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Full text of "Department of State bulletin"






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VOLUME XI: Numbers 262-288 

July 2 -December 31, 1944 



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U. S. SUPtRINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS 

MAY 7 1945 



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Publication 2284 



INDEX 

Volume XI: Numbers 262-288, July 2-December 31, 1944 



AoIiPSon, Dean : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 
Cotton policy of U.S., 700. 

Trade, international, interest of U.S. business in, 714. 
Post-war economic problems, 6.56. 
Assignment as Assistant Secretary of State for con- 
gressional relations and international conferences, 
6S3, 687, 777. 
Designations in State Department, 54, 777. 
Functions delegated to (D.O. 1300), 773. 
Achilles, Theodore C, designation in State Department, 

S09. 
Adana, Turkey : 

Elevation to rank of Consulate, 262. 
Opening of U. S. Vice Consulate, 192. 
Administrative instructions : 

Furnishing information to Congress and Bureau of 

the Budget (Gen. Adm. 12), 678. 
"Inter-Agency Economic Digest", establishment of sec- 
retariat for servicing (Gen. Adm. 7), 441. 
Special War Problems Division, responsibility of (Gen. 

Adm. 5), 307. 
Systematization (amendment of D.O. 1269 by D.O. 1290), 
393. 
Administrative Management, Division of. See Admin- 
istrative Services. Division of. 
Administrative Services, Division of. State Department 

(see also Central Services, Division of), .392, 803. 
Adviser on Refugees and Displaced Persons, Office of War- 
time Economic Affairs, functions of (D.O. 1294), 485. 
Advisory Committees for Cultural Cooperation, members, 

847. 
Aerial navigation. See Aviation. 
Afghanistan : 
Opium, world-vpide limitation of production, texts of 
U.S. note and memorandum and Afghan reply, 723, 
725, 727. 
Opium poppy, cultivation prohibited, 629. 
Africa, vpork of the U.S. Foreign Service in, article by Mr. 

Jester, 279. 
African Affairs, Division of, 783, 809. 
Agreements, international. See Treaties. 
Agricultural Commission, U.S. and Mexico, establishment, 

53. 
Agricultural experiment station in Guatemala, agreement 

with Guatemala (1944), 148. 
Agricultural Sciences, Inter-American Institute, article 

by Mr. Furniss, 386. 
Agricultural Sciences, Inter-American Institute, conven- 
tion establishing (1944) : 
Batification: Costa Rica, 104, 229; Guatemala, 104; 

Nicaragua, 149 ; U. S., 32, 55, 284, 387. 
Signature: Bolivia, 149; Venezuela, 481. 
Agriculture (see also Treaties) : 
Adviser to Iran on irrigation matters, 92. 
Caribbean land-tenure symposium, meeting in Maya- 

giiez, P.R., 181, 221. 
Employment of Mexican workers in U.S., 160. 
International trade in foodstuffs, relation to, 264. 
Tropical agriculture and cinchona industry in Guate- 
mala, agreement, 148. 
United Nations Interim Commission on Food and Agri- 
culture, 207, 761. 



Agriculture, Department of, Soil Conservation Service, co- 
operation in cultural exchange with China, 37, 39. 
Air navigation, international, right of innocent passage, 

article by Mr. Latchford, 19. 
Airiields in Canada, agreement with Canada (1944), 127, 

139. 
Air-transport services, agreements, texts, with — 
Denmark (1944), 759. 
Spain (1944), 674. 
Sweden (1944), 757. 
Albania r 

Independence, anniversary, 676. 

Political conditions, statement by Mr. Stettinius, .591. 
Alexander, F. Virginia, designation in State Department, 

813. 
Alexander, Robert C, designation in State Department, 

813. 
Algeria, reversion of U.S. Mission at Algiers to rank of 

Consulate General, 309. 
Alien enemies. See Enemy aliens. 
Aliens : 

Chinese, laws of U.S. governing immigration and 

naturalization, 322. 
Immigrant, definition of term as used in Immigration 
Act of 1924, 272. 
Allen, George V. : 

Article on American advisory program in Iran, 88. 
Designation in State Department, 525, 809. 
Allied Commission in Italy: 

Appointment of Mr. MacMillan, British Resident Min- 
ister, as head. B&l. 
Change of name from Allied Control Commission, 338. 
Allied Control Commission for Italy (see also Allied Com- 
mission), organization and functions, 137. 
Allied Military Government in Italy. See Allied Control 

Commission for Italy. 
Allietl Ministers of Education, Conference of: 
Article by Dr. Turner and Miss French, 502. 
U.S. representation, 465. 
Ailing, Paul H., designation in State Department, 809. 
American Labor Conference on International Affairs, ad- 
dress by Mr. Pasvolsky, 748. 
American Peace Society, exchange of views with State 
Department officials on peace and security organiza- 
tion, 756. 
American Republic Affairs, Office of, 783, 809. 

North and West Coast Division, creation of, 169. 
American republics (see also Commis.sions; Conferences; 
Ministers for Foreign Affairs; Treaties; aiid the in- 
dividtial countries) : 
Allowances to citizens for tuition, etc., under the U.S. 

cultural-cooperation program (1945), 192. 
Argentine regime, non-recognition, 107, 133, 1.58. 
Coffee agreement (1940), continuation (1944), 307. 
Columbus Day, addresses by President Roo.sevelt and 
Mr. Stettinius before chiefs of missions of the other 
American republics, 397, 399. 
Cultural leadens, visit to U.S. from : 
Brazil, 129, 391 ; Chile, 94, 282, 293 ; Colombia, 223 ; 
Cuba, 175; Ecuador, 60, 340, 385, 642; Guatemala, 
53; Mexico, 53, 129, 141, 282; Nicaragua, 16; Pan- 
ama, 222, 712, 771 ; Paraguay. 391 ; Peru, 205, 441 ; 
Uruguay, 54; Venezuela, 329. 

855 



856 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



American republics — Continued. 

Fellowsliips in public administration, change in U.S. 

regulations, 678. 
Pomento organizations, development of, 571. 
Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences, arti- 
cle by Mr. Furniss, 386. 
Interdepartmental Committee on Cooperation With, 192, 

319, 321, 386. 
Peace and security organization, international, informal 
discussions of chiefs of missions in Washington 
with State Department officials, 525, 565. 
Subversive aliens in, removal, 146. 
American Republics Analysis and Liaison, Division of, 

7S3, 810. 
American Republics Requirements Division. See War 

Supply and Resources Division. 
Americans United for World Organization, remarks by 

Dr. Hopkins and Mr. Stettinius, 4.")1, 4."i2, 453. 
AMG/ACC in Italy. See Allied Control Commission for 

Italy. 
Amity, treaties of China with — 
Liberia (1937), 104. 
Mexico (1944), 229. 
Andrade, Victor, credentials as Bolivian Ambassador to 

U.S., 838. 
Anglo-American Blockade Committee, 600, 601. 
Anglo-American Caribbean Commission : 
Address by Mr. Taussig on work of, 377. 
Land-tenure symposium in the Caribbean area, 181, 221. 
Meetings of Caribbean Research Council, 181. 209. 
Participation of various governments in, 378. 
Radio broadcasts to Caribbean area, 210. 
Antwerp, Belgium, opening of U.S. Consulate General, 

510, C43. 
Argentina (see also American republics) : 
Farrell regime, non-recognition by U.S., statements re- 
garding, 107, 1.58. 
Farrell regime, statement by Mr. Stettinius on British 

position, 133. 
Nazi influence in. statement by President Roosevelt on 

U.S. policy, 337. 
Proposal to convene meeting of Ministers for Foreign 

Affairs of the American Republics, 498, 630. 
U.S. Ambassador (Armour), return of, 24. 
U.S. Consulates, closing at — 
Bahia Blanca, 51. 
Mendoza, 481. 
Rosario, 309. 
Wheat, reduction in .shipments to Bolivia, 596. 
Armed forces, criminal offenses committed by, issuance of 
proclamation implementing the .iurisdiction of service 
courts of friendly foreign forces within U.S., 481. 
Armistice, U.S., U.K., and Soviet Union with — 
Bulgaria, text, 492, 616. 
Rumania, text, 289. 

Secretary Hull's explanation of, 453. 
Armour, Norman : 

Appointment as U.S. Ambassador to Spain, 773. 
Designation in State Department, 103, 192. 
Return to U.S. from Argentina, 24. 
Armstrong, Hamilton Fish : 

Special Adviser to Secretary of State, 852. 
Special Assistant, with rank of Minister, to U.S. Am- 
bassador at London, 332. 
Arundel Castle (ship), exchange of prisoners of war be- 
tween Germany and U.K., 3-35. 
Assistant Secretaries of State : 
Act authorizing appointment of two additional, 773, 777. 
Jurisdiction (D.O. 1301), 778. 
Nominations by President Roosevelt, 685. 
Asylum for Axis war criminals: 
Ireland, attitude, 591. 

Statements by President Roosevelt and Secretary Hull, 
339. 
Athens. Greece, opening of U.S. Embassy as combined 
office, 561, 643. 



Atlantic Charter, anniversary (3d), statement by Secre- 
tary Hull, 173. 
Atrc cities of Germans in Greece, Hungary, and Poland, 

statement by Secretary Hull, 59, 235, 428. 
Australia : 

Capture of prizes, agreement for reciprocal privileges 
with U.S. with respect to territorial waters (1942, 
1944), 192. 
Minister to U.S. (Dixon), denial of alleged statement of 
previous information on Pearl Harbor attack, 316. 
Minister to U.S. (Egglcston), credentials, 614. 
Auttjmotive traffic, regulation of, Inter-American conven- 
tion on (1943) : 
Ratitication : Dominican Republic, 149, 229; El Salvador, 
32; Guatemala, 104, 149; Nicaragua, 284; Peru, 149. 
Signattire: Chile, !585; Panama, 128. 
Aviation (sec also Civil Aviation) : 
Airfields in Canada, U.S.-Canadian agreement on con- 
struction (1944), 127, 139. 
Joint resolution of U.S. Congress concerning air bases in 

the Philippines, 17. 
Military aviation mission, agreement with Ecuador, 159. 
Regulation of aerial navigation, convention (1919), re- 
print by State Department, 19, 193. 
Aviation Division, 789, 811. 
Axis countries («ee also Germany; Japan) : 
Argentine aid to, 107. 
Asylum for war criminals: 
Denial of asylum by neutral countries and proposed 
punishment by United Nations, statements of 
President Roosevelt and Secretary Hull, 339, 340. 
Ireland, attitude, 591. 
Diplomatic and consular representatives in U.S., treat- 
ment, 120. 
Loot, transfer through neutral countries, U.S. request to 

neutral countries to prevent, 383. 
Nationals in Western Hemisphere, exchanges with na- 
tionals of U.S. and other American republics, 142. 
Trade control, and proposed continuation of Proclaimed 
List of Certain Blocked Nationals, 340. 

Bacon, Ruth B., designation in State Department, 284, 809. 
Baliia Blanca, Argentina, clo.sing of U.S. Consulate, 51. 
Baker, George W., designation in State Department, 811. 
Ballantine, Joseph W., designation in State Department, 

777, 809. 
Bank, Export-Import, of Washington, 663. 
Bank for International Reconstruction and Development: 
Description of, 16, 114, .541, 546. 
Statement by Mr. Morgenthau, 112. 
Bar Association of city of New York, address by Mr. 

Sandifer, 731. 
Barbados, furnishing of laborers for work in U.S.. memo- 
randum of understanding (1944), amendment, 585. 
Barbed wire, supplied to Soviet Union. 45. 
Barber, Willard F., designation in State Department, 810. 
Bases in the Philippines, air, land, and naval, joint resolu- 
tion of U.S. Congress concerning, 17. 
Bastille Day, statement by President Roosevelt, 59. 
Begg, John M., designation in State Department, 284, 812. 
Belgium : 
Inquiries concerning U.S. nationals in Brussels area, 

service for, 076. 
Liberation of Brussels, statements by President Roose- 
velt and Secretary Hull, 253. 
Opening of U.S. Consulate General at Antwerp, 510, 643. 
Opening of U.S. Embassy at Brussels, 332, 510. 
Treaties, agreements, etc.: 

Customs union, with Luxembourg and Netherlands 

(1944), 562. 
Monetary agreement, with U.K. (1944), 526. 
Shipping, continuance of control for United Nations 
purposes (1944), 358. 
U.S. Ambassador (Sawyer), confirmation of nomination, 
332. 
Belovsky, Sidney A., designation in State Department, 813. 



INDEX, JULY TO DECEMBER 1944 



857 



Belt, Guillermo, credentials as Cuban Ambassador to 

U.S., 837. 
BeltrAn, Pedro, credentials as Peruvian Ambassador to 

U.S., 77. 
Benninghoff, H. Merrell, designation in State Department, 

616, 809. 
Berendsen, C. A., credentials as New Zealand Minister to 

U.S., 76. 
Eerie, Adolf A., Jr. : 
Addresses : 

Charles Carroll Forum, Washington, 476. 
Civil Aviation, International Conference, 529, 530, 718. 
Federal Bureau of Investigation, Washington, gradua- 
tion exercises, 99. 
Inter-Faith Conference, New York, 256. 
"World statesmen", radio program, 135. 
Resignation as Assistant Secretary of State, correspond- 
ence with President Roosevelt and Secretary Stet- 
tinius, 694. 
Biauchi, Joao Antonio de, credentials as first Portuguese 

Ambassador to U.S., 79. 
Birds, migratory, conventions for protection. 229, 246, 362. 
Bjiirnsson, Sveinn, President of Iceland, visit to U.S., 

175, 223. 
Blacklist. See Blocked Nationals. 

Blaisdell, Donald C, designation in State Department, SIO. 
Blake, Gilson G., designation in State Department, 813. 
Blakeslee, George H., article on Japan's mandated is- 
lands, 764. 
Bliss, Robert Woods, designation in State Department, 

808. 
Blockade, Allied : 
Article by Mr. Lnvitt, 597. 
Breach of to ship relief supplies to Greece, SOD. 
Blockade Committee, Anglo-American, 600, 601. 
Blocked Nationals, Proclaimed List: 
Effects of blacklist, 597, 599. 
Post-war continuation, necessity for, 340. 
Revision VII, Cumulative Supplement 4, 5, 6 : 5, 129, 222. 
Itevision VIII and Cumulative Supplements 1, 2, 8, 
4 : 328, 480, 609, 768. 
Bloom, Sol, address by Mr. Stettinius at testimonial 

dinner in honor of, 18. 
Boards. See Commissions. 

Boggs, S. W., designation in State Department, 812. 
Bolilen, Charles E., designation in State Department. 808. 
Bolivarian Affairs, Division of. See North and West 

Coast Affairs, Division of. 
Bolivia (see also American republics) : 
Ambassador to U.S. (Andrade), credentials, 838. 
Invitation to participate In Bretton Woods Conference, 

16. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural Sciences, Inter-American Institute 

(1944), signature, 149. 
Cultural relations, inter-American, promotion (1930), 

ratification, 148. 
Pan American Highway (1936), ratification, 148. 
Pan American Union (1928), ratification, 148. 
U. S. Ambassador (Thurston), appointment, 332. 
U.S. educators, mission to, 138. 
Wheat shipment from U.S., 596. 
Bonbright, James 0. H., designation In State Department, 

809. 
Bonomi, Ivanoe, Prime Minister of Italy, message to 

President Roosevelt. 398. 
Booty. See Loot. 
Border-crossing regulations between U.S. and Canada, 

changes, 52. 
Borton, Hugh, articles on — 
Japan, 817. 
Korea, 578. 
Boundary, Costa Rica and Panama, completion of demar- 
cation : 
Article by Mrs. Saucerman, 390. 
Statement by Secretary Hull, 315. 



Bowman, Isaiah, designation in State Department, 149, 

80S. 
Boykin, Samuel D., designation in State Department, 812. 
Brazil (sec also American republics) : 
Ambassador Martins, remarks as acting chairman of 

Governing Board, Pan American Union, 698. 
Contributions to Allied cause, statement by former Am- 
bassador Cafferv, 345. 
Cultural leaders, visit to U.S., 129, 391. 
Independence day, message of President Roosevelt to 

Presitlent Vargas, 278. 
Pan American Conference on Geography and Cartog- 
raphy, Second Consultative, in Rio de Janeiro, 159. 
Ti'eaties, agreements, etc. : 

Commercial modus vivetidi, with Venezuela (1940), 

renewal (1944), 562. 
Military-service agreement, with U.K. (1944), 55. 
Naval oflicer, U.S., detail of (1944), 361. 
Railway convention, with Paraguay (1944), 307. 
U.S. Secretary of State Hull, resignation, exchange of 
messages with Foreign Minister, 650. 
Brazilian Affairs, Division of, 783, 810. 
Bretton Woods Conference. See United Nations Monetary 

and Financial Conference. 
Brickell, Hersehel, designation in State Department, 812. 
Britisli Commonwealth Affairs, Division of, 781, 809. 
Brown, Courtney C, designation in State Department, 

486, 811. 
Brown, James E., Jr., designation in State Department, 

80S. 
Brussels, Belgium : 

Inquiries concerning U.S. nationals, service for, 676. 
Liberation, statements by President Roosevelt and Sec- 
retary Hull, 253. 
Opening of U.S. Embassy, 332, 510. 
Buchanan, Daniel H., designation In State Department, 

616, 810. 
Bucknel! University, Lewisburg, Pa., address by Mr. Shaw, 

456. 
Budget, Bureau of the, procedure for furnishing of In- 
formation by State Department (Adm. Instr., Gen. 
Adm. 12), 678. 
Budget and Finance, Division of, 800, 812. 
Bulgaria : 
Armistice with U.S., U.K., and Soviet Union, text, 492, 

616. 
U.S. citizens in, welfare, 772. 
Bundv, Vernon E., designation in State Department, 130, 

810. 
Bunn, Charles: 
Addresses : 

Foreign Policy Assn., Atlanta, Ga., 95. 
United Nations Assn., Waterbury, Conn., 433. 
Designation in State Department, 130, 810. 
Burland, Elmer G., designation in State Department, 130. 

486, 811. 

Burma, opium, plan suggested by U.S. for world-wide lim- 
itation of production, 723. 
Burns, Norman, designation in State Department, 130, 

811. 
Busiue.ss and Professional Women's Club, Richmond, Va. 

address by Mr. Taft, 707. 
Byingtou, Homer M., Jr., designation in State Department, 

SOS. 
Byingtou, Homer M., Sr., retirement from Foreign Service 
remarks by Mr. Stettinius, 580. 

Cabot, John M., designation in State Department, 180, 810. 
Cadogan, Sir Alexander, remarks at Dumbarton Oaks Con 

versations, 201, 341, 343. 
Caffery, Jefferson : 
Appointment as U.S. Representative, and later Ambassa- 
dor, to the de facto French Authority, 332, 681. 
Statement on Brazilian contribution to Allied cause, 345. 
Cale, Edward G., designation in State Department, 357, 811. 



858 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Lenrl-iease aid from U.S., reference to, 80. 
Relief supplies for Greece, 305. 
Travel regulations, with U.S., changes, 52. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Canol project, with U.S. (1944), text, 22.5. 
Criminal offenses by armed forces, issuance by Presi- 
dent Roosevelt of proclamation implementing the 
jurisdiction of service courts of friendly foreign 
forces within U.S., 481. 
Defense installations, with U.S. (1944), text, 127, 139. 
Double taxation and prevention of fi.scal evasion, with 

U.S., ratification by U.S. (1944), 246, 732, 840. 
Economic settlements, post-war, with U.S. (1942), 

provisions relating to mutual aid, 80. 
Migratory birds, protection of, with U.S. (1916), 

amendment of regulations, 229, 246, 362. 
Mutual-aid agreement, with New Zealand (1944), 443. 
Shipping, continuance of control for United Nations 

purposes (1944), 358. 
Water power, temporary raising of level of Lake St. 
Francis, with U.S. (1941), continuance (1944), 
733. 
Whaling, regulation of, protocol (1944), ratification, 
307. 
Cannon, Cavendish W., designation in State Department, 

331, 809. 
Canol project, agreement with Canada (1944), text, 225. 
Canty, George R., designation in Stare Department, 811. 
Capture of prizes in territorial waters, reciprocal agree- 
ment with Australia (1942, 1944), 192. 
Caribbean and Central American Affairs, Division of, 

783. 810. 
Caribbean area (see also Caribbean Researfh Council) : 
Definition of territories included in, 211. 
Production of war materials in, 21.5. 
Radio broadcasts to, 210. 213. 

Survey, economic and social, 1940-^1, by a presidential 
commission, 218. 
Caribbean Commission. See Anglo-American Caribbean 

CommLssion. 
Caribbean land-tenure symposium, at Mayagiiez, P. R., 

181, 221. 
Caribbean Research Council : 

Land-tenure symposium, 181, 221. 
Meetings, 181, 209. 

Relation to Anglo-American Caribbean Commission, 378. 
Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, address by 

Mr. Oerig. .565. 
Carr, Robert M.. designation in State Department, 54, 810. 
Carrigan. .Tohn W., designation in State Department, 192, 

284, 810. 
Cartels, international: 
Address by Mr. Edwards, 25, 29. 
Article by Mr. Bunn, 433. 

U.S. policy, correspondence between President Roosevelt 
and .Secretary Hull, 254, 292. 
Cartography, Second Consultative Pan American Confer- 

ference on Geography and, 159. 
Catudal, Honor<5 Marcel, designation in State Department, 

54, 810. 
Cayenne, French Guiana, closing of U.S. Consulate, 51. 
Central European Affairs, Division of, 782, 809. 
Central Services, Division of, 803. 813. 
Central Translating Division, 792, 812. 
Ceuta, Spanish North Africa, opening and closing of 

U.S. Consulate, 246, 583. 
Chalmers, Philip O., designation in State Department, 130, 

810. 
Chamber of Commerce and Rotary Club, Akron, Ohio, ad- 
dress by Mr. Tatt, 294. 
Charles Carroll Forum of Washington, address by Mr. 

Berle, 476. 
Chai-ts. See Maps and. 



Cherbourg, France: 

Liberation of, message to President Roosevelt from 

Marshal Stalin, 5. 
Opening of U.S. Consulate, 643, 736. 
Chiang Kai-shek : 

Anniversaries, exchange of messages with President 

Roosevelt, 400, 561, 761. 
Scroll to the City of Chungking, acceptance, 5. 
Chicago Association of Commerce, address by Mr. Grew, 

. 741. 
Chicago conference on civil aviation. See under Civil 

Aviation. 
Chicago Council on Foreign Relations, address by Mr. 

Grew, 741. 
Child, Charles, designation in State Department, 812. 
Chile (see also American republics) : 

Ambassador to U.S. (Mora Miranda), credentials, 380. 
Cultural leaders, visit to U. S., 94, 282, 293. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Automotive traffic, regulation of inter-American 
(1943), signature, with text of reservations, 585. 
Commercial modus vivcndi, with Venezuela (1941), 
renewal (1944), 642. 
U.S. Secretary of State HuU, resignation, message from 
Foreign Minister, 650. 
China (see also Chiang Kai-shek) : 

Anniversary of Chinese Revolution (33d), statement and 
messages by President Roosevelt and Secretary 
Hull, 400. 
Anniversary (7th) of Japanese attack on, 35. 
Closing of U.S. Consulate at Kweilin, 103, 309. 
Cultural exchange. State Department aid to, article by 

Mr. Peck. 36. 
Cultural-relations program, U.S. technical experts, re- 
turn to U.S., 141, 191, 234, 281, 576. 
Gifts from U.S. of books, etc., brought in planes bearing 
Vice President Wallace and Mr. Nelson, 40, 42, 306. 
Immigration and naturalization laws of U.S. with re- 
spect to Chinese, article by Mr. Flournoy, 322. 
Koo, V. K. Wellington, remarks as chairman of dele- 
gation to Washington conversations on peace and 
security organization, 344, 375. 
Opium, plan suggested by U.S. for world-wide limita- 
tion of production, 723. 
Peace and security organization, international, conver- 
sations in Washington (China, U.S., and U.K.), 84. 
133. 344, 375. 
Relations with U.S., article by Mr. Hanson, 624. 
Scroll to the city of Chungking, gift by U.S.. 4. 
Survey of Chinese laws and judicial administration. 

Judge Helmick to make, 576. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Amity, with — 

Liberia (1937), 104. 
Mexico (1944), 229. 
Peace and friendship, with Co.sta Rica (1944), 229. 
U.S. .\mbassador (Hurley), appointment, 681. 
U.S. Secretary of State Hull, resignation, message from 
Acting President of Executive Yuan, 697. 
China National Aviation Corporation, cited, 38. 
Chinese Affairs, Division of, 782, 809. 
Christ Church Forum, New York, N.Y., address by Mr. 

Fowler, 317. 
Christie, Emerson B., designation in State Department, 

812. 
Church Peace Union, address by Mr. Gerig, 565. 
Churchill, Winston : 
Statements: 
Argentine regime, non-recognition, 133. 
Greece, political conditions in, 713. 
Italy, administration of, joint statement with Presi- 
dent Roosevelt, 338. 
Post-war position of neutrals, 837. 
Cinchona industry in Guatemala, agreement with Guate- 
mala for promotion, 148. 



INDEX, JULY TO DECEMBER 1944 

Citizens, U.S. See United States citizens. 
Citizenship nietlal of A'etcrans of Foreign Wars, presenta- 
tion to Secretary Hull, 94. 
Civil administration : 

France, joint statement by War and State Departments, 

2(14. 
Luxembourg after Allied liberation, agreement between 
Luxembourg, U.K., and U.S., 123. 
Civil aviation : 
Appointments of U.S. civil air attaches, 458. 
Exploratory talks : 
U.S. and India, 209. 
U.S. and Soviet Union, 191. 
Regulation of aerial navigation, convention (1919), dis- 
cussed by Mr. Latcbford, 19. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Air-transport service, with — , 
Denmark (1944), text, 759. / 
Spain (1944), text, 674. /. 
Sweden (1944), text, 757. 
Civil Aviation, International Conference: 
Addresses by Mr. Berle, 530, 718, 
Article by Mr. Walstrom, 843. 
Invitation sent to various governments, text, 298. 
List of invited governments, 299. 
Members of U.S. Delegation and Secretariat, 499. 
Message of President Roosevelt, 529. 
Objectives and agenda, 299, 349. 
Opening and closing sessions, 529, 718. 
Place of meeting, 366. 
Civilian internees. See Internees. 
Claims convention, U.S. and Mexico (1941), payment to 

U.S. of instalment due under, 635. 
Clattenburg, Albert E., Jr., designation in State Depart- 
ment, 813. 
Clayton, William L. : 
Appointment as Assistant Secretai-y of State, 685, 687, 

840. 
Duties, 777. 

Statement before Senate Foreign Relations Committee, 
689. 
Coatzacoalcos, Mexico, closing of U.S. Consulate, 381. 
Cochran, William P., Jr., designation in State Depart- 
ment, 810. 
Code of Federal Regulations : 
Amendment respecting passports, 722. 
Fellowships in public administration, to be dealt with 
under Title 22 (not Title 4), 678. 
Coffee agreement, inter- American (1940), continuation 

(1944), 307, 442. 
Coffee Board, Inter-American : 

Appointment of alternate delegate (Wright), 138. 
Death of secretary-manager (Delafleld), 772. 
Collado, Emilio G., designation in State Department, 810. 
Colombia (see also American republics) : 
Cultural leader, vLsit to U.S., 223. 
Indebtedness, settlement, 630. 
Naval mission, agreement with U.S. (1938), extension 

(1944), 1.59. 
Suppression of revolt in, 62. 

U.S. Ambassador (Wiley), confirmation of nomination, 
332. 
Columbus Day, statements by President Roosevelt and 
Jlr. Stettinius before chiefs of missions from the 
other American republics, 397, 309. 
Combines, international, 25. 
Commerce, Department of, relation to Special Economic 

Mission, 720. 
Commercial nwdi Vivendi, Venezuela with — 
Brazil (1940), renewal (1944), 562. 
Chile (1941), renewal (1944), 642. 
Haiti (1943), renewal (1944), 229. 
Spain (1942), renewal (1944), 526. 
Commercial Policy, Division of, 785, 810. 



859 

Commercial Policy, Executive Committee on, abolishment 

192. 
Commercial treat.v, Haiti and Dominican Republic (1941), 
and tariff preferences with Haiti obtained by U. s! 
thereunder, termination, 394. 
Commission To Sludy the Organization of Peace, ad- 
dresses by Dr. Hopkins, Mr. Stettinius, and Mr 
Gerig, 451, 452, 453, 565. 
Commissions, committees, etc. : 
International : 
Advisory Committees for Cultural Cooperation, 847. 
Agricultural Commission, U.S. and Mexico, establish- 
ment, 53. 
Allied Commission in Italy, 583. 
Allied Control Commission for Italy, 137. 
Anglo-American Caribbean Commission, 181, 209, 210, 

221, 377, 378. 
Blockade Committee, Anglo-American, 600, 601. 
Caribbean Research Council, 181, 209, 221. 
Cuban and U.S. connuissions for discussion of sugar 

purchases, 328, 609. 
Emergency Advisory Committee for Political Defense, 

568. 
European Advisory Commission, 583. 
Inter-American Coffee Board, 138, 772. 
International Labor Organization, 175, 236, 258. 
Political Defense, Emergency Advisory Committee, 

568. 
United Nations Interim Commission on Food and 
Agriculture, 207, 761. 
National: 
Cuban and U.S. commissions for discussion of sugar 

purchases, 328, 609. 
Economic Foreign Policy, Executive Committee on, 

247. 
Interdepartmental Committee on Cooperation With 

American Republics, 319, 321. 
Philippine Rehabilitation Commission, 17. 
Protection and Salvage of Artistic and Historic Monu- 
ments In War Areas, Ameri/:an Commission lor, 
577. 
War Relief Control Board, President's, 346, 481, 641. 
Commodities Division, 786, 811. 
Commonwealth Club of San Francisco, address by Mr. Taft, 

610. 
Concha, Carlos, Peruvian Foreign Minister, death, 835. 
Conferences, congresses, etc. : 
International : 
Allied Ministers of Education in London, 465, 602. 
Caribbean land-tenure symposium, at Mayagiiez, P. R., 

181, 221. 
Civil aviation, in Chicago, 298, 349, 366, 499, 529, 

718, 843. 
European inland transport, opening meeting in Lon- 
don, 481. 
International Labor Organization (26th session), 236, 

258. 
Ministers for Foreign Affairs of the American Re- 
publics, proposed meeting, 498, 630, 713. 
Pan American Consultation on Geography and Cartog- 
raphy (2d meeting), 1.59, 475. 
Peace and security organization, international, con- 
versations at Washington, 84, 133, 157, 174, 197, 
233, 263, 292, 341, 365. 
United Nations Jlonetary and Financial ConfereriiCe, 

13, 16, 111, 114, 384, 539. 
UNRRA Council, 2d session, 255, 501. 
Wheat Council, U.S. delegates, 536. 
Congress, U. S. : 

Cotton Conference of Subcommittee of House for Study 
of Policies of Post-War Agriculture, statement by 
Mr. Acheson, 700. 
Furnishing of information by State Department, pro- 
cedure (Adm. Instr., Gen. Adm. 12), 678. 
Iceland, resolution extending congratulations on estab- 
lishment of republic, 126. 



860 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Con?rress, TJ. S. — Continued. 
Judd resolution (H. J. Res. 241), concerning world-wide 

limitation of production of opium, 47, 4S, 723. 
Legislation, listed, 55, 104, 168. 284. ,?09, 318, 384, 486, 

524, 618, 645, 681, 736, 778, 840, 849. 
Messages from President : 
Lend-lease reports, letters of transmittal, 205, 622. 
UNERA, 1st quarterly report, 717. 
Nation.Tlity Act, amendment respecting renunciation of 

nationality, 576. 
Philippine independence and acquisition of U.S. bases 

(S.J. Res. 93), 17. 
Philippine Rehabilitation Commission, creation of (S.J. 

Res. 94), 17. 
Post-War Economic Policy and Planning, Special Com- 
mittee of House on, statement by Mr. Acheson before 
Subcommittee on Foreign Trade and Shipping. G'jQ. 
Senate Committee on Foreign Relations : 
Hearings on nominations of Under Secretary and 

Assistant Secretaries of State, 686, 762. 
Resolutions on Palestine, referred to State Depart- 
ment, 771. 
Consular ofHces. See under Foreign Service. 
Consumers Union, Washington, address by Mr. Edwards, 

25. 
Contraband. See Blockade. 
Control Commission for Italy, Allied (see also Allied 

Commission), 137. 
Controls, economic, in post-war world, addresses by Mr. 

Taft, 8.5, 294, 610. 
Controls, Office of, 806, 813. 
Conventions. See Conferences ; Treaties. 
Cook, Everett R., designation in State Department, 486, 811. 
Coordinating Committee, 777, 779. 
Coordination and Review, Division of, 804, 813. 
Copello, Anselmo, Dominican Ambassador, death, 717. 
Corrick, Donald W., designation in State Department, 54. 
Corse, Carl D., designation in State Department, 54, 810. 
Costa Rica (see also American republics) : 
Boundary settlement with Panama : 
Article by Mrs. Saucerman, 390. 
Statement by Secretary Hull, 315. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural Sciences, Inter-American Institute, con- 
vention (1944), ratification, 104, 229. 
Peace and friendship, with China (1944), appi-oval, 
229. 
U.S. Ambassador (Johnson), appointment, 773. 
Cotton policy of the United States, statement by 5Ir. 
Acheson before a subcommittee of House of Repre- 
sentatives, 700. 
Coulter, Eliot B., designation in State Department, 813. 
Council of Voluntary Agencies for Foreign Service, forma- 
tion of, 348. 
Credentials. See Diplomatic representatives in U.S. 
Cressey, George B., return from China, 141. 
Criminal offenses committed by armed forces, issuance of 
proclamation implementing the jurisdiction of service 
courts of friendly foreign forces within U.S., 481. 
Crowley, Leo T., responsibilities of FBA after defeat of 

Germany, letter from President Roosevelt, 354. 
Cryptography, Division of, 330, 804, 813. 
Cuba (see also American republics) : 
Ambassador to U.S. (Belt), credentials, 837. 
Closing of U.S. Vice Consulate at Nueva Gerona, 103. 
Cultural leader, visit to U.S., 175. 
President-elect (Gran San Martin), visit to Washington, 

247. 
Sugar crop, discussions with U.S., 328, 609. 
Culbertson, Paul T., designation in State Department, 809. 
Culbertson. William S., chairman of Special Economic Mis- 
sion, 125, 720. 
Cultural and Scientific Cooperation, Interdepartmental 

Committee on, 792, 812. 
Cultural Cooperation, Advisory Committees for, lists of 
members, 847. 



Cultural Cooperation, Division of: 

Departmental Order 1281 changing name and clari- 
fying functions, 223. 
Duties and officers. 791, 812. 
Cultural relations (see also under American republics; 
China ; and India) : 
Advisory Committees for Cultural Cooperation, mem- 
bers, 847. 
Inter-American convention on promotion (1936), rati- 
fication by Bolivia, 148. 
Gumming. Hugh S., Jr., designation in State Department, 

284, 809. 
Cura<;ao, Netherlands West Indies, U.S. Consulate, eleva- 
tion to rank of Consulate General, 246. 
Customs duties, reductions in, agreement with Haiti 

(1942), termination, 394. 
Customs union, Belgium, Luxembourg, and Netherlands 

(1944), 562. 
Czechoslovakia : 

Arm.v, U.S. declaration regarding German treatment of, 

263, 596. 
Independence, anniversary of, message from President 

Roosevelt to President BeneS, 497. 
U.S. Ambassador (Steinhardt), appointment, 840. 

Dakar, French West Africa, status of U.S. representation 

at, 32. 
Daniel, Helen L., designation in State Department. 813. 
Darlington, Charles F., designation in State Department, 

811. 
Davis, Monnett B., designation in State Department, 812. 
Davis, Mrs. Nancy W., designation in State Department, 

486, 811. 
Davis. Nathaniel P., designation in State Department, 225, 

812. 
Davis, Norman, death, 5. 

Davis, Roy Tasco, educational mission to Bolivia. 138. 
deBeaulieu, Lt. Frank C, U.S.A., designation in State De- 
partment, 813. 
Declaration by United Nations (1942), adherence by 

France (1945), 845. 
Defense installations, agreement with Canada regarding 

(1944), text, 127, 139. 
De Gaulle, Gen. Charles, visit to U.S., 47. 
Delafield, Herbert, secretary-manager of Inter-American 

Coffee Board, death, 772. 
de la Rue, Sidney, designation in State Department, 808. 
Denmark : 
Agreement on air-transport services with U.S., text 

(1944), 759. 
Opposition to Nazi rule, 60. 
Departmental Administration, Office of, 800, 812. 
Departmental issuances, departmental order amending 

D.O. 1269 on systematizing of, 393. 
Departmental orders : 

Administrative instructions, svstematization of (amend- 
ment of D.O. 1269 by D.O. 1290), 39.3. 
Administrative Services, Division of, creation (D.O. 

1289), 392. 
Adviser on Refugees and Displaced Persons, Office of 
Wartime Economic Affairs, functions (D.O. 1294), 
485. 
Allowances to citizens of other American republics under 
cultural-cooperation program, fiscal year 1945 (D.O. 
1280-A), 192. 
Consolidation of Division of Bolivarian Affairs and 

Division of West Coast Affairs (D.O. 1283), 169. 
Consular services to ships and seamen (D.O. 1292), 483. 
Ci-yptography Division, establishment (D.O. 1288), 330. 
Cultural Cooperation, Division of, clarification of func- 
tions and change in name from Division of Science, 
Education and Art, (D.O. 1281), 223. 
Economic development projects, long-range. Department 
representation before FEA and WPB (D.O. 1299), 
645. 



INDEX, JULY TO DECEMBER 19U 



861 



Departmental orders— Continued. 

Executive Committee on Economic Foreign Policy, scope 

and functions of secretariat (D.O. 1280), 247. 
Functions delegated to Mr. Aclieson (D.O. 1.300), 773. 
International Information Division, description of func- 
tions and change in name from Motion Picture and 
Radio Division (D.O. 1285), 2S3. 
International Labor, Social, and Health Affairs, Division 

of. functions (D.O. 1298), 617. 
Management Planning. Division of, establishment (D.O. 

12aVA). 734. 
Reorganization of State Department (D.O. 1301 of Dec. 

20, 1944), 778. 
Research and Publication Division, assignment of func- 
tions (DO. 1284), 249. 
Shipping Division, Office of Transportation and Com- 
munications, functions (D.O. 1291), 482. 
Special War Problems Division, additional responsibil- 
ities (D.O. 1296), 644. 
Transportation Service Branch, creation in Office of the 

Foreign Service (D.O. 1286), 3.56. 
Travel, priority, of American private citizens (D.O. 

1297), 644. 
Veterans, reinstatement (D.O. 1295), 679. 
Wartime Economic Affairs, Office of, changes in organ- 
ization (D.O. 1293), 483. 
Departmental Personnel, Division of, 802, 812. 
Dependent Area Aftairs, Division of. 785. 810. 
Des Portes, Fav Allen, U.S. Ambassador to Costa Rica, 

death, 332. " 
Despres, Emile, designation in State Department, 130, 

773, 810, 811. 
Dewey, Gov. Thomas E. : 

Comment on terms of surrender for Rumania, 453. 
Correspondence with Secretary Hull on common policy 

for peace and security, 255. 
Designation of John Foster Dulles as representative 

to confer with Secretary Hull, 174. 
Statement on reported plan of military alliance of four 
major nations, denial by Secretary Hull, 173. 
de Wolf, Francis Colt, designation in State Department, 

811. 
Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, opening of U.S. Consulate, 246, 

262. 
Dickey, John S., designation in State Department, 811, 

812. 
Dickover, Erie R. : 
Address on anniversary (3d) of Japanese attack on 

Pearl Harbor, 728. 
Designation in State Department, 809. 
Diplomatic relations, with — ■ 
Finland, severance, 3. 
Prance, renewal, 491. 681. 

Gi-eece, opening of U.S. Embassy in Athens, 561, 596. 
Guatemala, recognition, 568. 
Italy, renewal, 491. 
Lebanon, establishment, 313. 
Soviet Union, anniversary (11th), 589. 
Syria, establishment, 313. 
Diplomatic representatives in U.S., credentials, 75, 76, 77, 

79, 380, 614, S37, 838. 
Distinguished Citizen Medal, presentation to Secretary 

Hull by Veterans of Foreign Wars, 94. 
Distomo, Greece, mass killings by Nazis in, 59. 
Dixon, Sir Owen. Minister of Australia, denial of alleged 
statement of previous information on Pearl Harbor 
attack, 316. 
Doffing, George W., designation in State Department, 811. 
Dominican Republic {see also American republics) : 
Ambassador Copello, death of, statement by Secretary 

Stettinius, 717. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Automotive traffic, inter-American, convention on 

regulation (1943), ratiflcation, 149, 229. 
Commercial, with Haiti (1941), expiration, 394. 
Dooman, Eugene H., designation in State Department, 809. 
629749 — 45 2 



Dorsey, Stephen P., designation In State Department, 192, 

812. 
Dort, Dallas: 

Article on U.S. aid to Italy, 401. 
Designation in State Department, 486, 811. 
Double taxation, exploratory conversations, U. S. and — 
Union of South Africa, 208. 
U. K., 208, 732. 
Double-taxation conventions, U.S. and — 
Canada (1944), 246, 732, 840. 
France (19.39), 732, 836. 
Dougall, G. M. Richardson, article on Philippine-Ameri- 
can relations, 182. 
Dreier, John C., designation in State Department, 810. 
Drottningholm (ship), exchange of prisoners of war be- 
tween Germany and U.K., 355. 
Duggan, Laurence, resignation from State Department, 103. 
Dulles, Eleanor Lansing, article on the Export-Import 

Bank of Washington, 663. 
Dulles, John Foster, conferences and joint statement with 

Secretary Hull, 174, 206, 234. 
Dumbarton Oaks Conversations. See Peace and security 

organization. 
Dunn, James Clement : 

Appointment as Assistant Secretary of State, 685, 687, 

840. 
Duties, 777. 

Statement before Senate Foreign Relations Committee, 
691. 
Durbrow, Elbridge, designation in State Department, 809. 
Dykstra, Theodore P., return from China, 281. 

EAM (Greek resistance groups), statement by Secretary 

Hull, 253. 
Eastern European Affairs, Division of, 782, 809. 
Eastern Hemisphere Division. See War Areas Economic 

Division ; War Supply and Resources Division. 
Economic Affairs, Office of, 245, 785, 810. 
Economic Foreign Policy, Expicutive Committee on, scope 

and functions of secretariat (D.O. 1280), 247. 
Economic warfare, FEA, plans, 354. 
Economics: 
American republics, fomento organizations, development 

of, 571. 
Cartels, international, correspondence of President 

Roosevelt and Secretary Hull regarding, 254, 292. 
Commercial policy objectives, address by Mr. Fowler, 

317. 
Controls in post-war world, addresses by Mr. Taft, 85, 

294. 
Cooperation with Mexico, joint statement by Secretary 

Hull and Mexican Foreign Minister (Padilla), 61. 
Development projects, long-range. Department repre- 
sentation before FEA and WPB (D.O. 1299), 645. 
Foodstuffs, international trade in, paper by Mr. Stine- 

bower, 264. 
Foreign Service officers' reports on conditions in lib- 
erated areas, instructions for, 382. 
Post-war plans : 
Addresses by Mr. Taft, 85, 294. 610. 
Statement by Mr. Acheson, 656. 
Special Economic Mission, report on work of, 720. 
Ecuador {see also American republics) : 
Ambassador to U. S. (Plaza), credentials, 75. 
Cultural leaders, vi.sit to U.S., 60, 340, 385, 642. 
Tonnage duties, reciprocal exemption with U.S., procla- 
mation, 761. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Films, educational and publicity, convention con- 
cerning facilities for (1936), ratification, 585. 
Military-aviation mission, with U.S. (1940), renewal 

(1914), 159. 
Military mission, with U.S. (1944), 32. 
Nature protection and wildlife preservation in the 
Western Hemisphere (1940), ratification, 585. 
Naval mission from U.S. (1940), renewal (1944), 246. 



862 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Eddy, Col. William A., appointment as V. S. Minister to 

Saudi Arabia, 168. 
Education, Allied Ministers of. See Allied Ministers of 

Education under Conferences. 
Educational missions to — 
Bolivia, 138. 
Iran, 92. 
Edwards, Corwin D.. address on international cartel prob- 
lem, 25. 
Eggleston, Sir Frederic William, credentials as Australian 

Minister to U.S., 614. 
Eisenhower, Gen. Dwight D., appointment of Murphy and 
Keber as political advisers to, statement by Secretary 
Hull, 254. 
EI Salvador (see also American republics) : 
Automotive traffic, convention on the regulation of inter- 
American (194.3). ratification, 32. 
U.S. Ambassador (Simmon;^), appointment, 332. 
Embassy rank for American Legation at Lisbon, 32. 
Enemy aliens (see also "Gripsholm") : 

In other American republics, treatment and control, 146. 
In U.S., duties of former Special Division in respect to 
treatment, 63, 66, 115, 121, 123, 143. 
Erhardt. John G. : 
Acting Assistant Secretary of State, 809. 
Designation in the Foreign Service, 852. 
Remarks on presentation of bust of Cordell Hull to State 
Department, 849. 
Ertegiin, Mehmet Miinir, Turkish Ambassador to U.S., 

death, 570. 
Ethiopia, gift of property to U.S. Government, 654. 
European Advisory Commission, full membership of 

France, 583. 
European Affairs, Office of. 781, 809. 
European Inland Transport. See under Conferences. 
Evolution of local government in Italy, article by Mr. 

Smyth, 404. 
Examination for the Foreign Service, announcement, 680. 
E.xchaiige of British nationals with Germany, 355. 
Exchange of nationals with — 
Germany. See "Gripsholm". 
Japan, summary of, 439. 
Executive agreements. See Treaties. 
Executive Committee on Commercial Policy, abolishment, 

192. 
Executive Committee on Economic Foreign Policy, scope 

and functions of secretariat (D. O. 1280), 247. 
Executive orders : 
Executive Committee on Commercial Policy, abolishr 

ment, 192. 
Foreign Service regulations, Secretary of State author- 
ized to issue, 31. 
U.S. participation in UNRRA, 62. 
Export-Import Bank of Washington, article by Mrs. 

Dulles, 663. 
Export Managers Club, New York, address by Mr. Wilson, 

592. 
Exton, Frederick, designation in State Department, 811. 

Falck, L. James, designation in State Department, 811. 
Far East : 

Camps for U.S. prisoners of war and civilian internees, 

map showing location, 64. 
Interned Allied nationals, relief supplies for, 235. 
Japan, administration and structure of Government, 

article by Mr. Borton, 817. 
Japan, mandated islands, article by Mr. Blakeslee, 764. 
Korea, political structure, article by Mr. Borton, 578. 
Netherlands Indies, internal political structure, article 

by Mr. Vandenbosch, 00.5. 
Thailand, social and political structure, article by Mr. 
Vandenbosch and Mr. Landon, 636. 
Far Eastern Affairs, Oflice of, 782, 809. 
Farriss, James J., designation in State Department, 811. 
FEA. See Foreign Economic Administration. 



Federal Bar Association, Washington, address by Mr. 

Sandifer, 710. 
Federal Bureau of Investigation, Washington, graduation 

exercises, address by Mr. Berle, 99. 
Federation of Business and Professional Women's Clubs, 

New York, address b.v Mr. Taft, 85. 
Fellowships in public administration for representatives 
of other American republics, regulations, change in, 
678. 
Fetter, Frank W., designation in State Department, 284, 

811. 
Films, educational and publicity, convention concerning 

facilities for (1936), 585. 
Finance. See Bank for Internalional Reconstruction and 
Development ; International Monetary Fund ; United 
Nations Monetary and Financial Conference. 
Financial and economic mission to Iran, 90. 
Financial and Monetary Affairs, Division of, 785, 810. 
Finland : 
Closing of U.S. Legation at Helsinki, 51. 
Military alliance with Germany, 3. 
Representation by Sweden of interests in U.S., 50. 
Severance of diplomatic relations with U.S., 3. 
Flaherty, Francis E., designation in State Department. 

812. 
Fleming, H. Kingston, designation in State Department, 

812. 
Fletcher, Henry P., designation in State Department, 149, 

SOS. 
Florence, Italy: 

Inquiries of whereabouts of U.S. citizens, .595. 
Opening of U.S. Consulate, 73G. 
Flournoy, Richard W., article on changes in laws govern- 
ing Chinese immigration and naturalization, 322. 
Fomcnto organizations, development in South American 

republics, 571. 
Food, international trade in, paper by Mr. Stinebower, 264. 
Food and Agriculture, United Nations lutei-im Commis- 
sion : 
Report on proposed constitution for permanent organ- 
ization, 207. 
U.S. representation, 761. 
Foodstuffs, production of : 

Peru, Inter-American Cooperative Food Production 

Service, agreement with U.S., 642. 
Venezuela, modus vivendi with U.S., 642. 
Foote, Wilder, designation in State Department, SOS. 
Forbes, John T., designation in State Department, 192, 

284, S09. 
Foreign Activity Correlation, Division of, 807, 813. 
Foreign Affairs, Ministers for, of the American republics, 

proposed meeting, 4C8, C30, 713. 
Foreign Buildings Operations. Division of, 798, 812. 
Foreign Credit Interchange Bureau of National Associa- 
tion of Credit Men, address by Mr. Wilson, 592. 
Foreign Economic Administration : 
Control over exports, 000. 

Department representation before (D.O. 1299), 645. 
Liberia, economic mission to, 536. 
Middle East Supply Center, relation to, 846. 
Post-war plans, letter of President Roosevelt to Mr. 

Crowley, 354. 
Relation to Special Economic Mission, 720. 
Foreign funds control, 123. 

Foreign interests, representation by U.S., 7, 115, 142. 
Foreign Policy Association, Atlanta, Georgia, address by 

Mr. Bunn, 95. 
Foreign Policy Association, New York: 
Address by Mr. Taussig, 377. 
Address by President Roosevelt, 447. 
Foreign Service, Board of Examiners for, 796. 
Foreign Service, Office of the : 
Functions and officers, 796, 812. 

Transportation Service Branch, creation (D.O. 1286) 
356. 



INDEX, JULY TO DECEMBER 1944 



863 



Foreign Service, U.S. : 

Activities in tropionl Africa, article by Mr. Jester, 279. 

Advisers for jMediterrunean Theatre of Operations, des- 
ignation, 8.")2. 

Ambassadors, appointment: Belgium (Sawyer), 332; 
Bolivia (Thnrston), 332; China (Hurley), C81 ; 
Colombia (Wiley), 332; Czechoslovakia (Stein- 
hardt), 840; El Salvador (Simmons), 332; French 
authority, dc facio (Caffery), (181 ; Italy (Kirk), 
736; Netherlands (Hnrnbwk). 332; Norway (Os- 
borne). 332; Poland (Lane), 332; Portugal (Nor- 
web), 32; Spain (Armour), 773; Yugoslavia (Pat- 
terson), 332. 

American seamen, relations with, 352, 483. 

Consular offices: Adana, Turkey, opening, 192, 262; 
Algiers, Algeria, reversion of Jlission to ranlj of 
Consulate Gpneral, 309 ; Antwerp, Belgium, opening, 
510, 643 ; Athens, Greece, opening as combined office, 
561 : Bahia Blanca, Argentina, closing, .51 ; Cayenne, 
French Guiana, closing, 51 ; Ceuta, Spanish North 
Africa, opening and closing, 246, .583 ; Cherbourg, 
France, opening, 643, 73(5; Coatzaooaloos, Mexico, 
Closing, 381 ; Curasao, Netherlands West Indies, 
elevation to rank of Consulate General, 246 ; Dakar, 
reversion from Mission to Consulate General, 32; 
Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, opening, 246, 262 ; Florence, 
Italy, opening, 730; Gibraltar, opening, 168, 561; 
Hull, England, opening, 103; Kweilin, China, clos- 
ing. 103, 309; Luxembourg, opening of Legation as 
combined office, 353; Marseille, France, opening, :381, 
736; Melilla, Spanish North Africa, closing, 736; 
Mendoza, Argentina, closing, 4S1 ; Naples, opening, 
32; Nice, France, opening, 643, 736; Nueva Gerona, 
Cuba, closing, 103; Rome, Italy, opening, 353, 381, 
481 ; Rosario, Argentina, closing, 309; San Sebastian, 
Spain, opening, 51. 

Consular services to ships and seamen (D.O. 1292), 483. 

Deaths: Fay Allen Des Portes, 332; Owen W. Gaines, 
245; John James Meily, 333. 

Economic Counselor of Embassy at London (Hawkins), 
assignment, 245. 

Embassies, opening: Athens, Greece, as combined office, 
561, 596, 643: Brussels, Belgium, 332, 510; Paris, 
France, 309, 736. 

Embassy rank for U.S. representation with — 
Iran, 208. 
Portugal, 32. 

Examination, announcement of, 680. 

Joint Survey Group, progress report (1st), 769. 

Legations: Helsinki, Finland, closing, 51; Luxembourg, 
opening, 353. 428. 

Ministers, appointment: Lebanon (Wadsworth), 313, 
332; Luxembourg (Sawyer), 332; Saudi Arabia 
(Eddy), 168; Syria and Lebanon (Wadsworth), 
statement by President Roosevelt, 313, 332. 

Regulations, orders, and instructions. Secretary of State 
to prescribe and issue (Ex, Or. 9452), 31. 

Report on case of Tyler Kent, 243. 

Reporting from the field, plans for reports, 382, 769. 

Representative to de facto French authority (Caffery), 
appointment, 332. 

Retirement of Homer M. Byington, Sr., 560. 

Special Assistant to U.S. Ambassador at London (Arm- 
strong), appointment, 332. 
Foreign Service Administration, Division of, 79T, 812. - 
Foreign Service Officers Training School Board, 796. 
Foreign Service Personnel, Board of, 796. 
Foreign Service Personjiel, Division of, 797, 812. 
Foreign Service Regulations: 

Amendment (Ex. Or. 9.507), pursuant to passage of 
legislation on Chinese exclusion act, 8.52. 

Secretary of State to prescribe and issue (Ex. Or. 9452), 
31. 
Foster, Andrew B., designation in State Department, 284, 
809. 



Four Freedrms award to President Roosevelt, 432. 

Fowler, William A. : 
Addresses on post-war trade policy, 317, 436. 
Designation in State Department, 810. 
Fox, Homer S., designation in State Department, 54. 
France: 
Administration of civil affairs, joint statement by War 

and State Departments, 204. 
Bastille Day, 59. 
Cartels, policy toward, 30. 
Cherbourg, liberation, message from Marshal Stalin to 

President Roosevelt, 5. 
European Advisory Commission, membership on, 583 
Inquiries concerning U.S. nationals in Marseille area 

service for, 676. 
Invitation to President Roosevelt and Secretary Hull to 

visit, 536. 
Opening of U.S. Consulates at Cherbourg, Marseille 

and Nice, 3S1, 643, 736. 
Openini of U.S. Mission (later Embassy) at Paris 

309, 736. «!. j-diib, 

Paris, liberation, statement by President Roosevelt 204 
Passports, U.S., regulations, 498. 

Recognition of de fncto French authority by U.S state- 
ment by Mr. Stettinius, 491. 
Shipping, 3.58. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Declaration by United Nations (1942), adherence 
(1945), 845. "uueience 

Double taxation and reciprocal assistance in tax 
matters, with U.S. (1939), ratification by U.S., 

U.S. Representative to de facto French authority 

(Caffery), later U.S. Ambassador, appointment 

332, 681. ' 

U.S. Secretary of State PIull, resignation, message 650 

Visas, issuance by U. S. officials, 7(,0 

Visit of Gen. de Gaulle to U.S., 47 

^''"'sor ^i"''*^"''^ ^'•' tlesignation in State Department, 

Freedom of the press, international, statement by Secre- 

French, Hope Sewell, article on Conference of Allied 

Ministers of Education, 602. 
French Committee of National Liberation, shipping to 

remain at dispo.saI of United Nations, 358. 
French Guiana, closing of U.S. Consulate at Cayenne 51 
French West Africa, Dakar, reversion of U.S. Mission to 

rank of Consulate General, 32. 
Friendship and peace, treaty between Costa Rica and 

China (1944), approval by Costa Rica, 229. 
Fuchs, John W., designation in State Department, 811 
Fueling stations in the Philippines, joint resolution of 

U.b. Congress concerning. 17. 
Fuller, Leon W., articles on education in Germany, under 

National Socialist regime, 46(i, 511, 551. 
Furniss, Edgar S., Jr., article on Inter-American Institute 

of Agricultural Sciences, 386. 

Gaines, Owen W., Foreign Service officer, death, 245. 
Game mammals and migratory birds, convention with 
Mexico (1936), amendment of regulations, 229, 246, 

Gange, John F., designation in State Department, 808 

Gardner, Frederick W., designation in State Department, 
486. 811. 

Gaulle, Gen. Charles de, visit to U.S., 47. 

Gay, Merrill C, designation in State Department, 810. 

Geist, Raymond H., designation in State Department, 813. 

Geography and Cartography, Division of, 793, .812. 

Geography and Cartography, Pan American Consultation 
on, 2d meeting, 159, 475. 

George VI, of Great Britain, message to President Roose- 
velt on liberation of Guam, 174. 

George, W. Perry, designation in State Department, 809. 



864 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Gerig, Benjamin : 
Address on Dumbarton Oaks proposals, 565. 
Designation in State Department, 586, 810. 
Germany (see also Prisoners of war) : 
Atrocities in Hungary and Greepe, 59. 
Atrocities in Poland, warnings by U.S. Government, 235, 

428. 
Attack on Poland, anniversary (5th), 263. 
Cartels, policy toward, 30. 

Detention of alleged U.S. citizens at Bergen Belsen, 595. 
Detention of "Gripsholm" at Norwegian port and re- 
moval of two seamen, U.S. protest, 356. 
Diplomatic and economic relations, severance by Turkey, 

133 
Diplomatic staff in U.S., treatment, 120. 
Education under the National Socialist regime, articles 

by Mr. Fuller, 466, 511, 551. 
Exchange of prisoners of war with U.S., 222, 278, 355. 
Influence in Argentina, 337. 
Influence in Brazil, 315. 
Massacre of U.S. soldiers, prisoners of war, protest by 

State Department. 848. 
Military alliance with Finland, 3. 
Nationals in U. S., repatriation, 143, 146, 222, 278. 
Opposition by Denmark to Nazi rule, 60. 
Recent developments in, statement by Secretary Hull, 83. 
Reprisals against Czechoslovak Army, U.S. declaration 

regarding. 263. 596. 
Reprisals against Polish Home Army, U.S. declaration 
regarding, 246. 
Gibraltar, opening of U. S. Consulate, 168, 561. 
Gilpatric, Donald S. : 
Article on progress of work of Special Economic Mission, 

720. 
Designation in State Department, 811. 
Glassford, Admiral William A., conclusion of mission in 
French West Africa as Personal Representative of 
the President, 32. 
Gran San Martin, RamOn, President-elect of Cuba, visit 

to Washington, 247. 
Gray, Cecil Wayne, designation in Foreign Service, 852. 
Great Britain. See United Kingdom. 
Greece : 

EAM resistance gnnips, statement by Secretary Hull, 

253. 
Insurgency in, statement of Secretary Stettinius re- 
garding statement of Prime Minister Churchill, 713. 
Liberation, action toward, statements by President 

Roosevelt and Secretary Hull, 379, 380. 
Nazi atrocities in, 59. 
Opening of U.S. Embassy at Athens as combined office, 

561, 506, 643. 
Relief program for, article by Mr. Kohler, 300. 
Shipping, continuance of control for United Nations 
purposes, multilateral agreement (1944), 358. 
Greek War Relief Association, activities, 300, 301, 304. 
Green, James Frederick, article on Dumbarton Oaks Con- 
versations, 459. 

Green. .loseph C, designation in State Department, 808, 

811. 
Grew, Joseph C. : 

Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Peace and security organization, proposals, 741. 
Pearl Harlior, report on trip to, 077. 
Resignation of Tojo cabinet in Japan, 83. 
Senate Foreign Relations Committee, appearance be- 
fore, 6S8, 762. 
U.S. Navy and Japan, 4a'i. 
Appointment and duties as Under Secretary of State, 

0S5, 687, 778, 810. 
Pearl Harbor, return from, 641. 
Grim, George H., radio specialist, return from China, 576. 
Gripsholm (.ship) : 

Detention by Germany at Norwegian port and removal 
of two seamen, U.S. protest, 356. 



Gripsholm (ship) — Continued. 

Exchange of U.S. and German prisoners of war and 
others (voyage of Aug. 23-Sept. 26, 1944), 222, 278, 
355. 
Grizzell, E. Duncan, educational mission to Bolivia, 138. 
Gromyko, Andrei A. (Soviet Ambassador), remarks at 
sessions of Washington conversations on international 
peace and security organization, 200, 341. 
Gualtieri, Umberto, letter to Secretary Hull concerning 

economic aid to Italy, 537. 
Guam, liberation by American forces, exchange of corre- 
spondence between George VI, of Great Britain, 
and President Roosevelt, 174. 
Guatemala (see also American republics) : 
Cultural leader, visit to U.S.. 53. 
Recognition of Government by U.S. Government, 568. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Agricultural experiment station in Guatemala, with 

U.S. (1944), 148. 
Agricultural Sciences, Inter-American Institute, con- 
vention (1944), ratification, 104. 
Automotive traffic, inter-American, regulation (1943), 

ratilication, 104, 141). 
UNRRA, agreement (1943), ratification, 129. 
Gufler, Bernard, designation in State Department. 813. 
Guthe, Otto E., designation in State Department, 812. 

Haakon VII, of Norway, message of President Roosevelt, 

141. 
Hackworth, Green H., designation in State Department, 54, 

225. 777, 809. 
Halle Selassie I, of Ethiopia, exchange of letters with 

President Roosevelt on gift of property to U.S. Gov- 
ernment, 654. 
Haiti (see also American republics) : 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Commercial, with Dominican Republic (1941), ex- 
piration, 394. 

Commercial modus Vivendi, with Venezuela (1943), re- 
newal (1944), 229. 

Customs duties, reduction, with U.S. (1942), termina- 
tion, 394. 
Haley, Bernard F. : 

Address on public and private foreign trade, 429. 
Designation in State Department. 245, 308, 810. 
Halifax, Earl of. remarks at Washington conversations on 

international peace and security organization. .S75. 
Halla, Blanche Rule, designation in State Department, 

80S, 813. 
Halsey, Admiral William F., message from President 

Roosevelt on landing of U.S. forces in Philippines, 

455. 
Hamilton, Maxwell M., designation in State Department, 

394. 
Hanson, Haldore, article on America's need for under- 
standing China, 624. 
Harris, David, designation in State Department, 810. 
Harris, William W., article on West Indian Radio News- 
pa jier, 210. 
Harrison, Randolph, designation in State Department, 

810. 
Havens, Harry A., designation in State Department, 812. 
Hawkins, Harry C. : 

Assignment as Economic Counselor at U.S. Embassy 

in London, 245. 
Designation in State Department, 54. 
Health and sanitation agreement, with Venezuela (1943), 

extension (1944), 643. 
Health program in Liberia, mission from U.S., 630. 
Heath, Donald R., designation in State Department, 149. 
Helmick, Judge Milton J., to make survey of Chinese 

laws and judicial administration, .576. 
Helsinki, Finland, closing of U.S. Legation, 51. 
Henry, R. Horton, designation in State Department, 54. 
Ilickerson. John D., designation in State Department 

777, 809. 
Hiss, Alger, designation in State Department, 586, 810. 



INDEX, JULY TO DECEMBER 1944 



865 



Hiss, Donald, designation in State Department, 810. 
Holmes, Brig. Gen. Julius C, appointment and duties as 

Assistant Secretary of State, 685, 688, 777, 840. 
Hopkins, Ernest M., national chairman of Americans 
United for World Organization, remarks on Dum- 
barton Oaks Proposals, 451. 
Hoppenot, Henri, invitation to President Roosevelt and 

Secretary Hull to visit France, 536. 
Hornbeck, Stanley K., appointment as U.S. Ambassador 

to the Netlieriands, 33:;. 
Hospital ships, protection, 122. 
House of Representatives. See Congress, U.S. 
Hovde, Bryn J., designation in State Department, 331, 

616, 812. 
Howard, Roliert D., designation in State Department, 486. 
Howell. Charles M., Jr., appointment as U.S. civil air 

attach^ at Rio de Janeiro, 458. 
Hughes, Morris N., designation in State Department, 808. 
Hull. Cordell : 

Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Anniversary of Japanese attack on China (7th) , 35. 

Boundary settlement by Costa Rica and Panama, 315. 

Brussels, liberation of, 203. 

Colombia, suppression of revolt in. 62. 

Deaths : Norman Davis, 5 ; Fay Allen Des Portes, 

332 ; John James Meily, 333. 
Denmark, opposition to Nazi rule, 60. 
Distinguislied Citizen Medal, receipt from Veterans 

of Foreign Wars, 04, 
Economic cooperation with Mexico, joint statement 

with Mexican Foreign Minister (Padilla), 61. 
Freedom of information, 316. 
Germany, recent developments in, 83. 
Greece: Liberation, action toward, 380; Nazi atroci- 
ties in, .^9 : EAM resistance groups, 253. 
Hung.iry, Nazi ati'ocities in, 59. 
International Labor Organization, anniversary (10th) 

of U.S. membership, 175. 
Jewish New Year, 293. 
Luxembourg, liberation c>f, 203. 
Military alliance of four major nations, denial of 

reported plan, 173. 
Need for alert public opinion, 60. 
Netherlands, entry of Allies into, 316. 
Opium, limitation of production, 47. 
Peace and security, Hull-Dulles joint statement, 206, 

234. 
Peace and security organization, international, 84, 198, 

342, 366. 
Philippine.s, landing of U.S. forces on Loyte Island, 

455. 
Poland, German atrocities in, 235. 
Political advisers (Murphy and Reber) to Gen. Eisen- 
hower, 2.54. 
Resignation of William Phillips as political adviser to 

Gen. Eisenhower. 181. 
Rumania, T^.S. particiiiation in armistice, 453. 
Syrian and Lebanese independence, recognition of, 313. 
United Nations, international collaboration, 173. 
United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference, 

13, 113. 
War criminals, denial of asylum by neutral govern- 
ments and proposed punishment by United Na- 
tions, 339, 340. 
Award conferred on, remarks by Mr. Stettinius, 621. 
Bust, presentation to State Department, 849. 
Correspondence : 
Cartels, international, exchange of letters with Presi- 
dent Roosevelt, 254, 292. 
Chinese Minister for Foreign Affairs, on national 

anniversary of China, 400. 
Deaths; George W. Norris, 247; Alfred E. Smith, 385; 

Wendell Willkie, 385. 
Dewey, Gov., common policy for peace and security, 
255. 
629749 — 45 3 



Hull, Cordell— Continued. 
Correspondence — Continued. 
Dulles, John Foster, representative of Gov. Dewey, 

174, 206, 234. 
Italy, economic aid, letters exchanged with secretary, 

Mazzini Society, 537. 
Mexico, independence, anniversary of, 306. 
Resignation ; 
Exchange of letters with President Roosevelt, 649. 
Exchange of messages with officials of foreign 
countries, 650. 
Resignation of Laurence Duggan, 103. 
Severance of diplomatic relations with Finland, 3. 
Stettinius, E. R., Jr., 652. 
France, invitation to visit, 536. 
Resignation as Secretary of State, 649, 697. 
Hull, England, opening of U.S. Consulate, 103. 
Hulse, Clifford C., designation in State Department, 54, 

812. 
Hungary ; 

Nazi atrocities in, .59. 
Offer to release Jews, 175. 
Hurley, Patrick J., appointment as U.S. Ambassador to 

China, 681. 
Hussey, Roland D., designation in State Department, 810. 
Huston, Cloyce K., designation in State Department, 809. 



Iceland : 
Establishment of Republic, concurrent resolution of U.S. 

Congress extending congratulations, 126. 
Visit of President Bjornsson to U.S., 175, 223. 
Ickes, Harold L., statement on petroleum agreement be- 
tween U.S. and U.K., 154. 
I.L.O. See International Labor Organization. 
Immigrant, definition of term as used in Immigration Act 

of 1924, 272. 
Immigration : 
Laws of U.S. with respect to entry of Chinese, article 

by Mr. Plournoy, 322. 
Travel regulations between U.S. and Canada, clianges, 

52. 
Visa-control procedure in wartime, 271. 
India; 
Civil aviation, post-war, exploratory talks with U.S., 209. 
Cultural-cooperation program, initiation, 772. 
Cultural leaders, visit to U.S. from, 772. 
Opium, plan suggested by U.S. for world-wide limitation 

of production, 723. 
Radiotelegraph circuit, inauguration with U. S., 180. 
UNRRA, agreement (1943), approval, 733. 
Industry, cooperation with government and labor, state- 
ment by Mr. Stettinius, 44. 
Information, freedom of, statement by Secretary Hull, 316. 
"Inter-Agency Econouiio Digest", periodical, establish- 
ment of board to compile (Gen. Adm. 7), 441. 
Inter-American automotive traffic, convention on regula- 
tion of (1943), 32, 104, 128, 149, 229, 284, 585. 
Inter-American Coffee Agreeilient (1940), continuation 

(1944), 307. 
Inter-American Coffee Board, 138, 772. 
Inter-American Commission of Tropical Agriculture, for- 
mation, 386. 
Inter-American Cooperation in Agricultural Education, 

President's Advisory Committee on, 386. 
Inter-American Cooperative Food Production Service in 
Peru, with U.S. (1943), extension of agreement (1944), 
642. 
Inter-American cultural relations, convention (1936), 148. 
Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences : 
Article by Mr. Furniss, 386. 

Convention on (1944), 32, 55, 104, 149, 22.9, 284, 387, 481. 
Inter-American relations. See American republics. 
Inter-Paith Conference, New York, address by Mr. Berle, 
250. 



;66 

[nterdepartmental Committee on Cooperation with the 
Otlier American Republics (see a;.so Interdepart- 
mental Committee on Cultural and Scientific Co- 
operation) : 
Article by Dr. Zwemer, 319. 

Sf^'to' m^^erican Institute of Agricultural 

Sciences, 386. , „ . ..„„ 

Interdepartmental Committee on Cultural and Scientific 

InteSnal BaJf fo'^Reconstruction and Development. 

International'' Conference on Civil Aviation. See Civil 

Aviation. „ 

International Conferences, Division of, 80t>, SliS. 
International Information Division: 
Change in name from Motion Picture and Radio Divi- 
sion (D.O. 1285), 283. 
Functions and officers, 283, 792, 812^ 
International Labor, Social, and Health Affairs, Divi- 

Change" in name from Division of Labor Relations 

(D.O. 1298), 617. 
Functions and olllcers. 017, 787, 811. 
International Labor Organization : 
Conference (26th) : 
Article by Mr. MuUiken, 236. 
Report by chairman of U. S. Delegation (Madam 

Perkins), 258. 
Statement bv President Nash, 238. 
U. S. membership, statement by Secretary Hull on au- 
niver.sary (10th), 175. 
Internationa! Monetary Fund: 
Description of, 15, 114, 541. 

Statement by Mr. Morgenthau, 112. _ ^ ^o^ cin 
International Organization Affaire, Division of, (84, blU. 
International peace and security organization. See Peace 

and security. 
International Reconstruction and Development, Bank for, 

16, 112, 114, 546. 
International Security Affairs, Division of, 784, Sm 
International Stabilization Fund, proposal at Brettou 
Woods Conference. See International Monetary 
Fund. , , 

Internees. See Enemy aliens; Prisoners of war and 
civilian internees. 

American advi-sorv program in, article by Mr. Allen, 88. 
Elevation of U.S. Legation at Tehran to rank of em- 
bassy, 208. 
Opium, plan suggested by U.S. for world-wide limitation 

of production, 723. 
Military mission, with U.S. (1943), agreement for 

extension (1944), 334. 
U.S. technical expert on irrigation, 92. 
Ireland, asylum for Axis war criminals, attitude, 591. 
Ireland, Philip VV., designation in State Department, 810. 
Irving, Wilbur C, designation in State Department, 812. 
Italian American Labor Council, New York, presentation 
of award to President Roosevelt, 432. 

Italy : 

Administration of, joint statement by President Roose- 
velt and Prime Minister Churchill, 338. 

Allied Commission, appointment of officials, 583. 

Allied Control Commission for Italy, 137. 

Cabinet crisis, U.S. attitude toward, 722, 700. 

Columbus Day, statement by President Roosevelt, 397. 

Diplomatic relations, renewal by U.S., statement by 
Mr. Stettinius. 491. 

Economic aid to, 401, 537. 

Financial arrangements for, statement by President 
Roosevelt, 403. 

Government, evolution of local, article by Mr. Smyth, 
404. 

Inquiries of whereabouts of U.S. citizens in area of 
Rome or Florence, 595. 

Map and chart, 416, 424. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

Italy— Continued. 

Opening of U.S. consular offices at Florence, Naples, 

and Rome, 32, 353, 381, 481, 736. 
Prime Minister Bonomi, message to President Roose- 
velt, 398. 
Relief in foodstuffs and essential supplies: 
Article by Mr. Dort, 401. 
Statements by President Roosevelt, 382, 432. 
Representatives, to Washington and London, to be ap- 
pointed, 338. 
U.S. Ambassador (Kirk), appointment, 736. 
Visas, issuance by U.S. ofticials, 760. 

Jackson, Wayne G., designation in State Department, 

130, 486, 811. 
Japan (see also Prisoners of war) : 
Administration and structure of government, article by 

Mr. Borton, 817. 
Attack on China, anniversary (7th), 35. 
Attack on Pearl Harbor, anniversary (3d), address by 

Mr. Dickover, 728. 
Colonial administration in Korea, 578. 
Conditions in, addresses by Mr. Grew, 495, 677. 
Diplomatic staff in U.S., treatment, 120. 
Invasion of Netherlands Indies, 609. 
Mandated islands, article by Mr. Blakeslee, 764. 
Map and chart showing administration, 828, 832. 
Prisoners of war and civilian internees, American, in 
Japanese custody, summary of steps taken by State 
Department in lichalf of, 439. 
Relations with Tliailand, 640. 
Relief supplies for Allied prisoners of war and civilian 

internees, attitude, 494. 
Repatriation of nationals in U.S., 143, 145. 
Tojo cabinet, resignation, statement by Mr. Grew, 83. 
Japanese Affairs. Division of, 782^809. 
Japanese relocation centers in U.S., 72. „ . . 

Jester, Perry N., article on the U.S. Foreign Service in 
tropical Africa, 279. „ ^ 

Jewish New Year, statements of President Roosevelt and 

Secretary Hull, 293. 
3ev/s : ^ .„ 

Mass killings by Nazis in Hungary, 59. 
Offer by Hungary to permit emigration, 175. 
Johnson, "Hallett: , , „. -„„ 

Appointment as U.S. Ambassador to Costa Rica, i li. 
Designation in State Department, 130, 486. 
Johnson, Joseph E., designation in State Department, 810. 
Johnston, Marlon A., designation in State Department, 

ROS 
Joint Survey Group, progress report (1st) , 769. 
Jones J Wesley, designation in State Department, 8(.)9. 
Jones', S. Shepa'rd, designation in State Department, 812. 
Jordana y Sousa, Count Francisco Gomez, Minister of 

Foreign Affairs of Spain, death, 134. 
Journalists and Government officials, exchange of views 
on peace and security organization, 713. 

