEA, 473. 
Oil. See Petroleum. 

Opium convention, international (1012), adherence of Af- 
ghanistan (1944), 543. 
Osorno, Chile, closing of U.S. consulate, 388. 

Palermo, Sicily, reopening of U.S. consulate, 195. 
Pan American Airways, agreement with Canada permit- 
ting operation over British Columbia (1944), 306. 
Pan American Conference of National Directors of Health 
(5th) : 
Opening session, address by Mr. Berle, 398. 
U.S. delegates, list of, 384. 
Pan American Congress on Criminology (1st), U. S. dele- 
gation, 499. 
Pan American Union, address by Secretary Hull on Pan 

American Day, 349. 
Panama (see also American republics) : 
Article on United States and Panama, by Mr. Bonsai, 125. 
Consular services performed by U.S. in certain places, 

269. 
Treaties, agreemerits, etc. : 

Agricultural Sciences, Inter-American Institute of 

(1944), 90. 
Exchange of publications with Ecuador (1944), 401. 
Military Mi-ssion, with U.S. (1942, 1943), renewal 
(1944), 503. 
U.S. Ambassador (Warren), confirmation of nomination, 
281. 
Papandreou, George, Prime Minister of Greece, corre- 
spondence with Secretary Hull regarding fall of Rome 
and invasion of Europe, 552. 
Paraguay (see also American republics) : 

Invasion of Europe, correspondence of President Mor- 

inigo with President Roosevelt, 531, 550. 
Trade-mark and commercial protection, inter-American 

convention (1929), ratification (1943), 248. 
U. S. Ambassador (Beaulac), confirmation of nomina- 
tion, 281. 
Parke, Comdr. Lee W., U.S.N., designation in the State 

Department, 544. 
Passport Division, State Department, 47. 
Pasvolsky, Leo : 
Designations in the State Department, 45, 47. 
Participant in radio broadcast, 30. 
Patton, Kenneth S., confirmation of nomination as U.S. 

Minister to New Zealand, 281. 
Peace : 
Establishment of international, statement of Secretary 

Hull on preliminary discussion of plans, 510. 
International organization for, address by Mr. Berle, 97. 
Post-war security organization, statement by President 
Roosevelt, 552. 



INDEX 



613 



Pearl Harbor, Japanese attack at, opinion of British Min- 
ister of Production on significance of, criticism by 
Secretary Hull, 573. 
Peelj, Willys R., designation in the State Department, 195. 
Pell, Robert T., designation in the State Department, &i. 
Permanent American Aeronautical Commission : 
Origin and objectives of, 5S8. 
U.S. Commission of, plans, 499, 588. 
Permanent Court of Arbitration, U.S. members (Stimson 

and Doyle), 212. 
Peru (see also American republics) : 
Airmail service, anniversary, 500. 
Consular services performed by U.S. in CorumbA, Brazil, 

269. 
Cultural leader, visit to U.S., 435. 
Death of Ambassador Freyre y Santander, 802. 
Fall of Rome, correspondence of President Prado 

Ugarteche with President Roosevelt, 580, 550. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Automotive traffic, inter-American convention on 

regulation of (1943), 22. 
Boundary, with Ecuador (1942), 487. 
Historical studies, promotion of, convention with 
Venezuela (1942), exchange of ratifications 
(1943), 212. 
Naval mission, with U.S. (1940), renewal (1944), 330. 
Naval-aviation mission, with U.S. (1940), renewal 
(1944), 490. 
U.S. Ambassador (White), confirmation of nomination, 
132. 
Petroleum : 

Canada, development of sources in, 85. 

Problems relating to, discussions by U.S. and U. K., 

238, 315, 346, 372, 411. 
Shipments to Spain, question of suspension by U.S., 107, 
110, 225, 412. 
Petroleum Administration for War, 346, 411. 
' Petroleum Adviser, Office of. See Economic Affairs, Office 

of. 
Petroleum Division, State Department, 303. 
Peurifoy, John, designation in the State Department, 400. 
Phelps, Dudley M., designation in the State Department, 

53. 
Philippine Affairs, Division of. State Department, 57. 
Philippines (see also Far East) : 

Independence, 10th anniversary of act for, 277. 
Mistreatment of Filipinos, prisoners of war, by Japan, 

statements by Secretary Hull and Mr. Grew, ILj. 
Puppet go^-ernment, recognition by Holy See, denial, 117. 
Relief supplies for, Japanese attitude toward, 496, 536. 
U.S. civilian internees in Japanese custody, financial 

assistance, 83. 
U.S. prisoners of war and civilian internees, mistreat- 
ment, chronology of protests to Japan, 145, 168. 
Phillips, Ralph W., return from China, 327. 
Picado, Teodoro : 

Inauguration as President of Costa Rica, 401. 
Visit to U.S., 385. 
Plakias, John N., designation in the State Department, 513. 
Plitt, Edwin A., designation in the State Department, 48. 



Poland : 
National anniversary, telegram from President Roose- 
velt, 412. 
Representation of U.S. interests by Switzerland, 270. 
Soviet-Polish relations, U.S. offer of good offices, 96, 116. 
U.S. Ambassador (Biddle), resignation, 110. 
Visit to U.S. of Premier Mikolajczyk, 538, 565. 
Policy Committee, State Department, 46, 212. 
Political Defense, Emergency Advisory Committee for. 
See Emergency Advisory Committee for Political De- 
fense. 
Political Planning, Committee on. See Policy Committee. 
Political Studies, Division of. See Special Political Af- 
fairs, Office of. 
Population .shifts, address by Mr. Berle, 176. 
Port and port works, construction on Liberian coast, agree- 
ment with Liberia (1943), 38. 
Portugal : 

Economic warfare, position as neutral, 467, 493. 
Embassy rank for representation in U.S., 388. 
U.S. Ambassador (Norweb), confirmation of nomina- 
tion, 420. 
Wolfram, prohibition upon export and production, 467, 
535. 
Post War Foreign Policy, Advisory Council on, 47, 72. 
Post-war plans : 

Economic problems, 415, 428, 483. 

Far Eastern problems, address by Mr. Grew, 8. 

International Monetary Stabilization Plan, 159, 371. 

Radio broadcast, 32. 

Security organization, address by President Roosevelt, 

552. 
Trade, address by Mr. Taft, 465. 
United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference, 

498, 587. 
Women's share in, address by Mr. Shaw, 555. 
Post War Programs, Committee on. State Department, 47. 
Preservation of shrines and monuments in Italy, 253, 371. 
President, U.S. See Roosevelt, Franklin D. 
Press, freedom of, address by Mr. Berle, 574. 
Press and radio, State Department policy toward, dis- 
cussed in radio broadcast, 31, 36. 
Prisoners of war. See United States citizens. 
Prisoners of War Convention, Geneva : 

Failure of Japanese commitment to live up to, 145, 168. 
Provisions of, 78, 80. 
Proclaimed List of Certain Blocked Nationals. See Blocked 

Nationals. 
Proclamation, immigration of Chinese, annual quota, 180. 
Procop6, Hjalmar J., Minister of Finland, requested to 

leave U.S., 565, 585. 
Production, post-war planning, program of Commissions 
of Inter-American Development, 1st Conference, 426, 
483. 
Production Management, Office of, 154. 
Promotion of mutual understanding with other nations, 
extension of act of 1939, text of proposed amendment, 
215. 
Protocol, Division of, 45, 60, 292. 
Public Information, Office of, 63, 210, 400. 



614 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Public Liaison, Division of (see also Liaison), 210. 
Public Notices, new State Department series of, 436, 437. 
Publications: 
Agreement for exchange (1944) between U.S. and— 
Afghanistan, 230. 
Guatemala, 422. 
Iraq, 230. 
Foreign Relations of the United States (1929), vols. II 

and III, 387. 
Lists : 

Department of State, 23, 40, 91, 111, 142, 163, 186, 196, 
212, 249, 272, 294, 306, 330, 367, 388, 401, 422, 462, 

504, 522, 545, 568, 594. 

Other agencies, 40, 111, 163, ISO, 249, 306, 401, 462, 

505, 545, 568. 

Proclaimed List of Certain Blocked Nationals. 
See Blocked Nationals. 
Publications program. State Department, article by Dr. 

Spaukling on 15th year of, 385. 
Puerto Rico, laborers, furnishing to U.S. for summer work, 

513. 
Purchases to forestall enemy acquisition, 494. 

Radio. See Telecommunications. 

Radio, and Motion Picture Division, 6.5. 

Radio broadcasts. State Department, 30, 68, 100, 117. 

Rayburn, Sam, participant in radio broadcast, 117. 

Rayner, Charles B., designations in the State Department, 

52, 303. 
Raynor, G. Ilayden, designation in State Department, 46. 
Rebuilding of war-torn United Nations, participation of 

U.S., 299. 
Recognition of new governments instituted by force, reso- 
lutions of Emergency Advisory Committee for Polit- 
ical Defense, 20, 28. 
Red Army, anniversary, 204, 224. 
Red Cross: 

Address by Mr. Grew at war-fund rally in Boston, 219. 
Assistance to China, 364. 

Relief supplies to prisoners of war and internees in 
the Far East, chronology, 81, 189. 
Red Cross Convention, Geneva (1929), reference to, 79, 

80. 
Refugees (sec also Relief; War Refugee Board) : 
Aid to victims of Axis persecution, 277. 
European, removal to U.S. : 
Message by President Roosevelt to Congress, 553. 
Plan for, 532. 
Middle East, camps maintained by UNRRA, 533. 
Morocco, joint U.S.-U.K. camp, 534. 
Resolution of Emergency Advisory Committee for Po- 
litical Defense in Montevideo proposing concert of 
American republics for exchange of German na- 
tionals in American republics for refugees on Ger- 
man territory, 566. 
Relief (see also Refugees) : 
China (since 1931), 351, 364. 
Civilian AfEairs Division, General Staff, U.S. Army, 472, 

475. 
Combined Civil Affairs Committee, 473, 475. 
Italy, experiences In civilian supply, 474. 



Relief — Continued. 
Liberated Europe, plans for civilian supply, 469, 471, 

474, 477. 
Red Cross supplies, 81, 189. 

United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administra- 
tion. See UNRRA. 
U.S. prisoners of war and civilian internees. See under 

United States citizens. 
U. S. proportion of costs for, 476. 
War Refugee Board. See War Refugee Board. 
War Relief Control Board, 151. 
Renchard, George W., designation in the State Depart- 
ment, 46. 
Repatriation of destitute American seamen, article by 

Miss Dailor, 206. 
Repatriation of prisoners of war and civilian internees. 

See "Gripsholm". 
Representation by U.S. of foreign interests, listed by 

countries and by Foreign Service offices, 265, 268. 
Representation of U.S. foreign interests by Switzerland, 

269. 
Research and Publication, Division of (see also Publica- 
tions), 64, 399, 544. 
Ri'uble, Frederick D. G., designation in the State Depart- 
ment, 490. 
Riddleberger, James W., designation in the State Depart- 
ment, 55. 
Rio Grande: 
Allocation of water supply between U.S. and Mexico, 

article by Mr. Timm, 282. 
Conservation and distribution of water, treaty with 
Mexico (1944), IGl. 
River Plate AJfairs, Division of. State Department, 54, 

304, 490. 
Rome (see also Italy ; Vatican City) : 
Fall of : 

Address by President Roosevelt on liberation by 

Allies, 526. 
Liberian Government, attitude, 532. 
Messages between President Roosevelt and officials 
and military leaders of the United Nations, 528, 
549. 
Preservation of shrines and monuments : 
Message of President Roosevelt in reply to Prime 

Minister de Valera of Ireland, 371. 
Statement by President Roosevelt, 253. 
Roosevelt, Franklin D. : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Airplanes, statistics on lend-lease export, 510. 
Anniversaries^ 

Declaration by United Nations, 7. 
Philippine independence, 277. 
Christmas Eve broadcast, 3. 
Commissions of Inter-American Development, 1st 

Conference of, 426. 
Death of— 
Peruvian Ambassador (Freyre y Santander), 302. 
Secretary Knox, 396. 
* Diplomatic representatives, presentation of creden- 
tials, 75, 108, 191, 326, 566. 
Finnish position In the war, 253. 



INDEX 



615 



Roosevelt, Franklin D. — Continued. 
Addresses, statements, etc. — Continued. 

French Navy, transfer of U.S. warship to, 167. 
India and the Far East, U.S. objectives in, 145. 
International Labor Conference (26th), 3S2, 481. 
Italy, military operations in, 253. 
Lend-lease Act, extension, 478. 
Post-war security organization, 552. 
Rome, liberation of, 526. 
Vice President Wallace, trip to China, 465. 
War refugees, aid to, 277. 
Correspondence : 
Anniversaries — 

Dominican Republic, independence of, centennial 

celebration, 242. 
Ecuador, airmail service, 500. 
Iraq, birthday of King Faisal II, 416. 
Peru, airmail service, 500. 
Poland, national anniversary, 412. 
Red Army, 204, 224. 

Yugoslavia, constitution of new government, 301. 

Argentina, severance of relations with Germany and 

Japan, congratulatory message to President 

Ramirez, 116. 

Brazil, good offices in boundary difference between 

Ecuador and Peru, congratulations, 488. 
Europe, invasion of, exchange of messages with of- 
ficials and military leaders of the United Nations, 
528, 549. 
Greelc Conference for National Unity, 502. 
Iceland, President of Republic of, 557. 
Ireland, Prime Minister de Valera, message to on 

preservation of Rome from destruction, 371. 
Mexico, attempted assassination of President, 351. 
Polish Prime Minister, visit to U.S., 565. 
Refugees, removal of certain European to U.S., direc- 
tive to Ambassador Murphy in Algiers, certain 
Cabinet members, and others, 532. 
Resignation of Anthony J. Drexel Biddle, Jr., as Am- 
bassador-Minister to Allied governments in Lon- 
don, acceptance, 110. 
Rome, fall of, exchange of messages with officials and 

military leaders of the United Nations, 528, 549. 
Settlement of Peruvian-Ecuadoran boundary ques- 
tion, telegram of congratulation to Presidents of 
Ecuador and Peru, 487. 
Uruguay, opening of direct radio circuit, 511. 
Economic Foreign Policy, Executive Committee on, crea- 
tion of, 511. 
Executive order, 95. 

Iceland, designation of Special Representative (Drey- 
fus) to attend establishment of Republic, 522. 
Messages to Congress : 
Annual message, 76. 

International Labor Conference, with documents, 514. 
Lend-lease reports, letters of transmittal, 27, 495. 
Removal of European refugees to U.S., 553. 
Prayer on invasion of Europe, 525. 
Proclamation, 180. 



Roosevelt, Franklin D. — Continued. 
Relief of civilians in liberated areas, directive to War 

Department, 473, 474. 
Representative, Personal (Taylor), to the Vatican, 538. 
UNRRA, signature of act for, 306. 
Roosevelt, Kermit, Jr., designation in the State Depart- 
ment, 46. I 
Ross, John C., designation in the State Department, 58. 
Rothwell, C. Easton, designations in the State Depart- 
ment, 56, 2-93. 
Rubber Advisory Panel, technical advisers to State De- 
partment, list of members, 544. 
Rubber development in Brazil, agreement with Brazil 

(1944), 271. 
Rubber Reserve Company, Reconstruction Finance Corpo- 
ration, 153. 
Riunania : 

Axis satellite, declaration of U.S., British, and Soviet 

Governments regarding, 425. 
Representation of U.S. interests by Switzerland, 270. 
Soviet military operations in, 315. 
Russell, Francis H. : 
Address on economic weapons in total warfare, 4U5. 
Designation in the State Department, 52. 
Russia. See Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. 
Ryckmans, Pierre, Governor General of the Belgian Congo, 
visit to U.S., 384. 

Salisbury, Laurence E., designation in the State Depart- 
ment, 57. 

Salmon, David A., designation in the State Department, 
544. 

San Sebastian, Spain, opening of U.S. consulate, 388. 

Sandifer, Durward V., designation in the State Depart- 
ment, 56. 

Sappington, James C, 3d, designations in the State De- 
partment, 53, 303, 372. 

Saucerman, Sophia A., designation in the State Depart- 
ment, 60. 

Saugstad, Jesse E., designation in the State Department, 
49. 

Savage, Carlton, designation in State Department, 46. 

Scanlan, John J., designation in the State Department, 
48. 

Schaffhausen, accidental bombing, 314. 

Schoolmen's Week Convention, Philadelphia, address by 
Mr. Eerie, 278. 

Schooner Pool, West Indies, 263, 588. 

Science, Education, and Art Division, State Department, 
65. 

Seamen, protection and repatriation in wartime, 20&- 
208. 

Secretary of State (see also Hull, Cordell), Office of, ap- 
pointments in, 45. 

Selective Training and Service Act, U.S., application to 
Colomlbian nationals in U.S., reciprocal agreement 
with Colombia (1944), 184. 

Senate. See Congress, U.S. 

Sto^galais (ship), transfer to French Navy, 167. 



616 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Shaw, G. Howland: 
Addresses : 
Cultural-cooperation program of the Department of 

State, 429. 
Women, opportunities in the conduct of international 
relations, 555. 
Designations in the State Department, 46, 47, 61, 293, 

544. 
Participant in radio broadcast, 68. 
Shaw, George P., designation in the State Department, 

48. 
Shipley, Ruth B., designation in the State Department, 

48. 
Shipping : 
American seamen and the Foreign Service, article by 

Miss Dailor, 206. 
Caribbean, problems in, 588. 

Combined Middle East supply program, address by 
Frederick Winant, 199. 
Shipping Division, State Department, 49. 
Ships : 
Gripsholm. See "Gripsholm". 
Inability of U.S. to sell additional merchant ships to 

Ireland, 236. 
S^n^galais, transfer to French Navy, 167. 
Sicily, reopening of U.S. consulate at Palermo, 195. 
Slichter, Sumner, designation in the State Department, 

513. 
Solanko, Risto, Counselor of Finnish Legation, requested 

to leave U.S., 565, 585. 
South Africa : 
Representation of interests by U.S. in Finland, 268. 
Whaling, protocol (1944), 271, 592. 
South America. See American republics and the i7idii>idual 

countries. 
Southampton, England, reopening of U.S. consulate, 461. 
Southern European Affairs, Division of, 55. 
Southwest Pacific Affairs, Division of, 57. 
Sovereign equality for all nations, statement by Secretary 

Hull, 509. 
Soviet Union. See Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. 
Spaeth, Carl B., designation in the State Department, 568. 
Spain: 
Agreement with U.S. and British Governments on issues 

respecting Axis powers, 412. 
Attitude toward Allies and toward Axis, 493. 
Channel of communication for exchange of U.S. na- 
tionals with Germany, 511, 535. 
Economic warfare, position as neutral, 493. 
Oil shipments : 
From Caribbean, permission by U.S. and British Gov- 
ernments, 107, 412. 
Suspension by U.S., 116, 225. 
Opening of U.S. consulate at San Sebastifln, 388. 
Recognition of Mussolini regime, enemy broadcasts 

alleging, 20. 
Wolfram exports to Germany, curtailment, 412. 
Spaulding, E. Wilder: 
Article on the fifteenth year of the Department's "New 

Publications Program", 385. 
Designations in the State Department, 64, 544. 



Special Assistants to Secretary of State, 45. 
Special Political Affairs, Office of, 56, 400, 444 
Special War Problems Division, 48. 
Stabilization Plan, International : 

Statement by Secretary Hull, 371. 

Treasury Department outline, 159. 
Stalin, Joseph V., message to President Roosevelt regard- 
ing fall of Rome, 528. 
Stanton, Edwin F., designations in the State Department, 

57, 503. 
State Department : 

Albania's struggle for freedom from Nazis, statement re- 
garding, 315. 

American Republics Analysis and Liaison, establishment 
of Division of (D.O. 1271), 443. 

Anglo-American Caribbean Commission, U.S. Section, re- 
lation to Department (D.O. 1274), 502. 

Appointment of two additional Assistant Secretaries of 
State, proposal for, 226. 

Aviation Division, functions of (D.O. 1246), 303. 

Collaboration between U.S. and Vichy regime, false ru- 
mors of, 278. 

Death of former Chief of Division of Far Eastern Affairs 
(Williams), 132. 

Departmental orders, systematization (D.O. 1269), 436. 

Financial matters, certain responsibility transferred to 
Division of Financial and Monetary Affairs (D.O. 
1252), 328. 

Foreign Service See Foreign Service. 

Foreign trade protection and promotion, duties of con- 
sultant on (D.O. 1264), 420. 

Industry Branch, establishment of to develop policy on 
cartels and related arrangements (D.O. 1254), 365. 

Informational activities and liaison. Sec Liaison. 

Internees in the Far East. See under United States 
citizens. 

Liaison. See Liaison. 

Offices set up under reorganization of Jan. 15, 1944 (D.O. 
1218) : American Republic Affairs, 53 ; Controls, 47; 
Departmental Administration, 58; Eastern and 
African Affairs, 57 ; Economic Affairs, 52 ; Euro- 
pean Affairs, 54 ; Far Eastern Affairs, 56 ; Foreign 
Service Administration, 61; Public Information, 63; 
Special Political Affairs, 56; Transportation and 
Communications, 49 ; Wartime Economic Affairs, 49. 

Personnel administration, principles and policies (D.O. 
1272), 417. 

Personnel utilization program, establishment of (D.O. 
1236), 240. 

Petroleum Division, establishment of (D.O. 1245), 303. 

Planning Staff in Office of Foreign Service, creation of 
(D.O. 1234), 241. 

Policy Committee, 46, 212. 

Post War Foreign Policy, Advisory Council on, 47, 72. 

Post War Programs, Committee on, 47. 

Publications. See Publications. 

Radio broadcasts, 30, 68, 100, 117. 

Relationship to Congress, discussed in radio broadcast, 
117. 

Reorganization (D.O. 1218 of Jan. 15, 1944), 43. 

Reorganization of, discussed in radio broadcast, 71. 



INDEX 



617 



state Department — Continued. 
Resignation of— 
Burlie, Thomas, 23. 
Finletter, Thomas K., 211. 
Miller, Hunter, 2&1. 
Rubber Advisory Panel, list of members, 544. 
"State Department Speaks" (radio broadcasts), 30, 68, 

100, 117. 
Visit of the Under Secretary (Stettlnlus) to London, 

256. 
Work of, discussed in radio broadcast, 68. 
War Refugee Board, liaison with (D.O. 1227), 194. 
Statements. See under names of the individuals. 
Status of countries In relation to the war, article by Miss 

Crane, 373, 413. 
Stenger, Jerome J., designation in the State Department, 

51. 
Stettinius, Edward R., Jr. : 
Addresses and statements : 
Anniversary (3d) of Lend-Lease Act, 238. 
Argentina, recent developments and U. S. relations, 

205, 225. 
Axis espionage activities in Chile, repression of, 205. 
Invasion of Europe, 526. 
Participant in radio broadcasts, 30, 68. 
Presentation of Legion of Merit medals for Danes, 542. 
UNItRA, appropriation by Congress for, 535. 
Correspondence with Thomas K. Finletter on resignation, 

211. 
Reports to President: 
Adaptation of Foreign Service to new responsibilities, 

with text of bill, 227. 
Extension 1o other nations of program with American 
republics (1939), with text of proposed amend- 
ment, 215. 
Visit to London, 256, .395. 
Steyne, Alan N., article on post-war plans of the OflSce of 

the Foreign Service, 589. 
Stillwell, James A. : 
Article on supplies for liberated areas, 469. 
Designation in the State Department, 51. 
Stimson, Henry L. : 
Memorandum from President Roosevelt regarding re- 
moval of certain European refugees to U.S., 53S. 
U.S. member of Permanent Court of Arbitration, 212. 
Stinebower, Leroy D., designation in the State Department, 

52. 
Straits Settlements, representation of U.S. interests by 

Switzerland, 270. 
Strategic materials (see also Petroleum; Rubber) ferro- 
alloys, efforts to stop shipment by neutral countries to 
Germany, 467. 
Stuart, Graham H., designation in the State Department, 

65. 
Students, exchange fellowships and travel grants, 416, 430, 

584. 
Sturgeon, Leo D., designation in the State Department, 52. 
Sugar crop, 1944, U.S. and Cuba : 
Announcement of agreement, 40. 
Discussions regarding, 132. 



Smnmerlin, George T., designations in the State Depart- 
ment, 45, 292. 
Supplies for liberated areas, article by Mr. Stillwell, 469. 
Supplies to the Middle East, problems of transport, 

address by Frederick Winant, 199. 
Supply and Resources Division, State Department, 50. 
Supply Priorities and Allocations Board, Office for 

Emergency Management,^ 155. 
Suro, Guillermo A., designation in the State Department, 

65. 
Sweden : 

Economic warfare, position as neutral, 493. 

Firms included In Proclaimed List of Blocked Nationals, 

497. 
U.S. efforts to limit shipments to Germany, 467. 
Swihart, James H., designation in the State Department, 

52. 
Switzerland : 
Channel of communication for exchange of U.S. na- 
tionals with Germany, 535. 
Economic warfare, position as neutral, 493. 
Good offices extended by U.S. in certain countries, 269. 
Inability to represent U.S. interests in the Philippines, 

497. 
Representation of interests by U.S. in certain places, 268. 
Representation of U.S. Interests in certain countries, 77, 

84, 269. 
Schaffhausen, accidental bombing by American planes, 
314. 

Taf t, Charles P. : 
Addresses : 

Charitable Irish Society, Boston, 254. 
Indiana League of Women Voters, Indianapolis, 465. 
Participant in radio broadcast, 100. 
Designation in the State Department, 50. 
Tangier, agreement by Spain with U.S. and British Gov- 
ernments respecting Axis agents in, 412. 
Taussig, Charles W., designation In the State Department, 

503. 
Taxation, double, convention between U.S. and Canada 

(1944), 543. 
Taylor, Albert Hoyt, recipient of Medal for Merit, 301. 
Taylor, Floyd, specialist to Chinese Ministry of Informa- 
tion, return to U.S., 586. 
Taylor, Myron C, return to the Vatican as Personal Rep- 
resentative of President Roosevelt, 538. 
Tehran Conference, results of: 
Address by President Roosevelt, 4. 
Message of President Roosevelt to Congress, 76, 77. 
Telecommunications : 
Adviser to Chinese Government (Bagwell), return to 

U.S., 194. 
Interruption of operations in Argentina of All America 

Cables, Inc., 292. 
Radio, direct circuit between U.S. and Uruguay, 511. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Inter-American radiocommunications convention 
(1937), status of, and adherence of the Bahamas 
(1943), 163. 



618 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Telecommunications — Continued. 

Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued. 
North American regional broadcasting agreement 
(1937), status of, and adherence of the Bahamas 
(1943), 163. 
Radio broadcasting stations in northwestern Canada, 
agreement with Canada regarding construction 
and operation (1943, 1944), 139. 
Telecommunications Division, State Department, 49, 195. 
Tenney, E. Paul, designation in the State Department, 63. 
Territorial Studies, Division of, 56. 
Thailand, representation of U.S. interests by Switzerland, 

270. 
Thompson, C. Mildred, appointment as member of U.S. dele- 
gation at Conference of Allied Ministers of Educa- 
tion in London, 302. 
Thomson, Charles A., designations in the State Department, 

63, 195. 
Tijuana River : 

Allocation of water supply between U.S. and Mexico, 

article by Mr. Timm, 282. 
Conservation and distribution of water, treaty between 
U.S. and Mexico (1914), 161. 
Timm, Charles A., article on water treaty between the 

U.S. and Mexico, 282. 
Tin-plate scrap, regulations on export, 580. 
Toivola, Urho, Counselor of Finnish Legation, requested 

to leave U.S., 565, 585. 
Trade {see also Blocked Nationals; Lend-lease; Treaties) : 
Commerce, importance to prosperity, broadcast by Mr. 

Hawkins, 311. 
International economic operations, addresses by Mr. 

Taft, 254, 465. 
Neutral, with enemy, methods of control, 493. 
Newsprint production and transportation to other 

American republics, efforts to facilitate, 88. 
Oil. See Petroleum. 

Post-war, statements by Secretary Hull, 341, 479. 
Post-war planning, program of Commissions of Inter- 
American Development, 1st Conference, 427, 483. 
Relations with Chile, 180. 
War trade agreement, as enforced by -U.K., 494. 
Wartime, allocation of supplies for, 467. 
Trade agreements, reciprocal (see also under Treaties) : 
Part in economic foreign policy, 391. 
Procedure for proclamation of, 453. 
Trade-mark and commercial protection, inter-American 
convention for (1929), ratitication by Paraguay 
(1943), 248. 
Trade warfare (sec also Economic warfare), discussed in 

radio broadcast, 104. 
Translating Bureau, State Department. See Central 

Translating Division. 
Transportation : 

Problems of newsprint production and transportation to 

other American republics, 88. 
Supplies to tlie Middle East, address by Frederick 

Winant, 199. 
Technical expert (Phillips), return from China, 327. 
Transportation and Communications, Office of, 49, 303, 513. 



Travel grants under State Department cultural-relations 

program, 431. 
Travers, Howard K., designation in the State Department, 

48. 
Treasury Department : 

International Stabilization Plan and statement by Secre- 
tary Hull, 159, 371. 
United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference, 498, 
597. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural Sciences, Inter-American Institute, Conven- 
tion on (1944) : 
Ratification by : El Salvador, 461, 567 ; U. S. 306, 593. 
Signature by: Chile, 522; Costa Rica, 90; Cuba, 162; 
Dominican Republic, 195: Ecuador, 162; El Sal- 
vador, 230; Guatemala, 294; Honduras, 195; 
Nicaragua, 90; Panama, 90; U.S., 90; Uruguay, 
400. 
Alaska Higliway, U.S. and Canada — 
Connecting roads, use of (1943), 136. 
Flight strips along the Highway, authorization for con- 
struction (1942), 135. 
Haines-Champague Highway, authorization for con- 
struction (1942), 136. 
Southern terminus (1942), 134. 
Allied declaration regarding Axis satellites (Hungary, 

Rumania, Bulgaria, and Finland), 425. 
Assistance and salvage at sea (1910), adherence by 

Egypt (1944), 39. 
Automotive traffic, regulation of inter-American (1943) : 
Brazil, approval, 567. 
Signature, 22, 162, 422. 

U.S. signature, with reservation, and submission to 
Senate, 22, 366. 
Bills of lading (1924), adherence by Egypt (1944), 39. 
Boundary, Ecuador and Peru, protocol (1942), agree- 
ment on interpretation, 487. 
Civil administration of liberated areas, identical agree- 
ments between U.S., and U.K., Belgium, and the 
Netherlands, and between U.S., U.K., and U.S.S.R., 
and Norway (1944), 479. 
Collisions at sea (1910), adherence by Egypt (1944), 39. 
Commerce and navigation, Chile and Cuba (1937), rati- 
fications (1944) of modifications by exchange of 
notes (1942), 594. 
Commercial modus vivendi, Canada and Venezuela 

(1941), renewal. 400. 
Cooperation and collaboration, Australia and New Zea- 
land (1944), 490. 
Copyright-extension privileges, U.S. and U.K. (1944), 

texts of notes, 243. 
Criminal olTenses committed by armed forces, jurisdic- 
tion, agreement between U.S. and Canada (1944), 
306. 
Cuban sugar crop, 1944, and molasses and alcohol, dis- 
cussions, U.S. and Cuba, 40, 132. 
Cultural relations, promotion of Inter-American (1936), 

promulgation by Bolivia (1943), 212. 
Customs, import privileges for Government officials and 
employees, U.S. and Canada (1942), 138. 



INDEX 



619 



Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued. 
Declaration by United Nations (1942) : 
Adherence by — 

Colombia (1043), 108. 

Liberia (1944), 151, 346. 
Status, 366, 379, 413. 
Exchange of official publications (1944) between — 
Ecuador and Panama, 401. 
U.S. and Afghanistan and U.S. and Iraq, 230. 
U.S. and Guatemala, 422. 
Extraterritorial rights in China, relinquishment of, 

Canada and China, text, 458. 
Fisheries, halibut fishery of Northern Pacific Ocean and 

Bering Sea, U.S. and Canada (1937), 1944 regula- 
tions, 293. 
Food agreement, U.S. and the Dominican Republic (1944), 

195. 
Fuel supply for U.S. Army In Canada and Alaska, agree- 
ment for extension, U.S. and Canada, exchange of 

notes (1942, 1943), 85. 
Fur-seal agreement, provisional, U.S. and Canada (1942) , 

approval (1944), 230, 568. 
Historical studies, promotion of, Peru and Venezuela 

(1942), exchange of ratifications (1943), 212. 
Indian Institute, Inter-American (1940), adherence by 

Dominican Republic (1943), 230, 330. 
Military aviation mission, U.S. and Venezuela (1944), 

90. 
MUitary mission, U.S. and — ■ 
Iran (1943), signature, 22. 
Panama (1942, 1943), renewal (1944), 503. 
Military service, reciprocal, U.S. and — 
China (1943, 1944), 593. 
Colombia (1944), 184. 
Mutual-aid agreement, Canada and French Committee 

of National Liberation, text, 456. 
Mutual-aid agreements, Canada with Australia, with 

China, with U.S.S.R., and with U.K., 504. 
Nationality of women, convention on (1933), ratification 

by Cuba (1943), 39. 
Naval mission, U.S. and Peru (1940), renewal (1944), 

330. 
Naval-aviation mission, U.S. and Peru (1940), renewal 

(1944), 490. 
Niagara River, additional diversion of waters, U.S. and 

Canada (1944), supplementing agreements of 1941, 

and amending treaty on boundary (U.S. and U.K., 

1909), 455. 
Operation of Pan American Airways over British 

Columbia, agreement between U.S. and Canada 
(1944), 30C. 
Opium convention, international (1912), adherence of 

Afghanistan (1&44), 543. 
Panama Canal, treaties regarding, 125, 128. 
Port and port works, agreement for construction of on 

Liberian coast, U.S. and Liberia (1943), 38. 
Prisoners-of-war convention (1929), question of ob- 
servance by Japan, 78, 80. 
Problems concerning, discussed in radio broadcast, 120, 

122. 



Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued. 

Red Cross convention (1929), question of observance by 

Japan, 79, 80. 
Reductions in customs duties, U.S. and Haiti and U.S. 
and the Dominican Republic (1942), lapse of 
agreements relating to reciprocal concessions in 
Haitian-Dominican commercial treaty, 305. 
Relief and rehabilitation, United Nations (1943). See 

UNRRA. 
Rio Grande and Colorado River, history of series of 

treaties between U.S. and Mexico relating to, 282. 
Rubber development, U.S. and Brazil (1944), 271. 
Taxation, double, U.S. and Canada (1944), 543. 
Telecommunications : 

Inter-American radiocommunications convention and 
North American regional broadcasting agreement 
(1937), adherence of Bahamas (1943), 162. 
Radio broadcasting stations in northwestern Canada, 
construction and operation, U.S. and Canada 
(1943, 1944), 139. 
Trade agreements, reciprocal, U.S. and — 

Iran (1943), proclamation by U.S. and exchange of 

instruments, 305, 521. 
Turkey (1939), changes in import duties, 397. 
Trade-mark and commercial protection, inter-American 
convention (1929), ratification by Paraguay (1943), 
248. 
Upper Columbia River Basin, U.S. and Canada, exchange 

of notes (1944), 270. 
Water power, temporary raising of level of Lake St. 
Francis, U.S. and Canada (1941), continuance 
(1943), 142. 
Water treaty between the U.S. and Mexico (1944) , article 

by Mr. Timm, 282. 
Water utilization relating to Colorado and Tijuana Riv- 
ers and the Rio Grande, U.S. and Mexico (1944), 
161. 
Whaling, regulation of, protocol (1944), amending agree- 
ment (1937) and protocol (1938) : 
List of signers, 271. 
Norway, ratification, 400. 
Text, 592. 

U.S. ratification, 461, 568. 
Treaties, Office of the Editor. See Research and Publica- 
tion, Division of. 
Treaties and other international agreements, procedure 
for and information facilities concerning, article by 
Mr. Whittington, 445. 
Treaty Section in Division of Research and Publication, 

organization of, 399. 
Trimble, William C, article on Icelandic independence 

movement, 559. 
Tubman, W. V. S., inauguration as President of Liberia, 

89. 
Tuck, S. Pinkney, confirmation of nomination as U.S. Min- 
ister to Egypt, 420. 
Turbay, Gabriel, credentials as Colombian Ambassador to 

U.S., 108. 
Turkey : 
Chrome shipments to Axis countries, cessation of, 467. 



620 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Turkey— Continued. 

Economic warfare, position as neutral, 493. 

Trade agreement (1939), changes in import duties, 397. 

Under Secretary of State (see also Stettinius, Edward B., 
Jr.): 

Appointments in the oflBce of, 46. 

Designations in the Department of State, 46, 47. 
Union of South Africa : 

Minister to U.S. (Qie), credentials, 326. 

U.S. Minister (Holcomb), confirmation of nomination, 
281. 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics: 

Anniversary of Red Army, message from President 
Roosevelt and reply from Marshal Stalin, 204, 224. 

Aviation, civil, exploratory conferences of U.S. and Rus- 
sian groups, 301, 496. 

Constitutional amendment, providing for direct rela- 
tions between each Soviet Republic and foreign 
states, text, 421. 

Declaration, together with the U.S. and British Govern- 
ments, regarding the four Axis satellites, 425. 

Foreign affairs, law granting to each Soviet Republic 
the right to enter into direct relations with foreign 
states, text, 421. 

Foreign Affairs, People's Commissariat for, reorganiza- 
tion of, 421. 

Lend-lease shipments from the U.S., 223. 

Military operations in Rumania, comment of Secretary 
Hull on statement by Mr. Molotov, 315. 

Moscow Conference, results of, 33, 76, 77. 

Nazi assault on, 3d anniversary, statement by Secretary 
Hull, 573. 

Polish-Soviet relations, U.S. offer of good offices, 96, 
116. 

Presentation of awards to members of U.S. armed forces 
and merchant marine, 347. 

Representation of U.S. interests in occupied areas by 
Switzerland, 270. 

Rome, message of Premier Stalin to President Roosevelt 
regarding fall of, 528. 

Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Civil administration of liberated areas, agreement, 

U.S., U.K., U.S.S.R., and Norway (1944), 479. 
Mutual-aid agreement with Canada (1944), 504. 
United and Associated Nations, number of, 467. 
United Kingdom : 

American troops in tlie British Isles, 237. 

Aviation, civil, exploratory conference of U.K. and U.S. 
groups, 301. 

Blockade of Germany and Italy, measures toward neu- 
trals, 493. 

Caribbean Commission, Anglo-American, 37, 262, 384, 
502, 513, 588. 

Censorship of political news to U.S., reply of Secretary 
Hull to Governor Dewey's statement, 300. 

Cooperation with U.S. in war supplies, 467. 

Declaration, together with the U.S. and Soviet Govern- 
ments, regarding the four Axis satellites, 425. 



United Kingdom — Continued. 
Exchange of prisoners of war and civilians with Ger- 
many via Gripsholm, 478, 535. 
Lend-lease material, statement regarding distribution, 

256. 
Minister of Production (Lyttelton), criticism by Secre- 
tary Hull of statement by, 573. 
Petroleum, discussions with U.S. relating to, 238, 315, 

346, 372, 411. 
Refugees in Middle East, aid to, 533. 
Representation of interests by U.S. in certain places, 268. 
Trade, post-war plans, 468. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Civil administration of liberated areas, identical 

agreements between U.K., U.S., Belgium, and 

the Netherlands, and between U.K., U.S., U.S.S.R., 

and Norway (1044), 479. 

Copyright-extension privileges, with U.S. (1944), texts 

of notes and of order in council, 243. 
Mutual-aid agreement with Canada (1944), 504. 
Whaling, protocol (1944), 271, 592. 
U.S. consulates : Grenada, B.W.I., opening, 388, 522; Hull, 
England, reopening, 401 ; Southampton, reopening, 
461. 
Visit, informal, to London of U.S. Under Secretary of 

State Stettinius and mission, 395. 
War trade agreement to enforce blockade, 494. 
Wolfram exports of Portugal, efforts to deprive the en- 
emy of, 535. 
United Nations (see also Conferences) : 
Declaration (1942) : 
Adherence by — • 
Colombia, 108. 
Liberia, 151, 346. 
Statement by President Roosevelt, 7. 
Status, 366, 379, 413. 
List of nations in the war associated with, 380, 413, 467. 
Nationals interned in Par East, relief supplies, 536. 
Reconstruction, educational and cultural, plans, 299, 414. 
Unity of, described by President Roosevelt, 495. 
United Nations Forum, Washington, address by Mr. Berle, 

97. 
United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration. 

See UNRRA. 
United States and Panama, article by Mr. Bonsai, 125. 
United States citizens : 
American seamen and the Foreign Service, article by 

Miss Dailor, 206. 
Awards to members of armed forces and merchant ma- 
rine by Soviet Union, 347. 
Civilian internees and prisoners of war: 

Chronology of U.S. protests against mistreatment, 145, 

168. 
Financial assistance to American nationals in enemy 
territory, arrangements made by State Depart- 
ment, 83-84. 
Japanese attitude toward, 78, SO, 81, 82, 496, 536. 
Red Cross, chronology of efforts to send relief sup- 
plies to Far East, 81, 82, 189. 
Statements by Secretary Hull and Mr. Grew denounc- 
ing mistreatment by Japan, 115. 



INDEX 



621 



United States citizens — Continued. 
Civilian internees and prisoners of war — Continued. 
Steps taken by State Department in behalf of American 
nationals in Japanese custody, 77, 78, 81. 
Duties and obligations of citizenship, address by Mr. 

Berle, 278. 
Repatriates. See "Gripsholm." 
United States Commercial Corporation, consolidation Into 

FEA, 473. 
United States Congress. See Congress. 
United States Food Requirements and Allocations Commit- 
tee, membership of, 467. 
United States Foreign Service. See Foreign Service. 
United States Maritime Commission, sale of U.S. mer- 
chant ships to Ireland, disapproved, 236. 
United States treaties. See Treaties. 
United States Procurement Committee, establishment of 

for civilian supply in liberated areas, 476. 
United States v. Curtiss-Wright Export Corporation, 

r^sumS of case, 581. 
UNERA : 
Agreement (1943), approval or ratification: Dominican 
Republic (1944), 305; El Salvador (1943), 305; 
Ethiopia (1944), 305; Haiti (1944), 329; Honduras 
(1944), 305; India (1W4), 461; Mexico (1944), 305, 
3S8; U.S. (1944), 306. 
Discussed in radio broadcast, 102. 
Funds for : 

Amount authorized by Congress for U.S. share, 306. 
Statement by Mr. Stettinius respecting appropriation, 
535. 
Jurisdiction of relief activities, 477. 
Organization of and relationship to OFRRO, 473. 
Recommendations of International Labor Conference 

for permanent organization, 320. 
Refugee centers in Middle East, 533. 
U.S., act enabling participation in and authorizing 
funds, 306. 
Upi)er Columbia River Basin, exchange of notes with 

Canada (1944), 270. 
Uruguay {see also American republics) : 
Cultural leader, visit to U.S., 513. 

Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences, con- 
vention on (1944), 400. 
Radio circuit to U.S., opening of, 511. 

Vahervuori, T. O., Counselor of Finnish Legation, re- 
quested to leave U.S., 565, 585. 
Vandenberg, Arthur H., participant in radio broadcast, 117. 
Vatican City : 
Personal Representative (Taylor) of President Roose- 
velt, return to, 538. 
Recognition of puppet government in Philippines by the 
Holy See, denial, 117. 
Venezuela (see also American republics) : 

Closing of U.S. vice consulate at Ciudad Bolivar, 401. 
Invasion of Europe, correspondence of President An- 

gnrita with President Roosevelt, 551. 
President Isaias Medina Angarita, visit to U.S., 29, 89. 



Venezuela — Continued. 

Treaties, agreements, etc.: 

Commercial modus Vivendi, with Canada (1941), re- 
newal (1944), 400. 

Historical studies, promotion of, with Peru (1942), 
exchange of ratifications (1943), 212. 

Military aviation mission, with U.S. (1944), 90. 
Vessels. See Ships. 

Vice President, U.S., visit to China, 465, 586. 
Vichy, false rumors of U.S. collaboration, 278. 
Villard, Henry S., designation in the State Department, 

58. 
Vincent, John Carter, designation in the State Department, 

57. 
Visa Division, State Department, 48. 
Visa procedure, modification, 490. 

Wallace, Henry A., visit to China, 465, 586. 
Walmsley, Walter N., Jr., designations : 
In the State Department, 54, 304. 

U.S. alternate delegate to Inter-American Coffee Board, 
512. 
Walsh, J. Raymond, designation in the State Department, 

513. 
Walstrom, Joe D., designations in the State Department, 

49, 304. 
War: 

Alinement of nations, tables, 373, 413. 
Associated Nations, list, 380, 413, 467. 
Chronology of wartime development of organizations 

(July 1939 to December 1943), 152. 
Declaration by Liberia against Germany and Japan, 

151. 
Finnish position in, 179, 253. 
Invasion of Europe, Jnne 6, 1944 : 
Messages between President Roosevelt and oflScials of 

the United Nations, 530, 549. 
Prayer by the President, 525. 

Report to the President by General Eisenhower, 549. 
Refugees. See Refugees. 
Rome, fall of : 
Address by President Roosevelt on liberation, 526. 
Messages between the President and officials of the 
United Nations, 528, 549. 
War and post-war problems in the Far East, address by 

Mr. Grew, 8. 
War Department : 

Civilian Affairs Division, establishment of in General 

Staff, 472. 
Civilian relief in liberated areas, presidential directive 
for, 473, 474. 
War Food Administration, laborers from the West Indies, 
arrangements for work on farms and in food process- 
ing in U.S., 513. 
War Manpower Commission, laborers from the West Indies, 

arrangements for, 513. 
War Mobilization, Office of, 159. 

War Production Board, OflSce for Emergency Management, 
157. 



622 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Wiir Production Board Requirements Committee, duties 

of, 467. 
War Refugee Board : 
Establishment of, 95. 
Liaison with State Department, 194. 
Memorandum from President Roosevelt regarding re- 
moval of certain European refugees to U.S., 533. 
War Relief Control Board, President's, contributions, 

collection and disbursement, 151. 
War Shipping Administration : 

Activities respecting American seamen, 207, 208. 
Laborers from the West Indies, arrangements for, 513. 
War trade agreement, negotiated by U.K. with European 

neuti-als, 4&4. 
Ward, Robert B., Jr., designation in State Department, 400. 
Warner, Edward, visit to London regarding civil aviation, 

301. 
Warren, Avra M., confirmation of nomination as U.S. 

Ambassador to Panama, 281. 
Warren, Fletcher, designation In the State Department, 

400. 
Warren, George L., designation in the State Department, 

194. 
Warship, U.S., transfer to France, 167. 
Wartime Economic Affairs, Office of, 49, 52, 576. 
Wartime economic problems and post-war trade, address 

by Mr. Taft, 465. 
Water power, agreement with Canada (1943), regarding 

temporary raising of the level of Lake St. Francis, 142. 
Water treaty between the U.S. and Mexico, article by Mr. 

Timm, 282. 
Water utilization, treaty with Mexico (1944), relating to 

Colorado and Tijuana Rivers and the Rio Grande, 161. 
Watt, Robert J., designation in the State Department, 513. 
Weber, Theodore C, death, 304. 

Wells, Herman, designation in the State Department, 51. 
Wendelin, Eric C, designation in the State Department, 

490. 
West Coast Affairs, Division of, 54. 
West Indian conferences: 

Establishment of system of, 37. 
First meeting in Barbados, 262, 384. 
West Indies Schooner Pool, 263, 568. 
Western European Affairs, Division of, 55. 
Whaling, regulation of, protocol (1944), amending agree- 
ment (1937) and protocol (1938), 271, 400, 461, 568, 

592. 
Whaling Conference, International, 271, 329. 
Wheat, proportion to be supplied by U.S. for liberated 

Europe, 476. 
White, John Campbell, confirmation of nomination as 

U.S. Ambassador to Peru, 132. 
White, Lincoln, designation in the State Department, 209. 
White plan. See International Stabilization Plan. 
Whittington, William V. : 

Article on treaties and other international agreements, 

445. 
Designation in the State Department, 399. 



Willard, Clarke L., designation in the State Department, 

61. 
Williams, Edward Thomas, death, 132. 
Willoughby, Woodbury, designation in the State Depart- 
ment, 52. 
Wilson, Edwin C, designation in the State Department, 

444. 
Wilson, Gen. Sir Henry Maitland : 

Allied Control Commission for Italy, president of, 573. 
Correspondence with President Roosevelt regarding fall 
of Rome, 529. 
Wilson, Orme: 

Confirmation of nomination as U.S. Ambassador to 

Haiti, 28L 
Designation in the State Department, 46. 
Winant, Frederick : 
Address before Commerce and Industry Association of 

New York, 199. 
Designation in the State Department, 51. 
Winant, John G. : 
Message regarding accidental bombing of Schaffhausen, 

314. 
Participant in radio broadcast, 68. 
Winslow, Mary N., resignation from Inter-American 

Commission of Women, 325. 
Wolfram, curtailment of exports by neutrals, 412, 467, 535. 
Women : 

Conference on how women may share in post-war policy- 
making, 555. 
Inter-American Commission of, appointment of U.S. 

member (Cannon), 325. 
Nationality of, convention (1933), ratification by Cuba, 
39. 
Woodward, Stanley, designation in the State Department, 

60, 293. 
World Trade Intelligence, Division of, State Department, 

51, 328. 
World Wide Broadcasting Foundation of Boston, radio 

Interview of Mr. Hawkins, 311. 
Wright, James H., designation in the State Department, 
400. 

Yost, Charles W., designations in the State Department, 

48, 212. 
Young-Sinclair working parties respecting plans for 

civilian supply in liberated areas, 470, 474. 
Yugoslavia : 

Anniversary of constitution of new government, 301. 

Refugees from, camps for, 533. 

Representation of interests by U.S. in certain places, 

269. 
Representation of U.S. interests by Switzerland, 270. 

Zwemer, Raynrund L., appointment as chairman of the 
Interdepartmental Committee on Cooperation with the 
American Republics, 585. 



o 



705 ». I r-t -"ly 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



BULL 







ontents 



-i 



"^ rm 



riN 



JANUARY 1, 1944 
Vol. X, No. 236— Publication 2043 



The War Paga 

Address by the President on Christmas Eve 3 

Statement by the President on the Anniversary of the 

Signing of the Declaration by United Nations . . 7 

War and Post- War Problems in the Far East: Address 

by Joseph C. Grew 8 

Enemy Broadcasts Alleging Recognition by Spain of 

the Mussolini Regime 20 

American Republics 

Resolution Regarding Recognition of New Governments 

Instituted by Force 20 

General 

New Year Message of the Secretary of State 21 

Treaty Information 

Automotive: Convention on the Regulation of Inter- 
American Automotive Traffic 22 

Military and Naval Missions : Agreement With Iran . . 22 

The Department 

Resignation of Thomas Burke as Chief of Division of 

International Communications • 23 

Publications 23 




U. S. SUPERINTOIOENT OF DOCUMENT^ 

JAN 21 1944 



The War 



ADDRESS BY THE PRESIDENT ON CHRISTMAS EVE 



[Released to the press by the White House December 24] 

I have just returned from extensive journey- 
ings in the region of the Mediterranean and as 
far as tlie borders of Russia. I have conferred 
with the leaders of Britain and Russia and 
China on military matters of the present — espe- 
cially on plans for stepping-up our successful 
attack on our enemies as quickly as possible and 
from many different points of the compass. 

On this Christmas Eve there are over 10 
million men in the armed forces of the United 
States alone. One year ago 1,700,000 were serv- 
ing overseas. Today, this figure has been more 
than doubled to 3,800,000 on duty overseas. By 
next July that number will rise to over 5 million. 

That this is truly a World War was demon- 
strated when arrangements were made with our 
overseas broadcasting agencies for time to speak 
today to our soldiers, sailors, marines, and mer- 
chant seamen in every part of the world. In 
fixing the time for the broadcast we took into 
consideration that at this moment here in the 
United States, and in the Caribbean and on the 
northeast coast of South America, it is after- 
noon. In Alaska and in Hawaii and the mid- 
Pacific, it is still morning. In Iceland, in Great 
Britain, in North Africa, in Italy, and the 
Middle East, it is now evening. • 

In the Southwest Pacific, in Australia, in 
Cliina and Burma and India, it is already 
Christmas Day. We can correctly say that at 
this moment, in those far eastern parts where 
Americans are fighting, today is tomorrow. 

But everywhere throughout the world — 
throughout this war which covers the world — 
there is a special spirit which has warmed our 



hearts since our earliest childhood — a spirit 
which brings us close to our homes, our families, 
our friends and neighbors — the Christmas spirit 
of "peace on earth, good-will toward men". 

During the past years of international gang- 
sterism and brutal aggression in Europe and in 
Asia, our Christmas celebrations have been 
darkened with apprehension for the future. We 
have said, "Merry Christmas — Happy New 
Year", but we have known in our hearts that 
the clouds which have hung over our world have 
prevented us from saying it with full sincerity 
and conviction. 

And even this year, we still have much to 
face in the way of further suffering and sacrifice 
and personal tragedy. Our men, who have been 
through the fierce battles in the Solomons, the 
Gilberts, Tunisia, and Italy know, from their 
experience and knowledge of modern war, that 
many bigger and costlier battles are still to be 
fought. 

But — on Christmas Eve this year — I can say 
to you that at last we may look forward into the 
future with real, substantial confidence that, 
however great the cost, "peace on earth, good- 
will toward men" can be and will be realized and 
insured. This year I can say that. Last year I 
could not do more than express a hope. Today 
I express a certainty — though the cost may be 
high and the time may be long. 

Within the past year — within the past few 
weeks — history has been made, and it is far bet- 
ter history for the whole human race than any 
that we have known, or even dared to hope for, 
in these tragic times through which we pass. 

' Broadcast from Hyde Park, N.Y., Dec. 24, 1943. 

3 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETTNi 



A great beginning was made in the Moscow 
conference in October by Mr. Molotov, Mr. 
Eden, and our own Mr. Hull. There and then 
the way was paved for the later meetings. 

At Cairo and Tehran we devoted ourselves 
not only to military matters, we devoted our- 
selves also to consideration of the future — to 
plans for the kind of world which alone can jus- 
tify all the sacrifices of this war. 

Of course, as you all know, Mr. Churchill and 
I have happily met many times before, and we 
know and understand each other very well. In- 
deed, Mr. Churchill has become known and be- 
loved by many millions of Americans, and the 
heartfelt prayers of all of us have been with 
this great citizen of the world in his recent 
serious illness. 

The Cairo and Tehran conferences, however, 
gave me my first opportunity to meet the Gen- 
eralissimo, Chiang Kai-shek, and Marshal Sta- 
lin — and to sit down at the table with these un- 
conquerable men and talk with them face to 
face. We had planned to talk to each other 
across the table at Cairo and Tehran; but we 
soon found that we were all on the same side of 
the table. We came to the conferences with 
faith in each other. But we needed the personal 
contact. And now we have supplemented faith 
with definite knowledge. 

It was well worth traveling thousands of 
miles over land and sea to bring about this per- 
sonal meeting, and to gain the heartening assur- 
ance that we are absolutely agreed with one 
another on all the major objectives — and on the 
military means of obtaining them. 

At Cairo, Prime Minister Churchill and I 
spent four days with the Generalissimo, Chiang 
Kai-shek. It was the first time that we had had 
an opportunity to go over the complex situation 
in the Far East with him personally. We were 
able not only to settle upon definite military 
strategy but also to discuss certain long-range 
principles which we believe can assure peace in 
the Far East for many generations to come. 

Those principles are as simple as they are 
fundamental. They involve the restoration of 
stolen property to its rightful owners and the 
recognition of the rights of millions of people 



in the Far East to build up their own forms of 
self-government without molestation. Essen- 
tial to all peace and security in the Pacific and in 
the rest of the world is the permanent elimina- 
tion of the Empire of Japan as a potential force 
of aggression. Never again must our soldiers 
and sailors and marines be compelled to fight 
from island to island as they are fighting so 
gallantly and so successfully today. 

Increasingly powerful forces are now ham- 
mering at the Japanese at many points over an 
enormous arc which curves down through the 
Pacific from the Aleutians to the jungles of 
Burma. Our own Army and Navy, our Air 
Forces, the Australians and New Zealanders, the 
Dutch, and the British land, air, and sea forces 
are all forming a band of steel which is closing 
in on Japan. 

On the mainland of Asia, under the General- 
issimo's leadership, the Chinese ground and air 
forces augmented by American air forces are 
playing a vital part in starting the drive which 
will push invaders into the sea. 

Following out the military decisions at Cairo, 
General Marshall has just flown around the 
world and has had conferences with General 
MacArthur and Admiral Nimitz — conferences 
which will spell plenty of bad news for the Japs 
in the not too far distant future. 

I met in the Generalissimo a man of great 
vision and great courage and remarkably keen 
understanding of the problems of today and to- 
morrow. We discussed all the manifold mili- 
tary plans for striking at Japan with decisive 
force from many directions, and I believe I can 
say that he returned to Chungking with the 
positive assuaance of total victory over our com- 
mon enemy. Today we and the Republic of 
China are closer together than ever before in 
deep friendship and in unity of purpose. 

After the Cairo conference, Mr. Churchill and 
I went by airplane to Tehran. There we met 
with Marshal Stalin. We talked with complete 
frankness on every conceivable subject con- 
nected with the winning of the war and the 
establishment of a durable peace after the war. 

Within three days of intense and consistently 
amicable discussions, we agreed on every point 



JANTTARY 1, 1944 



concerned with the launching of a gigantic at- 
tack upon Germany. 

The Russian Army will continue its stern of- 
fensives on Germany's eastern front ; the Allied 
Armies in Italy and Africa will bring relentless 
pressure on Germany from the south ; and now 
the encirclement will be complete as great Amer- 
ican and British forces attack from other points 
of the compass. 

The commander selected to lead the combined 
attack from these other points is Gen. Dwight 
D. Eisenhower. His performances in Africa, 
Sicily, and Italy have been brilliant. He knows 
by practical and successful experience the way 
to coordinate air, sea, and land power. All 
these will be under his control. Lt. Gen. Carl 
Spaatz will command the entire American stra- 
tegic bombing force operating against Germany. 

General Eisenhower gives up his command 
in the Mediterranean to a British officer whose 
name is being announced by Mr. Churchill. We 
now pledge that new commander that our 
powerful ground, sea, and air forces in the vital 
Mediterranean area will stand by his side until 
every objective in that bitter theater is attained. 

Both of these new commanders will have 
American and British subordinate commanders 
whose names will be announced in a few days. 

During the last two days at Tehran, Marshal 
Stalin, Mr. Churchill, and I looked ahead to the 
days and months and years which will follow 
Germany's defeat. We were united in deter- 
mination that Germany must be stripped of her 
military might and be given no opportunity 
within the foreseeable future to regain that 
might. 

The United Nations have no intention to en- 
slave the German people. We wish them to 
have a nonnal chance to develop, in peace, as 
useful and respectable members of the Euro- 
pean family. But we most certainly emphasize 
that word "respectable" — for we intend to rid 
them once and for all of Nazism and Prussian 
militarism and the fantastic and disastrous no- 
tion that they constitute the "master race". 

We did discuss international relationships 
from the point of view of big, broad objectives, 



rather than details. But on the basis of what we 
did discuss, I can say even today that I do not 
think any insoluble differences will arise among 
Russia, Great Britain, and the United States. 

In these conferences we were concerned with 
basic principles — principles which involve the 
security and the welfare and the standard of liv- 
ing of human beings in countries large and 
small. 

To use an American and ungrammatical collo- 
quialism, I may say that I "got along fine" with 
Marshal Stalin. He is a man who combines a 
tremendous, relentless determination with a 
stalwart good humor. I believe he is truly rep- 
resentative of the heart and soul of Russia ; and 
I believe that we are going to get along well 
with him and the Russian peeple — very well 
indeed. 

Britain, Russia, China, and the United States 
and their Allies represent more than three 
quarters of the total population of the earth. 
As long as these four nations with great mili- 
tary power stick together in determination to 
keep the peace there will be no possibility of an 
aggressor nation arising to start another world 
war. 

But those four powers must be united with 
and cooperate with all the freedom-loving peo- 
ples of Europe and Asia and Africa and the 
Americas. The rights of every nation, large or 
small, must be respected and guarded as jeal- 
ously as are the rights of every individual with- 
in our own republic. 

The doctrine that the strong shall dominate 
the weak is the doctrine of our enemies — and we 
reject it. 

But, at the same time, we are agreed that if 
force is necessary to keep international peace, 
international force will be applied — for as long 
as it may be necessary. 

It has been our steady policy — and it is cer- 
tainly a common-sense policy — that the right of 
each nation to freedom must be measured by the 
willingness of that nation to fight for freedom. 
And today we salute our unseen allies in occu- 
pied countries — the underground resistance 
groups and the armies of liberation. They will 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETTNl 



provide potent forces against our enemies, when 
the day of invasion comes. 

Through the development of science the 
world has become so much smaller that we have 
had to discard the geographical yardsticks of 
the past. For instance, through our early his- 
tory the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans were be- 
lieved to be walls of safety for the United 
States. Time and distance made it physically 
possible for us and for the other American re- 
publics to obtain and maintain our independ- 
ence against infinitely stronger powers. Until 
recently very few people, even military experts, 
thought that the day could ever come when we 
might have to defend our Pacific coast against 
Japanese threats of invasion. 

At the outbreak of the first World War rela- 
tively few people thought that our ships and 
shipping would be menaced by German subma- 
rines on the high seas or that the German mili- 
tarists would ever attempt to dominate any na- 
tion outside of central Europe. 

After the Armistice in 1918, we thought and 
hoped that the militaristic philosophy of Ger- 
many had been crushed; and being full of the 
milk of human kindness we spent the next 15 
years disarming, while the Germans whined so 
pathetically that the other nations permitted 
them — and even helped them — to re-arm. 

For too many years we lived on pious hopes 
that aggressor and warlike nations would learn 
and understand and carry out the doctrine of 
purely voluntary peace. 

The well-intentioned but ill-fated experi- 
ments of former years did not work. It is my 
hope that we will not try them again. No — 
that is too weak — it is my intention to do all 
that I humanly can as President and Com- 
mander in Chief to see to it that these tragic 
mistakes shall not be made again. 

There have always been cheerful idiots in 
this country who believed that there would be 
no more war for us, if everybody in America 
would only return into their homes and lock 
their front doors behind them. Assuming that 
their motives were of the highest, events have 
shown how unwilling they were to face the 
facts, 



The overwhelming majority of all the people 
in the world want peace. Most of them are 
fighting for the attainment of peace — not just 
a truce, not just an armistice — but peace that is 
as strongly enforced and as durable as mortal 
man can make it. If we are willing to fight for 
peace now, is it not good logic that we should 
use force if necessary, in the future, to keep the 
peace ? 

I believe, and I think I can say, that the other 
three great nations who are fighting so mag- 
nificently to gain peace are in complete agree- 
ment that we must be prepared to keep the 
peace by force. If the people of Germany and 
Japan are made to realize thoroughly that the 
world is not going to let them break out again, 
it is possible, and, I hope, probable, that they 
will abandon the philosophy of aggression — the 
belief that they can gain the whole world even 
at the risk of losing their own souls. 

I shall have more to say about the Cairo and 
Tehran conferences when I make my report to 
the Congress in about two weeks' time. And, 
on that occasion, I shall also have a great deal 
to say about certain conditions here at home. 

But today I wish to say that in all my travels, 
at home and abroad, it is the sight of our soldiers 
and sailors and their magnificent achievements 
which have given me the greatest inspiration 
and the greatest encouragement for the future. 

To the members of our armed forces, to their 
wives, mothers, and fathers, I want to affirm the 
great faith and confidence we have in General 
Marshall and Admiral King who direct all our 
armed might throughout the world. Upon 
them falls the great responsibility of planning 
the strategy of determining when and where we 
shall fight. Both of these men have already 
gained high places in American history, which 
will record many evidences of their military 
genius that cannot be published today. 

Some of our men overseas are now spending 
their third Christmas far from home. To them 
and to all others overseas or soon to go overseas, 
I can give assurance that it is the purpose of 
their Government to win this war and to bring 
them home at the earliest possible date, 



JANUARY 1, 1944 



And we here in the United States had better 
be sure that when our soldiers and sailors do 
come home they will find an America in which 
they are given full opportunities for education, 
rehabilitation, social security, employment, and 
business enterprise under the free American 
system — and that they will find a Government 
which, by their votes as American citizens, they 
have had a full share in electing. 

The American people have had every reason 
to know that this is a tough, destructive war. 
On my trip abroad, I talked with many military 
men who had faced our enemies in the field. 
These hard-headed realists testify to the 
strength and skill and resourcefulness of the 
enemy generals and men whom we must beat 
before final victory is won. The war is now 
reaching the stage where we shall have to look 
forward to large casualty lists — dead, wounded, 
and missing. 

War entails just that. There is no easy road 
to victory. And the end is not yet in sight. 

I have been back only for a week. It is fair 
that I should tell you my impression. I think 
I see a tendency in some of our people here to 
assume a quick ending of the war — that we have 
already gained the victory. And, perhaps as a 
result of this false reasoning, I think I discern 
an effort to resume or even encourage an out- 
break of partisan thinking and talking. I hope 
I am wrong. For, surely, our first and foremost 
tasks are all concerned with winning the war 
and winning a just peace that will last for gen- 
erations. 

The massive offensives which are in the mak- 
ing — both in Europe and the Far East — will 
require every ounce of energy and fortitude that 
we and our Allies can summon on the fighting 
fronts and in all the workshops at home. As I 
have said before, you cannot order up a great 
attack on a Monday and demand that it be de- 
livered on Saturday. 

Less than a month ago I flew in a big Army 
transport plane over the little town of Bethle- 
hem, in Palestine. 

Tonight, on Christmas Eve, all men and 
women everywhere who love Christmas are 



thinking of that ancient town and of the star 
of faith that shone there more than 19 centuries 
ago. 

American boys are fighting today in snow- 
covered mountains, in malarial jungles, and on 
blazing deserts; they are fighting on the far 
stretches of the sea and above the clouds; and 
the thing for which they struggle is best 
symbolized by the message that came out of 
Bethlehem. 

On behalf of the American people — your own 
people — I send this Christmas message to you 
who are in our armed forces : 

In our hearts are prayers for you and for all 
your comrades-in-arms who fight to rid the 
world of evil. 

We ask God's blessing upon you — upon your 
fathers and mothers, wives and children — all 
your loved ones at home. 

We ask that the comfort of God's grace shall 
be granted to those who are sick and wounded, 
and to those who are prisoners of war in the 
hands of the enemy, waiting for the day when 
they will again be free. 

And we ask that God receive and cherish 
those who have given their lives, and that He 
keep them in honor and in the grateful memory 
of their countrymen forever. 

God bless all of you who fight our battles on 
this Christmas Eve. 

God bless us all. God keep us strong in our 
faith that we fight for a better day for human- 
kind — here and everywhere. 

STATEMENT BY THE PRESIDENT ON 
THE ANNIVERSARY OF THE SIGNING 
OF THE DECLARATION BY UNITED 
NATIONS 

[Released to the press by the White House January 1] 

Many of us in the United States are observ- 
ing this first day of the New Year as a day of 
prayer and reflection and are considering the 
deeper issues which affect us as part of the 
family of nations at a crucial moment in his- 
tory. It is fitting on this day that we direct our 
thoughts to the concept of the United Nations 



8 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETINl 



which came into being on another and in- 
finitely bleaker New Year's Day two years ago. 

It was but three weeks after Pearl Harbor 
that the Declaration by United Nations was 
promulgated at Washington. Twenty-six na- 
tions subscribed immediately, eight more have 
adhered subsequently, all pledging themselves 
to stand together in the struggle against com- 
mon enemies. 

Two years ago the United Nations were on 
the defensive in every part of tlie world. To- 
day we are on the offensive. The walls are 
closing in remorselessly on our enemies. Our 
armed forces are gathering for new and greater 
assaults which will bring about the downfall of 
the Axis aggressors. 

The United Nations are giving attention also 



to the different kind of struggle which must 
follow the military phase, the struggle against 
disease, malnutrition, unemployment, and many 
other forms of economic and social distress. 

To make all of us secure against future ag- 
gression and to open the way for enhanced well- 
being of nations and individuals everywhere, 
we must maintain in the peace to come the mu- 
tually beneficial cooperation we have achieved 
in war. On the threshold of the New Year, as 
we look toward the tremendous tasks ahead, 
let us pledge ourselves that this cooperation 
shall continue both for winning the final victory 
on the battlefield and for establishing an inter- 
national organization of all peace-loving na- 
tions to maintain peace and security in genera- 
tions to come. 



WAR AND POST-WAR PROBLEMS IN THE FAR EAST 
Address by Joseph C. Grew ^ 



[Released to the press December 29] 

Among the many invitations to speak which 
come to me from all over the country, I know 
of none that I accepted more promptly and 
gladly than the invitation to meet tonight the 
members of the Illinois Education Association, 
even though it meant coming from Washington 
for this single engagement. For in fighting the 
war and in approaching the eventual problems 
of the peace tables, we need — as perhaps never 
before so urgently — the development of an en- 
lightened public opinion, especially among the 
youth of our country — the younger generation 
in whose hands will largely lie the shaping of 
our future world. To whom therefore shall we 
turn rather than to the teachers of our young 
men and women to guide their thinking broadly 
and wisely so that the coming generation may be 
fitted effectively to influence or to deal directly 
with the solution of the tremendous problems 
that will face them on emerging from their 
scholastic years and crossing the threshold into 
life? The duties, the responsibilities, and the 



opportunities that you yourselves face in incul- 
cating that training, my friends of the Illinois 
Education Association, are of inamense impor- 
tance, and I therefore heartily welcome this 
occasion which permits me to speak to you to- 
night. As for the opportunities, it may do no 
harm to remember the difference between a pes- 
simist and an optimist: a pessimist is one who 
sees a difficulty in every opportunity, while an 
optimist is one who sees an opportunity in every 
difficulty. 

Some six weeks ago we passed an anniver- 
sary of solemn and significant memory, the Ar- 
mistice of 1918. How well I remember that day 
in Paris ! Guns booming, bells pealing, the peo- 
ple of Paris in the streets singing and dancing, 
laughing and weeping. The war to end wars 



■ Delivered at the annual banquet celebrating the 
90th anniversary of the Illinois Education Association, 
Chicago, Dec. 29, 1943. Mr. Grew, former American 
Ambassador to Japan, is now Special Assistant to the 
Secretary of State. 



JANUARY 1, 19 44 



9 



was over. Thenceforth we were to emerge from 
battle to a bright new world, a world of peace 
on eai'th, good-will towai'd men. And then, 
what happened? We in America and people 
elsewhere quite simply got into bed and pulled 
the covers over our heads, unwilling to see what 
was going on about us, asleep to actualities. 
And now, once again the world is drenched in 
blood. 

Shall we. make that grim mistake again? I 
do not believe so. Human nature may not 
change much through the ages, but at least man- 
kind learns something from experience, and I 
believe that we in our country have learned that 
in this modern world of ours — in which the na- 
tions, through developments in communications 
and transit, have been drawn into inevitable in- 
timacy — isolation has become an anachronism. 
We cannot kill the seeds of war, for they are 
buried deep in human nature. But what we can 
do and I am convinced we shall do is precisely 
what we did in permanently stamping out yel- 
low fever from our country — remove the con- 
ditions under which those seeds of war can 
germinate anywhere in the world. It can be 
done and it must be done. 

The guilty leaders among our enemies and 
those individuals responsible for the barbarous 
acts of crime and senseless cruelties that have 
been committed under the cloak of war must 
and shall be punished, and just retribution must 
and shall be meted out to the enemy countries 
so that the people of those countries sh;;!) b? 
forever cured of the illusion that aggression 
pays. Their false philosophy can never be dis- 
credited until the results are brought home to 
them in defeat, humiliation, and bitter loss. 
Measures must and shall be taken to prevent 
that cancer of aggressive militarism from dig- 
ging in underground, once again to rear itself 
in malignant evil and once again to overrun 
the world, calling upon our sons and grandsons 
to fight this dreadful war over again in the next 
generation. Let us assure our defenders on the 
battle-fronts that this time their heroism shall 
forever finish the job begun in 1914. 

But those self-evident measures will not be 

566885—44 2 



enough. In approaching the eventual peace 
tables, we shall need the highest qualities of far- 
sighted statesmanship. We must abandon all 
promptings of vindictiveness or of pride and 
prejudice. 

First we must clear away the poisonous 
growth in order to lay the foundations for the 
erection of an invulnerable and enduring world 
edifice. Two gi'eat cornerstones for that foun- 
dation have already been swung into place. 
One was the Atlantic Charter ; the second was 
the Moscow agreement supplemented and 
strengthened by the declarations of Cairo and 
Tehran. Others will follow. 

And then we must build. Re-education in 
certain areas will become essential. I visualize 
a helpful, cooperative, common-sense spirit in 
conducting that system of re-education, devoid 
of browbeating or vindictiveness, with emphasis 
upon what our enemies will have to gain by 
playing the game with the rest of the world 
and what they would lose by recalcitrance. The 
healthy growth must ultimately come from 
within. When our enemies find that in coop- 
eration lies their only hope of salvation, they 
will cooperate. AVeariness of the sufferings of 
war will work in our favor. We do not want 
festering sores anywhere in our future world 
for the building of which we and our Allies 
are fighting and striving today. We do not 
want the nursing of grudges, rebelliousness and 
Ijitterness. We want the people of the world, 
including our present enemies, to look forward, 
not back, and to look forward not to the day 
when thejr can achieve revenge but forward to 
a peaceful, lawful, cooperative, solvent, produc- 
tive, and prosperous national and international 
life, purged forever of the poison of aggressive 
militarism. That should be our aim. That 
should be the ultimate goal of far-sighted states- 
manship, and that should be the guiding spirit 
at the peace tables. We shall need the wisdom 
of Solomon in approaching those eventual prob- 
lems. Pray God that we may find it. 

Thus may our defenders on the battle lines 
know that they are not fighting or dying in 
vain. Thus may they know that we on the 



10 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETTN 



home-front are not only with joyful determina- 
tion supporting them through the war until 
total victory is achieved, but that we pledge 
to them our inexorable determination to carry 
that support into the post-war world, where 
the final monument to their heroism shall be 
the creation of a permanent international struc- 
ture based on the principles of law, truth, lib- 
erty, justice, and peace. 

Now, having always in mind those landmarks 
which I feel should guide our general course in 
the post-war world, I should like to turn to our 
war with Japan and its eventual aftermath. 
In moving around the country, as I have done 
more or less continually since returning to the 
United States from Japan some 16 months ago, 
I have found among our people a great deal of 
muddled thinking on those problems, which 
arises largely from an inadequate grasp of facts. 

First, with regard to the war itself, there 
seems to me to be a general tendency to under- 
estimate the difficulties, the length of time, and 
the potential losses that we face in bringing 
Japan to eventual unconditional surrender. 
Over-optimism is not likely to further our 
steadily strengthening war effort, and I have 
conceived it as my own best contribution to our 
war effort to try to overcome in some small de- 
gree that dangerously complacent if not wishful 
thinking among our people. I have already 
spoken so often on this subject that I shall not 
try your patience by harping upon it tonight, 
but I think we all ought to bear in mind certain 
palpable facts, namely, that the Japanese are 
fanatical, do-or-die fighters and no mean fight- 
ers while still alive ; that they control today tre- 
mendous areas with all the raw materials and 
all the native labor for processing those ma- 
terials that any country could desire; that they 
are hard-working, pertinacious, foresighted, 
thorough, and scientific in their methods, and 
will let no grass grow under their feet in i-ender- 
ing those far-flung areas — through the building 
of industries, warplants, and stockpiles — so far 
as possible economically and militarily self- 
sustaining, against the day when by crippling 
their maritime transport system we shall have 



partially or wholly cut them off from their 
homeland. At a given moment, with defeat 
staring them in the face, their leaders are more 
than likely to ti'y to get us into an inconclusive 
peace, but that is something that we must never 
under any circumstances be lured into accept- 
ing. The show-down must be complete and 
irrevocable if we are to avoid another war in 
the Pacific in the next generation. Surveying 
that war problem from the most pessimistic 
angle, I can therefore conceive of a situation 
where even after we had crippled or destroyed 
their cities, their navy, their transport shipping, 
and their air power, even after we had invaded 
the Japanese homeland, the Japanese forces in 
those vast occupied areas might continue to 
fight to the last cartridge and the last soldier. 
I do not believe that this will happen, but I do 
believe that our people had better visualize what 
might happen and that we had better foresee 
the possible worst so that we shall not for a 
moment relax our maximum war effort. We 
shall have to fight, I fear, for a long time to 
come. 

Now let us turn to some of the post-war prob- 
lems that we shall inevitably have to face when 
once the Japanese have been brought to uncon- 
ditional surrender or at least to a situation when 
they can fight no further. Here again there is 
much obscure thinking in our comitry arising 
from an inadequate grasp of facts, which has 
brought about a deep-rooted prejudice against 
the Japanese j^eople as a whole. In the light of 
Pearl Harbor, the Attila-like aggressions, and 
the senseless cruelties of the Japanese military, 
that prejudice is perfectly natural. I remember 
that in the last war a similar prejudice and sus- 
picion extended even to Americans with Ger- 
man names, and many people with German 
names changed them. That blind prejudice 
against the German race fortunately does not 
exist today. Although this subject is contro- 
versial, most of our people feel that we are 
chiefly fighting the Nazis and the militaristic 
caste and cult and doctrine in Germany and not 
the Germans as a whole. But today compara- 
tively few of our people are able or willing to 



JANTTAHY 1, 1944 



11 



admit that there can be anything good in Japan 
or any good elements in the Japanese race. The 
prejudice is all-embracing. 

Not long ago after one of my talks somewhere 
in the South, after I had tried to paint a fair 
and carefully balanced picture of the Japanese 
people as I know them, a prominent business- 
man, with whom I had discussed the subject at 
dinner, came up to me and said: "That was a 
very interesting talk you gave tonight." I said, 
"Thank you." "But", he added, "you haven't 
changed my opinion in the slightest. The only 
good Jap is a dead Jap." I asked : "Have you 
ever lived in Japan?" "No", he replied, "but 
I know that they are all a barbarous, tricky, 
brutal mass that we can have no truck with, 
ever again." That sort of attitude I have fre- 
quently encountered. It is wide-spread in our 
country, and through the force of public opinion 
it can have a serious influence against an intelli- 
gent and practical solution of some of the com- 
plicated pi-oblems we shall have to face in the 
Far East when the war is over through the de- 
struction of Japan's military machine. 

You can't live among a people for 10 years 
without coming to know them — all classes of 
them — fairly well. Heaven knows that I 
should be the last person in our comitry to hold 
a brief for any Japanese, for not only have I 
closely watched that cancer of Japanese aggres- 
sive militarism, chauvinism, truculence, vain- 
gloriousness, and over-weening ambition grow 
throughout those 10 years, but I have known by 
first-hand intimate rejjorts of the medieval bar- 
barity of those militarists — the rape of Nan- 
king, which will forever and ineradicably stain 
Japan's escutcheon in the records of history; 
the utterly ruthless destruction by bombing of 
innocent and undefended cities, towns, and vil- 
lages in China and of our own religious missions 
throughout China — for the purpose of stamping 
out American interests and Christianity from 
all of East Asia — and finally of the indescribable 
treatment inflicted alike upon helpless Chinese, 
British, and Canadian prisoners-of-war and 
upon many of our own American citizens sub- 
sequent to Pearl Harbor. Those things one can 



never forget or ever forgive. The guilty will 
in due course be brought to the bar of justice 
and duly punished, but no punislmient under 
our civilized code can ever repay what has been 
wrought or wipe out the memory of those utterly 
barbarous crimes. It would be very easy for 
me, with my background of many days of bitter 
experience and many sleepless nights of bitter 
memory, to assimilate my own thinking with 
that of the mass of our compatriots who can see 
no good among the Japanese. 

Yet we Americans are generally fair-minded. 
We are not prone to condemn the innocent be- 
cause they are helplessly associated with the 
guilty. I have said that you can't live for 10 
years in a country without coming to know all 
classes of the people of that country, their prob- 
lems, their predilections, and, in some measure, 
their trends of thought. Even in our own coun- 
try we have our Dillingers and our reputable 
citizens residing in the same street. The main 
difference is that in our country it is the repu- 
table citizens who control. In Japan it is the 
military gangsters who control. Only a few 
years before Pearl Harbor a prominent Japa- 
nese said to me : "If our military leaders con- 
tinue to follow their present course, they will 
wreck the country." 

Throughout those 10 years I was in touch 
with people in Japan from the highest to the 
lowest, from the Emperor and his statesmen to 
the servants in our house, the academic world, 
the businessmen, the professionals, the trades- 
people, and the gardeners on our place. I was 
never taken in by the often-expressed opinion 
that a great mass of liberal thought in Japan 
was just beneath the surface, ready, with a little 
encouragement from the United States, to 
emerge and to take control. I knew the jjower 
of the stranglehold of the militarists, only 
awaiting the day when they should find the 
moment ripe to put into operation their dreams 
of world conquest. But I also knew that many 
of the highest statesmen of Japan, including the 
Emperor himself, were laboring earnestly but 
futilely to control the military in order to avoid 
war with the United States and Great Britain, 



12 



DEPARTMEKT OF STATE BITLLETtN 



and I did know that many of the rank and file 
of the Japanese people were simply like sheep, 
helplessly following where they were led. 

There is no extenuation implied in that state- 
ment. It is simply a statement of fact. There 
of course arises the question as to what effect 
the impact of the war and the inculcation by the 
military leaders of the doctrine of hatred 
against the democracies may have altered the at- 
titude and thinking of the rank and file of the 
people of Japan since Pearl Harbor. That 
question cannot with certainty be answered, es- 
pecially in view of the activities of the 
"Thought Control" section of the Japanese po- 
lice who are always searching out what they 
call "dangerous thoughts". Those in Japan 
who deplore the war and who cherish no in- 
herent hatred against the white man must be 
and are inarticulate. Besides, all Japanese are 
fundamentally loyal to the Emperor at least in 
spirit, and since the Emperor, after the mili- 
tarist fait accompli of Pearl Harbor, was 
obliged, willy-nilly, to sign an Imperial Ee- 
script declaring war and calling for the de- 
struction of the United States and Great 
Britain, very few Japanese would allow their 
thoughts to run counter to that edict. The 
Japanese people, under the Emperor, are un- 
questionably more united in thought and spirit 
than are the Germans under Hitler. 

Yet I repeat that the Japanese rank and file 
are somewhat like sheep and malleable under 
the impact of new circumstances and new con- 
ditions. I will tell you two short stories — 
true stories in my own experience — which I 
think tend to illustrate what I have just said. 

On December 12, 1937 the United States ship 
Panay was bombed and sunk in the Yangtze 
River near Nanking by Japanese planes. From 
the facts, there could be no question but that the 
act was deliberate, carried out by Japanese 
fliers for the vei-y same purpose that had led 
them to bomb and destroy many of our Amer- 
ican religious missions — churches, hospitals, 
schools, residences — in various parts of China. 
That purpose \\as to drive all American inter- 
ests out of East Asia. After sinking our naval 



ship, the planes returned and machine-gunned 
the officers and men who had taken refuge in 
the high reeds on the shore, in an endeavor to 
wipe them out. You no doubt remember what 
happened after that incident. The Japanese 
Government did not want war with the United 
' States ; perhaps the Japanese Army and Navy 
did not yet feel prepared for war with us at that 
time. At any rate, the Government abjectly 
apologized for what they alleged was an acci- 
dent — as they had apologized in so many pre- 
vious cases — met all of our demands, and 
promptly paid the full indemnity we asked. 
The incident was closed. 

But then the Japanese people had their say. 
They were ashamed. From all over Japan, 
from people in high places down to schoolboys, 
from professors in the universities to taxi 
drivers and the corner grocer, I received letters 
of profound apology and regret for the incident. 
Gifts of money poured in to the Embassy — for 
that is the Japanese way of expressing sym- 
pathy ; considerable sums from those who were 
well off, a few cents from groups of schoolboys. 
Suggestions were received from home that I 
return the money, but the money could not be 
returned, first because it would have been an 
insult to refuse to accept the gifts in the spirit 
in which they were given, and second because 
many of the donations were received anony- 
mouslj\ The money was placed in a '■'■Panay 
Fund" and invested, ancl the income was to be 
used for the upkeep of the graves of American 
sailors who had died in Japan. 

But the most touching incident of that 
wholly spontaneous expression of friendship 
for the American people by many elements of 
the people of Japan was when a J'oung Japa- 
nese woman came into my office and asked my 
secretarjr for a pair of scissors. The scissors 
were handed to her ; she let down her beautiful 
long hair, cut it off to the neck, wrapped her 
hair in a parcel, and, taking a carnation from 
her head, placed it on the parcel and handed the 
parcel to my secretary with the words: "Please 
give this to the Ambassador. It is my apology 
for the sinking of the Panay.''^ 



JANtTARY 1, 194 4 



13 



Those people did not want war with the 
United States. 

Another little story, not important, perhaps, 
but still significant. During the early stages of 
the war, while we in the Embassy were still in- 
terned in Tokyo, the Japanese military police 
occasionally arranged demonstrations in front 
of our Embassy, and on the day of the fall of 
Singapore, while Tokyo was celebrating with 
processions and brass bands, the police gathered 
several hundred Japanese — from the streets, the 
shops, and the homes — and brought them down 
to the square in front of our office to demon- 
strate. They pressed close to the bars of the 
Embassy fence behind which we were caged, 
waving Japanese flags and howling like a pack 
of angry wolves. "Down with the United 
•States", they shouted. It was a really terri- 
fying sight, and for a moment I almost feared 
that they might get over the wall and run 
amuck in the Embassy compound. 

At the height of this demonstration, a mem- 
ber of my staff, who was standing on a balcony 
overlooking that howling pack of wolves, pulled 
out his pocket handkerchief and cheerfully 
waved it at the demonstrators. The Japanese 
were of course astonished at this unexpected 
gesture. Their jaws fell open in surprise, and 
for a moment they ceased their howling. But 
the member of my staff kept right on, blithely 
waving his handkerchief. And then, wonder of 
wonders, those Japanese laughed and pulled out 
their handkerchiefs and waved back in most 
friendly spirit. The police of course were fu- 
rious; they dashed around trying to stop the 
unexpected form their carefully regimented hos- 
tile demonstration had taken, but nothing could 
be done, and that whole pack of erstwhile snarl- 
ing wolves went off up the street, still heartily 
laughing. 

I submit that little anecdote merely by way of 
concrete evidence to support my belief, indeed 
my knowledge, that the Japanese people as a 
whole are somewhat like sheep, easily led and 
malleable under the impact of new circumstances 
and new direction. They have followed false 
gods. They have been and are helpless and in- 



articulate under their gangster leadership. And 
when once the false philosophy of those leaders 
comes back to the Japanese people in defeat, 
humiliation, and bitter loss, they themselves, I 
confidently believe, will be their own liberators 
from the illusion that military gangsterism pays. 

It is my belief — a belief not subject to proof 
but based on my long experience among the 
Japanese people — that when once the Japanese 
military machine — that machine which the Jap- 
anese peojDle have been told is undefeatable, 
having never yet lost a war and being allegedly 
Ijrotected by their sun goddess and by the "au- 
gust virtues" of the Emperor — has been de- 
feated, largely destroyed and rendered impotent 
to fight further, it will lose one of the most im- 
portant of oriental assets — namely "face" — and 
will become discredited throughout the length 
and breadth of the land. It is furthermore my 
belief that if at the time of the eventual armis- 
tice or at the eventual peace table — while put- 
ting into effect every measure necessary, ef- 
fectively to prevent that cancer of militarism 
from digging underground with the intention 
of secretly building itself up again as it did in 
Germany — we offer the Japanese people hope 
for the future, many elements of the rank and 
file of the Japanese will give a sigh of relief 
that the war is over and will — perhaps sullenly 
at first but not the less effectively — cooperate 
with us in building a new and healthy edifice. 
This concept also is not subject to proof, but 
from my knowledge of the Japanese it seems 
to me to be a fair postulate. 

The Japanese people have suffered acutely; 
they are going to suffer a gi'eat deal more 
acutely for a long time to come. They will see 
tiieir shipping destroyed and their cities 
bombed; they will lack adequate food and fuel 
and clothing; their standard of living will 
steadily deteriorate; their military police will 
outdo the Gestapo in cruelties, and when the 
reckoning comes, the Japanese people will 
learn of the preposterous lies and of the base- 
less claims of continual victories over their ene- 
mies with which they are daily fed by their 
military leaders. Even their hardened fanat- 



14 



DEPARTMET^T OF STATE BULLETIN 



icism — even their last-ditch, do-or-die pliiloso- 
phy — can hardly withstand such an impact. I 
saw obvious signs of weariness of war among 
the Japanese people even during the unsuc- 
cessful campaign against heroic China between 
1937 and 1941. How much greater will that 
weariness of war beconie in the years ahead ! 

That leads us to the problems of the eventual 
peace settlement with Japan. In approaching 
this subject I must make perfectly clear the 
fact that I am speaking solely for myself and 
that althougli an officer of the Government I am 
presuming in no respect to reflect the official 
views of the Government. Those official views, 
so far as I am aware, have not yet crystallized. 
With so many still imponderable factors in the 
situation I do not see how they could yet crys- 
tallize. Studies, of course, are constantly be- 
ing pursued with regard to post-war problems, 
and I do not doubt that those studies will lead 
to a variety of opinions as to the treatment that 
should eventually be accorded to the enemy na- 
tions. In any group of men, in official or un- 
official life, it is inconceivable that views and 
opinions should be unanimous. In the last 
analysis it is of course the President and the 
Secretary of State, in conference with the lead- 
ers of other members of the United Nations, and 
with due regard to the views of the American 
people as expressed by the Congress, who will 
determine and formulate our own course. With 
regard to Japan it is therefore of the highest 
importance that the American peojile — woo- 
fully uninformed as most of them are with 
regard to Japan and the Japanese — should 
be enlightened in their thinking not by arm- 
chair theorists but by those who know the sub- 
ject by first-hand experience, by those who have 
lived long in Japan. The approach to the pence 
table should be guided by those who intimately 
know the Japanese people and should be formu- 
lated on a basis of plain, practical common 
sense, without pride or prejudice, or the vindic- 
tiveness which is inherent in human nature — 
formulated with the paramount objective of in- 
suring the future peace and security of the Pa- 
cific area and of all the countries contiguous 



thereto. Seldom if ever will the United States 
be called ujion, in conjunction with allied na- 
tions, to face and to deal with a problem of 
more momentous import to the future welfare 
of our country and of the world. 

I spoke a moment ago of armchair theorists, 
and this reminds me of a story told by an Amer- 
ican businessman who had lived in Japan, rep- 
resenting a prominent American firm, for some 
40 years. During my stay in Tokyo he was 
called home by his company for consultation. 
The president and vice presidents of the firm 
were gathered around the table. "Now, Mr. 
So-and-so", said the president, "please tell us 
what Japan is going to do." "I don't know", 
replied the agent. "What ?" thundered the pres- 
ident; "After we have paid your salary for 40 
years to represent us in Japan, you have the 
face to tell us you don't know ?" "No," said the 
agent, "I don't know. But ask any of the tour- 
ists; they'll tell you." That anecdote, which 
was confirmed to me a few days ago by the busi- 
nessman under reference as substantially cor- 
i-ect, is more significant than it may seem. 
Many Americans visit Japan for a few days or 
weeks or months and come home and write arti- 
cles or books about the Japanese. But they 
haven't got to first base in understanding Japa- 
nese mentality. The Japanese dress like us and 
in many respects they live and act like us, espe- 
cially in their modern business and industrial 
life. But they don't think as we do, and noth- 
ing can be more misleading than to try to meas- 
ure by Western yardsticks the thinking proc- 
esses and sense of rationality and logic of the 
average Japanese and his reaction to any given 
set of circumstances. We have armchair states- 
men galore ; we have volumes galore written by 
Americans who have spent a few weeks or 
months, or even a year or two, in Japan, yet 
whose diagnoses and assessments of Japanese 
mentality and psychology are dangerously mis- 
leading. Many of them have observed Japan 
and the Japanese solely from the vantage point 
of that international hostelry, the Imperial 
Hotel in Tokyo. We who have lived in Japan 
for 10 or 20 or even 40 years know at least how 



JANtTARY 1, 194 4 



15 



comparatively little we really do know of the 
thinking processes of the Japanese. But we are 
at least in a better position to gage those proc- 
esses and their results than are the "armchair 
statesmen". 

First of all, I know that there are among us 
today those who advocate building a fence about 
Japan and leaving her — I have heard the phrase 
used in that connection — "to stew in her own 
juice". The thought has been expressed that 
during the j^eriod of her existence as a world 
power Japan, through the competition of her 
export trade and her military aggressiveness, 
has proved to be more of a nuisance and a hand- 
icap in world affairs than an asset. Control 
of Japanese imports, it is said, could be relied 
upon to prevent rearmament in future. 

With regard to the competition of her export 
trade having been a nuisance, I might merely in- 
quire whether our cotton exporter's and our silk 
importers would share that opinion. In any 
case, it is open to question whether we should 
use our military victory to destroy the legiti- 
mate and peace commerce of a commercial com- 
petitor and thus betray the principles of the At- 
lantic Charter. As for the nuisance of Japan's 
militaiy aggressiveness, it is my assumption 
that our primary and fundamental objective in 
the eventual post-war settlement with Japan 
will be the total and pei-manent elimination of 
that military cancer from the body politic of 
Japan. 

I myself do not doubt that this major opera- 
tion can and will be successfully perfonned and 
that effective measures can and will be taken to 
prevent the re-growth of that cancer in future. 
Otherwise we shall have fought Japan in vain. 
In any future system of re-education in Japan 
I visualize, as I have said, a helpful, cooperative, 
common-sense spirit, devoid of browbeating or 
vindictiveness, with emphasis laid upon what 
the Japanese would have to gain by playing 
the game with the rest of the world and what 
they would have to lose by recalcitrance. It 
was always my regret that these things were 
not more forcibly brought before the Japanese 
people in the years before Pearl Harbor. I 
myself did everything in my power in that 



direction, but I was a voice crying in the wilder- 
ness. The Japanese people were told by the 
propaganda of their leaders that the United 
"States and Great Britain were crowding them 
to the wall,' intent upon grabbing control of 
East Asia and cutting Japan off from the raw 
materials which she needed for her very exist- 
ence. At times some of the highest Japanese 
liberal statesmen did everything in their power, 
even at the constant risk of assassination by the 
fire-eaters, to bring their country back to a 
reputable international life, but they failed. 
That is all water over the dam now. Now we 
must look to the future. 

The question of determining what kind and 
how much of Japan's industrial equipment 
should be left to her after the war will require 
sj'stematic study. The United Nations must 
be in a position to determine the factories and 
machinery necessary for the maintenance of a 
peace economy, and to dispose of the balance as 
they think wise — through the dismantling of 
arsenals and dockyards and of heavy industries 
designed for or capable of the manufacture of 
implements of war. 

President Roosevelt, Generalissimo Chiang 
Kai-shek, and Prime Minister Churchill con- 
ferring at Cairo in November of this year de- 
clared that "all the territories Japan has stolen 
from the Chinese, such as Manchuria, Formosa, 
and the Pescadores, shall be restored to the 
Republic of China", adding: "Japan will also 
be expelled from all other territories which she 
has taken by violence and greed." The three 
Chiefs of State also declared that the "three 
great powers, mindful of the enslavement of the 
people of Korea, are determined tliat in due 
course Korea shall become free and independ- 
ent." And along with these measures, I visu- 
alize a grim determination that the Japanese 
shall make some sort of amends to China and 
to other countries for the unspeakable acts of 
brigandage and the barbarous cruelties inflicted 
upon the innocent people of those countries. 

Now to return to the theory that a fence 
should be built around Japan and that the Jap- 
anese should be left "to stew in their own juice". 
I cannot see any signs of high statesmanship 



16 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



in such a tenet. Any careful student of inter- 
national affairs and of history must see at a 
glance to what such a measure would lead. It 
would lead to the creation of a festering sore 
with permanent explosive tendencies — and, as 
I have said, we do not want festering sores any- 
where in the future world for the building of 
which we and our Allies are fighting and striv- 
ing today. 

But there is another reason why that pro- 
posed monastic wall around Japan could lead 
only to disaster. Up to the restoration in 1868, 
Japan was exclusively an agricultural country 
with a population of approximately 25 million 
people, living chiefly on their rice and vegetables 
and fish. After the opening of Japan to the 
world, the Japanese, imitating the West, in- 
dustrialized the country, importing raw ma- 
terials, manufacturing goods, and selling the 
produce in foreign markets. As a direct result of 
that industrialization the population of Japan 
grew to some 75 million. If once again Japan 
is to become a hermit nation, what is to become 
of that excess population of 50 million souls? 
They could not possibly support themselves on 
the meager land subject to cultivation, for in 
the mountainous terrain and volcanic soil of 
the Japanese isles, such land is even now worked 
to the last square foot, and even now the Jap- 
anse depend on fertilizer from Manchuria, 
sugar from Formosa, and supplementary rice 
supplies from Korea, among other basic com- 
modities. That excess population of 50 million 
souls — or such part of it as survived the war — 
would quite simply starve. I doubt if even the 
most bloodthirsty of our fellow citizens could 
with equanimity countenance such a situation. 

I now refer to the subject of Shintoism. 
There are really two forms of Shintoism. One 
is the indigenous religion of the Japanese, a 
primitive animism which conceives of all na- 
ture — mountains, rivers, trees, etc., as mani- 
festations of or the dwelling-places of deities. 
It has only slight ethical content. 

The other form of Shintoism is a cult. It has 
but little religious content and has ethical con- 
tent to the extent that it is designed to support 



the idea of the divine origin of the Emperor 
and ancestor-veneration, and to instil in the sub- 
ject habits of obedience and subservience to the 
state. The military leaders of Japan have for 
long used this aspect of Shintoism to further 
their own ends and to inculcate in the Japanese 
a blind following of their doctrines as allegedly 
representing the will of the Emperor. 

But fundamentally Shintoism is the worship 
of ancestors. Tlie other day I was talking to a 
well-known American who visited us in Tokyo 
a few years before Pearl Harbor. He said that 
before sailing for Japan he had visited his 
family tomb up in New England where his fore- 
bears for several generations back — one of them 
having been a member of George Washington's 
Cabinet — were buried. Later he stood before 
the Japanese national shrine at Ise. He said 
that he was deeply moved by the scene. He 
told a Japanese friend of his own feeling when 
standing before his own family shrine in Amer- 
ica and said that that feeling helped him to 
understand the reverence of those who came 
to praj^ at Ise. The Japanese, his face radiant, 
grasped the American's hand in both of his 
and said : "You understand." 

Tliere are those in our country who believe 
that Shintoism is the root of all evil in Japan. 
I do not agree. Just so long as militarism is 
rampant in that land, Shintoism will be used 
by the military leaders, by appealing to the 
emotionalism and the superstition of the peo- 
ple, to stress the virtues of militarism and of 
war through emphasis on the worship of the 
spirits of former military heroes. When mili- 
tarism goes, that emphasis will likewise dis- 
appear. Shintoism involves Emperor-homage 
too, and when once Japan is under the aegis of 
a peace-seeking ruler not controlled by the mili- 
tary, that phase of Shintoism can become an 
asset, not a liability, in a reconstructed nation. 
In his book Government hy At^sass/nation Hugh 
Byas writes: "The Japanese people must be 
their own liberators from a faked religion." 

I think we should bear in mind an important 
historical fact. The attempt in Japan to erect 
a free parliamentary .system was a gi'im failure. 



JANUARY 1, 1944 



17 



Tliat attempt was bound to fail because Japan's 
archaic policy ruled out any possibility of par- 
ties dividing over basic political problems which 
are elsewhere resolved by parliamentary proc- 
esses. So long as the constitution fixed sov- 
ereignty in the Emperor, it was impossible for 
any party to come forward with the doctrine 
that sovereignty resided in the people or for 
another party — in the absence of any such 
issue — to deny that doctrine. The promulga- 
tion of archaic ideas as the fundamental doc- 
trine of the state made impossible any such 
struggle as that which took place in England 
between the Whigs and the Tories. Thus, lack- 
ing anything important over which party lints 
could be drawn, Japanese jjolitical parties de- 
veloped into factions grouped around influen- 
tial political personages, such as Prince Ito 
and Count Okuma, and, when these men died, 
second-rate politicians tried to take their place 
but without success. 

When certain constitutional changes are made 
and the Japanese are given adequate time to 
build up a parliamentary tradition, Japan will 
then, for the first time, have an opportunity 
to make the party system work. 

To summarize my thoughts on this general 
subject of post-war Japan I would put it this 
way : First of all we must of course by force of 
arms reduce the Japanese Army and Navy and 
air force to impotence so that they can fight 
no further. That, I fear, is going to be a far 
longer and tougher job than most of our people 
conceive, for we are, as I have said, dealing with 
a fanatical enemy. As one American officer put 
it: "The Japanese soldier fights to die; the 
American soldier fights to live." To try to 
predict even an approximate date for the total 
defeat of that enemy seems to me to be sense- 
less. I would not hazard a guess within a pe- 
riod even of years. Time means nothing to the 
Japanese except as a much-needed asset. They 
blithely think and talk of a 10- or 50- or 100- 
year war. What they need is time to consolidate 
their gains. But when their leaders know be- 
yond peradventure that they are going to be 
beaten, then I shall confidently look for efforts 



on their part to get us into an inconclusive peace. 
Let us be constantly on guard against such a 
move, for any premature peace would simply 
mean that the militaristic cancer would dig in 
underground as it did in Germany, and our sons 
and grandsons would have to fight this whole 
dreadful war over again in the next generation. 
The Japanese would be clever. They would 
certainly present the pill in a form to appeal to 
the American people. But whatever terms they 
might suggest for any premature peace, it is 
certain that they will never, until reduced to 
military impotence, abandon their determina- 
tion to exert control in East Asia. We must 
be constantly ready for such a move. We must 
go through with our war with Japan to the 
bitter end, regardless of time or losses. 

In approaching a peace settlement with Ja- 
pan we must remember that during the second 
half of the 19th century and the first three de- 
cades of the 20th century Japan developed a 
productive power comparable to that of many 
Western powers; that the rewards of this in- 
creased production were not distributed to the 
Japanese masses but were diverted to the build- 
ing up of armaments ; and that thus the failure 
of the Japanese people to obtain a more abun- 
dant life was not due to lack of economic oppor- 
tunity but to the aggressive aims of their leaders. 
The Japanese, notwithstanding the advantages 
of propinquity to the nations of Asia, did not 
want to trade on a basis of open competition 
with other powers but wanted to create ex- 
clusive spheres in which their military would 
be in charge. No wonder that Japanese pene- 
tration and development abroad were viewed 
with suspicion, and efforts made to resist them. 
In the light of our past experience, in the post- 
war world Japan can only be taken back as a 
respectable member of the family of nations 
after an adequate period of probation. When 
and as Japan gives practical evidence of peace- 
ful intentions and shows to our complete satis- 
faction that she has renounced any intention of 
resuming what Japanese leaders refer to as a 
100-year war will we be safe in relaxing our 
guard. When and as Japan takes concrete steps 



1^ 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BXTLLETENI 



along the paths of peace, then there will be 
found opportunities for extending to Japan 
helpful cooperation. All this, however, is so 
far in the future that we cannot undertake now 
the laying down of a definite policy. 

One more point I should like to make and 
that is this : In victory we must be prepared to 
implement the principles for which we are fight- 
ing. To allow our attitude as victors to be 
dominated by a desire to wreak vengeance on 
entire populations would certainly not eliminate 
focal points of future rebelliousness and dis- 
order. And perhaps even more important 
would be the eflFect which such an attitude would 
generate in time, among the people of the victor 
nation, possibly in our own children, namely, a 
profound cynicism with regard to the avowed 
principles for which we are now fighting. 