Kahn Walter B., designation in State Department, 811. 
Kalinin, Mikhail I., message to President Roosevelt on 

anniversary of Soviet Union, 635. 
Keatley G Harold, designation in State Department, 816. 
Keeler, Erwin P., designation in State Department, 54, 

810. 
Kef auver, Grayson N. : 

Designation in State Department, SL!. 
Report of work of U.S. Delegation to Conference of 
Allied Ministers of Education, 46.5. 
Kelchner Warren, designation in State Department, 813. 
Kenestrick, Millard L., designation in State Department, 

394, 813. ^ . „ ._ 

Kent Tyler, State Department report on case ot, Zi6. 
King! Leland W., Jr., designation in State Department, 

812. 
King, W. L. Mackenzie, 139. 
Kintner. W. W.. return from China, 234. 
Kirk Alexander C, appointment as U.S. Ambassador to 
italy, 736. 



INDEX, JULY TO DECEMBER 1944 



867 



Kirkpatrick, Forrest H., designation in State Department, 

284. 
Kiwanis Club, Salisbury, Md., address by Mr. Dickover, 

7i;8. 
Knapp, J. Burke, desisuation in State Department, 811. 
Knox, Cliarles F., Jr., designation in State Department, 

486, 811. 
Kohler, Foy D. : 
Article on relief of occupied Greece, 300. 
Designation in State Department, 809. 
Koo, V. K. Wellington, remarks as chairman of Chinese 

Delegation to Washington conversations on peace and 

security organization, 344, 375. 
Korea, internal political structure, article by Mr. Bortou, 

578. 
Krentz, Kenneth C, designation in State Department, 812. 
Kuppinger, Eldred D., designation in State Department, 

813. 
Kurth, Harry M., designation in State Department, 54, 812. 
Kweilin, China, closing of U.S. Consulate, 103, 309. 

Labor (see also International labor) : 
Barbadian, memorandum of understanding for recruit- 
ment for work in U.S. (1944), amendment, 585. 
Cooperation with government and industry, statement 

by Mr. Stettinius, 44. 
Mexican wca-kers, wartime employment in U.S. for 
harvesting and railway maintenance, article by 
Miss Parks, 160. 
Labor Organization, International, 175, 236, 238, 258. 
Labor Relations, Division of {see also International Labor, 
Social, and Health Affairs, Division of), article by 
Mr. Mulliken, 166. 
Land tenure in the Caribbean area, symposium on, 181, 

221. 
Landon, Kenneth P. : 
Article on Thailand, 636. 
Designation in State Department, 809. 
Lane, Arthur Bliss, appointment as U.S. Ambassador to 

Government of Poland in London, 332. 
Larkin, Frederick, designation in State Department, 812. 
Latchford, Stephen : 
ArtiiCle on the right of innocent passage in international 

civil air-navigation agreements, 19. 
Designation in State Department, 811. 
Latin America. See American republics and the indimdiial 

conn tries. 
League of Nations Association, address by Mr. Gerig, 565. 
Lebanon : 
Appointment of U.S. Minister (Wadsworth), 332. 
Recognition by U.S., statements by President Roosevelt 

and Secretary Hull, 313. 
U.S. nationals, rights of, exchange of notes between U.S. 
anil Lebanese representatives, 314. 
Legislation. See under Congress, U.S. 
Lend-lease : 
Aid to Canada, reference to, 80. 
FEA, policy in administering supplies, 354. 
Future plans with U.K., statement by Acting Secretary 

Stettinius, 158. 
Reports of operations (16th and 17th), letters of trans- 
mittal from President Roosevelt to Congress, 205, 
622. 
Letters of credence. See Diplomatic representatives in 

U.S. 
Leverifh, Henry P., designation in State Department, 54, 

809. 
Lewis, Samuel, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Panama, 

visit to U.S., 712, 771. 
Leyte Island (Philippines), landing of U.S. forces, state- 
ments of President Roosevelt and Secretary Hull, 454, 
455. 
Liaison and informational activities, State Department 
(see also Foreign Activity Correlation), regulations, 
780. 



Liberated areas : 
Foreign Service officers' reports on conditions, instruc- 
tions for, 382. 
France, civil administration, joint statement by State 

and War Departments, 204. 
Luxembourg, civil administration, agreement between 

Luxembourg, U.K.. and U.S., 125. 
Trade in, study by Special Economic Mission, 720. 
Liberated Areas Division. See War Areas Economic 

Division. 
Liberia : 

Economic mission to, from FEA, 536. 
Health program in, mission from U.S., 630. 
Relations with U.S., address by Mr. Villard, 102. 
Seaport, construction by U.S. Navy Department, 536. 
Treaty of amity, with China (1937), 104. 
Lira, Turkish, exchange rate, (535. 

Livesey, Frederick, designation in State Department, 810. 
Lockhart, Frank P., designation in State Department, 809. 
Lockhart, Oliver C., designation in State Department, 810. 
Lockwood, John B., designation in State Department, 852. 
Logsdon, Ella A., designation in State Department, 54. 
Long, Breckinridge, resignation as Assistant Secretary of 
State, correspondence with President Roosevelt and 
Secretary Stettinius, 695. 
Longyear, Robert D., designation in State Department, 813. 
Loot, siozed by the enemy and concealed by transfer 
through neutral countries: 
United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference, 

resolution, text, 384. 
U.S. request to neutral governments concerning, 383. 
Lovitt, John V. : 

Article on the Allied blockade, 597. 
Designation in State Department, 811. 
Luthringer, George F., designation in State Department, 

810. 
Luxembourg : 

Liberation, statements by President Roosevelt and Sec- 
retary Hull, 293. 
Opening of U.S. Legation as combined office, 353, 428. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Civil-affairs agreement, with U.S. and U.K. (1944), 

125. 
Customs union with Belgium and Netherlands 
(1944), 562. 
U.S. Minister (Sawyer), appointment, 332. 
Lynch, Robert J., designation in State Department, 808. 
Lyon, Cecil B., designation in State Department, 149, 192. 
Lyon, Frederick B., designation in State Department, 813. 

MacArthur, Gen. Douglas, message from President Roose- 
velt on landing of U.S. forces in Philippines, 455. 
Macatee, Robert B., designation in State Department, 812. 
MacCoy, W. Pierce, designation in .State Department, 812. 
Mackenzie King, W. L. (Prime Minister of Canada), 
statement on agreement with U.S. regarding defense 
Installations, 139. 
MacLeish, Archibald : 

Appointment as Assistant Secretary of State, 685, 688, 

812, 840. 
Duties, 777. 

Statement before Senate Foreign Relations Committee, 
691. 
Macmahon, Arthur W., designation in State Department, 

812. 
Macy, Col. .T. Noel, designation in State Department, 643, 

812. 
Management Planning, Division of, establishment of 

(D.O. 1290-A), 734. 
Mann, Tliomas C, designation in State Department, 811. 
Maps and charts: 

Dumbarton Oaics proposals, chart of organization, 632. 
Italy : 

Local government, chart showing organization, 416. 
Regions and provinces, 424. 



868 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Maps and charts — Contimied. 
Japan : 
Administrative chart. S32. 
Nine administrative districts, 828. 
Prisoner-of-war and civilian-luternee camps : 
Europe, 08. 
Far East, 64. 
State Department organization (Dec. 20, 1044), 794. 
West Indian Radio Newspaper, map sliowing area 
coverage, 213. 
Marseille, France: 

Inquiries concerning U.S. nationals, service for, 676. 
Opening of U.S. Consulate, 381, 7.36. 
Martiu.s, Carlos, acting chairman of Governing Board, 
Pan American Union, remarks in tribute to CordeU 
Hull, 698. 
Matthews, H. Freeman, designation in State Department, 

777, 809. 
Mazzini Society, exchange of letters with State Depart- 
ment on economic situation in Italy, 537. 
McCamy, .Tames L., of PEA, designation in the Foreign 

Service, 852. 
McDermott, Michael J., designation in State Department, 

808. 
McGurk, Joseph F., designation in State Department, 149. 
Mclvor, Carlisle C, designation in State Department, 

149, 811. 
McKenna, James E., designation in State Department, 

812. 
McMillan, Fred O., return from China, 191. 
McMillan. Hugh C, designation in State Department, 812. 
Meily, John James, U.S. Consul General at Recife, Brazil, 

death, 333. 
Melilla, Spanish North Africa, closing of U.S. Consulate, 

736. 
Mellen, Sydney L. W., designation in State Department, 

486, 811. 
Mendoza, Argentina, closing of U.S. Consulate, 481. 
Merchant, Livingston T., designation in State Depart- 
ment, 486. 811. 
Merchant marine, U.S., passport regulations for, 74. 
Merchant shippins. See Shipping. 

Merkling, Frank J., designation in State Department, 808. 
Merriam, Gordon P., designation in State Department, 

809. 
Mexican Affairs, Division of, 783, 810. 
Mexico (see also American republics) : 

Agricultural Commission with U.S., establishment, 53. 
Closing of U.S. Consulate at Coatzacoalcos, 381. 
Cultural loaders, visit to U.S., 53, 129, 141, 282. 
Economic cooperation with U.S., joint statement by 

Foreign Minister Padilla and Secretary Hull, 61. 
Independence, anniversary of, letters from President 
Roosevelt to President Camacho and from Secretary 
Hull to Foreign Minister Padilla, 306. 
Laborers in U.S. for wartime harvesting and railway 

maintenance, article by Miss Parks, 160. 
Opiura, plan suggested by U.S. for world-wide limitation 

of production. 728. 
Petroleum properties, expropriation, payment of instal- 
ment due in compensation, 385. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Amity, with China (1944), 229. 

Claims convention, with U.S. (1941), payment to U.S. 

under, 635. 
Migratory birds and game mammals, with U.S. 
(1936), amendment of regiilatious, 229, 246, 362. 
Military service, reciprocal agreement with U.K. 

(1942), 361. 
Nature protection and wildlife pre.servation in the 
Western Hemisphere (1940), addition of species, 
301. 
Water utilization, relating to Colorado and Tijuana 
Rivers and Rio Grande, with U.S. (1944), sup- 
plementary protocol, 616. 
Whaling, regulation of, protocol (1944), accession, 129, 
U.S. Secretary of State Hull, resignation, message 
from Foreign Minister Padilla, 697. 



Meyer, Paul T., designation in State Department, 813. 
Meyer, Paul W., de.signation in State Department, 809. 
Middle East Supply Center (.see also Special Economic 

Mission), relaxation of import controls, 125, 846. 
Middle Eastern Affairs, Division of, 782, 809. 
Migratory birds, convention with Great Britain (Canada) 
for protection of (1916), amendments to regulations, 
229, 246, 362. 
Migratory birds and game mammals, convention with 
Mexico for protection of (1936), amendments to regu- 
lations, 229, 246, 362. 
Mikolajczyk, Stanislaw, Prime Minister of Poland, mes- 
sage to President Roosevelt in tribute to American 
aid in defense of Warsaw, 350. 
Military alliance of four major nations, denial by Secre- 
tary Hull of reported plan, 173. 
Military and military-aviation missions. See Missions, 

U.S. 
Military-service agreements, reciprocal, U.K. and — 
Brazil (1944), 55. 
Mexico (1944), 361. 
Miller, Edward G., Jr. : 

Article on second session of UNRRA Council, 501. 
Designation in State Department, 486, 808. 
Ministers for Foreign Affairs of the American Republics, 
proposal by Argentina for meeting: 
Statements by State Department, 498, 630, 713. 
Ministry of War Transport, British, charter of merchant 

shipping, 357. 
Minor, Harold B., designation in State Department, 809. 
Missions, U. S. : 

Economic : Liberia, 536 ; Mediterranean area, 125, 720, 

846. 
Educational : Bolivia, 138 ; Iran, 92. 
Health : Liberia, 630. 

Military: Ecuador, ,S2; Iran, 91, 334; Peru, 80. 
Military aviation : Ecuador, 159. 

Naval: Brazil. 361; Colombia, 159; Ecuador, 246; Vene- 
zuela, 772. 
Mitchell, Sidney A., designation in State Department, 811. 
Mitchell, Stephen A., designation in State Department, 

486. 
Moak, Maj. James G., U.S.A., designation in State De- 
partment, 813. 
Modi Vivendi. See Commercial modi vivendi. 
Moffat. Abbot Low, designation in State Department, 130, 

486, 809. 
Molotov, Vyacheslav M.. correspondence with Mr. Stettin- 

ius on anniversary of Soviet Union, 569, 595. 
Monetary agreement, U.K. and Belgium (1944), 526. 
Monetary Conference. See United Nations Monetary and 

Financial Conference. 
Monuments in War Areas. American Commission for Pro- 
tection and Salvage of Artistic and Historic, 577. 
Moore, Sarah D., designation in State Department, 813. 
Mora Miranda, Marcial, credentials as Chilean Ambas- 
sador to U. S., 380. 
Morgan, John H., designation in State Department, 809. 
Morgan, Stokelev W., designation in State Department, 

811. 
Morgenthau, Henry, Jr. : 

Addresses as president of United Nations Monetary and 

Financial Conference, 14, 111. 
Chairman of U.S. Delegation and president of United 
Nations Monetary and Financial Conference, 13, 
14, 16. 
Morin, Richard W., designation in State Department, 

130, 812. 
Morlock, George A., articles on limitation of production 

of opium, 48, 723. 
Moss, Marjorie, designation in State Department, 813. 
Motion Picture and Radio Division, change of name to 
International Information Division (D.O. 1285), 283. 
Moyne, Lord, British Minister Resident in the Middle East, 

a.s.sassination of, 585. 
Muir, Raymond D., designation in State Department, 813. 



INDEX, JULY TO DECEMBER 1944 



B69 



MuIIiken, Otis E. : 
Articles : 

International Labor Conference (26th), 236. 

State Department's Division of Labor Relations, 166. 
Designation in State Department, 811. 
Munitions Control Section, War Supply and Resources 

Division, functions of (D.O. 1293), 4S4. 
Mui-pliy, Raymoua E., designation in State Department, 

809. 
Murphy. Robert D.. political adviser to Gen. Eisenhower, 

statement bv Secretary Hull, 254. 
Murray, Wallace, designation in State Department, 777, 

sob. 

Mutual-aid agreement, Canada aud New Zealand (1944), 
443. 

Naples, Italy, opening of U.S. Consulate General, 32. 
Narcotic drugs. See Opium. 

Nash, Walter, president of 26th International Labor Con- 
ference, statement, 238. 
National Association of Credit Men, Address by Mr. Wil- 
son, 592. 
National Association of Manufacturers, New York, address 

by Mr. Acheson, 714. 
National Foreign Trade Convention (31st), New York, 

addresses by Mr. Fowler and Mr. Haley, 429, 436. 
National Peace Conference, address by Mr. Gerig, 565. 
National War Fund, creation of, 348. 
Nationality, U.S., renunciation of, act providing for, 576. 
Naturalization, laws of U.S. with respect to Chinese, 322. 
Nature protection and wildlife preservation in the West- 
ern Hemisphere, convention on (1940) : 
Ecuador, nitilication, 585. 
Mexico, addition of species, 381. 
Naval missions. See Mi.sslons, U.S. 
Navicert, permit for passage of neutral goods : 
Development of, 598, 601. 
Policy, instrument of, 615. 
Navy League of the United States, address by Mr. Grew, 

495. 
Neal, .lack D., designation in State Department, 813. 
Near Eastern Al'fairs, Division of, 782, 809. 
Near Eastern and African Affairs, Office of, 782. 809. 
Netherlands : 

Constitutional reconstruction, propo.sals, 377. 
Customs union, convention with Belgium and Luxem- 
bourg (1944), .562. 
Destruction in, by Nazis, correspondence of President 

Roosevelt and Queen Wilhelmina, .570, 6f 9. 
Entry of Allies into, statements by President Roose- 
velt and Secretary Hull, 316. 
Rubber prolilenis, post-war, exploratory talks with U.S. 

and U.K., 84, 93, 156, 328. 
Shipping, continuance of control for United Nations 

purposes, multilateral agreement (1944), 358. 
U.S. Ambassador (Hornbeck), appointment, 332. 
Netherlands Indies, internal political structure, article by 

Mr. Vanrienbosch, 005. 
Netherlands West Indies, elevation of U.S. Consulate at 

Curagao to rank of Consulate General, 246. 
Neutral countries : 

Loot retained by enemy governments, U.S. representa- 
tions to prevent, 383, 
Trade, control of by Allied blockade, 597, 599. 
New York University, remarks of Mr. Stettinius on ac- 
ceptance of degree, 509. 
New Zealand : 

Minister to U.S. (Berendsen), credentials. 76. 
Mutual-aid agreement with Canada (1944), 443. 
U.S. Secretary of State Hull, resignation, message from 
Prime Minister Eraser, 651. 
Nicaragua (see also American republics) : 
Cultural leader, vLsit to U.S., 16. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Agricultural Sciences, Inter-American Institute 
(1944), ratification, 149. 



Nicaragua — Continued. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued. 

Automotive traffic, inter-American, regulation (1943), 
ratification, 284. 
Nice, France, opening of U.S. Consulate, 643, 736. 
Nielsen, Orsen N., designation In State Department, 130, 

486. 

Nimitz, Admiral Chester W., message from President 

Roosevelt on landing of U.S. forces in Philippines, 455. 

Non-recognition of Farrell regime in Argentina, 107, 158. 

Norman Wait Harris Foundation, Univ. of Chicago, paper 

presented by Mr. Stinebower, 264. 
Norris, George W., death, telegram of Secretary Hull, 247, 
North Africa, trade, .survey by U.S. on possibilities for 

restoration to normal channels, 125, 720, 846. 
North and West Coast Affairs. Division of, 169, 783, 810. 
Northern European Affairs, Division of, 782, 809. 
Norway : 

Birthday of Haakon VII, 141. 

Government in London, appointment of U.S. Ambas- 
sador (Osborne), 332. 
Shipping, continuance of control for United Nations 
purposes, multilateral agreement (1944), 358. 
Norweb, R. Henry, presentation of credentials as Ambas- 
sador to Portugal, 32. 
Notter, Harley A., designation in State Department, 586, 

810. 
Nueva (Jerona, Cuba, closing of U.S. Vice Consulate, 103. 

Occupational Deferments under Selective Service, State 

Department Committee on, 224. 
Office of War Information, peace and security organizii- 

tion, exchange of views of journalists and Govern- 
ment officials, 713. 
Oil. See Petroleum. 

Oliver, Covey T., designation in State Department, 811. 
Opium : 

Afghanistan, prohibition of cultivation, 629, 725. 
Limitation of production: 

Articles by Mr. Morlock, 48, 723. 

Exchange of notes between U.S. and Afghanistan, 
text, 725. 

Statement by Secretary Hull, 47. 

U.S. plan for world-wide limitation ( Judd resolution), 
723. 
Orchard, John E., designation in State Department, 777, 

808. 
Osborne, Lithgow, appointment as U.S. Ambassador to 

Government of Norway in London, 332. 
Osmeiia, Sergio, President of the Philippines, message 

from President Roosevelt on landing of U.S. forces 

in Philippines, 455. 
Otterman, Harvey B., designation in State Department, 

811. 
Owens, Louis G., designation in State Department, 525. 

Padilla, Ezequiel (Mexico), joint statement with Secre- 
tary Hull regarding U.S.-Mexican economic cooper- 
ation, 61. 
Palestine : 
Parcel-post agreement with U.S. (1943, 1944), ratifica- 
tion, 361. 
Resolutions of U.S. Congress pertaining to, 771. 
Pan American Consultation on Geography and Cartog- 
raphy (2d meeting), 1.59,473. 
Pan American Highway convention (1930), 148. 
Pan American Union : 

Chairmanship of Governing Board conferred vipon Sec- 
retary Stettinius, 699. 
Governing Board, meetings of: 
Romarks by Mr. Stettinius, 550, 699, 771. 
Tribute to Cordell Hull, 698. 
Tribute to Samuel Lewis of Panama, 771. 
Pan American Union convention (1928), 148. 



870 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Panama (see also American republics) : 

Automotive traffic, inter-Araerioan convention on regu- 
lation (1943), signature, 128. 
Boundary settlement witli Costa Rica: 
Article by Mrs, Saucerman, 300. 
Statement by Secretary Hull, 315. 
Cultural leaders, visit to U.S., 222, 712, 771. 
Independence, anniversary, telegram from President 
Roosevelt to President de la Guardia, 561. 
Paraguay (see also American republics) : 
Cultural leader, visit to U.S., 391. 
Railway convention with Brazil (1944). 307. 
Parcel-post agreement with Palestine (1943, 1944). 361. 
Paris : 

Inquiries on wliereabouts of U.S. citizens, 391. 
Liberation, statement by President Roosevelt, 204. 
US Mission (later Embassy), opening, 309, 730. 
Pari;e, Comdr. I.ee W., U.S.N., designation in State De- 
partment, 813. 
Parks, Marion, article on wartime collaboration between 

Mexico and U.S., 160. 
Passport Division, 8C6, 813. 
Passports, regulations: 

Areas of military operations, travel in, 584. 
France, travel to, 498. 

Requirements prior to and after first World War, 275. 
U.S. merchant marine, 74. 

Virgin Islands and points named, travel between, 722. 
Pasvolsky, Leo : 

Addresses on peace and security organization, 702, 748. 
Designation in State Department, 808. 
Patterson, Richard C., Jr.. appointment as U.S. Ambassa- 
dor to Government of Yugoslavia in London, 332. 
Peace problems of attainment, .ioint statement of Secre- 
tary Hull and .Tobn Poster Dulles, 174, 206, 234. 
Peace and friendship treaty between Costa Rica and 

China (1944), approval by Costa Rica, 229. 
Peace and security, common policy for, correspondence 

between Secretary Hull and Governor Dewey, 255. 
Peace and security organization, international, conver- 
sations at Washington : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Sir Alexander Cadogan, 201, 341, 343. 
Mr. Gromyko, 2C0, 341. 
Earl of Halifax, 375. 
Mr. Hull, 19S, 342, 366. 
Mr. Koo, 344. 375. 
President Roosevelt, 197, 365. 
Mr. Stettinius, 233. 292, 341, 367, 374. 
Announcements, 84, 133, 157, 202, 204, 234, 263. 
Article by Mr. Green, 450. 
Delegations, lists of members, 133, 157, 174. 
.Toint statements, 233, 342, 367, 376. 
News policy, .inint statement, 203. 
Report bv Chairman of U.S. Delegation to Secretary 

Hull, 367. 
Sessions, first phase, 200, 341. 
Sessions, second phase, 342, 374. 
U.S. Delegation, 133, 376. 
Peace and security organization, international, proposals: 
Addre.ssses: 
Mr. Gerig, 565. 
Mr. Grew, 741. 
Mr. Pasvolsky, 702, 748. 
Mr. Sandifer, 710, 751. 
Mr. Stettinius, 741. 
Mr. Tatt, 707. 
Mr. Wilson, .592. 
American repuljiics, informal discussions of heads of 
missions in Washington with State Department 
officials, 525, 565, 849. 
Chart of proposed organization, 632. 
Informal discussions between representatives of various 
organizations and State Department officials, 450, 
565, 713, 756, 848. 
Questions and answers, 631. 
Text of proposals, 368. 



Pearl Harbor: 
Anniversary (3d) of Japanese attack on, address by 

Mr. Dickover, 728. 
Denial by Australian Minister of alleged statement of 

previous information regarding attack on, 316. 
Report by Mr. Grew on trip to, 677. 
Peck, Willys R. : 
Article on State Department aid to cultural exchange 

with China, 36. 
Designation in State Department, 812. 
Perkins, Madam Finances, report as chairman of U.S. 
Delegation to 26th International Labor Conference, 
258. 
Persia. See Iran. 
Peru (see also American republics) : 
Ambassador to U.S. (Beltri'in), credentials, 77. 
Cultural leaders, visit to U.S., 205, 441. 
Death of Foreign Minister (Concha), 835. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Automotive traffic, inter-American, regulation (1943), 

ratification, 149. 
Inter-Anieric.'iM Cooperative Food Production Service, 

with U.S. (1943), extension (1944), 642. 
Military mission, with US. (1944), 80. 
U.S. Secretary of State Hull, resignation, messages 
from President Prado and Foreign Minister Solf 
y Muro, 698. 
Petroleum : 

Agreement with U.K. (1944), preliminary conversa- 
tions and text. 62, 03, 153. 
Canol pro.iect, agreement with Canada (1944), 225. 
Mexico, payment of instalment due in compensation 

for expropriation of properties, 385. 
U.S. technical experts to Iran, 02. 
Petroleum Division, 787, 811. 

Petroleum-industry representatives, meeting with State 
Department officials in connection with exploratory 
talks on rubber among U.K., U.S., and Netherlands, 

rs. 

Peurifoy, John E., designation in State Department, 812. 
Phelps, Dudley M., designation in State Department, 810. 
Phelps, Vernon L., designation in State Department, 54, 

810. 
Philippine Affairs, Division of, 782, 809. 
Philippines (see also Far East) ; 
Death of President Quezon, 134. 

Leyte Island, landing of U.S. forces, statements of 

President Roosevelt and Secretary Hull, 454, 455. 

Relations with U.S. since 1939, article by Mr. Dougall, 

182. 
U.S. Congress, joint resolutions: 

Independence and acquisition of U.S. bases in, 17. 
Rehabilitation Commission, creation of, 17. 
U.S. prisoners of war in, transfer of funds for relief, 
206. 
Phillips, William, resignation as political adviser to Gen- 
eral Elsenhower, statement by Secretary Hull, 181. 
Pierrot, A. Ogden, appointment as U.S. civil air attach^ 

at Li.sbon and Madrid, 458. 
Planning Staff, Office of the Foreign Service, 796. 
Plaza, Galo, credentials as Ecuadoran Ambassador to 

U.S., 7.5. 
Plitt, Edwin A., designation in State Department, 308, 

Sl.S. 
Plunder. See Loot. 
Poland : 

Anniversary (5th) of German attack, correspondence 
between President Roosevelt and President of 
Poland, 203. 
Army, Home, U.S. declaration regarding German treat- 
ment nf, 240. 
Atrocities in, warning to Germany by U.S. Government, 

235, 428. 
Message from Prime Minister to President Roosevelt 
in tribute to American aid In defense of Warsaw, 
350. 
Shipping, continuance of control for United Nations 
purposes, multilateral agreement (1944), 858. 



INDEX, JULY TO DECEMBER 194i 



871 



Poland — Continued. 
U.S. Ambassador (Lane), appointment, 332. 
U.S. polic.v to^vard : 

Statement liy President Roosevelt, 428. 
Statement by Secretary Stettinius, 836. 
Police. Sec Federal Bureau of Investigation. 
Policy Committee, reorganization, 779. 
Political advisers to Gen. Eiseniiower (Murphy and 

Reber) , statement Ijy Secretary Hull, 254. 
Portugal : 

Ambassador to U.S. (Bianchi), credentials, 79. 
Embassy rank for U. S. Legation at Lisbon, 32. 
U.S. Ambassador (Norweb), presentation of creden- 
tials, 32. 
Post-war plans (see also Civil Aviation; Peace; avd Rub- 
ber) : 
Cartels, international, exchange of letters between Pres- 
ident Roosevelt and Secretary Hull, 254. 292. 
Economic problems, statement by Mr. Acheson before 

congressional committee, 656. 
Economic program, addresses by Mr. Taft, 294, 610. 
FEA, responsibilities after defeat of Germany, letter 

of President Roosevelt to Mr. Crowley, 354. 
International Banli and International Stabilization 

Fund, 15, 16, 112, 114, 541, 546. 
Telecommunications problems, meetings between U.S. 

Government and industry to consider, 134. 
Trade, address by Mr. Aclieson, 714. 
Trade agreements, application of principles, 437. 
Trade barriers, address l)y Mr. Bunn, 95. 
Trade poHcy, aCdresses by Mr. Fowler, 317, 436. 
United Nations Interim Commission on Food and Agri- 
culture, 207, 761. 
United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference, 13, 
111, 384, 539. 
Post-war Programs, Committee on, reorganization, 779. 
President, U. S. See Roosevelt, Franklin D. 
President's War Relief Control Board, 307, 346, 348, 481, 

641. 
Press, freedom of, statement by Secretary Hull, 316. 
Prisoners of war and civilian internees (see also Enemy 
aliens) : 
Detention of U.S. civilians by Germany at Bergen Bel- 
sen, 595. 
Exchange, U.S. and Germany, via "Gripsholm," 222, 

278, 355. 
Internment camps, maps showing location in Europe 

and Far East, 64, 68. 
Massacre of, protest to Germany by State Department, 

848. 
Relief for Americans and other Allied nationals in 
enemy territory, S, 10, 11, 66, 120, 176, 208, 235, 
404. 
Special War Problems Division, activities in behalf of, 

6, 63, 115, 142, 176. 
Steps taken by State Department in behalf of, summary, 
439. 
Prizes, capture of, reciprocal privileges in territorial wa- 
ters, agreement with Australia (1942, 1944), 192. 
Proclaimed List of Certain Blocked Nationals. See 

Blocked Nationals. 
Protocol, Division of. 805, 813. 
Provisional French Government, gee France. 
Public Affairs, Office of, 790, 811. 
Public Liaison, Division of, 791, 812. 
Public opinion, alert, need for, remarks by Secretary Hull, 

60. 
Publications : 
Aerial navigation, international convention relating to 

regulation of (1919), reprint, 193. 
Gifts of U.S. books to Chinese institutions, 306. 
Lists : 

Department of State, 55, 104, 130, 165, 193, 230, 249, 

309, 333, 353, 389, 443, 486, 525, 561, 586, 618, 643, 

681, 737, 773, 840, 850. 

Other agencies, 55, 104, 130, 149, 193, 230, 249, 282, 309, 

334, 353, 487, 561, 586, 618, 643, 681, 737, 773, 840. 



Publications — Continued. 
Proclaimed List of Certain Blocked Nationals. See 
Blocked Nationals. 
Puerto Kico, proposed changes in suffrage, 377. 

Questions and Answers on Dumbarton Oaks Proposals, 

631. 
Quezon, Manuel Luis, death, 134. 

Radio. See Telecommunications. 

Railey, Howard B., appointment as U.S. civil air attach^ at 

Paris, 458. 
Railway convention, Brazil and Paraguay (1944), 307. 
Railway maintenance in U.S., wartime employment of 

Mexican labor for, 160. 
Ramsey, Katherine H., designation in State Department, 

225. 
Rayner, Charles B., designation in State Department, 808. 
Raynor, G. Hayden, designation in State Department, 808. 
Reams, R. Bordon, designation in State Department, 809. 
Reber, Samuel, political adviser to Gen. Eisenhower, 

statement by Secretary Hull, 254. 
Red Cross : 

Death of Norman Davis, 5. 
Greece (occupied), relief activities, 301. 
Special War Problems Division, State Department, 
liaison, 307. 
Refugees (see also War Relief Control Board) : 
Adviser on Refugees and Displaced Persons, Office of 
Wartime Economic Affairs, functions (D.O. 1294), 
48.5. 
Jews, offer by Hungary to release, 175. 
Rehabilitation Commission, Philippine, joint resolution of 

U.S. Congress creating, 17. 
Reinstein, Jacques J., designation in State Department, 

810. 
Relief (see also Prisoners of war; U.S. citizens) : 
Far East, Allied nationals interned in, supplies for, 235, 

494. 
Greece (occupied), supplies for, 300. 
Italy : 

Economic aid to, exchange of letters between Mazzini 

Society and Department of State, 537. 
Foodstuffs and essential supplies, 338, 382, 401, 403 
432. 

U.S. and other Allied nationals in enemy territory, 8 10, 

11, 60, 120, 176, 206. 
War Relief Control Board, accomplishments, 346. 
Relief and Rehabilitation Administration, United Nations 

(1943). See UNRRA. 
Remer, Charles F., designation in State Department, 811. 
Reorganization of State Department: 

Departmental Order 1301 (Dec. 20, 1944), 778. 
Statement by Secretary Stettinius, 834. 
Repatriation, U.S. citizens, 8, 72, 121, 142, 222, 278, 355. 
Representation by U.S. of foreign interests,' 7, 115, 116, 
119. 

Research and Publication, Division of. 249, 793, 812. 
Resignation of Cordell Hull as Secretary of State, 649. 
Riddleberger, James W., designation in State Department, 

809. 
Rio de La Plata (ship), burning, 191. 
River Plate Affairs, Division of, 783, 810. 
Roach, Charles Preston, Jr., death, 223. 
Rockefeller, Nelson A. : 

Appointment as Assistant Secretary of State, 685, 687, 
840. 

Duties, 777. 

Statement before Senate Foreign Relations Committee, 
693. 
Rome: 

Inquiries of whereabouts of U.S. citizens, 595. 

Opening of U.S. Consulate, 353, 381, 481. 
Rommel, Rowena, designation in State Department, 812. 



872 

Roosevelt, Franklin D. : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 
Anniversaries : 

Bastille Day, 59. 

China, national anniversary, 400. 

Columbus Day, 397. 

Czechoslovakia, 497. ^, . , ^ =„ qqt 

Argentina, U.S. policy toward Nazi influence in, .337. 
Brussels, liberation of, 253. 
Civil Aviation Conference, International, message to 

delegates, 529. 
Deaths ; 

Norman Davis. 5. ^ ,, > „,, 

Dominican Ambassador (Copello), 717. 
Diplomatic representatives, P'-fentatimi of creden- 
tials, 76, T7, 78, 80, 380, 614, 837, 838. 
Entry of Allies into Netherlands, 316. 
Foreign policy, 447. 

Four Freedoms award, acceptance, 4.3-. 
Greece, action toward liberation of, 3(9. 

^'Administration of. joint statement with Prime 
Minister Churchill. 338. 
Financial arrangements, foodstuffs, and supplies 
for, 382, 403. 
Jewish New Year, 293. 
Luxemliourg, liberation of, 293. 

Nominations for Under Secretary and Assistant Sec- 
retaries of State, 685. 
Paris, liberation of, 204. ^, „, „„„ 

Peace and security organization, international, pro- 
posals submitted by, 197, 365. 

Philippines : -r ^ r i ^ aka 

Landing of U.S. forces on Leyte Island, 454. 
Signing of S.J. Res. 93 and 94 concerning, 17. 

Polish situation, 428. . 

Recognition of Syrian and Lebanese independence, 

United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference, 

13 

War criminals, denial of asylum by neutral countries, 

339. 
Chungking, presentation of scroll to the city, 4. 
Correspondence : 
Anniversaries: 

Brazil, independence, 278. 
Chiang Kai-shek, 400, 561, 761. 
Haakon VII, of Norway, 141. 
Japanese attack on China (7th), 35. 
Mexico, independence, 308. 
Panama, independence, 561. 
Poland, German attack on, 263. 
Soviet Union, founding, 569, 635. 
U.S.-Soviet diplomatic relations, 589. 
UNRRA, 569. 
War in the Pacific. 761. 
Bene, Adolf A., Jr., 718. 
Cartels, exchange of letters with Secretary Hull, 254, 

292 
Death of Ambassador Ertegiin of Turkey, 570. 
Ethiopia, Emperor of, gift of property to U.S. Gov- 
ernment, 655. 
FEA, post-war plans, letter to Mr. Crowley, 3o4. 
George VI, of Great Britain, on liberation of Guam, 

174. 
Hull Cordell, resignation as Secretary of State, 649. 
Netherlands, Queen Wilhelmina, condolence on Nazi 

destruction, 570, 609. 
Philippines, landing of U.S. forces, messages to Gen- 
eral MacArthur, Admirals Nimitz and Halsey, 
and President Osmeiia, 455. 
Resignations o( Assistant Secretaries of State (Berle, 
" Long, Shaw), 694,693, 696. 
Executive orders. Sec Executive orders. 
Four Freedoms award to, 432. 
France, invitation to visit. .530. 
GauUe, Gen. Charles de, conferences with. 47. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

Roosevelt, Franklin D.— Continued. 

Leningrad, presentation of scroll to city, 4. 
Messages to Congress: 

Lend lease reports, letters of transmittal, 205, WiJ. 
UNRRA, 1st quarterly report, 717. 
Stalingrad, presentation of scroll to city, 4. 
Rosario, Argentina, closing of U.S. Consulate, 309. 
Ross, James A., Jr., designation in State Department, 54, 

810 
Ross, John, designation in State Department, 812. 
Rostow, Eugene V., designation in State Department, 130. 
Rotary Club and Chamber of Commerce, Akron, Ohio, ad- 
dress by Mr. Taft, 294, 
Rothwell, C. Easton, designation in State Department, 8U». 

Agreement with Venezuela (1942), amendment (1944), 

ExiJloratory talks on post-war rubber problems, between 

U S , U.K., and Netherlands, 84, 156. 
Meeting of petroleum-industry representatives with State 

Department officials regarding, 93. 
Study Group, formation, 328. „ ^ .^ , ^ am 
Rubin, Seymour J., designation in State Department, 810. 

™n"is'tice agreement with U.S., U.K., and Soviet Union: 
Te^t ''89 

U S p.articipation. Secretary Hull's explanation of, 453. 
Surrender, terms presented by Marshal Malinovski, 453. 
Welfare of U.S. citizens in, 596. 
Russell, Fraacis H., designation in State Department, 7d4, 

811 
Rutgers University, address by Mr. Stettinius before grad- 
uating class, 44. 

Safe-conduct: „ om 

German violation of in case of "Gnpsholm , 350. 
Special War Problems Division, initiative respecting, 121. 
St Fran,cis, Lake, temporary raising of level, agreement 

with Canada (1941), continuance (1944), 733. 
Salmon, David A., designation in State Department, 58b, 

813 
San Sebastiiln, Spain, opening of U.S. Consulate, 51. 
Sandifer, Durward V. : . ~n ^ki 

Addresses on peace and security organization, <10, 7D1. 
Designation in State Department, 586, 810. 
Sappington, James C, 3d, designation in State Department, 

811 
Sattertliwaite, Livingston, appointment as U.S. civil air 

attache at London, 4.58. 
Saucerman, Sophia A. : . „ v, a ^ 

Article on demarcation of Costa Rica-Panama boundarj. 

390. 
Designation in State Department, 812. 

Saudi Arabia : . 

U.S. Consulate at Dhahran, opening, 246, 262. 
U.S. Minister (Eddy), appointment, 168. 
Saugstad, Jesse B. : 
Address on American seamen, 351. 
Designation in State Department, 486, 811. 
Savage Carlton, designation in State Department, 808. 
Saw.ver, Charles, appointment as U.S. Ambassador to Bel- 
gium and U.S. Minister to Luxembourg. 332. 
Scanlan John J., designation in State Department, 813. 
Schell, Eilwin H., designation in State Department, 169. 
Scherer, George F., designation in State Department, 810. 
Schoenf'eld, H. F. Arthur, designation in State Depart- 
ment, 811. 
Schoenfelder, Otto W., designation in State Department, 

811. 
Schurz, William L., designation in State Department, 812. 
Science, Education and Art Division, change in name to 

Division of Cultural Cooperation, 223. 
Science, modern developments in, effect on world affairs, 

address by Mr. Berle. 135. 
Scrolls, presentation by U.S. to the cities of Leningrad, 
Stalingrad, and Chungking, 4. 



INDEX, JULY TO DECEMBER I9U 



873 



Seamen, American : 
Address by Mr. Saugstad at dedication of United Sea- 
men's Service Rest Home, 351. 
Consular services to ships and (D.O. 1292), 483. 
Relations with American consuls, 352. 
Secretary, Office of the, designations in, 808. 
Secretary of State (see also Hull, Cordell ; Stettinius, Ed- 
ward R., Jr.), authorization to issue regulations and 
orders for the Foreign Service (Ex. Or. 94.52), 31. 
Secretary's Staff Committee, 777, 779. 
Seidel, John Jacob, educational mission to Bolivia, 138. 
Senate. .See Congress, U.S. 
Shaw, G. Howland : 
Address on the Individual and international affairs, 456. 
Designation in State Department, 225. 
Resignation as Assistant Secretary of State, corre- 
spondence with President Roosevelt and Secretary 
Stettinius, 69(5. 
Sherman Anti-trust Act, illegality of cartels, decisions 

respecting, 433, 434. 
Shipley, Rulh B., designation in State Department, 813. 
Shipping: 
Agreement, multilateral (1944), for continuance of 

control for United Nations purposes, 357. 
British Ministry of War Transport, charter by, 357. 
Consular services to ships and seamen (D.O. 1292), 483. 
Needs of the United Nations, meeting of representa- 
tives to discuss continued provisions for, 157. 
Transportation of relief supplies to Greece, 301, 302, 

303. 
United Maritime Council, establishment of, 359. 
United Maritime Executive Board, 359, 360, 655. 
War Shipping Administration, 357, 655. 
Shipping Division : 
Departmental Order 1291 clarifying functions, 482. 
Duties and officers, 790, 811. 
Ships: 
Gripsholm. See "Grlpshohn". 
Hospital ships, protection, 122. 
Rio de La Plata, burning, 191. 
Silvertield, Louis, designation in State Department, 525. 
Simmons, John F., appointment as U.S. Ambassador to El 

Salvador, 332. 
Smith, Alfred E., death, 385. 
Smith, H. Gerald, designation in State Department, 54, 

810. 
Smyth, Howard McGaw, article on evolution of local gov- 
ernment in Italy, 404. 
South America. See American republics and the individ- 
ual countries. 
Southern European Affairs, Division of, 782, 809. 
Southwest Pacitlc Affairs, Division of, 782. 809. 
Soviet Union. See Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. 
Spaeth, Carl B., designation in State Department, 810. 
Spain : 
Jordana y Sousa, Count Francisco Gomez, Minister of 

Foreign Affairs, death, 134. 
Opening of U.S. Consulate at San Sebastian, 51. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Air-transport service, agreement with U.S. (1944), 

text, 674. 
Commercial modus Vivendi with Venezuela (1&42), 
renewal (1944), 526. 
U.S. Ambassador (Armour), appointment, 773. 
Spanish North Africa : 
Closing of U.S. Consulate at Melilla, 736. 
Opening and closing of U.S. Consulate at Ceuta, 246, 
583. 
Spaulding, E. Wilder, designation in State Department, 

812. 
Special Division. See Sijecial War Problems Division. 
Special Economic Mission (see also Middle East Supply 

Center), report on work of, 720. 
Special Political Affairs, Oflice of, 784, 810. 
Special War Problems Division : 
Articles by Dr. Stuart on : 

Historical background and Welfare Section, 6, 



Special War Problems Division — Continued. 
Articles by Dr. Stuart on — Continued. 
Internees Section, 63. 
Relief for Americans and other Allied nationals in 

enemy territory, 176. 
Repatriation, 142. 

Representation by U.S. of foreign interests, 115. 
Duties and officers, 307, 644, 807, 813. 
War Relief Control Board, relation to, 348. 
Stabilization Fund. See International Monetary Fund. 
Stalin, Joseph V. : 

Liberation of Cherbourg, message to President Roose- 
velt, 5. 
Scrolls to the cities of Leningrad and Stalingrad, ac- 
ceptance, 4. 
Stanton, Edwin F., designation in State Department, 809. 
State Department : 

Administrative instructions, systematization (amend- 
ment of D.O. 1269 by D.O. 1290), 393. See also 
under Administrative instructions. 
Administrative Services, Division of, 392, 803. 
American Republics, Requirements Division, transfer of 

functions, 485. 
Assistant Secretaries of State : 
Creation by law of two additional posts, 773, 777. 
Jurisdiction, 778. 

Nomination by President Roosevelt, 685. 
Central Services, Division of, creation, 803. 
Chart of organization (Dec. 20, 1944), 794. 
Cr.vptography, Division of, establishment, 330. 
Cultural Cooperation, Division of, change in name from 
Division of Science, Education and Art (D.O. 1281), 
223. 
Death of Charles Preston Roach, Jr., 223. 
Eastern Hemisphere Division, transfer of functions, 

484. 
Executive Committee on Commercial Policy, abolish- 
ment, 192. 
Executive Committee on Economic Foreign Policy, 

scope and functions of secretariat, 247. 
France, administration of civil affairs in, joint state- 
ment with War Department, 204. 
Furnishing information to Congress and Bureau of the 

Budget (Adm. Instr., Gen. Adm. 12), 678. 
Hull, Cordell, resignation as Secretary of State, 649. 
International Information Division, change in name 
from Motion Picture and Radio Division (D.O. 
1285), 283. 
International Labor, Social, and Health Affairs, Di- 
vision of, change in name from Division of Labor 
Relations (D.O. 1298), 017. 
Labor Relations, Division of, article by Mr. Mulliken, 

166. 
Liaison, 780. 
Management Planning, Division of, creation (D.O. 1290- 

A),734. 
North and West Coast Division, creation, 169. 
Occupational Deferments Committee, membership, 224. 
Offices set up under reorganization of Dec. 20, 1944 
(D.O. 1301) : American Republic Affairs, 783, 809; 
Controls, 806, 813; Departmental Administration, 
800, 812; Economic Affairs, 785, 810; European 
Affairs, 781, 809; Far Eastern Affairs, 782, 809; 
Foreign Service, 796, 812 ; Near Eastern and African 
Affairs, 782, 809;Public Affairs, 790, 811; Special 
Political Affairs, 784, 810; Transportation and 
Communications, 789, 811; Wartime Economic Af- 
fairs, 788, 811. 
Publications. See under Publications. 
Reorganization : 

Departmental Order 1301 (Dec. 20, 1944), 777. 
Statement by Secretary Stettinius, 834. 
Research and Publicatioti Division, assignment of func- 
tions (D.O. 1284), 249. 
Resignation of — ■ 

Duggan, Laurence, 103. 
Hull, Cordell, 649. 



874 

State Derartment — Continued. _ 

Special Assistant to the Secretary for International Or- 
ganization and Security Affairs, duties, (7J. 
Special Assistants, duties, 779. 

Snecial War Problems Division : 

Departmental Order 1296 defining additional respon- 
sibilities, 644. ,, T-v- at„ar-t R 

Organization aud^ duties, articles by Dr. Stuart, b, 

War AveL "Econom'ic Division, change in name from 

Liberated Areas Division, 484. 
War Supply and Resources Division, chanse in name 
from Supply and Resources Division, 48d. 
SteinharZ ^"u^ence A., appointment as U^S. Ambassador 

to Government of Czechoslovakia in London, 840 
Steintorf, Paul P., designation in State Department, 800. 
Stettinius, Edward R., Jr. : 
Addresses, statements, etc.: 

Albania, political conditions, 591. 
Anniversaries : 

Albania, independence, 67b. 
Columbus Day, 399. 
Czechoslovakia, 497. 
U.S.-Soviet diplomatic relations, 589. 
Argentine regime: 

Non-recognition by American republics, 158. 
Position of British Government on, 133 
Award conferred upon Secretary Hull. 61.1. 
Bloom Hon. Sol. testimonial dinner, IS. 
Bust of Cordell Hull, acceptance for State Depart- 
ment, 849. 
Bvington, Homer M., Sr., retirement, 560. 
Deaths: Herbert Delafield, 772; Dominican Ambassa- 
dor (Copello), 717; Philippine President (Que- 
zon), 134; Turkish Ambassador (Ertegun), 5iO. 
Degrees conferred, 509. 
Foreign policy, objectives, 686, 834. 
Greece, civil strife in, 71.3. v - en 

Grew, Joseph C, return from Pearl Harbor, 641. 
Hull, Cordell, tribute to, 6.^.3. 
Italy, renewal of diplomatic relations, 491. 
Lend-lease to U.K., future, 158. _ 

Ministers for Foreign Affairs of American Republics, 

proposed meeting, 630, 713. 
Oath of oflBce, 653. 
Pan American Union, 550, 699, 771. 
Panama, visit of Minister of Foreign Affairs of, 7(1. 
Peace and sofuritv organization, international, con- 
versations at Washington, 133, 157, 233, 292, 341, 
367, 374, 452, 453, 741. 
Petroleum asreement with U.K., 153. 
Poland, U.S." policy toward, 836. ^ ^^ „ ,„, 

Recognition of de facio French authority by U.S., 491. 
Reorganization of State Department, 834. 
Rutgers University, 44. . 

Senate Foreign Relations Committee, nominations 
for Under Secretary and Assistant Secretaries of 
State, 686. . c.. . 

Appointment and confirmation as Secretary of State, 

652, 6.53. 
Biography, 652 n. 
Correspondence : 
Anniversary of founding of Soviet Union, 569. 
Deaths: Lord Moyne, .585; Peruvian Foreign Minis- 
ter (Concha). 835; Spanish Foreign Minister 
(Count Jordana), 134; Turkish Ambassador (Er- 
tegUn ) , 570. 
Hull, Cordell, 652. 

Resignations of Assistant Secretaries of State (Eerie, 
Long, Shaw), 694, 095, 697. 
Oath of office as Secretary of State, 653, 654. 
Pan American Union, acceptance of chairmanship of 

Governing Board, 699. 
Peace and security organization, international, conver- 
sations at Washington : 
Addresses, statements, etc., 133, 157, 233, 292, 341, 
307, 374, 452, 453, 741. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

Stettinius, Edward R., Jr.— Continued. 

Peace and security organization — Continued. 
Chairman, 202. 

Informal discussions, 450, 452, 453, 525, 848. 
Informal discussions with heads of missions of Amer- 
ican republics, 565, 849. 
Report to Secretary Hull, 367. 
Stevens Institute of Tecbnolog5% remarks by Mr. btet- 
tinius on acceptance of degree. 509. ^.^^. ^^ 
Stewart, Robert B., designation in State Department, SU9. 
Steyne, Alan N. : 
Article on Joint Survey Group, 709. 
Designation in State Department, 812. 
Stillwell, James A., designation in State Department, 486, 

811. 
Stinebower, Leroy D. : , „.„ 

Designation in State Department, 810. 
Paper on international trade in food, 264. 
Stuart, Graham H. : 
Article on wartime visa-control procedure, 271 
Articles on organization and duties of the Special War 

Problems Division, 6, 63, 115, 142, 176. 
Designation in State Department, 812. 
Sturgeon, Leo D., designation in State Department, 810. 
Sugar, international agreement (1937), protocol extend- 

Suga?"purchlses. Cuha"n-U.S. commissions to negotiate, 

Summerlln!' cloiSf T'^'designation in State Department. 

Supply^and Resources Division. See War Supply and Ee- 

SuroXl.™ A!"designation in State Department, 812- 

^Ti'lTransport services, agreement with U.S. (1944), tezt, 
757. 
Relief for Greece, 305. r^ a ^n 

Representation of Finnish 'ite^e^'s m qa^' 
Shipping for relief for Greece, 301, 302, 303. 
Switzerland : 
Transfer' to U^S^^Embassy of representation in Greece, 
596. 

^■^Appointment of U.S. Minister (Wadsworth) 332. 
Recognition by U.S., statements by President Roosevelt 

and Secretary Hull, 313. v.o(.„„on tt «! 

U.S. nationals, rights of, exchange of notes between U.b. 

and Syrian representatives, 314. 

Taf t, Charles P. : 

Economic controls in post-war world, 85, 294, 610. 
Peace and security organization, 707. 
Designation In State Department, 811. 

Address on Anglo-American Caribbean Commission, 377. 

Designation in State Department, 808. 
Taxation. See Double taxation. 
Telecommunications: /ioqqi 

International convention (1932) and regulations (1938), 
consideration of revisions, 134, 1.58. 

Radio broadcasts to Caribbean area by Anglo-Amertfan 
Caribbean Commission, 210, 213. 

Radiotelegraph circuit between U.S. and India, 180. 
Telecommunications Division. 790, SIL 
Tennev, E. Paul, designation in State Department, 812. 
Terrili, Robert P., designation in State Department, 130, 

811. 
Territorial Studies, Division of, 785, 810. 
Thailand, social and political structure, article by Mr. 

' Vandenbosch and Mr. Landon, 636. 
Thompson, Louis F., designation in State Department. 616. 
Thomson. Charles A., designation in State Department, 

Thurston, Walter, appointment as U.S. Ambassador to 
Bolivia, 332. 



INDEX, JULY TO DECEMBER 1944 



87S 



Tirana, Rifat, designation in State Department, 811. 
Tonnage duties, reciprocal suspension with Ecuador, 

proclamation, 761. 
Trade, international {see also Blocked Nationals; Lend- 
lease; Treaties) : 
Businessmen, U.S., interest in, address by Mr. Acheson, 

714. 
Cartels, (Correspondence of President Roosevelt with 

Secretary Hull, 254, 292. 
Cartels, relation to, address by Mr. Edwards, 25, 29. 
Food as an aspect of, 264. 
Government control of, 429. 
Liberated areas, report on Special Economic Mission, 

720. 
Middle East Supply Center, regulations, 846. 
Neutral, with enemy, methods of control, 597. 
North Africa, U.S. mission to survey possibilities for 

restoration to normal channels, 125, 720, 846. 
Petroleum, 153. 
Post-war, discussed by Jlr. Morgenthau at Bretton 

Woods Conference, 14, 15. 
Post-war economic controls, addresses by Mr. Taft, 85, 

294, 610. 
Post-war planning by PEA, 334, 355. 
Post-war plans, addresses by Mr. Fowler, 317, 436. 
Public and private foreign trade, address by Mr. Haley, 
429. 
Trade agreements, reciprocal : 
Post-war plans, 437. 
Results from, 432, 436. 
Trade marks, protocol on inter-American registration 

(1929), denunciation by U.S., 442. 
Transportation {see also War Shipping Administration; 
War Transport) : 
Automotive tratBc. See xmder Treaties. 
European inland transport, meeting of conference in 

London, 480. 
Mexico, post-war plans for, with U.S. cooperation, 61. 
Transportation and Communications, Office of, 789, 811. 
Tran.sportation Sen'iee Branch in OtBce of the Foreign 

Service, creation (D.O. 1286), 356. 
Travel : 

Civilian, in foreign areas, regulations for, 584. 
Official, establishment of Transportation Service Branch 
in Office of the Foreign Service (D.O. 1286) to 
facilitate, 356. 
Priority travel of American private citizens (D.O. 1297), 

regulations, 644. 
Regulations between U.S. and Canada, changes, 52. 
Travers, Howard K., designation in State Department, 813. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. (see also under Conferences) : 
Aerial navigation. International convention relating to 

(1919), 19, 193. 
Agricultural experiment station in Guatemala, agree- 
ment with Guatemala (1944), 148. 
Agricultural Scieuces, Inter-American Institute, con- 
vention establishing (1944) : 
Ratification: Costa Rica, 104, 229: Guatemala, 104; 

Nicaragua, 149; U.S., 32, 55, 284, 387. 
Signature: Bolivia, 1-19; Venezuela, with text of 
reservations. 481. 
Air-transport services, U.S. and — 
Denmark (1944), text, 759. 
Spain (1944), text, 674. 
Sweden (1944), text, 757. 
Amity, China and — 
Liberia (1937), 104. 
Mexico (1944), signature, 229. 
Armistice, U.S., U.K., and Soviet Union with — 
Bulgaria, text, 492, 616. 
Rumania, text, 289. 
Automotive traffic, inter-American, regulation (1943) : 
Ratification : Dominican Republic, 149, 229 ; El Sal- 
vador, 32; Guatemala, 104, 149; Nicaragua, 284; 
Peru, 149. 



Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued. 

Automotive traffic — Continued. 

Signature: Chile, with text of reseiwations, 585; 
Panama, 128. 

Barbadian laborers in U.S. (1944), amendment, 585. 

Canol project, with Canada (1944), text, 225. 

Civil-affairs agreement, U.S. and U.K. with Luxem- 
bourg (19-14), 125. 

Claims convention, with Mexico (1941), payment to 
U.S. under, 635. 

Coffee Agreement, Inter- American (1940), continuance 
(1944), 307, 442. 

Commercial, Haiti and Dominican Republic (1941), 
and tariff preferences with Haiti obtained by U.S. 
thereunder, termination, 394. 

Commercial modi Vivendi, Venezuela and : Brazil (1940), 
renewal (1944), .562; Chile (1941), renewal (1944), 
642; Haiti (1943), renewal (1944), 229; Spain 
(1942), renewal (1944), 526. 

Criminal offenses committed by armed forces, Issuance 
of proclamation implementing the Jurisdiction of 
service courts of friendly foreign forces within 
U.S., 481. 

Cultural relations, inter- American, promotion (1936), 
ratification by Bolivia, 148. 

Customs duties, reductions, with Haiti (1942), ter- 
mination, 394. 

Customs union between Belgium, Luxembourg, and 
Netherlands (1944), 562. 

Declaration by United Nations (1942), adherence by 
France (1945), 845. 

Defense installations, U.S. and Canada (1944), text, 127, 
139. 

Double taxation, U.S. with^ 

Canada (1944), ratification, 246, 732, 840. 
France (19.39), ratification, 732, 836. 

Economic settlements, post-war, U.S. and Canada (1942), 
provisions relating to mutual aid, SO. 

Films, educational and publicity, facilities for (1936), 
ratification by Ecuador, 585. 

Food Production Service in Peru, Inter-American Co- 
operative, with U.S. (1943), extension (1944), 642. 

Foodstuffs production, with Venezuela (1943), exten- 
sion (1944), 642. 

Game mammals and migratory birds, with Mexico 
(1936), amendment of regulations, 229. 246, 382. 

Health and sanitation, agreement with Venezuela 
(1943), extension (1944), 643. 

Migratory birds, protection of, with Great Britain 
(1916), amendment of regulations (1944), 229, 246, 
362. 

Migratory birds and game mammals, protection of, with 
Mexico (1936), amendment of regulations (1944), 
229, 246, 362. 

Military-aviation mission, U.S. and Ecuador (1940), re- 
newal (1944), 159. 

Military mission, U.S. and — 
Ecuador (1944), signature, 32. 
Iran (1943), extension (1944), 334. 
Peru (1944), signature, 80. 

Military service, reciprocal, U.K. and — 
Brazil (1944), signature, 55. 
Mexico (1942), 361. 

Monetary agreement, U.K. and Belgium (1944), sig- 
nature, 526. 

Mutnal-aid agreement, Canada and New Zealand (1944), 
443. 

Nature protection and wildlife preservation in Western 
Hemisphere (1940) : 
Ecuador, ratification, .58.5. 
Mexico, addition of species, 361. 

Naval mission, U.S. and: Brazil (1944). signature, 361; 
Colombia (1938), extension (1944), 159; Ecuador 
(1940), renewal (1944), 246; Venezuela (1941), ex- 
tension (1944), 772. 



876 

'''^!::!^^m^'^^^^^ on (19B6,, ratmca. 
Pan AmerYcan Unfon'foavention on (192S), ratification 

Parcel-p^os't'lgl-'eement, with Palestine (1943, 1944), rati- 

fication, 3G1. ,10,11^ or. 

Peace and friendship, Costa Rica and China (1944), ap- 
proval by Costa Rica, 229. 

Petroleum, with U.K. (1944), text, 154. 

Petroleum properties, compensation for expropriation 
?n Mexico, agreement with Mexico (1943), payment 
of instalment, 385. 

Prizes, reciprocal privileges with Australia with respect 
to territorial waters (1942. 1944), 192. 

Radio regulations, general (193S), consideration of pos- 
sible revision, 134. 158. ,,f,.^V 1„ 

Railway convention, Brazil and Paraguay (1944), sig- 

Rednc'tions in customs duties, with Haiti (1942), termi- 

Relief* and' rehabilitation, United Nations (1943). See 

Rights of U.S. and U.S. nationals in Syria and Lebanon, 

(1944), texts, 314. 
Rubber agreement, with Venezuela (1942), amendment 

( 1944 ) 526 
Shipping, continuance of control for United Nations 

purposes (1944), 358. 
Sugar, international agreement regarding production 
and marlieting (1937), protocol extending (1944), 
526, 732. 
Taxation, double, U.S. with — 

Canada (1944), ratification, 246, 732, 840. 
France (1939), ratitication, 732, 836 
Telecommunications, international (1932. lUdS), con- 
sideration of possible revisions, 134, 158. 
Trade marlss, protocol on inter-American registration 

(1929), denunciation, 442. 
UNRRA (1943) : 

Guatemala, ratification, 129. 
India, approval, 733. 
Venezuela, ratification, 733. 
War trade agreements, negotiation with European neu- 
trals 597. 
Water power, regarding temporary raising of level of 
Lake St. Francis, with Canada (1941), continuance 
(1944), 733. ^ „. 

Water utilization, relating to Colorado and Tijuana 
Rivers and Rio Grande, with Mexico (1944), sup- 
plementary protocol, 616. 
Whaling regulation of, protocol (1944), amending 
agreement (1937) aud protocol (1938) : 
Ratification: Canada, 307; Mexico, 129; U. K., 104, 
129; U.S., 129. 
Wildlife preservation and nature protection in Western 
Hemisphere (1940) : 
Ecuador, r;ititication, ,58.5. 
Mexico, addition of species, 361. 
Wounded and sick of armies in the field, amelioration 
of condition of (1929), ratification by Venezuela, 
361. 
Trimble, William C, designation in State Department, 

809. 
Tropical agriculture, agreement with Guatemala for de- 
velopment, 148. 
Turkey : 

Death of Ambassador Ertegun, 570. 

Lira, exchange rate, 635. 

Opium, plan suggested by U.S. for world-wide limitation 

of prcduclion, 723. 
Relief supplies for Greece. 301. 

Severance of diplomatic and economic relations with 
Germany, 133. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

Turkey — Continued. 

U.S. Vice Consulate at Adana : 

Elevation to rank of Consulate, 262. 
Opening, 192. 

Turner, Ralph E., article on Conference of Allied Min- 
isters of Education, 602. 

Under Secretary of State (see also Stettinius, Edward R., 
Jr • Grew, Joseph C), designation of assistants, SOS. 
Union of South Africa, double taxation, exploratory con- 
versations with U.S., 208. 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics: 

Anniversary of founding, correspondence of President 
Roosevelt, Mr. Stettinius, Prei5ident Kalinin, and 
Commissar Molotov, 569, 595, 035. 
Armistice of United Nations with — 
Bulgaria, text, 492, 616. 

Rumania, text, 289. . 

Civil aviation, post-war, exploratory talks with U.b., 

191 

Establishment of U.S.-Soviet diplomatic relations, 11th 

anniversary, 589. . , -r. „ !„ 

Malinovski, R. Y., negotiates armistice with Rumania 
for United Nations, 289. 453. ■t„.,^,. 

Opium, plan suggested by U.S. for world-wide limitation 
of production, 723. . , „„_ 

Peace and security organization, international, conver- 
sations at Washington : ^„ o>-i 
Ambassador Gromyko, statements, 200. 341. 
Joint statement with U.S. and U.K. Delegations, 342. 

Participation, 84, 133. 174. . 

Relief, for Allied prisoners of war and civilian internees 

in Far East, cooperation, 494. 
Scrolls to the cities of Leningrad and Stalingrad, gift 

bv U.S., 4. 
Trade, method of control of, 431. 

U.S. Secretary of State Hull, resignation, message from 
Commissar Molotov. 651. _ 

United Kingdom (see also Burma; Churchill, ^^lnston, 
India) : 
Armistice of United Nations with— 
Bulgaria, text, 492, 616. 
Rumania, text, 289. 
Cartels, policy toward, 30, 435. . 

Double taxation, exploratory conversations with U.fa., 

208 732 
Exchange of nrisoners of war with Germjiny via "Arun- 
del Castle" and "Drottningholm," 3o5. 
Kent, Tyler, case of, U.S. State Department report con- 

cGrninET 243 
Lend-lease with U.S., future of, statement by Jlr. Stettin- 

MinisTriy rf^War Transport, charter of shipping, 357 
Opening of U.S. Consulates at Gibraltar and Hull, 103, 

561 
Peace and security organization, international, conver- 
sations at Washington: 
Ambassador Halifax, statement, 3.5. 
Cadogan, Sir Alexander, statements, 201, 341, 343 
Joint statement with U.S. and Soviet Delegations, 342. 
Participation. 84, 133, 157, 174. 
Petroleum, conversations with U.S., 6_, \)6. 
Relief supplies for Greece, 301, 305. 
Rubber problems, post-war, exploratory talks with Neth- 
erlands and U.S., 84, 93, 156. 3SS. 
Trade, post-war control of, 85, 431. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : ^ tt o „i<-i. 

Civil-affairs agreement (1944), U.K. and U.S. with 

Luxembourg. 125. . 

Criminal offenses by armed forces, issuance by Presi- 
dent Roosevelt of proclamation implementing the 
Jurisdiction of service courts of friendly foreign 
forces within U.S., 481. , „ , ^ .. 

Migratory birds, convention with U.S. for protection 
of (1916),amendment of regulations (1944), 229, 

246, 362. 



INDEX, JULY TO DECEMBER 1944 



877 



United Kingdom — Continued. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued. 
JMilitai'v service, reciprocal, witli — 
Brazil (1944), 55. 
Mexico (1942), 301. 
Monetary agreement, with Belgium (1944), 526. 
Petroleum, with U.S. (1944), text, 1.54 
Shipping, continuance of control for United Nations 

purposes (1944), 35S. 
Whaling, resjulation of, protocol (1944), ratification, 
104, 129. 
U.S. Secretary of State Hull, resignation, messages from 
Prime Minister Churchill and Foreign Secretary 
Eden, 650. 
United Maritime Council, establishment of, 359. 
United Maritime E.xecutive Board : 
Establishment, 359, 360. 
First meeting, 655. 
United Nations : 
Armistice with — ■ 

Bulgaria, text, 492, 616. 
Rumania, text, 289. 
Collaboration of, statement by Secretary Hull, 173. 
Contribution bv Brazil, 345. 

Declaration (1942), adherence by France (1945), 845. 
Entry of Allies into Netherlands, 316. 
Post-war problems. 96. 
Shipping, plans, 157, 357, 655. 
Unired Maritime Executive Board, 359, 360, 655. 
United Nations Association, Waterbury, Conn., address 

by Mr. Bunn, 433. 
United Nations Institute on Post-War Security, Cincinnati, 

Ohio, address by Mr. Pasvolsky, 702. 
United Nations Interim Commission on Food and Agri- 
culture : 
Report on proposed constitution for permanent organiza- 
tion, 207. 
U.S. representative, appointment, 7(51. 
United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference: 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 
Secretary Hull, 13, 113. 
Mr. Morgenthau, 14, 111. 
President Roosevelt, 13. 
Article by Mr. Young, 539. 

Resolution respecting loot seized by enemy, 384. 
Summary of agreements, 114. 
U.S. Delegation, 16. 
United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administra- 
tion. See UNRRA. 
United Seamen's Service, efforts in behalf of American 

Seamen, 353. 
United Seamen's Service Rest Home, Sands Point, Long 

Island, address by Mr. Saugstad, 351. 
United States citizens (see also Prisoners of war and 
civilian internees) : 
American seamen, consular services, 352, 483. 
Inquiries concerning nationals in: Brussels area. 676; 
Marseille area, 676; Paris area, 391; Rome and 
Florence areas, 595. 
Merchant marine, passport regulations for, 74. 
Numbers in the Far East, 142. 

Renunciation of nationality, ajct providing for, 576. 
Repatriation, 8, 72, 121, 142, 222, 278, 355. 
Rights in S.vria and Lebanon, texts of exchanges of 
notes between U.S. representative and Syrian and- 
Lebanese representatives, 314. 
Rio de La Plata (ship), safety of passengers, 191. 
Travel, priority regulations (D.O. 1297), 644. 
Welfare and whereabouts in war areas or liberated 
areas, 6, 176, 206, 391, 595, 596, 676, 772. 
UNRRA: 
Agreement (1943), approval or ratification: 
Guatemala, 129. 
India, 733. 
Venezuela, 733. 
Anniversary of, letter from President Roosevelt to Mr. 
Lehman, 569. 



UNRRA— Continued. 
Council of, second session, at Montreal : 
Article by Mr. Miller, 5U1. 
U.S. Delegation, 255. 
Italy, aid to, 338. 

Report (1st quarterly) transmitted to Congress by Presi- 
dent Roosevelt, 717. 
U.S. participation, Executive order facilitating, 62. 
Uruguay (see also American republics), cultural leader, 
visit to U.S., 54. 

Vandenbosch, Aniry, articles on Netherlands Indies and 

Thailand, 605, 636. 
Variety Clubs of America, award conferred upon Secretary 

Hull. C21. 
Venezuela (see also American republics) : 
Cultural leader, visit to U.S., 329. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Agricultural Sciences, Inter-American Institute, con- 
vention on (1944), text of reservations to sig- 
nature, 481. 
Commercial modi vivendi with: Brazil (1940), re- 
newal (1944), 562; Chile (1941). renewal (1944), 
642; Haiti (1943), renewal (1944), 229; Spain 
(1942), renewal (1944), 526. 
Foodstuffs production, with U.S. (1943), extension 

(1944), 642. 
Health and sanitation agreement, with U.S. (1943), 

extension (1944), 643. 
Naval mission, with U.S. (1941), extension (1944), 

772. 
Rubber agreement with U.S. (1942), amendment 

(1944), 526. 
UNRRA agreement (1943), ratification, 733. 
Wounded and sick of armies in the field, amelioration 
of condition of (1920), ratification, 361. 
U.S. Secretary of State Hull, resignation, exchange of 
messages with Foreign Minister, 651. 
Veterans of Foreign Wars, presentation of Distinguished 

Citizen Medal to Secretary Hull, 94. 
Veterans with reemployment rights (D.O. 1295), 679. 
Vlllard, Henry S. : 
Address on Liberia's relations with the United States, 

102. 
Designation in State Department, 809. 
Vin/:ent, John Carter, designation in State Department, 

809. 
Visa Division, 806, 813. 
Visas : 
Control procedure in wartime, article by Graham H. 

Stuart, 271. 
Issuance in France and Italy, 760. 
Voluntary Agencies for Foreign Service, Council, forma- 
tion, 348. 



Wad.sworth, George, appointment as U.S. Minister to Re- 
publics of Syria and I/Obanon, 313, 332. 
Walstrom, Joe D. : 
Article on International Civil Aviation Conference, 843. 
Designation in State Department, 811. 
War and Reconversion Congress of American Industry, 

New York, address by Mr. Acheson, 714. 
War Areas Economic Division: 

Departmental Order 1293 establishing, 484. 
Duties and officers, 788, 811. 
War criminals : 
Asylum to be denied by neutral countries, statements 

by President Roosevelt and Secretary Hull, 339. 
Punishment proposed by United Nations, statement by 
Secretary Hull, 340. 
War Department, joint statement with State Department 

on administration of civil affairs in France, 204. 
War prisoners. See Prisoners of war. 
War Problems Division. See Special War Problems Di- 
vision. 



878 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



War Production Board : 
Control of imports, 430. 

Department representation before (D.O. 1299), 645. 
War Refugee Board, liaison with State Department 
through Adviser on Refugees and Displaced Persons, 
Office of Wartime Economic Affairs, 485. 
War Relief Control Board, President's: 
Afcomplishments, 346, 481. 

Liaison with Special War Problems Division, 307, 348. 
Regulations, revision, 641. 
War Shipping Administration : 
Charter of merchant shipping, 357. 

Representation on United Maritime Executive Board, 
655. 
War Supply and Resources Division : 
Departmental Order 1293 establishing, 483. 
Duties and officers, 788, 811. 
War trade agreements, negotiation with European neu- 
trals, 597. 
War Transport, British Ministry of, charter of merchant 

shipping, 357. 
Ward, J. Langdon, designation in State Department, 808. 
Ward, Robert E., Jr., designation in State Department. 225, 

331. 812. 
Warfel, Harry R., designation in State Department, 812. 
Warren, Avra M., designation in State Department, 777, 

809. 
Warren, George Ii., designation in State Department, 811. 
Warsaw. See Poland. 
Wartime Economic Affairs, Office of: 

Departmental Order 1293 reorganizing, 483. 
Duties and officers, 788, 811. 

Washington conversations on international peace and 
security organization. See Peace and security organ- 
ization, international. 
Wasson, Thomas C, designation in State Department, 809. 
Water power, agreement with Canada regarding temporary 
raising of level of Lake St. Francis (1941), contin- 
uance (1944), 733. 
Water utilization, treaty with Mexico (1944), relating to 
Colorado and Tijuana Rivers and Rio Grande, supple- 
mentary protocol, 616. 
Watson, Hathaway, Jr., designation in State Department, 

808. 
Welfare and whereabouts of ^Vmericans abroad. See un- 
der United States citizens. 
Wells, Milton K., designation in State Department, 810. 
Wendelin, Eric C, designation in State Department, 810. 
West Coast Affairs, Division of. See North and West 

Coast Affairs, Division of. 
West Indian Conference, first meeting, 378. 
West Indian Radio Newspaper, article by Mr. Harris, 210. 
West Indies. See Anglo-American Caribbean Commmis- 

sion. 
Western European Affairs, Division of, 782, 809. 
Whaling, regulation of, protocol (1944), amending agree- 
ment (1937) and protocol (193S), 104, 129, 307. 
Wheat, shipment by U.S. to Bolivia, 596. 
Wheat Council, International, U.S. delegates, 536. 
White, Duncan M., designation in State Department, 813. 



White, Lincoln, designation in State Department, 808. 
Wildlife preservation and nature protection in tlie Western 

Hemisphere (1940) : 
Ecuador, ratification, .585. 
Mexico, addition of species, 361. 
Wiley, John C, appointment as U.S. Ambas.sador to 

Colombia, 332. 
Wilhelmina, of Netherlands, correspondence with Presi- 
dent Roosevelt on Nazi destruction, 609. 
Willard, Clarice L., designation in State Department, 813. 
Williams, Frank S., designation in State Department, 809. 
Willis, Frances, designation in State Department, 808. 
Willkie, Wendell, death, 385. 
Willoughby, Woodbury, designation in State Department, 

54, 810. 
Wilson, Edwin C. : 

Address on Dumbarton Oaks Proposals, 592. 
Designation in State Department, 810. 
Wilson, Robert R., designation in State Department, 130, 

810. 
Winaut, Frederick, designation in State Department, 486, 

811. 
Woodward, Robert F., designation in State Department, 

149. 
Woodward, Stanley, designation in State Department, 813. 
World Alliance for International Friendship Thi-ough the 

Churches, address by Mr. Gerig, 565. 
World Trade Intelligence, Division of, 789, 811. 
Wounded and sick of armies in the field, convention for 

amelioration of condition of (1929), ratification by 

Venezuela, 361. 
Wright, James H. : 

Designation as .alternate delegate to Inter-American 

Coffee Board, 138. 
Designation in State Department, 562, 810. 
Wriglit, William D., designation in State Department, 

773, 813. 
Writers' War Board, exchange of views with Government 

olBcials on peace and security organization, 713. 

Yale, William, article on economic development in the 

South American republics, 571. 
Y.M.C.A., War Prisoners' Aid delegate, transfer of funds 
to by U.S. for relief of American prisoners of war 
and civilian internees in Philippines, 206. 
Yost, Charles W., designation in State Department, 808. 
Young, John Parke: 
Article on United Nations Monetary and Financial Con- 
ference, 539. 
Designation in State Department, 284, 810. 
Yugoslavia : 

Opium, plan suggested by U.S. for world-wide limitation 

of production, 723. 
U.S. Ambassador (Patterson), appointment, 332. 

Zwemer, Raymund L. : 
Article on the Interdepartmental Committee on Co- 
operation With the American Republics, 319. 
Designation in State Department, 130, 812. 



D. S. COVERNyEKT PniNTING OFFICE, 1B4S 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 




^^^ 



J 



J 



■A 



1 r 



1 




VOL. XI, NO. 262 



JULY 2, 1944 



In this issue 



SEVERANCE OF DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS WITH FINLAND « 



STATEMENT BY THE PRESIDENT TO THE UNITED NATIONS 
MONETARY AND FINANCIAL CONFERENCE * * * 



SPECIAL WAR PROBLEMS DIVISION: By Graham H. Stuart * * 



INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AIR NAVIGATION: By Stephen Latchford -h 



WHAT IS THE INTERNATIONAL CARTEL PROBLEM? Address 
by Corwin D. Edwards iririi^-liir-ir-k 



VV«^NT o^ 



* * 




"•^tes o^ 



I'UVA/MtflHj 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

BULLETIN 



Vol. XI . No. 262, 




Publication 2148 



J^dy 2, 1944 



The Department of State BULLE- 
TIN, a weekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Office of Public Informa- 
tion, DiiHsion of Research and Publi- 
cation, provides the public and inter- 
ested agencies of the Government ivith 
information on developments in the 
field of foreign relations and on the 
tvork of the Department of State and 
the Foreign Service. The BULLETIN 
includes press releases on foreign policy 
issued by the White House and the De- 
partment, and statements and addresses 
made by the President and by the Sec- 
retary of State and other officers of the 
Department, as well as special articles 
on various phases of international af- 
fairs and the functions of the Depart- 
ment. Information concerning treaties 
and international agreements to ivhich 
the United States is or may become a 
party and treaties of general inter- 
national interest is included. 

Publications of the Department, 
cumulative lists of ivhich are published 
at the end of each quarter, as well as 
legislative material in the field of inter- 
national relations, are listed currently. 

The BULLETIN, published ivith the 
approval of the Director of the Bureau 
of the Budget, is for sale by the Super- 
intendent of Documents, United States 
Government Printing Office, Washing- 
ton 25, D.C., to whom all purchase 
orders, with accompanying remittance, 
should be sent. The subscription price 
is $2,75 a year; a single copy is 10 
cents. 

Beginning with this issue the BUL- 
LETIN will bear a Sunday rather than 
a Saturday date. 



JUL 25 1^ 

Contents 



American Republics 

Visit of Nicaragua!! Engineer 

Return to the United States of the Ambassador to 
Argentina 

Europe 

Severance of Diplomatic Relations with Finland . , . 
Liberation of Cherbourg 

Far East 

Joint Resolutions Concerning the Philippines; State- 
ment by the President 

General 

Presentation of Scrolls to the Cities of Leningrad, 
Stalingrad, and Chungking 

Death of Norman Davis: 

Statement by the President 

Statement by the Secretary of State 

The Proclaimed List: Cumulative Supplement 4 to 
Revision VII 

Sol Bloom, Fighter for Freedom: Address by the Under 
Secretary of State 

The right of Innocent Passage in International Civil 
Air-Navigation Agreements: By Stephen Latch- 
ford 

What Is the International Cartel Problem? Address 
by Corwin D. Edwards 

International Conferences, Commissions, Etc. 
The United Nations Monetary and Financial Con- 
ference: 

Statement by the President 

Message of the Secretary of State 

Address by the Secretary of the Treasury 

United States Delegation 

Invitation to Bolivia 

Treaty Information 

Convention on the Inter-American Institute of Agri- 
cultural Sciences 

Military Mission Agreement With Ecuador 

Convention on the Regulation of Inter-American 
Automotive Traffic 

The Di,pahtment 

Special War Problems Division: By Graham H. 
Stuart 

The Foreign Service 

Regulations, Orders, and Instructions Relating to the 

Foreign Service 

Consular Offices 

Embassy Rank for American Legation at Lisbon . . 



Page 
16 

24 



17 



5 
5 

5 

18 

19 
25 



13 
13 
14 
16 
16 



32 
32 

32 



31 
32 
32 



Severance of Diplomatic Relations With Finland 



[Released to tlie press June 30] 

On June 30 the following note was delivered 
to Mr. Alexander Thesleff, Charge d'Affaires of 
Finland : 

June 30, 1944. 
Sib: 

On June 27, 1944, the Finnish Government 
made the following announcement: 

"The German Foreign ]Minister von Ribbentrop 
has concluded his visit to the Finnish Government. 

"During this visit questions of interest to Fin- 
land and Germany were discussed, especially Fin- 
land's expressed desire with respect to military 
aid. The German Government has declared itself 
prejJared to comply with this wish of the Finnish 
Govermnent. 

"The discussions which were conducted between 
the P}-esident of the Finnish Eepublic Eyti and 
Foreign Minister Ramsay on one side and the Ger- 
man Foreign Minister on the other, are sustained 
by the spirit which has its roots in the comrade- 
ship in arms between the armies and the existing 
friendsliip between the two peoples. 

"Complete agreement and understanding were 
reached on all points between the Finnish Govern- 
ment and the German Government." 

The Finnish Government has thus formally ad- 
mitted to the world that it has now entered a hard 
and fast military partnershij) with Nazi Germany 
irrevocable throughout the war, for the purpose 
of fighting the Allies of the United States, in 
alliance with the enemies of the United States. 
This action was taken without recourse to the es- 
tablished democratic procedure of Finland, and 
responsibility for the consequences must rest solely 
on the Finnish Government. 

The American Government is not unaware of 
the fact that the infiltration of German troops into 
Finland, with the consent of the Finnish Govern- 
ment and German infiltration into the councils of 
the Finnish Government have deprived Finland of 



liberty of action and reduced the Government of 
the Republic of Finland to the condition of a 
puppet of Nazi Germany. 

This necessarily changes the status of the Fin- 
nish Government. The United States, up to the 
present, has taken every opportunity, publicly and 
through diplomatic representations, to warn the 
Finnish Government of the inevitable consequences 
of continuing its association with Nazi Germany. 
These warnings have been ignored, and the part- 
nership is now complete. 

The Government of the United States must take 
into account the fact that at this decisive stage in 
the combined operations of the military, naval and 
air forces of the United States and the other 
United Nations, the Finnish operations have a 
direct bearing on the success of the Allied effort. 
Notwithstanding the esteem in which the Amer- 
ican people have held the people of Finland, fur- 
ther relations between the Government of the 
United States and the Government of Finland are 
now impossible. 

The American Charge d'Affaires in Helsinki has 
therefore been instructed to request passports for 
himself and for the members of his staff and their 
families. 

The American Govermnent is requesting the 
Swiss Government to assume immediately the 
representation of American interests in Finland. 

Accept [etc.] Cokdell Hitlx, 

[Released to the press June 30] 

The Charge d'Affaires of Finland was handed 
his passport at 11 a.m. June 30 by Mr. George T. 
Summerlin, Special Assistant to the Secretary of 
State. 

Arrangements will be made as soon as possible, 
on a basis of reciprocity, for the repatriation of 
Mr. Thesleff, his family, and the members of the 
Legation staff. Meanwhile, they will be treated 
with all appropriate personal courtesies although 
necessarily their activities will be restricted. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BVLLETIN 



Presentation of Scrolls to the Cities of Leningrad, Stalingrad 

and Chungking 



[Released to the press by the White House June 27] 

Scrolls to the cities of Leningrad and Stalingrad 
have been presented to Marshal Stalin by Am- 
bassador Harriman. They were signed by Presi- 
dent Roosevelt and wei'e accompanied by a letter 
from the President to Marshal Stalin. 

The text of the scroll to the city of Leningrad 
reads as follows : 

"In the name of the people of the United States 
of America, I present this scroll to the City of 
Leningrad as a memorial to its gallant soldiers and 
to its loyal men, women and children who, iso- 
lated from the rest of their nation by the invader 
and despite constant bombardment and untold 
sufferings from cold, hunger and sickness, success- 
fully defended their beloved city throughout the 
critical laei-iod September 8, 1941 to January 18, 
1943, and thus symbolized the undaunted spirit of 
the peoples of the Union of Soviet Socialist Re- 
publics and of all the nations of the world resist- 
ing forces of aggression." 

The text of the scroll to the city of Stalingrad 
reads as follows : 

"In the name of the people of the United States 
of America, I present this scroll to the City of 
Stalingrad to commemorate our admiration for 
its gallant defenders whose courage, fortitude, and 
devotion during the siege of September 13, 1942 
to January 31, 1943 will inspire forever the hearts 
of all free people. Their glorious victory stemmed 
the tide of invasion and marked the turning point 
in the war of the Allied Nations against the forces 
of aggression." 

The text of the President's letter to Marshal 
Stalin follows : 

"I am sending to you two scrolls for Stalingrad 
and Leningrad, which cities have won the whole- 
hearted admiration of the American people. The 
heroism of the citizens of these two cities and the 
soldiers who so ably defended them has not only 
been an inspiration to the people of the United 
States, but has served to bind even more closely the 
friendship of our two nations. Stalingrad and 
Leningrad have become synonyms for the forti- 



tude and endurance which has enabled us to resist 
and will finally enable us to overcome the aggres- 
sion of our enemies. 

"I hope that in presenting these scrolls to the 
two cities you will see fit to convey to their citi- 
zens my own personal expressions of friendship 
and admiration and my hope that our people will 
continue to develop that close understanding 
which has marked our common effort." 



The reply by Marshal Stalin follows : 
"I accept the scrolls of honor from the Presi- 
dent as a symbol of the fruitful collaboration be- 
tween our Governments which is being effected in 
the name of the freedom of our peoples and the 
progress of humanity. The scrolls of honor will 
be presented to representatives of Leningrad and 
Stalingrad." 



[Released to the press by the White House July IJ 

On May 25 the President sent a scroll to the city 
of Chungking, accompanied by a letter to His 
Excellency Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, Presi- 
dent of the National Government of the Republic 
of China. 

This scroll was presented to the Generalissimo 
by Vice President Wallace on June 23. 

The text of the scroll reads as follows : 

"In the name of the people of the United States 
of America, I present this scroll to the City of 
Chungking as a symbol of our admiration for its 
brave men, women and children. 

"Under blasts of terror from the air, even in the 
days before the world at large had known this hor- 
ror, Chungking and its people held out firm and 
unconquered. They proved gloriously that ter- 
rorism cannot destroy the spirit of a people deter- 
mined to be free. Their fidelity to the cause of 
freedom will inspire the hearts of all future 
generations." 

The text of the President's letter follows : 

"Among the greatest inspirations of this war 
to the American fighting spirit has been the vivid 
memory of the great courage which the men, 
women, and children of the City of Chungking 



]ULY 2, 19 U 



have displayed during tlie long period of siege and 
repeated attacks. By their fortitude and en- 
durance the citizens of Chungking have won a 
place in the heart of every American. 

"In recognition of the great contribution which 
the Chinese people, and particularly the citizens 
of Chungking, have made to the war efforts of 
the United Nations, I now send to you the en- 
closed scroll. The stand which your people have 
made against the forces of aggression has set an 
example for all the friends of China, and I hope 
that you may see fit, in presenting this scroll to the 
citizens of Chungking, to convey my expressions 
of the very real friendship which I feel exists 
between our two nations and which will contrib- 
ute in no small measure to an earlier victory." 

On receiving the scroll from Vice President 
Wallace the Generalissimo stated : 

"Representing the people of Chungking I accept 
this Scroll as a priceless symbol which they will 
hold forever in gratitude and revei-ence." 



Death of Norman Davis 

STATEMENT BY THE PRESIDENT 

[Released to the press by the White House July 2] 

A career of great and varied usefulness closed 
with the death of Norman Davis. 

As business executive and man of affairs he had 
gained wide experience when, as Special Am- 
bassador of three Presidents, he carried out suc- 
cessfully many important diplomatic missions. 
He worked indefatigably at Geneva and in the 
various European capitals to maintain peace. 
The reports, in which he recorded the results of 
his observations, show how clearly he foresaw the 
inevitable trend toward the unhappy conflict 
which now rends the world. 

In a critical time he assumed the burdensome 
duties of the chairmanship of the American Red 
Cross. He guided the destinies of that organiza- 
tion through the troubled years which saw the 
beginning of the war and as the conflict spread he 
was called upon to extend aid on an ever-increasing 
scale. He will be long remembered for his serv- 
ices in aid of suffering mankind, and he will be 
deeply mourned by a multitude of friends of whom 
I was one. 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY OF STATE 

[ Released to the press July 2 ] 

A great American has gone to his reward. Nor- 
man Davis was an outstanding world statesman. 
He was an intense patriot. His humanitarianism 
was known wherever the great American Red 
Cross carried its mission of succor and mercy. 
Few persons have had the privilege of rendering 
to their country and to other countries such a full 
measure of useful service. This country in par- 
ticular will honor and cherish his memory. 

He was a lifelong friend. His passing leaves an 
unfillable void. 



The Proclaimed List: Cumulative 
Supplement 4 to Revision VII 

[Released to the press July 1] 

The Secretary of State, acting in conjunction 
with the Acting Secretary of the Treasury, the 
Attorney General, the Acting Secretary of Com- 
merce, the Administrator of the Foreign Economic 
Administration, and the Acting Coordinator of 
Inter-American Affairs, on July 1, 1944, issued 
Cumulative Supplement 4 to Revision VII of the 
Proclaimed List of Certain Blocked Nationals, 
promulgated March 23, 1944. 

Part I of Cumulative Supplement 4 contains 
82 additional listings in the other American re- 
publics and 85 deletions. Part II contains 137 
additional listings outside the American republics 
and 24 deletions. 



Liberation of Cherbourg 

[Released to the press by the White House June 30] 

The President has received the follow- 
ing message from Marshal Stalin : 

"My warm congratulations go to you on 
the liberation of Cherbourg from the Ger- 
man usurpers. The valiant American and 
British troops are greeted by me on the 
occasion of their brilliant success." 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Special War Problems Division 

By GRAHAM H. STUART' 



I. Historical Background 

In 1914, as a result of the first World War, the 
historical forerunner of the Special War Prob- 
lems Division was established in the Consular 
Bureau of the Department of State as the Wel- 
fare and Whereabouts Section. Upon the out- 
break of the war the Department and the Ameri- 
can Foreign Service officers were confronted 
suddenly with the enormous task of replying to in- 
quiries concerning the whereabouts of thousands 
of Americans and their families and friends in 
Europe and of providing the means for them to 
obtain funds for their necessities and for their 
return to the United States. 

During the first three days following the out- 
break of the war it was estimated that the Depart- 
ment of State accepted approximately $300,000 in 
small remittances for transmission to private in- 
dividuals abroad. 

In a report of the work of the Welfare and 
Wliereabouts Section made in 1920 it was estab- 
lished that in more than 60,000 to 80,000 instances 
American citizens had succeeded in reestablishing, 
after the outbreak of the war, communication with 
relatives and friends in foreign countries from 
whom no word was obtainable through the ordi- 
nary channels. The Section was most helpful in 
transmitting about $15,000,000 from individuals in 
this country to relatives and friends abroad. It 
had jurisdiction also over the distribution of relief 
funds for the maintenance of American citizens 
detained in enemy territory. It procured from 
representatives abroad and transmitted to the 
War Department lists of American prisoners of 
war in enemy territory. At its peak the Section 
employed 90 persons working on day and night 
shifts, but after the end of the war its activities 
gradually diminished. There was, however, suf- 
ficient work to prevent its dissolution. 

Mr. Nathaniel F". Davis, who is at present Chief 
of the Division of Foreign Service Personnel, kept 
a record of all cases that he handled in the period 
from June 4 to 19, 1920, which shows both the 



' Dr. Stuart is a Consultant in the Division of Researcli 
and Publication, Department of State. 



types of cases and the principal areas where they 
arose. He reported that 64 percent of the work of 
this Section was devoted to welfare and where- 
abouts inquiries and transmission of funds; the 
other 36 percent of the Section's time was devoted 
to reports from consuls on inquiries and payments, 
certification of documents, prisoners of war, where- 
abouts of persons in the United States, and travel 
conditions. Of the 147 cases handled concerning 
areas, 77 arose in Poland and the Baltic States and 
only 70 in the rest of the world. 

Such events as the burning of Smyrna in 1922 
and the Japanese earthquake in 1923 increased 
materially the woi-k of the Section. Americans 
who are domiciled or are traveling abroad, even in 
normal times, get into trouble or out of touch with 
their relatives and friends in the United States 
and require tlie assistance of the Department of 
State and of the Foreign Service officers abroad. 

Wlien the Consular Bureau was reorganized in 
1924 the Welfare and Whereabouts Section was 
made a part of the Division of Foreign Service 
Administration. 

With the advent of the Nazi regime in Germany 
the problems of protection, particularly of Ameri- 
can citizens identified with oppressed minorities, 
increased both in volume and in scope. The revo- 
lution in Spain in 1936 and the undeclared war in 
the Far East increased also the amount of pro- 
tection, welfare and whereabouts work. In the 
Division files there were some 12,000 cards on 
cases in Spain for the revolutionary period and 
about double that number in the Far East during 
the long period of undeclared warfare. 

Preliminaries to establishment of the Special 
Division 
On September 13, 1938 Mr. Davis wrote a mem- 
orandum pointing out the necessity for an ex- 
panded organization to handle, in the event of a 
major war, whereabouts and relief cases and similar 
problems. He declared that the experience of the 
Department in the recent crises had shown that 
for rajaid handling of welfare and whereabouts 
cases in large volume the organization must be 
built around a card index. The index was not only 
the central point in such an organization but it 



JULY 2, 1944 



was also an essential control feature to avoid con- 
fusion and duplication of effort. 

In order to prevent a bottleneck in times when 
an emergency arose in some particular part of the 
world it was possible to segregate all cards per- 
taining to that region. This was done in the China 
relief cases and in the Spanish revolution. 

Preparations for icelfare work in missions abroad 

It was not enough to prepare a program for 
handling the vast increase of inquiries regarding 
Aanericans abroad which would pour into the De- 
partment of State upon the outbreak of war unless 
similar arrangements were made in our missions 
and consulates abroad. Therefore, Assistant Sec- 
retary of State George S. Messersmith and Mr. 
Nathaniel P. Davis worked out a tentative pro- 
gram, which was sent to certain diplomatic officers 
on September 19, 1938 under the title of "Instruc- 
tions in Case of Hostilities". 

This confidential instruction indicated the inten- 
tion of setting up a division in the Department 
to handle special problems arising from the war, 
such as welfare, relief, and repatriation of Amer- 
icans. It suggested that similar sections be estab- 
lished in our missions abroad and that they be 
provided with a central card index on which all 
relevant data pertaining to citizens assisted should 
be recorded. Instructions were also given regard- 
ing the taking over of the interests of foreign 
governments. 

The missions and consulates, as a last resort, in 
order to finance repatriation, were authorized to 
make loans against promissory notes for the relief 
and evacuation of American citizens. 

Organization and work of the Special Division 

When the Special Division was set up by De- 
partmental Order 810 on September 1, 1939 to 
handle the special problems arising out of dis- 
turbed conditions abroad, the Welfare and Wliere- 
abouts Section of the Division of Foreign Service 
Administration, consisting of only four people, 
was transferred intact. Adequate and competent 
personnel was essential to successful results. The 
Department was fortunate in having maintained 
a competent staff headed by various Foreign Serv- 
ice officers from the field to handle welfare cases 
in the years between the two world wars so that 
when the new Division was established a corps 
of experienced workers was immediately available. 



At the head of this Section was Mrs. Madge M. 
Blessing, who had been handling welfare and 
whereabouts work for over twenty years. The 
large card index of cases was transferred and be- 
came the basis of operations of the new agency. 
The Welfare Section of the new division continued 
its function of arranging for the transmission of 
funds to needy Americans and of dealing with the 
evacuation and repatriation of such citizens as 
well as of replying to inquiries regarding the wel- 
fare and whereabouts of American citizens abroad. 
Another important function which was added 
to the new Division was the representation of the 
interests of various belligerent governments that 
requested this service of the United States. Rep- 
resentation of this sort requires the taking charge 
of the represented government's diplomatic and 
consular property and archives, the handling of 
whereabouts and welfare inquiries in respect to 
its citizens, the receipt and payment of funds to 
them, and the providing for their repatriation 
when possible. The protecting government is also 
required, under the Geneva Prisonei-s of War Con- 
vention of 1929, to inspect prisoners-of-war camps 
and to report the condition of the camps and 
inmates to the proper officials of the represented 
government. 

A closely related function of the new Division 
was the maintenance of liaison with the Eed Cross 
and other American organizations that conducted 
war-relief operations, received and furnished in- 
formation, consulted on matters of mutual in- 
terest, and transmitted messages on relief opera- 
tions to and from the organization's representa- 
tives in Europe. 

The Special Division, as originally established, 
began operations with 12 Foreign Service officers, 
most of whom were called in from home leave for 
temporary duty in the Division. Nineteen clerks 
and stenographers assisted them, making a total 
of 31 persons on the staff. Mr. Breckinridge Long, 
former United States Ambassador to Italy, was 
made Special Assistant to the Secretary of State 
in charge of the new Division, and he was assisted 
by Mr. Hugh E. Wilson, former Ambassador to 
Germany. Mr. George L. Brandt, a Foreign 
Service officer who had served as technical adviser 
at the meeting in 1938 of the Intergovernmental 
Committee on Political Refugees at lilvian, 
France, was made Administrative Officer of the 
Division. A very close liaison was to be main- 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



taiiied with the Division of Foreign Service 
Administration under Mr. Davis. 

At the time of its establishment as a new divi- 
sion of the Department none could foresee to what 
extent the Special Division would be forced to 
grow to meet the demands of a global war. From 
a relatively small nucleus of experienced Depart- 
mental personnel it has had to recruit and de- 
velop an office staff of half a hundred trained 
specialists supported by an equally numerous force 
of clerks to handle daily an ever-increasing volume 
of special war problems for most of which no 
precedent has ever existed. Its work is a combina- 
tion of policy initiation and administration. Its 
activity is confined to no specific geographic area 
but embraces every section of the globe. Its 
officers visit regularly over a hundred prisoners-of - 
war and civilian-internees camps in continental 
United States; its operations extend into enemy 
territories as well as liberated areas. From its 
studies transblockade relief will eventually bring 
sustenance to the famished millions enslaved by 
the Axis ; and thousands of American civilians and 
seriously wounded and ill American prisoners of 
war will in no small measure owe their release by 
the enemy and return to their homes to the work 
of this Division. 

II. Welfare Section 
Welfare and lohereabouts ivork 

Two days after the Special Division was estab- 
lished, war broke out in Europe. The welfare and 
whereabouts inquiry work immediately skyrock- 
eted. For a time the Division dispatched daily 
more than 300 telegi-ams relating to the status of 
Americans abroad about whom relatives and 
friends in the United States were anxiously con- 
cerned. In the first year of its existence the Spe- 
cial Division handled approximately 26,000 
inquiries from Americans in the United States 
desiring information regarding the welfare and 
whereabouts of relatives and friends in the war- 
stricken areas of Europe. With the aid of our 
Foreign Service officers abroad, the Division was 
successful in obtaining the desired information 
in about 95 percent of these inquiries. 

The following example typifies the work en- 
tailed by sudden emergency: On the night of 
September 3, 1939 word was received of the sink- 
ing of the S. S. Athenia with more than 300 



Americans aboard. Inquiries poured into the 
Department, and the Division went on a 24-hour 
schedule. With prompt and frequent telegi-aphic 
rejJorts from the Foreign Service officers in the 
British Isles giving the names of those who sailed 
with this ship and of the survivors and their con- 
dition, the Division was able to meet all the de- 
mands placed upon it. 

As evidence of the number of inquiries that 
the new Division received, even after the peak load 
of the early period of the war was over, the records 
for three months in 1941 were as follows : August, 
1,867; September, 1,386; and October, 1,221, mak- 
ing a total of 4,474. For the corresponding three 
months in 1942 the figures were: August, 1,524; 
September, 1,675; October, 1,974, making a total 
of 5,173. The total inquiries for the year 1942 
were 20,192. 

The Department over a long period of years 
has not instructed American diplomatic and con- 
sular officials abroad to make whereabouts in- 
quiries regarding aliens. However, in times of 
emergency, Americans were naturally eager to 
learn about their relatives and friends, even 
though aliens. Consequently, the Department de- 
cided in April 1939 that, although it would not 
instruct its officers abroad to make such inquiries, 
it would inform the appropriate Foreign Service 
officers of the inquiries and request them to report 
to the Department such information as might 
become available. 

However, the Department later was obliged to 
decline to make inquiries in regard to non-Ameri- 
cans in Germany and German-occupied territory, 
the Soviet Union, and Soviet-occupied territory, 
since the German and Soviet authorities refused to 
facilitate such inquiries. Inquirers desiring infor- 
mation regarding persons in German-occupied 
areas were referred to the Red Cross and those 
desiring information in regard to persons in terri- 
tory under Soviet control were referred to the 
nearest Soviet consular office or to the Soviet Em- 
bassy at Washington. 

Repatriation of A mericans 

A very important duty facing the Government 
as a result of the outbreak of the war in Europe 
was the repatriation of American citizens. More 
than 100,000 Americans were in Europe at the out- 
break of hostilities. The task of repatriating 
them would be a serious one. Since foreign ship- 



JULY 2, 1944 



ping was largely withdrawn from service, Ameri- 
can vessels had to carry tlie burden. The regular 
carrying facilities had to be augmented materially. 
The Special Division arranged for the Govern- 
ment of the United States to dispatch six ships 
promptly. The Orizaba, Shawnee, Iroquoi», St. 
John, Acadia, and Siboney made the trip to Euro- 
pean ports. These vessels, that had a combined 
emergency passenger capacity of 3,500, returned 
to the United States with some vacant berths. 
Arrangements were made also for increased pas- 
senger-carrying capacity in the regular trans- 
Atlantic steamers and for their quicker turn 
around. It was estimated that in September 1939 
some 50,000 passengers arrived at Atlantic sea- 
ports of the United States on American vessels. 
By the spring of 1940 more than 80,000 Americans 
were safely returned to the United States. 

In the spring and summer of 1940, when hos- 
tilities had spread and since many Americans had 
delayed their departure, the Government dis- 
patched additional vessels to British and continen- 
tal ports. The President Roose/velt, the Washing- 
ton, and the Manhattan made special trips, and 
the United States Army transport American Le- 
gion was sent to Petsamo to repatriate Americans 
from northern Europe. This latter route in- 
cluded a 300-mile bus trip through the Arctic 
wilderness from the rail head at Rovaniemi to 
Petsamo. 

It should be noted that the United States Gov- 
ernment, although it warns our citizens abroad 
when dangerous situations develop and suggests 
their speedy return, may not compel them to de- 
part. Each citizen has the right to decide for 
himself whether he will take the risk of remaining 
in the danger area. The duty of the Government 
toward its citizens has been fulfilled when it has 
advised them of the dangers of the situation, has 
invited them to leave, and has afforded those wish- 
ing to leave every possible assistance in obtaining 
transportation. 

Quite often Americans absolutely refuse every 
effort to hasten their return and finally find them- 
selves in a position where return is impossible. 
An excellent illustration was afforded by the case 
of an American student who was studying ceram- 
ics in Prague. In December 1939, with the out- 
break of war, his father asked the Department to 
ascertain his situation and offered to transmit 
funds. The United States consul at Prague, in 

597686—44 2 



March 1940, reported that the student was well 
and in no need of financial assistance and wished 
to continue his studies. In December 1940 the 
father telegraphed funds for his son's return but 
before they could be utilized normal travel facili- 
ties had been suspended. Early in 1941 the father 
requested, through a congressman, that his son be 
warned of the seriousness of the situation and that 
he be urged to return. However, the young man 
refused to come home, and with the outbreak of 
the war with Germany he was interned at Tittmon- 
ing where he remained until repatriated in the 
spring of 1944 on the Gripsholm. 

One of the very interesting cases of Americans 
involved in the European war situation was that 
of an elderly Ajnerican woman who was living as 
an expatriate in Paris with an Englishwoman 
friend. When the war broke they attempted to 
drive to southern France but were engulfed in the 
vast horde of similar travelers and finally forced 
to return to Paris. On their return they saved an 
English pilot from being seized by the Germans 
by concealing him in the back of their car. They 
then sheltered him in their apartment in Paris and 
aided in his escape. This started them in estab- 
lishing a regular underground engaged in trans- 
porting English soldiers across the border. 

The American Embassy first learned of the 
American woman's disappearance when the con- 
cierge of the apartment where she lived telephoned 
that she had gone away several days before with 
two men who looked like secret police and that 
she had not returned. Mr. Edwin A. Plitt, Sec- 
retary of the Embassy, immediately investigated 
and after some difficulty discovered that she was 
in the Cherche Midi Prison. He secured her re- 
lease and advised her to take a room at the Hotel 
Bristol and to keep away from her apartment. 
She did not follow his advice and was again ar- 
rested. Mr. Plitt got her a lawyer and followed 
the trial closely. She was sentenced to three years' 
imprisonment, and her property was confiscated. 

Meanwhile the Special Division, at the request 
of the woman's brother, had authorized her bank 
to forward funds to the amount of $1,500 before 
her arrest. The American Embassy made ar- 
rangements for weekly parcels of food to be sent to 
her through the Friends' organization. After she 
had served part of her sentence the German Gov- 
ernment agi-eed that she be exchanged for a no- 
torious German internee in the United States. 



10 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



She returned to the United States on the Drott- 
ningholm. 

Transmission of funds 

Since the United States Government nonnally 
does not provide funds to repatriate Americans 
and since in times of emergency many Americans 
are either without the necessary funds to pay their 
way liome or their funds may not be in a form im- 
mediately negotiable, the financial problem is 
often a serious one. According to the '-Instruc- 
tions in Case of Hostilities", dated March 21, 1939, 
Foreign Service oflicers were authorized, in case 
of need, to assist Americans to get in touch with 
relatives or friends in the United States to obtain 
funds for their passage back. Such telegrams 
could be sent to the Department at Government 
expense. The Special Division handled such ap- 
peals and made every effort to see that contact was 
made with the interested parties. Such funds as 
were obtained were telegraphed to the American 
beneficiary abroad through the appropriate mis- 
sion or consulate. 

In the cases where the emergency was very great 
and no funds were available, the Department made 
allotments of public funds to its officers in dis- 
turbed areas abroad and authorized them to ad- 
vance funds for relief and evacuation of American 
citizens. Such loans were to be covered by prom- 
issory notes signed by the beneficiary. 

During the 12-month period from September 1, 
1939 to August 31, 1940 the Special Division trans- 
mitted approximately $550,000 from Americans 
in the United States who wished to remit funds 
to their American relatives and friends abroad for 
their transportation expenses in returning to the 
United States. This service was undertaken be- 
cause of the disruption of the normal commercial 
facilities for the transmission of such funds. Dur- 
ing the same period the Special Division arranged 
for the granting of a total sum of over $210,000 in 
loans against promissory notes to hona-fi-ih' Amer- 
ican citizens in the war areas needing funds for 
transportation expenses to the United States. In 
1941 the Special Division supervised the lending 
of about $300,000, which included $.30,000 allotted 
for emergency evacuation or repatriation from 
Singapore, $50,000 to repatriate the Z<imz<im 
survivors, and $175,000 for the joint Red Cross - 
Departmental scheme to repatriate needy Amer- 
icans from France. 



The total amount that the Government of the 
United States advanced for the repatriation of its 
nationals from all parts of the world between 1938 
and 1944 was $693,409.86. Of this sum $240,032.81 
had been repaid by July 1, 1943. There has re- 
cently been some agitation on the part of some 
repatriates to have the Congress pass legislation 
relieving them of the cost of their evacuation and 
repatriation. Since the United States Govern- 
ment had warned these nationals to leave foreign 
areas when danger threatened and since it has 
already absorbed all incidental costs of their re- 
patriation which would run into several millions 
of dollars, such action miglit be deemed inequitable 
by persons who heeded the warnings and left in 
due time at their own expense. 

Although the Government of the United States 
makes no distinction between native-born and 
natiiralized citizens in the protection which it 
affords them, those citizens who have domiciled 
themselves permanently abroad, particularly those 
naturalized citizens who have had no intention 
of returning to the United States, could hardly 
expect the United States Government to provide 
funds for their maintenance. This problem re- 
quired the careful attention of Foreign Service 
officers who were instructed not to lend funds to 
any Americans where the presumption of ex- 
patriation had ai'isen. 

As the expansion of the war area increased 
greatly the demand for financial assistance, the 
Department had to limit this discretion more spe- 
cifically. In an instruction of August 12, 1941 
that the Department issued, the following pei'sons 
were enjoined from receiving loans from diplo- 
matic and consular officials for repatriation pur- 
poses: (a) persons possessing merely a circum- 
stantial claim to American citizenship; (6) per- 
sons resting under unrebutted presumption of 
expatriation; (<?) persons engaged in activities 
considered as inimical to the interests of the United 
States; and {d) persons suspected of deserting 
their spouses and children remaining abroad. 

Effect of United States belligerency upon ^y elf are 
Section 

The entrance of the United States into the sec- 
ond World AVar reduced in no way the work of 
the Welfare Section. It still received innumera- 
ble inquiries concerning the welfare and where- 
abouts of Americans in war areas, but the diffi- 



JULY 2, 1944 



11 



culties of obtaining the information desired were 
immeasurably greater. Fortunately many thou- 
sands of Americans had been repatriated so that 
the volume of inquiries was somewhat less. When 
diplomatic relations were severed between the 
United States on the one hand and Germany, Italy, 
Japan, and the satellite Axis powers on the other, 
the problem of communications became much more 
complicated and each inquiry required much more 
time to handle. Americans at home were even 
more eager to learn about the situation of their 
loved ones in enemy and enemy-occupied territory 
and to get messages through to them. We have 
already indicated that inquiries for the calendar 
year 1942 totaled more than 20,000. For the year 
1943 they amounted to 11,162. When one con- 
siders that such inquiries have to be made either 
through the Eed Cross or through the Swiss Gov- 
ernment by our diploinatic representatives in Bern, 
he can understand the complications. The number 
of inquiries are decreasing, but for the month of 
January 1944 there were still 756 inquiries which, 
if the rate is maintained, would indicate over 9,000 
for the year of 1944. 

While the work of the Welfare Section dimin- 
ished slightly in its whereabouts and welfare 
inquiries and investigations, its work increased ma- 
terially in the matter of financial assistance ren- 
dered to Americans in occupied and belligerent 
areas. The Swiss Government which, in Decem- 
ber 1941, had kindly consented to take over the 
representation of American interests in Axis- 
controlled countries, was given detailed rules to 
follow in an instruction dated February 14, 1942 ^ 
sent to our Legation at Bern. 

Under this instruction the amounts to be paid 
monthly to American citizens qualified to receive 
loans were rigidly prescribed in accordance with 
cost-of-living criteria. Americans were not al- 
lowed larger amounts even though their own re- 
sources permitted it. All moneys lent were to be 
repaid without interest to the Treasury of the 
United States. Interested persons in the United 
States were permitted to make deposits either to 
reimburse the Government for sums advanced or 
to be used as a reserve against such advances. Al- 
though all sums advanced were in the form of 



' This iusti-uction, known as no. 1202, together with the 
amendments of Jan. 22, 1944, has served as a basis of our 
procedure. 



loans to be repaid eventually, the ability to repay 
was not an indispensable condition to receiving 
financial assistance. 

Territories where the interests of the United 
States were represented by Switzerland were di- 
vided into 10 classes, and the basic maximum 
monthly payment for an adult varied from $60 to 
$130. The basis of the classification was the esti- 
mated cost of living. Hong Kong and the Nether- 
lands Indies were placed in the lowest, or $60 class, 
whereas Italy was in the sixth, or $90 class, and 
France, Bulgaria, Kumania, and Hungary, in the 
eighth, or $110 class, the highest so far allocated. 
Only one adult in the family may receive the maxi- 
mum monthly payments, other adults being limited 
to 75 percent of the basic maximum, and minors 
to 25 percent. A single family may not receive 
more than 325 percent of the basic maximum. 

Only hona-flde loyal American citizens who had 
been unable to return to the United States through 
lack of transportation facilities or through illness 
were eligible for financial assistance. Filipinos 
were eligible to the same treatment as American 
citizens in regard to loans. Prisoners of war and 
interned civilians are supported by the detaining 
power, hence, in general, not more than 10 percent 
of the maximum allowed for personal needs could 
be lent to such persons. 

No exact figures of the total amount expended 
by the United States on this type of assistance to 
its nationals can be given, but the following figures 
will serve as an approximation. The total num- 
ber of cases reported as receiving payments as of 
January 1944, were 7,341, of which 5,460 were in- 
terned and 1,881 not interned. Of the internees, 
4,081 were in the Philippine Islands. Of those 
not interned, 309 were in France and 296 were in 
Italy. The total monthly payments were esti- 
mated at $52,027.35 for the internees and $109,- 
130.19 for those not interned, making a total 
monthly expenditure of $161,157.54. The total 
sum advanced to the Swiss Government for finan- 
cial assistance to United States nationals and 
representation of American interests generally in 
enemy territory for the calendar year 1942 
amounted to $2,093,629.32, and for 1943 to $1,676,- 
709.16. The decrease in 1943 reflects the repatria- 
tion of over 3,000 American citizens from enemy 
territory in 1942 and 1943. 

The work of a financial character became so 



12 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



heavy and complicated that on February 15, 1944 
a unit was established in the Welfare and Where- 
abouts Section which for convenience was called 
the "1202 Unit" since it carried out the provisions 
of instructions 1202. The duties of this unit as 
stated in the office circular were fourfold : 

1. To amend and interpret the instruction no. 
1202 so far as it applies in enemy, enemy-occupied, 
or enemy-controlled territory, in the liberated 
areas, in unoccupied China and Macau, in Switz- 
erland and in other areas which may later be 
covered. 

2. To review all decisions upon applications for 
financial assistance and index such decisions with 
resjject to persons found eligible or not to receive 
financial assistance. 

3. To tabulate information regarding the appli- 
cation of 1202 and to modify the procedure if nec- 
essary to make it conform to departmental policy. 

4. To set up Special Authorization to provide 
necessary funds to extend financial assistance out- 
side of enemy territory and to prepare estimates 
needed when assistance is authorized. 

Mr. Dayle C. McDonough, a Foreign Service 
officer, was placed in charge of this Unit. 

Miscellaneous functions 

Another function of the Welfare Section is the 
notification to interested persons in the United 
States of the death of American nationals in enemy 
territory. 

The function of the Section which has been 
very helpful to American nationals in foreign ter- 
ritory is the role played in certain circumstances 
in the transmission of messages through the Amer- 
ican missions abroad to relatives or friends in the 
United States. Such messages before they are 
delivered must be cleared through censorship in 
the United States. In the case of financial trans- 
actions of any importance, the Treasury also must 
license the message. The Section takes care of 
these formalities. The messages are of all sorts, 
from simple gi-eetings to very urgent inquiries of 
personal or business character. The Section 
cleared 1,316 such messages in the year 1943. 

A duty which has become a fairly heavy one at 
times consists of the notification of interested per- 
sons in the United States of the inclusion of their 
friends or relatives in the exchange of nationals 
between the United States and enemy countries. 
Since many people often write to the Department 



regarding the same person, the notifications, when 
an exchange is made, may run into the thousands. 
For example, in the last exchange of Americans 
and Japanese in December 1943, the number of 
notifications amounted to approximately 4,800. 
It would seem reasonable in such cases to notify 
only the next-of-kin where such is indicated. 

A recent procedure which has proved to be of 
great value has been the issuance to the Depart- 
ment's representative on each exchange vessel of 
instructions to collect all possible information 
from the passengers regarding the Americans who 
still remain in enemy hands. Mr. Donald Smith, 
a Foreign Service officer, who undertook this duty 
in addition to his responsibilities as Special Dis- 
bursing Officer or principal representative of the 
Department, on the I'ecent voyage of the Grips- 
holm obtained a vast amount of useful information 
for the Division's files and for transmission to in- 
terested relatives and friends. 

One incident will illustrate the value of such in- 
formation. On the day before the Department 
had received the cards that had been prepared 
on the second voyage of the G-npsholni, an Ameri- 
can called upon Mr. Gilson Blake, Chief of the 
Section, to find out about his brother and wife 
who had been seized by the Japanese and from 
whom he had received no information. He said 
his elderly mother was very ill with the anxiety 
and worry and that her death was likely to occur 
at any time. Mr. Blake agreed to send any in- 
formation obtained at the earliest possible mo- 
ment. When the cards arrived they contained 
favorable news regarding this interned family. 
Mr. Blake telephoned the interested I'elatives in 
Johnstown, Peimsylvania, and promised, at their 
request, to send a written message which could be 
put into the mother's hands. This was done, and 
word was received that, as a result of the favor- 
able news, the mother was on the road to recovery. 

These functions of the Welfare Section are, per- 
liaps, those which are best known ; but with the 
development of the war other problems arose that 
increased materially the scope and number of the 
Division's activities. The work of the Special 
War Problems Division covering internees, pris- 
oners of war, representation of foreign interests, 
liaison with the Red Cross, negotiations for ex- 
changes whereby to repatriate prisoners of war 
and others held by the enemy, and problems of 
relief will be considered in subsequent articles. 



]ULY 2, 1944 



13 



The United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference 



STATEMENT BY THE PRESIDENT 

[Released to the press by the United Nations 
Monetary and Financial Conference July 1] 

June 29, 19-44. 

To THE Members of the United Nations Mone- 
tary AND Financial Conference : I welcome you 
to this quiet meeting place with confidence and 
with hope. I am grateful to you for making the 
long journey here, grateful to your governments 
for their ready acceptance of my invitation to 
this meeting. It is fitting that even while the 
war for liberation is at its peak, the representa- 
tives of free men should gather to take counsel 
with one another respecting the shape of the 
future which we are to win. 

Tlie war has prodded us into the healthy habit 
of coming together in conference when we have 
common problems to discuss and solve. We have 
done this successfully with respect to various mili- 
tary and production phases of the war, and also 
with respect to measures which must be taken im- 
mediately after tlie war is won — such as relief and 
rehabilitation, and distribution of the world's food 
supplies. These have been essentially emergency 
matters. At Bretton Woods, you who come from 
many lands are meeting for the first time to talk 
over proposals for an enduring program of future 
economic cooperation and peaceful progress. 

Tlie program you are to discuss constitutes, of 
course, only one phase of the arrangements which 
must be made between nations to ensure an orderly, 
harmonious world. But it is a vital phase, affect- 
ing ordinary men and women everywhere. For 
it concerns the basis upon which they will be able 
to exchange with one another the natural riches of 
the earth and the products of their own industry 
and ingenuity. Commerce is the life blood of a 
free society. We must see to it that the arteries 
which carry that blood stream are not clogged 
again, as they have been in the past, by artificial 
barriers created through senseless economic 
rivalries. 

Economic diseases are highly communicable. 
It follows, therefore, that the economic health of 
evei'y country is a proper matter of concern to 
all its neighbors, near and distant. Only through 
a dynamic and a soundly expanding world econ- 



omy can the living standards of individual nations 
be advanced to levels which will permit a full real- 
ization of our hopes for the future. 

The spirit in which you carry on these discus- 
sions will set a pattern for future friendly con- 
sultations among nations in their common interest. 
Further evidence will be furnished at Bretton 
Woods that men of different nationalities have 
learned how to adjust possible differences and how 
to work together as friends. 

The things that we need to do, must be done- 
can only be done — in concert. This Conference 
will test our capacity to cooperate in peace as we 
have in war. I know that you will all approach 
your task with a high sense of responsibility to 
those who have sacrificed so much in their hopes 
for a better world. 

Franklin D Roosevelt 

MESSAGE OF THE SECRETARY OF STATE 

[Released to the press by the United Nations 
Monetary and Financial Conference July 2] 

The message from Secretary of State Hull 
to the Honorable Henry Morgenthau, Jr., Chair- 
man of the United States delegation, follows : 

June 29, 1944. 
Mt Dear Henry, 

I am very glad tliat the President has selected 
you as Chairman of the delegation of this Gov- 
ernment to the United Nations Monetary and 
Financial Conference to be held at Bretton Woods, 
New Hampshire, beginning July 1, 1944. 

Your position in national and world affairs as 
well as your conscientious and diligent efforts and 
preparation for this meeting make you the nat- 
ural choice to head our delegation. 

This forthcoming Conference will be one of the 
most important and historic international meet- 
ings and the successful accomplishment of your 
mission will have far-reacliing effect upon the 
futaire reconstruction and rehabilitation of the 
world. You can rest assured that my colleagues 
and I will be most happy to extend to you and 
the other members of the delegation every possible 
assistance. 

I wish you the greatest success in this difficult 
and responsible undertaking. 

Sincerely yours, Cordell Hull 



14 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



ADDRESS BY THE SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY' 



[Released to the press by the Treasury Department July 1] 

Fellow Delegates and Members of the Con- 
ference: You have given me an honor and an 
opportunity. I accept the presidency of this Con- 
ference with gratitude for the confidence you have 
reposed in me. I accept it also with deep hu- 
mility. For I know that what we do here will 
shape to a significant degree the nature of the 
world in which we are to live — and the nature of 
the world in which men and women younger than 
ourselves must round out their lives and seek the 
fulfilment of their hopes. All of you, I know, 
share this sense of responsibility. 

We are more likely to be successful in the work 
before us if we see it in perspective. Our agenda 
is concerned specifically with the monetary and in- 
vestment field. It should be viewed, however, as 
part of a broader program of agi-eed action among 
nations to bring about the expansion of produc- 
tion, employment, and trade contemplated in the 
Atlantic Charter and in article VII of the mutual- 
aid agreements concluded by the United States 
with many of the United Nations. Whatever we 
accomplish here must be supplemented and but- 
tressed by other action having this end in view. 

President Roosevelt has made it clear that we 
are not asked to make definitive agreements bind- 
ing on any nation, but that proposals here formu- 
lated are to be referred to our respective govern- 
ments for acceptance or rejection. Our task, 
then, is to confer, and to reach understanding and 
agreement, upon certain basic measures which must 
be recommended to our governments for the estab- 
lishment of a sound and stable economic relation- 
ship among us. 

We can accomplish this task only if we ap- 
proach it not as bargainers but as partners — not 
as rivals but as men who recognize that their com- 
mon welfare depends, in peace as in war, upon mu- 
tual trust and joint endeavor. It is not an easy 
task that is before us; but I believe, if we devote 
ourselves to it in this spirit, earnestly and sin- 
cerely, that what we achieve here will have the 
greatest historical significance. Men and women 



'Delivered before the United Nations Monetary and 
Fin.incial Conference at Bretton Woods, N. H., July 1, 
1944. 



everywhere will look to this meeting for a sign that 
the unity welded among us by war will endure in 
peace. 

Through cooperation we are now overcoming 
the most fearful and formidable threat ever to 
be raised against our security and freedom. In 
time, with God's grace, the scourge of war will be 
lifted from us. But we shall delude ourselves if 
we regard victory as synonymous with freedom 
and security. Victory in this war will give us 
simply the opportunity to mold, through our com- 
mon effort, a world that is, in truth, secure and 
free. 

We are to concern ourselves here with essential 
steps in the creation of a dynamic world econ- 
omy in which the people of every nation will be 
able to realize their potentialities in peace; will be 
able, through their industi-y, their inventiveness, 
their thrift, to raise their own standards of living 
and enjoy, increasingly, the fruits of material 
progress on an earth infinitely blessed with natural 
riches. This is the indispensable cornerstone of 
freedom and security. All else must be built upon 
this. For freedom of opportunity is the founda- 
tion for all other freedoms. 

I hoi^e that this Conference will focus its atten- 
tion upon two elementary economic axioms. The 
fii'st of these is this : that prosperity has no fixed 
limits. It is not a finite substance to be dimin- 
ished by division. On the contrary, the more of 
it that other nations enjoy, the more each nation 
will have for itself. There is a tragic fallacy in 
the notion that any country is liable to lose its 
customei-s by promoting greater production and 
higher living-standards among them. Good cus- 
tomers are prosperous customers. The point can 
be illustrated very simply from the foreign-trade 
experience of my own country. In the pre-war 
decade, about 20 percent of our exj^orts went to 
the 47 million people in the highly industrialized 
United Kingdom ; less than 3 percent went to the 
450 million people in China. 

The second axiom is a corollary of the first. 
Prosperity, like peace, is indivisible. We cannot 
afford to have it scattered here or there among the 
fortunate or to enjoy it at the expense of others. 
Poverty, wherever it exists, is menacing to us all 
and undermines the well-being of each of us. It 



JULY 2, 19U 



15 



can no more be localized than war, but spreads and 
saps the economic strength of all the more-favored 
ai-eas of the earth. We know now that the thread 
of economic life in every nation is inseparably wo- 
\"en into a fabric of world economy. Let any 
thread become frayed and the entire fabric is 
weakened. No nation, however great and strong, 
can remain immune. 

All of us have seen the great economic tragedy 
of our time. We saw the world-wide depression of 
the 1930's. We saw currency disorders develop 
and spread from land to land, destroying the basis 
for international trade and international invest- 
ment and even international faith. In their wake, 
we saw unemployment and wretchedness — idle 
tools, wasted wealth. We saw their victims fall 
prey, in places, to demagogs and dictators. We 
saw bewildemient and bitterness become the breed- 
ers of fascism and, finally, of war. 

In many countries controls and restrictions were 
set up without regard to their effect on other coun- 
tries. Some countries, in a desperate attempt to 
gi-asp a share of the shrinking volume of world 
trade, aggravated the disorder by resorting to 
competitive depreciation of currency. Much of 
our economic ingenuity was expended in the fash- 
ioning of devices to hamper and limit the free 
movement of goods. Tliese devices became eco- 
nomic weapons with which the earliest phase of 
our present war was fought by the Fascist 
dictators. Tliere was an ironic inevitability in 
this process. Economic aggression can have no 
other offspring than war. It is as dangerous as it 
is futile. 

We know now that economic conflict must de- 
velop when nations endeavor separately to deal 
with economic ills which are international in scope. 
To deal with the problems of international ex- 
change and of international investment is beyond 
the capacity of any one country, or of any two or 
three countries. These are multilateral problems, 
to be solved only by multilateral cooperation. 
They are fixed and permanent problems, not 
merely transitional considerations of the post-war 
reconstruction. They are problems not limited in 
importance to foreign-exchange traders and bank- 
ers but are vital factors in the flow of raw materials 
and finished goods, in the maintenance of high 
levels of production and consumption, in the es- 
tablishment of a satisfactory standard of living 
for all the people of all the countries on this earth. 



Throughout the past decade, the Government 
of the United States has sought in many directions 
to promote joint action among the nations of the 
world. In the realm of monetary and financial 
problems this Government undertook, as far back 
as 1936, to facilitate the maintenance of orderly 
exchanges by entering into the Tri-Partite Agree- 
ment with England and France, under which they, 
and subsequently Belgium, the Netherlands, and 
Switzerland, agreed with us to consult on foreign- 
exchange questions before important steps were 
taken. This policy of consultation was extended 
in the bilateral exchange arrangements which we 
set up, starting in 1937, with our neighbors on the 
American continents. 

In 1941, we began to study the possibility of 
international cooperation on a multilateral basis 
as a means of establishing a stable and orderly 
system of international currency relationships and 
to revive international investment. Our technical 
staff — soon joined by the experts of other nations — 
undertook the f)reparation of practical proposals, 
designed to implement international monetary and 
financial cooperation. The opinions of these 
technicians, as reported in the joint public state- 
ment which they have issued, reveal a common 
belief that the disruption of foreign exchanges 
can be prevented, and the collapse of monetary 
systems can be avoided, and a sound currency 
basis for the balanced growth of international 
trade can be provided, if we are forehanded enough 
to plan ahead of time — and to plan together. It 
is the consensus of these technical experts that the 
solution lies in a permanent institution for con- 
sultation and cooperation on international mone- 
tary, finance, and economic problems. The for- 
nuilation of a definite proposal for a Stabilization 
Fund of the United and Associated Nations is one 
of the items on our agenda. 

But provision for monetary stabilization alone 
will not meet the need for the rehabilitation of 
war-wrecked economies. It is not, in fact, de- 
signed toward that end. It is proposed, rather, 
as a permanent mechanism to promote exchange 
stability. Even to discharge this function effec- 
tively, it must be supplemented by many other 
measures to remove impediments to world trade. 

For long-range reconstruction purposes, inter- 
national loans on a broad scale will be imperative. 
We have in mind a need wholly apai-t from the 
problem of immediate aid which is being under- 



16 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



taken by the United Nations Relief and Eehabili- 
tation Administration. The need which we seek 
to meet through the second proposal on our agenda 
is for loans to provide capital for economic recon- 
struction, loans for which adequate security may be 
available and which will provide the opportunity 
for investment, under proper safeguards, of capi- 
tal from many lands. The technicians have pre- 
pared the outline of a plan for an International 
Bank for Postwar Reconstruction which will in- 
vestigate the opportunities for loans of this char- 
acter, will recommend and supervise them and, if 
advisable, furnish to investors guaranties of their 
repayment. 

I shall not attempt here to discuss these pro- 
posals in detail. That is the task of this Confer- 
ence. It is a task the performance of which calls 
for wisdom, for statesmanship, above all for good- 
will. 

The transcendent fact of contemporary life is 
this— that the world is a community. On battle- 
fronts the world over, the young men of all our 
united countries have been dying together— dying 
for a common purpose. It is not beyond our 
powers to enable the young men of all our coun- 
tries to live together— to pour their energies, their 
skills, their aspirations into mutual enrichment 
and peaceful progress. Our final responsibility 
is to them. As they prosper or perish, the work 
which we do here will be judged. The opportu- 
nity before us has been bought with blood. Let us 
meet it with faith in one another, with faith in our 
common future, which these men fought to make 
free. 



United States Delegation 

[Released to the press June .'!0] 

The President has approved the membership of 
the United States delegation to the forthcoming 
United Nations Monetary and Financial Confer- 
ence, which will convene at Bretton Woods, New 
Hampshire, on July 1, 1944, as indicated in the 
list^ made public by the Department of State. 

Tlie President has also approved the list of the 
officers of the Secretariat of the United Nations 
Monetary and Financial Conference. 



' Bulletin of June 24, 1944, p. 587. 



In accordance with established international 
practice, the President of the United States of 
America, as Chief of State of the country serving 
as host to the Conference, has designated the Chair- 
man of the delegation of the United States, the 
Honorable Henry Morgenthau, Jr., as Temporary 
President of the Conference to serve until the elec- 
tion of the Permanent President. 

In further observance of international practice, 
the President has designated as Secretary General 
of the Conference Dr. Warren Kelchner, Chief of 
the Division of International Conferences, Depart- 
ment of State. Mr. V. Frank Coe and Mr. Philip 
C. Jessup will serve as Technical Secretary Gen- 
eral and as Assistant Secretary General, respec- 
tively. 

Mr. Michael J. McDermott, Special Assistant 
to the Secretary of State, has been designated as 
Chief Press Relations Officer of the Conference. 



Invitation to Bolivia 

[Released to the press June 2G] 

The Government of Bolivia has been invited by 
President Roosevelt to participate in the interna- 
tional Conference at Bretton Woods, New Hamp- 
shire, beginning on July 1, 1944, for the purpose of 
discussing proposals to meet post-war international 
monetary problems. 

Visit of Nicaraguan Engineer 

[Released to the press June 2S] 

Seiior Constantino Lacayo Fiallos, Belgian- 
trained civil engineer of Managua, Nicaragua, will 
observe the work of the Public Roads Administra- 
tion during his three months' visit in this coun- 
try as guest of the Department of State. 

Questions of drainage and mechanization of 
equipment will occupy also a considerable part of 
the visiting engineer's attention. Besides visit- 
ing the laboratories of the Public Road Admin- 
istration he plans to observe actual road construc- 
tion ; to visit engineering courses at such institu- 
tions as Harvard and the Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology; and to see a representative indus- 
trial center manufacturing tractors, trucks, and 
automobiles. In connection with the latter he is 
{Continued on next page) 



JULY 2, 1944 



17 



Joint Resolutions Concerning the Philij^pines 

STATEMENT BY THE PRESIDENT' 



[Released to the press by the White House June 29] 

I have signed today two joint resolutions of 
Congress respecting the Philippines. The first of 
these resolutions lays down a policy for tlie grant- 
ing of independence, and for the acquisition of 
bases adequate to provide for tlie mutual protec- 
tion of the United States and the Philippine 
Islands. 

In that resolution it is declared to be the policy 
of "the Congress that the United States shall drive 
the treacherous, invading Japanese from the 
Philippine Islands, i-estore as quickly as possible 
the orderly, free democratic processes of govern- 
ment to the Filipino people, and thereupon estab- 
lish the complete independence of the Philippine 
Islands as a separate self-governing nation". The 
measure makes it possible to proclaim independ- 
ence as soon as practicable after constitutional 
processes and normal functions of government 
have been restored in the Philippines. 

It is contemplated that as soon as conditions 
warrant, civil government will be set up under 
constitutional officers. It will be their duty forth- 
with to take emergency measures to alleviate the 
physical and economic hardships of the Philippine 
people and to prepare the Commonwealth to re- 
ceive and exercise the independence which we have 
promised them. The latter includes two tasks of 
great importance: Those who have collaborated 
with the enemy must be removed from authority 
and influence over the political and economic life 
of the country; and the democratic form of gov- 
ernment guaranteed in the Constitution of the 
Philippines must be restored for the benefit of the 
people of the islands. 

On the problem of bases, the present organic act 
permitted acquisition only of naval bases and fuel- 
ijig stations, a situation wholly inadequate to meet 
the conditions of modern warfare. The measure 
approved today will permit the acquisition of air 
and land bases in addition to naval bases and fuel- 
ing stations. I have been informed that this ac- 
tion is most welcome to Commonwealth authorities 
and that they will gladly cooperate in the estab- 
lishment and maintenance of bases both as a re- 
stored Commonwealth and as an independent na- 
tion. By this we shall have an outstanding ex- 



ample of cooperation designed to prevent a recur- 
rence of armed aggression and to assure the peace- 
ful use of a great ocean by those in pursuit of 
peaceful ends. 

The second joint resolution signed today brings 
into effect the joint economic commission first or- 
dained in the present organic act, and enlarges its 
scope to include consideration of proposals for the 
economic and financial rehabilitation of the Phil- 
ippines. 

We are ever mindful of the heroic role of the 
Philipjjines and their people in the present con- 
flict. Theirs is the only substantial area and theirs 
the only substantial population under the Ameri- 
can flag to suffer lengthy invasion by the enemy. 
History will attest the heroic resistance of the com- 
bined armies of the United States and the Philip- 
pines in Luzon, Cebu, Iloilo, and other islands of 
the archipelago. Our character as a nation will 
be judged for years to come by the human under- 
standing and the physical efficiency with which we 
help in the immense task of rehabilitating the 
Philippines. The resolution creates the Philip- 
pine Eehabilitation Commission whose functions 
shall be to study all aspects of the problem and, 
after due investigation, report its recommenda- 
tions to the President of the United States and 
the Congress, and to the President and the Con- 
gress of the Philippines. 

NICARAGUA— Continued fro7n p. 16 

interested especially in living and working condi- 
tions of the workmen. 

Senor Lacayo Fiallos, former Director General 
of Public Works of Nicaragua, is now engineer of 
the Nicaraguan Department of Roads, engaged in 
the construction of the Pan American Highway. 
He says that the highway under construction 
across Nicaragaia will cut ocean-transportation 
time between San Francisco and New York by 
about four days. The existing Pacific-Atlantic 
highways in other countries, he explains, runs for 
miles at a very high altitude, but the Nicaraguan 
road will lie almost at sea-level. 



" Made in connection with the signing of S.J. Res. 
and S.J. Res. 94. 



18 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Sol Bloom: Fighter for Freedom 

Address by THE UNDER SECRETARY OF STATE' 



[Releaspd to the press June 28] 

It is a great, privilege to join with this distin- 
guished gathering tonight in paying tribute to Sol 
Bloom. 

I have seen Sol Bloom in action with presidents 
and kings, with prime ministers and ambassadors. 
The respect he has inspired in them all is amply 
attested by the presence here tonight of so many 
distinguished representatives of so many great 
nations. 

The range of Sol Bloom's talents and accom- 
plisliments is enormous — from song writing to 
statesmanship, from real estate to foreign affairs. 
He is just concluding his eleventh consecutive term 
as one of the most distinguished congressmen of 
our day. Yet I think I can tell you in one sen- 
tence the wellspring of all his energy and ability. 
It is a profound faith in our democratic principles 
and a profound love for his fellowmen. 

Sol Bloom has always been a valiant fighter for 
freedom, a bitter foe of intolerance and persecu- 
tion. He saw clearly from the start that Nazism 
was a menace to the freedom of the whole world ; 
he understood inmiediately that this new bar- 
barism was an assault on civilization itself. I 
speak for the entire State Department — and I am 
sure for the country — when I say that we owe a 
gi-eat debt to Sol Bloom and indeed to all the dis- 
tinguished members of the Foreign Affairs Com- 
mittee for their whole-heai"ted cooperation during 
these dilBcult recent years. I am certain that the 
members of that Committee who are present here 
this evening will testify with me to Chairman 
Bloom's fine leadei-ship. 

Today, the armies of the United Nations are 
driving the brutal beasts from the peaceful lands 
which they have ravaged. The dawn of a new 
day is breaking for the oppressed peoples of the 
world. But we have still a long way to go before 
complete victory is attained over the forces of 
intolerance and persecution. In the meanwhile, 
we must do everything in our power to release from 
imprisonment the oppressed peoples who have suf- 
fered so long. 



'Delivei-ed by Mr. Stettinius at a testimonial dinner in 
iKinor of Representative Sol Bloom in New York, N.Y., 
June 28, 1944. 



This work is being carried on under the active 
sponsorship of two of the gi-eat men of our age — 
Franklin Delano Roosevelt and Cordcll Hull. 
They are men of large hearts and large minds. 
And I can assure you that their hearts and their 
minds are deeply concerned in this work of rescu- 
ing human lives from Axis cruelty. 

In 1938 President Roosevelt summoned the 
fivian Conference which established the Inter- 
governmental Committee on Refugees, on which 
the Honorable Myron C. Taylor has so effectively 
represented this Government. The work of this 
body has constantly expanded. 

In January of this year the War Refugee Board 
was created by the President to assist in the imme- 
diate escape from Europe of the peoples who face 
extermination. Again, Mr. Bloom was of the ut- 
most assistance. The work of the Board has gone 
forward with energy and skill. 

Acting in close cooperation with these two or- 
ganizations and with the governments of other 
United Nations, the State Department has la- 
bored constantly to assist the escape of refugees 
from Europe and to find for them places of refuge. 

Much of the story of assistance to the refugees 
of Europe cannot now be told without seriously 
endangering our future efforts. Escape from 
Europe is not easy. Savage retaliation by the 
Nazis follows quickly upon any mistake or ill- 
planned action. But in a thousand different ways, 
in many different lands, the work goes on night 
and day. Wlien the full story can be told it will 
be one of the most dramatic chapters in the history 
of human freedom. 

There is one fact, however, which I can announce 
with great pleasure to you this evening. The 
British Government has just agreed to the estab- 
lishment of a new haven of refuge in one of the 
former Italian colonies in Libya. As you know, 
large numbers of refugees are arriving in southern 
Italy every day from Yugoslavia. Great efforts 
have been made to find places of refuge for them. 
This new haven will do much to ease the suffer- 
ing of these unfortunate people. We profoundly 
hope that this act of mercy, like that of our own 
comitry a few weeks ago, will lead to similar acts 



JULY 2. 1944 

by other nations in opening their doors to peo- 
ples who woulil otherwise perish under Nazi bru- 
tality. 

It is with the deepest pleasure that I speak to 
this large gathering this evening. For, despite 
different beliefs and points of view, everyone here 
has a profound common interest in the great causes 
for which we are fighting. And I am confident 
that everyone here is determined to do everything 
possible to aid the victims of Fascist intolerance. 
Unity, cooperation, and mutual trust are indis- 
pensable to the success of our labors. I feel certain 
that the strength of those who are working to aid 
the refugees from Europe will not be divided in 
this time of crisis and suffering. 



19 

Let me return for a moment in closing to our 
distinguished guest, Mr. Sol Bloom. He has been 
an outstanding leader in the struggle to aid and 
rescue the persecuted peoples of Europe. In a 
multitude of ways — with little publicity or fan- 
fare — he has contributed greatly to the success of 
our common efforts. I know of no man more de- 
serving of the great tribute which this distin- 
guished gathering is paying to him this evening. 

There are great tasks still ahead in the world, 
in the cause of freedom and peace and tolerance. 
In that work we shall always find Sol Bloom in 
the forefront — a distinguished, unselfish, and in- 
spiring leader. 



The Right of Innocent Passage in International 
Civil Air-Navigation Agreements 



One of the most important contributions that 
the interested governments could make in the 
negotiation of any future agreement governing in- 
ternational air navigation in the post-war period 
would be the drafting of the agreement in lan- 
guage that would indicate clearly what the parties 
may have in mind and that would avoid the am- 
biguities and uncertainties which arose from the 
language of .some of the provisions of international 
air-navigation agreements adopted in the past. 

In connection with the discussions and debates 
that have taken place on the subject of the post- 
war aviation policy of the various governments 
with reference to the admission into their terri- 
tories of foreign air-transport lines, emphasis has 
been placed upon "the right of innocent passage". 
Apparently a great many persons believe that an 
agreement by the various governments upon an 
international convention in which each contract- 
ing state would accord to civil aircraft of other 
contracting states the right of innocent passage 
would establish the authority of a commercial air- 
line of any contracting state to make flights in 
transit across territory of the other contracting 
states. In other words, the use of the term "inno- 
cent passage" seems to give the impression that if 
aircraft of country A are accorded the right by 
country C to enter its territory, the authorities of 
country B could not interpose an arbitrary re- 
striction upon the right of transit of the aircraft 



By STEPHEN LATCHFORDi 

in order to reach country C. This illustration 
might be enlarged to apply to operations in transit 
through countries B, C, D, E, and F on a route 
from country A to country G. However, in view 
of the interpretation placed upon the term "right 
of innocent passage" in previous international 
air-navigation agreements, the question arises 
whether, if the use of the term is continued, there 
could be any certainty that the right of transit 
would tliereby be obtained for regular or sched- 
uled international air-transport services. 

The International Convention for the Regula- 
tion of Aerial Navigation, adopted at Paris on 
October 13, 1919 at the time of the Peace Con- 
ference of that year, embodies, with its annexes, 
very elaborate provisions on the subject of inter- 
national air navigation. This convention has 
served in a very large measure as a model for the 
negotiation of all subsequent international air- 
navigation agreements both bilateral and multi- 
lateral. In addition to adopting a number of the 
sound principles of the Paris convention of 1919 
many of the air-navigation agreements have re- 
laeated the reference to "the right of innocent 
passage" found in that convention or have em- 
ployed a very similar expression. Under article 
2 of the Paris convention each contracting state 



■ The author of this article is Adviser on Air Law, 
Aviation Division, Department of State. 



20 

undertakes, in time of peace, "to accord freedom 
of innocent passage above its territory to the 
aircraft of the other contracting states" provided 
that the conditions laid down in the convention 
are observed. One might suppose that the right 
of innocent passage granted by article 2 would 
have at least accorded a right for conunercial air- 
lines of any of the contracting states to operate 
in transit across the territory of any other con- 
tracting state in order to reach the countiy of final 
destination. One might suppose also that such 
transit would be possible as a matter of right and 
without the necessity of obtaining formal authori- 
zation from the government whose territory would 
be flown over. Moreover, if article 2 did not give 
the right of transit for commercial airlines one 
would suppose that such right would have been 
granted by article 15 of the 1919 convention, which 
provided that every aircraft of a contracting state 
would have the right to cross the airspace of 
another state without landing. Article 15 pro- 
vided also that the aircraft making such non-stop 
flights would have to follow the route fixed by 
the state over which a flight took place and that 
the aircraft could be required to land if necessary 
for security reasons. However, the question 
might well have been raised whether an absolute 
right of transit for commercial air sei-vices was 
not established by the non-stop provision of article 
15, subject only to the right of the subjacent state 
to enforce reasonable security measures. 

The last paragraph of article 15 as adopted in 
1919 provided that the establishment of interna- 
tional airways would be subject to the consent of 
the state or states flown over. Some authorities 
thought that while the establishment of interna- 
tional airways was a matter within the jurisdic- 
tion of each contracting state, once such airways 
were established a general right of transit over 
such airways would be automatically accorded to 
the aircraft of other contracting states. 

The Paris convention as adopted in 1919 did 
not specifically provide that the operation of reg- 
ular or scheduled airlines of any contracting state 
into or through territory of any other contracting 
state would be subject to the prior consent of the 
latter. On this point there was perhaps as much 
ambiguity as there was with reference to the right 
of transit. However, the governments which were 
parties to the Paris convention interpreted the 
reference to international airways in the last para- 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

graph of article 15 as giving them the right to re- 
quire their prior consent to the establishment and 
operation of regular or scheduled airline trans- 
port services into or through their teiTitories. In 
general, the right of innocent passage granted by 
article 2 of the Paris convention was interpreted 
as according only a general right of entry into 
territory of any one of the contracting states by 
civil aircraft of other contracting states making 
special flights, such as tourist flights. Under this 
interpretation and subject to compliance with ap- 
plicable local laws and regulations such special 
flights could be made without the necessity of ob- 
taining special permission irom the government 
of the country whose territory was entered. 

With regard to the right of the subjacent state 
to I'equire its prior authorization for the "estab- 
lishment of international airways" as provided in 
the last paragraph of article 15 a great deal of un- 
certainty arose, owing largely, it appears, to the 
difficulty in finding a satisfactory and accurate 
English translation of the French expression 
"voies internationales de navigation aerienne". 
It seems that in the discussions in connection with 
the drafting of the convention, the French term 
quoted was translated by such expressions as 
"routes" and "lines". Eventually, however, the 
term "international airways" was adopted as the 
English equivalent of the French term mentioned 
above. Apparently the real intention of the 
drafters of the Paris convention was never made 
entirely clear. In any event the provision of ar- 
ticle 15 stating that the establishment of interna- 
tional airways would be subject to the consent of 
the states flown over was, as stated above, inter- 
preted in practice to mean that no regular or 
scheduled airline of any contracting state could 
be operated into or in transit across the territory 
of another contracting state with or without land- 
ing except by prior permission of the state whose 
territory would be flown over. It has been con- 
tended with good reason that the manner in which 
article 15 was applied in practice greatly retarded 
the development of international air transporta- 
tion, particularly as regards the general right of 
transit. However, it is not the purpose of this 
discussion to go into the merits of the various 
principles involved but merely to call attention to 
the great importance of so drafting international 
agi-eements as to make clear just what the parties 
may have in mind. 



JULY 2, 1944 



21 



An extraordinary session of the International 
Commission for Air Navigation functioning under 
the Paris convention of 1919 was held in Paris in 
1929. Among the subjects brought up for discus- 
sion was the amendment of article 15 so as to 
make it entirely clear whether an air-transport 
enterprise of one state could fly into or in transit 
through the territory of another without the lat- 
ter's prior consent. By the time the Commission 
met in 1929 the practice followed in applying ar- 
ticle 15 had become so well established that there 
is little wonder that the majority of the delega- 
tions were unwilling to do any more than to bring 
article 15 into line with the interpretation which 
had been placed upon it.'^ Therefore, article 15 as 
amended as a result of the session of the Com- 
mission held in 1929 provides in the last paragraph 
that "every contracting State may make condi- 
tional on its prior authorization the establishment 
of international airways and the creation and 
operation of regular international air navigation 
lines, with or without landing, on its terri- 
tory". The corresponding paragraph in ai'ticle 15 
of the convention as signed in 1919 merely pro- 
vided, as above indicated, that "the establishment 
of international airways shall be subject to tlie 
consent of the states flown over". The amendment 
of article 15 made as a result of the meeting in 
Paris in 1929 did not change the original provi- 
sions regarding the right to fly over a contracting 
state without landing. Such right of transit, 
therefore, considered in connection with the right 
of innocent passage granted under article 2, con- 
tinued to permit aircraft to fly in transit without 
the necessity of obtaining prior authorization 
from the country flown over only so far as con- 
cerned special flights not amounting to a regular 
or scheduled service. 

Although representatives of the United States 
participated in the drafting of the Paris conven- 
tion which was signed on behalf of this Govern- 
ment, it was never ratified by this Government. 
Therefore, as a substitute for becoming a party to 
the Paris convention this Government entered into 
a series of bilateral international air-navigation 
agreements which embodied certain basic prin- 
ciples of the Paris convention and, like that con- 
vention and bilateral air-navigation agreements 
concluded between various European countries, 
were not without some ambiguities. 



In 1929 a general air-navigation agreement was 
concluded between the United States and Canada.^ 
Section 2 of that agreement provided that "sub- 
ject to the conditions and limitations hereinafter 
contained and set forth, Canadian civil aircraft 
shall be permitted to operate in the United States 
and, in like manner, civil aircraft of the United 
States shall be permitted to operate in the Do- 
minion of Canada". This language corresponded 
with a provision in nearly all subsequent air-navi- 
gation agreements concluded by the United States 
to the effect that each country granted "liberty of 
passage" over its territory to the civil aircraft of 
the other country. Section 6 of the 1929 agree- 
ment with Canada provided in effect that if the 
aircraft and pilots of either country were licensed 
to carry passengers and cargo in that country they 
could do so between the United States and Canada, 
subject, however, to the riglit of each country to 
reserve to its own aircraft traffic wholly between 
points in its territory. Although one might sup- 
pose that the 1929 agreement with Canada afforded 
regular airlines of either country a general right 
to operate into territory of the other, it is not 
recalled that in practice regular air-transport 
services or routes could be established by airlines 
of the one country into the other without obtain- 
ing some form of prior authorization from such 
other country. 

Following the negotiation of the agreement of 
1929 with Canada, a series of air-navigation agree- 
ments was entered into by the United States with 
European countries. The first air-navigation 
agreement concluded by the United States with a 
European country was the one negotiated with 
the Italian Government in 1931.^ Article 1 of the 
agreement provided that "subject to the conditions 
and limitations hereinafter contained and set 
forth, Italian civil aircraft shall be permitted to 
operate in the United States of America, and, in 
like manner, civil aircraft of the United States of 



' The delegations of the United States, Great Britain, 
the Netherlands, and Sweden were not in agreement with 
the majority and favored the greatest possible freedom 
in the development of international air-transport services. 

As indicated in this article the United States did not 
become a party to the Paris convention of 1919. How- 
ever, non-contracting states as well as contracting states 
were invited to send representatives to the 1929 meeting 
of the International Commission for Air Navigation. 

^ Executive Agreement Series 2. 

'Executive Agreement Series 24. 



22 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



America shall be permitted to operate in Italy". 
This was the form used in section 2 of the 1929 
agreement with Canada. Following the negotia- 
tion of the agreement with Italy, it was the prac- 
tice, in negotiating air-navigation agreements 
with European countries, to stipulate in the first 
part of such agreements that each country granted 
"liberty of passage" above its territory to the air- 
craft of the other country. 

Article 7 of the agreement between the United 
States and Italy provided tliat if the aircraft and 
pilots of either country were licensed by it to carry 
passengers and cargo in its territoi-y they would 
be permitted to do so in the operation of a regular 
air-transpoi't line of that country on a service be- 
tween the two countries. This provision corres- 
ponded substantially with section 6 of the agree- 
ment of 1929 with Canada except for the specific 
reference to air-transport lines which did not oc- 
cur in section 6 of the 1929 agreement. However, 
the formula employed in section 6 of the Cana- 
dian agreement was supplemented in article 7 of 
the Italian agreement by a provision that the op- 
eration of a regular air-transport line of either 
country into territory of the other country would 
be subject to the latter's prior consent. As in the 
Canadian agreement traffic wholly between two 
points in the territory of either country could be 
reserved to the aircraft of that country. This 
principle was uniformly adopted by this Govern- 
ment in the negotiation of air-navigation agree- 
ments. 

Altliough it was provided in article 1 of the 
Italian agreement that the right of aircraft of 
either country to enter the territory of the other 
count i-y would be understood to include the right 
of transit across such territory, it appears to be 
evident that there was no intention to grant an 
absolute right of transit for commercial airlines 
and that both countries fully intended to inter- 
pret the transit provision of article 1 in the same 
restrictive manner as the Paris convention had 
been interpreted. 

The language employed in air-navigation agree- 
ments concluded by the United States with various 
countries subsequent to the negotiation of the 
agreement with Italy, most of which were entered 
into with European countries, made it clear that 
the establishment and operation of regular air- 
transport lines of each party to the agreement into 



or across the territory of the other party with or 
without landing would be subject to the prior con- 
sent of the government whose territory would be 
flown over. A reservation to this effect in these 
various air-navigation agreements follows a para- 
graph granting "liberty of passage" (equivalent 
to tlie right of innocent passage) by aircraft of 
each country above the territory of the other. 