Before terminating this soliloquy I would 
like to quote passages from three well-known 
authorities: First Hillis Lory, whose book 
Japan's Military Masters I consider one of the 
soundest works that has been written on that 
subject ; second Sir George Sansom, long a mem- 
ber of the British Embassy in Tokyo and one 
of the world's most eminent writers and experts 
on Japan ; and third, Hugh Byas, a resident in 
Japan for many years and long correspondent 
of the New York Times in Tokyo. With both 
Sknsom and Byas I maintained close relations 
during my own stay in Japan, and on most 
issues in the Far East we saw eye to eye. 

Lory writes : 

"An appalling blunder in our thinking is the 
widespread belief that time is with us. On the 
contrary time is with Japan. It may seem 
almost inconceivable to many that Japan could 
possibly compete seriously with us in our war 
production. But what is there to prevent this? 
The Japanese have the raw materials. They 
have the manpower that can be trained. We 
have no monopoly on mass production. Japan, 
even in conquered areas, is adapting it to her 
needs. Japan's most urgent need is time. That 
we must not give her. 

"The longer she has to entrench herself in 
her conquered territories, the more formidable 



will be the military task of dislodging her. 
The longer she has to utilize her rich booty of 
war — the tin, the copper, the iron, her vast sup- 
plies of oil and rubber; the longer she has to 
lash the whip over the masses of China, the 
Dutch East Indies, Malaya, Burma, and the 
Philippines — labour that transforms these raw 
materials into guns and planes and tanks and 
ships, the longer must be the years of terrible 
fighting with its cost of American dead to defeat 
Japan. 

"Every Japanese knows that now they are in 
to win all or lose all. This war is literally a 
life-and-death struggle. If Japan wins, no 
nation on earth can successfully challenge her." 

In a paper read to the Eighth Conference of 
the Institute of Pacific Kelations in Canada in 
December 1942, Sansom, speaking personally 
and not officially, summed up his thesis in the 
following words: 

"I believe that the past social and political 
history of the Japanese have produced in them 
as a nation a remarkable incapacity to grasp the 
essentials of cultures other than their own, which 
accounts for their failure to take over, with the 
physical apparatus of Western Civilization, 
anything beyond the most superficial aspects of 
its moral elements. I do not see how this is to 
be broken down except by increased association 
between Japanese and people of other nations, 
and I have to admit that the facts of geogi'aphy 
and international politics are unfavourable to 
that process. Yet, unless this difficulty is some- 
how overcome, the prospects of a useful con- 
tribution by Japan to postwar reconstruction 
and reform are poor indeed. An outlawed 
Jajjan, even weakened to the point of despair, 
cannot be other than a danger, a kind of septic 
focus. 

"I therefore see no escape from the conclu- 
sion that, in their own interests, the United Na- 
tions must after the war endeavour to enlist the 
collaboration of Japan in their projects for se- 
curity and welfare in the Pacific area. I cannot 
suggest specific and positive methods, because 
it is t«o early to envisage the state of affairs at 
the end of the war, the relative military and 



JANUARY 1, 1044 



Id 



economic strengths of the combatants and the 
state of mind of their peoples. But I do be- 
lieve that an attempt by the victors to prescribe 
the form or the content of Japanese domestic 
policy would make their task, already difficult 
enough, impossible of execution. 

"Similar difficulties are likely to arise out of 
plans to dictate to Japan reforms in her system 
of domestic government. They are likely to 
engender more antagonism than agi'eement. 
The important thing is not so much that the 
Japanese should be told to abolish distasteful 
features of their system as that they should 
have some positive notions of what to put in 
their place. 

"The liberal democracies now fighting Japan 
have reason to be proud of their past political 
history and of the freedoms which they have 
gained ; but we are most of us now agreed that 
our political philosophies are due for some dras- 
tic revision. It is only under the strain of war 
that we begin to realize that the liberty of the 
individual citizen has its essential counterpart 
in his obligations. We find that our enemies, 
who are not by our standards — or by any stand- 
ards, for that matter — free men, are able to gain 
victories which, making all allowance for their 
material strength, depend in no small measure 
upon a militant faith. It is, we believe firmly, 
a mistaken, heretical faith, and its tenets are 
propounded by its leaders in the language of 
lunacy. But beneath all the mystical rubbish, 
the mumbo- jumbo of the master race, the 
special position in the universe, the divine mis- 
sion and suchlike foolishness, there is a core of 
genuine sentiment, a strong feeling of national 
unity and national purpose in a society where 
men's duties are felt to be more important than 
their rights. 

"Unless at the end of the war the Japanese 
are in a state of helpless despair, and ready to 
follow any strong lead, they are not likely to 
adopt a ready-made 'way of life' of Western 
pattern which does not offer better prospect of 
reconciling rights and duties throughout the 
community than does our own peace-time sys- 
tem of liberal democracy. They will, I feel 



sure, for better or worse work out their own 
system by trial and error upon the basis of their 
own traditions. 

"I do not venture to hazard a prediction, but 
I should not be surprised if, in favourable con- 
ditions, they developed a more modern and 
democratic type of constitutional monarchy; 
and I am interested to find that Dr. Hu Shih, 
for whose judgment I have great respect, thinks 
that this is not unlikely." 

Byas, in his admirable book Government hy 
Assassination, writes : 

"Japan's spiritual malady is the same as Ger- 
many's—a false philosophy. It is a belief that 
the Japanese race and state are one and the 
same and that it has unique qualities that make 
it superior to its neighbors and give it a special 
mission to perform . . . 

"This false philosophy has been so sedulously 
inculcated and so eagerly swallowed that at 
last a policy of live and let live, a position of 
equality, and a willingness to compromise seem 
intolei-able hmniliations. The only position 
Japan will consider is that of overlord and 
protector of East Asia. . . . 

"For our own future and not for that of 
Japan we must continue the war until the 
Japanese forces have been driven from the 
regions they have invaded. Yet in saving our- 
selves we are saving the Japanese people. The 
false philosophy they have taken to their heart 
will never be discredited until it comes back to 
them in defeat, humiliation, and loss. Peace 
without victory, if we accepted it, would be to 
them a mere cloak to save our face. They 
would readily join in the fraud for the benefits 
it would bring them, but the whole false mo- 
rality which underlies their policy would be re- 
inforced, and their gains would be the jumping- 
off place for fresh wars. . . . 

"The Japanese people must be their own lib- 
erators from a faked religion and a fraudulent 
Constitution. But our victory will start the 
process and help it along. It will cure them of 
the illusion that aggression pays and it will 
open wide a better way to their renascent 
national energies. . . . 



20 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETENI 



"We want the Japanese people to recognize 
the war for what it was — a bloody and useless 
sacrifice to false gods. . . . 

"We are laying the foundations of a new 
order which we conceive to be suited to the 
modern world in which we live. The riches of 
the earth will be freely and fairly open to all 
nations, and the primitive or backward or 
simply weak peoples will have the protection of 
an authority representing civilized humanity 
instead of being left to the chance that may 
give them a mild or a harsh taskmaster. 

"If we consider fifty years of modern Japan 
and not the gangster decade alone, we are en- 
titled to believe that Japan has qualities that 
will again fit it to be a member of this new order. 
Japan is now possessed by the evil genius that 
it loves, but tliere is another Japan and it has 
a contribution to make to the world. . . . 

"We want to live in peace and devote our 
energies to our own well-being. We want to 
start on the tremendous task of adjusting our 
lives to a civilization of abundance. We want 
to raise the level of subsistence and to create 
economic security for all and on that founda- 



tion to erect a free universal culture such as 
the world has not seen. 

"In that order there can be a place for Japan." 



ENEMY BROADCASTS ALLEGING RECOG- 
NITION BY SPAIN OF THE MUSSOLINI 
REGIME 

[Released to the press December 31] 

The Department of State, on hearing the 
German and Italian Fascist broadcasts that 
Spain had recognized the Mussolini regime, im- 
mediately instructed the American ^bnbassador 
at Madrid to inquire of the Spanish Govern- 
ment whether these reports were true. 

The American Ambassador at Madrid has 
replied as follows: A high official of the 
Spanish Foreign Office has stated that the Ger- 
man and Italian broadcasts which alleged recog- 
nition by Spain of the Mussolini regime are 
flagrant lies and that the Government of Spain 
has not recognized and has no intention of 
recognizing the Mussolini regime. This For- 
eign Office official described the broadcasts in 
question as propaganda designed to create dif- 
ficulties between Spain and the United Nations. 



American Republics 



RESOLUTION REGARDING RECOGNITION OF NEW GOVERNIVIENTS INSTITUTED 

BY FORCE 



[Released to the press December 27] 

The English text of a telegram to the Secre- 
tary of State from Dr. Alberto Guani, Presi- 
dent, Emergency Advisory Committee for 
Political Defense, follows: 

Montevideo, Uruguay, 

December 2^, 19^3. 
I have the honor of transmitting to Your 
Excellency the text of the recommendation ap- 
proved this date by the Emergency Consulta- 
tive Committee for Political Defense : 



"Whereas : 

"(a) That notwithstanding the lack of suc- 
cess in its purposes of annulling the contribution 
which the American peoples are n'laking to the 
war eifort and to the political defense of the 
continent, in compliance with the agreements 
in effect, it is evident that the Axis continues to 
exert itself to carry out these designs, with 
grave danger that totalitarian elements may 
through force take possession of governments 
of American Republics, separating them from 
the principles of union and solidarity adopted 



JANUARY 1, 1944 



21 



in the face of the common enemy and from 
support to the cause of the United and Asso- 
ciated Nations; 

"(i) That rights and duties are derived from 
the aforementioned agreements which conse- 
crate the solidarity which should exist between 
said Republics for the defense of the continent 
against the dangers indicated in the preceding 
paragraph ; 

"(c) That the third consultative meeting of 
the Ministers of Foreign Affairs, in creating 
this Committee, assigned to it the mandate of 
recommending measures with respect to the 
problems relating to all aspects of the defense 
of the continent against the political aggression 
of the Axis ; 

"7'Ae Emergency Consultative Committee for 
Political Defense 

"Resolves : 

" 'To recommend to the American Govern- 
ments which have declared war on the Axis 
powers or have broken relations with them, 
that for the duration of the present world con- 
flict they do not proceed to the recognition of 
a new government instituted by force, before 
consulting among themselves for the purpose of 
determining whether this government complies 
with the Inter- American midertakings for the 
defense of the continent, nor before carrying 
out an exchange of information as to the cir- 
cumstances which have determined the estab- 
lishment of said government.' 

"In communicating said resolution and by 
express provision of the Committee, I have the 
particular honor to express that it does not 
refer to any particular case, but has been 
adopted having in view the general interests of 
continental political defense." 

I greet Your Excellency with my highest and 
most distinguished consideration. 

Alberto Gtjani 

The Secretary of State on December 27 sent 
the following reply to Dr. Guani : 



I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt 
of Your Excellency's telegram of December 24 
transmitting the text of a i-esolution approved 
by the Emergency Advisory Committee for 
Political Defense on December 23 in which it 
resolved : 

"To recommend to the American Govern- 
ments which have declared war on the Axis 
powers or have broken relations with them, that 
for the duration of the present world conflict 
they do not proceed to the recognition of a new 
government instituted by force, before consult- 
ing among themselves for the purpose of deter- 
mining whether this government complies with 
the Inter-American undertakings for the de- 
fense of the continent, nor before carrying out 
an exchange of information as to the circum- 
stances which have determined the establish- 
ment of said government." 

I desire to inform you that this Government 
wholeheartedly approves of the foregoing reso- 
lution. In accordance with it, this Government 
stands ready to consult and exchange informa- 
tion with the other American Republics which 
have declared war against or have severed dip- 
lomatic relations with the Axis, in situations to 
which the resolution applies. 

CoRDELL Hull 



General 



NEW YEAR MESSAGE OF THE 
SECRETARY OF STATE 

[Released to tlie press December 31] 

Tlie Secretary of State, in reply to a cor- 
respondent's question whether he had in mind 
a New Year message to the American people, 
made the following statement : 

"We have just ended a year which shook our 
Axis enemies to their very foundations and 
which witnessed on our side an upsurge of 
united power that will carry us to victory. Our 
confidence in victory must, however, be depend- 
ent on the unremitting and all-embracing ef- 
forts of every man and woman." 



22 



OfiPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETTNI 



Treaty Information 



AUTOMOTIVE 

Convention on the Regulation of Inter- 
American Automotive Traffic 

[Released to the press December 31] 

On December 31, 1943, the Honorable Cordell 
Hull, Secretary of State and representative of 
the United States of America on the Governing 
Board of the Pan American Union, signed in 
his office the Convention on the Regulation of 
Inter-American Automotive Traffic. 

The convention was opened for signature at 
the Pan American Union on December 15, 1943 
and was signed on that date by the representa- 
tives of nine of the American republics, namely, 
Bolivia, Brazil, Cuba, Dominican Republic, 
Ecuador, Guatemala, Haiti, Nicaragua, and 
Peru. 

The convention contains a preamble and 22 
articles, with 2 annexes. In general, the pro- 
visions are designed to stimulate and facilitate 
motor travel between the countries of this 
hemisphere by simplifying certain formalities 
so far as practicable. The convention estab- 
lishes certain uniform rules for international 
automotive traffic, in relation to such matters 
as registration, driving licenses, standards of 
size and equipment, and the keeping of records 
of international automotive traffic. 

It is provided in article XIX that the con- 
vention in Spanish, English, Portuguese, and 
French shall be opened for signature by the 
American republics, and also that it shall be 
opened for the adherence and accession of 
American states which are not members of the 
Pan American Union. It is provided in article 
XX that the convention shall be ratified in 
conformity with the respective constitutional 
procedures of the signatories, the instruments 
of ratification to be deposited with the Pan 
American Union. Article XXI provides that 
the convention shall come into force between 
the parties in the order in which they deposit 



their respective ratificaftions. Article XXII 
provides that the convention shall remain in 
effect indefinitely but may be denounced by 
any party, so far as such party is concerned, by 
means of one year's notice given to "the Pan 
American Union. 

The convention was signed for the United 
States subject to a reservation with respect to 
article XV. Article XV provides that each 
government may establish requirements deemed 
necessary to record the passage of vehicles and 
operators into and out of its territory and that, 
if such records be maintained, they shall in- 
clude a notation that the vehicle has complied 
with certain provisions of the convention relat- 
ing to standards of size and equiinnent. The 
reservation indicates that nothing in article XV 
shall be construed to require the use of personnel 
and facilities for the purpose of determining 
compliance with such provisions whenever, in 
the opinion of the competent authorities, there 
would result an impairment of essential services 
or an undue hmdrance to the movement of auto- 
motive traffic into and from the territory of the 
United States. This reservation is consistent 
with article IV of the convention, which pro- 
vides that the contracting states shall not allow 
to be put into effect customs measures which 
will hinder international travel. 

MILITARY AND NAVAL MISSIONS 
Agreement With Iran 

The American Legation at Tehran has trans- 
mitted to the Department of State with its 
despatch 748 of December 1, 1943 the signed 
originals in English and Persian of a military- 
mission agreement between the United States 
and Iran, signed at Tehran November 27, 1943 
by Louis G. Dreyfus, Jr., American Minister at 
Tehran, and Mohammed Saed, Minister of 
Foreign Affairs of Iran. 

This agreement, which was concluded in con- 
formity with the request of the Government of 
Iran, is made effective as of October 2, 1942 
and will continue in force for two years, but 
may be extended beyond the two-year period 



JANUARY 1, 1944 



23 



by mutual agi-eenient of the two Governments. 
The purpose of the military mission to which 
the agreement relates is to advise and assist the 
Ministry of Interior of Iran in the reorganiza- 
tion of the Imperial Iranian Gendarmerie. 
The agreement contains provisions similar in 
general to provisions contained in agreements 
between the United States and a number of the 
other American republics providing for the 
detail of officers of the United States Army or 
Navy to advise the armed forces of those 
countries. 



The Department 



RESIGNATION OF THOMAS BURKE AS 
CHIEF OF DIVISION OF INTERNA. 
TIONAL COMMUNICATIONS 

[Released to the press December 30] 

The Secretary of State has sent the follow- 
ing letter to Mr. Thomas Burke, who for the 
past five and a half years has been Chief of tiu 
Division of International Communications 
and who has resigned that position in order to 
enter private business. 

December 30, 1943. 
Dear Mr. Burke : 

I have received your letter of December 
twenty -first tendering your resignation as Chief 
of the Division of International Communica- 
tions effective upon the termination of such 
leave of absence to which you may be entitled. 



I very much appreciate the splendid services 
which you have rendered during the past five 
and a half years. I recognize, however, the 
force of the reasons which have led you to con- 
clude that you should transfer your activities 
to another field and I therefore accept your 
resignation with regret, to be effective at the 
close of business on April 28, 1944, and I au- 
thorize you to take leave of absence to begin at 
the close of business on December 31, 1943. 

With best wishes for your future happiness 
and success, I am 

Sincerely yours, 

CORDELL HULI^ 



Publications 



Department of State 

Health and Sanitation Program: Agreement Between 
the United States of America and the Dominican 
Republic— Effected by exchange of notes signed at 
Ciudad Trujlllo June 19 and July 7, 1943. Execu- 
tive Agreement Series 346. Publication 2032. 6 pp 
50. 

Military Service: Agreement Between the United 
States of America and Czechoslovakia— Effected by 
exchanges of notes signed at Washington April 3, 
1942 and September 29 and October 21, 1943 ; effec- 
tive September 29, 1943. Executive Agreement 
Series 341. Publication 2037. 6 pp. 50. 

Military Aviation Mission: Agreement Between the 
United States of America and Paraguay— Signed at 
Washington October 27, 1943; effective October 27, 
1943. Executive Agreement Series 343. Publication 
2038. 10 pp. 50. 



V. i. COVERNHENT PRrNTINC OFFICE: IB44 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office. Washington. D. C. 
Price. 10 cents - - - - Subscription price, $2.75 a year 

PDBLISBED WEEKLY WITH THE APPEOVAL OF THE DIRECTOB OP THE BUEEAD OF THE BODGBT 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 




"x^ 



J 



J 



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"^ rm 



J 



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JANUARY 8, 1944 
Vol. X, No. 237— Publication 2047 



C 



ontents 




The War Pag« 

Lend-Lease Operations 27 

American Republics 

The New Government in Bolivia: 

Resolution of the Emergency Advisory Committee 

for Political Defense Regarding Recognition . . 28 

Statement by the Secretary of State 29 

Payment by Mexico Under the Special Claims Con- 
vention of 1934 29 

Visit to the United States of the President of Vene- 
zuela 29 

The Department 

"The Department of State Speaks" 30 

International Conferences, Commissions, Etc. 
Establishment Under Anglo-American Caribbean Com- 
mission of a System of West Indian Conferences . 37 

Treaty Information 

Mutual Aid : Agreement With Liberia Relating to Con- 
struction of a Port and Port Works on the Coast 
of Liberia 38 

Nationality: Convention on the Nationality of 

Women 39 

Navigation: Conventions Regarding Collisions at Sea, 

Assistance and Salvage at Sea, and Bills of Lading . 39 

Strategic Materials: Agreement Regarding the 1944 

Cuban Sugar Crop 40 

Publications 40 



U. S, SUPFRIMTFMDENT OF DOCUMENTt 
JArJ 21 1944 



The War 



LEND-LEASE OPERATIONS 



On January 6 the President sent the following 
letter of transmittal on lend-lease operations to 
Congress : 

"I am transmitting herewith, pursuant to law, 
the Thirteenth Report of Operations under the 
Lend-Lease Act. 

"The coming year will be a year of decisive 
actions in the war. By combining tlieir 
strength, the United Nations have increased the 
power of the common drive to defeat the Axis. 
We have already beaten back our enemies on 
every front on which we are engaged. 

"At Teheran and Cairo, plans were agreed 
.upon for major offensives, which will speed the 
day of victory. With the closer unity there 
achieved, we shall be able to strike ever-increas- 
ing blows until the unconditional surrender of 
the Nazis and Japanese. 

"Mutual aid has contributed substantially to 
the strength of the United Nations. The flow of 
lend-lease assistance from the United States to 
our allies and of reverse lend-lease assistance 
from our allies to us has increased the power of 
our united offensives. The lend-lease program 
has made stronger the ties that bind the United 
Nations together for common victory and in 
common determination to assure a lasting peace. 

"Each of the United Nations is giving what 
it can to the accomplishment of our objectives — 
in fighting manpower and in war production. 
Some countries, like the United States and Can- 



ada, located away from the fighting theaters of 
war, are able to make available to other United 
Nations large quantities of food and manufac- 
tured arms. Others, like the Soviet Union and 
China, require virtually everything they can 
I'aise and produce in order to fight the enemy on 
their own soil. And still others, like the United 
Kingdom and Australia, can make available 
substantial quantities of war material to their 
allies but must necessarily retain most of their 
war supplies and food for their own forces. 

"Whether food and war supplies should be 
transferred by one of the United Nations to an- 
other or retained for its own forces depends on 
the strategic military necessities of war. 

"Our common objective is that all the planes 
and all the tanks and all the food and other 
equipment that all the United Nations tcjgether 
can produce should be used as effectively as pos- 
sible by our combined forces to hasten the defeat 
of tlie enemy. 

"The cost of the war to us, and to our allies, is 
high in any terms. The more fully we can now 
mobilize our manpower, our supplies, and our 
other resources for the decisive tasks ahead, the 
earlier will victory be ours and the lower the 
final cost — in lives and in material wealth. 

"The United Nations enter the new year 
stronger and more firmly united than ever be- 
fore. Germany and Japan will both soon learn 
that to their sorrow." 

27 



American Republics 



THE NEW GOVERNMENT IN BOLIVIA 

Resolution of the Emergency Advisory C ommittee for Political Defense Regarding 

Recognition 



[Released to the press January 6] 

The English text of a telegram to the Secre- 
tary of State from Dr. Alberto Guani, Presi- 
dent of the Emergency Advisory Committee for 
Political Defense, and the Secretary's reply 
thereto, follow: 

Montevideo, Uruguay, 

JwnvMi'y 5, 1944- 

I have the honor to transmit to Your Excel- 
lency the text of the recommendation approved 
this date by the Emergency Consultative Com- 
mittee for Political Defense: 

"Whereas : 

"(«) The Emergency Advisory Committee 
for Political Defense in its resolution XXII, 
approved aiid transmitted December 24, 1943, 
recommended 'to the American Governments 
which have declared war on the Axis powers 
or have broken relations with them, that for the 
duration of the present world conflict they do 
not proceed to the recognition of a new govern- 
ment instituted by force, before- consulting 
among themselves for the purpose of determin- 
ing whether this government complies with the 
Inter-American undertakings for the defense 
of the continent, nor before carrying out an 
exchange of information as to the circumstances 
which have determined the establishment of 
said government'; 

"(&) Almost all of the governments to which 
the recommendation was transmitted have 
already advised the Committee of their accept- 
ance, confirming the principles of Inter- Amer- 
ican solidarity for the defense of the continent 
upon which the said resolution is based and 
recognizing that the resolution respects the free 
decision of each Government ; 

2S 



"(c) Subsequent to the adoption of the said 
resolution by the Committee developments re- 
lating to the situation created through the estab- 
lishment by force of a new government in Bo- 
livia indicate, as the American Governments 
will appreciate, the urgent need for the appli- 
cation of the procedure which the Committee 
has recommended; 

"The Emergency Advisory Committee for 

Political Defense 

"Eesolves : 

"To recommend to the Governments of the 
American Republics which have declared war 
on the Axis powers or have broken diplomatic 
relations with them, that before proceeding to 
recognize the new government of Bolivia they 
carry out as soon as possible, through regular 
diplomatic channels, both the consultations and 
the exchange of information recommended in 
resolution XXII of this Committee, for the pur- 
poses therein indicated." 

I greet Your Excellency [etc.] 

Alberto Guani 



January 6, 1944. 
I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt 
of Your Excellency's telegram of January 5 
transmitting to me the text of the resolution 
adopted by the Emergency Advisory Commit- 
tee for Political Defense on that day resolving : 

"to recommend to the Governments of the 
American Republics which have declared war 
on the Axis Powers or have broken diplomatic 
relations with them, that before proceeding to 
recognize the new Government of Bolivia they 
carry out as soon as possible, through regular 



JANUARY 8, 1944 



29 



diplomatic channels, both the consultations and 
the exchange of information recommended in 
Kesolution XXII of the Committee, for the pur- 
poses therein indicated." 

In reply, I desire to inform you that this Gov- 
ernment is in hearty accord with this resolution, 
as with the prior resolution to which it refers, 
and that this Govermnent will promptly engage 
in the recommended consultations and ex- 
changes of infoi'mation with the other eighteen 
interested Kepublics. In adopting these reso- 
lutions, the Committee over which you have the 
honor to preside has, in the judgment of this 
Govenmient, rendered distinguished service to 
the cause of hemispheric solidarity and security. 

CoKDELL Hull 

Statement by the Secretary of State 

[Released to the press January 7] 

It is my information that by the consultation 
now in progress there is already taking place 
considerable exchange of information regard- 
ing the origin of the revolution in Bolivia. " This 
assembling of facts should soon permit each 
government to reach its own conclusions. The 
information now available here increasingly 
strengthens the belief t^at forces outside of 
Bolivia and unfriendly to the defense of the 
American republics inspired and aided the Bo- 
livian revolution. 

PAYMENT BY MEXICO UNDER THE SPE- 
CIAL CLAIMS CONVENTION OF 1934 

[Released to the press January 3] 

The Ambassador of Mexico has presented to 
the Secretary of State the Mexican Govern- 
ment's check for $500,000 in payment of the 
tenth annual instalment, due January 1. 1944, 
in accordance with article II of the convention 
between the United States of America and the 
United Mexican States, signed at Mexico City 
on April 24, 1934, providing for the en bloc set- 
tlement of the claims presented by the Govern- 
ment of the United States to the commission 



established by the Special Claims Convention, 
concluded September 10, 1923. 

The Ambassador of Mexico also presented a 
check covering interest due under article III of 
the convention of April 24, 1934. 

The Secretary of State requested the Ambas- 
sador of Mexico to convey to his Government an 
expression of this Government's appreciation. 

VISIT TO THE UNITED STATES OF THE 
PRESIDENT OF VENEZUELA 

[Released to the press January 5] 

His Excellency General Isaias Medina Anga- 
rita, President of Venezuela, will arrive in 
Washington on January 19 as a guest of the 
United States Government. 

President Medina and the members of his 
party will remain in Washington for about four 
days, and while here they will be received by 
President Roosevelt at the White House, where 
a dinner will be given in honor of the visiting 
head of state. The Secretary of State and 
others will also entertain the presidential party 
while here. President Medina will also be re- 
ceived at the Capitol, where it is expected that 
he will be invited to address the Congress. A 
special session of the Governing Board of the 
Pan American Union will be held in his honor. 

Following his visit to Washington President 
Medina will spend a day in Philadelphia and 
visit Independence Hall. He will be the guest 
of honor at a luncheon given by Mayor Bernard 
Samuel. From Philadelphia the President of 
Venezuela will go to New York and remain 
there for about a week. 

The members of the Venezuelan presidential 
party are as follows : Seiior Don Rodolfo Rojas, 
Minister of the Treasury; Seiior Dr. Manuel 
Silveira, Minister of Public Works ; Seiior Dr. 
Gustavo Manrique-Pacanins, Attorney Gen- 
eral; Comdr. Antonio Picardi, Chief of the 
Naval Division of the Ministry of War and 
Navy; Senior Don Jesiis Maria Herrera-Men- 
doza, President of the Central Bank of Vene- 



30 



DEPARTMETSTT OF STATE BULLETTN 



zuela; Senor Don Eugenio Mendoza, former 
Minister of National Development; Senor Dr. 
Manuel Perez-Guerrero, Acting Secretary to 



the President ; Col. Alfredo Jurado, Aide to the 
President; and Ensign Elio Quintero-Medina, 
Aide to the President. 



The Department 



'THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE SPEAKS' 



[Released to the press January S] 

The text of the first of a series of four broad- 
casts over the National Broadcasting Company 
entitled "Tlie Department of State Speaks", 
follows : 

Participants 



Edward R. Stettinius, Jr. 
James Clement Dunn 



Leo Pasvolskt 



MiCHAEi, J. McDermott 



Under Secretary of State 

Adviser to the Secretary of 
State on Political Rela- 
tions, for the European 
area 

Special Assistant to the 
Secretary, in charge of 
post-war planning 

Chief of the Division of 
Current Information 
RiCHAKD Habkness Representing the public 

Washington ANNonNCEK : For the American 
people, the National Broadcasting Company 
launches tonight a limited series of programs 
called "The State Department Speaks". To in- 
troduce the series — to tell you the ideas behind 
it — we present the Honorable Edward R. Stet- 
tinius, Under Secretary of State. Mr. Stet- 
tinius. 

Stettinius: A few weeks ago the National 
Broadcasting Company invited the Department 
of State to participate in four broadcasts to tell 
the American people more about our work in 
the Government, and something about the prob- 
lems involved in carrying out an American for- 
eign policy. We in the Department of State 
were very glad to accept this proposal because 
we want to use every opportunity to keep the 



public informed about what the Government 
of the United States is doing to meet our inter- 
national problems. It is your Government and 
it is you who in the long run determine what 
our foreign policy shall be. As most of you 
know, the Department of State is the only de- 
partment of your Government which deals di- 
rectly with governments of foreign countries. 
At its head is the President's senior Cabinet 
officer, Secretary of State Cordell Hull. 

During this evening's program and the other 
I^rograms in this series, Mr. Richard Harkness, 
NBC commentator, will undertake to represent 
you, the public, in putting questions to the State 
Department officials who appear on the pro- 
gram. Mr. Harkness has warned us that he is 
not going to be satisfied with any "handouts". 
He says he is going to ask questions which he 
thinks you people would ask, if you had the 
chance. We have told Mr. Harkness that we 
would try to answer them as fully as we can. 

AVe shall make available to him as many of 
the responsible officials of the Department as he 
wants to talk to, and his list for the four pro; 
grams already includes Secretary Hull, all the 
Assistant Secretaries of State, several division 
chiefs, special advisers, at least one Ambassa- 
dor, and myself as Under Secretary. Because 
the Department of State works closely with the 
Congress in the formulation of foreign policy, 
you will also hear from some of our congres- 
sional leaders during the course of these broad- 
casts. The National Broadcasting Company is 
to be congratulated for this effort to bring closer 



JANUARY 8, 194 4 



31 



together tlie State Department as a whole and 
the millions of people it represents in their deal- 
ings ^Yith foreign nations. Now Richard Hark- 
ness will carry on with the first program of "The 
State Department Speaks". 

Harkxess: Thank you, Mr. Stettinius, and 
good evening, ladies and gentlemen. This is 
Richard Harkness. I'm speaking to you from a 
large four-storied building on Pennsylvania 
Avenue, in "Washington, next door to the White 
House. If you're ever looking out of a window 
in this building, and you see a man on the street 
shudder when he looks toward it, you can bet 
your life that man is an architect. For this 
building — the Old Lady of Pennsylvania Ave- 
nue they call it — is no aesthetic treat. Its pil- 
lars and columns and cupolas, its whole ginger- 
bread granite construction, goes back to a time 
that is dead and gone. Amen. But don't get 
me wrong! The Old Lady of Pennsylvania 
Avenue has no hang-dog appearance ! For this 
grand old building is the home of our Depart- 
ment of State — the official address of the man 
\\ho would succeed to the Presidency in case of 
the death or incapacity of the President and 
Vice President. Its rooms are shrines to many 
stirring events that dot the pages of our na- 
tional history — tragic reminders of others. 

I'm sitting here in the office of the Secretary 
of State. Across the way is the waiting-room 
■Q'here Messrs. Nomura and Kurusu sat on that 
fateful Sunday in 1941. Up on the walls of 
this room are the portraits of some of our most 
distinguished Secretaries of State — men who 
have moulded and guided our foreign policy 
down through the years. There's Stimson, 
Secretary of State when the Japanese first 
started their conquest in Manchuria in 1931 — 
now our Secretary of War. 

There's Kellogg, the author of the Kellogg 
pact, who tried so hard to outlaw war forever. 
There's Woodrow Wilson's Secretary of State 
Lansing, and the venerable, bearded Charles 
Evans Hughes, who served under Harding and 
Coolidge. Yes, there are memories in this room, 
many of them, and a spirit of dignity and in- 



tegrity seems to be part of it — a spirit that is 
the proud heritage of our Department of State. 
Yes, this is the room where Secretary Hull meets 
the press every day, but I'm the only newsman 
here tonight. I'm here as your representative. 
I'm here to find out what goes on within these 
walls — to try to peek behind the veil of mystery 
and secrecy which popular tradition says sur- 
rounds the activities of the State Department. 
But I can be successful as your representative 
only if you help me. Write me the questions 
you want answered about our State Department. 
I can't promise to use them all, nor to acknowl- 
edge them, but I'll use some of them, and, in 
any case, your questions will help guide me in 
laying out my interviews with the individuals 
Mr. Stettinius mentioned a few moments ago. 

And now let's get on with the first set of them. 
I found through experience that one of the best 
men to go to for information down here is 
Michael J. McDermott, known affectionately 
throughout the State Department and to every 
newspaperman in Wasliington as "Mac". He is 
the Chief of the Division of Current Informa- 
tion. He's the guy who keeps us newsmen 
posted on what's going on in foreign affairs and 
he's always ready for us, day and night. Mac 
is right here with me now, as are two other gen- 
tlemen you will be glad to meet. But before I 
talk to them, Mac, tell me, does your division 
have any share in formulating the foreign 
policy of the United States? 

McDermott: Let me answer you this way, 
Dick. Every man and woman in the United 
States who is so inclined can have a share in 
formulating our foreign policy, but in order to 
do tliis, they need accurate information to guide 
them in forming their opinions. We help to 
make information on foreign affairs available 
to them through press and radio fellows like 
yourself, and so we help them judge and analyze 
for themselves what is going on in the world. 
And, as I said before, they in turn — I am talk- 
ing now about the man in the street — decide in 
the last analysis what our national foreign 
policy shall be, 



32 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETENl 



Harkness : I see. In other words, you're say- 
ing that the work of our free press and radio has 
a lot to do with the actual formulation of our 
foreign policy by giving the people the facts on 
which they form their opinions. 

McDermott: Eight, but I know what's on 
your mind primarily tonight, Dick. You're in- 
terested in getting some straight dope on the 
Moscow Conference and what goes on in our 
post-war planning work. 

Harkness : You bet I am. 

McDekmott: "Well, here are two gentlemen, 
two exjDerts, who will be able to help you out. 
Each of them has made a life study of inter- 
national affairs. Mr. James C. Dunn has spe- 
cialized particularly in international jaolitical 
relations, and Mr. Leo Pasvolsky is known as an 
outstanding expert on international economic 
affairs. And so all I can say to you, Dick, is 
go ahead and ask them anything you want. I 
am sure they'll do their best to answer you. 

Harkness: O. K. Mac, I think I'll start 
with Mr. Pasvolsky, who, I understand, is a 
Special Assistant to the Secretary of State in 
charge of post-war planning. Is that right, 
sir? 

Pasvolsky : Yes, that's right. 

Harkness: Well, do you mind telling me 
something about what you post-war planners 
do, and how you got started and what not ? 

Pasvolsky : Certainly, Mr. Harkness. Wlien 
war came in Europe we faced one of the most 
difficult jobs of international relations in our 
history. It entailed not only the conduct of 
foreign affairs in a world at war, but also prepa- 
ration for meeting the problems which this 
country was bound to face after the fighting was 
over. 

Harkness: Are you saying, Mr. Pasvolsky, 
that our State Department's preparations for 
meeting post-war problems began upon the out- 
break of war in Europe in 1939 ? 

Pasvolsky: That's right. And, we were 
actually at work early in 1940. 

Harkness: How did you begin? 

Pasvolsky: We started off with a group of 



committees to study the future implications for 
this country of what was happening elsewhere 
in the world. In February 1941, the Depart- 
ment created a special research unit for this 
purpose. Of course, both the committee and 
research work became real post-war planning 
after December 7, 1941. 

Harkness: Well, that's getting an early 
start; tell me — what are the main subjects your 
planning unit is working on today ? 

Pasvolsky: First of all there is a group of 
subjects relating to arrangements necessary for 
the conclusion of the war. These comprise the 
terms to be imposed on the enemy nations after 
their surrender, including control of the enemy 
countries after they have been occupied by the 
United Nations forces, and the eventual defini- 
tive peace terms. 

Harkness : I see. 

Pasvolsky: Another group of subjects re- 
lates to liberated areas. Briefly, this entails ex- 
ploring the problems of reestablislunent of in- 
dependence in those countries which have been 
deprived of their freedom by the Axis invaders. 
Many of those countries, don't forget, will be 
starving and disorganized. Tliey will need re- 
lief and other help in reestablishing their eco- 
nomic life. 

Harkness: Of course. Go on, Mr. Pasvol- 
sky. 

Pasvolsky : A third group of subjects relates 
to the all-important problem of providing for 
the future maintenance of peace and security. 

Harkness : Now you are reaching right into 
the hearts of almost two billion people — two bil- 
lion people who have learned now what total 
war is and who never want to see another one. 
What ofre our State Department's plans on how 
to preserve the peace, Mr. Pasvolsky? 

Pasvolsky : Well, we start with the basic as- 
sumption that the elimination of war and the 
establishment of security for all nations re- 
quires cooperative effort on the part of the 
peace-loving nations, based on order under law. 

Harkness : Yes, but how are you going to get 
nations to cooperate ? No one has ever yet suc- 
ceeded in doing that for long. 



JANUARY 8, 1944 



33 



Pasvolsky: We know that, Mr. Harkness, 
only too well. But we are not and we must not 
be discouraged. We believe that cooperation 
between peace- and freedom-loving nations can 
be achieved in time of peace as it has been 
achieved in time of war. To do this these na- 
tions must create certain facilities and instru- 
mentalities for international action. 

Harkness: Such as ? 

Pasvolsky : Well, there must obviously be ar- 
rangements for settling international disputes 
by pacific means, rather than by recourse to war. 
But above all, there must be arrangements for 
suppressing aggression. 

Hakkness : Now wait a moment, Mr. Pasvol- 
sky. Seems to me that was tried once before, 
with the League of Nations. 

Pasvolsky: Yes, it was — up to a point. But 
this time, as Secretary Hull has long main- 
tained, there must be the clear certainty for all 
concerned that breaches of the peace will not 
be tolerated, that they will be suppressed — by 
force, if necessary. 

Harkness : Good ! You suggested a question 
to me which I will ask you later, Mr. Pasvolsky, 
but please continue. Sorry to interrupt. 

Pasvolsky : Think nothing of it, ]\Ir. Hark- 
ness, we're used to interruptions. The fourth 
group of subjects in our post-war work covers 
the problem of developing relations among na- 
tions which will help improve their economic 
and social conditions. This field includes so 
many ramifications dealing with trade barriers, 
tariffs, cartels, aviation, shipping, labor stand- 
ards, migration, education, and so forth, that I 
could keep you here for hours talking about 
them. We are trying hard not to miss one prac- 
tical idea or plan through which international 
cooperation can help make this a better world 
to live in. I might add, Mr. Harkness, that we 
are not so foolish as to think we can solve these 
problems in the State Department alone or 
even in the Government as a whole. It's a 
tough job which will take the best thought and 
effort of all of us. 

Harkness: I sure agree with you on that. 
But tell me, what happens to all these plans of 



your group? As soon as they're formulated 
they immediately become part of our foreign 
policy — is that it? 

Pasvolsky : Oh, indeed no ! Not that easy ! 
It's more like the camel going through the eye 
of the needle. Here's what happens, Mr. Harkr 
ness. Each question is thoroughly explored 
by the Department's expert staff, in cooperation 
with experts of other departments and agencies. 
All available information is analyzed and woven 
into memoranda which set forth the pertinent 
facts about the particular problem and the alter- 
native methods open to us for solving the prob- 
lem. The memoranda are examined and dis- 
cussed by committees or less formal groups, and 
the resulting conclusions are embodied in rec- 
ommendations as to the most desirable of the 
alternative solutions. Tliese recommendations 
go to the Secretary of State and, through him, 
to the President. But even then, before taking 
final decisions, the Secretary and the President 
discuss the matter with high officials of the Gov- 
ernment and also with members of Congress and 
with competent persons outside the Govern- 
ment. These decisions become our basic line of 
policy to be pursued in negotiations with other 
governments. 

Harkness: Safe and sane is the word for it, 
Mr. Pasvolsky. Seriously though, it's good to 
know, as just an ordinary everyday American, 
that so much careful thought and consideration 
are being given to the planning of our foi-eign 
policy. 

Pasvolsky : Of course, you mustn't forget one 
important thing, Mr. Harlaiess. All the careful 
plans in the world are of no use until they are 
agi-eed to by the other nations involved, and 
such agreement can come only after discussions 
and negotiations with those nations. 

Harkness : I can see that. Wouldn't you say 
that one of the best examples of translating post- 
war planning into action was the famous Mos- 
cow Conference? 

Pasvolsky : Without a doubt, Mr. Harkness. 

Harkness : Fine ! Let's see then what hap- 
pened to those plans of yours at Moscow. Mr. 
McDermott, you went to Moscow, didn't you? 



34 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETTNi 



McDermott: Yes, I did, but here's the man 
who really can tell you what happened there: 
Mr. James C. Dunn, Adviser to the Secretary of 
State on Political Relations for the European 
Area. 

Harkness : O. K., Mr. Dunn. Let's get right 
down to business. You went to Moscow your- 
self, and I suppose you were in on all the ar- 
rangements that had to be made before the Con- 
ference could be held. 

Dunn : Yes, I was. 

Harkness: I imagine making the prepara- 
tions for such a momentous meeting as the Mos- 
cow Conference is not exactly child's play, Mr. 
Dunn. 

Dunn : You're certainly right about that, Mr. 
Harkness. The Moscow Conference didn't just 
up and happen over night. A lot of mighty 
hard work went into the preparations for that 
meeting of Mi-. Hull, Mr. Molotov, and Mr. 
Eden. As Mr. Pasvolsky just explained, we 
had behind us almost three years of general 
preparations on post-war problems. That was 
the bedrock on the basis of which we were able 
to compress our final preparations into four or 
five weeks. 

Harkness: That's very interesting and sig- 
nificant — you had four or five weeks' actual 
preparation for the Conference. Let's see now, 
your meeting in Moscow began on October 19 — 
that means the act^ial decision to hold the Con- 
ference must have been made sometime in early 
September 1943. Am I about right, Mr. Dunn ? 

Dunn: Yes — you're 100 percent correct on 
that one, Mr. Harkness. The decision to hold 
the Moscow meeting was made by President 
Eoosevelt, Marshal Stalin, and Prime Minister 
Churchill very shortly after the Quebec Con- 
ference. 

Harkness: That's an interesting piece of 
news. What were the reasons for the Moscow 
Conference? What did you expect to accom- 
plish ? What did Russia want — and what did 
we want ? 

Dunn: Well, bringing it down to almost 
ridiculous simplicity, the Russians were primar- 



ily interested in matters of military aid and 
cooperation to crush Nazi Germany as quickly 
as possible. We, of course, were equally con- 
cerned with this question. But, in addition to 
that, we were vitally interested in finding out 
Russia's attitude on cooperation in building a 
cUu'able peace after the victory had been won. 
Secretary Hull knew that that question had to 
be faced and that the sooner it ums faced the 
better for all of us — Russia, Britain, China, and 
the United States. And that's why there was a 
Moscow Conference and why the Secretary 
traveled 25 thousand miles by air and sea to 
make our contribution to its success. 

Harkness : Well, what happened at the Con- 
ference, Mr. Dunn? 

Dunn : Secretary Hull, as soon as he arrived, 
pointed out to Marshal Stalin and Foreign Min- 
ister Molotov that the nations represented at 
the Conference and their leaders faced a greater 
responsibility for the future life, liberty, and 
happiness for their own and all other peoples 
than any nations or statesmen had ever faced 
before. 

Harkness : That's no kidding ! 

Dunn : He made it quite clear that he would 
speak frankly in the national interests of the 
United States, but he also said that he was con- 
vinced that there was sufficient common ground 
between the national interests of the three coun- 
tries to laj' the basis for a better woi'ld. 

Harkness: How did the Russians take that? 

Dunn : I think they liked it. 

Harkness: What woidd you say was the 
greatest achievement of the Moscow Confer- 
ence? 

Dunn : I'd say it was the Four-Nations Dec- 
laration, including, as the President and Secre- 
tary Hull so strongly desired, the great Repub- 
lic of China. 

Harkness : What are some of the big points 
in the Four-Nations Declaration ? 

Dunn : Well, here are several of the main 
points: In the first place, the four nations re- 
affirm their determination to continue the fight 
until their respective enemies have laid down 



JANUARY 8, 194 4 



35 



their arms in unconditional surrender; sec- 
ondly, the four nations will continue their pres- 
ent united cooperation into the future to or- 
ganize and maintain peace; and finally, a 
general international organization should be 
established as soon as possible, based on the 
principle of the sovereign equality of all peace- 
loving states, and open to membershijj of all 
such states, large and small, for the mainte- 
nance of international peace and security. 

Haekness: Then, as I understand that im- 
portant last point, this does not mean that the 
"Big Four" nations exjsect to run the world 
alone, according to their own desires. 

Dunn : Absolutely not, Mr. Harkness ! And 
tliat's a very important point. The President 
and Secretary Hull had long held the convic- 
tion that the only sure method of maintaining 
the security of the United States in the future 
and avoiding other terrible wars was the estab- 
lishment of a general system of international co- 
operation in which all nations, large and small, 
would play their part. This basic principle be- 
came the core of the preliminary draft of the 
Four-Nations Declaration which the Secretary 
of State took with him to the Moscow Confer- 
ence. 

Harkness: Wliat was that you said, Mr. 
Dunn? Did I understand you to say that Sec- 
retary Hull took the draft of the Four-Nations 
Declaration with him to Moscow? 

Dunn : Yes, that's correct — he did. 

Harkness: Hmm! Mac, that's something 
you didn't tell us. Well, anyway, Mr. Dunn, 
you really mean without any reservations that 
the Moscow Conference was a success. 

Dunn: Yes, Mr. Harkness. The Moscow 
Conference marked a dramatic and monumen- 
tal milestone in the development of our foreign 
policy, not because it settled all the difficult 
issues but, rather, because it settled the most 
important single question, which up to that 
time no man could answer with certainty. 

Hakkness: What was that? 

Dunn : That question was whether the Soviet 
Union, the United Kingdom, China, and our- 
selves were determined to seek their, and the 



world's, salvation through international coop- 
eration, or whether they had other plans and 
designs for the future. 

Harkness: And the answer to that question 
was what we wanted ? 

Dunn: Yes, it was, I am happy to say. 
These four nations committed themselves to a 
policy of continuing cooperation. If they 
hadn't done so, the international future would 
indeed be a hopeless one. The dread certainty 
of a third world war would have settled on us 
even before World War II was finished. I be- 
lieve that this is the true meaning of Moscow — 
by their pledge of a continued cooperation both 
among themselves and with the other peace-lov- 
ing nations of the world, these nations have 
given assurance that the world has at least the 
possibility of a peaceful future. 

Harkness: Thanks a lot for those interesting 
slants on the Moscow Conference, Mr. Dunn. 

I've got several other questions I want to 
ask you, but right now I'd like to put one to 
Mr. Pasvolsky before it slips my mind or he 
gets away from me. ilr. Pasvolsky, a little 
while ago you mentioned that the State Depart- 
ment believes that in the future, breaches of the 
peace must be suppressed by force, if necessary. 
Now does that mean an international police 
force ? 

Pasvolsky: You know, a lot of people are 
talking about an international police force, but 
nobody has as yet figured out just what it means. 
So I can't give you a yes or no answer. But I 
would like to say this : There are many ways 
in which police power can be exercised to sup- 
press aggression. We are exploring several 
possibilities, but we cannot tell at this stage 
what precise arrangements the nations will be 
able to agree on. That will depend on a lot of 
things here and abroad. But one thing is cer- 
tain: there will be no commitment involving 
this country without the clear approval of the 
American people. 

Harkness : In other words, that is one of the 
answers which is yet to be worked out and 
agreed upon, is that right? 

Pasvolsky: It certainly is. 



36 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETHSH 



McDermott: Dick, might I add a word 
there?, 

Harkness : Surely, Mac, go ahead. 

McDermott: That discussion between you 
and Mr. Pasvolsky illustrates pretty well one 
of the toughest problems we have in the State 
Department. In a sense you didn't get an an- 
swer to your last question, and yet Mr. Pas- 
volsky did explain why he couldn't answer more 
fully. 

Harkness : Yes, and quite satisfactorily for 
me. 

McDermott: The point is that we're up 
against that sort of thing day and night in the 
State Department, and quite often there are 
equally good reasons why a particular question 
cannot be answered. 

Harkess : Well, why, for instance ? 

McDermott : Well, it might be for reasons of 
military security, or possible use and distortion 
by enemy propaganda, or possible embarrass- 
ment to one of our Allies or a country whose 
friendship or at least neutrality is important to 
us. Wliatever the reason, Dick, you can be sure 
that we don't hold back simply for the sake of 
being mysterious. 

ILvrkness: I know that, Mac, and I think 
most of us would feel the same way you do 
about those "no comment" cases if the tables 
were switched and we were in the Department's 
place. 

Mr. Dunn, let me ask you this : Some people 
have been saying that we are indifferent as to 
whether Fascism stays in Italy so long as Mus- 
solini is out. Is there anything to that ? 

Dunn : There most certainly is not. We in- 
tend to see that Fascism in Italy is pulled up by 
the roots. This point was covered definitely by 
one of the important declarations issued at the 
Moscow Conference. 

Hakkness: That's right, it was. And I'm 
glad you reminded us of it, because I happen to 
think that declaration on Italy merits a mighty 
important and solid place in our foreign policy. 

Mac, getting back to something you said ear- 
lier and wliich a lot of people are always saying 
around the State Department. You say it's the 



130 million American citizens who in the final 
analysis decide our foreign policy. Now that 
sounds swell, Mac, and makes us all seem very 
important, but what is the average citizen sup- 
posed to do — pick up the phone and call Secre- 
tary Hull in Washington and tell him what he 
wants ? How about it, Mac ? How can the aver- 
age person help guide American foreign policy ? 

McDermott : Very simply, Dick. We have a 
free press and a free radio in this country, and 
we have representative government, and a mail- 
ing system that is very, very inexpensive. Any- 
body who wants to play a part in forming our 
foreign policy has merely to sit down and write 
a letter to his favorite editor, or write to his 
Congressman, or his Senator, or to the Presi- 
dent, or to the State Department and say what 
he thinks. Also don't forget almost every indi- 
vidual belongs to some gi'oup, whether it's a 
labor, business, agricultural, church, or educa- 
tional group, and through these or similar 
groups, he can make himself heard in an effec- 
tive way. 

Harkness : In other words, it's democracy at 
work again. Right, Mac? 

McDermott: Eight. 

Harkness: Well, time flies, gentlemen, even 
in Washington. Our first half hour here at the 
State Department is almost up. 

I think it's been profitable and I want to 
thank all of you, Messrs. Stettinius, Dunn, 
Pasvolsky, and McDermott, for making it so. j 
We've learned a lot from all of you this evening ; 
we've been taken behind the scenes in the State 
Department's post-war planning; we saw how 
that planning became foreign policy in action 
at the famous Moscow Conference; and we've 
had a chance to get some important questions 
answered. 

N^ext week, ladies and gentlemen, I have an- 
other fine group of interviews lined up, with 
Under Secretary Stettinius, Assistant Secre- j 
tary Shaw, Ambassador Winant, who will talk 1 
to us from London, and Ambassador Robert D. 
Murphy. Our general topic will be "The Or- 
ganization of the State Department and the 
Foreign Service". Some .questions I intend 



JANUARY 8, 1944 



37 



getting the answers to are : How much wealth 
must a young man possess before he can hope 
to get a position in our Foreign Service ? Is it 
true that the graduates of one or two particu- 
lar universities are favored as candidates over 
others ? What kind of work is done by the men 
and women in our Foreign Service? What 
salaries do we pay them? And so fortli, and 
so forth. If there are any questions that occur 
to yow, won't you send tliem to me immediately ? 
They'll help me to slant my interviews. And 
now — till next Saturday evening at the same 
time — this is Ricliard Harkness saying "Good- 
night" from Washington. 

Washington Announcer : Goodnight, Rich- 
ard Harkness. Ladies and gentlemen, we have 
just concluded the first in a limited series of 



programs to be broadcast from the State De- 
partment building in Washington, D. C. The 
series, entitled "The State Department Speaks", 
was launched as a public service by the NBC 
University of the Air, to acquaint you, the 
American people, with the inner workings of 
one of the most important departments of your 
goverimient. These four programs will be pub- 
lished in booklet form and single copies may be 
obtained free of charge by writing to "The 
State Department Speaks", NBC, New York. 
And write, too, if there's a question you'd like 
to hear answered on this program. We can't 
promise to answer all questions received, but 
we'll do our best. So write tonight and be on 
hand again next week at the same time 
when — "The State Department Speaks". 



International Conferences, Commissions, Etc. 



ESTABLISHMENT UNDER ANGLO-AMERICAN CARIBBEAN COMMISSION OF A 
SYSTEM OF WEST INDIAN CONFERENCES 



[Released to the press January 5] 

The text of a joint communique by the United 
States and British Governments on a system of 
West Indian conferences is printed below : 

"In recent years the United States Govern- 
ment and His Majesty's Government in the 
United Kingdom have devoted special attention 
to the improvement of social and economic con- 
ditions in the territories under their jurisdic- 
tion in the Caribbean. Nearly two years ago 
the two Governments agreed to collaborate 
closely in the solution of problems of common 
concern in this area and to assist them in this 
purpose they established the Anglo-American 
Caribbean Commission. 

"With the support and cooperation of the 
Govermnents of the territories concerned and of 
existing United States and British agencies and 
organizations, much useful work has already 



been accomplished and long-range plamiing 
over a wide field has begim. 

"In the field of research there was recently 
established, as an advisory body to the Com- 
mission, the Caribbean Research Council for the 
coordination of scientific and teclmical work on 
problems of the Caribbean area. 

"It remained, however, to broaden the base 
for the approach to Caribbean problems to in- 
clude consultation with local representatives — 
not necessarily officials — of the territories and 
colonies concerned. The value of such counsel 
is recognized, and provision has now been made 
for its expression through a regular system of 
West Indian conferences which, by agreement 
between the United States Government and His 
Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom, 
is to be inaugurated under the auspices of the 
Anglo-American Caribbean Commission to dis- 
cuss matters of counnon interest and especially 



38 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULX,ETINi 



of social and economic significance to Caribbean 
countries. The Conference will convene from 
time to time to consider specific subjects, that is, 
when problems arise which are at once alive and 
capable of being profitably discussed by such a 
conference. The Conference will be a standing 
body : it will have a continuing existence and a 
central secretariat, although the representatives 
will change according to the nature of the sub- 
jects to be discussed. 

"Each United States territory and each Brit- 
ish colony or group of colonies in the Caribbean 
area will be entitled to send two delegates to 
each session of the Conference. This represen- 
tation will be achieved in the manner most ap- 
propriate to each area ; in the British colonies, 
for example, one of each two representatives 
will normally be an unofficial representative. 
The chairman for each session of the Confer- 
ence will be the United States co-chairman of 
the Anglo-American Caribbean Commission if 
the Conference meets in United States territory, 
or the British co-chairman if the Conference 
convenes in British territory. In the event of 
the appropriate co-chairman being absent the 
proceedings will be opened formally by his col- 
league, after which the chair will be taken by 
any member of the Commission of the same na- 
tionality as the absent co-chairman. Other 
members of the Caribbean Commission and ex- 
perts invited by them will have the right to at- 
tend all meetings of the Conference. Although 
delegates from each territory, colony, or group 
of colonics will be limited to two, they may at 
certain sessions be accompanied by advisers. 

"The Conference will be purely advisoi-y and 
will have no executive powers unless such powers 
are specifically entrusted to it by the govern- 
ments of the territories and colonies which par- 
ticipate. If it should become advisable for the 
Conference to take action by voting, the question 
of representation and the basis of voting repre- 
sentation will be subject to further discussion 
between the United States and British Govern- 
ments. 



"The Anglo-American Caribbean Commis- 
sion will provide the secretariat for the Con- 
ference and will be responsible for sending out 
the necessary documents to the members of the 
Conference. An official report of each session 
of the Conference will be prepared for trans- 
mission by the Anglo-American Caribbean 
Commission to the Governments of the United 
States and the United Kingdom and to the local 
governments represented. 

"Arrangements for convening the first session 
of the Conference were discussed at the last 
meeting of the Anglo-American Caribbean 
Commission in August 1943, and it is hoped to 
convene the first session of the Conference early 
in 1944. The probable subjects of discussion at 
this meeting will be the question of obtaining 
supplies for the development programs which 
are contemplated in the various territories and 
colonies, the stabilization of prices of foods pro- 
duced locally for local consumption, the main- 
tenance of local food production after the war, 
the continuance of research on and development 
of fishery resources of the Caribbean, and ques- 
tions pertaining to health protection and quar- 
antine in the Caribbean area. 

"Although these arrangements limit the con- 
ferences to United States and British partici- 
pation the Conference will be free to invite the 
participation of other countries on occasion." 



Treaty Information 



MUTUAL AID 

Agreement With Liberia Relating to Con- 
struction of a Port and Port Works on the 
Coast of Liberia 

According to information received by the Sec- 
retary of State from the American Minister at 
Monrovia, there was signed on December 31, 
1943 at Monrovia, by the American Minister and 
the Secretary of State of Liberia, an agreement 
relating to the construction of a port and port 
works on the coast of Liberia. 



JANtJARY S, 194 4 



39 



This agreement was made in pursuance of 
principles laid down by the mutual-aid agree- 
ment of June 8, 1943 ' between the United 
States and Liberia, which was negotiated under 
the authority of and in conformity with the 
Lend-Lease Act of March 11, 1941. 

Under this agreement, which became effec- 
tive upon signature, the Government of the 
United States makes certain funds available, 
upon specified conditions, for the construction 
of a port and port works at a mutually agreed- 
upon site on the coast of the Kepublic of Liberia. 

Provision is made for the payment, from 
revenues of the port, of the administrative and 
other costs of operating the port and for annual 
payments in amortization of the funds made 
available by the Government of the United 
States. The agreement contains provisions re- 
lating to joint operating control by the United 
States and Liberia pending amortization of the 
cost of the port, port works, and access roads. 

NATIONALITY 

Convention on the Nationality of Women 

Cuba 

By a letter dated December 21, 1943 the Di- 
rector General of the Pan American Union \\\- 
formed the Secretary of State that on Decem- 
ber 15, 1943 there was deposited with the Pan 
American LTnion the instrument of ratification 
by Cuba of the Convention on the Nationality 
of Women signed at the Seventh International 
Conference of American States at Montevideo 
on December 26, 1933 (Treaty Series 875). 



According to information officially of record 
in the Department of State the countries with 
respect to which the Convention on the Na- 
tionality of Women signed at Montevideo on 
December 26, 1933 is now in force as the result 
of the deposit of their respective instruments 
of ratification are the LTnited States of America, 
Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, Guate- 
mala, Honduras, Mexico, and Panama. 



' Bulletin of June 12, 1943, p. 515. 



NAVIGATION 

Conventions Regarding Collisions at Sea, 
Assistance and Salvage at Sea, and Bills 
of Lading 

Egypt 

With a despatch dated December 10, 1943 the 
American Embassy near the Belgian Govern- 
ment at London transmitted to the Department 
a copy of a note dated December 1, 1943 from the 
Belgian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Ex- 
ternal Commerce informing the American Am- 
bassador that on November 19, 1943 the insti-u- 
ments of adherence by Egypt to the following 
three conventions were transmitted to the Bel- 
gian Minister of Foreign Affairs and External 
Commerce : 

(a) International Convention for the Unifi- 
cation of Certain Rules Relating to Collisions 
at Sea, signed at Brussels September 23, 1910 

{li) International Convention for the Unifi- 
cation of Certain Rules with Respect to Assist- 
ance and Salvage at Sea, signed at Brussels 
September 23, 1910 

(c) International Convention for the Unifi- 
cation of Certain Rules Relating to Bills of Lad- 
ing and Protocol of Signature, signed at Brus- 
sels August 25, 1924 

According to the above-mentioned note the 
conventions under {a) and (&) were to enter 
into force with respect to Egypt on January 1, 
1944 under the provisions of articles 15 and 17, 
respectively, of those conventions, and the con- 
vention under {c) will enter into force with re- 
spect to Egypt on May 19, 1944 under the provi- 
sions of article 14 of that convention. 

It is further stated in the note that in trans- 
mitting the instrument of adherence by Egypt 
to the convention regarding bills of lading, the 
Egyptian Charge informed the Belgian Min- 
ister of Foreign Affairs and External Commerce 
that the Egyptian Government reserves the 
right of unrestricted regulation of the national 
coasting trade through its own legislation. 



40 



OEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN! 



STRATEGIC MATERIALS 

Agreement Regarding the 1944 Cuban Sugar 
Crop 

[Released to the press January 7] 

As announced by the Department of State on 
December 22,' a Cuban commission is in Wash- 
ington to discuss with the Foreign Economic 
Administration and other Govermnent agen- 
cies the implementation of existing contracts on 
the 1944 Cuban sugar crop and the acquisition 
by tlie United States of molasses and alcohol. 

Tlie representatives of the two Govermnents 
announced on January 7, 1944 that an agree- 
ment has been reached to produce, as part of 
the Cuban sugar crop of 1944, invert molasses 
equivalent to 800,000 short tons, raw-sugar 
basis. This invei't molasses is to be purchased 
by the Defense Supplies Corporation for the 
production of industrial alcohol, at 2^^ cents a 
pound total sugar content, f. o. b. tanlv car at 
Cuban terminal or f. o. b. coastal point of 
delivery. 

As a result of the agreement, the Cuban sugar 
crop can now be fixed at a minimum of 4,827,240 
short tons. Of this total, 200,000 tons will be 
used for local consumption in Cuba, and 800,000 
tons of sugar in the form of invert molasses 
will be used for production of alcohol for the 
war effort. The remainder of the 4,827,240 
tons, or 3,827,240 tons, as well as any additional 
sugar that can be produced in Cuba by grind- 
ing all available cane, will be acquired by the 
Commodity Credit Corporation under the con- 
tract signed in SeiDtember 1943. 



Other phases of the negotiations are progress- 
ing, and representatives of the two Govern- 
ments expect to reach in the not distant future 
satisfactory conclusions in the interests of both 
countries and their joint efforts in the prosecu- 
tion of the war. 



Publications 



' Bltxetin of Dee. 25, 1043, p. 449. 



Department of State 

First Session of the Council of the United Nations Re- 
lief and Rehabilitation Administration: Selected 
Documents — Atlantic City, New Jersey, November 
10-December 1, 1943. Conference Series 53. Publi- 
cation 2040. vi, 215 pp. 350. 

Tlie Wartime Development of Organizations To Deal 
With International Economic Operations and Prob- 
lems : A Chronology, July 1, 1939-December 31, 1943. 
(Prepared in the Division of Research and Publica- 
tion of the Department of State.) 20 pp., mimeo. 

Other Agencies 

Convention land Documentary Material on Nature Pro- 
tection and Wildlife Preservation in the Western 
Hemisphere. Apr. 1943. [English, Spanish, Portu- 
guese, and French.] (Pan American Union.) 88 
leaves, processed. Available from P.A.U. 

Mexico : Next Door Neighbor. [1943.] (Office of Co- 
ordinator of Inter-American Affairs, Office for Emer- 
gency Management.) Cover title, 24 pp., illus. 
Available from CIAA. 

Burma : Gateway to China [with selected bibliog- 
raphy], by H. G. Deignan. Oct. 29, 1943. (Smith- 
sonian Institution.) iv, 21 pp., plates, map. (Pub- 
lication 3738; War Background Studies No. 17.) 
Available for limited distribution upon request to 
Smithsonian Institution. 



U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1944 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, TJ. S. Government Printing Office, Washington. D. C. 
Price, 10 cents - - - - Subscription price, $2.75 a year 

POBUSHBD WEEKLY WITH THE APPEOVAL OF THE DIUECTOR OF THE BDEBiU OF THE BUDGET 



. ^^3 -i- I n ^ 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



BU 



J 



J 



H 



■^ rm 



J 



riN 



JANUARY 15, 1944 
Vol. X, No. 238— Publication 2051 



C 



ontents 




The Department Pase 

Organization of the Department of State: 

Announcement of Reorganization 43 

Departmental Order 1218 of January 15, 1944 ... 45 

Organization Chart 66 

"The State Department Speaks" 68 

Canada 

Presentation of Letters of Credence by the Canadian 

Ambassador 75 

The War 

Annual Message of the President to the Congress ... 76 
Exchange of American and Japanese Nationals .... 77 
Agreement With Canada for the Extension of the Fuel 
Supply for the United States Army in Canada and 
Alaska 



The Proclaimed List: Cumulative Supplement 4 to 

Revision VI 

American Republics 

Problems of Newsprint Production and Transporta- 
tion to Other American Republics 

Visit to the United States of the President of 
Venezuela • 

General 
Accommodations in Washington for Special Guests of 

« the Government 

Inauguration of the President of Liberia 



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[over] 



(J. S. SUPERIMTENDEMT OF DOCUMENTS 

FEB 8 1944 







OiltGTl iS— CONTINUED 



Treaty Information Page 
Agricultiu-e : Convention on the Inter- American Insti- 
tute of Agricultural Sciences 90 

Military Missions: Agreement With Venezuela .... 90 

The Foreign Service 

Death of William C. Burdett 91 

Consulates 91 

Legislation 91 

Publications 91 



The Department 



ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

Announcement of Reorganization 



[Released to the press for publication January 15, 8 p.m.] 

Fai'-reaching changes in the organization of 
the Department of State to facilitate the con- 
duct of the foreign relations of the United 
States, in war and in peace, are announced by 
the Secretary of State. All previous Depart- 
mental orders and other administrative instruc- 
tions concerning the organization of the 
Department, the definition and assignment of 
functions and responsibilities among the sev- 
eral divisions and offices of the Department 
and the designation of officers of the Depart- 
ment are revoked and superseded. 

The new organization of the Department is 
described in detail in the following Depart- 
mental order and organization chart of the 
Department. It is designed to free the Assist- 
ant Secretaries and principal officers of the 
Department from administrative duties in order 
that they may devote the greater part of their 
time to matters of important foreign policy. 
Clearer lines of responsibility and authority 
have been established inside the Department 
which simplify its structure and eliminate 
overlapping jurisdictions and difi'usion of re- 
sponsibility by means of a logical grouping of 
functions and divisions in twelve major "line" 
offices. The work of the higher officers of the 
Department has also been coordinated more 
closely through the creation of two principal 



committees — a Policy Committee and a Com- 
mittee on Post War Programs. 

The Policy Committee will assist the Secre- 
tary of State in the consideration of major ques- 
tions of foreign policy, and the Committee on 
Post War Programs will assist him in the for- 
mulation of post-war foreign policies and the 
execution of such policies by means of appro- 
priate international arrangements. 

The Secretary of State has also established 
an Advisory Council on Post War Foreign Pol- 
icy and so far has designated Mr. Norman H. 
Davis, Mr. Myron C. Taylor, and Dr. Isaiah 
Bowman as Vice Chairmen of this new Council, 
which will be under his Chairmanship with the 
Under Secretary as his deputy. The Secretary 
has asked Mr. Davis, Mr. Taylor, and Dr. Bow- 
man, who with others have been associated with 
him in this field for the past two years, to assist 
him in organizing and carrying forward the 
work of this Council which will bring together 
outstanding and representative national leaders 
to advise the Secretary on post-war foreign- 
policy matters of major importance. 

In the organization chart it will be seen that 
in order to avoid any lack of clarity regarding 
the jurisdictions of the respective Assistant Sec- 
retaries, the new organization assigns specific 
fields of activity to each of the Assistant Secre- 
taries and to the Legal Adviser. Coordination 

43 



44 

among the Assistant Secretaries is provided by 
the Policy Committee. 

The twelve major "line" offices indicated in 
the chart are new organizational units in the 
Department. Within each major office are more 
diversified divisional units than existed previ- 
ously. This will result in broadening the base 
of the Department's organizational structure 
permitting the more flexible and efficient adjust- 
ment of the Department's functions to rapidly 
changing conditions. Further, the setting-up 
of the new "line" offices will enable the Depart- 
ment to bring in additional outstanding per- 
sonnel at a high level. 

Five of these offices— those dealing with the 
major geographic areas (Europe, Far East, 
Near East and Africa, and American Repub- 
lics) and with special political affairs report di- 
rectly to the Secretary and Under Secretary. 
The four geographic offices will be charged with 
the coordination of all aspects of our relations 
with the countries in their respective jurisdic- 
tions and not exclusively with political relations 
as has been the tendency during the past few 
years. The Special Political Affairs Office will 
be concerned with political matters of world- 
wide scope and importance such as international 
security and organization. 

In order to provide adequate attention at a 
sufficiently high level the former Division of 
International Communications has been broken 
down into three new divisions dealing, respec- 
tively, with aviation, shipping, and telecommu- 
nications. 

Tlie new plan also creates the Office of War- 
time Economic Affairs and the Office of Eco- 
nomic Affairs. The divisions shown under the 
Office of Wartime Economic Affairs are respon- 
.sible in their respective fields for liaison with 
the FEA, WPB, War Shipping Administra- 
tion, Treasury, War, and Navy Departments, 
United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Ad- 
ministration, and other wartime economic 
agencies. The divisions shown under the Eco- 
nomic Affairs Office reflect a considerable re- 



DEPAETMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

grouping, elimination, and consolidation of 
functions which have hitherto been widely scat- 
tered. The new Division of Commodity Prob- 
lems and the new Division of Financial and 
Monetary Affairs are good examples. Among 
the responsibilities of the Commodities Division 
are the policy aspects of the production and 
control and the distribution in international 
commerce of major commodities such as rubber, 
tin and heav}' metals, petroleum and petroleum 
products, coffee, wheat, and cotton. The Fi- 
nancial and Monetary Affairs Division will be 
concerned with the policy aspects of interna- 
tional financial agreements and arrangements 
of public and private investment, of industrial- 
ization and development programs, and of 
matters relating to the reorganization of Axis 
firms. The new Division of Labor Relations 
recognizes the growing importance of the in- 
ternational aspects of labor and social problems 
and the interest of labor in matters of broad 
international policy. 

The new Office of Public Information groups 
together the various organizational units in the 
Department which are concerned with public 
information, both at home and abroad. This 
new office will also carry on the foreign activi- 
ties of the former Cultural Relations Division. 
Also included in this Office of Public Informa- 
tion is a new Motion Picture and Radio Division 
not heretofore existent. 

Administrative activities are simplified and 
grouped together in the two new offices dealing 
respectively with Departmental and Foreign 
Service Administration. 

The Department does not regard this new 
organization chart and departmental order as 
the final answer to all the Department's admin- 
istrative problems. It does believe that this re- 
organization will better adapt the administra- 
tive framework of the Department to meet the 
constantly changing war situation and the fore- 
seeable post-war demands upon our foreign 
policy. 



JANUARY 15, 1944 



45 



Departmental Order 1218 of January 15, 1944 

Purpose of Order Office of the Secretary op State 



The purpose of tliis Order is to facilitate the 
conduct of the foreign relations of the United 
States, in war and in peace, by making adjust- 
ments in the organization of the Department 
of State. 

Previous Orders Revoked 

All previous Departmental Orders and other 
administrative instructions concerning — 

1. the organization of the Department of 

Stat«; 

2. the definition and assignment of functions 

and responsibilities among the various 
divisions and offices of the Department; 
and 

3. the designation of ranking officei-s of the 

Department 

are hereby revoked and superseded. 
New Organization of the Department 

A chart showing the new organization of the 
Department of State is attached.^ 

The definition and assignment of functions 
and responsibilities among the various Offices 
and Divisions of the Department, and the desig- 
nation of its ranking officers, shall henceforth 
be as set forth below, subject to modification or 
amendment by Departmental Order. 

As hereinafter provided, all matters concern- 
ing the organization of the Department, the 
definition and assignment of functions and re- 
sponsibilities among its several Offices and Divi- 
sions, and the designation of its ranking officei-s 
below the Assistant Secretary level, shall be 
dealt with by the Office of Departmental Ad- 
ministration. Problems which may arise in 
connection with the new organization of the 
Department shall be referred to the Director of 
this Office. 



• Printed on pp. 6&-67. 



The following are hereby designated Special 
Assistants to the Secretary of State with func- 
tions and responsibilities as indicated: 

1. Mr. Leo Pasvolsky. Mr. Pasvolsky, in 

addition to such other functions and re- 
sponsibilities as may be assigned to him 
from time to time by the Secretary, shall 
serve as hereinafter provided as Execu- 
tive Director of the Committee on Post 
War Programs. 

2. Mr. Joseph C. Grew. Mr. Grew shall per- 

form such duties as may be assigned to 
him from time to time by the Secretary. 

3. Mr. George T. Summerlin. In addition to 

such other responsibilities as may be as- 
signed to him from time to time by the 
Secretary, Mr. Summerlin shall serve 
as Chief of Protocol. 

4. Mr. Michael J. McDermott. Mr. McDer- 

mott shall serve as the Secretary's prin- 
cipal assistant in matters concerning the 
Department's relations with the press. 

5. Mr. Thomas K. Finletter. Mr. Finletter 

shall perform such duties as may be as- 
signed to him from time to time by the 
Secretary. 

6. Mr. Joseph C. Green. Mr. Green shall 

perform such duties as may be assigned 
to him from time to time by tlie Secre- 
tary. 

The following additional designations are 
made in the Office of the Secretary: 

1. Mr. Cecil W. Gray is hereby designated 

an Executive Assistant to the Secretary 
of State with responsibility for the ad- 
ministration of the Secretary's immedi- 
ate office. 

2. Mrs. Blanche R. Halla is hereby desig- 

nated an Executive Assistant to the Sec- , 
retary of State with responsibility for 



46 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETtNI 



the review and coordination of all cor- 
respondence prepared for signature by 
the Secretary and Under Secretary. 

3. Mr. George W. Kenchard and Mr. James 

E. Brown are hereby designated Assist- 
ants to the Secretary of State. 

4. Mr. Carlton Savage is hereby designated a 

General Consultant to the Secretary of 
State. 

5. Mr. Orme Wilson is hereby designated 

Liaison Officer with responsibility for 
assisting the Secretary and the Under 
Secretary in their liaison with the War 
and Navy Departments and such other 
duties as may be assigned to him. 
The routing symbol of the Office of the Secre- 
tary will be S. 

Office of the Under Secretart of State 

1. The Under Secretary of State, Mr. Ed- 
ward R. Stettinius, Jr., shall serve as the Secre- 
tary's deputy in all matters of concern or in- 
terest to the Department. 

2. Mr. Eobert J. Lynch and Mr. Hayden 
Kaynor are hereby designated Special Assist- 
ants to the Under Secretary of State, with 
such functions and responsibilities as may be 
assigned to them by the Under Secretary. 

The routing symbol of the Office of the Under 
Secretary shall be U. 
Assistant Secretaries and Legal Adviser 

1. The Assistant Secretary, Mr. Adolf A. 
Berle, Jr., shall have general responsibility in 
matters of Controls and in matters of Trans- 
portation and Communications. 

Mr. Frederick B. Lyon and Mr. Eobert G. 
Hooker, Jr. are hereby designated Executive 
Assistants to Mr. Berle. 

The routing symbol of Mr. Berle's office shall 
be A-B. 

2. The Assistant Secretary, Mr. Breckinridge 
Long, shall have general responsibility for all 
matters concerning the Department's relations 
with the Congi-ess, with the exception of matters 
relating to appropriations and the administra- 
tion of the Department and the Foreign Service. 



Mr. George L. Brandt and Mr. Felton M. 
Johnston are hereby designated Executive As- 
sistants to Mr. Long. 

The routing symbol of Mr. Long's .office shall 
be A-L. 

3. The Assistant Secretary, Mr. Dean Ache- 
son, shall have general responsibility in the field 
of Economic Aifairs. Mr. Donald Hiss is here- 
by designated an Executive Assistant and Mr. 
Kermit Roosevelt, Jr., an Assistant to Mr. 
Acheson. 

The routing symbol of Mr. Acheson's office 
shall be A-A. 

4. The Assistant Secretary, Mr. G. Rowland 
Shaw, shall have general responsibility for the 
administration of the Department and the For- 
eign Service and for matters of Public Informa- 
tion both at home and abroad. 

Mr. Laurence C. Frank and Mr. William E. 
DeCourcy are hereby designated Executive As- 
sistants to Mr. Shaw. 

The routing symbol of Mr. Shaw's office shall 
be A-S. 

5. The Legal Adviser, Mr. Green H. Hack- 
worth, shall have equal rank in all respects with 
the Assistant Secretaries and he shall have gen- 
eral responsibility for all matters of a legal 
character concerning the Department, includ- 
ing matters of a legal character formally dealt 
with by the Treaty Division, which is hereby 
abolished. 

The routing symbol of Mr. Hackworth's of- 
fice shall be Le. 

Policy Committee 

1. Tliere is hereby created the Department 
of State Policy Committee which shall assist 
the Secretary in the consideration of major 
questions of foreign policy. 

This Committee shall meet every Monday, 
Wednesday and Friday at 9:30 a. m. in the 
Secretary's Conference Room. 

The Committee on Political Planning is 
hereby abolished. 



JANUARY 15, 1944 



47 



2. The Secretary shall be Chairman and the 
Under Secretary shall be Vice Chairman of 
the Policy Committee. 

The Assistant Secretaries, the Legal Ad- 
viser, and the Special Assistant to the Secre- 
tary, Mr. Pasvolsky, shall be members of the 
Committee ; and the Directors of Offices, as here- 
inafter provided for, shall be ex officio members 
of the Committee. 

3. Responsibility for the preparation of 
agenda, the keeping of minutes and the per- 
formance of such other duties as may be as- 
signed by the Chairman or Vice Chairman of 
the Policy Committee shall be vested in an Ex- 
ecutive Secretary who shall be assisted by such 
staff as may be determined. 

The routing symbol of the Policy Commit- 
tee shall be PC. 

Committee on Post War Programs 

1. There is hereby created the Department of 
State Committee on Post War Programs which 
shall assist the Secretary in the formulation of 
post-war foreign policies and the execution of 
such policies by means of appropriate inter- 
national arrangements. 

2. The Secretary shall be Chairman, the 
Under Secretary shall be Vice Chairman, and 
the Special Assistant to the Secretary, Mr. 
Pasvolsky, shall be Executive Director of the 
Committee on Post War Programs. The Vice 
Chairmen of the Advisory Council on Post War 
Foreign Policy, the Assistant Secretaries, and 
the Legal Adviser, shall be members of the Com- 
mittee; and the Directors of Offices, as herein- 
after provided for, shall be ex officio members 
of the Committee. 

3. The Executive Director of the Commit- 
tee on Post War Programs shall have full au- 
thority under the Seci'etary to organize the 
Committee's work and to call upon the various 
Offices and Divisions of the Department for 
such assistance as may be required in carrying 
out the Committee's responsibilities. 

The routing symbol of this Committee shall 
be PWC. 



Office of Controls 

Tliere is hereby created an Office of Controls 
which shall have responsibility, under the gen- 
eral direction of the Assistant Secretary, Mr. 
Berle, for initiating and coordinathig policy 
and action in all matters pertaining to the con- 
trol activities of the Department of State. 

The routing symbol of the Office of Controls 
shall be CON. 

The Office of Controls shall be composed of 
the following divisions, with functions and re- 
sponsibilities as indicated. 

1. Passport Division. 

The Passport Division shall have responsi- 
bility for initiating and coordinating policy and 
a6tion in all matters pertaining to: (a) the ad- 
ministration of laws and regulations relating 
to the control of American citizens and na- 
tionals entering and leaving territory under the 
jurisdiction of the United States; (b) limita- 
tion of travel of American citizens in foreign 
countries; (c) determination of eligibility to 
receive passports or to be registered as citizens 
or nationals of the United States in American 
consulates of persons who claim to be Ameri- 
can citizens, citizens of Puerto Eico, citizens 
of the Virgin Islands, citizens of the Common- 
wealth of the Philippines, or inhabitants of the 
Canal Zone, Guam, or American Samoa, owing 
permanent allegiance to the LTnited States; (d) 
prevention and detection of fraud in passport 
matters and the preparation of cases involving 
fraud for prosecution in the courts ; (e) issuance 
of passports, issuance of instructions to Ameri- 
can diplomatic and consular officers concerning 
matters relating to nationality, passports, reg- 
istrations, and the protection of American 
nationals in foreign countries, the release of per- 
sons inducted into foreign military service, the 
refund of taxes imposed for failure to perform 
military service, the preparation of reports of 
births of American citizens abroad and reports 
of marriages; (f) administration of passport 
work performed by the executive officers of 
American Samoa, Guam, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, 
the Virgin Islands, and by the United States 



48 

High Commissioner to the Philippine Islands ; 
(g) supervision of the passport agencies in New 
ifork, San Francisco, and Miami; and (h) di- 
rection of clerks of courts in the United States 
with regard to passport matters. 

Mrs. Ruth B. Shipley is hereby designated 
Chief, and Mr. John J. Scanlan and Miss F. 
Virginia Alexander, are hereby designated 
Assistant Chiefs, of the Passport Division. 

The routing symbol of the Passport Division 
shall be PD. 

2. Visa Division. i 

The Visa Division shall have responsibility 
for the initiation and coordination of policy and 
action in all matters pertaining to: (a) alien 
visa control ; (b) the assembling and examina- 
tion of all information necessary to determine 
the admissibility of aliens into the United States 
in the interest of public safety; (c) the issuance 
of exit and reentry permits; (d) recommenda- 
tions to American Foreign Service officers for 
their final consideration concerning individual 
visa applicants; (e) the control of immigration 
quotas; (f) the issuance of licenses within the 
purview of paragraph XXV of the Executive 
Order of October 12, 1917 relating to the Trad- 
ing with the Enemy Act and title VII thereof, 
approved June 15, 1917; and (g) collaboration 
with interested offices and divisions of the 
Department, as well as with other agencies of 
the Government, concerning the control of sub- 
versive activities and the transportation of 
enemy aliens. 

Mr. Howard K. Travers is hereby designated 
Chief, and Mr. Eliot B. Coulter, Mr. Knowlton 
V. Hicks, Mr. Eobert C. Alexander, Mr. Benja- 
min M. HuUey and Miss Marjorie Moss are 
hereby designated Assistant Chiefs, of the Visa 
Division. 

The routing symbol of the Visa Division shall 
be VD. 

3. Special War Prohlems Division. 

The Special War Problems Division shall be 
charged with the initiation and coordination of 
policy and action in all matters pertaining to: 



DEPARTME'NT OF STATE BULLETINl 

(a) the whereabouts and welfare of, and trans- 
mission of funds to, Americans abroad ; (b) the 
evacuation and repatriation of Americans from 
foreign countries; (c) financial assistance to 
iVmericans in territories where the interests of 
the United States are represented by Switzer- 
land; (d) liaison with the American Red Cross 
and the President's War Relief Control Board 
for the coordination of foreign relief operations 
of private agencies with the foreign policy of 
this Government; (e) representation by this 
Government of the interests of foreign govern- 
ments in the United States; (f) representation 
by a third power of United States interests in 
enemj' countries; (g) supervision of the repre- 
sentation in the United States by third powers 
of the interests of otlxer governments with which 
the United States has severed diplomatic rela- 
tions or is at war; (h) the exchange of official 
and non-official American and Axis Powers per- 
sonnel; (i) civilian internees and prisonei'S of 
war, and the accompanying of representatives of 
the protecting powers and the International 
Red Cross on prisoner-of-war and civilian- 
enemy-alien camp inspections. 

Mr. James H. Keeley, Jr. is hereby designated 
Chief, and Mr. Edwin A. Plitt, Mr. Albert E. 
Clattenburg, Jr., Mr. Eldred D. Kuppinger, Mr. 
Bernard Gufler, and Mr. Franklin C. Gowen, 
are hereby designated Assistant Chiefs, of the 
Special War Problems Division. 

The routing symbol of the Special War Prob- 
lems Division shall be SWP. 

4. Division of Foreign Activity Correlation. 

The Division of Foreign Activity Correlation 
shall have responsibility for the initiation and 
coordination of policy and action in all matters 
pertaining to such foreign activities and opera- 
tions as may be directed. 

Mr. George A. Gordon is hereby designated 
Chief, and Mr. Frederick B. Lyon, Mr. George 
P. Shaw, and Mr. Charles W. Yost are hereby 
designated Assistant Chiefs, of the Division of 
Foreign Activity Correlation. 

The routing symbol of the Division of For- 
eign Activity Correlation shall be FAC. 



JANUARY 15, 1944 



49 



Office of Tkansportation and 
Communications 

There is hereby created an Office of Transpor- 
tation and Comnuinications which shall have 
responsibility, under the general direction of 
the Assistant Secretary, Mr. Berle, for initiat- 
ing and coordinating policy and action in all 
matters concerning the international aspects of 
transportation and communications. 

The routing symbol of the Office of Transpor- 
tation and Communications shall be TRC. 

The Division of International Communica- 
tions is hereby abolished. 

The Office of Transportation and Communi- 
cations shall be composed of the following di- 
visions, with functions and responsibilities as 
indicated. 

1. Aviation Division. 

The Aviation Division shall have responsi- 
bility for initiating and coordinating policy 
and action in matters pertaining to (a) inter- 
national aviation, including the development of 
aviation policy; (b) the coordination of re- 
quests of the Department of State for air travel 
priorities for civilian personnel and the presen- 
tation of these requests to military authorities; 
(c) representation of the Department on the 
International Technical Committee on Aerial 
Legal Experts and the United States National 
Commission of the Permanent American Aero- 
nautical Commission; and (d) liaison with the 
Department of Commerce, the Civil Aeronau- 
tics Administration and Board, War and Navy 
Departments, and such other departments and 
agencies as may be concerned. 

Mr. Joe D. Walstrom is hereby designated 
Assistant Chief, and he shall serve temporarily 
as Acting Chief of the Aviation Division. Mr. 
Stephen Latchford is hereby designated Ad- 
viser on Air Law in this Division. 

The routing symbol of the Aviation Division 
shall be AD. 

2. Shipping Division. 

Tlie Shipping Division shall have responsi- 
bility for the initiation and coordination of 



policy and action in all matters pertaining to 
(a) international shipping, excepting fimctions 
relating to shipping requirements and alloca- 
tions vested in the wartime economic divisions, 
and including the development of shipping pol- 
icy ; and (b) liaison with the War Shipping Ad- 
ministration, Maritime Commission, Navy De- 
partment, Office of Censorship, and such other 
departments and agencies as may be concerned. 

Mr. Jesse E. Saugstad is hereby designated 
Assistant Chief of the Shipping Division and 
he shall serve temporarily as Acting Chief of 
the Division. 

The routing symbol of the Shipping Division 
shall be SD. 

3. Telecomrmmications Division. 

The Telecommunications Division shall have 
responsibility for the initiation and coordina- 
tion of policy and action in matters pertaining 
to (a) international aspects of radio, telegraph, 
and cable communications, including the devel- 
opment of telecommunications policy; and (b) 
liaison with the Federal Communications Com- 
)nission. War and Navy Departments, Office of 
Censorship, and such other department;^ and 
agencies as may be concerned. 

Mr. Francis Colt deWolf is hereby designated 
Chief of the Telecommunications Division. 

The routing symbol of the Telecomnninica- 
tions Division shall be TD. 

Office of Wartime Economic Affairs 

There is hei-eby created an Office of War- 
time Economic Ttfairs which, in collaboration 
with the Office of Economic Affairs hereinafter 
provided for, shall have responsibility, under 
the general direction of the Assistant Secretary, 
Mr. Acheson, for the initiation and coordina- 
tion of policy and action, so far as the Depart- 
ment of State is concerned, in all matters per- 
taining to the wartime economic relations of 
the United States with other governments. 

The Office of Wartime Economic Affairs and 
it component Divisions shall be the focal points 
of contact and liaison, within the scope of their 



568539- 



50 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



functions, with tlie Foreign Economic Admin- 
istration, War Production Board, War Ship- 
ping Administration, Treasury, War and Navy 
Departments, United Nations Relief and Reha- 
bilitation Administration, and such other agen- 
cies as may be concerned. For this purpose, 
there shall be full and free exchange of infor- 
mation and views between the Office of Wartime 
Economic Affairs and its component Divisions, 
and the appropriate political and economic 
offices and divisions of the Department. 

Mr. Charles P. Taft is hereby designated Di- 
rector of the Office of Wartime Economic Af- 
fairs. 

The routing symbol of the Office of AVartime 
Economic Affairs shall be WEA. 

The Office of Wartime Economic Affairs shall 
be composed of the following divisions, with 
functions and responsibilities as indicated. 

1. Swpply and Resources Division. 

The Supply and Resources Division shall have 
responsibility, so far as the Department of State 
is concei'ned, for the initiation and coordination 
of policy and action in all matters pertaining 
to: (a) the procurement and development 
abroad of all materials needed for the prosecu- 
tion of the war or the relief of enemy, enemy- 
held or reoccupied territoiy (excepting Euro- 
pean Neutrals and their possessions, and French 
North and West Africa and projects in Latin 
America) ; (b) Lend-Lease matters (excepting 
French and British possessions), reciprocal aid 
arrangements, as they relate to the procurement 
and development of materials abi-oad, and 
White Paper matters; (c) War Shipping mat- 
ters; (d) the administration of Section 12 of 
the Neutrality Act of November 4, 1919 govern- 
ing the movement of arms, ammunition and im- 
plements of war, the Helium Act of September 
1, 1937 and the Tin Plate Scrap Act of February 
15,1936; (e) representation, within the scope of 
its responsibilities, of (he Department before the 
Combined Boards and their operating, advisory 
and other committees (excepting only in cases of 
a special nature in which the Department's point 



of contact is through membership on special 
area committees) ; before the Foreign Economic 
Administration, War Production Board, War 
Shipping Administration, War Food Adminis- 
tration, and other departments and agencies 
concerned, in connection with requirement pro- 
grams and requests for allocations for commodi- 
ties and shipping submitted by other divisions 
of the Department; and (f) liaison, within the 
scope of the Division's responsibilities, with 
such other departments and agencies as may be 
concerned. 

Mr. Paul F. Linz and Mr. Courtney C. Brown 
are hereby designated Advisers in, and Mr. 
Frederick Exton is hereby designated an As- 
sistant Chief of, the Supply and Resources 
Division, the routing svmbol of which shall be 
SR. 

2. Liberated Areas Division. 

The Liberated Areas Division shall have re- 
sponsibility so far as the Department of State 
is concerned for tlie initiation and coordination 
of policy and action in all wartime economic 
matters pertaining to areas now occupied by the 
enemj' and to Southern Italy and Sicily, includ- 
ing: (a) preparation of requirement programs 
for the liberated areas, and, as required by the 
Director of the Office, programs for purchases 
from those areas, and the importation of sup- 
plies and materials into the United States; (b) 
liscal matters, including banking matters; and 
financial and property controls, including the 
application of Executive Order No. 8389, as 
amended, to property located in the United 
States of governments of those areas and their 
nationals, and questions relating to the Alien J 
Property Custodian and to the property control • 
measures of other United Nations; (c) in col- 
laboration with the Division of Financial and 
Monetary Affairs hereinafter provided for, re- , 
construction and rehabilitation of industrial 1 
and agricultural structures including supply 
and economic development ; (d) liaison, within 
the scope of the Division's responsibilities, with 
the Foreign Economic Administration, Civil 



JANUAHY 15, 1944 



51 



Adairs Division of the War Department, the 
United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Ad- 
ministration, and such departments and agen- 
cies as may be concerned. 

Mr. Herman Wells is hereby designated Chief 
fif. and ilr. Dallas W. Dort, Mr. Ernest M. 
Fisher, Mi'. Sydney L. W. INIellen, Mr. Edward 
(I. Miller, Jr., Mr. Abbott Low Moffat, and Mr. 
James A. Stillwell are hereby designated Ad- 
visers in, the Liberated Areas Division. 

The routing symbol of tlie Liberated Areas 
Division shall be LA. 

3. Anuricaii RcjnthJiof Reqxi'irements Divm&n. 

Tlie American Republics Requirements Di- 
vision shall have responsibility so far as the 
Department of State is concerned foi- the initia- 
tion and coordination of policy and action in 
all wartime economic matters pertaining to the 
other American republics and British and 
Dutch colonies and possessions in the Caribbean 
aiea including: (a) the preparation of require- 
ment programs for, and the functioning of con- 
trol of exports to, that area; (b) assistance in 
regard to procurement programs, shipping 
.schedules and other economic operations i-elat- 
ing to the other American re])ubiics; (c) repre- 
sentation of the Department before the Foreign 
Economic Administration and other agencies 
in connection with applications for projects for 
the other American republics recommended by 
tiie Division of Financial and Monetary Af- 
fairs; and (d) liaison, within the scope of its 
responsibilities, with such other departments 
and agencies as may be concerned. 

Mr. Charles F. Knox, Jr., is hereby desig- 
nated Chief, and Mr. Jerome J. Stenger and 
Mr. Richard AV. Eftiand are liereby designated 
Assistant Chiefs, of the American Republics 
Requirements Division. 

The routing symbol of the ^Vinerican Re- 
publics Requirements Division shall be RAR. 

4. EaMcrn Hemisphere Division. 

The Eastern Hemisphere Division shall have 
responsibility so far as the Department of State 
is concerned foi- the initiation and coordination 



of policy and action in all wartime economic 
matters pertaining to countries of the Eastern 
Hemisphere, except those presently occupied by 
the enemy, and Southern Italy and Sicily; and, 
in the Western Hemisphere, to all French pos- 
sessions, Iceland. Greenland, Canada, and Brit- 
ish Colonies and Po.ssessions, except in the 
Caribbean area and in South America, includ- 
ing (a) economic blockade of enemy and 
enemy-occupied territories; (b) formulation of 
requirement programs and of purchase pro- 
grams constituting the counterpart of i-equire- 
inent programs; (c) Lend-Lease matters aris- 
ing in connection with French and British pos- 
sessions; (d) representation of the Department, 
within tlie scope of the Division's responsibil- 
ities, before tlie United States Commercial 
Company and sjjecial area committees organized 
with representatives of the French, Belgian, 
British Dominion, and other governments, 
where tlie problems arise from a diverse group 
of articles and materials rather than one or a 
few conunodities; and (e) liaison, within the 
scojie of its responsibilities, with such depart- 
ments and agencies as may be concerned. 

Mr. Henry R. Labouisse, Jr.. is hereby desig- 
nated Chief of, and Mr. Livingston T. Mer- 
chant, Mr. P'rederick AMiiant and Mr. II. King- 
ston Fleming are hereby designated Advisers 
in. the Eastern Hemisphere Division. 

The routing symbol of the Eastern Hemi- 
sphere Division shall be EH. 

f). Diriaion of Worhf Tindf I nfcUigenct'. 

The Division of World Trade Intelligence 
shall have so far as the Department of State is 
concerned res[)onsibility for liie initiation and 
coordination of policy and action in all matters 
pertaining to (a) the administration of the Pro- 
claimed List of Certain Blocked Nationals and 
related lists; (b) the administration of Execu- 
tive Order No. 8389, as amended, issued under 
Sec. 5 (b) of the Trading with the Enemy Act 
and relating to the regulation of transactions in 
foreign exchange and foreign-owned property 
(excepting with respect to Liberated Ai-eas), 
and the application of the recommendations of 



52 

the Inter-American Conference on Systems of 
Economic and Financial Control, excepting 
matters relating to the replacement or reorgani- 
zation of Axis firms; (c) the collection, eval- 
uation and organization of biographical data; 
(d) liaison, within the scope of its responsi- 
bilities, with the Treasury Department, Foreign 
Economic Administration, Office of the Co- 
ordinator of Inter- American Affairs, and such 
other departments and agencies as may be 
concerned. 

Mr. Francis H. Russell is hereby designated 
Chief, and Mr. George W. Baker and Mr. James 
H. Swihart are hereby designated Assistant 
Chiefs, of the Division of World Trade Intel- 
ligence. 

The routing symbol of the Division of World 
Trade Intelligence shall be WT. 

OrncE OF Economic Atfairs 

There is hereby created an Office of Eco- 
nomic Affairs which, in collaboration with the 
Office of Wartime Economic Affairs, shall have 
responsibility, under the general direction of 
the Assistant Secretary, Mr. Acheson, for the 
initiation and coordination of policy and ac- 
tion in all matters pertaining to international 
economic affairs, other than those of a wartime 
character. 

The Office of the Adviser on International 
Economic Affairs, the Office of the Peti'oleum 
Adviser, and the Division of Economic Studies 
are hereby abolished and their functions and 
responsibilities shall henceforth be carried on 
in the Office of Economic Affaii-s. 

Mr. Harry C. Hawkins is hereby desigiiated 
Director of the Office of Economic Affairs. 

The routing symbol of this Office sliall be 
ECA. 

Mr. Charles B. Rayner is hereby designated 
Adviser on Petroleum Policy in the Office of 
Economic Affairs and is charged with advisory 
responsibilities in regard to the foreign petro- 
leum policies of the United States and other 
govenmients, the foreign organizations and 



DEPAETMElSTT 01* STATE BtTLLETINl 

activities of the American and foreign petro- 
leum industries, and the petroleum resources, 
production, refining, marketing, and transpor- 
tation facilities of foreign countries. 

Mr. Leroy D. Stinebower and Mr. Frederick 
Livesey are hereby designated Advisers in the 
Office of Economic Affairs and Mr. Honore 
Marcel Catudal is hereby designated Special 
Assistant to the Director of the Office, and they 
shall be charged with such responsibilities as 
may be assigned to them by the Director. 

Mr. Leo D. Sturgeon is hereby designated 
Adviser on Fisheries in the Office of Economic 
Affairs. 

The Office of Economic Affairs shall be com- 
posed of the following divisions, with func- 
tions and responsibilities as indicated. 

1. Division of Commercial Policy. 

The Division of Commercial Policy shall have 
responsibility for the initiation and coordina- 
tion of policy and action in all matters pertain- 
ing to: (a) the protection and promotion of 
American commercial and agricultural interests 
in foreign countries under the terms of Re- 
organization Plan No. II as authorized by the 
Reorganization Act of April 3, 1939; (b) the 
formulation, negotiation, and administration of 
commercial treaties, of reciprocal trade agi'ee- 
ments under the Act of June 12, 1934, and of 
such other commercial agreements as may be 
assigned to it by the Director of the Office of 
Economic Affairs; (c) the tariff, general trade, 
and international commercial policy of the 
United States; and (d) liaison, within the scope 
of its responsibilities, with the Department of 
the Treasury, the Department of Commerce, 
the Department of Agriculture, the United 
States Tariff Commission, and such other de- 
partments or agencies as may be concerned. 

Mr. William A. Fowler is hereby designated 
Chief, and Mr. Honore Marcel Catudal and Mr. 
Woodbury Willoughby are hereby designated 
Assistant Chiefs of the Division of Commercial 
Policy, the routing symbol of which shall be TA. 



JANtJART 15, 1944 



;53 



2. Division of Financial and Monetainj Afairs. 
The Division of Financial and Monetary Af- 
fairs shall have responsibility for the initiation 
and coordination of policy and action in all 
matters pertaining to (a) general international 
financial and monetai-y policy; (b) public and 
private foreign investment; (c) industrializa- 
tion and development programs, including 
matters relating to the reorganization of Axis 
firms and requirements for long-range develop- 
ment projects; (d) international financial 
agreements and arrangements ; (e) certification, 
under Section 25 (b) of the Federal Reserve 
Act, of the authority of designated persons to 
dispose of various foreign properties deposited 
in this country; (f) liaison, within the scope of 
its responsibilities, with the Treasury Depart- 
ment, Export-Import Bank, Departments of 
Commerce, Justice, and Agriculture, Foreign 
Economic Administration, Alien Property 
Custodian, Ofiice of the Coordinator of Inter- 
American Affairs, and such other departments 
or agencies as may be concerned. 

The Financial Division is hereby abolished 
and its functions and responsibilities trans- 
ferred to the Division of Financial and Mone- 
tary Affairs. 

Mr. Emilio G. Collado is hereby designated 
Chief, and Mr. John S. Hooker and Mr. Dudley 
M. Phelps are hereby designated Assistant 
Chiefs of the Division of Financial and Mone- 
tary Affairs. 

The routing symbol of the Division of Finan- 
cial and Monetary Affairs shall be FMA. 

3. Commiodities Division. 

The Commodities Division shall have respon- 
sibility for the initiation and coordination of 
policy and action in all matters pertaining to : 
(a) the production and control and the distri- 
bution in international commerce of major com- 
modities such as rubber, tin and the heavy 
metals, petroleum and petroleum products, cof- 
fee, sugar, wheat and cotton; (b) international 
commodity arrangements; (c) international 
fisheries, including fisheries surveys for the pur- 



pose of providing food fish for the American 
armed forces and for our Allies; and (d) within 
the scope of its responsibilities, liaison with 
intergovernmental agencies concerned with in- 
ternational commodity problems, with the De- 
partment of Agi-iculture, the Office of the Petro- 
leum Administrator for War, and such other 
departments and agencies as may be concerned. 

Mr. Eobert M. Carr and Mr. James C. Sap- 
pington, 3d, are hereby designated Assistant 
Chiefs of the Commodities Division, and Mr. 
Carr shall serve temporarily as Acting Chief of 
the Division. 

The routing symbol of the Commodities Divi- 
sion shall be CD. 

4. Division of Labor Relations. 

The Division of Labor Relations shall have 
responsibility for initiating and coordinating 
policy and action in matters pertaining to (a) 
the effects on the foreign relations of the United 
States of policies and practices in foreign coun- 
tries concerning wage and hour standards, 
working conditions and similar matters of in- 
terest and concern to labor in the United States 
and abroad; (b) the interest of labor in the 
United States in matters of broad international 
policy; (c) international arrangements for the 
promotion of full employment, health, economic 
and social welfare in general; and (d) within 
the scope of its I'esponsibilities, liaison with the 
Department of Labor and other departments 
and agencies concerned, and with international 
agencies. 

Mr. Otis Mulliken is hereby designated As- 
sistant Chief of the Division of Labor Relations, 
and he shall serve temporarily as Acting Chief 
of the Division. 

The routing symbol of the Division of Labor 
Relations shall be LRD. 

Office of American Republic Affairs 

There is hereby created an Office of American 
Republic Affairs which shall have responsibil- 
ity, under the general direction of the Secretary 



54 



DEPARTME'NT OF STATE BULLETTN 



and Under Secretary, for the initiation and, in 
particular, the coordination of policy and action 
in regard to all aspects of relations with Argen- 
tina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa 
Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic. Ecuador. El 
Salvador, Guatemala. Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, 
Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, 
and Venezuela. In addition, the Office of 
American Republic Affairs shall have respon- 
sibility for supervising so far as the Department 
of State is concerned the program of the Inter- 
departmental Committee for Cooperation With 
the Other American Republics. 

All other offices and divisions in the Depart- 
ment shall assure full participation by the Of- 
fice of American Republic Affairs and its com- 
ponent divisions, as liereinafter provided for, 
in the fonnuhition and execution of policj' af- 
fecting relations with the countries under the 
jurisdiction of this Office. 

Mr. Lawrence Dn;:gan is hereby designated 
Director, and Mr. Philip W. Bonsai is hereby 
designated Deputy Director, of the Office of 
American Republic Affairs. 

Tlie routing symbol of the Office of American 
Republic Affairs shall be ARA. 