If under the bilateral air-navigation agreements 
concluded by the United States a regular air- 
transport line of either country could not operate 
into or through territory of the other coimtry with- 
out the prior consent of the latter, the question 
naturally arises as to what was meant by "liberty 
of passage". It has been interpreted to mean 
what the term "innocent passage" in the Paris con- 
vention of 1919 is understood to have meant in 
practice, namely, the right of civil aircraft of 
each contracting State to fly into and through ter- 
ritory of any other contracting state on special 
flights without the necessity of obtaining prior 
flight authorization from the country entered. 
Such special flights might be for touring or for 
occasional trips of a commercial nature such as 
might be made by a charterer but not amounting 
to the operation of a regular or scheduled air- 
transport service. The aircraft on such flights 
must, of course, comply with applicable local laws 
and regulations. 

The bilateral air-navigation agreements entered 
into by the United States after the conclusion of 
the 1929 one with Canada and the 1931 one with 
Italy were an improvement over the Paris con- 
vention in that these agreements left no doubt that 
an air-transport enterprise of either country 
could not operate a regular service into or through 
the other country without the prior consent of 
the latter. There was, however, room for con- 
siderable clarification of the term "liberty of pas- 
sage" in these agreements not only as to what spe- 
cific rights of entry of a non-commercial nature 
were granted by the term, but also as to how it 
should be applied to occasional flights of a com- 
mercial nature not amounting to a regular or 
scheduled airline service. In that connection one 
might ask how often could non-scheduled commer- 
cial flights be made by aircraft of either country 
into the other without being required to obtain 
special authorization from the country entered for 
the reason that the operation had become so fre- 



JULY 2, 1944 



23 



quent that it constituted, in effect, a regular service ? 
It would seem that at the present time there is 
nothing to rely upon but the rule of I'eason which 
makes it necessary to judge each case in the light 
of the surrounding facts and circumstances. 

The agreement with Canada of 1929 was super- 
seded by the air-navigation agreement between the 
United States and Canada concluded in 1938 '■ 
which grants to the civil aircraft of each country 
"liberty of passage" above the territory of the other 
country. Immediately • following that specific 
grant, the agreement provides that "the establish- 
ment and operation by an enterprise of one of 
the parties of a regular air route or service to, over 
or away from tlie territory of the other party, with 
or without a stop shall be subject to the consent 
of such other party". Agreements relating specifi- 
cally to the operation of air-transport services later 
supplemented that provision. 

The Habana Convention on Commercial Avia- 
tion,^ a multilateral convention signed on Febru- 
ary 20, 1928, was probably the most ambiguous of 
all international agreements so far as concerns the 
acquisition of the right to establish and operate 
scheduled airline transport services. Article 4 of 
that convention provides that "each contracting 
state undertakes in time of peace to accord free- 
dom of innocent passage above its territory to the 
private aircraft of the other contracting states, 
provided that the conditions laid clown in the 
present convention are observed". It seems to be 
quite clear from the language of several articles of 
this convention that it was contemplated that 
regular commercial airlines would be operated be- 
tween the contracting states. However, the con- 
vention contains no provision whatever indicating 
definitely whether the establishment of scheduled 
airlines of any contracting state over the territory 
of another contracting state would be subject to 
the latter's prior consent, nor does the convention 
make any specific reference to the right of transit. 
The Habana convention has been interpreted in 
the light of general international practice in that 
no air-transport enterprise of any of the contract- 
ing states may operate into or through the terri- 
tory of another contracting state without the lat- 
ter's prior consent. The United States is among 
the ratifying powers which have interpreted the 
convention in this manner. The Chilean Govern- 



ment out of abundant caution ratified this conven- 
tion with a reservation to the effect that the 
establishment and operation of regular airlines 
into its territory would be subject to its prior 
authorization. 

Since the Habana convention does not establish 
an outright grant of authority for the establish- 
ment and operation of air-transport lines, the ques- 
tion arises as to what is meant by the "right of 
innocent passage" granted in article 4. It has 
generally been interpreted to mean, as in the case 
of the bilateral air-navigation agreements and the 
Paris convention, that the civil aircraft of each 
contracting state making special flights and not 
operated on regular services may fly into and away 
from the territory of any other contracting state 
without the necessity of obtaining prior flight 
authorization from such other state. The Mexican 
and Guatemalan Governments did not agi-ee even 
to this interpretation. The Mexican Government 
insisted that notwithstanding the right of innocent/ 
passage granted by article 4 of the Habana con- 
vention no special flights could be made into its 
territory without prior authorization for each 
flight. The Guatemalan Government was willing 
for private United States civil aircraft to enter its 
territory on special flights without its prior au- 
thorization, but it indicated that blanket author- 
ization for special flights by aircraft of both 
countries under article 4 should be regarded as a 
special agi-eement between the United States and 
Guatemala, such as might be entered into pur- 
suant to the terms of article 30' of the Habana 
convention. 

In the light of past experience it would be desir- 
able either to omit such terms as "liberty of pas- 
sage" or "the right of innocent passage" from 
future international air-navigation agreements, 
or, if they are used at all, to define them so that 
their meaning would not be left in doubt. The 
writer would prefer to cast out such expressions 
root and branch from air-navigation agreements 
and to have the agreements indicate in clear and 



' Executive Agreement Series 129. 

"- Treaty Series 840. 

° Art. 30 of the Habana convention permits, under cer- 
tain conditions, a contracting state to enter into a spe- 
cial agreement or convention witli anotlier contracting 
state concerning international air navigation. 



24 



Return to the United States of the 
Ambassador to Argentina 

[Released to the press June 27] 

The United States Ambassador in Ar- 
gentina, Mr. Norman Armour, has been 
instructed to returi to Washington im- 
mediately for consultation. 



unmistakable language just what air-navigation 
rights they would accord. Should it be decided 
to grant outright freedom of transit for scheduled 
airline operations, aside from the right to pick 
up and discharge passengers and cargo in the 
country flown over, the particular international 
agreement should so state, and it should be made 
clear that such general right of transit would be 
distinct from and in addition to any rights of 
commercial entry that might be acquired pursuant 
to other provisions of the particular agreement. 
This would appear to be desirable in order to avoid 
a repetition of the situation resulting from past 
interpretation of article 15 of the Paris conven- 
tion where any intention that there may have been 
to grant a general right of transit for commercial 
lines was defeated by the interpretation given to 
that article. If the negotiators of future inter- 
national air-navigation agreements desire also that 
aircraft of a contracting state be permitted to 
enter and fly in transit through the territory of an- 
other contracting state in unscheduled operations 
without the necessity of obtaining from the coun- 
try entered prior authorization for each flight, the 
particular agreement should contain language that 
would make this intention absolutely clear. 
Should it be the purpose to establish a general 
right of entry for such special flights as well as 
the right of transit it should likewise be made 
clear whether these rights would be applicable not 
only to tourist or pleasure flights but to those of a 
commercial nature, such as might be made from 
time to time by chartered aircraft. 

In accordance with the foregoing discussion, the 
following suggestions are made : 

1. Abolishment of such terms as "liberty of pas- 
sage" and "the right of innocent passage", and 
the substitution of appropriate language. Such 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

language should definitely indicate whether civil 
aircraft of a contracting state, making special 
flights and not oijerating on a regular or sched- 
uled service, would be permitted to enter and fly 
in transit through territory of another contract- 
ing state without the necessity of obtaining prior 
flight authorization from the government of the 
latter state. 

2. Employment of appropriate language wliich 
would make it absolutely clear whether a definite 
right of transit is to be accorded for scheduled air- 
transport operations. If such definite right of 
transit is to be accorded, it should, furthermore, 
be made clear that this right of transit would be 
distinct from and in addition to any commercial 
rights of entry that may be agreed upon at the 
same time. 

The right of transit mentioned in the foregoing 
paragraph relates to such right as might be ac- 
corded for scheduled airlines to make non-stop 
flights across the territory of a contracting state, 
wiUi the right to land at public airports for tech- 
nical purposes such as refueling and repairs. 
Such transit would not, however, include the right 
to take on and discharge passengers and cargo in 
the territory flown over. Transit with the right 
to take on and discharge passengers and cargo in 
the country through which a flight is made would 
presumably come under the heading of commercial 

entry. 

In referring to the wording of air-navigation 
agreements concluded in the past there is no inten- 
tion of offering any criticism as to draftsmanship. 
The negotiators at the time undoubtedly adopted 
such terms as appeared to be called for in the light 
of all surrounding circumstances and the prece- 
dents that had been established up to that time. 
Experience gained in the practical application of 
all these agreements shows the necessity for the 
use of clarifying language. 

In discussing the desirability of adopting clari- 
fying language for future international air-navi- 
gation agreements, the writer does not intend to 
tmply that the discussion herein necessarily re- 
flects any official attitude with respect to the posi- 
tion which the Government of the United States 
may take in the adoption of post-war aviation 
policy nor does he intend to imply that the general 
right of entry heretofore accorded by air-naviga- 
tion agreements is miaftected by wartime restric- 
tions. 



JVLY 2, 1944 



25 



What Is the International Cartel Problem? 



Address by CORWIN D. EDWARDS ' 



[ReleaBed to the press June 30] 



What a CARTEii Is 

A cartel is a grdup of business enterprises 
formed for the purpose of avoiding some kinds 
of comi^etition among themselves. Its members 
continue to do business separately for their own 
profit, but thej' act together in deciding such mat- 
ters as the prices they are to charge, the amounts 
they are to produce or sell, and the share of the 
market which is to be regarded as the exclusive 
right of each of them. 

In Germany and in some other European coun- 
tries, the term "cartel" is often used to describe 
a domestic trade association which carries out this 
kind of program. In this country the word is 
seldom applied to such domestic groups. It us- 
ually refers to groups which are organized inter- 
nationally by the businessmen of two or more 
countries and which are used to prevent or limit 
competition in international trade. 

Cartels sometimes undertake to lower their 
members' cost of doing business by various activi- 
ties such as standardizing products or supplying 
statistical information, but such programs usually 
receive a minor part of the attention of cartel 
members. 

The Relation of Combines to Cartels 

A combine is a group of husiness enterprises 
which have been brought under a single control so 
that they behave like one concern. The simplest 
form of combine is the holding company and its 
subsidiaries. In this kind of group one company, 
called the "parent" or the "holding" company, 
owns so much of the stock of various other com- 
panies, called the "subsidiaries", that by voting 
this stock it can pick the managers and control 
their decisions. Consequently, all of the compan- 
ies act together whenever the people who control 
the holding company see an advantage in having 
them do so. 

It is possible for combines to control compan- 
ies which have been organized in several different 
countries. For example. General Aniline and 
Film Corporation was incorporated in this coun- 
try but was controlled befoi'e the war by the con- 



cern which directly or indirectly held most of its 
stock, I. G. Farbenindustrie of Germany. 

International combines sometimes become very 
large, so that a single one of them may do most of 
the business in its own industry throughout the 
w(jrld. The organization of the combine usually 
prevents competition among the concerns which 
belong to it; and where the control over a whole 
industry has been concentrated in a combine, little 
or no competition is likely to remain within the in- 
dustry. In this sense, combines are alternatives 
to cartels. Moreover, when the number of inde- 
pendent companies in an industry has been greatly 
reduced by the organization of four or five com- 
bines, it is relatively easy for these large interests 
to form a cartel and thereby avoid competing with 
each other. When this happens cartels and com- 
bines supplement and reenforce each other as ways 
of controlling an industry. 

How A Cartel Suppresses Compettpion 

The chief purpose of a cartel agreement is to in- 
crease the profits of the members of the cartel by 
reducing competition. There are many different 
ways to do this. Aiiy cartel may use more than 
one, and no two cartels are likely to use exactly 
the same methods. 

One of the simplest ways is for the members of 
the cartel to agree upon the prices at which they 
will sell their goods, and thereby to avoid the price- 
tutting which often occurs in competition. But 
such price agreements, standing alone, are hard to 
maintain. A high price reduces sales, and com- 
panies with unsold goods upon tlieir hands or 
witli idle plant capacity ai'e likely sooner or later 
to reduce prices in order to attract customers. 
Moreover, there are often some concerns which 
have not signed the cartel agreement, and if these 
indecendent companies sell at lower prices they 
may take enough business awav from the cartel to 
oblige the cartel members to follow suit. 

A second way of avoiding competition is to 
agree to restrict production, sales, or exports. The 



' Delivered before the Consumers Union, Washington, 
June 30, 1044. Mr. Edwards is Consultant on cartels. 
Commodities Division, Department of State. 



26 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



piiri:)ose of such an agreement is to reduce the 
amount offered for sale, so that the sellers will find 
it easier to maintain prices. Sometimes restriction 
of the supply is used to reenforce a price agree- 
ment, but so sometimes it is used alone in the belief 
that with supply limited the price will remain 
high even without any formal decision to keep 
it so. 

A third way of restricting competition is to as- 
sign some part of the market to each concern so 
that in its own field it can make decisions about 
prices and sales without being afraid that its cus- 
tomers will find other companies to turn to. There 
are several different ways of allocating markets. 
In some cases, each company will take a certain 
territory, consisting of its own home market and 
perhaps the markets of some foreign countries 
where there is no local producer. In other cases, 
each company may be given the right to make cer- 
tain goods which the other companies are pledged 
to avoid making. Occasionally customers may be 
assigned so that each company has a list of pur- 
chasers to whom all the others will avoid selling. 

Agreements of this kind are often worked out 
in the form of simple contracts, in which the duties 
and rights of each company are specified. There 
have been instances, such as the pre-war control 
of rubber and tin, in which the governments of 
the principal producing countries liave recognized 
cartels and given them support, either by appoint- 
ing government officials to the group administering 
a cartel or by enacting laws which strengthened 
a cartel's authority over its members and protected 
it from competition by outsiders. For example, 
governments have occasionally enacted export 
taxes which made it difficult for members of a 
cartel to sell more abroad than the amount they 
had agreed upon. 

Many cartels have been established by the use 
of patents. A patent is an exclusive right to use 
an invention, granted by a national government. 
The owner of the patent may allow others (li- 
censees) to make use of it. Restrictions upon the 
kind or amount of firoducts which a licensee may 
make, the territories in which he may sell, or the 
prices which he shall charge are often included 
in patent license agreements. Wlien a single com- 
pany controls so many patents that others cannot 
operate in the same industry without licenses, the 
conditions imposed in these licenses may prevent 
competition as effectively as a formal cartel agree- 



ment. Moreover, smce each nation's patents are 
valid only within its own boundaries, a single in- 
vention may be recognized by a series of separate 
patents taken out by the inventor in various coun- 
tries ; and in such cases the right to use the inven- 
tion in eacli country may become the exclusive 
prof)erty of a different company which has bought 
that country's patent from the inventor or has 
obtained the sole license under it. If one company 
owns the British and American patents for one 
invention and a second company owns patents in 
the same two countries for another invention, they 
may exchange their patents, so that one company 
controls both inventions in England and the other 
controls both in the United States. Arrangements 
may be made between particular companies to ex- 
change all patents which they now own and any 
which they may acquire in the future. When large 
concerns which hold many patents make such an 
exchange arrangement, each concern enjoys the 
combined strength of all the patents in the partic- 
ular market where this company receives patent 
riglits from the others. By uniting their patents 
in this way, the dommant concerns in various coun- 
tries may each come to control the patents of an 
industry in certain markets. Thus the markets of 
the world may be divided among the business enter- 
prises which take part in the plan, so that these 
enterprises no longer compete against each other; 
and other companies may be handicapped because 
they are not allowed to use any of the patents be- 
longing to any member of the group. 

The Forces Which Lead People 
To Organize Cartels 

Businessmen usually take part in cartels because 
they wish to reduce competition. The desire to do 
this is wide-spread; for business is done for profit, 
and competition tends to limit the amount of the 
profit which can be made. Some cartels are or- 
ganized by business groups which are already very 
prosperous but see an opportunity to increase their 
prosperity still further. Others are formed in 
order to avoid losses which appear to be probable, 
if competitive forces are not checked. Where 
cartels are taken for granted by public opinion and 
accepted by governments, business readily becomes 
cartelized. Where law and public opinion are op- 
posed to cartels, many businessmen share the pre- 
vailing sentiment that such arrangements are bad 
for the comnuuiity, and other businessmen who 



JULY 2, 1944 



27 



think differently often hesitate from motives of 
prudence to take part in the cartels. 

There are certain typical situations in which 
cartels are peculiarly likely to appear. Some of 
these are as follows : 

(a) The desire of powerful business enterprises 
fo exchange inventions. When a concern has ac- 
quired special knowledge and skill in making a 
particular product, either by engaging in research 
or by buying the discoveries of independent in- 
ventors, it usually patents the part of its knowl- 
edge which is jjatentable and keeps the rest as a 
trade secret. Ordinarily the total knowledge 
which would be useful in an industry is divided 
among various concerns which are operating there. 
Each is likely to want information from the others 
but to be unwilling that the others should use its 
own information to compete against it. Conse- 
quently in granting the right to use its patents and 
in giving others its secret information, each con- 
cern is likely to insist that the inventions thus made 
available shall not be used to make goods for sale 
in competition with it in its own markets. When 
inventions are being exchanged among several 
firms, their mutual insistence on such a principle 
results in an agreement to divide markets wherever 
possible and to set limits upon their competition 
with each other in markets which no one of them 
can be left free to occupy alone. 

(6) The desire of established industries to cope 
with threatened loss of markets. Wlien improved 
processes have been developed, producers who use 
the older methods may lose sales because they can- 
not make the improved product or may lose profits 
because the newer producers undersell them. 
When buyers change their buying habits, pro- 
ducers in some industries may find that the volume 
of goods they can sell is seriously reduced. When 
new plants have been built and old ones expanded 
too rapidly, all members of an industry, including 
those who have not taken part in the expansion, 
may be forced to struggle for a market which is 
too small to buy all that the producers wish to 
sell. Under circumstances like these, the profits 
and even the survival of a large part of an industry 
may be seriously threatened. 

To protect themselves such industries may adopt 
cartel practices. The older producers may unite 
to drive the new ones into bankruptcy or may try 
to limit the speed of the newcomers' growth or may 
persuade them to sell at the old prices in spite of 



(heir lower costs. Prices may be fixed by general 
agreement or the available business may be divided 
in order to avoid the use of price-cutting as a 
means of competing for larger sales. 

Patterns like these appear both in manufactur- 
ing industries and in industries producing pi-imary 
products. However, the problems wliich create 
them are likely to bo more severe for some com- 
modities of agricultural origin than for manufac- 
turing or for mineral production. The uncertain- 
ties of the weather and of croi) conditions in all 
parts of the world make it unusually hard for 
agricultural producers to plan intelligently. It 
is unusually difficult for farmers to change quickly 
to some other line of production, because they are 
numerous, and because their farming knowledge 
is often limited to one or two crops, and because 
farming is not merely an industrial occupation but 
also a way of life. 

The pressure of distress is most wide-spread, 
both for agricultural industries and for other in- 
dustries, in times of general business depression. 
The beginnings of depressions abound in efforts 
to organize cartels. In many cases, however, the 
members of an industry find themselves too help- 
less to counteract the effect of (he decline of all 
business, and the cartel breaks down. Renewed 
efforts when a business revival has begun are more 
likely to succeed, and in such cases the cartel some- 
(imes is credited by its members with an increase 
in prices and sales which is merely a consequence 
of better business conditions throughout the 
economy. 

{c) The desire of industries to cope with gov- 
ernmental trade barriers. In Europe after 1918 
many business enterprises found themselves sopa- 
I'ated by a new national frontier from their previ- 
ous markets. The commercial policies of the new 
governments often established tariffs and other 
barriers to trade at such frontiers and thereby 
handicapped the older concerns while encouraging 
the development of new ones within the national 
territory. The older business enterprises fre- 
quently sought to maintain theii' markets by mak- 
ing special price reductions upon foreign sales, 
sometimes supported by subsidies from their home 
governments. To escape from a struggle for mar- 
kets which took the form of dumping goods abroad, 
raising tariffs, and increasing subsidies, concerns 
in some industries made international agreements 
by which they decided what parts of the European 



28 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



market should be allocated to each enterprise. 
In some cases these European cartels were the be- 
ginnings of larger cartels which later operated 
throughout the world. Non-European concerns 
found it convenient to join a cartel in doing busi- 
ness in Europe, and in return for their admission 
consented to the extension of the agreement to 
cover some or all of their non-European markets. 

( d) The desire to inaintain the exports of h ighly 
specialized, coimtries. When a country's foreign 
trade supplies a large part of its national income 
and when most of its exports are produced by one 
or two industries, there is a strong national in- 
terest in the amounts which those industries sell 
abroad and the prices which they obtain. Em- 
ployment at home, the foreign exchange which 
pays for imported goods, and possibly even the 
taxes received by the government, depend upon 
these amounts and prices. If export prices fall, 
the government may encourage the exporters to 
join an international agreement to maintain prices. 
If foreign sales fluctuate in amount, similar en- 
couragement may be given to an international plan 
for market sharing which will protect the home 
country's export market by limiting the amount or 
proportion of exports from other countries. 

(e) The desire of itidependent concerns to do 
business in cartelized marhets. When a market 
is cartelized, members of the cartel are sometimes 
able to use their combined strength to organize 
boycotts against non-members or to subject such 
concerns to other similar inconveniences. Wlien 
foreign non-members are strong enough to take 
customers away from cartel members and to en- 
danger the cartel's ability to maintain its prices, 
a government which has jurisdiction over a car- 
telized market sometimes comes to the rescue of the 
cartel by establishing tariffs, controls over foreign 
exchange, or other regulations designed to exclude 
the independent concern from the market. Under 
these pressures a business enterprise may join a 
cartel in order to do business in a cartelized area 
without being harassed. 

The Problems Raised by Caetbi-s 

National governments cannot ignore cartels. 
Among the problems of public policy which are 
raised by cartels are the following : 

(a) The relation between cartel restrictions and 
the effort to increase stai^dards of living through- 
out the world. In so far as cartels limit production 



they directly diminish the supply of goods and 
services available for human use. Such activity 
runs counter to governmental efforts to increase 
standards of living. It tends to decrease con- 
sumjation by making commodities less plentiful 
and higher priced. It tends to diminish employ- 
ment because fewer peoj^le are needed to make the 
reduced amount of goods. So far as a cartel keeps 
prices higher than they would otherwise have been, 
consumption of the cartelized commodity is likely 
to be reduced and production is likely to fall even 
if the cartel does not limit output directly. 

( b ) The relation between cartel restrictions and 
the effort to relieve the distress of producing 
groups. In a system of free private enterprise 
the inducement to business concerns to keep them- 
selves efficient is the danger that otherwise their 
costs will rise and their profits will decline. Sim- 
ilarly, if they find themselves in an industry which 
tends to produce more than it can sell, they are 
encouraged to transfer their resources to some 
other industry by the fact that their prices and 
profits decrease. Chances for prices to fall as well 
as rise and for businessmen to lose money as well 
as make it are necessary to make the business sys- 
tem work well. But pi-ices or amounts sold some- 
times decrease so sharply that many producers suf- 
fer severe distress, especially if it is impossible for 
them to save themselves by moving quickly out of 
one industry into another or by making sudden 
and great improvements in their productive 
methods. 

AVhen cartel restrictions intended to maintain 
prices or limit output or divide markets are used 
by a distressed group to lighten its burden, such 
remedies usually retard the transfer of resource,? 
out of the distressed industry and thus preserve 
the condition which created the distress. More- 
over, the gain of the members of the cartel comes 
at the expense of those who buy its products and 
of its employees, whether or not these other groups 
are best able to bear the burden. 

There are more desirable ways of cushioning the 
shock of such adjustments, if aid is considered nec- 
essary. Among them are direct gi-ants of money, 
loans, and technical help to encourage transfers 
of resources to other industries, devices by which 
surplus products are bought by governments for 
distribution to people who would otherwise be too 
poor to obtain them, and various other measures. 
When distress is so great that some form of relief 



JULY 2, 19U 



29 



is regarded as necessary, such possibilities should 
be explored and cartel methods of relief should 
be avoided. 

(e) The relation of cartels to the international 
balance of trade. To varying degrees, countries 
which depend largelj- upon their export trade have 
a national interest in maintaining the position 
of their export industries. They are interested 
both in a large volume of exports and in higher ex- 
port prices. As has been pointed out previously, 
the businessmen of these industries may receive 
encouragement from their governments in fixing 
jjrices through cartels or in agreeing upon a di- 
vision of markets which gives them a guaranteed 
amount of exports instead of forcing them to com- 
pete for an uncertain share of the market. But 
though such a program may serve the interests 
of the producer in one country, it usually does so 
at the expense of consumers elsewhere. Moreover, 
the general use of such devices in various indus- 
tries in other countries must mean that the first 
country pays higher prices for its imports and 
therefore needs foreign exchange more than ever. 
Furthermore, a cartel system is likely to retard 
(he rise of new industries within the country, both 
because the people whom the cartel protects have 
less incentive to seek a new occupation and because 
foreign cartels which control other industries will 
often use their power to prevent the appearance of 
new competitors. For this reason the cartel sys- 
tem makes it difficult for a country to escape from 
its dependence upon one or a few industries by 
developing new types of activity. 

Where a country's prosperity is threatened by 
changes in its exports of a few commodities, there 
is need to discover ways of meeting the problem 
which offer more promise of solving it and create 
fewer difficulties for other nations than do cartels. 

{d) The relation of cartels to co'tmnercial pol- 
icy. One of the most important policy questions 
which each nation decides is the degree of encour- 
agement it shall give to the imports of foreign 
goods and to the exports of domestic products. 
Decisions about these matters are expressed in tar- 
iffs, export and import quotas, export subsidies, 
and similar regulations. Although no nation to- 
day follows a foreign-trade policy which is wholly 
free from restrictions, there has been a growing 
belief that the barriers to international trade 
which have been built up by the laws of the various 
nations in the last two decades have been excessive 



and unwise. Efforts have been made to reduce 
these barriers by mutual agreement. How far 
this should be done has been determined in each 
country directly by its own government and, in 
democratic countries, ultimately by the people. 

National policies about foreign trade are some- 
times made ineffective by the private policies of 
international cartels. Such a result is particularly 
probable where the government's policy is to en- 
courage access to its markets by enterprises in all 
countries and access by all its exporters to the mar- 
kets of the world. A tariff which admits foreign 
goods without discrimination in favor of any 
country may be ineffective because of a cartel 
agreement which assigns the national market ex- 
clusively to the producers of one foreign country. 
A cartel agreement which reserves the domestic 
market for a domestic producer may have the same 
effect as a prohibitory tariff, even though the gov- 
ernment may have refused to enact such a tariff. 
A government's refusal to place a quota upon im- 
ports or exports may be nullified in practice by a 
cartel's decision to include such a quota in an inter- 
national agreement. 

It is obvious that national policies must not be 
overridden by conflicting private policies. Ways 
of preventing cartels from thwarting the com- 
mercial policies of government must be found. 

(e) The relation of cartels to industrial prog- 
ress. Kapid improvement of industrial methods 
by applied scientific research is an important aim 
of public policy. The exchange of ideas and 
inventions is essential to such progress. Cartel 
agreements have often included arrangements be- 
tween business enterprises to make such exchanges. 
Thereby research has advanced more rapidly than 
would have been possible if each enterprise had 
kept its inventions secret or prevented others from 
using them. But the industrial improvements 
which are made possible by this exchange of 
knowledge have sometimes been delayed by car- 
tels in order to protect the capital values of exist- 
ing plants. Furthermore, the program to ex- 
change information has often been entangled with 
a program to fix prices, and access to the informa- 
tion has often been confined to companies which 
are members of the cartel, so that independent 
concerns have been deprived of the results of most 
of an industry's research. If ways can be found to 
prevent such practices from being associated with 
the exchange of scientific knowledge, the useful- 



30 

ness of this exchange to the community will be 
increased. Methods must be sought to accomplish 
this result. 

(/) The relation of cartels to national security. 
The strength of the state in time of war depends 
largely upon the vigorous development of its 
industries during peace. Experience during the 
last decade has shown that cartels can sometimes 
be used by an aggressive government to retard the 
industrial development of other nations by pre- 
venting the erection of new plants, by limiting the 
output of existing plants, and by withholding the 
right to make use of new scientific discoveries. 
Safeguards against such practices must be found. 

Government Polict Toward Cartels 

The governments of the world have followed 
several divergent policies in dealing with cartels. 
The policy of the United States as expressed in 
the Sherman Act and the Webb-Pomerene Act has 
been to prevent combinations in restraint of trade 
which affect the American domestic market or 
which impose restrictions upon American export- 
ers against their will. However, subject to these 
limits, American exporters are free to combine 
with each other under the supervision of the Fed- 
eral Trade Commission when they make sales in 
foreign markets, in order that they may not be at 
a disadvantage in competing against foreign com- 
binations. Early in 1943, when authority for the 
President to make trade agreements was renewed, 
the Congress adopted an amendment to the Trade 
Agreements Act which singled out cartels for spe- 
cial attention. The author of this amendment de- 
clared on the floor of Congress that its purpose 
was to serve notice that the Congress is opposed 
to cartel operations. 

In most of continental Europe, cartels have been 
lawful, and governments have attempted to reg- 
ulate rather than to prevent their restrictive ac- 
tivities. In France, a criminal statute which ap- 
peared to prohibit monopolistic practices was 
interpreted by the courts in such a way as to au- 
thorize most cartel activity. In Germany, re- 
strictive cartel activities were not forbidden, but 
in 1923 a government agency was given the right 
to supervise them in order to prevent actions con- 
trary to the public interest. Subsequently, the 
Nazis greatly increased the authority of the gov- 
ernment over the cartels and used these bodies as 
agencies to carry out government policies. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

Within the British Empire there has been con- 
siderable difference of policy toward cartels. In 
England agreements to control x^rices and produc- 
tion have been permitted, but the law has for- 
bidden business gi-oups to coeice their rivals. 
Some of the British Dominions have enacted laws 
which resemble the antitrust laws of the United 
States. Canadian law, for example, provides for 
the investigation of business combinations and 
agreements and for punitive measures where there 
are restrictions contrary to the public interest. 

Issues as to Fuixtre Policy 

Several important questions of policy toward 
cartels await decision. 

The first of these is whether our future handling 
of the cartel problem shall depend, as heretofore, 
exclusively ufjon our own governmental machinery 
and shall carry out a policy which we have deter- 
mined separately for ourselves, or whether we 
shall join with otlier nations in working out a 
common program of action and in putting it into 
effect by cooperative means. If the latter alter- 
native were chosen, an attempt to develop prin- 
ciples on which the various nations could agi-ee 
would be essential, and each country might find it 
necessary to make some changes in its pre-war 
policy. An intermediate course of action is pos- 
sible in which we and other countries would act 
together in dealing with parts of the problem 
about which we agree but would reserve our free- 
dom to follow different policies in other respects. 
For example, agreement might be reached to for- 
bid cartels to restrict production, but the different 
countries might disagree about whether or not 
cartels should be permitted to withhold the re- 
search of their members from use by non-members. 
The latter question would then be dealt with by 
each country in accord with its own policies. 

Closely related to the question of whether we 
act alone is the question as to the direction of our 
future policy, in so far as this policy is not to be 
regarded as already determined by the Sherman 
Act and the Webb-Pomerene Act. Diverse opin- 
ions as to future policy toward cartels are being 
advanced by private groups here and abroad. 
They include complete abolition of cartels, regula- 
tion of the structure and practices of such groups, 
and active fostering of cartels as the typical 
method of organizing post-war international 
commerce. 



JULY 2, 1944 



31 



Li developing our post-war policy we must de- 
cide not only the general direction of our progi-am 
but also whether there are to be any exceptions to 
it and, if so, in what fields. Among the industries 
for which claims to exception must be examined 
are international transportation and communica- 
tion industries, such as aviation, shipping, cable, 
and radio, some of which are regulated domes- 
tically as public utilities; industries bearing upon 
military security, such as munitions; industries in 
which a natural resource may soon be exhausted, 
such as certain minerals; industries which are lim- 
ited in size and regulated in order to protect i3ub- 
lic health and morals, such as the production and 
sale of narcotics; and certain industries producing 
agricultural commodities which sometimes suffer 
from market fluctuations so severe as to cause 
wide-spread distress. If it is decided that the 
special circumstances of any of these industries 
justify types of restriction which are not generally 
acceptable, a question will arise whether these 
restrictions should be established and administered 
by private agreement or whether, alternatively, in- 
tergovernmental agreements should be used. 

If in the post-war world cartels are permitted 
to operate abroad in ways which are forbidden in 
this country, issues will arise about our policy 
toward the operations of American exporters in 
foreign cartelized markets and toward the im- 
portation of commodities which are controlled by 
foreign cartels. It will be necessary to determine 
what steps this Government should take to prevent 
the foreign cartel from destroying the independent 
American exporter, and what steps we should take 
to assure the United States an adequate supply of 
foreign cartelized goods at reasonable prices. 

Certain specific proposals as to policy have been 
made. It has been suggested that governments 
agree to f)i"ohibit such practices as price-fixing, 
restriction of output or exjoorts, allocation of mar- 
kets, and suppression of new inventions ; and that 
each government undertake to enforce this agree- 
ment within its own jurisdiction. Modifications 
of national laws and international conventions gov- 
erning patents have been proposed in order to pre- 
vent the use of patents for restrictive purposes 
and to make new inventions more widely available. 
Interchange of research which has been sponsored 
by governments has also been suggested. It has 
been proposed that in those special cases in which 
control over prices and output would serve a public 



purpose, international agreements for such control 
should be made between governments instead of 
between private business enterprises. It has been 
suggested that an international agency be estab- 
lished to help carry out such a program by keeping 
a record of international private agreements and 
of the structure and control of international com- 
l)ines and by investigating complaints of restric- 
tive cartel activity in order to recommend correc- 
tive measures to the participating governments. 
Such an agency, it is suggested, might also promote 
the interchange of new scientific discoveries and 
industrial methods and might, from time to time, 
recommend further steps toward an agreed eco- 
nomic policy among the nations as to trade prac- 
tices. 

Public discussion of the problems raised by car- 
tels and of the different ways of dealing with them 
is necessary in order that a sound national policy 
may be evolved with public support. In this field, 
as in other aspects of post-war policy, the only 
.sound course is to begin by obtaining agreement 
upon broad principles which determine our gen- 
eral direction ; then to explore alternative means ; 
and finally to take action where we can agree upon 
a practical program, while leaving to future ex- 
perience and discussion the matters which are not 
yet clear. 



^ THE FOREIGN SERVICE ^ 

Regulations, Orders, and Instructions 
Relating to the Foreign Service 

On June 26, 1944 the President issued Executive 
Order 9452 authorizing the Secretary of State to 
prescribe such regulations and issue such orders 
and instructions relating to the duties of officers 
and employees of the Foreign Service of the United 
States and the transaction of their business as he 
may deem conducive to the public interest: ^'■Pro- 
vided, however, that the authority granted by this 
order shall not be exercised in any case in which 
the President is specifically authorized by law to 
prescribe regulations with respect to a particular 
subject." 

The Secretary of State is authorized also "to 
prescribe the form and the manner of publication 



32 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



of nil regulations, orders, and instructions pre- 
scribed or issued under authoi'ity of this 
order . . ." 

The full text of the Executive order appears in 
the Federal Register of June 29, 1944, page 7183. 

Consular Offices 

[Released to the press July 1] 

The American mission at Dakar was closed on 
June 30, 1944, and the Foreign Service office there 
reverts to its former status of a Consulate General. 
Admiral William A. Glassford, who was ap- 
pointed on May 26, 1943 by the President as his 
Personal Representative, with the rank of Minis- 
ter, in French West Africa to coordinate and 
supervise American activities in that area, will no 



longer continue in that capacity since the principal 
activities of his mission, which were connected 
with the reliabilitation and recommissioning of 
Frencli naval vessels, have been completed. 

[Released to the press June 30] 

The American Consulate General at Naples has 
been reestablished and will be opened for public 
business July 1, 1944. 

Embassy Rank for American Legation 
at Lisbon 

The American Legation at Lisbon was raised to 
the rank of Embassy on June 20, 1944, on which 
date Mr. E. Henry Norweb presented his creden- 
tials as Ambassador to Portugal. 



' ^ TREATY INFORMATION ^ 



Convention on the Inter-American 
Institute of Agricultural Sciences 

On June 29, 1944 the President of the United 
States ratified the Convention on the Inter- Amer- 
ican Institute of Agricultural Sciences, which was 
opened for signature at the Pan American Union 
on January 15, 1944 and was signed for the United 
States on that date (see Bulletin of Jan. 15, 1944, 
p. 90). 

Military Mission Agreement 
With Ecuador 

[Released to the press June 29] 

In conformity with the request of the Govern- 
ment of Ecuador, there was signed on June 29, 
1944, at 10 :30 a.m., by the Honorable Cordell Hull, 
Secretary of State, and the Honorable Seiior Dr. 
Jose A. Correa, Charge d'Affaires ad interim of 
Ecuador in Washington, an agreement providing 
for the detail of a military mission by the United 
States to serve in Ecuador. 

Tlie agreement will continue in force for four 
years from the date of signature but may be ex- 
tended beyond that period at the request of the 
Government of Ecuador. 



The agreement contains provisions similar in 
general to provisions contained in agreements be- 
tween the United States and certain other Amer- 
ican republics jiroviding for the detail of officers 
of the United States Army or Navy to advise the 
armed forces.of those countries. 

Convention on the Regulation of Inter- 
American Automotive Traffic 

El Salvador 

The American Embassy at San Salvador in- 
formed the Department bj^ a despatch of June 24, 
1944 that the National Legislative Assembly of 
El Salvador has ratified the Convention on the 
Regulation of Inter-American Automotive Traf- 
fic, which was opened for signature on December 
15, 1943 at the F'an American Union and was 
signed for El Salvador on January 6, 1944. De- 
cree No. 61 of June 12, 1944, by which the Na- 
tional Legislative Assembly ratified the conven- 
tion, is published in the Salvadoran D'lario Oficial 
of June 23, 1944, vol. 136, no. 140. It is provided 
m article XXI of the convention that it shall 
come into force for the contracting parties in the 
order of the deposit of their respective rati- 
fications. 



U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE; 1944 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 





J 



J 



H 



1 r 




(T 




VOL. XI, NO. 263 



JULY 9, 1944 



/zi f/iis issue 



STATE DEPARTMENT AID TO CULTURAL EXCHANGE WITH CHINA 
By Willys R. Peck *-fr*&-&-ir-irir -d -h it 

UNITED STATES POLICY RELATING TO OPIUM 

By George A. Morlock •i^-di^'f-ii-iiri^tciti! 



^A^NT o^ 




'•TES 



JUL2B 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

BULLETIN 




July 9, 1944 



The Department of State BULLE- 
TIN, a weekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Office nf Public Informa- 
tion, Division of Research and Publi- 
cation, provides the public and inter- 
ested agencies of the Government icith 
information on developments in the 
field of foreign relations and on the 
work of the Department of State and 
the Foreign Service. The BULLETIN 
includes press releases on foreign policy- 
issued by the White House and the De- 
partment, and statements and addresses 
made by the President and by the Sec- 
retary of State and other officers of the 
Department, as well as special articles 
on various phases of international af- 
fairs and the functions of the Depart- 
ment. Information concerning treaties 
and international agreements to which 
the United States is or may become a 
party and treaties of general inter- 
national interest is included. 

Publications of the Department, 
cumulative lists of which are published 
at the end of each quarter, as well as 
legislative material in the field of inter- 
national relations, are listed currently. 

The BULLETIN, published ivith the 
approval of the Director of the Bureau 
of the Budget, is for sale by the Super- 
intendent of Documents, United States 
Government Printing Office, Washing- 
ton 25, D. C, to whom all purchase 
orders, with accompanying remittance, 
should be sent. The subscription price 
is $2.75 a year; a single copy is 10 
cents. 







ontents 



American Republics Pase 
Visitors to the United States: 

Guatemalan Pediatrician 53 

Mexican Hematologist 53 

Director of Uruguayan Hospital 54 

Canada 

Changes in Travel Regulations Between the United States 

and Canada . 52 



Europe 

Visit of General Charles de Gaulle to United States ... 47 

Sweden To Represent Finnish Interests in United States . . 50 

Far East 

Seventh Anniversary of the Japanese Attack on China: 
Telegram From President Roosevelt to Generalissimo 

Chiang Kai-sliek 35 

Statement by the Secretary of State 35 

General 

Working Together: Address by the Under Secretary of 

State 44 

Limiting the Production of Opium: Statement bj' the Secre- 
tary of State 47 

United States Policy Relating to Opium: By George A. 

Morlock 48 

International Conferences, Commissions, Etc. 

Mexican - United States Agricultural Commission 53 

Treaty Information 

Military-Service Agreement, Brazil and Great Britain. . . 55 

Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences 55 

The Department 

State Department Aid to Cultural Exchange With China: 

By Willys R. Peck 36 

Appointment of Officers 54 

The Foreign Service 

Consular Offices 51 

Publications 55 

Legislation 55 



Seventh Anniversary of the Japanese Attack on China 

TELEGRAM FROM PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT TO GENERALISSIMO CHIANG KAI-SHEK 



[Released to the press July 6] 

The President of the United States has sent the 
following telegram to Generalissimo Chiang Kai- 
shek on the occasion of the seventh anniversary of 
the attack on China by Japan : 

"On this seventh anniversary of your country's 
resistance against the brutal and uni^rovoked at- 
tack of the JajDanese aggressor, the entire Ameri- 
can i^eople do honor to the spirit of the Chinese 
nation. Through seven long years the people of 
China, under your steadfast leadership, have dedi- 
cated themselves to the cause of freedom with 
heroism and determination undaunted by increas- 
ing trials and sacrifices. China's example has 
been an inspiration to all of the United Nations. 



"The rising tide of victories in Europe and the 
Far East is hastening the day when Chinese and 
Allied armies will sweep the invader from your 
country and China will assume its rightful role 
in the common task of building peace and pros- 
perity for all. 

"We rejoice in the deep and understanding 
friendship between our two peoples, long tested 
by the years and now proven and cemented on 
the field of battle. That friendship and the close 
fellowship of all the United Nations must be the 
basis of the fundamental goodwill and mutual 
trust that can alone assure the future welfare of 
mankind. 

Franklin D Roosevelt" 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY OF STATE 



[Released to the press July 6] 

Seven years ago today the Chinese nation made 
its historic stand against the savage onslaught of 
the Japanese tyrant. By that act and by the 
heroic tenacity with which they have since car- 
ried on in the face of incredible difficulties and 
jDrivations the Chinese have won the resjDect and. 
admiration of all freedom-loving peoples. 

On this day especially the minds and hearts of 
Americans are with the brave people and defend- 
ers of China in their dark hour of trial. To them 
we renew the solemn pledge of our unfailing sup- 



port and of our faith in the indomitable spirit 
which will carry them through their terrible 
ordeal. 

The recent victories of the United Nations in 
both the EuroiDean and Asiatic theaters give 
heartening assurance that the great task in which 
China has struggled so long and valiantly will soon 
enter its final phase. "VVe are proud that, in the 
successful conclusion of the war and in the build- 
ing of a democratic peace, we shall have by our 
side our great and good friend, the Chinese 
nation. 



35 



36 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



State Department Aid to Cultural Exchange With China 



By WILLYS R. PECK ■ 



"Consiilation having been had with the Chief of 
Staff of the Army, I find that : 

"(1) The defense of China is vital to the de- 
fense of the United States ;" 

Opening with these words, the President in a 
li-tter of May 6, 1941 to the Secretary of War au- 
thorized the Secretary to transfer to China certain 
defense articles set forth in an annexed schedule. 
This action was taken in accordance with the Lend- 
Lease Act of March 11. 1941. 

During those summer months of 1941, while ma- 
terial aid was being sent to China over the Burma 
Road, the Department of State developed aid to 
China in the fields of education, technical skills, 
and publications. One of the dislocations eau-sed 
by four years of invasion had been the disappear- 
ance of ordinary means of travel and mail com- 
munications within China and between China and 
the rest of the world. On July 26, 1941 this Gov- 
ernment proclaimed a "freezing order" against 
Japanese funds. At the request of the Chinese 
Government this order was extended to include 
Chinese funds as well. It was not the intention, 
however, of either the Chinese or the American 
Government that there should be any freezing of 
the intellectual exchanges between Americans and 
Chinese. The Department devised ways to keep 
these exchanges active. 

By November the basic operations had been 
planned and matters had progressed so far that the 
Secretary of State, with the President's approval, 
a-sked the Director of the Bureau of the Budget for 
an allotment of funds. He pointed out that China 
had been fighting for over four years and that the 
emergency definitely called for the beginning of a 
cultural-relations program with that country. An 
initial alhjtment to start the project was made by 
the President in a letter to the Secretary of the 
Treasury dated January 14, 1942, by which time 
the United States and China had become associated 
in the war. It may be admitted frankly that this 

'The author <if tliis arliole is a Foreign Service officer 
who was for maii.v .vciirs Counselor of tlie Americun Em- 
Ijassy in China and wa.s later American Minister to Thai- 
land. As .Special Assistant in the Office of I'uhlic Infor- 
mation he has heen assiKned duties in the cultural ex- 
change with Cliiiia. 



idea, originating months before we ourselves were 
in the fight, was prompted by American sympathy 
for the Chinese in their struggle against Japan. 
The Chinese people had endured bitter sufferings 
at the hands of the Japanese. They were not in a 
position to take full part in a reciprocal program 
of cultural relations like the programs operating in 
the Western Hemisphere. This might well come 
later. At this time, a helping hand from one ally 
to another and the restoration, as far as possible, of 
pre-hostility intellectual relations with our coun- 
try was needed. The Chinese Ambassador at 
Washington heartily approved the effort. As 
early as June 1941 the American Ambassador at 
Chungking, wlio has warmly supported the plan 
from the beginning, rejjorted that he had dis- 
cus.sed with prominent Chinese officials a proposal 
that the American Government should offer to 
send American technical specialists to China. He 
had the impression that such an offer would be 
welcomed. 

The object of this cultural-relations program 
with China is to assist China in those cultural ac- 
tivities that have been imiieded by the Japanese 
hostilities. 

When we entered the war, for example, there 
were about 1,800 Chinese students in the United 
States. They represented a large investment of 
money, time, and talent. If the United States had 
1,800 young men and women with sufficient knowl- 
edge of the Chinese language to take up college 
education in Chinese universities, it would regard 
them as an extraordinary asset. In China's case 
these students were counted upon to help in the 
reconstruction of China after the war. Many of 
them had been plunged into financial difficulties by 
exchange restrictions or by the wiping out of their 
remittances from China. Necessary steiDS had to 
be taken to provide them with subsistence and the 
means of completing their education. The Chinese 
(iovernment set up an organization to take care 
of some of these students, and the State Depart- 
ment began at once to give scholarships to others. 
Up to the present time the Department has given 
monthly grants to approximately 400 different 
persons. About IGO are on the rolls at one time. J 



JULY 9, 1944 



37 



Here are comments on a few of the students who 
have been given scholarships. A professor at the 
University of Chicago says of Mr. K. C. S. : 

"He is a hard-working student, has an excellent 
background and considerable experience in scien- 
tific and quantitative sociology. He has made a 
very good impression at the University of 
Chicago." 

A professor at Pomona College, California, says 
of Mr. B. T. : 

"He is one of the most brilliant students that I 
have had in the last several years. His work is 
thorough, promptly done, and accurate. He has 
an unusual amount of initiative." 

A faculty member at the State University of 
Iowa writes of Mrs. F. : 

"She has been doing her thesis research for the 
Master of Science degree under my direction, and 
has, in addition, been serving as senior assistant 
in quantitative analysis. In this work she has 
been in sole charge of laboratory sections, and has 
handled the students with efficiency, tact, deci- 
sion and self-reliance. Her scholastic work has 
been excellent, and if continued at the present 
level, should rank with that of our very best grad- 
uate students." 

Comments such as these could be quoted at 
length. For the sake of China's development and 
for the sake of our relations with that country 
it was preferable that these students complete 
their education, rather than that they leave col- 
lege and support themselves by work. Many 
wished to return to China, but transportation and 
financial difficulties prevented all but a very few 
from making the journey. 

Here is a letter from a student who received a 
scholarship to study at Iowa State University. It 
depicts well the general reaction of these young 
people : 

"I was awarded a State Department scholarship 
for the period of July 1942 to April 1943. This 
award enabled me to complete my Ph.D. degree 
in Civil Engineering in the State University of 
Iowa and to join two honorary fraternities in 
science and engineering, which, before receiving 
the grant, I was unable to do because of my finan- 
cial condition. Now I have completed my educa- 
tion and I am going to work with the Committee 
on Wartime Planning for Chinese Students in the 



United States. .1 shall always be grateful for 
having received this grant and shall try to make 
the best use of this award so that I shall not be 
the only one benefited by it, but my country and 
the people of Cliina as well." 

The Department has given special scholarships 
to between thirty and forty students, and it has 
provided opportunities for their practical train- 
ing in Government agencies or in private institu- 
tions. The Soil Conservation Service of the De- 
partment of Agriculture has trained a number of 
students in the making of maps from aerial sur- 
veys; the Bureau of Reclamation of the Interior 
Department and the Tennessee Valley Authority 
have given training in hydraulic engineering; the 
Herman Briggs Memorial Hospital at Ithaca, 
New York, received a Chinese surgeon for train- 
ing in thoracic surgery. These are merely 
examples taken from a long list. 

Another special development in the training 
has been the appointment of four Chinese men 
and one woman to teaching positions in the school 
systems of Springfield, Massachusetts; Lincoln, 
Nebraska; Bronxville, New York; Philadelphia, 
Pennsylvania; and the region around San Fran- 
cisco Bay, California. These appointees, known 
as "consultants" or "visiting teachers", are gradu- 
ate students in education. They have been get- 
ting a thorough insight into American educational 
methods and administration of the primary and 
secondary levels; they have also been giving in- 
struction to American pupils in the customs and 
culture of China and have delivered addresses on 
these subjects before social organizations. Re- 
ports from these visiting teachers testify that 
school authorities and all other members of the 
communities where they were living have treated 
them with the greatest cordiality. As acquaint- 
ance has deepened, this cordiality has developed 
into mutual enthusiasm. The following excerpt 
from a letter by a school official is a typical re- 
action to the activities of the Chinese visiting 
teachers : 

"Mr. H. has addressed our elementary school 
faculty and has been invited into various class- 
rooms throughout the schools to talk with stu- 
dents and to assist any of our teaching staff of 
some seventy teachers. The results of these ex- 
periences convince me that this is the true educa- 
tional method of developing better understanding 



38 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



between our United States and the remainder of 
the world. Would that much more of it could be 
done by schools throughout our nation." 

In what way has it been possible for the State 
Department to collaborate culturally with CMna 
behind the barrier of Japanese encii'clement ? 

As we think of transportation capacities in the 
United States the volume of freight carried by 
the Burma Road was little more than a trickle, 
yet when the Japanese closed the road in May 
1942 China's resistance to Japan entered its most 
serious phase. Except for what could be flown in 
by plane China was reduced to what it could 
itself produce in the way of military equipment 
and consumer goods. In the vast task of creating 
a new economic order in west China the Chinese 
Government and the Chinese people must depend 
on their own resources and resourcefulness. The 
China National Aviation Corporation, an Ameri- 
can-Chinese enterprise, has done a magnificent job 
throughout the Japanese hostilities; so has the 
Air Transport Command since we entered the 
war. Both of them fly scheduled flights "over 
the hump" from Assam into China. Their planes 
are needed, however, for passengers and for 
strictly military purposes. 

When the State Department took steps to assist 
the Chinese to complete the training of their own 
future doctors, engineers, scientists, and techni- 
cians here in the United States, it simultaneously 
asked the Chinese Government whether it would 
like to have the services of a nimiber of American 
specialists and, if so, to describe what fields 
should be covered. The Chinese Government can- 
vassed its different agencies and found that they 
wanted about thirty American specialists, as 
follows : 

Ministry of Agriculture : 
Potato and corn breeder 
Insecticide and fungicide specialist 
Veterinarian to produce serum and vaccine 
Animal breeder 
Two soil conservationists 
Animal husbandman 

National Health Administration : 

Two pharmaceutical chemists to produce sulfa drugs 

Sanitary engineer 

Pharmaceutical engineer 

Specialist in biological products 

Chemical engineer 
Ministry of Education: 

Professors of chemical, mechanical, aeronautical, and 
electrical engineering 



Ministry of Economic Affairs : 

Chemical engineer to produce nitric compounds 
Mechanical engineer to improve machine-shop practice 
Petroleum expert 
Metallurgical engineer 

Ministry of Communications : 

Engineer to assist with long-distance telephones 
Radio engineer 

Ministry of Finance : 

Specialists in paper production and engraving 

Commission on Hydraulic Affairs: 
Hydraulic engineer 

Ministry of Information : 

Journalism : Experts in radio, rewrite, features, and 
photography 

Industrial Cooperatives : 
Three specialists in management. 

This list is significant in the way that it describes 
the range of the Government's activities. The 
entire Chinese Government had been obliged four 
years before to migrate 1,500 miles to the western 
side of the country and set itself up in a new area. 
This region, although comparatively rich in min- 
eral and agricultural potentialities, was undevel- 
oped in the industrial sense of the term. In the 
course of reconstruction, political and military 
centers and factories had been constantly bombed. 
Practically no materials could be obtained from 
outside the coiuitry. Just as the scope of the list 
is an index to the Government's ambitions, so the 
challenge to American technicians is one to appeal 
to the pioneering spirit of Americans. 

The State Department began a nation-wide 
search for qualified sf^ecialists, mainly through 
other Government agencies. The positions offered 
to American technicians were no richly paid sine- 
cures. Salaries offered were intended merely to 
insure against financial loss. Transportation ex- 
penses were to be met by the Department, and a 
small allowance was given each man to meet extra 
expenses arising from service abroad. The Chi- 
nese paid the travel expenses in China. They also, 
in most cases, supplied food and lodging. Even 
then the daily allowance was more than swallowed 
up by the constantly rising prices of other necessi- 
ties. If travel outward was by sea, there was a 
six weeks' voyage to India, by no means devoid of 
danger. Living and traveling in China are at , 
their best uncomfortable and a trial to the unac- 
customed, whether Chinese or Americans. In re- 
ality the positions offered to these successful tech- 
nicians were distinctly wartime duties. 



JULY 9, 1944 



39 



Up to the present time, after searching investi- 
gation, 22 men who volunteered for these posts 
have been appointed. Eleven have come back to 
the United States. Two of them, having felt that 
worthwhile programs had not been set up, returned 
before their contracts expired. One is on his way 
to China. One died in China. Nine are now in 
China. From two to four additional specialists 
are in process of being selected, the number de- 
pending on the desires of the Chinese authorities. 

Here are some of the things these Americans 
have been able to accomplish for China : 

A specialist lent by the Soil Conservation Serv- 
ice of the Department of Agi-iculture conducted an 
expedition in northwest China, covering 6,000 
miles in 7 months, as far as the borderlands of 
Tibet and the desert of Gobi. Eight Chinese tech- 
nicians accompanied him, and the Chinese Govern- 
ment met the high costs of the entire expedition, 
which made exhaustive investigations and collec- 
ted data relating to soil conservation and utiliza- 
tion. Before his return to the United States this 
specialist submitted to the Chinese Government a 
50-page preliminary report that ended with five 
recommendations for action. The Chinese Min- 
ister of Agriculture and Forestry said to him, in a 
letter, after his return : "Your last year's service 
in China has laid the foundation of China's water 
and soil conservation work." 

Another official lent by the Soil Conservation 
Service arrived in China in January 1944 and is 
working on investigations and recommendations 
in the field of soil-erosion prevention. He is, in- 
cidentally, greatly interested in the dehydration 
of foods. At a welcoming dinner given by the 
Minister of Agriculture, he opened a can of de- 
hydrated sweet potatoes. The tasting of this 
American product resulted speedily in official ap- 
proval for an extensive project of food dehydra- 
tion. Another Department of Agriculture special- 
ist is engaged in finding what varieties of white 
potatoes are most suitable for different areas in 
northwest China. The Chinese Government at- 
taches the greatest importance to his work, believ- 
ing that the successful cultivation of potatoes will 
help in preventing famines and in colonizing vast 
areas now uninhabited or spai-sely inhabited. In 
December 1943, after one year's operations, this 
specialist submitted to the Chinese Government a 
long report of his investigations, which included 
experiments with 52 varieties of potatoes brought 



from the United States. He expects, after his re- 
turn to the United States, to prepare a textbook 
for the use of Chinese agricultural technicians and 
colleges. 

An official of the Bureau of Animal Industry 
of our Department of Agriculture spent nine 
months traveling in remote areas studying live- 
stock production and formulating recommenda- 
tions for the Ministries of War, Agriculture, and 
Communications on animal breeding and trans- 
portation. He visited the far northwestern prov- 
ince of Chinghai and made a report to the gov- 
ernor on livestock production there and the pos- 
sibilities of its improvement. At the request of 
the Government of India he traveled in India for 
two months studying similar problems and sub- 
mitting his recommendations. 

The head of the department of animal hus- 
bandry of a western state college covered long 
distances in west China, including the frontier 
provinces of Sikang and Ninghsia, reporting on 
range problems and animal production. After 
his return he collected and sent to China through 
the State Department an assortment of grass 
seeds, for experimental planting, obtained from 
all over the United States. This collection is be- 
lieved to be the largest of this sort ever made. 

The two specialists last listed are preparing for 
publication at the expense of the State Depart- 
ment a book of information concerning Chinese 
livestock types and conditions, based upon their 
researches, for distribution in China. An asso-, 
ciate veterinary pathologist from another state 
college is now in China setting up methods for 
the prevention of animal diseases. 

An official, lent by the Imperial Valley Irriga- 
tion and Drainage Project in California, has made 
inspections over wide areas in west China and has 
advised the Chinese Government on irrigation and 
jjower and similar enterprises. Officials of Chi- 
nese national engineering agencies and provincial 
officials accompanied him. Their presence made 
it jDOssible to analyze, on the spot, the problems 
involved in each project. 

The head of a college mechanical engineering 
department has spent a year in China visiting 
most of the Chinese universities that give courses 
in engineering. He has also inspected factories 
and engineering projects and has given the Chi- 
nese the latest methods of training men to impart 
job instruction. He carried credentials from the 



40 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



American Society of Mechanical Engineers and 
has established what promises to become a very 
fruitful relationshi)) between that organization 
and the Chinese Institute of Engineers. 

A machine-shop supervisor, with responsibility 
in this country for directing 20,000 workmen, has 
personally visited the larger factories in China 
and has given instruction in machine-shop prac- 
tice. A specialist with long experience lent by 
one of the telephone and telegraph companies has 
prepared for the Chinese Government, after in- 
vestigations on the spot, a program for the na- 
tional expansion of China's loug-distance tele- 
phone system. 

Specialists in the dissemination of news by radio 
and the press have served the Chinese Ministry of 
Information during the emergency situation by 
lending technical assistance. 

Two specialists in management prepared a plan 
which the Chinese Government has used in im- 
proving the efficiency of the vast network of 
Chinese Industrial Cooperatives. 

Related to the task of getting things done in 
China is the job of getting technical information 
in bulk into the country and of bringing to the 
knowledge of the western world the latest findings 
of Chinese research workers. In these operations 
the role of the English language is most important. 

The wide-spread knowledge of English in China 
can no doubt be attributed partly to the fact that 
two of the gi'eatest factors in China's trade, the 
British Commonwealth of Nations and the United 
States, both employ that language. It may also be 
ascribed to the fact that in the last 75 years several 
thousand Chinese have come to the United States 
for their education. We take it as a matter of 
course that a large proportion of the educated 
classes in China can read material printed in 
English. 

Many persons in China who understand English 
are teachers or are Government employees in 
teaching or in other professions ; that is, they are 
in the salaried classes. During the seven years of 
Japanese invasion, men of this type have been- 
subjected to two special hardships: economic, be- 
cause of the .scarcity of consumer goods and in- 
flation ; and intellectual, caused by the dwindling 
of the normal flow of printed material from 
abroad. To alleviate somewhat the second hard- 
ship the Department very early began to send to 
China microfilmed copies of technical and learned 



journals. Over a dozen centers equipped with 
projectors and readers have been set up where 
these microfilms may be used. Microfilm is im- 
pressive. On a hundred-foot strip weighing about 
one pound — packed for shipment — can be recorded 
twelve pounds of books. Any number of positives 
can be made from a negative. Whereas a book 
serves only one person at a time, microfilmed copies 
can serve an indefinite number of persons. To 
overcome the impossibility of shipping large quan- 
tities of books, microfilms seem to be a most efficient 
device. Yet microfilms are, for ordinary readers, 
a most unsatisfactory substitute for printed books 
and magazines, especially in west China, where 
the electric current necessary for the use of pro- 
jectors is generally weak and variable in voltage. 
Reading microfilms is irksome and hard on the 
eyesight. Nevertheless, this method of learning 
about the latest scientific advances is much better 
than nothing. For example, excerpts may be 
copied in China. There are three separate services 
distributing mimeographed selections from the 
microfilms. For research jjurposes, of course, mi- 
crofilms are admirable. The State Department 
makes a practice of filling requests for special 
articles. For such service research workers have 
expressed deep gratitude. 

A powerful stimulus to research lies in the pos- 
sibility of sharing results with the scientific world. 
The State Department decided that it could be of 
aid to research workers with education in English 
by awarding small honorariums to such jjersons for 
translating i-esearch papers recently produced 
that might be of outstanding merit. A committee 
was set up in China in 1943 to select the papers. 
Up to this time 70 honorariums have been paid 
for translations. The translators and authors of 
some of these papers have had the further gratifi- 
cation of having 29 of them accepted for publica- 
tion by learned journals in the United States. 
Another translation project to strengthen cultural 
bonds between the United States and China during 
the war is the forthcoming translation into 
Chinese of approximately twenty books about the 
United States. These translation projects have 
the character of reciprocity which the State De- 
partment regards as the core of desirable cultural 
relations with other countries. 

Life on the temporary campuses of refugee uni- 
versities in west China has very depressing 
aspects. The scarcity of clothing and other ar- 



JULY 9, 1944 



41 



tides of ordinary use and the inflation have made 
the daily living of faculty members very hard. 
It is they who, in the practice of their professions, 
have especially felt China's isolation, because they 
had been accustomed to keep up their contact with 
other countries through foreign literature, the 
supply of which has practically ceased. Text- 
books, Chinese as well as foreign, have become 
more and more inadequate in quantity, as have 
laboratory equipment and even ordinary station- 
ery. Although the number of young people eager 
to enroll in colleges has even increased during the 
hostilities, some members of the teaching staffs 
have been forced to resign in order to earn more 
money to support their families. The work of 
those remaining has thereby been increased. 

Clearly it is the professors and instructors in 
the Chinese universities, whether or not they speak 
English, on whom we must largely rely if we 
hope to realize the ambition that American and 
Chinese youth shall grow up with a feeling of 
mutual acquaintance and confidence. The State 
Department felt that the temi:)orary isolation of 
Chinese and American colleges from each other 
might be diminished if some Chinese faculty 
members were to visit the United States. 

In 1943 the State Department extended invita- 
tions through the American Embassy to six 
Chinese national universities to nominate mem- 
bers of their respective faculties to come to the 
United States as guests of the Department for 
about one year.' The Department said it hoped 
that the visits would benefit the visitors them- 
selves by enabling them to pursue further studies 
in their particular subjects and that their institu- 
tions would benefit through the contact that the 
visitors would have had in the United States. 
The visitors, it was observed, would have oppor- 
tunities to give lectures, speeches, or interviews in 
which they could speak of China's educational 
needs. 

In preparation for the visitors, officers of the 
Department wrote informally to numerous per- 
sons and institutions telling them about the visits 
and asking for eollaboration in making them 
profitable. Wlien the professors arrived in Wash- 
ington they were consulted in regard to their 
plans. When decisions had been made the State 
Department wrote letters of introduction and ar- 
ranged railway transportation. There is no ques- 
tion but that these six visitors have been benefited 

59S288 — 44 2 



by their sojourn in the United States. Habits of 
living in this country, as compared with China, 
are untouched by the war. The professors recu- 
perated in health while they were profiting profes- 
sionally from the experience. No heavy duties 
have been imposed on the Chinese professors. 
No attempt has been made to utilize their pres- 
ence in the United States for any ulterior purpose. 
Four of these Chinese guests were invited to take 
part in a conference on Chinese subjects conducted 
by the Harris Foundation at the University of 
Chicago. The papers prepared by these and 
other Chinese participants were published in a 
book entitled Voices From Unoccupied China. 

These visits have been so profitable and agi-ee- 
able to all concerned that six additional invita- 
tions have been sent out.^ The new party of visi- 
tors will include two university presidents and a 
representative of the Academia Sinica, which cor- 
i-esponds to our own National Academy of Sci- 
ences, all of whom have been selected by their re- 
spective institutions. All of the 12 representatives 
chosen in China are well versed in the English 
language, and, with few exceptions, have spent 
considerable time in American educational insti- 
tutiojis. The State Department suggested that 
English-speaking men be chosen on this occasion, 
so that Americans might get, at first hand, infor- 
mation about conditions in China. From the 
viewpoint of cultural relations, contacts are even 
more important when the educators of two coun- 
tries have no language in common, and this is a 
point the Department keeps constantly in mind. 
The 12 invitations to China have brought to this 
country two sociologists, a philosopher, a political 
scientist, a physiologist, a specialist in interna- 
tional relations, a geographer, a botanist, a neuro- 
physiologist, a chemist, a specialist in Chinese lit- 
erature, and a physicist. 

To return this exchange in the academic sphere 
the State Department has made it possible for a 
prominent American geographer, who is also an 
author and a college professor, to visit Chinese 
universities. He is answering requests for lec- 
tures on subjects in his field and is in other ways 
promoting solidarity between academic groups in 
our two nations. This representative received his 
appointment as visiting professor from the Na- 

» Bxn.i.ETiN of June 12, 1^3, p. 522. 

' BuiXETiN of June 10, 1944, p. 537, and June 17, 1944, 
p. 564. 



42 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



tional Academy of Sciences, as well as from the 
State Dei:)artment, and bore gi'eetings from the 
Academy to the Academia Sinica of the Chinese 
Government. 

Tlie outlook for friendly relations between two 
countries is likely to be improved to the extent 
that the peoj^le of each, particularly the intelli- 
gent and influential people, come to understand 
each otlier. The process may be thwarted as in 
Axis countries by a few individuals who by hook 
or by crook liave acquired power to control the 
thoughts and actions of their fellow citizens, but 
in the democratic era after the war personal re- 
actions will become of ever-increasing importance 
in determining the character of international 
relations. 

With this principle in mind the State Depart- 
ment hopes that persons of other countries who 
come to the United States for education and train- 
ing will acquire not only the technical information 
they seek but also an acquaintance with our cus- 
toms and national culture and a friendly feeling 
for us as American citizens. In this particular 
phase of our relations with China an officer of the 
State Department has visited most of the colleges 
where large groups of Chinese students are found 
and has personally talked with as many as pos- 
sible. He achieved gratifying results in estab- 
lishing contacts among the Chinese students and 
tlie residents and organizations in different com- 
munities. In the case of Chinese technidans who 
are in training in factories and public utilities 
the State Department made an arrangement for 
an experienced man who speaks Chinese to visit 
such trainees in typical industries, to talk with 
them, and to recommend measures whereby the 
trainees may have pleasant and profitable con- 
tacts with their environment outside of working 
hours. 

In another effort in the same direction, the De- 
partment is preparing a handbook in Chinese con- 
taining infoi-mation that will explain aspects of 
American life that persons newly arrived from 
China might not otlierwise understand. It is 
hoped that the handbook will make their entrance 
into our society easier and pleasanter. 

In corresponding with educators and scientific 
institutions in China the Department frequently 
learns of situations in which small quantities of 
chemicals, a few books, or other cultural materials 
would be of great assistance to such persons and 



institutions in their activities. The meagerness of 
transj^ortation available for such articles has 
hampered the collaboration in which the State 
Department is engaged. It was with deep appre- 
ciation, therefore, that the State Department re- 
ceived the consent of the Vice President to carry 
with him on his plane a limited quantity of these 
materials on his visit to China. ^ Mr. Wallace left 
Washington on Jlay 20, 1944 taking with him over 
90 separate packages, addressed to 43 separate in- 
stitutions scattered over several Chinese provinces. 
Each parcel bore the following statement : "The 
contents of this package are sent to you under the 
program of cultural relations of the Department 
of State of the United States as a small evidence 
of the continuance of the longtime cultural ex- 
changes between our two countries." Every article 
was sent in response to a request or to fill a 
known need. A few items will show the general 
nature of the shipment. Parcels of books and cur- 
rent journals were sent to a dozen universities. To 
a national university went laboratory equipment 
and some supplies for the manufacture of drugs; 
to the Ministry of Education, a collection of col- 
lege catalogs and curriculmn outlines for use in 
developing instruction in animal husbandry ; to 
the governor of a province, copies, illustrated with 
photographs, of the investigations of an Amer- 
ican specialist into the development of the wool 
industry ; to the Chinese Industrial Cooperatives, 
a wide selection of pamphlets, manuals, and charts 
for use in manufacturing without power machin- 
ery ; to the International Cultural Service, electric 
bulbs for microfilm readers; to several institutions, 
about thirty documentary motion pictures; and to 
the American Embassy at Chungking, a set of 
reproductions of American paintings and a collec- 
tion of books and pamphlets for distribution. 

In the spring of 1943 the Chinese Ministry of 
Education informed the Embassy that over a 
hundred 16-millimeter silent projectors were in 
use in provincial and municipal educational sys- 
tems and in other organizations under the Min- 
istry's direction and asked the Embassy to obtain 
educational films from the United States for use 
by such agencies. Among the subjects suggested 
were irrigation, sanitation, medicine, social and 
living conditions, and films for instruction in 
physics, biology, history, and other school studies. 
The Ministry preferred that Chinese titles be 



' Bulletin of June 24, 1944, p. 5SG. 



JULY 9, 1944 



43 



added in the United States. Over twenty films in 
the fields described by the Ministry of Education 
have been selected and are in course of preparation 
with Chinese titles. About one hundred reels are 
being given Chinese sound tracks for general au- 
diences. These depict such subjects as the "Bonne- 
ville Dam", flood control on the Mississippi River, 
the growing of winter wheat, and the sights of 
Washington, D. C. Films that have reached 
China have been favorably received. A picture 
on American plastics was shown at the national 
meeting of the Chinese Institute of Engineers. 
Oliicials in many Chinese Government agencies 
have viewed a group of films on steel production 
in the United States. The War and State Depart- 
ments cooperated in preparing a picture with 
Chinese sound track on the training of Chinese air 
officers in the United States, a copy of which was 
presented to Generalissimo Chiang. Among the 
motion pictures taken to China by the Vice Presi- 
dent were ten dealing with medical, surgical and 
public-health matters, all of which were gifts to 
the Chinese from American hospitals and other 
institutions. 

A pleasant feature of the State Department's 
cultural-exchange activities with China has been 
the interest and enthusiasm it has evoked in the 
United States. When opportunities have been 
presented to American citizens and organizations 
to take part, they have shown genuine pleasure in 
working with the Chinese in building up their 
country. Perhaps this feeling is akin to the re- 
sjDect we feel for an American community whose 
members go out energetically to get for themselves 
good i-oads, good schools, plentiful and clieap 
electricity, a higher standard of living, and pros- 
perous banks. Whatever the reason, it has been 
demonstrated that cultural collaboration with the 
Chinese people needs no urging with the American 
people. 

One of the American specialists in China, for 
example, foimd that a Chinese enterprise particu- 
larly needed a steam hammer and that one would 
have to be made on the spot. On behalf of the 
Chinese he asked that the Department find out 
whether blueprints for such a hammer could be 
obtained and how much they would cost. The De- 
partment referred this inquiry to an American 
firm, the same one that had temporarily released 
the specialist. It soon received a reply that such 
equipment was obsolete in the United States, that 
special plans would have to be drawn at a cost of 



$2,000, and that the firm would defray the cost. 
The blueprints have long since arrived in China. 

Agencies of the Chinese Goverimient are con- 
stantly seeking opportunities for the training of 
young technicians in the diff'ei'ent agencies of this 
Government. Almost invariably-, except when se- 
curity precautions during the war have prevented 
it, officials of the Government have gladly received 
such Chinese trainees even though it meant an 
added responsibility. 

The same desire to cooperate culturally with the 
Chinese is found in business firms, universities, 
societies with national memberships, and even in 
State governments. Mention has been made of the 
welcome that the city school sj'stems gave to Chi- 
nese graduate students as visiting teachers or con- 
sultants. The president of a gi-eat university re- 
cently called at the Department. In the con- 
versation it casually developed that the university 
had found ways to support two promising Chinese 
students whom the war had impoverished. The 
university had also paid for tlie printing of a 
handbook for students, in Chinese, compiled by 
the students themselves. 

An American siDecialist in the standardization 
of serums, who has just arrived in China, took 
with him a collection of laboratory equipment, 
serums, vaccines and bacteriological cultures, and 
copies of all procedures used in the manufactur- 
ing and testing of biologic products. They were 
supplied to him out of surplus stocks by the State 
department of health of which he was a member. 
This collection of articles, which was worth thou- 
sands of dollars, could not have been obtained 
from any other one source. It was all contributed 
gratis for the use of the Chinese. 

The Department's activities desci'ibed in this 
article have overcome many of the wartime ob- 
stacles to Chinese-American educational, scien- 
tific, and technical cooperation. This type of co- 
operation is imjjortant to our joint war against 
Japan because it creates solidarity behind the 
lines. It is vastly important, also, because it pre- 
vents a gap in the century-old cultural interchange 
between American and Chinese organizations and 
citizens. A continuous flow of ideas and persons 
from each country to the other through the war 
period will prevent any set-back to the greatly 
expanded cooiJeration that will begin in the stir- 
ring period of world reconversion and reconstruc- 
tion after the war. 



44 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Working Together 

ADDRESS BY THE UNDER SECRETARY OF STATE » 



[Released to the press July 5] 

Mr. President and Members of the Graduating 
Cl;vss of 1944 : It is a great honor to be invited to 
Kutgers University to participate witli you today 
in your commencement exercises. 

I should like to discuss with you briefly the sub- 
ject of cooperation — that is, the ability of men to 
work together smoothly, eilectively, and harmoni- 
ously. Cooperation is not an abstract, ideal vir- 
tue; it is a vital, practical necessity for success in 
life. It is indispensable to the solution of the 
problems which we as a nation, and you as indi- 
vidual citizens of that nation, will face in the 
years that lie ahead. 

No matter what your talents are, no matter what 
your training has been, or how great your ability, 
you will not make the contribution to your nation 
of which you are capable unless you learn quickly 
and effectively the secret of working with your 
fellowmen in a spirit of tolerance and understand- 
ing and good-will. This has been the great com- 
mon characteristic of our American national lead- 
ers and heroes. It is the very foundation of our 
gi'eatness as a nation. And it is the indispensable 
basis for the momentous effort we are now making 
to preserve our nation's freedom. 

From battle-fronts in all parts of the world new 
and inspiring reports come to ns every day of the 
successes of our armies and the armies of our 
Allies. To the winning of these far-flung victories 
have been devoted the full strength and resources 
of the freedom-loving peoples of the world — the 
energy and courage of our soldiers, sailoi's, and air- 
men, and of our merchant seamen ; the long hours 
of the workers in war factories, in shipyards, and 
on the farms; the skill of our scientists and in- 
ventors in their laboratories; our raw materials — 
coal, iron, copper, and petroleum; our great war 
industries now producing guns and planes in such 
incredible volume ; and finally the hopes and ideals 
of all of us for a decent world where peace and op- 
portunity will be secure for all men. ■ 

We and the other United Nations are fighting 
our brutal enemies with resources and energies of 
staggering size and force. Yet all of this would 
be just so much useless equipment and wasted 
energy had we not, as individuals and as nations, 



learned the vital lesson of team play — each per- 
forming his individual job for the benefit of all. 

Consider the war, for a moment, on the simplest 
level. 