The Office of American Republic Affairs shiill 
be composed of the lul lowing divisions, which 
shall have primary responsibility for the func- 
tions of the Office in regard to relations witli 
the countries indicated in each case. 

1. Division of Mexican Affairs. Mexico. 
Mr. Joseph F. Mctiurk is hereby designated 

Chief of the Division of Mexican Affairs. 

The routing symbol of the Division of Mex- 
ican Affairs shall be MA. 

2. Divi-sion of Caribhean mul Central American 

Affairs. Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Re- 
public, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, 
Honduras, Nicaragua, and Pananin, and, in 
collaboration with the appropriate divi- 
sions in the Office of European Affairs, rela- 
tions with European possessions in the area, 
the Guianas and British H(mduras. 

The Caribbean Office is hereby abolished and 
its functions and responsibilities, including liai- 



son with the American Section of the Anglo- 
American Caribbean Commission, are hereby 
transferred to the Division of Caribbean and 
Central American Affaii'S. 

Mr. Ellis O. Briggs is hereby designated 
Chief, and Jlr. John M. Cabot and Mr. John F. 
Gauge are hei"eby designated Assistant Chiefs, 
of the Division of Caribbean and Central Amer- 
ican Affairs. 

The routing symbol of the Division of Carib- 
bean and Central American Affairs shall be 
CCA. 

3. Divi.-iion of Brazilian Affairs. Brazil. 

Mr. AValter N. Walmsley, Jr., is hereby 
designated Chief of the Division of Brazilian 
Affairs. 

The routing symbol of the Division of Brazil- 
ian Affairs shall be BA. 

4. Division of Bolivarian Affairs. Colombia, 

Ecuador, and Venezuela. 

Mr. Gerald Keith is hereby designated Chief 
of the Division of Bolivarian Affairs. 

The routing symbol of the Division of Boli- 
varian Affairs shall be BOL. 

h. Division, of River Plate Affairs. Argentina, 
Paraguay, and Uruguay. 

Mr. J. Kenly Bacon is hereby designated As- 
sistant Chief of the Division of River Plate Af- 
fairs, and he sliall serve temporarily as Acting 
Chief of the Division. 

The routing symbol of the Division of River 
Plate Affairs shall be RPA. 

6. Division of West Coast Affairs. Bolivia, 
Chile, and Peru. 

ilr. Cecil B. Lyon is hereby designated As- 
sistant Chief of the Division of West Coast Af- 
fairs and he shall serve temporarily as Acting 
Chief of the Division. 

The routing symbol of the Division of West 
Coast Affairs shall be AVCA. 

Office of European Affairs 
There is hereby created an Office of Euro- 
pean Affairs which shall have responsibility, 



JANtJART 15, 1944 



65 



under the general direction of the Secretai-y and 
the Under Secretary, for tlie initiation and the 
coordination of policy and action in regard to 
all aspects of relations with the following coun- 
tries: Albania. Australia, Austria, Belgium, 
Bulgaria, Canada, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, 
Estonia, Finland, France, Free City of Danzig, 
Germany, Great Britain (including Britisli ter- 
ritories and possessions except India and those 
in Africa), Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, 
Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, 
New Zealand, Norway. Poland, Portugal, Ru- 
mania, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Union of 
South Africa, Union of Soviet Socialist Repub- 
lics, Yugoslavia, and European possessions in 
the Far East (in conjunction with the Office of 
Far Eastern Affaii-s). 

All other offices and divisions in the Depart- 
ment shall assiue full participation by the Of- 
fice of European Affairs and its component di- 
\isions as hereinafter provided for in the for- 
mulation and execution of policy affecting rela- 
tions with the countries under the jurisdiction 
of this Office. 

Mr. James C. Dunn is hereby designated Di- 
rector, and Mr. H. Freemnn Matthews is h6reby 
designated Deputy Director, of the Office of 
Euroi^ean Affairs, and Mr. Raymond E. Mur- 
phy is hereby designated Special Assistant to 
the Director of the Office of European Affairs. 

The routing symbol of the Office of European 
Affairs shall be EUR. 

The Office of European Affairs shall be com- 
posed of the following divisions which shall 
have primary responsibility for carrying out 
the functions of the Office in regard to relations 
with the countries indicated in each case. 

1. Division of British C onvmonwealth Affairs. 

British Commonwealth of Nations and 

possessions, ('xce[)t India and possessions 

in Africa. 

Mr. John D. Hickerson is hereby designated 

Chief, and Mr. Theodore C. Achilles is herebj' 

designated Assistant Chief, of the Division of 

British Commonwealth Affairs. 
The routing sj'mbol of the Division of British 

Commonwealth Affairs shall be BC. 



2. Division of Eastern European Affairs. 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, Po- 
land, and other areas of Eastern Europe. 

Mr. Charles E. Bohlen is hereby designated 
Chief of the Division of Eastern European Af- 
fairs. 

The routing symbol of the Division of East- 
ern European Affairs shall be EE. 

3. Division of Central European Affairs. Ger- 
many, Austria, Czechoslovakia. 

Mr. James AV. Riddleberger is hereby desig- 
nated Chief of the Division of Central Euro- 
pean Affairs. 

The routing symbol of the Division of Cen- 
tral European Affairs shall be CE. 

4. Division of Southern European Affairs. 
Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary, Italy, Ru- 
mania, San Marino, Yugoslavia. The Di- 
vision shall also have responsibility for 
matters relating to the Vatican. 

Mr. Hugh S. Fuilerton is hereby designated 
Chief, and Mr. Cavendish W. Camion is hereby 
designated Assistant Cliief of the Division. 

The routing symbol of the Division of South- 
ern European Affairs shall be SE. 

.5. Division of Northern European Affaii-s. 
Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Netherlands, 
Norway, Sweden, and possessions of these 
countries. 

Mr. Hugh S. Cumming, Jr., is hereby desig- 
nated Chief of the Division of Northern 
European Affairs. 

The routing symbol of the Division of North- 
ern European Affairs shall be NOE. 

6. Division of Western European Affairs. 
Andorra, Belgium, France, Liechtenstein, 
Luxembourg, Monaco, Portugal, Spain, 
Switzerland, and possessions of those coun- 
tries. 

Mr. Paul T. Culbertson is hereby designated 
Chief, and Mr. W. Perry George and Mr. James 
C. H. BonBright are lierebj' designated Assist- 
ant Chiefs, of the Division of Westeni Euro- 
pean Affairs. 



56 



DEPAHTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



The symbol designation of the Division of 
Western European Affairs shall be WE. 

Office of Special Political Affairs 

There is hereby created an Office of Special 
Political Affairs which shall have responsi- 
bility, under the general direction of the Secre- 
tary and Under Secretary, for the initiation and 
coordination of policy and action in special 
matters of international political relations. 

The Division of Political Studies is hereby 
abolished and its functions and responsibilities 
transferred to the Office of Special Political 
Affairs. 

All other offices and divisions in the Depart- 
ment shall assure full participation by the Office 
of Special Political Affairs and its comi^onent 
divisions as hereinafter provided for in the for- 
mulation and execution of policy affecting the 
responsibilities of this Office. 

Mr. James C. Dunn is hereby designated 
Actin,g Director of the Office of Special Political 
Affairs. 

The routing symbol of the Office of Special 
Political Affairs shall be SPA. 

The Office of Special Political Affairs shall be 
composed of the following divisions, with func- 
tions and responsibilities as indicated. 

1. Division of International Security and 
Orffanisation. 

The Division of International Security and 
Organization shall have responsibility for the 
initiation and coordination of policy and action 
in matters pertaining to: (a) general and re- 
gional international peace and security arrange- 
ments and other arrangements for organized in- 
ternational cooperation; (b) liaison with inter- 
national organizations and agencies concerned 
with such matters; and (c) liaison within the 
scope of its responsibilities with the War and 
Navy Departments and such other departments 
and agencies of the Government as may be 
concerned. 

Mr. Harley A. Notter is hereby designated 
Chief, and Mr. Durward V. Sandifer, Mr. C. 



East on Eothwell and Mr. O. Benjamin Gerig 
are hereby designated Assistant Chiefs, of the 
Division of International Security and Organ- 
ization. 

The routing symbol of the Division of Inter- 
national Security and Organization shall be 
ISO. 
2. Division of Territorial Studies. 

The Division of Territorial Studies shall have 
responsibility for: (a) analyzing and apprais- 
ing developments and conditions in foreign 
countries arising out of the war and relating to 
post-war settlements of interest to the United 
States; (b) maintaining liaison in this field with 
other departments and agencies of the Govern- 
ment ; and (c) formulating policy recommenda- 
tions in regard to these matters in collaboration 
with other divisions in the Department. 

Mr. Philip E. Mosely is hereby designated 
Chief, and Mr. David Harris and Mr. Philip W. 
Ireland are hereby designated Assistant Chiefs, 
of the Division of Territorial Studies. 

The routing symbol of the Division of Terri- 
torial Studies shall be TS. 

Office of Far Eastern Affairs 

There is hereby created an Office of Far East- 
em Affairs which shall have responsibility, un- 
der the general direction of the Secretary and 
the Under Secretary, for the initiation and, in 
particular, the coordination of policy and action 
in regard to all aspects of relations with the 
following countries: China, Japan, and Thai- 
land, and (in conjunction with the Office of 
European Affairs, and other interested offices 
and divisions) the possessions and territories 
of Occidental countries in the Far East and in 
the Pacific area. The Office also shall have 
charge of such matters as concern the Depart- 
ment in relation to American-controlled islands 
in the Pacific and, in particular, of such matters 
as concern the Department in relation to the 
Philippine Islands. 



JANUARY 15, 1944 



57 



All other offices and divisions in the Depart- 
ment shall assure full participation of the Of- 
fice of Far Eastern Affairs and its component 
divisions, as hereinafter provided for, in the 
formulation and execution of policy affecting 
relations with tlie countries under the jurisdic- 
tion of this Office. 

Mr. Stanley K. Hornbeck is hereby designated 
Director, and Mr. Joseph W. Ballantine is here- 
by designated Deputy Director, of the Office of 
Far Eastern Affairs. Mr. Alger Hiss is hereby 
designated Special Assistant to the Director of 
the Office of Far Eastern Affairs. 

The routing symbol of the Office of Far East- 
ern Affairs shall be FE. 

The Office of Far Eastern Affairs shall be 
composed of the following divisions which shall 
have primary responsibility for carrying out 
the functions of the Office in regard to relations 
with the countries indicated in each case. 

1. Division of Chinese Affairs. China and ad- 

jacent territories. 

]\Ir. Jolm Carter Vincent is hereby designated 
Chief of, and Mr. Edwin F. Stanton is hereby 
designated Consultant in, the Division of 
Chinese Affairs. 

The routing symbol of the Division of Chinese 
Affairs shall be CA. 

2. Division of Japanese Affairs. Japanese Em- 

pire, Japanese Mandates, and, in coopera- 
tion with the Division of Eastern European 
Affairs, matters relating to the Soviet Far 
East. 
Mr. Erie R. Dickover is hereby designated 
Cliief of the Division of Japanese Affairs. 

The routing symbol of the Division of Japan- 
ese Affaire shall be JA. 

3. Division of Southwest Pacific Affairs. 

Thailand, and, in cooperation with other 
interested offices and divisions, Indo-China, 
Malaya, British North Borneo, Netherlands 
East Indies, Portuguese Timor and British 
and French Island Possessions in the 
Pacific. 



Mr. Laurence E. Salisbury is hereby desig- 
nated Acting Chief of the Division of South- 
west Pacific Affairs. 

The routing symbol of the Division of South- 
west Pacific Affairs shall be SP. 

4. Division of Phili-ppine Affairs. Philippine 
Islands and other American-controlled 
islands of the Pacific. 

The Office of Philippine Affairs is hereby 
abolished and its functions and responsibilities 
are hereby transferred to the Division of Philip- 
pine Affairs. 

Mr. Frank P. Lockliart is hereby designated 
Chief of the Division of Philippine Affairs. 

The routing symbol of the Division of Philip- 
pine Affairs shall be PI. 

Office of Eastern and African Affairs 

There is hereby created an Office of Eastern 
and African Affairs which shall have respon- 
sibility, under the general direction of the Sec- 
retary and the Under Secretary, for the initia- 
tion and, in particular, the coordination of policy 
and action in regard to all aspects of relations 
with the following countries: Afghanistan, 
Burma, Ceylon, Greece, India, Iran, Iraq, 
Lebanon, Palestine and Trans-Jordan, Saudi 
Arabia and other countries of the Arabian Pen- 
insula, Syria, Turkey, Egypt, Ethiopia, Liberia 
and all colonies, protectorates, and mandated 
territories in Africa, excluding Algeria. 

All other offices and divisions in the Depart- 
ment shall assure full participation by the Office 
of Eastern and African Affairs and its com- 
ponent divisions as hereinafter provided for in 
the formulation and execution of policy affect- 
ing relations with the coimtries under the juris- 
diction of this Office. 

Mr. Wallace S. Murray is hereby designated 
Director, and Mr. Paul H. Ailing is hereby 
designated Deputy Director, of the Office of 
Eastern and African Affairs. 

The routing symbol of the Office of Eastern 
and African Affairs shall be OEA. 



568539—44- 



58 



DEPARTME'NT OF STATE BULLETENl 



The Office of Eastern and African Affairs 
shall be composed of the following divisions 
•which shall have primary responsibility for 
carrying out the functions of the Office in re- 
gard to relations with the countries indicated in 
each case. 

1. Division of Near Eastern Afairs. Egypt, 

Greece, Iraq, Lebanon, Palestine and 
Trans-Jordan, Saudi Arabia and other 
countries of the Arabian Peninsula, Syria 
and Turkey. 
Mr. Gordon P. Merriam is hereby designated 
Chief, and Mr. Foy D. Kohler is hereby desig- 
nated Assistant Chief, of the Division of Near 
Eastern Affairs. 

The routing symbol of the Division of Near 
Eastern Affairs shall be NEA. 

2. Division of Middle Eastern Affairs. Afghan- 

istan, Burma, Ceylon, India and Iran. 

Mr. George V. Allen is hereby designated 
Chief of the Division of Middle Eastern Affairs. 

The routing symbol of the Division of Middle 
Eastern Affairs shall be MEA. 

3. Division of African Affairs. Ethiopia, Li- 

beria and all other territories in Africa. 

Mr. Henry S. Villard is hereby designated 
Chief, and Mr. Charles W. Lewis is hereby des- 
ignated Assistant Chief, of the Division of 
African Affairs. 

The routing symbol of the Division of Afri- 
can Affairs shall be AFA. 

Office of Departmental Administration 

There is hereby created the Office of Depart- 
mental Administration which shall have re- 
sponsibility, under the general direction of the 
Assistant Secretary, Mr. Shaw, for all matters 
of administration and organization of the De- 
partment of State, including (a) budget devel-, 
opment and control and fiscal management; 

(b) administrative and procedural planning; 

(c) personnel administration; (d) communica- 
tions and records; (e) geographic and carto- 
graphic research ; (f) protocol; (g) administra- 
tive aspects of international conferences and 



the fulfillment of international obligations; 
and (h) liaison with the Civil Service Commis- 
sion, Bureau of the Budget, General Account- 
ing Office, and such other agencies as may be 
concerned. 

Mr. John C. Ross is hereby designated Direc- 
tor of the Office of Departmental Administra- 
tion. 

Mr. Arthur W. Macmahon is hereby desig- 
nated Consultant in the Office of Departmental 
Administration. Mr. Wilbur C. Irving is 
hereby designated Special Assistant to the Di- 
rector of Departmental Achninistration. 

The routing symbol of this Office shall be 
ODA. 

The Office of Departmental Administration 
shall be composed of the following divisions, 
with functions and responsibilities as indicated. 

1. Division of Budget and FiTiance. 

The Division of Budget and Finance shall 
have responsibility in the following matters: 
(a) supervision of the budgetary and fiscal af- 
fairs of the Department, including the Foreign 
Service (subject to legal requirements), in- 
cluding the acquisition and distribution of 
funds, auditing, accounting, fiscal management, 
purchasing, and related activities; (b) formu- 
lation of budgetai-y and fiscal policies and con- 
trols in cooperation with staff and program 
offices and divisions; (c) liaison with Congres- 
sional Appropriations Committees, Bureau of 
the Budget, General Accounting Office, Treas- 
ury Department, Government Printing Office, 
and other departments and agencies on budg- 
etary, fiscal or procurement matters. 

The Office of Fiscal and Budget Affaii's 
and the Division of Accounts are hereby abol- 
ished and their functions and responsibilities 
transferred to the Division of Budget and 
Finance. 

Mr. Harry M. Kurth is hereby designated 
Chief, Mrs. Ella A. Logsdon is hereby desig- 
nated Assistant Chief, and Mr. Donald W. Cor- 
rick is hereby designated Acting Assistant 
Chief, of trie Division of Budget and Finance. 



JANUARY 15, 1944 



59 



The routing symbol of the Division of Budget 
and Finance shall be BF. 

2. Division of Administrative Management. 
The Division of Administrative ilanagement 

shall have responsibility for all matters per- 
taining to: (a) general administration and 
organization ; (b) effective administrative coor- 
dination between oiSces and divisions within the 
Department; (c) inter-office and inter-divisional 
definitions of responsibility; (d) the drafting 
and issuance of Departmental Orders and Ad- 
ministrative Instructions ; (e) effective adminis- 
trative relationships between the Department 
and other departments and agencies and inter- 
governmental agencies; and (f) such other 
duties as may be assigned by the Director of the 
Office of Departmental Administration. 

Mr. Millard L. Kenestrick is hereby desig- 
nated Assistant Chief of the Division of Ad- 
ministrative Management. 

The routing symbol of the Division of Ad- 
ministrative Management shall be AM. 

Tlie Office of the Chief Clerk and Adminis- 
trative Assistant is hereby abolished and, except 
as may hereafter be determined, its functions 
and responsibilities transferred to the Division 
of Achninistrative Management. 

3. Division of Departmental Personnel. 

Tlie Division of Departmental Personnel 
shall have responsibility in the following mat- 
ters: (a) assisting the Director of the Office of 
Departmental Administration in the formula- 
tion and effectuation of policies and practices 
which assure sound personnel management 
throughout the Department and proper utiliza- 
tion and training of employees of the Depart- 
ment; and (b) administration of the Civil 
Service rules and regulations and the execution 
of the provisions of the Classification, Retire- 
ment, and Employees' Compensation Acts, in- 
volving recruitment, classification, personnel 
relations, efficiency ratings, Selective Service, 
and related personnel functions; and liaison 
with the Civil Service Commission and such 
other departments and agencies as may be 
concerned. 



Mr. Wilbur C. Irving is hereby designated 
Acting Chief of the Division of Departmental 
Personnel. 

The routing symbol of the Division of De- 
partmental Personnel shall be DP. 

4. Division of Comm'wnications and Records. 

The Division of Communications and Records 
shall have responsibility in the following mat- 
ters: (a) dispatch and receipt of all tele- 
graphic correspondence of the Department; 
encoding and decoding of messages exchanged 
in the conduct of foreign relations; (b) review 
of all outgoing correspondence ; coordination of 
the correspondence for consideration and 
initialing before signing, and submission to the 
appropriate officers for signature ; and furnish- 
ing of information concerning diplomatic 
precedence, accepted styles of correspondence, 
and related matters; (c) classification, record- 
ing, distribution, and preservation of corre- 
spondence, and the conduct of research therein ; 
(d) commenting upon, censoring and grading 
of reports and other infomiation received from 
the Foreign Service on commercial, agricultural 
and economic matters, and the distribution of 
such information to the Departments of Com- 
merce and Agriculture and to such other 
departments and agencies as may appropriately 
receive it; and (e) liaison, within the scope 
of its responsibilities, between the Department 
and, in particular, the Departments of Com- 
merce and Agriculture, and such other depart- 
ments and agencies as may be concerned. 

The Office of Coordination and Review is 
hereby abolished and its functions and respon- 
sibilities transferred to the Division of Com- 
munications and Records. 

Mr. Raymond H. Geist is hereby designated 
Chief, and Mr. G. Harold Keatley, Mr. Paul T. 
Meyer, Miss Sarah D. Moore, and Miss Helen 
L. Daniel are hereby designated Assistant 
Chiefs, of the Division of Communications and 
Records. 

The routing symbol of the Division of Com- 
munications and Records shall be DCR. 



60 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



5. Division of Geogrraphy and Cartography. 

The Division of Geography and Cartogi'aphy 
shall have responsibility in the following mat- 
ters: (a) the assembling, analysis, interpreta- 
tion and presentation in the form of maps, 
charts, or reports, of data of a geographic, geo- 
detic or cartographic nature on land and water 
areas throughout the world in connection with 
current and post-war considerations and nego- 
tiations concerning international or inter-re- 
gional relations involving questions of political, 
economic, historic or commercial geography; 
and the furnishing of related geographic in- 
formation or advice; (b) determination or revi- 
sion of population statistics in connection with 
the fixing of immigration quotas for specific 
areas or countries, when occasion arises; (c) 
maintenance of the Department's collection of 
maps, atlases and gazetteers; and (d) liaison 
with the United States Geological Survey, Coast 
and Geodetic Survey, Hydrographic OflSce, and 
other departments and agencies in matters of 
geography, geodesy and cartography. 

The Office of the Geographer is hereby abol- 
ished and its functions and responsibilities 
transferred to the Division of Geography and 
Cartography. 

Mr. Samuel W. Boggs is hereby designated 
Chief, and Mr. Otto E. Guthe and Mrs. Sophia 
A. Saucerman are designated Assistant Chiefs, 
of the Division of Geography and Cartography. 

The routing symbol of the Division of Geog- 
raphy and Cartography shall be DGC. 

6. Division of Protocol. 

The Protocol Division shall have resjjonsibil- 
ity in the following matters: (a) arranging for 
presentation to the President of ambassadors 
and ministers accredited to this Government; 

(b) correspondence concerning their acceptabil- 
ity to this Government and correspondence con- 
cerning the acceptability to foreign govern- 
ments of like officers of the United States; 

(c) questions regarding rights and immunities 
in the United States of representatives of for- 
eign governments; (d) arrangements for all 



ceremonials of a national or international char- 
acter in the United States or participated in by 
the United States abroad ; (e) arrangements for 
and protection of distinguished foreign visitors; 
(f) questions concerning customs and other 
courtesies abroad; (g) making arrangements 
for the casual or ceremonial visits of foreign 
naval vessels and of foreign military organiza- 
tions to the United States and visits of the same 
character of United States naval vessels and 
military organizations abroad; (h) arrange- 
ments for the entry of troops of Allied Nations 
and their baggage, arriving at United States 
ports en route to training centers in this hemi- 
sphere and en route to foreign duty; (i) ar- 
rangements for release, as international cour- 
tesy, of certain war materials, ammunitions, 
models, et cetera, used in fulfilling contracts for 
Allied Nations ; ( j ) matters with respect to visits 
of aliens to industrial factories and plants 
where war contracts are being executed; (k) 
questions affecting the Diplomatic Corps under 
the commodities rationing program ; (1) matters 
of ceremonial in connection with the White 
House and the Department of State; (m) prep- 
aration of the Diplomatic List ; (n) maintenance 
of a record of all officers and employees of for- 
eign governments m the United States and its 
possessions; (o) questions of exemption of such 
foreign government officials from military 
training and service; (p) preparation of exe- 
quaturs, certificates of recognition, and notes 
granting provisional recognition to foreign 
consular officers in the United States, and corre- 
spondence relating thereto ; (q) preparation of 
the List of Foreign Consular Offices in the 
United States; (r) questions concerning the 
medals and decorations conferred by foreign 
goverrmients upon officers of the United States ; 
and (s) preparation of communications from 
the President to the heads of foreign states. 

Mr. Stanley Woodward is hereby designated 
Chief, and Mr. Raymond D. Muir is hereby 
designated Acting Ceremonial Officer, of the 
Protocol Division. 



JANUARY 15, 1944 



61 



Tlie routing symbol of the Division of Pro- 
tocol shall be PEO. 

7. Division of International Conferenoes. 

The Division of International Conferences 
shall have responsibility in the following mat- 
ters : (a) planning and executing arrangements 
for i^articipation by this Government in in- 
ternational organizations, conferences, con- 
gresses, expositions and conventions at home 
and abroad, including the organization of dele- 
gations to international conferences and col- 
laboration in the preparation of instructions to 
such delegates; (b) fulfillment of the interna- 
tional obligations of the United States with 
respect to membership and expenditures for in- 
ternational treaty commissions, committees, 
bureaus, and other official organizations; (c) 
collaboration in carrying out agreements, reso- 
lutions and recommendations of official inter- 
national meetings; (d) supervision of appro- 
priations for conference activities; and (e) 
liaison, within the scope of its functions and 
responsibilities, with permanent international 
organizations. 

Mr. Warren Kelchner is hereby designated 
Chief, and Mr. Clarke L. Willard is hereby 
designated Assistant Chief, of the Division of 
International Conferences. 

The routing symbol of the Division of Inter- 
national Conferences shall be IC. 

Board of Foreign Service Personnel, Board of 
Examiners for the Foreign Ser\ice, and 
Foreign SER\^CE Officers Training School 
Board 

The duties of the Board of Foreign Service 
Personnel, under Executive Order 5642 of June 
8, 1931, are : to submit to the Secretary of State 
for approval, lists of Foreign Service officers 
prepared in accordance with law by the Divi- 
sion of Foreign Service Personnel in which they 
are graded in accordance with their relative 
efficiency in value to the Service; to recom- 
mend promotions in the Foreign Service and to 



furnish the Secretary of State with lists of For- 
eign Service officers who have demonstrated 
special capacity for promotion to the grade of 
minister; to submit to the Secretary of State, 
for approval and transmission to the Presi- 
dent, the names of those officers and employees 
of the Department of State who are recom- 
mended for appointment by transfer to the po- 
sition of Foreign Service officer; to submit to 
the Secretary of State the names of those For- 
eign Service officers who are recommended for 
designation as counselors of embassies or lega- 
tions; to recommend the assignment of Foreign 
Service officers to posts and the transfer of such 
officers from one branch of the Service to the 
other ; to consider controversies and delinquen- 
cies among the Service personnel and to recom- 
mend appropriate disciplinary action where 
required ; to determine, after considering recom- 
mendations of the Division of Foreign Service 
Personnel, when the efficiency rating of an 
officer is unsatisfactory, in order that the Secre- 
tary of State may take appropriate action. 

The duties of the Board of Examiners for 
tlie Foreign Service, under Executive Order 
5642 of June 8, 1931, are to conduct the exam- 
inations of candidates for appointment to the 
Foreign Service. 

The duties of the Foreign Service Officers 
Training School Board are to exercise direction 
over the Foreign Service Officers Training 
School. 

The Assistant Secretary, Mr. Shaw, shall con- 
tinue to serve as a Member and Chairman, and 
Assistant Secretaries, Mr. Berle and Mr. Ache- 
son, shall continue to serve as Members, of these 
Boards. 

Office of Foreign Service Administration 

There is hereby created an Office of Foreign 
Service Administration which shall have re- 
sponsibility, under the general direction of the 
Assistant Secretary, Mr. Shaw, for all aspects 
of the administration of the Foreign Service of 
the United States, 



62 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Mr. John G. Erhardt is hereby designated 
Director of the Office of Foreign Service Admin- 
istration. 

The routing symbol of the Office of Foreign 
Service Administration shall be FSA. 

The Office of Foreign Service Administration 
shall be composed of the following divisions, 
with functions and responsibilities as indicated. 

1. Division of Foreign Service Personnel. 

The Division of Foreign Service Personnel 
shall have responsibility in the following mat- 
ters: (a) recruitment, appointment, and train- 
ing of the classified, auxiliary, and clerical per- 
sonnel of the Foi-eign Service of the United 
States; (b) maintenance of the required effi- 
ciency standards of the Service and custody of 
the confidential records of all personnel; (c) 
recommendation to the Board of Foreign Serv- 
ice Personnel of administrative action regarding 
assignments, transfers, promotions, demotions, 
disciplinary action, and separations from the 
Service, based upon conclusions drawn from an 
evaluation of efficiencj^ reports, inspection re- 
ports, and official authentic information from 
chiefs of diplomatic missions and consular estab- 
lishments, from competent officers of the De- 
partment, and from other informed sources; 
(d) preparation, under the supervision of the 
Chairman of the Board of Foreign Service Per- 
sonnel, of biannual rating lists in which all 
Foreign Service officers are gi-aded in accord- 
ance with their relative efficiency and value to 
the Service, and from which list recommenda- 
tions for promotions are made in the order of 
ascertained merit within classes; (e) consulta- 
tion with chiefs of missions, principal consular 
officers, and the heads of divisions and offices of 
the Department in regard to the proper func- 
tioning of field offices; (f) reception of officers 
and clerks of the Foreign Service on home leave 
of absence and discussion with them of their 
work and problems; (g) information with re- 
spect to entrance into the Foreign Service; (h) 



records of the Board of Examiners for the For- 
eign Service and matters connected with the 
holding of examinations. 

Mr. Nathaniel P. Davis is hereby designated 
Chief of the Division of Foreign Service 
Personnel. 

The routing symbol of the Division of For- 
eign Service Personnel shall be FSP. 

2. Division of Foreign Service Administration. 
The Division of Foreign Service Administra- 
tion shall have general responsibility for all 
matters concerning the administration of the 
Foreign Service of the United States except 
such matters as are or may be assigned to other 
divisions in the Office of Foreign Service Ad- 
ministration or to the Division of Budget and 
Finance in the Office of Departmental Admin- 
istration. Specifically, the Division of Foreign 
Service Administration shall have responsibil- 
ity in the following matters : (a) the drafting of 
regulations and the coordinating of instructions 
in regard thereto; (b) the preparation and jus- 
tification of budget estimates for the Foreign 
Service; (c) the control of expenditures from 
the various appropriations for the Foreign 
Service; (d) analysis of cost of living at the 
various posts in connection with equitable dis- 
tribution of allowances and clerical salaries; 
(e) the granting of leaves of absence; (f) the 
administration of the law governing the pay- 
ment of annuities to retired Foreign Service 
officers and their widows; (g) the establish- 
ment, operation, or closing of diplomatic and 
consular offices; (h) the administration and 
maintenance of government property abroad, 
including supervision of contracts; (i) the 
furnishing of equipment and supplies with 
maintenance of inventories; (j) the operation 
of the diplomatic pouch service and the super- 
vision of diplomatic couriers; (k) supervision 
of the despatch agencies and of matters relat- 
ing to the designation of military, naval, and 
other attaches abroad (1) recommendation of 



JANtTARY 15, 194 4 



63 



legislation affecting the Foreign Service and 
keeping the Foreign Service informed con- 
cerning new statutes; (m) maintenance and 
revision of the Foreign Service regulations; 
(n) handling of emergency wartime problems 
such as the evacuation of staffs and dependents 
from dangerous areas; (o) Selective Service; 
(p) general administrative assistance to mis- 
sions sent abroad by other departments and 
agencies; (q) claims made by Foreign Service 
personnel for personal losses caused by the war ; 
(r) the documentation of merchandise; (s) 
matters relating to the estates of American 
citizens dying abroad ; (t) notarial services per- 
formed by consular oiBcers; (u) reports of 
death of American citizens; (v) extradition 
cases handled in collaboration with the Office 
of the Legal Adviser; (w) services for the 
Veterans' Administration ; (x) certain matters 
relating to diplomatic and consular rights and 
privileges. 

The Foreign Service Buildings Office and the 
Office of Foreign Service Furnishings are here- 
by abolished, and their functions and responsi- 
bilities are hereby vested in the Division of 
Foreign Service Administration, as follows: 
(a) the housing and furnishing of diplomatic 
and consular establishments abroad; (b) the 
protection and maintenance of properties 
owned or to be acquired by the United States 
for such purpose; and (c) programs of expend- 
itures for the acquisition, construction, altera- 
tion, or furnishing of such properties. 

Mr. Monnett B. Davis is hereby designated 
Chief, and Mr. Harry A. Havens, Mr. Francis 
E. Flaherty, Mr. Hugh C. McMillan, and Mr. 
E. Paul Tenney are hereby designated Assist- 
ant Chiefs, of the Division of Foreign Service 
Administration. 

The routing symbol of the Division of For- 
eign Service Administration shall be FA. 

Mr. Frederick Larkin is hereby designated 
Chief, and Mr. Leland W. King, Jr., is hereby 
designated Assistant Chief, of Foreign Service 
Buildings Operations in the Division of For- 
eign Service Administration. 



Office of Public Infohmation 

For the purpose of assuring full understand- 
ing of the foreign policy and relations of the 
United States, within this country and in other 
countries, there is hereby created an Office of 
Public Information which shall have responsi- 
bility, under the general direction of the As- 
sistant Secretary, Mr. Shaw, for the public 
information program and policy of the De- 
partment of State. The Office of Public In- 
formation shall be responsible for development 
and coordination of policy and execution of 
programs in all matters pertaining to: (a) the 
Department's relations with private groups and 
organizations interested in the formulation of 
foreign policy; (b) the collection and anal3'sis 
of materials relating to public attitudes on 
current foreign policy questions; (c) relations 
with the domestic and foreign press, radio, and 
newsreels; (d) research on international affairs 
and publication of official documents; (e) the 
cultural exchange program of the United States 
Government with foreign countries, coordina- 
tion of international cultural and educational 
programs of Federal agencies, and facilitating 
relationships between United States private, 
professional, scientific, and educational organi- 
zations and similar groups in other countries; 
and (f) liaison within the field of responsibili- 
ties with the Office of War Information, the Of- 
fice of the Coordinator of Inter-American 
Affairs, and such other Government depart- 
ments and agencies as may be concerned. 

The Division of Cultural Relations is hereby 
abolished and its functions and responsibilities 
transferred to the Office of Public Information. 

Mr. John S. Dickey is hereby designated Di- 
rector of the Office of Public Information, Mr. 
diaries A. Thomson is hereby designated Ad- 
viser, and Mr. Richard W. Morin, Mr. S. Shep- 
ard Jones and Mr. James E. McKenna are 
hereby designated Special Assistants to the 
Director of that Office. 

The routing symbol of this Office shall be 
OPI. 



64 



DEPARTMENT OP 'STATE BULLETIN 



The Office of Public Information shall be 
composed of the following divisions, with func- 
tions and responsibilities as indicated; 

1. Division of Current Information. 

The Division of Current Information shall 
have responsibility in matters pertaining to (a) 
liaison between the Department and the domes- 
tic and foreign press, including the conduct of 
the press conferences of the Secretary, the 
Under Seci'etary, and other officials of the De- 
partment; (b) liaison between the Department 
and other agencies of the Government, partic- 
ularly the Office of War Information, Office of 
Censorship, Coordinator of Inter- American Af- 
fairs and the War Department in connection 
with the dissemination abroad of information 
regarding the war effort, except through the 
media of motion pictures and radio; and (c) 
preparation and distribution within the De- 
partment and to the Foreign Service of daily 
press summaries, bulletins and clippings and 
general information bearing upon foreign re- 
lations and the activities of this Government 
generally. 

Mr. Kobert T. Pell and Mr. Homer M. Bying- 
ton, Jr., are hereby designated Assistant Chiefs 
of the Division of Current Information, and 
Mr. Byington shall sei"ve temporarily as Acting 
Chief of the Division. 

The routing symbol of this Division shall 
be CI. 

2. Division of Research and Publication. 

The Division of Research and Publication 
shall have responsibility in matters pertaining 
to: (a) conduct of historical research studies in 
international relations, including studies of the 
Department's wartime policies and operations; 
(b) preparation for the Secretary of State, the 
Under Secretary and other officers of the De- 
partment of historical information pertaining 
to current problems; (c) compilation of the 
United States Statutes at Large, Foreign Rela- 
tions of the United States, Treaties and Other 
International Acts of the United States of 



America, The Territorial Papers of the United 
States, The Department of State Bulletin, 
special volumes on foreign policy, and other 
publications; (d) collection, compilation and 
maintenance of information pertaining to 
treaties and other international agreements, the 
performance of research and the furnishing of 
information and advice, other than of a legal 
character, with respect to the provisions of such 
existing or proposed instruments; procedural 
matters, including the preparation of full 
powers, ratifications, proclamations and proto- 
cols, and matters related to the signing, ratifi- 
cation, proclamation and registration of treaties 
and other international agreements (except 
with respect to proclamations of trade agree- 
ments, which shall be handled in the Division of 
Commercial Policy) ; and custody of the orig- 
inals of treaties and other international agree- 
ments; (e) maintenance of the Department's 
Library; (f) editing of publications of the De- 
partment; codification of regulatory docu- 
ments; maintenance of the Department's mail- 
ing lists; custody and control of the distribu- 
tion of the Department's publications and 
processed material; and procurement for and 
allocation to various Government agencies of 
foreign publications received through Amer- 
ican Foreign Service officers; and release of 
unpublished documents to private individuals; 
(g) handling of "public comment" corre- 
spondence in collaboration with other interested 
divisions; (h) administration of the Printing 
and Binding Appropriation for the Depart- 
ment; and (i) liaison for the Department with 
The National Archives and the Government 
Printing Office, and representation of the De- 
partment on the National Historical Publica- 
tions Commission and on the National Arcliives 
Council. 

The Office of the Editor of the Treaties is 
hereby abolished and its functions and respon- 
sibilities transferred to the Division of 
Research and Publication. 

Mr. E. Wilder Spaulding is hereby desig- 
nated Acting Chief, Mr. Bryton Barron is 



JANUARY 15, 1944 



65 



hereby designated Acting Assistant Chief, Dr. 
Graham H. Stuart is hereby designated Con- 
sultant, and Mr. Clarence E. Carter is hereby 
designated Editor of Territorial Papers, in the 
Division of Eesearch and Publication. 

The routing symbol of this Division shall 
beEP. 

3. Motion Pictv/re amd Radio Division. 

The Motion Picture and Radio Division shall 
have responsibility in matters pertaining to: 
(a) liaison between the Department and other 
departments and agencies, particularly the 
Office of War Information, the Coordinator of 
Inter- American Affairs, War Deiaartment, and 
Office of Censorship, in matters involved in the 
dissemination abroad, through the media of 
motion pictures and radio, information regard- 
ing the war effort; and (b) the development 
and execution of cultural programs through 
these media. 

Mr. John M. Begg is hereby designated As- 
sistant Chief of the Motion Picture and Radio 
Division, and he shall serve temporarily as Act- 
ing Chief of the Division. 

Tlie routing symbol of this Division shall 
be MPR. 

4. Science, Education and Art Division. 

The Science, Education and Art Division 
shall have responsibility in matters pertaining 
to international cooperation in the fields of sci- 
ence, education and art including (a) exchanges 
of materials in these fields, including books, 
periodicals, and other printed matei'ials in the 
various fields of learning and art; (b) develop- 
ment of American libraries and schools in for- 
eign countries; (c) administration of cultural 
institutes; (d) administration of programs for 
aiding special research and teaching projects in 
American colleges and universities abroad; (e) 
cooperation with American private agencies 
and associations participating in international 
cultural activities; and (f) liaison with the 
Office of Education, the Coordinator of Inter- 
American Affairs, and such other departments 
and agencies as may be concerned. 

568539—44 1 



The routing symbol of this Division shall 
be SEA. 

5. Central Translating Division. 

The Central Translating Division shall have 
responsibility for all the translating and 
interpreting work of the Department of State, 
including (a) translation from English of 
certain publications of the Government for 
distribution to the other American republics, 
and, in cooperation with other divisions and 
offices of the Department and the Interdepart- 
mental Committee on Cooperation With the 
American Republics, the formulation and ad- 
ministration of progi'ams for the distribution of 
such translations ; (b) translation from English 
of addresses, as required, such translations to 
serve as the accepted official translated version 
of those public ufterances; (c) review of mate- 
rial published in Spanish and Portuguese by 
other Government departments and agencies, 
and review of Spanish, Portuguese and French 
script for motion pictures and radio programs 
to be distributed through official channels in the 
other American republics; (d) translation of 
communications addressed to the President by 
heads of foreign states and other material re- 
ferred by the White House, and of diplomatic 
notes and miscellaneous material; and (e) the 
critical examination of foreign texts of draft 
treaties to which the United States is to be a 
party, with a view to the closest adjustment 
thereof to the English text. 

The Central Translating Office and the Trans- 
lating Bureau are hereby abolished and their 
functions ti'ansferred to the Central Translating 
Division. 

Mr. Guillermo A. Suro and Mi'. Emerson B. 
Christie are hereby designated Assistant Chiefs 
of the Central Translating Division, and Mr. 
Suro shall serve temporarily as Acting Chief of 
the Division. 

The routing symbol of this Division shall 

beTC. 

CoitDELL Hull 



DEPARTME'NT OF STATE BULLETIN 



JANUARY 15, 1944 



ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



ADVISERS AND CONSULTANTS 

ROBERT WOODS BLISS 

FREDERICK LIVESEY 

Adviser, OfflCfl of Economic Altoirs 
ARTHUR W. M4CMAH0N 

ConsuHonl on Administration 
CHARLES B- RAYNER 

Adviser on PelrolBum Policy 
LEflOY D STINEBOWER 

AdMiser, Office of Economic Affairs 
CHARLES A THOf^^SON 

Adviser, Office of Public Information 



.STAFF 

Executive Assisionis 

CECIL W. GRAY 
BLAl-iCHE R HflTJ^ 

Assistants 

GEORGE W RENCHARD 

JaWES E BROW N_|° 

General Consultant 

CARLTON 5AVAGF_ 

LiolsonOfficer-WoraNovy 
ORME WILSON 



SECRETARY 
CORDELL HULL 

UNDER SECRETARY 
EDWARD R. STETTINIUS JR. 



POLICY COMMITTFF 

THE SECRETARY -CMAIRMflN 
UNDER SECRETARY- VICE Wmutli 
ASSISTANT SECRETARIES 
LEGAL ADVISER 

SPECIAL ASSISTANT. MR PASVOLSKY 
DIRECTORS OF OFFICES, EX OFFICIO 
EXECUTIVE SECRETARY 



SPECIAL ASSISTANTS 



LEO PASVOLSKY 
JOSEPH c GREW 
GEORGE TSUMMERLIN 
MICHAEL J McDERMOTT 
THOMAS K FINLETTTR 
JOSEPH C GREEN 



ROBERT J LYNCH 
HAYDEN RAYNOR 



ASSISTANT SECRETARY 
ADOLF A. BERLE JR. 



COMMITTEE ON 
POSTWAR PBnr.BAMg 

THE SECRETARY-CHAIRMAN 

UNDER SECRETARY -VICE CHAIRMAN 

EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR, MR PASVOLSKY 

VICE CHAIRMEN OF ADVISORY COUNCIL 

ASSISTANT SECRETARIES 

LEGAL ADVISER 

DIRECTORS OF OFFICES, Ex OFFICIO 




STANLEY WQOOWaSO 



68 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



"THE STATE DEPARTMENT SPEAIvS' 



[Released to the press January 15] 

The text of the second of a series of four 
broadcasts over the National Broadcasting 
Company entitled "The State Department 
Speaks" follows: 

Participants 

Edwaed R. Stettinius, Je. Under Secretary of State 

G. HowLAND Shaw Assistant Secretary of 

State 

John G. Winant United States Ambassa- 

dor to London (speak- 
ing from London) 

RoBEBT D. MuBPHY United States Ambassa- 

dor at Large; Amer- 
ican member of the 
Advisory Council for 
Italy 

RicHAHD Habkness Representing the public 

Wasidngton Announcer : For the American 
people, the National Broadcasting Company 
presents the second of a limited series of pro- 
grams called "The State Department Speaks". 
We go now to the State Department Building 
on Pennsylvania Avenue here in Washington, 
D.C. 

Hakkness: Good evening, ladies and gentle- 
men. This is Eichard Harkness — your repre- 
sentative in this timely series of i^rograms de- 
signed to tell you something about your State 
Department — how it works, the work it does, 
and the people who run it. Here in the Secre- 
tary of State's office on the second floor of the 
old State Department Building, I am ready to 
interview for you such well-known people as 
Edward K. Stettinius, Jr., Under Secretary of 
State; G. Howland Shaw, Assistant Secretary 
of State; John G. Winant, American Ambas- 
sador to Great Britain, who will speak to us 
from London ; and Ambassador Robert D. Mur- 
phy, who has just returned to this country from 
some very exciting experiences abroad. 

To begin with, thanks to you listeners for 
your cards and letters suggesting questions I 



should ask on these programs. They've been 
most helpful. Keep them coming ! 

Now let's try getting some of your questions 
answered. First, those questions having to do 
with the set-up of the State Department and 
its work. And here are two men who can speak 
with authority — Under Secretary Stettinius 
and Assistant Secretary Shaw. 

Mr. Stettinius, I understand you have some- 
thing interesting to tell us tonight concerning 
two important announcements which Secretary 
Hull made today. 

Steitinius : Yes, Mr. Harkness, I have. 

Harkness: Good! But before we go into 
that, I'd like to get a brief picture of the State 
Department's work. Mr. Shaw, you're the 
Assistant Secretary of State in charge of the 
administration of the Department and of our 
Foreign Service. Suppose you give us that 
picture, Sir. 

Shaw : In brief, Mr. Harkness, the business of 
the State Department is to represent this coun- 
try in our dealings with foreign governments in 
matters covering many of the most momentous 
problems of the day. 

Harkness : Like the Moscow Conference, for 
instance ? 

Shaw : Yes — and such things as the negotia- 
tion of bases for our armed forces, the conclu- 
sion of many treaties and commercial agree- 
ments. But in addition the State Department 
does a great deal of work having little or noth- 
ing to do ■v^ith foreign governments. Actually, 
most of our daily business is with Americans 
who come in to ask us to do all sorts of things for 
them. We maintain daily contacts with Con- 
gress and keep in touch with American public 
opinion as a whole. Furthermore, normally a 
large part of our work is with other depart- 
ments of our Government : for instance, getting 
information on foreign markets which the De- 
partment of Commerce distributes to American 
businessmen; getting data on foreign labor con- 
ditions for the use of our Labor Department; 



JANUARY 15, 1944 



69 



getting information abroad for the use of our 
Agriculture Department to be used in world- 
crop forecasting. Today in war we work espe- 
cially closely with these departments and other 
agencies of the Government in economic-war- 
fare work, the acquisition of needed materials 
from abroad, and a multitude of other wartime 
activities. 

Harkness : Well, I suppose it is the State De- 
partment Foreign Service that actually carries 
out many of these jobs in foreign countries. 

Shaw : That's right. But it's called the For- 
eign Service of the United States and not the 
Foreign Service of the Department of State. 
Our Foreign Service officers receive their com- 
missions, not from the Secretary of State, but 
from the President of the United States. They 
serve the Government of the United States as a 
whole. These men are the eyes and ears of our 
Government in foreign lands, the advocates of 
its interests, and the interpreters of its ideals. 

Harkness : Serving our country abroad would 
seem to me to require a pretty able American. 

Shaw : It certainly does. Our work today de- 
mands able men with many different skills — 
men with many kinds of experience. Their war- 
time duties have been particularly exacting as 
I'm sure Ambassador Winant and Ambassador 
Murphy will tell you later. 

Harkness : All right. Now, Mr. Shaw, many 
of our listeners have sent questions asking 
whether to get a job in our Foreign Service you 
have to come from the so-called "right" social 
background, have the right size bank account, 
have gone to the right schools, and be a native 
of the eastern section of the United States. Is 
there any truth in that. Sir? 

Shaw : No, there is not. Let me answer you 
point by point, Mr. Harkness, and with concrete 
facts. Let's start with that eastern seaboard 
myth. Of the last three groups of 117 persons 
to enter the Foreign Service, 19 came from the 
Far West; 33 from the Middle West; 16 from 
New England; 33 from the Middle Atlantic 
States, and 16 from the South. So you see they 
were pretty well scattered geographically 
throughout the country. And that's true not 



only of the last three groups to enter the Service 
but of the men who came in during the past 10 
years. Moreover, these men came from not just 
one or two schools, but from over 50 different 
universities and colleges. And — so far as ear- 
lier schooling was concerned — at least half of 
them received their education in our public 
high schools. Many of our men have worked 
their way through school. One young man who 
entered the Foreign Service recently prepared 
for his examinations by studying nights in 
the Detroit Public Library. To support him- 
self he worked during the day on the assembly 
line of an automobile plant. 

Harkness: That's interesting and good to 
hear. But, Mr. Shaw, how about the general 
opinion that a man needs a private income and — 
well — the so-called "right" kind of social back- 
ground to enter the Foreign Service? 

Shaw: Neither one of these statements is 
true, Mr. Harkness. The vast majority of men 
in the Foreign Service today have no independ- 
ent income whatever and must rely entirely on 
their government pay. Now about this "social 
background" business. The truth is that we 
want the Service to be broadly representative of 
American life. I can answer that question 
again in terms of the last groups of new men to 
enter our Foreign Service : the fathers of these 
young men followed such varied occupations as 
railroad conductor, carpenter, minister of reli- 
gion, schoolmaster, banker, jeweler, laborer, 
lawyer, sales manager, clerk, and physician. 

Harkness : Well, that list seems to spike an- 
other rumor, Mr. Shaw. But how did you go 
about selecting Foreign Service officers ? 

Shaw : Through a good stiff examination. 

Harkness : Just how tough is it ? 

Shaw : Well, only about one out of seventeen 
passes the test. If they've got the stuff', we want 
them in the Foi'eign Service. If they haven't 
got the stuff, we don't want them, no matter 
what else they have — money, degrees, or name. 

Harkness : That's good American doctrine. 

Shaw : Yes, and it results in giving us men 
who are a cross-section of all America, and that's 
just what we're after. 



70 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Haekness: Before we went on the air, Mr. 
Shaw, you said something about not doing any 
recruiting for the Foreign Service just now be- 
cause the men you would want are going into 
the armed services. What are your plans for 
the future on this? 

Shaw: I am glad you brought that up, Mr. 
Harkiiess, because just as soon as the war is over 
we will be needing new men in the Service and 
we will look first to the returning soldiers to fill 
our ranks. 

Harktsiess: Thank you, Mr. Shaw. Right 
now I want to call in London to ask one of our 
most distinguished ambassadors abroad to tell 
us something about his job of representing 130 
million people. Can you hear me, Ambassador 
Winant in London ? 

Winant: Thank you, I can, Mr. Harkness. 

Harkness: Well, to begin with, would you 
tell us something about your work and the peo- 
ple you have to work with as American Am- 
bassador in London? 

Winant: It has been customary over long 
periods of time for governments to communi- 
cate with one another through embassies. I 
have charge of the United States Embassy in 
London. The two men I work most closely 
with are the Prime Minister, Mr. Churchill, and 
the Foreign Secretary, Mr. Eden. We work 
together as freely and as frankly as any three 
people can work together. There is no un- 
necessary formality, but always an honest ef- 
fort to get the job done, whatever the job may 
be. 

Harkness: I have a hunch that yours is a 
mighty tough and complex job, and I wish you 
could tell us briefly something about it. 

Winant: In wartime, with Great Britain 
and the United States coordinating production 
and supply and fighting under a common com- 
mand, the area of coverage and the volume of 
business have been enormously expanded. 
Modern warfare, which involves entire popu- 
lations of countries, has forced the establish- 
ment of civilian war agencies which are repre- 
sented and coordinated within the London 



Embassy organization for the European theater 
of operations. 

The backbone of the Embassy organization 
are the career Foreign Service officers. They 
are selfless, efficient, and hardworking. Aside 
from handling relationships between govern- 
ments, our assignments include obtaining bases 
and other facilities for our Army and Navy, 
dealing with supplies through Lend-Lease and 
reverse Lend-Lease so that the right food and 
the right weapons are in the right place at the 
right time, whether they are to be used by our 
Allies' forces or our own. They include pro- 
duction problems and civil-use problems; eco- 
nomic warfare, which means finding ways and 
means of depriving the enemy of supplies he 
vitally needs ; and psychological warfare, which 
includes laying down by leaflet and radio a 
barrage of truth against enemy propaganda; 
information services ; and other necessary activ- 
ities to meet war needs. 

There are inconveniences and some hardsliips, 
especially for those men in the Foreign Service 
who have been for years away from home, but 
there is not a man here who does not see that 
life lies back of the work he is doing and is not 
grateful for the chance to serve the fighting men. 

We have tried hard to be useful to the soldiers, 
the sailors, and the airmen who today are your 
true ambassadors to England, just as the true 
embassies are the brave homes they come from. 
It is on the relationship that they are building 
that the future of the world must largely rest. 

A tribute in the London Daily Express to the 
American airmen who died on a recent raid over 
Germany will give you some understanding of 
the respect and friendship of the British people 
for our fighting men. The newspaper said : 

"It was, alas, easy to tell yesterday where the 
hearts of the British people turned in regard to 
America — to the homes of the lost airmen from 
Maine to California, to the forests and the 
prairies, the city apartments and the homesteads 
in the clearings. The loss of sixty flying for- 
tresses over Schweinfurt struck us as if it were 
our own. Wherefore came these gallant crews 



JANUARY 15, 1944 



71 



among us ? "Why did they wing their way to our 
side? These splendid young Americans flew in 
aid of the common cause of basic decency in the 
world just as their soldiers stand alongside ours 
in Italy or in the Solomons for no other purpose. 
They came on a rendezvous with us to rid the 
earth of Nazi terror as we shall be found 
shoulder to shoulder with them cleansing it of 
the Jap horror. That is what lasts." 

Harkness : Thank you, Ambassador Winant. 
Good night. 

Winant : Good night to you all. 

Harkness : And now back to the second rank- 
ing officer of the Department of State. Mr. 
Stettinius, you became Under Secretary of State 
early last fall, did you not? 

Stettinius: Yes, Mr. Harkness, in October. 

Haekness : And how long did it take you. Sir, 
to find your way around in this new position? 
I know that, right after you took office. Secre- 
tary Hull left for the Moscow Conference, which 
meant that you became Acting Secretary of 
State right away. 

Stettinius: Yes, that's right. And under 
very strenuous circumstances which, I can assure 
you, gave me an excellent opportunity to become 
quickly acquainted with the work of the Depart- 
ment and its people. 

HIaekness : What were your reactions ? You 
came into the Department as an experienced 
businessman and Government official, and I as- 
sume you brought a fresh viewpoint with you. 

Stettinius : I came here as Under Secretary, 
first with a profound admiration for Secretary 
Hull and, secondly, with an open mind about 
the task ahead. It was then my judgment — it 
is now my definite knowledge — that the State 
Department is a basically sound institution. 
It has as its leader one of the gi-eat Americans 
of our time, Cordell Hull ; it has an experienced 
and loyal staff; and it represents a country 
whose purposes are honorable and aboveboard. 
In my opinion any foreign office which possesses 
these assets is basically sound. 

Habkness: Am I to understand then, Mr. 
Stettinius, that you are completely satisfied 



with everything about the present State Depart- 
ment set-up? 

Stettinius : No, I am not. And I might add 
that neither is Secretary Hull nor our associates. 
Like many businesses, the State Department has 
had to convert its normal operations to war 
conditions. That always means making rapid 
administrative changes and the result is there 
are bound to be rough spots. And, to complete 
the circle of change, the Department must pre- 
pare itself to turn its full facilities again to the 
problems of the peace. 

Harkness: Well — Are you getting ready for 
that time? 

Stettinius: Yes, we are. One of the first 
things I undertook for the Secretary was to 
study with Assistant Secretary Shaw and other 
officers how affairs within the Department 
should best be organized to carry the terrific 
load of foreign-policy work which faces us in 
the months and years ahead. I am very happy 
to say that Secretary Hull today announced a 
reorganization plan of the Department. 

Harkness : That's just what I've been wait- 
ing for, Mr. Stettinius, since Secretary Hull 
stated that he had asked you to discuss some of 
the highlights of the plan tonight. Won't you, 
please, tell us a little about it ? 

Stettinius : Well, of course, everyone will 
realize that we need as efficient and smooth- 
running a State Department as possible for the 
great tasks before us. 

Harkness: Of course. What does the re- 
organization accomplish ? 

Stettinius: The new organization corrects 
some current difficulties, but its chief purpose is 
to prepare us to meet most effectively the heavy 
responsibilities which are ahead both for win- 
ning the war and making a secure peace. 

The new organization accomplishes several 
objectives: First, it readjusts the responsibil- 
ities of the top officers of the Department so 
that they may devote the biggest part of their 
energies to vital world affairs. 

Harkness : Well, you mean then they are be- 
ing relieved of some of the administrative 



72 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



details which have tied them down up to now? 

Stettinius: That's right; and, secondly, the 
new organization establishes clearer lines of re- 
sponsibility and authority inside the Depart- 
ment. To do this we have revamped and re- 
grouped many of the activities. 

In the third place, the work of the higher 
officers of the Department will be more closely 
coordinated. 

Harkness : Well, now. Sir, is there anything 
you can say concretely about this? 

Stettinius : Yes, one of the most important 
steps being taken is the establishment of two 
principal committees composed of high officers 
of the Department. Secretary Hull will be 
Chairman and I, Vice Chairman of these com- 
mittees. One will be a Policy Committee which 
will be concerned with the full scope of our in- 
ternational affairs. 

Harkness: Aiid what is the second of these 
principal committees. Sir? 

Stettinius : That is to be called the Commit- 
tee on Post War Programs. It will formulate 
and submit to the President recommendations 
pertaining to post-war foreign policy. 

Harkness : That means, I take it, that all for- 
eign-policy matters, both current and future 
plans, will now be cleared and coordinated 
through these two committees. 

Stettinius : That is correct, but I wish to em- 
phasize that the final important purpose of the 
reorganization is to establish new divisions to 
deal with new problems of an international 
nature. 

Harkness : I notice that on the chart you have 
there before you, Mr. Stettinius, one of these 
new divisions is that of Labor Affairs — would 
that be a concrete illustration of that last point 
you made ? 

Stettinius: Precisely — but with our limited 
time, we'd better not get started on these details 
here tonight, Mr. Harkness. 

Harkness : Well, I wish we could, but I cer- 
tainly want to thank you, Mr. Stettinius, for 
that important piece of news and your com- 
ments on its significant features. But we al- 
most forgot to touch on that other important 



announcement which will be of interest to our 
audience. 

Stettinius : Today Secretary Hull created an 
Advisory Council on Post War Foreign Policy 
to be composed of outstanding and representa- 
tive national leaders. This Council will advise 
the Secretary of State on post-war foreign-pol- 
icy matters of major importance. 

Harkness : Secretary Hull has already named 
several outstanding citizens to serve on this 
Council, hasn't he ? 

Stettinius : Yes. He has appointed Mr. Nor- 
man H. Davis, Chairman of the American Ked 
Cross ; Ambassador Myron C. Taylor ; and Dr. 
Isaiah Bowman, President of Johns Hopkins 
University, as Vice Chairmen of the Council. 

Harkness: Before we tackle Ambassador 
Robert D. Murphy may I ask a final question, 
Sir, on the reorganization : Will it work ? 

Stettinius : It must work, Mr. Harkness, and 
I can assure you that it is Secretary Hull's firm 
intention and mine to leave no stone unturned, 
as time goes on, to see that our State Depart- 
ment is fully equipped to discharge its respon- 
sibilities to the American people in the days 
ahead. 

Harkness : Thank you, Mr. Secretary. 

Now, ladies and gentlemen, hero's Ambassa- 
dor Eobert D. Murphy — the man you'll remem- 
ber reading about as having arranged for Gen- 
eral Mark Clark's secret visit to North Africa 
before the landing of Eisenhower's armies. Mr. 
Murphy, can you tell us something about that 
visit — the time the General had the bad luck to 
lose those now famous pants of his ? 

Murphy: Well, a couple of weeks before our 
troops landed, it was decided that General Clark 
and several other officers would make a secret 
visit to North Africa to get some first-hand 
ideas of what reception our forces would get 
from the French when they landed. We made 
very careful preparations with certain patriotic 
Frenchmen for this visit. As you all know, 
General Clark and his staff came ashore in the 
dead of night at an isolated spot and success- 
fully completed their mission in spite of a threat 
of discovery by local police officials. 



JANUARY 15, 1944 



73 



Haekness : Well, how about those pants ? 

Muepht: Oh, about the pants. It was in 
making his get-away to the submarine that the 
General had to leave his pants on the beach. 
When we went down to remove all evidences of 
the visit after the General had gotten away, 
I found, among other things, his pants. 

Harkness: What do you do with a pair of 
general's pants? 

Murphy: Just what I would have done with 
the pants of any other friend under similar cir- 
cumstances — I had them cleaned and pressed, 
and radioed the General that they'd be there for 
him when he came back. 

Harkness : And as we all know, the General 
did come back. But this time he had plenty of 
company with him — Eisenhower and his gal- 
lant armies. I would like to get from you, 
Mr. Murphy, some of the background of that 
landing. In our pre-broadcast chat, you said 
that during 1940, 1941, and 1942, when our mili- 
tary preparations needed time and our power 
structure was weak, you worked to inspire 
French faith in us. Why the lack of French 
faith in us then ? 

Murphy : Because, in 1941, many Frenchmen 
in North Africa honestly believed that the 
United States would never succeed in preparing 
for war in time to stop Germany. We eventu- 
ally got this idea out of their heads, but military 
preparation takes a long time and those anxious 
months seemed endless to us. 

Harkness: The proof that you laid a firm 
foundation came with the successful landing of 
our troops in November, 1942. But I recall that 
you were severely criticized for dealing with 
so-called "Vichyites" in North Africa before 
the invasion. Now, you know on this program 
there are no holds barred. I want to ask you : 
Did you deal with such people ? 

Murphy : Yon bet we did, Mr. Harkness ! 
When you're working inside a cage with a tiger, 
your technique has to be quite different from 
that of the independent and carefree ciitic 
standing safely outside. Remember always 
that we were operating in a zone of strong 
enemy influence. It was inevitable at times 



that we were obliged to cultivate and associate 
with people for whose politics we had no sym- 
pathy. That association did not mean that we 
approved the point of view of certain French 
elements who happened to exercise authority at 
the time — but these Frenchmen were indis- 
pensable in preparing for the landing of our 
forces in Africa, and so we dealt with them. 
I would like to point out, however, something 
that has not always been cleai'ly understood up 
to now and that is that certain so-called "Vichy- 
ites" remained loyal to Vichy on the surface 
only so they could help us in preparing the 
way for the arrival of our troops and the 
eventual liberation of France. 

Harkness : That's an important point. 

Murphy: But in any case I will cheerfully 
admit that for the purpose of saving the lives of 
the American boys whom I saw come over the 
beaches of North Africa I would deal with any 
person desirable or undesirable. I knew that 
once our power was established, my Government 
would cooperate with the French in the reestab- 
lishment of democratic institutions. But first 
things come first. I knew I could not face the 
mothers and wives of our soldiers who might be 
killed by reason of any reluctance on our part 
which would have prevented the practical ar- 
rangements under which our soldiers were 
protected. 

Harkness: Well, I think our listeners who 
have sons and brothers and husbands in the front 
line tonight well understand that viewpoint. 
What was your work after the invasion took 
place, Mr. Murphy ? 

Murphy: I was then assigned to the Allied 
Commander-in-Chief, General Eisenhower, as a 
member of his staff. 

Harkness: That was the first time that a 
Foreign Service officer ever became a member of 
a military staff, wasn't it? 

Murphy : I believe it was. 

Haekness : Eisenhower must be a great fel- 
low to serve with. 

Murphy: Indeed he is. I can't praise him 
too highly. His cool and sound judgment, his 
genial personality were the dominating factors 



74 



DEPARTMENT OP STATE BULLETIN 



behind the extraordinary cooperation between 
the Allies in North Africa during the most criti- 
cal moments of the war. 

Haekness : Mr. Murphy, I want to ask you 
about the Darlan affair. You remember there 
were a lot of people over here saying that we 
were backing the wrong horse after our troops 
had landed in dealing with Vichyite Darlan 
instead of Free French de Gaulle. They felt 
that General de Gaulle was being shunted aside, 
to put it bluntly. 

Mubphy: Yes, I know about that reaction 
and I don't mind telling you that I was flabber- 
gasted by it. 

Harkness : You were ? Wliy ? 

Murphy : You must remember that the whole 
aim of our foreign policy in North Africa at 
that time was to save as many American lives as 
possible, and to do everything in our power to 
gain a quick and inexpensive victory. True, 
General de Gaulle was already in the war, and 
he and his men deserve every credit for having 
maintained French honor and for carrying on 
the fight during those bitter months. But don't 
forget this — at the time of the American land- 
ing, Admiral Darlan had at his command 300,000 
soldiers and sailors in Africa while General de 
Gaulle then had only a handful by comparison. 
That's why we worked with Admiral Darlan. 
And I can tell you that he rendered very practi- 
cal assistance to the Allied cause. Perhaps the 
best proof of this is found in the fact that, 
whereas our Army leaders expected the casualty 
list of the North African landing to run to 
15,000, it actually was well under 2,000, including 
Army and Navy. 

Haekness: Well, that answers quite a few 
questions straight from the shoulder, Mr. Mur- 
phy. Thanks. I might point out to our lis- 
teners that Ambassador Robert D. Murphy is 
one of the few civilians ever to be awarded the 
Distinguished Service Medal. General Eisen- 
hower pinned it on him for the excellent mili- 
tary job he did as head of our Foreign Service 
in North Africa. 



Haekness : Let's see how our time is. I think 
we have time left for just one more question for 
you, Mr. Stettinius. Last week on this pro- 
gram we discussed the Moscow Conference, and 
that broadcast stirred up a large number of 
questions from our listeners concerning post- 
war cooperation with Soviet Kussia. You have 
been a long-standing friend of Soviet Russia, 
Mr. Stettinius, and you as Lend-Lease Adminis- 
trator helped to get war materials to Russia. 
What do you think about cooj^eration with 
Soviet Russia after the war? 

STETiiNitrs: I have worked closely with the 
Soviet officials here for over three j'ears and 
I have nothing but admiration for the brav- 
ery, resourcefulness, and determination of the 
people of the Soviet Union. I feel we have 
everything to gain and nothing to lose from a 
continuing and close cooperation between the 
Soviet Union and the United States both now 
and after the war. Anything else would be 
nothing less than tragic blundering for both 
of us. 

Haekness : Well, time's almost up, so thanks 
to all of you gentlemen — ^Mr. Stettinius, Mr. 
Shaw, Ambassador Murphy, and Ambassador 
Winant, who burned the midnight oil in London 
to be with us this evening. Next week the 
State Department officials in the witness chair 
will include Mr. Adolf Berle, Mr. Dean Ache- 
son — ^both of whom are Assistant Secretaries of 
State, and Mr. Harry C. Hawkins, Director of 
the new Office of Economic Affairs. 

I hope all of you ladies and gentlemen listen- 
ing in will be with us then. Meanwhile, send 
me your questions. And now — this is Richard 
Harkness saying "Good night" from Washing- 
ton. 

Washington Announcer : Good night, Rich- 
ard Harkness. Ladies and gentlemen, we have 
just concluded the second of four programs to 
be broadcast from the State Department Build- 
ing in Washington, D.C. The series, entitled 
"The State Department Speaks", is presented as 



JANUARY 15, 1944 



75 



a public service by the NBC University of the 
Air to acquaint you, the American people, with 
the inner workings of one of the most impor- 
tant departments of your Government. I'hese 
four programs will be published in booklet form 
and j'ou may have a copy free of charge by 
writing to "The State Department Speaks", 
NBC, New York. Write, too, if you have a 
question you think would help Richard Hark- 
ness frame his interviews, and be on hand again 
next week at the same time when — "The State 
Department Speaks." 



Canada 



PRESENTATION OF LETTERS OF CRE- 
DENCE BY THE CANADIAN AMBASSA- 
DOR 

[Released to the press January 12] 

The remarks of the newly appointed Ambas- 
sador of Canada, the Honorable Leighton Mc- 
Carthy, K.C., upon the occasion of the presen- 
tation of his letters of credence, January 12, 
1944, follow : 

Me. PuEsroENT : 

I have the great honour to present to you the 
letters by which His Majesty the King has 
accredited me as the first Canadian Ambassador 
to the United States. 

This occasion marks another stage in the de- 
velopment of the relations between our two 
countries which have for so long been based 
upon trust, friendship, and respect. 

It emphasizes also the closeness and the im- 
portance of our cooperation in this war during 
which our industrial and fighting strengths have 
been coordinated in a manner never surpassed 
by two neighbouring states. This collaboration 
in war is, I am confident, an earnest of our deter- 



mination to work together in the peace that will 
follow our common victory. 

May I thank you, Mr. President, for the 
friendly encouragement and assistance you have 
extended to me as Minister and bespeak its con- 
tinuance in my new capacity. 

The President's reply to the remarks of Mr. 
McCarthy follows : 

Mr. Ambassador: 

I am happy indeed to welcome you, an old 
friend, as Canada's first Ambassador to the 
United States and to receive from your hands 
the letters by which His Majesty the King has 
accredited you in this new capacity. 

On this significant occasion, as you have made 
clear, we may rejoice in the broad scope and ef- 
fectiveness of our collaboration in war. In 
Italy as in the Aleutians, in the skies of Europe 
as, later, in the skies of Asia, and on all the 
oceans our comradeship in arms will have 
forged enduring bonds in the struggle against 
mutual enemies both east and west. 

At home as well, we have unlocked the doors 
to economic cooperation continental in scope for 
the prosecution of the common cause. We too 
are determined that such cooperation will con- 
tinue in the peace to come for the benefit of both 
our peoples and the world in general. 

Through long years Canada and the United 
States, each confident of the good will of the 
other, have worked out their problems as neigh- 
bors, faithful always to the principle that the 
best solution of each problem is the solution 
which is to the mutual advantage of both. The 
solid achievements of the past are the best possi- 
ble earnest of even greater achievements in 
future. 

I assure you, Mr. Ambassador, that you may 
count on the continued support and friendship 
of the authorities of this Government who hope, 
as I do, that your several years as Minister here 
will be succeeded by many equally successful 
years as Ambassador. 



The War 



ANNUAL MESSAGE OF THE PRESIDENT TO THE CONGRESS 



[Excerpt i] 



[Released to the press by the White Houss January 11] 

This Nation in the past two years has become 
an active partner in the world's greatest war 
against human slavery. 

We have joined with like-minded people in 
order to defend ourselves in a world that has 
been gravely threatened with gangster rule. 

But I do not think that any of us Americans 
can be content with mere survival. Sacrifices 
that we and our Allies are making impose upon 
us all a sacred obligation to see to it that out 
of this war we and our children will gain some- 
thing better than mere survival. 

We are united in determination that this war 
shall not be followed by another interim which 
leads to new disaster — that we shall not repeat 
the tragic errors of ostrich isolationism — that 
we shall not repeat the excesses of the wild 
twenties when this Nation went for a joy-ride 
on a roller coaster which ended in a tragic crash. 

When Mr. Hull went to Moscow in October, 
^nd when I went to Cairo and Tehran in No- 
vember, we knew that we were in agreement 
■with our Allies in our common determination to 
fight and wm this war. But there were many 
vital questions concerning the future peace, and 
they were discussed in an atmosphere of com- 
plete candor and harmony. 

In the last war such discussions, such meet- 
mgs, did not even begin until the shooting had 
stopped and the delegates began to assemble at 
the peace table. There had been no previous 
opportunities for man-to-man discussions which 
lead to meetings of minds. The result was a 
peace which was not a peace. 



'The complete text of the message of Jan. 11, 1944 
s printed as H. Doe. 377, 78th Cong. 

• 76 



That was a mistake which we are not repeat- 
ing m this war. 

And right here I want to address a word or 
two to some suspicious souls who are fearful 
that Mr. Hull or I have made "commitments" 
for the future which might pledge this Nation 
to secret treaties, or to enacting the role of 
Santa Claus. 

To such suspicious souls — using a polite ter- 
minology — I wish to say that Mr. Churchill, 
and Marshal Stalin, and Generalissimo Chiang 
Kai-shek are all thoroughly conversant with the 
provisions of our Constitution. And so is Mr. 
Hull. And so am I. 

Of course we made some commitments. We 
most certamly committed ourselves to very large 
and very specific military plans which require 
the use of all allied forces to bring about the 
defeat of our enemies at the earliest possible 
time. 

But there were no secret treaties or political or 
financial commitments. 

The one supreme objective for the future, 
which we discussed for each nation individually, 
and for all the United Nations, can be summed 
up in one word : Security. 

And that means not only physical security 
which provides safety from attacks by aggres- 
sors. It means also economic security, social 
security, moral security — in a family of nations. 

In the plain down-to-earth talks that I had 
with the Generalissimo and Mai-shal Stalin and 
Prime Minister Churchill, it was abundantly 
clear that they are all most deeply interested in 
the resumption of peaceful progress by their 
own peoples — progress toward a better life. All 
our Allies want freedom to develop their lands 



JANXTAHT 15, 1944 



77 



and resources, to build up industry, to increase 
education and individual opportimity, and to 
raise standards of living. 

All our Allies have learned by bitter experi- 
ence that real development will not be possible 
if they are to be diverted from their purpose 
by repeated wars — or even threats of war. 

China and Russia are truly united with 
Britain and America in recognition of this es- 
sential fact: 

The best interests of each nation, large and 
small, demand that all freedom-loving nations 
shall join together in a just and durable system 
of peace. In the present world situation, 
evidenced by the actions of Germany, Italy, and 



Japan, unquestioned military control over dis- 
turbers of the peace is as necessary among 
nations as it is among citizens in a community. 
And an equally basic essential to peace is a 
decent standard of living for all individual men 
and women and children in all nations. Free- 
dom from fear is eternally linked with freedom 
from want. . . . 

The foreign policy that we have been follow- 
ing — the policy that guided us at Moscow, 
Cairo, and Tehran — is based on the common- 
sense principle which was best expressed by 
Benjamin Franklin on July 4, 1776: "We must 
all hang together, or assuredly we shall all hang 
separately." 



EXCHANGE OF AMERICAN AND JAPANESE NATIONALS 



[Released to the press January 13] 

Reports have reached the Department of 
State, as they appear to have reached many of 
the Department's correspondents, that Ameri- 
can passengers from tlie Philippine Islands who 
returned on the Gripsholm in the recent ex- 
change of nationals with Japan were selected 
for repatriation by the Department of State. 
These reports are not true. 

The facts are these : 

It was only after long and difficult negotia- 
tions that the Government of the United States 
succeeded in making with the Japanese Govern- 
ment arrangements for the exchange of Amer- 
ican and Japanese civilian nationals which has 
just been completed. 

The exchange included for the most part 
civilians who were in Japan, Manchuria, China, 
Hong Kong, and Indochina. The Japanese 
Government contended that the provisions of 
the exchange arrangements were not applicable 
to Americans who were in the Philippines, 
Wake, and Guam when those territories were 
occupied by the Japanese. Only after months 
of negotiations did the Japanese Government 
finally indicate that it would return to the 
United States in the second exchange a small 



number of civilians from the Philippine 
Islands. The Japanese Government exercised 
complete control over the departure of those 
desiring repatriation and actually refused to 
permit the repatriation of a number of Amer- 
icans whose inclusion in the exchange Swiss 
representatives in charge of American interests 
endeavored to arrange on humanitarian 
gi'oimds. 

The Government of the United States, recog- 
nizing that all American citizens have an equal 
right to consideration, did not select individual 
Americans for inclusion in the exchange or dis- 
criminate in any other way between individual 
Americans desiring repatriation. 

Since all Americans could not be accom- 
modated in one exchange, the Swiss representa- 
tives in charge of American interests in Japan 
and occupied China were given broad humani- 
tarian directives for their guidance in compil- 
ing passenger lists for the Gnpsholm. These 
directives gave preference to (1) those under 
close arrest; (2) interned women and children; 
(3) the seriously ill; and (4) interned men, 
with preference being given, other things being 
equal, to married men long separated from their 
families in the United States. The Japanese 



78 



DEPAftTMENT OF STATE fiTTLLETtN 



Government did not permit e\'en these broad 
directives to be applied in the Philippine 
Islands, and even in other areas it prevented 
their full application in respect to certain in- 
dividuals. 

Since the successful conclusion of the second 
exchange of nationals with Japan, the Depart- 
ment of State has endeavoi'ed to arrange for a 
third exchange. The Japanese Government has 
so far refused to discuss further exchanges, con- 
tending that it desires fii-st to receive "clarihca- 
tion on certain points respecting the treatment 
of Japanese nationals in the United States". 
Spanish representatives in charge of Japanese 
interests in the United States have been re- 
quested to supply the information requested by 
the Japanese Government. As of this moment, 
however, the Department of State is not in a 
position to offer encouragement for the early re- 
patriation of American citizens in Japanese cus- 
tody. Tlie Department wishes to emphasize 
that responsibility for this situation rests not 
with the United States Government but with the 
Government of Japan. In time of war an ex- 
change of nationals with an enemy is fraught 
with difficulties. This is particularly true of 
those of the magnitude of the exchanges that the 
United States has twice been able to arrange 
with Japan and hopes to be able to arrange in 
the future. Such exchanges cannot be accom- 
plished by unilateral action. No matter what 
efforts aic put forth by the United States Gov- 
ernment, and they have been many and contiim- 
ous, an exchange cannot take place unless the 
enemy is willing to cooperate and deliver on its 
part the Americans in its custody. 

Since the successful termination of the sec- 
ond exchange of nationals with Japan, the De- 
partment has received numerous letters concern- 
ing the desire of individuals in the United 
States to expedite the repatriation of their rela- 
tives and friends still in Japanese custody. 
Some of these letters request preferential treat- 
ment for specific individuals. These inquiries 
and requests are handled as expeditioush' as pos- 
sible and every effort is made to insure that all 



persons who have expressed an interest in a par- 
ticular individual still in Japanese custody are 
currently informed of developments regarding 
his or her possible repatriation. 

Relatives and friends in the United States of 
Ahierican nationals still in Japanese custody 
may be assured that their Government will not 
relax its efforts to induce the Japanese Govern- 
ment to agree to the release for repatriation of 
all such Ajnericans and to insure that all be 
given equal consideration in such arrangements 
as may be made for their repatriation. Mean- 
while, the Government is persevering in its ef- 
forts, some of which are summarized in the fol- 
lowing statement, to relieve the situation of 
i\jnerican nationals still detained by Japan. 

Summary of Steps Taken by the Department 
OF State in Behalf or American Nationals 
IN Japanese Custody 

1. Treatment of prl.so-ners of war and civilian 
internees 

Upon the outbreak of war between the United 
States and Japan, the United States Govern- 
ment, in an endeavor to insure humane treat- 
ment for American nationals in Japanese hands, 
confirmed its intention to observe the Geneva 
Prisoners of War Convention (convention rela- 
tive to the treatment of prisoners of war, signed 
at Geneva on July 27, 1929 and ratified by the 
United States in 1932),' and to apply its pro- 
visions to prisoners of war and, so far as its 
provisions might be adaptable, to civilian in- 
ternees. The Japanese Govermnent, which had 
signed but had not ratified the convention, 
thereupon notified the United States Govern- 
ment that it would apply the provisions of the 
convention, mutatis Tmifa7idis, to the treatment 
of American prisoners of war and to the treat- 
ment of American civilian internees so far as 
its provisions might be adaptable to civilian 
internees. 

The United States Government has also 
obtained assurances from the Japanese Govem- 

' Treaty Series 846. 



JANUARY 15, 19 44 



79 



nient that it is applying the Geneva Red Cro?s 
Convention (convention for the amelioration 
of the condition of the wounded and the sick of 
armies in the field, which was also signed at 
Geneva on July 27, 1929 and which was ratified 
by the United States in 1932 and by Japan in 
193i).^ 

The conventions named above provide a liu- 
manitarian standard of treatment for prisoners 
of war. Specifically, they provide that prison- 
ers of war shall be treated humanely and hekl 
in honorable captivity — not imprisoned as crim- 
inals. They establish as the standard for the 
shelter and diet of prisoners of war, the cor 
responding treatment of the garrison troops 
of the detaining power, and they establish fun- 
damental rights regarding correspondence, 
medical care, clothing, pay for labor, satisfac- 
tion of intellectual, recreational, and religious 
needs, and the continued enjoyment of full civil 
status. For persons generally referred to as 
"protected personnel" — that is, doctors, nurses, 
and other sanitary (medical) personnel and 
chaplains — they provide certain special ricrhts 
and protection. 

The Department of State is constantly alert 
to insure obseiTance of the conventions. When- 
ever it is learned through the Swiss Govern- 
ment, which represents American interests in 
Japan and Japanese-occupied territories, 
through the International Red Cross, or other- 
wise, that the teniis of the conventions are not 
being observed, the United States Government 
draws to the attention of the Japanese Govern- 
ment that Government's obligations under the 
Red Cross Convention and imder its agreement 
to apply to the treatment of interned American 
nationals in Japanese hands the provisions of 
the Prisoners of War Convention. 

2. Exchange of civilian,^ 

Negotiations between the United States Gov- 
ernment and the Japanese Government lasting 
more than a year culminated in a second ex- 

' Treaty Series 847. 



change of civilians resulting in the repatriation 
of approximately 1,240 nationals of the United 
States, including a small number from the Phil- 
ippine Islands, and 260 nationals of the other 
American republics and Canada. In the first 
exchange, which took place in the summer of 
1942, over 1,300 United States officials and non- 
officials were repatriated from the Far East. 

Tlie Japanese Government refused to apply 
the provisions of the civilian-exchange airange- 
ments to American civilians who were captured 
in the Philippine Islands, Guam, and Wake Is- 
land. After protracted negotiations it finally 
agreed to permit the repatriation of only a 
small number of American civilians from the 
Philippines in the second exchange. The re- 
patriates were thus drawn almost entirely from 
Japan, Japanese-occupied China, Hong Kong, 
and Indochina. 

The Swiss representatives in the Far East, 
under broad directives issued by the United 
States Govei-nment, compiled the list of those 
to be repatriated, giving preference to the fol- 
lowing categories of American civilians in 
Japanese hands : ( 1 ) those under close arrest ; 
(2) interned women and children; (3) the 
seriously ill ; and (4) interned men, with prefer- 
ence being given, other things being equal, to 
married men long separated from their families 
in the United States. 

The second exchange of American and Japa- 
nese nationals having been completed by the 
return of the motorship Gripsholm to the United 
States on December 1, 1943, the De^Jartment is 
now endeavoring to negotiate a third exchange 
of American and Japanese nationals and will 
continue its endeavors to induce the Japanese 
Government to agree to the general release for 
repatriation of all American civilians in its 
custody. The Department hopes eventually to 
obtain Japanese agreement to further exchanges 
at an accelerated rate so that all American 
civilians remaining in Japanese custody, num- 
bering about 10 thousand, may have an oppor- 
tunity to be repatriated at the eai-liest practi- 
cable date. 



80 



DEPABTMENT OF STATE BULUETINI 



3. Repatriation of sick and wovmded prisoners 

of war 

Article 68 of the Prisoners of War Convention 
provides that : 

"Belligerents are bound to send back to their 
own country, regardless of rank or number, 
seriously sick and seriously injured prisoners of 
war, after having brought them to a condition 
where they can be transported. 

"Agreements between belligerents shall ac- 
cordingly settle as soon as possible the cases of 
invalidity or of sickness entailing direct re- 
patriation, as well as the cases entailing possible 
hospitalization in a neutral country. "Wliile 
awaiting the conclusion of these agreements, 
belligerents may have reference to the model 
agreement annexed, for documentary purposes, 
to the present Convention." 

The model agreement defines the degree of 
incapacity that shall be considered sufficient to 
qualify a prisoner of war for repatriation. This 
Government proposed to the Japanese Govern- 
ment that the model agreement be observed on a 
reciprocal basis and made insistent demands 
that the Japanese Government honor the obli- 
gation imposed by the convention to repatriate 
sick and wounded prisoners. The Japanese. 
Government replied, after long delay, that it 
could not make a favorable response to the 
United States Govenunent's pi-oposal. The De- 
partment of State has formulated, in consulta- 
tion with other agencies of the Government, 
further proposals in an effort to induce the 
Japanese Government to enter into negotiations 
for the exchange of sick and wounded prisoners 
of war, and these proposals are being trans- 
mitted to the Japanese Government in connec- 
tion with proposals for the continuation of the 
repatriation of civilians. 

4. Repatriation of sanitary personnel 
Article 9 of the Ked Cross Convention pro- 
vides, in part : 

"The personnel charged exclusively with the 
removal, transportation, and treatment of the 
wounded and sick, as well as with the adminis- 



tration of sanitary formations and establish- 
ments, and the chaplains attached to armies, 
shall be respected and protected imder all cir- 
cumstances. If they fall into the hands of the 
enemy they shall not be treated as prisoners of 
war." 

Article 12 of the same convention provides, in 
part: 

"The persons described in Articles 9, 10 and 
11 may not be detained after they have fallen 
into the power of the adversary. 

"Unless there is an agreement to the con- 
trary, they shall be sent back to the belligerent 
to whose service they are attached as soon as a 
way is open for their return and military ex- 
igencies permit. 

"^Vliile waiting to be returned, they shall con- 
tinue in the exercise of their functions under 
the direction of the adversary; they shall be 
assigned preferably to the care of the wounded 
and sick of the belligerent to whose service they 
are attached." 

Pursuant to the provisions of article 12 of 
the Red Ci'oss Convention, it was proposed to 
the Japanese Government that the repatriation 
of the personnel protected under the convention 
be begim, since facilities for their return to the 
United States could be made available on the 
vessels employed for the exchange of civilian 
nationals. In order, however, not to deprive 
American prisoners of war of the care that they 
may require and might not otherwise receive, 
the United States Grovernment also proposed 
to the Japanese Government, on a basis of reci- 
procity, that the right of repatriation be waived 
for protected personnel needed and permitted in 
prisoner-of-war camps or hospitals to render 
spiritual and medical assistance to compatriots 
who were in the care of that personnel at the 
time of capture. This Government further 
proposed that the selection of protected per- 
sonnel to be repatriated be made by the senior 
officer of the unit captured. 

The Japanese Government agreed in prin- 
ciple to the repatriation of protected personnel 
in connection with exchanges of civilians but 



JANtJABY 15, 1944 



81 



reserved to itself the decision whether the re- 
tention of that personnel was necessary for the 
care of American prisoners of war and civilian 
internees under Japanese control. The De- 
partment accordingly requested the Swiss Gov- 
ernment to endeavor to arrange for the accom- 
modation of American protected personnel in 
future American-Japanese civilian exchange 
operations. 

Although it repatriated five nurses from 
Guam at the time of the first civilian exchange, 
the Japanese Government apparently did not 
find that it had in its power surplus American 
protected personnel available for repatriation 
in the second exchange as no such personnel was 
included in the lists for that exchange. How- 
ever, the Department intends, when conducting 
negotiations for further exchanges of civilians, 
to convey again to the Japanese Government 
the expectation of the United States Govern- 
ment that protected personnel whose repatria- 
tion proves possible will be included in future 
exchange operations. 

5. Exchange of aile-hodied prisoners of war 

As indicated in a statement to the press dated 
May 25, 1943,^ there is no customarily accepted 
practice among nations or provision of interna- 
tional law or conventions for the return or ex- 
change during hostilities of able-bodied mem- 
bers of the armed forces of one belligerent who 
may be captured by the forces of an opposing 
belligerent. In the circumstances, there is no 
immediate prospect of obtaining the release and 
return to the United States of able-bodied mem- 
bers of the American armed forces taken pris- 
oners of war by the Japanese. 

6. Shipment of relief supplies to the Far East 
Early in 1942 the American Red Cross, in 

conjunction with the interested agencies of the 
United States Government, made efforts to find 
a means acceptable to the Japanese Government 
of forwarding to our prisoners of war and ci- 

' BuiXETiN of May 29, 1M3, p. 472. 



vilian internees in the Far East necessary sup- 
plies of food, medicine, clothing, and comforts 
such as are regularly sent to American citizens 
in corresponding circumstances in other enemy- 
held areas. A neutral vessel to carry such sup- 
plies to Japan was obtained and chartered in 
the summer of 1942. The Japanese Govern- 
ment, however, refused to give its safe-conduct 
for the voyage of the vessel to the Far East. In 
response to repeated representations the Jap- 
anese Government indicated that it was unwill- 
ing for strategic reasons to grant any non- 
Japanese vessel safe-conduct to move in Jap- 
anese waters and that it had no intention of 
sending one of its own vessels to any neutral 
area in order to pick up relief supplies for 
United States and Allied prisoners of war and 
civilians as was suggested by the United States 
Government. Upon the receipt of this Japanese 
reply the United States Government pointed 
out its expectation that the Japanese would 
modify their position as soon as strategic rea- 
sons would permit and suggested for the interim 
the immediate appointment of International 
Eed Cross delegates to Japanese-occupied ter- 
ritory who might receive and distribute funds 
in behalf of American nationals. This sugges- 
tion was eventually accepted by the Japanese 
only for Hong Kong and certain areas in occu- 
pied China. They have not accepted it so far 
for the Philippine Islands, Malaya, and the 
Netherlands Indies. Efforts to induce the Jap- 
anese Government to abandon its position 
against the use of neutral ships to carry relief 
supplies into its waters were continued and new 
avenues of approach were fully canvassed, in- 
cluding the possibility of sending relief supplies 
in transit through Soviet territory. One sug- 
gestion proposed the sending of supplies by air 
to some point where the Japanese might lift 
them, with particular reference to medical sup- 
plies which might be scarce in Japan. No reply 
to this particular proposal was ever received. 
Another proposal was that the American Eed 
Cross would provide a cargo ship to go to some 



82 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



point in the Pacific wlieie a Japanese crew 
might take it over in order to conduct it to the 
ports where relief cargo should be discharged. 
This proposal was rejected by the Japanese. 
Numerous other proposals were considered but 
were either abandoned because of obstacles 
interposed by other enemy governments or were 
found to be otherwise impossible of accom- 
plishment. 

In March 1943 the Japanese Government, in 
response to repeated representations stressing 
its responsibility to cooperate in solving the 
problem, stated that strategic reasons still pre- 
vented neutral vessels from plying the Pacific 
waters but that it would explore other means of 
permitting the delivery of relief supplies. In 
the following month the Japanese Government 
stated that it might consent to receive supplies 
overland or by sea from Soviet territory. There 
have ensued since that time long and compli- 
cated negotiations with the Japanese and Soviet 
Govei-nments. Each detail of the negotiations 
had to be dealt with through a long and com- 
plicated i)rocedure involving the liandling of 
communications at Tokyo, Bern, Washington, 
and Moscow and in reverse direction through 
the same chamiels. Despite these difficulties, it 
has now been possible with the Soviet Govern- 
ment's cooperation to create a stockpile of pris- 
oner-of-war relief supplies on Soviet territory. 
Moreover, the Soviet Government has given as- 
surances that it will facilitate the transit 
through the Soviet Union of such relief supplies 
on a continuing basis when a satisfactory ar- 
rangement for the onward shipment of these 
supplies is reached between the Japanese and 
American Governments. In spite of the Depart- 
ment's repeated endeavors to bring this matter 
to a conclusion, the Japanese Government has 
not thus far indicated the means by which it is 
prepared to receive these supplies. The Depart- 
ment is continuing its etiorts in this regard, and 
it is hoped that a definite arrangement can soon 
be made whereby relief supplies will move on a 
continuing basis to all American nationals de- 
tained by the Jnpanese. 



While the foregoing negotiations have been 
in progress it has fortunately been possible to 
take advantage of the two exchanges of civilians 
with the Japanese Government, one in July 1942 
and the other in October 1943, to send to our 
nationals in the Far East an important quantity 
of relief supplies b)' means of the exchange 
vessels. 

Reports of the distribution of relief supplies 
which left the United States on the first ex- 
change vessel in 1942 were in due course received 
from the Far East. There was placed on the 
motor vessel Gripsholm when it left this country 
to effect the second exchange of civilian na- 
tionals another large cargo of assorted relief 
supplies, American Red Cross standard food 
parcels, next-of-kin parcels, and mail for dis- 
tribution to American prisonei-s of war and 
American civilians interned in the Philippine 
Islands, occupied China, Hong Kong, Japan, the 
Netherlands East Indies, and Malaya. Valued 
at over $1,300,000 and weighing 1,600 short tons, 
these supplies included 140,000 food parcels of 
approximately 13 pounds each; 2,800 cases of 
medical supplies, including surgical instru- 
ments, dressings, 7,000,000 vitamin capsules, 
etc.; 950 cases of comfort articles for men and 
women; 24,000,000 cigarettes; from 20,000 to 
25,00(1 next-of-kin parcels; and important sup- 
plies of clothing for men and women. This 
entire cargo was transferred to the Japanese 
exchange vessel at Mormugao and dispatched 
eastward. 

In addition to the shipment of relief supplies 
on the exchange vessels and the other measures 
mentioned above, the Department of State and 
the American Red Cross are continuing to give 
close attention to all other phases of the subject. 

7. Proi^i'iion of fnaiicial assistanee to Ameri- 
can ■nationals in the Far East 
Since the Trading With the Enemy Act as 
amended iirohibits, among other things, indi- 
vidual remittances to enemy and enemy-occu- 
pied or enemy-controlled territory, imless 
licensed, and since the issuance of such licenses 
is contrary to the policy of the Government, the 



JANUARY 15, 1944 



83 



Department of State, shortly after this coun- 
try's entry into the war, made provision for the 
extension of financial assistance from public 
funds in the form of loans to Americans in such 
territories through representatives of the Swiss 
Government representing American interests 
there. An infoi'mation sheet explaining how 
such assistance is extended and how funds so 
ad\'anced may be reimbursed to the United 
States Government is printed below. With cer- 
tain exceptions in territories occupied or con- 
trolled by Japan, the enemy governments have 
permitted payments to be made to qualified 
American nationals in the manner described. 
The Japanese authorities, however, have thus 
far refused to permit the Swiss Government's 
representatives, in certain areas under Japa- 
nese control, to extend financial assistance to 
American nationals in those areas on the same 
basis as elsewhere. The Department, therefore, 
has had to find other means of making funds 
available to Americans in such areas. 

At Hong Kong, where the Swiss Government 
has not been permitted by the Japanese Gov- 
ernment to act in behalf of American nationals, 
the International Red Cross delegate has been 
authorized to provide assistance to qualified 
American nationals there from public funds 
made available for the purpose by the Depart- 
ment. 

Inmiediately after the fall of the Philippine 
Islands, the Department endeavored to arrange 
for the extension of financial assistance to qual- 
ified American nationals there. In June 1943, 
the Japanese Government permitted the trans- 
fer of $25,000, representinji a contiibution by 
the American Red Cross, to be made to the 
Executive Committee of the Santo Tomas in- 
ternment camp at Manila, and later allowed 
the transfer of a second Red Cross contribution 
of $2r),000 for the relief of American nationals 
interned in Manila. 

It was not until July 1943 that the Japanese 
Government indicated that it would agree in 
principle to permit payments to American na- 
tionals interned in other parts of the Philip- 
pine Islands, and to allow further payments to 



tlie internees at Manila. Accordingly, the De- 
partment in August 1943 authorizetl the Swiss 
Goverrmient to make remittances, in accordance 
with the need and the number of eligible indi- 
viduals, to the executive committees of the 
American intermnent camps in the Philippine 
Islands beginning with the month of August or 
us soon as feasible thereafter. Funds delivered 
to the executive committees under this author- 
ization may be used (1) for the purchase of 
available supplies considered necessai7 to sup- 
plement the diet provided by the Japanese au- 
thorities, (2) to pay for essential services ob- 
tained outside camp, (3) to provide each inter- 
nee with a small amount of money for personal 
use, and (4) to advance funds, against promis- 
sory notes if possible, to indigent internees for 
delivery to such members of their families as 
may be at liberty. 

The Japanese Government has recently con- 
sented to monthly transfers of United States 
Government funds to the Executive Committee 
of the Santo Tomas internment camp to be used 
for the relief of American nationals at Santo 
Tomas, Los Banos, Baguio, and Davao which, 
according to latest available information, are 
the only civilian internment camps now main- 
tained by the Japanese in the Philippine 
Islands. These transfers are now being effected 
from such funds on deposit with tlie Swiss 
Government for the purposes mentioned above. 

The Department's standing instructions to 
the Swiss representatives in charge of American 
interests in enemy-held areas are that funds 
provided by this Goverimment may be made 
available to .^imerican prisoners of war as well 
as to interned American civilians for necessary 
personal expenditures in accordance with their 
established needs over and above the food, 
shelter, and other necessities provided them by 
the detaining power. Such assistance has al- 
ready been made available through the local 
International Red Cross delegates to American 
prisoners of war near Shanghai and Hong Kong. 
The Department of State is pressing for the ex- 
tension to American prisonei's of war in the 
Philippine Islands of the system of financial 



84 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



assistance referred to above which the Japanese 
have agreed to make available to civilian in- 
ternees. 

Procedure To Be Followed in Extending 
Financial Assistance to American Na- 
tionals IN Territories Where the Interests 
OF THE United States Are Represented by 
Switzerland 

The Department of State has completed ar- 
rangements for financial assistance to American 
nationals in territories where the interests of the 
United States are represented by Switzerland.^ 
Those able to qualify for such assistance will be 
entitled to receive from the Swiss representa- 
tives monthly payments corresponding to their 
established needs and the prevailing cost of liv- 
ing in the country concerned. All recipients 
will be limited to the monthly payments estab- 
lished for their place of residence, regardless of 
their ability or the ability of others interested 
in their welfare to repay amounts greater than 
the sums advanced. It is realized that a limita- 
tion upon the amount that American nationals 
may expend in enemy territory, even from their 
own resources, will entail some hardship. The 
conservation of foreign exchange, however, is 
an essential factor in the present economic pol- 
icy of the United States and it is expected that 
Americans everywhere will willingly share with 
those in the armed forces the sacrifices that must 
be made in winning the war. 

Based upon the latest ascertained cost of liv- 
ing in the various countries concerned, the maxi- 
mum monthly payment for the head of a house- 
hold will range from $60 to $130, with smaller 
allowances for additional members of the house- 
hold. The monthly payments are subject to 
revisions from time to time to meet changing 



' Switzpilaiid represents the interests of the United 
States in Germany, Italy, and Japan, in territories 
occupied by those countries, and in Bulgaria, Hungary, 
and Rumania. 



living cost. In addition, the Swiss representa- 
tives are authorized to make special advances 
ior such extraordinary expenditures as may be 
essential to the health or safety of American 
nationals for medical, surgical, or dental care, 
for hospitalization, for reasonable legal defense 
against political or criminal charges, or for a 
decent though modest burial where such is not 
provided by friends or relatives locally nor by 
the local authorities. 

Wherever prisoners of war and interned 
civilians are supported by the detaining power, 
it is expected that payments made to them will 
generally not exceed a small sum sufficient to 
provide spending money for miscellaneous per- 
sonal needs not supplied by the detaining power. 
However, no j^ayments will be made to officers 
or to persons of equivalent status held as prison- 
ers of war, who receive pay under the conven- 
tion relative to the treatment of prisoners of 
war, signed at Geneva on July 27, 1929. 

Swiss representatives charged with the rep- 
resentation of the interests of the United States 
will explain to the recipients that such financial 
assistance should not be considered as public 
bounty but as loans from public funds to Amer- 
ican nationals finding themselves in an ab- 
normal position by reason of the war. It is 
accordingly expected that all sums advanced 
will be repaid either by the recipients them- 
selves or by relatives, friends, business associ- 
ates, employers, or legal representatives in the 
United States. 

Receipts embodying promises to repay with- 
out interest the sums advanced will be taken 
for all payments. Private deposits to reim- 
burse the Government for sums advanced shall 
be made with the Department of State. Persons 
wishing to make such deposits should mdicate 
the names of the beneficiaries and should remit 
by postal money orders or certified checks pay- 
able to "The Secretary of State of the United 
States". 



JANUARY 15, 1944 



85 



AGREEMENT WITH CANADA FOR THE EXTENSION OF THE FUEL SUPPLY FOR 
THE UNITED STATES ARMY IN CANADA AND ALASKA ^ 



The Ainerwan. Minuter to Canada to the Cama- 
d'tan Secretatnf of State for External Affairs 



No. 818 



Sik: 



Ottawa, Canada, 

December 28, 1942. 



I have the honor to refer to our exchange of 
notes of June 27 and June 29, 1942,= regarding 
the desire of the United States Government to 
take steps for extending the fuel supply for the 
U.S. Army in Canada and Alaska. At that 
time the United States Government proposed, 
and the Canadian Government approved, the 
so-called Canol Project which included, ijiter 
alia, the drilling of wells in the vicinity of Nor- 
man Wells, and the laying of a pipeline from 
Norman Wells to AVhitehoree, capable of deliv- 
ering 3,000 barrels of oil daily. 

The developments of our joint war effort have 
in the opinion of my Government made it vitally 
necessary to discover additional sources of i)e- 
troleum in northwestern Canada and Alaska, 
capable of producing from 15,000 to 20,000 bar- 
rels per day, to supplement the supply which 
will be obtained from Norman Wells. This will 
require the drilling of exploratory, or in oil 
parlance "wildcat" wells in this northern region. 
As such operations should be conducted iu a 
number of widely separated locations in the 
Northwest Territories, where oil is believed to 
exist, it is suggested that the area in Canada 
within which such operations are authorized be 
bounded on the north by the Arctic Ocean, on 
the east by the 112th meridian, on the south 
by the 60th parallel, on the west by the Conti- 
nental Divide and the Alaska-Canadian Border. 

The operations imder immediate contempla- 
tion, — as a result of which, however, it may 
prove desirable to enlarge or expand the Canol 
Project — are for the sole purpose of discovering 

' To be printed in the Executive Agreement Series. 
' Not printed. 



oil fields capable of producing the required 
20,000 barrels per day. No plans have as yet 
been worked out covering the refineries, stor- 
age or distribution systems beyond those al- 
ready authorized and aj^proved by the Canadian 
Government. 

In view of all the circumstances involved, and 
the increasingly urgent need of additional fuel 
for militarj^ purposes in the far noi'th, the Gov- 
ernment of the United States of America hopes 
that the Canadian Government will approve 
these exploratory operations with the under- 
standing that the United States Army authori- 
ties be allowed during the war to drill through 
contract with one or more companies either 
Canadian or American, to develop through con- 
tract with one or more Canadian companies, and 
to make use of any petroleum sources that may 
be discovered, subject to Canadian regulations 
governing such operations and to the further 
understanding that operations would be subject 
to the provisions of our exchange of notes of 
June 27 and June 29 above referred to, insofar 
as such provisions are not inconsistent with the 
provisions of this note and are capable, with 
necessary adaptations and modifications, of be- 
ing applied to such operations. My Govern- 
ment will of course keep the Canadian Govern- 
ment fully informed of any future plans for 
carrying out these operations. 

Accept [etc.] 

For the Minister : 

Lewis Clark 
Second Secretary of Legation 



The Canadian Secretary of State for External 
Affairs to the American Minister to Canada 

No. 2 Ottawa, January 13, 19^3. 

Sir, 

I have the honour to inform you that the 
Canadian Government accepts the proposals 



86 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



set forth in your note of December 28, 1942, No. 
818, concerning the drilling of exploratory oil 
wells in the Northwest Territories. 

Accept [etc.] 

N. A. Robertson 

for Secretary of State for External Affairs. 



The American Minister to Canada to the 
Secretary of State 



No. 4015 



Sm: 



Ottawa, Canada, 
January 19, 191^3. 



I have the honor to refer to my despatch No. 
3996, January 14, 1943,' transmitting certified 
copies of an exchange of notes on the drilling 
of exploratory oil wells in the Northwest Terri- 
tories. 

In the foregoing connection, there is quoted 
below the text of a letter from Dr. Keenleyside, 
Assistant Under-Secretary of State for Exter- 
nal Affairs, who explains that in order to fa- 
cilitate the drafting of regulations and to avoid 
the possibility of intervention on the part of 
anyone whose interest is not identical with that 
of the two governments, it would be desirable to 
have defined the particular districts in which 
the "wild catting" is to take place. 

"Januart 18, 1943. 

"I wish to refer again to your note of Decem- 
ber 28, 1942, No. 818 on the proposals for drill- 
ing exploratory oil wells in the Northwest Ter- 
ritories. The question has arisen as to the best 
means of avoiding the possibility of the inter- 
vention of any one whose interest is not identi- 
cal with that of the Canadian Government, or 
of the United States Government, and who 
might make application for oil and gas rights 
in that part of the Northwest Territories under 
discussion. 