A landing boat approaches the sliore of France. 
Its bottom scrapes on the sand. The ramp falls, 
and a platoon of men advance onto the beach. Un- 
less every man in that platoon can depend on 
every other man to know his individual job and 
to do it effectively and courageously, unless the 
men have complete faith in their commanding 
oificer and he has faith in them — in short, unless 
they can all work together as a single effective 
fighting team, a small strip of beach may remain 
in the hands of the enemy. A small but vital 
step in the invasion may fail. 

For, in the final analysis, what is an invading 
army? It is nothing more than thousands upon 
thousands of small groups of men trained to work 
together, each groujj depending upon all the others 
to do their part in carrying out a common plan of 
attack. 

We are winning the victories which will bring 
this war to a successful conclusion through team- 
work. But this cooperation does not start at the 
battlefronts. Tlie grand strategy of this war is 
a gigantic pattern of cooperation which involves 
our entire nation. 

American Government, labor, and business have 
had to plan together and work together in order 
to turn out in the shortest possible time the best 
possible weapons for our men to use on the battle- 
fronts. It is difficult to realize today that we 
were forced to start practically from scratch, only 
a few short years ago, to marshal a fight- 
ing strength greater than that which our enemies 
have spent nianj^ years building. 

Through our democratic processes we have 
planned together how to use our great resources to 
the best common advantage. We have depended 
on our scientists and inventors to keep pace with 
the technological advances of war; upon our engi- 
neers to plan the mass production of the most 
modern weapons ; and upon the management, fore- 



^ Delivered before the graduating class at Rutgers Uni- 
versity, New Brunswick, N. J., July 5, 1044. 



JULY 9, 1944 



45 



men, and workers of our industries to carry 
tlirough as a team and deliver the tools to our men 
on the battle-fronts. 

Our aircraft factories and shipyards through 
intricate systems of cooperative mass production 
are producing the greatest air fleet and merchant 
fleet in the world. It is easy to forget that when 
this war started neither ships nor planes had ever 
been turned out before by large-scale, mass-pro- 
duction methods. 'We have learned to do this only 
through the most intimate teamwork. The tech- 
nical knowledge of our gi-eat industries has been 
pooled so that the latest techniques could be avail- 
able to all. Engineers, workmen, management, 
and Government all work together to achieve 
miracles of production. 

In these last few years, our farmers, in coopera- 
tion with the Government, have achieved the 
greatest food production in our nation's history. 

All this is a part of the victories we are winning 
today. 

From the first stages of preparation, this gigan- 
tic cooperative effort has cut across many lines 
which in the past have divided men. This nation 
is now working together as a single unit despite 
differences of outlook between geographic sec- 
tions, political parties, economic classes, and re- 
ligious beliefs. And we ai'e, moreover, only one 
of a great groujj of United Nations all working 
together toward the one common goal of victorj'. 

Hitler's strategy of divide and conquer has 
proved an utter failure. Men of different na- 
tionalities, race, color, and creed, are fighting side 
by side today under a single command. Through 
lend-lease and reverse lend-lease, and other forms 
of mutual aid, the United Nations are sharing 
their material resources so that the hardest pos- 
sible blows can be struck against our common 
enemies. 

It has been my privilege to serve in the building 
of our country's defenses since May of 1940, 
when — during the dark days of the fall of 
France — the President called into being again the 
National Defense Advisory Commission. Up 
until that time I had served in large American 
industrial organizations. I found when I started 
to work in Washington that the job to be done 
involved the same cooperation and team play, the 
same give-and-take of ideas, that underlies the 
success of any large business unit. Only now this 
teamwork had to be on a nation-wide basis. 



I could give you countless examples of the way 
in which American business and labor and Govern- 
ment have pulled together to make possible the 
gigantic supply achievements of this country. I 
remember a day in October 1941, for instance, 
just after I had undertaken the direction of our 
lend-lease program. We received an urgent re- 
quest from the Kussians for barbed wire. The 
great battles before Moscow were starting. The 
Russians were desperately short of barbed wire, 
and they needed 4,000 tons urgently. The only 
convoy on which it could sail in time to do any 
good was leaving in two weeks. 

Four thousand tons of barbed wire is enough 
to stretch from Moscow to Sidney, Australia, and 
back again, with a good bit left over. After tele- 
phoning to every possible source in this country 
we had found immediately available only 700 
tons of barbed wire suitable for military purposes. 

In the days that followed, wire mills worked 
24 hours a day; our Army dug down into its 
stocks for us; the British turned over all the 
wire they had in this country. I remember call- 
ing an associate in 0PM late one night and asking 
him if we were going to make it. He stated: 
"It's an impossibility, but we're all staying here 
tonight to make it possible. We'll do it." 

It was done. Wlien the convoy sailed for Russia 
the barbed wire was aboard. 

Let me give you another example of teamwork. 

A few days after the American and British 
forces landed in North Africa, an air raid on one 
of the major ports there seriously damaged the 
electrical equipment needed to run the port. Some 
of the damage could be repaired on the spot, but 
one small part of the equijsment which was abso- 
lutely vital to the working of the whole system 
had been blown to bits. General Eisenhower sent 
a special messenger by plane to Washington. He 
arrived on a Saturday. 

The WPB scoured the country and found only 
one piece of equipment that would do the work. 
It was being made by a lai-ge American electrical 
company on a special rush order for the Navy. 
When the situation was explained to the Navy 
Department they released the equipment because 
the Army's need was even more urgent than their 
own. 

The workei-s in the plant worked night and 
day over the weekend to finish the equipment and 
adapt it to the French electrical system. On Tues- 



46 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



clay the Army officer was able to start back to 
North Africa by plane with the needed equip- 
ment by his side. 

Gentlemen, that is the kind of teamwork be- 
tween Government, industry, labor, and our armed 
services that is making possible the victories we 
are winning today. 

Terrible as is the tragedy of this war it has 
taught us momentous lessons. Although our na- 
tion is vast and diversified we have proved that we 
can still work together as a united whole as we 
have done in every national crisis since we pro- 
claimed our national independence in 1776. 

This lesson we must not forget in the days to 
come. Demobilization for peace is no easier than 
mobilization for war. It will require the patience 
and cooperation of all Americans. AVe can accom- 
plish this transition with the same success as we 
have turned our energies and resources to war 
only if we continue the same full measure of team 
play and mutual confidence. 

This war has taught us another momentous les- 
son. Great nations, too, can work together in 
intimate and fruitful cooperation. The 35 nations 
which compose the United Nations family are win- 
ning this war by planning together and working 
together with a common purpose and a common 
goal. 

This also contains a lesson which we must not 
forget. The future security of the world depends 
upon no one nation alone; it depends upon the 
peace-loving nations of the world learning to work 
together in peace as they have learned to work to- 
gether in war. I have high hopes that the nations 
of the world will be successful in finding a formula 
on which to base that full measure of international 
cooperation through which alone we can main- 
tain peace and security for all mankind. 

I have told you of cooperation on a national 
scale and on an international scale. These same 
principles apply throughout our lives — in what- 
ever tasks we turn our hands to. Many of you 
will doubtless go from this university into the 
armed service of your country. There you will 
find that teamwork and mutual confidence are 
everything. When you return home again after 
victory has been won you will find this same habit 
of working together equally indispensable to your 
own individual success in life. 

Cooperation is far more than an amiable and 
friendly state of mind. It is hard work. There are 



inevitable misunderstandings and set-backs which 
have to be ironed out with patience and tolerance. 
Each of us has his own individual personal pecu- 
liarities, and we must be sympathetic with the pe- 
culiarities and shortcomings of others if we expect 
them to work with us in the same spirit of sym- 
pathy and friendly cooperation. 

A vital element in working together effectively is 
to learn respect for the ideas and principles of your 
fellowmen. If you will give the" other man's point 
of view fair and sympathetic consideration, you 
will find in most cases that he has valid reasons 
for his beliefs just as you have for your own. After 
thrashing the matter out in a full and honest dis- 
cussion you will often find that both of you have 
arrived at a greater common truth. 

That is the way of democratic debate, the princi- 
ple of working together in the shaping of ideas. 
It is the method by which the greatest decisions of 
our nation are made. It is the source of the great 
basic principles ui^on which the structure of our 
national life is founded. 

Men cannot work together unless they respect 
one another, for the philosophy of cooperation is 
based on the dignity and nobility of man. It is an 
American philosophy rooted deep in our demo- 
cratic traditions. The future of your lives and 
the future of your nation depend upon j^our boldly 
carrying forward this great national heritage of 
working together for the common good in a spirit 
of faith and good-will. 

I have just returned fi'om Britain, where it was 
my i^rivilege to see first-hand the tremendous 
striking-power which we and our Allies have mo- 
bilized for victory. I could not begin to describe 
to you the tremendous volume of weaj^ons and 
equipment which we, through our cooperative ef- 
forts, have been able to send overseas for our fight- 
ing men. I could not begin to tell you of the com- 
plexity and magnitude of the gigantic cooperative 
military operations by which our victories are be- 
ing won. 

At the basis of all these great accomplishments 
lies the philosophy of working together. With 
that philosophy to guide us I am confident that we 
shall win this war. But we as a nation cannot for 
a moment become over-confident and thereby cease 
to work together. There are still bitter battles to 
be fought and won before we achieve victoi-y. 
{Continued on next page) 



JULY 9, 1944 

Visit of General Charles de 
Gaulle to the United States 

General de Gaulle arrived at the Washington 
National Airport at 4 o'clock on the afternoon of 
July 6. He was received with full military honors, 
including the Army Air Forces band, three squad- 
rons with colors from Boiling Field, and a bat- 
tery salute of IT guns. After the commanding _ 
officer of the airport escorted him from the plane 
to the Guard of Honor, General de Gaulle was 
greeted by General Marshall, Admiral Eng, Gen- 



47 

eral Arnold, and Lieutenant General Vandegrift. 
The President's aides. General Watson and Rear 
Admiral Wilson Brown, accompanied him from 
the airport to the White House, where he was 
received by the President and members of the 
Cabinet in the 'V^^lite House diplomatic reception 
room. Later the President and General de Gaulle 
had tea on the south portico of the Wliite House, 
after which the General proceeded to Blair House. 
Other conferences were held between the Presi- 
dent and General de Gaulle at noon on July 7 and 
at 11 : 30 on July 8. 



Limiting the Production of Opium 

STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY OF STATE 



[Released to the press July 3] 

House Joint Resolution 241, introduced by the 
Honorable Walter H. Judd, Representative from 
the State of Minnesota, which was approved by 
the President after having been passed unani- 
mously by both the House of Representatives on 
June 5, 1944, and the Senate on June 22, 1944, is in 
line with the long-standing opium policy of the 
United States. This resolution requests the Presi- 
dent to urge upon the governments of those coun- 
tries where the cultivation of poppy plant exists 
the necessity of immediately limiting the pi'oduc- 
tion of opium to the amount required for strictly 
medicinal and scientific purposes. It is hoped 
that the opium-producing countries of the world 
will now cooperate in an international program to 
wipe out drug addiction and the illicit traffic in 
narcotic drugs. 

When the Chinese Government in 1941 prohibi- 
ted the use of smoking opium in China, and the 
British and Netherland Governments on Novem- 
ber 10, 1943 announced their decisions to prohibit 
the use of opium for smoking and to abolish opium 
monoplies in their territories in the Far East 
when those territories are freed from Japanese oc- 
cupation, the way was prepared for the suppres- 
sion of the traffic in smoking opium in those and 
other areas. The provisions of article 6 of the 
Hague Convention of 1912, to which more than 60 
countries are parties, calling for the gradual sup- 
l^ression of the manufacture, the internal traffic in, 
and the use of prepared opium, can now be ful- 



filled. Li its announcement of November 10, 1943 
the British Government warned, however, that the 
success of the enforcement of prohibition will de- 
pend on the steps taken to limit and control the pro- 
duction of opium in other countries. The Judd 
Resolution is a public announcement of the convic- 
tion of the Congress that this World War ought to 
be not an occasion for permitting expansion and 
spreading of illicit traffic in opium but rather an 
opportunity for completely eliminating it. 

The Department of State, having received in- 
structions from the President pureuant to the 
Resolution of the Congress, will undertake to se- 
cure the cooperation of the opium-producing coun- 
tries in the solution of this world problem. 

WORKING TOGETHER— Conf/HHfrf from p. ,)6 

There are still difficult problems to solve before we 
win the peace that follows. 

No matter how great the difficulties which lie 
ahead, however, I look to the future with complete 
confidence ; for we are approaching our problems, 
nationally and internationally, in a spirit of co- 
operation and mutual trust. 

With faith in the principles of freedom for 
which we are now fighting with all our might we 
shall win through to victory over our brutal ene- 
mies who would destroy those principles. With 
that faith, we shall in the end bring about a world 
where peace and the blessings of peace will be se- 
cure for all mankind. 



48 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



United States Policy Relating to Opium 



By GEORGE A. MORLOCK ' 



House Joint Resolution 241, approved on July 
1, 1 944, requesting the President to urge upon the 
governments of those countries where the culti- 
vation of poppy plants exists the necessity of im- 
mediately limiting the production of opium to 
the amount required for strictly medicinal and 
scientific purposes, focuses attention on the nar- 
cotics policies of the United States. 

The interest of the United States in narcotics 
control increased considerably soon after our an- 
nexation of the Philippine Islands in 1898, where 
a government monopoly for sales of opium to ad- 
dicts, princii^ally Chinese, for the satisfaction of 
their addiction, had been legalized prior to an- 
nexation. The Congress of the United States 
passed an act, approved March 3, 1905, providing 
"That after March first, nineteen hundred and 
eight, it shall be unlawful to import into the Phil- 
ippine Islands opiiun, in whatever form, except 
by the Government, and for medicinal purposes 
only, and at no time shall it be lawful to sell opium 
to any native of the Philippine Islands except for 
medicinal purposes." 

Recognizing that nations acting alone are un- 
able adequately to protect themselves against the 
international illicit traffic in narcotic drugs, the 
United States decided to cooperate with other 
nations in the control of the legal trade in these 
dangerous drugs and in international efforts to 
suppress their abuse. It took the initiative in 
bringing about the first international conference 
on the subject, which was held in Shanghai in 
1909, and later proposed the convening of the con- 
ference which resulted in the international opium 
convention signed at The Hague on January 23, 
1912. The American Government took part in the 
conferences held at The Hague in 1912, in 1913, 
and in 1914; participated in the Second Geneva 
Drug Conference of 1924-25; and in the Narcotics 
Limitation Conference of 1931 held at Geneva ; was 
represented by an observer at the Bangkok Con- 
ference of 1931 on Opium Smoking in the Far 
East, and sent delegates to the Conference for 
the Suppression of the Illicit Traffic in Dangerous 

' The author of tliis article is an officer in the OflBce 
of Far Eastern Affairs, Department of State. 



Drugs at Geneva in 1936. In those conferences 
representatives of the Government of the United 
States clearly stated that the policy of the United 
States was to limit the production of the poppy 
plant and manufacture of narcotic drugs strictly 
to medical and scientific requirements and to con- 
sider use for any other purpose as abuse. The 
Department of State, through its representatives 
at international conferences and at meetings of 
the Opium Advisory Committee at Geneva, has 
constantly carried on a vigorous campaign looking 
to the suppression of the illicit traffic in narcotic 
drugs and the abuse of those drugs. 

The delegates of the United States withdrew 
from the Geneva Drug Conference of 1925 when it 
became apparent that the Conference would not 
restrict the production of opium and coca leaves 
to the medicinal and scientific requirements of the 
world. The withdrawal of the American delega- 
tion was based on a memorandum by the chairman 
of the American delegation, the Honorable Ste- 
phen G. Porter, addressed to the president of the 
Conference on February 6, 1925. As this memo- 
randinn outlines principles of policy to which the 
United States has consistently adhered, it is re- 
produced below in full : 

"On October 18, 1923, the League of Nations ex- 
tended an invitation to the powers signatory to 
The Hague Convention, including the United 
States, to participate in an international confer- 
ence which was called for the purpose of giving 
effect to the following principles, subject to reser- 
vations made by certain nations regarding smok- 
ing opium. 

"One. If the purpose of The Hague Opium 
Convention is to be achieved according to its spirit 
and true intent it must be recognized that the use of 
opium products for other than medical and sci- 
entific purpose is an abuse and not legitimate. 

"Two. In order to prevent the abuse of these 
products it is necessary to exercise the control of 
the production of raw opium in such a manner that 
there will be no surplus available for non-medical i 
and non-scientific purpose. * 

"The joint resolution adopted by the Congress 
of the United States on May 15, 1924, authorizing 



JULY 9, 1944 



49 



our participation in the present conference, quoted 
the principles referred to in the preamble and ex- 
pressly stipulated that the representatives of the 
United States shall sign no agreement which does 
not fulfill the conditions necessary for the sup- 
pression of the narcotic drug traiBc as set forth in 
the preamble. 

"Despite more than two months of discussion 
and repeated adjouniments it now clearly appears 
that the purpose for which the Conference was 
called cannot be accomplished. The reports of the 
various committees of the Conference plainly indi- 
cate that there is no likelihood under present con- 
ditions that the production of raw opium and coca 
leaves will be restricted to the medicinal and sci- 
entific needs of the world. In fact the nature of 
the reservations made show that no appreciable 
reduction in raw opium may be expected. 

"It was hoped that if the nations in whose terri- 
tories the use of smoking opium is temporarily 
permitted would, in pursuance of the obligation 
undertaken under Chapter Two of The Hague 
Convention, adopt measures restricting the impor- 
tation of raw opium for the manufactuie of smok- 
ing opium or would agree to suppress the traffic ' 
within a definite period, such action would mate- 
rially reduce the mai'ket for raw opium and an 
extensive limitation of production would inevita- 
bly follow. 

"Unfortunately, however, these nations with 
the exception of Japan are not prepared to reduce 
the consumption of smoking opium. Unless the 
producing nations agree to reduce production 
and prevent smuggling from their territories and 
then only in the event of an adequate guarantee 
being given that the obligations undertaken by 
the producing nations would be effectively and 
promptlj' fulfilled, no restriction of the production 
of raw opium under such conditions can be 
expected. 

"In the matter of manufactured drugs and the 
control of transportation an improvement over 
The Hague Convention is noticeable. There is, 
however, no likelihood of obtaining a complete 
control of all opium and coca leaf derivative ir- 
respective of the measure of control provided. 
For manufactured drugs it is believed that by rea- 
son of the very small bulk, the ease of transpor- 
tation with minimum risk of detection, and the 
large financial gains to be obtained from their 
illicit handling, such drugs and their derivatives 



can only be effectively controlled if the produc- 
tion of the raw opium and coca leaves from which 
they are obtained is strictly limited to medical 
and scientific purposes. This the Conference is 
unable to accomplish. 

"In the circumstances the delegation of the 
United States in pursuance of instructions received 
from its Government has no alternative under 
terms of the joint resolution authorizing partici- 
pation in the conference other than to withdraw, 
as it could not sign the agreement which it is 
proposed to conclude. We desire to make it clear 
that withdrawal from the present conference does 
not mean that the United States will cease its ef- 
forts through international cooperation for the 
suppression of the illicit traffic in opium and other 
dangerous drugs. The United States recognizes 
that the world-wide traffic in habit-forming drugs 
can be suppressed only by international coopera- 
tion but believes that for the present at least 
greater strides in the control of the traffic may be 
hoped for if it should continue to work towards 
this end upon the basis of The Hague Convention 
of 1912." 

The narcotic drugs which are the subject of 
international cooperation are the principal habit- 
forming ones, namely, opium and its derivatives, 
the coca leaf and its derivatives, and Cannabis 
safiva and its derivatives. Opium is the coagu- 
lated juice obtained from the capsules of the 
soporific poppy (Papaver somniferuni) . The 
principal derivates of opium are morphine, 
heroin, and codeine. The principal derivative of 
the coca leaf is cocaine. Cannabis sativa is In- 
dian hemp, from which hashish, marihuana, and 
other dangerous drugs are made. 

House Joint Resolution 241 relates to the opium 
jDroblem only. There is more immediate need of 
solving the opium problem than of solving the 
coca-leaf and marihuana problems. 

The results of the abusive use of opium and its 
derivatives are so destructive of health and so 
far-reaching socially and economically that gov- 
ernmental control over them is generally recog- 
nized as an absolute necessity. As the Interna- 
tional Labor Office in its report of 1936 entitled 
"Opium and Labor" has so well stated, "Opium 
smoking is injurious to the workers, impedes their 
social and economic development, impairs their 
health and decreases their efficiency and, when it 
is practiced continuously, shatters the health and 



50 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Sweden to Represent Finnish 
Interests in United States 

[Released to the press July 3] 

The Counselor of the Swedish Legation 
called at the Department of State on the 
morning of July 3 and delivered a note 
stating that the Swedish Government had 
acceded to the recjuest of the Finnish Gov- 
ernment to represent Finnish interests in 
the United States. 



increases the death rate of the smokers, and tends 
to reduce the rate of economic and social progress 
in the districts affected." The effects of addiction 
to morphine and heroin are much worse. 

The principal cause of illicit traffic is surplus 
production. The United States has been making 
and continues to make every effort to persuade the 
poppy-producing countries of the world to reduce 
production. For this reason the United States 
has discouraged the planting of the opium poppy 
within its territories and possessions for the pro- 
duction of opium and opium products, although it 
could easily supply its entire requirements. 
Nevertheless, large-scale production continues in 
other parts of the world. At the present time an- 
nual production of raw opium has been estimated 
by Government experts, in the absence of exact 
figures, as follows : 

Kilograms 

Afghanistan 50, 000 

Bulgaria 7, 000 

Burma IS, 000 

China (occupied and unoccupied) 1,000,000 

Chosen 35, 000 

India 300, 000 

Iran 600,000 

Japan 16, 000 

Thailand 40O 

Turkey 250, OOO 

U. S. S. R 75,000 

Yugoslavia 55, 000 

The total estimated annual production amounts 
to 2,406,400 kilograms or 5,294,080 pounds. There 
is also extensive production in Central Eurojje of 
morphine directly from poppy straw amounting to 
about 6,500 kilograms. The actual needs of the 
world for manufactured narcotic drugs from 1933 
to 1938 averaged 284,715 kilograms (626,373 



pounds) annually. It is estimated that after the 
war annual needs for medical purposes will not ex- 
ceed 400,000 kilograms (880,000 pounds). 

Tlie Governments of the United Kingdom and 
the Netherlands, after pursuing for many years 
a policy of gradual suppression of the use of 
.smoking opium, decided last year to make a change 
in policy in view of the new conditions which will 
prevail in their Far Eastern territories as a con- 
sequence of the Japanese occupation. On Novem- 
ber 10, 1943 they announced that on regaining 
control of their Far Eastern territories they would 
suppress the smoking of opium and would not re- 
establish the opium monopolies.^ This means that 
a market which averaged 347,036 kilograms of 
opium annually during the years 1933 to 1938 will 
disapijear. It is obvious, therefore, that, if pres- 
ent world production continues at the rate of 
2,400.000 kilograms a year, about 2,000,000 kilo- 
grams will remain for the satisfaction of drug 
addiction. The United States is anxious to pre- 
vent this surplus production, thus liberating sev- 
eral million souls throughout the world from the 
awful slavery of drug addiction. 

There is immediate need for the opium-pro- 
ducing and consuming countries of the world to 
join in an international convention to limit and 
control the cultivation of the opium poppy and 
to sujjpress the illicit traffic in opium. The United 
States, as one of the principal victims, is deeply 
interested in and is prepared to cooperate with all 
nations in efforts to solve this j^roblem. 

A number of narcotics-control measures have 
become effective during the last 35 years and will 
facilitate the solution of the problem. 

First, the Hague Opium Convention of 1912 
is the cornerstone and basis of the entire system 
of international control. Among other things it 
makes certain provisions for the control of opium 
and other dangerous drugs and obligates the con- 
tracting parties to take measures for the gi-adual 
and effective suppression of the manufacture of, 
internal trade in, and use of prepared opium. 

Second, the Geneva Drug Convention of 1925 
deals principally with the control of internal and i 
international trade in opium and in the manufac- ^ 
tured derivatives of opium, the coca leaf, and 
Caivuibis sativa. The system established in the ., 
convention whereby export authorizations can be I 
issued only against imjaort certificates has resulted 

' BuiiEnw of Nov. 13, 1943, p. 331. 



JULY 9, 1944 

in much more effective control of the international 
movement of narcotic dniffs. The convention ali=o 
provided for the establishment of an international 
body, the Permanent Central Opium Board, to 
comjaile statistics, to watch over tlie course of in- 
ternational trade, and to give warning of excessive 
accumulations of narcotics in any country. 

Third, the Narcotics Limitation Convention 
which was signed at Geneva on July 13, 1931 deals 
with the limitation of manufacture of narcotic 
drugs and controls the distribution of narcotic 
drugs. Limitation is brought about in the follow- 
ing manner : The parties to the convention under- 
take to furnish annually for examination by the 
Drug Supervisory Body, an organ established by 
this convention, estimates of their requirements for 
the ensuing year in respect of each of the drugs. 
This body consists of four persons, some of whom 
have had medical experience and some of whom 
have had administrative experience. The body 
has no power to revise an estimate without the con- 
sent of the government fuiTiishing it but is em- 
powered to ask for explanations. Every govern- 
ment has the right to submit supplementary esti- 
mates. Countries which are not parties to the 
convention are also invited to furnish estimates; 
if they do not, the supervisory body frames esti- 
mates for them. At the conclusion of its examina- 
tion, the supervisory body issues for the guidance 
of all governments a statement containing the 
estimates as decided upon. These provisions as to 
estimates are the foundation on which the scheme 
of limitation is based. 

In addition, mention should be made of the 
Opium Advisory Committee, an organ of the 
League of Nations, whose functions are limited to 
investigating and reporting on existing narcotic 
conditions and recommending the action to be 
taken by the League of Nations and by govern- 
ments. The United States has never accepted the 
invitation which was extended to assume full 
membership in this committee, but has cooperated 
with the committee through a representative who 
has attended its meetings in an expert and advisory 
capacity. 

Other forces have been or are now operating to 
prevent the abuse of narcotic drugs. At the end of 
1935 the exportation of opium from India to the 
Far East was forbidden. In 1941 the Chinese Gov- 
ernment enacted laws prohibiting the cultivation 
of the opium poppy, the smoking of opium, and all 



51 

traffic in opium and narcotics except for medical 
purposes. In connection with the present military 
effort to remove the Japanese forces from the ter- 
ritories which they now occupy in the Southwest 
Pacific and China it will be the policy of all Ameri- 
can expeditionary forces, under American com- 
mand, immediately upon the occupation of a part 
or the whole of any of these territories, to seize all 
narcotic drugs intended for other than medical 
and scientific purposes which they may discover 
and to close existing opium monopolies, opium 
shops and dens. 

In view of the large world production of opium 
over and above medical needs, the United States 
has, whenever opportunity offered, discouraged 
production in this hemisphere, because new pro- 
duction in any area, even if restricted and con- 
trolled, results in making an equal quantity in an 
old producing area available to non-medical use or 
to the illicit traffic. The experience of opium-pro- 
ducing countries is that, even with severe laws 
well enforced, it is extremely difficult to prevent 
the escape of a part of the production into the in- 
ternational illicit traffic and to check the spread of 
addiction and illegal use within the country. The 
history of narcotics in China, India, and Iran con- 
firms this statement. 

The United States regards the present time as 
propitious for the poppy-producing and narcotic- 
drugs-consuming countries to give serious consid- 
eration to the advisability of joining immediately 
after the war in a convention for the limitation and 
control of the cultivation of the opium poppy 
strictly to medicinal and scientific requirements. 



^ THE FOREIGN SERVICE ^ 



Consular Offices 

The American Legation at Helsinki, Finland, 
was closed on June 30, 1944. 

The American Consulate at Bahia Blanca, Ar- 
gentina, was closed on June 30, 1944. 

The American Consulate at San Sebastian, 
Spain, was opened to the public on July 1, 1944. 

The American Consulate at Cayenne, French 
Guiana, will be closed to the public on July 10, 
1944. 



52 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Changes in Travel Regulations 
Between the United States and Canada 



[Released to the press July 6] 

Recent changes in the regulations governing 
travel between the United States and Canada 
make it advisable for the Canadian Govern- 
ment and the United States Government jointly 
to summarize and explain the documentary re- 
strictions imposed by the two countries on such 
travel and the need for them. 

The United States Government has recently 
announced further relaxation in the border-cross- 
ing regulations affecting all Canadian citizens and 
British subjects domiciled, permanently residing, 
or stationed in Canada desiring to enter the United 
States for visits of 29 days or less. Hereafter no 
passport, visa, or border-crossing card will be 
necessary for entry into the United States by such 
persons whose purpose in entering the United 
States for 29 days or less is that of business or 
pleasure. 

The relaxation in the requirements for travel 
across the border between Canada and the United 
States will not deprive citizens of Canada domi- 
ciled therein or other British subjects domiciled 
or residing in Canada of the privilege of obtain- 
ing border-crossing cards or continuing to use 
such cards, issued on or after November 14, 1941, 
for border-crossing purposes. These cards are 
valid for an indefinite period for border-crossing 
purposes and need not be revalidated by United 
States consuls or United States immigration offi- 
cials. Those persons who make frequent visits 
to the United States and do not have a passport 
or border-crossing card, valid or expired, will 
find it convenient to obtain a border-crossing 
card which will expedite entry especially at busy 
ports. Persons not using border-crossing cards 
will find it helpful to carry some means of identi- 
fication, such as a birth or baptismal certificate or 
other document which may assist in establishing 
their identity and nationality. 

When a visit will be for more than 29 days the 
applicant should apply to any United States con- 
sul for an appropriate visa. 

Passport requirements for Canadians entering 
the United States were first inaugurated in July 
1940 when the United States for security reasons 



imposed more rigid supervision over travel from 
all countries. At that time and until the adop- 
tion of the border-crossing card system it was 
necessary for all visitors from Canada to have 
passports and obtain visitors visas. The regula- 
tions were amended in the autumn of 1940 to 
permit Canadian citizens and British subjects 
domiciled in Canada to travel to the United 
States with border-crossing cards and their pass- 
ports. A further relaxation was later adopted 
permitting the issuance of border-crossing cards 
by United States consular offices to Canadian 
citizens without passports. No further restric- 
tions were imposed by the United States Govern- 
ment for travel to or from the United States of 
Canadian citizens. 

For its part, the Canadian Government in 1940 
imposed certain restrictions on the use of United 
States funds for travel in order to increase the 
amount of foreign exchange available for essen- 
tial war purposes in the United States. The action 
taken was, of course, necessary as a wartime meas- 
ure, and the restriction was carried into force by 
requiring all residents of Canada to obtain per- 
mission from the Foreign Exchange Control Board 
(on Form H) to depart from Canada and/or to 
export such funds as the Board allowed. Appro- 
priate amounts of United States currency were 
supplied for necessary business, health, and edu- 
cational travel, but travel involving the use of 
United States funds for pleasure purposes was 
stopped. In May 1944 the Canadian Government 
announced a relaxation of these restrictions, and 
Canadian residents are now able to obtain up to 
$150 a year in United States funds for pleasure 
travel in the United States. Special exchange pi-o- 
visions have also been made to enable residents of 
border communities to make ordinaiy social visits 
to adjoining communities in the United States. 

For the protection of its manpower reserve the 
Canadian Government also imposed restrictions 
upon the departure from Canada of men of mili- 
tary ago and those intending to depart from Can- 
ada for the purpose of accepting employment. 
The Labor Exit Permit was also adopted as a fl 
measure of preventing the departure of persons 



JULY 9, 1944 

subject to military call. Labor Exit Permits were 
and are issued by the Employment Service, De- 
partment of Labor, in conjunction with the Mobil- 
ization Service and National Selective Service of 
that Department. Canadian immigration and 
customs officials are empowered to prevent the de- 
parture from Canada of any person subject to 
draft unless he is in possession of a Labor Exit 
Permit or a certificate of exemption. 

'If the emergency which caused the Canadian 
and United States Governments to impose the 
travel restriction becomes less acute it is expected 
that it may be f)ossible to make further modifica- 
tion in the restrictions. 



Mexican -United States 
Agricultural Commission 

[Released to the press July 4] 

The Secretary of State on July 4 announced the 
establishment of a Mexican - United States Agri- 
cultural Commission the purpose of which is to 
take all appropriate steps to assure active and 
continuous cooperation between the United States 
and Mexico in the field of agriculture. The fol- 
lowing officers have been designated to serve on 
the United States Section of the Commission: 
Mr. L. A. Wheeler, Director of the Office of For- 
eign Agricultural Relations, Department of 
Agriculture, to act as chairman; Dr. E. C. 
Auchter, Administrator of the Agricultural Re- 
search Administration, Department of Agricul- 
ture; Mr. Lester De Witt Mallory, Agi-icultural 
Attache of the American Embassy at Mexico 
City; and Mr. Carl N. Gibboney, Chief of the 
Production and Procurement Division, Office of 
Food Programs, Foreign Economic Administra- 
tion. 

The Mexican Government has designated the 
following officers to serve on the Mexican Section 
of the Commission: Senor Ing. Alfonso Gon- 
zalez Gallardo, Under Secretary of Agriculture, 
to act as chairman; Seiior Ing. Dario M. Arrieta 
M., Director General of Agi-iculture ; Dr. Gui- 
llermo Quesado Bravo, Director General of Cattle 
Production ; and Seiior Ing. Gonzalo Gonzalez H., 
Director General of Rural Economy. 

The Commission is being established in accord- 
ance with an agreement between the United 



53 

States and Mexico effected by an exchange of 
notes. The first meeting of the commissioners was 
scheduled to take place in Mexico City on July 4. 

Visit of Guatemalan 
Pediatrician 

[Released to the press July 5] 

Dr. Ernesto Cofiilo of Guatemala is now in the 
United States at the invitation of the Department 
of State t6 study official and private programs of 
child Welfare in this country. Dr. Cofino is a 
practicing pediatrician in Guatemala City and is 
active in child-welfare work there. 

Dr. Cofino plans to spend several months in 
Washington, D. C, studying the work of the 
Children's Bureau of the United States Depart- 
ment of Labor and will then visit several out- 
standing clinics, children's hospitals, (and sana- 
toria in other parts of the United States, includ- 
ing those at Duke University, University of 
Minnesota, Mayo Clinic, and Johns Hopkins. 

Ill Guatemala Dr. Cofiiio is professor of 
Ijediatrics on the Faculty of Medicine and chief 
of the service for children in the general hospital 
of Guatemala. He is also one of the principal 
organizers and the medical director of the "Co- 
lonia Infantil"', a private charity hospital and 
rest camp for tubercular children. Located in the 
pine woods of San Juan Sacatepequez, the camp 
has beds for 25 children in the primary stages of 
infection. The rest camp, the first of its kind 
to be established in Guatemala, is supported by 
voluntary contributions of private citizens. 



Visit of Mexican 
Hematologist 



[Released to the press July 4] 

Dr. Marcelo Martinez Repetto, Mexican hema- 
tologist of Merida, capital of the State of Yuca- 
tan, has arrived in Washington at the invitation 
of the Department of State for three months' 
professional study and observation. Dr. Martinez 
Repetto has during the past five j'ears carried on 
serious work in both clinical and laboratory hema- 
tology, four as intern and one as general prac- 
titioner. 



54 



Department of state bulletin 



Dr. Martinez Eepetto says that anemia is a prin- 
cipal problem in Yucatan and that it is caused by 
the prevalence of pellagra, arising from a diet 
based on corn products and lacking in vitamins, 
and by the high incidence of diseases resulting 
from intestinal parasites. Because of this fact he 
plans, while in the United States, to pursue his 
investigations at a hospital in the South where 
he will have opportunities to observe how the phy- 
sicians in this country deal with these problems. 

Visit of Director of Uruguayan 
Hospital 

[Released to the press July 3] 

Dr. Ajnadeo Grosso Eossi, director of the Du- 
razno Hospital in Durazno, Uruguay, has arrived 
in Washington as guest of the Department of 
State. He expects to remain in the United States 
for two months, visiting hospitals and clinics in 
Boston, Philadelphia, and New York, and observ- 
ing surgery practice, particularly the technique of 
the operating room, and teaching methods. 

Dr. Grosso Eossi is public-health supervisor for 
the Durazno Department, which has 45 hospitals. 
He says that his work is handicapped at present 
by a wartime shortage of supplies and also by a 
scarcity of nurses. In order to supply this latter 
deficiency the Durazno Hospital, in February 
1944, inaugurated a school for nurses. 



^ THE DEPARTMENT ^ 

Appointment of Officers 

By Departmental Designation 24, issued June 
23, 1944, effective June 23, 1944, the Secretary of 
State designated Mr. E. Horton Henry as Assist- 
ant to the Under Secretary. 

By Departmental Designation 25, issued June 

23, 1944, effective June 23, 1944, the Secretary of 
State designated Mr. Earl C. Hackworth, Division 
of Financial and Monetary Affairs, as Principal 
Liaison Officer for the Department of State with 
the Office of Alien Property Custodian. 

By Departmental Designation 26, issued June 

24, i944, effective June 24, 1944, the Secretary of 



State made the following designations: Mr. 
Honore Marcel Catudal and Mr. Woodbury 
Willoughby as Associate Chiefs of the Division 
of Commercial Policy; Mr. H. Gerald Smith to 
continue as Assistant Chief of the Division of 
Commercial Policy in charge of the American 
Eepublics Branch; Mr. Erwin P. Keeler as 
Economic Consultant to the American Eepublics 
Branch ; Mr. Carl D. Corse as Assistant Chief of 
the Division of Commercial Policy in charge of 
the General Commercial Policy Branch ; Mr. Ver- 
non L. Phelps as Assistant Cliief of the Division 
of Commercial Policy in charge of the Division's 
European Branch; Mr. James A. Eoss, Jr., as 
Assistant Chief of the Division of Commercial 
Policy in charge of the British Commonwealth 
Branch ; and ]Mr. Homer S. Fox to continue as 
Consultant on foreign-trade protection and pro- 
motion in the Division of Commercial Policy. 

By Departmental Designation 27, issued June 
24, 1944, effective June 24, 1944, the Secretary of 
State made the following designations : Mr. Harry 
M. Kurtli, Chief, Division of Budget and Finance, 
as Budget Officer of the Department of State; and 
Mr. Clifford C. Hulse as Chief, Planning and 
Liaison Staff; Mrs. Ella A. Logsdon as Chief, 
Budget Branch, and Mr. Donald W. Corrick as 
Chief, Accounts Branch of the Division of Budget 
and Finance. 

By Departmental Designation 28, issued June 
27, 1944, effective June 27, 1944, the Secretary of 
State designated Mr. Henry P. Leverich as Assist- 
ant Chief of the Division of Central European 
Affairs. 

By Departmental Designation 29, issued June 
30, 1944, effective June 30, 1944, the Secretary of 
State designated Mr. Dean Acheson, Assistant 
Secretary of State, as Chairman of the Executive 
Committee on Economic Foreign Policy,^ estab- 
lished by letter of April 5, 1944, from the Presi- 
dent to the Secretary of State. Mr. Harry C. 
Hawkins, Director of the Office of Economic Af- 
fairs, was designated as Vice Chairman. 

Mr. Eobert M. Carr, in the Office of Economic 
Affairs, was designated Executive Secretary of 
the Executive Committee on Economic Foreign 
Policv. 



1 Bulletin of June 3, 19-14, p. 511. 



JULY 9, 1944 



55 



= TREATY INFORMATION ^ 

Military-Service Agreement, 
Brazil and Great Britain 

The American Embassy at Rio de Janeiro in- 
formed the Department by a despatch of May 31, 
1944 that an agreement has been concluded be- 
tween the Governments of Brazil and Great 
Britain authorizing military and other war serv- 
ices in the respective forces of each country by 
citizens of the other. The agi'eement was effected 
by an exchange of notes signed at Rio de Janeiro 
on May 27, 1944. 

Inter-American Institute of 
Agricultural Sciences 

On July 4, 1944 the instrument of ratification by 
the United States of Ajnerica of the Convention on 
the Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sci- 
ences, ■which was opened for signature at the Pan 
American Union on January 15, 1944, was de- 
posited with the Pan American Union. 



PURLKATIONS 



Depaetment of State 

Lease of Defense Sites: Agreement and Exchanges of 
Notes Between the United States of America and 
Panama — Agreement signed at Panamd May IS, 1942 ; 
effective May 11, 1943. Executive Agreement Series 
359. Publication 2106. 17 pp. 100. 

Wheat: Memorandum of Agreement and Related Papers 
Between the United States of America, Argentina, Aus- 
tralia, Canada, and the United Kingdom — Memoran- 
dum of agreement initialed at Washington April 22, 
1942 ; effective June 27, 1942. Executive Agreement Se- 
ries 384. Publicaton 2140. 25 pp. 10(t. 

Establishment of the luter-American Cooperative Food 
Production Service in Peru: Agreement Between the 
United States of America and Peru — Effected by ex- 
change of notes signed at Lima May 19 and 20, 1943. 
Executive Agreement Series 385. Publication 2131. 
9 pp. 54. 

Post-War Disposition of Defense Installations and Fa- 
cilities: Agreement Between the United States of 



America and Canada — Effected by exchange of notes 
signed at Ottawa January 27, 1943. Executive Agree- 
ment Series 391. Publication 2136. 4 pp. 5if. 

The Cultural-Cooperation Program, 193S-1043: Prepared 
by Haldore Hanson. Publication 2137. 71 pp. 15^. 

The Statesman: A Handbook for the Employees of the 
Department of State. By Richardson Dougall and 
Madge S. Lazo, Personnel Relations Section, Division 
of Departmental Personnel. Publication 2141. iv, 96 
pp. Free. 

The Proclaimed List of Certain Blocked Nationals : Cumu- 
lative Supplement No. 4, June 30, 1944, to Revision VII 
of March 23, 1944. Publication 2146. 46 pp. Free. 



Other Government Agencies 

The articles listed below will be found in the 
July 1 and 8 issues of the Department of Com- 
merce publication entitled Foreign Commerce 
Weekly, copies of which may be obtained from the 
Superintendent of Documents, Government Print- 
ing Office, for 10 cents each : 

"Haiti in 1943", prepared in the American Republics Unit 
on basis of reports by Robert S. Folsom, vice consul, 
and William A. Krauss, junior economic analyst, at- 
tached to the United States Embassy, Port-au-Prince 
(July 1, 1944 issue). 

"Electronics in Venezuela", based on a report prepared 
by Carl Breuer, American Embassy, Caracas, Venezuela 
(Julys, 1944 i.ssue). 

"Honduras in 1943", prepared in American Republics Unit, 
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, on basis of 
report from Albert K. Ludy, Jr., junior economic an- 
alyst, American Embassy, Tegucigalpa, Honduras (July 
8, 1944 issue). 



LEGISLATION 



An Act Making appropriations for the Executive Office 
and sundry independent executive bureaus, boards, com- 
missions, and offices, for the fiscal year ending June 30, 
1945, and for other purposes. Approved June 27, 1944. 
[H.R. 4070.] Public Law 35S, 7Sth Cong. 30 pp. 

An Act Making appropriations for the Departments of 
State, Justice, and Commerce, for the fiscal year ending 
June 30, 1945, and for other purposes. Approved June 
28, 1944. [H.R. 4204,] Public Law 365, 78th Cong. 
33 pp. 

An Act Making appropriations to supply deficiencies In 
certain appropriations for the fiscal year ending June 
30, 1944, and for prior fiscal years, to provide supple- 
mental appropriations for the fiscal years ending June 
30, 1944, and June 30, 1945, and for other purposes. 



56 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Approved June 2S, 1944. [H.R. 5040.] Public Law 375, 
7Sth Cong. [Department of State p. 16.] 29 pp. 

Joint Resolution Declaring the jwlicy of the Congress 
with re.spect to the independence of the Philippine 
Islands, and for other purposes. Approved June 29, 
1944. [S.J. Res. 93.] Public Law 380, 78th Cong. 2 pp. 

Joint Resolution To amend section 13 of Philippine Inde- 
pendence Act, as amended, establishing the Filipino 
Rehabilitation Conuuission, defining its powers and du- 
ties, and for other purixjses. Approved June 29, 1944. 
[S.J. Res. 94.] Public Law 381, 78th Cong. 2 pp. 

.-Vn Act Making appropriations for defense aid (lend- 
lease), for the participation by the United States in the 
work of the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation 
Administration, and for the Foreign Economic Adminis- 
tration, for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1945, and 
for other purposes. Approved June 30, 1944. [H.R. 
4937.] Public Law 382, 7Sth Cong. 5 pp. 



Joint Resolution Requesting the President to urge upon 
the governments of those countries where the cultiva- 
tion of the poppy plant exists, the necessity of im- 
mediately limiting the production of opium to the 
amount required for strictly medicinal and scientific 
purposes. Approved July 1, 1944. [H. J. Res. 241] 
Public Law 400, 78th Cong. 2 pp. 

An Act To provide for loss of United States nationality 
under certain circumstances. Approved July 1, 1944. 
[H. R. 4103.] Public Law 405, 78th Cong. 1 p. 

Relating to the Invitation to the Congress of the United 
States To Send a Delegation To Visit the British Parlia- 
ment. H. Rept. 1741, 78th Cong., on S. Con. Res. 43. 
1 p. [Favorable report.] 

Protesting the Extermination by the Nazis of Minorities 
in Hungary and Other Nazi-Controlled Territories. H. 
Rept. 1742, 78th Cong., on H. Res. 610. 2 pp. [Favor- 
able report.] 



0. f. eOVERNUENT PR1HTIH6 OFFICE, 1044 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 




u 



J 



J 



H 



1 r 
J , 



1 




VOL. XI, NO. 264 



JULY 16, 1944 



In this issue 



NAZI ATROCITIES IN HUNGARY AND GREECE 

Statements by the Secretary of Stale -b it A -fr * -A 

ECONOMIC COOPERATION, UNITED STATES AND MEXICO 

SPECIAL WAR PROBLEMS DIVISION 

By Graham H. Stuart -b-ti-iiitii-tTtc-ii 



Vl«^NT o*. 




'"*tes o* 



AUG I 1844 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



BULLETIN 




July 16, 1944 



The Department of State BULLE- 
TIN, a weekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Research and 
Publication, Office of Public Informa- 
tion, provides the public and inter- 
ested agencies of the Government tvith 
information on developments in the 
field of foreign relations and on the 
icork of the Department of State and 
the Foreign Service. The BULLETIN 
includes press releases on foreign policy- 
issued by the W hite House and the De- 
partment, and statements and addresses 
made by the President and by the Sec- 
retary of State and other officers of the 
Department, as icell as special articles 
on various phases of international af- 
fairs and the functions of the Depart- 
ment. Information concerning treaties 
and international agreements to ivhich 
the United Stales is or may become a 
party and treaties of general inter- 
national interest is included. 

Publications of the Department, 
cumulative lists of tvhich are published 
at the end of each quarter, as well as 
legislative material in the field of inter- 
national relations, are listed currently. 

The BULLETIN, published with the 
approval of the Director of the Bureau 
of the Budget, is for sale by the Super- 
intendent of Documents, United States 
Government Printing Office, Washing- 
ton 25, D. C., to ifhom all purchase 
orders, tvith accompanying remittance, 
should be sent. The subscription price 
is $2.75 a year; a single copy is 10 
cents. 







ontents 



American Republics 

Visit of Chief Tax Auditor of Ecuador 

Suppression of Revolt in Colombia: Statement by the 

Secretary of State 

Presentation of Letters of Credence: 

Ambassador of Ecuador 

Ambassador of Peru 



Australasia 

Presentation of Letters of Credence: Ambassador of New 
Zealand 



Europe 

Nazi Atrocities in Hungary and Greece: Statements by 

the Secretary of State 

Opposition in Denmark to Nazi Rule: Statement by the 

Secretary of State 

Presentation of Letters of Credence: Ambassador of 

Portugal 



Economic Affairs 

Economic Cooperation, United States and Mexico . 



General 

Bastille Day : Statement by the President 

Need for Alert Public Opinion: Remarks by the Secre- 
tary of State 

Participation by the United States in Work of UNRRA . 

Petroleum Questions: Negotiations To Be Resumed 
Between the United States and the United King- 
dom 

Regulations To Safeguard Interests of United States and 
Its Merchant Marine 

Treaty Information 

MiUtary-Mission Agreement With Peru 

Lend-Lease Aid 



Page 
60 

62 

75 

77 



76 



59 
60 
79 

61 

59 

60 
62 

62 

74 



80 
80 



The Department 

Special War Problems Division: Internees Section. 
Graham H. Stuart 



By 



63 



Nazi Atrocities in Hungary and Greece 

STATEMENTS BY THE SECRETARY OF STATE 



[Released to the press July 14] 

Reliable reports from Hungary have confirmed 
the appalling news of mass killings of Jews by the 
Nazis and their Hungarian quislings. The num- 
ber of victims of these fiendish crimes is great. 
The entire Jewish 
community in Hun- 
gary, which num- 
bered one million 
souls, is threatened 
with extermination. 
The horror and in- 
dignation felt by the 
American people at 
these cold - blooded 
tortures and massa- 
cres has been voiced 
by the President, by 
the Congress, and by 
hundreds of private 
organ izatio n s 
throughout the coun- 
try. It is shared by 
all the civilized na- 
tions of the world. 
This Government 
will not slacken its 
efforts to rescue as 
many of these unfor- 
tmiate peoj^le as can 
be saved from perse- 
cution and death. 

The puppet Hun- 
garian government, 
by its violation of the 
most elementary hu- 



man rights and by its servile adoption of the 
worst features of the Nazi "racial policy", stands 
condemned before history. It may be futile to 
appeal to the humanity of the instigators or 

perpetrators of such 
Let them 



Bastille Day 

STATEMENT BY THE PRESIDENT 

[Released to the press by the White House July 13] 

Once again I salute, on Bastille Day, the heroic 
people of France. 

July fourteenth this year is different, for we 
hope that it is the last fourteenth of July that 
France will suffer under German occui^ation. 
With full confidence, I look fbrward that the 
F^-ench people on July 14, 1945, will celebrate 
their great national fete on French soil, liberated 
alike from the invader and from the puppets of 
Vichy. 

For the great battle of liberation is now engaged. 
It is a battle resolutely waged by the Ameri- 
can, British, and Canadian forces, together with 
the valiant fighters of the home French, who have 
already contributed so greatly to the success of the 
of)erations. At the same time gallant French fight- 
ing forces are carrying on the victorious struggle 
in Italy, joined in traditional unity with their 
comrades of the American Fifth Army and the 
British Eighth Army. 

Here, on this side of the Atlantic, the fourteenth 
of July, 1944, oflFers an equally gi-eat spectacle of 
the indissoluble unity aiid the deep friendship of 
the American and French peoples. 

Together, the French and American peoples 
stand today, united as they have always been when 
the cause of freedom was endangered. 

Together, we shall win, and France shall be free ! 



outrages, 
know that they can- 
not escape the inex- 
orable punishment 
which will be meted 
out to them when the 
power of the evil 
men now in control 
of Hungary has been 
broken. 

[Released to the press 
July 14] 

The cold-blooded 
murder of the popu- 
lation of the Greek 
village of Distomo is 
another shocking ex- 
ample of the reign of 
terror wliich the 
Nazis have instituted 
in Europe and which 
becomes more savage 
as they become more 
desperate. This new 
crime will be noted 
in the registers of 
the United Nations, 
and justice will cer- 
tainly be meted out 
to those responsible. 
59 



60 

Need for Alert Public 
Opinion 

REMARKS BY THE SECRETARY OF STATE 

[Released to the press July 11] 

The Secretary of State on July 11 held his press 
and radio news conference in the new press room 
of the Department of State. Secretary Hull made 
the following remarks : 

"I greet you in your new quarters. I am glad 
to see'^you move in here because you can work bet- 
ter in this place, and because you deserve the best 
possible facilities. 

"You are engaged in work that is only second 
in its responsibility to the most important work of 
the Government itself— that is, disseminating m 
the most understandable manner all of the perti- 
nent and material facts and circumstances that 
would be included in what we call 'spot' news. 
That range of work especially is just about as re- 
sponsible as any work I can think of in this crisis 
through which we all are passing. 

"There has never been greater need for an alert 
public opinion than there is today. It will con- 
tinue to be increasingly greater until victory has 
crowned our efforts and post-war problems have 
been settled. You will perform a tremendous 
function for good or bad according to the skill and 
intelligence and practical judgment with which 
you aid in developing and keeping thoroughly 
alive what we call an alert public opinion. 

"There is, unfortunately, today in this country 
and in other countries a decline— I may say, an 
unconscious decline— in interest on the part of a 
surprising number of citizens, not only m this war 
and the awfulness of the issues that are involved 
but in planning for the future as well. I notice 
that at times an increasing number of people will 
listen to that part of the news which is of a minor 
or temporary or trivial nature and neglect the big 
basic questions that stand right before their faces. 
Your most vital task today is to make the maxi- 
mum contribution in your work to what we would 
call an informed public opinion relating to basic 
international questions— those arising during the 
war and those that are inevitably arising even now 
in relation to post-war peace." 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

Opposition in Denmark 
to Nazi Rule 

STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY OF STATE 

[Released to the press July 12] 

Eecent events in Denmark have again proven 
that the spirit of freedom cannot be crushed in a 
people determined to uphold their liberties. The 
Danes have steadfastly opposed the attempts by 
the Germans to establish a "model protectorate" in 
what once was and will again be a free and sover- 
eign country. Their stand, inspired by leaders 
within and without Denmark, associates them with 
the people of the other countries who firmly resist 
the German oppressors and whose conduct sets an 
example to the people of other lands whose craven 
leaders succumbed to the false promises of the 
Nazis. 

There is no Danish government which can give 
expression to the feelings of Denmark by adhering 
to the United Nations Declaration. We recognize, 
however, that the Danish people have placed them- 
selves side by side with the people of the United 
Nations and like them are determined to contribute 
to the common struggle for victory over Nazism 
and for the attainment of the aims of the Atlantic 
Charter. 



Visit of Chief Tax Auditor 
of Ecuador 

Dr. Gonzalo Ramon, director of the Technical 
Department of the Ministry of Finance of Ecua- 
dor, and Chief Tax Auditor of the Republic, has 
arrived at Washington as guest of the Depart- 
ment of State for six months' study of our tax 
system. During his visit Dr. Ramon will spend 
much of his time at the Bureau of Internal Reve- 
nue and at the Treasury Department. He is in- 
terested especially in the administration of tax 
and customs laws. 

Dr. Ramon spoke with enthusiasm of the work 
being carried out by the Ecuadoran-United States 
cultural institute at Quito in teaching English, 
and of the great interest in learning Spanish that, 
as he says, "is to be seen in Washington on every 
hand". 



JULY 16, 1944 



61 



Economic Cooperation, United States and Mexico 



[Released to the press July 1'2] 

The Secretary of State and the Honorable Eze- 
quiel Padilla, ]\Iexican Foreign Minister, issued on 
July 12 the following joint statement : 

AVe have enjoyed the opportunity afforded by 
Lie. Padilla's visit to Washington to exchange 
imprest^ions and views with one another about a 
wide variety of matters of importance to our two 
countries. 

In our keen desire to continue the development 
of ever closer relations between Mexico and the 
United States we have agreed that certain steps, 
outlined below, are to the mutual benefit of the two 
countries; and that every effort, consistent with our 
joint abilities as limited by wartime exigencies and 
consistent with the proportionate needs of other 
countries, shall be made to implement these steps. 

1. Transportation 

"We have discussed the general transportation 
system of Mexico as it affects the wartime economy 
of our two countries and as it shall affect our econ- 
omies in the postwar period. We have reached 
agreement that our Governments shall make every 
effort within their ability further to improve the 
transportation facilities of Mexico by rail, by 
highway, by air, and by sea. 

The Mexican railway transportation system, 
which had little margin to handle more than peace- 
time needs, has inci-eased enormously the volume 
of its traffic. It has succeeded in moving without 
delay to the United States Mexico's vast output of 
strategic raw materials. This achievement has 
been the result of cooperative arrangements be- 
tween the two countries whereby the United States 
furnished Mexico with technical advice and cer- 
tain emergency equipment and supplies. 

To maintain the level of current operations dur- 
ing the war period such additional technical as- 
sistance as may be necessary will be furnished to 
Mexico and also as soon as possible additional 
necessary equipment and supplies. Moreover, to 
the limit of our wartime ability, every effort shall 
be made by the United States to continue to pro- 
vide transportation facilities for the movement of 
essential goods to Mexico, while Mexico will make 
every effort, on her part, to reduce the strain on 
United States transportation facilities. 



With respect to sea transportation, the two Gov- 
ernments are agreed that regular shipping services 
between the two countries, interrupted by the war, 
shall be resumed so as to provide for the relief of 
overburdened rail and highway traiLS^JOrtation 
facilities. 

2. Economic Development 

The Mexican-American Commission for Eco- 
nomic Cooperation which was formed as a result 
of the meetings of Presidents Avila Camacho and 
Roosevelt in May 1943, has considered in some de- 
tail the various methods of economic cooperation 
in the field of industrialization.^ We have dis- 
cussed the findings and recommendations of the 
Commission made as a minimum program this 
year and find that our two Governments are sub- 
stantially in accord in principle with respect to 
them. Every effort will be made to secure as 
promptly as possible the materials necessary to 
implement these recommendations. The Commis- 
sion has presently under consideration a long- 
range program covering Mexico's needs for 1945 
and subsequent years. This progi-am will receive 
prompt attention by various agencies of the United 
States Government. In carrying forward this 
cooperative effort in the field of economic develop- 
ment the two Governments will discourage trade 
barriers which may unduly interfere with the eco- 
nomic develoiDment of Mexico and trade between 
the two countries. 

•3. General 

We have taken advantage of the occasion to dis- 
cuss a number of matters of general interest to our 
two Governments. We find ourselves in complete 
accord on all questions discussed. We agree that 
the inter- American cooperative system has proved 
of the utmost importane to the safety and secu- 
rity of this hemisphere and that it should be de- 
veloped and expanded now and in the future for 
the continuing requirements of the present world 
crisis as well as for the needs of the postwar era. 
The exemplary cooperation which we have main- 
tained during the war, we are determined to main- 
tain during the peace. 



' Bulletin of July 17, 1943, p. 38, 



62 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Suppression of Revolt 
in Colombia 

STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY OF STATE 

[Released to the press July 12] 

I am glad to be able to inform you that I have 
just received a report from the American Embassy 
at Bogota, Colombia, which was sent from there 
this morning, that the revolt of a certain part of 
the military forces which were on maneuvers near 
Paste has been completely suppressed. The 
leader of the revolt and the troops which supported 
liim have been captured. President Lopez has 
been released and is understood to be in Ipiales. 
It is anticipated he will fly today from Ipiales to 
Bogota. 

The maintenance of the legally established au- 
thority of the Government of Colombia is grati- 
fying to me. It demonstrates that there rules in 
that country tliat political stability and that basic 
democratic spirit which have placed Colombia 
conspicuously among those nations which freely 
carry out the will of their peoples. 

The Government and people of Colombia are 
staunch allies of the United Nations in this great 
struggle for freedom. It is a satisfaction to ex- 
press again the deep appreciation which we hold 
here for the invaluable collaboration, spiritual and 
material, which the Colombian Nation has ex- 
tended for hemisphere security and in the cause of 
the United Nations, both before and after Colom- 
bia entered this war. 



Participation by the United 
States in Work of UNRRA 

On July 6, 1944 the President issued E.xecutive 
Order 9453 to facilitate the participation of the 
United States in the work of the United Nations 
Kelief and Rehabilitation Administration. Sub- 
ject to provisions of Public Law 267 and the 
UXRRA Appropriation Act, 1945, the Adminis- 

' Made at his pre.ss and radio news conference July 12, 
1944. 
' Bulletin of May 6, 1944, p. 411. 



trator of the Foreign Economic Administration is 
authorized and dii-ected to exercise and perform 
all the functions and authority with respect to the 
expenditure of funds, and the provision of sup- 
plies and services related thereto. The United 
States representative on the Council of UNRRA, 
as named by the President, is authorized, subject 
to the provisions of the agreement for UNRRA, 
concluded November 9, 1943, to "designate or ar- 
range for the designation of United States alter- 
nates on the Council and of United States members 
(Continved on p. 80) 

Petroleum Questions 

NEGOTIATIONS TO BE RESUMED BETWEEN THE 
UNITED STATES AND THE UNITED KINGDOM 

[Released to the press July 12] 

The Department of State on July 12 made the 
following announcement, which is being issued 
simultaneously in Washington and London : 

"Negotiations between the United States Gov- 
ernment and His Majesty's Government in the 
United Kingdom on the subject of oil will be re- 
sumed shortly. 

"The British delegation will be led by Lord 
Beaverbrook and will consist of the Minister of 
State, Mr. Richard Law, the Chairman of the Oil 
Control Board, Mr. Geoffrey Lloyd, and the Fi- 
nancial Secretary to the Treasury, Mr. Ralph 
Assheton. 

"Sir William Brown will be the chief technical 
adviser to the ministerial delegation." 

The Committee appointed by the President to 
conduct the conversations for this Government is 
composed of Secretary Hull, Chairman; Secretary 
Ickes, Vice Chairman; Secretary Forrestal; Under 
Secretary Patterson; Leo T. Crowley, Foreign Ec- 
onomic Administrator; Ralph K. Davies, Deputy 
Petroleum Administrator for War; Charles E. 
Wilson, Executive Vice Chairman of the War Pro- 
duction Board; and Charles Rayner, Petroleum 
Adviser, Department of State. 

It will be recalled that discussions preliminai7 
to these forthcoming conversations were recently 
held in Washington between expert groups repre- 
senting the two Governments.- 



JULY 16, 1944 



63 



Special War Problems Division 



By GRAHAM H. STUART' 



Internees Section 



Background 

The United States has always been a strong 
advocate of fair treatment of prisoners of war. 
One of its treaties, signed with Prussia in 1785— 
before the Constitution was written — covered the 
ti'eatment of war prisonei^s. The famous order 
of the War Department prepared by Dr. Lieber 
for tlie use of the Federal Army during the Civil 
War became a classic in international law in the 
field of regulations governing the conduct of war, 
including the treatment of prisoners. The con- 
ventions signed in Geneva in 1864 and in Brus- 
sels in 1874 looked toward a more humane con- 
duct of war. The Hague conventions of 1899 and 
1907, respecting the laws and customs of war on 
land, provided a humanitarian code for the treat- 
ment of war prisoners. Although these conven- 
tions were not regarded as legally binding in the 
first World War, many nations, including the 
United States, followed their provisions as rep- 
resenting existing international law practice. 

The representatives of 47 states, realizing the 
need of something more concrete, met in Geneva 
in 1929 to prepare regulations that would govern 
the treatment of war prisoners. They based their 
codification upon a tentative draft that the In- 
ternational Eed Cross submitted. The Geneva 
Prisoners of War Convention, which resulted from 
this meeting, has been ratified or adhered to by 40 
nations that include all of the belligerent states 
in the second World War except Russia and Japan. 
The latter has, however, agreed with the United 
States to follow the provisions of the convention. - 

Since the Prisoners of War Convention of 
1929 was limited specifically to prisoners of war 
and to certain civilians such as newspapermen who 
follow the armed forces, the International Red . 
Cross Committee negotiated at the outbreak of 
the second World War an informal agreement 
among the belligerents signatory of the Geneva 
convention to apply the principles of the Geneva 
convention to civilian enemy aliens. Where the 
specific provisions of the convention do not read- 
ily apply, the basis of treatment is generally con- 



ceded to be the fundamental obligations of hu- 
manity. 

Tlie United States expressed its views regard- 
ing civilian enemy aliens immediately after the 
outbreak of the second World War. This Govern- 
ment, believing that some surveillance might be 
necessary, expressed the hof)e that such extreme 
measures as internment en masse for the war's du- 
ration would not be regarded as necessary. In a 
telegram sent to the American embassies in Lon- 
don, Paris, and Berlin on September 29, 1939 Sec- 
retary of State Hull expressed the earnest hope 
that the belligerent governments should give 
thought to avoiding undue harshness to alien 
enemy civilians. In expressing his strong sup- 
port of the Geneva Prisoners of War Convention 
of 1929 he declared that "just as the nations have 
abandoned the idea that prisoners of war are 
hostages for the good behavior of the enemy, 
so the same idea in respect to civilians might be 
held". 

From the beginning of the second World War 
the Representation Section of the Special Divi- 
sion was concerned with certain duties pertaining 
to the treatment of war prisoners of countries 
whose interests it had undertaken to protect. Be- 
fore the United States became a belligerent the 
Section had raised also the question of civilian 
internees. In a reply to a memorandum dated Oc- 
tober 14, 1941 from a member of the War-Justice 
Board, covering discussions by the Departments 
of War and Justice regarding enemy aliens who 
might be interned in the United States, Mr. Joseph 
Green, Chief of the Special Division, surveyed the 
current practices of belligerents and suggested that 
since international law principles and practice 
were involved, the State Department had a defi- 
nite interest in the matter. 

Three days after the United States became a 
belligerent the International Red Ci'oss Commit- 
tee, at Geneva, placed at the disposal of this Gov- 



' This is the second in a series of articles on the Special 
War Problems Division by Dr. Stuart. For the first article 
on the historical background and the Welfare Section see 
the Bulletin of July 2, 1044, p. 6. 

■ Bulletin of May 23, 1942, p. 445. 




= ■ 



66 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



ernment all the services of that agency, particu- 
larly those regarding war prisoners and civilian 
internees. The committee urged the United States 
to follow the same 23i'ocedure regarding war pris- 
oners and internees as that which had been estab- 
lished between the belligerent states through the 
Central Agency of the Prisoners of War set up in 
September, 1939 in conformity with the provisions 
of the Geneva convention of 1929. In its reply of 
December 16, 1941 the United States accepted in 
l^rinciple the offer of the International Red Cross 
Committee and jjointed out that it had already 
asked the Swiss Government to convey to the op- 
posing belligerents the intention of the United 
States to a2)ply to prisoners of war, and so far 
as they might be adaptable to civilian internees, the 
provisions and terms of the Geneva Prisoners of 
War Convention and of the Geneva Red Cross 
Convention witli the hope that the opposing gov- 
ernments would act similarly. 

In a subsequent telegram of January 8, 1942 the 
United States Goveriunent accepted definitively the 
details of the Red Cross proposal relative to the 
exchange of lists of invalid and wounded prisoners 
of war under the 1929 convention and, by exten- 
sion, a similar exchange of lists of civilian intern- 
ees. It expected, of course, reciprocal action on 
the part of the opposing belligerents. At that 
time neither Germany nor Japan had agi-eed to this 
Government's jaroposals for the exchange. 

Only four days after our entry into the war, on 
December 12, 1941, at a meeting held in the office 
of Assistant Secretary of State Breckinridge Long, 
arrangements were made for the repatriation of 
Americans, for the relief of Americans in enemy 
territory, and for provision of funds for represen- 
tation of American interests. A Committee on 
Exchange of Diplomatic and Consular Officials of 
Enemy Powers for American Diplomatic and Con- 
sular Officials Held by those Powers was established 
and the chairmanship of this committee was placed 
in the Special Division, which was directed to in- 
form the opposing belligerents of the intentions of 
this Government regarding international conven- 
tions applicable to warfare. 

A memorandum prepared on Jaiuiary 6, 1942 
in the Special Division stated that the policy of 
the United States was to supply as liberal a regime 
as possible for civilian enemy aliens detained or 
interned in this country and to treat them as favor- 
ably as prisoners of war. The memorandum 
stated further that in continental United States 



1,484, or 2.6 percent, of approximately 55,000 Jap- 
anese aliens had been detained; 1,256, or .04 per- 
cent, of approximately 300,000 German aliens; and 
231, or .002 percent, of approximately 400,000 
Italians had been detained. These figures did not 
include the 1,800 German and Italian seamen in- 
terned prior to the declaration of war. 

Provision was made for special civilian boards 
to review the cases of detained enemy aliens. The 
detainees were placed in the custody of the Immi- 
gration and Naturalization Service at detention 
stations. 

Estahlishment of the Internees Section 

Early in January 1942, an Internees Section was 
set up in the Special Division to deal particularly 
with the Department's responsibilities concerning 
prisoners of war and alien internees. Since it was 
realized that the questions relating to internees 
and prisoners of war would become increasingly 
numerous, the Section had been in a formative 
period for some time. A Foreign Service officer, 
Mr. Edmund A. Gullion, was assigned to this spe- 
cial work. Later the Section was definitely organ- 
ized and its staff was placed in charge of Mr. Ber- 
nard Gufler, a Foreign Service officer who had been 
serving at our Embassy in Berlin and who had had 
charge of the inspection in Germany of prisoners- 
of-war camps where British prisoners were held. 
In less than a month after its establishment, the 
Section had to triple its personnel in order to 
handle the ever-increasing volume and complexity 
of work. 

The general work of the Internees Section, as 
indicated in a memorandum of March 3, 1942, con- 
cerned, first of all, the supervision of all matters 
related to the State Department's responsibilities 
regarding enemy prisoners of war and civilian 
internees in American hands and American pris- 
oners of war and internees in enemy hands. The 
principles governing the procedures were laid 
down in the Geneva Prisoners of War Convention 
of 1929. The United States, as already pointed 
out, had declared to enemy governments its inten- 
tion to apply the provisions of the Geneva con- 
vention to civilian internees in so far as they were 
adaptable. 

Since the War and Navy Departments were pri- 
mary participants in matters pertaining to pris- 
oners, the Section had to maintain very close liai- 
son with these departments, particularly in the 
case of the Office of the Provost Marshal General 



JULY 16, 1944 



67 



in wliich there had been set. up, under the Geneva 
convention, a Prisoners of War Information Bu- 
reau and a Civilian Internees Information Bu- 
reau. These Bureaus performed similar functions. 
Very close liaison was maintained also with the 
American and International Red Cross and with 
the Spanish Embassy and the Swiss and Swedish 
Legations, which acted as protecting powers for 
enemj- interests in the United States. Finally, the 
Section had many and various duties in connec- 
tion with the prisoners-of-war camps and civil- 
ian-internment camps in tlie United States. The 
work of this Section is so complicated that one may 
perhaps best survey it by dividing its activities 
into several major categories. 

Duties Regarding Prisoners of War in the United 
States 

The Internees Section's bible in regard to the 
treatment of prisoners of war is the Geneva Pris- 
oners of War Convention of 1929. According to 
the provisions of article 2 of this convention, pris- 
oners of war must at all times be humanely treated 
and protected. Reprisal measures against them 
must be prohibited. By the terms of article 4 the 
power detaining prisoners of war must provide for 
their maintenance. All the rest of the convention 
specifies in detail the exact procedure required to 
fulfil properly the foregoing principles. 

For protection prisoners of war must, first of 
all, be brought back far enough from the zone 
of combat so that they will be out of danger. 
Since the United States is far from the field of 
operations and has no lack of spiace, it makes an 
excellent area for the establishment of prisoners- 
of-war camps. More than a hundred such camps 
have already been established. 

According to article 77 of the Geneva conven- 
tion, belligerents are bound mutually to notif j' each 
other, within the shortest period possible, of their 
capture of prisoners. Some governments use the 
Red Cross for this service ; others, their war offices. 
According to the Regulations Governing Prisoners 
of War issued by the AVar Department, the Pris- 
oners of War Information Bureau has charge of 
transmitting periodically to the protecting powers 
and to the central agency of the International Red 
Cross Committee information to facilitate the 
identification of each prisoner. However, all ne- 
gotiations with the enemy governments through 
the protecting powers concerning prisoners are 
carried on by the Internees Section of the Special 



Division. This function involves considerable dis- 
cussion with other governmental agencies con- 
cerned with the control or rights of prisoners. 

The Geneva convention is very exact in its pro- 
visions regarding prisoners-of-war camps: the 
quarters must be healthful, food and clothing ade- 
quate, discipline regulated, and the kinds and 
amount of labor specified. A fundamental re- 
quirement is that labor furnished by prisoners of 
war shall have no direct relation with war opera- 
tions. To see that these provisions are properly 
carried out the convention autliorizes representa- 
tives of the protecting power to visit the intern- 
ment camps and to interview prisoners without 
witnesses. As a courtesy, and without limiting in 
any way their freedom of action, a representative of 
the Internees Section accompanies the protecting 
power's respresentatives on all such visits and 
makes a report to the Department. Copies of 
these reports are usually transmitted to other in- 
terested agencies of the Government. In a similar 
fashion, Foreign Service officers, under directions 
from the Internees Section, are carrying on a sim- 
ilar function in areas abroad where agencies of the 
United States hold prisoners of war in foreign 
territory. 

A routine report by the representative of the In- 
ternees Section usually lists the names of the offi- 
cers in charge, and tabulates the persons interned 
as to numbers and rank. It also describes the 
camp's location and housing facilities; the quan- 
tity, quality, and preparation of the food ; the ade- 
quacy of clothing, medical, and recreational facili' 
ties ; the provisions for communications by the pris- 
oners both to their friends and relatives and to the 
protecting power; and the arrangements for laboi' 
by the prisoners. Any comi^laints by tlie prison- 
ers are noted and the Department's representative 
is expected to report completely upon the general 
conditions of the camp, how these conditions meet 
the provisions of the Geneva convention, and upon 
the reactions, if expressed to him, of the repre- 
sentative of the protecting power. 

A composite report on the prisoners-of-war 
camps in the United States where Gennan prison- 
ers are confined would give a favorable picture of 
earnest effort to enforce the terms of the Geneva 
convention. 

Almost all the ten to twelve officers of the Inter- 
nees Section make periodic visits to most of the 
camps. The assignment requires an experienced 
official since the Department's representative must 



PRISONER OF WAR AND CIVILta INTERNEE CAMPS 

IN EUROPE 

Location of camps containing , .. „g 




INDEX 
PRISONER OF WAR CAMPS 



Canip Map 


Designation Sq 


uarc 


DULAC LUFT 


D4 


nULAC NORD 


R1 


MILAC-MARLAC NORD 


R") 


OFLAC V A 


F'i 


OFLAG C4 (XXI B) 


O 


SIKLOS 


r.t 


STALAC II B 


w 


III B 


B7 


in C 


cs 


IV B 


n: 


IV D 


r>7 


V B 


F4 


VI C 


IM 


VII A 


F6 


VIII A 


m 


VIII C 


D7 


IX C 


C5 


XII F 


F4 


XIII C 


F1 


XVII B (252) 


F8 


XVHI A 


G7 


XX A 


r.f) 


221 


G8 


317 (XVIII C) 


F6 


344 (VIII B) 


Efl 


STALAG LUFT I 


B7 


" III 


D8 


" VI 


All 


TIMIS 


HI2 


CIVILIAN INTERNEE CAMPS 




ILAG BIBERACH 


F6 


FRONTSTALAG 122 (COMPIECNE) 


D2 


ILAG VII (LAUFEN) 


C6 


" LIEBENAU 


15 


" TITTMOMNC 


F6 


MILAGMARLAG NORD 


B5 


VITTEL 


£3 


HOSPITALS (LAZARETS) 




LAZ. XIII D 


E6 


" 104 


C7 


" BAD SODEN 


E5 


" X n (BREMERVORDE) 


B5 


" FREISING 


Fb 


" ROTTENMUNSTER 


F4 


" STADTRODA 


US 


RES. LAZ. II A 


F8 


.. y, f. 


B4 


" EBELSBACH 


E5 


" OBERMASSFELD 


C6 


" X A 


A6 


VAL DE GRACE 


E2 



PubUshed by THE AMERICAN NATIONAL RED CROSS 



70 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



be capable of maldng to the camp commanders 
whatever recommendations may be required re- 
garding the application and interpretation of the 
controlling international agreements. The re- 
ports which they make upon their return must be of 
such a character that they can be used, when neces- 
sary, as a basis for recommendations to the proper 
Departments of the Government for action in ful- 
filment of the obligations of the international 
agreements which are applicable. It is difficult to 
state exactly how much time of the Section is de- 
voted to the task of visiting camps but in the six- 
month period from July through December 1943 
the average number of man-days a month required 
might be estimated as fifty-nine. That number 
represents full-time work for two officers but does 
not include the extensive drafting and other rou- 
tine work incidental to inspections which they 
must complete upon their return to the Depart- 
ment. 

Duties Regarding American Prisonem Abroad 

The Internees Section reviews reports that it 
receives fi'om the International Red Cross Com- 
mittee and from the Swiss Government covering 
visits that their representatives make to the pris- 
oners-of-war camps where Americans are held in 
enemy and enemy-occupied countries.^ It pre- 
pares comments on these reports for transmission 
to Swiss representatives for their guidance in mak- 
ing representations as needed on behalf of Amer- 
ican prisoners confined in the camps subject to 
their inspection. In this connection the Section 
must maintain liaison with the proper depart- 
ments of the American Government to insure that 
privileges requested for American prisoners 
abroad are reciprocally granted to enemy prison- 
ers in American hands. 

In the United States, Germans, Italians, and 
Japanese are segregated ; in Germany, the British 
and Americans are often placed in the same camp. 
The conditions of Americans held in prison camps 
in Europe are not on the whole so good as those 
of German or Italian prisoners in the United 
States, for in the European camps quarters are 
sometimes overcrowded and the food is of poor 
quality. 



' In September 1943 there were in Europe 27 prisoners- 
of-war camps, 16 internees camps, and 21 hospitals where 
Americans were known to be detained. 

' Japan has signed but never ratified the convention. 



A representative example of a German prison- 
ers-of-war camp is Stalag IIIB at Fuerstenberg, 
where there are approximately 5,000 American 
prisoners of war. Wlien the prisoners were first 
placed in this camp in the spring of 1943, they were 
in poor physical condition. A number had scar- 
letina and their clothing was ragged, inadequate, 
and vermin-infested. With the aid of the Red 
Cross and the Y.M.C.A., the German authorities 
provided new clothing and promised additional 
food supplies. During a visit by a neutral repre- 
sentative in September conditions were found to 
be more satisfactory, and the camp commander 
was quite cooperative. 

The State Department has faced a very difficult 
situation with regard to American prisoners in the 
hands of the Japanese. The Internees Section has 
devoted much time and attention to this problem. 
Although Japan is not a party to the Geneva Pris- 
oners of War Convention,- the Department ob- 
tained from the Japanese Government a commit- 
ment to apply mutatis Tmitandis the provisions of 
that convention to American prisoners of war and, 
so far as adaptable, to American civilian internees 
held by Japan. In spite of Japanese promises, in- 
formation from many sources indicated constant 
and flagrant violation of the convention on the 
part of the Japanese Government. During the 
years 1942 and 1943 the United States Government 
requested scoreS of times that the Japanese Gov- 
ernment report names of American prisoners and 
that it permit the Swiss representatives to visit the 
camps. On August 7, 1942 the United States pro- 
tested emphatically against sentences imposed, 
contrary to article 50 of the Geneva convention, 
upon Americans who attempted to escape from 
the Shanghai prisoners-of-war camps. It pro- 
tested also against the refusal of the Japanese to 
permit the Swiss representatives to visit these men. 
On December 12 the Internees Section prepared an 
extended protest covering torture, neglect, physical 
violence, solitary confinement, illegal prison sen- 
tences, mistreatment, and abuse that led to the 
deaths of seven Americans. On January 4, 1943 
the United States protested the insufficient diet 
and generally unsatisfactory conditions at Shi- 
nagawa prisoners-of-war camp. During Febru- 
ary and March, thirteen further protests were 
registered for various violations of the convention, 
such as lack of heat, improper medical attention, 
refusal of the Japanese to permit foodstuffs sent 



JULY 16, 1944 



71 



from tlie outside to be distributed to prisoners, and 
other failures of the Japanese Government to carry 
out their obligations. In April the United States 
Government learned of the execution of the cap- 
tured American airmen who flew over Tokyo and 
protested vigorously both the sentences and the 
failure to grant proper judicial proceedings. 
Nineteen more protests, some of tliem covering 
many kinds of violations, were filed during the rest 
of the year.' 

On January 27, 1944 the United States sent two 
long telegrams to our Legation in Bern to be 
communicated to the Japanese Government 
through the Swiss Government that represents our 
interests in Japan. These communications sum- 
marized the entire unsatisfactory situation, re- 
citing the many violations on the part of Japan, 
her callous failure to provide the minimum re- 
quirements for the barest existence, and her in- 
human and revolting treatment of those unfor- 
tunates in her power. A list of eighteen flagrant 
violations of specific provisions of the Geneva con- 
vention was presented. This was followed by de- 
tailed charges giving specific facts in regard to 
the violations. Some of these reported brutalities 
were so inhuman that only a barbarous people of 
sadistic tendencies could have been guilty of them.- 

Although the first accusation on the part of the 
United States was dated December 23, 1942, no re- 
I^ly had been made on the part of Japan other 
than that the Japanese would investigate and in 
due course of time communicate the results. The 
United States, therefore, weary of waiting, not only 
summarized the entire situation in explicit fashion 
but on February 11, 1944 also made public the text 
of the accusations." At the same time the United 
States stated most emphatically that the Japanese 
Government could assure itself by examining the 
reports of the Spanish, Swedish, and International 
Red Cross representatives that the United States 
had consistently and fully applied the provisions 
of the Geneva Prisoners of War Convention in the 
treatment of all Japanese nationals that it held as 
prisoners of war or civilian internees. 

It is manifestly impossible to give the exact 
number of American prisoners held by the Jap- 
anese, but the Internees Section has made the fol- 
lowing estimates from sources available and from 
estimates based on first-hand information. A to- 
tal of approximately 19,919 American prisoners are 
thought to be in the hands of the Japanese; in Ja- 
pan proper 2,999 prisoners are held in 16 camps. 



varying in size from the one at Osaka with 570 in- 
mates to the one at Hokodate with 12 ; 887 are held 
in China at Kiangwan in Shanghai and 2,436 in 
other Japanese-controlled territory, including 
Formosa, Java, Thailand, and Malaya. In the 
Philippines it is estimated that there are 13,590 
American prisoners. 

Civilian Internees 

The United States has made every effort to carry 
over the provisions of the Geneva Prisoners of 
War Convention to the treatment of civilian in- 
ternees. The European members of the Axis 
group have agi-eed to these provisions, and with 
few exceptions they have carried out their obliga- 
tions. Japan, however, has violated these in her 
internment camps for civilians as she has in the 
prisoners-of-war camps. 

Approximately 5,600 American civilians are in- 
terned under Japanese control. Of these over 
4,000 are in the Philippines. The largest intern- 
ment camjj is Santo Tomas, which is perhaps the 
model camp from the standpoint of humanitarian 
treatment, and those few inmates who have been 
returned from that camp have vouched for the 
fairly humane conduct on the ^jart of the Japanese 
officials. 

Among tlie specific complaints directed at the 
civilian-internment camps in Japan were the re- 
fusal on the part of commanders to permit in- 
ternees to address the protecting power; the lack 
of proper food, footwear, and adequate clothing; 
insufficient medical care; restrictions on religious 
services; and seizure of personal possessions. Al- 
though these violations did not include cruel and 
inhuman treatment to the same extent as in the 
case of prisoners of wai', they were contrary to 
the methods of conduct that the United States very 
carefully accepted and observed. 

In 1942 the Japanese registered a few complaints 
regarding the treatment of Japanese nationals in 
internment camps in the United States. This 
Government carefully considered and made ap- 
propriate replies to all complaints. In conclud- 
ing its reply to the protecting power the United 
States stated that it had instructed its officers con- 
cerned with the handling of Japanese nationals to 
exercise the most scrupulous care that their con- 
trol be governed by the humanitarian principles 

' Bulletin of Apr. 24, 1943, p. 337. 
'• Bulletin of Feb. 5, 1944, p. 145. 
' BXTLLETIN of Feb. 12, 1944, p. 168. 



12 

of the Geneva Prisoners of War Convention and 
the generally accepted rules of international law. 
There are seven internment camps in the United 
States for civilian alien enemies : three in Texas, 
two in New Mexico, one each in Idaho and North 
Dakota. A few hundred civilian alien enemies 
are held at Ellis Island and in detention stations 
in various cities. The camp at Santa Fe, New 
Mexico, has, at the present writing, 1,428 inmates, 
all Japanese ; the one at Crystal City, Texas, has 
2,070 inmates of which 1,266 are German. Of the 
total of 8,183 enemy aliens held in custody by the 
United States abuut 4,000 are German; 3,000, Jap- 
anese ; and 1,000, Italian. 

Japanese Relocation Centers 

The situation of the Japanese in the Unitea 
States has been complicated by the fact that it was 
felt necessary for the safety of the country to con- 
sider the entire western coast as a potential com- 
bat zone and to exclude all persons of Japanese or 
part-Japanese ancestry and individually objec- 
tionable European enemy aliens from this area.^ 
Most of the Japanese in the United States— more 
than 100,000— were inhabitants of this zone and 
about 63 percent were American-born and, there- 
fore, citizens. Nevertheless, the emergency was 
such that it was not thought practicable to permit 
even Japanese loyal to the United States to remain 
there. The Executive order of February 19, 1912 
authorized the military commanders to prescribe 
military areas and exclude any or all persons from 
such areas.^ General DeWitt declared the entire 
West Coast to be such a military area and that all 
Japanese, aliens and American-born, be excluded. 
On March 18, 1942 to aid in the removal of such 
large numbers the President established the War- 
time Civil Control Administration to assist the 
War Department in this task. It was emphasized 
that this evacuation of Japanese from military 
areas was not to be confused with the enemy-alien 
program which required internment in camps un- 
der far more rigid restrictions. 

Ten relocation centers were established on pub- 
lic lands : two in Arizona, two in Arkansas, two in 
California, and one each in Colorado, Idaho, Utah, 
and Wyoming. Each area was required to sup- 
port a minimum of 5,000 persons and to possess 
agricultural and power facilities. Until these cen- 
ters were ready the Japanese were placed in as- 
sembly centers where food, shelter, and medical 
care were provided. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

It is difficult to give figures for the population 
of these relocation centers, which remain incon- 
stant, but on March 4, 1944 there were 90,504 evac- 
uees resident in the 10 centers. In addition, 19,- 
516 were on indefinite leave, 769 on short-term 
leave, and 2,557 on seasonal leave. The largest 
center was Tule Lake with 16,807 residents, and 
the next largest, Colorado River Center with 13,- 
207. No center has less than 6,000 residents. 

The relocation centers are under the control 
of a civil agency in the Department of Interior — 
the War Rjlocation Authority. They are not, 
however, governed by the strict regulations im- 
posed upon the prisoners-of-war and enemy-alien 
internment camps. Nevertheless, the protecting 
power has been invited to visit and report upon 
them, and, as in other camps, a representative of 
the Internees Section of the Special War Prob- 
lems Division accompanied the representatives of 
the protecting power. 

Since the Japanese evacuees in relocation cen- 
ters are not regarded as internees, the provisions 
of the Geneva convention have not been fully ap- 
plied to them. Except for the relocation center 
at Tule Lake, the Japanese evacuees are permit- 
ted many more liberties than those granted to the 
internees. 

Exchange of Sick and Wounded 

According to the terms of article 68 of the 
Geneva Prisoners of War Convention, belligerents 
are obligated to send back to their own country, 
regardless of rank or number, seriously sick and 
seriously injured prisonei-s of war, after their 
physical condition has improved to the extent 
that they can be transported. A model agreement 
which defines the degree of incapacity considered 
sufficient to qualify a prisoner of war for re- 
patriation is attached as an annex to the Geneva 
convention. Furthermore, according to the pro- 
visions of the Geneva Red Cross Convention of 
July 27, 1929, surplus personnel charged exclu- 
sively with the care of the sick and wounded are 
to be repatriated as soon as a way is open for 
their return and military exigencies permit. 



'Enemy aliens, as such, were not excluded. As a mat- 
ter of fact not only can individually objectionable enemy 
aliens be excluded from coastal-defense regions but also 
American citizens can be excluded even when not of Jap- 
anese or part-Japanese ancestry. ^ 

' 7 Federal Register 1407. 



JULY 16, 1944 



73 



In September 1943 the United States and Ger- 
man}' reached an agreement for the mutual re- 
patriation of seriously sick and seriously wounded 
prisoners of war and surplus protected person- 
nel — the latter according to the terms of the 
Geneva Bed Cross Convention. Surplus protected 
personnel was defined in this agreement as in- 
cluding all sucli personnel in excess of two doc- 
tors, one dentist, one chaplain, and six enlisted 
sanitary personnel for each thousand prisoners of 
war. 

The first exchange of seriously sick and seriously 
wounded prisoners and surplus protected person- 
nel between the United States and Germany took 
place in October 1943, when the United States re- 
patriated 234 seriously sick or seriously wounded 
]jrisoners and 1,732 surplus protected persomiel. 
It received, in return, 14 sick or wounded Amer- 
ican prisoners of war. In this exchange all the 
German prisoners who were retm-ned were ap- 
proved for repatriation by the American medical 
authorities. They included all who, up until that 
time, were found eligible for exchange. In the 
second exchange, which took place in March 1944, 
117 Germans were repatriated, in contrast to 36 
American prisoners. In this case the eligibility 
for repatriation from the United States was de- 
termined by mixed medical commissions composed 
of two neutral doctors and one doctor appointed 
by the detaining power. 

Before the second exchange took place the State 
Dej)artment, through the Internees Section of the 
Special War Problems Division, approached the 
German Government for a third exchange to take 
place in Lisbon on April 12, 1944. At the same 
time the Department proposed that similar ex- 
changes should occur without further negotia- 
tion at regulai' three-month intervals. The United 
States proposed that arrangements be made be- 
tween the periodic exchanges for the examination 
of all possible repatriable prisoners, so that the 
largest number possible of repatriables might be 
returned upon each sailing of the exchange ship. 

The German Govermnent in its i"eply stated that' 
all American prisoners of war qualified for re- 
patriation, 36 in number, had already been sent 
back on the Gripsholm. Therefore, since no others 
would be available before the mixed medical com- 
mission completed its ne.xt tour of German war 
camps on May 9, 1944, it was felt that the pro- 
posed exchange should be deferred. The Ger- 
man Government, however, at approximately the 



same time agreed to further exchanges of seriously 
sick or seriously wounded prisoners of war and 
proposed May 2, or a date thereafter, as the ex- 
change date. Since Colonel d'Erlach, chairman 
of the mixed medical commission, operating in 
Germany, did not believe that the commission's 
work would be finished before the middle of May, 
a later date was thought to be more practicable. 

The Governments of the United States and 
Great Britain jointly proposed to the German 
Government that an additional exchange of seri- 
ously sick and seriously wounded prisoners of 
war take place on May 17 with either Lisbon or 
Barcelona as the port of exchange. Barcelona 
was agreed upon, since the trip from Germany to 
Barceloini was much shorter than the trip to Lis- 
bon. The Germaa Government accepted both the 
date of May 17 and Barcelona as the exchange port. 
The vessel proposed was the M.S. Gripsholm. The 
itinerary was from New York via Algiers to Bar- 
celona and return via Algiers and Belfast (to dis- 
embark the British contingent) to New York. 

The number of Germans repatriated on this 
voyage of the Gripsholm, which left New York on 
May 2, 1944, was 517 sick and wounded and sur- 
plus protected personnel in British custody and 
340 sick and wounded and protected personnel in 
United States custody, making a total of 857. The 
number of Allied sick and wounded brought back 
from Germany was over 1,000, of whom 65 were 
Americans. 

The State Department was responsible for the 
repatriation movement from the time of delivery 
of the German prisoners of war on the Gripsholm 
m New York until the returning British and Amer- 
ican prisoners were disembarked in Algiers, Bel- 
fast, or New York. This responsibility incltided 
accommodating, guarding, furnishing adequate 
medical caj-e, and delivering the German prisoners 
to the Spanish authorities. 

The United States has made similar proposals 
for the exchange of seriously ill and wounded pris- 
oners and surplus protected personnel to the Ru- 
manian and Bulgarian Governments, which are 
parties to the Geneva Prisoners of War Convention 
and the Geneva Red Cross Convention. The Japa- 
nese Government, which is a party to the Geneva 
Red Cross Convention, agreed in principle to the 
United States Government's proposal for the re- 
patriation of protected personnel. It sent back a 
small number of American military nurses at the 
lime of the first civilian exchange but none there- 



7i 

after. The Japanese Government, after due con- 
sideration, stated that it could not make a favor- 
able response to the United States proposals for 
the reciprocal application of the model agreement 
and the repatriation of seriously sick and seriously 
wounded prisoners of war under the Geneva Pris- 
oners of War Convention. 

Liaison Work 

The Internees Section carries on a considerable 
amount of liaison work with the other agencies of 
the Government concerned with prisoners-of-war 
and civilian internment. It must participate with 
these agencies in committee meetings and in con- 
ferences to solve the various problems which arise. 
The relationship with the American Red Cross 
and the International Red Cross Committee is con- 
stant and close. For example, this Section receives 
all proposals that the International Red Cross 
Committee makes for special agreements designed 
to broaden the scope of the humanitarian treaties 
or to clarify their interpretation. After consulta- 
tion with the appropriate agencies of this Govern- 
ment, it replies to the proposals. 

Since the Department of Justice has charge of 
the administration of the civilian-internment 
camps, considerable liaison work between the Sec- 
tion and that agency must be carried on. Prior to 
July 1943 the military authorities controlled civil- 
ian-internment camps. The change to the Depart- 
ment of Justice has worked out to the satisfaction 
of both Army and Justice, and the latter agency is 
administering the camps efficiently and in accord- 
ance with humanitarian standards of interna- 
tional law. 

The relations of the Internees Section with the 
"War Department and General Staff are also very 
close. Although the War Department controls 
the prisoner-of-war camps and is responsible for 
their proper administration, all complaints on the 
part of the protecting power must be made through 
the State Department. The Internees Section 
takes up these complaints with the War Depart- 
ment and relays its responses to the protecting 
power. The use of prisoners-of-war labor has 
been a serious problem. The War Department's 
regulations are very carefully drawn to carry out 
both the letter and spirit of the Geneva convention. 
The State Department must point out any viola- 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

tions when the protecting power brings them to its 
attention. Evidence of such derelictions is re- 
ported by the Section's representatives visiting the 
camps with the Swiss representative. 

Although the problems handled are war-related, 
it is not likely that the Internees Section will cease 
to fimction for some considerable time after the 
end of hostilities. Many problems, some of them 
of a highly technical nature, will continue to vex 
the authorities, and a trained and experienced or- 
ganization such as the Internees Section of the 
Special War Problems Division will continue to 
be an invaluable asset to the Department. 



Regulations To Safeguard 
Interests of United States 
And Its Merchant Marine 

[Released to the press July 12] 

In order that the interests of the United States 
and its merchant marine may be safeguarded by 
every possible means the Secretary of State has 
decided that after 6 o'clock in the forenoon of 
August 15, 1944 no seaman who is a citizen or na- 
tional of the United States may ship on a vessel 
in this country bound for a foreign port unless 
he bears a valid American passport or e\-idence, 
usually referred to as a "receipt", that he has ap- 
plied for a passport within the preceding six 
months and that after 6 o'clock in the forenoon 
of November 15, 1944 no such seaman may sliip on 
a vessel in tliis country bound for a foreign port 
unless he bears a valid passport. This procedure 
will place in full effect on November 15, 1944 the 
provision of the Passport Control Regulations is- 
sued by the Secretary of State on November 25, 
1941 under which seamen are required to bear 
valid passports in order to depart from the United 
States. Consequently all seamen who have not 
heretofore applied for passports should do so as 
soon as possible.^ 

The foregoing is in harmony with the views of 
the appropriate military authorities and the War 
Shipping Administration. 



' BuixEON of Nov. 15, 1941, p. 381, and Nov. 29, 1941, 
p. 431. 



JULY 16. 1944 



75 



Presentation of Letters of Credence 



AMBASSADOR OF ECUADOR 

[Released to the press July 12] 

A translation of the remarks of the newly ap- 
pointed Ambassador of Ecuador, Senor Galo 
Plaza, upon the occasion of the presentation of his 
letters of credence, July 12, 1944, follows : 

Mr. President : It is a singular privilege for ine 
to be the bearer of the cordial salutation which the 
people of Ecuador send to your people as homage 
to their heroism on the battle-fronts and to their 
wisdom and steadfastness on the home-front and 
as producers of the armament and food which so 
decidedly contribute to the triumph of culture and 
liberty, in which undertaking we are all passion- 
ately engaged. 

It is no mere formula of protocol nor a common- 
place statement when I say to you that I bring for 
your people a greeting from the Ecuadoran people. 
We have eliminated in my country the contradic- 
tion which previously rendered this affirmation 
false or fictitious. We Ecuadorans possess today 
an integi'al democracy because the people are in 
power, the people in enjoyment of their rights and 
liberties which formed a Government whose dem- 
ocratic vigor is a fine example of politics in its 
constructive sense. We have liberty at home, we 
have democracy, and we can speak of it and form 
with it our international friendships. That peo- 
ple, free and master of its destiny, formed a Gov- 
ernment which sent me to you, sir, to place in your 
hands this message of friendship of which I have 
spoken to you, being convinced that it is not an 
exclusive governmental truth but a profound 
popular truth. 

My Government greets your Nation in the person 
of its illustrious leader, you, Mr. Franklin Delano 
Hoosevelt ; yet not only am I the bearer of a greet- 
ing of emotion from the Ecuadoran people but my 
mission is also arranged for these other purposes : 
to draw together more closely the relations of our 
Governments and above all to bring about the 
friendship and understanding of our peoples one 
for the other to the end that there may exist be- 
tween our two Nations something of permanent and 
everlasting value. 

I bring then a mission which, if diplomatic terms 
permit, is double : the friendly voice of my Govern- 
ment and the enthusiastic voice of my people. 



Through the voice of the Chancellor of Ecuador, 
the Government, over which His Excellency Dr. 
Velasco Ibarra presides, affirmed that it will exert 
itself to bind together intimately North American 
interests with ours and that its desire will be satis- 
fied if sympathy towards the United States is con- 
solidated among the people of Ecuador. 

This is the greatest guarantee of my mission — 
that we amplify the limits of our relations, not cir- 
cumscribing them to official bounds but expanding 
them to the limitless and eternal domains of the 
soul of the peoples. 

You know well the Ecuadoran contribution to- 
ward the war effort and continental defense. As 
much as was in our hands we have given with 
alacrity, generosity, and disinterestedness; we have 
fulfilled our duty in defense of liberty, inspired by 
the securities proclaimed in the four freedoms 
whose principles ought to be consecrated as truths 
of the contemporaneous spirit, perhaps as an addi- 
tion to those luminous truths which were conse- 
crated in the Bible, where is found the doctrine of 
two thousand years of our civilization. 

In the same spirit we shall continue lending 
that cooperation in the form which translates it- 
self into mutual material benefits, because that la- 
bor of defense today foresees and anticipates the 
triumph of peace. As we have given for war we 
wish to give for peace, and to that end we must 
equip the economy of our people, raise its standard 
of living, produce more, in short, in order to be able 
to purchase and sell more. We have been working 
in Ecuador clay and night since the inaugura- 
tion of the new government to invigorate our 
economy, to open roads, to establish public hy- 
giene, and to be able to extract from our soil the 
natural resources at our disposal which will per- 
mit our whole population and even ten times as 
many to live in abundant happiness. We have re- 
sources and possibilities for giving bread, dignity, 
and a future to many more millions of inhabitants. 

Victory is near, sir, but as you have said, in or- 
der to attain it this generation must make sacri- 
fices greater than those which it has realized up to 
now. It is almost miraculous what the United 
States, a people of work and peace, has done, in 
equipping the legions of democracy with arms 
which no one would have believed possible to ob- 
tain in such a short period of time. Your people 



76 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



has rendered itself deserving of the thanks of the 
human race, and for many centuries such an 
achievement will be remembered with astonish- 
ment. It is the example of a free people, master 
of its destiny, -which knows what it desires, what it 
defends, and wliat it awaits. It is a people inspired 
by wise directors capable of guaranteeing their 
own aspirations and those of all mankind. I pray 
that the victory of peace may follow the victory 
of arms creating a world in which may be ban- 
ished forever new threats of aggression and where 
there may be respect for peoples and men in their 
right to life and bread. 

Please receive with the letter of retirement from 
my distinguished predecessor that which accred- 
its me as Ambassador Extraordinary and Pleni- 
potentiary of Ecuador in the United States of 
America. 

The President's reply to the remarks of Sefior 
Galo Plaza follows: 

Mr. Ambassador: It is a great pleasure for me to 
receive from you today the letter whereby His 
Excellency the President of the Republic of Ecua- 
dor accredits you as Ambassador Extraordinary 
and Plenipotentiary near the Government of the 
United States. 

I also accept the letter of recall of Captain 
Colon Eloy Alfaro, your predecessor, whose long 
and distinguished service will always be remem- 
bered with esteem and friendship. During the 
more than a decade he was here he made a con- 
tribution that will long be remembered, not only 
to the impi'ovenient of relations between your 
country and mine but also to the development of 
that close and intimate unity and solidarity of 
the hemisphere that all of us desire. 

In welcoming you I am happy in the thought 
that you have returned with this significant trust 
placed upon you by your Government to this land 
where for a number of years you chose to receive 
your university education and with which you have 
retained so many ties of friendshijj. 

You enter upon your new duties at a time when 
this Nation is engaged in the greatest struggle in 
history for the preservation of that freedom which 
inspired those great leaders Bolivar and Wash- 
ington. The victoiy over our common enemies 
who would have imposed upon us all a brutal 
slavery is now a certainty. It is being achieved 
through unity of purjiose, understanding, and sac- 



rifice among those nations which seek enduring 
peace and justice. 

I should like at this time again to express on 
behalf of this Government and people their sin- 
cere and deep appreciation for the invaluable con- 
tribution of Ecuador to the defense of the hemi- 
sphere and the prosecution of this war. The war 
will be followed by a peace in which we shall labor 
with all good-will to achieve our aspirations. I 
am confident that we and all other nations in- 
spired by a deep spirit of friendship may look 
forward to a future which will provide a solid 
basis of economic life and that security which will 
guarantee a happier welfare for mankind. 

As you enter upon your new i-esponsibilities, Mr. 
Ambassador, I wish to assure you that I as well 
as all of the officials of this Government will con- 
sider it a privilege and a pleasure to facilitate the 
successful accomplishment of your tasks. 

In extending you a most cordial welcome, I 
would ask you to be kind enough to convey to His 
Excellency President Velasco Ibarra my deep ap- 
preciation of the friendly greetings which you 
have extended to me on behalf of the Ecuadoran 
Nation and assure him of my most cordial ex- 
pression of friendship and my best wishes for the 
prosperity and happiness of the Ecuadoran 
people. 

AMBASSADOR OF NEW ZEALAND 

[Rploased to the press .Tuly 12] 

The remarks of the nev.ly appointed Minister of 
New Zealand, Mr. C. A. Berendsen, upon the occa- 
sion of the presentation of his letters of credence, 
July 12, 1944, follow : 

Mr. PREsmENT: I have the honor to present to 
you letters from His Majesty the King accredit- 
ing me to be Envoy Extraordinary and ]\Iinister 
Plenipotentiary to the United States of America 
for His Majesty's Dominion of New Zealand. I 
also present to you letters of recall in respect of 
my distinguished predecessor the Honorable Wal- 
ter Nash, who is returning to New Zealand to re- 
sume his duties as Deputy Prime Minister. 

In following Mr. Nash I know that I will have 
the advantage of the unstinted good-will that has 
been extended to him and to New Zealand by your- 
self, Mr. President, your officers, and the people 
of the United States. 

The events of this war have brought the peo- 
ples of our two countries together, in times of 



JULY 16, 1944 



77 



difficulty rtiid danrrer as in times of joint adiieve- 
ini'iit. Ill common with our partner nations of 
the British Commonwealtli, New Zeahuiders have 
been proud to fight side by side witli your forces 
in many tlieaters of war. Very many New Zealand 
homes have been privileged to welcome American 
servicemen, whom we have found to be close to 
our own New Zealand people in their sturdy in- 
dependence of spirit and in their general approach 
to the problems of our day. 

We in New Zealand, whose contribution to this 
great struggle for the rights of man has, we believe, 
been not unwoi'thy of the traditions of our country, 
feel the warmest admiration for the gigantic war 
achievements of this great Republic. 

When my predecessor came to tliis country tlie 
outlook in Russia, in North Africa, and in the Pa- 
cific was not encouraging, and I rejoice that in the 
two and a half years that have elapsed since that 
time tlie forces of the United States, of Great 
Britain and the British Commonwealth, of Russia, 
and of the other United Nations, liave carried tlie 
war to a point where the shape of victory can be 
seen and the problems of peace are beginning to 
emerge. 

My country looks forward to the closest collabo- 
ration with the United States, particularly in the 
Pacific area, not only in achieving final and com- 
plete victory but also in meeting and solving tlie 
problems of the post-war period. I feel confident 
that the mutual understanding and cooperation 
that has develoj^ed during the war will continue 
and increase and will enable us to contribute, in 
substantial measure, towards the establishment of 
that world order based on freedom and justice 
which it is the aim of both countries to create. 

I esteem it a great privilege to have the oppor- 
tunity of working in this country towards these 
objectives. 

I have the honor to be, Mr. President, your 
obedient servant. 

The President's reply to the remarks of Mr. 
Brendsen follows : 

Me. Minister : I am veiy happy to welcome you 
to Washington and to receive from your hands the 
letters by which His Majesty the King has accred- 
ited you Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Pleni- 
potentiary of New Zealand to the United States. 
I accej^t, likewise, the letters of recall of your 
predecessor, the Honorable Walter Nash, whose 
distinguished service here as New Zealand's first 



Minister to the United States will be long and 
happily remembered. 

AVe in the United States have a special feeling of 
friendship and admiration for New Zealand. Our 
peoples hold common ideals of liberty and justice. 
Our countries are close neighbors in the Pacific. 
AA'e have faced the same ruthless enemy, and we 
share the terrible sacrifices of war. Our .soldiers 
fight together on many fields of battle as valiant 
defenders of our common faith. Your country by 
its outstanding contribution to the war has earned 
a high place among the United Nations. 

Thus have been forged eternal bonds of friend- 
ship between us. 

Great suffering must still be endured, but our 
final victory over the forces of oppression can no 
longer be doubted — even by our enemies. We look 
forward, in the years ahead, to the fullest coopera- 
tion and collaboration with New Zealand in help- 
ing to build a world in which all nations and all 
peoples may live in peace. 

VCe are honored by the visits to Washington of 
your great Prime Minister, my good friend Peter 
Fraser. His visits have afforded opportunity for 
fullest consultation and exchange of views on all 
matters of common concern to our Governments. 
We have come to know him and admire him and 
love him. AVe are happy to have Prime Minister 
and Mrs. Fraser with us at this moment. 

You yourself are no stranger in AVashington, 
Mr. Minister, and I now welcome you in your new 
high capacity. I hope your stay among us may 
be a jDleasant one, and I wish to assure you that I 
and all the officials of the American Government 
stand ready at all times to help you in every way 
possible to carry out your duties as Minister. 

AMBASSADOR OF PERU 

[Released to the press July 12] 

The remarks of the newly appointed Ambassa- 
dor of Peru, Senor Don Pedro Beltrtin, upon the 
occasion of the presentation of his letters of cre- 
dence, July 12, 1944, follow : 

Mr. President: I have the honor to present to 
Your Excellency the letters by which the Govern- 
ment of Peru has accredited me as its Ambassador 
Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary befoi'e the 
Government of the United States of America, after 
the much regretted loss of my distinguished pred- 
ecessor, Mr. Manuel de Freyre y Santander, which 
has been so deeply felt in my country and abroad 



7S 



Department of state bulletin 



by all those who knew him and appreciated his 
high qualities. 

I consider it a privilege to represent my country 
here. I feel the more so at present when we can 
well say that the end of this long struggle is in 
sight. Now the world will be able to set itself to 
the task of reconstruction. This is a large assign- 
ment, for the field is vast. Material damage done 
to the invaded countries has to be repaired, and 
their populations have to be saved from starva- 
tion. But that is not all. Sure foundations have 
to be laid for a freer world where not even the 
weakest nation will have anything to fear from 
the most powerful one and where the rights of the 
smallest will be respected as much as those of the 
strongest. To achieve this some sort of world 
organization will have to be built to prevent any 
aggressor from ever again being able to disturb 
the peace. 

But even that is not enough. The world has 
to be put again on its feet to continue its forward 
march of progress. Means will have to be sought 
and found to make possible economic prosperity 
based on efficient production, freer trade, and bet- 
ter distribution. Only so will it be possible to 
raise the standard of living of the needy of the 
different nations, which must be the real goal. 
To obtain the greatest happiness of the largest 
number by assuring their welfare, by keeping them 
free from the fear of unemployment and want — 
that is the true task to which governments should 
set themselves above everything else. 

Under the leadership of Your Excellency, the 
United States of America have been in the front 
in preaching these principles and in trying to see 
that they are put into practice by setting up the 
necessary world organizations without which suc- 
cess would be impossible. The days are gone when 
governments could believe that the welfare of their 
own people could be realized by independent and 
isolated action on their part. 

The Government of Peru, as Your Excellency 
is aware, has been side by side with yours ever 
since the days of Pearl Harbor when it took the 
lead at the Rio de Janeiro Conference in joining 
this country in its stand against aggression. And 
ever since it has not only followed with the great- 
est interest the strong and enlightened leadership 
which the Government of Your Excellency has de- 
veloped in pi-eaching the good doctrine to which I 
have already referred but has heartily joined in 



that work and is determined to further cooperate 
in every way it can. 

The Peruvian Government will continue to pur- 
sue these principles with as much earnest as that 
shown by the Government of Your Excellency, and 
let us hope that with the help of God the world 
may at last look forward to an era of peace, of 
prosperity, and of well-being among all classes in 
every nation. 

For the fulfillment of my mission I feel that I 
shall be able to count on the valuable cooperation 
of Your Excellency's Government. The tradi- 
tional friendship between our two Nations and 
the present unity of purpose of their two Gov- 
ernments are a sure guarantee that we can be con- 
fident for the future of their relationships, which 
will continue to bring them closer together. 

I am the bearer of special greetings for Your 
Excellency from the President of Peru, who has 
ever present the pleasant souvenirs of his visit 
to tliis country in 1942, which developed strong 
personal ties of friendship between the chiefs of 
state of the United States and of my country. In 
the name of the President of Peru and of the 
Peruvian people allow me to express my sincere 
wishes for the welfare of the United States and 
for the personal happiness of Your Excellency. 

Tlie President's reply to the remarks of Sefior 
Beltran follows: 

Mr. Ambassador : I have much pleasure in re- 
ceiving from Your Excellency the letters accred- 
iting you as Ambassador Extraordinary and 
Plenipotentiary of Peru and in according you 
i-ecognition in that capacity. In doing so I am 
privileged to welcome you as a friend of the United 
States who has often visited our shores and who 
already has among the citizens of my country 
numerous friends and admirers. 

Your distinguished predecessor was for many 
years my very good personal friend and his long 
career as representative of your country at Wash- 
ington was characterized by an unusual and sym- 
pathetic understanding, which enabled liim to con- 
tribute greatly to the good relations which hap- 
pily exist between Peru and the United States. 

I am pleased that Your Excellency has referred 
to the titanic struggle in which we and our allies 
are now engaged. I am more than grateful for 
this opportunity of expressing the gratitude which 
the people of my country hold for the people of 



JULY 16. 1944 



79 



Peru and its leaders for the support, encourage- 
ment, and comfort which Your Excellency and 
your countrymen have given us during these re- 
cent difficult years. We have not forgotten, nor 
shall we forget, that Peru was one of the leaders 
among the other American republics in joining 
us in our stand against aggression. The most ter- 
rible phase of the unparalleled struggle in which 
we are engaged is still before us, and the United 
Nations must look forward to great suffering and 
enormous sacrifices before the inevitable victory 
is won. In this difficult time I am confident that 
the United States can count on the sympathetic 
assistance and support of Peru in the task of win- 
ning the war against Fascist aggression just as 
in the case of our common front at the beginning 
of the struggle. 

A certain distinguished Peruvian, speaking last 
January of the great difference between Germany 
and the Anglo-Saxon nations, said that the lat- 
ter have come to believe in freedom for themselves 
and other peoples whereas our enemy has not only 
remained where the world was in past ages but 
seemed bent on traveling even further back. He 
added, "We in South America could not be mis- 
led. Our own Government here in Peru never 
had any doubts from the very beginning. From 
the time of our war of independence, we have 
owed more to the Americans and to the British 
than to any other external influence for the pres- 
ervation of our freedom." I don't think I need 
tell Your Excellency who spoke those words, nor 
need I explain the warm feelings which they 
evoked among us. 

You will find among the members of this Govern- 
ment a sincere desire to render ever closer the rela- 
tions of friendship and understanding that for 
more than a century have characterized inter- 
course between the Republic of Peru and the 
United States. The officials of this Government 
will at all times be ready and eager to lend you 
every assistance that may contribute to the success- 
ful accomplishment of your mission. 

I am indeed thankful for the special greetings 
which you carry from His Excellency, the Presi- 
dent of Peru. Please be so kind as to inform him 
of the deep pleasure with which I recall his visit 
here in 1942 and assure him of the appreciation 
with which I have received his good wishes, and 
likewise convey to him my sincere wishes for his 
personal welfare and for the prosperity and hap- 
piness of the people of Peru. 



AMBASSADOR OF PORTUGAL 

[Released to the press July 12] 

The remarks of the newly appointed Ambassa- 
dor of Portugal, Dr. Joao Antonio de Bianchi, 
upon the occasion of the presentation of his letters 
of credence, July 12, 1944, follow : 

Mr. Peesujent: I have the honor to place in 
Your Excellency's hands the letter by which the 
President of the Portuguese Republic, General Os- 
car Fragoso Carmona, has been pleased to accredit 
me in the capacity of Ambassador Extraordinary 
and Plenipotentiary to the President of the United 
States of America. 

The raising to ambassadorial rank of the respec- 
tive diplomatic missions is a significant and grati- 
fying proof of the ever-closer relations existing 
between our two countries, so soundly based on 
those feelings of sincere and mutual friendship 
that have always prevailed. Coming as it has at a 
moment when the problems of the post-war world 
begin to loom boldly in the international horizon, 
it affords me the opportunity to convey to Your 
Excellency the warm desire of the Portuguese Gov- 
ernment to collaborate in the solution of those 
issues of mutual interest wherever they may arise. 

The Portuguese people, in the reverence for their 
traditions and in the consciousness of their duties 
as possessors of extensive colonial territories and 
far-flung maritime positions — and yet all closely 
woven into a staunch national unit — are duly con- 
scious of the mission that is incumbent on them in 
the world of the future. It is our belief that, 
within the bounds of complete respect for national 
rights, collaboration between ours and peoples in 
similar conditions, with those great countries that 
have attained gi-eat technical, industrial, and 
financial developments, can not only be successfully 
accomplished but should lead to the most bene- 
ficial and fruitful results. 

Bordering on the Atlantic Ocean and occupying 
many positions in its expanse, Portugal can but be 
aware that the friendships she has maintained 
across the sea and which have fortunately been so 
consistently reciprocated among others by the 
United States of America and our sister nation, 
Brazil, are a strong and promising link in Portu- 
guese-American relations. 

Having been singled out for the high honor of 
being the first Portuguese Ambassador to the 
United States, and on bringing to you, Mr. Presi- 
dent, the renewed assurances of my desire to carry 



80 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



out, to the best of my ability, duties so consistent 
with my own personal feelings, I have at least 
the advantage of knowing, after 11 years' experi- 
ence, that I can rely iu that spirit of friendliness 
and understanding which has always marked my 
relations with you, Mr. President, the members of 
your Cabinet, and the many officials of tlie Govern- 
ernment of the United States of America and 
which, I confidently trust, will continue to be ex- 
tended to me in the future. 

The President's reply to the remarks of Dr. de 
Bianchi follows: 

Mr. Ambassador : It is with great pleasure that I 
received from you, Mr. Bianchi, the letters by 
which His Excellency, the President of the Portu- 
guese Republic, accredits you as Ambassador Ex- 
traordinary and Plenipotentiary to the Govern- 
ment of the United States. As Ambassador I am 
assured that the cordial and effective manner in 
which you have for several years represented your 
Government as Minister will continue, and I am 
happy to assure you that you can continue to count 
on the closest collaboration of the officials and 
agencies of this Government. 

I have noted with interest your comments in re- 
gard to the desire of the Portuguese Government to 
collaborate in meeting the problems which con- 
front the world for which solutions must be found 
through international collaboration and coopera- 
tion. I um sure that the cordial and friendly rela- 
tions which have so long existed between Portugal 
and the United States will still serve our united 
efforts to build a better world. 

May I request that you convey to His Excellency, 
General Carmona, my cordial good wishes for his 
personal well-being and for the progress and pros- 
l^erity of Portugal. 

UNKRA — Continued from p. 62 

and alternates on committees and subcommittees 
of the Council." It is also ordered that "All activ- 
ities of the United States Government pertaining 
to its participation and membership in the United 
Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration 
shall be carried on in conformity with the foreign 
policy of the United States as defined by the Sec- 
retary of State." 

The full text of the Executive order appears in 
the Federal Register of July 11, 1944, page 7637. 



' ^ TREATY INFORMATION ^ 



Military-Mission Agreement With Peru 

[Released to the press July 10] 

In conformity with the request of the Govern- 
ment of Peru there was signed on Monday, July 
10, 1944, at 10:30 a.m., by the Honorable Cordell 
Hull, Secretary of State, and the Honorable Senor 
Dr. Eduardo Garland, Minister Counseloi-, Charge 
d'Affaires ad interim of Peru in Washington, an 
agreement f)i"oviding for the detail of a military 
mission by the United States to serve in Peru. 

The agreement will continue in force for four 
years from the date of signature but may be ex- 
tended beyond that period at the request of the 
Government of Peru. 

The agreement contains provisions similar in 
general to provisions contained in agreements be- 
tween the United States and certain other Amer- 
ican republics providing for the detail of officers 
of the United States Army or Navy to advise the 
armed forces of those countries. 



Lend-Lease Aid 

Supplementing the footnote to the item entitled 
"Extension of the Lend-Lease Act" on page 478 of 
the Bulletin of May 20, 1944, in which Canada 
is included in the list of countries with which the 
United States has entered into agreements under 
the Lend-Lease Act, it should be noted that 
although Canada is eligible to receive lend-lease 
aid, the agreement entered into with Canada, con- 
taining clauses comparable to certain broad pro- 
visions embodied in many of the agreements form- 
ing a part of this Government's program under the 
Lend-Lease Act, does not provide for the furnish- 
ing of lend-lease aid. By the agreement, eifected 
by an exchange of notes signed at Washington on 
November 30, 1942 (Executive Agreement Series 
287), the United States and Canada accepted prin- 
ciples relating to post-war economic policy similar | 
to such principles as embodied in article VII of 
various preliminary agreements relating to mutual 
aid concluded by the United States with a number 
of other countries under the Lend-Lease Act. 

U. S. GOVCRNHENT PRINTING OFFICEi 1»44 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



3 U .. 

VOL. XI, NO. 265 


JULY 23, 1911 



In this issue 



EMERGENCY POWERS: SAFEGUARDS THROUGH POLICE 
STANDARDS: Address by Assistant Secretary Berle 



HOW TO GET RID OF WARTIME CONTROLS 
Address by Charles P. Taft 



THE USES OF VICTORY: Address by Charles Bunn 



LIBERIA'S RELATIONS WITH THE UNITED STATES 
By Henry S. Villard 



AMERICAN ADVISERS IN PERSIA: By George V. Allen 



yveNT o*. 




THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

BULLETIN 



Vol. XI. No. 265.° "^^^y • Pubocation 21S4 



July 23, 1944 



The Department of Slate BULLE- 
TIN, a weekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Research and 
Publication, Office of Public Informa- 
tion, provides the public and inter- 
ested agencies of the Government tvith 
information on developments in the 
field of foreign relations and on the 
work of the Department of State and 
the Foreign Service. The BULLETIN 
includes press releases on foreign policy 
issued by the White House and the De- 
partment, and statements and addresses 
made by the President and by the Sec- 
retary of State and other officers of the 
Department, as well as special articles 
on various phases of international af- 
fairs and the functions of the Depart- 
ment. Information concerning treaties 
and international agreements to which 
the United States is or may become a 
party and treaties of general inter- 
national interest is included. 

Publicatii}ns of the Department, 
cumulative lists of which are published 
at the end of each quarter, as icell as 
legislative material in the field of inter- 
national relations, are listed currently. 

The BULLETIN, published with the 
approval of the Director of the Bureau 
of the Budget, is for sale by the Super- 
intendent of Documents, United States 
Government Printing Office, Washing- 
ton 25, D. C, to whom all purchase 
orders, with accompanying remittance, 
should be sent. The subscription price 
is $2.75 a year; a single copy is 10 







ontents 



Africa Page 

Liberia's Relations With the United States: By Henry S. 

Villard ' . . 102 

American Republics 

Visit of Chilean Educator ' 94 

Europe 

Recent Developments in Germany: Statement by the Secre- 
tary of State 83 

Far East 

Resignation of the Tojo Cabinet in Japan: Statement by 

Joseph C. Grew 83 

Near East 

American Advisers in Persia: By George V. Allen 88 

Economic Affairs 

Exploratory Talks on Post-War Rubber Problems .... 84 
How To Get Rid of Wartime Controls: Address by Charles 

P. Taft 85 

Petroleum Questions: 

United States and United Kingdom Delegations .... 93 
Meeting of Petroleum Industry Representatives and 

State Department Officials 93 

General 

Award of Distinguished Citizen Medal to the Secretary of 

State 94 

Post-War Matters 

International Peace and Seciffity Organization 84 

The Uses of Victory: Address by Charles Bunn 95 

Emergency Powers: Safeguards Through Police Standards: 

Address by Assistant Secretary Berle 99 

Treaty Information 

Regulation of Inter- American .Automotive Traffic 104 

Protocol on the Regulation of Whaling 104 

Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences 104 

Treaty of Amity, China and Liberia 104 

The Department 

Laurence Duggan To Leave Government Service 103 

The Foreign Service 

Consular Offices 103 

Publications 104 

Legislation 104 



Recent Developments 
in Germany 



Statement by THE SECRETARY OF STATE 



[Released to the press July 21] 

In reply to a correspondent's request for com- 
ment on recent developments in Germany, the Sec- 
retary of State said : 

"The attack on Hitler and his explanatory speech 
clearly indicate that a realization of Germany's 
impending defeat is spreading in the Reich. He 
and two of his most important military advisers 
have now denounced as criminal traitors a 'clique 
of former generals who had to be chased from 
their posts for a leadership as cowardly as it was 
incompetent.' Hitler has furthermore been com- 
pelled to remove the Chief of the German General 
Staff and to appoint his chief executioner, Hein- 
rich Himmler, as Commander of the Army in Ger- 



many. These frantic attempts to restore the ap- 
parent unity of the German Command illustrate 
the divergence of views between the Army and 
the party which has developed as a result of the 
steadily deteriorating military position of Ger- 
many. But no amount of internal reshuffling or 
repression by Himmler can conceal from the Ger- 
man people the fact that many German generals 
believe that Germany has lost the war. 

"We should not let these apparent developments 
give rise to over-optimism. The fighting ahead 
will be hard and we should intensify our efforts 
here at home and make all the sooner and more 
certain the defeat of our enemies." 



Resignation of the Tojo Cabinet in Japan 



[Released to the press July 20] 

The resignation of the Tojo Cabinet in Japan 
seems to me to imply three things : First, it is the 
clearest possible admission of unprecedented de- 
feats sustained by the Japanese armed forces; 
second, it follows the usual Japanese pattern of 
the acceptance of personal responsibility for fail- 
ures; third, it implies the necessity of bolstering 
a weakening morale on the part of the Japanese 
people by giving them something m the nature of 
a new government, although we do not know 
whether Tojo will reappear in it or not. 

In this connection I would express a word of 
caution. In all probability the change of govem- 



Statement by JOSEPH C. GREW ' 

ment in Japan will entail no fundamental change 
of i^olicy in fighting the war to the bitter end, 
for the old do-or-die fanatical spirit is deeply en- 
grained in the Japanese race. It is also important 
to bear in mind that Tojo is only one of a gi-oup 
and is not a personal dictator in the European 
sense. The dictatorship is exercised by a group 
which is still in power. It would be short-sighted 
and dangerous to the full prosecution of our own 
war effort to allow this change to lull us into any 
wishful thinking or false optimism. 

' Mr. Grew, former American Ambassador to Japan, 
is Director of the Otfice of Far Eastern Affairs, Depart- 
ment of State. 



84 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



International Peace and 
Security Organization 

[Released to the press July 17] 

The Secretary of State made the following 
announcement on July 17: 

"The four governments signatory to the Declara- 
tion of Moscow are agreed that informal conversa- 
tions and exclianges of views on the general sub- 
ject of an international security organization will 
soon begin in AVashington, probably early in Au- 
gust.' It has been decided, following discussions 
with the other governments, that the first phase of 
the conversations will be between representatives 
of the United Kingdom, the United States, and 
the Soviet Union and that conversations on the 
same subject between representatives of the United 
States, the United Kingdom, and China will be 
carried on either at the same time or shortly there- 
after. These conversations will be followed by 
discussions with the other United Nations." 

[Released to tbe press July 19] 

The informal conversations on the general 
nature of an international organization for the 
maintenance of peace and security will mainly be 
held at Dumbarton Oaks in Georgetown. The De- 
partment of State is gratified that through the 
courtesy of the trustees for Harvard University 
adequate facilities have been made available for 
these important conversations at Dumbarton Oaks 
during the period of the summer recess now taking 
place in the University. 

Dimibarton Oaks was conveyed to Harvard Uni- 
versity in 1940 by the Honorable and Mrs. Kobert 
Woods Bliss and now constitutes a research library 
and collection of Harvard University. It is regu- 
larly used during the academic year by resident 
Harvard i-esearch scholars and fellows engaged in 
advanced study of Byzantine and medieval hu- 
manity. Mr. Bliss is a Special Assistant to the 
Secretary of State and formerly was United 
States Ambassador to the Republic of Argentina. 
The Department wishes to express its appreciation 
to Harvard University and to Mr. and Mrs. Bliss, 
who associated themselves with Harvard's action, 
for permitting Dumljarton Oaks to be used in 
connection with the foreign relations of the 
^ States. 



Exploratory Talks on Post-War 
Rubber Problems 

[Released to the press July 18] 

The Depai'tment of State has accepted an invi- 
tation to send officials to meet with officials of the 
Governments of the United Kingdom and the 
Netherlands to engage in exploratory talks as to 
the i^robable nature of post-war rubber problems, 
pertaining to both crude and synthetic rubber, 
with which these Governments may be confronted, 
and to draft a tentative program of studies to be 
made by officials of the three Governments as a 
basis for possible further discussions. Advantage 
will also be taken of the opportunity to discuss the 
desirability of establishing a committee to keep 
the crude and synthetic rubber situation under sur- 
vey with a view to eventual consideration of post- 
war problems affecting rubber. The Department 
expects to send Mr. B. F. Haley, Chief of the 
Commodities Division, to London the latter part 
of July for this purpose. 

These discussions are to be purely exploratory 
in character and the Department is prepared to 
engage in similar discussions with any other in- 
terested government as occasion may arise. 

Mr. Haley will be accompanied by Mr. W. T. 
Phillips from his staff and by a group of advisers 
from the United States rubber industry and from 
other Government agencies interested in rubber or 
rubber substitutes. Mr. W. S. Lockwood from 
the American Embassy in London will participate 
in the talks as the Embassy's representative on 
rubber. 

The advisers who will accompany Mr. Haley 
are : 

P. W. Litchfield, Chainiian, Goodyear Tire and Rubber 
Company 

John L. CoUyer, President, the B. P. Goodrich Company 

Harry E. Smith, General Manager, Manhattan Rubber 
Manufacturing Division of Raybestos-Manhattan, 
Incorporated 

H. Clay .Johnson, Vice President, Rubber Reserve Cor- 
Iioration 

J. W. Bicliuell, Executive Vice President, Rubber Devel- 
opment Company 

R. A. Gordon, U. S. Coordinator, Combined Raw Mate- 
rials Board 



'BmJJSTiN of June 3, 1044, p. 510, and June 17, 1944, 
p. 552. 



JVLY 23, 1944 



§5 



How To Get Rid of Wartime Controls 



Address by CHARLES P. TAFT ' 



[Released to the press July IT] 

Our business, industrial, and commercial rela- 
tions are in a thoroughly planned and tightly con- 
trolled economy, organized for total war. The 
State Department is concerned with the implica- 
tions for our foreign relations of these controls in 
so far as they aifect our foreign trade. That is 
my job. 

Our industrial production is limited to what is 
needed for war and basic civilian i-equirements. 
To get the maximum of what we have to have, 
materials are closely controlled, especially those 
that are strategic and scarce. Many we lacked 
entirely, and we have built up new industries to 
provide synthetic substitutes. Rubber is only the 
most spectacular one of many such samples. 

The War Production Board divides up that part 
of the cake of scarce materials which involves in- 
dustrial products, while the War Food Adminis- 
tration does the same for the products of agricul- 
ture, each covering what comes from the United 
States and what the United States gets from the 
outside. But of many foods and raw materials 
we produce a surplus — a surplus at least sufficient 
to meet more pressing needs from abroad — and 
after the American and British supply authorities 
in the Combined Food Board, the Combined Raw 
Materials Board, and the Combined Production 
and Resources Board recommend how much should 
go to other areas or come from them the United 
States allocating authorities, the War Production 
Board and the War Food Administration, allocate 
export items from our production. 

Arms, ammunition, and implements of war are 
divided up and assigned by another combined 
United States-United Kingdom group, the Muni- 
tions Assignment Boards in Washington and 
London. This includes all airplanes, military and 
civilian. 

The civilian part of these materials goes abroad 
only on export license, which may be a broad au- 

' Delivered before the annual convention of the Federa- 
tion of Business and Professional Women's Clubs, Inc., 
New York, N. T., July 17, 1944. Mr. Taft is Director of the 
Office of Wartime Economic Affairs, Department of State. 



thority that releases all of a particular kind of 
thing easily available or it may be an individual 
license for each shipment of a scarce commodity. 
Licenses are adjusted not only to allocations but 
to availability of shipping. 

They go abroad for various purposes — either a 
direct war supply, or for the basic civilian econ- 
omy of a nation whose production is essential to 
the war, or for incentive goods to get out some 
product like wild rubber or j)alm kernels from 
relatively backward areas, ob as a trading item in 
economic warfare to induce a neutral to stop some 
important shipment to the enemy. On the receiv- 
ing end tliese exports are usually subject to an 
import license in the country of destination. 

Strategic materials from abroad, when really 
scarce, are controlled in various ways: by the im- 
port orders of the War Production Board which 
operate like the import license just mentioned, or 
by an agreement with the government of the coun- 
try from which they come, which gives us the 
entire exportable surplus. And, of course, imports 
are limited by shipping considerations, just like 
exports. These government-to-government ar- 
rangements will also include a price schedule to 
avoid run-away markets for the buyer or inflation 
for the seller in its domestic market. 

Another necessary i-esult of shipping considera- 
tions is that it proves obviously more economical 
and efficient for the United States and the United 
Kingdom to ship some products in a different 
direction from the normal peacetime pattern of 
trade. New Zealand meat goes to Great Britain ; 
coal takes various directions completely different 
from pre-war; Britain and ourselves supply the 
requirements of the Middle East, which used to 
be supplied from Europe; rubber production 
around the world is assigned solely on the basis 
of military needs and best available plants for 
its processing; and fats and oils are carefully 
jDlaced where they are most needed. 

Price considerations in a scarce article .stop the 
United States and the United Kingdom from bid- 
ding against each other, and one or the other is 



86 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



given the job. So there you are with assignments 
of markets, i^i-ice fixing, government purchasing 
between monopoly buyers and monopoly sellers, 
and quotas. We have arrived at a point in many 
conmiercial dealings that involve tight shipping or 
short supply which is straight state trading of a 
socialized economy. We had to, in order to save 
our national lives. 

One further element is the exchange problem. 
Great Britain has supplied herself and fought the 
war with all her resources but also with the re- 
sources of the Colonies, the Dominions, and 
India — in a word, of the British Empire. This 
has been possible only by paying in pounds ster- 
ling and upon the conditions that the pounds shall 
be used in England only. Some day the creditors 
will want the blocked sterling pounds. England 
has a certain amount of dollars which she has to 
hoard in order to pay for what she has to buy in 
the United States over and above lend-lease. So 
that when our exporters want to send goods to 
some one of the empire areas, they can be paid in 
dollars only if the British Treasury has any extra. 
And our exporters, most of them, don't want 
pounds in London, for they have little they want 
to buy there. 

How do we get out of those controls and back 
to the kind of free world we all want ? When the 
war ends we know that the cessation of shooting 
ends the horrible waste that goes into the maw 
of destruction. In the course of time ships will 
be free and most shortages will be replaced by 
surpluses. But the trade controls will not stop 
automatically — that takes intelligent and directed 
effort, an effort that is not only essential but whose 
failure may destroy all our hopes for peace and 
freedom. In fact, these controls are economic 
warfare, and, in the end, as with Germany, they 
help to bring real war. 

There is a well-spoken and sometimes bitter dis- 
satisfaction with so much concern and talk about 
oil and gold and shipping, with factual situations, 
with so much bickering about trade and commerce 
and hauling and transportation. An appealing 
cry arises for a peace of ideas, represented by words 
like liberty, freedom, and democracy, revolution- 
ary words never usable to protect an evil statics 

1. I can understand that point of view. When 

id that Karl Marx took God out of history, 

' ^ !" and say with Juarez that, while we 

art -nidly affected by the way we earn 



our living, great crises in history are decided in 
the end by ideas of liberty and justice. 

But you can't separate ideas and words from 
the facts of life, especially from the economic 
status of nations. Nations must be governed 
through politicians, whose opportunity to govern 
at all must be dependent on the support of their 
people. Politicians are the salvage men of gov- 
ernment. They come in after revolution and have 
to rebuild what is left. Hamilton, Adams, Jef- 
ferson, and Madison were that kind of politi- 
cians — with ideals, but with a realization that it 
takes time to achieve them, and a very keen un- 
derstanding of the place of trade, industry, and 
finance. 

On the other end from the idealistic and insuffi- 
ciently political poet are the pessimists who say, 
"Oh, yes, the liberal trade policies of Secretary 
Hull are all right in theory, but in fact we are in 
for a world of barter, export and import controls, 
exchange management, and quotas. The elimina- 
tion of trade barriers is our goal," they say, "but 
in the meantime we must have vigorous govern- 
ment protection for our business men abroad in 
the transition j)eriod." 

All this is not only a rather condescending pat 
on the head for my chief, but it is in fact the kind 
of defeatism that lets the world slide back into 
the morass from which we are trying to pull our- 
selves. In addition to that, it contemplates a 
trade battle of giants between the United States 
and Great Britain, each government dealing 
through its traders in a great warfare of trade 
and commerce. 

That program the Department of State cannot 
accejjt. The same kind of talk gi-eeted the begin- 
nings of the i^rogram of recij^rocal trade agree- 
ments ten years ago. In spite of the same kind of 
opposition, the program worked and made the first 
intelligent and, on the whole, non-political reduc- 
tion in trade barriers in our history, with a cor- 
responding increase in beneficial exchanges of 
goods. 

Now we need a similar act of faith, and Great 
Britain is the country whose support we must 
have in getting away from this economic warfare 
in trade controls. The rest of the world can man- 
age with one great state trading nation (Russia), 
but not with two. There are very strong elements 
in the United Kingdom who feel that England 
must go to a barter economy after the war to save 
its very life. Others equally influential support 



JULY 23, 1944 



87 



the tratle policies which are the official program 
of this Governinent, with strong bipartisan sup- 
port. But those who support our position are 
up against real problems in the United Kingdom' 
after hostilities stop. I have spoken of the threat- 
ened avalanche of claims for blocked sterling in 
payment of war debts. Equally serious is the 
necessity for Britain to export in order to pay for 
the things they must have to live. Their imports 
are their lifeblood, which the Germans have tried 
in two wars to choke off by a submarine blockade, 
as Napoleon tried nearly a hundred and fifty years 
ago to choke England by a different kind of block- 
ade. And they can only get that lifeblood by ex- 
porting their manufactures and services to pay for 
it. They are perfectly willing to get that support 
from us, which we can supply to a considerable de- 
gree ; but we have to take their manufactures and 
services to get our pay for it. 

The British are exporting now so far as it does 
not interfere with the war effort, just as we are, in 
order to reduce their mounting war costs, but what 
they ship out is 'way below f)re-war, much farther 
below than United States trade. Owr exporters 
think the British are jumping the gim, and their 
exporters are equally certain we are making it im- 
possible for them to get back their markets. 

Neither view is accurate. Equally wrong is the 
battle-of -giants theory. The place of governments 
is to see that their nationals are not discriminated 
against, but we have no business to make trade 
competition an argument between governments. 
One difficulty is that the private enterprisers them- 
selves often want just that — a government inter- 
vention that gets them the contract. 

Our first objective is to eliminate our trade con- 
trols as fast as they are no longer necessary for 
the prosecution of the war. Immediately that runs 
us into efforts of foreign countries to prevent war- 
time or transitional inflation, and their feeling 
that they must keep or put on new controls for 
that purpose. And some of the proposals for re- 
laxation of controls mean more United States ex- 
ports, and run into the dollar-exchange problem 
of England, who would have to release dollars to 
pay for this new trade. 

So our second objective is to devise a system 
for prompt and friendly discussion, with the 
British especially, through which we can work 
out this basic transitional problem effectively and 
promptly. 



But one of the most important objectives must 
be for each country to study sympathetically the 
financial and commercial problem of the other in 
the light of its own long-time interests and to work 
out measures in each country which can form the 
basis for world trade among them and the basis 
for approaches to the other trading nations for 
similar measures. 

There are two theories of our relation to Great 
Britain in connection with the war. One is that 
this war is Britain's war, not ours really. We do 
want Britain to win, however, and so we give them 
the extra push, the extra men, the extra equip- 
ment and supplies to supplement their effort. We 
expect them to spend themselves empty — empty of 
vigor, empty of resources, emj^ty of their young 
men's lives — while we spend only the supplement 
we give them that they need. Any surplus comes 
back to us. That theory seems to me profoundly 
immoral. It leads to argument about the percent- 
age of Americans on some particular European 
front compared to British. It leads to demands 
for the control and domination of British finance 
after the war because they have used their re- 
sources and owe us the balance. It means the end 
of any Anglo-American friendship and collabo- 
ration. 

The other theory is that we are partners. That 
reflects our actual operations. We have pooled 
our resources and our men and we try to share 
the destruction and wastage of war, because we are 
engaged in a common effort to maintain the ele- 
ments of our civilization, in which we cooperate 
even in matters of mutual irritability. Yes, there 
are evil things in our civilization, and certainly 
there are events in the history of both countries 
which do not live up to our best ideals. Some of 
our allies may have a different political tradition. 
But our two countries have in different ways built 
up the content of the democratic ideal for human 
existence, and our common opponents in this war 
have dragged it down and threatened our own 
existence. Individuals from each of our nations 
are short-sighted and irritating to the other na- 
tion, but our past and our future are inextricably 
linked. 

We must win this war together, and we nuist 
work together in political and economic matters 
for a peaceful world of commerce and friendship 
and sound standards of living for ourselves and 
for all others whom we can help to rise. 



88 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



American Advisers in Persia 



By GEORGE V. ALLEN ' 



The American public is not generally aware 
that at present nearly seventy-five highly quali- 
fied American citizens are employed in Persia = 
by the Persian Government or are lent to the 
Persian Govermnent by the Government of the 
United States. These Americans are devoting 
their full energies to advising and aiding in the 
administration of that country. At the urgent 
request of the Persian Government, the present 
American advisory program in Persia began two 
years ago; and, in spite of many difficulties, it 
has been gathering momentum. 

For the third time during the past generation 
the Persian Govei-nment, faced with a critical 
economic and political situation, has turned to the 
United States for advisers. The reason that the 
Persians have looked to America for help was 
clearly expressed in a note, containing the follow- 
ing paragraphs, which the then Persian Minister 
in Washington, the distinguished statesman Hos- 
sein Ala (now Minister of the Court to the Shah) 
sent to the Secretary of State on February 21, 1924 : 

"In the first place, my Government reiterate 
the sentiments expressed in a memorandum I had 
the honor of handing you shortly after my arrival 
in Washington on September 15, 1921, namely, 
that the Persian Government and people have al- 
ways recognized the altruism and impartiality 
which distinguish the American Government and 
people. They particularly appreciate the concern 
of the United States for fair play, for the respect 
of the independence of the smaller nations and 
for the maintenance of the economic oi^en door. 

"It was because of their implicit faith in the 
lofty ideals and trusted friendship of America that 
my Government, over a year ago, confided the re- 
organization of their finances to American advisers 



^ The author of this artk-Ie is Chief of the Division of 

Middle Eastern Affairs, Office of Near Eastern and African 

Affairs, Department of State. 

' Shortly after Shah Reza assumed power in 1925, he 

^creed that the country should be known as Iran. Fol- 

■^s; the return of the constitutional government in 1941, 

^ign Office announced that the name Persia would 

->ermltted. This terminology has been used 

th ^ present article to avoid confusion. 



and have consistently courted the technical and 
financial cooperation of this country in the indus- 
trial and economic development of Persia." 

In 1911 Americans were invited for the first 
time to serve as advisers to the Government of 
Persia. The difRcidties which Persia faced at that 
time resulted from events which followed the rev- 
olution of 1906, when absolutism in Persia was 
overthrown and a popular demand for a constitu- 
tion and an elected parliament was granted. 

Close on the heels of the establishment of a con- 
stitutional monarchy came the famous Anglo- 
Eussian treaty of 1907 which, in effect, partitioned 
Persia into British and Russian spheres of in- 
fluence. Its first provision contained a declaration 
of mutual respect, on the part of Russia and of 
Great Britain, for the integrity and sovereignty 
of Persia. The British Government agreed not to 
support the efforts of any British subject to obtain 
concessions in the northern part of Persia; the 
Tsarist Government agreed, in similar manner, 
with regard to the obtaining by Russian subjects of 
concessions in the southern portion of the country. 

During this time Persia was struggling to make 
her newly created democratic institutions func- 
tion. Buffeted by strong internal and external 
pressures, the Persian officials turned to the United 
States for help. Reorganization of the govern- 
ment finances was the most important need. Mr. 
W. Morgan Shuster, a well-known American econ- 
omist and financial expert, was employed for this 
purpose. Late in 1911 he left the United States 
for Persia, accompanied by his wife and four or 
five well qualified assistants. Mr. and ISIrs. Shus- 
ter made the arduous voyage by the way of Odessa, 
across the Black Sea to Batum, across the Cau- 
casus to Baku, down the Caspian by boat, and 
overland from the southern shores of the Caspian 
to Tehran. 

The Persian Government and people accorded 
Mr. Shuster and his group of advisers an enthusi- 
astic welcome, but the foreign diplomats in Tehran 
regarded them with skepticism and even with hos- 
tility. The experienced British Legation thought 
that Mr. Shuster's announced program of creating 
a strong and stable Persia was impossible. The 



JULY 23, 1944 



89 



Tsarist Legation definitely opposed any measures 
designed to strengthen the Government. 

Mr. Shiister's actions from the first were those 
of a man who considered himself an official of the 
Persian Government and responsible to no one else. 
This attitude greatly displeased the diplomatic 
corps. The legations of Great Britain and Russia 
were frequently more powerful than the Persian 
Government itself, not only in influence but also 
in actual physical force. Large numbers of lega- 
tion guards were maintained, and additional for- 
eign troops were within call. It was the custom 
that any distinguished foreigner who visited Per- 
sia should call first at the foreign legations. Mr. 
Shuster, by refusing to make the initial call, defied 
convention in order to demonstrate his attitude as 
an official of an independent Persian Government. 

He soon found, on entering upon his duties, that 
the principal necessity that would bring any sort 
of order to Persian finances was the development 
of a strong rural police force, or gendarmerie, to 
maintain order in the provinces and to collect taxes 
and grain. Although many difficulties beset Mr. 
Shuster during the eight months he remained in 
Persia, the quarrel over the gendarmerie proved 
the ultimate cause for his being forced out of the 
country. 

For the work of training the gendarmes Mr. 
Shuster decided to use an experienced British sol- 
dier, a Major Stokes, who had seen much service 
in India and in Persia and who could speak Per- 
sian well. Mr. Shuster insisted that the gen- 
darmes must operate throughout Persia. The 
Russian Minister insisted that the employment by 
the Persian Government of a British subject who 
would have authority in the northern zone was 
contrary to the spirit of the Anglo-Russian treaty 
of 1907. Mr. Shuster referred to the provision in 
tlie treaty respecting Persian sovereignty and 
asked the British Government to support the Per- 
sian claim that a British or any other foreign 
officer could work for Persia anywhere in the 
country. Sir Edward Grey, the British Foreign. 
Minister, had other fish to fry at the moment. His 
country's foreign policy, in preparation for de- 
fense against the rising power of Germany in Eu- 
rope, called for a friendly Russia. To Mr. Shus- 
ter's great astonishment. Sir Edward not only de- 
clined to support the Persian interpretation of the 
treaty but also declared in the House of Commons 
that he likewise regarded the employment of a 
600845 — a 2 



British subject in northern Persia as contrary to 
the spirit of the 1907 treaty. With this green 
light, the Tsarist Minister in Tehran delivered an 
ultimatum to the Persian Government, demand- 
ing Mr. Shuster's expulsion within 48 hours. 
Tsarist troops promptly moved into northern Per- 
sia and a Cossack regiment shortly reached Teh- 
ran. Mr. Shuster and his party were forced to 
leave the country. Thus ended ingloriously the 
first American advisory program in Persia. 

Following the first World War, during which 
Persian soil was a battleground between Russian 
and Turkish troops, the Persian Government again 
reached the stage of near collapse. About one 
thii'd of the Persian people are said to have starved 
during the period from 1915 to 1921. Again the 
Persians called on America for advisers. Dr. Ar- 
thur C. Millspaugh, Economic Adviser to the Sec- 
retary of State, and a group of seven or eight 
assistants were employed. Dr. Millspaugh was 
designated Director General of Persian finances 
and was given wide powers of control. His group 
remained in Persia for five years, 1922-27. Al- 
though facing many vicissitudes and often seem- 
ingly insuperable difficulties, they served admir- 
ably to bring order out of chaos and strength to 
the Persian Government. If it had not been for 
the organization set up by the Millspaugh mission 
during these years, it is doubtful whether Persia 
could have constructed the expensive trans-Per- 
sian railway over which hundreds of thousands of 
tons of supplies have been sent to Russia during 
the present war. 

Wlien Dr. Millspaugh first went to Persia, the 
most important figure in the Government was the 
Minister of War, Reza Khan. Although Reza 
was imperious by nature and strongly nationalis- 
tic, he sent a prompt welcome to the Americans 
and gave full supjjort to Dr. Millspaugh. With 
Reza's assistance. Dr. Millspaugh organized a 
gendarmerie which could be used to collect taxes 
and grain and to suppress fraud and corruption. 
In 1923 Reza became Prime Minister; in 1925 he 
crowned himself as Shah-in-Shah. Following 
this event Reza's policy became more and more 
nationalistic. Along with many westernized re- 
foiTOs, he instituted a program of opposition to all 
foreigners. His official designation of the name 
of the country as Iran was merely one indication 
of this policy. Only a very limited number of 
Persian officials were permitted to have any social 



90 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



relations with foreigners. Eeza continued, how- 
ever, to rely on the help of Dr. Millspaugh and his 
American group for two more years. An even- 
tual diflFerence of viewpoint between a strong- 
willed dictator and an American citizen was in- 
evitable. The quarrel came over the allotment of 
funds for the Army: Reza wanted to devote a 
very high percentage of the revenue to the Army, 
while Dr. Millspaugh felt that the needs of health 
and education should be respected. In 1927, after 
five years of strenuous effort on behalf of Persia, 
the Americans, by mutual consent, withdrew. 

The present advisory program in Persia dates 
from January 1943. The situation which caused 
the Persians once again to request American ad- 
visers resulted from the political and economic im- 
pact of the present war on Persia. During 1941 
the Soviet and British Governments found it neces- 
sary, in the face of German threats to the Suez 
Canal, to send troops into Persia to expel German 
agents and to open a corridor between the two 
Allies. Reza Shah's increasingly tyrannical meth- 
ods during the last years of his reign made him 
highly unpopular with his own people. When 
foreign troops were able to enter the country prac- 
tically unopposed by the Persian Army, the Per- 
sians realized that Reza's Government had become 
a hollow shell. Amid the rejoicing of his subjects, 
Reza's power collapsed. He was expelled from the 
country, and his 22-year-old son, Mohammed Reza, 
was placed on the throne. After almost two dec- 
ades of one-man rule, constitutionalism returned 
to Persia. The Persians had to start over again in 
their efforts to develop democratic institutions. 
The Persian Government, whose treasury cup- 
board was again bare, requested the Department 
of State to recommend Americans who might be 
employed as advisers. 

Financial and Economic Mission 

Dr. Millspaugh was working at the Brookings 
Institution in Washington, but, at the age of 62, 
he accepted the Persian Government's request to 
return to Persia to resume the work interrupted in 
1927.^ 

Before undertaking the assignment Dr. Mills- 
paugh insisted upon being given specific opera- 
tional authority, not only in the financial but also 
in the economic sphere. He urged strict govern- 
mental regulation of grain collection, prices, trans- 
portation, and distribution; he demanded the en- 



actment of a high, graduated income tax to combat 
inflation and other wartime evils. He pointed out 
that Persia, like all other belligerent countries, 
would have to take drastic economic measures to 
meet the situation. After strenuous debate the 
Majlis ^ agreed to his full program, including au- 
thorization for the employment of 60 Americans 
to supervise its implementation. Most of these of- 
ficials, who include many higUy experienced men, 
have been recruited and are now in Persia. 

The Majlis conferred on Dr. Millspaugh plenary 
powers that give him authority over the more im- 
portant governmental activities involving finance 
and economy. In his capacity as Administrator 
General of Finances, Dr. Millspaugh directs the 
financial operations of the Government, draws up 
budgets, supervises the operations of the Ministry 
of Finance, controls the inspection department, 
and governs the activities of the Americans and 
Persians who represent the Ministry of Finance 
in the provincial capitals. His principal assist- 
ants in this field are Mr. W. K. LeCount as Treas- 
urer General, Mr. Harold Gresham as Director 
General of Customs, Mr. Rex A. Pixley as Director 
General of Internal Revenue, and Mr. William 
Brownrigg as Director General of Personnel. 

In the economic field Dr. MillsjDaugh is responsi- 
ble for varied and demanding governmental func- 
tions, one of the most important of which is per- 
formed by the Cereals and Bread Section of the 
Ministry of Finance, headed by Dr. Albert G. 
Black, who was until recently Governor of the 
Farm Credit Association in Washington. This 
Section has charge of the collection of the harvests 
and of furnishing the supply of bread for the 
urban centers. 

Another function is carried on by a department, 
headed by Mr. George T. Hudson of Wenatchee, 
Washington, which controls the Govenunent's pub- 
lic domains and the operation and disposition of 
the vast estates that the Shah Reza at the time of 
his abdication ceded to the Government. Control 
of the Government's factories and industrial estab- 
lisliments, many of which the Shah Reza on his 
departure similarly ceded to the Government, is 
under Mr. Rex Vivian as Director General of 
Industrial Supervision. 

In the realm of the purchase, distribution, and 
control of goods, the duties of the Millspaugh mis- 



' Bulletin of Dec. 5, 1942, p. 984. 
' The Persian Parliament. 