"It would facilitate the drafting of regula- 
tions if the United States authorities would 
indicate more definitely the particular districts, 
within the very large area described in your 



note No. 818, paragraph 2, which seem to be 
the most promising. These districts could then 
be reserved for exploration by nominees of the 
United States Government." 
Respectfully yours, 

For the Minister : 
J. Graham Parsons 
Third Secretary of Legation 



' Not printed. 



The American Charge in Canada to the Ca/)ia- 

dian Assistant Under Secretary of State for 

External Affairs 

Ottawa, February 17, 19p. 
De.ui Mr. Keenleyside: 

I sent to the State Department for its com- 
ments the text of your letter to Mr. Moffat of 
January 18, 1943,^ regarding a more strict de- 
limitation of the districts in which wildcatting 
would be done in the Northwest Territories in 
order that such districts might be reserved for 
exploration by nominees of the United States 
Government. 

I have now received a reply to the effect that, 
while we are wholly in accord with your sug- 
gestion, it is nevertheless believed to be desirable 
that in any regulations which may be adopted 
there be nothing which would forbid operations 
anywhere within the broad general area men- 
tioned in our note of December 28, 1942. I quote 
below, for your information, the pertinent parts 
of a letter of February 6, 1943, to the Secretary 
of State from the Secretary of War on this sub- 
ject : 

"This office is wholly in accord with the sug- 
gestion contained in Dr. Keenleyside's letter of 
January 18, 1943 that certain areas should be 
reserved for exj)loration by nominees of the 
United States in order to prevent the possible in- 
tervention of any one whose interest is not 
identical with that of the Canadian Government 
or of the United States Government. 

At the present time it is expected that the 
greater part of the wildcatting will be carried 
on in the district contiguous to the Mackenzie 
River, approximately 25 miles each side thereof, 
and extending fi-om Fort Wrigley on the south 



JANUARY 15, 1944 



87 



to Good Hope on the north. It is hoped that 
sufficient sources of oil to fulfill our require- 
ments will be discovered within this area. 
However, there are under consideration and 
surveys are being made of two major districts 
which, on the basis of presently available geo- 
logical data, are considered to be the most 
promising for oil exploration. These areas are 
defined as follows: 

a. District of Mackenzie — ^An area contig- 

uous to the Mackenzie River, approxi- 
mately 75 miles each side thereof, and 
extending from Great Slave Lake on 
the south to the Arctic Ocean on the 
north. 

b. Yukon Territory — All that portion of 

the Yukon Territory lying north of 
the 66th parallel. 

It is believed that, in accordance with the 
suggestion of the Canadian authorities, it would 
be advantageous to both governments to have 
the two major areas as described above reserved 
for oil exploration by the United States in con- 
nection with the Canol Project, to the exclusion 
of other interests. 

Although it is expected that our activities 
will be confined within these two areas it would 
be considered inadvisable to have them strictly 
limited thereto. It is therefore the desire of 
this department that any regulations which 
may be adopted be of such a nature as to permit 
operations anywhere within the broad general 
area described in our letter of November 18, 
1942." 

Sincerely yours, 

Lewis Clark 



The Canudian Assistant Under Secretary of 
State for External Affairs to the Amei^an 
Charge in Camxjda 

Ottawa, March 13, 19^3. 
Dear Mb. Clark : 

With reference to your letter of February 
17th, on the matter of a more strict delimitation 



of the districts in the Northwest Territories in 
which wildcatting rights might be reserved for 
nominees of the United States Government, I 
have now received a reply from the Department 
of Mines and Resources on the subject. 

The tw'o areas mentioned in your letter are 
contiguous, namely : 

1. District of Mackenzie — An area contig- 

uous to the Mackenzie River, approxi- 
mately 75 miles each side thereof, and 
extending from Fort Pi'ovidence on 
the south to the Arctic Ocean on the 
north. Within the delta of the Mac- 
kenzie River, the line of reference shall 
be the East Channel. 

2. Yukon Territory — All that portion of 

the Yukon Territory lying north of the 
66th parallel. 

It is proposed to apply the same regulations 
in these two areas as were worked out for the 
three areas already reserved by Orders-in-Coun- 
cil P.C. 1138 dated 12th February 1943, and P.C. 
4140 of May 18th, 1942, as a result of consulta- 
tion between Mr. Sidney Paige, Consulting 
Geologist attached to the office of Colonel 
Wyman, and Dr. Camsell. These regulations 
were published in the Canada Gazette on 
February 20th, 1943, and provide : 

First, (clause 1) that no one can prospect 
without first obtaining permission ; 

Second, (clause 14) that the Minister 
should have the right to refuse to issue 
a permit when, in his opinion it might 
retard the search for and the develop- 
ment of the oil resources or interfere 
with the production of petroleum for 
the use of His Majesty or of any coun- 
try associated or allied with His 
Majesty in the conduct of the present 
war. 

This should afford ample protection against 
nuisance staking and ensure that any explora- 
toi-y and development work that may be carried 
on by bona fide companies other than those 
nominated by the United States Government 
will be made available for our war needs. 



88 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



I trust that this arrangement will be satisfac- 
tory to all parties. 

Yours sincerely, 

H. L. IVEENLETSIDE 

THE PROCLAIMED LIST: CUMULATIVE 
SUPPLEMENT 4 TO REVISION VI 

[Released to the press for publication January 15, 9 p.m.] 

The Secretary of State, acting in conjunction 
with the Acting Secretary of the Treasury, the 
Attorney General, the Acting Secretary of 



Commerce, the Administrator of Foreign Eco- 
nomic Administration, and the Coordinator of 
Inter- American Affaii-s, on January 15 issued 
Cumulative Supplement 4 to Revision VI of 
the Proclaimed List of Certain Blocked Na- 
tionals, promulgated October 7, 1943. 

Part I of Cumulative Supplement 4 contains 
89 additional listings in the other American 
republics and 52 deletions. Part II contains 72 
additional listings outside the American re- 
publics and 38 deletions. 



American Republics 



PROBLEMS OF NEWSPRINT PRODUCTION AND TRANSPORTATION TO OTHER 

AMERICAN REPUBLICS 



fReleased to the press January 12) 

The United States Government is vitally in- 
terested in solving the problems of newsprint 
production and transportation, which have ad- 
versely affected friendly publications in other 
American republics. This problem continues to 
receive constant and careful attention with a 
view to arrangements equitable to all parties 
concerned. At the present time, an effort is 
being made to facilitate production for ship- 
ment to other American republics so that news- 
paper services may not be interrupted. 

Shipment of newsprint from the United 
States and Canada to the other American re- 
publics is on a quota basis. The determination 
of equitable distribution is made by the appi'o- 
priate local government authorities in consulta- 
tion with the publications and with the advice 
of the American diplomatic mission in each 
country. Distribution lists are transmitted 
from the countries of the other American re- 
publics showing the amount to be received by 
each consignee within the quota and the name of 



the supplier. Licenses are issued accordingly 
and manufacturing scheduled. 

The quotas for the other American republics 
originated in the following manner. Due to 
the shipping shortage that existed during Au- 
gust 1942 and several months thereafter through 
the exigencies of war, it was necessary to place 
a shipping quota on every exiDortable commod- 
ity, which also included newsprint. In order to 
determine a quota that could be shipped with 
the highest priority and that would move stead- 
ily, the newsprint requirements for each country 
were reduced and shipments temporarily cur- 
tailed to those countries which had large news- 
print stocks on hand. Many friendly news- 
papers were on the point of suspending through 
lack of newsprint and the quota thus applied 
assured a regular supply. 

With the cessation of the necessity to utilize 
certain shipping for war purposes, more ton- 
nage became available to the other American 
republics. In the meantime, however, an acute 
shortage developed in pulpwood, which has ad- 



JANUARY 16, 1944 



89 



Tersely affected the supply of pulp and paper in 
general and newsprint in particular. The news- 
print quotas for the other American republics, 
originally based on shipping considerations, are 
now governed by actual manufacturing poten- 
tials, the requirements of consumers heretofore 
not using United States and Canadian news- 
print, and the general drain upon paper prod- 
ucts as a result of substituting paper for metal 
in many manufactured commodities. 

The quotas for newsprint to the consumers in 
the other American republics represent a con- 
siderable reduction from normal requirements. 
With few exceptions, any failure to obtain their 
quotas of newsprint regularly would cause the 
suspension of some friendly publications in cer- 
tain countries. 

An attempt is being made to create a 90 da3's' 
stock position for newsprint for publications in 
the other American republics, as any undue de- 
lay in delivery for any reason whatsoever would 
cause serious dislocations to the newspapers in 
the countries affected. 

With very few and well-identified exceptions, 
the newspapers of other American republics 
have editoriallj^ supported the Allied war effort 
and have cooperated in an equitable curtailment 
in the size of their editions. In view of the im- 
portant foreign-relations aspects of the situa- 
tion and the importance of the major portions of 
the publications in the other American repub- 
lics in keeping their public infoi-med with re- 
gard to the war and relations in general with the 
United Nations, it is essential that no effort be 
spared to maintain newsprint supplies to those 
publications. 

VISIT TO THE UNITED STATES OF THE 
PRESIDENT OF VENEZUELA 

His Excellency General Isaias Medina An- 
garita. President of the Republic of Venezuela, 
is expected to arrive in Washington as a guest of 
President Eoosevelt on January 19. The pro- 
gram for the visit was annomiced by the Depart- 
ment of State in a press release (no. 14) on 
January 14. 



General 



ACCOMMODATIONS IN WASHINGTON FOR 
SPECIAL GUESTS OF THE GOVERN- 
MENT 

[Released to the press January 11] 

The Blair-Lee House, which is Govermnent- 
owned and located at 1653 Pemisylvania Ave- 
nue, across from the Department of State, is 
being rehabilitated to provide additional facil- 
ities for visiting delegates to conferences, 
holders of travel gi-ants, distinguished profes- 
soi"S, and othei's for whom adequate accommo- 
dations have not previously been available. 

The Blair House, which adjoins the Blair- 
Lee House, is particularly to be reserved to ac- 
commodate heads of state and ranking officials 
of Cabinet status who come to Washington. 

INAUGURATION OF THE PRESIDENT 
OF LIBERIA 

The inauguration of William V. S. Tubman 
as President of Liberia and of C. L. Simpson as 
Vice President took place January 3, 1944 in 
Monrovia, Liberia. Admiral William A. Glass- 
ford, who had been designated by President 
Roosevelt to attend the inauguration as his per- 
sonal representative, was cordially received and 
decorated by President Tubman with the Star of 
Africa. 

President Tubman, in his inaugural address, 
recommended, among other things, the develop- 
ment of a jjrogressive policy of government, 
allowing for a larger representation by the peo- 
ple in the administration of the government; 
liberal appropriations for public-health and 
educational purposes ; development of the coun- 
try's agricultural economy; expedition of the 
i-oad-building program; suffrage for women; 
and selective negro immigration from tlie 
United States and the West Indies. The Presi- 
dent declared that Liberia's foreign policy was 
in line with complete and unreserved opposition 



90 



DEPAETMEira OF STATE BTJLLETENl 



to the militarism of the Nazis, Fascists, and 
Japanese. He urged that close and friendly 
relations between Liberia and the United Na- 
tions be encouraged and expressed his belief in 
the principles for which the Atlantic Charter 
stands. 



Treaty Information 



AGRICULTURE 

Convention on the Inter-American Institute 
of Agricultural Sciences 

A Convention on the Inter- American Institute 
of Agricultural Sciences was opened for signa- 
ture at the Pan American Union on January 
15, 1944 and was signed on that date for the 
United States of America, Costa Rica, Nica- 
ragua, and Panama. The convention will re- 
main open for signature by the other American 
republics and, under the provisions of article 
XV thereof, will come into force three months 
after the deposit of not less than five ratifica- 
tions with the Pan American Union. 

The convention gives permanent status to the 
Inter- American Institute of Agricultural Sci- 
ences, which was established as a corporation 
under the laws of the District of Columbia on 
June 18, 1942 to encourage and advance the de- 
velopment of agricultural sciences in the Ameri- 
can republics. Under the certificate of incor- 
poration and the by-laws of the Institute, as 
well as under the convention, the representatives 
of the 21 American republics on the Governing 
Board of the Pan American Union are members 
of the Board of Directors of the Institute. 

The Institute is already functioning with 
funds supplied by the Government of the United 
States of America through the Office of the 
Coordinator of Inter-American AflPairs. On 
March 19, 1943 the cornerstone of the first 
permanent building of the Institute at its field 



headquarters in Turrialba, Costa Rica, was laid 
by President Rafael Angel Calderon Guardia 
of Costa Rica and Vice President Henry A. 
Wallace of the United States of America. Dr. 
Earl N. Bressman, formerly of the Office of the 
Coordinator of Inter- American Affairs and of 
the Department of Agriculture, has been ap- 
pointed Director of the Institute, and Mr. Jose 
L. Colom of the Pan American Union has been 
appointed as its Secretary. 

MILITARY MISSIONS 
Agreement With Venezuela 

[Released to the press January 13] 

In conformity with the request of the Govern- 
ment of Venezuela, there was signed on Janu- 
ary 13, 1944 by the Honorable Cordell Hull, 
Secretary of State, and His Excellency Seiior 
Dr. Don Diogenes Escalante, Ambassador of 
Venezuela in Washington, an agreement pro- 
viding for the detail of a military aviation mis- 
sion by the United States to serve in Venezuela. 

The agreement will continue in force for four 
years from the date of signature, but may be 
extended beyond that period at the request of 
the Government of Venezuela. 

The agreement contains provisions similar 
in general to provisions contained in agree- 
ments between the United States and certain 
other American republics providing for the de- 
tail of officers of the United States Army or 
Navy to advise the armed forces of those 
countries. 

STRATEGIC MATERIALS 

Agreement With Canada for the Extension of 
the Fuel Supply for the United States 
Army in Canada and Alaska 

The texts of communications concerning an 
agi-eement between the Govenmaents of the 
United States and Canada for the extension of 
the fuel supply for the United States Army in 
Canada and Alaska appear in tliis Bulletin 
mider the heading "The War". 



JANUARY 15, 1944 



91 



The Foreign Service 



DEATH OF WILLIAM C. BURDETT 

[Released to the press January 14] 

The State Department regrets to announce the 
death of the Honorable William C. Burdett, 
American Minister to New Zealand, at his post 
in AVellington Januaiy 13. Mi\ Burdett had 
been ill for some time and was admitted to the 
United States Naval Hospital in New Zealand on 
December 19 following a cerebral hemorrhage. 

Mr. Burdett entered the American Foreign 
Service as a career officer in 1919 and rose to the 
rank of Minister. He had taken up his duties 
as United States Minister to New Zealand only a 
few months ago. Prior to entering the Foreign 
Service he served with distinction in the United 
States Army in the Philippine Insurrection in 
1900-1903 and again during the World War. 
He was wounded during the World War and was 
awarded the Distinguished Service Cross. Mr. 
Burdett is survived by his wife, two daughters, 
and two sons — one of whom is in the Foreign 
Service and the other in the United States air 
forces. 

The Secretary of State has sent to Mi's. Bur- 
dett the following- message : 

"I am deeply grieved to learn of the death of 
your distinguished husband. I feel that I have 
lost an old and true friend. Mr. Burdett has 
served his country with distinction both in the 
Armed Forces and in the American Foreign 
Service. In both services Mr. Burdett has 
shown outstanding courage and during this war 
chose an active post despite his impaired health. 
He has truly given his life in the service of his 
country. A man of deep human sympathy and 
kindness, Mr. Burdett was loved and admired by 
all of us who had the pleasure of working with 



him in the Department of State and in the For- 
eign Service. Few officers in the history of the 
Foreign Service have inspired such universal 
affection and loyalty among their colleagues. 
All of us mourn his death and send you and your 
family our heartfelt sympathy." 

CONSULATES 

The American Consulate at Bone, Algeria, 
was closed eflPective January 12, 1944. 



Legislation 



Thirteenth Report to Congress on Lend-Lease Opera- 
tions: Message From the President of the United 
States Transmitting the Thirteenth Report of Opera- 
tions Under the Lend-Lease Act, for the Period Ended 
November 30, 1943. H. Doe. 375, 78th Cong. 71 pp. 

Emergency Funds for the President, Navy and War, 
1940-42, and the Emergency Fimd for the President, 
National Defense, 1942-44 : Communication from the 
President of the United States transmitting a report 
of the status as of November 30, 1943, of the emer- 
gency fund for the President, etc. H. Doc. 378, 78th 
Cong. [Department of State, pp. 3, 8-9.] 9 pp. 

Message of the President to the Congress, recommend- 
ing the passage of a national service law and other 
acts. H. Doe. 377, 78th Cong. 8 pp. 



Publications 



Department of State 

Foreign Service List, September 30, 1943. Publication 
2036. iv, 132 pp. Subscription, 50«i a year (65^ for- 
eign) ; single copy, 20(f. 

Diplomatic List, January 1944. Publication 2044. ii, 
122 pp. Subscription, $1 a year ; single copy 10^. 

The Proclaimed List of Certain Blocked Nationals: 
Cumulative Supplement No. 4, January 14, 1944, to 
Revision VI of October 7, 1943. Publication 2046. 55 
pp. Free. 



D. S, GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE; 1944 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, D. S. Government Printinj; Office, Washington. D. C. 
Price, 10 cents - - . . Subscription price, $2.75 a year 

PUBLISHED WEEKLY WITH TUB APPEOVAL OF THE DIEECTOB OF THE BUBEAn OF THE BDDQEI 



J 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



BULL 



H 



:^ rm 



J 



riN 



c 



JANUARY 22, 1944 
Vol. X, No. 239— Publication 2053 



ontents 



Page 
95 



96 



97 



The War 

War Refugee Board 

Statement by the Secretary of State Regarding the Re- 
quest Contained in the Declaration of January 14, 
1944 by the Polish Government-in-ExLle 

The Construction of a General International Organiza- 
tion : Address by Assistant Secretary Berle .... 

The Department 
"The State Department Speaks" 100 

American Republics 

Adherence by Colombia to the Declaration by United 

Nations 108 

Presentation of Letters of Credence by the Ambassador 

of Colombia 108 

Distinguished Visitors From Other American Re- 
publics 110 

The Foreign Service 

Resignation of Anthony J. Drexel Biddle, Jr 110 

Legislation Ill 



Publications. 



Ill 




U, S. SUPERiMTfNDENT OF DOCUMENTS 
FEB 8 1944 



The War 



WAR REFUGEE BOARD 



[Released to the press by the White House January 22, 9 p.m.] 

The President on January 22, by Executive 
Order 9417/ set up a War Kefugee Board con- 
sisting of the Secretary of State, the Secretary 
of the Treasury, and the Secretary of War, to 
take action for the immediate rescue from the 
Nazis of as many as possible of tlie persecuted 
minorities of Europe — racial, religious, or po- 
litical — all civilian victims of enemy savagery. 

The Executive order declai'es that "it is the 
policy of this Government to take all measures 
within its power to rescue the victims of enemy 
oppression who are in inuninent danger of 
death and other-wise to afford such victims all 
possible relief and assistance consistent with the 
successful prosecution of the war". 

The Board is charged with direct responsi- 
bility to the President in seeing that the an- 
nounced policy is carried out. The President 
indicated that while he would look directly to 
the Board for the successful execution of this 
I^olicy, the Board, of course, would cooperate 
fully with the Intergovernmental Committee, 
the United Nations Belief and Rehabilitation 
Administration, and other interested interna- 
tional organizations. 

The President stated that he expected to ob- 
tain the cooperation of all members of the 
United Nations and other foreign governments 
in carrying out this difficult but important task. 
He stated that the existing facilities of the 
State, Treasury, and War Departments would 
be employed to aid Axis victims to the fullest 
extent possible. He stressed that it was urgent 



^ 9 Federal Register 935. 



that action be taken at once to forestall the plan 
of the Nazis to exterminate all the Jews and 
other persecuted minorities in Europe. 

It will be the duty of a full-time Executive 
Director of the Board to arrange for the prompt 
execution of the plans and programs developed 
and the measures inaugurated by the Board. 

The text of the Executive order follows: 

ExEctnrvE Order 

Establishing a War Refugee Board 

Whereas it is the policy of this Government 
to take all measures within its power to rescue 
the victims of enemy ojjpression who are in 
imminent danger of death and otherwise to af- 
ford such victims all possible relief and assist- 
ance consistent with the successful prosecution 
of the war ; 

Now, THEREFORE, by Virtue of the authority 
vested in me by the Constitution and the stat- 
utes of the United States, as President of the 
United States and as Commander in Chief of 
the Army and Navy, and in order to effectuate 
with all possible speed the rescue and relief of 
such victims of enemy oppression, it is hereby 
ordered as follows: 

1. There is established in the Executive Office 
of the President a War Refugee Board (herein- 
after referred to as the Board). The Board 
shall consist of the Secretary of State, the Secre- 
tary of the Treasury and the Secretary of War. 
The Board may request the heads of other agen- 
cies or departments to participate in its delib- 
erations whenever matters specially affecting 

95 



96 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETEN 



such agencies or departments are under con- 
sidei-ation. 

2. The Board shall be charged with the re- 
sponsibilty for seeing that the policy of the 
Government, as stated in the Preamble, is car- 
ried out. The functions of the Board shall in- 
clude without limitation the development of 
plans and programs and the inauguration of 
effective measures for (a) the rescue, transpor- 
tation, maintenance and relief of the victims of 
enemy oppression, and (i) the establislmient of 
havens of temporary refuge for such victims. 
To this end the Board, through appropriate 
channels, shall take the necessary steps to enlist 
the cooperation of foreign governments and ob- 
tain their participation in the execution of such 
l^lans and programs. 

3. It shall be the duty of the State, Treasury 
and War Departments, within their respective 
spheres, to execute at the request of the Board, 
the plans and programs so developed and the 
measures so inaugurated. It shall be the duty 
of the heads of all agencies and departments to 
supply or obtain for the Board such informa- 
tion and to extend to the Board such supplies, 
shipping and other specified assistance and fa- 
cilities as the Board may require in carrying out 
the provisions of this Order. The State De- 
partment shall appoint special attaches with 
diplomatic status, on the recommendation of the 
Board, to be stationed abroad in places where 
it is likely that assistance can be rendered to 
war refugees, the duties and responsibilities of 
such attaches to be defined by the Board in con- 
sultation with the State Department. 

4. The Board and the State, Treasury and 
War Departments are authorized to accept the 
services or contributions of any private per- 
sons, private organizations. State agencies, or 
agencies of foreign governments in carrying 
out the purposes of this Order. Tlie Board 
shall cooperate with all existing and future 
international organizations concerned with the 
problems of refugee rescue, maintenance, trans- 
portation, relief, rehabilitation, and resettle- 
ment. 



5. To the extent possible the Board shall 
utilize the personnel, supplies, facilities anA 
services of the State, Treasury and War De- 
partments. In addition the Board, within the 
limits of funds which may be made available, 
may employ necessary personnel without re- 
gard for the Civil Service laws and regulations 
and the Classification Act of 1923, as amended, 
and make provisions for supplies, facilities and 
services necessary to discharge its responsibili- 
ties. The Board shall appoint an Executive 
Director who shall serve as its principal execu- 
tive officer. It shall be the duty of the Execu- 
tive Director to arrange for the prompt execu- 
tion of the plans and programs developed and 
the measures inaugurated by the Board, to 
supervise the activities of the special attaches 
and to submit frequent reports to the Board on 
the steps taken for the rescue and relief of war 
refugees. 

6. The Board shall be directly responsible to 
the President in carrying out the policy of this 
Government, as stated in the Preamble, and the 
Board shall report to him at frequent intervals 
concerning the stej^s taken for the rescue and 
relief of war refugees and shall make such 
recommendations as the Board may deem 
appropriate for further action to overcome any 
difficulties encountered in the rescue and relief 
of war refugees. 

STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY OF 
STATE REGARDING THE REQUEST 
CONTAINED IN THE DECLARATION OF 
JANUARY 14, 1944 BY THE POLISH 
GOVERNMENT-IN-EXILE 

[Released to the press January 17] 

At his press and radio news conference on 
January 17 the Secretary of State said that hav- 
ing received officially the request of the Polish 
Government contained in its public statement 
of January 14, this Government, through its 
Ambassador in Moscow, informed the Soviet M 
Government of its willingness, if agreeable to ™ 
the Soviet Government, to extend its good offices 



JANUARY 2 2, 1944 



97 



■with a view to arranging for the initiation of 
discussions between the two Governments look- 
ing to a resumption of official relations between 
them. The Secretary said that without going 
into the merits of the case it is our hope that 
some satisfactory means may be found for the 
resumption of friendly relations between these 
two fellow members of the United Nations. 

The Secretary added that no reply has been 
received from the Soviet Government. 

For the convenience of correspondents the text 
of the Declaration of the Polish Government as 
received by the Department is printed below : 

The Polish Government have taken cogni- 
zance of the Declaration of the Soviet Govern- 
ment contained in the Toss communique of 
January 11, 1944, which was issued as a reply 
to the Declaration of the Polish Government 
of January 5. 

The Soviet communique contains a number of 
statements to which a complete answer is af- 
forded by the ceaseless struggle against the 
Germans waged at the heaviest cost by the 
Polish Nation under the direction of the Polish 
Government. 



In their earnest anxiety to safeguard the 
complete solidarity of the United Nations 
especially at a decisive stage of their struggle 
against the common enemy, the Polish Govern- 
ment consider it to be preferable now to re- 
frain from further public discussions. While 
the Polish Government cannot recognize uni- 
lateral decisions or accomplished facts which 
have taken place or might take place on the 
territory of the Polish Republic, they have re- 
peatedly expressed their sincere desire for a 
Polish-Soviet agreement on terms which would 
be just and acceptable to both sides. To this 
end the Polish Government are approaching the 
British and United States Governments with a 
view to securing through their intermediary the 
discussion by the Polish and Soviet Govern- 
ments with the participation of the British and 
American Governments of all outstanding ques- 
tions, the settlement of which should lead to a 
friendly and permanent cooperation between 
Poland and the Soviet Union. The Polish Gov- 
ernment believe this to be desirable in the inter- 
est of the victory of the United Nations and har- 
monious relations in post-war Europe. 



THE CONSTRUCTION OF A GENERAL INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION 

Address by Assistant Secretary Berle ^ 



[Released to the press January 17] 

For more than a century great wars have led 
to great hopes for a system of permanent peace. 
So it was when Napoleon's Empire was over- 
thrown in 1815 ; so again in the last World War, 
when President Wilson proposed, and the rest 
of the world assented to, the plan of the League 
of Nations. And so it is today: even before 
the victory is won, plain people everywhere 
search for the hope that the peace when it comes 
may be just and lasting. 

It has now been realized that permanent 
peace is not to be had for the wishing. 



Apparently no nation by itself can maintain 
peace for itself — let alone for the rest of the 
world — by any course of conduct carried on 
by itself alone. If peaceful intentions and law- 
abiding behavior could bring permanent peace 
to any nation, many countries in the five con- 
tinents would not be at war now. Ambassador 
Litvinov remarked that peace is indivisible, 
and Secretary Hull observed only recently that 



' Delivered before the United Nations Forum at Con- 
stitution Hall, Washington, Jan. 17, 1944. 



98 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETLM 



all of the United Nations have a common in- 
terest in national security, in world order under 
law, in peace — and he added : 

"The future of these indispensable common 
interests depends absolutely upon international 
cooperation. Hence, each nation's own primary 
interest requires it to cooperate with the 
others." 

The Government of the United States from 
the outset of this war has recognized that a 
system of permanent peace must be a major 
objective and has maintained continually and 
forcefully that this must be accomplished 
through arrangements of general international 
cooperation. Slowly but soundly the founda- 
tions of that system are being laid. 

A first step was taken on the deck of a war- 
ship in the North Atlantic. President Roose- 
velt and Prime Minister Churchill, in August 
1941, declared for the United States and for 
Great Britain as one of the "common principles 
in the national policies of their respective coun- 
tries on which they base their hopes for a better 
future for the world" that after the final de- 
struction of the Nazi tyramiy, they hoped to 
see established a peace which would afford to 
all nations the means of dwelling in safety 
within their own boundaries, and which would 
afford assurance that all the men in all the 
lands might live out their lives in freedom from 
fear and want.^ 

This was a pledge of cooperation between the 
United States and Great Britain that the high 
purpose of cooperation toward a system of peace 
would be jointly undertaken. 

On January 1, 1942 the company of the United 
Nations pledged themselves to a joint effort, 
"having subscribed to a common program of 
purposes and principles" embodied in the Atlan- 
tic Charter. In the same spirit, other nations 
have associated themselves with the cause of the 
defense of civilization. Today all save the law- 

' Executive Agreement Series 236, 



breakers and aggressors, whose defeat is daily 
growing nearer, have declared as a major war 
aim the construction of a cooperative system 
for assuring peace. 

After nearly two years' study, by authority of 
the President, Secretary Hull proposed at Mos- 
cow that the United States, Soviet Union, Great 
Britain, and China should take a new step 
toward giving form and substance to plans for 
the preservation of peace. These four great 
powers jointly declared : 

"That their united action, pledged for the 
prosecution of the war against their respective 
enemies, will be continued for the organization 
and maintenance of peace and security. . . . 

"That they recognize the necessity of estab- 
lishing at the earliest practicable date a general 
international organization, based on the prin- 
ciple of the sovereign equality of all peace- 
loving states . . . large and small, for the 
maintenance of international peace and security. 

"That for the purpose of maintaining inter- 
national peace and security pending the re- 
establishment of law and order and the inaugu- 
ration of a system of general security, they will 
consult with one another and as occasion re- 
quires with other members of the United Nations 
with a view to joint action on behalf of the com- 
mimity of nations." ^ 

These clauses of the Declaration of Moscow 
outline the framework of the structure which is 
being built by history. For, besides reaffirming 
the principle and the pledge of united action to- 
ward it, this Declaration is specific. 

It declares for a general international organ- 
ization — as against a system of spheres of 
influence, or of alliances, or of balance of power, 
or of the other shifts and makeshifts which 
through the centuries have been tried and have 
failed. 

The membership of this international organ- 
ization is to be open to all peace-loving states, 



' BxnxHiTiN of Nov. 6, 1943, p. 309. 



JANUARY 22, 1944 



99 



large and small, on a basis of the sovereign 
equality of each. 

Because the building of such an organization 
is long and difficult, a method is set up to handle 
questions arising before its completion. This 
is the understanding that the four powers, with 
others as occasion requires, will consult with 
one another with a view to joint action for 
the purpose of maintaining peace. Such con- 
sultation is not an empty phrase. We have 
seen it succeed many times in the great com- 
munity of the American republics. 

The way is thus cleared for a later step still 
to be taken : the construction of a general inter- 
national organization. 

Even that has begun to shape itself in some 
respects: The United Nations Conference on 
Food and Agriculture and the signing by 44 
nations of an agreement creating the United 
Nations Relief and Eehabilitation Administra- 
tion both developed organizations dealing with 
important economic phases of universal inter- 
est. We must expect that other vitally neces- 
sary areas of common action will be dealt with, 
so that the conditions can be created in which 
peace can subsist, and so that the strength 
which is necessary to assure justice and 
restrain lawlessness will be available to this 
community of nations whose formation has 
begun. 

Gladly we note that this pledge by the United 
States and three of its principal Allies to form 
an international organization at the earliest 
practicable time has received substantially 
unanimous approval by the Congress of the 
United States. This was accomplished by the 
Senate approval of the Declaration of Moscow, 
which thus not only approved the arrange- 
ments made at that historic conference but like- 
wise approved the understanding that a per- 
manent international organization would be 
built. Authority has thus been given by Con- 
gress and overwhelmingly ratified by public 
opinion to proceed further on this huge task. 
In doing this, both Congress and the Ameri- 



can public made it plain that they saw in this 
development the brightest light which now 
shines through the murk of war. Safety, 
cooperation, the possibility of international 
justice, the dawn of freedom from fear — these 
are in the minds of the millions of Americans 
in and out of uniform who see the policy of 
working soberly and carefully and with all 
safeguards for our national rights and inter- 
ests toward a healthy international life. 

The problems — and they are vast — in carry- 
ing this policy forward, are known to you all. 
The men who have most experience with inter- 
national affairs are least likely to lay the blue- 
prints, or to forecast all the answers to all the 
questions. The methods of representation by 
which a great community of nations, each sov- 
ereign and equal, will be represented, present 
one problem. The possibility of revitalizing 
international law and providing means of in- 
ternational justice is another. The method by 
which nations can cooperate in dealing with 
threatened breach of peace is still another. In 
the field of economics it is clear that there must 
be international monetary arrangements, that 
ways must be cleared for commerce, that inter- 
national transport and communications by land 
and sea, air or ether, must be a matter of ar- 
rangement. The specific problems of labor, long 
recognized through the participation of this 
Government in the International Labor Office, 
find place in the picture. 

It has been the policy of this Administration 
to search for sound, kindly solutions for these 
manifold problems — solutions which can and 
will be supported by our people as being in their 
own interest and in the interest of all nations. 

But this is not a partisan task. Men of all 
parties, and of all gi'oups within parties, like 
our guests here tonight, have worked unceas- 
ingly and disinterestedly. In this huge strug- 
gle to assure that victory shall also mean hope, 
there are no parties : there are Americans who 
seek for our people and for all peoples to go 
forward on the road of civilization. 



100 



DEPARTMEOSTT OF STATE BULLETIN 



The Department 



"THE STATE DEPARTMENT SPEAICS" 



[Released to the press January 22] 

The text of the third of a series of four broad- 
casts over the National Broadcasting Company 
entitled "The State Department Speaks", fol- 
lows: 

Participants 



Adow a. Berle, Jr. 
Dean Acheson 
Harry C. Hawkins 

Charles P. Taft 

KiCHAED HaBKNESS 



Assistant Secretary of State 
Assistant Secretary of State 
Director, Office of Economic 

Affairs 
Director, Office of Wartime 

Economic Affairs 
Representing the public 



Washington Announcer : For the American 
jjeople, the National Broadcasting Company 
presents the third of a series of four programs 
called "The State Department Speaks". We 
take you now to the State Department Building 
on Pennsylvania Avenue here in Washington, 
D.C. 

Harkness : Good evening, ladies and gentle- 
men. This is Richard Harkness, your repre- 
sentative on this series of programs arranged 
by the National Broadcasting Company with 
the cooperation of the State Department and 
designed to reveal in simple terms the work of 
our Department of State. On the first program 
of this series we heard about the Moscow Con- 
ference and the post-war planning work of the 
State Department. We were told that in the 
final analysis the foreign policies of this coun- 
try are determined by you and me and our 
neighbors next door. Last Saturday the sec- 
ond program brought us word of a reorganiza- 
tion of the State Department and gave us a 
close-up of the work of the Department and 
the United States Foreign Service in protect- 
ing and promoting American interests abroad — 
in war and in peace. Tonight we are going to 
try to find out about a few of the things which 



some peojDle say cause wars — in other words, we 
are going to ask some searching questions about 
economic relations between nations. We are 
going to find out what relation, if any, there 
is between bread and butter and peace and 
war ; and we have with us four gentlemen who 
are outstanding experts on the subject: First, 
there's Mr. Adolf A. Berle, Jr., Assistant Sec- 
retary of State. How do you do, Mr. Berle. 

Berle : Good evening, Mr. Harkness. 

Harkness : And Mr. Dean Acheson, also an 
Assistant Secretary. Welcome to our program, 
Mr. Acheson. 

Acheson : Thank you, Mr. Harkness. I'm 
glad to be here. 

Harkness : Then we have Mr. Harry C. Haw- 
kins, Director of the State Department's Of- 
fice of Economic Affairs, and Mr. Charles P. 
Taft, who is the Director of the Department's 
Office of Wartime Economic Affairs. Good eve- 
ning, gentlemen. 

Hawkins and Taft: Good evening, Mr. 
Harkness. 

Harkness : All right — let's get on. 

Mr. Acheson, you are the Assistant Secretary 
of State in charge of economic affairs. 

Acheson : That's right, Mr. Harkness. 

Harkness : Well, suppose we start off by ask- 
ing you a question that must be in the minds of 
many of our listeners, and that is : Why is the 
Department of State interested in such a dry, 
imlikely sounding subject as economics? 

Acheson : I think we can convince you that 
it's not a dry, unlikely subject, Mr. Harkness. 
And I'm sure we can demonstrate how impor- 
tant international economics are to all Amer- 
icans — the farmer in Iowa, the banker in San 
Francisco, the miner in Pennsylvania — in war 
and in peace. 

Harkness : Good ! But first, tell me your 
definition of "economics". I don't want any 



{ 



JANUARY 22, 1944 



101 



dictionary definition, as you can well under- 
stand. 

AcHf:soN : Surely, Mr. Harkness. I use the 
word "economics" as an over-all term for pro- 
ducing things, moving them, and using them. 
The international wartime economic problem 
of the United Nations is to bring these things 
to bear against the Axis with maximum effec- 
tiveness. Our own and our Allies' armies and 
peoples have to be fed, clothed, and furnished 
with thousands of articles — "things", I called 
them a moment ago — all the equipment of a 
soldier, all the equipment of a ship, and all the 
equipment and food and clothing that people 
require in their ordinary daily lives. 

To produce all these things and to move them 
to the right places, in the right amounts, at the 
right times — all under stress of a gigantic war 
effort^ — to do all this we need the help of other 
governments and peoples. It's the purpose of 
our foreign economic policy in wartime to work 
things out with other countries in such a way 
that we and our Allies get the help we need and 
that our enemies don't get it. I'd like to make 
this point clear : In all these problems, the State 
Department works closely with the Foreign 
Economic Administration. Between them, 
they carry out almost all of the foreign eco- 
nomic operations of the United States Govern- 
ment. 

Harkness : How do you go about doing this ? 

Acheson: Well, you've two different situa- 
tions to keep in mind, Mr. Harkness. First, 
you've the countries which are allied or asso- 
ciated with us in this war. Secondly, there are 
the neutral countries. With the first or allied 
group, we have arranged for a mutual stepping- 
up of all essential production, for cutting down — 
so far as possible — all non-essential production, 
and finally, for refusing to send anything to 
places where it might reach the enemy. 

Harkness: That's in the case of allied na- 
tions, Mr. Acheson. Now — how about the neu- 
tral countries? 

Acheson: Here our task is much more diffi- 
cult. These countries, unlike our Allies and 
associated nations, are not joined with us in the 

.570315 — 44 2 



fight against the Axis. But we have things 
which they want badly, and they have things 
which ice want badly — so this gives us the 
chance to drive a bargain. 

Harkness: Yes, bul what do we do about 
keeping these neutral countries from supplying 
the enemy with materials he needs? 

Acheson: Well, that's where we have to do 
some mighty hard bargaining, and such hard 
bargaining is a part of our campaign of eco- 
nomic warfare. 

Harkness : Mr. Acheson, please ! Before we 
go any further, suppose you explain that much 
used term "economic warfare". Wliat does it 
mean? 

Acheson : It means simply hurting the enemy 
by preventing him from getting the things he 
needs. Economic warfare is carried on in 
many ways : By the Navy, which prevents ships 
from taking things to the enemy; by the air 
forces, which destroy enemy factories; and by 
the civilian agencies, which interfere with the 
enemy's getting supplies from neutral coun- 
tries. One method by which the civilians work 
is these war-trade bargains — this hard bargain- 
ing with the neutrals which I mentioned a 
moment ago. 

Harkness: What is the general nature of 
those bargains? I realize you can't go into 
the particulars because of possible aid to the 
enemy, but maybe — 

Acheson: Well, take a material which is 
essential to the German arms industry and 
which it gets from a nearby neutral country. 
Our air foi-ces and the R. A. F. bomb the Ger- 
man arms factories. This interferes with 
home production. But that isn't enough. We 
must see to it that the lost production of those 
bombed-out factories is not replaced from neu- 
tral countries; and, too, we must also see to it 
that materials on which German factories 
depend don't get to Germany from other coun- 
tries. 

Harkness: Well, that's understandable, Mr. 
Secretary, but you still haven't told us what 
you do in that case. How do you stop the ma- 



102 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



terial getting from a neutral country to Ger- 
many? 

Acheson: Well, let's take a concrete exam- 
ple. If a neutral country which supplies ma- 
terial to Germany needs food or oil or anything 
else from us we say to them, "You can have the 
things you need from us only if you stop send- 
ing such and such a war material to Germany." 

Hakkness: Well, suppose they tell you that 
they have to sell the war material to Germany 
in order to live ? 

Acheson : In that case, we are willing to buy 
it from them. Sometimes we really want the 
material, and sometimes we don't, but we don't 
care about that — the big point is to keep the 
valuable war material away from the enemj' 
whether we need it or not. 

Hakkness: I see. Well, Mr. Acheson, let's 
leave the economic-warfare measures for a little 
bit and consider what our State Department is 
doing in the economic field for the period after 
the war. Isn't it true that we have begun while 
the war is still on to deal with post-war 
problems? 

Acheson: Yes, you just can't wait until the 
last gun is fired to begin preparing for the 
economic conditions which you know will be 
present when the war ends. "WHien that day 
comes, the populations of countries which have 
been occupied by the enemy will once more be 
free, but they will be free in a pitiable condition. 
The enemy is now using their work, their rail- 
roads and factories and farms, and their prod- 
ucts for his own benefit. It's his selfish system 
that's in operation there. You can see then 
that, on the day the enemy is driven out, the 
whole system will fall to pieces, and it will take 
some time to put it together again so that it 
will operate for the benefit of the liberated peo- 
ples. If a band of thugs moved into your house 
and wrecked it, you wouldn't expect to find 
things in working order the day the police drove 
them out. 

Hakkness : That's true. 

Acheson: So inevitably some time must 
elapse before production in these occupied coun- 



tries can get going again. This will be an ex- 
tremely critical time. During this period the 
people of these countries must have the things 
which are necessary to keep them alive and to 
hold them together. If they don't get these 
materials, the result will be wide-spread starva- 
tion and disease; starvation and disease will 
produce rioting and disorder; and you can't 
build a peace in the midst of chaos. To prevent 
this, the United Nations must agree now upon 
ways and means to help those countries get on 
their feet again. 

Hakkness: Well, Mr. Secretary, there has 
been quite a bit of agreement on these ways and 
means already, hasn't there ? 

Acheson: Yes, indeed, the United Nations 
Relief and Rehabilitation Administration is one 
of the best examples. That organization — 
called UNRRA for short — was created last No- 
vember after negotiations carried on by the 
State Department. Forty-four United and As- 
sociated Nations signed the agreement which 
set it up. The Council of this organization had 
its first meeting at Atlantic City a couple of 
months ago. 

Hakkness : Yes, I know. I covered that con- 
ference for NBC, and, as I recall, you were 
elected Chairman of the First Session of the 
Council of the UNRRA organization. 

Acheson : That's correct. You'll recall, also, 
Mr. Harkness, that we adopted a realistic pro- 
gram^ for bringing relief and rehabilitation to 
the areas which are being liberated from the 
Axis. 

Hakkness: Yes, I know you did, and that 
brings something to mind, Mr. Acheson. Some 
people are referring to this program as a case 
of the United States playing Santa Claus again. 
Is there any truth in that. Sir? 

Acheson : In my opinion, there is not ! There 
is always a strong temptation to place discus- 
sions of this sort upon a purely materialistic 
basis and to say we ought to do this from a hard- 
headed point of view and that it will pay good 
dividends. That is true, but it always seems to 
me that that is not the way in which we Ameri- 
can people approach a question, or the way in 



JANUARY 22, 194 4 



103 



whicli a question is really illuminated. Unless 
people have interest in other peoples of the world 
we are going to have disaster. In order to feel 
happy with itself a people must take action of 
this sort, and it is only when they are willing 
to do so that a people have a right to leadership 
in the world. And finally we are not doing 
more than our part since a?^ the United Nations 
are contributing to this work on an equitable 
basis. 

Harkness: Thank you, Mr. Acheson — we'll 
get back to you in a few moments. Now a ques- 
tion or two for Mr. Taft. Mr. Taft, you are the 
new Director of Wartime Economic Affairs. 
I take it that means you handle the State De- 
partment's end of the economic-warfare work 
which Mr. Acheson mentioned earlier. 

Taft: Right. 

Haukness : I imagine you have a lot of head- 
aches on that job? 

Taft : Right again, and tliey vary more than 
you can possibly imagine. 

Harkness: Give me a few examples, Mr. 
Taft, won't you? 

Taft: Well, to pick one at random, there is 
the so-called "black list" work. The black list 
is another weapon of economic warfare. It is 
an especially important weapon in these days 
of total war. Long before they began their mil- 
itary aggression, the Nazis had organized a net- 
work of Nazi sympathizers in other countries 
to bore from within. They were very active in 
the countries of this hemisphere, and, what's 
worse, many of them were making their living 
off of American trade. 

Harkness: Just what do you mean by that, 
Mr. Taft? 

Taft: Just that. A large number of Ger- 
man Nazi firms in South America were living 
off of the business which they had with the 
United States. At the same time these firms 
were contributing a large share of their profits 
for propaganda and other subversive activities 
against the United States and hemispheric 
unity. 

Harkness: Well, how would these pro-Nazi 
businessmen go about their subversive activ- 
ities? 



Tait: Let me give you just one actual case. 
There was one big company in one of the South 
American countries. This company was the 
agent for a large United States concern and 
received from the United States firm a sizeable 
advertising appropriation. 

Harkness: And what did they do with it? 

Tafp: They used this money to advertise the 
United States company's products. But they 
made sure never to place this advertising money 
with any papers except those which were Nazi 
mouthpieces. 

Harkness : You know, Mr. Taft, that sounds 
almost like dime detective fiction. 

Taft : It may sound that way, Mr. Harkness, 
but our files are filled with thousands of cases 
of similar Nazi practices. 

Harkness: Well, how does the black list deal 
with such people? 

Taft: When we learned about that firm I 
just mentioned, we put them on our published 
black list — more formally known as the Pro- 
claimed List. By this action the firm lost its 
agency and all its United States business ac- 
counts. It couldn't buj' from us or sell to us, 
nor could it use our banks or our mails. And 
while that firm remains on our black list any- 
one who deals with it runs the risk of being put 
on the list himself. 

Harkness: Well, Mr. Taft, that's one kind 
of economic warfare which all of us can under- 
stand — including the Nazis and their Fifth Col- 
umnists. Oh, by the way — how many names 
are on that black list today? 

Taft: Over fifteen thousand. 

Harkness: Good enough. Thank you, Sir. 
And now, here's something I want to say: 

Ladies and gentlemen, before we came on the 
air tonight, a man said to me that, in his opin- 
ion, there might have been no World War II 
if the statesmen who made and carried out the 
peace terms after World AVar I had paid as 
much attention to economic matters as they did 
to such things as political boundaries. 

That man was Harry C. Hawkins, Director 
of the Office of Economic Affairs of the Depart- 
ment of State. 



104 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETEM 



All right, Mr. Hawkins — explain, please! 
Hawkins: Gladly, Mr. Harkness. Let me 
start by saying that I think it is critically im- 
portant that we Americans never lose sight of 
some of the truths the past 25 years have taught 
us. The most important of these truths is that 
no political and military structure for main- 
taining peace can stand for long if the nations 
of the world are engaged in trade warfare. 

Haekness: What do you mean by "trade 
warfare" between nations, Mr. Hawkins? 
You're speaking of normal times now and not 
of economic warfare such as Mr. Acheson just 
described, are you not ? 

Hawkins: Yes, Mr. Harkness, I am speak- 
ing of the so-called "normal times", but I really 
meant what I said when I used the term "trade 
warfare". Many of the trade-warfare methods 
used by the nations against each other in the 
twenties and early thirties were only slightly 
less unfriendly in effect than many of the 
economic-warfare measures which we're using 
against our enemies today ! 

Harkness: Well, that's calling a spade a 
spade. But what were some of these peacetime 
trade-warfare measures? 

Hawkins: Well, in one form or another, 
they were trade barriers against goods coming 
from another country. High tariffs and quotas 
are common forms of trade barriers. And 
there are also discriminations of various kinds. 
I mean by that the deals made between some 
nations to the detriment of others. And these 
other countries often retaliated, of course. 

Hj\ekness : Wliat countries were to blame for 
all this? 

Hawkins: Well, it's impossible to assess de- 
grees of blame, but we were no better than the 
rest. AVe caused our full share of the trouble. 

Harkness: Well, just how do these trade- 
warfare measures work against international 
peace ? 

Hawkins: They create serious economic 
headaches in other countries by depriving the 
producers in those countries of an outlet for 
their products. Wlien countries can't sell their 



products abroad they have to stop buying from 
abroad, and so it goes until every country is 
refusing to buy every other coimtry's goods. 
International bitterness and non-cooperation 
are the result. 

Harkness: Well, wait a minute, Mr. Haw- 
kins — this international bitterness, you speak 
of — it doesn't necessarily mean war, does it ? 

Hawkins : No — not of itself. But, when na- 
tions are trading economic blows that create 
unemployment and breadlines and are contin- 
ually hitting each other's vital interests, they 
are not likely to cooperate to keep the peace. 

Harkness: I suppose not — ^but — let's get 
down to cases, Mr. Hawkins. Do you believe 
that in order to have peace, we must do away 
with all trade barriers? that we've got to have 
world-wide free trade? 

Hawkins : No, I do not. Trade cooperation 
does not mean free trade. It does mean that 
nations must get together and work out their 
international economic policies in a spirit of 
mutual understanding. It does mean the re- 
duction of excessive trade barriers and doing 
away with trade discriminations between na- 
tions. 

Harkness: Well, so far we've been speak- 
ing of the relationship between sound trade 
policies and peace, Mr. Hawkins. But there's 
another point that a great many of our listen- 
ers want discussed. That is, how much, if any, 
economic sacrifice do these policies mean for 
In other words, how much is post-war 



\ 



USi 



trade cooperation going to cost us ? 

Hawkins: I don't think it'll cost us any- 
thing. On the contrary, I think we'll benefit by 
it. In the first place we'd benefit immeasurably 
in dollars and cents if these policies turned out 
to be insurance against another war. It's well 
to ask ourselves the sobering question whether 
this nation could afford another war within the 
next 25 years. 

Harkness: What do you think about that? 

Hawkins : Well, personally, I don't think it 
could and still remain anything like the na- 
tion it is now. But let's look at the more im- 
mediate dollars-and-cents aspects. Let's look 



JANUARY 2 2, 1944 



105 



at it from the viewpoints of the farmer, the 
businessman, and the worker. 

Take the needs of our agriculture as a whole. 
Our home market alone cannot provide an ade- 
quate standard of living for our farmers — they 
must be able to share in the world market. 

Next — take our manufacturing industries. 
They are going to need peacetime markets on 
a scale we have never had before. Our indus- 
trial leaders know that only the great world 
market has potentialities corresponding to our 
need. 

And finally, what is labor's stake in our in- 
ternational trade policies? Many of our labor 
leaders have made it clear that they are looking 
ahead and that they see security and opportu- 
nity for labor in terms of expanding activity of 
industry based upon reciprocity in international 
trade. 

Hakkness : Let me ask a question there, Mr. 
Hawkins. Wliat's so terrific about this world 
market that seems to mean so much to our 
agricultural, business, and labor leaders? 
What potentialities does it have? 

Hawkins: Well, Mr. Harkness, the world 
outside the United States has a population of 
more than two billion people — that's 15 times 
the population of this country ! Many millions 
of these people are customers whose living 
standards and purchasing-power are compara- 
ble to our own. 

Harkness: Yes, but the vast majority are 
poor as church mice, aren't they? 

Hawkins : True, the great majority are ex- 
tremely poor — by our standards — but, though 
their individual ability to buy our products is 
limited, in the aggregate their purchases are 
very large. 

Harkness : In other words — farmers, indus- 
try, and labor — they're all interested in a world 
market. All right — what's necessary in order 
to develop this world market? 

Hawkins : Willingness to be paid. 

Harkness: Willingness to be paid? Wliat 
do you mean? Why would we refuse to be 
paid for what we sell ? 



Hawkins: Well, we do just that when we 
shut out goods from other countries. The only 
way in which people in other nations can get 
the dollars to buy our goods is by selling us 
their goods. If we refuse to buy their goods, 
they won't have any dollars with which to 
buy the things we want to sell them. 

Harkness : Well, that's certainly as clear as 
anyone could state it. But on the other hand, 
won't these imports put our own producers out 
of business? What about the low wages and 
low living standards abroad? How can our 
producers stand up against that kind of com- 
petition ? 

Hawkins : This is a point that does need con- 
sideration, but it needs thoughtful considera- 
tion, not snap judgments based on the easy 
acceptance of catch phrases. 

Competitive ability depends mainly on effi- 
ciency of production. Low living standards 
and low wages do not necessarily mean efficient 
production. In fact, misery and efficiency do 
not usually go together. 

The fact is that although many of our indus- 
tries pay the highest wages in the world, the 
unit cost of their product is so low that they 
can compete successfully in foreign markets 
where wages are far lower. Low wages are, in 
fact as well as in logic, usually accompanied by 
low efficiency. What counts in the competitive 
world market is total cost per unit of product, 
not simply labor cost per hour. 

Harkness: Then, to sum up what you have 
said 

Hawkins : All that I have said comes to about 
this: From whatever angle we view the post- 
war situation, trade policies of nations, pai'- 
ticularly the larger ones, are of key importance. 
Our farmers, our manufacturers, our workers, 
all of us as taxpayers and consumers, have a big 
stake in an expanding world market. And as 
I've said, trade policies will be an important 
factor in determining whether we will this 1 ime 
win and retain the peace or blunder headlong 
into another bitter, costly world war. 

Harkness: Thank you, Mr. Hawkins. 



106 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



And now we turn to Mr. Adolf Berle, who is 
an Assistant Secretary of State. Mr. Berle, I'd 
like to get your views on the relationship of 
peace and sound international economic prob- 
lems. Won't you sum up the situation as you 
see it ? 

Berle : Well, we've got to remember that it's 
the everyday activities of men and women which 
set the big patterns of human behavior. The 
phrase "foreign relations" describes the end re- 
sult of a great mass of underlying factors. You 
are friends with, and work with, other coun- 
tries because you trade with them on a mutually 
satisfactory basis; because your people travel 
freely and happily there, and their people come 
freely and happily here; because your ships, 
your airplanes, your telegraph, your radio, and 
your journalists can render a real service both 
abroad and at home. 

These are not merely the private adventures 
of private traders. Their sum total adds up to 
the result of friendship or coolness; or, in ex- 
treme cases, of peace or war. 

And so, it's the business of the State Depart- 
ment to try to see that these various activities 
are so handled that the best interests of the 
United States are protected and promoted and 
that, in so doing, we do not threaten or injure 
the safety and prosperity of other friendly 
coimtries. 

Hahkness : That's an interesting summing up 
of the situation, Mr. Berle. I'd like to ask if 
you can mention some of the specific problems 
which are ahead and are receiving attention. 

Berle: Well, for example, there are labor 
problems of an international nature. The De- 
partment's new Division of Labor Relations has 
been working with the Department of Labor 
and other interested groups on these matters. 
Of interest in this connection is the meeting 
of the International Labor Organization which 
is to be held on April 20th next at Philadelphia. 

Tlien — to continue — in telecommunication, 
for instance, there aren't any boundaries be- 
cause the radio message wouldn't know a bound- 
ary if it saw one. Traffic through the air is no 



longer a novelty — and every country in the 
world has an interest in air-transport problems. 
Some of these questions are wholly new in the 
world's history because they arise out of new j 

discoveries. Their solutions ultimately have to ^^ 
be fitted into the pattern of world organization 
as it finally emerges. Is the idea of sea power, 
which stabilized the world for some time, still 
sound in terms of modern air power? Will in- 
ternational relations be the same when anyone 
in any country can talk to anyone in any other 
country as freely as we used to talk together in 
the same town? 

No country — except in rare circumstances — 
can afford to be either on the giving or the re- 
ceiving end of a breadline — permanently. So 
the principle has to be to find the ways by which 
the interests of our country can be promoted 
and at the same time give increased oppor- 
tunity to other countries to improve their own 
international life. 

These are all parts of the same problem. 
They come from the fact that economic life 
throughout the world is pretty closely con- 
nected. If the elements work together for 
general well-being, we have peace. If they 
struggle against each other, no peace is likely 
to be lasting. 

Harkness: Thank you, Mr. Berle. Now 
let's get on to some other questions sent in by 
our listeners. 

Harkness: Mr. Hawkins, earlier you spoke 
about the interest we had in enlarging our mar- 
kets abroad for American exports. Don't we 
also have to make sure that we can get certain 
essential commodities from abroad ? To be spe- 
cific, I mean oil. You hear a lot of talk these 
days about dwindling American oil reserves. 

Hawkins: That's right, Mr. Harkness. We 
cannot continue to use our American oil even 
at the rate we have used it in the past without 
exhausting our supplies. We know that we will 
have to look abroad for oil. Of course, the 
primary immediate use for oil is in waging 
war. But in the years to follow, we mil need 
oil for expanded commercial aviation, greater 



JANUARY 2 2, 1944 



107 



industrial output, more automobiles, more fuel- 
oil furnaces, more oil-burning ships, and so on. 

Harkess: Well, what are we going to do 
about it? 

Hawkins: The Atlantic Charter provides 
that all countries shall have access on equal 
terms to the world's raw materials. That 
doesn't apply just to foreign countries. It ap- 
plies to us as well. Americans are already de- 
veloping great oil fields abroad. The State De- 
partment welcomes and wants to encourage this 
development. The Department will certainly 
see to it that the interests of American nationals 
in foreign oil resources will get an even break. 

Harkness : Thank you, Mr. Hawkins. 

Mr. Acheson, do you agree with Mr. Hawkins 
that our oil supply is so precious that we need 
to augment it as much as possible with foreign 
oil to conserve what we have over here ? 

Acheson: Yes, I most certainly do. 

Harkness: All right. Sir — then answer thin 
question. A great many of our listeners ask 
why, if our oil supplies are so scanty, do we 
send this precious fuel to Spain ? 

Acheson : Well, Mr. Harkness, this is one 
of the cases we were discussing a few minutes 
ago — where we bargain with neutral countries 
for products which both we and our enemies 
want. Do you recall that? 

Harkness: Yes. 

Acheson: Well, that's the reason for our 
sending oil to Spain. 

Harkness: Oh, I get it! But there's another 
answer I want — to satisfy many more of our 
listeners. These people are fearful that the 
oil we are sending to Spain is getting into the 
hands of Germany. What have you to say about 
that,Mr. Taft? 

Taft: I will be glad to answer that, Mr. 
Harkness. By way of background I should say 
that the oil which is going from this hemisphere 
to Spain does not come from continental United 
States but from the Caribbean area and is car- 
ried not in our ships but in Spanish ships. So 
far as its getting into the hands of the enemy — 



we have taken full precautions to see that this 
does not occur. The tankers are checked at the 
port of lading and again at the port of dis- 
charge by our own observers. In addition to 
most formal assurances from the Spanish Gov- 
ernment that the oil so furnished will not be 
re-exported from Spain, we maintain in Spain 
a staff of observers whose sole duty it is to check 
the distribution and use of this oil. These con- 
trols have been in effect since 1942, and we have 
received no evidence indicating diversion to 
enemy destinations or enemy uses. Of course, 
you understand that quantities of oil which go 
to Spain in this manner fall far short of that 
country's normal supply. 

Harkness : All right, Sir. Well, I guess we've 
managed to answer quite a number of the ques- 
tions sent in by our listeners, and I want to thank 
you gentlemen for appearing here to participate 
in this show : Mr. Acheson, Mr. Berle, Mr. Haw- 
kins, and Mr. Taft. Next week our line-up of 
outstanding personalities will include Secretary 
of State Cordell Hull, Speaker Kayburn of the 
House of Representatives, Senators Connally 
and Vandenberg, and Assistant Secretary of 
State Breckinridge Long. I hope all of you 
people listening in will be with us then. And 
now — this is Richard Harkness saying "Good 
night" from Washington. 

Washington Announcer: Good night, 
Richard Harkness. Ladies and gentlemen, we 
have just concluded the third of four programs 
to be broadcast from the State Department 
building in Washington, D.C. The series, en- 
titled "The State Department Speaks", is pre- 
sented as a public service by the NBC University 
of the Air to acquaint you, the American people, 
with the inner workings of one of the most im- 
portant departments of your government. 
These four programs will be published in book- 
let form and you may have a copy free of charge 
by writing to this program, in care of NBC, 
New York. We suggest that you write at once. 
And be on hand again next week at the same 
time when— "The State Department Speaks". 



108 



American Republics 



ADHERENCE BY COLOMBIA TO THE 
DECLARATION BY UNITED NATIONS 

[Released to the press January 17] 

The texts of communications exchanged by 
the Secretary of State and the Minister of For- 
eign Relations of Colombia regarding Colom- 
bia's adherence to the Declaration by United 
Nations follow: 

December 22, 1943. 

I have the honor to inform Your Excellency 
that the Government of Colombia has decided 
to adhere to the Declaration by the United Na- 
tions signed at Washington on January 1, 1942. 
This Government has sent full powers for sign- 
ing this document to His Excellency Alfonso 
Lopez, titular President of the Republic, who 
is at present in New York. In taking this step, 
which constitutes a logical and natural evolu- 
tion of her preceding international attitudes, 
Colombia ratifies her willingness to cooperate 
by all means within her power with the free 
nations of the world, involved, like herself, in 
a decisive combat against the totalitarian polit- 
ical system. In defense of the right and lib- 
erty of the peoples unjustly attacked on various 
occasions by the German Reich, my country has 
been compelled to proclaim a state of belliger- 
ency towards that Power and desires to bind 
itself closely to the bloc of nations united in 
the solidary effort against the common enemy 
and to collaborate more closely with the United 
States and the other belligerent nations of 
America in the defense of this continent. I 
request Your Excellency to take the necessary 
steps so that our plenipotentiary can sign the 
declaration to which I have referred, and I ask 
likewise that this action be made known to the 
Governments interested. I express cordial 
wishes for the victory of the United Nations 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN' 

and for the increasing prosperity and greatness 
of the United States and I repeat to Your Ex- 
cellency at this opportunity the assurances of 
my highest consideration. 

Carlos Lozano t Lozano 



December 27, 1943. 

I have received your telegram of December 
22, 1943 stating that in defense of the right and 
liberty of peoples unjustly attacked by the Ger- 
man Reich, Colombia has been compelled to 
proclaim a state of belligerency toward that 
nation; that Colombia desires to bind itself 
closely to the nations united against the com- 
mon enemy and to collaborate more closely with 
the United States and the other belligerent na- 
tions of America in the defense of this con- 
tinent; and that the Government of Colombia 
has decided to adhere to the Declaration . by 
United Nations and has sent full powers for 
signing this document to His Excellency, Pres- 
ident Alfonso Lopez, who is now in New York. 

Colombia's action in thus formally aligning 
itself with the United Nations brings to thirty- 
four the number of freedom-loving nations 
which have pledged themselves to employ their 
full resources in the struggle against the com- 
mon enemy. On behalf of this Government, as 
depository for the Declaration by United Na- 
tions, I take great pleasure in welcoming Co- 
lombia into the ranks of the United Nations. 

Appropriate arrangements are being made 
for President Lopez to sign the Declaration. 

Please accept [etc.] Cordell HtTLL 

PRESENTATION OF LETTERS OF CRE- 
DENCE BY THE AMBASSADOR OF CO- 
LOMBIA 

[Released to the press January 17] 

A translation of the remarks of the newly 
appointed Ambassador of Colombia, Dr. Don 
Gabriel Turbay, upon the occasion of the 
presentation of his letters of credence, January 
17, follows: 



JANtTARY 2 2, 1944 



109 



Mr. President : 

I have the honor to hand to Your Excellency 
the letters accrediting me as Ambassador Ex- 
traordinary and Plenipotentiary of Colombia 
and those of recall of my predecessor and distin- 
guished friend, Mr. Alberto Lleras Camargo, 
who has requested me to present to Your Excel- 
lency on this occasion his most respectful 
regards and his deep appreciation for the cour- 
tesies received from your Government during 
the time of his mission in the United States. 

The President of Colombia has likewise, upon 
handing me the letters of credence, especially 
instructed me to express to Your Excellency, at 
this most welcome opportunity, his cordial sen- 
timents of admiration and his best wishes for 
your welfare and for the greatness of your 
country. 

I recently had the honor to represent my 
country before your Government and during 
that time it was exceptionally pleasing to me to 
receive the constant aid and the most cordial 
cooperation of Your Excellency in the task of 
creating new ties between our two countries 
based on a community of interests and ideals 
which time and the present international cir- 
cumstances have served to fortify and to make 
stronger and more indestructible with each 
succeeding day. 

Today I again represent my Government and 
bring the message of solidarity of the Colom- 
bian people to the people of the United States 
at a moment when Colombia has become one of 
the United Nations in this tremendous struggle 
against a common enemy who for four bloody 
years has vainly sought the predominance in 
the world of the postulates of violence and force. 

I can announce to Your Excellency that the 
duties and obligations which my country will 
assume as a signatory of the Declaration of the 
United Nations will be fulfilled by our nation 
resolutely and with inflexible energy, whatever 
may be the sacrifices which it may have to bear, 
inspired by its traditional love for the cause 
of liberty and of democracy. 

It will be a permanent concern of my diplo- 
matic labor to contribute, with Your Excel- 



lency's support, toward translating into reality 
all those prospects of political, military, and 
economic cooperation which will most effec- 
tively lead to the triumph of the United Nations 
in harmony with the gigantic efforts which 
the Government of the United States is making 
to win it and in conformity with the desires 
and purposes of my Government. 

It is, Mr. President, a special pleasure for me 
to commence my work anew under the auspices 
of a like faith in an early and decisive victory 
of the democratic arms and in the advent of a 
just and stable peace which will succeed in 
preserving the principles of Christian civiliza- 
tion in the future organization of the world. 

Permit me. Excellency, to add my wishes to 
those of the Government and of the people of 
Colombia for the prosperity of the United 
States and for Your Excellency's personal happi- 
ness. 

The President's reply to the remarks of Dr. 
Don Gabriel Turbay follows: 

Mr. Ambassador : 

It is with particular pleasure that I receive 
from you tlie letters whereby His Excellency the 
President of the Republic of Colombia accredits 
you as Ambassador Extraordinary and Pleni- 
potentiary near the Government of the United 
States. In doing so I am privileged to welcome 
you as a personal friend whose earlier incum- 
bency of the Ambassadorship of Colombia is 
still remembered with highest and most cordial 
regard. 

I also accept the letters of recall of your 
esteemed predecessor who, during his period of 
residence near this Government, unfailingly 
carried on with that spirit of friendship and 
cooperation which so truly typifies the Republic 
of Colombia. 

By the declaration of a state of belligerency 
with Germany and by adherence to the United 
Nations Declaration, Colombia has reaffirmed 
its historic devotion to the maintenance of those 
principles to which the United Nations are ded- 
icated. It is by unity of thought and action 



no 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BrrLLETTNI 



that the United Nations will, after accomplish- 
ing the utter defeat of those brutal and selfish 
powers which sought to enslave the world, 
achieve enduring peace and justice for man- 
kind. 

The steadfast and invaluable aid which Co- 
lombia has extended in behalf of our common 
cause has, I may assure you, been deeply appre- 
ciated by the Government and people of the 
United States. I shall personally regard it al- 
ways as a privilege to facilitate your labors here, 
and I know you will likewise have the unfailing 
collaboration of the other officials of this Gov- 
ernment in dealing with the multiple mutual 
problems which arise as we travel together the 
road to victory and peace, confident that the 
bonds of true friendship which so happily exist 
between our two Governments and peoples shall 
always remain solid and indestructible. 

I assure Your Excellency of a most cordial 
welcome as you resume your duties as Ambassa- 
dor, and I would ask you to convey to my good 
friend His Excellency, President Lopez, my 
deep appreciation for his kind gi-eetings and 
assure him of my sincere best wishes for him per- 
sonally and for the increasing happiness and 
good fortune of the Colombian people. 

DISTINGUISHED VISITORS FROM OTHER 
AMERICAN REPUBLICS 

[Released to the press January 22] 

Dr. Andre Dreyfus, dean of the Faculty of 
Philosophy, Science, and Letters, and profes- 
sor of general biology at the University of Sao 
Paulo, Brazil, has arrived in the United States 
as guest of the Department of State. Dr. 
Dreyfus, who is a distinguished geneticist, will 
spend some weeks in New York where he will 
work with Dr. Theodore Dobzhansky, professor 
of zoology at Columbia University. During 
his stay in the United States, Dr. Dreyfus will 
also visit leading universities in various sections 
of the country. 



The Foreign Service 



RESIGNATION OF ANTHONY J. DREXEL 
RIDDLE, JR. 

[Eeleasid to the press by the White House January 22] 

The President has accepted the resignation 
of Anthony J. Drexel Biddle, Jr., as Ambas- 
sador-Minister to the Allied governments 
established in London. 

Mr. Biddle is accepting a commission in the 
Army and will be assigned as liaison officer on 
the staff of the Supreme Allied Commander in 
London for relationships with the Allied Gov- 
ernments in London. It is understood that Mr. 
Biddle's work as Ambassador-Mmister will be 
carried on by the Charge d'Affaires while he is 
in the military service and that no replacement 
for Mr. Biddle meanwhile will be appointed. 

In accepting Mr. Biddle's resignation as 
Ambassador-Minister, the President wrote un- 
der date of January twenty-second: 

"I have your letter of resignation as Ambas- 
sador-Minister to the Allied Governments estab- 
lished in London, and I accept it with very 
mixed feelings — such acceptance to go into ef- 
fect at the time you take the oath of office as an 
Officer of the Army. 

"From members of the different Goverimients 
to which you were accredited, as well as from 
their Chiefs of Staff, I have had nothing but 
the highest praise for your work. 

"Your position has been one which is unique 
in all history to serve as Ambassador and Min- 
ister with so many different Govermnents 
simultaneously. 

"In view of the fact that we are, I hope, ap- 
proaching the period when these Governments 
must look forward to the reestablishment of 
their countries, I think it is very wise for us 
to take up the military side of the restoration 
problems and it is, therefore, entirely right and 
proper that you should act as liaison officer be- 
tween them and our own armies. 



JANUARY 22, 1944 



111 



"With all the good luck in the world and do 
keep me in close touch. 

As ever yours, 
Franklin D Eoosevelt" 

The letter of resignation follows : 

"My Deak Mb. President : 

"In tendering my resignation as Ambassador 
Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to the Gov- 
ernments of Poland, Norway, The Netherlands, 
Belgium, Czechoslovakia and Luxembourg es- 
tablished in London, in order to take up my new 
assignment in the United States Army, I want 
to send you on behalf both of my wife and 
myself, this expression of our deep apprecia- 
tion of your friendship and confidence which 
we have enjoyed over the past number of years. 

"I want to express my deep appreciation also 
for the assistance and advice which you so gen- 
erously provided me during the years of my 
service abroad. Your close touch with foreign 
affairs and your clear grasp of the trend of 
world developments have been for me a con- 
stant source of inspiration and encouragement. 

"My new assignment in the United States 
Army has given me real satisfaction and gratifi- 
cation and I want to express to you and to 
Secretary Hull my profound gratitude for your 
understanding in releasing me from the Foreign 
Service of the United States in order to join the 
armed forces. 

"With my warmest regards and every good 
wish, 

"I am, 

Faithfully yours, 
Anthony Biddle, Jr" 



Legislation 



Authorizing the United States To Participate in the 
Worls of the United Nations Relief and Rehabili- 
tation Administration : 
Hearings Before the Committee on Foreign Affairs, 
House of Representatives, 78th Cong., Ist and 
2d sess., on H. J. Res. 192. December 7, 8, 9, 10, 
15, 16, 17, 1943, and January 11, 1944. 349 pp. 
H. Rept. 994, 78th Cong., on H.J. Res. 192 [Favorable 
report.] 15 pp. 
To Assist in Relieving Economic Distress in Puerto 
Rico and the Virgin Islands: Hearings Before the 
Committee on Insular Affairs, House of Representa- 
tives, 78th Cong., 1st sess., on S. 981. October 1, 
12, and 19, 1943. Part 2, with appendix, ii, 98 pp. 



Publications 



Depaetment of State 

Reciprocal Trade : Agreement Between the United 
States of America and Iceland — Signed at Reykjavik 
August 27, 1943 ; effective November 19, 1943. Execu- 
tive Agreement Series 342. Publication 2042. 28 pp. 
1(H. 

Other Agencies 

Emergency Advisory Committee for Political Defense : 
Annual Report Submitted to the Governments of the 
American Republics. July 1943. With an Appendix 
Containing the Recommendations Approved From 
April 15, 1942 to July 15, 1943. xii, 287 pp. English 
edition distributed by the Pan Amei-ican Union. 



U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1944 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, V. S. Government Printing OflBce, Washington. D. C. 
Price, 10 cents - - _ - Subscription price, $2.75 a year 

PUBLISHED WEEKLY WITH THE APPBOVAL OF THE OIBBCTOB OF THE BDBEAC OF THE BUDOEI 



J 



1 o. 

THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



B 



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J 



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J 



riN 



JANUARY 29, 1944 
Vol. X, No. 240— Publication 2058 



C' 



ontents 




The War 

Japanese Atrocities: 

Statement by the Secretary of State 

Statement by Joseph C. Grew 

Suspension of Oil Shipments to Spain 

Soviet Reply to the United States Inquiry Regarding 

the Polish Declaration of January 14, 1944 . . . 

Severance of Relations by Argentina With Germany and 

Japan 

The Puppet Government in the Philippines 

The Department 

"The State Department Speaks" 

American RiIpublics 

The United States and Panama: Article by Philip W. 

Bonsai 

Non-Recognilion of the Present Revolutionary Junta in 

Bolivia A 

Implementation of Existing Contracts on 1944 Cuban 

Sugar Cropv 

The Foreign Service 

Confirmations 

Death of Edward Thomas Williams: Statement by the 
Secretary of State • 

General 

Dedication of the "International House" at New 
Orleans: Address by George S. Messersmith . . . 

[OVER] 



Page 
115 

115 
116 

116 

116 
117 

117 



125 
132 
132 

132 
132 

133 



U. S. SUPERINTEMOENT OF DOCUMENT* 

FEB 29 1944 



Contents 



—CONTINUED 



Treaty Information pu* 

Alaska Highway: 

Agreement With Canada Regarding the Southern 

Terminus of the Higliway 134 

Agreement With Canada Authorizing the Constmc- 

tion of FHght Strips Along the Highway . . . . 135 
Agreement With Canada Authorizing the Construc- 
tion of the Haines-Champagne Highway. . . . 136 
Agreement With Canada Regarding the Use of Con- 
necting Roads 136 

Customs Privileges: Agreement With Canada Regard- 
ing Importation Privileges for Government Officials 

and Employees 138 

Telecommunications: Agi'eement With Canada Regard- 
ing the Construction and Operation of Radio 
Broadcasting Stations in Northwestern Canada . 139 
Water Power: Agreement With Canada for the Tempo- 
rary Raising of the Level of Lake St. Francis . . 142 

Legislation 142 

Publications ' 142 



The War 



JAPANESE ATROCITIES 

Statemeut by the Secretary of State 



At his press and radio news conference on 
Januiiry 28 the Secretary of State dechued, in 
reply to an inquiry in regard to the Japanese 
mistreatment of American prisoners of war in 
tlie Far East : 

"According to the I'eports of cruelty and in- 
humanity, it would be necessary to summon, to 
assemble together all the demons available from 
anywhere and combine the fiendishness which 
all of them embody in order to describe the con- 
duct of those who inflicted these unthinkable 
tortures on Americans and Filipinos . . ." 



The Secretary added in reply to other in- 
quiries that the Department of State liad been 
constantly endeavoring to obtain as complete in- 
formation as possible with respect to the situa- 
tion of prisoners of war and civilian internees 
in the Far East, that whenever information re- 
garding any case of cruelty had been received a 
protest had been made to the Japanese Govern- 
ment, but that the United States had not re- 
ceived from the Japanese Government satis- 
factory replies to the protests which had been 
made. 



Statement by J oseph C. Grew ' 



In response to an inquiry in regard to Japa- 
nese atrocities on American and Filipino sol- 
diers in the Philippine Islands, Mr. Grew said : 

"No language can possibly express my feelings 
and the feelings of evei-y American today. Our 
burning rage and fury at the reported medieval 
and utterly barbarous acts of the Japanese mili- 
tary in the Philippines are far too deep to find 

' Mr. Grew, formerly American Ambassador to Japan, 
Is now Special Assistant to the Secretary of State. 



expression in words, and the country will be 
shaken from coast to coast. My broadcast over 
CBS on August 30, 1942 just after returning 
from Japan and my book Report from Tokyo 
tried to express my views then, and those views 
have now become intensified. My feelings 
make me, and I should think every other Ameri- 
can this morning, want to fight this war on the 
home front with grimmer determination than 
ever before." 



115 



116 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETINI 



SUSPENSION OF OIL SHIPMENTS 
TO SPAIN 1 

[Released to the press January 28] 

The loadings of Spanish tiinkei-s with petro- 
leum products for Spain have been suspended 
through action of the State Department, pend- 
ing a reconsideration of trade and general rela- 
tions between Sixain and the United States in 
the light of trends in Spanish policy. The 
Spanish Government has shown a certain reluc- 
tance to satisfy requests deemed both reasonable 
and important by the State Department and 
concerning which representations have contin- 
uously been addressed to the Spanish Govern- 
ment for some time past. Certain Italian war- 
ships and merchant vessels continue interned in 
Spanish ports; Spain continues to permit the 
export to Germany of certain vital war mate- 
rials such as wolfram; Axis agents are active 
both in continental Spain and in Spanish Afri- 
can territory as well as in Tangier; some por- 
tion of the Blue Division appears still involved 
in the war against one of our allies; and reports 
have been received indicating the conclusion of 
a financial arrangement between the Spanish 
Government and Germany designed to make 
available to Germany substantial peseta credits 
which Germany unquestionably expects to 
apply to augmenting espionage and sabotage 
in Spanish territory and to intensifying 
opposition to us in the peninsula. 

This action has been taken after consultation 
and agreement with the British Government. 



SOVIET REPLY TO THE UNITED STATES 
INQUIRY REGARDING THE POLISH 
DECLARATION OF JANUARY 14, 1944 

At his press and radio news conference on 
January 26 the Secretary of State declared that 
the Soviet Government had replied to the 
inquiry whether the good offices of the United 

' See also Bulletin of Mar. 6, 1943, p. 201, and of 
Mar. 13, 1943, p. 218. 



States with a view to arranging for the initia- 
tion of discussions between the Polish and 
Soviet Governments looking to a resumption of 
official relations between them would be agree- 
able to the Soviet Government. He added that 
the Soviet Government, after expressing 
appreciation of the offer made by the United 
States, had stated that it felt that conditions 
had not yet reached the stage where such good 
offices could be utilized to advantage. 



SEVERANCE OF RELATIONS BY ARGEN- 
TINA WITH GERMANY AND JAPAN 

[Released to the press January 29] 

A translation of a telegram which has been 
received by President Roosevelt from President 
Ramirez of Argentina follows : 

Buenos Aires, January 26^ 1944- 
I have the honor to inform Your Excellency 
that in the exercise of constitutional powers 1 
have proceeded to sign the decree of breach of 
diplomatic relations with the Governments of 
Germany and Japan. While advising Your 
Excellency of this decision which the Argentine 
Government adopts for the protection not only 
of its sovereignty but also of continental de- 
fense, 1 repeat to you the assurances of the firm 
jiui'iDose that animates us of strengthening more 
and more the friendly relations which so hap- 
pily have always existed between our two 
countries. 

General Pedro P. Ramirez 

The following message has been sent by Pres- 
ident Roosevelt to President Ramirez : 

January 28, 1944. 
1 wish to express to Your Excellency my 
pleasure in learning of the decision of your 
Government to sever diplomatic relations with 
Germany and Japan. It is especially welcome 
to hear that Argentina has thus affirmed its 
intention to assist fully in the defense of the 
continent. 

Franklin D RoosE^'ELT 



JAIfTJARY 29, 1944 



117 



IRelpased to the press Jamiary 20] 

At his press and radio news conference on 
January 26 the Secretaiy of State made the 
following statement : 

"It will be most gratifying to all the Allied 
Nations, including especially the American re- 
publics, to learn that Argentina has broken dip- 
lomatic relations with Germany and Japan. 
This action was taken because the Argentine 
Government realizes that the Axis countries are 
using Argentina as a vast operating base for 
espionage and other activities highly dangerous 
to the security and internal peace of the hemi- 
sphere. It must be assumed from her action 
that Argentina will now proceed energetically 
to adopt the other measures which all the Amer- 
ican republics have concerted for the security of 
the continent." 



THE PUPPET GOVERNMENT IN THE 
PHILIPPINES 

[Released to the press January 29] 

The Department of State has received 
through official channels a denial of the allega- 
tions contained in a Japanese news agency re- 
poi't broadcast January 8. The enemy broad- 
cast stated that the Holy See recognized the 
so-called Republic of the Philippines. 

The Department has been informed that, con- 
sistent with the policy of refusing to accord 
recognition until after peace has been concluded 
to states and regimes which have arisen in the 
course and as the result of wai', the Holy See has 
not recognized the Japanese puppet regime in 
the Philippines. 




'THE STATE DEPARTMENT SPEAKS' 



[Released to the press January 29] 

The text of the fourth of a series of four 
broadcasts over tlie National Broadcasting 
Company entitled "The State Department 
Speaks", follows : 



Participants 



CORDEXL HtTLI. 

Sam Raybubn 
Tom Connallt 



Arthur II. Vandenbebg 
Breckinridge Long 

RiCHABD HARKNESS 



Secretary of State 

Sjiealier of tlie House of 
Representatives 

United States Senator, 
Cliainnaii of Committee 
on Foreign Relations of 
United States Senate 

United S^tates Senator, 
Member of Committee on 
Foreign Relations of 
United States Senate 

Assistant Secretary of 
State 

Representing tlie public 



Washington Announcer : For the American 
people, the National Broadcasting Company 
presents the fourtli and last of a special series of 
programs called "The State Department 
Speaks". We take you now to the State De- 
partment Building on Pennsylvania Avenue 
here in Washington, D. C. 

Harkness: Good evening, ladies and gentle- 
men. This isEichard H;irkness. Tonight, as 
your representative, I find myself in distin- 
guished company indeed. Seated around this 
table in the Secretary of State's office are Secre- 
tary of State Cordeil Hull, Speaker Sam Ray- 
burn, Senators Tom Connally and Arthur H. 
Vandenberg, and Assistant Secretary of State 
Breckinridge Long. As you can judge from 
this list, our subject this evening is the im- 
portant one of the relationship of Congress and 
the State Department in the formulation and 
execution of our foreign policy— the role played 



118 



DEPAKTMEINT OF STATE BULLETEN 



in these processes by the elected representatives 
of the people in the Senate aiid the House of 
Representatives. Mr. Secretary, won't you 
say something on this subject? 

Hull: From my long experience in both 
chambers of the Capitol, I know how rightly 
jealous the Congress is of its constitutional pre- 
rogatives, how properly insistent it is upon its 
full share in the making of foi'eign policy. I 
need not tell my thi-ee old friends and former 
colleagues, who are here with me tonight, nor 
the rest of the members of the House and the 
Senate, how conscious I am at all timea of what 
I felt when I was located at the other end of 
Pennsj'lvania Avenue. For the past 11 years 
it has been my pleasure to meet with them often, 
individually or in groups, here in the Depart- 
ment or at the Capitol, to counsel together 
franklj' and fully on questions concerning the 
well-being of our country. 

Under our system of government, the safe- 
guarding and promotion of the nation's inter- 
ests is a joint responsibility of the Executive 
and the Legislature. Neither can be effective 
without the other, and the two together can be 
effective only when there exists between them 
mutual trust and confidence. In peace and in 
war, the two branches of the Government are 
joint trustees for the country's destiny. 

All of us are facing today truly unprece- 
dented war tasks. 

In this struggle, the Executive and the Con- 
gress have one thought, and one only: To do 
everything that may be needed to bring the war 
to a victorious end as rapidly as possible. 
America stands today in the panoply of vast 
power dedicated solely and whole-heartedly to 
the utter defeat of our enemies. Dark days are 
still ahead, but there is in our hearts complete 
confidence that the unremitting efforts and 
heavy sacrifices of our heroic armed forces and 
of a nation united at home will bring us com- 
plete victory in this war for self-preservation 
from the forces of embattled evil. 

Equally unprecedented tasks will confront 
our nation and its Government in the difficult 



days that will follow the cessation of hostilities. 
In some ways, the post-war tasks will be scarcely 
less exacting than those which face us now. 

Our supreme task in the future will be to 
make sure that all this does not happen again. 

I firmly believe that this great goal is possible 
of attainment. To attain it, our nation and the 
other peace-loving nations must be firmly re- 
solved never to permit differences between them 
to reach the point of armed conflict, but rather 
to adjust them by peaceful means. We and the 
other 2^eace-loving nations must be equally re- 
solved and prepared to use force if necessary — 
promptly, in adequate measure and with cer- 
tainty — to prevent or repress acts of aggression 
by nations which may refuse to be peace-abiding 
members of the family of nations. Finally, we 
and the other peace-loving nations must be re- 
solved to cooperate commercially and otherwise 
in order that there may be created, for all 
nations and all peoples, greater opportunities 
and better facilities for political, economic, and 
social advancement. Such cooperation is essen- 
tial if there is to be any hope of eliminating 
the causes of international conflicts. 

The Congress, by non-partisan action, and the 
Executive, through acts and utterances, have 
placed on record this country's determination 
that the supreme task of the future shall be suc- 
cessfully accomplished. All of us are acutely 
aware of the fact that behind this determination 
is the united will of our people. All of us know 
that we can be true to the trust reposed in us 
only if M-e find efl'ective means of making sure 
that what is happening today does not happen 



asjam. 



It is not enough for our nation alone to stand 
firmly behind the kind of program for peace- 
keeping that I have briefly described. The 
achievement of such a iDrogram requires united 
action by many nations. It must be our task to 
exert to that end every ounce of our influence. 

This will require patience, and tolerance, and 
good-will, and readiness to play our full part, 
and every other attribute of enlightened leader- 
ship. There will be many difficulties to over- 



JANUARY 2 9, 1944 



119 



come. They can be overcome if our people con- 
tinue to see clearly that the price of failure is 
national disaster and if the Congress and the 
Executive continue to work together. 

Harkness: Thank you, Secretary Hull. 
Now, I know that all of us, including j'ourself, 
will listen with great intei'est to what your dis- 
tinguished friends have to say ; and then maybe 
you'll be kind enough to come back to say an- 
other few words. And now, ladies and gentle- 
men, ma J' I present the first of our guests from 
Capitol Hill — the respected and esteemed 
Speaker of the House of Kepresentatives — for 
30 years member of Congress for the fourth dis- 
trict of Texas — the Honorable Sam Raybum. 

Rayburn : For over a century foreign policy 
was something which held comparatively little 
interest for most of the American people. 
Events of the past 30 years have changed this 
public indiffei'ence to intense and deep interest 
in our foreign affairs. Twice in that time we 
have poured our blood and our wealth into 
overseas wars in the defense of our security. 
Every da}' the morning paper tells us of some 
hitherto obscure part of the world where Amer- 
ican fighting men — our relatives and friends — 
have landed and are in grips with the enemy. 

We now know, and we must never again for- 
get, that we are directly and vitally involved 
in world affairs ; that henceforth foreign policy 
concerns not a few diplomats alone but the 
entire nation and all groups within the nation. 

We are, and we intend to remain, a govern- 
ment of the people, and our foreign policy must 
therefore be backed by the will and convictions 
of the people. 

Harkness : Mr. Speaker, as one who occupies 
the highest position of responsibility and honor 
in the House of Representatives, would you 
please give us j'our views on the role of the 
Congress in formulating and carrying out our 
foreign policy ? 

Ratbtjen: If a successful foreign policy 
depends upon the continuous participation and 
support of the whole nation, the Congress as 



elected representatives of tlie people has, 
indeed, an important part to play. 

I should like to call to mind some of the 
actions taken by the Congress, in cooperation 
with the Executive, in the dark years from 1939 
through 1941 to resist the aggi-essor's designs: 
The repeal of the arms embargo in 1939, the 
armament program and the Selective Service 
Act of 1940, the lend-lease legislation in 1941. 
These measures have all plaj'ed an important 
part in forging the weapons which yesterday 
threw back and today are beating down our ene- 
mies. These all were major acts of foreign 
policy. They were, moreover, measures of for- 
eign policy which under our fonn of govern- 
ment could only be undertaken and effectively 
applied through the cooperation of the Execu- 
tive and both houses of the Congress. 

Harkness: What about the future, Mr. 
Speaker ? 

Rayburn : The Congress is now giving atten- 
tion to the future problems of maintaining the 
peace and security for which we fight. A few 
months ago the House of Representatives, by 
an overwhelming and bipartisan majority, 
adopted the Fulbright resolution urging the 
participation of this country in international 
peace machinery. This striking declaration of 
the House of Repi'esentatives played its full 
part, I am sure, along with the Connally reso- 
lution of the Senate and the momentous Four- 
Nation Declaration adopted at the Moscow 
Conference, in making clear to the world that 
this nation stands united behind a foreign pol- 
icy of effective international cooperation. 

The Senate, of course, has its important con- 
stitutional function of giving its advice and 
consent to treaties regulating our relations with 
other countries. But the House of Representa- 
tives has a position in the field of foreign af- 
fairs which, perhaps, is not as well understood 
as it should be. The House, which is elected 
every 2 years, is uniquely representative of the 
opinions, the hopes and the fears of the Ameri- 
can people in their home communities. 



120 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BXJLLETITT 



I have already mentioned some recent exam- 
ples of major foreign-policy measures in which 
the House of Representatives participated by 
exercising its legislative powers. There are 
many others. For example, all tariff bills must 
originate in the House, and this has meant 
that such well-known foreign-economic-policy 
measures as the Reciprocal Trade Agreements 
Act are first considered in the House Committee 
on Ways and Means. Similarly, the Committee 
on Appropriations of the House maintains the 
closest touch with the Department of State and 
aspects of our foreign affairs. It is this Com- 
mittee which determines in the first instance how 
much, and for what purposes funds are to be 
made available to the Department of State and 
other executive agencies doing foreign-affairs 
work. These are some of the less widely known 
phases of the House of Representatives part in 
the conduct of our foi'eign relations. 

Best known to all is the work of the House 
Committee on Foreign Affairs. It is this Com- 
mittee which considered such measures as the 
repeal of the arms embargo, lend-lease, the 
United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Ad- 
ministration, the Fulbright resolution, and 
other highly important matters of foreign 
l^oiicy. 

In the coming months and years the United 
States will have many vital decisions to make 
on the nature of the arrangements which are 
to be established for the future maintenance 
of peace. If these arrangements are to be ac- 
cejjted, if we are to make them effective, they 
must represent the views and have the sustained 
support of the American people as a whole. 
The Congress of the United States — the elected 
rei^resentatives of the American people — will 
do its share, I am confident, in making the will 
of the American jaeople effective in the promo- 
tion of international peace and well-being. 

Haekness: Thank you. Speaker Rayburn. 
Now, I think we sliould try to get a little in- 
sight into the State Department's relations with 
Congress — from the man who handles that part 



of the State Department's work — Assistant Sec- 
retary of State Breckinridge Long. I'm right 
on that, am I not, Mr. Long? You are in chai-ge 
of congressional relations? 

Long: Yes, Mr. Harkness, I am. But I 
sliould add that this is an aspect of the Depart- 
ment's work which also receives a great deal of 
personal attention from the Secretary himself. 

Harkness: Well, won't you go right ahead, 
Mr. Long — tell us — how close are the Depart- 
ment's relations with Congress? 

Long: Well, as a matter of practice the of- 
ficers of the Department are continuously in 
touch with members of Congress in several 
ways. First is what might be termed routine 
business. This consists of matters their con- 
stituents are interested in as individuals, includ- 
ing every conceivable need for assistance affect- 
ing the interests of citizens abroad. Then, sec- 
ondly, there are the matters of foreign policy in 
which the members of Congress have an official 
interest as legislators. 

Also, there are the more formal relationships 
with the congressional committees. These are 
tlie most important phases of all the dealings 
between the Congress and the Department for, 
you see, the congressional committees make 
sure that proposed legislation which might have 
an effect upon our foreign relations is referred 
to the Secretary of State for an expression of 
views before any proposal is acted upon. These 
views are submitted by the Department gener- 
ally in writing for the consideration of the par- 
ticular congressional committee involved. 

Harkness: I see; now, how about treaties? 

Long: With treaties the Department has a 
twofold experience. To begin with, the De- 
partment negotiates treaties. They are solemn 
obligations entered into by our Government 
witli other governments and concern our sov- 
ereign rights as a nation. Once negotiated on 
behalf of the President, they are submitted by 
the President to the Senate. The Department's 
second phase then begins. We are then pre- 
pared, if requested, to meet with the Foreign 
Relations Committee of the Senate and present 



JANUARY 29, 1944 



121 



our vievrs and information in support of the 
provisions of the proposed treaty. Sometimes 
this is a long procedure. An important treaty 
necessarily involves a lot of discussion. 

H.AKKNESs: Yes, Tve all know that in years 
gone by a number of treaties have been bitterly 
contested in the Senate. What other contacts 
do you have with Congress, Mr. Long? 

Long : Well, I might mention those occasions 
when the officers of the Department discuss in- 
formally questions of foreign policy with the 
congressional committees having jurisdiction 
over foreign affairs. 

Hakkjjess: You say they discuss these ques- 
tions informally with the congressional com- 
mittees. What do you mean by that, Mr. 
Long? 

Long : By that I mean we have these discus- 
sions not in open hearings but in executive ses- 
sions of the committees with no stenographer 
present. As j^ou know we can't always divulge 
publicly every aspect of our dealings with for- 
eign governments during negotiations, but we 
well recognize that appropriate members of the 
Congress should be kept informed. To every 
practicable extent, we lay the cards on the table 
and tell the members of committees off the rec- 
ord the things which would be helpful to their 
understanding of a particular foreign policy. 
Under these circumstances we in the State 
Department have frequently appeared before 
Senator Connally's Committee on Foreign Rela- 
tions, of which Senator Vandenberg is a mem- 
ber. Our associations with this committee ai'e 
cordial, and I think the results have been very 
good. 

Harkness: Mr. Long, I'd like to ask you 
this — you've served abroad as an ambassador 
and you're now representing the State Depail- 
ment in its relations with Congress. Which of 
these two jobs requires the most diplomatic 
talent? 

Long: Mr. Harkness, "diplomatic talent", as 
you express it, I think is mostly common sense, 
mixed up with ordinary courtesy, based on an 



understanding of our country's national inter- 
est. Our dealings with members of the Con- 
gress are on that basis, and we find that they too 
have "diplomatic talent". 

Harkness-: That's a nice compliment to your 
congressional friends, Mr. Long. Thank you. 
Sir. Now let's hear from another legislator — 
the distinguished Republican Senator from 
Michigan, Arthur H. Vandenberg. Senator, as 
a minority member of the Senate Foreign Rela- 
tions Committee, what are ymir views on the 
relationship of Congress and the State Depart- 
ment in the formulation and execution of 
foreign policy? 

Vandenberg : The State Department and the 
Senate are in a constitutional partnership in 
many aspects of American foreign policy. No 
one needs to be historically reminded that the 
Senate has a direct veto on all treaties. They 
require a two-thirds Senate ratification; and 
failure of such ratification can and has changed 
the course of history. 

In a broader sense the State Department and 
Congress as a whole — the House as well as the 
Senate — are in a constitutional partnership. 
For example, only the whole Congress, by ma- 
jority vote in each branch, can declare war. 
Again, the House is particularly charged with 
control of the nation's purse strings — and ap- 
propriations are often vital to implement 
foreign policy (even though we have abandoned 
some of our old ideas of "dollar diplomacy"). 

It is perfectly obvious, on the face of the 
record, that there should be the closest pos- 
sible relationship, therefore, and the fullest 
possible candor between the State Department 
and the Congress in general and the Senate in 
particular. 

I realize that diplomacy cannot always func- 
tion in a town meeting and that there are many 
delicate international negotiations which can- 
not always be broadcast even to 531 members of 
the Senate and the House, particularly in time 
of war. But I profoundly believe that national 
policy— a "people's foreign policy"— will be 



571258 — J4- 



122 



DEPARTMETSTT OF STATE BULLETENl 



surer and safer in proportion as these constitu- 
tional partners may draw closer together in the 
discharge of their mutual functions. 

I am happy to join in congratulating Secre- 
tary Hull and Chairman Connally of the Senate 
Foreign Relations Committee on the progress 
that has been made in this direction. Senator 
Connally has brought in many representatives 
of the State Department to give the Foreign 
Relations Committee first-hand confidential in- 
formation regarding foreign situations during 
the past year. It has been most helpful. It ia 
the working of a practical partnership. I am 
particularly happy that Assistant Secretary 
Long is here tonight. He has often represented 
the State Department upon these occasions ; and 
he is one of our favorite visitors. 

Haekness : Have you any concrete example, 
Senator, of the tangible value of these closer 
relationships ? 

Vandenberg : Yes. The usefulness of this 
liaison is perhaps best illustrated by the recent 
history of the United Nations Relief and Re- 
habilitation Agreement between the United 
States and 43 foreign powers. At first it was 
proposed to promulgate this as a simple execu- 
tive agreement. The Senate promptly — and 
rightly — rose up on its high horse and said it 
was a treaty whicli had to be ratified by the 
Senate. Instead of fighting out this sterile 
deadlock, a Senate Foreign Relations subcom- 
mittee sat down with representatives of the 
State Department; in mutual contacts they re- 
wrote the agreement to satisfy the Senate it was 
no longer in the treaty class ; it is now being sub- 
mitted to both branches of Congress as part of 
a joint resolution of authority for appropria- 
tions. We are pulling together instead of pull- 
ing apart. That's a fine sample of the partner- 
ship cooperation which our "foreign policy" 
requires. 

Haekness : Yes, I agree, Sir. 

Vandenberg: I would be less than frank, 
however, if I did not say that there is still much 
progress needed in this direction. After care- 
fully studying the State Dejjartment's so-called 



"White Paper" — detailing our relations with 
Tokyo for 11 months preceding Pearl Harbor — 
I am bound to say that neither Congress nor 
the country, nor the Senate Foreign Relations 
Committee itself, had the remotest information 
or idea about the realities that were sweeping 
us toward inevitable war. Congress cannot leg- 
islate intelligently in any such vacmim. I am 
sure Pearl Haibor wasn't one tenth as much of 
a surprise to the President and the State De- 
partment as it was to the House and Senate and 
the country. I hasten to repeat that I fully 
understand that many of these subsequent dis- 
closures could not have been made before. But 
I also repeat that the nearer we can approach 
more complete information and understanding 
among the constitutional partners who must 
deal with "foreign policy" the safer our course 
will be. 

I commend the State Department's praise- 
worthy efforts in this vital direction. The need 
will infinitely multiply as we approach the peace 
settlements of this world war. I hope and pray 
for a community of interest and action, regard- 
less of politics, which will be.st serve America 
and stabilized civilization everywhere. Mean- 
while, please let me toss an orchid to Secretary 
Hull, who is one of the truly great characters 
in modern statesmanship. 

Haekness: All right. Senator Vandenberg — 
thank you. Sir. Now, let's hear from one of the 
best-known men on Capitol Hill — the Chair- 
man of the Senate Committee on Foreign Rela- 
tions — Senator Tom Connally of Texas. 

Connally: The most important fact about 
our being met together here tonight in the 
Department of State is that it is not an unusual 
meeting. If there were something unusual 
about members of the Congress meeting with 
the Secretary of State for discussion of our for- 
eign affairs our nation would, indeed, be in a 
peculiar state. 

The integrity of our form of government 
rests upon the separation of the legislative and 
the executive powers. But the welfare of our 
country demands the intelligent cooperation of 



JANUARY 2 9, 1944 



123 



these two coordinate and independent branches 
of our Government. While their functions are 
independent, yet their objectives are the com- 
mon good, and cooperation to that end is 
appropriate. 

Let our people always remember that an inef- 
fective government is only less undesirable than 
a tyrannical government. Tyranny is to be 
abhorred, but history teaches that tyranny 
goads a frantic people to freedom. Ineffective 
government on the other hand not infrequently 
invites the tyranny of either the demagogue or 
the conqueror. 

Harkness : Senator Connally, it seems to me 
that M-hat you've just said is the story of much 
of Europe during the past 10 j'ears or so. 

CoNNALXiY : I firmly believe it. 

Harkness: Well, do you feel, Sir, that we've 
had effective cooperation between the Congress 
and the Executive in the handling of our for- 
eign affairs? 

Connally: If you mean, Mr. Harkness, have 
we had such cooperation throughout our his- 
tory I would say that, with the exception of 
several tragic failui'es, we have generally had 
reasonable cooperation between the Congress 
and the Executive. It was this effective coop- 
eration within our Government that has made 
it possible for our coimtry to play an effective 
part in the common cause of the United Nations. 
Our task, our cause, today is the utter defeat 
of the Axis. Beyond that is our common ulti- 
mate goal — the establishment throughout the 
world of a just and enduring peace. 

Let's make no mistake about it. Neither task 
will be easy. It will not be easy to bring our 
enemies to their knees. The blood and treas- 
ure which are yet to be poured out in this cause 
cannot be measured. But we are committed 
and determined to see it through. 

Harkness: That's the way we all feel about 
it. Senator Connally, but where do we stand in 
your opinion concerning the ultimate task of 
making sure, as Secretary Hull just put it, 
"that all this does not happen again" ? 



Connallt: Well, as I just remarked, Mr. 
Harkness, this also will not be an easy task. 
But, Heaven forbid any man should ever say 
that the sublime objective of world peace is im- 
possible ! It is not impossible. And it is worth 
a sublime effort. 

Senator Vandfenberg has mentioned the con- 
stitutional responsibilities of the Senate in the 
approval of treaties. He has been most gra- 
cious in his references to my part in bringing 
representatives of the State Department and the 
Senate Foreign Relations Committee together 
for valuable exchanges of views and informa- 
tion on the foreign situation. Let me say that, 
heavy as are the tasks of the Chairman of the 
Senate Foreign Relations Committee, they will 
be borne cheerfully as long as the burden can be 
shared with colleagues who in this work, re- 
gardless of party, have no other interest than 
the best interest of our country. No member 
of our committee has approached our common 
tasks with a gi'eater spirit of helpfulness and 
national service than has Senator Vandenberg. 

Last fall, as Chairman of the Senate Foreign 
Relations Committee, I presented to the Senate 
on behalf of the committee a resolution designed 
to make clear the intention of the Senate that 
this country should cooperate with its comrades- 
in-arms in securing a just and honorable peace 
and that the United States, acting through its 
constitutional i^rocesses, should join with free 
and sovereign nations in the establishment and 
maintenance of international authority with 
power to prevent aggression and to preserve the 
peace of the world. After thorough discussion 
on the floor of the Senate, the resolution was 
adopted by an overwhelming vote. 

The Senate of the United States has thereby 
announced to the world its determination that 
we intend to participate with other peace-seek- 
ing nations to keep the peace which we now 
fight to gain. 

Harkness: Thank you, Senator Connally. 
And now back to Secretary Hull. 

Mr. Secretary, I wonder if you would com- 
ment on Senator Vandenberg's statement that 



124 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



neither the Congress nor the country had the 
remotest information or idea about the realities 
that wei'e sweeping us toward war. I noticed 
he also said that he fully understood that many 
of the subsequent disclosures — such as were 
made in the State Department's "Wliite 
Paper" — could not have been made before. 

Hull: Senator Vandenberg is a very old 
friend, and I am always interested in what he 
has to say. I fully agree with his statement 
that many of the disclosures subsequently made 
could not be made before without jeopardizing 
our national safety. But we certainly disagree 
on his first statement. My view is this: The 
tragedy of our pre-Pearl-Harbor situation lay 
not in lack of warning as to the steadily ap- 
proaching dangers to this hemisphere and this 
country. The President and I and other respon- 
sible officials did everything we could by utter- 
ance and acts to make clear and emphasize these 
growing dangers. 

If these repeated warnings failed to impress 
some of our people, I can only explain such fail- 
ure by the fact that, during that period, too 
many of our people profoundly believed that no 
serious danger from foreign wars did or could 
threaten this country and that about all the 
nation had to do to keep out of war was to stay 
at home and mind its own business. It was as 
impossible to convince these people against this 
profound conviction they entertained at the 
time as it would have been to convince them 
against any other profound belief held by them. 

I am sure that we are all now agreed that 
in this experience lies our greatest lesson for 
the future. Speaker Kayburn, Senator Con- 
nally, Ssnator Vandenberg, and I are in com- 
plete agreement that effective cooperation 
between the executive and the legislative 
branches of the Government and imflagging 
alertness on the part of our people to dangers 
as they threaten are all indispensable to our 
national safetj^ and well-being. 

Before this final program ends, I should like 
to say a few words of appreciation for the 
courtesy of the National Broadcasting Company 
in arranging, through this series, for my asso- 
ciates and myself to speak to the people of this 



country on matters of such grave concern to 
all of us. I want to compliment Mr. Harkness 
for his conduct of the programs. I am deeply 
grateful to Speaker Eayburn and to Senators 
Connally and Vandenberg for their contribu- 
tion to the discussion this evening. 

I sincerely hope that these programs will 
have helped the American people to a better 
understanding of what our foreign policy is 
about and of how it is conducted. There is no 
greater danger confronting a democracy in the 
conduct of its foreign affairs than indifference 
on the part of the people to the great issues at 
stake and the resulting absence of clear think- 
ing and constructive criticism. The first duty 
of responsible American citizenship is enlight- 
ened interest in public affairs, both domestic 
and foreign, and constant alertness to every 
manifestation of danger. 

Harkness : Thank you once again. Secretary 
Hull, and thanks also to our other distinguished 
guests. Speaker Eayburn, Senators Connally 
and Vandenberg, and Assistant Secretary of 
State Breckinridge Long. 

As all of you know, this is the last of this spe- 
cial limited series of programs arranged for 
broadcast by the NBC University of the Air to 
reveal to the American people something of the 
work, procedure, and policies of our Depart- 
ment of State. Judging by our mailbox, the 
series has been most successful. And to all of 
you Americans who listened each week with 
such keen interest, to the many who wrote us 
letters of praise and constructive criticism, I 
want to say for NBC and the State Depart- 
ment — thanks a million. It's a real pleasure to 
serve you. Now — this is Richard Harkness 
saying "Good night" from Washington. 

Washington Announcer : Good night, Rich- 
ard Harkness. Ladies and gentlemen, we have 
just concluded the last of four jDrograms broad- 
cast as a public service under the title "The 
State Dei^artment Speaks". These four pro- 
grams will be published in booklet form and 
you may have a copy free of charge by wi-iting 
to "The State DeiJartment Speaks" in care of 
NBC, New York. But to be sure of your copy 
you must write at once. 



American Republics 



THE UNITED STATES AND PANAMA 

BijPhiUp W. Bonsai'- 



Panama is the newest of the American repub- 
lics; it is also the smallest from the point of view 
of population. The country's area is about that 
of the State of Maine ; the people number about 
half a million. Yet the Kepublic, through its 
history and its present-day institutions and 
characteristics, has demonstrated that its peo- 
ple deservedly enjoy the rights of nationhood. 
History, geography, and_ economics have con- 
spired to place the citizens of Panama and of the 
United States on the Istlimus in peculiarly close 
contact. 

The Canal Zone, which frames the Canal, is 
a 10-mile-wide strip, bisecting the Republic 
(except where the nation's two principal cities, 
Panama and Colon, form virtual enclaves in the 
Zone). The boundary between the Canal Zone 
and the Republic of Panama in the terminal 
areas at either end of the Canal consists of city 
streets. Panama and Balboa, Colon and Cris- 
tobal, though they fly different flags, are urban 
units. The Canal itself is the most valuable 
single economic and military asset of the United 
States. Its importance in time of war as well 
as in time of peace cannot be exaggerated. 
Therefore, the relations between Panama and 
the United States afford a peculiarly significant 
demonstration of the success or failure of the 
patterns for international living adopted by the 
two nations as members of the community of 
American republics. 

When, on May 3 of 1943, President Roosevelt 
signed a joint resolution passed by the House 
and Senate authorizing the performance of cer- 

' The author of this article is the Deputy Director of 
the Office of American Kepublic Affairs of the Depart- 
ment of State. 



tain commitments entered into by the executive 
branch of our Government with the Republic 
of Panama,- he formalized the final step in a 
10-year process in which the two countries may 
find justified satisfaction and pride. Thanks to 
prolonged, but frank and good-tempered, nego- 
tiation and with the approval of the duly elected 
representatives of the two peoples, the policy 
of the good neighbor has been given full ex- 
pression in solemn covenants and in other ar- 
rangements governing the relations of Panama 
and the United States. 

II 

When in 1903 Panama became independent, 
and thus achieved an aspiration actively cher- 
ished by many Isthmian citizens since the over- 
throw of Spanish power 80 years before, the new 
republic promptly entered into that treaty re- 
lationship with the United States which made 
possible the construction of the Canal.' That 
treaty, signed two weeks after the birth of the 
republic, governed the dealings of the two 
countries during the heroic days of the build- 
ing of the Canal, through the first World War, 
and on to the very eve of the present conflict. 

In passing upon the terms of the document 
signed by John Hay and Philippe Bunau- 
Varilla it is necessary to bear in mind the re- 
spective situations of the parties. Panama had 
just won her independence. Neither her citi- 
zens nor those of the former sovereign of the 
territory had as yet achieved any outstanding 
record for civil stability. As a matter of fact, 
Colombia was emerging more or less exhausted 

' 57 Stat. 74. ' 

' Convention of Nov. 18, 1903, Treaty Series 431. 



125 



126 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETEN: 



from the last of the gi-eat civil struggles in the 
course of which her admirable democratic struc- 
ture was forged. The Panamanians had not yet 
created, much less tested, the constitutional in- 
stitutions upon which the domestic peace and 
prosperity of the new nation were to depend. 
. On the other hand, the United States was a 
novice in inter-American affairs, as well as in 
any real degree of participation in international 
affairs on a world-wide scale. The frontier as a 
focus for the national energies was only begin- 
ning to lose its place. The people were drawing 
breath and looking at the world beyond their 
borders. The enterpi'ise of the construction of 
the Canal fired the imaginations and enlisted 
the devotion of those who had freed Cuba and 
cherished a vision of the place the United States 
might assume in world affairs during the dawn- 
mg century. The first steps in the assumption 
of that place were necessarily without the bene- 
fit of experience, although they made up in vigor 
what they lacked in careful direction. In fact, 
the decade which began with 1898 witnessed a 
complete transformation in the international 
outlook of the United States through the as- 
sumption of international responsibilities. 

The construction of the Canal, therefore, in- 
volved the reaching of an agreement between 
a powerful, gi'owing nation in which the im- 
perialists were in full control of foreign policy, 
on the one hand, and, on the other, a small new 
nation with entirely different traditions, insti- 
tutions, and languag-e. The resulting agi-ee- 
ment was the convention of 1903. Viewed in 
its proper setting and considered in the light of 
the political principles of the times it cannot be 
considered ungenerous. It was realistic. Its 
provisions for the health and sanitation of the 
Canal, of the terminal cities, and of the adjacent 
areas, recognized one of the principal factors, 
if not the principal factor, in the failure of the 
French Canal Company and assured to the 
United States powers suiBcient to eliminate that 
factor. The wisdom of these provisions can- 
not be questioned. They were Essential to the 
success of the entire enterprise, and the Pana- 
manians had more, if possible, to gain from them 
than did the United States. 



However, from the political point of view, 
the treaty was onerous from the beginning and 
became more so to a people aspiring to integral 
sovereignty. The very first article stated that 
"The United States guarantees and will main- 
tain the independence of the Republic of Pan- 
ama." With the recollection of I'ecent civil dis- 
turbances fresh in their minds, the American 
negotiators insisted that the United States 
should have the right to intervene at any time 
''for the maintenance of public order in the 
cities of Panama and Colon and the territories 
and harbors adjacent thereto in case the Repub- 
lic of Panama should not be, in the judgment 
of the United States, able to maintain such 
order." Intervention was to be undertaken 
purely in our discretion, without discussion or 
even an appeal for assistance from the Pana- 
manian Government. 

The treaty also gave us the right, should we 
consider it desirable for the purpose of the con- 
struction, maintenance, operation, sanitation, 
and protection of the Canal, to take Panamanian 
land and water areas located outside the Canal 
area without consulting the Panamanian Gov- 
ernment. The existence of this right, and par- 
ticularly the provision that it could be exercised 
at our initiative alone, was considered — and 
rightly considered — by Panamanians to be a 
constant threat to their territorial integrity. 

It is obviously beyond the scope of this article 
to trace in detail the relations between the two 
countries as they were affected by the exercise 
of the two treaty rights described above. That 
task has already been ably performed, notably 
by Dr. William David McCain, now archivist of 
the State of Mississippi, in his concise, schol- 
arly volume entitled The United States and th& 
Republic of Panama. Yet the exercise of those 
rights brought home to the two parties certain 
truths and illustrated certain lessons in inter- 
national relations which must be emphasized. 

The right to maintain public order in the 
principal cities of the Republic was inserted in 
the treaty on behalf of the United States for the 
purpose of protecting the Canal and the instal- 
lations in the Canal Zone from the possible 
effects of armed violence, whether by organ- 



JANUARY 2 9, 1944 



127 



ized military elements or by mobs from the 
Republic. It may also have been thought that, 
even though such violence did not extend to the 
territory of the Zone, the consequent disruption 
of normal activity in the Republic could not but 
be prejudicial to Canal interests. In practice, 
however, these fears proved to be largely 
unfounded. The institutions of the Republic 
were consolidated without great turmoil; mili- 
tarism never became a factor in local politics. 
The United States did intervene from time to 
time. Yet, due to the increasing prosperity and 
enlightenment of the citizens of the Republic, 
the original cause for the assertion of this right 
on behalf of the United States soon ceased to 
exist to any really important or predictable 
extent. 

It is, of course, true that the right was also 
exercised from time to time to remedy condi- 
tions arising from the presence in the cities of 
the Republic of persons from the Canal Zone, 
both members of the armed forces and Canal 
employees and laborers. The resulting diffi- 
culties, particularly in times of congestion on 
the Isthmus as during the last war, strained the 
law-enforcement agency of the Republic. Yet 
the eventual remedy was found not in interven- 
tion by the United States but rather in a grow- 
ing realization on the part of the Panama 
authorities of the importance of the mainte- 
nance of orderly conditions in the areas of 
Panama and Colon frequented by visitors. 

It is a fair conclusion tliat the dangers which 
were to have been warded off through the exer- 
cise of the right of intervention have proved to 
be in fact non-existent. Yet that right did 
impose upon the United States a heavy obliga- 
tion and upon the citizens of the Republic a 
serious handicap in the development of their 
political institutions. From the very early days 
our representatives on the Isthmus considered 
the maintenance of orderly, stable govei'nment 
in the Republic to be one of their principal 
duties. In other words, they undertook to pass 
upon the relative merits of the "ins" and the 
"outs" and to use the threat of intervention to 
maintain "constitutional" order. It caimot be 
questioned that this type of paternalism was 



often — perhaps regularly — exercised from the 
sincerest and most high-minded motives. 
Nevertheless, the end result was stultifying to 
the civic progress of the Republic. 

Political responsibility in Panama became 
lodged in the Legation of the United States — 
not in the voices and the actions of the citizenry. 
The relative merits of the contending parties 
were sometimes argued with more warmth be- 
fore the American Minister than before the elec- 
torate. The party in power relied upon the 
American Minister as its staunchest support 
in internal affairs. The leaders of the "outs" 
devoted a large part of their energies and of 
their eloquence to denouncing in Washington 
the sins of the party ruling in Panama. Every 
act of the Minister and of the Department of 
State affecting Panama was interpreted in terms 
of local politics. The civic virtues of comba- 
tiveness and aggressiveness in support of hon- 
estly held principles must indeed be hardy 
gi'owths to flourish, when it is generally believed 
that responsibility for — and certainly power 
over — local political conditions is lodged in the 
representative of a foreign government enjoy- 
ing, at his own discretion, a right of armed 
intervention. 

Equally burdensome to the Panamanians was 
the right reserved to the United States to seize 
lands and waters additional to those comprised 
in the Canal Zone for Canal purposes. Wlaile 
the lands actually added to the Zone after 1903 
were imdoubtedly needed for jjurposes clearly 
related to the Canal, the very existence of this 
right, exercisable at our will and without re- 
course, was a permanent menace not only to the 
integrity of the nation but also to the undis- 
turbed enjoyment of their private property by 
its citizens. One case, that of Taboga Island, 
will illustrate the feeling of helpless insecurity 
and bitterness engendered by this provision of 
the treaty of 1903. 

Taboga is an island with an area of about two 
square miles located in the Bay of Panama. It 
is beautiful and healthful; it has a small resi- 
dent population and, in addition, has long been 
a health and vacation resort for the inhabitants 
of the capital of the Republic. 



128 



DEPABTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



On November 14, 1918, three days after the 
Armistice, marking the complete victory of the 
Allied and Associated Powers, the United States 
notified Panama, a faithful ally in the late 
struggle, that the greater part of Taboga Island 
would be taken over for defense purposes. This 
wholly arbitrary and ill-considered action 
caused a tremendous wave of indignation. A 
formal protest was sent to the Department of 
State; after 20 days the protest was rejected, 
and the rejection was later reiterated. In Jan- 
uary 1919, however, the Panamanian Govern- 
ment was informed that the United States would 
not take possession at once and was "anxious to 
adopt a liberal policy" with regard to the in- 
habitants. It is hard to see how this can have 
been any great relief to the people concerned. 
Finally, in June of 1920, over a year and one 
half after the original notification, our authori- 
ties decided that, instead of the 1,160 acres they 
had originally stated to be necessary for the de- 
fense of the Canal, some 37 acres would be suffi- 
cient ! 

Perhaps exaggeratedly, but nevertheless un- 
derstandably, Panamanians entertained the 
view that the existence of this right might at 
any time result in the extinction of the Republic 
as a separate territorial entity, should the 
United States determine that the whole Isthmus 
was needed for the construction, operation, 
maintenance, and protection of the Canal. 

Ill 

There is no evidence that a(ny responsible 
Panamanian at any time desired to impede the 
operation or the protection of the Canal. Gen- 
erally speaking, the citizens of Panama have 
demonstrated — and this was true in the last 
war and not less so today — a thorough con- 
viction of the identity of interest of Panama 
and the United States in international affairs. 
Their objection has been to the taking of meas- 
ures to promote that interest by the United 
States on Panamanian soil without any recog- 
nition of the inherent right of Panama as a 
sovereign nation to participate in the formu- 
lation and carrying out of such measures. 



The existence of a connnunity of interest be- 
tween the two countries — and more particularly 
a growing recognition of the fact that Panama 
was ready and able actively to further that in- 
terest — resulted finally in agreement on a re- 
statement of the terms of the relationship. An 
aboitiv'e attempt in that direction had been 
made as early as 1926. Shortly after his in- 
auguration. President Franklin D. Roosevelt 
and the then President of Panama issued a 
statement to the effect that they intended to 
initiate negotiations for a convention to place 
the relations between the two countries on a new 
footing. These negotiations began late in 1934 
and culminated on March 2, 1936, after more or 
less constant discussions between the parties, 
in the signature of a new treaty.^ The Senate 
of the United States, however, delayed three 
years before giving its advice and consent to the 
ratification of the document. 

Fundamentally, the new treaty was based 
upon the willingness of the two Governments 
"to cooperate, as far as it is feasible for them 
to do so, for the puq^ose of insuring the full and 
perpetual enjoyment of the benefits of all kinds 
which the Canal should afford the two nations 
that made possible its construction as well as 
all nations interested in world trade". That 
cooperation was to lead to the taking of meas- 
ures designed to "insure the maintenance, sani- 
tation, efficient operation and effective protec- 
tion of the Canal, in which the two countries are 
jointli/ and vitally interested " [italics sup- 
plied] . Thus, Panama became a partner in the 
Canal enterpi-ise in its largest sense instead of a 
more or less passive beneficiary in some respects 
and a victim in other respects of the bisection of 
Panamanian territory by the Canal Zone. 

Under the new treaty the guaranty of the 
maintenance of Panamanian independence by 
the United States was superseded by the estab- 
lishment of normal relations of peace and 
friendship such as then prevailed between the 
United States and the rest of the world. The 
right of the United States to intervene for the 
purpose of maintaining order in Panama was 

" Treaty Series 945. 



JANUARY 2 9, 1944 



129 



iibolished. Likewise, the right of the United 
States to take additional lands and waters in 
Panamanian territory was replaced by a pro- 
vision which stated, in effect, that, while the 
two Governments did not anticipate the neces- 
sity for the taking of additional lands for Canal 
purposes,, nevertheless, the two Governments 
recognized "their joint obligation to insure the 
effective and continuous operation of the Canal 
and the preservation of its neutrality, and con- 
sequently, if, in the event of some now unfore- 
seen contingency, the utilization of lands or 
waters additional to those already employed 
should be in fact necessary for the maintenance, 
sanitation or efficient operation of the Canal, 
or for its effective protection, the Governments 
of the United States of America and the Re- 
public of Panama will agree upon such meas- 
ures as it may be necessary to take in order to 
insure the maintenance, sanitation, efficient 
operation and effective protection of the Canal, 
in which the two countries are jointly and 
vitally interested". 

The new treaty further provided that "In 
case of an international conflagration or the 
existence of any threat of aggression which 
would endanger the security of the Republic of 
Panama or the neutrality or security of the 
Panama Canal", the two Governments would 
take appropriate measures together and would 
also consult together regarding measures which 
one of the two Governments might feel it essen- 
tial to take but which would affect the territory 
of the other Government concerned. 

The principal reason for M-hich this treaty 
was delayed for over 3 years in our Senate was 
luiquostionably the existence of doubt in the 
minds of certain Senators as to whether the 
new treaty would adequately protect our major 
interests in the Canal area. It was only after 
a clarifying exchange of notes between the De- 
partment of State and the Panamanian Em- 
bassy in Washington, early in 1939, that these 
doubts were removed.^ The Panamanian Gov- 
ernment stated that, in cases of extreme urgency, 

' Treaty Series 945, p. 63. 



consultation between the two Governments as 
to desirable measures might occur after rather 
than before the taking of necessary measures of 
defense by one Government which would affect 
the territory of the other. This interpretation 
was an obviously essential one in view of the 
nature of modern warfare and the record of 
international lawlessness of the aggressor 
nations. 

IV 

The relationsliip established by the new treaty 
was soon brought to the test. As it became more 
and more certain that the Axis powers had de- 
signs involving ruthless and complete world con- 
quest, our military and naval authorities were 
ff>rced to the conclusion that the defense of the 
Canal could no longer be insured by installa- 
tions located in the Canal Zone. A plan of 
defense was drawn up which involved the occu- 
pation of a very large number of points in 
Panamanian territory for airfields, gim em- 
placements, searchlight locations, detector sta- 
tions, etc. This plan was submitted to and dis- 
cussed with the Panamanian Government, the 
Chief Executive of which held highly national- 
istic views, and was accused in some quarters 
of being sympathetic to the Fascist ideology. 
Nevertheless, the President of Panama in March 
of 1941 indicated his willingness to make avail- 
able to the United States the needed defense 
sites.'' In view of the emergency situation with 
which the two Governments were confronted, it 
was agreed that the sites themselves would be 
turned over prior to the conclusion of the agree- 
ment covering their use.' As a matter of fact, 
when that agreement was finally signed, our 
armed forces had already for over a year been 
in possession of several dozen of these sites. The 
outbreak of war found the Canal, thanks to the 
joint action of the two Governments, strongly 
protected. 

The feeling of mutual trust and confidence 
between Panama and the United States was 



' Bulletin of Mar. 8, 1941, p. 265. 
' Ibid., May 23, 1942, p. 448. 



130 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETTNI 



very much heightened by the willingness and 
expedition with which Panama carried out her 
treaty obligations. These obligations were not 
a light iDurden. They involved the throwing 
open of practically the entire country to our 
armed forces. Not only were the troops and 
the military equipment and installations of a 
foreign country located at a large number of 
points throughout the Republic, but the roads 
of Panama were crowded with the movements of 
our men; the sky over the territory of the 
nation was at all times crossed and recrossed by 
our combat planes. , 

Then came December 7, 1941. The hours 
immediately after the bombs of treachery fell 
on Pearl Harbor were a time of test and trial 
when the souls of men and nations in this hemi- 
sphere stood revealed by their spontaneous 
unreflected acts. The Government and people 
of Panama moved swiftly to perfect the defenses 
of their coujitry threatened by the common 
aggressor. Several hundred Axis nationals, 
including many Japanese, were promptly 
rounded up and immobilized. War was 
declared on the three Axis powers with all pos- 
sible expedition. Other security measures 
were taken including the closest possible coop- 
eration with United States Army authorities in 
blackouts and other precautionary steps. In 
spite of the imminent danger of attack, there 
was no panic, no demand for special protection 
which might have detracted from the necessities 
of tlie military situation. 

It is hard to exaggerate the significance of 
the enthusiastic actions and attitudes not only 
of the Government but of the people of Pan- 
ama in support of the joint war effort. It was 
the help of ardent partners in a common enter- 
prise. It is not necessary, in order to stress 
the meaning of this situation, to suppose one in 
which the half-million inhabitants of the Re- 
public and their Government were frankly hos- 
tile to the power controlling and guarding the 
50-miles-long by 10-miles-wide area enclosing 
the Canal. It is sufficient to imagine a situa- 
tion in which the Government and people of 
the Isthmian nation had attitudes ranging from 



indifference to sullen resentment at the contin- 
ued assertion by the United States of such rights 
as were included in the treaty of 1903 and relin- 
quished in that of 1936. The under-cover agents 
of our enemies would obviously under those 
conditions have had a ferl^ile field in which to 
work. Today, those agents, if any remain at 
large, are held in check by the energy and alert- 
ness displayed by the authorities and the people 
on either side of the Canal on behalf of the cause 
which Panama, as one of the United Nations, 
considers her own. 

V 

Panama's behavior, both during the uneasy 
months following the outbreak of war in Eu- 
rope in the late summer of 1939 and after De- 
cember 1941 when each day dawned with the 
threat of attack, proved beyond the shadow of 
a doubt that the proponents of the treaty of 
1936 were right both theoretically and practi- 
cally. Those who had feared that the relin- 
quishment of the two rights contained in the 
treaty of 1903, namely, the right of the United 
States to intervene in Panama for the mainte- 
nance of order and the right of the United 
States to take further lands for Canal purposes 
without consulting the Republic, would weaken 
the defenses of the Canal in case of emergency 
were shown to have been completely wrong. 
Panama has been an active, aggressive ally. 
Her hearty cooperation has bulwarked the 
safety of the Canal to a degree which unilateral 
action by the United States could never have 
achieved. 

Under these conditions, the Foreign Office of 
Panama raised and the Depai'tment of State 
gave consideration to two situations the con- 
tinuance of which appeared to the people of 
Panama inconsistent with the relationship 
which the two Governments had wished to es- 
tablish. In the first place, the United States 
had built and was to own and opei-ate until 1957 
the waterworks and sewerage systems in Pan- 
ama and Colon. The citizens and other resi- 
dents of the Republic paid to employees of this 
Government amounts for water consumed in 
accordance with rates fixed by this Government. 



;i 



JANTJAET 2 9, 1944 



131 



These rates were designed to amortize the in- 
vestment involved by 1957. 

Secondly, the Panama Railroad Company, a 
corporation wholly owned by the Government of 
the United States enjoyed the use of valuable 
real estate in Panama and Colon which it rented 
for private business and residential purposes to 
persons largely citizens of Panama who had 
erected improvements thereon. These lands 
had an appraised value in excess of $11,000,000. 
However, they had cost the railroad company 
only a very insignificant sum. In fact, the bulk 
of them, comprising the business center of Colon, 
the Republic's second city, had been granted to 
the compan}', then a privately owned corpora- 
tion, by the Republic of Colombia in a series of 
concessions the last of which was dated 1867 for 
a period expiring in 1966, at which time the land 
was to revert to Colombia, the then-sovereign 
of the territory. In 1903, Panama gained her 
independence and succeeded to the sovereign 
rights of Colombia. By the treaty with the 
United States of that same year, the new Re- 
public gi'anted to the United States the rever- 
sionary right to the lands, the use of which was 
enjoyed by the Panama Railroad Company, 
both then and now wholly owned by our Gov- 
ernment. 

Thus many citizens of the Republic were 
paying ground rent fixed by one agency of the 
Government of the United States and water 
rates fixed by another agency of that same Gov- 
ernment. The continued existence of this sit- 
uation was obviously irksome to these citizens 
and to the Government and people of the nation. 
After careful discussion of the two matters, 
agreement was reached, subject to the approval 
of the Congress of the United States, whereby 
the waterworks and sewers were to be turned 
over to Panama at once instead of waiting until 
1957 and the real estate described above was to 
be transferred to Panama without compensa- 
tion.^ In the course of the hearings held by 
the Foreign Affairs Committee of the House 

^ The Congress authorized such action in Public Law 
48, 78th Cong. ; 57 Stat. 74. 



and the Foreign Relations Committee of the 
Senate, it was clearly set forth that in connec- 
tion with the waterworks transfer, full protec- 
tion of health and sanitation conditions was con- 
templated. It was also brought out that in the 
case of the real estate, Panama would receive 
only lots which the Secretary of War had deter- 
mined were not needed for tlie operation of the 
railroad or for Canal purposes. The railroad 
will continue to enjoy the use of land in the 
territory of the Republic necessary for those 
purposes in which, in the words of the treaty 
of 1936, "the. two countries are jointly and 
vitally interested". 

It was also emphasized at these hearings that, 
in the cheerful and prompt execution of her 
treaty obligations for the defense of the Canal, 
Panama had not demanded, as a condition prec- 
edent, the agreement regarding the waterworks 
and the real estate described above. In fact, 
the defense sites had been cccupied by the armed 
forces of the United States over a year before 
these matters were settled as between the two 
Governments and over two years before that 
settlement was ratified by the Congress of the 
United States. 

In the course of the discussion of this legis- 
lation, its opponents made the statement that 
friendship cannot be bought. With that state- 
ment, as a general proposition, there can be no 
quarrel. As between nations, and in the absence 
of grave emergencies such as the devastation of 
war or of natural calamities, a settled policy of 
hand-outs debauches both the giver and the 
receiver. On the other hand, the rectification 
of situations no longer consistent with new prin- 
ciples of national policy and the satisfaction of 
legitimate aspirations have produced, in the 
case of the relations of Panama and the United 
States, the highest moral and material benefits. 

These two countries may, without exaggera- 
tion, claim to have given the world a demon- 
stration of the relations which can and should 
prevail between a power, which, in the face of 
the political and economic realities of today, will 
long be burdened with world responsibilities 
and a small nation the territory of which em- 



132 



DEPAETMENT OF STATE BTniLETm 



braces one of the chief instruments for the car- 
rying out of those responsibilities. Not only 
have Panama and the United States eliminated 
force as a factor in their relations, they have 
banished the temptation to the use of force and 
the fear of its use from the consideration of 
the many questions which their geographic pro- 
pinquity and their joint and vital interest in the 
functioning of the Canal must continue to 
present. 

NON-RECOGNITION OF THE PRESENT 
REVOLUTIONARY JUNTA IN BOLIVIA 

[Released to the press January 24] 

This Government has been aware that sub- 
versive groups hostile to the Allied cause have 
been plotting disturbances against the American 
Governments operating in defense of the hemi- 
sphere against Axis aggression. 

On December 20, 1943 the Bolivian Govern- 
ment was overthrown by force under circum- 
stances linking this action with the subversive 
groups mentioned in the preceding statement. 

The most important and urgent question aris- 
ing from this development in Bolivia is the fact 
that this is but one act committed by a general 
subversive movement having for its purpose 
steadily expanding activities on the continent. 
These developments, viewed in the light of the 
information the American republics have been 
exchanging among themselves, dispose nega- 
tively of the matter of this Government's recog- 
nizing the present revolutionary Jmita at La 
Paz. 

The inter- American system built up over the 
past 10 years has had for one of its purposes 
the defending of the sovereign republics of the 
hemisphere against aggression or intervention 
in their domestic affairs by influences operating 
outside the hemisphere and outside their indi- 
vidual frontiers. This Government is confident 
that the freedom-loving people of the American 
republics, including those of Bolivia, who have 
the good-will of the Government and people of 
the United States, will understand that this de- 



cision is taken in furtherance of the aforesaid 
purpose. 

IMPLEMENTATION OF EXISTING CON- 
TRACTS ON 1944 CUBAN SUGAR CROP 

(Released to the press January 28] 

A United States delegation, representing 
various Government agencies and headed by 
Sidney H. Scheuer, Executive Director of the 
Bureau of Supplies, Foreign Economic Admin- 
istration, will leave for Habana at the end of 
this week to continue discussions with represent- 
atives of the Cuban Government on remaining 
phases of purchase agreements for the 1944 
Cuban sugar crop and the acquisition by the 
United States of molasses and alcohol.^ The 
discussions will be concerned primarily Avith 
blackstrap molasses and alcohol phases of 1944 
crop disposition. Representatives of the two 
Governments expect to reach mutually satisfac- 
tory agreejnents in the interests of both coun- 
tries and the joint war effort. 



The Foreign Service 



CONFIRMATIONS 

On January 28, 1944 the Senate confirmed the 
nomination of John Campbell White to be 
American Ambassador to Peru. 

DEATH OF EDWARD THOMAS WILLIAMS 
Statement by the Secretary of State 

[Released to the press January 2D] 

We in the Department have learned with 
great regret of the death of Mr. Edward 
Thomas Williams, who was connected with the 
Foreign Service and the Department for many 
years and who was an outstanding authority on 
China and Chinese subjects. Mr. Williams 

' See the Bulletin of Jan. 8, 1944, p. 40. 



JANUARY 2 9, 1944 



133 



served as Secretary of Legation at Peking and 
was Charge d'Affaires there at the time when 
our Government recognized the Chinese Kepiib- 
lic in 1911. He later became Chief of the Divi- 
sion of Far Eastern Affairs in the Department. 
After retirement he was called back to serve 
his Government in 1918-19 as technical dele- 
gate to the Peace Conference at Paris and again 
in 1921-22 as a special assistant of the Depart- 
ment for the Conference on the Limitation of 
Armament and Pacific and Far Eastern 
questions. 



In all his assignments Mr. Williams ren- 
dered to his Government service of an out- 
standing character and contributed much to the 
promotion of closer relations between the peo- 
ple of the United States and peoples of the Far 
East. Possessing a quiet sense of humor and 
an extraordinary capacity for making friends, 
Mr. Williams enjoyed the high esteem of a large 
circle of associates for his integrity, his warmth 
of personality, and his scholarly attainments. 
His loss will be deeply mourned by all who had 
the privilege of knowing him. 



General 



DEDICATION OF THE "INTERNATIONAL HOUSE" AT NEW ORLEANS 

Address by George S. Messersmith ^ 



[Released to the press January 28] 

New Orleans, as gateway to the South and the 
terminal of sea routes connecting this country 
with Mexico and other republics of Central and 
South America, is indeed an appropriate city to 
establish an international club dedicated to the 
furtherance of good relations between our own 
citizens and those of foreign countries. The 
aim of New Orleans' "International House" to 
interpret American friendliness to visitors from 
other countries and to add a measure of welcome 
to the traditional hospitality of our people is in 
line with the steady efforts of the American 
Government to help to build, with the other na- 
tions of this hemisphere, democratic communi- 
ties in which freedom and the benefits of enlight- 
ened civilization may be common to all. 

It is fitting that the statesmanship of our 
President and Secretary of State and the leader- 
ship and responsive collaboration which states- 
men in the other American republics have 
vouchsafed in the cause of hemispheric solidar- 

' Delivered in Washington over the Columbia Broad- 
casting System, Jan. 28, 1944. Mr. Messersmith is 
the American Ambassador to Mexico. 



ity should inspire among our citizens and busi- 
ness leaders zeal and determination to cooperate 
in the gi'eat work of advancing good interna- 
tional relations. Those relations can best be 
fostered by cherishing a genuine patriotism and 
love of country together with high civic pride 
that expresses itself in generous and helpful acts, 
particularly on behalf of the stranger whose 
lasting impressions are gathered not so much 
from the magnificeiice and evidences of well- 
being displa3-ed before him as from the kindness 
and courtesy of the people among whom he has 
come to sojourn. 

Business and social intercourse among the 
citizens of different countries is a closer bond 
than that attained by the making of most solemn 
treaties. Declarations and treaties are binding 
upon governments which have made them and 
serve to further the collective common aim ; but 
that aim is strengthened and implemented by 
the friendly relations established among the 
people themselves. 

There has been no time in our history when 
our attitude toward our neighbors and their 



134 



DEPAKTMENT OF STATE BTJLLETTNI 



attitude toward us mean so much. What is our 
cause has indeed become the cause of the whole 
civilized world; and the friends beyond our 
shores who are laboring with us to preserve our 
freedom and theirs may expect a hearty and 
cordial welcome when they come to visit us. 

The city of New Orleans, which is the gate- 
way of the great Mississippi Valley, has a long 
history of achievement in the development of 
our national life; and this project of making 
available to travelers from foreign countries 
a center known as "International House" is an- 
other forward step in the leadership and enter- 
prise of that great city. From undertakings 
such as this, which has been planned to promote 
a closer relation with our neighbors, numerous 
mutual advantages will be obtained, not only in 
connection with commerce and the interchange 
of goods but also in the wide scope of educa- 
tional, cultural, and social developments, which 
have so great a diversity among other nations 
as well as our own. 

Probably the outstanding result of the pres- 
ent world conflict will be to awaken in the 
minds of people all over the world a conscious- 
ness of the degree to which one nation is de- 
pendent for its welfare, happiness, and security 
on others who have put forth efforts in the com- 
mon fight to preserve the same ideals and aspira- 



tions. Wlien by our mutual effort we shall have 
preserved freedom and the institutions which 
we cherish, it is natural that we shall seek closer 
ties with the friends in other countries who have 
jomed us in the struggle and who will build 
with us in the peace. 

Besides it is a proof of growing enlighten- 
ment among our people with respect to world 
affairs that a great community like New Orleans, 
conscious of its obligations to further the inter- 
national relations and foreign policy of its 
Government, takes steps in a very positive way 
to bring that about, by uniting its representa- 
tive fellow citizens in a program of promoting 
the well-being and prosperity of our neighbors 
as well as of our own country. 

When we speak of the United Nations en- 
gaged in the gi'eatest conflict the world has ever 
known, let us not forget the millions of indi- 
viduals in the midst of battles and at home who 
comjoose the invuicible strength by which we 
shall win. Upon those same individuals of 
many nationalities, creeds, and tongues finally 
depends a stable and lasting world peace. This 
can be achieved by a universal effort to promote 
international good-will and friendship. It is 
indeed gratifying that the citizens of New Or- 
leans and the Mississippi Valley in establishing 
"International House" are endeavoring to help 
bring this about. 



Treaty Information 



ALASICA HIGHWAY 

Agreement With Canada Regarding the South- 
ern Terminus of the Highway ^ 

The following notes were exchanged by the 
American Minister to Canada and the Canadian 
Secretary of State for External Affairs : 

No. 668 Ottawa, Canada, 

May 4, 1942. 
Sir: 

During the course of a conversation on April 
24, 1942, Mr. Keenleyside, Assistant Under Sec- 



retary of State for External Affairs, raised the 
question of the southern terminus of the Alaska 
Highway now under construction, and inquired 
in particular if my Government felt that the 
stretch of road between railhead at Dawson 
Creek and Fort St. John fell within the terms 
of the American offer as contained in my note 
of March 17, 1942.= 

The wording of the pertinent recommenda- 
tion of the Permanent Joint Board on Defense, 
which was incorporated in my note of March 
17th, dealt with "the construction of a highway 



' To be printed in the Executive Agreement Series. 



'Executive Agreement Series 246. 



JANUARY 2 9, 1944 



135 



along the route that follows the general line 
of airports, Fort St. John -Fort Nelson -Wat- 
son Lake - Whitehorse - Boundary - Big Delta, 
the respective termini connecting with existing 
roads in Canada and Alaska". 

As thei-e seemed from Mr. Keenleyside's query 
to be some ambiguity as to whether the word 
"termini" limited the length of the road to be 
constructed, or merely described where existing 
roads, irrespective of tlieir size or carrying 
capacity, ended, the appropriate minutes of the 
Permanent Joint Board on Defense were con- 
sulted. These contain the following sentence: 

"The proposed highway would have its south- 
ern terminus on the Edmonton, Dunvegan, Brit- 
ish Columbian Railway, which has available 
carrying capacity substantially in excess of the 
possible carrying capacity of the road. Its 
northern terminus would be at a point about 
sixty miles south of Fairbanks on the Richard- 
son Highway, which connects Fairbanks with 
Valdes." 

In view of the foregoing, which clarifies the 
intent of the Permanent Joint Board on De- 
fense, my Government believes that its offer to 
undertake the building and wartime mainte- 
nance of the highway does in fact include the 
stretch of road from Dawson Creek to Fort St. 
John. As a matter of record, it would welcome 
a confirmation of its belief from the Canadian 
Government. 

Accept [etc.] Pierrepont Moffat 



No. 66 



Snj: 



Ottawa, Canada, 

May 9, 191,2. 



With reference to your note of May 4, 1942, 
No. 668, regarding the southern terminus of the 
Alaska Highway, and to our previous exchange 
of notes regarding the construction of a high- 
way to Alaska, I have the honour to inform you 
that the Canadian Government is prepared to 
agree that tlie stretch of highway between Daw- 
son Creek, British Columbia, and Fort St. John, 
British Columbia, be included in the proposed 



road, and that the railhead at Dawson Creek 
be accepted as the southern terminus of the 
highway. 

Accept [etc.] 

N. A. Robertson 

for Secretary of State for External Affairs. 

Agreement With Canada Authorizing the Con- 
struction of Flight Strips Along the High- 
way ^ 

The following notes were exchanged by the 
American Minister to Canada and the Canadian 
Secretary of State for External Affairs : 

No. 744 Ottawa, Canada, 

August 26, 191,2. 
Sir: 

With a view to increasing the value of the 
Alaska Highway, the American authorities are 
anxious to undertake the construction of eight 
flight strips to be located along the road. The 
tentative sites for these strips are as follows : 

No. 1 At Dawson Creek 
No. 2 About 50 miles south of Ft. Nelson 
No. 3 About 75 miles west of Ft. Nelson 
No. 4 Approximately 40 miles east of 

Lower Post 
No. 5 Approximately 55 miles west of 

Lower Post 
No. 6 Approximately 60 miles southeast 

of Whitehorse 
No. 7 Approximately 30 miles northwest 

of Whitehorse 
No. 8 About midway between Burwash 

Landing and Snag 

Although the flight strips will in all cases be 
located along the highway, they will be so placed 
in direction as to benefit by the prevailing wind. 
My Government believes that the construc- 
tion of these eight flight strips along the high- 
way, wliich will result in its greater usefulness, 
falls within the scoj^e and under the terms of 
the jjroject as agreed to in our exchange of notes 



' To be printed in the Executive Agreement Series. 



136 



DEPAETMEISTT OF STATE BULLETIN! 



of March 17-18, 1942,^ but inasmuch as men- 
tion thereof was not specifically made in the 
text, it would welcome a confirmation from you 
of its belief. 
Accept [etc.] Piereepont Moffat 



No. 134 Ottawa, September 10, 19^2. 

Sir, 

In reply to your Note of August 26, 1942, No. 
744, I have the honour to inform you that the 
Canadian Government agrees to the construc- 
tion of eight flight strips to be located along 
the route of the Alaska highway at approxi- 
mately the points mentioned in your Note. 

Accept [etc.] 

H. II. Weong 

for Secretary of State for External Affairs. 

Agreement With Canada Authorizing the 
Construction of the Haines-Champagne 
Highway ^ 

The following notes were exchanged by the 
American Minister to Canada and the Canadian 
Secretary of State for External Affairs: 

No. 798 Ottawa, Novemher 28, 19J^. 

Sir: 

I have the honor to refer to my conversation 
with Mr. Keenleyside of November 11, 1942, in 
which, on behalf of the Government of the 
United States of America. I requested the 
approval of the Canadian Government for the 
construction by appropriate American agencies 
of the Canadian section of a road fi'om Haines 
Point, Alaska, to Champagne, Yukon Terri- 
tory, where it would join the Alaska (Alcan) 
Highway which is now being constructed ac- 
cording to agreement between our two 
Governments. 

As I pointed out, the construction of this cut- 
off road would give the United States Army 
additional facilities for distributing supplies in 
Yukon and Alaska by truck, and would mate- 
rially supplement the quantity of freight that 

' Executive Agreement Series 246. 

* To be printed in the Executive Agreement Series. 



can now be moved into the Whitehorse area 
over the narrow gauge White Pass and Yukon 
Railway. 

The Canadian Government was good enough 
to inform me orally on November 19, 1942, that 
it authorized the construction of that part of 
the Haines-Champagne road which lies in Can- 
ada and I have been directed to express the 
appreciation of the United States Government 
for this new mark of Canadian coojjeration. 

My Government has now instructed me to 
propose to the Canadian Government that the 
Haines-Champagne cut-off road shall hence- 
forth be considered an integral part of the 
Alcan Highway, subject in all applicable re- 
spects to the terms of the agreement reached 
in our exchange of notes of March 17-18, 1942.^ 

Accept [etc.] Piereepont Moffat 



No. 171 Ottaava, December 7, 1942. 

Sir, 

I have the honour to refer to your note No. 
798 of November 28, 1942, in which you propose, 
on behalf of your Government, that the Haines- 
Champagne cut-off road shall henceforth be 
considered an integral part of the Alcan High- 
way, subject in all applicable respects to the 
terms of the agreement reached in our exchange 
of notes of March 17-18, 1942.^ This jiroposal 
appears to be covered by the decision of the 
War Committee on November 18, 1942, that per- 
mission be given to the United States to con- 
struct the Highway on the understanding that 
terms would be worked out between the two 
countries similar to those in effect for the Alaska 
Highway. 

Accept [etc.] 

N. A. Robertson 

for Secretary of State for External Affairs. 

Agreement With Canada Regarding the Use 
of Connecting Roads - 

The following notes wei-e exchanged by the 
American Charge in Canada and the Canadian 
Under Secretary of State for External Affairs : 



JANUARY 2 9, 194 4 



137 



Ottawa, Canada, April 10, 19Ji3. 
My De.\r Mr. Robertson : 

The question has been raised in Washington 
as to whether the two phrases, found in the 
American-Canadian exchange of notes of March 
17-18, 1942, regarding the post-war use of the 
Alaska Highwaj',^ sipply equally to the use of 
the existing Canadian highways which would 
have to be used in order to reach the southern 
terminus of the Alaska Highway from the 
United States. 

You will recall that the notes provide that 
at the conclusion of the war "that part of the 
highway which lies in Canada shall become in 
all respects an integral part of the Canadian 
highway system, subject to the understanding 
that there shall at no time be imposed any dis- 
criminatory conditions in relation to the use of 
the road as between Canadian and United 
States civilian traffic." 

Elsewhere the Canadian Government agreed 
"to waive import duties, transit or similar 
charges on shipments originating in the United 
States and to be transported over the highway 
to Alaska, or originating in Alaska and to be 
transported over the highway to the United 
States."' 

Although it was originally intended that most 
of the traffic over the Alaska Highway would be 
routed to Dawson Creek, British Columbia, by 
rail, it has, as you know, been found expedient 
to send certain vehicles and transport certain 
supplies by highway from the United States to 
Dawson Creek en route to Alaska. My Govern- 
ment feels that it is a natural inference from the 
language quoted above that United States ve- 
hicles should be allowed to use the roads leading 
from the boundary to the Alaska Highway 
under conditions similar to those governing the 
use of the Highway itself. 
Sincerely yours, 

Lewis Clark 
Charge (T Affaires ad interim. 



' Executive Agreement Series 246. 



Ottawa, April 10, 191,3. 
My Dear Mr. Clark : 

I have received your letter of April 10th, on 
the question as to whether the two phrases found 
in the American-Canadian exchange of notes of 
March 17-18, 1942, regarding the post-war use 
of the Alaska Highway,' apply equally to the 
use of the existing Canadian highways which 
would have to be used in order to reach the 
southern terminus of the Alaska Highway from 
the United States. 

The notes provide that at the conclusion of the 
war "that part of the highway which lies in Can- 
ada shall become in all respects an integral part 
of the Canadian highway system, subject to the 
understanding that there shall at no time be 
imposed any discriminatory conditions in rela- 
tion to the use of the road as between Canadian 
and United States civilian traffic." 

Elsewhere in the exchange of notes the Cana- 
dian Government agi-ees "to waive import du- 
ties, transit or similar charges on shipments 
originating in the United States and to be trans- 
ported over the highway to Alaska, or originat- 
ing in Alaska and to be transported over the 
highway to the United States." 

You have stated in your letter that although 
it was originally intended that most of the traf- 
fic over the Alaska Highway would be routed 
to Dawson Creek, British Columbia, by railway, 
it has been found expedient to send certain ve- 
hicles and transport certain supplies by highway 
from the United States to Dawson Creek en 
route to Alaska. My Government agrees that 
it is the natural inference from the language 
quoted above that United States vehicles should 
be allowed to use the roads leading from the 
boundary to the Alaska Highway under condi- 
tions and for purposes similar to those govern- 
ing the use of the highway itself. (It may 
prove necessary, however, for administrative 
reasons, to designate certain specific roads to be 
used in this way. It would not be practicable. 



138 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BXJLLETTNl 



for example, that United States trucks should 
be able to enter Canada at any point and still 
receive bonding privileges on the assumption 
that they intend eventually to proceed along the 
Alaska Highway to United States territory.) 
Yours sincerely, 

Norman A. Robertson 
Under Secretary of State 

for External Affairs 



CUSTOMS PRIVILEGES 

Agreement With Canada Regarding Importa- 
tion Privileges for Government Officials and 
Employees ^ 

The following notes were exchanged by the 
Canadian Secretary of State for External Af- 
fairs and the American Minister to Canada: 

No. 113 Ottawa, July 21, 194^. 

SlE,- 

I have the honour to refer to the sugges- 
tions made by the Legation some years ago, 
and renewed in the Legation's Memorandum of 
December 4, 1941, regarding the granting of the 
privilege of free import after first arrival to 
several categories of United States officials in 
Canada who do not at present receive it.- 

2. After careful consideration, the Canadian 
Government has decided that it would be willing 
to grant this privilege to Consuls and Vice 
Consuls of career but not to any other United 
States officials in Canada who do not at present 
receive it. The Canadian Government's pro- 
posal is, of course, conditional on reciprocity. 
In view of the fact that Canada does not have 
any Consuls or Vice Consuls in the United 
States, and is not likely to have a large number 
of them for many years, it is desired that the 
privilege of free impoi't after first arrival be 
given to Canadian Trade Commissioners and 
Assistant Trade Commissionei-s in the United 
States, as well as to Canadian Consuls and Vice 

' To be printed in the Executive Agreement Series. 
' Not printed. 



Consuls of career, if and when any should be 
appointed. 

3. The Canadian Government has also had 
under consideration another aspect of the Cus- 
toms Regulations, namely, the right of free en- 
try on first arrival for United States Govern- 
ment emploj'ees who are not expressly given 
that privilege by the Regulations under Tariff 
Item 706 e.g. clerks of the United States Lega- 
tion and of Consulates, officers and employees 
of the United States Customs offices, etc. In 
practice such persons are given free entry on 
first arrival by entering them as "Settlers". I 
understand that in the United States a similar 
pi-ocedure is used to grant free entry on first 
arrival to non-diplomatic employees of the Ca- 
nadian Government. 

4. We propose that the privilege of free entry 
on first arrival should be expressly extended to 
all employees (of United States nationality) of 
the United States Government sent to posts in 
Canada and to all employees (of Canadian na- 
tionality) of the Canadian Government sent to 
posts in the United States. This free entry on 
first arrival should cover private automobiles, 
but not spirituous liquors. 

5. I should be glad to learn whether the pro- 
posals set forth above are acceptable to tlie 
United States Government. If they are, I 
should like to know whether j'our Government 
desires to have a formal exchange of notes suit- 
able for publication, or whether this Note and 
your reply will be sufficient. 

Accept [etc.] 

N. A. Robertson 
for Secretary of State for External Affairs. 



No. 783 Ottawa, October 29, 1942. 

Sir: 

I have the honor to refer to your note No. 113 
of July 21, 1942, regarding the extension of the 
free importation privilege to American consuls 
and vice consuls of career on a basis of reci- 
procity, which would include on the part of 
Canadians in the United States, trade commis- 
sioners and assistant trade commissioners, since 



JANtTARY 29, 1944 



139 



the Canacli:in Government does not now have 
consuls or vice consuls in the United States. 

It has been noted that the Canadian Govern- 
ment is also willing, on a basis of reciprocity, 
to affirm its previous practice of granting free 
entry on first arrival to United States Govern- 
ment employees, other than diplomatic and con- 
sular officers, which would include clerks of the 
United States Legation and Consulates and offi- 
cers and employees of the United States Cus- 
toms offices. It has also been noted that the 
Canadian Goverimient is unwilling to have free 
entry on first arrival for these employees 
include spiritous liquors. 

I have now been instructed to inform you that 
my Government is prepared to accord, recip- 
rocally, to Canadian consuls and vice consuls, 
should such officers be assigned to the United 
States, and to Canadian trade commissioners 
and assistant trade commissioners who are Ca- 
nadian nationals and not engaged in any pri- 
vate occupation for gain, the privilege of im- 
porting articles, the importation of which is 
not prohibited, for their personal use free of 
duty upon their first ari'ival, upon their I'eturn 
from leave of absence spent abroad and during 
the time they are stationed in the United States. 
Furthermore, my Government is prepared to ad- 
mit free of dutj^, on a reciprocal basis, all arti- 
cles, except spiritous liquors and articles the 
importation of which is prohibited, imported on 
first arrival for their personal use by Govern- 
ment employees of Canada other than diplo- 
matic and consular officers, trade commission- 
ers and assistant trade commissioners who are 
Canadian nationals and not engaged in any pri- 
vate occupation for gain. 

I shall appreciate receiving confirmation that 
the Canadian Government is prepared, recip- 
rocally, to grant the same privileges to like 
American officers and employees, and, if this be 
the case, I suggest that this note and your reply 
thereto be considered as concluding the agree- 
ment on this subject between our two Govern- 
ments, which shall remain in efiFect until termi- 
nated by either Goverment. 

Accept [etc.] Piebbepont MorFAT 



No. 155 November 9, 1942. 

Sir, 

I have the honour to refer to your note No. 
783 of October 29, 1942, regarding importation 
privileges for government officials and em- 
I^loj'ees. 

The Canadian Government agi'ees with the 
understandings set forth in your note which, 
with this note, shall be considered as concluding 
an agreement between our two Governments, 
which shall remain in effect until terminated by 
either Government. 

Accept [etc.] 

Laurent Beaudrt 

for Secretary of State for External Affairs. 

TELECOMMUNICATIONS 

Agreement With Canada Regarding the Con- 
struction and Operation of Radio Broad- 
casting Stations in Northwestern Canada ^ 

The following notes were exchanged by the 
American Charge in Canada and the Canadian 
Under Secretary of State for External Affairs : 

Ottawa, Novemter 5, 19If3. 

Dear Mr. Robertson : 

I understand that the Northwest Service 
Command, United States Army, feels a need for 
small broadcasting stations at several isolated 
garrisons in the Northwest Conunand. These 
stations would be similar to those established 
at various posts in Alaska and in the United 
Kingdom which are supplied with non-com- 
mercial entertainment program material by the 
Special Service Division, Army Service Forces. 

Although there would be no aspect of compe- 
tition with the Canadian Broadcasting System 
due to the isolated locations, a special problem 
has arisen in complying with Canadian laws and 
policies. As the stations would be operated by 
military personnel under the direct control of 
the local commanding officer, effective supei*- 
vision of the operation could be exercised only 
through military channels. In order to ensure 

' To be printed in the Executive Agreement Series. 



140 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BTJLLETI'N: 



compliance with Canadian laws and to assnre 
that the stations would be operated in such a 
manner as to serve the local populace in strict 
accordance with the desires of the appropriate 
Canadian authorities, a proposed draft of au- 
thorization which would be issued by the Sec- 
retary of War if the Canadian Government were 
to approve the proposal, is enclosed lierewith. I 
have been directed to bring this matter to your 
attention with the request that the Canadian 
Government approve the installations as out- 
lined in the enclosure hereto. At the same time 
I have been directed to say that any stations 
placed in operation under the authority, if 
granted, would be closed at any time on the re- 
quest of the Canadian Government and, in any 
event, upon the removal of the garrison or the 
establishment of regular broadcasting facilities. 
In addition, the United States War Department 
has said that it would be immediately responsive 
to the desires of the Canadian Government in 
any questions arising out of the operation of the 
jjroposed stations. 

I understand informally that this desire of 
the Northwest Service Command has been made 
known to you through Brigadier General W. W. 
Foster, and that the War Committee of the Cab- 
inet has approved it in principle. If there is 
any further information you desire in order to 
reach a final decision in this matter, I should 
appreciate being informed. 
Yours sincerely, 

Lewis Claek 
Charge d"" A f aires ad interim 

[Enclosure] 

Stibject: Military Radio Broadcasting Stations 
To: Commanding General 

Northwest Service Command 

c/o Postmaster 

Seattle, Washington. 

1. Reference is made to yonr letter of 28 September 
1943, addressed to the Special Service Division, Infor- 
mation Branch, Radio Section, Los Angeles, California, 
subject : "Military Radio Broadcasting Stations." ' 



With the consent and during the pleasure of the Cana- 
dian Government, you are authorized to establish 
armed forces radio broadcasting stations at White- 
horse, Fort Nelson, Watson Lake, Simpson, Norman 
Wells, and Northway. 

2. The operation of these radio broadcasting stations 
will be subject to the following conditions : 

(a) All applicaljle provisions of the Canadian Broad- 
casting Act of 1936, the Radio Act of 1938, and regula- 
tions made thereunder shall be observed. 

( b ) Program material will be restricted to transcrip- 
tions prepared for armed forces of the United Nations 
by the Special Service Division, Army Service Forces, 
local talent programs of a strictly entertainment char- 
acter, and such Canadian programs as may be made 
available by Canadian Government agencies. 

(c) Every assistance will be rendered Canadian Gov- 
ernment authorities in the provision of wire circuits 
and other facilities which may be required for the 
delivery of news or other programs desired by them. 

(d) A diligent and continuing survey of public reac- 
tion to programs will be maintained to the end that no 
criticism of any character will be permitted to dt'velop. 

(p) The local commanding officer will be held strictly 
accountable for the exerci.se of good taste and propriety 
in the selection of program material and for the com- 
plete avoidance of commercialism, sectarianism, and 
editorializing on political or controversial subjects. 

3. Technical details such as power and the choice of 
frequency, etc. will be arranged through the direct 
channel established between the Controller of Radio, 
Ministry of Transport and the Office of the Chief Signal 
Officer in the same manner as for all other Army radio 
facilities in Canada. 

By order of the Secretary of War : 



"Not printed. 



Ottawa, November 35, 1943. 

Dear Mb. Atheeton: 

I should like to refer to Mr. Clark's letter 
of November 5, 1943, in which permission is 
requested by the United States Government to 
construct and operate certain radio broadcasting 
stations in Northwestern Canada. 

I am pleased to inform you that the Cana- 
dian Government agrees to the construction and 
operation, by the Goverimient of the United 
States, of radio broadcasting stations at Wliite- 
horse, Watson Lake, Fort Nelson, Simpson and 
Norman Wells, subject to the following condi- 
tions : 



i 



JANUARY 2 9, 1944 



141 



(1) that the stations will be operated directly 

by the United States Government, and 
for the sole purpose of bringing enter- 
tainment and information to United 
States and Canadian military and civilian 
personnel ; 

(2) that the radio stations will be subject to 

the provisions of the Canadian Broad- 
casting Act. 1936, the Radio Act. 1938, 
the Regulations made under these Acts, 
and to all other applicable laws and regu- 
lations in force in Canada ; provided that 
no fee or tax shall be paid by the United 
States Government to the Canadian Gov- 
ernment in coimection with the operation 
of these stations; 

(3) that each station will be operated in ac- 

cordance wi(h the terms of an annual 
renewable permit to be issued by the 
Department of Transport; 

(4) that authorization for the operation by the 

United States Government of the stations 
may be cancelled at any time by the Cana- 
dian Government, and in any case such 
authorization for operatioji shall cease 
with the termination of the war; 

(5) that the stations may be used for the broad- 

casting of Canadian progi'ammes and in 
particular of Canadian news pro- 
grammes, it being understood that the 
amount of time to be set aside for Cana- 
dian programmes will be subject to agree- 
ment between the Special Commissioner 
for Defence Projects in the Northwest, 
and the Commanding Officer of the 
United States Northwest Service Com- 
mand ; 

(6) that the United States Government will 

make available to the Canadian Govern- 
ment its wire services for the transmis- 
sion of Canadian news and Canadian pro- 
grammes to the stations; 

(7) that the sites, frequencies, power, call let- 

ters and other technical details concern- 
ing the stations shall be subject to the 
approval of the Department of Trans- 



port and shall be arranged directly 
through the channel already established 
between the Controller of Radio of the 
Department of Transport, Ottawa, and 
the office of the Chief Signal Officer, 
"Washington, in the same manner as for 
all other radio facilities of the United 
States Armed Forces in Canada. Any 
or all necessary changes in the foregoing 
particulars shall be dealt with through 
the same channel ; 

(8) that the stations will be dealt with after the 

war in accordance with the exchange of 
notes of January 27, 1943, between Can- 
ada and the United States, covering post- 
war disposition of United States defence 
facilities in Canada.^ 

(9) that any land or leasehold required by the 

United States Government as sites for 
the stations shall be acquired by the 
Canadian Government in its name, and 
shall be made available to the United 
States Government without charge. 

I trust that the foregoing arrangements will 
be acceptable to the United States Government. 
Yours sincerely, 

N. A. Robertson 
Under Secretary of State 

for External Affairs 



Ottawa, January 17, lO^Ji.. 

Dear Mr. Robertson: 

Your letter of November 25, 1943 granting, 
under certain conditions, our request to con- 
struct and operate radio broadcasting stations 
in Northwestern Canada was torwarded imme- 
diately to Washington. 

We have now been authorized to say that the 
stipulations made by the Canadian Government 
are acceptable to the United States War De- 
partment. 

Yours sincerely, 

Lewis Clark 



' Not printed. 



142 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN' 



WATER POWER 

Agreement With Canada for the Temporary 
Raising of the Level of Lake St. Francis 

By an exchange of notes dated October 5 and 
9, 1943, the Government of the United States 
and the Government of Canada agreed to con- 
tinue in force anitil October 1, 19'44, the agree- 
ment of November 10, 1941 for the temporary 
raising of the level of Lake St. Francis during 
low water periods. 

The agreement of November 10, 1941, which 
was to remain in foi'ce until October 1, 1942 and 
was continued in force until October 1, 1943 
by an exchange of notes dated October 5 and 9, 
1942, was concluded for the purpose of con- 
serving the supply of power in the lower St. 
Lawrence.^ 

The exchange of notes dated October 5 and 9, 
1943 will be printed in the Executive Agreement 
Series. 



Supplemental Estimate of Appropriation, Department 
of State, 1945 : Communication from the President of 
the United States transmitting supplemental estimate 
of appropriation, in the amount of $1,618,000, for the 
Department of State, for the fiscal year 1945, in the 
form of an amendment to the Budget for the said 
fiscal year. H. Doc. 388, 78th Cong. 2 pp. 

Creating a Special Committee on Post-War Economic 
Policy and Planning. H. Rept. 1021, 7Sth Cong., on 
H. Res. 408. [Favoraljle report.] 1 p. 

Independent Offices Appropriation Bill, 1945. H. Rept 
1023, 78th Cong., on H. R. 4070. [Foreign Service 
Pay Adjustment, p. 8; Inter- American Highway, p. 
15.] 27 pp. 

To Assist in Relieving Economic Distress in the Virgin 
Islands : Hearings before the Committee on Insular 
Affairs, House of Representatives, 78th Cong., 1st 
sess., on S. 981 and H.R. 3777. October 21 and 27; 
November 2, 10, and 17; December 2 and 6, 1943. 
Part 3, Virgin Islands. 149 pp. 



Publications 



Legislation 



An Act To amend the Nationality Act of 1940. Ap- 
proved January 20, 1944. [H. R. 2207.] Public Law 
221, 78th Cong. 2 pp. 

Retirement and Disability Fund, Foreign Service : 
Message from the President of the United States 
transmitting a report by the Secretary of State, show- 
ing all receipts and disbursements on account of 
refund.s, allowances, and annuities for the fiscal year 
ended June 30, 1943, in connection with the Foreign 
Service retirement and disability system. H. Doc. 
383, 78th Cong. 6 pp. 



'Executive Agreement Series 291. 



Department of State 

Publications of the Department of State (a list cumu- 
lative from October 1, 1929). January 1, 1944. Pub- 
lication 2045. iv, 27 pp. Free. 

Health and Sanitation Program : Agreement Between 
the United States of America and Mexico — Effected 
by exchange of notes signed at Mexico City June 30 
and July 1, 1943. Executive Agreement Series 347. 
Publication 2049. 5 pp. 50. 

Purchase by the United States of Exportable Surpluses 
of Dominican Rice, Corn, and Peanut Meal : Agree- 
ment Between the United States of America and the 
Dominican Republic Approving Memoranflum of 
Understanding Dated May 20, 19-13— Effected by ex- 
change of notes signed at Ciudad Trujillo June 10, 
1943. Executive Agreement Series 350. Publication 
2050. 11 pp. 5<f. 



0. S. COVERNMENT FRIHTIHQ OFFICEi It44 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C. 
Price, 10 cents - - - - Subscription price, $2.75 a year 

PUBLISHED WEEKLY WITH THE APFBOVAL OF THE UIHECTOB OF THE BOBEAD OF TBB BDDOBT 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 




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FEBRUARY 5, 1944 
Vol. X, No. 241— Publication 2064 



ontents 



The War Pago 

United States Objectives in India and the Far East; 

Statement by the President 145 

Japanese Atrocities : United States Protests and Repre- 
sentations to Japan 145 

Declaration of War by Liberia Against Germany and 

Japan 151 

Contributions for ReHef 151 

General 

The Wartime Development of Organizations To Deal 
With International Economic Operations and 
Problems — A Chronology: July 1, 1939, to Decem- 
ber 31, 1943 152 

Treaty Information 

Water UtUization: Treaty With Mexico Relating to 
the Utilization of Waters of the Colorado and 
Tijuana Rivers and of the Rio Grande 161 

Agriculture: Convention on the Inter-American Insti- 
tute of Agricultural Sciences 162 

Automotive: Convention on the Regulation of Inter- 
American Automotive Traffic 162 

Telecommunications: Inter- American Radiocommuni- 
cations Convention and North American Regional 
Broadcasting Agreement 162 

Publications 163 

Legislation 163 




U.S,SUPnm^TENDENTOFO0CUMENfl 

,3 29 1944 



The War 



UNITED STATES OBJECTIVES IN INDIA AND THE FAR EAST 

Statement by the President 



[Released to the press by the White House February 1] 

The American objectives in India or elsewhere 
in continental Asia are to expel and defeat the 
Japanese, in the closest collaboration with our 
British, Chinese, and other Allies in that 
theater. 

Our task in expelling the Japs from Burma, 
Malaya, Java, and other territory is military. 
We recognize that our British and Dutch 
brothers-in-arms are as determined to throw the 
Japs out of Malaya and the Dutch East Indies 
as we are determined to free the Philippines. 
We propose to help each other on the roads and 
waters and above them, eastward to these jDlaces 



and beyond to Tokyo. No matter what indi- 
vidual or individuals command in given areas, 
the purpose is the same. 

There will, of course, be plenty of problems 
when we get there. Their solution will be 
easier if we all employ our utmost resources of 
experience, good-will, and good faith. Nobody 
in India or anywhere else in Asia will misunder- 
stand the presence there of American armed 
forces if they will believe, as we do at home, that 
their job is to assure the defeat of Japan, with- 
out which there can be no opportunity for any 
of us to enjoy and expand the freedoms for 
which we fight. 



JAPANESE ATROCITIES 
United States Protests and Representations to Japan 



[Released to the press January 31] 

Immediately after the attack on Pearl Harbor 
the Depai'tment of State took up with Japan the 
matter of according proper treatment for Ameri- 
can nationals in Japanese hands. Although 
Japan is not a party to the Geneva Prisoners of 
War Convention the Department obtained from 
the Japanese Government a comiiiitment to 
apply the provisions of that convention to 
American prisoners of war, and, so far as adapt- 
able, to civilian internees held by Japan. Since 
the very beginning of the war, by repeated pro- 
tests and representations through the protecting 
power, the Department has again and again 
called to the Japanese Government's attention 
failures on the part of Japanese authorities to 
live up to their Government's undertakings. 



Horrified at the accounts of repatriates who 
returned on the first exchange voyage of the 
Gri'psholin, accounts with which the public is 
familiar through the statements of Mr. Grew 
and other repatriates, the Department made 
these accounts the basis of a vigorous and com- 
prehensive protest to the Japanese Government. 

The American people are familiar with the 
protest addressed to Japan following the Japa- 
nese Government's barbarous action in execut- 
ing our aviators who fell into Japanese hands 
after General Doolittle's raid over Tokyo. In 
that protest the -Department again called upon 
the Japanese Government to carry out its agree- 
ment to observe the provisions of the conven- 
tion and warned the Japanese Government in no 
uncertain terms that the American Government 

145 



146 



DEPAETMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



will hold personally and officially responsible 
for their acts of depravity and barbarity all of- 
ficers of the Japanese Government who have 
participated in their commitment and, with the 
inexorable and inevitable conclusion of the war, 
will visit upon such Japanese officers the punish- 
ment they deserve for their uncivilized and in- 
human acts against American prisoners of war. 

When it received from the military authori- 
ties reports of the brutal atrocities and depraved 
cruelties inflicted by the Japanese upon Ameri- 
can prisoners of war in the Philippines the De- 
partment again called upon the Japanese Gov- 
ernment to honor its undertaking to apply the 
provisions of the Geneva Prisoners of War Con- 
vention and to observe in its treatment of Amer- 
ican nationals held by it the international com- 
mon law of decency. 

These protests are but three of the many that 
have been sent by the Department to Japan. 

In order that the public may be familiar with 
the Department's efforts to obtain from Japan 
fulfilment of its undertakings to treat American 
nationals in its hands in accordance with hu- 
mane and civilized principles, there is printed 
below a statement giving the dates of the prin- 
cipal representations and protests made by the 
Department, with a brief resume of their pur- 
pose. The latest of these, representations com- 
prehensively citing categories of abuse and of 
neglect to which American prisoners in the 
hands of the Japanese have been subjected and 
calling for amelioration of the treatment ac- 
corded to American nationals, both prisoners of 
war and civilian internees, went forward on 
January 27. 

January 13. The exchange of names of prison- 
ers of war in accordance with article 77, Ge- 
neva Prisoners of War Convention, and of 
interned civilians in accordance with the same 
article when applied to the treatment of 
civilians, was proposed. 

January 31. Request that representatives of the 
Swiss Government entrusted with the protec- 
tion of American interests in Japan and 



191^ 

Japanese-occupied territory be permitted to 
visit all camps where Americans are held, in 
accordance with article 86, Geneva Prisoners 
of War Convention. Similar facilities re- 
quested for representatives of the Interna- 
tional Red Cross Committee in accordance 
with international usage. 

Fehmary 3. Proposal to exchange names of 
civilian internees and prisoners of war re- 
peated. 

February 7. Request for permission to visit 
camps repeated. 

Fehi'uaiy 13. Proposal that in application of 
clauses of Geneva Convention which relate to 
food and clothing, racial and national customs 
be taken into account. 

Fehi'uary IJf. Japanese Government informed 
that United States Government may have to 
reconsider its policy of extending liberal 
treatment to Japanese if assurances are not 
given by the Japanese Government that lib- 
eral principles will be applied to Americans. 
Request that Swiss representative be permit- 
ted to visit part of Philippines occupied by the 
Japanese forces. 

March 3. Request that nurses and other sanitary 
personnel be repatriated in accordance with 
article 12 of the Geneva Red Cross Conven- 
tion. 

March 11. Asked for immediate report of the 
names of American sick, wounded, and dead. 

March 19. Made proposals with regard to the 
labor of civilians, provision of food accord- 
ing to national tastes, visits by friends, rela- 
tives, doctors, etc., visits by protecting power 
and International Red Cross to civilian in- 
ternment camps. 

April 3. Asked for permission for the appoint- 
ment of an International Red Cross represen- 
tative for the Philippines. 

April 11. Request for improvement in treatment 
of civilians at Kobe. 

May H. Confirmation requested of message re- 
ceived from International Red Cross that 
Japanese authorities are applying Geneva 
Red Cross Convention. 



I 



FEBRUARY 5, 1944 



147 



1942 

May H. Asked if Swiss representatives were 
permitted to interview prisoners of war with- 
out witnesses in accordance with article 86 of 
Geneva Prisoners of War Convention. 

May 19. Asked for information concerning 
whereabouts of Americans from Wake 
Island. 

May 19. Eequested information concerning 
whereabouts of Americans in Philippine 
Islands. 

May '20. Repeated request for lists of American 
wounded, sick, and dead. 

May 20. Requested improvement of conditions 
under which civilian internees were held. 

May 21. Requested visits to camps by Swiss rep- 
resentatives and api^lication of Geneva Pris- 
oners of War Convention in outl_ying areas in 
accordance with Japanese Government's 
undertaking- 

June 4. Repeated request far permission for 
Swiss and International Rad Cross representa- 
tives to visit camps. 

June 11. Repeated request for permission for 
Swiss representatives to interview prisoners 
of war without witnesses. 

June 10. Pressed for appointment of Interna- 
tional Red Cross delegate in the Philippines. 

July Ik- Requested Japanese Government to re- 
port names of prisoners and internees held in 
Philippines and British and Netherlands ter- 
ritories under Japanese occupation in accord- 
ance with article 77, Geneva Prisoners of War 
Convention. 

July 15. Repatriation of seriously sick and 
wounded prisoners of war on the basis of the 
Model Agreement attached to the Geneva 
Prisoners of War Convention proposed. 

July 17. Requested Swiss to endeavor to have 
conditions in Kobe civilian camps improved. 

August 7. Protest against the sentences imposed 
on Americans who attempted escape from 
Shanghai prisoner-of-war camp. These sen- 
tences were contrary to article 50, Geneva 
Prisoners of War Convention. Protest was 
made at the same time against the refusal of 
the Japanese authorities to permit the Swiss 
representatives to visit these men. 



191^ 

August 12. Permission again requested for 
Swiss and International Red Cross repre- 
sentatives to visit all camps. 

August 27. Again requested that visits to camps 
be permitted. 

September 11. Additional request for the trans- 
mission of names of prisoners of war. Asked 
if prisoners might mail cards immediately 
after their arrival at camp in accordance with 
article 36, Geneva Prisoners of War Conven- 
tion. 

September 22. Lists of the camps, their location, 
and population requested. 

September 26. Japanese asked to accept mail 
addressed to persons not reported as interned 
because Japanese authorities had not properly 
reported names of persons held. 

September 29. Requested ranks of oiBcers who 
unsuccessfully attempted to escape be re- 
stored. Protection of Geneva Prisoners of 
War Convention for American aviators re- 
portedly being held mcommunicado de- 
manded. 

September 29. Requested reporting of names of 
400 American civilians known to have been on 
Wake Island and whose names have not yet 
been reported as prisoners or internees. 

October 6. Pressed for reply concerning pro- 
posals for repatriation of seriously sick and 
wounded. 

November 12. Pressed Japanese to provide at 
their expense medical care for internees in ac- 
cordance with article 14, Geneva Prisoners of 
War Convention, when adapted to the treat- 
ment of civilian internees. 

November 17. Protest against six cases of atroc- 
ities perpetrated by Japanese authorities. 

November 17. Requested additional food at 
Negishi camp. 

November 17. Weekly transmission of names of 
American prisoners of war and civilian in- 
ternees requested in accordance with article 77, 
Geneva Prisoners of War Convention. 

December 7. Names of captured aviators and 
permission to visit them requested. 

December 7. Requested that (1) internees at 
Sumire be allowed to have visitors, (2) vis- 



148 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BTJLLETENl 



19Ji2 

itors may speak languages other than Jap- 
anese, (3) Swiss representative be allowed to 
speak to internees without witnesses. 

December 12. Extended protest regarding tor- 
ture, neglect, physical violence, solitary con- 
finement, illegal prison sentences, mistreat- 
ment, and abuse that led to deaths of some 
Americans; failure to permit visits to camps 
• by Swiss and International Ked Cross Com- 
mittee representatives; and other violations 
of the Geneva Prisoners of War Convention 
and the laws of humanity. 

Deccmier 17. Protest against Japanese decision 
to apply Geneva Convention only to extent 
that its provisions do not change the effect of 
Japanese laws in force. 

December 19. Protests against failure of Jap- 
anese to afford facilities to permit the receipt 
and distribution of relief supplies in accord- 
ance with article 37 of the Geneva Prisoners 
of War Convention. 



IQJfS 

January 2. Requested that names of Americans 
held in an internment camp in Java be pro- 
vided in accordance with article 77, Geneva 
Prisoners of War Convention, that Swiss rep- 
resentatives visit the camp in accordance with 
article 86, Geneva Prisoners of War Conven- 
tion, and that International Red Cross rep- 
resentatives be permitted to visit the camp in 
accordance with general international usage. 

January 4- Protest concerning conditions at 
Shinigawa prisoner-of-war camp. Protest 
covers insufficient diet (article 11, Geneva 
Prisoners of War Convention) and request 
that Japanese grant Americans reciprocal 
treatment with resi^ect to mail privileges and 
wages for labor. 

February 4. Requested a liberalization of maxi- 
mum canteen purchases permitted in any 
month be granted on the basis of reciprocity. 

February 5. Protest against Japanese failure to 
provide canteens in accordance with article 
12, Geneva Prisoners of War Convention, 



191^S 
failure to permit free exercise of religion in 
accordance with article 16, requirement that 
non-commissioned officers perform other than 
supervisory labor contrary to the provisions 
of article 27, limitation on correspondence 
with the protecting power contrary to article 
44. Increased facilities with regard to mail 
requested on a basis of reciprocity. 

Fehm<iry 12. Protest against failure of Japa- 
nese to provide heat at Urawa camp in ac- 
cordance with article 10, Geneva Prisoners of 
War Convention. 

February 15. Protest against Japanese refusal 
to permit Swiss representatives to interview 
internees without witnesses in accordance 
with article 86, Geneva Prisoners of War 
Convention. 

February 16. Protest against the Japanese fail- 
ure to provide proper medical attention to 
prisoners of war in accordance with article 
14, Geneva Prisoners of War Convention. 

February 18. Protest against program of gen- 
eral internment of American nationals in the 
Far East. 

Ftbinmry 20. Protest against refusal of Japa- 
nese authorities to permit American internees 
to receive foodstuffs sent from the outside in 
accordance with article 37, Geneva Prisoners 
of War Convention. Japanese Government 
requested reciprocally to permit Americans 
to receive visitors. 

Feb'tuary 25. Request that Japanese supply the 
names of Americans held in the Sham-Sui-Po 
prisoner-of-war camp, Kowloon, in accord- 
ance with article 77, Geneva Prisoners of War 
Convention. 

March 1. Further protest with regard to fail- 
ure of Japanese authorities to permit inter- 
views without witnesses being present. Re- 
quest that the Japanese authorities recip- 
rocally provide underwear for American in- 
ternees. 

March 1. Protest against refusal of Japanese 
authorities in Thailand to apply Geneva 
Prisoners of War Convention in accordance 
with Japanese Government's undertaking. 



FEBRUARY 5, 1944 



149 



19I^3 

March 6. Protest against refusal of Japanese 
Government to permit representatives of pro- 
tecting power to visit and to communicate 
with American civilian internees at Singa- 
pore in accordance witli articles 44 and 86, 
Geneva Prisoners of War Convention. 

March 8. Request for permission for Swiss rep- 
resentatives to visit American prisoners of 
war in labor detachments. 

March 11. Japanese Government reminded that 
United States Government expects that 
Geneva Prisoners of War Convention will be 
applied to the treatment of American pris- 
oners held by the Japanese forces in Thailand. 

March 12. Japanese Government pressed to re- 
store military rank of American officers who, 
as a penalty for trying to escape, were de- 
prived of their rank contrary to article 49, 
Geneva Prisoners of War Convention. 

March 15. Additional protest against failure of 
Japanese authorities to transmit the names of 
prisoners of war and civilian internees in ac- 
cordance with article 77, Geneva Prisoners of 
War Convention. 

March 16. Protest against refusal of Japanese 
authorities to instal canteens where food- 
stuffs may be purchased in accordance with ar- 
ticle 12, Geneva Prisoners of War Convention, 
and to permit interviews between internees 
and Swiss delegate without witnesses. 

March 18. Protest against another instance 
when Japanese did not permit Swiss repre- 
sentative to interview internees without wit- 
nesses. 

March 26. Reciprocal treatment again requested 
with regard to mail forwarded by civilian in- 
ternees and prisoners of war. 

March 30. Protest against failure of Japanese 
Government to report names of all American 
civilians who were taken into custody at Wake 
Island. 

April 3. Further protest against Japanese fail- 
ure to provide clothing in accordance with ar- 
ticle 12, Geneva Prisoners of War Conven- 
tion. 



1943 

Aprils. Reciprocal treatment requested for in- 
terned persons to live together as family 
units. 

April 12. Protest against the Japanese action in 
sentencing to death American airmen for acts 
committed during military operations. Pro- 
test made at the same time against Japanese 
refusal to gi-ant these men the safeguards with 
respect to judicial proceedings set up in ar- 
ticles 60, 61, 62, 65, and 66, Geneva Prisoners 
of War Convention. 

May 22. Protest against refusal of the Japanese 
Government to permit representatives of the 
protecting power to act in behalf of American 
interests in Hong Kong. 

May 25. Protest against Japanese refusal to per- 
mit visits to camps near Shanghai by repre- 
sentatives of the Swiss Consulate General. 

May 25. Protest against continued Japanese re- 
fusal to permit conversations between prison- 
ers of war and Swiss representatives without 
witnesses. 

May 25. Protest against refusal of Japanese 
Government to permit advances of official 
United States Government funds to needy 
American nationals detained by Japan. 

May 25. Further protest with regard to the fail- 
ure of the Japanese Government to report 
names of all civilians last kijown to have been 
on Wake Island. 

May 27. General protest against the Japanese 
failure to provide standards of housing, diet, 
clothing, medical care, etc., for Americans, 
that are in accordance with the Geneva Pris- 
oners of War Convention. 

May 31. Request that Swiss visit civilians in- 
terned in Philippines and prisoners of war 
held at Mukden, Manchuria. 

June 5. Protest against failure of Japanese to 
permit visits by representatives of the protect- 
ing power to internment camps in and near 
Canton, Weihsien, and Wuhu, all in China. 

June 9. Protest against failure of Japanese 
Government to permit Swiss to visit prisoner- 
of-war camp at Hakodate in accordance with 
article 86, Geneva Prisoners of War Conven- 
tion. 



150 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BTJLLETTNl 



19P 
July 3. Further protest with regard to failure 
of Japanese authorities to permit Swiss rep- 
resentatives to visit camps. 
July 6. Extended protest against the Japanese 
Government's refusal to permit Swiss' repre- 
sentatives to visit all prisoner-of-war and 
civilian internment camps in Japan and Japa- 
nese-occupied territory. 
July 17. Protest against Japanese Government's 
action in locating camps in an unhealthy lo- 
cation, in failing to communicate orders to 
prisoners of war in a language which they un- 
derstand, in failing to permit the camp spokes- 
men to correspond with the protecting power, 
in failing to provide clothing, and in requir- 
ing excessive hours of labor by prisoners of 
M-ar. These acts were contrary to articles 10, 
20, 44, 12, and 30, respectively, of the Geneva 
Prisoners of War Convention. Reciprocal 
treatment with regard to mail again requested. 
July 20. Protest against failure of Japanese au- 
thorities to (1) supply adequate food, lodging, 
and clothing (2) permit representatives of 
protecting power to interview internees with- 
out witnesses (3) establish canteens at civilian 
internment camps. 
August 5. Protest against failure of Japanese 
Government to report names of Americans 
being held in Burma as required by article 
77, Geneva Prisoners of War Convention. 
October 7. Protest against failure of Japanese 
authorities to permit visits to prisoner-of-war 
camp at Fukuoka. 
October 13. Reciprocal treatment requested 
with respect to the privilege of dating letters 
and postcards mailed by prisoners of war and 
civilian internees. 
November 19. Additional protest with respect 
to the failure of the Japanese Government to 
report the names of American civilians in- 
terned at Wake Island. 
November 22. Protest against Japanese failure 
to permit the Swiss representatives to visit 
American prisoners of war held by the Jap- 
anese in Thailand. 



19J^3 

December 1. Additional representations with re- 
spect to reciprocal privileges for prisoners of 
war and civilian internees to forward mail. 

December ^.Additional protest with respect to 
the failure of the Japanese Government to re- 
port the names of all civilians held in intern- 
ment camps as well as the release or transfer 
of persons previously reported in accordance 
with article 77 of the Geneva Prisoners of War 
Convention when it is adapted to the treat- 
ment of civilian internees. 

December 11. Protest against Japanese refusal 
to permit representatives of the protecting 
power to visit sick Americans held in hos- 
pitals in Shanghai. 



January 27. Extended protest to Japanese Gov- 
eniment with respect to: 

(1) failure to permit representatives of 
Swiss Government and of the Interna- 
tional Red Cross Committee to visit all 
places where Americans are held 

(2) failure to forward complaints to the 
api^ropriate authorities and to represen- 
tatives of the protecting power 

(3) punishment of American nationals for 
complaining concerning the conditions 
of captivity 

(4) failure to furnish needed clothing to 
American nationals 

(5) confiscation of personal effects from 
American civilian internees and prison- 
ers of war 

(6) subjection of Americans to insults 
and to public curiosity 

(7) failure and refusal to provide health- 
sustaining food 

(8) improper use of the profits of the sale 
of goods in camp canteens 

(9) forcing civilians to perform labor 
other than that connected with the admin- 
istration, maintenance, and management 
of internment camps 



FEBRUARY 5, 1944 



151 



19U 

( 10) forcing officer prisoners of war to per- 
form labor and non-commissioned officers 
to do other than supervisory work 

(11) requii'ing prisoners of war to perform 
labor that has a direct relation with war 
operations 

(12) failure to provide proper medical 
care 

(13) failure to report the names of all 
prisoners of war and civilian internees in 
their hands and of Ainerican combatants 
found dead on the field of battle 

(14) failure to permit prisoners of war 
freely to exercise their religion 

(15) failure to post copies of Geneva Pris- 
oners of War Convention in English 
translation in the camps 

( 16) failure to provide adequate equipment 
and accommodations in the camps 

(17) failure to apply the provisions of the 
Geneva Prisoners of War Convention 
with respect to the trial and punishment 
of prisoners of war 

(18) inflicting corijoral punishment and 
torture upon American nationals. 

•January 27. Comprehensive statement detailing 
specific instances of failure of the Japanese 
Government to abide by its commitments as 
charged above. 



DECLARATION OF WAR BY LIBERIA 
AGAINST GERMANY AND JAPAN 

On January 26 President William V. S. Tub- 
man of Liberia, in a special message to a joint 
session of the Liberian legislature, advocated 
Liberia's adherence to the Declaration by United 
Nations and stated that he deemed it necessary 
to ask the legislative body for authorization to 
make a formal declaration of war against Ger- 
many and Japan. On January 27 the Liberian 
Senate and House passed a joint resolution ap- 
proving the issuance by the Executive of a proc- 
lamation of war against Germany and Japan 
and authorizing the President to take all the 

573012 — 44 2 



steps necessary to maintain the security of the 
nation. On the same day a proclamation of war 
against Germany and Japan was issued by the 
President. 

When he was asked during his press and radio 
news conference on February 2 to comment on 
the action taken by Liberia in declaring war 
against Germany and Japan, Secretary Hull 
replied : 

"Naturally I am sure that each of the United 
Nations is gratified and especially pleased to 
have Liberia taking her place in the ranks of the 
Allied nations. They are m a strategic location 
where their cooperation and support mean much 
for the Allies." 

CONTRIBUTIONS FOR RELIEF 

On February 1, 1944 the President's War Re- 
lief Control Board released to the pi-ess a tabu- 
lation of contributions collected and disbursed 
during the period September 6, 1939 through 
December 31, 1943, as shown in the reports sub- 
mitted by persons and organizations registered 
with the Board for the solicitation and collec- 
tion of contributions to be used for relief in for- 
eign countries, in conformity with the regula- 
tions issued pursuant to section 3 (a) of the 
act of May 1, 1937, as made effective by the Pres- 
ident's proclamations of September 5, 8, and 10, 
1939 ; section 8 of the act of November 4, 1939, 
as made effective by the President's proclama- 
tion of the same date ; and Executive Order 9205 
of July 25, 1942. The statistics set forth in the 
tabulation are incomplete with regard to relief 
activities which a number of registered organi- 
zations carried on in respect to non-belligerent 
countries prior to July 28, 1942. 

The American National Eed Cross and cer- 
tain religious organizations are exempted from 
registration with the Board by section 3 of Exec- 
utive Order 9205, and the accounts of these or- 
ganizations are not included in the tabulation. 

Copies of the tabulation are available from the 
President's War Relief Control Board, Wash- 
ington Building, Washington, D. C. 



General 



THE WARTIME DEVELOPMENT OF ORGANIZATIONS TO DEAL WITH 
INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC OPERATIONS AND PROBLEMS 

A Chronology: July 1,1939 to December 31, 1943 



On January 15, 1944 far-reaching changes 
were made in the organization of the Depart- 
ment of State. Twelve major "line" offices were 
establislied to broaden tlie base of the Depart- 
ment's organizational structure, permitting the 
more flexible and efficient adjustment of the De- 
partment's functions to rapidly changing con- 
ditions. Two of the new offices, the Office of 
Wartime Economic Affairs and the Office of Eco- 
nomic Affairs, were created to initiate and co- 
ordinate policy and action, so far as the De- 
partment of State is concerned, in all matters 
pertaining to the economic relations of the 
United States with other governments. 

Data with respect to the earlier development 
of organizations to deal with international eco- 
nomic operations and problems are contained in 
the following chronology, prepared in the Divi- 
sion of Research and Pulilication, Department of 
State. Additional data will be found in Senate 
Document 285, 77th Congress (entitled Domestic 
Stability^ National Defense, and Prosecution of 
World War II) and the series of chronologies 
which have been issued for the period since July 
1, 1939 by the Department of Labor under the 
title Important Economic and Military Events. 

This chronology contains the following • ab- 
breviations : 

DSB Depcertvient of State Bulletin 
PR Pederal Register 

Manual United States Government Man- 
ual, Su7imier 191(3 

193!) 
July 1 

Oonsolidaiion of Foreign Agncultwral Serv- 
ice and Poreign Commerce Service loith the Por- 
eign Service of the United States {Depart7nent 
152 



of State) : Transferred to Department of State, 
to be administered as part of the Foreign Serv- 
ice, by Reorganization Plan II, section 1 (a), 
effective July 1, 1939. {Manual, p. 618.) 

October 3 

Inter-American Finmwial and Economic Ad- 
visory Committee: Resolution III of the Final 
Act of the Meeting of the Foreign Ministers of 
the American Republics, held in Panama, pro- 
vided for the creation of this committee to con- 
sider means of establishing close cooperation be- 
tween the American republics to protect their 
economic and financial structure, maintain their 
fiscal equilibrium, safeguard the stability of 
their currencies, promote and expand their in- 
dustries, intensify their agriculture, and develop 
their commerce. First meeting held at the Pan 
American Union in Washington on November 
15, 1939. {DSB, Oct. 7, 1939, pp. 324-325 ; Nov. 
18, 1939, p. 564 ; Jan. 16, 1943, pp. 71-72 ; Mar. 
27, 1943, pp. 260-263.) 

December 6 

Interdepartmental Committee for the Coordi- 
nation of Poreign and Domestic Military Pwr- 
chases: Created to represent the United States 
in all matters relating to the purchase of mili- 
tary or naval supplies, materials, and equipment 
in the United States by foreign governments. 
Dissolved April 14, 1941. {Manual, pp. 619- 
620.) 



1940 
February 26 

Division of Conymercial Affairs : Established 
by departmental order in Department of State 
to direct activities of the Foreign Service per- 



FEBRUARY 5, 1944 



153 



WJiO 
taining to the promotion and protection of 
American agricultural and commercial interests 
abroad and the distribution of information sub- 
mitted by the Foreign Service on these subjects 
and on economic developments abroad. {DSB, 
Mar. 2, 1940, p. 268.) 

May 25 

Office for Emergency Management: Created 
by Executive order to (1) "assist the President 
in the clearance of information with respect to 
measures necessitated by the emergency," (2) 
maintain liaison between the President and Fed- 
eral or other defense agencies to "secure maxi- 
mum utilization and coordination ... ", and 
(3) perform other duties as directed by the 
President. {Manual, pp. 62-63.) 

June 3 

Inter-American Development Convmission: 
Organized in accordance with a resolution 
of the Inter-American Financial and Eco- 
nomic Advisory Committee (1) to stimulate in- 
crease of non-competitive imports from the 
American republics to the United States, (2) to 
stimulate and increase trade among the Ameri- 
can countries themselves, and (3) to encourage 
development of industry in the American repub- 
lics, particularly along the lines of production 
of consumer goods. {DSB, Jan. 16, 1943, p. 71.) 

June 28 

B libber Reserve Company: Created by the 
Reconstruction Finance Corporation, pursuant 
to authority of section 5(d) of the Reconstruc- 
tion Finance Corporation Act, as amended, to 
purchase, warehouse, and distribute all crude 
rubber, guayule, cryptostegia, and balata im- 
ported into the United States, etc. {Maniuil, j). 
400.) 

Metals Reserve Com.pany: Created by the 
Reconstruction Finance Corporation, pursuant 
to authority of section 5(d) of the Reconstruc- 
tion Finance Corporation Act, as amended, "to 
produce, acquire, cari-y, and sell, or otherwise 
deal in, strategic and critical materials (pri- 
marily metals and minerals) necessary in con- 



nection with the War Program." {Manual, p. 
401.) 

June 29 

Division of Commercial Treaties and Agree- 
ments: Established by departmental order, 
effective July 1, 1940, in the Department of 
State to have "general charge of the formula- 
tion, negotiation, and administration of all com- 
meicial treaties and agreements having to do 
with the international commercial relations of 
the United States" and to "cooperate in the 
formulation of international commei'cial 
policy." {DSB, July 6, 1940, p. 16.) 

JtTLY 2 

Office of the Administrator of Export Con- 
trol: Established by military order to admin- 
ister section of the act of July 2, 1940. {DSB, 
July 6, 1940, p. 12.) The responsibilities and 
duties of the office were transferred to the Eco- 
nomic Defense Board by an Executive order of 
September 15. 1941. {Manned, p. 604.) 

August 16 

Office for Coordination of Commercial and 
Cidtural Relations Between the American Re- 
publics: Created by the Council of National 
Defense, with the approval of the President to 
insure proper cooi'dination of the activities of 
the Government with respect to hemisphere de- 
fense, with particular reference to the commer- 
cial and cultural aspects of the problem. 
{DSB, Aug. 24, 1940, p. 151.) Abolished by the 
Executive order of July 30, 1941 which created 
the Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American 
Affairs. {DSB, Aug. 2, 1941, pp. 94-95.) 

August 17 

Permanent Joint Board on Defense, United 
States and Canada: Established by President 
Roosevelt and Prime Minister King of Canada 
to make "studies relating to sea, land, and air 
problems including personnel and materieV 
and to "consider in the broad sense the defense 
of the north half of the AVesfern Hemisphere." 
{DSB, Aug. 24, 1940, p. 154; Jan. 16, 1943, 
pp. 77-78.) 



154 



DEPAETMENT OF STATE BtTLLETTN 



1941 
January 7 

Oifice of Production Management: Created 
by Executive order "to increase production for 
the national defense through mobilization of 
material resources and the industrial facilities 
of the nation". Among the duties assigned to 
the Office were to survey, analyze, and sum- 
marize the requirements of foreign govern- 
ments for materials, articles, and equipment 
needed for defense; to take all lawful steps 
to obtain an adequate supply of essential raw 
materials; and to determine when, to what ex- 
tent, and in what manner priorities shall be 
accorded to deliveries of material. {FR, Jan. 9, 
1941, p. 191.) The Office was abolished by an 
Executive order of January 24, 1942, and its 
functions and powers were transferred to the 
War Production Board. {Manual, p. 623.) 

Febexjart 7 

Committee for Coordination of Inter-Amer- 
ican Shipping: Created, with approval of 
President, to coordinate the shipping require- 
ments of the Central and South American 
trades with the supply of vessel tonnage under 
the jurisdiction of the Maritime Commission 
and with the needs of the military branches 
of the Government. {DSB, Feb. 8, 1941, pp. 
163-164.) 

March 11 

Lend-Lcase Act : Provided that "defense ar- 
ticles" could be furnished to the government of 
any country whose defense the President deemed 
vital to the defense of the United States. (Pub- 
lic Law 11, 77th Cong.) On March 11, 1943 the 
life of the act was extended for one year. ( Pub- 
lic Law 9, 78th Cong.) 

Mat 2 

Division of Defense Aid Reports: Estab- 
lished by Executive order in the Office for 
Emergency Management to provide a channel 
for clearance of transactions and repoi-ts and 
to coordinate the processing of requests for aid 
inider the Lend-Lease Act. Abolished by the 
Executive order of October 28, 1941 which 



mi 

created the Office of Lend-Lease Administration. 
{Manual, p. 613.) 

Mat 14 

Material Coordinating Committee, United 
States and Canada: Established (according to 
announcement of May 14, 1941 by the Office of 
Production Management) to make possible the 
free exchange of vital information between re- 
sponsible official? of the two Governments relat- 
ing to their supplies of strategic raw materials 
required for defense production. {DSB, Jan. 
16, 1943, p. 76.) 

June 17 

Joint Economic Committees, United States 
ind Canada: Established to explore "the pos- 
sibilities of (1) effecting a more economic, more 
efficient, and more coordinated utilization of the 
combined resources of the two countries in 
the production of defense requirements . . . 
and (2) reducing the probable post-war eco- 
nomic dislocation consequent upon the changes 
which the economy in each country is presently 
undergoing." {DSB, June 21, 1941, pp. 747- 
748 ; Jan. 16, 1943, pp. 74-75.) 

JULT 17 

Proclaimed List of Certain Bloched Na- 
tionals: Issuance of the first list of names of 
persons and firms denied the right to trade with 
residents of the United States because of pro- 
Axis ties, together with a presidential proclama- 
tion vesting in the Secretary of State the au- 
thority, in collaboration witli the Secretary of 
the Treasury, Attorney General, Secretary of 
Commerce, Administrator of Export Control, 
and Coordinator of Commercial and Cultural 
Relations Between the American Republics, to 
maintain the list. {DSB, July 19, 1941, pp. 
41-43.) 

Jult21 

Division of World Trade Intelligence: Es- 
tablished by departmental order in the Depart- 
ment of State "to handle the activities and prob- 
lems envisaged in the President's Proclamation 
of July 17, 1941, relating to trade with aliens 



FEBRUARY 5, 1944 



155 



mi 

whose interests are inimical to the United 
States." {DSB, July 26, 1941, p. 78.) 

July 30 

Office of the Coordinator of I nter- American 
Affairs: Established by Executive order in the 
OiEce for Emergency Management "to provide 
for the development of commercial and cultural 
relations between the American Kepublics", and 
authorized "to take over . . . any contracts 
heretofore entered into by the Office for Co- 
ordination of Commercial and Cultural Rela- 
tions Between the American Republics, estab- 
lished by order of the Council of National De- 
fense on August 16, 1940." {DSB, Aug. 2, 1941, 
pp. 94-95.) 

Comm-ittee on Inter-American Affairs: Es- 
tablished by Executive order in the Office of the 
Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs to "con- 
sider and correlate proposals with respect to the 
commercial, cultural, educational, and scien- 
tific aspects of Hemisphere defense relations." 
{DSB, Aug. 2, 1941, pp. 94^95.) 

Economic Defence Board: Established by 
Executive order to coordinate and develop 
"policies, plans, and programs designed to pro- 
tect and strengthen the international economic 
relations of the United States in the interest of 
national defense." {DSB, Aug. 2, 1941, pp. 97- 
98.) The name of the agency was changed to 
Board of Economic Warfare by an Executive 
order of December 17, 1941. {Manual, pp. 132- 
135.) The Board of Economic Warfare was 
abolished by an Executive order of July 15, 
1943, and its powers, functions, and duties were 
transferred to the Office of Economic Warfare. 
{DSB, July 17, 1943, p. 32.) The Office of 
Economic Warfare was transferred by Execu- 
tive order to the Foreign Economic Administra- 
tion on September 25, 1943. {DSB, Sept. 25, 
1943, pp. 205-206.) 

Attgust 28 

Supply Priorities and Allocations Board: 
Established by Executive order in the Office for 
Emergency Management to secure unity of pol- 



Wil 
icy and coordinated consideration of all relevant 
factors involved in the supply and allocation of 
materials and commodities among various 
phases of the defense program and competing 
civilian demands. Abolished by an Executive 
order of January 16, 1942, which transferred 
its powers and functions to the War Production 
Board. {Manval, p. 629.) 

OCTOBEK 7 

Board of EconoTnic Operations : Established 
by departmental order, effective October 8, in 
the Department of State "to carry out the De- 
partment's functions in connection with the 
economic defense of the United States ... to 
assist in formulating policies and to coordinate 
the activities of the various divisions of which 
the Board is composed." {DSB, Oct. 11, 1941, 
pp. 278-279.) Abolished by departmental or- 
der on June 24, 1943. {DSB, June 26, 1943, 
p. 579.) 

Division of Com,mercidl Policy and Agree- 
ments: Established by departmental order, 
effective October 8, in the Department of State 
"to have general charge of the formulation, ne- 
gotiation and administration of all commercial 
treaties and agreements having to do with the 
international commercial relations of the 
United States, as well as matters of tariff, gen- 
eral trade and other questions relating to the 
international commercial policy of the United 
States." This division absorbed the Division 
of Commercial Treaties and Agreements, which 
was established on July 1, 1940. {DSB, Oct. 11, 
1941, p. 279.) 

Division of Exports and Defense Aid: Estab- 
lished by departmental order, effective October 
8, in the Department of State to "have responsi- 
bility for all matters of foreign policy involved 
in the administration of the Act of July 2, 1940, 
(the Export Control Act) , the Act of March 11, 
1941, (the Lend-Lease Act), the Acts of June 28, 
1940 and May 31, 1941, (in so far as priorities or 
allocations for expoi't are concerned), and for 
the administration of Sec. 12 of the Act of No- 
vember 4, 1939, (the Neutrality Act) , the Act of 



156 



DEPARtME'NT OF STATE BULLETIN' 



19U 
September 1, 1937, (the Helium Act), and the 
Act of February 15, 1936, (the Tin Plate Scrap 
Act)." (Z>^5, Oct. 11, 1911, pp. 279-280.) This 
division was abolished by departmental order 
on June 18, 1942, and its duties were trans- 
ferred to the Division of Commercial Affairs, 
Division of Defense Materials, and Division of 
Commercial Policy and Agreements. {DSB, 
June20, 1942, p. 556.) 

Division of Defense Materiah: Established by 
departmental order, effective October 8, in the 
Department of State to "have responsibility in 
the formulation and execution of policies in 
the field of defense materials". {DSB, Oct. 11, 
1941, p. i;80.) Abolished by departmental order 
on August 27, 1943. {DSB, Aug. 28, 1943, pp. 
142-143.) 

Division of Studies and Statisiics: Estab- 
lished by departmental order, effectiA^e October 
8, in the Department of State to "have respon- 
sibility . . . for the preparation of current 
studies, analyses and statistical data needed 
in connection with matters arising before the 
Board of Economic Operations or as may be 
required by any of the Divisions of which it is 
composed in connection with policy considera- 
tions and national defense activities." {DSB, 
Oct. 11, 1941, p. 280.) This division was abol- 
ished by departmental order on June 18, 1942, 
and its duties were transferred to the Division 
of Commercial Policy and Agreements. {DSB, 
June 20, 1942, p. 556.) 

Foreign Funds and Fincmcial Division: Es- 
tablished by departmental order, effective Octo- 
ber 8, in the Department of State to "have re- 
sponsibility in all matters of foreign policy in 
foreign funds control and other financial mat- 
ters". {DSB, Oct. 11, 1941, pp. 280-281.) On 
November 24, 1941, the departmental order es- 
tablishing this division was revoked, and there 
were established the Financial Division and the 
Foreign Funds Control Division. The Finan- 
cial Division was given "responsibility in all 
matters of foreign policy in financial matters 



19^1 
other than foreign funds control". The For- 
eign Funds Control Division was given "re- 
sponsibility in all matters of foreign policy in 
foreign funds control matters". {DSB, Nov. 
29, 1941, p. 441.) The Foreign Funds Control 
Division was abolished by departmental order 
on August 27, 1943, and its functions were trans- 
ferred to the Division of World Trade Intelli- 
gence, Diviison of Blockade and Supply, Deputy 
Director of the Office of Foreign Economic Co- 
oi'dination, and Financial Division. {DSB, 
Aug. 28, 1943, pp. 143-144.) 

October 9 

Caribbean Offi.cc: Established by depart- 
mental order in the Department of State to en- 
courage and strengthen social and economic co- 
operation between the United States and its pos- 
sessions and bases in the Caribbean, and other 
countries, colonies, and possessions in tlie area. 
{DSB, Oct. 11, 1941, pp. 281-282.) 

October 28 

Office of Lend-Lease Administration: Estab- 
lished by Executive order in the Office for Emer- 
gency Management, "to exercise any power or 
authority conferred upon the President by the 
[Lend-Lease] act and by the Defense Aid Sup- 
plemental Appropriation Act, 1941, and any 
acts amendatory or suijplemental thereto, with 
respect to any nation whose defense the Presi 
dent shall have found to be vital to the defense 
of the United States." This order revoked tlie 
Executive order of May 2, 1941 establishing the 
Division of Defense Aid Reports ; provided that 
master lend-lease agreements should be negoti- 
ated by the Department of State, with the advice 
of the Economic Defense Board and the Office 
of Lend-Lease Achninistration ; and directed 
tlie Lend-Lease Administration to make "appro- 
priate arrangements with the Economic Defense 
Board for the review and clearance of lend-lease 
transactions". {DSB, Nov. 1, 1941, p. 344.) 
The Office was transferred by Executive order 
to the Foreign Economic Administration on 
September 25, 1943. {DSB, Sept. 25, 1943, pp. 
205-206.) 