JULY 23. 1944 



91 



sion are no less wide and exacting. The principal 
Departments that have charge of this kind of work 
are the Section of Price Stabilization, headed by 
Mr. Bernard I. Lamb of New Jersey, the State 
Supply and Service Corporation, whose chief is 
Mr. C. Irving Hansen of Washington, D.C., and 
the Section of Distribution, in charge of Mr. Es- 
mond S. Ferguson of New Jersey. 

Because road transport is the key to a large part 
of Persia's supply problem this field has also come 
under Dr. Millspaugh's jurisdiction. The Road 
Transport Department, headed by Mr. Floyd F. 
Shields of Chicago, controls the movement of all 
kinds of goods over Persian highways. In this 
work Mr. Shields has had the assistance of some 50 
British and American army officers and men lent 
to him by the military authorities. Another De- 
partment of the Millspaugh mission, the Transport 
Priorities Office, which is headed by Mr. Fred A. 
Schuckman of New Jersey, determines priorities 
for all goods moved by road, rail, or other means 
of transport. 

Unfortunately, the Millspaugh mission has re- 
cently been under attack in the Persian press and 
Majlis. Accusations have been made that the 
American advisers have not accomplished the re- 
sults expected and that Dr. Millspaugh's powers 
are too extensive for any individual to execute. 
Dr. Millspaugh has pointed out that he has had 
insufficient opportunity to bring the full program 
into force. An agreement, however, was reached 
late in June 1944 under which the mission will con- 
tinue to function for a further period of three 
months, in order that measures already instituted 
may have an opportunity to take effect. 

Gendapmeeie 
In addition to the large Millspaugh mission, 
several other groups of Americans are assisting 
the Persian Government in various fields of ac- 
tivity. Col. H. Norman Schwarzkopf, former di- 
rector of rural police for the State of New Jersey, 
popularly known in America for his outstanding 
work in the Lindbergh kidnaping case and recog- 
nized in the profession as a leading American 
authority on rural police, has been in Persia for 
tlie past two years as director of the Persian gen- 
darmerie. Lt. Col. P. T. Boone of the United 
States Army and several other Americans assist 
Colonel Schwarzkopf. They are attempting to 
create an elite corps of rural police that will be able 
to enforce the police powers of the central govern- 



ment throughout the rural and tribal areas of 
Persia. 

MnJTART 

The young Shah is particularly interested in 
strengthening the Army and is supporting it 
strongly. The United States Army has lent 
Maj. Gen. C. S. Ridley to the Persian Government 
to reorganize the supply services of the Persian 
Army. Eighteen United States Army officers are 
attached to his staflF. Under wartime conditions 
their job is a slow and difficult one. Shortages 
of military supplies and the demands of the war 
fronts add to the difficulties of equipping and re- 
organizing an army whose principal task is not 
to fight the Axis (although Persia has declared 
war on Germany and on Japan) but to get ready 
to take over in Persia when American, British, 
and Russian troops leave the country. 

Police 

Two years ago the responsibility for reorganiz- 
ing the city police of Tehran and the other prin- 
cipal municipalities was entrusted to Mr. L. S. 
Timmerman, an experienced police official who 
established a high reputation for police adminis- 
tration in New York and in other American cities 
and who was recommended to Persia by the Amer- 
ican Institute of Public Administration. Mr. 
Timmerman's death in Tehran on May 20, 1944 
seriously impaired the American advisory pro- 
gram in Persia. 

Public Health 

Dr. Bennett Avery, an American public-health 
specialist, former professor at the American Uni- 
versity at Beirut and more recently Dean of the 
Medical School at Boston University, has recently 
arrived in Tehran to serve as adviser to the Per- 
sian Ministry of Public Health. His task, di- 
rected generally toward raising the health stand- 
ards of the comitry, is a particularly heavy one 
that involves control of epidemic and endemic 
diseases and the establishment of clinics — of spe- 
cial interest is the establisliment of motorized units 
in rural areas. In this work he has had the strong 
support of the Shah and of the Persian Govern- 
ment, which has long recognized the extreme im- 
portance of public-health work and which in re- 
cent years has made considerable progress in this 
field. One of Dr. Avery's most immediate tasks 
is the control of typhus which, while endemic in 
the country, has broken out in the last two years 



92 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



in serious epidemic form. It is encouraging that 
the incidence of this disease has gi'eatly decreased 
in recent months. In the general field of public- 
health work another American adviser, Mr. Har- 
vey V. Stokely, formerly a Parke-Davis represent- 
ative in China, is head of the Iranian Pharma- 
ceutical Institute, which supervises the import, 
warehousing, and distribution of pharmaceutical 
supplies. His efforts and the support of the Mid- 
dle East Supply Center have assured Persia of its 
pharmaceutical needs. 

Professor Luther Winsor, of Utah, a prominent 
authority on soil erosion and irrigation, is an ad- 
viser to the Persian Government on irrigation mat- 
ters. The importance of his work can hardly be 
exaggerated in view of the fact that nearly all 
agriculture in Persia depends on irrigation. Pro- 
fessor Winsor, whose work has taken him all over 
Persia, is devising new methods of irrigation and 
is also endeavoring to revive the age-old irrigation 
systems which once supported a much more popu- 
lous country and which have over a period of cen- 
turies fallen into decay. He is interested in in- 
creasing the flow of the unique gmiat systems of the 
countrj', which furnish water for cities as well as 
for irrigation. A ganat is an underground stream 
fed in the foothills by deep mother wells, the chan- 
nel of which is constructed so that it comes to the 
surface where the water is required. 

Petkoleum 

The Persian Government recently requested the 
American authorities to recommend experts who 
could advise Persia on petroleum matters. Two 
distinguished American petroleimi engineers, Mr. 
Herbert Hoover, Jr., and Mr. A. A. Curtice, have 
been employed by the Persian Government for this 
purpose and have departed for Persia to undertake 
this work. They will give immediate attention to 
the question of applications pending for petroleum 
concessions in Persia and will subsequently make 
recommendations regarding basic petroleiun legis- 
lation and administration. 

Education 

The Persian Ministry of Education is endeavor- 
ing to obtain a group of four or five leading Amer- 
ican educators to make a survey of Persia's educa- 
tional institutions and methods and to make recom- 
mendations for their impi-ovement. Dr. Paul 
Monroe, of Columbia University, was requested to 
head the mission, but he wiU not be able to under- 



take the task. He and the Persian Government 
have been fortunate, however, in eliciting the in- 
terest and cooperation of Dr. Edward C. Elliott, 
president of Purdue University, who has consented 
to head the mission whenever it may be i^ossible to 
luidertake the project. Dr. Harold B. Allen, of 
the Near East Foundation, was expected to be a 
member of the educational mission, but the need 
for jjrompt action in his field, agricultural experi- 
mentation, was so pressing that he went to Persia 
in the fall of 1943 to survey the agricultural edu- 
cation and experimentation needs. That survey 
has now been completed. 

The various American advisory missions in Per- 
sia are an important implementation of the Amer- 
ican Government's policy of assistance to that 
country. At the Tehran Conference President 
Eoosevelt, Mr. Churchill, and Marshal Stalin 
signed, on December 1, 1943, a declaration assur- 
ing Persia of the intention of the three powers to 
aid in strengthening Persia's economy and to over- 
come to the extent feasible the internal disruptions 
caused by the impact of the war.' 

American advisers in Persia are serving both 
a wartime and a peacetime purpose. They are 
aiding in the orderly and stable administration 
of an area which has been and still remains vital 
to the Allied war effort, since Persia is the pivotal 
sector of the route over which passes a large part 
of the American supplies to Soviet Russia. Con- 
siderable numbers of American, Russian, and 
British troops are stationed in Persia to facilitate 
the passage of these supplies. Only in Persia do 
the troops of the three principal Allied nations 
associate daily with each other. The stability of 
the country and the development of its food and 
other resources has a direct bearing on the func- 
tioning of Allied troops and on the efficiency of 
their operations. Our advisers to the Persian 
Govermnent are contributing notably both to the 
orderliness and to the productivity of this military 
supply area. 

Our advisers, furthermore, are aiding the Per- 
sians to place on a solid foundation for peacetime 
purposes their administrative machinery, their 
army and gendarmerie and their health and agri- 
cultural services, in preparation for the with- 
drawal of foreign troops from Persia after the 
war and the assumption by the Persian Govern- 

{Conliniicd on next page) 



' BuiiBTiN of Dee. U, 1943, p. 409. 



]VLY 23. 1944 



93 



Petroleum Questions 

UNITED STATES AND UNITED KINGDOM 
DELEGATIONS 

[Released to the press July 21] 

Conversations on petroleum between the Gov- 
ernments of the United States and the United 
Kingdom will be initiated in the Department of 
State on Tuesday, July 25, 1944 with a joint ses- 
sion of a Cabinet Committee under the chairman- 
ship of Secretary Hull representing the Govern- 
ment of the United States and a Ministerial Com- 
mittee headed by Lord Beaverbrook representing 
tlie Government of the United Kingdom.^ 

United States Delegation : 

The Honorable Cordell Hull, Secretary of State, Chair- 
man 

The Honorable Harold L. lokes, Petroleum Adminis- 
trator for War, Vice Chairman 

The Honorable James V. Forrestal, Secretary of the 
Navy 

The Honorable Robert P. Patterson, Under Secretary of 
War 

The Honorable Leo Crowley, Foreign Economic Admin- 
istrator 

Mr. Charles E. Wilson, Vice Chairman, War Production 
Board 

Mr. Ralph K. Davies, Deputy Petroleum Administrator 
for War 

Mr. Charles Rayner, Petroleum Adviser, Department of 
State 



Mr. Harry C. Hawkins, Director, OflJce of Economic 

Affairs, Department of State, Adviser to the United 

States Delegation 
Mr. James C. Sappington, Assistant Chief, Petroleum 

Division, Department of State, Executive Secretary 

of the United States Delegation 
Mr. John A. Loftus, Petroleum Division, Department of 

State, Recording Secretary of the United States 

Delega tion 

United Kingdom Dklbgation : 

The Right Honorable Lord Beaverbrook, Lord Privy 

Seal, Head of Delegation 
The Right Honorable Richard Law. Minister of State 
The Right Honorable Geoffrey Lloyd, Parliamentary 

Secretary to the Ministry of Fuel and Power. 
Mr. Ralph Assheton, Financial Secretary to the Treasury 



Sir WiUiam Brown, Chief Technical Adviser to the 

United Kingdom Delegation 
Mr. Victor Butler, Secretary of the United Kingdom 

Delegation 



^ Bulletin of July 16, 1944, p. 62. 
' Bulletin of Apr. 22, 1944, p. 372. 



The British Delegation arrived in Washington 
on July 21. 

It will be recalled that petroleum discussions, 
preliminary to the conversations which will begin 
July 25, were held in Washington from April 18 
to May 3 between groups of experts representing 
the two Governments.^ 



MEETING OF PETROLEUM INDUSTRY REP- 
RESENTATIVES AND STATE DEPARTMENT 
OFFICIALS 

[Released to the press July 19] 

Representatives of the petroleum industry in- 
terested in the production of butadiene, a basic 
material for making synthetic rubber, have been 
invited to meet with State Department officials in 
connection with tlie forthcoming exploratory rub- 
ber talks with the British and Dutch. The meet- 
ing scheduled July 19 was designed to acquaint 
members of the petroleum industry with the De- 
partment's plans with regard to the rubber talks 
so that they may be kept informed of current 
rubber developments. 

The industry representatives who were invited 
to attend the meeting are: 

Mr. M. J. Rathbone, Standard Oil Company of New 

Jersey 
Mr. H. A. Trawer, Phillips Oil Company 
Col. J. F. Drake, Gulf Oil Corporation 
Mr. E. W. Isom, Sinclair Refining Company 
Ml-. W. S. S. Rodgers, the Texas Corporation 
Mr. W. R. Boyd, Jr., Petroleum Industry War Council 
Mr. W. D. Crampton, Director, B'oreign Division, 

Petroleum Administration for War 



PERSIA — Continued from p. 92 

ment of full responsibility for internal security 
and public welfare. 

The situation m Persia today is in one striking 
respect better than it has been for many years: 
close collaboration is maintained among the rep- 
resentatives of the United States, Great Britain," 
and Russia in Tehran. British and Russian pol- 
icies are similar to the American one in that all 
three desire to see a strong Persia, capable of main- 
taining peace and order in the country after the 
war. 



94 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Award of Distinguished Citizen Medal to the Secretary of State 



[Released to the press July 18] 

The text of a letter dated J'ulj 18, 1944 to the 
Secretary of State from the Commander in Chief 
of the Veterans of Foreign Wars of the United 
States follows: 

"Dear Mr. Hull : 

"In recognition of your outstanding service 
as Secretary of State, and your long and illus- 
trious career in the Congress of the United States 
and the Tennessee Legislature, as well as your 
service with the Fourth Regiment Tennessee Vol- 
unteer Infantry during the Spanish-American 
War, the Veterans of Foreign Wars of the United 
States has awarded you the highest decoration 
within its power to confer, the V. F. W. Citizen- 
ship Medal. 

"Your devotion to duty, your deep sense of 
responsibility of the trust imposed in you, your 
practical wisdom, and your human sympathy and 
kindness have been an inspiration to all Ameri- 
cans. 

"As Commander-in-Chief of the Veterans of 
Foreign Wars of the United States, it is my 
honor and privilege to herewith present to you 
this Citizenship Medal, and let me convey to you 
the earnest wishes of the membership of our 
organization for your continued good health and 
success. 

"Sincerely yours, 

Cael J. Schoeninger" 

The remarks of the Secretary of State, upon 
being presented the United States Distinguished 
Citizen Medal of the Veterans of Foreign Wars, 
follow : 

"I deeply appreciate the honor of having been 
selected by the Veterans of Foreign Wars to re- 
ceive their Distinguished Citizen Medal. This 
honor I doubly cherish as it comes from an or- 
ganization of former soldiers who have gallantly 
served their country. Although the ties which 
bind your members were formed by sharing the 
experience of war, you have long been interested 



in methods for protecting our country and keeping 
it at peace. 

"The American people do not glorify war. We 
do not embrace it as a way of life. But if our 
freedom is threatened, we will fight hard and 
gloriously and with all our resources for its pres- 
ervation. In this hour of war it is highly fitting 
that we look ahead to the days of peace and to 
ways and means of insuring against the outbreak 
of another world catastrophe. 

"Your action in bestowing this medal is in ef- 
fect an expression of confidence in the Department 
of State, which bears a large share of responsi- 
bility for advancing plans to maintain peace and 
security. I am grateful to you and your associates 
for the confidence which your action bespeaks." 



Visit of Chilean Educator 

Seiior Oscar A. Gacitua, specialist in industrial 
education, who is also vice president of the Rotary 
Club at Concepcion, Chile, and who was Mayor of 
that city when Vice President Wallace visited it 
on his South American trip last year, has arrived 
in Washington to begin a tour of observation of 
industrial and trade schools. Seiior Gacitua, a 
guest of the Department of State, is Assistant 
Director of the Industrial School at Concepcion, 
a post which he had held since 1938. He is inter- 
ested especially in seeing some of our most modern 
technical high schools and advanced trade schools, 
including those operated as private enterprises by 
factories. 

Industrial education in Chile, according to Seiior 
Gacitua, is constantly growing in importance and 
usefulness. About 10,000 students are enrolled in 
the industrial schools and schools for artisans. 
The Government offers a trade-school course after 
the completion of the sixth grade. This may be 
followed by courses in technical training and then 
by studies that lead to the degree of industrial 
engineer. 



JULY 23, 1944 



95 



The Uses of Victory 

Address by CHARLES BUIVN ' 



[Released to the press July 21] 

The main prize of an Allied victory will be a 
limited and temporary power, shared with the 
other members of the United Nations, to establish 
the kind of world we want to live in. 

The power will be limited by what exists, by 
what can be agreed on, and by what has already 
been done during the war. Human institutions 
are conservative, only within limits can they be 
moved by conscious choice; for the most part 
statesmen have to function, like the judge de- 
scribed by Mr. Justice Holmes, within the 
interstices of what is possible. 

Tlie power of major change is also temporary, 
and if not used wisely it may not recur. Mr. 
Churchill has described in moving words what 
happened to the influence of the Big Four dur- 
ing the progress of the peace conference of 1919 
at Paris. Apparently omnipotent when they sat 
down, before they rose they had been weakened by 
the demobihzation of the armies, by the scrapping 
of the common war controls, by their own dis- 
agreements with each other, and by withdrawal of 
political support at home. It is essential this time 
that the leaders of the United Nations, when the 
great chance comes, be able to act promptly, in 
agreement, and with wisdom. 

Preparation is much better this time than it 
was in 1918. President Wilson's Fourteen Points 
were not an Allied program. Tliey had not even 
been much discussed in the United States before 
they were announced. This time discussion has 
been very active, important United Nations meet- 
ings have occurred, things looking to the peace 
have been done during the war, and a large body 
of agreement on the basis of the future already 
exists within the partnership of the United 
Nations. 

The main things that the United Nations want 
are clear, and are agreed on. They want national 
indejjendence, a reliably secure peace, and a widely 
shared prosperity and liberty. The main debate 
from here on in is how to make these things 
come true. 

Part of that debate is over. The four-power 
declaration of Moscow, October 30, 1943, the al- 



most unanimous resolution of the United States 
Senate six days later, and the Fulbright resolution 
in the House of Representatives a month before 
have recorded an agreement on some of the main 
points. Paragraph 4 of the four-power declara- 
tion, and the corresponding paragraph of the 
Senate resolution, read as follows : 

"4. That they recognize the necessity of estab- 
lishing at the earliest practicable date a general 
international organization, based on the principle 
of the sovereign equality of all peace-loving states, 
and open to membership by all such states, large 
and small, for the maintenance of international 
peace and security." 

Clearly this represents decision on four major 
propositions : 

First. Peace and security are no longer to be 
sought by each nation acting for itself. There is 
to be a "general international organization" for 
that purpose. 

Second. The organization is not to be regional 
in character, but "general". This of course does 
not exclude European or American or other re- 
gional sub-grouj)ings within the larger frame- 
work. 

Third. The organization is not to be limited to 
the big powers. It is to be "open to membership 
by all such (that is, all peace-loving) states, large 
and small". The hope obviously is that all will 
ultimately wish to join. 

And Fourth. The organization is not to be a 
supergovernment. It is to be "based on the prin- 
ciple of the sovereign equality (that is to say, the 
independence) of all j^eace-loving states". Presi- 
dent Roosevelt made this even more clear in his 
statement of June 15 last. "We are not think- 
ing", he then said, "of a superstate with its own 
police forces and other paraphernalia of coercive 
power. We are seeking effective agreement and 
arrangements through which the nations would 
maintain, according to their capacities, adequate 
forces to meet the needs of preventing war and 

"Delivered before the Foreign Policy Association, At- 
lanta, Ga., July 21, 1944. Mr. Bunn is Consultant in the 
Division of Commercial Policy, Office of Economic Affairs, 
Department of State. 



96 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



of making impossible deliberate preparation for 
war and to have such forces available for joint 
action when necessary." 

The proposition is, in short, to maintain peace 
and security in a world of many independent na- 
tions by the common action of those nations work- 
ing together in a partnership. The remaining 
questions are the proper structure of the partner- 
ship, the jobs which it will have to undertake, and 
the action which is needed by individual countries, 
including our own, to give the agreed program the 
best hope of success. 

Structure I shall not discuss. It is, I think, more 
useful at this stage to talk about the jobs which 
the partnership of many nations will have to un- 
dertake. '\^nien the jobs are clearly seen, tlie or- 
ganization most appropriate to work at them will 
follow in due course. 

The stated purpose of the partnership is to 
maintain security and peace. How is peace main- 
tained in every city? By the police of course, but 
back of the police by the acceptance of the rules 
by the veiy great majority of citizens. If that 
did not reliably exist we could not live together. 

Why do we accept the rules ? Because we think 
that they are generally fair, because we have a 
hand in making them, because we trust the judges 
to give justice, and because the things we do to- 
gether through our governments — the streets and 
schools and fire protection and the rest — are of 
great practical importance to us all. 

Over independent nations there is no police in 
the sense we know it in our cities. There is no 
armed force, that is, responsible to the community 
alone, and obviously greater in its power than any- 
thing that can be brought against it. There is in 
fact no international armed force at all ; the armed 
forces that exist obey their independent national 
governments. This being so, the other forces and 
the otlier institutions that bring i^eoples together 
in cooperative effort are even more important be- 
tween independent nations than they are within 
each nation. 

To bring this down to earth, it is quite clear that 
if a partnership of independent nations is to work 
it will have to have effective institutions of justice 
under law, of fair and equal settlement of all kinds 
of disputes, of peaceful change, and of practical 
cooperation on all kinds of useful projects. Unless 
we work together with success in practical affairs 
of everyday importance, and keep on doing so for 



a long time, there is very little chance that we will 
trust each other well enough to stand together and 
to work together in a crisis. The common use of 
independent forces to prevent a new aggi-ession 25 
years hence depends on men's wills then ; and the 
presence of the necessary vmity of will, so far as 
one can see ahead, depends mostly on how well we 
work together in the meantime. 

Working together among the United Nations 
upon practical affairs has got off to a remarkably 
good start during this war, much better than it did 
in 1917-1918. The United Nations commanders 
and their staffs in many theaters, the common plan- 
ning by the chiefs of staff, the common work on 
communications and supply, the great programs 
of lend-lease and mutual aid in all directions, the 
partnership in ocean transport, all have taught 
us and are teaching us to work together. And we 
are starting the same thing on peacetime projects. 
The United Nations Conference on Food and 
Agi-iculture at Hot Springs, Virginia, more than 
a year ago ; the organization of the United Nations 
Relief and Rehabilitation Administration last No- 
vember; and tlie first session of its Council at At- 
lantic City in the same month; the more recent 
general meeting of the International Labor Or- 
^nization in Philadelphia; and the United Na- 
tions Monetary Conference at Bretton Woods just 
coming to a close-^these are important milestones 
of practical cooperation. Anyone who will ex- 
amine the proceedings and results of those four 
meetings will discover a wide measure of agree- 
ment, among the experts of the United Nations as 
a whole, upon the general principles for dealing 
with an imposing list of important practical af- 
fairs, and will find also the beginning, and in some 
cases much more than the beginning, of actual and 
substantial work together on a common program. 
Nothing at all like this existed during the last war. 
Its presence now, with the obvious support of many 
governments and peoples, is the best hope we have 
that we shall be able to do a better job this time 
than we did last. 

The Monetary Conference at Bretton Woods is 
a first-rate practical example of the United Na- 
tions partnership at work. 

The Conference is called to deal with the rela- 
tions between different moneys. There are of 
course many kinds of money in the world; there 
have been for a long time and there no doubt will 
be as far as we can see ahead. Therefore, every 



JULY 23, 19U 



97 



transaction across national frontiers, every deal 
of any kind between two business men in different 
countries, means tliat one of them or the other 
must contract in a kind of money that is foreign 
to his ordinary operations. If the foreign money 
has a value that is stable with his own, this is not 
a serious matter. He must merely make the nec- 
essary computations. But if the foreign money 
is not stable with his own, if he has no way of 
knowing whether the relationship when settle- 
ment falls due will be the same as at the date of 
contract, then it is impossible to figure with assur- 
ance ; and if he tries to figure, and contracts on the 
basis of the best guess he can make, he may run into 
staggering losses. All of us know people who in 
the years between the wars, trying not to gamble 
in exchanges, but merely to conduct legitimate 
transactions across national frontiers, found them- 
selves with gamblers' gains or gamblers' losses. 

We had a very similar situation here in the 
United States a hundred years ago. You will re- 
member — I mean in the history books — that at 
that time our currency consisted chiefly of the cir- 
culating notes of individual State banks, backed 
in each case by the assets of the bank that issued 
them. Some of the banlfs were sound and were 
well known, and the money that they issued was 
very good indeed ; other banks were not so sound 
or not known at a distance, and their notes might 
take a discount. And the discounts varied, both 
with time and place. 

Let us say that under those conditions a mer- 
chant in Atlanta sold a bill of goods, say, in Mil- 
waukee, and got paid in good Milwaukee dollars, 
issued by a good Milwaukee bank. If he wanted 
to spend the dollars in Milwaukee, well and good, 
they were worth 100 cents. But if he sought to 
spend them in Chicago he might find that they were 
not worth more than 90, in St. Louis 85, in New 
Orleans 03, and so on and so on. And the rates of 
discount varied, for each bank, from one week to 
the next. It is hard to see how anyone could carry 
on much business at a distance under any such con- 
ditions. 

The system was intolei'able. Fortunately we 
had a National Government, with a Congress that 
had power, under the Constitution, "to coin money 
and regulate the value thereof". Congi-ess finally 
took action. First, it taxed State bank notes out 
of existence. Second, it created a uniform system 
of national currency which, in various forms, we 



have had ever since. Under that single system we 
can travel, or make contracts, or loan or borrow 
money, or sell goods, or rent an apartment or a 
building anywhere in the United States, without 
looking up the local money, and without constant 
worry about its exchange relation with our own. 
It is our own, the same we use at home. Nothing 
has made a greater contribution to the business 
greatness of this country. 

Congress could do this for us, by a law, because it 
is the legislative organ of a single National Gov- 
ernment and is superior, upon this subject, to the 
legislative bodies of the States. Between inde- 
pendent nations there is no single Government and 
no single and overriding legislative power. There- 
fore, between independent nations, what Congress 
did for us by law can be done only by agreement. 
Hence the conference at Bretton Woods. What 
emerges from that conference cannot be an over- 
riding law. The conference has no such power. 
And it cannot be a single money. Independent 
nations will each continue to issue their own money. 
What should emerge, if we are lucky, is a workable 
agreement and an effective institution designed to 
keep our several moneys stable with each other and 
interchangeable at rates which do not vary much 
with time. Then if I sell a bill of goods in London 
I can spend the proceeds, if I want to, in Shanghai 
or in Rio or leave them in a bank in London with- 
out running gamblers' chances. 

The technical proposals of the Conference will 
be published very shortly. It will then be for gov- 
ernments, in this country for the President and 
Congress, to consider and act on them. Laymen 
like myself may find it hard to judge between the 
various proposals. But even a layman can see 
clearly that the job has to be done. 

But the agreement upon money and investment, 
however teclmically perfect, is only the first step. 
We can't eat money or wear it or build houses of it. 
Money is to buy things with, and if the interna- 
tional stability of money is to do us any good the 
other things that hamper trade across national 
frontiers must equally be dealt with. 

In this also our own history is not without 
instruction. You will remember that one of the 
things that brought about the Constitutional Con- 
vention was the hostile action of several of the 
States against each others' commerce. The 
framers clearly saw that if this kind of thing 
went on there was little chance for general pros- 



98 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



perity, and a good chance for open war. Accord- 
ingly the new National authority which they pro- 
posed was given power, to the exclusion of the 
States, not only over commerce with foreign na- 
tions but over commerce between the States them- 
selves. The Commerce Clause of the Constitu- 
tion, and its vigorous enforcement by the Supreme 
Court of the United States for the last hundred 
years and more, has done as much as any act of 
Government to make us a united nation and to 
permit us to grow prosperous. It is quite true 
that the Commerce Clause has not ended all State- 
created barriers to trade. But the fact remains 
that in most lines, under the Commerce Clause 
and its enforcement, we have achieved a truly na- 
tional market with great resulting benefit to all 
of us. We have accomplished this, by law, because 
the creators of our Constitution were intelligent 
enough to provide for a single National authority, 
supreme within this field. The United Nations are 
not so fortunately situated. They have no central 
Government; and no one of them is willing — cer- 
tainly we are not willing — to surrender our control 
of tariffs and the like to any international author- 
ity. Wliat our ancestors did for the United States 
by constitutional provision the United Nations 
must attempt — so far as it is practical and wise — 
by negotiation and agreement. The next economic 
item on the working program of the United Na- 
tions peacetime partnership must be a thorough 
going-over of the whole complicated system of 
government-created barriers to trade, with a view 
to their reduction all around. 

It must be emphasized that no country and no 
single Government can do much about this job 
alone. The barriers to be reduced are imposed 
by many countries. Common action is essential 
to reduce them. In the years between the wars a 
good many individual countries worked hand in 
hand with the United States under the Trade 
Agreements Act of 1934 toward their reduction. 
But those were years of deepening struggle, not of 
economic peace, and the great work was hampered 
by a thousand troubles. Now that the chief ex- 
I^onents of peacetime economic warfare are on the 
way to their defeat it is time for the United Na- 
tions to embark on a new effort. 

This is agreed United Nations policy. Point 
Fourth of the Atlantic Charter speaks of "access, 
on ecjual terms" to trade and raw materials. Ar- 
ticle VII of the agreements made between the 



United States and many countries under the 
Lend-Lease Act promise "agreed action . . . 
open to participation by all other countries of like 
mind, directed to the expansion ... of pro- 
duction, employment, and the exchange and con- 
sumption of goods, which are the material founda- 
tions of the liberty and welfare of all peoples; to 
the elimination of all forms of discriminatory 
treatment in international commerce, and to the 
reduction of tariffs and other trade bar- 
riers; . . ." and Resolution 24 of the United 
Nations Conference on Food and Agriculture 
unanimously recommends "coordinated action 
. . . as an integral part of this program, to re- 
duce barriers of every kind to international trade 
and to eliminate all forms of discriminatory re- 
strictions thereon including inequitable policies in 
international transportation, as effectively and 
as rapidly as possible." 

Agreement is thus present as to principle and 
policy. It remains to translate it into practice. 
That is not so easy as it sounds. Every country 
has its own kind of pi'otection. Some, like our- 
selves, employ in peacetime chiefly import tariffs 
but with a great variety of rates. Others use em- 
bargoes, or quotas of various varieties, or restric- 
tions on the purchase of exchange, or export taxes 
and restrictions. Some permit no private foreign 
trade at all; others have government monopolies 
for certain products. The restrictions that exist 
sometimes apply without discrimination to all for- 
eign countries; sometimes there are preferences 
and differential rates. Fair common bases for re- 
duction of so many sorts of burdens and restric- 
tions are difficult to state and will no doubt be even 
harder to agree on. But it is quite important to 
deal with most of them at once, for each country 
has its own kind of protection resulting from its 
own peculiar problems and can hardly be expected 
to throw off its own peculiar armor, unless the 
other kinds of armor employed by other countries 
are thrown off at the same time. What is needed 
is a broad and j-et detailed agreement, between at 
least the chief commercial nations, dealing at one 
time with many different sorts of trade restrictions 
and reducing all of them on a balanced and equi- 
table basis. Such agreement is not reached in 
thirty minutes. 

Clearly no substantial general reduction of war- 
time government controls of private commerce 
overseas can be expected until victory is won. We 



JULY 23, 1944 



99 



still have a war to fight, and men and ships and 
goods are all still scarce. But the immediate fu- 
ture may well be the most auspicious time that 
we shall have to work towards positive arrange- 
ments, to take effect after the victory, for a gen- 
eral reduction of many of the standing peacetime 
barriers. Firms everywhere are working on war 
orders. They will have to reconvert to peace in 
any case. The way they reconvert will neces- 
sarily depend, in an important part, on the then 
present and prospective public regulation. If it 
is clear that barriers are coming down, and that 
foreign commerce will be freer from restrictions 
than it was before the war, investments will be 
made with that in mind, and we can properly 
expect a great increase in foreign trade in all di- 
rections all around the world. But if when the 



war ends business sees nothing before it but re- 
strictions, it will have to act accordingly. New 
infant industries, new vested interests, will then 
grow up behind the barriers, and we shall all be 
back in the old chains. The time to strike the 
shackles off is now. 

The United Nations have found out that work- 
ing together in the conduct of the war is the best 
way to victory. They are perfectly aware that 
working together in the peace is equally worth 
while. On a large part of the necessary program 
they have achieved not only agreement upon 
principles, but a considerable body of parallel ac- 
tion and of common institutions. In the matter 
of trade barriers agreement in principle exists. 
The next step is to translate it into a thorough- 
going common action. 



Emergency Powers: Safeguards Through 



Police Standards 



Address by ASSISTANT SECRETARY BERLE ' 



[Released to tlie press July 22] 

Gentlemen: The end of professional training, 
and entry into professional life, is a milestone in 
any man's career. In your case, you have just com- 
pleted a postgraduate course in law enforcement. 
This is one of the great professions of the world. 
As its possibilities are increasingly recognized and 
developed by capable and far-seeing men, law en- 
forcement will be seen to take its place as one of the 
great safeguards of American life. 

It has sometimes been remarked that there is one 
American institution which is almost incomprehen- 
sible to anj' non- American. This is the institution 
of the American policeman. In most countries 
(a notable exception is Great Britain) the police 
system is quite usually an object of fear. Tradi- 
tionally in Europe the jjolice system was supposed 
to be the representative of a dominant ruler or 
state; and peoples steered clear of anyone con- 
nected with that system so far as they could. One 
of the difficulties we had with immigrants reach- 
ing our shores was to convince them that police 
systems here were designed to help you out of 
trouble rather than to get you in. 

The experience of the world in the last few years 
has not helped to dissipate the old fears. The 
police, especially the secret investigating police, 



became and were the principal agents in building 
up tlie Axis totalitarian despotisms. Their pai-t, 
ill fact, was so large that countries like Mussolini's 
Italy and Hitler's Germany are frequently called 
"police states". The police systems became a com- 
bination of internal spy organizations, political 
agents, economic oppressors, and meddlers even in 
the intimacies of family life. The methods of law 
enforcement which should mean justice and regu- 
lation of the not-too-easy business of living to- 
gether in a crowded world were perverted into 
sadistic instruments of ruthless terror. 

Against that background the American picture 
of a jDolice system primarily interested in discov- 
ering the facts, in acquitting the innocent quite as 
much as in convicting the guilty, enforcing law in 
the common interest, and never oppression in any- 
one's political interest — this American picture may 
be held as a proud achievement of our common 
democracy. 

It is worthwhile emphasizing, now, that the pro- 
cedures of American police and investigation are 
really a part of the maintenance of American civil 
liberties. They are allied to the ideas underlying 
the Bill of Eights. In one sense they ai-e even 

1 Delivered at the graduation exercises of tiie Federal 
Bureau of Investigation, Washington, July 22, lt>44. 



100 

more important. Tlie integrity and honesty of 
police work have to be guaranteed chiefly by the 
high professional standards of the men and organ- 
izations engaged in it. The courts can and do 
supply a great safeguard. But the primary re- 
sponsibility for maintaining the American system 
of justice and law, as contrasted with oppression 
and despotism, rests on the police organizations 
themselves. They have to know the law to in- 
terpret its spirit faithfully. They have to do this 
often under great difficulties, and sometimes great 
provocation. They have to hew to the line, enforc- 
ing law and preventing abuses of power. 

American police systems generally, and espe- 
cially the Federal Bureau of Investigation, have 
the right to be proud of their record and especially 
of their record in recent years. They are living 
through a time now which tests to the utmost the 
integrity of their professional standards and their 
faithfulness to the American system of democratic 
government. This is because, in wartime espe- 
cially, government has very wide powers, and 
officers have very wide discretion. The power and 
the discretion are easy to abuse, and the abuses 
are hard to discover and harder still to correct. 
But by comparative standards I think the record 
will show that the police system of the Govern- 
ment of the United States has handled these powers 
in general wisely and well and has been backed 
up in its action and in its restraint by the compe- 
tent officials of this Government. 

This was not easy to do. The United States 
is composed of many races. Nearly a quarter of 
the country is of German extraction. There are 
many millions of Italian extraction. There are 
at all times some millions of aliens. A specific 
objective of our enemies in this war was to split 
the United States into race blocs and particularly 
to organize race blocs friendly to enemy powers 
and hostile to the United States. From the point 
of view of Hitler or Mussolini, this was all to the 
good. If internal disturbance could be created, 
splendid ! But a good deal would have been ac- 
complished even without that if great blocs of the 
population of this country could have been in- 
duced to hate or fear or suspect their fellows in the 
community. The more the confusion, the better 
our enemies like it. If the police were unable to 
control the situation, this was a score for the Axis. 
But equally, if the police acted hysterically and, 
while controlling the situation, created a general 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

atmosphere of panic and fear, that was all to the 
good too, from an enemy point of view. We all 
of us remember that the situation was quite ade- 
quately controlled and that there was no wave of 
panic or fear, and that up to the present there 
has been far less either of sabotage or internal 
disturbance on the one hand, or of hysteria and 
panic on the other, than was the case in World 
War I. Some of us particularly remember the 
night of Pearl Harbor when, with information 
previously gathered, the Federal Bureau of In- 
vestigation systematically cleaned up the groups 
which had been organized to conduct espionage 
and fifth-column activities in the United States, 
and, in a single swift and brilliant campaign, para- 
lyzed the Axis machinery on this continent. 

This was done by sound use of emergency 
powers. Limits and controls over those powers 
could not have been set in advance. The guid- 
ing control, to prevent this power from becoming 
mere despotism, lay, in those tragic days, in the 
l^rofessional standards, wise training, and sound 
common sense of the men who used the powers. ' 

Even more severe was the burden imposed by 
the continuing administration of war powers — 
administration which cannot be ended until final 
victory. The degree of power has to be as great 
as the dangers to the security of the United States, 
for wars are no respecters of persons ; and enemies 
in general, and the Axis in particular, have no 
scruples as to the means they use. But certain 
principles were worked out, which have been faith- 
fully adhered to; and these principles, generally 
adhered to throughout the country, deserve per- 
manent recognition in our system. 

The first principle was that war powers should 
be used only for war purposes — that is, for the 
common defense. In censorship, it has been gen- 
erally agreed that that difficult and dangerous in- 
stitution, admirably handled by an extremely able 
administrator, should be invoked only for the pur- 
pose of forwarding war aims and preventing the 
enemy from getting information of aid or com- 
fort to him. So, it was justifiable to use infor- 
mation taken from a letter to trap a spy, but it 
was not justifiable to use that information for the 
purpose of collecting an income tax. So, it was 
justifiable to intern an alien for the purpose of 
preventing threatened communication with the 
enemy, but it was not justifiable to intern him be- 
cause you had reason to believe he was engaged 



JULY 23, 1944 



101 



in bootlegging. Many examples could be given. 
The point is that the enforcement of civilian law 
was handled according to civilian peacetime stand- 
ards. The extraordinary war powers were used 
for the jourjjose of frustrating the enemj' and noth- 
ing else. 

The second was the principle that the use of 
war powers should be projjortionate to the degree 
of danger ; that, as the country became increas- 
ingly secure, greater caution was needed in work- 
ing under war powers. The ideal of the United 
States is a government of laws and not of men; 
and the police are an instrument of law and not 
of individual men. Accordingly, in general, 
sweeping use of war powers for security purposes 
was made only when there was sweeping danger — 
as there most certainly was during the dark days 
following Pearl Harbor and the months when 
submarines torpedoed ships and landed men on 
our very coasts. As the strength of our armed 
forces pushed the enemy back to the farther side 
of the Pacific and to the distant opposite shore 
of the Atlantic, the wise discretion of American 
administrators, among whom I am glad to name 
Mr. J. Edgar Hoover, reduced the scale of action 
so that the measures taken were not out of pro- 
portion to the dangers which had to be met. 

When victory brings peace, and as safety is at 
length restored, we should be able to abandon the 
use of these extraordinary powers, leaving the 
American system of enforcement of law intact and 
strong, with its constitutional safeguards and its 
guiding concern for the freedom and dignity of 
individuals. 

This is no mean achievement, and those who 
have contributed to it have every right to believe 
that they have served their country well in the 
time of its greatest danger. 

Wliile the problem of direct danger from the 
enemy will diminish as we move toward victory, 
certain other problems will arise which are not 
easy to solve. At the close of wars the nationalist 
spirit in all countries is usually at its highest. 
Old controversies are apt to be reopened, and pas- 
sions tend to run high. In the United States, 
there is sometimes a tendency to transfer quarrels 
from the Old World to the cities of this country, 
in which are represented almost every race and 
national group. Sometimes these quarrels are 
spontaneous ; sometimes they are stimulated from 
abroad. The policy of the United States, as it 



appears in the Federal statutes, has naturally been 
to try to reduce these quarrels and, if possible, to 
avoid them altogether. That is why, under Fed- 
eral law, foreign propaganda agents are obliged 
to register with the Department of Justice, and 
foreign propaganda is supposed to be labeled so 
that its source can be known. That is why the 
Government has never recognized that any foreign 
country had any vested right to set up claims upon 
groups in the United States who were affiliated 
with that country by ties of blood or race. That is 
why the American public has generally reacted 
against political movements in the United States 
based on race blocs. And that is why, with great 
good sense, the overwhelming mass of Americans 
of recent immigration have adopted the sound 
principle that they should be appealed to as Amer- 
icans, and not as hyphenates. These groups do 
not wish to be dropped back into the sterile quar- 
rels of pi-evious generations; still less do they 
wish to have any police state reach out and attempt 
to find them here. 

For all of us this is important, because Ameri- 
ca's war effort is powerful only if it is unified. We 
have no interest in divisions based on accusations 
and counter-accusations or in movements aimed at 
strengthening, through direct influence on Ameri- 
can groups, the fortunes of factions in other coun- 
tries. Those disputes can best be settled before 
the forum of public op)inion in the countries in 
which they belong, or, in the case of international 
controversies, in the greater forimi of world 
public opinion as a whole. 

In your work as law-enforcement officers you 
will encounter all of these problems. No one 
knows better than you the difficulties of holding 
the scales true and just and at the same time 
thoroughly safeguarding the internal security of 
the United States and the safety of several million 
Americans who are fighting overseas. Happily, 
you have had the best training this country can 
ofl'er, and you have the support of a great tradi- 
tion. You are waging war against crime, but you 
are also protecting the peaceful and the innocent. 
You are maintaining the security of the United 
States, but you are likewise repelling any who 
might wish to abuse the powers given you for ul- 
terior ends. Your primary objective must be to 
discover the truth and not to be diverted from that 
essential task by any pressure. As officers, and as 
teachers, you have an unexampled opportunity to 
protect and forward the American way of life. 



102 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Liberia's Relations With the United States 



By HENRY S. VILLARD ' 



The traditional ties between the United States 
and the Republic of Liberia were brought to the 
fore when, on January 27, 1944, the Liberian Legis- 
lature, in recognition of tlie ideals for which Amer- 
icans are fighting today, declared war upon Ger- 
many and Japan.- On April 10, 1944 Mr. Walter 
F. Walker, Liberian Consul General in New York, 
affixed his signature to the Declaration of the 
United Nations in Secretary Hull's presence, thus 
making his country the thirty-fifth to range itself 
in the common front against Axis aggression.^ 

Liberia's strategic position on the west coast of 
Africa has brought it inevitably into tlie orbit 
of modern warfare. Directly atliwart the vital 
sea and air routes of the world, it was evident in 
the early phases of the conflict that the small negro 
republic could not escape the consequences of its 
geograf)hic position. Although Liberia pro- 
claimed a state of neutrality, it was clear where 
its sympathies lay. Numerous sinkings off the 
Liberian coast by Axis submarines led to the sign- 
ing of a defense agreement with the United States 
and the expulsion of German nationals from the 
country. In the latter part of 1942 the German 
Consulate General was closed and its officers were 
requested to leave Liberia. After clue considera- 
tion of Liberia's future interests and the apparent 
opposition of its people to Axis ideology, President 
Barclay submitted a recommendation to the legis- 
lature which led finally to formal entry into the 
struggle. 

History has thus repeated itself, for in the last 
war, after a period of neutrality, Liberia followed 
the lead of the United States in joining hostilities 
against Germany. At that time it expelled Ger- 
mans from the country, and it sent Liberian sol- 
diers to France. In the present war the aid that 
Lil>eria has given to the Allies has taken the ma- 
terial form of providing landing facilities for the 

' The autlior of this article is Chief of the Division of 
African Affairs, Office of Near Eastern and African Affairs, 
Department of State. 

^ BuiJj^TiN of Feb. 5, 1944, p. 151. 

' BuLT^ErriN of Apr. l.'i, 1944, p. 346. 

' Executive Agreement Series 275 ; 56 Stat. 1U21. 



steady flow of aircraft across the South Atlantic 
from Brazil, without which the defense of the 
African continent would have been virtually im- 
possible. One of the finest airports in Africa has 
been constructed in Liberia, and the seaplane ter- 
minal at Fisherman Lake has become familiar 
to liundreds of wartime travelers between the 
continents. 

Another factor wliich has contributed to Li- 
beria's prominence in this war and one which was 
not present in the last war is the tangible supply 
of rabber. Soil and climate in Liberia are practi- 
cally ideal for the prodviction of rubber, which 
is more tlian ever an essential commodity as the 
needs of war increase. Plantations of the Fire- 
stone Tire and Rubber Company, started in 1926, 
took on immediate significance after Pearl Har- 
bor. These plantations, which employ 25,000 na- 
tive laborers and which yield, under intensive 
cultivation, 20,000 tons of rubber annually, form a 
basic part of Liberia's ecoimiy. 

Wlien the defense agreement was signed on 
March 31, 1942, the Government of Liberia not 
only granted the United States the right to operate 
strategic airports but it also admitted American 
foi'ces to guard the installations and assist in pro- 
tecting Liberian soil for the duration of the emer- 
gency.* American negro troops, until recently 
under the command of Brigadier General P. L. 
Sadler, have plajed an active part in tliis task and 
have helped to train and strengthen Liberia's own 
frontier force. A direct result of their presence 
has been the implementation of a national road- 
construction program in Liberia which has a stra- 
tegic military purpose and which will open the 
interior of the country and assist in its economic 
development. Such products as palm oil, palm 
kernels, ground nuts, wild rubber, and possibly 
iron ore — all of great use in the war effort — will 
become accessible in hitherto little-known and un- 
explored regions. 

American money has been declared legal tender 
in Liberia and has officially replaced British cur- 
rency, wliich has long been in use in the Republic. 



JULY 23, 1944 



103 



In that way Liberia has forged a new link with the 
United States. 

Because of the African Republic's role in the 
war as a part of the vital defense of the United 
States, Liberia was declared eligible to receive 
lend-lease assistance. On June 8, 1943 the two 
Governments signed a mutual-aid agreement in 
New York that gave effect to that decision.^ 

The terms of this agreement have made possible 
the authorization of a port project which is now 
in its initial stages and which is destined to be of 
major importance to the country.- At a point to 
be determined by the surveys of an American com- 
pany, a harbor is shortly to be constructed on 
Liberia's difficult coastline, and thus a dream of 
the Liberian Government since its declaration of 
independence in 1847 will be on the way to reali- 
zation. The project will undoubtedly accelerate 
the economic progress of Liberia, and the United 
States stands to benefit by the acquisition of cer- 
tain rights in the area designed to contribute to 
the security of the Western Hemisphere. 

President Roosevelt's visit to Liberia following 
the historic Casablanca Conference early in 1943 
awakened extraordinary interest on the part of 
Liberians, and his invitation to President Barclay 
to pay a return call in Washington was promptly 
accepted. President Barclay, whose term of office 
expired in January 1944, came to the United States 
by clipper in the spring of 1943 accompanied by 
President-elect W. V. S. Tubm.an. As guests of 
this Government they were entertained at the 
White House and were taken on a tour of some 
of the industrial centers of tlie country. During 
his stay in Washington President Barclay ad- 
dressed a joint session of Congress. 

The inauguration of President Tubman on Jan- 
uary 3, 1944 was attended by Vice Admiral 
William A. Glassford, Special Representative of 
President Roosevelt at Dakar, and by the Honor- 
able Lester A. Walton, American Minister in 
Monrovia. 

Liberia is now preparing to observe a new chap- 
ter in its histoi-y to be marked in 1947 by its cen- 
tenary as a nation. The wartime foundations of 
cooperation between the United States and Liberia 
in the defense of this Hemisphere will be, as time 
goes on, on an even firmer footing. 



' Bulletin of June 12, 1943, p. 515. 
' Bulletin of Jan. 8, 1944, p. 38. 



^ THE DEPARTMENT ^ 

Laurence Duggan To Leave Govern- 
ment Service 

[Released to the press July 18] 

Mr. Laurence Duggan, Director of the Office of 
American Rej^ublic Affairs, is leaving the Govern- 
ment service shortly. Mr. Norman Armour will 
take charge of the Office of American Rej)ublic 
Affairs in an acting capacity. 

The Secretary of State has addressed the follow- 
ing letter, dated July 17, to Mr. Duggan : 

Dear Mr. Duggan : 

I realize that at my request and at considerable 
personal sacrifice you have remained in the De- 
partment for some months after you had informed 
me that you wished to leave the service of the Gov- 
ernment in order to take up private work in which 
you have a particular interest. In the face of your 
recent renewed request, I do not feel that I can 
ask you to remain for a longer time. I greatly 
regret your departure. You have served the De- 
partment for many years with outstanding suc- 
cess as Chief of the Division of the American Re- 
publics, Political Adviser and Director of the Of- 
fice of the American Republics. You have been 
of the greatest assistance to me in building up and 
maintaining relations of close friendship and con- 
fidence with the other American Rei:)ublics. I am 
most appreciative of your valuable services and in 
expressing to you my sincere thanks I wish to add 
my verj' best wishes for your future success and 
happiness. 

Sincerely yours, 

CORDELL Huix 



^ THE FOREIGN SERVICE ^ 

Consular Offices 

The American Consulate at Hull, England, was 
opened to the public on July 1, 1944. 

The American Consulate at Kweilin, China, was 
officially closed on June 25, 1944. 

The American Vice Consulate at Nueva Gerona, 
Cuba, was closed to the public July 8, 1944. 



704 



^ TIIEATY INFORMATI ON ^ 

Regulation of Inter- American 
Aiitomotive Traffic 

Guateviala 

The Director General of the Pan American 
Union informed the Secretary of State by a letter 
of July 12, 1944 that the instrument of ratification 
by the Government of El Salvador of the Conven- 
tion on the Regulation of Inter-American Auto- 
motive Traffic, -which was opened for signature at 
the Pan American Union on December 15, 1943, 
was deposited with the Pan American Union on 
July 6, 1944. The instrument of ratification is 
dated June 7, 1944. 

Protocol on the Regulation of Whaling 

Great Britain 

The American Embassy in London transmitted 
to the Department of State, with a despatch of 
July 10, 1944, a copy of a note of July 7, 1944 from 
the British Foreign Office in which the Govern- 
ment of the United Kingdom informs the Govern- 
ment of the United States, in accordance with 
article 7 of the Protocol on the Regulation of 
Whaling signed at London on Febraary 7, 1944, 
of the deposit on June 28, 1944 in the archives of 
the British Foreign Office of the instrument of rati- 
fication of that protocol by the Government of the 
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Nortliern 
Ireland. 

Inter- American Institute of 
Agricultural Sciences 

Costa Rica 

The American Embassy at San Jose transmit- 
ted to the Department, with a despatch of June 15, 
1944, a copy of Decree No. 29 of June 13, 1944, of 
the Government of Costa Rica, approving the 
convention for the establishment of the Inter- 
American Institute of Agricultural Sciences, which 
was opened for signature at the Pan American 
Union on January 15, 1944. The decree is printed 
in the Costa Rican La Gaceta of June 14, 1944. 

Guatemala 

The Director General of the Pan American 
Union informed the Secretary of State by a letter 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

dated July 12, 1944 that the instrument of ratifica- 
tion by the Government of Guatemala of the Con- 
vention on the Inter- American Institute of Agri- 
cultural Sciences was deposited with the Pan 
American Union on July 6, 1944. The instru- 
ment of ratification is dated May 16, 1944. 

Treaty of Amity, China and Liberia 

The Embassy of the United States at Chung- 
king transmitted to the Department by a despatch 
of April 28, 1944 a copy of the English text of a 
treaty of amity between the Governments of China 
and Liberia signed at Paris on December 11, 1937. 

g PUBLICATIONS ^F 

Department of State 

Diplomatic List, July 1044. Publication 2149. ii, 123 pp. 
Subscription, $1.50 a year; single copy, 150. 

Publications of the Department of State (a list cumula- 
tive from October 1, 1929). July 1, 1944. Publication 
2150. iv, 31 pp. Free. 

Other Go\"ernment Agencies 

The articles listed below will be found in the July 15 
and 22 issues of the Department of Commerce publication 
entitled Foreign Commerce Weekly, copies of which may 
be obtained from the Superintendent of Documents, Gov- 
ernment Printing Office, for 10 cents each : 

"Mexico in 1943", prepared in the American Republics 
Unit, Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, on basis 
of report from L. B. Clark, Senior Economic Analyst, 
United States Emba.ssy, Mexico City (issue of July 15). 

"Canadian Dairy Situation Today", by Irven M. Eitreim, 
American Vice Consul, United States Embassy, Ottawa 
(issue of July 22). 



LEGISLATION 



Investigation of Political, Economic, and Social Conditions 
in Puerto Rico: Hearings Before a Sulicommittee of the 
Committee on Insular Affairs, House of Representatives, 
78th Cong., 2d se.ss., pursuant to H. Res. 1.59. Part 16, 
Washington, D.C., March 14, 15, 21, and 23, 1944, pp. 
1371-1520. Part 17, Washington, D.C., March 24 and 
April 18, 1944, pp. 1521-1037. Part 18, Washington, 
D.C., May 11, 1944, pp. 1639-1680. 

To Assist in Relieving Economic Distress in Puerto Rico 
and the Virgin Islands : Hearings Before the Committee 
on Insular Affairs, House of Representatives, 78th Cong., 
2d sess., on H.R. 3777. A bill to assist in relieving eco- 
nomic distress in the Virgin Islands by providing work 
for unemployed persons, and for other purposes. Part 
4, Washington, D.C., May IG and 17, 1944, pp. 335-417. 



U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1944 



"-/ O'y 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 




XJ 



J 



_J 



E 



I 




VOL. XI, NO. 266 



JULY 30, 1944 



In this issue 



NON-RECOGNITION OF ARGENTINE REGIME * * * 



SPECIAL WAR PROBLEMS DIVISION: By Graham H. Stuart « 



yi©NT o^ 



* * 




^-*Tes o^ 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

BU LLETIN 



Vol. XI . No. 266 




PCBLICATIOW 2155 



July 30,1944 



The Department of State BULLE- 
TIN, a weekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Research and 
Publication, Office of Public Informa- 
tion, provides the public and inter- 
ested agencies of the Government with 
information on developments in the 
field of foreign relations and on the 
work of the Department of State and 
the Foreign Service. The BULLETIN 
includes press releases on foreign policy 
issued by the ff'hite House and the De- 
partment, and statements and addresses 
made by the President and by the Sec- 
retary of State and other officers of the 
Department, as welt as special articles 
on various phases of international af- 
fairs and the functions of the Depart- 
ment. Information concerning treaties 
and international agreements to which 
the United States is or may become a 
party and treaties of general inter- 
national interest is included. 

Publications of the Department, 
cumulative lists of which are published 
at the end of each quarter, as well as 
legislative material in the field of inter- 
national relations, are listed currently. 

The BULLETIN, published tcith the 
approval of the Director of the Bureau 
of the Budget, is for sale by the Super- 
intendent of Documents, United States 
Government Printing Office, Washing- 
ton 25, D. C, to whom all purchase 
orders, with accompanying remittance, 
should be sent. The subscription price 
is $2.75 a year; a single copy is 10 
cents. 



(^ontents 



American Republics ^^^e 

Non-Recognition of Argentine Regime 107 

Visit of Brazilian Director General of Posts and Telegraphs . 129 

Visit of Mexican Rural-Education Specialist 129 

Europe 

Luxembourg Civil-Affairs Agreement 125 

Iceland 

Concurrent Resolution of Congress on the Establishment of 

the Republic of Iceland 126 

Economic Affairs 

Mission for Restoration of Trade to Commercial Channels . 125 
The Proclaimed List 129 

International Conferences, Commissions, Etc. 

The United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference: 

Address by the Secretary of the Treasury Ill 

Statement by the Secretary of State 113 

Summary of Agreements 114 

Treaty Information 

Agreement With Canada Regarding Certain Defense 

Installations 127 

Convention on the Regulation of Inter-American Auto- 
motive Traffic 128 

Protocol on Pelagic Whaling 129 

Agreement for United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation 

Administration 129 

The Department 

Special War Problems Division: Representation of Foreign 

Interests. By Graham H. Stuart 115 

Appointment of Officers 130 

Publications 130 



Non-Recognition of Argentine Regime 



[Released to the press July 26] 

I. The Basic Issues 

1. The American republics jointly with all of the 
United Nations are engaged in a war of unprece- 
dented magnitude for the protection and preserva- 
tion of the liberties of each and all of them against 
the most powerful aggressors in history. In this 
war the United States has over eleven million of 
its own men under arms. Our men are fighting 
the enemy on every battle-front in the world, and 
tens of thousands of them will never return to 
partake of the privileges of that liberty for which 
they are now fighting. For generations to come 
our people will be called upon to discharge a debt 
of over two hundred billion dollars which repre- 
sents our material contribution to the defeat of the 
enemy. To this common cause all but one of the 
American nations have been giving full and whole- 
hearted support. 

2. At this most critical moment in the history 
of the American republics, the Government of one 
great Republic, Argentina, has seen fit to take two 
steps which have resulted in tremendous injury to 
the Allied cause, to wit: (1) it has deliberately 
violated the pledge taken jointly with its sister 
republics to cooioerate in support of the war 
against the Axis powers, and in thus deserting the 
Allied cause has struck a powerful blow at the 
whole system of hemispheric cooperation; (2) it 
has openly and notoriously been giving affirma- 
tive assistance to the declared enemies of the 
United Nations. 

3. These are the fundamental issues which are 
now brought to a head by the actions of the pres- 
ent regime in Argentina. They relate immediately 
to the prosecution of the war. The enemies of 
American cooperation and the friends of Axis 
aggression would of course wish, and are indeed 
recommending, that the Argentine course of action 
be approved by the American republics through 
the establishment of full and normal relations with 



the Farrell regime. This would have the effect of 
a public proclamation of complete approval of the 
Argentine action. For the American republics to 
take such a course would be seriously to damage 
the Allied cause and to undermine the principles 
which the united organization of the nations of 
this hemisphere has been resolutely supporting in 
the war against the Axis powers. The free repub- 
lics of America are honor-bound to preserve the 
integrity of those principles and that organization, 
and to do so they must stand firm in their common 
fight against the Axis enemy. 

II. Multilateral Agreements or the American 
Eepublics for the Defense of the Hemisphere 

During the eight years prior to Pearl Harbor 
the American republics devoted their best efforts 
to perfect and strengthen the system of inter- 
American cooperation, so that if the wave of world 
aggression should reach this hemisphere they 
would be ready to act together for the common 
defense of their heritage. Great progress was 
achieved and a spirit of solidarity and unity was 
developed which justified the hope that any ex- 
ternal threat to the peace and security of the 
hemisphere would meet a common and united 
resistance. 

At the Eighth International Conference of 
American States in Lima in 1938 the American 
governments reaffirmed their solidarity and pro- 
claimed their intention to make that solidarity 
effective in the event that the peace, security, or 
territorial integrity of any American nation were 
threatened. By so doing they provided the spir- 
itual foundation for the belief that in the event of 
aggression, the supreme test of unity would be 
fully met by each one of the 21 republics. The 
Meeting of Foreign Ministers of the American 
Republics at Panama in 1939, upon the outbreak of 
war in Europe, was animated by the same spirit. 
Immediately following the occupation of France 
by Germany, the determination of the American 

107 



108 

republics to maintain their solidarity and unity 
of action in the face of the threatened spread of 
Axis aggression to this hemisphere w;-' win- 
imously proclaimed by the Foreign Ministers at 
Habana in July 1940 in the solemn pledge : 

"That any attempt on the part of a non-Ameri- 
can State against the integrity or inviolability of 
the territory, the sovereignty or the political in- 
dependence of an American State shall be consid- 
ered as an act of aggression against the States 
which sign this declaration." 

On the binding bases for continental defense 
thus established, the American Foreign Ministers, 
meeting at Rio de Janeiro in January 1942, after 
Axis aggression had reached this hemisphere, were 
enabled quickly to agree on uniform measures to 
be taken by each nation in the political, economic, 
and militai-y fields for the collective security of all 
of them. The measures adopted at Rio provided 
for an integrated total defense against the total 
attack of the Axis aggressors. 

Firm adherence to the principles of these inter- 
American agreements by all of the republics would 
have created an unshakable tradition of hemis- 
pheric unity the benefits of which would have been 
felt for generations to come by all of our peoples. 
But when the I'eal test came, the Government of 
one of those republics, Argentina, chose to pursue 
a divergent and separate course. The fact that 
even the most urgent considerations of the na- 
tional security and independence of each of the 
American republics, including Argentina itself, 
have not influenced the Argentine Government 
to practice unity in time of war, completely in- 
validates any suggestion that the other American 
governments should recognize it on the assumption 
that such action would contribute to hemispheric 
unity after the war. 

Efforts have been made to confuse the issue by 
charging that the policy followed by the Ameri- 
can republics and their associates among the United 
Nations constitutes a departure from the normal 
rules and procedure with regard to recognition 
and amounts to intervention in the internal af- 
fairs of Argentina. This contention disregards 
completely the foundation on which the policy of 
non-recognition rests, namely, the defense and se- 
curity of the hemisphere. Furthermore, it over- 
looks the fact that this policy was adopted after 
full and free consultation among the American 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

republics and that it is the logical outgrowth of 
the multilateral agreements which all of them ac- 
cepted in order to make that defense effective. The 
American republics have expressly declared that 
this jDolicy does not affect, and has nothing to do 
with, the ordinary rules and procedure for recog- 
nition in time of peace. The problem involves the 
fundamental question of whether the American re- 
publics are to endorse the action of one republic 
which has undermined their unity and strength 
and given aid to the Axis enemy. It is not, as has 
sometimes been asserted, merely a question of re- 
lations between the United States and Argentina. 

III. Developments DtrRiNG Four Months Be- 
tween OvEETHEOw or Ramieez Government and 
Recall oe Ambassador Armour 

The government of General Ramirez an- 
nounced the break of relations with Germany and 
Japan on January 26, 1944. It based its action 
on the criminal espionage activities which it de- 
clared were directly chargeable to the Axis gov- 
ernments and which, it asserted, "infringe the 
national sovereignty, compromise the foreign 
policy of this Government, and threaten the se- 
curity of the continent". Repeated assurances 
were given by President Ramirez, the Foreign 
Minister, General Gilbert, and other responsible 
members of the Argentine Government, in public 
statements as well as private conversations, that 
immediate, energetic measures would be taken to 
suppress subversive Axis activities and in other 
ways to give effect to the severance of relations. 
Very soon, however, it became clear that powerful 
forces within the Government were determined to 
oppose those measures and render the break value- 
less. General Gilbert, who had played a leading 
role in the decision to break relations and the 
efforts thereafter to implement it, resigned as 
Foreign Minister on February 15. Ten days 
later General Ramirez "delegated" his authority 
as President to General Farrell and a few days 
thereafter submitted his resignation. 

In view of these sudden developments nearly all 
of the American governments determined to ab- 
stain from normal relations with the Farrell re- 
gime in order to ascertain the reasons for this 
change and the attitude of the new regime toward 
the Axis. It has since been established that ex- 
tremist. pro-Axis elements were responsible for 
the elimination of General Ramirez and his prin- 
cipal collaborators from the Government because 



JULY 30, 1944 



109 



of their decision to break relations. 

The Farrell government firmly refused to com- 
mit itself to implementation of the break with 
the Axis. It implicitly disavowed any intention 
to honor the rupture with the Axis by insisting 
rejieatedly that it was due to foreign pressure. 

This attitude was confirmed by its actions. Tlie 
freedom of the country was extended to Axis dip- 
lomatic and consular officers. Affirmative assist- 
ance was given to Axis firms, both through large 
official contracts and through requisitioning of 
critical materials from firms friendly to the dem- 
ocratic cause. Immediately following the break 
of relations police activity and arrests of Axis 
agents were briefly stimulated by the Ramirez 
government, but under the new regime numerous 
Axis spies and agents were set at liberty. As a re- 
sult Axis espionage again flourished. Such pro- 
Axis newspapers as El Federal, Cabildo, and La 
Froiula enjoyed governmental support and as- 
sistance in obtaining newsprint and carried on a 
bitter propaganda campaign against the United 
Nations and on behalf of the Axis. A commen- 
tary by La Fronda on the Allied landings in 
France exemplified this propaganda: 

"It is most comforting that all the peoples of the 
Continent are closely grouped under the brilliant 
leadership of Hitler, who has been supernatnrally 
transformed by developments into . . . more 
than an intrepid defender of Germany, he is the 
defender of Europe." 

Nevertheless, from time to time certain ele- 
ments in the Farrell government professed a de- 
sire to see the rupture implemented. Were such 
an attempt to be made, however, these same ele- 
ments admitted that they would be eliminated as 
were Ramirez and Gilbert by the extremist forces 
within the Government. That the dominant 
power in Argentina was, and continues to be, in 
the hands of pro- Axis elements determined to im- 
pose their desires is strikingly revealed by this 
situation. Furthermore, it is significant that these 
same elements control the most important minis- 
tries and agencies of the National Government as 
well as the governments of the provinces and have 
rapidly and energetically implanted a domestic 
totalitarian system that fully complements and 
supports their pro-Axis foreign policy, through 
control of the press, the courts, the schools, and 
other key institutions. The basic civil rights have 
been either nullified or so modified as to have no 



real meaning. Every effort was made to stamp 
out democratic opposition to the Government's to- 
talitarian program. A striking demonstration of 
the nature of this program was afforded in the 
declarations of the Minister of War on June 10 
when he said that military re-armament is the ob- 
jective to which the entire economy of the country 
and the life of all of its people must be dedicated. 
The Minister admitted in so many words that the 
keystone of Argentina's international policy is to 
be military force, when he stated that in addition 
to the use of diplomacy to achieve political objec- 
tives it possessed the power of its armed forces. 

Shortly after the Farrell regime came into 
power various of its members undertook to arrange 
interviews with members of the diplomatic corps 
in Buenos Aires through intermediaries. Am- 
bassador Armour participated in two informal dis- 
cussions of this kind, one with the Foreign 
Minister and the other with the Ministers of For- 
eign Relations, War and Navy. The Ambassador 
reported to this Department, and likewise informed 
his colleagues of the American diplomatic corps, 
that little or nothing was accomplished at either 
meeting, since the Foreign Minister insisted that 
recognition be accorded before implementation of 
the break with the Axis on the basis of Argentine 
promises of future action. Ambassador Armour 
was recalled, and a full statement of this Govern- 
ment's position was transmitted to the other Amer- 
ican republics and to the Government of Great 
Britain on June 22. 

IV. Developments Since the Recall of 
Ambassador Armour 

We have reexamined the entire Argentine situa- 
tion in the light of developments since our recall 
of Ambassador Armour. 

Practically all of the other republics have ex- 
pressed unqualified agreement with the position 
and statement of facts set forth in the Depart- 
ment's communication of June 22. The chiefs of 
mission of most of the American republics as well 
as the British Ambassador have been recalled for 
consultation. 

The Chilean Charge in Washington has in- 
formally made available to the Department two 
memoranda by the Farrell government, one dated 
June 30 and the other July 10, which profess to 
summarize the action taken by the Castillo ad- 
ministration, the government of General Ramirez 



no 

and the present regime, ostensibly in aid of the 
United Nations and in implementation of the 
break in relations with the Axis. The memoran- 
dum of July 10, which is the more comprehensive 
of the two docnments, convincingly establishes the 
principal conclusion of our statement of June 22. 
Tliat memorandum demonstrates that potentially 
significant anfi-Xazi measures were adopted as in- 
cidents of the break in relations by the Ramirez 
government and that almost immediately after 
these measures were adopted the government was 
overtlirown in circumstances and for reasons 
wliich are now well known. A mere notation of 
tlie dates of the decrees cited in the memorandum 
demonstrates that as soon as the new regime took 
power the program of implementation was 
sharply stopped. Save for the departure of the 
German diplomats, who enjoyed the freedom of 
the country for almost six months (and thus had 
ample time and opportunity to reorganize the 
Nazi espionage system), the sentencing of four 
Germans for espionage, and the suspension for a 
few days of one of several pro-Nazi papers, the 
Farrell regime has done little or nothing to im- 
lilement the action of the Ramirez government. 
Thus the memoranda reinforce the conclusion that 
the extremist pro-Nazi elements of the present 
regime, which were largely responsible for the 
overthrow of the Ramirez government, have been 
able to block any efforts that might have been 
made to proceed vigorously and adequately 
against Axis activities. The basic facts with re- 
gard to political and economic defense measures 
remain as set forth in our statement. Further- 
more, extremely important problems of Axis con- 
trol were either not mentioned in the memoranda 
or were touched upon by carefully qualified prom- 
ises of future action. 

The net effect of the position of the Farrell 
regime is firm adherence to the thesis that recog- 
nition sliould be accorded on the basis of a few 
acts of the overtlirown Ramirez government and 
mere promises of future performance. A declared 
determination to collaborate fully and decisively 
with the rest of the hemisphere has been and con- 
tinues to be studiously avoided. The memorandum 
of June 30 states that, "At the proper time the 
Argentine Government will take the necessary 
steps to make public the measures which it may 
adopt in consequence of its position of rupture." 
This is precisely the position of procrastination 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

and evasion adopted by the Argentine Government 
iuimediately after the Conference of Rio de 
Janeiro in January 1942 and maintained ever since. 

At the very time that the Farrell regime was 
protesting its intention to collaborate with the 
United Nations this Government was receiving re- 
ports of actions conclusively establishing that a 
contrary policy was being pursued. The Depart- 
ment is in possession of irrefutable evidence that 
as late as the middle of June of this year the Ar- 
gentine authorities required firms friendly to the 
United Nations to receive bids as subcontractors 
from Nazi firms on contracts calling for materials 
imported from the United Nations. It is definitely 
established that during the past three months large 
government contracts for public works wei'e given 
to firms that were either of enemy origin or ac- 
tively cooperating with the enemy. At late as 
July 4 the Ministry of Finance placed display ad- 
vertisements in Axis papers Deutsche La Plata 
Zeifung, 11 Mattino (Vltalm, El Federal, and La 
Fronda. The June issue of the scurrilous Nazi 
jmblication Clarinada contained a full-page adver- 
tisement by the Ministry of Interior. Within the 
past two weeks newsprint imported under grant of 
Allied navicerts has been supplied with the aid of 
the Farrell government to the four papers men- 
tioned, which day after day have been viciously 
attacking the United Nations while enthusiasti- 
cally supporting the Axis cause and furthering 
Axis propaganda. 

Although the Argentine memoranda refer to 
economic defense measures, the irrefutable fact is 
that internal controls over Axis firms are non-ex- 
istent and that the Farrell government has in truth 
been aiding those firms. During tlie past three 
3"ears representative Axis firms in Argentina have 
been able to double, and in some cases to treble, 
their normal peacetime profits. The prosperity of 
these powerful commercial firms, which have been 
geared according to the well-known pattern into 
the espionage and propaganda machine of the Nazi 
party, is the result not mei'ely of passive failure 
of the Argentine Government to implement the 
Rio agreements but of positive aid from that 
Government. 

There is, of course, nothing new in these develop- 
ments. They merely demonstrate the futility of 
any effort to decide the issue of recognition by 
reference to isolated acts of apparent implemen- 
tation of the break in relations. Since the day of 



JULY 30, \9U 



111 



Axis aggression against this hemisphere Argen- 
tina has protested its solidarity and unity with its 
sister republics. But during two and one-half 
years it has persisted in an open, notorious, and 
contraz-y course of action which has given constant 
aid and comfort to the enemies of those republics. 
Spasmodic token gestures of cooperation liave been 
made. In almost all instances, however, they have 
been designed to do no more than foster the false 
hope that Argentina might yet be prepared to 
honor her solemn pledge of hemisphere solidarity. 
In the same manner, the superficial anti-Axis 
gestures of recent weeks have been calculated to 
weaken the collective determination of the non- 
recognizing governments. They have been part of 
an effort to induce those governments to accord 
recognition in exchange for promises of action 
which Argentina has long been pledged to take. 
Expediency in a desperate effort to achieve recog- 
nition, rather than a change of Argentine foreign 
policy to support the Allied cause in good faith, 
has inspired these actions of the Farrell regime. 



The suggestion has been made that the recent 
gestures of the Farrell regime offer a basis for 
negotiation. Bargaining or negotiating with re- 
gard to action which Argentina has long since 
agreed to take would be a serious error. The prin- 
ciples for which the free nations of the world are 
today contributing the full measure of their human 
and material resources cannot be the subject of a 
bargain. The controlling issue is support in good 
faith of the Allied cause. 

The injui-y to the solidarity of the Continent 
and to the war effort of the United Nations by 
the continuing acts and utterances of the Farrell 
regime is abundantly clear. It is the judgment of 
this Government that the American republics and 
their associates among the United Nations should 
firmly adhere to the present policy of non-recog- 
nition of the Farrell regime until by unequivocal 
acts it is conclusively demonstrated that there has 
been a fundamental change of Argentine policy in 
favor of the cause against the Axis and in support 
of inter-American unity and common action. 



The United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference 

ADDRESS BY THE SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY' 



[Released to the press by the United Nations 
Monetary and Financial Conference July 22] 

I am gratified to announce that the Conference 
at Bretton Woods has successfully completed the 
task before it. 

It was, as we knew when we began, a difficult 
task, involving complicated technical problems. 
We came here to work out methods which would 
do away with the economic evils — the competitive 
currency devaluation and destructive impediments 
to trade — which preceded the present war. We 
have succeeded in that effort. 

The actual details of an international monetary 
and financial agreement may seem mysterious to 
the general public. Yet at the heart of it lie the 
most elementary bread-and-butter realities of 
daily life, l^liat we have done here in Bretton 
Woods is to devise machinery by which men and 
women everywhere can freely exchange, on a fair 
and stable basis, the goods which they produce 
through their labor. And we have taken the in- 



itial steps through which the nations of the world 
will be able to help one another in economic de- 
velopment to their mutual advantage and for the 
enrichment of all. 

The representatives of the 44 nations faced dif- 
ferences of opinion frankly and reached an agree- 
ment which is rooted in genuine understanding. 
None of the nations represented here has altogether 
had its own way. We have had to yield to one 
another not in respect to principles or essentials 
but in respect to methods and procedural details. 
The fact that we have done so, and that we have 
done it in a continuing spirit of good-will and 
mutual trust, is, I believe, one of the hopeful and 
heartening portents of our times. Here is a sign 
blazoned upon the horizon, written large upon the 



' Delivered at the closing plenary session of the Con- 
ference, July 22, 19-!4. Mr. Morgenthau was President of 
the Conference and Chairman of the Delegation of the 
United States of America, 



112 

threshold of the future— a sign for men in battle, 
for men at work in mines and mills, and in the 
fields, and a sign for women whose hearts have 
been burdened and anxious lest the cancer of war 
assail yet another generation — a sign that the peo- 
ples of the earth are learning how to join hands 
and work in unity. 

There is a curious notion that the protection of 
national interests and the development of interna- 
tional cooperation are conflicting philosophies— 
that somehow or other men of different nations 
cannot work together without sacrificing the inter- 
ests of their particular nations. There has been 
talk of this sort— and from people who ought to 
know better— concerning the international coop- 
erative nature of the undertaking just completed 
at Bretton Woods. I am perfectly certain that no 
delegation to this Conference has lost sight for a 
moment of the particular national interests it was 
sent here to represent. The American delegation, 
which I have had the honor of leading, has at all 
times been conscious of its primary obligation — 
the protection of American interests. And the 
other representatives here have been no less loyal 
or devoted to the welfare of their own people. 

Yet none of us has found any incompatibility 
between devotion to our own countries and joint 
action. Indeed, we have found on the contrary 
that the only genuine safeguard for our national 
interests lies in international cooperation. We 
have come to recognize that the wisest and most 
effective way to protect our national interests is 
through international cooperation — that is to say, 
through united effort for the attaimnent of com- 
mon goals. This has been the great lesson taught 
by the war and is, I think, the great lesson of con- 
temporary life — that the peoples of the earth are 
inseparably linked to one another by a deep, under- 
lying community of purpose. This community of 
purpose is no less real and vital in peace than in 
war, and cooperation is no less essential to its 
fulfilment. 