FEBRUARY 5, 194 4 



157 



19^1 
November 5 

Joint War Production Coinmittee, United 
States and Canada: The Committee was first 
set up as the "Joint Defense Production Com- 
mittee" by the President of tlie United States 
and the Prime Minister of Canada (announced 
Nov. 5, 1941) pursuant to a recommendation of 
the Joint Economic Committees, United States 
and Canada, of September 19, 1941. The Com- 
mittee was to' coordinate the capacities of the 
two countries for tlie production of defense 
mafer-icJ. {DSB. Nov. 8, 1941, pp. 360-361 ; Jan. 
16, 1943, pp. 75-76.) 

November 14 

Iiiter-Amei'ican Maritime Technical Com- 
mi'^sion: Resolution of the Inter-American 
Financial and Economic Advisory Committee 
recommended tlic organization of this Commis- 
sion to formulate plans for the efficient use of 
all the merchant vessels of the American repub- 
lics available for service between the American 
republics and to reconnnend to the maritime 
•authorities the allocation of such vessels to 
particular routes or to the carrying of articles 
of a specific nature. {DSB, Jan. 16, 1943, p. 
73.) 

November 24 

Financial Division and Foreign Funds Con- 
trol Division: Established in the Department 
of State. (See October 7, 1941, ante.) 

December 17 i 

Board of Economic Warfare: An Executive 
order changed the name of the Economic De- 
fense Board to the Board of Economic Warfare. 
(See July 30, 1941, ante.) 

January 16 

War Production Board: Established by Ex- 
ecutive order in the Office for Emergency Man- 
agement to "Exercise general direction over the 
war procurement and production program". 
The Board took over the functions and powers 
of the Supply Prioi'ities and Allocations Board, 
which was abolished, and also took over the 



1942 
supervision of the Office of Production Man- 
agement. On January 24 the Office of Produc- 
tion Management was abolished by Executive 
order, and its functions and powers were trans- 
ferred to the War Production Board. {Manual-., 
pp. 112-125.) 

January 26 

Combined Ratw Materials Board: Announce- 
ment of establishment by the President and 
Prime Minister Churchill to "plan the best and 
speediest development, expansion and use of 
the raw material resources, under the juri.sdic- 
tion or control of the two Governments," and, 
in collaboration with others of the United Na- 
tions, to "woi'k toward the best utilization of 
their raw material resources". {DSB, Jan. 31, 
1912, p. 87; Jan. 16, 1943, p. 68.) 

Munitions Assignments Board: Announce- 
ment of establishment by the President and 
Prime Minister Churchill stating: "Commit- 
tees will be formed in Washington and London 
under the Combined Chiefs of Staff" to "ad- 
vise on all [munitions] assignments both in 
quantity and priority, whether to Great Britain 
and the United States or other of the United 
Nations, in accordance with strategic needs." 
{DSB, Jan. 31, 1942, pp. 87-88; Jan. 16, 1943, 
p. 77.) 

Combined Shipping Adjustment Board: An- 
nouncement of establishment by the President 
and Prime Minister Churchill "to adjust and 
concert in one harmonious policy the work of 
the British Ministry of War Transport and 
the shipping authorities of the United States 
Government". An Executive order of February 
7, 1942 established a War Shipping Administra- 
tion in the Office for Emergency Management, 
which comprises the American section of the 
Combined Shipping Adjustment Board. {DSB, 
Jan. 31, 1942, p. 88 ; Jan. 16, 1943, p. 69.) 

February 20 

American Hemisphere Exports Office: Es- 
tablished by departmental order to have author- 
ity over "all matters of foreign policy involving 
the administration of the Export Control Act 



158 



DEPARTMENT OF iSTATE BXJLLETENl 



relating to countries of the American hemi- 
sphere". The office was abolished by depart- 
mental order on February 1, 1943. {DSB, Feb. 
6, 1943, p. 138.) 

Februakt 23 

Mutual-Aid Agreement With Great Britain: 
This was the first "master" agreement to be con- 
cluded under the provisions of the Lend-Lease 
Act of March 11, 1941. {DSB, Feb. 28, 1942, 
pp. 190-192.) 

March 9 

Anglo- Am^ricam, Carihhean Commission: A 
joint communique released simultaneously in 
Washington and London announced the crea- 
tion of the commission "for the purpose of en- 
couraging and strengthening social and eco- 
nomic cooperation between the United States of 
America and its possessions and bases in the 
. . . Caribbean, and the United Kingdom and 
British colonies in the same area". {DSB, Mar. 
14, 1942, pp. 22«-230; Jan. 16, 1943, p. 66.) 

June 9 

Combined Food Board: Creation was an- 
nounced by the President on June 9, 1942 and 
was established by the President and Prime 
Minister Churchill to obtain "a planned and ex- 
peditious utilization of the food resources of the 
United Nations". {DSB, June 13, 1942, pp. 
535-536; Jan. 16, 1943, p. 67.) 

Conibined Production and Resources Board: 
Announcement of establishment by the Presi- 
dent and Prime Minister Churchill "in order 
to complete the organization needed for the 
most effective use of the combined resources 
of the United States and the United Kingdom 
for the prosecution of the war". On November 
10, 1942 Canada became a full member of the 
board. {DSB, June 13, 1942, pp. 535-536 ; Jan. 
16, 1943, pp. 67-68.) 

June 18 

Divisions of Exports and Defense Aid and 
of Studies and Statistics of the Department of 
State abolished by departmental order. (See 
October 7, 1941, ante.) 



July 24 

^Yar Relief Control Board: The President's 
Committee on War Relief Agencies, appointed 
on March 13, 1941, was continued and estab- 
lished by Executive order as the President's 
War Relief Control Board. It was authorized 
and empowered to control charities for ( 1 ) for- 
eign and domestic relief arising from war-cre- 
ated needs, (2) refugee relief, (3) the relief of 
the civilian population of the United States 
affected by enemy action, and (4) the relief 
and welfare of the armed forces of the United 
States and their dependents. {DSB, Aug. 1, 
1942, pp. 658-659.) 

November 21 

Office of Foreign Relief and Rehabilitation 
Operations : Governor Lehman was appointed 
director by the Secretary of State on December 
4, 1942. (See publication entitled The Office 
of Foreign Relief and Rehabilitation Opera- 
tions, Department of State, p. 3.) 

November 25 

Office of Foreign Temtories: Established by 
departmental order in the Department of State 
to have "responsibility for dealing with all non- 
military matters arising as a result of the mili- 
tary occupation of territories in Europe and 
North Africa by the armed forces of the United 
Nations and affecting the interests of the United 
States". {DSB, Nov. 28, 1942, p. 971.) Abol- 
ished by departmental order on June 24, 1943. 
{DSB, June 26, 1943, p. 579.) 



WltS 
January 14 

Division of Economic Studies: Established 
by departmental order, effective January 1, 1943, 
in the Department of State to "have responsi- 
bility for the conduct of continuing and special 
research and for the preparation of studies re- 
quired in the formulation of policies and the 
planning of integrated programs as a basis for 
action in the field of foreign economic relations 
affecting the interests of the United States". 
{DSB, Jan. 16, 1943, pp. 63-64.) 



FEBRUARY 5, 1944 



159 



1H3 
February 1 

Division of Exports and Requirements: Es- 
tablished bj' deiDartmental ordei- in the Depart- 
ment of State to "have responsibility for all jnat- 
ters of foreign policy involved in the adminis- 
tration of the Act of July 2, 1940, as amended 
(the Export Control Act) , the Act of March 11, 
1941 (the Lend-Lease Act), except the negotia- 
tion of master lend-lease agreements and the ap- 
plication of Article VII thereof under said Act, 
the Acts of June 28, 1940, and May 31, 1941 (in 
so far as priorities and/or allocations for export 
are concerned) ..." (Z?>S^, Feb. 6, 1943, p. 
138.) 

February 1 

American Hemisphere Exports Office of De- 
partment of State abolished by departmental 
order. (See February 20, 1942, anie.) 

April 6 

Post-War International Monetary Stabiliza- 
tion Plan: Treasury Department made public 
a provisional outline of a plan (the White plan) 
for post-war international monetary stabiliza- 
tion. (Federal Reserve Bulletin, June, pp. 
501-521.) 

May 18 - June 3 

United Nations Conference on Food and Agri- 
culture: Met in Hot Springs, Virginia, to pro- 
vide an opportunity for an exchange of views 
and information concerning post-war produc- 
tion of food and food requirements of the vari- 
ous United Nations with a view toward coordi- 
nating and stimulating by international action 
national policies for the economical and coordi- 
nated provision of adequate nutrition for the 
people qf each country. A detailed Final Act 
was published containing recommendations and 
resolutions. {DSB, June 12, 1943, pp. 518-520; 
June 19, pp. 546-572.) 

May 25 

Mexican-United States Com,mission of Ex- 
perts To Formulate a Program for Economic 
Cooperation Between the Two Governments: 
Held first meeting on May 25 in Washington. 



19^3 
The Commission was established in accordance 
with the announcement of April 29 of the agree- 
ment reached by President Roosevelt and Pres- 
ident Avila Camacho to have expert economists 
study the disturbances in the balance of inter- 
national payments and the related economic sit- 
uation of the Republic of Mexico under the war 
economy. {DSB, May 1, 1943, p. 376; May 22, 
1943, p. 457 ; May 29, 1943, p. 473.) 

May 27 

Office of War Mobilization: Created by Ex- 
ecutive order in order, with advice of a War 
Mobilization Committee and subject to direction 
and control of the President, to (1) develop uni- 
fied programs and establish policies for the max- 
imum use of the Nation's resources and man- 
power, and (2) unify and harmonize Govern- 
ment activities concerned with the production 
and distribution of. military or civilian goods. 
(Z^^, June 1, 1943, p. 7207.) On July 15, 1943 
the agency was given the authority to arrange 
for the uiiification of the activities of the Gov- 
ernment relating to foreign economic matters. 
{FR, July 17, 1943, pp. 9861-9862.) 

June 3 

Plan for Coordinating the Economic Activi- 
ties of United States Civilian Agencies in Lib- 
erated Areas: The plan was sent by the Presi- 
dent to the Secretary of State who was re- 
quested to "unify our foreign economic activities 
to the end tliat coherent and consistent policies 
and programs result" and who was informed 
that "the Department of State should provide 
the necessary coordination, here and in the field, 
of our economic operations with respect to lib- 
erated areas." On June 24, 1943 there was 
established by departmental order in the De- 
partment of State an Office of Foreign Economic 
Coordination to "have responsibility, so far as 
the Department is concerned, for the coordina- 
tion of (1) activities related to economic af- 
fairs in liberated areas and the facilitation of 
military-civilian cooperation in regard thereto; 
and of (2) the foreign policy aspects of war- 
time economic controls and operations." (DSB, 



160 



DEPABTMEOMT OF STATE BULLETENl 



1943 

June 26, 1943, pp. 575-579.) The office was 
abolished by departmental order on November 
6, 1943. {DSB, Nov. 13, 1943, pp. 333-334.) 

June 10 

Draft Agreement for United Nations Relief 
and Rehabilitation AdTninistration: The De- 
partment of State (according to an announce- 
ment of June 11, 1943) submitted the draft 
agreement to the governments of all the United 
Nations and the other nations associated with 
them in the war. {DSB, June 12, 1943, pp. 523- 
527.) On September 24, 1943, it was amiounced 
that a revised test of the agi'eement, as of 
September 20, 1943, had been placed before all 
the governments concerned. {DSB, Sept. 25, 
1943, pp. 211-216.) 

June 24 

Offlce of Foreign Economic Coordination: 
Established by departmental order in the De- 
partment of State. (See June 3, 1943, ante.) 

Office of Foreign Territories of Department 
of State abolished by departmental order. (See 
November 25, 1942, ante.) 

Board of Economic Operations of the De- 
partment of State abolished by departmental 
order. (See October 7, 1941, ante.) 

July 15 

Office of Economic Warfare : Established by 
Executive order and given all the powers, func- 
tions, and duties of the Board of Economic War- 
fare, which was abolished (see July 30 and De- 
cember 17, 1941, ante). All subsidiaries of the 
Reconstruction Finance Corporation which 
were engaged in financing foreign purchases 
and imports were transferred to the new Office 
of Economic Warfare. {DSB, July 17, 1943, 
p. 32.) The Office was transferred to the For- 
eign Economic Administration by Executive or- 
der on September 25, 1943. {DSB, Sept. 25, 
1943, pp. 205-206.) 



1943 
August 27 

War Commodities Division: Established by 
departmental order in the Office of Foreign Eco- 
nomic Coordination of the Department of State 
to be responsible for "all matters of foreign pol- 
icy involved in the procurement abroad of mate- 
rials and products needed in the prosecution of 
the war or for purposes of relief and rehabilita- 
tion". {DSB, Aug. 28, 1943, pp. 142-143.) 

Blockade and Supply Division: Established 
by departmental order in the Office of Foreign 
Economic Coordination of the Department of 
State to be responsible for (1) the formulation 
and execution of programs relating to the eco- 
nomic blockade of enemy and enemy-occupied 
territories, programs for import requirements of 
all areas within the Eastern Hemisphere, and 
procurement programs for all areas within the 
Eastern Hemisphere, and (2) the conduct of 
preclusive purchasing operations in all areas 
throughout the world. {DSB, Aug. 28, 1943, pp. 
142-143.) 

Foreign Funds Control Division of the De- 
partment of State abolished by departmental 
order. (See October 7, 1941, ante.) 

Division of Defence Materials of the Depart- 
ment of State abolished by departmental order. 
(See October 7, 1941, ante.) 

September 25 

Foreign Economic Administration: Estab- 
lished by Executive order in the Office for 
Emergency Management to centralize the ac- 
tivities formerly carried on by the Offices of 
Lend-Lease Administration, Foreign Relief and 
Rehabilitation Operations, Economic Warfare, 
and Foreign Economic Coordination ("except 
functions and personnel thereof as the Director 
of the Budget shall determine are not concerned 
with foreign economic operations"). {DSB, 
Sept. 25, 1943, pp. 205-206.) 

November 6 

Office of Foreign Economic Coordination of 
Department of State abolished by departmental 



FEBBU.\RY 5, 1944 



161 



1943 
order; appointment of four groups of advisers 
to be "concerned, respectively, with the foreign 
policy aspects of matters relating to the alloca- 
tion of supplies, of wartime economic activities 
in liberated areas, of wartime economic activ- 
ities in eastern hemisphere countries other than 
liberated areas, and of wartime economic activ- 
ities in the other American republics." {DSB, 
Nov. 13, 1943, pp. 333-334.) 

November 9 

Signature of Agreement for United Nations 
Relief and BehnhiJifation Administration. 
(DSB, Nov. 13, 1943, pp. 317-319, 335-336.) 



Treaty Information 



WATER UTILIZATION 

Treaty With Mexico Relating to the Utilization 
of Waters of the Colorado and Tijuana 
Rivers and of the Rio Grande 

[Released to the press February 4] 

Following negotiations lasting several months 
a treaty between the United States and Mexico 
relating to the conservation, distribution, and 
use of the available water supply of the Rio 
Grande below Fort Quitman, Texas, and of the 
Colorado and Tijuana Rivers was signed in 
Washington on Thursday, February 3, 1944. 
The treaty was signed for the United States by 
the Hon. Cbrdell Hull, Secretary of State, the 
Hon. George S. Messersmith, American Ambas- 
sador to Mexico, and the Hon. Lawrence M. 
Lawson, United States Commissioner on the 
International Boundary Commission, United 
States and Mexico ; and for Mexico by His Ex- 
cellency Seiior Dr. Don Francisco Castillo Na- 
jera, Mexican Ambassador in Washington, and 
the Hon. Senor Rafael Fernandez MacGregor, 
Mexican Commissioner on the International 
Boundary Commission, United States and Mex- 
ico. 

The signature of this treaty marks a step of 
epic importance in the practical application of 



the policy of the good neighbor. The adjust- 
ment of their international water problems had 
defied settlement for many years. Recently, 
having agreed that a solution of this long- 
standing problem would be to their mutual ad- 
vantage, the two Governments renewed negoti- 
ations in the spirit of arriving at an equitable 
and fair settlement in the national interest of 
both countries. These discussions, which were 
carried on in the most friendly spirit, reached 
their culmination m the treaty signed February 
3 — an outstanding example of what can be at- 
tained when two countries decide to resolve their 
differences, however difficult, on the basis of what 
is to the best advantage of all concerned. 

It is provided in the treaty that it shall enter 
into force on the day of the exchange of ratifica- 
tions. From such time as the treaty may enter 
into force, the International Boundary Com- 
mission shall be known as the "International 
Boundary and Water Commission, United 
States and Mexico". 

The question of the conservation and equita- 
ble distribution of the waters of the Colorado 
River and the Rio Grande has been one of long 
standing between the United States and Mexico. 
In both countries the development of towns, 
cities, and agricultural areas along their com- 
mon boundary has been possible only because of 
the availability of water from these streams. 
On the other hand, this rapid expansion of com- 
munities, as well as of irrigated crop-producing 
areas, has resulted in greatly increased demands 
upon the water supply and has thus emphasized 
during recent years the necessity for an inter- 
national agreement covering these rivers. 

The metropolitan districts of southern Cali- 
fornia, with their greatly increased population 
and attendant industrial growth as well as the 
large, developed agricultural area in the north- 
ern part of Baja California, Mexico, are all 
dependent upon the availability and control of 
the waters of the Colorado River. 

On this river large storage dams and other 
facilities, including flood-protection works, al- 
ready provide for the conservation for bene- 
ficial use of, and protection against, flood waters 
which formerly caused extensive damage. By 



162 



DEPABTME'NT OF STATE BULLETIN! 



the terms of the treaty signed February 3 the 
two Governments will undertake the construc- 
tion of additional facilities and works in order 
to bring the Colorado River under still better 
control for the benefit of agricultural, munici- 
pal, and industrial uses. 

The Eio Grande Valley below El Paso, Texas, 
with over one-half million acres of intensively 
developed lands in cultivation and a rapidly 
increasing agricultural area in Mexico, together 
with a number of important towns and cities 
in both countries, primarily depend upon the 
limitrophe reach of the Rio Grande for their 
water supply. Precipitation alone in these areas 
is insufficient to sustain either inhabitants or 
crop production, and the demands for water 
in both countries have now become so great 
as to make inadequate the natural flow of the 
river. 

In view of the present and probable future 
water requirements along the limitrophe reach 
of the Rio Grande, the two Governments, under 
the terms of the present treaty, will construct 
and operate large conservation, storage, and 
flood-protection works on this river between 
Fort Quitman, Texas, and the Gulf of Mexico. 
Furthei'more, they will explore the possibilities 
of power generation at international hydro- 
electric plants. 

This treaty provides for urgently needed 
works and facilities and for improvements to 
those now existing; for the conservation, con- 
trol, and use of the available water supply of 
the Colorado and Tijuana Rivers, and of the 
Rio Grande below Fort Quitman, Texas; and 
for the equitable apportionment of such water 
supply, thereby not only confirming present 
beneficial water uses but also assuring addi- 
tional developments in both countries. 

AGRICULTURE 

Convention on the Inter-American Institute 
of Agricultural Sciences 

Cuba; Ecuador 

With a letter dated January 27, 1944 the Di- 
rector General of the Pan American Union 
transmitted to the Secretary of State certified 



copies of the Convention on the Inter- American 
Institute of Agricultural Sciences, which was 
opened for signature at the Pan American 
Union on January 15, 1944, with the signatures 
affixed thereto up to the date of that communi- 
cation. According to the certified copies, the 
convention was signed on January 20, 1944 for 
Cuba and Ecuador. 

The convention was signed for the United 
States of America, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and 
Panama on January 15, 1944, the date on which 
it was opened for signature. 

AUTOMOTIVE 

Convention on the Regulation of Inter- 
American Automotive Traffic 

Costa Rica I 

By a letter dated January 25, 1944 the Di- 
rector General of the Pan American Union in- 
formed the Secretary of State that on January 
20, 1944 His Excellency the Ambassador of 
Costa Rica in the United States, Senor Don 
Carlos Manuel Escalante, signed in the name 
of his Government, the Convention on the Reg- 
ulation of Inter-American Automotive Traffic, 
which was deposited with the Pan American 
Union and opened for signature by the govern- 
ments members of the Union, on December 15, 
1943. 

The convention was signed on December 15, 
1943 for Bolivia, Brazil, Cuba, Dominican Re- 
public, Ecuador, Guatemala, Haiti, Nicaragua, 
and Peru, and on December 31, 1943 for the 
United States, subject to a reservation with re- 
spect to article XV. 



TELECOMMUNICATIONS 

Inter-American Kadiocommunications Con- 
vention and North American Regional 
Broadcasting Agreement ^ 

Bahamas 

By a communication dated January 18, 1944 
the Director of the Inter- American Radio Office, 
Sehor Perez Gohi y Valles, informed the Sec- 
retary of State that the British Minister at 

' See BuiXETiN of June 5, 1943, p. 503. 



FEBRUARY 5, 194 4 



163 



Habana by note of December 24, 1943 notified 
the Government of Cuba of the adherence by 
the Bahamas to the Inter- American Radiocom- 
munications Convention and to the North Amer- 
ican Regional Broadcasting Agreement, both of 
whicli were signed at Habana on December 13, 
1937. Tlie notification was received by tlie 
Cuban Ministry of State on December 30, 1943, 
and the Department of State has, therefore, 
noted this date as the date of tlie Bahamian 
adherence to the convention and agreement. 

The countries in respect of which the Inter- 
American Radiocommunications Convention is 
now in force as the result of the deposit of their 
respective ratifications or notifications of adher- 
ence are the United States of America, Bahamas, 
Brazil, Canada, Cuba, Dominican Republic, 
Haiti, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay (provision- 
ally), and Peru. 

The countries in respect of which the North 
American Regional Broadcasting Agreement is 
now in force as the result of the deposit of their 
respective ratifications or notifications of adher- 
ence are tlie United States of America, Ba- 
hamas, Canada, Cuba, Dominican Republic, 
Haiti, Mexico, and Newfoundland. 



Publications 



Depaktment of State 

Health and Sanitation Program : Agreement Between 
the United States of America and Venezuela — Effected 
by exchange of notes signed at Caracas February 18, 
1943. Executive Agreement Series 348. Publication 
2048. 8 pp. 5^. 

Other Agencies 

Important Economic and Military Events, With Index 
[2d quarter of 1943, arranged in chronological 
order]. Nov. 1943. (Department of Labor, Bu- 



reau of Labor Statistics.) ii, 21 pp., processed. 
Available from Bureau of Labor Statistics. 
Wartime Labor Conditions in India, by Rajani Kanta 
Das. 1943. (Department of Labor, Bureau of 
Labor Statistics.) ii, 28 pp. 10^ (available from 
the Siyjerintendeut of Documents, Government 
Printing Oflice). 
Labor Conditions in Fascist Italy. 1943. (Depart- 
ment of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.) 1, 21 
pp. Available from Bureau of Labor Statistics. 
Labor Conditions in Latin America. 1943. (Depart- 
ment of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.) ii, 
21 pp. (Latin American Series 15.) Available 
from Bureau of Labor Statistics. 
Selected List of References [bibliographies on various 
countries issued by the Library of Congress in 
1943 and available from that organization, free 
to institutions only] : 
Albania, iii, 24 pp., processed. 
Tlie Balkans, vi, 73 pp., processed. 
Bulgaria, iii, 34 pp., pi-ocessed. 
Rumania, iv, 70 pp., processed. 
Yugoslavia, v, 03 pp., processed. 



Legislation 



Independent Offices Appropriation Bill for 1945 : Hear- 
ings Before the Subcommittee of the Committee on 
Appropriations, House of Representatives, 78th Cong., 
2d se.ss. [Statements of Assistant Secretary Shaw 
and Monnett B. Davis, of the Department of State, 
regarding Foreign Service pay adjustment, pp. 13-19; 
statement of Thomas H. MacDonald, of the Public 
Roads Administration, regarding the Inter-American 
Highway, pp. 905-908.] ii, 1299 pp. 

Amending the Organic Act of Puerto Rico. S. Rept. 659, 
78th Cong., on S. 1407 [favorable report]. 12 pp. 

Japanese Atrocities to Prisoners of War : Joint press re- 
lease of the War and Navy Departments containing 
stories of Japanese atrocities and brutalities to the 
American and Philippine armed forces who were pris- 
oners of war in the Philippine Islands. H. Doc. 393, 
78th Cong, ii, 8 pp. 

Providing for Loss of United States Nationality Under 
Certain Circumstances. H. Rept. 1075, 78th Cong., on 
H. R. 4103 [favorable report]. 4 pp. 



0. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE; 1944 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. GoTernment Printing Office, Washington, D. C. 
Price, 10 cents - - - - Subscription price, $2,75 a year 

PUBLISHED WEEKLY WITH THE APPROVAL OP THE DIRECTOR OF THE BUREAU OF THE BUDGET 



H ^i> ?. / Hl>o 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



.B U jL 



u 



-i 



1 r 



1 




c 



FEBRUARY 12, 1944 
Vol. X, No. 242— Publication 2068 



ontents 




The War Page 

Transfer of a Warship to the Na\^ of France : Remarks 

by the President 1G7 

Japanese Atrocities: United States Representations of 

January 27, 1944 to Japan 168 

Modern Force and International Policy: Address by 

Assistant Secretary Berle 176 

Finnish Position m the War 179 

Exchange of American and German Nationals .... 180 
The Proclaimed List: Cumulative Supplement 5 to 

Revision VI 180 

The Far East 

Immigration Quota for Cliinese 180 

The American Republics 

Trade Relations With Chile 180 

Centennial Celebration of the Independence of the 

Dominican Republic 180 

The Foreign Service 

Embassy Rank for. Representation Between, the United 

States and Iran 181 

Reports Regarding Economic Developments Abroad . 181 

The Department 

Division of Coordination and Review 184 

Appointment of Officers 184 

Treaty Information 

Armed Forces: Agreement With Colombia Regarding 
Military Service by Nationals of Either Country 
Residing in the Other 184 

Legislation 186 

Publications 186 



iJ. S, SUPERINTEMDENT > 



The War 



TRANSFER OF A WARSHIP TO THE NAVY OF FRANCE 

Remarks by the President ^ 



[Released to the press by the White House February 12] 

On behalf of the American people I transfer 
to the Navy of France this warship — built by 
American hands in an American navy yard. 
This is one of a long line of events symbolizing 
the ancient friendship between France and the 
United States. It emphasizes the determina- 
tion of this nation, and of all the United 
Nations, to drive from the soil of France the 
Nazi invaders who today swagger down the 
Champs filysees in Paris. This one transfer 
under the lend-lease law is typical of the thou- 
sands of transfers of American-made weapons 
of war which have been made to our fighting 
allies. They are bringing closer the day of 
inevitable victory over our enemies on all the 
fronts all over the world. 

No day could be more appropriate for this 
ceremony than the anniversary we now cele- 
brate of the birth of that illustrious American 
who, in his time, struck such mighty blows for 
the liberty and dignity of the human race- 
Abraham Lincoln. 

In 1940 the Nazi invaders overran France. 
Although we were still on the sidelines, we in 
the United States realized the horror of that 
catastrophe — and the grave menace it carried 
to all the civilized world. 

The land of France fell to the enemy, but not 
so the ships of France. Today her fleet still 
proudly flies the tricolor in battle against our 
common enemy. At Nettuno and Anzio, 
French ships were among those which bom- 
barded the German coastal installations. In a 
strategic sector of the Allied line now pushing 



toward Kome are French troops. The Nazis on 
the Italian front know only too well that France 
is not out of this war. 

And the time will soon come when the Nazis 
in France will learn from millions of brave 
Frenchmen — now underground — that the peo- 
ple of France, also, are not all out of this war. 

In a sense this transaction today can be re- 
garded not only as lend-lease — it might even be 
regarded as reverse lend-lease. For in the 
early days of our national history this situation 
was reversed. At that time, instead of France 
receiving an American-made ship, the young 
nation of the United States was glad to receive 
a ship made in France by Frenchmen — the Bon- 
homtne Richard — a ship made illustrious under 
the command of John Paul Jones, in the days of 
our Navy's infancy. And it is well to remem- 
ber that that ship was named in honor of our 
Minister to France, Benjamin Franklin — that 
wise old philosopher who was the father of 
close friendship between France and the United 
States. 

This vessel, which today we are turning over 
to the people of France, will somewhere, some- 
time, engage the enemy. She is a part of the 
growing strength of the French Navy. She is 
a new class — a destroyer escort — speedy and 
dangerous. I want to tell you something else 
about her — there are more where she came from. 
Under our lend-lease agreement, she is not the 
only ship you will receive from us — we are 
building others for your sailors to man. 

" Delivered at the Washington Navy Yard, Washing- 
ton, D. C, Feb. 12, 1944. 

167 



168 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETTNI 



I hope that the Nazis and the Japs are listen- 
ing today as we make this transfer. For it will 
help them better to understand the spirit and 
determination which binds together all of the 
fighting fleets and armies of the United Nations 
on the road to ultimate victory. 

Vice Admiral Fenard, you are the senior of- 
ficer of the French Navy here, and you are the 
chief of the French Naval Mission. It lias been 
your duty to work with us in outfitting your 



fleet. My years of friendship with officers of 
the French Navy make this a particularly mem- 
orable occasion to me, personally. To you, we 
turn over this ship — the Senegalais. We recall 
with pleasure that it was a French ship which 
fired the first salute ever rendered to the Stars 
and Stripes flying from a United States man- 
of-war. We remember that salute today — and 
symbolically return it. 

Good luck, Senegalais — and good hunting. 



JAPANESE ATROCITIES 

United States Representations of January 27, 1944 to Japan 



[Released to the press February 11] 

Published below are tlie texts of two tele- 
grams sent to the American Legation in Bern 
for communication to the Japanese Govern- 
ment through the Swiss Government repre- 
senting the interests of the United States in 
Japan. In these communications the Govern- 
ment of the United States again made compre- 
hensive representations to the Japanese Gov- 
ernment concerning abuses and neglect to 
which American nationals in Japanese custody 
had been subjected and called for amelioration 
of the treatment accorded them. 

January 27, 1944. 

Please request Swiss Legation Tokyo to 
deliver the following textually to the Japanese 
Government : 

The Government of the United States refers 
to its communication delivered to the Japanese 
Government on December 23, 1942 by the Swiss 
Legation in Tokyo in charge of American in- 
terests in Japan and Japanese-occupied terri- 
tory concerning repoi'ts that the Government 
of the United States had received of the mis- 
treatment of American nationals in Japanese 
hands. The Swiss Legation in Tokyo on May 
28, 1943 forwarded to the Government of the 
United States a preliminary reply from the 
Japanese Government to this connnunication 
in which that Government stated that it would 
communicate in due course the results of in- 
vestigations concerning each instance referred 



to in the note of the Government of the 
United States. No reports of investigations 
regarding these instances have yet been re- 
ceived. 

The Government of the United States has 
taken due note of the statements of the Japan- 
ese Government "concerning the special cir- 
cumstances prevailing in areas which have 
until recently been fields of battle" and con- 
cerning "the manifold difficulties which exist 
in areas occupied by the Japanese forces or 
where military operations are still being car- 
ried on". The Government of the United 
States points out, however, that the regions 
in which Americans have been taken prisoner 
or interned have long ceased to be scenes of 
active military oj^erations and that the Japan- 
ese holding authorities have therefore had 
ample opportunity to establish an orderly and 
humane internment program in accordance 
with their Government's undertakings. De- 
spite this fact the Government of the United 
States continues to receive reports that the 
great proportion of American nationals are 
tlie victims either of inhuman cruelty or of 
callous failure to provide the necessities of life 
on the part of the Japanese holding authorities, 
in violation of the common laws of civilization 
and of the Japanese Government's undertaking 
to apply to American nationals the humane 
provisions of the Geneva Prisoners of War 
Convention. 



FEBRUARY 12, 1944 



169 



There follows a statement of the principal 
categories of the deprivation of rights, cruel- 
ties, wanton neglect, mistreatment and hai-d- 
sliips to which, according to information re- 
ceived by the Government of the United States 
from many sources, Americans in Japanese 
custody have been subjected. 

I. Representatives of the Swiss Government 
entrusted with the protection of American in- 
terests in Japan and Japanese-occupied terri- 
tory have not been permitted to go to every 
place without exception where prisoners of war 
and civilian internees are interned, have not 
been permitted to interview without witnesses 
the persons held, and have not had access to 
all places occupied by the prisoners (Article 
86 of the Geneva Prisoners of War Conven- 
tion). 

II. Representatives of the International Red 
Ci-oss Committee have been refused permission 
to visit most of the places where American 
nationals are held by the Japanese authorities 
(Articles 79 and 88). 

III. American nationals have not been per- 
mitted to forward complaints to the Japanese 
holding authorities or to representatives of the 
protecting power (Article 42). 

IV. The Japanese authorities have punished 
and have threatened to punish American na- 
tionals for complaining concerning the condi- 
tions of captivity (Article 42). 

V. The Japanese Government has failed to 
furnish needed clothing to American nationals 
(Article 12). 

VI. The Japanese authorities have confis- 
cated personal effects from American civilian 
internees and prisoners of war (Article 6). 

VII. American prisoners of war and civilian 
internees have been subjected to insults and 
public curiosity (Article 2). 

VIII. Civilians and prisoners of war in- 
terned by Japan are suffering from malnutri- 
tion and deficiency diseases because of the fail- 
ure and refusal of the detaining authorities to 
provide health sustaining food for their 
charges, or to permit the United States to make 
regular shipments on a continuing basis under 
appropriate neutral guarantees of supplemental 



food and medical supplies. (Article 11 and the 
specific reciprocal undertaking of Japan to 
take into account national differences in diet). 

IX. The Japanese authorities have devoted 
to improper and forbidden uses the profits of 
the sale of goods in camp canteens instead of 
devoting them to the welfare of the persons held 
in the camps (Article 12). 

X. Contrary to the specific undertaking of 
the Japanese Government, the detaining au- 
thorities have compelled civilians to perform 
labor other than that connected with the ad- 
ministration, maintenance and management of 
internment camps. Officer prisoners of war 
have been forced to labor and noncommissioned 
officers to do other than supervisory labor 
(Article 27) . 

XI. Prisoners of war have been required to 
perform labor that has a direct relation with 
war operations (Article 31). 

XII. Medical care has in many instances been 
denied to prisoners of war and civilian in- 
ternees and when given has been generally so 
poor as to cause unnecessary suffering and un- 
necessary deaths (Article 14). 

XIII. The Japanese Government has re- 
ported the names of only a part of the American 
prisoners of war and civilian internees in its 
hands (Article 77) and of American combat- 
ants found dead by Japanese forces (Article 4 
of the Convention for the Amelioration of the 
Condition of the Sick and Wounded of Armies 
in the Field, to which Japan is a contracting 
party). 

XIV. The Japanese Government has not per- 
mitted internees and prisoners of war freely to 
exercise their religion (Article 16). 

XV. The Japanese Government has not 
posted the Convention in camps in English 
translation, thus depriving American prisoners 
of war and civilian internees of knowledge of 
their rights thereunder (Article 84). 

XVI. The Japanese Government has failed 
to provide adequate equij^ment and accommo- 
dations in prisoner of war and civilian intern- 
ment camps and transports, but on the contrary 
forced them to subsist in inhumane conditions 
(Article 10). 



170 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BTJLLETENI 



XVII. The Japanese Government has com- 
pletely failed to apply the provisions of the 
Geneva Prisoners of War Convention (Title 
III, Section V, Chapter 3) with regard to trial 
and punishment of prisoners of war despite the 
fact that violations of its undertaking in this 
respect have repeatedly been called to its atten- 
tion, but on the contrary has imposed cruel and 
inhuman punishments without trial. 

XVIII. The Japanese authorities have in- 
flicted corporal punishment and torture upon 
American nationals (Article 46). 

The Government of the United States em- 
phasizes that it has based the foregoing charges 
only on information obtained from reliable 
sources. Many well-authenticated cases can be 
cited in support of each of the charges. 

The Government of the United States also 
desires to state most emphatically that, as the 
Japanese Government can assure itself from an 
objective examination of the reports submitted 
to it by the Spanish, Swedish, and International 
Eed Cross representatives who have repeatedly 
visited all places where Japanese are held by the 
United States, the United States has consist- 
ently and fully applied the provisions of the 
Geneva Prisoners of War Convention in the 
treatment of all Japanese nationals held by it 
as prisoners of war or (so far as they are adapt- 
able) as civilian internees, detainees or evacuees 
in relocation centers. Japanese nationals have 
enjoyed high standards of housing, food, cloth- 
ing, and medical care. The American author- 
ities have furthermore freely and willingly ac- 
cepted from the representatives of the protect- 
ing Powers and the International Red Cross 
Committee suggestions for the improvement of 
conditions under which Japanese nationals live 
in American camps and centers and have given 
effect to many of these suggestions, most of 
which, in view of the high standards normally 
maintained, are directed toward the obtaining 
of extraordinary benefits and privileges of a 
recreational, educational or spiritual nature. 

The Government of the United States de- 
mands that the Japanese Government imme- 
diately take note of the charges made above and 



take immediate steps to raise the treatment ac- 
corded American nationals held by Japan to 
the standard provided by the Geneva Prisoners 
of War Convention, which the United States 
and the Japanese Governments have mutually 
undertaken to apply. The Government of the 
United States also expects the Japanese Govern- 
ment to take proper disciplinary or penal action 
with regard to those of its officials, employees, 
and agents who have violated its undertakings 
with respect to the Geneva Convention and the 
international Common Laws of decency. 

The Government of the United States again 
directs the attention of the Japanese Govern- 
ment to the system of neutral supervision pro- 
vided in Article 86 of the Geneva Convention. 
The Government of the United States again re- 
minds the Japanese Government of the com- 
plete fulfillment of the provisions of this Article 
as respects the activities of the Government of 
Spain acting as protecting Power for Japanese 
interests in the continental United States and 
of the Government of Sweden as protecting 
Power for Japanese interests in Hawaii. 

The Government of the United States there- 
fore expects the Japanese Government, in ac- 
cordance with recognized practice of civilized 
states, fully to implement the provisions of the 
Geneva Prisoners of War Convention. The 
United States Government demands that the 
Japanese Government will, among other things, 
promptly implement the provisions of Article 
86 in respect to the activities of the Government 
of Switzerland as protecting Power for Amer- 
ican interests in Japan and Japanese-controlled 
territory and will make it possible for the Gov- 
ernment of Switzerland to give to the Gov- 
ernment of the United States assurances to the 
effect that Swiss representatives have been able 
to convince themselves by the full exercise of 
the rights granted under Article 86 that the 
abuses set forth in the foregoing statement have 
been completely rectified or that steps have been 
taken in that direction that are considered by 
Switzerland to be adequate. 

The United States Government until the pres- 
ent has refrained from publishing in this coun- 
try the facts known to it regarding outrages 



FEBRUARY 12, 1944 



171 



perpetrated upon its nationals, both prisoners 
of war and civilian internees, by the Japanese. 
The United States Government hopes that as 
these facts are now again officially called to the 
Japanese Government's attention that Govern- 
ment will adopt a policy of according to United 
States nationals in its hands the treatment to 
which they are entitled, and will permit repre- 
sentatives of the protecting Power to make such 
investigations and inspections as are necessary 
in order to give assurances to this Government 
that improved treatment is in fact being ac- 
corded to American nationals. In such case 
this Government would be in a position to as- 
sure the American people that the treatment 
of American nationals by the Japanese authori- 
ties had been bi'ought into conformity with the 
standards recognized by civilized nations. 

Hxjix, 



January 27, 1944. 

There are recited in the following numbered 
sections, the numbers of which correspond to 
the numbered charges in the Department's 
urgent telegram of even date, examples of some 
of the specific incidents upon which this Gov- 
ernment bases the charges made by it against 
the Japanese Government in the telegram under 
reference. The specific incidents have been se- 
lected from the numerous ones that have been 
reported from many reliable sources to this 
Government. Ask the Swiss Government to 
forward this statement textually to its Min- 
ister in Tokyo with the request that he present 
it to the Japanese Government simultaneously 
with the telegram under reference and that he 
call upon the Japanese Government promptly 
to rectify all existing derelictions and take such 
further steps as will preclude their recurrence. 

The Minister should further seek for himself 
or his representatives permission, in accordance 
with Article 86 of the Convention, to visit each 
place without exception where American na- 
tionals are detained and request of the Japanese 
Government the amelioration of any improper 
conditions that he may find to exist. 

The Swiss Minister in Tokyo should be par- 
ticularly asked to report promptly and fully all 



steps taken by the Japanese Government in con- 
formity with the foregoing. 

Charges I and II. Prisoner of war and civil- 
ian internment camps in the Philippines, 
French Indochina, Thailand, Manchuria, 
Burma, Malaya, and the Dutch East Indies, and 
prisoner of war camp no. 1 in Formosa have 
never been visited by Swiss representatives al- 
though they have repeatedly requested permis- 
sion to make such visits. None of these camps 
except the one at Mukden are known to have 
been visited by International Eed Cross repre- 
sentatives. In recent months visits have not 
been allowed to the prisoner of war camps near 
Tokyo and Yokohama, and the prisoner of war 
camps in and near Hong Kong, although the 
Swiss representatives have requested permis- 
sion to make such visits. 

The value of such few visits as have been 
permitted to some camps has been minimized by 
restrictions. Swiss representatives at Shang- 
hai have been closely escorted by several repre- 
sentatives of the Japanese Consulate General 
at Shanghai during their visits to camps and 
have not been allowed to see all parts of camps 
or to have free discussion with the internees. 
Similar situations prevail with respect to the 
civilian internment camps and prisoner of war 
camps in metropolitan Japan and Formosa. 

By contrast, all of the camps, stations, and 
centers where Japanese nationals are held by 
the United States have been repeatedly visited 
and fully inspected by representatives of Spain 
and Sweden who have spoken at length without 
witnesses with the inmates, and International 
Red Cross representatives have been and are 
being allowed freely to visit the camps in the 
United States and Hawaii where Japanese 
nationals are held. 

Charge III. Communications addressed by 
the persons held to the protecting Power con- 
cerning conditions of captivity in several of 
the civilian camps near Shanghai, among them 
Ash Camp and Chapei, remain undelivered. 
The same situation exists with respect to the 
civilian internment camp in Baguio, and in 
most if not all of the camps where American 
prisoners of war are held. Persons held at 



172 



DEPARTMETSfT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Bagnio, Chefoo, Saigon, and at times in the 
Philippine prisoner of war camps were denied 
permission to address the camp commander. 

Charge IV. On one occasion dnring the snm- 
mer of 1943 all of the persons held at the Co- 
lumbia Country Club, Shanghai, were punished 
by cancellation of dental appointments because 
complaints were made to representatives of the 
Swiss Consulate General. During the same 
period, at Camj) B, Yanchow, the entire camp 
was de^jrived of a meal by the Camp Com- 
mandant because complaints had been made 
concerning the delivery of spoiled food. 

There are citeel under Section XVIII below, 
cases of prisoners of war being struck because 
they asked for food or water. 

Charge V. Civilian internees at Hong Kong 
have gone without footwear and civilian in- 
ternees at Kobe have suffered from lack of 
warm clothing. In 1942 and 1943, American 
and Filii^ino prisoners of war in the Philippines 
and civilian internees at Baguio were forced to 
labor without shoes and clad only in loin cloths. 

Charge VI. This is reported to have been the 
case at the following camps: prisoner of war 
camps in the Philippine Islands, prisoner of 
war enclosures at Mariveles Bay, Philippine 
Islands, civilian internment camps at Baguio, 
Canton, Chefoo, Peking, Manila, Tsingtao, 
Weihsien, and Yangchow, and at the Ash Camp, 
Chapei Camp, Lunghwa Camp, and Pootung 
Camp, in or near Shanghai. The articles most 
needed by the prisoners and internees have been 
taken. For example, Japanese soldiers took the 
shoes from an American officer prisoner of war 
who was forced to walk unshod from Bataan to 
San Fernando during the march which began 
about April 10, 1942. Although the prisoners 
constantly suffered from lack of drinking water 
canteens were taken from prisoners during this 
march; one of these victims was Lieutenant 
Colonel William E. Dyess. 

At Corregidor a Japanese soldier was seen 
by Lieutenant Commander Melvyn H. McCoy 
with one arm covered from elbow to wrist 
and the other arm half covered with wrist 
watches taken from American and Filipino 
prisoners of war. 



Charge VII. American prisonei's of war in 
Manila were forced by Japanese soldiers to 
allow themselves to be photograiDhed operating 
captiired American military equipment in con- 
nection with the production of the Japanese 
propaganda film "Rip down the Stars and 
Stripes". 

Prisoners of war from Corregidor being 
taken to Manila were not landed at the port 
of Manila but were unloaded outside the city 
and were forced to march through the entire 
city to Bilibid Prison about May 23, 1942. 

Japanese school children, soldiers, and civil- 
ians have been admitted to internment camps 
and encouraged to satisfy curiosity i-egarding 
the persons held. Such tours were conducted 
at Baguio, Hong Kong, and Tsingtao. 

Charge VIII. Deficiency diseases such as 
beriberi, pellagra, scurvy, sprue, et cetera, are 
common thi-oughout Japanese internment 
camps. These diseases are least common in 
the civilian internment camps (called assembly 
centers) at Shanghai and in some other camps 
where the persons held have but recently been 
taken into custody or where trade by the in- 
ternees themselves with outside private sup- 
pliers is allowed. It appears therefore that 
the great prevalence of deficiency diseases in 
prisoner of war camps where internees have 
been solely deijenclent upon the Japanese 
authorities for their food supply over an ex- 
tended period is directly due to the callous 
failure of these authorities to utilize the possi- 
bilities for a health sustaining diet afforded by 
available local products. The responsibility 
for much of the suffering and many of the 
deaths from these diseases of American and 
Filipino prisoners of war rests directly upon 
the Japanese authorities. As a specific ex- 
ample, prisoners of war at Davao Penal Colony 
suffering from grave vitamin deficiencies could 
see from their camj^ trees bearing citrus fruit 
that they were not allowed to pluck. They 
were not even allowed to retrieve lemons seen 
floating by on a stream that runs through the 
camp. 

Charge IX. For example, in the prisoner of 
war camps at Hong Kong, the profits of the 



FEBRTJAKY 12, 1944 



173 



canteens have not been used by the holding 
authorities for the benefit of the prisoners. 

Charge X. At Baguio civilian internees have 
been forced to repair sawmill machinery with- 
out remuneration. 

Officer prisoners of war have been compelled 
by Major Mida, the Camp Commandant at 
Davao Penal Colony, to perform all kinds of 
labor including menial tasks such as scrubbing 
floors, cleaning latrines used by Japanese 
troops and working in the kitchens of Japa- 
nese officers. 

Charge XI. Ten American engineers were 
required to go to Corregidor in July 1942 to 
assist- in rebuilding the military installations 
on that island, and prisoners of war have been 
worked in a machine tool shop in the arsenal 
at Mukden. 

Charge XII. The condition of health of 
prisoners of war in the Philippine Islands is 
deplorable. At San Fernando in April 1942, 
American and Filipino prisoners were held in 
a barbed-wire enclosure so overcrowded that 
sleep and rest were impossible. So many of 
them were sick and so little care was given to 
the sick that human excrement covered the 
whole area. The enclosure at San Fernando 
was more than 100 kilometers from Bataan and 
the abominable treatment given to the prison- 
ers there cannot be explained by battle condi- 
tions. The prisoners were forced to walk this 
distance in seven days under merciless driving. 
Many who were unable to keep up with the 
march were shot or bayoneted by the guards. 
During this journey, as well as at other times 
when prisoners of war were moved in the 
Philippine Islands, they were assembled in the 
open sun even when the detaining authorities 
could have allowed them to assemble in the 
shade. American and Filipino prisoners are 
known to have been buried alive along the 
roadside and persistent reports have been re- 
ceived of men who tried to rise from their 
graves but were beaten down with shovels and 
buried alive. 

At Camp O'Donnell conditions were so bad 
that 2,200 Americans and more than 20,000 Fili- 
pinos are reliably reported to have died in the 

574074 — 44 2 



first few months of their detention. There is no 
doubt that a large number of these deaths could 
have been prevented had the Japanese autliori- 
ties provided minimum medical care for the 
prisoners. The so-called hospital there was ab- 
solutely inadequate to meet the situation. Pris- 
oners of war lay sick and naked on the floor, 
receiving no attention and too sick to move from 
their own excrement. The hospital was so over- 
crowded that Americans were laid on the 
ground outside in the heat of the blazing sun. 
The American doctors in the camp were given 
no medicine, and even had no water to wash 
the human waste from the bodies of the patients. 
Eventually, when quinine was issued, there was 
only enough properly to take care of ten cases 
of malaria, while thousands of prisoners were 
suffering from the disease. Over two hundred 
out of three hundred prisoners from Camp 
O'Donnell died while they were on a work detail 
in Batangas. 

At Cabanatuan there was no medicine for the 
treatment of malaria until after the prisoners 
had been in the camp for five months. The first 
shipment of medicines from the Philippine Red 
Cross was held up by the camp authorities on 
the pretext that they must make an inventory 
of the shipment. This they were so dilatory in 
doing that many deaths occurred before the 
medicine was released. Because of lack of med- 
icines and food, scurvy broke out in the camp in 
the Fall of 1942. Since the prisoners had been 
at the camp for some months before this dis- 
ease became prevalent, the responsibility for it 
rests upon the detaining authorities. 

It is reported that in the autumn of 1943 fifty 
percent of the American prisoners of war at 
Davao had a i^oor chance to live and that the de- 
taining authorities had again cut the prisoners' 
food ration and had witlidrawn all medical at- 
tention. 

Though the medical care j^rovided for civilian 
internees by the Japanese camp authorities ap- 
pears to have been better than that provided for 
prisoners of war, it still does not meet the obli- 
gations placed on the holding authorities by 
their Government's own free undertaking and 
by the laws of humanity. At the civilian 



174 



department: of state bullettni 



internment camp, Camp Jolm Hay, childbirth 
took place on the floor of a small storeroom. At 
the same camp a female internee who was 
insane and whose presence was a danger to the 
other internees was not removed from the camp. 
A dentist who was interned at the camp was 
not permitted to bring in his own equipment. 
The Los Banos Camp was established at a recog- 
nized endemic center of malaria, yet quinine 
was not provided, and the internees were not 
allowed to go outside of the fence to take anti- 
malarial measures. 

The Japanese authorities have not provided 
sufficient medical care for the American civil- 
ians held in camps in and near Shanghai and 
the internees have themselves had to pay for 
hospitalization and medical treatment. Deaths 
directly traceable to inadequate care have 
occurred. 

Even in metropolitan Japan, the Japanese 
authorities have failed to provide medical 
treatment for civilian internees, and it has been 
necessary for Americans held at Myoshi, Yama- 
kita, and Sumire to pay for their own medical 
and dental care. 

Charge XIV. For example the internees at 
Camp John Hay were not allowed to hold re- 
ligious services during the first several months 
of the camp's operation, and priests have not 
been allowed to minister to prisoners held by the 
Japanese in French Indochina. 

Charge XV. No copy of an English transla- 
tion of the text of the Geneva Prisoners of War 
Convention has been available to civilian in- 
ternees or prisoners of war nor have the Japa- 
nese authorities taken other steps to inform 
the persons held of their rights under the terms 
of the Convention. Keports have been received 
of the Japanese authorities informing prisoners 
of war that they were captives, having no rights 
mider international law or treaty. 

Charge XVI. At Camp O'Donnell many of 
the men had to live without shelter during 1942. 
In one case twentj'-three officers were assigned 
to a shack, fourteen by twenty feet in size. 
Drinking water was extremely scarce, it being 
necessary to stand in line six to ten hours to get 
a drink. Officers had no bath for the first 



thirty-five days in the camp and had but one 
gallon of water each in which to have their first 
baths after that delay. The kitchen equipment 
consisted of cauldrons and a fifty-five gallon 
drum. Camotes were cooked in the cauldrons, 
mashed with a piece of timber, and each man 
was served one spoonful as his ration. 

In late October 1942, approximately 970 
prisoners of war were transferred from the 
Manila area to the Davao Penal Colony on a 
transport vessel jDroviding only twenty inches 
per man of sleeping space. Conditions on the 
vessel were so bad that two deaths occurred, and 
subsequently because of weakness some fifty 
percent of the prisoners fell by the roadside on 
the march from the water front at Lasang, 
Davao to the Penal Colony. 

The places used by the Japanese authorities 
for the internment of American civilians in 
the Philippine Islands were inadequate for 
the number of persons interned. At the Brent 
School at Baguio, twenty to thirty civilians 
were assigned sleeping accommodations in a 
room which had been intended for the use of 
one person. 

At the Columbia Country Club at Shanghai 
the internees were obliged to spend CRB $10,- 
000 of their own funds to have a building de- 
loused so that they might use it for a needed 
dormitory. At Weihsien no (repeat no) re- 
frigeration equipment was furnished by the 
Japanese authorities and some of the few 
household refrigerators of the internees were 
taken from them and were used by the Japa- 
nese guards, with the result that food spoiled 
during the summer of 1943. The lack of 
sanitary facilities is reported from aU of these 
camps. 

Charge XVII. American personnel have 
suffered death and imprisonment for participa- 
tion in military operations. Death and long- 
term imprisonment have been imposed for at- 
tempts to escape for which the maximum pen- 
alty under the Geneva Convention is thirty 
days arrest. Neither the American Govern- 
ment nor its protecting Power has been in- 
formed in the manner provided by the Con- 
vention of these cases or of many other in- 



FEBRUARY 12, 1944 



175 



stances when Americans were subjected to il- 
legal punishment. Specific instances are cited 
imder the next charge. 

Charge XVIII. Prisoners of war who were 
marched from Bataan to San Fernando in 
April 1942 were brutally treated by Japanese 
guards. The guards clubbed prisoners who 
tried to get water, and one prisoner was hit 
on the head with a club for helping a fellow 
prisoner who had been knocked down by a 
Japanese army truck. A colonel who pointed 
to a can of salmon by the side of the road and 
asked for food for the prisoners was struck on 
the side of his head with the can by a Japa- 
nese officer. The colonel's face was cut open. 
Another colonel who had found a sympathetic 
Filipino with a cart was horsewhipped in the 
face for trying to give transportation to per- 
sons unable to walk. At Lubao a Filipino 
who had been run through and gutted by the 
Japanese was hung over a barbed-wire fence. 
An American Lieutenant Colonel was killed by 
a Japanese as he broke ranks to get a drink 
at a stream. 

Japanese sentries used rifle butts and bayo- 
nets indiscriminately in forcing exhausted 
prisoners of war to keep moving on the march 
from the Cabanatuan railroad station to Camp 
No. 2 in late May 1942. 

At Cabanatuan Lieutenant Colonels Lloyd 
Biggs and Howard Breitung and Lieutenant R. 
D. Gilbert, attempting to escape during Sep- 
tember 1942 were severely beaten about the legs 
and feet and then taken out of the camp and 
tied to posts, were stripped and were kept tied 
up for two days. Their hands were tied behind 
their backs to the posts so that they could not 
sit down. Passing Filipinos were forced to 
beat them in the face with clubs. No food or 
water was given to them. After two days of 
torture they were taken away and, according to 
the statements of Japanese guards, they were 
killed, one of them by decapitation. Other 
Americans were similarly tortured and shot 
without trial at Cabanatuan in June or July 
1942 because they endeavored to bring food into 
the camp. After being tied to a fence post 
inside the camp for two days they were shot. 



At Cabanatuan during the summer of 1942 
the following incidents occurred: A Japanese 
sentry beat a private so brutally with a shovel 
across the back and the thigh that it was neces- 
sary to send him to the hospital. Another 
American was crippled for months after his 
ankle was struck by a stone thrown by a Jap- 
anese. One Japanese sentry used the shaft of a 
golf club to beat American prisoners, and two 
Americans, caught while obtaining food from 
Filipinos, were beaten unmercifully on the face 
and body. An officer was struck behind the ear 
with a riding crop by a Japanese interpreter. 
The same officer was again beaten at Davao 
Penal Colony and is now suffering from partial 
paralysis of the left side as the result of these 
beatings. Enlisted men who attempted to 
escape were beaten and put to hard labor in 
chains. 

- At the Davao Penal Colony, about April 1, 
1943, Sergeant McFee was shot and killed by a 
Japanese guard after catching a canteen full of 
water which had been thrown to him by another 
prisoner on the opposite side of the fence. The 
Japanese authorities attempted to explain this 
shooting as an effort to prevent escape. How- 
ever, the guard shot the sergeant several times 
and, in addition, shot into the barrack on the 
opposite side of the fence toward the prisoner 
who had thrown the canteen. At about the 
same time and place an officer returning from 
a work detail tried to bring back some sugar- 
cane for the men in the hospital. For this he 
was tied to a stake for twenty-four hours and 
severely beaten. 

In the internment camp at Baguio a boy of 
sixteen was knocked down by a Japanese guard 
for talking to an internee girl, and an elderly 
internee was struck with a whip when he failed 
to rise rapidly from his chair at the approach 
of a Japanese officer. Mr. R. Gray died at 
Baguio on March 15, 1942 after being beaten 
and given the water cure by police authorities. 
At Santo Tomas, Mr. Krogstadt died in a 
military prison after being corporally punished 
for his attempted escape. 

HuUi 



176 



DEPARTMENT OF 'STATE BULI/ETENI 
MODERN FORCE AND INTERNATIONAL POLICY 
Address by Assistant Secretary Berle ^ 



[Released to the press February 7] 

A profound student of affairs once observed 
that, in government, how things are done is 
quite as important as what things are done. 
Methods of action and the institutions based on 
them tend to be hasting, while the action of the 
day may well be transitory. 

That is a great reason why the policy of the 
good neighbor as a basis of international action 
becomes vitally important in a world which is 
changing rapidly and profoundly. 

Everyone knows that world forces are shift- 
ing, but few save technicians realize the depth 
and scope of impending shifts. A glance at 
some of them will indicate their extreme 
seriousness. 

According to competent students, the rela- 
tive strength of countries not only has changed 
already but is due to change even more strik- 
ingly in the next 25 years. Estimating to 1970, 
the United States, witli a present population 
of approximately 135 million people, will have 
risen to perhaps 165 million, and may perhaps 
increase after that at a much slower rate. Great 
Britain, which in 1940 had about 46 millions, 
will have dropped to 42 millions and probably 
stop there. The population of Germany, which 
in 1940 was 69 millions, will probably have 
dropped to 64 millions and will be gradually 
diminishing. The population of France, which 
in 1940 was 41 millions, will probably fall to 37 
millions. Soviet Russia, numbering 175 mil- 
lions in 1940, will rise to 222 millions and prob- 
ably will steadily and continuously increase for 
a long time. 

This means that, in our lifetime, the United 
States will have stabilized. Western Europe 
will have stood still if, indeed, it has not ac- 
tually begun to decline. Soviet Russia will be 
headed for a considerably greater population 
which in time may outnumber all of Western 
Europe combined. 

' Delivered at Duke University, Durham, N.O., Feb. 
7, 1944. 



A single South American nation, Brazil, 
presently has a population of 42 millions. This 
population doubles in number in somewhat less 
than a quarter of a century, so that in 1970 
Brazil, with a territory and resources larger 
than the United States, will have a population 
of, roughly, 90 millions. When I was a child 
the population of the United States was 90 mil- 
lions. Brazil alone, therefore, in the next 
generation, will be not merely a great South 
American country but a world power if she so 
chooses. 

The shifts are equally sticking in India, 
China, and the surrounding states; but the 
figures, though dramatic, are less important 
than the probability that these nations will 
have learned in far greater degree the Western 
arts of industrialization and possibly also of 
war. A substantial part of their hundreds of 
millions, instead of being out of the main 
stream oi action as they are today, will proba- 
bly exert direct influence on the economics, the 
production, and the politics of the world. 

The estimated census figures, though strik- 
ing, are likely not to be the most important of 
the new factors. Changes are occurring not 
only in numbers but in the power and possi- 
bilities of each individual. Maurice Hindus 
recently remarked to me that the greatest 
change which had occurred in Soviet territories 
was the fact that the moujik had at last con- 
quered the machine; that, instead of having a 
primitive agricultural civilization, the Soviet 
Union was destined to make and use the most 
powerful and wide-spread industrial develop- 
ments in the world. This means that the 222 
millions of Russians are not to be considered 
only as so many more living human beings; 
rather, the effectiveness of the population will 
be multiplied many times by their skills, their 
electric power, their chemistry, new processes 
and inventions, and all the possibilities opening 
through modern science, urged on by war. The 
same possibility exists in the Asiatic countries, 



FEBRUARY 12, 1944 



177 



though there is reason to believe that the de- 
velopment will come far more slowly. 

For more than a century Western Europe 
and the Americas have held a substantial mo- 
nopoly on the developments of modern science, 
modern industries, and transport. With that 
monopoly they were dominant throughout the 
world. That monopoly is now passing. Its 
end is likely to be, in literal fact, the end of an 
era, or, more accurately, the beginning of a 
new era. 'WTiole populations, whether static or 
growing, are about to be endowed with new 
capacities for construction and destruction, for 
good and evil. 

Even a glimpse of these new cai^acities is 
almost beyond conception. Occasionally we 
are privileged to look over the lip of the 
great technical and scientific crucible in which 
the machines and processes of tomorrow are 
being wrought out. These touch almost every 
field of human endeavor. You would see the 
plans of airplanes outcarrying and outdistanc- 
ing any ship presently in the air. You would 
find engines capable of double, treble, or quad- 
ruple the work of any existing machines. You 
would hear of rocket projectiles capable of 
shelling an enemy objective at himdreds of 
miles. The possibility exists that human be- 
ings may be transported by air at a speed ap- 
proximating that of sound. You would find 
methods by which an entire newspaper can be 
produced simultaneously in every capital of 
the world. It is not wholly fantastic to fore- 
cast that in the foreseeable future each of us 
may be able to have an individual radio wave- 
length, because scientists are increasingly split- 
ting and making usable the infinities of the 
radio spectrum. 

Lest the possibilities of the situation be too 
lightly dismissed I must recall that early in 
this century Mr. H. G. Wells wrote a pro- 
phetic novel called When the Sleeper Wakes. 
It was drarwing a dream picture of a world as 
it might appear to a man who had remained 
in a trance for many years. The climax of 
this romance, as I remember it, was a duel 
over London between a dirigible balloon and 
a fighter plane, while electrically controlled 



horns blared out the news in the city below. 
This was the utmost of a novelist's imagina- 
tion. In fact, only a few years later, in 1916, 
British airplanes fought German Zeppelins 
over London — and the radio told the story on 
the ground. 

All of these possibilities — and some of them 
are already realities — have to be taken into 
account in dealing with foreign affairs. Even 
now they have changed the relative weights 
and values of the elements involved. 

Sea power, for instance, was one of the 
forces by which the world was regulated. It 
happens that sea power is one of the most 
economical methods of military force — that is 
to say, a relatively small expenditure of na- 
tional income could produce and maintain sea 
power, with its attendant force and control, 
greater in proportion than the size or resources 
or population of the country creating it. Air 
power, by contrast, is relatively more expen- 
sive; it appears to require a far greater base 
of raw material, manufacturing technique and 
skill, and natural resources. Temporarily, 
therefore, equations may seem to have shifted. 
Sea power may have to be modified as a basis 
of calculation. We do not yet know what the 
new equation will be. So far no one has 
arisen to analyze air power as Admiral Mahan 
analyzed naval strength. We do know that 
where sea power cannot operate — as in the mid- 
dle of continental land areas and in narrow seas 
where air force can dominate — the position of 
small nations has changed, at least for the time 
being. 

Again, the impact of the new processes, 
existing and to come, plainly changes the con- 
tent of a national boundary or frontier. You 
can have boundaries which set limits to surface 
traffic by land or sea. But you do not and 
cannot have the same kind of boundary for 
the purposes of aircraft. A ship must stop 
when it reaches shore, a truck may be stopped 
by blocking the road. An airplane can only 
be controlled by agreement, by hostile action, 
or by control of landing points — a quite differ- 
ent conception from the old boundaries on the 
flat map. And telecommunications, rocket 



178 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BTTLLETINI 



projectiles, and other new means of hostile 
or friendly contact of course recognize no 
boundaries at all. There are no effective 
frontiers for radio broadcasts. There can be 
agreements to divide the spectrum or to con- 
trol the power of the sending stations, but 
there is as j^et no known way of stopping an 
electric wave by a line on a map. 

The present situation seems to be that as long 
as men move on the surface of the earth or the 
water they move within boundaries, as we used 
to know them ; but when they get into the third 
dimension of air and ether, men are dealing 
in an area which has to be made orderly hy 
agreements governing the actions of men within 
their countries — a quite different condition. 

You recall how deeply the use of the auto- 
mobile has affected surface life. We must ac- 
cept the possibility that air and ether may affect 
institutions even more profoundly. As pro- 
gressively we move into this third dimension, 
either physically, as by airplanes, or mentally, 
through communications and other scientific 
developments, we are of necessity moving out 
of the conception of the flat map and solid fron- 
tier and into areas where the best we can do is 
to hammer out agreements of conduct making it 
possible for men and nations to live together. 
Indeed, it can almost be said that men have to 
do that or destroy each other. 

Against this background must be set the doc- 
trine of the good neighbor. 

The text of it is worth repeating : 

"In the field of world policy I would dedicate 
this Nation to the policy of the good neighbor — 
the neighbor who resolutely respects himself 
and, because he does so, respects the rights of 
others — the neighbor who respects his obliga- 
tions and respects the sanctity of his agreements 
in and with a world of neighbors." 

The cardinal importance plainly lies in the 
fact that it is not a scheme to solve a set of prob- 
lems but an international philosophy which 
makes possible the solution of any problem. 
The task of bringing into being those institu- 
tions which will permit the application of this 
broad philosophy has been in the past, and will 
be for a long time in the future, the main work 



of enlightened statesmen throughout the world. 

We are seeing today the slow but steady en- 
deavor to work out, line by line, the bases of the 
institutions which will maintain and strengthen 
world order even amid the violent changes which 
take place. Necessarily the work takes time. 
In any real sense it will never be finished. In- 
stitutions, unlike devices, are not put together; 
they grow, and evolve, and are given form and 
content as they establish themselves. 

No better illustration perhaps can be given 
than the evolution of the inter-American com- 
munity of nations. Its beginning was in the 
mind of a great statesman, Bolivar. Its first 
effort at organized life was only partly success- 
ful. Through more than a century successive 
efforts were made to find forms by which the 
conception could become effective. In 1890 a 
narrow base of common action was worked out, 
and the Pan American Union was formed, call- 
ing for regular conferences to express the com- 
mon will of the 21 independent American 
nations. Driven by the increasing pressure of 
our own time, the institutions of the inter- 
American conferences, strengthened by the in- 
stitution of consultation among foreign min- 
isters, steadily grew. In 1938, after Munich, an 
inter-American conference hammered out a 
common foreign policy of Western Hemisphere 
defense ; and, through the passionate war years 
which have followed, the work of common de- 
fense and of mutual economic support has 
steadily grown. Alone, no one of the American 
nations, including our own, can be certain of 
defending itself; and few, if any, could main- 
tain their economic life. Together, there is 
every prospect that they will come safely 
through the present storm with invaluable ex- 
perience to assist them in working together to 
navigate through the dangerous and troubled 
times which lie ahead. This institution of the 
Western Hemisphere, the most successful group- 
ing of nations for mutual benefit in modern his- 
tory, is the result of patient and constant build- 
ing by the common effort of many men. 

Now, we are engaged in the greatest adven- 
ture of our time — the building of an institution 
of international organization, 



FEBRUARY 12, 1944 



179 



World organization is no new concept. It 
has been dreamed many times; tried, in differ- 
ent forms, at different periods. The plan of a 
concert of powers after the Napoleonic wars 
was a groping toward this end. The League of 
Nations after the last World War was a definite 
and clear-cut expression of a general will to 
work out a basis for permanent, peaceful, and 
orderly international relations through per- 
manent and competent institutions. Today we 
have the privilege, the responsibility, and the 
duty to make a new attempt. 

To be successful, it is essential that there shall 
be a sound moral base. Many of us believe that 
the principles of the good-neighbor policy offer 
the only substantial foundation upon which in- 
stitutions of world organization may be suc- 
cessfully built. We are seeing the fate of struc- 
tures built on naked force : Hitler's new Europe, 
which was to last a thousand years, is already 
crashing in ruins, deadly evidence that design of 
world domination by any race or power is con- 
demned to bloody failure. Tlie only permanent 
foundation is that of common consent and of 
general moral acceptance. 

Such acceptance is gradually emerging from 
the days when the Atlantic Charter set out the 
joint policy of the Governments of the United 
States and of Great Britain, and when that 
Charter was accepted as the basis of the great 
alliance known as the United Nations. At Mos- 
cow, Secretary Hull, by authority of the Presi- 
dent, secured the assent of the Soviet Union, 
Great Britain, China, and the United States to 
the declaration of Moscow,^ pledging these 
countries, diverse in experience and habit, to 
the establislunemt of a world organization open 
to all. The basis is stated to be recognition of 
the sovereign equality of all who participate. 
The procedures were set up to solve problems 
arising before the world organization should 
be consummated. The first great step out of 
the present travail, the first great step toward 
world unity, was taken. 

It may be assumed — and we must accept the 
certainty — that difficulties will arise in working 

1 BuiXETiN of Nov. 6, 1943, p. 308. 



toward this greatest of goals. Individual or 
local problems and controversies, important in 
themselves but secondary in relation to the great 
picture, will unquestionably come up. The es- 
sential tiling is to remember that they are in fact 
secondary when set beside the fate of an entire 
world civilization, and that they must not inter- 
rupt steady effort for the main objective. It 
will be necessary to exercise the virtues of faith 
and patience almost beyond measure. But if 
the principles are maintained and the objective 
is kept in mind we have the right to hope that 
the most serious problems will find solution and 
that the institutions being born will draw 
strength from their early struggles. 

We began by observing that the manner in 
which things are done is as important as the 
immediate action. Clearly, the problems of war 
will pass into equally grave problems of transi- 
tion, and these again will merge with the prob- 
lems of organizing peace. Clearly, the forces 
now active will bring up questions staggering in 
size, and new in kind and scope. As we have 
seen, one great category of these problems can 
only be solved by commo^i action. In the larg- 
est sense no "great problems can be soundly 
solved unless conmion international action gives 
to the world a reasonable probability of perma- 
nent peace. 

FINNISH POSITION IN THE WAR 

In response to an inquii-y in regard to reports 
from Stockholm that there had recently been 
an exchange of communications between the 
United States and Finland on the Finnish posi- 
tion in the war, the Secretary of State replied 
on February 8, 1944 that the American Gov- 
ernment has recently taken occasion to say to 
the Finnish Government, as it has on a number 
of occasions in the past, that the responsibility 
for the consequences of Finland's collaboration 
with Germany and continuance in a state of 
war with a number of the allies of the United 
States, including the Soviet Union and the Brit- 
ish Commonwealth of Nations, must be borne 
solely by the Fiimish Government. 



180 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BtJLLETEM 



EXCHANGE OF AMERICAN AND 
GERMAN NATIONALS 

[Released to the press February 12] 

The United States Government has requested 
of all the belligerents safe-conduct for the 
motorship Gripsholm to travel to Lisbon and 
return to effect the repatriation of the staff of 
the former American Embassy at Vichy and 
of the American consular offices in the former 
unoccupied zone of France, together with cer- 
tain newspaper correspondents, relief workers, 
and officials of certain of the other American 
republics, all of whom since early 1943 have 
been held in Germany. 

The Gripsholm is expected to leave New York 
on or about February 15, 1944, reaching Lisbon 
on or about February 24. 

On its voyage to Lisbon the Giij)sholm will 
carry certain German consular officials who 
came into the custody of the United States 
during the course of military operations in 
North Africa and Italy, members of the former 
French diplomatic and consular establishments 
in the United States who wish to return to 
continental France, and certain non-official Ger- 
mans whose repatriation has been pending since 
June 1942. 



THE PROCLAIMED LIST: CUMULATIVE 
SUPPLEMENT 5 TO REVISION VI 

[Released to tlie press for publication February 12. 9 i).m.] 

The Acting Secretary of State, acting in con- 
junction with the Acting Seci'etary of the 
Treasury, the Attorney General, the Secretary 
of Commerce, the Administrator of the Foreign 
Economic Administration, and the Coordinator 
of Inter- Ajnerican Affairs, on February 12 is- 
sued Cumulative Supplement 5 to Revision VI 
of the Proclaimed List of Certain Blocked 
Nationals, promulgated October 7, 1943. 

Pai't I of Cumulative Supplement 5 contains 
64 additional listings in the other American re- 
publics and 77 deletions. Part II contains 
70 additional listings outside the American re- 
publics and 33 deletions. 



The Far East 



IMMIGRATION QUOTA FOR CHINESE 

President Roosevelt, acting under the power 
vested in him by the act of December 17, 1943 
repealing the Chinese exclusion acts, issued a 
l^roclamation (No. 2603) on February 8, 1944 
fixing the annual quota of Chinese immigrants 
at 105, effective for the remainder of the fiscal 
year ending June 30, 1944 and for each fiscal 
year thereafter. The full text of the proclama- 
tion ajDpears in the Federal Register of Febru- 
ary 10, 1944, page 1587. 



The American Republics 



TRADE RELATIONS WITH CHILE 

Replying to an inquiry in regard to United 
States trade relations with Chile in the light of 
reports that there seemed to be a lack of interest 
bj' either or both Governments in the develop- 
ment of such relations, the Secretary of State 
declared on February 8, 1944 that both the 
United States and Chile have important trade 
relations and trade opportunities of mutual in- 
terest and that there should be a splendid future 
in the way of trade development between the 
two countries. He added that both countries 
have for some time been diligent in discussing 
all phases of economic relations with respect to 
the present and especially to the post-war pe- 
riod. He concluded by saying that there was an 
equal desire to continue such discussions with a 
view to the fullest practicable development of 
trade and that there was no occasion for any 
misunderstanding with respect to these matters. 

CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION OF THE 
INDEPENDENCE OF THE DOMINICAN 
REPUBLIC 

On December 1, 1943 announcement was 
made ' of the designation of representatives on 

' Bulletin of Dee. 4, 1943, p. 394. 



FEBRUARY 12, 1944 



181 



the part of the United States to a celebration to 
take phice at Ciudad Trujillo between February 
23 and March 3, 1944 commemorating the first 
centennial of the proclamation of the independ- 
ence of the Dominican Republic. 



Maj. Gen. William E. Shedd, U.S.A., who 
has succeeded Maj. Gen. H. C. Pratt, U.S.A., 
as Commanding General of the Antilles Depart- 
ment, San Juan, Puerto Rico, has also succeeded 
General Pratt as a member of this delegation. 



The Foreign Service 



EMBASSY RANK FOR REPRESENTATION BETWEEN THE 
UNITED STATES AND IRAN 



[Released to the press February 10] 

The Government of the United States has 
decided to elevate the status of its diplomatic 
mission at Tehran from that of a legation to 
an embassy. The Iranian Government has 
notified the Department of State of its inten- 
tion to take corresponding action with regard 



to the status of its diplomatic mission in Wash- 
ington. This action has been agreed upon in 
recognition of the greatly increased relations 
which have recently developed between the two 
countries and is in accordance with the status 
of Iran as a full member of the United Nations. 



REPORTS REGARDING ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTS ABROAD 



During the year just prior to the entrance of 
the United States into the present war, the 
Department of State received approximately 
37,212 reports from Foreign Service oflBcers 
with respect to economic developments in vari- 
ous comitries of the world. Approximately 
33,370 reports were received in the form of 
despatches from the field and 3,842 in the form 
of telegrams frona the field. While the volume 
of such reports has increased manyfold since 
the United States became involved in the pres- 
ent war, the well-organized peacetime reporting 
system was readily adaptable to wartime eco- 
nomic reporting on behalf of the Department of 
State and some 50 other departments and 
agencies of the United States Government, and 
through this medium Foreign Service officers 
have contributed extensively to the economic- 
warfare program. 

One of the most essential functions of the 
Foreign Service today is to protect the rights 
and interests of the United States in its inter- 
national agricultural, commercial, and financial 



relations. In pursuance of this duty, the 
Foreign Service must (a) guard against the 
infringement of rights of American citizens in 
matters relating to commerce and navigation 
which are based on custom, international law, 
or ti-eaty, and (b) observe, report on, and, 
whenever possible, endeavor to remove discrim- 
inations against American agricultural, com- 
mercial, and industrial interests in other 
countries. 

Executive Order 8307 of December 19, 1939 ^ 
lists seven ways in which the Foreign Service 
may promote the national economic interests 
of the United States: 

1. "By carefully studying and reporting on 
the potentialities of their districts as a market 
for American products or as a competitor of 
American products in international trade." 

2. "By investigating and submitting World 
Trade Directory Reports on the general stand- 

' 4 Federal Register 4910. 



182 



DEPAKTMENT OF STATE BULLETINi 



ing and distributing capacity of foreign firms 
within their districts." 

3. "By preparing and submitting upon re- 
quest trade lists of commercial firms within 
their districts." 

4. "By keeping constantly on the alert for 
and submitting immediate reports on concrete 
trade opportunities." 

5. "By endeavoring to create, within the 
scope of the duties to which they are assigned, 
a demand for American products within their 
districts." 

6. "By facilitating and reporting on pro- 
posed visits of alien business men to the United 
States." 

7. "By taking appropriate steps to facilitate 
the promotion of such import trade into the 
United States as the economic interests of the 
United States may require." 

In order to fulfil these duties in the most effi- 
cient manner, each Foreign Service officer is 
instructed to make an intensive study of his 
district with a view to ascertaining its poten- 
tialities as a market for, and competitor of, 
American agricultural and industrial products 
and as a source of supply for essential raw ma- 
terials required by American industry. This 
requires that a study be made of his predeces- 
sor's reports and all published materials perti- 
nent to the subject available in his district. 
Each officer is also expected to make personal 
contact with the leading importers and business- 
men of his district and, whenever a fitting 
opportunity arises, to apprise them of the merits 
of American products and trade methods; to 
maintain within his office a commercial reading- 
room where local businessmen can consult cur- 
rent copies of American daily newspapers, trade 
journals, and catalogs; to supply all proper 
information to American citizens traveling in 
his district on business; and to lend aid to 
American Chambers of Commerce and similar 
organizations within his district.^ 

Officers of the Foreign Service are required 
by the Executive order of December 19, 1939 to 
prepare and submit reports in connection with 

' Foreign Sevice Regulations, ch. IV. 



their duties of protecting and promoting Amer- • 

ican agricultural and commercial interests and ' | 
for the purpose of providing general informa- 
tion on economic developments within their 
respective districts for the Departments of 
State, Agriculture, and Commerce, and for > j 
other governmental departments and agencies, 
in accordance with such rules and regulations as 
the Secretary of State may prescribe. The re- 
ports are prepared in response to a general 
schedule of reports prepared in the Department 
of State ; special schedules of reports prepared 
in the Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, 
and Treasury and transmitted by the Depart- 
ment of State to the selected groups of offices 
indicated in the schedules; and special requests 
made by the Department of State for its own 
benefit or for the benefit of other governmental 
departments and agencies. In addition. For- 
eign Service officers frequently submit volun- 
tary reports on timely subjects. 

The required reports take the following 
forms. Each mission and certain consulates 
general submit an annual economic review, 
which presents a compact, general, analytical 
survey of economic conditions in the country 
under review during the preceding year. The 
annual economic review is designed to give a 
composite picture of economic conditions as a 
whole and an appraisal of the economic posi- 
tion of the country during the period under 
review, with the result that it should contain 
data regarding (1) the salient developments 
of the year in industry, agriculture, finance, 
labor, legislation, and foreign trade and (2) 
the major changes in governmental control 
of production, prices, extension of credit, trade, 
and other aspects of the economy. Certain 
officers may also be called upon from time to 
time to prepare monthly and quarterly eco- 
nomic reviews in order to provide the De- 
partment of State and other interested depart- 
ments and agencies with a timely picture of 
economic developments. The monthly and 
quarterly economic reviews deal with such 
subjects as the factors affecting domestic agri- 
culture, industry, and commerce (seasonal buy- 
ing, fluctuations in price levels, and employ- 



FEBRTTART 12, 1944 



183 



ment conditions); crop movements; price 
trends; tariff changes; and public and private 
financial conditions. 

When a post is designated in a special sched- 
ule prepared in the Department of Agriculture 
to prepare and submit a national and regional 
report, the reporting office may call upon other 
posts within the country or region to be re- 
ported on for any contributory material re- 
quired. National and regional reports are 
divided into four basic groups, as follows : 

1. Agricultural-commodity-situation reports 
(brief and on regular schedule), appraising 
estimates of crops and livestock production, 
consumption prices, and the extent and nature 
of foreign trade in farm products 

2. Comprehensive analytical policy reports 
(as requested) 

3. Basic surveys (as requested) of the agri- 
cultural resources and requirements of a par- 
ticular country and of production, marketing, 
and consumption of a particular crop for a 
country or region 

4. Special reports on miscellaneous agricul- 
tural questions. 

It is also required that annual reports be pre- 
pared and submitted to the Department of State 
on port facilities and aircraft facilities. 

Ofiicers of the Foreign Service are also ex- 
pected, on their own initiative, to submit volun- 
tary reports on current industrial, agricultural, 
or commercial developments within their dis- 
tricts which in any way affect the industrial, 
agricultural, or commercial interests of the 
United States. Data voluntarily furnished to 
the Department of State usually take the form 
of commodity reports, financial reports, reports 
on sales-promotion methods, reports on pur- 
chasing, reports on expositions, tariff reports, 
reports on transportation, and reports on 
navigation, lighthouses, buoys, and shoals. 

Information thus obtained for the Depart- 
ment of State is promptly made available to 
the other interested governmental departments 
and agencies. The distribution to be made 
with respect to each document prepared by the 
Foreign Service is determined in the Depart- 
ment of State in accordance with the nature of 



the data which the document contains. Eco- 
nomic reports — monthly, quarterly, and an- 
nual — are customarily distributed, for example, 
to Department of Agriculture, Department of 
Commerce, Department of the Navy, War 
Department, Department of the Treasury, For- 
eign Economic Administration, Office of Stra- 
tegic Services, Office of Price Administration, 
War Production Board, Tariff Commission, 
War Shipping Administration, Federal Eeserve 
Board, and Office of the Coordinator of Inter- 
American Affairs. 

The Department of Agriculture is charged 
with the analysis and dissemination to Ameri- 
can agricultural interests of information re- 
lating to world supply and demand for agri- 
cultural products, the production, marketing, 
and distributing of agricultural products in 
foreign countries, and farm management, and 
any other phases of the agricultural industry 
prepared and submitted by the Foreign Serv- 
ice.^ The Bureau of Foreign and Domestic 
Commerce, Department of Commerce, and its 
district and cooperative office systems, under 
its statutory function to foster, promote, and 
develop the various manufacturing industries 
of the United States and markets for the same 
at home and abi'oad, domestic and foreign, has 
among its duties the gathering, compiling, 
analysis, and dissemination to American busi- 
ness interests of all useful information and 
statistics pertaining thereto, and the publica- 
tion of reports supplied by the Foreign Service 
relating to such trade and industry.^ One 
medium which the Department of Commerce 
uses in connection with the performance of 
this function is its weekly periodical entitled 
Foreign Commerce Weekly. The February 
12, 1944 issue of that periodical contains, for 
example, an article on "Canada's Surplus Dis- 
posal Program", which is based on economic 
reports received from the American Embassy 
at Ottawa, Canada.^ 

' 7 U.S.C. § 54. ' 15 U.S.C. § 175. 

'Reference will be made in the section headed 
"Publications" in future issues of the Bulletin to any 
other articles which appear in Foreign Commerce 
Weekly and which are based on economic reports pre- 
pared by the Foreign Service. 



184 



DEPARTMETVr OF STATE BULLE1TN 



The Department 



Treaty Information 



DIVISION OF COORDINATION AND 
REVIEW 

On February 10, 1944 the Secretary of State 
issued Departmental Order 1221, effective Feb- 
ruary 8, 1944, wliicli reads as follows : 

"There is hereby established a Division of 
Coordination and Review in the Office of De- 
partmental Administration. The Executive 
Assistant to the Secretary, Mrs. Blanche R. 
Halla, shall be Chief and Miss Sarah D. Moore 
and Miss Helen L. Daniel shall be Assistant 
Chiefs of the Division of Coordination and 
Review. 

"Resi^onsibility for the initiation and co- 
ordination of policy and action in matters 
pertaining to: (a) the review of all outgoing 
correspondence; (b) the coordination of corre- 
spondence for consideration and initialing 
before signing, and submission to appropriate 
officers for signature; and (c) the furnishing of 
information concerning diplomatic precedents, 
accepted styles of correspondence, and related 
matters, is hereby transferred from the Division 
of Communications and Records (as set forth 
under 4(b), page 35, of Departmental Order 
No. 1218 of January 15, 1944) to the Division 
of Coordination and Review. 

"The routing symbol of the Division of Coor- 
dination and Review shall be S/CR." 

APPOINTMENT OF OFFICERS 

By Departmental Order 1220 of February 8, 
1944, the Secretary of State designated Mr. 
Bernard F. Haley as Chief of the Commodities 
Division in the Office of Economic Affairs, effec- 
tive February 5, 1944. 

By Departmental Order 1222 of February 11, 
1944, the Secretary of State designated Mr. 
Robert Woods Bliss a Special Assistant to the 
Secretary, effective February 10, 1944. 



ARMED FORCES 

Agreement With Colombia Regarding Military 
Service by Nationals of Either Country Re- 
siding in the Other 

[Released to the press February 12] 

The following notes were exchanged by the 
Department of State and the Colombian Am- 
bassador at Washington in regard to the appli- 
cation of the Selective Training and Service Act 
of 1940, as amended, to Colombian nationals in 
the United States, on the basis of reciprocity : ^ 

January 27, 1944. 
Excellency : 

I have the honor to refer to conversations 
which have taken place between officers of the 
Colombian Embassy and of the Department of 
State with respect to the application of the 
United States Selective Training and Service 
Act of 1940, as amended, to Colombian nationals 
residing in the United States. 

As you are aware, the Act provides that with 
certain exceptions every male citizen of the 
United States and every other male person be- 
tween the ages of eighteen and sixty-five resid- 
ing in the United States shall register. The 
Act further provides that, with certain excep- 
tions, registrants within specified age limits are 
liable for active military sei'vice in the United 
States armed forces. 

This Government recognizes that from the 
standpoint of morale of the individuals con- 
cerned and the over-all military effort of the 
countries at war with the Axis Powers, it is de- 
sirable to permit certain nationals of cobelliger- 

' Agreements on this subject are now in effect with 
18 countries: Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Co- 
lombia, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, El Salvador, Greece, 
India. Mexico, New Zealand, Netherlands, Norway, Po- 
land, Union of South Africa, United Kingdom, and 
Yugoslavia. 



FEBRUARY 12, 1944 



185 



ent countries who have registered or who may 
register under the Selective Training and Serv- 
ice Act of 1940, as amended, to enlist in the 
armed forces of their own country, should they 
desire to do so. It will be recalled that during 
the World War this Government signed con- 
ventions with certain associated powers on this 
subject. The United States Government be- 
lieves, however, that under existing circum- 
stances the same ends may now be accomplished 
through administrative action, thus obviating 
the delays incident to the signing and ratifica- 
tion of conventions. 

This Government has, therefore, initiated a 
procedure pei-mitting aliens who have regis- 
tered under the Selective Training and Service 
Act of 1940, as amended, who are nationals of 
certain cobelligerent countries and who have not 
declared their intention of becoming American 
citizens to elect to serve in the forces of their 
respective countries, in lieu of service in the 
armed forces of the United States, at any time 
prior to their induction into the armed forces of 
this country. This Government is also afford- 
ing to such nationals, who may already be serv- 
ing in the armed forces of the United States, 
an opportunity of electing to transfer to the 
armed forces of their own country. The details 
of the procedure are arranged directly between 
the War Department and the Selective Service 
System on the pai't of the United States Gov- 
ernment and the appropriate authorities of the 
cobelligerent government concerned. It should 
be understood, however, that in all cases a per- 
son exercising an option under the procedure 
must actually be accepted by the military au- 
thorities of the country of his allegiance before 
his departure from the United States. 

Before the above-mentioned procedure is 
made effective with respect to a cobelligerent 
country, this Department wishes to receive from 
the diplomatic representative in Washington 
of that country a note stating that his gov- 
ernment desires to avail itself of the procedure 
and in so doing agrees that : 

(a) No threat or compulsion of any nature 
will be exercised by his government to induce 



any person in the United States to enlist in the 
forces of his or any foreign government ; 

(b) Reciprocal treatment will be granted to 
American citizens by his government; that is, 
prior to induction in the armed forces of his 
government they will be granted the oppor- 
tunity of electing to serve in the armed forces 
of the United States in substantially the same 
manner as outlined above. Furthermore, his 
government shall agree to inform all American 
citizens serving in its armed forces or former 
American citizens who may have lost their cit- 
izenship as a result of having taken an oath of 
allegiance on enlistment in such armed forces 
and who are now serving in those forces that 
they may transfer to the armed forces of the 
United States provided they desire to do so and 
provided they are acceptable to the armed forces 
of the United States. The arrangements for ef- 
fecting such transfers are to be worked out by 
the appropriate representatives of the armed 
forces of the respective governments ; 

(c) No enlistments will be accepted in the 
United States by his government of American 
citizens subject to registration or of aliens of 
any nationality who have declared their in- 
tention of becoming American citizens and are 
subject to registration. 

This Government is prepared to make the pro- 
posed regime effective immediately with respect 
to Colombia upon the receijJt from you of a note 
stating that your Government desires to par- 
ticipate in it and agrees to the stipulations set 
forth in lettered paragraphs (a), (b), and (c) 
above. 

Accept [etc.] 

For the Secretary of State : 

G. HowLAND Shaw 



[Translation] 

Embassy of Colombia, 
Washington, January ^7, 75^4- 
Me. Secretary : 

I have the honor to inform Your Excellency 
that I have received instructions from my Gov- 
ernment to accept the arrangement of an ad- 



186 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULUETCN' 



ministrative character proposed by Your Excel- 
lency in note 27 of the current month, with 
regard to the application to Colombian citizens 
of the United States Selective Training and 
Service Act of 1940. 

The Colombian Government accepts, on terms 
of reciprocity, the option proposed in favor of 
Colombian citizens registered under the afore- 
mentioned Act or who at present may be serving 
under the United States flag, of requesting their 
incorporation into or transfer to the Army of 
Colombia, as well as the guarantees stipulated 
in paragraphs (a), (b), and (c) of the note 
referred to. 

The Government of Colombia is prepared to 
put the proposed arrangement into force im- 
mediately and to study the details of its applica- 
tion with the appropriate authorities of the 
Government of the United States. 

On this occasion I repeat [etc.] 

Gabrtel Ttjrbat 



Publications 



Legislation 



American Prisoners of War in the Far East : Remarks 
of the Hon. Elbert D. Thomas, a Senator from the 
State of Utah, in the Senate of the United States 
February 7, 1944 relative to American prisoners of 
war in the Far East. S. Doe. 150, 78th Cong, ii, 3 pp. 

Draft of a Proposed Provision Pertaining to an Existing 
Appropriation, Foreign Economic Administration : 
Communication from the President of the United 
States transmitting draft of a proposed provision 
pertaining to an existing appropriation of the Foreign 
Economic Administration, designed to authorize ex- 
penditures necessary to return dependents of em- 
ployees of the Foreign Economic Administration and 
the State Department who were moved to foreign 
posts of duty at Government expense. H. Doc. 415, 
78th Cong. 2 pp. 



Depaktment of State 

The State Department Speaks. [A series of four 
broadcasts presented over the facilities of the Na- 
tional Broadcasting Company on January 8, 15, 22, 
and 29, 1944 to acquaint the American people with 
what the Department of State is doing to meet 
international problems.] Publication 2056. 65 pp. 
Free. 

Exchange of Official Publications : Agreement Between 
the United States of America and Iran — Effected by 
exchange of notes signed at Tehran August 21, 
1943; effective August 21, 1943. Executive Agree- 
ment Series 349. Publication 2052. 10 pp. 5<S. 

Military Mission : Agreement Between the United 
States of America and Paraguay — Signed Decem- 
ber 10, 1943 ; effective December 10, 1943. Executive 
Agreement Series 354. Publication 2054. 10 pp. 50. 

Jurisdiction Over Criminal Offenses Committed by 
Armed Forces : Agreement Between the United 
States of America and the United Kingdom of Great 
Britain and Northern Ireland — Effected by exchange 
of notes signed at London July 27, 1942; effective 
August 6, 1942. Executive Agreement Series 355. 
Publication 2055. 4 pp. 50. 

The Proclaimed List of Certain Blocked Nationals: 
Cumulative Supplement No. 5, February 11, 1944, 
to Revision VI of October 7, 1943. Publication 
2061. 62 pp. Free. 



Other Government Agencies 

"Canada's Surplus Disposal Program", prepared by 
the British Empire Unit, Bureau of Foreign and 
Domestic Commerce, on the basis of reports from 
Ottawa. Foreign Commerce Weekly, February 12 
1944, pp. 3, 4, and 24. (Department of Commerce.) 
100 from the Superintendent of Documents, Govern- 
ment Printing Office. 



U. S. OOVERNUENT PRtNTINC OFFICE, 1944 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, D. S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C. 
Price, 10 cents - - - - Subscription price, $2.75 a year 

POBLISBBD WEEKLY WITH THE AFFBOTAL OF THE DIBECTOB OF THE BUBEAU OF THB ODDOET 



^^s 



5. / rr 



ou 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



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FEBRUARY 19, 1944 
Vol. X, No. 243— Publication 2070 



ontents 




The War Page 

Exchange of American and German Nationals .... 189 
Ked Cross Aid to American Prisoners of War in the 

Far East 189 

American Republics 

Presentation of Letters of Credence by the Ambassador 

of the Argentine RepubHc 191 

Distinguished Visitors From Other American Re- 
publics 194 

The Far East 

Return From China of United States Telecommunica- 
tions Adviser 194 

The Department 

Liaison With the War Refugee Board 194 

Change in Title and Symbols for Office of Eastern and 

African Affairs 194 

Additional Responsibilities of the Telecommimications 

Division 195 

Appointment of Officers 195 

The Foreign Service 

Consulates 195 

Treaty Information 

Agriculture: Convention on the Inter- American Insti- 
tute of Agricultural Sciences 195 

Foodstuffs : Agreement With the Dominican Republic . 195 

Legislation 196 

Publications 196 



M, 9, ?'; 



XUMEHT? 



The War 



EXCHANGE OF AMERICAN AND GERMAN NATIONALS 



[Released to the press February 15] 

On February 15 the motorship Gripsholm 
left New York for Lisbon under safe-conduct 
from all the belligerents. It is carrying 18 
members of the former French diplomatic and 
consular establishments in the United States, 
26 German consular officials with their wives 
and families who came into the custody of the 
United States during military operations in 
North Africa, a German consular officer and 
wife taken in Italy, and several hundred Ger- 
man nationals who entered the United States in 
1942 from certain of the other American repub- 
lics en route to Germany but who were unable to 
continue their voyage at that time. Other pas- 
sengers include about 375 German nationals be- 
ing repatriated on humanitarian grounds be- 
cause of illness or other special circumstances 
and 131 seriously sick and seriously wounded 
prisoners of war, including 14 from Canada, 
who are being repatriated under the provisions 
of the Geneva Prisoners of War Convention. 

On its return voyage from Lisbon the Grips- g 
hohn will bring back to the United States the | 
staflF of the former American Embassy at Vichy 
and of the American consular offices in the 
former unoccupied zone of France, together 
with certain newspaper correspondents and re-? 
lief workers, numbering in all about 156, as well[ 



as 95 officials of certain of the other American 
republics, all of whom since early in 1943 have 
been held in Germany. Some members of these 
groups who for illness or other reasons were un- 
able to join them in Germany are expected to 
be added to the official party as it passes through 
France. 

In addition to the foregoing groups the Grips- 
holm is expected to embark at Lisbon for return 
to the United States about 375 nationals of the 
United States and of the other American repub- 
lics whom the German Government reciprocally 
is releasing for repatriation on humanitarian 
grounds, and a number of seriously sick and 
seriously wounded American prisoners of war 
who are being repatriated by the German Gov- 
ernment in accordance with the jirovisions of 
the Geneva Prisoners of War Convention. The 
Department of State has not yet received in- 
formation concerning the names of the persons 
to be included in these last two groups, as their 
selection will be made in Europe. 

Lists of those being repatriated will be made 

public as soon as they are received. 

if^ On the voyage to Lisbon and return, the 

Gripsholm will carry Red Cross relief supplies 

|for prisoners of war and civilian internees as 

jwell as prisoner-of-war and civilian-internee 

[mail. 



RED CROSS AID TO AMERICAN PRISONERS OF WAR IN THE FAR EAST 



[Released to the press by the American Red Cross February 13] 

On February 13 the American Red Cross in 
Washington, D. C, issued the following state- 
ment summarizing its efforts to get relief to 
American war prisoners in Japanese hands : 

The American Red Cross has spared and will 
continue to spare no effort to effect Japan's full 



compliance with the Geneva Prisoners of War 
Convention of 1929 and to establish a regular 
route for the shipment of supplies to prisoners 
of war and internees in the Far East. A chron- 
ological summary of steps which have been 
taken to date in this regard in full cooperation 
with the International Committee of the Red 

189 



190 

Cross and all the national Red Cross societies of 
the United Nations directly involved, follows : 

From December 7, 1941 to the end of January 
1943, 167 cables were sent by the American Eed 
Cross to Geneva, Switzerland, pertaining to 
the shipment of relief to American prisoners of 
war and civilian internees in the Fast East and 
related subjects. Many of these cables dealt 
with mail and communications facilities, while 
others were concerned with the local procure- 
ment of supplementary relief supplies by means 
of cash from the American Red Cross. 

As the Department of State has recently 
pointed out, although Japan is not a party to 
the Geneva Prisoners of War Convention, the 
Department, immediately after the outbreak of 
hostilities in the Fast East, obtained from the 
Japanese Government a commitment to apply 
the provisions of the convention to American 
prisoners of war, and, so far as adaptable, to 
civilian internees held by Japan. Following 
this, the Jajjanese Government approved the ap- 
pointment of International Committee delegates 
for permanent station in Japan, Shanghai, and 
Hong Kong. Despite repeated representations 
by the American Red Cross, however, the Japa- 
nese Government has yet to approve the ap- 
pointment of an International Committee dele- 
gate to function in the Philippines or even to 
visit the islands. 

On December 31, 1941 the International Com- 
mittee was asked to obtain Jajianese approval 
for a relief ship to carry supplies to prisoners of 
war and civilian internees in the Far East. 
When the American Red Cross was informed by 
the Committee that negotiations to that end 
were in progress, the Kanangoora^ a Swedish 
ship then berthed at San Francisco, was char- 
tered and loaded in the summer of 1942 with 
Canadian and American Red Cross supplies 
valued at over one million dollars. In August ' 
1942 the Japanese authorities finally refused 
safe-conduct for this ship and stated that no 
neutral vessel would be permitted in waters con- 
trolled by Japan. The charter of the Kanan- 
goora consequently was canceled and the ship 
unloaded. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLrETTNl 

Wliile these negotiations were under way the 
Japanese agreed to accept relief supplies 
shipped on diplomatic exchange vessels. The 
Gnpshohii, which was about to sail from New 
York on its first exchange voyage in June 1942, 
was accordingly loaded with more than 100 
tons of Ajnerican Red Cross supplies and an 
equal amount of Canadian, which eventually 
reached Yokohama in August 1942. It was ex- 
pected that a second exchange would follow 
immediately upon the return of the Gripsholm, 
and in September 1942 a second cargo was 
loaded. Because of the delay in concluding the 
exchange negotiations, however, these supplies 
were discharged from the GHpsholm, early in 
1943. 

Fully realizing that diplomatic exchange 
ships alone were at best nothnig more than a 
temporary expedient, and that a regular route 
should be established for the flow of relief sup- 
jilies to United Nations prisoners of war and 
civilian internees in the Far East, the Ameri- 
can Red Cross, through the State Department 
and the International Committee, undertook a 
series of steps in an effort to reach some under- 
standing with the Japanese authorities as to 
how this might be brought about. 

It was suggested in turn (1) that a neutral 
port be selected to which a neutral ship might 
carry relief supplies from the United States, 
the suppliers to be picked up at this neutral port 
by Japanese shij^s; (2) that the American Red 
Cross turn over to the Japanese a fully loaded 
ship in mid-Pacific or at any other point ac- 
ceptable to the Japanese; (3) that supplies be 
flown from the United States to a neutral point 
for relay to Japan; (4) that, if the necessary 
arrangements could be made with the Soviet 
Union, supplies be shipped on Soviet vessels to 
Vladivostok and then transshipped to Japa- 
nese-controlled territoi'y. 

The most far-reaching proposal was made in 
February 1943 when the American Red Cross, 
with the approval of the United States Govern- 
ment, offered to furnish to the Japanese Red 
Cross a ship to carry relief supplies to the Far 
East. The proposal then made was that a fully 
loaded ship be turned over to the Japanese at 



FEBRTJAEY 19, 1944 

any point specified by them — even in mid- 
Pacific if necessary — from there be manned by 
a Japanese crew, and, after the distribution of 
the supplies, be returned empty. The Japanese 
crew would then pick up a second fully loaded 
ship and the process would be repeated. 

The Japanese never even replied to this pro- 
posal. Instead, in April 1943 they suggested 
that they would consider accepting supplies sent 
by Soviet ships from a West Coast port to Vladi- 
vostok. The State Department secured the ap- 
proval of the Soviet Union to this suggestion, 
and at the end of May 1943 the State Depart- 
ment advised the Japanese of the Soviet agree- 
ment, at the same time asking them to specify 
the means they proposed to use in getting the 
supplies from Vladivostok to the camps. 
While awaiting the Japanese answer, the 
United States Government asked the Kussians 
to start carrying supplies to Vladivostok at 
once. In late August the Soviet Union agreed 
to carry 1,500 tons of supplies monthly on Soviet 
ships to Vladivostok. 

Although no definite agreement had been 
reached with the Japanese that supplies shipped 
to Vladivostok would be accepted by them and 
in due course be distributed to the prison camps, 
the American Red Cross and interested govern- 
mental agencies decided that, despite the risks 
involved, it was highly desirable to lose no more 
time in accumulating a stockpile of food, medi- 
cines, and clothing at the nearest point possible 
to the Far Eastern camps. The aim was to 
avoid any further delay in the distribution of 
supplies in the event -of Japanese agreement. 
Consequently, some 1,500 tons of urgently 
needed supplies were assembled and shipped 
from the West Coast and are now warehoused in 
Vladivostok. Further substantial amounts are 
ready in this country for immediate shipment 
as soon as the Japanese begin accepting the sup- 
plies already in Vladivostok. While the actual 
movement of goods was taking place, a series 
of cables were sent through Geneva to the Jap- 
anese Eed Cross urging a definite Japanese pro- 
posal for the distribution of the supplies. 
There has still been no definite plan from the 
Japanese side, but further steps to obtain a solu- 



191 

tion to this problem are receiving continuous 
consideration. 

The second shipment of American relief sup- 
plies on diplomatic exchange vessels was made 
in September 1943. The Gnpshohn then left 
New York with a cargo valued at over $1,300,- 
000, including 140,000 specially prepared 13- 
pound food packages, 2,800 cases of medical sup- 
lilies, including drugs, surgical instruments, and 
dressings, 7 million vitamin capsules ; and large 
quantities of clothing and comfort articles for 
men, women, and children. Tlie entire cargo 
was transferred to the Japanese exchange ves- 
sel Tela Mmni, which sailed eastward from Mor- 
mugao on October 21, 1943. About one half of 
these supplies, including 78,000 food parcels and 
73 tons of drugs and medicine, were unloaded at 
Manila on November 8, 1943 for distribution to 
camps in the Philippines. About a week later 
several hundred tons were unloaded at Yoko- 
hama for distribution in Japan and elsewhere 
in the Far East. 



American Republics 



PRESENTATION OF LETTERS OF CRE- 
DENCE BY THE AMBASSADOR OF THE 
ARGENTINE REPUBLIC 

[Released to the press February lu] 

A translation of the remarks of the newly ap- 
pointed Ambassador of the Argentine Repub- 
lic, Senor Dr. Don Adrian C. Escobar, upon the 
occasion of the presentation of his letters of cre- 
dence, Februai-y 15, follows : 

Mr. President: 

I have the honor to deliver to you the letters 
of credence with which my Government accred- 
its me as Ambassador Extraordinary and Pleni- 
potentiary and the letters of recall of my distin- 
guished predecessor; and in this circumstance it 
is a pleasure for me to transmit to you the senti- 
ments of admiration and fraternal friendship 
which the Government and people of Argentina 
cherish toward the great Republic of the North, 
with which we have always been joined by spir- 



192 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETDJ 



itual, material, and moral bonds which time has 
consolidated to the jooint of their becoming inde- 
structible. 

The Argentine people has just been stirred 
to its innermost depths by two very grave oc- 
currences: one of these, the tragic catastrophe 
of San Juan which cost many lives and enor- 
mous material destruction. That disaster fur- 
nished occasion for putting to the test once 
again the solidarity of feeling among the Amer- 
ican nations, and I am pleased to repeat to Your 
Excellency the gratitude of my country for the 
part which your country had in that sincere and 
spontaneous gesture. The other is the categori- 
cal determination which my Government has 
taken, interpreting the desire of our people, to 
break off relations with Germany and Japan, in 
view of the seriousness of activities which 
wounded its most noble sentiments. The Ar- 
gentine Government could not permit countries 
to which we are closely bound by traditional ties 
of friendship to be injured, since those activi- 
ties not only infringed on the national sover- 
eignty but compromised its foreign policy and 
attacked the security of the continent. 

Argentina knows and feels that the destiny of 
America is her own destiny. This thought, Mr. 
President, which is a double imperative, his- 
torical and geographical, contains a high sig- 
nificance for the relations among the sovereign 
countries of America which act with rectitude — 
relations which cannot be altered in spite of the 
differences which may arise in the evaluation of 
some essential questions. They must be clari- 
fied and settled in a friendly and cordial atmos- 
phere, since today, as yesterday and as tomor- 
row, the common objective cannot be other than 
the most complete reciprocal understanding. 
Thus ideas will be discussed, certain interests 
will for the moment be divergent, but over and 
above the occasional and ephemeral clash of 
ideas and interests is placed respect for the 
inmiutable principles of morality and justice. 

My country does not, in any manner, prac- 
tice isolation. It has maintained and will al- 
ways maintain the necessity for the closest im- 
ion among the peoples of America. Its history 
proclaims this. It does not seek benefits, nor 



shares, nor advantages. It recognizes fully the 
rights of others and firmly maintains its own. 
It has an honorable and untarnished tradition: 
it loves peace and never soiled its name by any 
aggression ; it submitted its fundamental ques- 
tions to arbitration, it set up principles and doc- 
trines universally recognized, and at congresses 
and conferences defined its policy with generous 
and broad concepts, which have been incor- 
porated as juridical standards in the common 
pittrimony of the nations of America. 

We desire, Mr. President, that the legal gains 
achieved at the Pan American congresses be con- 
solidated ; that the solidarity sealed at Lima be 
a living reality. To this end we have proposed 
to the limitrophe countries, without the most 
remote political aim, the study and formation of 
customs unions for the better economic develop- 
ment of the countries, members of such unions, 
and the attainment of a higher standard of liv- 
ing for the populations concei'ned. And it is 
our keenest desire to leave the doors wide open 
to the whole continent to adhere to this regime, 
thereby converting to a harmonious reality the 
dreams of Washington, of Bolivar, of San Mar- 
tin and so many great men of America. 

The good-neighbor policy, which you initi- 
ated, Mr. President, found in my country a 
sj'mpathetic echo and instantaneous welcome 
and, as you have said in speeches which are fa- 
mous, it must be understood that this new policy 
of the United States has a permanent character. 
For our part, I need not assure you that we shall 
tend toward the permanence of this reciprocal 
good-neighborhood. We must all be good 
neighbors and, moreover, good and sincere 
friends. 

From its first days as an independent nation 
Argentina practiced good-neigliborliness and 
made of fraternity an article of faith : she made 
an offering of the blood of her sons and her 
well-being for other American peoples fighting 
on the fields of battle for most noble ideals and 
contributing to the freedom of half a continent. 

When the peoples of America suffered mis- 
fortunes Argentina hastened to their aid with 
solicitude. But she did not limit her efforts to 
them but also offered her aid to distant and dis- 



FEBRUARY 19, 1944 



193 



similar countries when they were passing 
through a difficult situation. Thus, Argentina 
will now be present to aid the countries which 
are suffering the horrors of war, carrying out 
her mission with Christian generosity and dili- 
gent zeal. 

The Government of my country will con- 
tribute, within its means, to the great work of 
aid, reconstruction, and rehabilitation to take 
care of the disasters and calamities which are 
scourging the world. 

I hope that you. Excellency, who know my 
country, which had the gratification of receiv- 
ing you with cordial rejoicing, will offer me the 
necessary opportunities to the end that I may 
discharge my mission which is, without reserva- 
tion, that of a true rapprochement with the 
United States, of increasing cooperation, of sin- 
cere understanding and loyal friendship. 

Mr. President, in the name of the Argentine 
people and Government I formulate good wishes 
for the prosperity of the United States, and ex- 
press their warm desire for your personal hap- 
piness. 

The President's reply to the remarks of Seiior' 
Dr. Don Adrian C. Escobar follows : 

Mk. Ambassador : 

I am indeed happy to greet you and to re- 
ceive the letters accrediting you as Ambassador 
Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the Ar- 
gentine Government near the Government of 
the United States of America. I accept at the 
same time the letters of recall of your distin- 
guished predecessor. Dr. Felipe Espil, who will 
be remembered by his many friends in this 
country with deep affection and high esteem. 
Dr. Espil during his many years of service in 
the United States labored devotedly and un- 
ceasingly to bring about a deeper understand- 
ing between our two Governments and peoples. 

I thank you for your expression of the senti- 
ments of admiration and friendship cherished 
by the Government and people of Argentina for 
the United States. Similar sentiments have 
traditionally characterized the attitude of the 
Government and people of this country for the 



Argentine Republic. The two events referred 
to by you — namely, the disastrous earthquake at 
San Juan and the recent action of your Govern- 
ment in severing dii^lomatic relations with the 
Axis powers — have given rise to renewed dem- 
onstrations of that attitude. 

The tragic loss of life wliich occurred at San 
Juan aroused feelings of deep sympathy here as 
well as a desire to be of assistance to the afflicted 
peojDle of that region. 

The action of the Argentine Government in 
severing relations with Germany and Japan and 
Axis satellites has been received with satisfac- 
tion by free people everywhere. The impor- 
tance of this and other related matters con- 
nected with the eradication of subversive activi- 
ties in the promotion of the security of the 
Western Hemisphere against the continuing ag- 
gressions of the enemies of our civilization is 
manifest. 

These aggressions have taken manifold 
forms. 

They have included espionage conducted un-. 
der the auspices of the diplomatic missions of 
the Axis nations. 

Industries producing for United Nations war 
purposes have been sabotaged by agents of the 
Axis powers. 

All manner of subversive activities have been 
engaged in not only for the purpose of imped- 
ing the war effort of the United Nations but 
even in some cases with the object of overthrow- 
ing by violent means governments friendly to 
our common cause. 

All of these activities would have involved the 
most serious peril to our common interests if 
they had not been combated by the energetic 
and united action of the American republics. 
With the decision of your Government to co- 
operate fully in promoting the security of the 
continent, the Axis is severely handicapped in 
its conduct of operations in this hemisphere. 

I am pleased to express my whole-hearted 
agreement with your observations concerning 
the policy of the good neighbor. That policy 
not only has long-term implications of incalcu- 
lable importance ; it has also enabled the Amer- 
ican republics in a time of serious peril and 



194 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



grave threat to their independence to concert 
measures and take steps in unison for tlieir 
common defense. I am confident tliat the 
people of the United States have adopted this 
policy as' a part of their permanent political 
philosophy. 

I am very happy to extend to you, Mr. Am- 
bassador, a most cordial welcome and to assure 
you of my own desire and of the desire of the 
officials of this Government to render you every 
possible assistance in the fulfilment of your mis- 
sion. I am pleased also to have this opportu- 
nity of extending through you my best wishes 
for the happiness and welfare of the people of 
Argentina. 

DISTINGUISHED VISITORS FROM OTHER 
AMERICAN REPUBLICS 

[Released to the press February 18] 

Miss Maria Junqueira Schmidt of Rio de 
Janeiro, Brazil, has arrived in the United States 
as a guest of the Department of State. Miss 
Schmidt, who is a leader in the field of social 
welfare in Brazil and who is now planning her 
work as Director of the Cidade das INIeninas, 
will visit similar institutions in the United 
States in order to make an extensive study of 
the educational methods and techniques which 
have been developed in this country. 



The Far East 



RETURN FROM CHINA OF UNITED STATES 
TELECOMMUNICATIONS ADVISER 

[Released to the press February 18] 

Mr. Omar C. Bagwell of New York City has 
just returned from China, where he has served 
for the past year under the Department of State 
as a specialist in telecommunications. He 
traveled extensively in China inspecting exist- 
ing lines and giving advice to the Ministry of 
Communications in regard to oijerational mat- 
ters. He was also of assistance to the Ministry 
of Communications in connection with plans for 
the future development of China's long-distance 



telephone system. Mr. Bagwell was well quali- 
fied for this work by his service of many years 
as a representative in Spain of the International 
Telephone and Telegraph Company. 

Mr. Bagwell was one of 21 specialists who 
have been made available to the Government of 
China by the Department of State to assist that 
Government in its prosecution of the war. 



The Department 



LLUSON WITH THE WAR REFUGEE 
BOARD 

On February 18, 1944 the Acting Secretary of 
State issued Departmental Order 1227, effective 
February 16, 1944, which reads as follows : 

"Mr. George L. Warren is hereby designated 
Adviser on Refugees and Displaced Persons, in 
the Office of Wartime Economic Affairs, and 
Liaison Officer for the Department with the 
War Refugee Board established by Executive 
Order 9417 of January 22, 1944. 

'"AH matters pertaining to the Department's 
participation in the work of the War Refugee 
Board shall be cleared through ilr. Warren, 
who shall coordinate all refugee matters of con- 
cern to the Department. 

"Mr. Warren's routing symbol shall be 
WRB." 

CHANGE IN TITLE AND SYMBOLS FOR 
OFFICE OF EASTERN AND AFRICAN 
AFFAIRS 

On February 17, 1944 the Acting Secretary 
of State issued Departmental Order 1226, effec- 
tive February 15, 1944, which reads as follows : 

'■''Title for Office of Eastern and African Affairs 
"The title of the 'Office of Eastern and Afri- 
can Affairs', as stated in Departmental Order 
No. 1218, January 15, 1944, is hereby changed 
to read 'Office of Near Eastern and African 
Affairs'. The routing symbol of the Office of 
Near Eastern and African Affairs shall be NEA. 



FEBRUART 19, 1944 



195 



'•'■Change in Dwisional Syvibols 

"The routing sjanbols for the Division of 
Near Eastern Affairs shall be NE, for the Divi- 
sion of Middle Eastern Affairs, ME, and for the 
Division of African Affairs, AF. 

"Departmental Order No. 1218 is accordingly 
amended." 

ADDITIONAL RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE 
TELECOMMUNICATIONS DIVISION 

On February 14, 1944 the Acting Secretary of 
State issued Departmental Order 1224, effective 
Februarj^ 11, 1944, which reads as follows: 

"In addition to its responsibilities as set forth 
in Departmental Order No. 1218 of January 
15, 1944, the Telecommunications Division shall 
have responsibility for the initiation and coor- 
dination of policy and action in matters per- 
taining to: (a) the international aspects of 
mail and telephone communications, motion pic- 
tures (other than responsibilities assigned to 
the OiRce of Public Information) and (b) liai- 
son with the Post Office Department." 

APPOINTMENT OF OFFICERS 

By Departmental Order 1223 of February 12, 
1944, effective February 11, 1944, the Acting 
Secretary of State designated Mr. Cliarles A. 
Thomson, in addition to his responsibilities as 
Adviser to the Director of the Office of Public 
Information, as Acting Chief of the Division of 
Science, Education, and Art, and Mr. Willys R. 
Peck as a Special Assistant in the Office of 
Public Information. 



Treaty Information 



The Foreign Service 



CONSULATES 

The American Consulate at Palermo, Sicily, 
was reopened for the transaction of public busi- 
ness on February 11, 1944. 



AGRICULTURE 

Convention on the Inter-American Institute 
of Agricultural Sciences 

Dominican Reiyvhlic; Honduras 

By a letter dated February 4, 1944, the Di- 
rector General of the Pan American Union in- 
formed the Secretary of State that the Conven- 
tion on the Inter-American Institute of Agri- 
cultural Sciences, which was opened for signa- 
ture at the Pan American Union on January 15, 
1944, was signed for the Dominican Republic 
and Honduras on January 28, 1944. 

The convention was signed on January 15, 
1944 for the United States of America, Costa 
Rica, Nicaragua, and Panama, and for Cuba 
and Ecuador on January 20, 1944. 

FOODSTUFFS 
Agreement With the Dominican Republic 

[Released to the press February 18] 

On February 17 completion of an agreement 
whereby the entire exportable surplus of sev- 
eral Dominican foodstuffs will be sold exclu- 
sively to the United States Government through 
the Foreign Economic Administration in order 
to help meet shortages of food in the Caribbean 
and other areas, was announced jointly by the 
Dominican Government and the United States 
Department of State. The agreement is to ex- 
tend to June 30, 1945. 

The cooperative efforts of the Government of 
the Dominican Republic and of the Dominican 
food producers, resulting in increases of pro- 
duction at this critical time, are an important 
contribution to the total United Nations food- 
supply program and will add to the total sup- 
plies available for distribution to deficit areas. 
It will be of special value to Puerto Rico and 
other Caribbean islands now largely dependent 
on exports of food from the United States. 



196 

Shipments of food from the Dominican Re- 
public directly to these islands will result m sav- 
incr of shipping. The Dominican Government 
isljontributing substantially in this respect m 
providing a fleet of vessels for mter-island 
transportation of foodstuffs. 

Under an agreement signed previously,^ the 
Dominican Republic is selling exclusively to the 
United States for Caribbean areas its surplus ot 
corn, rice, and peanut cake. The new under- 
standing adds peanuts, red kidney beans and 
live cattle to the list. In addition, the United 
States receives an option to buy butter, eggs, 
fresh vegetables, and fruits. 




Uepoits To Be Made to Congress: Letter from the 
Clerk of the House of Representatives transmit- 
ting a list of reports which it is the duty of any 
officer or department to make to Congress. H. Doc. 
406 78th Cong. [List of reports to be made to 
Con'gress bv the Secretary of State, pp. 3-4.] 31 pp. 
United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Organization : 
Hearings Before the Committee on Foreign Relations, 
United States Senate, 78th Cong., 2d sess.. on 
HJ Res 192, a joint resolution to enable the 
United States' to participate in the work of the 
United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Or- 
ganization. February 9 and 10, 1944. ii, 50 pp. 
S. Rept. 688, 78th Cong., on H.J. Res. 192 [favorable 
report]. 14 pp. 
Supplemental Estimates of Appropriations for the 
State Department: Communication from the Pres- 
ident of tlie United States transmitting supple- 
mental estimates of appropriations for the fiscal 
year 1944, amounting to $3,493,500, for the Depart- 
ment of State. H. Doc. 418, 78th Cong. 4 pp. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLEITNI 

State, Justice, and Commerce Appropriation BiU, Fiscal 
Year 1945 (78th Cong., 2d sess.) : 
Hearings Before the Subcommittee of the Commit- 
tee on Appropriations, House of Representatives, 
on the Department of State Appropriation Bill 
for 1945. ii, 326 pp. 
H Rept. 1149, on the State, Justice, and Commerce 
Appropriation Bill, Fiscal Year 1945. [Depart- 
ment of State, pp. 4-11.] 33 pp. 
Supplemental Estimates of Appropriations for the 
Fiscal Year 1944: Communication from the Pres- 
ident of the United States transmitting supple- 
mental estimates of appropriations for the fiscal 
year 1944, amounting in all to $139,719,249. H. 
Doc. 424, 78th Cong. [Department of State, pp. 
4 and 14.] 17 pp. 
Investigation of Un-American Propaganda Activities: 
Report on the Axis Front Movement in the United 
States— Japanese Activities. (Appendix, Part 
VIII, Second Section.) viii, 148 pp. 
Investigation of the National Defense Program: Ad- 
ditional Report of the Special Committee Investi- 
gating the National Defense Program pursuant to 
S. Res. 71, 77th Cong., and S. Res. 6, 78th Cong. 
(Report of Subcommittee Concerning Investiga- 
tions Overseas; Section 1— Petroleum Matters). 
[Appendix VI, pp. 7fr-76, consists of a statement on 
"United States Foreign Petroleum Policy," winch 
was prepared in tlie Department of State.] iv, 
80 pp. 




' Executive Agreement Series 850. 



Dep-'^rtment of St.\te 

Access to Alaska Highway: Agreement Between the 
United States of America and Canada-Effected by 
exchange of notes signed at Ottawa April 10, 19«. 
Executive Agreement Series 362. Publication 2057. 

Diplomatic List, February 1944. Publication 2060. li. 
120 pp. Subscription, $1 a year ; single copy, 100. 



1. ». covniHiiEiiT PRiNTiNO ornet.it" 



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FEBRUARY 26, 1944 
Vol. X, No. 244— Publication 2073 



ontents 



The War Page 
The Combined Middle East Supply Program: Address 

by Frederick Winant 199 

Twenty-sixth Anniversary of the Red Army 204 

Repression of Axis Espionage Activities in Chile . . . 205 

Exchange of American and German Nationals .... 205 

American Republics 

Recent Developments in Argentina 205 

Centennial Celebration of the Independence of the 

Dominican Republic . 205 

General 

American Seamen and the Foreign Service: Article by 

Frances M. Dailor 206 

The Department 

Informational Activities and Liaison: Departmental 

Order 1229 of February 22, 1944 209 

Resignation of Thomas K. Finletter as Special Assistant 

to the Secretary of State 211 

Appointment of Officers 212 

Treaty Information 

Promotion of Inter -American Cultural Relations . . . 212 

Promotion of Historical Studies, Peru and Venezuela . 212 

Permanent Court of Arbitration 212 

Publications 212 




The War 



THE COMBINED MIDDLE EAST SUPPLY PROGRAM 

Address by Frederick Winant ^ 



[Released to the press February 23] 

In discussing this afternoon the current situa- 
tion and problems of civilian supplies to the Mid- 
dle East, I think it would be worth our while at 
the outset to review the situation and the prob- 
lems of the area during the earlier stages of the 
war. Bearing in mind that fateful day in Sep- 
tember 1939 when Poland was invaded, we must 
note the fearful events that occurred in the fol- 
lowing year — Dunkirk in May and the fall of 
France in June, and in the next year, 1941, the 
loss of Greece in April and our own Pearl Harbor 
in December. All these now historic events, cou- 
pled with the German attack on Russia in June 
1941, had their full impact on the countries and 
the peoples of the Middle East. In fact, these 
earlier events laid the stage for the military drama 
whereby the land known as the cradle of civiliza- 
tion miglit well have become known as the grave 
of civilization as well. Yes, it might have been 
tlie beginning and the end ! 

When the Mediterranean was lost to merchant 
shipping and the only faint promise of supporting 
the area was by way of the sea lanes around the 
Cape of Good Hope, it was clear to all and in par- 
ticular to the military that shipping had moved 
into position of first over-all priority. When you 
treble the voyage of a ship carrying cargo from 
one given port to another given port, you in effect 
reduce your shipping to one third of the original 
tonnage. To offset this practical loss in shipping 
and the enormous difficulties of using inferior and 



'Delivered before a meeting of the Commerce and In- 
dustry Association of New York, in New York City, Feb. 24, 
1944. Mr. Winant is an Adviser in the Eastern Hemi- 
.sithere Division, Department of State, and Chairman of 
the Middle East Supplies Committee, Washington. 



improperly equipped ports, the British military 
authorities created the Middle East Supply Center 
for the purpose of reorganizing transport for the 
better prosecution of the war. The thought back 
of the new organization was the need for better 
coordination of military and civilian shipping 
and the dire need for a single authority for deal- 
ing with the diverse elements of a civilian ship- 
ping program. It was an effort to bring some 
semblance of order to a hopeless situation of 
clogged ports with precious ships waiting end- 
lessly for unloading berths; and cargoes, when 
unloaded, piled into truly pyramid-like structure 
with little chance of onward movement. This 
confusion was caused to a large extent by the fact 
tliat a good part of the cargoes arriving were 
wholly unrelated to the war effort and just in the 
way militarily. The result was that the quantity 
of military supplies which reached the forces was 
not in accord with the seriousness of the situation. 

Not long after the formation of MESC along 
military lines, the Army found that high ranking 
generals and their deputies and aides were of 
necessity devoting too much time to the political 
and civic aspects of the problem. So that the 
generals might spend their full time on strategic 
and operational matters, the Center was trans- 
ferred from military control and placed under the 
authority of the Ministry of War Transport. It 
has remained essentially civilian in character 
since. 

The first objective of MESC was to reduce the 
importation of goods not directly related to the 
war effort, thus releasing shipping space and port 
facilities for the handling of the all-essential 
military items. In assuming the responsibility 
for reducing the non-essential items, MESC very 

199 



200 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



definitely assumed the responsibility for supplj'- 
ing the essential civilian items. Thus, although 
restrictive in character, the Center was not purely 
negative, and on essential items it has kept faith 
with the areas concerned. From the period of 
worst abuse, where goods of no war value ran as 
high as thirty percent of the arriving cargoes, 
MESC in the course of a little over a year was 
able to reduce this alarming figure to less than 
one percent. The accruing benefits to the mili- 
tary were handsomely and fortunately realized 
at the very time when Rommel was poised at El 
Alamein. Military supplies did come through — 
they were not too late nor were they too little. I 
would like to insert at this point that I know be- 
yond a shadow of a doubt that each and every 
one of you gentlemen here this afternoon sub- 
scribes whole-heartedly, regardless of actual or 
potential personal loss, to the premise that mili- 
tary items and items in direct support of military 
operations take jjrecedence over all other items. 

There was a period at El Alamein when the 
war became a battle of supplies. Complete ex- 
haustion of troops and materiel had forced a lull, 
but it was an ominous lull, one of foreboding for 
the side that could not recuperate quickly. Rom- 
mel's position in the bleak sands of the Quatarra 
Depression was untenable for any length of 
time; it was a certainty that he must make a final 
break for the fertile, lush fields of the Delta. 
Much credit for the ultimate British successes 
must go to the RAF, under their great leader Air 
Marshal Tedder, which consistently and with 
paralyzing effect blasted the German lines of sup- 
ply. But credit must also go to the positive side 
of the service of supplies which was re-equipping 
the great British Eighth Army. Over the long- 
est supply line in history the new improved Sher- 
man tanks and the new 105 mm. anti-tank guns 
and other vital equipment were coming through 
in ever-increasing volume from America. They 
were quickly placed in the competent hands of 
Generals Alexander and Montgomery, who lost 
no time in schooling the men of the Eighth Army 
in the handling of the new weapons. The MESC 
played no small part in effecting this orderly and 
smooth-working service of supply. 



In tracing the history of supplies to the Middle 
East, I will now take you back to Washington 
during the winter and spring of 1942. Sometimes 
it is difficult to think today in terms of yester- 
day. As we go home tonight and are exposed to 
the winter blasts, it is with incredulity that we 
try to recall our intense discomfiture during the 
torrid days of last summer. War — and I mean 
total war, to include those factors of supply such 
as raw materials, manpower, production, procure- 
ment, inland shipping, warehousing, and port 
handling — is in no sense static, either on the battle 
front or on the home front. Articles and com- 
modities in free supply change, seemingly, over- 
night. Conversely, items in tight supply sud- 
denly become available. Sometimes we forget 
the supply position of a short time ago. 

But to go back to the first half of 1942, you will 
perhaps recall the condition of extreme scarcity, 
you might even say famine, among such com- 
modities as steel, medical supplies, agiicultural 
machinery, and others. We can always remember 
that period with pride. Our country was building 
a mighty Army and Navy and providing them 
with the necessary fighting equipment. It was an 
heroic accomplishment, second only to the heroic 
achievements of that Army and Navy in action. 
But during the period of arming our forces there 
was little chance of satisfying civilian needs. 
There just was not enough stuff to go around. 
Individual exjDort orders had tough going as a 
general rule. With the factories going full blast 
on war orders, it was seldom that an individual 
private order could receive sufficient priority to 
carry it through the production line. 

It was during this time of near embargo on most 
civilian-type goods that questions and problems 
concerning supplies to the Middle East began to 
arise. Quite often the Middle East governments 
would request assistance in providing certain arti- 
cles for their countries. The problem at the time 
was not so much the terms under which the goods 
could be moved overseas but whether the goods 
could be gotten there at all. 

In working on these problems, I began to bump 
into the Middle East Supply Center of Cairo for 
the first time. To boil down the details, I made a 
study of the organization. It appeared to embody 



FEBRUARY 2 6, 194 4 



201 



a thoroughlj' realistic approach to a wartime sup- 
ply problem. In the first place, it provided the 
best and only machinery for the optimum utiliza- 
tion of shipping space for the direct war effort. 
In the second place, it provided protection to the 
people and stability to the area engulfed by war. 
It thus offered a double-edged sword : one edge for 
cutting down the Germans ; the other edge for cut- 
ting down famine and epidemics, those other grim 
reapers who also stalk the lands of innocent people. 

The other aspect of MESC which caught my 
attention was that here was a British organiza- 
tion working in conjunction with the local terri- 
torial governments in determining what imports 
were needed from the U.K. and the U.S.A. It 
seemed that for supplies coming from the U.S.A. 
there should be full American participation in 
passing on the requirement applications. To be 
sure, the actual authority for the release of Ameri- 
can goods for export was in Amercan hands in 
Washington. However, the main point in decid- ' 
ing exports was generally on the basis of essenti- 
ality, and the determination of essentiality seemed 
logically to belong to those supply people on the 
spot who were naturally more cognizant of the 
particular requirement and the general require- 
ments of a given country and of the over-all re- 
quirements of the area as a whole. 

And then again, there was the question of ship- 
ping. Shipping during war properly follows the 
course of military operations. The Middle East 
theater of war was under British military respon- 
sibility. As such, shipping to the Middle East 
was in conformity with British military plans. To 
orient this period in military chronology, I will 
remind you that the time was after the British 
had successfully cleared Eritrea, Italian Somali- 
land, and Ethiopia of Italian troops, and were 
then engaged M'ith Rommel's Afrika Korps in the 
desert warfare which produced so many startling 
results. It was also at the time when the vanguard 
of the American troops was reaching the area. 

In this complex situation of supply and shipping 
and British military responsibility, our wish was 
to give 100 percent support to the military action 
against the Germans and at the same time to do 
what we could under war exigencies to sustain the 
internal economy of those countries of the Middle 
East with whom we had been on friendly terms 



for so long. As we pondered the question, we re- 
ceived a cordial invitation from the British Gov- 
ernment to participate, to whatever extent we 
should determine, in the affairs of the Middle East 
Supply Center in Cairo. Favorable response on 
our part would seem to supply the answer to our 
perplexing problem, and accordingly our Govern- 
ment agreed to send to the MESC a civilian and a 
military representative. This occurred in the 
spring of 1942. 

As for the designation of the U.S. representa- 
tives, the War Department appointed General Rus- 
sel Maxwell, whom you will remember favorably 
from the earliest days of export control and who 
at that time was the Commanding General for all 
American forces in the Middle East ; the State 
Department, to my surprise, appointed me. I 
might add parenthetically that in the spring of 
igil I had left my business at home and had gone 
down to Washington to offer my sendees to the 
War Department. It seemed to me then that we 
were likely to be drawn into the war for our own 
preservation and for the preservation of our way 
of life and our form of government. At any rate, 
it was apparent that we were in troubled times and 
that at least greatly increased defense measures 
were necessary. The War Department was not 
greatly moved by my offer, pointing out that I 
was beyond the desirable age group and holding 
fast to the fact that I had been retired from active 
duty shortly after the last war because of gunshot 
wounds received in action. At this time I met 
General Maxwell and as he seemed to think I might 
be of some use in the then new export-control set- 
up, I was glad to join him in the new undertaking. 
Just to round out the picture of my own wartime 
service, I subsequently transferred to the State 
Department where I served as liaison officer with 
the Lend-Lease Administration until I received 
traveling orders for Cairo. 

As I have said, I was asked to go out to the 
Middle East as the U.S. civilian representative to 
the MESC. I accepted on the basis that I might 
take three men with me to conduct an initial sur- 
vey. For my staff I requested one man with lend- 
lease experience, one with OEW experience, and 
the third to be experienced in agriculture. I was 
particularly anxious to have an agricultural ex- 



202 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



pert along as I felt sure that as the pressure of 
war increased, food would become of increasing 
concern. 
' As i left Washington on the first of July, I was 
able to read in the papers all about the Middle 
East. Kommel had made the area headline news. 

The latter portion of my trip out might be of 
interest to you. The flight from Kliartoum to 
Cairo was unique, probably not likely to be re- 
peated. We began at normal flying height, but 
as we got deeper into Egypt we dropped to an 
unusually low altitude. You see we were enter- 
ing the combat zone and the plane's radio was 
barred. We flew low so our plane might be readily 
identified as a friendly aircraft. Under these fly- 
ing conditions I watclied from my perch on a large 
packing crate tlie country passing below. We were 
over the Nile for most of the last leg of the journey 
so I was privileged to observe at close range the 
extraordinarily intensive farming of that narrow 
border of land so well nourished by the great Nile 
Eiver. It appeared like a patchwork quilt 
through which was woven a silver ribbon. 

Of all the waterways which have meant life and 
living to the human race, there is none comparable 
to the Nile. For thousands of years this thread- 
like watercourse has been the bloodstream, the 
nervous system, and the backbone of Egypt. Out 
of the barren desert, the coupled forces of the Blue 
Nile and the White Nile have reclaimed a strip 
of arable land which has supported from the be- 
ginning of history one of our most ancient of races 
and which unstintingly continues to support the 
ever-increasing Egyptian population. Even its 
surface manifestations offer a liarmonious blend- 
ing of beauty and utility. With no cross-currents 
and few cross-winds, the picturesque feluccas pass 
in the river — one sailing upstream with a favor- 
able breeze, the other drifting downstream with 
an equally favorable current. Small wonder that 
the Egyptians love the Nile ! 

On arrival in Cairo, my reception was on the 
undemonstrative side. At sunset our Pan-Air pilot 
put us down neatly and gently on the civilian air- 
field. But there was no ground crew to take over. 
Thinking that the system had been changed, the 
pilot hopped us over to the military field and again 
let us down with the touch of an artist. Our pres- 



ence here did not go unnoticed. A U.S. staff car 
raced over and a sergeant bellowed, "The Com- 
manding General says for you to get the hell off 

this field with that g d big commercial 

plane." We again took to the air and went back 
to the commercial field where we unloaded our- 
selves and hitch-hiked into town. The next morn- 
ing I learned tliat the Germans were at the time 
in the habit of bombing military objectives, and I 
could fully understand the General's perturbation 
at having our Douglas plane serve as a large "sit- 
ting duck" on his military preserve. 

Cairo, generally known as the most cosmopolitan 
of the cities of the world, was outdoing itself in 
picturesqueness. To the teeming native popula- 
tion, there were added legions of troops. You saw 
soldiei's from India — the heavy-set and heavy- 
bearded Sikhs and the lighter, wiry Gurkhas; you 
saw the ever-colorful Australians and Scots, the 
New Zealanders and the South Afi'icans, and hosts 
of "Tomany Atkins". You saw French and legion- 
naires of most of the United Nations. I suppose 
in wars the centers of communication systems will 
always be crowded with the military. Cairo will 
undoubtedly remain the number one international 
crossroad of the world. It is where the East meets 
the West, but where, it has been demonstrated be- 
yond a doubt, the Germans will never meet the 
Japs! 

Most of you are familiar with the area but 
perhaps you do not all realize that when we speak 
of the "Middle East" in this supply service, we 
mean an area which, starting with Malta, includes 
Cyprus, Lebanon, Syria, Palestine, Trans-Jordan, 
Iraq, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Aden, Somalilands, 
Eritrea, Ethiopia, Sudan, Egypt, Cyrenaica, 
Tripolitania, and in some instances, Turkey. 
There are eighteen political areas involved which 
offer the following varied patterns of government : 
six sovereign states, four British colonies, four 
mandated states, three territories formerly be- 
longing to the enemy, and one condominium. 
The total area is larger than continental United 
States, with an estimated population of 83 million. 
Offliand, I cannot think of a more complex politi- 
cal and economic group for servicing in the matter 
of civilian supplies under war conditions. 



FEBRUARY 2 6, 1944 



203 



Of course Cairo is the noi-mal headquarters of 
the MESC, and there are local offices in each of 
the areas. When 1 first visited the Center there 
were 100 persons in the organization. At that 
time the regional offices were generally housed 
with the British Legations. The changing-over of 
this entirely British organization to an Anglo- 
Anierican complexion has been gradual due to the 
extreme difficulty of getting American civilians to 
those distant lands. Shortly after my arrival 
there I was joined by the three men who had been 
selected by Lend-Lease, Economic Warfare, and 
Agriculture — Bill Rountree, Marshal MacDuffie, 
and Ben Thibodeaux. There could not have been 
a better team, but when it was decided that we 
should join in the aperations of the Center and 
asked for the necessary additional personnel from 
home, nothing happened beyond cabling. No sub- 
stantial increase in American personnel occurred 
imtil early last summer, when everybody concerned 
got together and started pushing people abroad. 
At the present time there are some 90 people out 
there on the American side working on supplies 
and general economic matters. It is difficult to 
say exactly how many of these may be considered 
as working in the Center. We have treated lend- 
lease as an American operation, and consequently 
cei-tain lend-lease men are stationed at the Ameri- 
can Legation in Cairo. Perhaps we can say 50 
Americans are connected with the Center. 

With the added American strength in the field, 
we are placing men in the regional offices. In otlier 
words, we are fast approaching a truly Anglo- 
American composition in the Center's set-up. 

In the matter of American participation in 
MESC, I have always advocated adequate repre- 
sentation but not necessarily equality in numbers — 
what might be termed equality of voice regardless 
of numbers. It has seemed to me that what we 
wanted was a selected group of experienced men 
who could be placed at the strategic points in the 
organization. I believe we should have an Amer- 
ican staff sufficient to make a real contribution to 
the day-to-day work of the Center and to add the 
American slant to policy decisions. The organ- 
izational chart of the Center provides for five 
divisions : Food, Materiel Supplies, Motor Trans- 
port, Medical Supplies, and Secretariat. An 
American serves as Director of the Materiel Sup- 



plies, and another American is on his way to take 
charge of Medical Supplies. In the important 
Food Division there is an American serving as 
Assistant Director on food production. The 
British Director, incidentally, graduated from 
Cornell University. For Motor Transport we 
have an excellent man lined up, and he should 
soon join MESC as Assistant Director. Sprin- 
kled throughout the Divisions are the other Amer- 
icans assigned to the Center. On the top 
administrative side are a Director General — an 
Australian — and a Deputy Director General — a 
New Zealander. Above this is a Policy Com- 
mittee — or as I believe it is described today, a 
Directing Committee — consisting of two Britishers 
and two Americans. 

A brief description of the requirement pro- 
cedure might be of interest. Allocation of ship- 
ping tonnage is established by the combined ship- 
ping authorities and Cairo is notified of the 
schedule proposed for the ensuing six-month 
period. Cairo in turn informs the local govern- 
ments of their expected quota. Within the frame- 
work of this program the local govermnent issues 
import licenses. The government then files with 
the local MESC office a list of the impoi-t permits 
granted, which list is forwarded to Cairo. MESC 
in Cairo reviews the several regional lists in ac- 
cordance with the original schedules and in the 
light of current information on shipping and pro- 
curement. The final approved list with shipping 
priorities is sent on to Washington and London. 
Cairo might be said to provide an equitable corre- 
lation of the regional wants as well as to supply 
the most current information on shipping and 
procurement. 

The determination of the supply area for Mid- 
dle East requirements is difficult on certain ar- 
ticles, but fairly clear on most. The controlling 
principle is of course the best prosecution of the 
war. But other things being equal — that is, in 
the absence of an overriding war requirement 
such as shipping, supply, and the like — the choice 
of the importer prevails. He determines from 
where and from whom he shall buy. 

In speaking of source of supply, the natural 
question comes to mind, "Wliat source has supplied 
the goods to the Middle East?" The answer is 
several sources ; in most cases the source which is 



204 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



nearest to the requirement. If a requirement can 
be met from a surplus of one of tlie adjoining areas, 
that source is always tapped first. The war has 
naturally given an impetus to local production. 
If the product is for the war effort, the production 
has been encouraged and aided by MESC. Just 
as a single example, we have made strenuous ef- 
forts to increase the growth and yield of cereal 
crops. We have been able to get out to the area 
a limited quantity of agricultural machinery and 
a certain quantity of Chilean nitrates. By pro- 
viding shipping space for this machinery and fer- 
tilizer we save enormously on later shipments of 
wheat. We not only make a provident investment 
in shipping but we also insure that there will be 
foodstuff on hand regardless of tlie difficulties and 
hazards of the sea. Similar support has been 
given to local industries with the result that the 
area as a whole has achieved a surprising degree 
of self-sufficiency. By this part of the program 
MESC has been credited with the saving of better 
than a million tons of shipping space for the use 
of the military during the year 1942. 

When a requirement cannot be met from a 
source witliin the area, the next nearest supply 
area is selected, always bearing in mind that long 
ocean haul on products of the U.S.A. and the U.K. 

Of course, because of production capacity in the 
U.S.A. and the U.K., these sources are resorted to 
on many items. As to the relative standing be- 
tween these two sources of supply, the exports from 
the U.K. have shown a proportionately greater 
reduction over peacetime exports than the expoi-ts 
from the U.S.A. Although figures during the war 
years may not be published, I may say that the 
relative position has changed materially from a 
pre-war year such as 1938 when U.S. exports to the 
Red Sea area were $24,500,000 as compared with 
$65,000,000 from the U.K. In fact during the past 
year or so the civilian goods imported into that 
area have been predominantly of U.S. origin. 

Perhaps you wonder to what extent commercial 
orders of U.S. origin have been displaced by lend- 
lease shipments. The significance of civilian lend- 
lease goods to normal trade channels has not been 
as great as is generally accepted. Commercial 
channels have retained by far the greater portion 
of the supplies destined for civilian end use in the 
Middle East. 



In discussing angles of this sort, I would like to 
point out that there are necessary restrictions in 
divulging statistical information because of the 
inherent connection between civilian and military 
shijDments. The civilian program is superimposed 
on the military program and therefore becomes a 
matter to be treated as confidential. The drastic 
cuts in civilian exports to the Middle East during 
the fall of 1942 and early 1943, if published at the 
time, would have been a perfect tip-off to the North 
African campaign and its subsequent develop- 
ments. 

As I wish to make way for my friend and able 
associate from FEA — Jack Dawson— I shall con- 
clude my remarks with the observation that in my 
opinion the adoption of a combined Middle East 
supply program was, and still is, the only feasible 
scheme for getting on with the war and for pro- 
viding the areas concerned with sufficient civilian 
supplies to sustain an orderly economy. 

In final conclusion, I wish to express my ap- 
preciation to you for this opportunity of discus- 
sing with you our mutual problems involved with 
civilian supplies to the Middle East under war 
conditions. 

TWENTY-SIXTH ANNIVERSARY OF THE 
RED ARMY 

[Released to the press February 23] 

The President has sent the following message to 
Marshal Joseph V. Stalin, Supreme Commander 
of the armed forces of the Union of Soviet Social- 
ist Republics, on the occasion of the tvrenty-sixth 
anniversary of the Red Army : 

February 22, 1944. 

On this twenty-sixth anniversary of the Red 
Army I wish to convey to you as Supreme Com- 
mander my sincere congratulations on the great 
and significant victories of the armed forces of the 
Soviet Union during the past year. 

The magnificent achievements of the Red Army 
under your leadership have been an inspiration to 
all. The heroic defense of Leningrad has been 
crowned and rewarded by the recent crushing de- 
feat of the enemy before its gates. Millions of 
Soviet citizens have been freed from enslavement 
and oppression by the victorious advance of the 
Red Army. 



FEBRUARY 26, 1944 



205 



These achievements together with the collabora- 
tion and cooperation which was agreed upon al 
Moscow and Tehran assure our final victory over 
the Xazi aggressors. 

Franklin D RoosE^•ELT 

REPRESSION OF AXIS ESPIONAGE 
ACTIVITIES IN CHILE 

[Released to tUe press February 23] 

The Acting Secretary of State at his press and 
radio news conference February 25 made the fol- 
lowing statement in reply to a request for com- 
ment on the Chilean Government's recent action 
in respect to Axis espionage activities in Chile : 

"The Chilean Government has again given con- 
crete evidence of its constant readiness to move 
effectivelj' and energetically to stamp out Axis 
espionage activities. Its recent action is in line 
with Chile's policy of repression of acts hostile to 
continental security. 

"This further proof of the Chilean Govern- 
ment's sincere desire to make effective its commit- 
ments at the Rio de Janeiro conference is deeply 
gratifying. Chile has taken another important 
step in the defense of the hemisphere." 

EXCHANGE OF AMERICAN AND GERMAN 

NATIONALS 

[Released to the press February 26] 

The M. S. Gripsholm is expected to arrive in the 
United States sometime during the period from 
March 10 to 15, bringing Americans who have 
been detained by Germany. 

The American Red Cross will be the only social 
agency on the pier when the Gnpsholm arrives 
from Lisbon and will be responsible for giving 
information to repatriates, delivering mail, tele- 
grams, and messages. 

For security reasons relatives and friends will 
not be permitted on the pier in New Jersey. They 
should remain at their hotels, homes, or other 
points of contact away from the pier and should 
advise the American Red Cross as to their location 
and telephone numbers in New York City. Mail 
and telegrams for repatriates arriving on the 
Gripsholm should be addressed as follows : 

"Mr. John Doe, Gripsholm Repatriate, 
c/o American Red Cross, 
Postmaster, New York, N. Y." 



Repatriates requiring assistance in obtaining 
transportation from the pier in New Jersey to 
Manhattan will be provided with motor-corps 
service by the American Red Cross. 

Financial assistance, assistance with travel ar- 
rangements, or other appropriate services will be 
arranged, if requii'ed by repatriates, by the Ameri- 
can Red Cross through referral to the various 
agencies concerned. The office through which 
such arrangements will be made is located at 315 
Lexington Avenue, New York City. 

Civilian repatriates on the Gnpsholm are being 
advised of the detailed arrangements made for 
their reception at New York City. 



American Republics 



RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN ARGENTINA 

[Released to the press February 20] 

The Acting Secretary of State at his press and 
radio news conference on February 25 made the 
following statement concerning the recent de- 
velopments in Argentina : 

"The information regarding the overnight 
Argentine development is not complete but is still 
coming in. The reports at hand do give ground 
for concern. It is quite possible that questions 
may be raised aflfecting the security of the hemi- 
sphere which might well call for an exchange of 
information and views between the American 
republics." 

CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION OF THE INDE- 
PENDENCE OF THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 

On February 22, 1944 it was announced that the 
Honorable Frank P. Corrigan, American Ambas- 
sador to Venezuela, had succeeded the Honorable 
Charles W. Taussig as chairman of the special 
delegation which had been designated by the 
President ' to represent the United States at a cele- 
bration at Ciudad Trujillo between February 23 
and March 3, 1944, commemorating the first cen- 
tennial of the proclamation of the independence 
of the Dominican Republic. 



• BULLETHN of Dec. 4, 1943, p. 394, and Feb. 12, 1944, p. 180. 



General 



AMERICAN SEAMEN AND THE FOREIGN SERVICE 

By Frances M. Bailor ^ 



Since December 1941 the number of seamen 
serving aboard American ships in foreign opera- 
tion has increased approximately from 50 thou- 
sand to 150 thousand. During that period more 
than 10 thousand shipwrecked American seamen 
have been repatriated from foreign ports. These 
figures give some indication of the increased re- 
sponsibilities which have faced American consu- 
lar officers at seaports. The primary duty of 
these officers is the protection of American sea- 
men and shipping, the most ancient function of 
the American Consular Service. 

The work of consular officers has been compli- 
cated not only by the increased number of cases 
but also by the antiquated nature of the laws 
under which these cases must be administered." 
The care and repatriation which consular officers 
furnish American seamen is based upon a sea- 
man's official ''condition of destitution". An 
American seaman who is in fact destitute is en- 
titled to relief and repatriation at the hands of 
a consular officer regardless of the cause of his 
destitution. The statutes provide further that 
two classes of seamen are destitute regardless of 
the amount of money in their possession : (1) ship- 
wrecked seamen and (2) those who have incurred 
illness or injury in the service of an American 
vessel. 

The statutes in themselves are clear enough, but 
conditions which have evolved since their enact- 
ment have rendered their administration compli- 

' The author of this article is in charge of the Seamen's 
Section of the Shipping Division of the Department of 
State. 

''Among the basic laws which contain provisions for the 
protection of American seamen are an act of Apr. 14, 1792 
(1 Stat. 254), an act of Feb. 28, 1S03 (2 Stat. 203), and 
an act of June 7, 1872 (17 Stat. 262). References to 
these acts and to other relevant legislation will he found 
in 46 U.S.C. §§ 593, 678, and 679. 

' Derived from the act of .Tune 7, 1872. 

' Derived from the act of Feb. 28, 1803. 
206 



cated. For example, the "shipwreck law" ^ pro- 
vides that the wages of a seaman shall cease with 
the loss of a vessel and the seaman shall be con- 
sidered destitute. This was not illogical in the 
days when the law was enacted. Each ship at 
that time was usually an individual enterprise and 
adventure which one person or group of persons 
financed, and, if the vessel were lost, the owners 
were frequently almost as destitute as the seamen. 
Therefore no further wages could be paid by the 
owners and the only way to get the men home was 
to have the Government assume responsibility. 

Today fleets of ships fully covered by insurance 
are operated by responsible corporate entities and 
the seamen's wages continue after shipwreck. 
Despite the fact that seamen may not be actually 
destitute after the loss of their vessel, they are 
still legally destitute and the Government is re- 
sponsible for their care and repatriation. 

It is further stipulated by statute* that such 
seamen are to be cared for and repatriated "in the 
most reasonable manner". This cannot be inter- 
preted generally to mean housing at a first-class 
hotel and repatriation by airplane. Thus a con- 
sular officer who is obliged to repatriate a ship- 
wrecked seaman finds himself bound by law to 
repatriate "in the most reasonable manner" a "des- 
titute" seaman who is drawing full pay. This 
often fails to satisfy a seaman who could himself 
afford better accommodations and means of travel. 

In 1937 and 1938 the United States Maritime 
Commission adopted regulations providing that 
seamen serving aboard vessels owned or subsidized 
by the Maritime Commission should be cared for 
and repatriated by the operators. This started a 
trend toward assumption of responsibility by the 
large shipping concerns, which soon carried, as a 
matter of course, protection and indemnity in- 
surance to cover these liabilities. 

The seamen's unions furthered the trend by con- 
cluding bargaining agreements with the operators 



FEBRUARY 2 6, 194 4 



207 



which provided for care and repatriation of sea- 
men on a considerably higher scale than that pos- 
sible ''by the most reasonable means" as provided 
by law. Thus seamen became accustomed to ex- 
cellent accommodations in port and during repa- 
triation. Since the advent of the war, American 
consular officers have been faced with a legal re- 
sponsibility to furnish some 10 thousand American 
seamen with care and repatriation jn a style to 
which their involuntary guests were not and did 
not care to become accustomed. 

The War Shipping Administration, which con- 
trols all American shipping at the present time, 
came to the rescue with operations regulations 
which provided for care, repatriation, and cash ad- 
vances to be furnished by the operators. Foreign 
Service officers may furnish destitute American 
seamen clothing, subsistence, hospitalization, and 
repatriation . but have no authority to disburse 
governmient funds in cash advances unless the 
operators deposit funds therefor with the 
Department. • 

The necessity for depositing funds obviously 
causes delay, and to seamen coming ashore after 
days in an open boat a package of cigarettes is 
often more essential than a suit of clothes. Many 
crews have been furnished cigarettes and candy 
bars from consuls' personal funds because the con- 
suls could not ask the seamen to wait until the 
requirements of the regulations should be met. 
The War Shipping Administration regulations 
provide that upon arrival ashore after shipwreck 
seamen may receive advances of $50 each from the 
operators' agents. 

The resourcefulness of American consular offi- 
cers has been tested many times during this war. 
From February 1 to September 30, 1942, 2,954 
seamen survivors — American, Allied, and Asi- 
atic — passed through one port which had very 
limited housing facilities, limited food supplies, 
and inadequate recreation facilities. The Con- 
sulate was faced with the task of securing for the 
seamen proper medical attention, sufficient food 
and shelter, and the earliest possible transporta- 
tion. The Consul and Vice Consuls were occupied 
day and night for weeks meeting the needs which 
the situation demanded. 

About a year ago, there were for over a month 
200 shipwrecked American seamen in the Azores 



along with approximately 100 shipwrecked sea- 
men from other United Nations vessels. Supplies 
of clothing, food, and recreation facilities were 
sorely taxed. Transportation was almost im- 
possible to obtain, and instead of the usual week 
or ten days before repatriation, six weeks elapsed 
before the Consul succeeded in returning all the 
men to the United States. As a result of this ex- 
perience, the Red Cross and War Shipping Ad- 
ministration have assisted in increasing the sup- 
plies of clothing, toiletries, and means of enter- 
tainment in that area so that a similar situation, 
if one should arise, will be more adequately met. 
One Consul in South America received word that 
a number of American seamen survivors had 
landed on a remote shore of Brazil. In his own 
words, "Our first consideration was to locate the 
survivors and carry food, clothing and medical 
assistance to them, our secondary consideration 
was to get them to civilization where they could 
be properly eared for . . ." The Consul with 
two Navy doctors departed in a Navy plane. He 
continues: 

"Upon arriving at Sao Luiz, Maranhao, we 
found it impossible to communicate with Parnaiba, 
Piaui and could get no further information as to 
the actual whereabouts of the survivors. We there- 
fore continued on some 250 miles endeavoring to 
pick up Barreirinhas. At about 4 p.ni. we put the 
plane down at a point indicated on the map as Ba- 
rreirinhas. Here we ran aground, getting off only 
with difficulty because of a falling tide. On taking 
off again we barely escaped cracking up because 
of the rough water. The pilot decided not to risk 
the ship again by going on to Parnaiba and in- 
sisted upon returning to Sao Luiz. From there 
we cabled . . . for a Baby Clipper ... It was 
not until 3 : 30 p.m. of the following day . . . that 
the heavier Baby Clipper arrived at Sao Luiz. 
We loaded aboard the meager supplies of clothing 
and food we had been able to buy in Sao Luiz and 
went on to Parnaiba where we spent the night. 
The pilot had a report that there was not sufficient 
water and runway at Barreirinhas and had de- 
cided not to go in but to return to Belem in the 
morning. This left us in a position of being within 
striking distance of the survivors with supplies 
and medical help but unable to get to them. We 
explored the possibilities of renting a sea-going 



208 



DEPAETMENT OF STATE BULLETEN' 



tug but were advised it could not get over the 
sand bar at the moutli of the river on which the 
town is located. After some discussion and local 
inquiries as to the water at Barreirinhas the pilot 
of our Baby Clipper decided to risk a landing if 
a preliminary survey from the air were favor- 
able. . . . 

"We started out again at 4 a.m. . . . and 
after considerable searching actually found the 
town and with it an excellent piece of quiet and 
deep water for landing and take-off. We landed at 
approximately 7 a.m. The doctors took care of the 
injured men at once. In the meantime food and 
clothing was distributed. We found it practicable 
to get the men away while we had the plane as a 
means of transportation. Consequently we got the 
first plane-load off to Sao Luiz at 8:30 a.m. I 
returned with the first group to Sao Luiz where the 
Consular Agent . . . had made arraiigeinents 
to use the Air Transport Command's barracks and 
mess hall at the airport. These were not quite 
completed and it was necessary to buy mattresses 
and kitchen utensils; also it was necessary to 
organize a mess." 

Tiiese are only a few examples of the problems 
which have been faced by American consuls during 
the past three years. 

Since the beginning of the war, several agencies 
of the United States Government besides the 
Consular Service have taken an interest in Amer- 
ican seamen. The War Shipping Administra- 
tion, with its huge task of operating American 
ships, has representatives abroad whose responsi- 
bilities include keeping crews intact and filling 
vacancies without delay. The Army and Navy 
have concerned themselves with disciplining 
merchant seamen whose actions appear to en- 
danger the war effort or the safety of a vessel. 
Merchant Marine Hearing Units have been estab- 
lished at United States and foreign ports by the 
United States Coast Guard for the purpose of 
promoting, demoting, or disciplining merchant 
seamen. 

The hearing units at foreign ports are particu- 
larly helpful to American consuls in the present 
situation because they may take definitive action 
where consular officers may not. An American 
consular officer may, for sufficient cause, remove 
any crew member from a vessel and return him 
to the United States, or he may hold any member 



for grand jury, but he does not have power of 
trial and punishment. Removing a seaman from 
a vessel in a foreign port has never been encour- 
aged, and it is even less desirable now when ship 
movement is so important in the war effort. On 
the other hand, discipline is equally essential to 
the efficient operation of American ships. By 
virtue of its authority to issue or rescind Ameri- 
can seamen's papers, it is possible for the United 
States Coast Guard to exert control over American 
sea-going personnel, and to exert that control near 
the scene of action. 

A procedure has been set up under established 
rules of practice whereby reports of misconduct 
are investigated by a Coast Guard Hearing Unit, 
consisting of a hearing officer and an examining 
officer, as soon as possible after the alleged miscon- 
duct has occurred. The seaman is given every op- 
portunity to defend himself and may be assisted 
by a lawyer, ship delegate, Coast Guard officer, 
or any person he desires. If the seaman is found 
not guilty, the case is closed. If he is found 
guilty, his license or certificate may be suspended 
for a period of time or revoked entirely. In some 
cases the sentence is suspended and the seaman 
placed on probation. 

A report of the United States Coast Guard 
Merchant ISfarine Hearing Unit at New York re- 
veals that the 8,808 new cases investigated by the 
unit from February 15 to December 31, 1943 af- 
fected only 2..58 percent of the estimated total mer- 
chant-marine personnel arriving at New York 
during that period. These figures indicate a pro- 
portionately high good-conduct record on the part 
of American seamen. 

The Coast Guard Hearing Units also have au- 
thority to examine licensed officers and certifi- 
cated men for raises in grade and advancement. 
In this way seamen who show outstanding ability 
or diligence may be promoted en route rather than 
at the completion of a voyage which may last for 
months. 

Thus it is apparent that the American Consular 
Service, the War Shipping Administration, the 
Army, the Navy, and the United States Coast 
Guard are all concerning themselves with the men 
of the merchant marine, dovetailing their func- 
tions in order that the Merchant Marine may con- 
tribute most effectively in the greatest movement 
of ships and supplies in history. 



The Department 



INFORMATIONAL ACTIVITIES AND LIAISON 

Departmental Order 1229 of February 22, 1944 ^ 



[Released to the press February 23] 

PuBPosE OF Order 

It is the purpose of this Order to: (I) reassign 
certain informational functions as set forth in 
Departmental Order No. 1218 of January 15, 1944, 
which is amended accordingly; (II) establish an 
additional division in tlie Office of Public Informa- 
tion; and (III) establish in each Office of the De- 
partment a point of liaison for several related 
purposes, including an improved informational 
service to Ajnerican missions abroad, aid to the 
Department's public informational work, and 
policy guidance to Federal agencies having in- 
formational programs that involve foreign policy 
and relations. 

I. Reassignment of Certain Informational 

Functions 

Special Assistant to the Secretary — Press 
Relations 
The Special Assistant to the Secretary, Mr. 
McDermott, as the Secretary's principal assistant 
in matters concerning the Department's relations 
with the press, shall have responsibility for: (a) 
liaison between the Department and the domestic 
and foreign press, including the conduct of the 
press conferences of the Secretary, the Under Sec- 
retary, and other officials of the Department; (b) 
liaison between the Department and other agencies 
of the Government, particularly the Office of War 
Information, the Office of Censorship, the Co- 
ordinator of Inter-American Affairs, and the 
public relations bureaus of the War and Navy De- 
partments, in connection with tlie current opera- 
tions of such agencies relating to the dissemination 
abroad of information regarding the war effort, 
where such information is of an immediate news 
character; (c) clearance, in consultation with the 
appropriate officers of the Department, of speeches 
submitted to the Department by the Office of War 
Information and the Coordinator of Inter- Ameri- 



■Effpctive Feb. 21, 1944. 



can Affairs, and submission of speeches by the 
Department to the Office of War Information for 
clearance as may be required; (d) coordination of 
tlie Department's relations with agencies con- 
cerned in psychological warfare and related activi- 
ties, including representation of the Department 
on the Board of Overseas Planning for Psycho- 
logical Warfare of the Office of War Information ; 
and (e) preparation and distribution within the 
Department and to the Foreign Service of clip- 
pings, daily press summaries and bulletins bear- 
ing ujion foreign relations. 

Mr. Homer M. Byington and Mr. Lincoln White 
are liereby designated Executive Assistants to Mr. 
McDermott. 

The Division of Current Information is hereby 
abolished. 

To assist Mr. McDermott in carrying out his 
responsibilities (a) in connection with tlie current 
operations of other agencies relating to the dis- 
semination abroad of information of an immediate 
news character regarding the war effort and (b) 
for the coordination of relations with agencies con- 
cerned in psychological warfare, a Special Assist- 
ant shall be designated in each of the four geo- 
graphical Offices. This Special Assistant may be 
the same as, and in any case will work in associa- 
tion with, the chief information liaison officer pre- 
scribed in section III of this Order. 

Tlie Special Assistant to the Secretary, Mr. Mc- 
Dermott, shall be a member of the Department of 
State Policy Committee and of the Committee on 
Postwar Programs. 

The routing symbol for the office of the Special 
Assistant, Mr. McDermott, is SA/M. 

The Motion Picture ancl Radio Division, Office of 
Public Inforviation 
The Motion Picture and Radio Division, Office of 
Public Information, shall act as liaison between 
the Department and other agencies in connection 
with the current operations of such agencies re- 
lating to overseas motion picture and radio pro- 
grams, and dissemination abroad of printed fea- 

209 



210 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



tures and other informational material which is 
not of an immediate news character. 

The functions and responsibilities of the Infor- 
mational Unit of the former Division of Current 
Information/Liaison are hereby transferred to the 
Motion Picture and Kadio Division. 

The functions and responsibilities on the matters 
mentioned above, which were formerly exercised by 
the Latin American Unit of the former Division of 
Current Information/Liaison, are hereby trans- 
ferred to the Motion Picture and Eadio Division. 

The responsibility for liaison with the Coordina- 
tor of Inter- American Affairs concerning the op- 
erations of the Coordination Committees and the 
transmittal of communications between the Coor- 
dinator's Office and the Committees, previously ex- 
ercised by the former Division of American Re- 
publics, is transferred to the Motion Picture and 
Radio Division. 

Postwar Information Policies 

The Office of Public Information shall be re- 
sponsible for coordinating the Department's in- 
terests in, and for participating with other De- 
partments and agencies of the Government in the 
formulation of policies relative to post-war over- 
seas informational activities. 

II. Establishment of the Division of Public 
Liaison, Office of Public Information 

There is hereby established in the Office of Pub- 
lic Information a Division of Public Liaison, which 
shall be responsible for : 

(a) The Department's relations with private 
groups and organizations interested in the formu- 
lation of foreign policy; 

(b) The collection and analysis of materials 
relating to public attitudes on foreign policy 
questions; 

(c) Assistance to the officers of the Department 
in the public interpretation of foreign policy; 
and 

(d) Handling of correspondence expressing 
public views on foreign policy (transfer of func- 
tions from the Division of Research and Publica- 
tion). 

Mr. Richard W. Morin, Special Assistant to the 
Director of the Office of Public Information, is 
hereby designated temporarily Acting Chief, and 



Mr. S. Shepard Jones is hereby designated As- 
sistant Chief of the Division of Public Liaison. 

The routing symbol of this Division shall be 
PL. 

III. Informational Liaison Representatives and 
Their Duties 

A chief informational liaison officer shall be des- 
ignated in each Office of the Department by the 
Director thereof, subject to the approval of tlie 
Director of the Office of Departmental Adminis- 
tration. He shall be provided with the assistance 
needed to effectuate this Order. 

Informational Seniicing of Missions 

For the purpose of strengthening the flow of in- 
formation to each of the missions, including confi- 
dential information about developments of crucial 
interest in other jiarts of the world, there is hereby 
established the Information Service Committee, 
which shall be composed of a representative from 
Mr. McDermott's office and the chief informa- 
tional liaison officers from each of the following 
Offices : American Republic Affairs, European Af- 
fairs, Far Eastern Affairs, Near Eastern and Afri- 
can Affairs, Public Information, and Foreign 
Service Administration. The Director of the Of- 
fice of Foreign Service Administration shall act 
as chairman of the Committee. 

The representatives of the geographical Offices 
shall ordinarily give full time to the task of ob- 
taining and collating information drawn from Di- 
visions of their Offices, and from other Offices in 
the Department, which may usefully be made 
known to the heads of missions throughout the 
world as well as to appropriate officers in the De- 
partment. These representatives, subject to the 
direction of the Directors of their Offices, shall ad- 
vise on the selection of information for transmis- 
sion to the particular missions with which the 
Office is concerned. 

It shall be the duty of the Information Service 
Committee (acting where necessary with the in- 
formational liaison officers in all the Offices of the 
Department) to aid in supplying the missions and 
the Department with pertinent information. 
Especially (taking account of the material which 
already is being prepared and transmitted regu- 
larly) the Committee shall supplement this ma- 



FEBRUARY 26, 1044 



211 



terial by systematic, highly selective, confidential 
summaries of developments involving all parts 
of the world which should be known to the heads 
of missions. 

The Secretary and the Under Secretary will 
designate an officer in their Offices to communicate 
to the Committee over-all information not avail- 
able through other channels which is essential to 
the objective of supplying the heads of missions 
with information. 

The Chairman of the Committee shall take care 
that the summaries are prepared and distributed to 
the missions on a weekly schedule. The summaries 
shall also be supplied to the Secretary, the Under 
Secretary, the members of the Policy Committee, 
and the Chiefs of Divisions in the four geographi- 
cal Offices. In addition to the special and con- 
fidential service just described, it shall be the gen- 
eral duty of the Committee to survey the entire 
flow of information from the Department to the 
missions, in whatever form, and to initiate action 
for improving this service. 

Liaison with the Special Assist^cmt, Mr. McDermott 
It shall be the duty of the informational liaison 
officers to keep the Special Assistant to the Secre- 
tary, Mr. McDermott, and officers designated by 
him, currently informed as to all developments 
within their Offices. 

Liaison with the Office of Public Information 

It shall be the duty of the informational liaison 
officers, individually or as a group, upon request, 
to advise and assist the Director of the Office of 
Public Information on matters within the scope 
of that Office. 

E. R. Stettinius, Jr. 

RESIGNATION OF THOMAS K. FINLETTER 
AS SPECIAL ASSISTANT TO THE SECRE- 
TARY OF STATE 

[Released to the press February 23] 

The Acting Secretary of State at his press and 
radio news conference on February 23 informed 
correspondents that he had accepted with regret 
the resignation of Mr. Thomas K. Finletter as 
Special Assistant to the Secretary of State. 

The text of the letter from Mr. Finletter to the 
Acting Secretary of State follows : 



"Dear Ed : 

"I tender my resignation as Special Assistant to 
the Secretary of State. 

"My service in the Department of State has been 
to me a most gratifying experience, and I leave 
with real regret. 

"I am indeed sorry that circumstances now com- 
pel me to end my most pleasant association with 
Secretary Hull, yourself and the other members 
of the Department. 

"With all best wishes, I am, 
"Sincerely yours, 

"Thomas K. Finletter 
"February fifteenth, 1944" 

The text of the reply of the Acting Secretary of 
State to Mr. Finletter follows : 

"Februart 22, 1944. 
"Dear Tom : 

"It is with deepest regret that I have received 
your letter of February 15th tendering your 
resignation as Special Assistant to the Secretary 
of State. 

"The Secretary and I greatly appreciate the 
sjalendid service you have rendered the Depart- 
ment during the past three years. Your contribu- 
tion to our work in the field of Foreign Economics 
has been of inestimable value and I am sorry 
that the pleasant relationship which has existed 
between us must come to an end. Your work here 
has extended through the most difficult formative 
period in which wartime economic policies and 
programs in the foreign field had to be devised 
and then worked out in collaboration with other 
representatives of this Government and with other 
governments. To this task you brought imagina- 
tion, resourcefulness and great energy. 

"In reluctantly accepting your resignation to 
become effective on March 9, 1944, 1 understand the 
force of the reasons which has led to your decision 
and wish to express the gratitude of the Secretary 
and the Department for all that you have done. 
May I add also my own personal word of apprecia- 
tion and my best wishes for your future happiness 
and success. 

"Sincerely yours, 

"Edward E. STEmNius, Jr." 



212 



DEPAKTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



APPOINTMENT OF OFFICERS 

By Departmental Order 1230 of February 23, 
1944, effective February 7, 1944, the Acting Sec- 
retary of State designated Mr. Sidney Alexander 
Mitchell as Chief of the Liberated Areas Division, 
to succeed Mr. Herman B. Wells. 

By Departmental Order 1231 of February 23, 
L944, effective February 22, 1944, the Acting Sec- 
retary of State designated Mr. Charles W. Yost 
as Executive Secretary of the Policy Committee. 



Treaty Information 



PROMOTION OF INTER-AMERICAN 
CULTURAL RELATIONS 

Bolivia 

The Department of State has received a des- 
patch from the American Embassy at La Paz re- 
porting that on October 14, 1943 the Bolivian 
Congress gave its approval to the Convention for 
the Promotion of Inter-American Cultural Rela- 
tions signed at Buenos Aires December 23, 1936. 
According to the despatch, the convention was 
promulgated by the Bolivian Government on No- 
vember 29, 1943. 

PROMOTION OF HISTORICAL STUDIES, 
PERU AND VENEZUELA 

The Director General of the Pan American 
Union has informed the Secretary of State that 
on January 24, 1944 the Government of Peru 
registered with the Pan American Union a Con- 
vention between Peru and Venezuela Concerning 
the Promotion of Historical Studies signed at 
Lima on November 11, 1942, which became effec- 
tive on November 27, 1943 upon the exchange of 
ratifications at Caracas on that date. 



PERMANENT COURT OF ARBITRATION 

[Released to the press February 23] 

The President has approved the designation of 
the Honorable Henry L. Stimson and Mr. Michael 
Francis Doyle as members on the part of the 
United States of the Permanent Court of Arbi- 
tration for new terms of six years each, which will 
terminate on February 7, 1950. These designa- 
tions are in accordance with the provisions of the 
Hague conventions of July 29, 1899 and October 
18, 1907. 

The Court was first established in 1900 and its 
members constitute a panel of comjDetent jurors 
from which arbitrators may be chosen by states 
parties to a dispute to pass upon that controversy. 
Members, acting as national groups, are also en- 
titled to nominate candidates in the election of 
judges in the Permanent Court of International 
Justice. 

Each signatory power can select a maximum of 
four members. The membership on the part of 
the United States on the Permanent Court of Ar- 
bitration is now as follows : 

Manley O. Hudson, of Massachusetts (term expires March 

9, 1949) 
Green H. Haekworth, of Kentucky (term expires March 9, 

1949) 
Henry L. Stimson, of New York 
Michael Francis Doyle, of Pennsylvania 



Publications 



Department of State 

Inter-American Highway : Agreement Between the United 
States of America and Panama — Effected by exchange 
of notes signed at Panama May 15 and June 7, 1943. 
Executive Agreement Series 365. Publication 2059. 
3 pp. 50. 

Health and Sanitation Program : Agreement Between the 
United States of America and Brazil — Effected by ex- 
change of notes signed at Washington March 14, 1942. 
Executive Agreement Series 372. Publication 2063. 
3 pp. 50. 



U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1944 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25. D. C. 
Price, 10 cents - - - - Subscription price, $2.75 a year 

PUBLISHED WEEKLY WITH THE APPROVAL OF THE DIREClOll OF THE BOKEAU OF THB BUDGET 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



BUI 



ETIN 




MARCH 4, 1944 
Vol. X, No. 245— Publication 2078 

fontents 

The War p^g. 
United States Programs for the Promotion of Mutual 

Understanding With Other Peoples of the World . 215 
Address by Joseph C. Grew at Boston's 1944 Red Cross 

War Fund Rally 219 

Lend-lease Shipments to the Soviet Union 223 

Twenty-sixth Anniversary of the Red Army 224 

Suspension of Oil Shipments to Spain 225 

American Republics 

United States Relations With the Existing Argentine 
Regime: Statement by the Acting Secretary of 
State 225 

The Department 

Appointment of Two Additional Assistant Secretaries of 

State 226 

Appointment of Officers 227 

The Foreign Service 

Adaptation of the Foreign Service to Its New Needs 

and Responsibilities 227 

Treaty Information 
Exchange of Publications: 

United States and Iraq 230 

United States and Afghanistan 230 

Inter-American Indian Institute 230 

Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences . . . 230 
Provisional Fur Seal Agreement Between the United 

States and Canada 230 

^^ Legislation 23! 



MAR 21 1944 



The War 



UNITED STATES PROGRAMS FOR THE PROMOTION OF MUTUAL UNDERSTAND- 
ING WITH OTHER PEOPLES OF THE WORLD 



[Released to the press February 29] 

There follows the text of a report from the Act- 
ing Secretary of State with an accompanying 
memorandum, to the end that the act approved 
August 9, 1939, entitled "An act to authorize the 
President to render closer and more effective the 
relationship between the American republics", 
may be amended to permit the development of 
similar programs of mutual understanding and 
cooperation with other nations of the world.^ 

February 21, 1944. 
The President : 

I have the honor to submit with a view to its- 
transmission to the Congress, if you approve, a 
bill to amend the act approved August 9, 1939, 
entitled an Act "To authorize the President to ren- 
der closer and more effective the relationship be- 
tween the American republics." The purpose of 
the amendment is to authorize extension to other 
nations of the world of programs to promote mu- 
tual understanding and cooperation in general 
character similar to that developed and main- 
tained with the American republics under the 
authority of the existing legislation. 

1. The act approved August 9, 1939 (Public 
No. 355, 76th Congress) authorized appropriations 
whereby the President was enabled to utilize the 
services of the Departments, agencies and inde- 
pendent establishments of the Government in 
carrying out the purposes set forth in the treaties, 
resolutions, declarations and recommendations 
signed by the twenty-one American republics at 
the Inter-American Conference for the Mainte- 
nance of Peace, held at Buenos Aires in 1936, and 
at the Eighth International Conference of Amer- 
ican States held at Lima, Peru in 1938. This act 



' The report and the memorandum were transmitted to 
Congress by the President with a message of Feb. 29, 1944 
(see H. Doc. 474, 78th Cong.) 



also authorized the creation of advisory commit- 
tees composed of leaders of American thought and 
opinion to provide essential guidance and to en- 
list widespread cooperation on the part of private' 
as well as government agencies in formulating a 
concrete program. 

Under the authority of Public No. 355, funds 
have been appropriated to the Department of 
State for "Cooperation with the American Repub- 
lics", which funds are in turn allocated to the sepa- 
rate Departments, agencies and establishments 
for the purpose of carrying out specific projects 
relating to the other Americas. 

The coordination and integration of these proj- 
ects into one concrete program is carried out 
through the Interdepartmental Committee for 
Cooperation with the American Eepublics, which 
ai^proves individual projects on the basis of their 
contribution to the furtherance of more effective 
relationships in the broad divisions of economic, 
social, scientific and cultural fields. 

2. The last of these programs, as it relates to 
the other American republics, developed and 
maintained pursuant to Public No. 355, is centered 
in the Department of State. Close cooperation 
has been maintained with the program carried 
forward by the Office of the Coordinator of Inter- 
American Affairs through a joint committee which 
has met weekly to consider and correlate all Gov- 
ernment activities in this field. For the present 
year, in accordance with an exchange of letters of 
August 12 and 14, 1942, between fehe Under Secre- 
tary of State and the Coordinator of Inter- Amer- 
ican Affairs, there has been transferred to the 
Department of State responsibility for those ac- 
tivities having long-range implication which in 
the past have been carried on by the Office of the 
Coordinator. The purpose of this transfer is to 
place the cooperative program of the Government 
on a permanent basis. 

215 



216 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



3. The present scope of the program under the 
direct supervision of the Department of State is 
indicated by the following brief summary of 
activities. 

Exchange of persons. Primary emphasis has 
been placed upon the increase of mutual under- 
standing through personal relationships between 
leaders of thought and opinion in all fields. The 
exchange of persons has in the past included visits 
to the United States of persons of influence in the 
press and professions, education and the sciences 
from the other American republics, and a recip- 
rocal southward movement, as well as the exchange 
of students, interns and professors. 

The Department has cooperated with the Office 
of the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs in 
exchanges related to the important fields of health 
and sanitation, of commerce, industry and agri- 
culture. 

American centers. A substantial part is played 
in the development of continental solidarity by the 
local institutions in the principal cities of the 
other American republics, such as American insti- 
tutes and libraries at Mexico City, Bogota, and Rio 
de Janeiro. Their membership includes nationals 
as well as resident citizens of the United States. 
Among their activities are the teaching of Eng- 
lish; maintenance of libraries of United States 
books and periodicals; sponsorship of radio pro- 
grams, concerts, lectures and exhibits representing 
the United States ; aid in the selection and orien- 
tation of students and other persons who plan to 
travel or study in the United States; and publica- 
tion of articles on American life and civilization. 
American institutes have been formed in twenty- 
two important cities of the other American repub- 
lics and in addition well equipped American libra- 
ries have been set up in Mexico City, Montevideo, 
and Managua. 

Publications. To promote a broader knowledge 
and understanding of American life, books and 
publications are a medium of highest value. The 
Department has cooperated with the Office of the 
Coordinator and with otlier agencies in meeting 
increasingly numerous requests from libraries, uni- 
versities and other institutions for materials on 
the United States. More than 100 outstanding 
titles in the fields of history, biography, technical 



works and social studies have already been trans- 
lated or are in process of translation and publica- 
tion. Thousands of volumes and copies of peri- 
odicals in English have also been distributed in 
answer to requests — a movement which has great 
significance in the liglit of the rapidly growing 
study of English. 

Motion pictures and radio. Motion pictures are 
the world language of today and serve to reach 
all classes of people in foreign countries with the 
story of the United States. During recent months 
educational documentary films procured in co- 
operation with the Office of the Coordinator of 
Inter-American Affairs have reached audiences to- 
taling more than two million persons montlily. 
Showings have been made through schools, uni- 
versities, hospitals, army and navy officials, labor 
groups, government officials, political clubs, pro- 
fessional men and other groups of adults and 
children. 

The radio is an indispensable instrument for 
creating an understanding of the United States, 
particularly among the "masses" of foreign coun- 
tries. The Department has cooperated in this 
field with the Coordinator of Inter-American Af- 
fairs, the Office of War Information, and the na- 
tional and other broadcastmg companies in the 
United States. 

Reciprocal aspects of the program. A program 
for better understanding must be a two-way proc- 
ess. It is as essential to inform the people of the 
United States concerning the other American re- 
publics and other countries, as it is to inform those 
nations about the United States. Accordingly, 
the Department has sought, with marked success, 
to enlist the active cooperation of the educational, 
intellectual, civic and related institutions and or- 
ganizations — both governmental and private — of 
the United States. 

4. That progress has been made toward the 
establishment of closer and more effective relations 
among the American republics is indicated by 
their unity of thought and action at the confer- 
ences of Foreign Ministers of the American Re- 
publics at Habana in July of 1940, and again at 
Rio de Janeiro in January of 1942; and by the 
general support of the policy of hemispheric soli- 
darity by the peoples of the twenty-one nations. 



MARCH 4, 19 44 



217 



Reports on the basis of approximately four years 
of operations substantiate the conclusion that the 
fostering of closer relations through the facilities 
of an educational and intellectual interchange has 
been an important factor in the success of the broad 
program both to the extent that mutual knowledge 
and understanding have been increased and to the 
extent that cooperation in the economic, scientific 
and social fields has thereby been facilitated. 

5. As transportation and communications have 
progressed, economic interdependence, political 
interaction, social intercourse and intellectual ex- 
change have increased among all peoples. 

This circimistance, in turn, has not only added 
to the knowledge of peoples about one another 
but also emphasized the need for an ever better 
understanding between them. 

To achieve this end, many of the nations insti- 
tuted "cultural progi'ams," involving the study 
and teaching of foreign languages, the exchange 
of scientific information, books, films and art ob- 
jects, and the interchange of students, teachers and 
technical experts. Some of these programs have 
been carried on under governmental guidance, 
others have been spontaneous undertakings of pri- 
vate initiative. 

As an outgrowth of this general situation, the 
United States undertook under the Authority of 
the Act of August 9, 1939 to initiate under the 
guidance of the Department of State, with co- 
operation from other Government agencies and 
private organizations a program to promote mu- 
tual understanding with the other American 
republics. 

However, from the outset an attempt was made 
to supply the demands for international exchanges 
which came from all parts of the world. Inform- 
ative educational films were supplied, in addi- 
tion to the other American republics, to such coun- 
tries as Belgium, South Africa, Canada and Swit- 
zerland, although in numerous other instances the 
Department was unable to accede to requests for 
films. 

Since the bulk of the Department's funds for 
international exchanges came from appropriations 
authorized under Public No. 35.5 (and therefore 
restricted to use in relation to the American re- 
publics), the program for the other areas of the 
world was necessarily developed on a very limited 
scale. 



6. The changing world situation and the en- 
trance of the United States into the war intensi- 
fied the need for cooperative programs for certain 
areas outside the other American republics. In 
January, 1942, a program with China was initiated 
on a limited scale by means of a grant from the 
President's Emergency Fund. The three basic 
activities then inaugurated and carried forward 
during the 1943 fiscal year have been : (1) The pro- 
vision of technical and educational leaders to 
China; (2) The extension of aid to Chinese stu- 
dents in the United States thus augmenting 
China's supply of skilled technicians; and (3) the 
furnishing of certain urgently needed informa- 
tional materials such as microfilms of scholarly 
and scientific articles and books, and documentary 
and educational motion pictures. 

7. Apart from the intensification of the coopera- 
tive program on an emergency basis necessitated 
by the conduct of the war, the widening horizon of 
international responsibilities opened to the United 
States by the war and its probable effects requires 
for the future a continuing and coordinated pro- 
gram to promote mutual understanding with other 
peoples. Provisions of the lend-lease agreements 
already negotiated commit the signatory govern- 
ments to continuing collaboration and cooperation 
for an indefinite period after the cessation of hos- 
tilities. A program underlying and supporting 
these cooperative efforts, recognized as an impor- 
tant factor to their success in wartime, would be 
no less vital in the period of postwar adjustment. 

If the past decades have brought close contacts 
among those peoples having similar interests, the 
postwar world, with increased facilities for trans- 
portation and communication, will undoubtedly 
see these contacts grow both more numerous and 
more continuous. 

Programs of this character are an effective means 
of achieving international, hence national, se- 
curity. Measures which spread an understand- 
ing of the democratic way of life and diffuse 
scientific knowledge useful in organizing it, may 
be made the support of political and economic 
peace measures. In this connection it should be 
emphasized that the amelioration of the lives of 
common men is actually achieved only as they 
learn new ways of doing things. Thus the co- 
operative program may provide means of creat- 
ing necessary conditions for orderly and peaceful 



218 



DEPAETMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



development. In providing the world's peoples 
with the means of doing better for themselves, 
the American people will be creating conditions 
favorable to the development of their own way of 
life; and in this prospect alone is true national 
security. 

Since these cooperative activities provide the 
means of social advancement to peoples in the 
shape of books, trained persons, and other means 
of diifusing knowledge, they do not excite either 
political antipathy, or fear of foreign domination, 
or dread of interference with domestic politics. 
As non-political and non-patronizing activities, 
they are truly the means of implementing a foreign 
policy of a democratic people whose national in- 
terest is the maintenance and orderly development 
of their democracy. 

8. From the foregoing it may be seen that a 
twofold need exists. First, it is evident that there 
is an urgent need for a constructive program of 
long-term and continuing character, not only with 
the republics of the Western Hemisphere but on 
a world-wide batis. Secondly, it is desirable that 
activities developed in furtherance of the i^rogram 
should not be inaugurated merely on an oppor- 
tunistic basis as crises arise but should be part 
of a considered and integrated plan. 

To ensure the formulation of a suitable and 
comprehensive program and its effective operation, 
fimds should be provided in one appropriation ad- 
ministered under the direction of one responsible 
agency. 

In developing the program applicable only to 
the American republics which was authorized un- 
der Public No. 355, it is believed that suitable ma- 
chinei'y has been set up for the centralization of 
appropriations, the concentration of directive re- 
sponsibility and the most effective coordination of 
effort. Public No. 365 as now worded does not 
authorize the appropriation of funds for the car- 
rjang on of an active cooperative program beyond 
the republics of the Western Hemisphere. The 
limitations of Public No. 355 also preclude the use 
of the valuable advisory committees, already func- 
tioning in relation to the program in the Americas, 
for dealing with the preliminary studies of pro- 
grams for other regions. Such guidance would be 
of inestimable benefit at this time in laying the 



groundwork on which the pennanent post-war 
structure might be erected as well as in meeting 
the urgent current needs of the war period. 

I have the honor, therefore, to reconunend that 
the Congress be requested to enact legislation 
amending Public No. 355, in order to authorize ex- 
tension of the program therein comprehended to 
any other country, countries or regions, in fur- 
therance of the objectives of the United States in 
the present war and in the peace to follow. 

A draft of the proposed legislation is enclosed 
for your convenience. 

Kespectfully submitted. 

E. R. STETTiNnjs, Jr. 
Acting Secretary of State 

[Enclosure] 

A Bill To amend the Act approved August 9, 
1939, entitled. An Act "To authorize the Pres- 
ident to render closer and more effective the re- 
lationship between the American Republics." 

Be it enacted 'by the Senate and House of Repre- 
sentatives of the United States of America in Con- 
gress assembled, That the Act entitled an Act "To 
authorize the President to render closer and more 
effective the relationship between the American 
Republics," approved August 9, 1939 (53 Stat. 
1290), is hereby amended by adding at the end 
thereof the two following sections: 

"Sec. 3. The President is also hereby authorized, 
subject to such appropriations as may be made 
available for the purpose, to develop and main- 
tain, under the direction of the Secretary of State, 
such cultural and cooperative programs with other 
countries of the world as he may consider justified 
in furtherance of the purposes of the United States 
in the present war and in the peace to follow ; and 
(o create and utilize to such extent as may be 
necessary, subject to the foregoing limitations re- 
specting salary, travel, and expenses, advisory 
committees for assistance in the development of 
such programs. 

. "Sec. 4. The title of this Act is hereby corrected 
to read, and it may be cited as *An Act to pro- 
mote, through mutual understanding with other 
peoples, more effective cooperation for a durable 
peace'." 



MARCH 4, 1944 219 

ADDRESS BY JOSEPH C. GREW AT BOSTON'S 1944 RED CROSS WAR FUND RALLY ' 



[Released to the press February 29] 

At a recent luncheon in Washington, in which 
well over a thousand people participated and ap- 
proximately a thousand more had to be turned 
away, honoring Miss Mabel T. Boardman for her 
great service of over 40 years to the American 
Eed Cross and to the District of Columbia Chap- 
ter of the Red Cross, the Chief Justice of the 
United States in his address of tribute said : 

"Few women have been so showered with honors 
as has this gracious lady. . . . But, far moi-e 
significant to her and to us than any of these 
well-deserved honors are the shattered lives that 
have been rebuilt because of her efforts — the pain 
and suffering that have been made easier to bear 
because she has helped the Red Cross to fulfil 
its great possibilities. 

"Now, in the nation's hour of greatest need, her 
grand conception is bearing its finest fruits. In 
collecting life-saving blood plasma, in making mil- 
lions of garments and surgical dressings, in bring- 
ing renewed courage to our service men on every 
shell-torn battlefield of the world, the Red Cross 
has reached the pinnacle of its service. It is little 
wonder that so many of these men and their rela- 
tives and friends at home are saying, 'Thank God 
there is an American Red Cross.' . . . 

"You may well be proud that such a woman is 
the founder of your organization. Proud, yes. 
But you should be humble also, when you look 
upon the example she has set. She has given to 
you and to all Americans a heritage that is to 
be treasured above earthly possessions. She has 
shown us the true significance of that genuine 
philanthropy which knows no bounds of friend- 
ship or enmity, of wealth or poverty. She has 
implanted in us a new conception of human un- 
derstanding, of brotherly love, of compassion, and 
of humanitarian service. That, my friends of the 
Red Cross, is Mabel Thorp Boardman — and that 
is the American Red Cross." 



' Delivered in Boston, Mass, Feb. 29, 1944, at the rally 
held by the Boston Metropolitan Chapter of the Red Cross. 
Mr. Grew, formerly American Ambassador to Japan, is now 
Special Assistant to the Secretary of State. 



I have quoted these words of Chief Justice 
Stone because they so aptly and so poignantly and 
so powerfully convey not only his tribute to a great 
lady but his conception of the mission of the Red 
Cross — its work, its achievements, and its goal of 
splendid service to humanity. Now, once again, 
our opportunity and what I conceive to be our 
high duty of supporting that enlightened service 
lie before us. I do not believe that we— any of 
us — will be found wanting. 

The world-wide character of the Red Cross is 
fittingly and significantly represented here tonight. 
Through all my service of some 40 years abroad 
I have watched the movement take root and de- 
velop in many countries. Strange as it may seem 
today, there was no stronger and more effectively 
constituted an organization of the Red Cross than 
in Japan. The opening paragraph of the consti- 
tution of the Japanese Red Cross Society states: 
"The object of the Japanese Red Cross Society, 
in accordance with the principles of the Interna- 
tional Treaties and in conformity with those of 
the Red Cross Societies of the Powers, is to care 
for the sick and wounded of both lelligerents in 
time of war. . . ." And the constitution of the 
Japanese Junior Red Cross opens with the words : 
"The Admonition given by H.I.H. Prince Kan-in, 
Honorary President of the Japanese Red Cross 
Society, says that the object of the Junior Red 
Cross Organization is to infuse into the minds of 
little boys and girls the spirit of universal love 
and the fundamentals of hygiene; to practice 
health habits and foster love for children of all 
parts of the world. . . . The Junior Red Cross 
has a collaborative object in that it follows the 
path of universal love in word and in deed; it 
strives hard for humanitarian training, and works 
for contribution toward the peace of mankind. It 
IS a world organization, spiritual in nature, bound 
together with this object, and the Japanese Junior 
Red Cross is but a link of the chain. To be instru- 
mental to an organ of international culture is a 
distinguished feature possessed by the Jimior Red 
Cross. In a word, the Japanese Junior Red 
Cross . . . has the characteristic of serving as a 
means for training one's self, in personal expe- 



220 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



rience, self-government, community life and in- 
ternational education." 

Those words were not written and adopted with 
tongue in cheek. I knew those Red Cross people 
well. Alas, if the military authorities in Japan 
had allowed their own Red Cross to function as it 
was organized and equipped and intended to func- 
tion, the fate of our American fighting men and 
civilians in prison camps in Japan and the Philip- 
pines might have been a very different story. In 
Japan's methods of warfare and in the minds of 
the Japanese militaiy there is no room for 
humanity. 

Ladies and gentlemen, the pleasure and privi- 
lege of meeting and addressing you tonight are 
great. It is right and proper, I think, that in this 
hard-edged life of ours, sentiment should occa- 
sionally be given expression, and my own senti- 
ment for Boston, the city of my birth and youth, 
and for you, the people of Boston, is very deep. 
James Grahame expressed that feeling well: 
"What strong, mysterious links enchain the heart 
to regions where the morn of life was spent." It 
is with that mutual bond very much in mind that 
I appeal to you tonight. My own life has been 
closely associated with the Red Cross in many 
lands abroad and, as a one-time member of the 
Central Conunittee, at home. The proceeds from 
my book Report From Tokyo were given wholly 
to the Red Cross, and I say this merely to indi- 
cate that I would not ask you to do something that 
I was not willing to do myself. Other authors, 
including Mr. Stettinius, our Under Secretary of 
State, have done the same. 

I think we ought to look at the question of giving 
generously to the Red Cross from a very simple 
angle: Our young men are fighting, and some of 
them are dying, to preserve the security of our 
countiy and for civilization and humanity. They 
are, all too often, suffering the agonies of almost 
unbearable pain. The Red Cross can and does 
relieve that pain; often it can and does make the 
difference between life and death. We — you and 
I — cannot actually be at the side of our boys and 
men abroad in their hour of need, and yet we can 
be at their side, not only spiritually but effectively, 
through the Red Cross. Let us all, every one of 
us, have that thought ?n mind when we are decid- 
ing what our contribution is to be. Let us stop 



to think what that extra dollar, or that extra hun- 
dred dollars, or that extra thousand dollars are 
going to mean in jiractical terms to our fighting 
men on the far-flung battle-fronts and to their 
dependents at home. 

And now, my fi'iends. I turn to another subject. 
The Red Cross is the fundamental theme of this 
great meeting, but I have been asked to say some- 
tliing tonight about our war with Japan, and in 
that war, just as in our war with Germany and the 
other enemies, the Red Cross has an essential role 
to play. 

In traveling about our country almost steadily 
since our return from Japan a year and a half ago, 
I have found almost everywhere a very dangerous 
lack of appreciation of the fighting-power and 
staying-power of the Japanese enemy. There 
exists among our people far too much wishful 
thinking, optimism, and complacency to the effect 
that once we have defeated the Germans we shall 
mop up the Japanese in short order. Given the 
situation and the facts as they exist, I camiot see 
any sound basis for tliat sort of thinking. 

Please let me for a moment try to set forth some 
of those facts. 

First of all, consider the tremendous extent of 
territory which Japan has seized and controls 
today : Korea ; Manchuria ; all of north China and 
vast areas in other parts of China; most of the 
China coast with its many ports offering shipbuild- 
ing facilities; the islands of Formosa, Hainan, 
Hong Kong; Indochina, Thailand, the Malay 
Federated States, and Singapore ; Burma and the 
Andaman and Nicobar Islands; the Philippines; 
the Dutch East Indies, especially the great islands 
of Borneo, Java, and Sumatra ; and in the Pacific 
Ocean many an island fortress which must be re- 
duced or b3'passed before we can continue our in- 
exorable approach to Tokyo. The fighting-power 
that we are now able to concentrate and the train- 
ing, grit, and determination of our fighting men 
are progressively and intensively showing. their 
inevitable results in the Central and Southwest 
Pa<;ific. But let us not delude ourselves by think- 
ing that we have not still a long, long way to go, 
or that blood, sweat, and tears will not be our 
portion for a long time to come. 

I wonder how many of our people visualize that 
far-flung extent of Japanese-controlled territory 



MARCH 4, 1944 



221 



that I have described, or who realize that within 
those areas there exists practically every raw ma- 
terial that any country could need or desire for 
national power — oil, rubber, tin, metals, medicines, 
foodstuffs — practically nothing is lacking. Fur- 
thermore, the Japanese control an almost unlim- 
ited supply of native labor — both skilled and un- 
skilled — which we know by long experience that 
they will use as forced labor to process these raw 
materials. And the Japanese will let no grass 
grow under their feet in developing that power, 
for they are hard-working, pertinacious, thor- 
ough, and scientific in their methods. 

To keep that great prospective empire of theirs 
together, the Japanese need two further assets: 
one is ships, the other time — ships to ferry man- 
power and supplies between the homeland and the 
outlying areas, time to consolidate and to develop 
their territorial gains. We are attending to their 
shipping daily, as jDublished statistics show. I 
myself do not know just what their present ship- 
building capacity is; perhaps none of us knows 
in precise terms. Certainly they are building a 
great many wooden ships in the many ports under 
occupation; with equal certainty we are sinking 
their ships with heartening regularity. I would 
say, as I often have said, that shipping is the 
"Achilles' heel" of Japan, but we shall have to sink 
a great deal more tonnage before the end comes 
in sight. 

As for time, that is the most important factor in 
all their calculations, and that is the asset we can- 
not afford indefinitely to allow them, for time to 
them means strength. 

People often ask me if the morale of the Jap- 
anese will not eventually crack, especially when 
we begin to bomb Tokyo and their other cities. 
Nobody can with certainty predict the effects on 
Japanese morale of such eventual bombing, simply 
because the Japanese people have never yet been 
subjected to persistent bombing from the air, and 
it is dangerous to try to measure Japanese men- 
tality and psychology by Western yardsticks. But 
it is important, in this connection, to remember 
two things: first, that the Japanese people 
throughout history have been subjected to and 
have become inured to great and continual cata- 
clysms of nature — earthquakes, typhoons, fire, and 
floods; and secondly, that their nulitary police ex- 

676812 — 44 2 



ercise a strangle-hold on the people probably sur- 
passing in effectiveness even the strangle-hold of 
the Gestapo on the people of Germany. I have al- 
ways believed that German morale will crack in 
due course and that once that process begins it 
will be like a snowball rolling downhill, gather- 
ing momentum as it goes. I do not believe that 
the morale of the Japanese will similarly crack 
until we are very near the end of the road, if then. 
Some authorities disagree with me on this point. 
I may be wrong, and I hope I am wrong. The 
point cannot be proved yet. But let us not allow 
our calculations to be based upon or influenced 
by any assumption of an eventual disintegration 
of Japanese morale or any hope of domestic revolt 
of the Japanese people against their military mas- 
ters. They are a fanatical people. 

What I do think will happen is this. At a given 
moment, when the Japanese military leaders know 
beyond peradventure that they are beaten or that 
they cannot win, they will more than likely try to 
get us into an inconclusive and compromise peace. 
The pill, if presented, will be beautifully sugar- 
coated. It might involve an offer to retire their 
forces from a large or considerable part of the 
occupied areas, on condition that we leave their 
homeland undisturbed. It might go farther still. 
But unless we continue our determination to de- 
stroy that Japanese military machine and caste 
and cult once and for all, and unless we take effec- 
tive measures to prevent that cancer of aggressive 
militarism from digging underground and secretly 
building itself up again, as it did in Germany, 
our sons and grandsons will be fighting this war 
over again in the next generation. The show- 
down must be complete and irrevocable. 

I believe that our people should look on this war 
with Japan not through rosy glasses but with a 
full realization that the struggle may be very much 
longer and tougher than our optimists conceive. 
We should all appreciate the fact that the Japa- 
nese, as I have repeatedly said, are fanatics and 
that they are capable of fighting to the last car- 
tridge and the last man wherever they may be. In 
the outlying areas they will have taken every step 
to render those areas so far as possible self-sus- 
taining against the day when, through the process 
of attrition of their shipping, they can no longer 
count on connection with the homeland, putting in 



222 



DEPAETMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



order the industrial and ■« ar plants already avail- 
able, erecting new ones, building up their stock 
piles. Knowing the nature of that enemy, I would 
not care to base my calculations on the wholesale 
unconditional surrender of those far-flung forces 
even after the investment of Tokyo by our troops. 
I do not think that we can afford to take anything 
for granted. I think that we should be prepared 
for a long, hard pull, perhaps much longer and 
harder than our people are able today to visualize, 
and I think that, as time goes on, our determina- 
tion to cut out that cancer of aggressive militarism 
wholly and permanently should steadily be inten- 
sified, never for a moment relaxed, so that Japan 
can never again threaten world peace. 

In fighting this war Japan has an important 
practical advantage in the power to place any 
Japanese in any position for any work at any time. 
The technical advantages of such a system are 
apparent, for it affords flexibility and elasticity 
in the war machine on the home-front. 

Mr. Matsuoka, the Foreign Minister of Japan 
who took Japan into the Axis, used to tell me that 
the United States and the other democracies were 
incapable of waging total war. This is the day 
of the totalitarian powers, he said; Germany will 
unquestionably win the war and will control all 
of Europe, while Japan will continue to be the 
"stabilizing power" in greater East Asia. Democ- 
racy, he added, is bankrupt. The American peo- 
ple are effete and flabby from too much luxury 
and are dependent on their creature comforts. 
The democracies, Matsuoka went on, could never 
make the sacrifices required for total war. In any 
case, he said, your domestic troubles and disunity 
would also make it impossible for you to wage 
total war. These were not necessarily his precise 
words but they represent the drift of his argu- 
ment. In reply I said to him that little did he 
understand the fundamental spirit of our democ- 
racy. I said that we hated war and were generally 
not prepared for war, and when war came we were 
likely to start in low gear with the wheels grating 
and grinding in the initial stages. Wliat he could 
not realize, however, was that when war was forced 
upon us we would rapidly move up through the 
gears, and that when once we slipped into high 
gear with the component parts of our great ma- 
chine working in unison nothing in the world could 



stop us. I remember Mr. Matsuoka looking at me 
to see if I were joking, and when he saw that I 
was grimly serious he shook his head as if he were 
talking to a child. 

We have already proved Mr. Matsuoka's lack 
of comprehension of the spirit of our democracy 
and of the American people. We have proved 
that our so-called "effete" democracy is capable of 
waging total war. 

I have been asked my reaction to the reported 
atrocities of the Japanese military in the Philip- 
pines and elsewhere. Neither you nor I can inter- 
pret our reaction in words, for our feeling is far 
too deep to try to express it in language. Our 
anger against those responsible for these das- 
tardly acts is inexpressible, and at the same time 
I know that we are all filled with the deepest sorrow 
for those who have suffered and that our profound 
sympathy goes out to their families at home. 
Such mediaeval barbarism and unspeakable atroci- 
ties can have only one effect in our country — 
namely, to arouse our people from coast to coast 
and make us fight the war with grimmer determi- 
nation than ever before. 

As to the reaction in Japan to these revelations, 
we must realize that the Japanese people will not 
be allowed to know the facts through their own 
authorities or controlled radio or press, and they 
will have no opportunity to learn the facts from 
abroad since they are allowed no short-wave radio 
sets and no access to foreign newspapers. I re- 
member many talks with prominent Japanese be- 
fore Pearl Harbor, even with members of the 
Imperial Diet, who knew nothing about the rape 
of Nanking, or the insensate cruelties and indis- 
criminate bombing of undefended Chinese towns 
and villages and of our religious missions in China, 
or the indignities purposely inflicted on American 
citizens by the Japanese military. Similarly, 
those people will not be pei-mitted to know of the 
terrible acts of their armed forces in the Philip- 
pines, in Thailand, and elsewhere. 

Now, as to the reaction of the Japanese military 
leaders to these revelations. Strange as it may 
seem, the Japanese, even the military leaders, do 
not like to be regarded by the rest of the world as 
uncivilized. I think that the reaction upon indi- 
viduals will differ according to the character and 
personality of the individual, Some will be 



MARCH 4, 1944 



223 



merely angered, and I doubt whether the perpe- 
trators themselves will have any feeling whatever 
of repentance. But others, including perhaps 
some of the highest leaders, may and probably will 
feel a sense of shame or, at the very least, a desire 
to offset in future this record of barbarism. The 
Japanese people as a whole would, if they knew 
the facts, be utterly ashamed. They showed this 
sense of shame in a spontaneous and nation-wide 
demonstration when their military fliers sank our 
ship the Panay in 1937. The mere revelation of 
these atrocities cannot and will not change the 
inherent character of any Japanese, but it is con- 
ceivable and I hope possible that the higher mili- 
tary leaders may gradually, if not immediately, 
take steps to insure better treatment for our com- 
patriots who are still prisoners in their hands. 

In broadcasts to Japan I am appealing for that 
spark of chivalry in war which in times past the 
Japanese have asked us to associate with the Bu- 
shido code. 

Before closing this statement, I should like to 
read to you a letter. You may perhaps have read 
it already because it was published in the Reader's 
Digest about a year ago, but it cannot be read too 
often, and I only wish that every man, woman, 
and child in our country could know it by heart. 
It is called "Testament of Youth" and it is a letter 
from a United States naval flier, missing since the 
Battle of Midway, to a friend at home : 

"The Fates have been kind to me. Wlien you 
hear people saying harsh things about American 
youth, you will know how wrong they all are. 
So many times that now they have become com- 
monplace, I've seen incidents that make me know 
that we were never soft, never weak. 

"Many of my friends are now dead. To a man, 
each died with a nonchalance that each would have 
denied was courage, but simply called a lack of 
fear and forgot the triumph. If anything great 
or good has been born of this war, it should be 
valued in the youth of our country, who were never 
trained for war, who almost never believed in war, 
but who have, from some hidden source, brought 
forth a gallantry which is homespun, it is so real. 

"Out here between the spaceless sea and sky, 
American youth has found itself, and given of 
itself, so that a spark may catch, burst into flame, 



and burn high. If our country takes these sac- 
rifices with indifference it will be the cruelest in- 
gratitude the world has ever known. 

"You will, I know, do all in your power to help 
others keep the faith. My luck can't last much 
longer. But the flame goes on and only that is 
important." 

Ladies and gentlemen, if we are to keep that 
flame going on, and if we are to take those sacri- 
fices not with indifference and cruel ingratitude 
but with a grim determination to justify those 
sacrifices, and furthermore if we are to afford the 
millions of American men in our armed forces 
every chance of living through this conflict, I know 
of no better way to do it than by opening our 
hearts to the humanitarian appeal of the Red 
Cross in order that we may keep the Red Cross 
at the side of our fighting men and their dependents 
at home in their hour of greatest need. Tonight 
our thoughts are, above all else, with the success 
of the coming Red Cross campaign. I appeal to 
you all who are here tonight, and to all citizens 
of Boston as well, to open your hearts and to gii^e. 

LEND-LEASE SHIPMENTS TO THE 
SOVIET UNION 

[Released to the press by the Foreign Economic Administration 
February 28] 

Leo T. Crowley, Foreign Economic Administra- 
tor, made the following statement on February 28 : 

Shipments of munitions and other war supplies 
under lend-lease from the United States to the 
Soviet Union in 1943 were almost double 1942 
shipments. 

A total of 8,400,000 tons^ of supplies with a 
dollar value of $4,243,804,000 was exported to the 
Soviet Union from the United States from the 
beginning of the Soviet-aid program in October, 
1941 to January 1, 1944. Shipments in 1943 totaled 
5,400,000 tons, compared to 2,800,000 tons in 1942. 
Shipments in December 1943 were the largest on 
record for any single month in the history of 
the S'oviet-aid program. 

Several hundred more cargo ships left with lend- 
lease supplies for Russia in 1943 than in 1942, and 
99 percent of the ships sailing in 1943 reached port 

^U.S. tons of 2,000 pounds. 



224 



DEPABTMENT OF STATE BtTLLETIN 



in safety. In 1942 twelve out of every hundred 
ships taking supplies from the United States to 
the Soviet Union were sunk by enemy submarines, 
surface raiders, or bombers. In 1943 only one ship 
out of every hundred was lost. 

Up to January 1, 1944 more than 7,800 planes 
had been sent from the United States to the Soviet 
Union. Over 3,000 of these were ferried all the 
way by air to the U.S.S.R. More than 5,000 planes 
were sent in 1943, twice as many as in 1942. Vir- 
tually all planes sent to the Soviet Union have 
been combat types. In 1943 they were principally 
Bell Airacobra P-39 fighters, Douglas A-20 attack 
bombers, and North American Mitchell B-25's. 

We had sent, up to January 1, 1944, over 4,700 
tanks and tank-destroyers and over 170,000 trucks, 
33,000 jeeps, and nearly 25,000 other military mo- 
tor vehicles. Twice as many trucks were sent in 
1943 as in 1942 to help meet the advancing Red 
Army's transport and supply needs. For the men 
of the Red Army over 6,000,000 pairs of army boots 
have been shipped, together with large quantities 
of food needed to maintain the Soviet Army ra- 
tions. Food shipments have consisted principally 
of wheat and flour ; dried peas and beans ; sugar ; 
canned, cured, and dehydrated meat; powdered 
milk, dried eggs, and dehydrated vegetables; and 
substantial quantities of lard, pork fat, and veg- 
etable oils, including oleomargarine. We have 
sent over 580,000 tons of these fats and oils, which 
have been especially important to the Soviet Army 
rations during the winter oifensives carried on in 
sub-zero weather. In addition to these fats and 
oils we have sent 50,000 tons of butter especially 
for use in Soviet Army hospitals. Food shipments 
to the Soviet Union up to January 1, 1944 totaled 
2,250,000 tons. In 1943 these food shipments were 
about 3I/2 percent of our total food supply in the 
same period. 

In addition to food, we have sent 9,000 tons of 
seeds under lend-lease to aid Soviet production 
of its own food in new agricultural regions and 
in devastated areas reconquered from the Germans. 

Other shipments to the Soviet Union up to Jan- 
uary 1, 1944 have included : 

177,000 tons of explosives for manufacture into 
bombs and shells in Soviet factories; 



1,350,000 tons of steel, 384,000 tons of aluminum, 
copper, and other metals, and $400,000,000 
worth of industrial equipment, machinery, 
and machine tools for the production of 
Soviet artillery, tanks, planes, and other war 
weapons; and 

740,000 tons of aviation gasoline and other refined 
fuels and lubricating oils needed for the Soviet 
Air Force and for the ground fighting on the 
Eastern front. 

In order to reduce the Soviet's need for refined 
fuels from the United States, 145,000 tons of re- 
finery equipment have been sent for installation 
in the U.S.S.R. American engineers in the 
U.S.S.R. are now assisting in the construction of 
these refineries which will, when completed, pro- 
duce large additional quantities of aviation gas- 
oline and other refined products from Russia's own 
oil resources. 

Similarly, the United States shipped to the 
Soviet Union in 1943 used and new machinery for 
a complete tire factory that can produce at least 
1,000,000 military-truck tires annually from the 
Soviet's own synthetic and natural rubber sup- 
plies. 

TWENTY-SIXTH ANMVERSARY OF THE 
RED ARMY 

[Released to the press by the White House February 29] 

The President received on February 29, 1944 the 
following message from Marshal Stalin : 

"I ask you to accept my sincere thanks for your 
friendly congratulations^ on the occasion of the 
twenty-sixth anniversary of the Red Army and on 
the successes of the armed forces of the Soviet 
Union in the struggle against the Hitlerite invad- 
ers. I am strongly convinced that the time is near 
when the successful struggle of the armed forces 
of the Soviet Union, together with the armies of 
the United States and Great Britain, on the basis 
of the agreements reached at Moscow and Tehran, 
M'ill lead to the final defeat of our common enemy, 
Hitlerite Germany." 

' Bulletin of Feb. 26, 1944, p. 204. 



MARCH 4, 1944 



225 



SUSPENSION OF OIL SfflPMENTS TO 
SPAIN 

[Released to the press March 4] 

On January 28, 194J: the Department of State 
issued a press release of which the opening sen- 
tence reads as follows: "The loadings of Spanish 
tankers with petroleum products for Spain have 
been suspended through action of the State De- 
partment, pending a reconsideration of trade and 
general relations between Spain and the United 
States in the light of trends in Spanish policy." '■ 

The foregoing statement related only to Spanish 
tanker loadings in the Caribbean area. In addi- 
tion to the suspension of tanker loadings, the 
Department decided to suspend the granting of 
export licenses for the shipment of packaged pe- 



troleum products, including lubricants, from the 
United States, so long as the tanker loadings were 
suspended. In taking this decision, however, the 
Department did not cancel outstanding licenses 
for packaged petroleum goods. The packaged 
goods in question are being shipped under licenses 
granted before the suspension took effect. 

Incidentally, under the petroleum program in 
effect prior to the suspension of loadings, Spain 
would ship from United States ports less than 3 
percent of her total limited liftings in the Western 
Hemisphere. The amount of lubricants being 
shipped on the vessel referred to in the morning 
press of March 4 ^ represents a very small portion 
of the petroleum products which Spain could 
otherwise import were it not for the suspension of 
loadings. 



American Republics 



UNITED STATES RELATIONS WITH THE EXISTING ARGENTINE REGIME 
Statement by the Acting Secretary of State 



[Released to the press March 4] 

The foreign policy of the United States since 
the beginning of tlie war has been governed pri- 
marily by considerations of support to the prose- 
cution of the war. That applies to our relations 
with any country. That is the single uppermost 
point in our policy and must remain so. 

Prior to February 25, the Argentine Govern- 
ment had been headed by General Ramirez. On 
January 26, 1944 his Government broke relations 
with the Axis and indicated that it proposed to 
go further in cooperating in the defense of the 
Western Hemisphere and the preservation of 
hemispheric security. 

Suddenly, on Februaiy 25, under well-known 
circumstances. General Ramirez abandoned the 
active conduct of affairs. This Government has 
reason to believe that groups not in sympathy with 
the declared Argentine policy of joining the de- 
fense of the hemisphere were active in this turn of 
affairs. 



' Bllli-.tin of .Jan. 29, 1944, p. 116. 
2 Philadelphia Record. 



The Department of State' thereupon instructed 
Ambassador Armour to refrain from entering of- 
ficial relations with the new regime pending de- 
velopments. This is the present status of our 
relations with the existing Argentine regime. 

In all matters relating to the security and de- 
fense of the hemisphere, we must look to the sub- 
stance rather than the form. We are in a bitter 
war with a ruthless enemy whose plan has included 
conquest of the Western Hemisphere. To deal 
with such grave issues on a purely technical basis 
would be to close our eyes to the realities of the 
situation. 

The support, by important elements inimical to 
the United Nations war effort, of movements de- 
signed to limit action already taken could only 
be a matter of grave anxiety. 

The United States has at all times had close ties 
with Argentina and the Argentine people. It has 
consistently hoped, and continues to hope, that 
Argentina will take the steps necessary to bring 
her fully and completely into the realm of hemi- 



226 



DEPAETMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



spheric solidarity, so that Argentina will play a 
part -worthy of her great traditions in the world- 
wide struggle on which the lives of all of the 
American countries, including Argentina, now de- 



pend. The policies and types of action, present 
and future, which would effectuate this full co- 
operation are fully known in Argentina, as in the 
rest of the hemisphere. 



The Department 



APPOINTMENT OF TWO ADDITIONAL ASSISTANT SECRETARIES OF STATE 



[Released to the press February 29] 

There follows the text of the report to the 
President of the Acting Secretary of State and 
the accompanying draft of proposed legislation 
to provide in the present emergency, and for so 
long thereafter as may be necessary, for the ap- 
pointment, with the consent of the Senate, of two 
additional Assistant Secretaries of State.' 

Februaby 21, 1944. 
The President: 

I have the honor to submit, with a view to its 
transmission to the Congress, if you approve, a 
bill to provide for the appointment of two addi- 
tional Assistant Secretaries of State in the present 
emergency and for. so long thereafter as may be 
necessary. 

The purpose of this bill is to facilitate the con- 
duct of the foreign relations of the United States 
and to assure in these times an instrumentality 
fully adequate to assist in directing the foreign 
policy of the Government, and to protect and pro- 
mote the national interests. 

Just as maintenance of good relations and mu- 
tual understanding between the United States and 
other nations makes indispensable an effective For- 
eign Service, legislation to accomplish which has 
recently been recommended to the favorable con- 
sideration of the Congi'ess, it is indispensable that 
the Department of State be organized effectively 
to handle the greater complexity of problems, 
many of a new, delicate and unprecedented char- 
acter, which today require solution in the broad 
domain of foreign relations. 

Certain readjustments possible within the 
framework of existing legislation have already 

' The report and the draft of proposed legislation were 
transmitted to Congress by the President with a message 
of Feb. 29, 1944 (see H. Doc. 456, 78th Ctong.) 



been made to assure an organization equal to the 
responsibilities given to the Department to dis- 
charge. These readjustments are not a complete 
solution of all the achninistrative problems of the 
Department. Studies are constantly being con- 
ducted looking to improvement. The adjust- 
ments recently undertaken will, however, achieve 
a substantial broadening and intensification of the 
work and a higher coordination of political, eco- 
nomic, and other activities, than has heretofore 
been possible. 

Further to implement the machinery of the 
Department of State, I consider it not only desir- 
able but imperative that authority be given in the 
l^resent emergency and for so long thereafter as 
may be necessary to provide additional Assistant 
Secretaries of State, to whom may be delegated 
broad authority and ample facilities to participate 
in the formulation of policy and to direct the 
carrying forward of those activities in world 
affairs determined to be in furtherance of national 
interests and the attainment and maintenance of 
a stable peace. 

The proposed legislation has been referred to 
the Director or the Bureau of the Budget, who has 
informed the Department that its transmission to 
the Congress is not inconsistent with the Govern- 
ment's fiscal program. 

Respectfully submitted. 

Edward E. Stettinius, Jr. 

Acting Secretary of State 

[Enclosure] 

A Bill To authorize the appointment of two 
additional Assistant Secretaries of State. 

Be it enacted hy the Senate and House of Repre- 
sentatives of the United States of America in 



MARCH 4, 1944 



227 



Congress assembled, That there shall be in the 
Department of State an Under Secretary of State 
and not to exceed six Assistant Secretaries of 
State, each of whom shall be appointed by the 
President by and with the advice and consent of 
the Senate, and who shall serve without numerical 
desifiTiation of rank. 



APPOINTMENT OF OFFICERS 

[Released to the press March 3] 

Mr. Fredei-ick William Nichol has been ap- 
pointed a Special Adviser on Administration to 
the Secretary of State. He will assist the De- 
partment in implementing the reorganization plan 
announced on January 15, 1944. 



The Foreign Service 



ADAPTATION OF THE FOREIGN SERVICE TO ITS NEW NEEDS AND RESPONSIBILITIES 



There follows the text of a report of the Acting 
Secretary of State to the President on the need 
for amending the act of Febraai-y 23, 1931, as 
amended, for the grading and classification of 
clerks in the Foreign Service : ^ 

February 21, 1944. 
The President : 

I have the honor to submit, with a view to its 
transmission to the Congress, if you approve, a 
bill to amend the act of February 23, 1931, as 
amended by the act of April 24, 1939 (22 U.S.C, 
sees. 3, 5, 7, 11, 12, 15, 23a, b, c, f, and g). 

The principal purpose of this bill is to assure 
a Foreign Service adequately equipped to deal with 
the complexity of problems and wider scope pre- 
sented in modern international affairs. Mainte- 
nance of good relations and mutual understanding 
between the United States and other nations makes 
indispensable an effective Foreign Service ; a For- 
eign Service trained to cope with political, social, 
and economic problems, as well as adequately to 
represent this country's interests, to protect its 
nationals, to foster its trade. 

The problems of the present emergency in the 
field of international relations and the practical 
certainty that they will continue either perma- 
nently or for an indefinite period after the war 
have impelled the Department to give careful con- 
sideration to the adaptation of the Foreign Service 
to its new needs and responsibilities and particu- 
larly to seek legislative authorization to permit 

' The report was transmitted to Congress by the Presi- 
dent with a message of Feb. 29, 1944 ( see H. Doc. 457, 78th 
Cong.) 



the recruitment of a permanent corps of highly 
qualified technical and scientific officers. The need 
for this has been emphasized by the present situ- 
ation- in the other American Kepublics and else- 
where throughout the world, which has led the 
Department to provide its missions and certain 
important consulate posts temporarily with 
highly specialized personnel not available in suf- 
ficient niunbers in the ranks of the Foreign Service. 
This has been made possible through the estab- 
lishment of the so-called Auxiliary Service, to 
which appointments have been made for the dura- 
tion of the war. 

It is expected that the volume and importance 
of regular diplomatic and consular work will con- 
tinue to increase. The Foreign Service as now 
constituted is qualified to carry on this work fully 
and effectively ; furthermore, it contains within its 
ranks some officers who have become specialists 
in finance, economics, research, public relations, 
and other teclinical fields. However, new and un- 
precedented personnel requirements in the field 
call for the ser\aces of a greater number of spe- 
cially trained technicians than can be developed 
within the Foreign Service as presently organized. 
It is felt, moreover, that a certain number of these 
should be experts of high standing who have de- 
voted themselves principally or exclusively to im- 
portant work in their particular fields. When- 
ever such a specialist is needed, the Department 
should be in a position to seek the services of ^he 
best talent available, and the attached bill pro- 
vides the necessary legislative authorization for 
meeting that need. 



228 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Recruitment for the Foreign Service was dis- 
continued immediately after Pearl Harbor. To- 
day its strength is below normal and continuing 
to decrease, while the Department is faced with 
increased responsibilities of the greatest impor- 
tance, now practically all of which are directly 
related to the war effort. When peace comes there 
will for a number of years have been no new entry. 
Officers who have remained at their stations as 
a matter of duty during the war will retire. To 
cope with the personnel problem which will con- 
front the Department, and to increase the efficiency 
of the Service, is the principal purpose of the leg- 
islation proposed. 

It is not enough that new recruits be obtained, 
who in time will be enabled to discharge the heavy 
responsibilities of the post-war period, but imme- 
diately hostilities cease and more normal relation- 
ships are resimied a corps of technical and scien- 
tifically trained personnel will be essential to 
augment the remaining corps of Foreign Service 
officers, whose ranks, further depleted by deaths, 
resignations, and retirements, will be inadequate 
to the multiple responsibilities of the peace. 

Officers of this category will be appointed to 
the Foreign Service by the Secretary of State, after 
such examination as he might find suitable. They 
will be appropriately commissioned with designa- 
tions appropriate to their duties in the Foreign 
Service establishments to which they may be as- 
signed. They will be recruited from the existing 
Foreign Service Auxiliary; the administrative, 
fiscal, and clerical personnel of the Foreign Serv- 
ice; or from among the personnel of the Depart- 
ment of State or that of other departments of the 
Government. It is anticipated that in some 
instances the services of specialists will be required 
for only aAemporary period and provision is made 
enabling these to be obtained by detail from other 
departments. However, there will clearly be a 
continuing need for a permanent group of highly 
trained technicians. 

The accompanying bill would permit the rapid 
recruitment, as and when needed, of these special- 
ists, and would afford at the same time to qualified 
and experienced members of the administrative, 
fiscal, and clerical branch of the Foreign Service 
a broader field for advancement. Some of the 
latter employees have responsibilities equaling 



those of certain career officers. As a result of long 
experience, they are experts in one or more fields 
such as office administration, citizenship and im- 
migration work, shipping, and commercial and 
economic reporting. They would, under the pro- 
visions of this bill, be accorded salary classifications 
and official status commensurate with the charac- 
ter of their duties. It would also offer them an 
additional incentive to train themselves to qualify 
and by examination to become eligible for ap- 
pointment as Foreign Service officers. 

Various Members of the Congress in the course 
of hearings on appropriation bills have manifested 
repeatedly a strong interest in this group of em- 
ployees, and it is believed when the provisions of 
this bill are enacted the Department will be en- 
abled to attract the best talent available and to 
retain the valued services of existing personnel 
who merit recognition. 

The bill presented to your consideration car- 
ries into the organic Foreign Service law, with 
minor changes, the provisions of the act approved 
June 26, 1930 (5 U.S.C. 118a) relating to allow- 
ances for living quarters. These allowances are 
now granted to enable officers of the Foreign Serv- 
ice effectively to represent this country abroad and 
to enable the making of wide contacts and to per- 
mit all American personnel to continue to maintain 
American standards of living. The allowances, as 
distinguished from salary, are premised on the 
varying conditions which obtain at the many duty 
stations and are essential to meet the extraordinary 
costs in maintenance of appropriate standards of 
living and in the performance of the public busi- 
ness. They are essential to the maintenance as 
well of a mobile, flexible, and fully democratic and 
efficient service. 

Percentage limitations contained in the legisla- 
tion now proposed for amendment as resj^ects per- 
sonnel in each class of the Foreign Service are 
removed as destructive of the initiative and morale 
of the younger officers, who, by reason of the ex- 
isting restrictions, are or will be prevented from 
advancements due to the failure of new recruits to 
the service and the retention in the higher brackets 
of officers who but for the war would have applied 
for and been granted retirement. Removal of the 
percentage limitations is obviously necessary to 
prevent the service from becoming completely 



MARCH 4, 1944 



229 



frozen and to remove the serious threat to efficiency 
and morale. 

The proi^osed bill provides for the bonding of 
Foreign Service officers, as well as other officers 
or employees of the Department of the Foreign 
Service, and recognizes in its amended form the 
pertinent provisions of the act approved December 
29, 1941 (55 Stat. 875). The revision suggested 
has been drafted in collaboration with officers of 
the Treasury Department, to whom it is agreeable. 

Other amendments of a minor character are 
proposed as matters of administrative convenience 
without in any way impairing the eifectiveness of 
necessary controls over those now provided and in 
keeping with changed conditions and the provi- 
sions of the present bill. 

Section 10 of the draft bill amends, agreeable 
to Reorganization Plan II of the President, sec- 
tion 31 of the act of February 23, 1931, to provide 
for representation on the Foreign Service Per- 
sonnel Board of officers of the Departments of 
Commerce and Agriculture. It, moreover, re- 
moves the penalty attaching to acceptance of the 
position of Chief of the Division of Foreign Serv- 
ice Personnel in the Department, a penalty attach- 
ing today to no other position in the Federal Gov- 
ernment, and one which as a matter of simple jus- 
tice, as well as in the interest of good administra- 
tion, should be removed. It is axiomatic that if 
an officer is to be chosen by reference to his special 
qualifications, character, and integrity to assume 
the responsibilities of this difficult post, he should 
be accorded the same right to future advancement 
that is held out to other Foreign Service officers 
who, while well qualified in various ways, may not 
combine the qualities and capacities which the 
Chief of the Division of Foreign Service Personnel 
must possess effectively and impartially to handle 
personnel. This officer is especially selected from 
among officers who have attained the highest grade 
in the classified service for a most difficult assign- 
ment in the Department, acceptance of which occa- 
sions loss of the allowances he would be accorded 
if he were assigned for field duty, and as the law 
presently provides, he further is denied the privi- 
lege of nomination as a minister or ambassador for 
a period of 3 years following termination of this 
assignment, even though he may have meritori- 
ously acquitted his responsibilities. I feel confi- 



dent that this amendment will have the unqualified 
approval of the Congress. 

In addition, the amendment proposed will per- 
mit the Division of Foreign Service Persomiel to 
be organized on a basis and scale adequate to cope 
with the personnel problems of the Foreign Serv- 
ice, which have long since outgrown the physical 
capacity of the Division as it has been possible to 
organize it under existing law. Provision is also 
made for the Director of the newly created Office 
of Foreign Service Administration of the Depart- 
ment. 

This legislation would increase the cost of main- 
taining the Foreign Service but would enable 
strengthening of that service to serve economically 
and effectively the expanding needs of all Govern- 
ment departments and agencies in the foreign field. 
The scale of compensation of the clerical, adminis- 
trative, and fiscal service will follow, insofar as 
practicable, the Classification Act of 1923 used by 
the Civil Service, since this would provide a broad 
and flexible system under which this personnel 
could be appropriately classified in accordance 
with their particular qualifications and experience. 
The special technical and scientific personnel would 
be appointed to classified grades within the For- 
eign Service structure commensurate with the 
candidate's age, qualifications and experience, and 
personnel of this category detailed for special duty 
would be paid as though they continued to serve 
in their regular civil-service positions. Personnel 
would, as a matter of equity, receive the allowances 
provided pursuant to the amended provisions of 
this bill and similar to those now granted Foreign 
Service officers under section 19 of the act of Feb- 
ruary 23, 1931 (22 U.S.C, sec. 12). Suitable re- 
tirement privileges would be provided for perma- 
nent (but not temporary) appointees tlirough their 
integration into the Foreign Service retirement and 
disability system. 

In the critical years ahead, the Government of 
the United States will need, and should have, a 
Foreign Service second to none. It has such a 
Foreign Sei*vice at the present time, and the pro- 
posed authority to provide it with a corps of highly 
trained experts and technicians, recruited from 
the best talent procurable, will enable it to dis- 
charge successfully all the new demands and re- 
sponsibilities that will be placed upon it. 



230 

Eepresentatives of the Department of State are 
prepared, at the request of the appropriate com- 
mittees of the Congress, to supply additional de- 
tailed information with respect to the accompany- 
ing bill. It has been referred to the Director of 
the Bureau of the Budget, who has informed the 
Department of State that there is no objection to 
its submission to the Congress. 

Eespectfully submitted. 

E. R. Stettinius, Jr. 
Acting Secretary of State 



Treaty Information 



EXCHANGE OF PUBLICATIONS 
United Stales and Iraq 

The American Minister to Iraq transmitted to 
the Secretary of State, with a despatch dated Feb- 
ruary 17, 1944, an agreement between the Govern- 
ment of the United States of America and the 
Government of Iraq for the partial exchange of 
official publications, effected by an exchange of 
notes dated February 16, 1944. 

Each of the notes is accompanied by a list of 
the official publications to be regularly exchanged 
by one Government with the other Government. 
Under the agreement new and important publica- 
tions which may be initiated in the future are to 
be included in the lists for exchange without the 
necessity of subsequent negotiations. The official 
exchange office for the transmission of the publi- 
cations on the part of the United States is the 
Smithsonian Institution, and on the part of Iraq 
the official exchange office is the Translation and 
Publication Section of the Iraqi Ministry of Edu- 
cation. The publications exchanged wiU be re- 
ceived by the Library of Congress on behalf of the 
United States and by the Public Library of Bagh- 
dad on behalf of the Iraqi Government. Each 
party to the agreement agrees to bear the postal, 
railroad, steamship, and other charges arising in 
its own territory, and to expedite the shipments as 
far as possible. 

The agi-eement entered into effect on February 
16, 1944. 



DEPAETMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

United States and Afghanistan 

The American Minister to Afghanistan in- 
formed the Secretary of State, by a telegram dated 
Februarj' 29, 1944, that by an exchange of notes of 
tliat date an agreement was concluded between the 
Government of the United States of America and 
the Government of Afghanistan for the exchange 
of official publications. 

ENTER-AMERICAN INDUN INSTITUTE 

Doininican Republic 

The Mexican Ambassador at Wasliington in- 
formed the Secretary of State, by a note dated 
February 15, 1944, that the Dominican Republic 
has notified the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of 
Mexico of its adherence to the Convention Pro- 
viding for the Creation of an Inter-American 
Indian Institute, in accordance with the second 
paragraph of article XVI of that convention. The 
convention was opened for signature at Mexico 
City on November 1, 1940. 

INTER-AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF AGRI- 
CULTURAL SCIENCES 

El Salvador 

By a letter dated February 28, 1944, the Director 
General of the Pan American Union informed the 
Secretary of State that the Convention on the 
Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences, 
which was opened for signature at the Pan Ameri- 
can Union on January 15, 1944, was signed for El 
Salvador on February 18, 1944. 

The convention was signed on January 15, 1944 
for the United States of America, Costa Rica, 
Nicaragua, and Panama; on January 20, 1944 for 
Cuba and Ecuador; and on January 28, 1944 for 
the Dominican Republic and Honduras. 

PROVISIONAL FUR SEAL AGREEMENT 
BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND 
CANADA 

On February 26, 1944 the President approved 
an act entitled "An act to give effect to the Pro- 
visional Fur Seal Agreement of 1942 between the 



MARCH 4, 1944 



231 



United States of America and Canada ; to protect 
the fur seals of the Pribilof Islands; and for other 
purposes" (Public Law 237, 78th Cong.) 

The Provisional Fur Seal Agreement between 
the United States of America and Canada, re- 
ferred to in the above-mentioned law, was effected 
by an exchange of notes signed in Washington 
on December 8, 1942 and December 19, 1942. Ar- 
ticle X of the agi-eement provides in part as fol- 
lows: "This Agreement shall enter into force on 
the day the President of the United States of 
America approves legislation enacted by the Con- 
gress of the United States for its enforcement, 
and the day the Government of Canada issues an 
Order in Council ap^jlying the provisions of the 
Agreement, or should the President's approval of 
the legislation and the issuance of the Order in 
Council be on different days, on the date of the 
later in time of such approval by the President 
or issuance of such Order in Council." 



Legislation 



A Bill To Amend the Organic Act of Puerto Rico : Hearings 
before a subcommittee of the Committee on Territories 
and Insular Affairs, United States Senate, 7Sth Cong., 
1st sess., on S. 1407. November 16, 17, 18, 24, 25, 26, 
and December 1, 1943. iv, 605 pp. 

To Amend the Communications Act of 1934 : Hearings be- 
fore the Committee on Interstate Commerce, United 
States Senate, 78th Cong., 1st sess., on S. 814. November 
3, 4, 5, 9, 11, 12, 15-19, 22-24, 29-30; December 1-4, 
6-10, 14-16, 1943. iv, 1022 pp. 

Alaska Fishery Act : Hearing before a subcommittee of 
the Committee on Commerce, United States Senate, on 
S. 930, a bill to assure conservation of and to permit the 



fullest utilization of the fisheries of Alaska, and for 
other purposes. January 20, 1944. iv, 154 pp. 

War and Post- War Adjustment Policy: Report on war 
and post-war adjustment policy submitted by Bernard 
M. Baruch and John M. Hancock to James F. Byrnes, 
Director, Office of War Mobilization, on February 15, 
1944. S. Doe. 154, 78th Cong, iv, 108 pp. 

Annual Report of the Alien Property Custodian : Message 
from the President of the United States transmitting 
the annual report of the Alien Property Custodian on 
proceedings had under the Trading with the Enemy Act, 
as amended, for the period beginning March 11, 1942, 
and ending June 30, 1943. H. Doc. 417, 7Sth Cong, vi, 
166 pp. 

Appointment of Two Additional Secretaries of State: 
Message from the President of the United States trans- 
mitting report of the Acting Secretary of State, and the 
draft of proposed legislation to provide in the present 
emergency, and for so long thereafter as may be neces- 
sary, for the appointment, with the consent of the Sen- 
ate, of two additional Assistant Secretaries of State. 
H. Doc. 456, 78th Cong. 2 pp. 

Amending Act Grading Clerks tn the Foreign Service: 
Message from the President of the United States trans- 
mitting report from the Acting Secretary of State and 
the draft of proposed legislation to amend the act en- 
titled "An Act for the Grading and Classification of 
Clerks in the Foreign Service of the United States of 
America, and Providing Compensation Therefor" ap- 
proved February 23, 1931, as amended. H. Doc. 457, 
78th Cong. 8 pp. 

Closer Relationships Between the American Republics: 
Message from the President of the United States trans- 
mitting report from the Acting Secretary of State with 
an accompanying memorandum. H. Doc. 474, 78th Cong. 
6 pp. 

An Act To give effect to the Provisional Fur Seal Agree- 
ment of 1942 between the United States of America and 
Canada ; to protect the fur seals of the Pribilof Islands ; 
and for other purposes. Approved February 26, 1944. 
[H.R. 2924] Public Law 237, 78th Cong. 5 pp. 



0. S. eoVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE, 1944 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, 0. S. Government Printinf; Office, Washington 25. D. C. 
Price, 10 cents - - - - Subscription price, ?2.75 a year 

PUBLISHED WEEKLY WITH THB APPBOVAL OF THE DIEECTOR OF THE BUBBAU OF THB BUDGET 



^^5^.. / h ^ 



u 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



BE 



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Tin 



MARCH 11, 1944 
Vol. X,_No. 246— Publication 2083 



ontents 




The War ^w 

The United States and Ireland: 

United States Request for the Removal of Axis Diplo- 
matic and Consular Representatives From Ire- 
land 235 

Inability of United States To Sell Additional Mer- 
chant Ships to Ireland . 236 

American Troops in the British Isles 237 

Petroleum Questions: Preliminary Discussions by the 

United States and the United Kingdom 238 

Exchange of American and German Nationals .... 238 

Third Annivereary of Lend-Lease 238 

The Proclaimed List: Cumulative Supplement 6 to 

Revision VI 239 

Africa 

The Brazzaville Conference of French African Gover- 
nors, January 30-February 8, 1944 239 

The Department 

The Establishment of a Personnel Utilization Pro- 
gram in the Department of State: Departmental 
Order 1236 of March 10, 1944 240 

Creation of Planning Staff in the Office of Foreign 
Service Administration: Departmental Order 1234 
of March 6, 1944 241 

Appointment of Officers 242 

American Republics 

Centennial Celebration of the Independence of the 

Dominican Repubhc 242 

[OVER] 



U. S. SlTEnrHTE'NCE.NT Or •CCC'J^.ENTS 

APR 6 1944 







ontents-f^oNTmvEjy 



Treaty Information Page 
Agreement Between the United States and the United 
Kingdom Regarding Extension of Time for Copy- 
right 243 

General Inter-American Convention for Trade Mark 

and Commercial Protection 248 

Legislation 249 

Publications 249 



The War 



THE UNITED STATES AND IRELAND 

United States Request for the Removal of Axis Diplomatic and Consular Representatives 

From Ireland 



[Released to the press March 10] 

The Secretary of State announced on March 10, 
1944 that the American Government on February 
21 had made a request to the Irish Government for 
th;e removal of Axis consular and diplomatic repre- 
sentatives whose presence in Ireland must be re- 
garded as constituting a danger to the lives of 
American soldiers and to the success of the Allied 
military operations. The Irish Government has 
now replied that it is impossible for it to comply 
with this request. The text of the note delivered 
to Prime Minister de Valera on February 21, 1944 
by the American Minister in Dublin, on instruc- 
tions from the Department, reads as follows : 

"Your Excellency will recall that in your speech 
at Cork delivered on the fourteenth of December, 
1941 you expressed sentiments of special friend- 
ship for the American people on the occasion of 
their entry into the present war and closed by 
saying, 'The policy of the state remains unchanged. 
We can only be a friendly neutral.' As you will 
also recall, extracts of this speech were trans- 
mitted to the President by your Minister in Wash- 
ington. The President, while conveying his ap- 
preciation for this expression of friendship, stated 
his confidence that the Irish Government and the 
Irish people, whose freedom is at stake no less than 
ours, would know how to meet their responsibil- 
ities in this situation. 

"It has become increasingly apparent that de- 
spite the declared desire of the Irish Government 
that its neutrality should not operate in favor of 
either of the belligerents, it has in fact operated 
and continues to operate in favor of the Axis 
powers and against the United Nations on whom 
your security and the maintenance of your na- 



tional economy depend. One of the gravest and 
most inequitable results of this situation is the 
opportunity for highly organized espionage which 
the geographical position of Ireland affords the 
Axis and denies the United Nations. Situated as 
you are in close proximity to Britain, divided 
only by an intangible boundary from Northern Ire- 
land, where are situated important American 
bases, with continuous traffic to and from both 
countries. Axis agents enjoy almost unrestricted 
opportunity for bringing military information of 
vital importance from Great Britain and Northern 
Ireland into Ireland and from there transmitting 
it by various routes and methods to Germany. No 
opportunity corresponding to this is open to the 
United Nations, for the Axis has no military dis-* 
positions which may be observed from Ireland. 

"We do not question the good faith of the Irish 
Government in its efforts to suppress Axis espio- 
nage. Whether or to what extent it has succeeded 
in preventing acts of espionage against American 
shipping and American forces in Great Britain 
and Northern Ireland is, of course, impossible to 
determine with certainty. Nevertheless it is a fact 
that German and Japanese diplomatic and consular 
representatives still continue to reside in Dublin 
and enjoy the special privileges and immunities 
customarily accorded to such officials. That Axis 
representatives in neutral countries use these 
special privileges and immunities as a cloak for 
espionage activities against the United Nations has 
been demonstrated over and over again. It would 
be naive to assume that Axis agencies have not 
exploited conditions to the full in Ireland as they 
have in other countries. It is our understanding 
that the German Legation in Dublin, until recently 

235 



236 



DEPABTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



at least, has had in its possession a radio sending 
set. This is evidence of the intention of the Ger- 
man Government to use this means of communica- 
tion. Supporting evidence is furnished by the two 
parachutists equipped vrith radio sending sets 
recently dropped on your territoi-y by German 
planes. 

"As you know from common reiJort, United 
Nations military operations are in preparation in 
both Britain and Northern Ireland. It is vital 
that information from which may be deduced their 
nature and direction should not reach the enemy. 
Not only the success of the operations but the lives 
of thousands of United Nations' soldiers are at 
stake. 

"We request therefore, that the Irish Govern- 



ment take appropriate steps for the recall of Ger- 
man and Japanese representatives in Ireland. We 
should be lacking in candor if we did not state our 
hope that this action will take the form of sever- 
ance of all diplomatic relations between Ireland 
and these two countries. You will, of course, 
readily understand the compelling reasons why we 
ask -as an absolute-minimum the removal of these 
Axis representatives whose presence in Ireland 
mxist inevitably b& regardedascoi>stituting a dan- 
ger to the lives of American soldiers and to the 
success of Allied military operations. 

"It is hardly necessary to point out that time is 
of extreme impoitance and that we trust Your Ex- 
cellency will favor us with your reply at your early 
convenience." 



Inability of United States To Sell Additional Merchant Ships to Ireland 



[Released to the press Marcb 11] 

The text of a note delivered to Prime Minister 
de Valera on January 6, 1944 by the American 
Minister in Dublin, the Honorable David Gray, 
on instruction from the Secretary of State, follows : 

"I have the honor to refer to recent efforts of the 
Irish Government, through its officials in Wash- 
ington, to obtain additional merchant ships in the 
United States. Several weeks ago the Irish Ship- 
ping Limited, an agency of the Irish Government, 
entered into negotiations with the States Marine 
Corporation in New York for the purchase of the 
SS Wolverin^^ a vessel of approximately eight 
thousand tons under charter to the United States 
War Shipping Administration. Application was 
made to the Maritime Commission for approval of 
the proposed sale and the Irish Legation in Wash- 
ington, in a note of December 4, requested the 
State Department to recommend to the AVar Ship- 
ping Administration that the application be ap- 
proved. 

"I am instructed to inform you that the State 
Department in consultation with the President has 
given this matter careful consideration and for the 
reasons set forth below has been unable to make 
the recommendation requested by the Irish Gov- 
ernment. The United States Maritime Commis- 



sion on December 7 denied the application for the 
proposed sale as not being in tlie interests of the 
United States. 

"You will recall that in September 1941, in the 
face of a growing world shortage of shipping, the 
American Goveinment made available to the Irish 
Government by charter two American merchant 
ships. These two ships have now both been de- 
stroyed and, in view of all the circumstances, we 
must assume they were destroyed by Axis subma- 
rines. The American Govei-nment understands 
that the /mA Pine (formerly the West Hematite) 
sailed from Ireland October 28, 1942 and failed 
to arrive at its destination and that the /m-A Oak 
(formerly West. Ncns) was torpedoed on the 
morning of May 15, 1943 in open daylight and 
under conditions of good visibility. Although no 
definite information seems to be available regard- 
ing the precise manner of the sinking of the Irish 
Pine, the torpedoing of the Irish Oak appears to 
have been definitely established, as well as the fact 
that a German submarine was observed by the crew 
of the Ii'i^h Oak some hours prior to the sinking. 
The sinking of the Irish Oak, which you have 
-rightly described as a 'wanton and inexcusable 
act', and of other Irish ships must be presumed 
in the absence of evidence to the contrary to be 



MAUCH 11, 1944 



237 



the work of Axis submarines in their campaign 
of indiscriminate warfare against all ships 
whether belligerent or neutral. 

"In chartering the West Henvatite (Irish Pine) 
and the West A>>is- (In.sh Oak) to the Irish Gov- 
ernment the American Government was motivated 
by the most friendly considerations and by the 
sole purpose of helping tlie Irish Government and 
the Irish people to carry to their shores foodstuffs 
and other supplies of critical necessity. This, of 
course, constitutes only a part of the efforts of 
the American Government since the outbreak of 
the war to assist the Irish people in obtaining 
needed supplies. The chartering of these ships to 
the Irish Government represented a real sacrifice 
on the part of the United States at a time when 
shipping space was most badly needed. The Irish 
Government sailed these ships with distinct neu- 
tral markings and they carried supplies in no way 
connected with the war. The action of the Axis 
submarines in sinking these ships without warn- 
ing is, therefore, to repeat your own language, a 
'wanton and inexcusable act'. 

"So far as the American Government is in- 
formed, the Irish Government has taken no steps 



against the Axis Governments and, thus far, has 
offered no word of protest to the Axis Govern- 
ments against these wanton acts. These repeated 
attacks on Irish ships appear to be conclusive 
proof, if further proof were needed, that the Axis 
powers ax-e in fact making war upon Ireland 
while at the same time using Ireland's friendship 
to the detriment of the United Nations war effort. 
The loss of the West Hematite {Irish Pine) and 
the West Neris {Irish Oak) has harmed not only 
Ireland but the United States, to whom those 
vessels belonged, and the whole United Nations 
war effort. 

"The fact that ships sailing under the Irish flag 
bear distinct neutral markings and travel fully 
lighted at night should make them immune from 
belligerent attack but in reality serves only to 
make them easy targets for Nazi submarines. Any 
further ships transferred to the Irish flag would 
be subjected to these same hazards. 

"In view of the foregoing circumstances, it is 
regretted that the State Department cannot com- 
ply with your request that it recommend to the 
Maritime Commission the approval of the sale now 
in question." 



American Troops in the British Isles 



[Released to the press March 11] 

The text of a message from the President to 
Prime Minister de Valera, transmitted to the Irish 
Minister in Washington on February 26, 1942 by 
the Acting Secretary of State, follows: 

"I have received, through Mr. Brennan, Irish 
Minister in Washington, the text of your state- 
ment on January 27,^ last, following the arrival 
of American troops in the British Isles. 

"The decision to disjmtch troops to the British 
Isles was reached in close consultation with the 
British Government as part of our sti'ategic plan 
to defeat the Axis aggressors. There was not, 
and is not now, the slightest thought or intention 
of invading Irish territory or threatening Irish 
security. Far from constituting a threat to Ire- 
land, the presence of these troops in neighboring 



' Not printed. 



territory can only contribute to the security of 
Ireland and of the whole British Isles, as well as 
furthering our total war effort. 

"I have noted in your previous statements ex- 
pressions of gratitude for the long interest of the 
United States in Irish freedom. The special ties 
of blood and friendship between our two countries 
are recognized here no less than in Ireland and 
have never left us unconcerned with the problems 
and fate of Ireland. 

"At some future date when Axis aggression has 
been crushed by the military might of free peoples, 
the nations of the earth must gather about a peace 
table to plan the future world on foundations of 
liberty and justice everywhere. I think it only 
right that I make plain at this time that when that 
time comes the Irish Government in its own best 
interest should not stand alone but should be asso- 
ciated with its traditional friends, and, among 
thfem, the United States of America." 



"238 



DEPABTMENT OF feTATB BtrLtJETiN 



PETROLEUM QUESTIONS 

Preliminary Discussions by the United States and 
the United Kingdom 

[Released to the press March 7] 

The Acting Secretary of State on March 7, 1944 
made the following announcement, which is being 
issued simultaneously in Washington and London : 

"The Governments of the United States and the 
United Kingdom are undertaking preliminary and 
exploratory discussions on petroleum questions. 
These discussions will be, in the first instance, on 
an expert technical level, and will take place in 
Washington." 

The Acting Secretary of State stated that it is 
contemplated that these informal conversations 
with the British Goveriunent on problems of mu- 
tual interest relating to oil would lead at an early 
date to further conversations between the two 
Goverimients at a higher level. For this purpose 
the President has appointed a group, under the 
chairmanship of the Secretary of State, consisting 
of Harold L. Ickes, Secretary of the Interior; 
Robert P. Patterson, Undei- Secretary of War; 
James V. Forrestal, Under Secretary of the Navy ; 
Charles B. Rayner, Petroleum Adviser of the De- 
partment of State; and Charles E. Wilson, Vice 
Chairman of the War Production Board. 

In making the above announcement, the Acting 
Secretary of State stated that, should these con- 
versations lead to conclusions, no decision affect- 
ing producing areas would be taken without con- 
sultation with the governments of the countries 
concerned. He also pointed out that this Gov- 
ernment is at all times ready to discuss economic 
problems with other governments and, accord- 
ingly, will welcome discussions with the govern- 
ment of any other friendly country concerning pe- 
troleum questions of mutual interest. 

EXCHANGE OF AMERICAN AND GERMAN 
NATIONALS 

[Released to the press March 6] 

The motorship Gripsholm, carrying nationals of 
the United States and of the other American re- 
publics being repatriated as the result of the ex- 
change effected at Lisbon, left that port at 12 : 80 



a'.ni. «Sn Monday, March 6, 1944. After the depar- 
ture from Lisbon the vessel had to anchor in the 
River Tagus on account of fog and did not put out 
to sea until 8 : 42 a.m., March 6. 

In the absence of bad weather or other unfore- 
seen delays, the Gripsholm, should reach the United 
States about March 14 and may be expected to dock 
at Jersey City on March 14 or March 15, depending 
on the time of arrival. 



A list of American passengers aboard the 
Gripsholm has been issued as Department of State 
press release 75, of March 11, 1944. There are also 
on board the Gripsholm, moi-e than 100 nationals 
of the other American republics. 

THIRD ANNIVERSARY OF LEND-LEASE 

[Released to the press March 11] 

The Under Secretary of State made the follow- 
ing statement on the third anniversary of the 
passage of the Lend -Lease Act, March 11, 1941 : 

"In the great arsenal of fighting-power which 
the United Nations have created to destroy the 
forces of Axis tyranny, lend-lease and reverse 
lend-lease are major weapons. They were forged 
three years ago today, when the aggressors were 
winning all the battles and the freedom-loving 
nations of the world were in mortal peril. The 
weapons of mutual aid have been well tested in 
the fire of battle since that day. On the war fronts 
all over the globe — in Europe, in Africa, in Asia, 
and in the islands of the Pacific — it is the United 
Nations that are now winning the battles; it is the 
Germans and the Japanese that are meeting defeat. 
Together the United Nations are striking with 
greater and greater power. 

"Lend-lease is more, however, than a piece of 
machinery for winning a war. It is a vital expres- 
sion of the most important principle in interna- 
tional relations — the principle that free nations 
must stand together to preserve their freedom. I 
like to think of the Lend-Lease Act as a 'Declara- 
tion of Interdependence' among the freedom- 
loving peoples of the world. 

"The only way the Axis powers can now escape 
total defeat is by dividing the strength of the 



MAKCH 11, 1944 



239 



United Nations. I am confident that our enemies 
will fail in this last desperate defense. We have 
learned the bitter lesson of disunity. We shall not 
turn our backs on the principles of mutual aid and 
mutual trust which ai-e today bringing us victory." 

THE PROCLAIMED LIST: CUMULATIVE 
SUPPLEMENT 6 TO REVISION VI 

[Released to the press March 11] 

The Secretary of State, acting in conjunction 
with the Acting Secretary of the Treasury, the 
Attorney General, the Secretary of Commerce, the 
Administrator of the Foreign Economic Admin- 
istration, and the Acting Coordinator of Inter- 
American Aifaii-s, on March 11, 1944 issued Cumu- 
lative Supplement 6 to Revision VI of the Pro- 
claimed List of Certain Blocked Nationals, pro- 
mulgated October 7, 1943. 

Part I of Cumulative Supplement 6 contains 63 
additional listings in the other American repub- 
lics and 75 deletions. Part II contains 33 addi- 



tional listings outside the Ainerican republics and 
40 deletions. 

[Released to the press March 11] 

In connection with the deletion of Sulzer Broth- 
ei-s of Winterthur, Switzerland, from the Pro- 
claimed List, the Department of State made the 
following announcement : 

"The firm of Sulzer Brothers of Winterthur, 
Switzerland, was placed on the Proclaimed List 
by reason of the very substantial increase during 
the summer of 1943 in certain of its exports, notably 
marine diesel engines, to Axis countries. It was 
also included in the British Statutory List for 
the same reason. Since then, the United States 
Government and the British Government have re- 
ceived from the Swiss Government certain assur- 
ances regarding this firm's future, providing that 
the extraordinary exports which led to its being 
listed will not recur. In view of these assurances, 
the firm has been removed from the Proclaimed 
List and the Statutory List." 




THE BRAZZAVILLE CONFERENCE OF FRENCH AFRICAN GOVERNORS 

JANUARY 30-FEBRUARY 8, 1944 



"The Conference at Brazzaville is essentially the 
prologue of a work the chapters of which can only 
be written in France, but it is our duty to France — 
at present separated from its colonies and severed 
from currents of world opinion — to sketch here 
and now the broad outlines of the work to be done." 

This statement regarding the Conference of 
French African Governors which was soon to be 
held at Brazzaville, French Equatorial Africa, 
was made by M. Rene Pleven, Minister for Col- 
onies of the French Committee of National Libera- 
tion, during the course of an address before the 
Consultative Assembly at Algiers on January 14, 
1944. The conference was to undertake prelim- 
inary exploratory deliberations with a view to 
formulating proposals and recommendations re- 



garding future colonial policy which would be sub- 
mitted to the French National Committee at 
Algiers but which would be acted upon finally only 
by the central metropolitan government estab- 
lished after the liberation of France. 

Representatives of all the French colonies in 
Africa (including French Equatorial Africa, 
French Somaliland, French West Africa, Mada- 
gascar, and Reunion) participated in the confer- 
ence, which convened on January 30, 1944. Also 
present were members of the Algerian, Moroccan, 
and Tunisian Governments, as well as 10 members 
of the Consultative Assembly, who acted as ob- 
servers, and Algerian, Belgian, English, and 
Spanish journalists. 

By February 8, 1944, the day on which the con- 
ference closed, the delegates had discussed and 



240 



DEPABTMENT OF STATK BXJLLETIN 



adopted a number of proposals and recommenda- 
tions for submission to the French National Com- 
mittee at Algiers. It was suggested that the na- 
tives be given a greater part in mining, commer- 
cial, and transportation activities in order that 
they might be able to increase their purchasing- 
power. In this connection, consideration was 
given to -the possibility of taking the heretofore 
unprecedented action of adopting restrictive immi- 
gration regulations, directed at undesirable 
Europeans, in order to protect native labor from 
undue European competition. In addition to dis- 
cussing specific economic problems of this nature, 
the delegates also suggested the need for coordi- 
nating any planned economy with such interna- 
tional plans as might be formulated in the future. 

Consideration was given to the problem of the 
representation of colonial French territories in 
the future constitutional organization of France, 
but no specific recommendation was made. When 
the related question of colonial administration 
was considered, however, it was suggested that the 
School for France Overseas should be reorganized 
in order to provide for the training therein of 
capable men from outstanding schools and uni- 
versities, particularly men who had been members 
of the armed services. 

Social-reform measures were discussed. One im- 
portant recommendation wliich was adopted pro- 
vided for the establishment of an Inter-African 
Health Bureau, the development of an over-all 
medical plan for French Africa, and the creation 
of a native medical corps. The delegates unani- 
mously condemned the prevailing practice of 
polygamy and, being agreed that efforts should be 
made to improve the status of native women, sug- 
gested that such questions as the dowry system 
and marriage laws should be reconsidered by the 
proper authorities. The delegates also proposed 
that primary schools be established for the instruc- 
tion of natives of both sexes and that, eventually, 
natives be trained as teachers. 

In the field of justice, the recommendation was 
made that the present double-code system of 
French justice and native justice be replaced by a 
single penal code for all the French territories 
in Africa, 

The delegates appear to have taken an important 
initial step in the direction of the fulfihnent of 



the objectives set forth by General de Gaulle in 
the opening address of the conference — namely, 
the study of the economic, political, social, and 
moral measures which could be adopted in each 
colony and territory in order to integrate more 
completely the progress and development of the 
native population with that of the white com- 
munity and to bring the natives to the point where 
they would be able to participate in the manage- 
ment of their own affairs. While M. Pleven stated 
in the final address of the conference that, in con- 
nection with the economy envisaged, recourse 
would be had, if possible, to international agree- 
ments, the emphasis during the conference ap- 
pears to have been on national activities rather 
than on plans for international cooperation. 



The Department 



THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A PERSONNEL 
UTILIZATION PROGRAM IN THE DE- 
PARTMENT OF STATE 

Departmental Order 1236 of March 10, 1944 ^ 

Pdepose or Obdee 

The purpose of this order is to promote within 
the Department effective personnel administration 
through the development of a personnel utiliza- 
tion program. 

The President has requested the Civil Service 
Commission to establish within the vai-ious Fed- 
eral Departments and Agencies an aggressive 
personnel utilization program which will secure 
better utilization of personnel throughout the Fed- 
eral Government. The need of such a program 
has been greatly emphasized by criticisms directed 
at the Government for its alleged failure to utilize 
personnel effectively. A good personnel utiliza- 
tion program will — 

1. Make better use of present pei-sonnel. 

2. Improve personnel and administrative prac- 

tices at all levels. 

3. Reduce turnover through investigation, an- 

alysis and action on the many personnel 
and administrative phases of the problem. 

' Effective Mar. 9, 1944. 



MARCH 11, 1944 



241 



The Civil Service Commission must allocate 
available personnel to those agencies ■which justify 
their recruiting requirements by establishing that 
maximum utilization of personnel is being ob- 
served. The primary condition for obtaining pri- 
orities for personnel from the Commission is that 
agencies submit quarterly reports starting March 
31, 1944 showing that they are making full utiliza- 
tion of their manpower. 

Organization of the Peksonnel Utilization 
Section 

There is hereby established within the Division 
of Departmental Personnel a Personnel Utiliza- 
tion Section which will have the responsibility for 
the development of a personnel utilization pro- 
gram in the Department. In this section will be 
centralized the responsibility for the continuous 
surveys in the personnel utilization program re- 
quiring careful planning, scheduling, and follow- 
through. These surveys are to be conducted at 
the operating levels and will be designed to ascer- 
tain employee and supervisory attitudes, to pro- 
mote maximum use of skills and abilities, and to 
analyze and evaluate personnel and administra- 
tive practices currently employed in the divisions. 
As a result of these surveys confidential reports 
with recommendations will be submitted to the 
Division Chiefs. Analyses of these reports will 
give direction to the attainment of better super- 
visory and employee effort, productivity and 
morale. 

Kecommendations as a result of the personnel 
utilization program shall be worked out between 
the Chief of Departmental Personnel and the Di- 
visions concerned. Matters involving recom- 
mended major changes as a result of the surveys 
shall be dealt with by the Director of the Office 
of Departmental Administration. 

The Department's personnel utilization project 
has unlimited possibilities for developing effective 
personnel practices and for improving methods 
of administration. The success of the program 
will depend to a great extent upon the continuous 
cooperation of every member of the Department. 
Through improved personnel management, the 
personnel utilization project will assist every per- 
son charged with administrative or supervisory re- 

678041—44 2 



sponsibility to perform his or her assigned func- 
tions more efficiently, effectively and economically. 
I personally endorse this personnel utilization 
program and shall be interested in periodic reports 
of its progress. I am sure that all supervisory 
officers will welcome this assistance and that the 
Department will benefit from the results achieved. 
E. E. Stettinius, Jr. 
Acting Secretary of State 

CREATION OF PLANNING STAFF IN THE 
OFFICE OF FOREIGN SERVICE ADMINIS- 
TRATION 

Departmental Order 1234 of March 6, 1944 » 

In order to strengthen the Office of Foreign 
Service Administration to carry out effectively its 
responsibility under Departmental Order 1218, 
there is hereby created special staff in the Office 
of Foreign Service Administration for the pur- 
pose of rendering staff assistance on programming 
and planning with a view toward continual ad- 
justment and improvement in the over-all admin- 
istration of the Foreign Service. This staff shall 
assist the Director, under the immediate direction 
of a Deputy Director for planning, in carrying 
out the following responsibilities of the Office of 
Foreign Service Administration: 

(a) Reviewing and evaluating projects, pro- 
grams, and surveys originating in the Department 
or in other departments and agencies and to be 
undertaken by the Foreign Service; 

(b) Making recommendations as to the number 
and character of Foreign Service personnel re- 
quired for the execution of such projects, programs, 
and surveys; 

(c) Making recommendations for the main- 
tenance of the efficiency of Foreign Service per- 
sonnel responsible for implementing the programs 
originated by other departments and agencies ; 

(d) Making recommendations, after consulta- 
tion with other Offices and Divisions of the Depart- 
ment, particularly the Office of Economic Affairs 
and the Office of Wartime Economic Affairs, for 
improving the services rendered by the Foreign 

' Eflfectlve Mar. 1, 1944. 



242 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Service to American agricultural, commercial, 
shipping, industrial, and other interests; 

(e) Maintaining working liaison with the Of- 
fice of Departmental Admihistration to assure 
effective coordination of Foreign Service and 
Departmental administrative policies and prac- 
tices ; 

(f) Arranging, in collaboration with other 
Offices and Divisions of the Department, particu- 
larly the Office of Public Information, and with 
other departments and agencies, trade and other 
conferences and itineraries of returning Foreign 
Service and auxiliary Foreign Service officers; 
and 

•(g) Developing standards for the improvement 
of reporting from the missions and for the evalua- 
tion of Foreign Service reports. 

Mr, Monnett B. Davis is hereby designated 
Deputy Director for planning in the Office of For- 
eign Service Administi'ation. Mr. Horton Henry 
is hereby designated Chief of the planning staff in 
the Office of Foreign Service Administration. 
E. R. Stettinius, Ji\ 
Acting Secretary of State 

APPOINTMENT OF OFFICERS 

By Departmental Order 1235 of March 6, 1944, 
effective March 1, 1944, the Acting Secretary of 
State designated Mr. Laurence C. Frank as Chief 
of the Division of Foreign Service Administra- 
tion. 



American Republics 



CENTENMAL CELEBRATION OF THE INDE- 
PENDENCE OF THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 

[Released to the press Marcb 6] 

- There follows an exchange of messages between 
the President of the United States and His Excel- 
lency, Rafael L. Trujillo Molina, President of the 
Doininican Republic, on the occasion of the anni- 
versary celebrating the centennial of Dominican 
independence : 



February 27, 1944. 

It gives me great pleasure on this historic anni- 
versary celebrating the Centennial of Dominican 
Independence, to express to you and to the people 
of the Dominican Republic the hearty congratu- 
lations and best wishes of the people of the United 
States, who are privileged, through the official 
United States Delegation, to particijaate in the 
several patriotic and cultural events with which 
3'our Government and people are marking this sig- 
nificant and happy date. 

The Dominican Republic has advanced far in 
these past hundred years along the paths of civili- 
zation and progress and it is now engaged with the 
other United Nations in a struggle to maintain 
open to the fi-eedom-loving peoples of the world 
the opportunity for further progress along these 
paths. 

Our common enemies will fight to the bitter end 
to prevent our inevitable victory. Not only on the 
field of battle do they oppose us. They are also 
endeavoring to sow disunity among us and thus 
to weaken our growing will and our mounting 
strength. Their efforts to divide us, one from an- 
other, can and must be destroyed through the un- 
flinching determination of all of us to achieve and 
maintain that mutual understanding and appre- 
ciation which is the fountain of true cooperation. 

I extend to Your Excellency my best wishes for 
your health and well-being. 

Franklin D Roosevelt 



[Translation] 

February 29, 1944. 
I thank Your Excellency very sincerely for the 
message which you sent me on the occasion of the 
first centennial of the independence of my country, 
and I formulate my warmest good wishes for Your 
Excellency's personal happiness and for the pros- 
perity of your glorious Nation. On such a great 
occasion I take pleasure in repeating to Your Ex- 
cellency the unchangeable decision of my Govern- 
ment and of -the Dominican people to go on fight- 
ing together with the Allied Nations until final 
victory is won against our common enemies, whose 
efforts shall never be able to destroy the spirit of 
firm solidarity existing between our two countries 



MARCH 11, 1944 



243 



and which is closer since the tragic hour of Pearl 
Harbor. Permit me, Excellency, also to express 
the hope which I cherish that all the nations of 
this continent may feel themselves more and more 



closely bound to the nations which are fighting so 
heroically to assure to humanity a world based on 
foundations of justice, liberty, and democracy. 

Rafael L. Trujillo 



Treaty Information 



AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND THE UNITED KINGDOM REGARDING 

EXTENSION OF TIME FOR COPYRIGHT 



[Released to the press March 10] 

An agreement between the United States of 
America and the United Kingdom for an extension 
of time for fulfilment of the conditions and formal- 
ities for securing copyright during the present 
emergency was effected on March 10, 1944 by an 
exchange of notes between the British Ambassador 
and the Secretary of State. 

The note from the British Ambassador to the 
Secretary of State is accompanied by a list of the 
British territories to which, together with Pales- 
tine, the agreement is to apply, and a copy of an 
Order in Council, published in the London Gazette 
of March 10, 1944, according copyright-extension 
privileges to authors and copyright proprietors of 
the United States. The note from the Secretary 
of State to the British Ambassador is accompanied 
by a copy of a proclamation issued on March 10, 
1944 by the President of the United States pur- 
suant to Public Law 258, 77th Congress (55 Stat. 
732), according equivalent copyright-extension 
privileges to British authors and copyright pro- 
prietors in the British territories to which the 
agreement is to apply and to authors and copy- 
right proprietors who are citizens of Palestine. 

The texts of the above-mentioned notes and ac- 
companiments are as follows: 

The British Ambassador in Washington to the 
Secretary of State 

No. 144 British Embassy 

Washington, March 10th, 19jU.. 
Mr. Secretary of State, 

The attention of His Majesty's Principal Secre- 
tai-y of State for Foreign Affairs has been invited 



to the Act of Congress of the United States of 
America approved 25th September, 1941, which 
provides for extending, on a reciprocal basis, the 
time for the fulfilment of the conditions and 
formalities prescribed by the copyright laws of the 
United States in the case of authors or proprietors 
of works first produced or published abroad who 
are temporarily unable to comply with those condi- 
tions and formalities because of the disruption or 
suspension of the facilities essential for their 
compliance. 

By "direction of Mr. Eden, I write to inform you 
that, by reason of the existing emergency, Brit- 
ish authors and copyright proprietors of certain 
of His Majesty's dominions, colonies and posses- 
sions and citizens of Palestine (excluding Trans- 
Jordan) do at present lack, and since the outbreak 
of the war between the United Kingdom and Ger- 
many on September 3rd, 1939, have lacked the 
facilities essential to compliance with and to the 
fulfilment of the conditions and formalities 
established by the laws of the United States relat- 
ing to copyright. 

It is the desire of His Majesty's Government in 
the United Kingdom that, in accordance with the 
procedure provided in the said Act of September 
25th, 1941, the time for fulfilling the conditions and 
formalities of the copyright laws of the United 
States be extended for the benefit of (1) British 
nationals of the United Kingdom of Great Britain 
and Northern Ireland and of the British territories 
named in the annexed list, and (2) citizens of 
Palestine (excluding Trans- Jordan), whose works 
are eligible to copyright in the United States. 



244 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



"With a view to assuring the Government of the 
United States of Amei'ica of reciprocal protection 
for authors and proprietors of the United States, 
His Majesty the King has made an Order in Coun- 
cil, the text of vrhich is annexed hereto, which will 
come into effect from the date on which the Presi- 
dent of the United States shall proclaim, in ac- 
cordance with the said Act of September 25th, 
1941 that by reason of the existing emergency, 
British nationals of the United Kingdom of Great 
Britain and Northern Ireland and of the British 
territories named in the annexed list, and citizens 
of Palestine (excluding Trans- Jordan), who are 
authors or copyright owners of works first pro- 
duced or published outside the United States and 
now subject to copyright, ad intenm copyright or 
renewal of copyright under the laws of the United 
States, are at present and since the outbreak of war 
between the United Kingdom and Germany on 
September 3rd, 1939, have been temporarily unable 
to comply with the conditions and formalities pre- 
scribed with respect to such works by the copyright 
laws of the United States. 

His Majesty's Government in the United King- 
dom are prepared if this proposal is acceptable to 
the Government of the United States of America, 
to regard the present note and Your Excellency's 
reply to the same effect as constituting an agree- 
ment between the two Governments, which shall 
take effect this day. 

I have [etc.] Halifax 

[Enclosure 1] 
British India 
Britisti Burma 
Southern Rhodesia 
Aden Colony 
Bahamas 
Barbados 
Basutoland 

Bechuanaland Protectorate 
Bermuda 
British Guiana 
British Honduras 

British Solomon Islands Protectorate 
Ceylon 
Cyprus 

Falkland Islands and Dependencies 
Fiji 

Gambia (Colony and Protectorate) 
Gibraltar 



Gilbert and Ellice Islands Colony 
Gold Coast 

(a) Colony 

(b) Ashantl 

(c) Northern Territories 
Hong Kong 

Jamaica (including Turks and Caicos Islands and the 

Cayman Islands) 
Kenya (Colony and Protectorate) 
Leeward Islands 

Antigua 

Montserrat 

St. Christopher and Nevis 

Virgin Islands 
Malta 
Mauritius 
Nigeria 

(a) Colony 

(b) Protectorate 
Northern Rhodesia 
Nyasaland Protectorate 
Palestine (excluding Trans-Jordan) 
St. Helena and Ascension 
Seychelles 

Sierra Leone (Colony and Protectorate) 

Somaliland Protectorate 

Straits Settlements 

Swaziland 

Trans-Jordan 

Trinidad and Tobago 

Uganda Protectorate 

Windward Islands 

Dominica 

Grenada 

St. Lucia 

St. Vincent 

tEnclosure 2] 

AT THE COURT AT BUCKINGHAM PALACE 

The 6th day of August, 1942 

Present 

THE KING'S MOST EXCELLENT MAJESTY 



Lord President 
Lord Macmillan 



Secretary Sir Archibald Sinclair 
Mr. Williams 



Whereas by reason of conditions arising out of 
the war difficulties have been experienced by citi- 
zens of the United States of America in complying 
with the requirements of the Copyright Act, 1911, 
as to first publication within the parts of His 
Majesty's dominions to which the Act extends of 
their works first published in the United States of 
America during the war : 

And whereas His Majesty is advised that the 
Government of the United States of America has 
undertaken to grant such extension of time as may 



MARCH n, 1944 



245 



be deemed appropriate for the fulfilment of the 
conditions and formalities prescribed by the laws 
of the United States with respect to the works of 
British subjects first produced or published out- 
side the United States and subject to copyright or 
to renewal of copyright under the laws of the 
United States including works subject to ad in- 
terim copyright : 

And whereas by reason of the said undertaking 
of the Government of the United States of Amer- 
ica His Majesty is satisfied that the said Govern- 
ment has made, or has undertaken to make, such 
provision as it is expedient to require for the pro- 
tection of works first made or published during 
the period commencing on the 3rd day of Septem- 
ber, 1939, and ending one year after the termina- 
tion of the present war within the parts of His 
Majesty's dominions to which this Order applies 
and entitled to copyright under Part I of the Copy- 
right Act, 1911: 

And whereas by the Copyright Act, 1911, au- 
thority is conferred upon His Majesty to extend, 
by Order in Council, the protection of the said Act 
to certain classes of foreign works within any part 
of His Majesty's dominions, other than the self- 
governing Dominions, to which the Act extends : 

And ^^^IEREAs by reason of these premises it is 
desirable to provide protection within the parts 
of His Majesty's dominions to which this Order 
applies for literaiy or artistic works first pub- 
lished in the United Statea of America during 
the period commencing on the 3rd day of Sep- 
tember, 1939, and ending one year after the ter- 
mination of the present war which have failed 
to accomplish the formalities prescribed by the 
Copyright Act, 1911, by I'eason of conditions aris- 
ing out of the war: 

Now, THEREFORE, His Majesty, by and with the 
advice of His Privy Council, and by virtue of the 
authority conferred upon Him by the Copyright 
Act, 1911, and of all other powers enabling Him 
in that behalf, is pleased to direct and doth hereby 
direct as follows: 

1. The Copyright Act, 1911, shall, subject to 
the provisions of the said Act and of this Order, 
apply to works first published in the United States 
of America during the period commencing on the 
3rd day of September, 1939, and ending one year 



after the termination of the present war, which 
have not been republished in the parts of His Maj- 
esty's dominions to which this Order applies 
within fourteen days of the publication in the 
United States of America, in like manner as if 
they had been first published within the parts of 
His Majesty's dominions to which the said Act 
extends : 

Pi-ovided that the enjoyment by any such work 
of the rights conferred by the Copyright Act, 1911, 
shall be conditional upon publication of the work 
within the parts of His Majesty's dominions to 
which this Order relates not later than one year 
after the termination of the present war, and shall 
commence from and after such publication, which 
shall not be colourable only, but shall be intended 
to satisfy the reasonable requirements of the 
public. 

2. The provisions of Section 15 of the Copyright 
Act, 1911, as to the delivery of books to libraries, 
shall apply to works to which this Order relates 
upon their publication in the United Kingdom. 

3. Nothing in this Order shall be construed as 
depriving any work of any rights which have been 
lawfully acquired under the provisions of the 
Copyright Act, 1911, or any Order in Council 
thereunder. 

4. Where any person has, before the commence- 
ment of this Order taken any action whereby he 
has incurred any expenditure or liability in con- 
nection with the reproduction or performance of 
any work which at the time was lawful, or for the 
purpose of or with a view to the reproduction or 
performance of a work at a time when such repi"o- 
duction or performance would, but for the making 
of this Order, have been lawful, nothing in this 
Order shall diminish or prejudice any rights or 
interest arising from or in connexion with such 
action which were subsisting and valuable at the 
said date, unless the person who by virtue of this 
Order becomes entitled to restrain such reproduc- 
tion or performance agrees to pay such compensa- 
tion as, failing agreement, may be determined by 
arbitration. 

5. The Interpretation Act, 1889,^ shall apply to 
the interpretation of this Order as if it were an 
Act of Parliament. 



' 52 & 53 Vict c. 63. [Footnote In the original.] 



246 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



6. This Order may be cited as the Copyright 
(United States of America) Order, 1942. 

7. This Order shall come into operation on the 
date of its publication in the London Gazette, 
which day is in this Order referred to as the com- 
mencement of this Order. 

E. C. E. Leadbitter. 

The Secretary of State to the British Anibassador 
in Washington 

Department or State, 
Washington, March 10, 19Jf4. 
Excellency : 

I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of 
Tour Excellency's note of today's date in which 
you refer to the Act of Congress approved Septem- 
ber 25, 1941 which authorizes the President to 
extend by proclamation the time for compliance 
with the conditions and formalities prescribed by 
the copyright laws of the United States of Amer- 
ica with respect to works first produced or pub- 
lished outside the United States of America and 
subject to copyright under the laws of the United 
States of America when the authors or proprietors 
of such works are unable to comply with those 
conditions and formalities because of the dis- 
ruption or suspension of the facilities essential to 
such compliance. 

You state that by reason of the existing emer- 
gency authors and copyright proprietors who are 
British nationals and authors and proprietors who 
are citizens of Palestine (excluding Trans- Jordan) 
do at present lack, and since the outbreak of the 
war between the United Kingdom and Germany on 
September 3, 1939, have lacked the facilities essen- 
tial to compliance with and fulfilment of the condi- 
tions and formalities established by the laws of 
the United States of America relating to copyright. 

You express the desire of His Majesty's Gov- 
ernment in the United Kingdom that, in accord- 
ance with the procedure provided in the Act of 
September 25, 1941, the time for fulfilling the con- 
ditions and formalities of the copyright laws of 
the United States of America be extended for the 
benefit of (1) authors and copyright proprietors 
who are British nationals of the United Kingdom 
of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and of the 
British territories named in the list annexed to 



Your Excellency's note and (2) authors and copy- 
right proprietors who are citizens of Palestine 
(excluding Trans-Jordan), whose works are eligi- 
ble to copyright in the United States of America. 
You add that with a view to assuring the Gov- 
ernment of the United States of America of recip- 
rocal protection for authors and copyright pro- 
prietors of the United States of America, His 
Majesty the King has made an Order in Council, 
the text of which accompanies your note under 
acknowledgment, which will come into effect from 
the date on which the President of the United 
States of America shall proclaim, in accordance 
with the Act of September 25, 1941 that by reason 
of the existing emergency British nationals of the 
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern 
Ireland and of the British territories named in 
the said list and citizens of Palestine (excluding 
Trans- Jordan) who are authors or copyright pro- 
prietors of works first produced or iJublished 
outside the United States of America and which 
are subject to copyright, ad interim, copyright or 
renewal of copyright under the laws of the United 
States of America, are at present and since Sep- 
tember 3, 1939 have been temporarily unable to 
comply with the conditions and formalities pre- 
scribed with respect to such works by the copy- 
right laws of the United States of America. 

You further state that His Majesty's Govern- 
ment in the United Kingdom are prepared, if this 
proposal should be accepted by the Government 
of the United States of America, to regard the 
note under acknowledgment and this Govern- 
ment's reply thereto to that effect as constituting 
an agreement between the two Governments which 
shall take effect this day. 

I have the honor to inform Your Excellency 
that, with a view to giving effect to the commit- 
ment proposed in the note under acknowledgement, 
the President has issued today a proclamation, 
a copy of which is annexed hereto, declaring and 
proclaiming pursuant to the provisions of the 
aforesaid Act of September 25, 1941 on the basis 
of the assurances set forth in Your Excellency's 
note and the Order in Council annexed thereto, 
that as regards (1) works subject to copyright 
under the laws of the United States of America, 
including works eligible to ad interim copyright, 



MAHCH 11, 1&44 



247 



which were fii-st prdduced or published outside the 
United States of America on or after September 
3, 1939 by British nationals of the United King- 
dom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and of 
the British territories named in the aforesaid list, 
and by the citizens of Palestine (excluding Trans- 
Jordan) ; and (2) works of the same authors or 
copyright proprietors which were entitled to re- 
newal of copyright on or after September 3, 1939, 
there existed and continues to exist such disruption 
or suspension of facilities essential to compliance 
with the conditions and formalities prescribed with 
respect to such works by the copyright laws of the 
United States of America as to bring such works 
within the terms of the said Act of September 25, 
1941 and that accordingly the time within which 
compliance with such conditions and formalities 
may take place is extended in respect of such works 
until the day on which the President of the United 
States of America shall, in accordance with the 
said Act, terminate or suspend the said declaration 
and proclamation, it being understood that the 
term of copyright in any case is not and cannot be 
altered or affected by the President's action and 
that the extension is subject to the proviso of the 
said Act of September 25, 1941 that no liability 
shall attach to persons having made lawful use of 
any work to which the proclamation relates prior 
to the effective date of that proclamation. 

The Government of the United States of Amer- 
ica accordingly considers the agreement in regard 
to such extension of time to be in effect as of today's 
date. 

Accept [etc.] Cordell Hull 

[Enclosure] 

Copyright Extension ; United Kingdom or Great 
Britain and Northern Ireland (Including 
Certain British Territories) and Palestine 

By the President of the United States of America 
A Proclamation 

Whereas by the act of Congress approved Sep- 
tember 25, 1941, c. 421, 55 Stat. 732, the President 
is authorized, on the conditions prescribed in that 
act, to grant an extension of time for the fulfilment 
of the conditions and formalities prescribed by the 
copyright laws of the United States of America 



with respect to works first produced or published 
outside of the United States of America and sub- 
ject to copyright or to renewal of copyright imder 
the laws of the United States of America, includ- 
ing works subject to ad interim copyright, by 
nationals of countries which accord substantially 
equal treatment to citizens of the United States of 
America; and 

Whereas His Britannic Majesty has issued an 
Order in Council, effective from this day, by the 
terms of which treatment substantially equal to 
that authorized by the aforesaid act of September 
25, 1941, is accorded, within the British dominions, 
colonies, protectorates, and mandated territories 
to which that order applies, to literary and artistic 
works first produced or published in the United 
States of America; and 

Whereas the aforesaid Order in Council ap- 
plies to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and 
Northern Ireland, British India, British Burma, 
Southern Rhodesia, Aden Colony, Bahamas, Bar- 
bados, Basutoland, Bechuanaland Protectorate, 
Bermuda, British Guiana, British Honduras, 
British Solomon Islands Protectorate, Ceylon, 
Cyprus, Falkland Islands and Dependencies, Fiji, 
Gambia (Colony and Protectorate), Gibraltar, 
Gilbert and Ellice Islands Colony, Gold Coast 
((a) Colony, (b) Ashanti, (c) Northern Terri- 
tories), Hong Kong, Jamaica (including Turks 
and Caicos Islands and the Cayman Islands), 
Kenya (Colony and Protectorate), Leeward 
Islands (Antigua, Montserrat, St. Christopher and 
Nevis, Virgin Islands) , Malta, Mauritius, Nigeria 
((a) Colony, (b) Protectorate), Northern Rho- 
desia, Nyasaland Protectorate, Palestine (exclud- 
ing Trans- Jordan), St. Helena and Ascension, 
Seychelles, Sierra Leone (Colony and Protec- 
torate), Somaliland Protectorate, Straits Settle- 
ments, Swaziland, Trans-Jordan, Trinidad and 
Tobago, Uganda Protectorate, and Windward Is- 
lands (Dominica, St. Vincent, Grenada, St. Lu- 
cia) ; and 

Whereas the aforesaid Order in Council is an- 
nexed to and is part of an agreement embodied 
in notes exchanged this day between the Govern- 
ment of the United States of America and the 
Government of the United Kingdom of Great 
Britain and Northern Ireland ; and 



248 



DEPAEtMENT Or STATE BtJLIBTII* 



Whereas by virtue of a proclamation by the 
President of the United States of America dated 
April 9, 1910 (3;i Stat. 2685), subjects of Great 
Britain and her possessions are, and since July 1, 
1909, have been, iiilitled to the benefits of the act 
of Congress approved March 4, 1909, 35 Stat. 
1075, relating to c)py right, other than the benefits 
of section 1 (e) of that act; and 

Whereas by virtue of a proclamation by the 
President of the United States of America dated 
January 1, 1915 (38 Stat. 2044), the subjects of 
Great Britain and tlie British dominions, colonies, 
and possessions, veith the exception of Canada, 
Australia, New Zjaland, South Africa, and New- 
foundland, are, and since January 1, 1915, have 
been, entitled to all the benefits of section 1 (e) 
of the aforesaid act of March 4, 1909 ; and 

Whereas by virtue of a proclamation by the 
President of the United States of America dated 
September 29, 11133 (48 Stat. 1713), citizens of 
Palestine (excluding Trans- Jordan) are, and 
since October 1, r)33, have been, entitled to all the 
benefits of the aforesaid act of March 4, 1909 : 

Now, THERErorE. I, Franklin D. Roosjevelt, 
President of the United States of America, under 
and by virtue of thp authority vested in me by the 
aforesaid act of September 25, 1941, do declare 
and proclaim : 

That with respect to (1) works subject to copy- 
right xmder the laws of the United States of 
America, including works eligible to ad ii^i^rim 
copyright, which were first produced or published 
outside of the United States of America on or 
after September 3, 1939, by British nationals of 
the United Kingil-im of Great Britain and North- 
ern Ireland and of the British tei'ritories to which 
the aforesaid Order in Council applies, or by citi- 
zens of Palestine (excluding Trans- Jordan) ; and 
(2) works of the same authors or copyright pro- 
prietors which were entitled to renewal of copy- 
right under the laws of the United States of 
America on or after September 3, 1939, there 
existed and continues to exist such disruption or 
suspension of facilities essential to compliance 
with the conditions and fonnalities prescribed 
with respect to such works by the copyright laws 
of the United States of America as to bring such 



works within the terms of the aforesaid act of 
September 25, 1941 ; and that accordingly the time 
within which compliance with such conditions and 
formalities may take place is hereby extended 
with respect to such works until the day on which 
the President of the United States of America 
shall, in accordance with that act, terminate or 
suspend the present declaration and proclamation. 

It .shall be understood that the term of copy- 
right in any case is not and cannot be altered or 
affected by this proclamation, and that, as pro- 
vided by the aforesaid act of September 25, 1941, 
no liability shall attach under the Copj'right Act 
for lawful uses made or acts done prior to the 
effective date of this proclamation in cormection 
with the above-described works, or in respect to 
the continuance for one year subsequent to such 
date of any business undertaking or enterprise 
lawfully undertaken prior to such date involving 
expenditure or contractual obligation in connec- 
\w\\ with the exploitation, production, reproduc- 
tion, circulation, or performance of any such 
work. 

In witness wHEKEor, I have hereunto set my 
hnnd and caused the seal of the United States 
of America to be affixed. 

Done at the City of Washington tliis tenth day 
of March in the year of our Lord one thousand 
nine hundred forty-four, and of the Independence 
of the United States of America the one hiuidred 
and sixty-eighth. 

Franklin D Roosevelt 

GENERAL CVTER- AMERICAN CONVENTION 
FOR TRADE MARK AND COMMERCIAL 
PROTECTION 

Paraguay 

By a letter dated March 3, 1944, the Director 
General of the Pan American Union informed the 
Secretary of State that on March 1, 1944 His Ex- 
cellency the Ambassador of Paraguay in the 
United States, Senor Doctor Don Celso R, Velaz- 
quez, deposited with the Pan American Union the 
instrument of ratification by the Government of 
Paraguay of the General Inter-American Conven- 
tion for Trade Mark and Commercial Protection, 



MARCH 11, 1944 



249 



which was signed on February 20, 1929 at the Pan 
Americnn Trade Mark Conference held at Wash- 
ington from February 11 to 20, 1929.^ The Para- 
guayan instrument of ratification is dated August 
30, 1943. 

The countries in respect of which the convention 
is now in force as the result of the deposit of their 
respective instruments of ratification ai-e the 
United States of America, Colombia, Cuba, Haiti, 
Honduras, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Panama, Para- 
guay, and Peru. 



Legislation 



Amending the Nationality Act of 1940 to Preserve the Na- 
tionality of Citizens Residing Abroad. H. Rept. 1230, 
78th Cong., on H.R. 4271. [Favorable report.] 3 pp. 

Amending Section 334 (C) of the Nationality Act of 1940, 
Approved October 14, 1940 (54 Stat. llo&-1157 ; 8 U.S.C. 
§ 784. ) H. Rept 1231, 78th Cong., on H.R. 4140. 
[Favorable report.] 2 pp. 

Relating to Benefits to Merchant Seamen. H. Rept. 1232, 
7Sth Cong., on H.R. 4163. [Favorable report.] 6 pp. 

First Deficiency Appropriation Bill, lil44 (78th Cong., 2d 
sess. ) ': 
Hearings Before the Subcommittee of the Committee on 
Appropriations, House of Representatives. [Depart- 
ment of State, pp. 505-550.] 11, 822 pp. 
H. Rept. 1239, on H.R. 4316. [Department of State, pp. 
2, 16-18, 33-34, and 36.] 37 pp. 

Assuring Conservation of and to Permit the Fullest Utili- 
zation of the Fisheries of Alaska and for Other Pur- 
poses. S. Rept. 733, 78th Cong., on S. 930. [Favorable 
report.] 18 pp. 

Wages of Interned Seamen, Disability and Otlier Benefits 
to Merchant Seamen : Hearings before the Committee 
on the Merchant Marine and Fisheries, House of Rep- 
resentatives, 78th Cong., 2d sess., on H.R. 3262 and 
H.R. 26.">2. December 9, 1943 and February 10, 1944. 
Iv, 63 pp. 



Publications 



' Treaty Series 833. 



Depaktment of State 

Detail of Military Adviser to Remount SeiTice of Peruvian 
Army : Agreement Between the United States of Amer- 
ica and Peru Renewing the Agreement of April 15, 
1941 — Effected by exchange of notes signed at Washing- 
ton November 23 and Decemlier 20, 1943 ; effective April 
15, 1944. Executive Agreement Sertes 363. Publica- 
tion 2067. 2 pp. 50. 

Waiver of Claims Arising as a Result of Collisions Between 
Vessels of War : Agreement Between the United States 
of America and Canada Concerning Application of the 
Agreement of May 25 and 26, 1943 — Effected by exchange 
of notes signed at Washington September 3 and Novem- 
ber 11, 1943. Executive Agreement Series 366. Publi- 
cation 2065. 2 pp. 50. 

Health and Sanitation Program : Agreement Between the 
United States of America and El Salvador — Effected by 
exchange of notes signed at San Salvador May 4 and 5, 
1942. Executive Agreement Series 367. Publication 
2069. 5 pp. 50. 

Temporary Migration of Mexican Agricultural Workers: 
Agreement Between the United States of America and 
Mexico Revising the Agreement of August 4, 1942 — 
Effected by exchange of notes signed at Mexico City 
April 26, 1943. Executive Agreement Series 351. Pub- 
lication 206a 13 pp. 50. 

Other Government Agencies 

"Finland Still Goes to the Movies", an article by Mr. Robert 
M. McClintock, Second Secretary and Vice Consul of 
the American Legation at Stockholm, Sweden, is to be 
published in the March 18, 1944 issue of Foreign Com- 
merce Weekly. Copies of this periodical, which is issued 
by the Department of Commerce, may be obtained from 
the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing 
OflJce, for the price of 10 cents each. 



O. I. aoVEHNUCNT PRINTIHO OFFICEi 1»44 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government PrlntlnR Office, Washington 25. D. C. 
Price, 10 ccnta - - - - Subscription price, $2.75 a year 

PCBLISHED WEEKLI WITH THE APPKOVAL OF THE DIEECTOB or THE BUBEAU OP THE BUDGET 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

BULLETIN 



c 



MARCH 18, 1944 
Vol. X. No. 247— Publication 2088 



ontents 



The War Page 
Finnish Position in the War: Statement by the Presi- 
dent 253 

Military Operations in Italy: 

Statement by the President 253 

Statement by the Secretary of State 253 

A Realistic View of Our International Economic Opera- 
tions : Address by Charles P. Taf t 254 

Distribution of Lend-Lease Material 256 

Visit of the Under Secretary of State to London : State- 

■ ment by the Secretary of State. 256 

International Conferences, Commissions, Etc. 
The International Labor Organization: By Otis E. 

Mulliken 257 

First West Indian Conference 262 

Canada 

Dissolution of Joint Economic Committees, United 

States and Canada 264 

The Department 
Resignation of Hunter Miller as Editor of the Treaties . 264 
Appointment of Officers 264 

(OVER) 




U. S. SURE..., -r „uCUUi£NTS 

APR 6 1944 







ontents-coTiTmvED 

The Foreign Service Page 

Representation of Interests as of January 1, 1944: 

Representation by the United States of Foreign Inter- 
ests Ai'ranged According to United States 
Foreign Service OfBces 265 

Representation by the United States of Foreign Inter- 
ests Arranged According to Countries Repre- 
sented 268 

Areas Where Switzerland Represents the Interests 

of the United States 269 

Treaty Information 

Upper Columbia River Basin 270 

Protocol on Pelagic Whaling 271 

Rubber Development in Brazil 271 

Legislation 271 

Publications 272 



The War 



FINNISH POSITION IN THE WAR 

Statement by the President 



[Released to the press by tbe White House March 16] 

It has always seemed odd to me and to the 
people of the United States to find Finland a part- 
ner of Nazi Germany, fighting side by side with 
the sworn enemies of our civilization. 

The Finnish people now have a chance to with- 



draw from tliis hateful partnership. The longer 
they stay at Germany's side, the more sorrow and 
suffering is bound to come to them. I think I 
can speak for all Americans when I say that we 
sincerely hope Finlan.d will now take the oppor- 
tunity to disassociate herself from Germany. 



MILITARY OPERATIONS IN ITALY 



Statement by the President 



[Released to the press by the White House March 14] 

Everyone knows tlie Nazi record on religion. 
Both at home and abroad. Hitler and his follow- 
ers have waged a ruthless war against the churches 
of all faiths. 

Now the German army has used the Holy City 
of Rome as a military center. No one could have 
been surprised by this — it is only the latest of 



Hitler's many affronts to religion. It is a logical 
step in the Nazi policy of total war — a policy 
which treats nothing ss sacred. 

We on our side have made freedom of religion 
one of the principles for which we are fighting 
this war. We have tried scrupulously — often at 
considerable sacrifice — to spare religious and cul- 
tural monuments, and we shall continue to do so. 



Statement by the Secretary of State 



[Released to the press March 13] 

In answer to inquiries at his press conference 
on March 13, 1944 concerning the remarks of His 
Holiness Pope Pius XII reported in the morning 
press, Secretary of State Cordell Hull said: 

"I think we all understand that the Allied mili- 
tary authorities in Italy are dealing primarily with 
considerations of military necessity forced on them 
by the activities and attitude of the German mili- 
tary forces. Naturally we are as much interested 
as any government or any individual in the pres- 



ervation of religious shrines, historic structures, 
and human lives. I am sure that our military peo- 
ple have that same view. It is my understanding 
that the Allied military authorities are pui-suing 
a policy of avoiding damage to such shrines and 
monuments to the extent humanly possible in mod- 
ern warfare and in the circumstances which face 
them. If the Germans were not entrenched in 
these places or were they as interested as we are 
in protecting religious shrines and monuments 
and in preserving the lives of innocent civilians 
and refugees, no question would arise." 

263 



254 



DEPAKTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



A REALISTIC VIEW OF OUR INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC OPERATIONS 

Address by Charles P. Taft ^ 



[Released to the press March 17] 

It is an honor in any company to respond to the 
toast "the-United States of America." Before this 
ancient society of Americans, it is a privilege. 

It is also a responsibility for a newcomer in the 
Department of State to speak for the government 
to wliich are entrusted all the traditions of service 
and strength of a young nation. In this field of 
foreign relations to an amazing degree there are 
no partisan lines. For I propose tonight to speak 
to you about the United States of America as it 
faces a world of turmoil and deadly danger. We 
ai'e united and we must remain united in any such 
world, even after the shooting stops. 

For 135 million people to be united is a unique 
phenomenon, especially when it is a melting-pot 
and a continent and a complex of industry, gov- 
ernment, and agriculture. Complete unity never 
lasts long even after such a shock as Pearl Harbor. 
But we do unite at the water's edge and continue 
together, most of us — Republicans and Demo- 
crats alike, rich and poor, smart and dumb. 

We are a generous people who take the golden 
rule seriously and attempt to deny the cynicism 
of Machiavelli and of power politics. Our pri- 
vate charity pours out to every corner of the globe 
exuberantly, occasionally with a little foolisliness, 
but all in all in a thrilling way. 

Yet we are terribly afraid of being suckers. 
Every day, almost, in your newspapers you read 
about the con man who woi'ks some kind of shell 
game on a smart man, and we think it is extremely 
funny. It is not so funny when we get caught 
by one of the old tricks. Some people are con- 
stantly charging that foreign countries are de- 
frauding us. It is not true. They are desper- 
ately afraid of their future in a dangerous world. 
We must represent our own interests intelligently, 
but that is not inconsistent with generosity and 



" Delivered at a dinner celebrating the two-hundred- 
seventh anniversary of the Charitable Irish Society, in 
Boston, Mass., Mar. 17, 1944. Mr. Taft is the Director 
of the Office of Wartime Economic Affairs of the Depart- 
ment of State. 



fair dealings. A sense of justice is no evidence 
of weakness. 

So it was that in the booming twenties we 
loaned money abroad, in Germany and in South 
America and elsewhere, and now we have swal- 
lowed without much thought the charge that we 
were suckers in those days and got no return out 
of all we spent. 

So, too, the generous impulses that burst out of 
us when we became partners in the first world war, 
and in the upsurge of fellowship in the second 
world war after the bombing of Britain and the 
destruction at Pearl Harbor, are gradually dulled 
by the cry of "sucker", and we end up with a de- 
fensive, "Well, they hired the money, didn't they?" 
As if our cash could be the equivalent of the 
millions of lives our allies threw into the effort to 
stop the Boche from 1914 to 1918. As if our ad- 
vances to helj) reconstruct Europe were lost even 
if we never got a penny back ! The money did the 
job it was suiDposed to do, to our eternal benefit. 
We got back full value received in jobs and pay for 
workers and good customers, until we refused to 
let them pay in their only coin. 

We want a United States that is smart and tough. 
But for heaven's sake let's be smart and not dumb. 
Part of my responsibility is to see that the Army 
and the civilian agencies and UNRRA plan the 
ways and means to get the reoccupied areas back 
on their feet again. Get out of your head that 
any of us are talking about an international dole. 
When the Germans get through with a place that 
used to be reasonably modern and civilized, it is 
right back in the Middle Ages. Not only are the 
factories leveled and the railroads gone, but the 
roads are barely recognizable, and every bridge — 
I mean every bridge — destroyed. You often can't 
transport food 20 miles into the country, especially 
after the army has moved on ; the only trucks have 
had no spare parts for 4 years, and the work 
animals just ain^t. 

Do you think that we in our own interest can sit 
and do nothing about that? You remember the 
stories about the packs of wild children after the 



MARCH 18, 1944 



255 



last war? Perhaps they were exaggerated, but it 
can happen. People will live, and the ways they 
find to do it are not nice. The ideas they develop 
in doing it don't stop on one side of a pond, even if 
it is 2,500 miles wide. Obviously you can't permit 
that kind of situation behind the fighting-front, 
but even when the fighting stops we can't let it 
happen, or the soul-destruction will get to us, too. 

This is not a question just of feeding people. We 
are better off and so are they, even in the short 
run, if we give them less food and more seeds and 
fertilizer and agricultural machinery. In other 
words, the same shipping-space can be used to 
better advantage, if that is the best we can do, to 
start these people on the way back, not just to 
feed them and no more. 

We have to help get them started setting up their 
own commercial institutions and normal ways of 
supporting themselves, and we have to find ways 
of helping to finance their real reconstruction. 

Is this another case of money down the rat hole ? 
Is this a scheme of the international bankers to 
fleece our investors again ? And to make the United 
States of America, which we toast with pride, 
either an Uncle Shylock if he gets tough, or an old 
fool soon parted from his money ? 

No ! Foreign investment is an essential part of 
our foreign trade, and we can't live without foreign 
trade in the long run. It is part of the essential 
life of any great nation on the globe, especially 
ours. 

Foreign trade can be good, and it is very neces- 
sary. To say that in Boston is a little like taking 
coals to Newcastle, for you are one of the great 
centers of our foreign trade to Europe and Latin 
America, and a focal point of the war effort across 
the seas. But those of you directly concerned 
talk too much to each other and not enough to the 
nation. 

Our natural resources are going fast, and we 
shall have to buy more and more of our raw 
materials abroad in the next 50 years. When we 
buy abroad we have to pay with our exports, as 
England has had to do for many years. That 
makes our foreign relations respectable and not a 
stepchild. 



Which leads me back to the prospect this nation , 
faces as we liberate the stricken countries and 
look to the day when we can start back to the 
ways of peace. We have to rebuild if only to re- 
store our own markets, and the restoration of those 
markets will pay us many times over for the 
money we put in for the rebuilding. We aren't 
suckers — we are smart; and the smart fellow al- 
ways has to have the guts to protect his long view 
against ridicule. Whether it is helping to rebuild 
Europe or assisting in the industrialization of 
China or Latin America, we can afford to loan 
money at low, even insignificant, interest rates for 
long periods, with gradual repayment of the prin- 
cipal. We will get our principal back, but not 8 
percent interest. And we are smart because for 
one tiling the borrower spends the money here 
for things he needs, and that means jobs for our 
people. For another thing, you gradually create 
a higher standard of living in those countries, so 
that automobiles go there and are sold by the half 
million each year instead of by the thousand. We 
are rebuilding customers. 

But don't ever forget that they have to pay 
with their goods and raw materials. They can't 
Ijay with anything else. This is all a business 
proposition, not a hand-out. 

I began, however, by referring to the generosity 
that is so large a characteristic of the U. S. of A. 
I'm proud of that altruism. There is only too 
little of it in the world, and it derives in no small 
part from the Irish in us. We are one of the 
big frogs in this earthly puddle, and we don't pro- 
pose, I'm sure, to set out to be hogs, or misers. 

This foreign business of ours has three aspects. 
We buy goods abroad. We buy services abroad — 
shipping, or hotels and meals and transportation 
for our travelers. We invest abroad. These are 
all demands we make on foreign countries with 
our dollars for goods to be sent to us, for serv- 
ices rendered to our citizens, and for shares in 
their domestic businesses and industries. In 1929 
the total of those demands backed by dollars 
was 71/2 billion dollars. Then came our depres- 
sion, and by 1932 those demands upon foreign 
nations had gone down to 2i/^ billion dollars. 



256 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



How could any nation or group of nations stand 
up against the impact of that withdrawal ? Is it 
any wonder they went to all kinds of restrictive 
devices to limit the impact of any future fluctua- 
tions? And that reacted on us. Not only good 
business but common decency should lead us to 
join in every sensible effort to keep our dollar- 
demands on foreign nations on an even keel. We 
must have foreign trade and a stable economy. 
We must stand for justice and honor as well as for 
enlightened self-interest in these economic rela- 
tions with the world abroad. 

We celebrate tonight a great Christian saint 
and the people he led and organized. The faith 
he claimed and we inherit is not something for 
women and children alone. It is the iron that 
can fortify our backbone, the power that can make 
the world go right. With a foreign policy that is 
smart and tough like a Yankee trader, but friendly 
and generous as he was, we can pull through this 
fiery furnace and stand proudly four-square to 
all the winds that blow on the United States of 
America. 



DISTRIBUTION OF LEND-LEASE 
MATERIAL 

(Released to the press March 18] 

Secretary of State Cordell Hull and Foreign 
Economic Administrator Leo T. Crowley issued 
the following joint statement on March 18 : 

"Our attention has been called to recent news- 
paper rejDorts to the effect that the British White 
Pa|Der of September 10, 1941,^ was being scrapped 
to give British exporters freedom in the commer- 
cial export of articles and materials received un- 
der lend-lease, or similar goods. These reports are 
entirely untrue. 

"The AVliite Paper was a unilateral declaration 
of policy by the British Government that it would 
not permit the re-export of lend-lease goods or 
similar goods in short supply in the United States 
except under certain specified circumstances where 
war-supply considerations made it necessary. 
That policy has been successfully administered for 

' BuiiETiN of Sept. 13, 1941, p. 204. 



more than two years, and valuable experience has 
been gained in its administration. 

"With the expansion of reverse-lend-lease aid 
from Britain to the United States to include raw 
materials, discussions have been imdertaken be- 
tween re^jresentatives of the British and American 
Governments looking toward the formulation of 
an agi'eed set of principles on a bilateral basis gov- 
erning the re-export of lend-lease and mutual-aid 
goods and similar goods. The discussions have 
proceeded on the lines of the same basic policy 
followed under the original Wliite Paper. It has 
also been attempted to work out improved admin- 
istrative procedures for the effectuation of these 
policies, based on the experience acquired in this 
field in the last two years. 

"Discussions with the British representatives 
have not yet been concluded and may continue for 
some time. As soon as it is possible to do so, the 
appropriate committees of Congress will be con- 
sulted. Whatever arrangement is fhially adopted 
will protect the interests of American industry and 
trade to the fullest extent consistent with the re- 
quirements of war and will be made public as 
soon as an agreement is reached." 



VISIT OF THE UNDER SECRETARY 
OF STATE TO LONDON 

Statement by the Secretary of State 

[Released to the press March 17] 

At my request the Under Secretary will go to 
London soon with a small group for discussions 
with members of the British Government. For- 
eign Secretary Eden and other high officials of 
the British Government have made several trips 
to this country for a general exchange of views 
during the past two years, and it has not been 
possible for me to return them. Mr. Stettinius is 
going to London to repay these visits. The talks 
which he and those who are accompanying him 
will have will be entirely informal and explora- 
tory. The conversations will cover any current 
matters that are of interest to the two Govern- 
ments at this time. However, the purpose of the 
visit is not to negotiate or conclude agreements. 



International Conferences, Commissions, Etc. 



THE INTERNATIONAL LABOR ORGANIZATION 

By Otis E. Mulliken ' 



A unique international organization will meet 
at Philadelpliia on April 20. The International 
Labor Organization is unique in that, founded 
at the conclusion of the first World War, it has 
grown through the years to an international stat- 
ure that even the present war has not seriously 
diminished. The needs it has met and the effec- 
tiveness with which it has met those needs have 
established it on a basis of demonstrated value 
which has rendered it largely impervious to the 
vicissitudes of the pre-war and war years. It is 
also unusual in that it alone among important 
international organizations affords direct repre- 
sentation not only to governments but also to the 
functional groups in the populations which are 
directly concerned with the problems with which 
it deals — the employers and workers. In fact it 
is so uniquely designed to meet certain of the social 
objectives and problems of the post-war period 
that Mr. Eden, the British Foreign Secretary, 
speaking at the closing session of the December 
1943 meeting of the Governing Body stated : 

"If — and this is a big 'if — the International La- 
bor Organization had not existed, we should find 
it necessaiy to create it now because it is the only 
tri-partite organization like this, which represents 
governments, employers, and workers, which can 
help us to give effect to this social objective which 
I have described." 

He was referring to the fifth point of the At- 
lantic Charter — "improved labor standards, eco- 
nomic advancement, and social security" as sum- 
ming up the social objective of the United Nations. 

The International Labor Organization, which 
has now completed 25 years of constructive work 
in the field of social and labor problems since its 
establishment in 1919, did not spring de novo from 
the minds of the men gathered at the Peace Con- 

' The author of this article is Acting Chief of the Division 
of Labor Relations, Department of State. 



ference in 1919. Rather, it represented the suc- 
cessful culmination of the proposals and activities 
of far-sighted men for over 100 years. 

In 1818 Robert Owen, the British cotton manu- 
facturer and philanthropist, appeared at the Con- 
gress of Aix-la-Chapelle with two memorials in 
which he directed attention "to the new and extra- 
ordinary effects produced by the introduction of 
improved scientific power to the manufactures of 
Europe and America . . . which materially af- 
fected the value of manual labor and the health, 
comfort, and happiness of the working classes". 
The French economist Blanqui in 1838 wrote: 
"Treaties have been concluded between one comi- 
try and another by which they have bound them- 
selves to kill men; why should they not be con- 
cluded today for the purpose of preserving men's 
lives and making them happier?" In 1847 Daniel 
Legrand, an Alsatian silk manufacturer, memo- 
rialized the French, British, and Prussian Govern- 
ments to enact "an international law to protect the 
working-classes against premature and excessive 
labor, which is the prime and principal cause of 
their physical deterioration, their moral degrada- 
tion, and their being deprived of the blessings of 
family life." 

By this time the idea of international action in 
the protection of the working-people had definitely 
been established. Individual economists and phi- 
lanthropists and international congresses increas- 
ingly put forward pleas for international labor 
legislation. A labor conference called by Emperor 
William II convened at Berlin in March 1890. 
Although this conference was a failure, it did pave 
the way for the International Association for La- 
bor Legislation, which was founded following a 
meeting at Brussels in 1897. At its meeting in 
Paris in 1900 provision was made for an Inter- 
national Labor Office, which was established in 
Basel the next year. Official conferences met at 
Bern in 1905 and 1906 and drew up the first inter- 

257 



258 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



national labor conventions prohibiting the night 
work of women and the use of white phosphorus 
in the manufacture of matches. A suiScient num- 
ber of ratifications were obtained to demonstrate 
that international action was practicable. Encour- 
aged by its success, the International Association 
for Labor Legislation continued its efforts, and a 
meeting of experts in 1913 drew up the bases for 
two new conventions ; the World War intervened, 
however, before any action had been taken. 

The workers' organizations had held aloof from 
the International Association for Labor Legisla- 
tion, but during the course of the war they devel- 
oped an increasing interest in international prob- 
lems and a determination to participate actively 
in a new systematic effort to improve social con- 
ditions through international action. At a con- 
ference held at Leeds in 1916 by the General 
Federation of Trade Unions, the proposal was ad- 
vanced that an international conamission be set 
up to supervise the labor clauses of the treaty 
and to prepare for subsequent conferences of gov- 
ernments for the development of labor legislation. 
It also asked that the Labor Office created by the 
International Association for Labor Legislation 
should be made into an official International Labor 
Office. Similar resolutions were adopted at suc- 
cessive workers' congresses in 1917 and 1918, both 
in the Allied and neutral countries and in those of 
the Central Powers. 

Against this background of 100 years of thought, 
discussion, and action, and at the pressing insist- 
ence of labor organizations that the welfare of 
working-peoples be given consideration in the 
peace treaty, the attention of the Peace Conference 
of 1919 was promptly directed to the labor ques- 
tion. At the first plenary session of this Confer- 
ence, Premier Clemenceau announced that the first 
steps- toward the organization of the Conference 
would be the creation of three commissions, includ- 
ing one to consider international labor legislation. 
There is no need here to trace the history of the 
negotiations at the Peace Conference. The out- 
come was the inclusion of part XIII in the Treaty 
of Versailles. This provided for the establishment 
of an International Labor Organization, the first 
general conference of which was held at Washing- 
ton from October 29 to November 29, 1919. This 



historic conference, the first to be held under the 
new international machinery established at the 
Peace Conference, launched the International La- 
bor Organization upon its distinguished career. 

The name International Lahor Organization has 
led to many misconceptions as to its nature and ac- 
tivities. This is especially true in the United 
States where, because of the relatively short period 
of our membership, the I.L.O. is less well-known 
than in other parts of the world. The name sug- 
gests a labor-union organization of international 
dimensions concerned with the problems we ordi- 
narily associate with trade unions. This is quite 
misleading, for although the Organization does 
concern itself with problems common to working- 
people everywhere, it is not a trade-union organi- 
zation. Trade unions are represented in it but so 
are employers' organizations and governments. 
Furthermore, it is an official organization whose 
fimds are provided by governments and in which 
governments exercise preponderant influence. 

The Constitution of the I.L.O. (part XIII of 
the Treaty of Versailles) provided that the orig- 
inal members of the League of Nations should 
be the original members of the I.L.O. and that 
membership in the League of Nations should 
carry with it membership in the I.L.O. Some 
nations, notably the United States, have, however, 
joined the I.L.O. without joining the League, and 
others, in withdrawing from the League, have 
maintained their I.L.O. membership. 

At the beginning of the war, in 1939, 55 states 
were members of the Organization. The I.L.O. 
points out, however, that in view of the present 
political situation a number of delicate and even 
insoluble questions arise in connection with the 
membership of the Organization, and therefore it 
is practically impossible to give any official list 
of member states which would be both legally 
correct and accurate.^ 



' Tlie member states as of September 1939 were as fol- 
lows: Afghanistan, Albania, Argentina, Australia, Bel- 
gium, Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, China, 
Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, 
Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Estonia, Ethiopia, 
Finland, France, Great Britain, Greece, Haiti, Hungary, 
India, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Latvia, Liberia, Lithuania, 
Luxembourg, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, 
Panama, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Rumania, Spain, 



MARCH 18, 1944 



259 



Despite the fact that representatives of the 
United States took an active part in the creation of 
the I.L.O. and that the first meeting was l^eld 
in Washington, the United States did not become 
a member until 1934. In the meantime it did co- 
operate, however, in exclianging information and, 
beginning with the thirties, sent unofficial observers 
to attend the I.L.O. conferences. Finally, in June 
1934, Congress passed a joint resokition authoriz- 
ing the President on behalf of the United States 
to accept an invitation for membership in the I.L.O. 
The International Labor Conference of that year 
extended an invitation to join, and membership 
became effective August 20, 1934. Since that time 
the United States has played a prominent part in 
the activities of the Organization and, as a member, 
has contributed annually to its support. It has 
furnished one director, Mr. John G. Winant. At 
the present time the chairman of the Governing 
Body, Mr. Carter Goodrich, and one of the two 
assistant directors, Mr. Lindsay Rogers, are 
United States citizens. 

The International Labor Organization is a 
world-wide association of nations which functions 
through three agencies : The International Labor 
Conference, the Governing Body, and