To seek the achievement of our aims separately 
through the planless, senseless rivalry that di- 
vided us in the past, or through the outright eco- 
nomic aggression which turned neighbors into 
enemies, would be to invite ruin again upon us all. 
Worse, it woidd be once more to start our steps 
irretraceably down the steep, disastrous road to 
war. That sort of extreme nationalism belongs to 
an era that is dead. Today the only enlightened 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

form of national self-interest lies in international 
accord. At Bretton Woods we have taken prac- 
tical steps toward putting this lesson into prac- 
tice in the monetary and economic field. 

I take it as an axiom that after this war is 
ended no people — and therefore no government 
of the i^eople — will again tolerate prolonged and 
wide-spread unemployment. A revival of inter- 
national trade is indispensable if full employment 
is to be achieved in a peaceful world and with 
standards of living which will permit the realiza- 
tion of men's reasonable hopes. 

What are the fundamental conditions under 
which commerce among the nations can once more 
flourish ? 

First, there must be a reasonably stable standard 
of international exchange to which all countries 
can adhere without sacrificing the freedom of ac- 
tion necessary to meet their internal economic 
problems. 

This is the alternative to the desperate tactics 
of the past-^competitive currency depreciation, ex- 
cessive tariff barriers, uneconomic barter deals, 
multiple currency practices, and unnecessary ex- 
change restrictions — by which governments vainly 
sought to maintain employment and uphold living 
standards. In the final analysis, these tactics only 
succeeded in contributing to world-wide depres- 
sion and even war. The International Fund 
agreed upon at Bretton Woods will help remedy 
this situation. 

Second, long-term financial aid must be made 
available at reasonable rates to those countries 
whose industi-y and agriculture have been de-. 
stroyed by the ruthless torch of an invader or by 
the heroic scorched-earth policy of their defenders. 
Long-term funds must be made available also to 
promote sound industry and increase industrial 
and agricultural production in nations whose eco- 
nomic potentialities have not yet been developed. 
It is essential to us all that these nations play their 
full part in the exchange of goods throughout the 
world. 

They must be enabled to produce and to sell if 
they are to be able to purchase and consume. The 
Bank for International Reconstruction and De- 
velopment is designed to meet this need. 

Objections to this Bank have been raised by 
son.e bankers and a few economists. The institu- 
tions proposed by the Bretton Woods Conference 
would indeed limit the control which certain pri- 



JULY 30, 1944 



113 



vate bankers have in the past exercised over inter- 
national finance. It would by no means restrict 
the investment sphere in which bankers could en- 
gage. On the contrary, it would greatly expand 
this sphere by enlarging the volume of interna- 
tional investment and would act as an enormously 
effective stabilizer and guarantor of loans which 
they might make. The chief purpose of the Bank 
for International Reconstruction and Develop- 
ment is to guarantee private loans made through 
the usual investment channels. It would make 
loans only when tliese could not be floated through 
the normal channels at reasonable rates. The effect 
would be to provide capital for those who need it 
at lower interest rates than in the past and to drive 
only the usurious money-lenders from the temple 
of international finance. For my own part I can- 
not look upon this outcome with any sense of 
dismay. 

Capital, like any other commodity, should be 
free from monopoly control and available upon 
reasonable terms to those who will put it to use 
for the general welfare. 

The delegates and technical staffs at Bretton 
Woods have completed their portion of the job. 
They sat down together, talked as friends, and per- 
fected plans to cope with the international mone- 
tary and financial problems which all their 
countries face. These proposals now must be sub- 
mitted to the legislatures and the peoples of the 
participating nations. They will pass upon what 
has been accomplished here. 

The result will be of vital importance to every- 
one in every country. In the last analysis, it will 



help determine whether or not people have jobs 
and the amount of money they are to find in their 
weekly pay envelops. More important still, it 
concerns the kind of world in which our children 
are to grow to maturity. It concerns the oppor- 
tunities which will await millions of young men 
when at last they can take off their uniforms and 
come home and roll up their sleeves and go to work. 

This monetary agreement is but one step, of 
course, in the broad program of international ac- 
tion necessary for the shaping of a free future. 
But it is an indispensable step and a vital test of 
our intentions. 

Incidentally, tonight we had a dramatic demon- 
stration of these intentions. Tonight the Soviet 
Government informed me, through Mr. Stepanov, 
chairman of its delegation here in Bretton Woods, 
that it has authorized an increase in its subscrip- 
tion to the International Bank for Reconstruction 
and Development to $1,200,000,000. This was done 
after a subscription of $900,000,000 had been agi-eed 
upon unanimously by the Conference. By this 
action, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is 
voluntarily taking a greatly increased responsi- 
bility for the success of this Bank in the post-war 
world. This is an indication of the true spirit of 
international cooperation demonstrated through- 
out this Conference. 

We are at a crossroads, and we must go one way 
or the other. The Confei-ence at Bretton Woods 
has erected a signpost — a signpost pointing down 
a highway broad enough for all men to walk in 
step and side by side. If they will set out together, 
there is nothing on earth that need stop them. 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY OF STATE 



[Released to the press July 24] 

The successful completion of the important work 
of the Bretton Woods Conference is another step 
toward the goal of the United Nations and nations 
associated with them in the war for a peaceful, 
secure, and hapjjy world in which all peace-loving 
nations will cooperate for their mutual benefit. 
Once again these nations have met and discussed 
in a most friendly spirit jiroblems vital to the eco- 
nomic security of each and every one of us. The 
faith expressed in my address to Congress on the 
Moscow Conference has never diminished. I was 

601905 — 44 2 



therefore not surprised by the splendid coopera- 
tion of the U.S.S.R. and all the other countries 
in the work of the Conference and by their willing- 
ness to contribute to its success. The results of 
the Bretton Woods Conference are another 
demonstration of the fact that the nations which 
love peace are working together, every day and 
every hour, without fanfare or drums, to provide 
opportunities and create facilities for the attain- 
ment by all of an increasing measure of security 
and prosperity. 



114 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



SUMMARY OF AGREEMENTS , 



This Conference at Bretton Woods, representing 
nearly all the peoples of the world, has considered 
matters of international money and finance which 
are important for peace and prosperity. The Con- 
ference has agreed on the problems needing atten- 
tion, the measures which should be taken, and the 
forms of international cooperation or organization 
which are required. The agreement reached on 
these large and complex mattei-s is without prece- 
dent in the history of international economic 
relations. 

I. The International Monetary Fund 

Since foreign trade affects the standard of life 
of every people, all countries have a vital interest 
in the system of exchange of national currencies 
and the regulations and conditions which govern 
its working. Because these monetary transactions 
are international exchanges, the nations must agree 
on the basic rules which govern the exchanges if 
the system is to work smoothly. When they do not 
agree, and when single nations and small groups 
of nations attempt by special and different regula- 
tions of the foreign exchanges to gain trade ad- 
vantages, the result is instability, a reduced vol- 
ume of foreign trade, and damage to national 
economies. This course of action is likely to lead 
to economic warfare and to endanger the world's 
peace. 

The Conference has therefore agi-eed that broad 
international action is necessary to maintain an 
international monetary system which will promote 
foreign trade. The nations should consult and 
agree on international monetary changes which 
affect each other. They should outlaw practices 
which are agreed to be harmful to world prosper- 
ity, and they should assist each other to overcome 
.short-term exchange difficulties. 

The Conference has agreed that the nations 
liere represented should establish for these pur- 
poses a permanent international body, The Inter- 
vtiHona? Monetary Fund, with powers and re- 
sources adequate to perform the tasks assigned to 
it. Agreement has been reached concerning these 
powers and resources and the additional obliga- 
tions which the member countries should under- 
take. Draft Articles of Agreement on these points 
have been prepared. 



II. The International Bank for Reconstructiton 

AND DeNUXOPMENT 

It is in the interest of all nations that post-war 
reconstruction should be raj^id. Likewise, the 
development of the resources of particular regions 
is in the general economic interest. Programs of 
reconstruction and development will speed eco- 
nomic progress everywhere, will aid political sta- 
bility and foster peace. 

The Conference has agi'eed that expanded in- 
ternational investment is essential to provide a 
portion of the caj^ital necessary for reconstruction 
and development. 

The Conference has further agreed that the 
nations should cooperate to increase the volume of 
foreign investment for these purposes, made 
through normal business channels. It is especially 
important that the nations should cooperate to 
share the risks of such foreign investment, since 
the benefits are general. 

The Conference has agreed that the nations 
should establish a permanent international body 
to perform these functions, to be called The Itit 
temational Bank for Reconstruction and Develof- 
m.ent. It has been agreed that the Bank should 
assist in providing capital through normal chan- 
nels at reasonable rates of interest and for long 
periods for projects which will raise the produc- 
tivity of the borrowing country. There is agree- 
ment that the Bank should guarantee loans made 
by others and that through their subscriptions of 
capital all countries should share with the borrow- 
ing country in guaranteeing such loans. The Con- 
ference has agreed on the powers and resources 
which the Bank must have and on the obligations 
which the member countries must assume, and has 
prepared draft Articles of Agreement accordingly. 

The Conference has recommended that in car- 
rying out the policies of the institutions here 
proposed special consideration .should be given 
to the needs of countries which have suffered from 
enemy occupation and hostilities. 

The proposals formulated at the Conference for 
the establislmient of the Fund and the Bank are 
now submitted, in accordance with the terms of 
the invitation, for consideration of the govern- 
ments and people of the countries represented. 

' Annes C of the Pinal Act. 



]ULY 30, 1944 



115 



Special War Problems Division 



By GRAHAM H. STUART ' 



Kepresentation of Foreign iNTERESTa 

Establishment of the Representation Section 

In accordance with the so-called comity of na- 
tions or international courtesy a state may upon 
request make available its representational facili- 
ties to a third state, not possessing such facilities, 
to serve as a channel of communications and to 
furnish, if requested, such services as financial as- 
sistance, passport services, and protection of 
prisoners of war and internees. For example, the 
Foreign Service regulations of the United States 
provide that "Diplomatic and consular officers may, 
upon request and with the approval of the Depart- 
ment of State, temporarily assume the representa- 
tion of foreign interests", and the United States 
has permitted Panama and Cuba, upon almost a 
semi-permanent basis, to utilize our foreign service 
in various places where they have no consular 
representation. Since 1908 this Government has 
also extended good offices for China in some South 
American countries. 

Such representation may take place in times of 
peace, but it is upon the outbreak of war that the 
representational activities of a neutral state are 
particularly in demand. During the second 
World War, before December 8, 1941 when the 
United States became a belligerent, this country 
was serving as the protecting power at Berlin for 
Great Britain and the members of the British 
Commonwealth of Nations, as well as for France, 
Belgium, Luxembourg, Egypt, and the Caribbean 
states of Panama, Haiti, and Costa Rica. In fact, 
after Great Britain became a belligerent, the 
United States took over the interests of Great 
Britain, not only in Germany but also in all 
German-occupied Europe: Bulgaria, Denmark, 
unoccupied France, Finland, Hungary, Italy, 
Rumania, and in many other countries. This 
Government carried on that representation until it 
entered the war. Since the United States did 
not enter into a state of war with Finland, it con- 
tinued to represent the British Commonwealth in- 
terests in that country until the Legation at 
Helsinki was closed this summer. 



In peacetime such representation from the 
standpoint of administration was normally a func- 
tion of the Division of Foreign Service Adminis- 
tration, but because of the vast increase of such 
work brought about by war conditions the repre- 
sentation of foreign interests was taken over by 
the Special Division, which had been set up in 
anticipation of such a situation. Representation 
of the interests of a belligerent government im- 
poses a considerable amount of work both upon 
the State Department and upon its representatives 
in the other belligerent countries. The protecting 
power must take custodial charge of the repre- 
sented government's official property, protect its 
nationals, and be responsible for the receipt and 
payment of funds provided by the represented 
government to its nationals for their subsistence 
and repatriation, when possible. Protection of 
prisoners of war and civilian internees subse- 
quently became one of the most important duties 
of the Division. 

Before the Representation Section of the Spe- 
cial Division was established in May 1910, the 
Division's Executive Section carried on all previ- 
ous activities in this field. The United States had 
been asked, immediately upon the outbreak of the 
war, to assume the representation of the interests 
of many of the belligerent countries. For exam- 
ple, the United States took over the interests of 
France, Great Britain, Canada, Australia, and 
New Zealand in Germany and indicated its will- 
ingness to assume the representation of the inter- 
ests of certain other governments in Europe in 
the event the war should spread. At the end 
of 1941 when the United States entered the war, 
the American Government was representing 18 
countries and informally extending its good offices 
to several others. The drafting of mail and tele- 
graphic instructions to the field offices of the De- 
partment of State, of notes to the diplomatic mis- 
sions of foreign governments, and of memoranda 



' This is the third in a series of articles on the Special 
War Problems Division by Dr. Stuart. For the first two 
articles on the Welfare Section and the Internees Section, 
see the BuiiBrm of July 2, 1944, p. 6, and July 16, 1944, 
p. 63. 



116 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



for the information of other divisions of the De- 
partment reached a total of over 2,500 a quarter. 
Many of the drafts were highly technical and com- 
plicated and required much thought and effort. 
The extent of the task thus assumed necessitated a 
steady increase in the staff of the Representation 
Section. 

In the handling of foreign-interests funds, the 
Division had been receiving advances of over $2,- 
000,000 yearly from the governments repre- 
sented. This money, which had to be strictly ac- 
counted for, was used for the payment of financial 
assistance to protected nationals; for the upkeep 
of the buildings that represented governments had 
used as embassies, legations, and consular offices; 
for the packing, storage, and shipping of the ef- 
fects of the official staffs of the represented gov- 
ernments ; and for administrative expenses in con- 
nection with representation and other functions of 
a similar nature. 

In the present war the United States has pur- 
sued the following practice in the representation 
of foreign interests: (1) The United States Gov- 
ernment will expend funds in representation of 
foreign interests only after deposit of funds 
against which to charge such expenditures; (2) 
in representing foreign interests the United States 
Government provides free the services of officers 
and all other personnel at Washington and the 
services of officers abroad. Clerical and adminis- 
trative expenses abroad are charged to the gov- 
ermnent whose interests are represented. 

The Division prepared estimates to support re- 
quests for funds which had to be made periodically 
to the governments represented. In this connec- 
tion the freezing of funds by a number of coun- 
tries placed an additional burden on the Division, 
since it increased the difficulties of supplying 
badly needed funds to some of the Government's 
missions abroad and in some instances required 
complicated exchange transactions involving sev- 
eral foreign currencies. 

Wlien the United States entered the war, it 
could no longer continue to represent the interests 
of other belligerents in enemy and enemy-occu- 
pied territory. An announcement was made on 
December 18, 1941 stating that the foreign in- 
terests r('j)resented by the United States missions 
in Berlin, Rome, Budapest, Sofia, and Buchar- 
est and by various consulates in the Far East would 
lie cnti'usted provisionally to the Government of 



Switzerland.^ Although this action lessened the 
representation work abroad it placed a greater 
burden on the Special Division of the Depart- 
ment, which now became the operating channel 
for an immense increase in the work with the pro- 
tecting powers' missions in Washington represent- 
ing enemy interests in the United States. Further- 
more, the United States now had the difficult task 
of bringing back to this country hundreds of 
American Foreign Service officers, clerks, and mis- 
cellaneous personnel and their families from enemy 
territory and of returning enemy official personnel 
to their countries. Much additional work also had 
to be done through duties relating to the exchange 
of prisoners of war and internees.- To meet the 
war situation the Representation Section was now 
reorganized upon a somewhat different basis into 
four units: The Friendly Interests Unit, the 
Enemy Interests Unit, the Repatriation Unit, and 
the Administrative and Clerical Unit. 

A. THE FRIENDLY INTERESTS UNIT 

Since every belligerent must carry on certain 
relations with the enemy which are not acts of 
warfare but which stem from normal interna- 
tional relations and since the normal channels 
of communication are closed to belligerents in 
times of war, neutral powers are utilized to carry 
on during the war these limited but necessary 
peacetime functions. In the second World War 
the number of neutrals is exceedingly limited, and, 
as a result, the function of protection of the in- 
terests of belligerents in the territory of opposing 
belligerents has become a real burden. This is 
particularly true of Switzerland, which cur- 
rently is representing the interests of 48 belliger- 
ents, and in some instances, as in the case of its 
representation of the interests of the United 
States, that representation is carried on in 28 dif- 
ferent enemy or enemy-occupied states. 

International law is exceedingly sketchy in this 
field of representation; and therefore it is not 
strange that the pre-war Foreign Service regula- 
tions of the United States, based as they were on 
the comparatively limited experience gained dur- 
ing former wars confined to small areas instead of 
the global surface, are entirely inadequate to meet 
the existing situation. As a result, one of the 
duties of the Friendly Interests Unit is to pre- 



' Bulletin of Dcp. 20, 1941, p. 541. 
' Bulletin of July 10, 1944, p. 63. 



JULY 30, 1944 

pare a complete revision of these regulations to 
accord more nearly with present conditions and 
to be based upon the numerous precedents and 
procedures which date from the second World 
War. 

The Foreign Service regulations contain no in- 
foiination regarding the initiation and coordina- 
tion of policy and action in matters pertaining 
to the representation by a third power of the 
interests of the United States in enemy countries. 
Since diplomatic relations are essentially a pro- 
cedure of peace the failure of the regulations to 
cover this subject adequately is understandable. 
Nevertheless, wars do break out and the United 
States continues, from time to time, to participate 
in them. The problem of representation there- 
fore must be faced, and it is the responsibility of 
the Friendly Interests Unit to deal with it. With 
no guiding precedents on which to base procedure 
it must be developed as cases arise; and since 
most of the cases are of an urgent nature the 
right decisions must be arrived at quickly. 

The represented govenmient, although it can- 
not specifically instruct the agent of the repre- 
senting goveinment, nevertheless may indicate its 
wishes in any given matter for the guidance of 
the agent. For example, when the German Gov- 
ernment required the Swiss Government to close 
its consulates at Amsterdam and Salonika, the 
United States sent a strong protest to the Ger- 
man Govenmient, through the Swiss Government, 
on the ground that such action materially inter- 
fered with the effectiveness of Swiss representation 
of American interests in the areas concerned. 
Since Switzerland was also protecting German in- 
terests in the United States, it was made evi- 
dent that unless Germany permitted a fair repre- 
sentation of American interests in Germany the 
United States would have to reconsider its existing 
policy of imposing no restrictions upon the repre- 
sentation by the Swiss Government of German in- 
terests in the United States. 

Other instances of German restrictions which 
the Friendly Interests Unit had to consider and at- 
tempt to remedy were the following: The limita- 
tion that Germany imposed on the Swiss consular 
staff at Paris; the involuntary delay by the Swiss 
consul in assuming the representation of American 
interests in Tunis, which was attributable to the 
German military authorities; the involuntary 
transfer of Swiss consulates from Marseilles and 
Nice to Montelimar and Grenoble upon German 

601905—44 3 



117 

orders (in which case it was found, however, that 
the effectiveness of Swiss representation was not 
impaired sufficiently to warrant protest) ; and re- 
strictions imposed by the German authorities upon 
the quantity of gasoline permitted to representa- 
tives of the protecting power, which ciicumscribed 
their effectiveness in protecting United States in- 
terests by throttling its motor transportation at a 
time when the occupation immobilized public trans- 
jjortation facilities. 

The Japanese Government likewise imposed un- 
warranted restrictions upon the Swiss representa- 
tives who had undertaken the protection of the in- 
terests of the United States in the occupied regions 
of the Far East. For example, the Swiss consulate 
at Hong Kong was arbitrarily closed by orders of 
the Japanese authorities ; the Swiss representatives 
were all but prevented from making allowances of 
American Government funds to American nation- 
als; and the Japanese imposed restrictions upon 
visits by Swiss authorities to places in Japanese- 
occupied areas where American nationals were de- 
tained, and in some places they permitted no visits 
at all. 

Protection of property 

One of the fundamental rights of a belligerent 
is that his diplomatic and consular properties and 
archives remain inviolate and that they be given 
adequate protection by the enemy government. 
It is the duty of the protecting power to see that 
this right is respected. In accordance with normal 
procedure the seal of the protecting power is placed 
upon such properties. Although consular proper- 
ties do not possess so definite a claim to immunity 
as do diplomatic proi^erties, the United States, on 
its part, places them in the same category and ac- 
cords them full protection. Several flagrant vio- 
lations of international law and usage in this 
field have been perpetrated both by the Germans 
and the Japanese. German officials entered the 
former American Embassy at Vichy, before the 
Swiss representative was able to place it under his 
protection, and removed certain archives and cer- 
tain personal property belonging to officials of the 
Embassy. Later, on March 21, 1943, the German 
police entered the quarters at Baden-Baden of the 
former American Assistant Naval Attache at 
Vichy, searched him and the quarters, removed cer- 
tain documents from his briefcase, and kej^t him 
in solitary confinement for three and one-half 
days. The Friendly Interests Unit prepared and 



118 

sent protests to Bern to be presented to the German 
Government. 

In the case of consular archives the Italians at 
Monaco refused to allow the Swiss consul at Nice 
to assume charge of the archives of the American 
consulate before the archives had been subjected 
to a minute examination by the Italian secret po- 
lice. In Tunis both the American and British con- 
sular offices and residences were completely sacked 
and made uninhabitable. Safes were broken open 
and none of the archives remained. Consul Gen- 
eral Doolittle's household goods and even clothing 
belonging to his family completely disappeared. 
Examples of failure of the Japanese Government 
to respect our diplomatic and consular properties 
in Japanese-occupied territories are even more fla- 
grant, although treatment of corresponding prop- 
erty in Japan proper has apparently been correct. 
A somewhat different problem has arisen in de- 
termining whether official protection can be ex- 
tended to American semi-private property, such as 
the American Academy and St. Paul's Church in 
Rome. The criteria determining the American 
policy regarding such institutions are as follows : 
The property must not be utilized for profit; it 
must be devoted to public or semi-public use ; and 
the protecting power must be permitted by the 
enemy government to protect the property as 
though it were official property of the United 
States Government. In these circumstances the 
State Department is disposed to permit such semi- 
public institutions to be given a measure of protec- 
tion and to pei'mit remittance of funds to enemy 
territory to meet minimum maintenance charges. 
The basic problem here is the decision of the Treas- 
ury Department not to license remittances of funds 
necessary to conserve such property in enemy terri- 
tory against loss through war-conditioned legal 
process or confiscation for failure to meet fiscal or 
other obligations. 

In the case of strictly private property, the De- 
partment has not been in a position to act other 
than to suggest that all available information be 
furnished to the Department so that every possible 
assistance might be given to the American owners 
of such properties as soon as such assistance might 
become practicable. Furthermore, the Swiss have 
been asked to do what they can toward conserva- 
tion, short of paying charges on private property. 

' Bulletin of Jan. 9, 1943, p. 21. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

However, in conjunction with other United Na- 
tions, the United States issued on January 4, 1943 
a warning of its intention to do all in its power to 
nullify the methods of dispossession practiced by 
the enemy governments and to hold them respon- 
sible for restitution and indemnification.^ 

Private transfer of funds to enemy territory, 
whether used for maintenance of citizens or their 
properties, is not permitted. The Department 
sees no objection, however, to private sale of per- 
ishable property in the case of estates or to pay- 
ment of local obligations due by the decedent when 
funds are available for the purpose. In general, 
the authorization given to the Swiss representa- 
tives is approximately the same as granted to 
officers of the Foreign Service in similar matters. 

Transmission of private messages and documents 
As a fundamental means of self -protection, the 
United States curtails by any means whatsoever 
communications between private persons in the 
United States and those in enemy territory. The 
restriction includes private correspondence by 
open or diplomatic mail, telegraph, telephone, and 
radio — every sort of docxunent, even birth, mar- 
riage, and death certificates. 

Upon purely humanitarian grounds, however, 
certain exceptions are allowed with respect to mes- 
sages, and it is the function of the Friendly Inter- 
ests Unit to inform the protecting power and all 
American diplomatic and consular officers and 
diplomatic missions in the United States of these 
regulations. For example, subject to censorship, 
brief personal messages, such as welfare and 
whereabouts inquiries, may be sent to or from 
enemy territories by mail or telegraph through 
specially licensed channels, such as the Red Cross 
and the Vatican, or if it is impossible to use those 
channels and if the inquiries are sufficiently im- 
portant, they may be sent through official channels. 
In the latter case the messages must be in behalf 
of nationals of or nationals protected by the 
country serving as channel of communication. 

The Unit must make sure that the representa- 
tives of the power protecting the interests of the 
United States in enemy territory forward infor- 
mation to the United States essential to its records 
in connection with the protection of its nationals. 
Such information includes notices of births, 
deaths, marriages, and divorces of its nationals. 



JULY 30, 1944 



119 



In addition, the United States has asked the pro- 
tecting power to furnish, when possible, informa- 
tion concerning the status of private American 
property, real and personal, commercial and finan- 
cial, in enemy territory. Information regarding 
semi-public American institutions of an educa- 
tional, religious, or philanthropic character is also 
solicited. 

It is a function of the Unit to see that these 
restrictions are not construed so that they limit 
in any way the transmission of documents, letters, 
postal cards, and telegrams by prisoners of war 
in accordance with the provisions of the Geneva 
Prisoners of War Convention of 1929, which has 
also been extended, so far as it is adaptable, to 
civilian internees. 

Representation by the United States of foreign 
interests 

The Friendly Interests Unit is also responsible 
for the representation by the United States of the 
interests of numerous foreign powers in countries 
where the represented powers have no diplomatic 
or consular representation. Our entrance into the 
war as a belligerent necessarily reduced the num- 
ber of countries represented, but on January 1, 
1944 the United States was still representing a 
dozen different countries in various pai-ts of the 
world as well as performing, when requested, con- 
sular functions for several others and extending 
its good offices for China, Colombia, Iceland, 
the Netherlands, and Switzei'land in various 
countries.' 

In the representation of foi'eign interests dur- 
ing the present coiiflict the United States has been 
faced with certain problems never before encoun- 
tered. As a result of our maintaining the so- 
called Hoover-Stimson policy of non-recognition 
of the acquisition of territory by force, this Gov- 
ernment has refused to be represented in or to 
permit the representation of the interests of any 
country, such as Slovakia, which was established 
in violation of that principle. 

In the performance of the actual functions of 
representation the work is primarily carried on 
by the Foreign Service personnel which has charge 
of such representation. The Representation Sec- 
tion must supervise such representation with 
great care, must draft instructions, diplomatic 
notes, and letters, and must serve as the channel 
of communication with represented governments. 



Miscellaneous duties 

The Friendly Interests Unit performs miscel- 
laneous duties, such as maintaining a channel of 
communication between certain of the American 
republics which have no diplomatic representation 
in Switzerland and the Swiss Government, which 
is in charge of the interests of those countries in 
enemy areas; making arrangements to give finan- 
cial assistance to American seamen whp are not 
American citizens but who are detained by the 
enemy; defining the eligibility of certain persons, 
particularly alien wives and dependents of Ameri- 
can citizens in the Far East, to receive financial 
assistance from the funds of the United States 
Government; establishing policy concerning the 
collection of consular fees for represented govern- 
ments; drafting instructions governing the per- 
formance of passport, visa, notarial, invoice, and 
shipping services on behalf of represented govern- 
ments; and establishing standards of treatment 
for personnel employed abroad in connection with 
the representation by the United States of foreign 
interests. 

The Unit, basing its position upon the final act 
of the Inter-American Conference on Systems of 
Economic and Financial Control, held in Wash- 
ington in 1942,2 jg responsible for preparing and 
dispatching commimications to the International 
Red Cross Committee at Geneva and instructions 
to the American diplomatic officers in the other 
American republics covering restrictions appli- 
cable to the transmission of funds from enemy 
territory to the Western Hemisphei-e, and from 
the Western Hemisphere to enemy territory 
through the facilities, of the International Red 
Cross. 

B. THE ENEMT INTERESTS UNIT 

Those powers which are at war with the United 
States are represented at Washington by certain 
neutral powers, namely, Switzerland, Sweden, and 
Spain. It is the duty of the Enemy Interests Unit 
to initiate and coordinate such policy and action 
as are required in the supervision of such repre- 
sentation. Furthermore, these policies should 
correspond, as far as possible, to those followed 
in the territories of the other United Nations and 
in areas that our armed forces occupy. 



' Bltlletin of Mar. 18, 1944, p. 265. 
"Bm-LETiN of .July 4, 1942, p. 581. 



120 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



International law very specifically provides that 
foreign diplomatic representatives of enemy states 
shall be given full protection and shall be per- 
mitted to return home at the earliest possible time. 
The law regarding consular establisliments is less 
specific, but modern states have generally given 
consuls ajjproximately the same considerations in 
regard to protection as diplomats receive. In both 
cases tlie protecting power must see that proper 
treatment is accorded. The Enemy Interests Unit 
of the Representation Section was made respon- 
sible for negotiations relating to the proper treat- 
ment of Axis representatives that the State De- 
partment carried on with the ijrotecting power. 
This included the securing of proper housing in 
the United States for the enemy diplomatic rep- 
resentatives and consuls in case of detention and 
the arranging for their early repatriation. 

Tlie United States Government was correctly 
liberal toward the German diplomatic staff — all 
tlie members of the Embassy staff were allowed to 
remain in their private houses until they could 
liquidate their personal afi'airs and pack their be- 
longings. They were permitted free and con- 
tinuous access to the representatives of the Swiss 
Legation, which had assumed representation of 
German interests. They were given continuous 
police protection, both in the Embassy and in going 
back and forth to their homes. When this Gov- 
ei-nment decided that the Axis representatives 
should be segregated it made efforts immediately 
to find adequate hotel accommodations in the 
proper environment for the entire staff commen- 
surate with their former official station. Similar 
correct treatment was accorded the representatives 
of the other Axis powers, Italy, Japan, Rumania, 
and Bulgaria. 

The staffs of the German Embassy and of the 
Hungarian Legation and Consulates were housed 
at the Greenbrier Hotel at "VVliite Sulphur Springs, 
West Virginia. Arrangements were made for 
them lo connnunicate by direct wire with the 
Swiss and Swedish Legations, which were their 
respective protecting powers. Similar- arrange- 
nieiifs were made for the Japanese diplomatic and 
consular staffs at the Homestead Hotel, Hot 
Springs, Virginia. 

About the middle of January 1942, at the request 
of the Attorney General, the Italian, Bulgarian, 
and Rumanian Missions were, for security reasons, 
also assembled at AVliite Sulphur Springs. The 



State Department had, up until that time, accorded 
these diplomats the privilege of remaining in their 
homes, since American diplomats were given the 
same courtesy in their capitals. 

At the hotels in the United States where the 
enemy representatives were detained, some per- 
plexing problems arose. The Federal Bureau of 
Investigation thought all arms in possession of 
members of the official groups should be removed. 
Since international law forbids search of diplo- 
matic persons or premises, the State Department 
opposed any attempt at forcible action. The 
Secretary of State, as a compromise, asked the 
representatives of the protecting powers to request 
the members of the diplomatic and consular corps 
to turn over voluntarily to the Department's repre- 
sentative at the hotel all firearms in their posses- 
sion. The Department returned such articles at 
the time of the general exchange of American, 
German, Italian, and Bulgarian nationals. 

The United States Government assumed all ex- 
penses attached to such detention, and the Special 
Division assisted in the arrangements. Within 
the Division all arrangements for repatriation were 
assigned to the Representation Section, which dis- 
tributed the task between the Repatriation Unit 
and the Enemy Interests Unit. The latter had 
charge particularly of negotiating with the Ger- 
man, Italian, and Japanese Governments through 
the protecting powers concerning conditions of the 
exchange, such as vessels to be used, safe-conducts 
to be obtained, and the amount of funds and 
baggage to be taken by the exchanged personnel. 

Some idea of the problems may be understood 
when one considers that at the town of Lourengo 
Marques, where tlie exchange with Japan was to 
occur, thousands of persons arrived without 
funds and exchange facilities had to be i^rovided 
to furnish the American repatriates with local and 
dollar cun-ency both for their expenses at the port 
awaiting embarkation and in the vessel proceeding 
to the United States. 

The following arrangements for funds were 
made: The State Department, under a Treasury 
license, made provision for the American consul at 
Lourenco Marques to advance to nationals of the 
United States and the other American republics 
escudos against promissory notes and to receive in 
return unused escudos when the party sailed. An 
officer was sent on the excliange vessel from New 
York to Lourengo Marques to advance dollar cur- 



JULY 30, 1944 



121 



reiicy under such Ti-easury license to passengers 
against promissory notes. He had $100,000 in 
currency whicli was sufficient to advance about $50 
to $100 to each passenger. That amount would 
cover the needs of the passengers while they were 
on the vessel. 

Temporary provision for food and shelter was 
necessary, as well as quarters for the personnel to 
handle the work of carrying out the exchange. 
The Representation Section had to solve these 
problems through correspondence with the Ameri- 
can consul at Louren§o Marques. 

Restrictions imposed upon baggage and fv/nds 

All aliens exchanged were permitted to take 
with tliem a certain amount of their personal prop- 
erty, including money. In the first two exchanges 
at Lisbon, Portugal, on the Drottningholm in 1942 
all German nationals were permitted to take witli 
tliem an amount not exceeding $300 for each 
adult. On the third exchange German repatriates 
having an official character could take out $300, 
but, since Germany liad not reciprocated our lib- 
eral provision, non-officials were restricted to $60.' 
The departing aliens could also take personal ef- 
fects, including jewelry, clothing, and household 
goods, except furniture. Inclusion of such articles 
as cameras, radios, typewriters, and firearms was 
not permitted. The Enemy Interests Unit car- 
ried on the negotiations with the Foreign Funds 
Control and the Bureau of Customs to make the 
necessary arrangements. 

Several interesting incidents arose in connection 
with the recent repatriation of the representatives 
of the Vichy-French Government. The French 
Ambassador to Japan had sent to Ambassador 
Henry-Haye six cases of vitamins for his personal 
use. The boxes had arrived in New York in July 
1941, but the French Ambassador had not claimed 
them before his departure early in 1944. As a re- 
sult, the ([uestion arose whether these cases could 
be properly claimed as personal property. When 
the French Ambassador declared that the vitamins 
were his personal property and agreed to distribute 
them under his own personal supervision to the 
children of France, permission to include them in 
his personal luggage was granted. 

In 1942, in the case of non-official persons who 
were being repatriated, a careful search was made 
of their persons and baggage at New York, but 
later in 1943 and 1944 the complete customs exam- 
ination took place before departure from the in- 



ternment camps. Strip-search was waived ex- 
cept in unusual cases.^ The non-official persons 
were permitted to take no papers or documents ex- 
cept passports and birth certificates, which were 
needed for identification. 

Loss of baggage in the exchange of nationals is 
likely to occur, and the Unit has upon numerous 
occasions made exhaustive efforts to find lost arti- 
cles and turn them over to the protecting power. 

Safe-Gonducts 

In order to travel in times of war, in addition 
to the normal papers such as passports or certifi- 
cates of identity, one must have a safe-conduct 
issued by the belligerent Government through 
whose blockade, or, less often, territory, a national 
of an opposing belligerent will pass. As pre- 
scribed by the United States Government the 
safe-conduct is a document giving the name, na- 
tionality, age, and occupation of the person, au- 
thorizing him to travel without molestation on a 
designated vessel sailing on a certain date from 
a port which is named and bound for a declared 
destination. If ports of call are made they must 
be noted. Such safe-conducts when authorized by 
the Department are issued by American diplo- 
matic and consular officers, rarely by the 
Department. 

The Enemy Interests Unit is charged with all 
negotiations f)ertaining to the granting of safe- 
conducts for the travel of all enemy belligerents. 
It determines whether those who are returning to 
the countries of which they are nationals are ac- 
ceptable for repatriation. The greater number 
of these requests have come from persons in South 
America who are proceeding to Europe. 

A unique case of safe-conduct, which seems to 
have established a precedent, was the issuance 
in September 1943 on the part of the United States 
of a documentary safe-conduct for the Swedish 
motor vessel Gripsholm, which was being em- 
ployed on the voyage from New York to Mormu- 
gao and return to exchange nationals of the United 
States and certain Latin American republics for 
nationals of Japan. Before it issued this docu- 
ment the State Department obtained assurances 
of safe-conduct from all the United Nations and, 



' This was the amount permitted to American repatriates 
from Germany. 

'Individuals repatriated to Europe iu 1942 were sub- 
jected to strip-search. 



122 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



through Switzerland, obtained assurances of safe- 
conduct from the Japanese Government for itself 
and for all its co-belligerents. Although numer- 
ous exchange vessels, Ked Cross vessels, and others 
had previously traveled under assurances of safe- 
conduct from all belligerents, no comparable doc- 
ument, so far as is known, had ever been issued 
reducing the assurances to certificate form. The 
inauguration of this practice, which is impor- 
tant historically, is therefore attributable to the 
initiative and foresight of the Special War Prob- 
lems Division. 

The Enemy Interests Unit in connection with 
these exchanges of belligerent nationals for Amer- 
icans has various other duties to perform. In or- 
der to facilitate the mechanical operation of the 
exchange, involving the discharge and taking on 
board in a single day of hundreds of passengers, 
the Swiss representatives with the aid of desig- 
nated repatriates were requested to prepare infor- 
mation which would be helpful in the berthing of 
officials on the exchange vessel. A complete alpha- 
Ijetical list, in 20 copies, of all persons reaching 
the exchange port is required as well as an alpha- 
betical list of those persons who should have pref- 
erential berthing because of age, physical condi- 
tion, or of the fact that they are accompanied by 
small children. 

But before the exchange groups can be em- 
barked, weeks of work are necessary after con- 
clusion of the exchange agreement to find and as- 
semble at railheads throughout the continental 
United States the hundreds of individuals to be 
included. Transportation schedules must be care- 
fully plamied so that on the day of sailing rail- 
way cars will reach the dockside at regular 45- 
minute intervals, the time required to process each 
group for embarkation. In this work the Special 
War Problems Division is ably assisted by the 
officials of the Chief Special Agent's staff, the 
Coast Guard, and officers of the Security Agencies. 
To make sure that the entire operation at the 
dock proceeds not only with dispatch but also in 
a measure which will not give rise to any legiti- 
mate complaints from the enemy nationals being 
embarked or from their Government, the Division 



" Blackout equipment may be carried and utilized in 
convoys according to a unilateral interpretation by the 
United States Government. The Hospital Ship Conven- 
tion, which is generally observed, provides that hospital 
Bhips proceeding without illumination at night do so 
at their own risk. 



makes a complete pictoi-ial record, including both 
still and motion pictures, of the operation. This 
record is kept in the Division's confidential file for 
use to refute any claims of mismanagement or ill- 
treatment that the enemy government may subse- 
quently make. In addition, a 30-minute interval 
running report of the progress of the operation 
is telephoned by direct line from the pier to the 
Division from the moment the first group of ex- 
changees arrives at the pier until the exchange 
vessel's whistle blows announcing the departure 
of the boat from the United States to the exchange 
port. 

Hospital ships 

By the terms of the tenth convention of the 
Hague Conference of 1907, the principles of the 
Geneva convention concerning the rules of land 
warfare were adapted to maritime warfare, and 
all hospital ships were given protection against 
attack or seizure. The convention, although it is 
being observed, is not legally in force in the pres- 
ent conflict because all of the belligerents have 
not adhered to it. A duty of the Enemy Interests 
Unit is to give notification of enemy hospital ships 
to the military authorities of the United States, 
and of United States hospital ships to enemy gov- 
ernments through the Swiss Government m ac- 
cordance with the spirit of the pertinent inter- 
national conventions. It also coordinates replies 
to enemy governments' complaints regarding al- 
leged attacks upon enemy hospital ships by units 
of the United States armed forces, or on United 
States hospital ships by units of the enemy armed 
forces. Hospital ships have special markings and 
are illuminated ^ at night, but in airplanes from 
high altitudes or in foggy weather it is sometimes 
difficult to distinguish such markings. For that 
reason efforts are sometimes made to give notifica- 
tion of the presence of hospital ships in certain 
areas so that belligerents may take every precau- 
tion to respect them. 

The United States Government has made every 
effort to comply with the principles of the Hague 
convention concerning the immunity of hospital 
ships and has investigated all protests made by 
the enemy through the protecting powers. Switz- 
erland presented numerous complaints in behalf 
of the Italian Government. In every case a care- 
ful investigation followed and appropriate action 
was taken. In the case of an alleged attack upon 



JULY 30, 1944 



123 



the Italian hospital ship AquUeia on April 26, 
1943, it was found that no American aircraft were 
operating in the vessel's vicinity. In the case of 
the Toscana, attacks by American craft ceased as 
soon as the markings were observed. No hits were 
made, but the United States Government offered 
apologies. 

On several occasions the United States associ- 
ated itself with the British Government in pro- 
testing attacks upon British hospital ships by 
German and Italian planes in the Mediterranean 
area. A German dive bomber sank the hospital 
ship Talamba although it was clearly marked and 
was engaged at the time in embarking casualties. 
On other occasions the United States and Great 
Britain discussed their respective attitude regard- 
ing Japanese hospital ships which were not clearly 
marked or had not been officially notified to this 
Government or which had assumed the risks of 
being anchored or proceeding in close proximity 
to enemy war vessels. 

Another policy which received consideration in 
the Department, but approval of which was not 
considered advisable, was the utilization of hos- 
pital shijjs to transport internees or repatriates 
under a safe-conduct. A careful consideration of 
these and similar problems was a part of the work 
that the officers of the Enemy Interests Unit of 
the Special Division transacted. 

At the present time the United States has in 
commission some twenty hospital ships.^ Consid- 
erable work is required, after receipt of all neces- 
sary information from the War and Navy De- 
partments, in notifying enemy governments of the 
names and characteristics of their hospital vessels 
and in obtaining acknowledgments. Follow-up 
work is often necessary because, although not pro- 
vided for in the convention, it is desirable for the 
safety of the.se vessels that acknowledgments be 
obtained before the vessels are cleared for human- 
itarian duties. 

Control of funds 

It is not the policy of the United States to per- 
mit the use of existing blocked funds of enemy 
governments in this country for expenditure on 
behalf of such enemy governments in the United 
States. Nevertheless, since the protecting powers 
must have money to carry on their functions, the 
United States has been willing to agree to an ar- 
rangement by which the protecting powers may 



obtain funds for the representation of the inter- 
ested enemy governments in the United States. 
Under Executive Order 8389, as amended, the 
protecting power may engage in financial trans- 
actions on behalf of enemy governments or their 
nationals pursuant only to license. Licenses have 
been issued authorizing the protecting powers to 
open and operate bank accounts. 

The United States has been willing to agi-ee to 
an arrangement by which the interested enemy 
governments will pay Swiss francs to the Swiss 
Foreign Office, which, in turn, will deposit such 
funds to the credit of the Special Swiss Franc 
Account which the American Legation at Bern 
maintains with the Swiss National Bank. Upon 
receipt of telegraphic advice that such funds have 
been deposited, the State Department will make 
available to the protecting power concerned, for 
deposit in the appropriate bank account in the 
United States, the counter value in dollars to be 
used in the representation of the interests in the 
United States of the respective country. 

The United States has on numerous occasions 
remitted funds to Switzerland, which are deposited 
in the Special Swiss Franc Account with the Swiss 
National Bank in favor of the American Legation 
in Bern. From this account Swiss francs are sup- 
plied to the Swiss Government for purchasing 
other currencies necessary to represent the inter- 
ests of the United States in third countries. 

Many problems have arisen pertaining to the dis- 
tribution of funds to enemy aliens detained in the 
United States. All funds belonging to enemy 
aliens are blocked; therefore this Government 
must restort to an exceptional procedure. For 
example, the Treasury Department has issued 
licenses to the representatives of the various pro- 
tecting powers authorizing them to receive funds 
remitted from the other American republics and 
Canada for the benefit of aliens interned in the 
United States or Jamaica and to pay their funds 
to the officers in charge of the oamp where the 
alien is interned. Such funds promote good 
morale and facilitate camp administration. The 
Friendly Interests Unit, on its own initiative, ne- 
gotiates the issuance of the licenses permitting 
these remittances, in an effort to meet an evident 
need and terminate hopeless confusion. 

^ This is about the same as the number possessed by the 
Axis powers : Germany, 24 ; Japan, 21. When Italy was 
ranged with the Axis, it possessed 22 hospital ships. 



The Enemy Interests Unit curried on long nego- 
tiations witli the Treasury Department and with 
the Japanese Government regarding funds to be 
taken by Japanese and American exchanged na- 
tionals It finallv made an arrangement that per- 
mitted each adult evacuee to take with him or her 
1 000 yen, or $300, for use on board ship until ar- 
rival at the place of exchange. Amounts of money 
unused were to be returned by the representative of 
tlie protecting power and used for representation 
purposes in the country from whicli the evacuee 
came. Numerous individual cases of transfer of 
funds in instances were funds arrived at the last 
mome'nt, to Japanese and Germans embarking on 
the exchange vessels were checked at the pier by 
Mrs. Hawley of the Enemy Interests Unit to see 
that the $300 limit was maintained. In the case 
of 60 Japanese coming from Santiago. Chile, to em- 
bark on the vessel at Rio de Janeiro, Mr. Castle of 
the Unit arranged with the Treasury Department 
to have the Federal Eeserve Bank of New York 
autliorize the Santiago Branch of the National 
City Bank of New York to sell traveler's checks 
up to but not exceeding the amount of $300 a per- 
son, provided the total amount sold did not exceed 
$18',000. In the event that the bank had insuffi- 
cient traveler's checks it was authorized to issue 
the balance in drafts. Each such draft and trav- 
eler's check was marked to the effect that it was 
payable only on board the M.S. Gnpsholm.. 

An interesting situation in funds control arose 
over the annual sum of the proceeds of sales of 
fur-seal skins from the Pribiloff Islands that the 
Government of the United States paid to Japan in 
accordance with the North Pacific Sealing Con- 
vention of July 7, 1911. The sums sent annually to 
Japan varied from approximately $10,000 to $40,- 
000. Wien the act of October 9, 1940 froze such 
disbursements the funds were held to the credit of 
Japan. In October 1940 Japan gave notice of 
termination of the treaty which, therefore, was 
abrogated as from October 1941. The United 
States was under obligation to pay the final instal- 
ment of $33,552.97 to the Japanese Government. 
It tliought first of depositing this amount, minus 
certain sums due the United States, to the credit 
of Japan and notifying the Spanish Ambassador 
in charge of Japanese interests in tlie continental 
United States, but it finally decided merely to ear- 
mark the amount for payment to Japan and to 
make disposition of the funds following the close 
of the war. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

Miscellaneou~s 

One of the problems which required a consider- 
able amount of attention and correspondence on 
the part of the Unit was the action to be taken re- 
garding a collection of French paintings which had 
been on exhibit in Argentina and had then been 
sent to the United States. That collection, en- 
titled "From David to the Present Day", included 
eight paintings lent by owners for a tour at the 
request of the French Ambassador to Argentina, 
with the understanding that they were to be re- 
turned within a few months. Wlien the United 
States froze French assets the whole exhibit came 
under the control of the United States Govern- 
ment. The owners of the paintings on March 12, 
1941 made applications for the return of the eight 
paintings, but the applications were rejected upon 
the basis of the information given. Wien Vichy 
broke relations with the United States, the question 
arose whether the United States should block these 
exhibits as articles of value blocked with other 
French funds and property or whether they might 
be excepted and returned to France witli the mem- 
bers of the Embassy staff. A third possibility 
was to place the exhibit in the custody of the Swiss 
Legation as protecting power. The situation was 
complicated by the fact that the eight paintings 
added to the collection at the request of the French 
Ambassador to Argentina were privately owned 
by various individuals or collectors in Argentina 
and the United States. The Argentine Ambassa- 
dor at Washington intervened personally to secure 
the return of one of these eight paintings which 
belonged to a citizen of Argentina. In this par- 
ticular case the Treasury Department was willing 
to grant license upon proof of ownership for the 
return of this painting to its Argentine claimant. 
Another aspect of the situation was raised when 
M. Batigne, previously curator of painting and 
later curator of French paintings at the National 
Gallery of Art and a member of the French Mili- 
tary Mission, requested that he be authorized to 
exhibit the collection known as "From David to 
the Present Day" as well as other paintings lent 
by the French Government and at present on ex- 
hibit in various museums or stored in New York. 
The Enemy Interests Unit of the Special Divi- 
sion suggested that the United States Government, 
through the National Gallery, might act for the 
duration of the war as trustee for all French 
works of art and retain M. Batigne as curator. 



JULY 30, 1944 



125 



This proposal was submitted to the trustees of 
the National Gallery with the assurance that the 
Foreign Funds Control of the Treasury Depart- 
ment would be disposed to issue the necessary au- 
thorization placing these various works of art in 
the custody of the National Gallery and that pro- 
vision would be made for sufficient funds to defray 
the storage, maintenance, and insurance charges. 
The proposal was eventually broadened to cover 
the various French exliibition articles, including 
works of art, sent to the United States. Foreign 
Funds Cent ror agreed, and the Treasury Depart- 
ment on March 13, 1944 issued a license to that 
effect. 

A survey of the Repatriation Unit of the Rep- 
resentation Section will afipear in the next issue 
of the Bulletin. 



Luxembourg Civil-Affairs 
Agreement 

[Released to the press July 27] 

Agreements in indentical terms have been con- 
cluded by the United Kingdom and the United 
States of America with the Government of Luxem- 
bourg concerning the arrangements to be made for 
civil administration and jurisdiction in Luxem- 
bourg territory when it is liberated by the Allied 
expeditionary force under the Supreme Allied 
Commander. 

These agreements, which are on the same model 
as the agreements concluded by the United King- 
dom and the United States of America with the 
Govermnents of Belgium, the Netherlands, and 
Norway, are intended to be essentially temporary 
and practical in character.^ They are designed 
to facilitate the task of the Supreme Allied Com- 
mander and to further the common purpose of 
the Governments concerned, namely, the speedy 
expulsion of the Germans from Allied territory 
and the final victory of the Allies over Germany. 

The agreements recognize that the Supreme Al- 
lied Commander must enjoy cle facto during the 
first or military phase of the liberation of Luxem- 
bourg such measure of supreme responsibility and 
authority over civil administration as may be re- 
quired by the military situation. It is laid down 



' BuujOTN of May 20, 1944, p. 479. 



that, as soon as the military situation permits, the 
Luxembourg Government shall resume their full 
constitutional responsibility for civil administra- 
tion on the understanding that such special facili- 
ties as the Allied forces may continue to require 
on Luxembourg territory will be made available 
for- 'the prosecution of the war to its final con- 
clusion. 

The Soviet Government have been consulted re- 
garding these arrangements and have expressed 
their agreement. 



Mission for Restoration of 
Trade to Commercial Channels 

[Released to the press July 26] 

Under the sponsorship of the Department of 
State a special group comprising Government offi- 
cials and representative businessmen temporarily 
in the Government service for the purpose will 
conduct a survey in North Africa and possibly in 
other areas to investigate the possibility of re- 
storing trade to normal commercial channels. For 
this purpose the Foreign Economic Administra- 
tion has secured the services temporarily of four 
outstanding representatives of firms with long 
foreign-trade experience. To this group will be 
added representatives of the Departments of State 
and Commerce, the Foreign Economic Administra- 
tion, and perhaps the Bureau of the Budget. 

At the request of the Secretary of State, the War 
Department has made available the services of the 
Honorable William S. Culbertson, Lt. Col., G.S.C., 
to serve as the chairman of the mission. Colonel 
Culbertson is now serving as Assistant to the Com- 
mandant of the Army Industrial College. He is an 
authority on trade and finance and has had wide 
public experience in the United States Tariff Com- 
mission and the diplomatic service, having served 
as Minister to Rumania and Ambassador to Cliile. 

The specific objectives of the mission are to re- 
view on the ground the problems involved in re- 
turning trade to normal chamiels as rapidly as 
wartime conditions permit and to recommend pro- 
cedures which would insure the fullest possible 
participation of private business in such Govern- 
ment transactions as may be required in view of 
wartime exigencies. 



126 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Concurrent Resolution of Congress on the 
Establishment of the Republic of Iceland 



[Released to the press July 26] 

The Secretary of State delivered on the after- 
noon of July 26 to the Honorable Thor Thors, 
Minister of Iceland, an enrolled copy of the Con- 
current Resolution recently adopted by unanimous 
vote of the Congress congratulating the Icelandic 
Althing on the establishment of the Republic of 
Iceland.^ 

The text of the resolution is given below : 

"Whereas the people of Iceland in a free plebis- 
cite on May 20 to 23, 1944, overwhelmingly ap- 
proved the constitutional bill passed by the Al- 
thing providing for the establishment of a repub- 
lican form of government; and 

"Wheee.\s the Republic of Iceland will be for- 
mally established on June 17, 1944 : Now, therefore, 
be it 

"RESOL\Ti;D BY THE HoUSE OF REPEESENTAXnTES OF 

THE United States (the Senate Concurring) : 
That the Congress hereby expresses to the Ice- 
landic Althing, the oldest parliamentary body in 
the world, its congratulations on the establish- 
ment of the Republic of Iceland and its welcome 
to the Republic of Iceland as the newest republic 
in the family of free nations." 

The appreciation of the Althing for this action 
by the Congress was conveyed to the American 
Legation at Reykjavik through the Icelandic Min- 
istry for Foreign Affairs in a note dated June 22, 
1944, the text of which follows : 

"The Ministry for Foreign Affairs presents its 
compliments to the Legation of the United States 
of America and has the honour to acknowledge the 
receipt of the Legation's note dated June 16, 1944 
in which the Ministry is informed of a resolution 
passed unanimously by the Senate and the House 
of Representatives concurring in which the Con- 
gress of the United States expresses to the Althing 
its congratulations on the establishment of the Re- 
public of Iceland and its welcome to Iceland as the 
newest Republic in the family of free nations. 



' Bulletin of June 17, 1014, p. 557. 



"This very friendly greeting, for which the Ice- 
landic Government wishes to express its deepest 
appreciation, was immediately forwarded by the 
Ministry to the President of the United Althing 
and at the first meeting of the Althing thereafter 
the Pre.sident read the greeting to the United 
Althing. 

"Thereupon the President of the Althing stated, 
that the supreme authorities of the United States 
of America, the President and the Government, 
had been the first Power (being one of the greatest 
nations in the world) to promise in advance their 
recognition, should the independence of Iceland 
be fully solved in this year. Secondly he stated 
that this Power had been the first in sending a 
special representative of the highest standing from 
the President and the Government of the United 
States to be present and bring their felicitations 
on the great day of Iceland at the inauguration of 
the Constitution of the Republic on June 17, 1944. 
In addition to this, he said, the Althing now re- 
ceives furthermore the greetings, felicitations, and 
blessings from the sister parliament of the Alth- 
ing, the United States Congress, and that tliis 
would be a great source of joy to everybody, which 
the people of Iceland would most certainly remem- 
ber, as well as the whole attitude of this great 
Power in every respect during the period that Ice- 
land had had closer dealings with the United 
States than with any other country. 

"The President of the Althing then concluded 
his speech with the following words: 'I shall in 
the name of the Althing take the liberty to bring 
in an appropriate manner the greetings of the 
Althing to the Congress of the United States and 
its wishes of wellbeing and especial thanks. Those 
members who support this will rise from their 
seats'. 

"\Miereupon the members rose from their seats. 
"The Ministry for Foreign Affairs would ap- 
preciate if the Legation would kindly have the 
aforesaid greeting of the Althing forwarded to 
the United States Congress. 

"Ministry for Foreign Affairs, 

''Beykjavik, Jime 22, IDU" 



JULY 30, 1944 



127 



TREATY INFORMATION 



Agreement With Canada Regard 

The following notes were exchanged by the Ca- 
nadian Ambassador in Washington and the Secre- 
tary of State : 

No. 238 Washington, D. C, June 23, 19U. 

Sir, 

I have the honour to refer to the exchange of 
notes between the Governments of Canada and the 
United States dated January 27, 19-13, regarding 
the post-war disposition of defence projects and 
installations constructed in Canada by the Govern- 
ment of the United States.' These notes approved 
the 28th Recommendation of the Permanent Joint 
Board on Defence, which said in part: 

"The Board considered the question of the post- 
war disposition of the defence projects and in- 
stallations which the Government of the United 
States has built or may build in Canada. The 
Board noted that the two Governments have al- 
ready reached specific agreements for the post- 
war disposition of most of the projects and in- 
stallations thus far undertaken. It considers that 
such agreements are desirable and should be made 
whenever possible. 

"The Board recommends the approval of the fol- 
lowing formula as a generally fair and equitable 
basis to be used by reference whenever appropriate 
in the making of agreements in the future and to 
cover such defence projects, if any, the post-war 
disposition of which has not previously been spe- 
cifically provided for: 

"A: All immovable defence installations built 
or provided in Canada by the Government of the 
United States shall within one year after the ces- 
sation of hostilities, unless otherwise agreed by the 
two Governments, be relinquished to the Crown 
either in the right of Canada or in the right of the 
province in which the same or any part thereof 
lies, as may be appropriate under Canadian law." 

2. As hereinafter explained, the two govern- 
ments have agreed that special arrangements 
should be made relating to permanent United 
States air installations in Canada and to the tele- 
phone line from Edmonton to the Alaska bound- 
ary built by the United States Government. 

' Executive Agreement Series 391. 



ing Certain Defense Installations 

3. In note no. 643 of December 18, 1943, I in- 
formed you that the Canadian Government "will 
not accept payment from the United States Gov- 
ernment for the construction of any permanent 
facilities or improvements made by the Canadian 
Government on United States Government ac- 
count on airfields in Northwest Canada, and will 
niake payment to the United States Government 
for all construction of a permanent nature carried 
out by the United States Government on air routes 
in this area." 

4. It was subsequently agreed between the two 
Governments that, in addition, the Canadian Gov- 
ernment should assume the cost of permanent air 
ijistallations elsewhere in Canada and at Goose 
Bay (Labrador) built by or on the account of the 
United States Government, the cost of the tele- 
phone line from Edmonton to the Alaska boundary 
built by the United States Government, and the 
cost of the proposed improvement program on the 
Northwest Staging Route. 

5. Discussions have recently taken place between 
representatives of the two Governments regarding 
the details of the decisions and arrangements re- 
ferred to in the two preceding paragraphs, with a 
view to listing the installations involved and their 
costs, and to settling the exact amount of money 
to be paid by the Canadian Government to the 
United States Government. 

6. It is my understanding that the following has 
been agreed as a result of these discussions. The 
Canadian Government will pay to the United 
States Government the following amounts in 
United States dollars for construction carried out 
by the United States Government : 

Northwest Staging Route (inchidiug con- 
tracts not yet completed) $;31, 311, 196 

Flight strips along the Alaska High- 
way 3, 262,6S7 

Flight strips along the Mackenzie Kiver . 1, 264, 150 

Hudson Bay Air Route 27, 460, 330 

Airfield at Mingan, P. Q 3,627,980 

Airfield at Goose Bay, Labrador 543,000 

Telephone line from Edmonton to 

Alaska boundary 9,342,208 

TOTAL 76, 811, 551 



128 

7. The details of the costs of construction ^are 
shown in the attached appendices^ marked "I", 
"II" and "III", which have been prepared by the 
United States War Department. The appendices 
show tliat costs of $90,683,571 were actually in- 
curred by the United States Government in con- 
struction but $13,872,020 of this amount was for 
installations which, aUhough of value to joint de- 
fence during the \\ar, have no permanent value. 
It has been agreed that the Canadian Government 
should pay that part of United States construction 
costs which represents installations having a 
permanent value, namely $76,811,551. 

8. The costs incurred by the Canadian Govern- 
ment on United States Government account which 
the Canadian Government will assume pursuant 
to the decisions reached are as follows: 

Northwest Staging Route $18,359,953 

Northeast Canada 1,200,010 

Airfield at Goose Bay, Labrador 9, 950, 000 

ToT^ $29, 599, 963 

In addition the Canadian Government will pay 
$5,161,000 for the projected improvement progi'am 
on the Northwest Staging Route. Details of the 
four items mentioned in this paragraph are given 
in the attached appendix marked "IV". 

9. It is understood that all the items mentioned 
in the four appendices, whether or not of per- 
manent value, will be relinquished to the Canadian 
Government pnisuant to tlie Exchange of Notes 
of January 27, 1943, hereinbefore referred to. 
However, such relinquislmient does not ailect exist- 
ing arrangements for the maintenance, operation 
and defence of these facilities for the duration of 
the war. In this connection, it is relevant to quote 
the following extract from the Journal of the 
meeting of the Permanent Joint Board on Defence 
held April 1^13, 1944: 

"In noting this decision of the two Governments, 
(i. e. the decision of the Canadian Government 
to assume the costs of the installations) , the Board 
observed that it relates only to the financial as- 
pect of the facilities in question and has no bearing 
on existing arrangements for the maintenance, 

' Not printed. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

operation and defence of the facilities for the dur- 
ation of the war. It is the Board's understanding 
that the existing arrangements will remain in ef- 
fect for the duration of the emergency as previ- 
ously agreed upon unless modified by mutual agree- 
ment between the two Governments." 

10. If the foregoing is acceptable to the Gov- 
ernment of the United States, this note and your 
reply thereto shall be regarded as placing on rec- 
ord the understanding arrived at between oiu- 
Governments. 

Accept [etc.] Leighton McCarthy 



June 27, 1944. 

ExCELLENCT : 

I have the honor to refer to your note of June 
23 1944 in regard to a decision of the Canadian 
Government to reimburse the United States Gov- 
ernment for the expenditures on certain defense 
installations in Canada and at Goose Bay (Labra- 
dor). The proposals set forth in Your Excel- 
lency's note are acceptable to the Government of 
the United States. It is agi-eed that your note and 
this reply thereto shall be regarded as placing on 
record the understanding arrived at between our 
Governments. 
Accept [etc.] 

For the Secretary of State : 

A. A. Berle, Jr. 



Convention on the Regulation of 
Inter-American Automotive Traffic 

Panama 

The Director General of the Pan American 
Union, by a letter of July 21, 1944, informed the 
Secretary of State that on July 13, 1944 His Excel- 
lency the Ambassador of Panama in the United 
States, Senor Don Enrique A. Jimenez, signed, 
in the name of his Government, the Convention 
on the Regulation of Inter-American Automotive 
Traffic, which was deposited with the Pan Ameri- 
can Union and opened for signature on December 
15, 1943. 



JULY 30, 19U 

Protocol on Pelagic Whaling 

The American Embassy in London transmitted 
to the Department of State the following informa- 
tion received from the British Foreign Office re- 
garding deposits of instruments of ratification of 
and notification of accession to the protocol re- 
lating to pelagic whaling operations, signed at 
London on February 7, 1944 : 

Batifications : 

United States— lustniment of ratification deposited in 
tlie arcliives of the Government of the United King- 
dom on Jnly 10, 1944 

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Nortliern Ire- 
laud — instrument of ratification deposited in the 
archives of the Government of the United Kingdom 
on June 2S, 1944 

Accession: 

Mexico — notification of accession placed on record in 
the archives of the Government of the United King- 
dom on June 29, 1944 

The Norwegian instrimicnt of ratification of the 
protocol was deposited on March 31, 1944 (see 
BuixETiN of Apr. 29, 1944, p. 400). 

Agreement for United Nations Relief 
and Rehabilitation Administration 

Guatemala 

The Ambassador of Guatemala transmitted to 
the Secretary of State, with a note of July 11, 
1944, the instrument of ratification of the agree- 
ment for United Nations Relief and Eehabilita- 
tion Administration signed in Washington on No- 
vember 9, 1943. The instrument of ratification, 
signed by the President of the Republic of Guate- 
mala, is dated Jiune 7, 1944, 

The Proclaimed List 

[Released to the press July 20] 

The Secretary of State, acting in conjunction 
with the Acting Secretary of the Treasury, the 
Attorney General, the Acting Secretary of Com- 
merce, the Administrator of the Foreign Economic 
Administration, and the Acting Coordinator of 
Inter-American Affairs, on July 29, 1944, issued 
Cumulative Supplement 5 to Revision VII of the 
Proclaimed List of Certain Blocked Nationals, 
promulgated March 23, 1944. 



129 

Part I of Cumulative Supplement 5 contains 55 
additional listings in the other American repub- 
lics and G2 deletions. Part II contains 156 addi- 
tional listings outside the American republics and 
59 deletions. 

Visit of Brazilian Director Gen- 
eral of Posts and Telegraphs 

[Released to the press July 26] 

Major Landry Sales Gon^alves, Director General 
of Posts and Telegraphs of Brazil, has ai-rived in 
this country for the purpose of studying censor- 
ship, postal and telecommunications operations 
and facilities of the United States. Major Landry 
Sales is accompanied by two of his principal assist- 
ants, Hamilton Scholl and Demosthenes Braga, 
postal and telegraphic experts, respectively. 

Major Landry Sales is expected to remain in 
this country approximately three weeks, during 
which time he plans to visit various cities to observe 
the operation of the postal and telegraph systems 
as well as telecojnmunication manufacturing 
centers. 

Mr. Berle, Assistant Secretary of State, will act 
as host at an official luncheon at the Carlton on 
Monday, July 31, given by the Department in 
honor of Major Landry Sales and his party. 

Visit of Mexican 
Rural-Education Specialist 

Professor Guillermo Bonilla Segura, head of the 
Department of Cultural Missions of the Mexi- 
can Ministry of Education, is in the United States 
as a guest of the Department of State. During 
his visit he will observe rural-education and agri- 
cultural-extension programs. 

The cultural missions in Mexico, which were 
organized nearly a quarter of a century ago, were 
suspended in 1939. They were resumed, however, 
in 1942, under a new plan which provided for the 
following types : Missions designed to improve ed- 
ucational standards and living conditions among 
the Indians, who form a large part of the popula- 
tion of filexico; missions for workers, especially 
those in mines and textile factories; and missions 
for the training of teachers. 



130 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



^ THE DEPARTMENT ^ 



Appointment of Officers 

Eaymond L. Zwemer as Chairman of the Inter- 
departmental Committee on Cooperation With the 
American Republics, Office of American Republic 
Affairs, effective June 17. 

Emile Despres as Adviser on European Finance 
in the Division of Financial and Monetary Affairs, 
Office of Economic Affairs, effective July 4. 

Wayne G. Jackson and Eugene V. Rostow as 
Advisers in the Supply and Resources Division, ef- 
fective July 8. 

Elmer G. Burland as Adviser in the Liberated 
Areas Division, effective July 8. 

Hallett Johnson and Orsen N. Nielsen as Ad- 
visers in the Eastern Hemisphere Division, ef- 
fective July 8. 

Robert P. Terrill as Acting Assistant Chief of 
the Commodities Division, effective July 8. 

Charles Bunn as Consultant to the Division of 
Commercial Policy, effective July 8. 

Vernon E. Bundj' as Special Assistant to the 
Chief of the Division of Commercial Policy, ef- 
fective July 8. 

Robert R. Wilson as Consultant on Commercial 
Treaties to tlie Division of Commercial Policj', 
effective July 8. 

John M. Cabot as Chief fif the Division of Car- 
ibbean and Central American Affairs, effective 
July 1. 



Philip O. Chalmers as Acting Chief of the Di- 
vision of Brazilian Affairs, effective July 1. 

Abbot Low Moffat as Chief of the Division of 
Southwest Pacific Affairs, effective July 1. Mr. 
Moffat will continue as an Adviser in the Liberated 
Areas Division. 

Richard W. Morin as Chief of the Division of 
Public Liaison, effective July 14. 

Norman Burns as Assistant Chief of the Com- 
modities Division, effective July 17. 



PUBLICATIONS 



Department of State 

Publications of tlie Department of State (a list cumu- 
lative from October 1, 1929). July 1, 1944. Publication 
21.'50. iv, 31 pp. Free. 

The Prodaimed Last of Certain Blocked Nationals: 
Cumulative Supplement No. 5, July 28, 1944, to Revision 
VII of March 23, 1944. Publication 2153. 60 pp. Free. 

Other Government Agencies 

The articles listed belovs' will be found In the July 29 
issue of the Department of Commerce publication entitled 
Foreign Commerce Weekly, copies of which may be ob- 
tained from the Superintendent of Documents, Govern- 
ment Printing Otflce, for 10 cents each : 

"Synthetic Organic Chemicals in Republic of Panama 
Today", by C. William Cowles, American vice consul', 
American Embassy, Panama. 

"Dominican Republic in 1943", based on a report from 
James G. JlcCargar, third secretary and vice consul, 
American Embassy, Ciudad Trujillo. 



U. 5. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 7944 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 





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V3^_--' 



J 



J 



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1 r 



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VOL. XI, NO. 267 



AUGUST 6, 1944 



In this issue 



WORLD AFFAIRS IN THREE DIMENSIONS: Address by Assistant 
Secretary Berle -i^-ic-i^i^-Cr-tiiririr-tt 



ALLIED CONTROL COMMISSION FOR ITALY * a « ^^ 



SPECIAL WAR PROBLEMS DIVISION: By Graham H. Stuart ir * 



VlCNT o^ 




-t-TES O^ 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

BULLETIN 

Vol. XI. No. 267° 'S^^^ . Publicatiom 2158 

August 6, 1944 



The Department of State BULLE- 
TIN, a iveelily piihlication compiled and 
edited in the Pivision of Research and 
Publication, Office of Public Informa- 
tion, provides the public and inter- 
ested aiicncies of the Government with 
information on derelopiuents in the 
field of foreign relations and on the 
work of the Department of State and 
the Foreii:n Service. The BULLETIN 
includes press releases on foreign policy 
issued by the ]f hite House and the De- 
partment, and statements and addresses 
made by the President and by the Sec- 
retary of State and other officers of the 
Department, as well as special articles 
on variiius phases of international af- 
fairs and the functions of the Depart- 
ment, Information concerning treaties 
and interiiatioual agreements to tvhich 
the United Stales is or may heciime a 
parly and treaties of general inter- 
national interest is included, 

Publicaliitns of the Department, 
cumulative lists of which are published 
at the end of each quarter, as tvell as 
legislative material in the field of inter- 
national relatittns, are listed currently. 

The nULLETIN, published with the 
approval of the Director of the Bureau 
of the Budget, is for sale by the Super- 
intendent of Dociiments, United Stales 
Cinernment Printing Office, Washing- 
ton 25, D, C, to whom all purchase 
orders, with accompanying remittance, 
should be sent. The subscripti<m price 
is $2.75 a year; a single copy is 10 
cents. 



(^ontents 



Amekican Republics p„g 
Position of British Government on Argentine Problem: 

Statement by the Acting Secretary of State .... 133 

Mission of Educators 138 

Inter-American Coffee Board 138 

Visit of Mexican Mycologist 141 

Can.\da 

Agreement With Canada Regarding Certain Defense In- 
stallations: Statement by the Prime Minister of 
Canada 139 

Europe 

Severance by Turlcey of Relations With Germany .... 133 

Death of Foreign Minister of Spain 134 

Allied Control Commissioji for Italy 137 

Birthday of the King of Norway 141 

Fab East 

Death of President Quezon: Statement by the Acting Secre- 
tary of State 134 

Return of George B. Cressey From China 141 

General 

World Affairs in Three Dimensions: Address by Assistant 

Secretary Berle 135 

Pokt-War Matters 

International Peace and Security Organization 133 

Meetings on Post-War Telecommunications Problems . . . 134 

Thkaty Information 

Agricullural Kx])erimi'nt Station in Guatemala 148 

Convention on the Pan American Union 148 

Pan .\nierican Highway 148 

Promotion of Inter-.\mcrican Cultural Relations 148 

Regulation of Inter-American Automotive Traffic .... 149 

Inter-.\merican Institute of Agricultural Sciences 149 

TuE Department 

Special War Problems Divi.sion: Representation of Foreign 

Interests. By Grciham II. Stuart 142 

Appointment of Officers 149 

Publications 149 



Position of British Government on Argentine Problem 



Statement by THE ACTING SECRETARY OF STATE 



[Released to the press August 2] 

Requested to comment on the British Prime Min- 
ister's statement of August 2 on Argentina in 
the House of Commons, Acting Secretary Stet- 
(inius said: 

"Tlie statement by Prime Minister Churchill in 
the House of Commons today in which he ex- 
pressed regret that the Government of Argentina 
'lias chosen to dally with evil' and 'has not seen fit 



to declare herself wholeheartedly, unmistakably 
and with no reserve and qualification on the side 
of freedom' is truly of great importance. 

"The Prime Minister's statement goes to the very 
heart of the Argentine problem. He has clearly 
and forcefully expressed the connnon position of 
the British Government and of all of the govern- 
ments which have refrained from recognizing the 
Farrell regime." 



International Peace and Security Organization 



[Released to the press August 1] 

The Acting Secretary of State on August 1 made 
the following announcement: 

The informal conversations on international or- 
ganization for peace and security between repre- 
sentatives of this Government, representatives of 
the United Kingdom, and representatives of the 
Soviet Union will begin on the morning of Au- 
gust 14 at Dumbarton 
Oaks. After the conclu- 
sion of these conversations 
representatives of this 
Government, representa- 
tives of the United King- 
dom, and representatives 
of China will conduct sim- 
ilar conversations on the 
same subject at the same 
place. 

As has already been in- 
dicated in prior announce- 
ments, the forthcoming 
conversations will be ex- 
ploratory and informal in 



Severance by Turkey of 
Relations With Germany 

[Released to the press August 2] 

This Government welcomes as a step 
toward full cooperation with the 
United Nations in their struggle against 
Nazi aggression the decision of the 
Turkish Grand National Assembly on 
August 2 to sever diplomatic and eco- 
nomic relations with Germany. 



nature. Those who will from time to time par- 
ticipate with me in different phases of these con- 
versations will be drawn from the following list of 
persons who have been assisting the Secretary of 
State on the subject of international organization 
and security: Messrs. Isaiah Bowman, Benjamin 
V. Cohen, James Clement Dunn, Henry P. 
Fletcher, Joseph C. Grew, Green H. Hack worth, 
Stanley K. Hornbeck, 
Breckinridge Long, Leo 
Pasvolsky, and Edwin C. 
Wilson; Lt. Gen. Stanley 
D. Embick, Maj. Gen. 
George V. Strong, Maj. 
Gen. Muir S. Fairchild, 
Admiral Arthur J. Hep- 
burn, Vice Admiral Rus- 
sell Willson, and Rear 
Admiral Harold C. Train. 
This Government will fur- 
nish whatever secretariat 
may be needed for the effi- 
cient conduct of the con- 
versations. 



133 



134 

Death of Foreign Minister 
of Spain 

(Released to the press August 4] 

The following message has been sent to His Ex- 
cellency Don Jose, Pan de Soraluce y Espahol, Act- 
ing Minister of Foreign Affairs of Spain, by Act- 
ing Secretary Stettinius: 

On behalf of my Government and on my own 
behalf I wish to express my deep regret at the 
untimely death of Count Jordana. Please con- 
vey to Countess Jordana and to her family my 
sincere condolences. The Secretary, who is away 
from the Department for a few days, has person- 
ally asked that his deepest sympathy be included 
in this message. 

Edward K. Stettinius, Jr. 

Acting Secretary of State 

[Released to the press August 4] 

The news of Count Jordana's death has been re- 
ceived with great regret by officials of this Govern- 
ment. 

Count Jordana became Minister of Foreign Af- 
fairs of Spain for the second time in September 
1942, two months prior to the Allied landings in 
North Africa. He took a leading part in bringing 
about prompt acceptance by the Spanish Govern- 
ment of Allied guarantees to Spain conveyed by 
President Roosevelt to General Franco and com- 
municated to the latter by Ambassador Hayes in 
Madrid. 

When the Spanish Government failed to obtain 
equivalent guarantees from the Germans, Count 
Jordana likewise took a leading part in warning 
the Germans that Spain would resist any effort on 
their part to cross the Spanish territory in an at- 
tempt to close the Straits of Gibraltar to our 
forces. 

This Government conducted a series of impor- 
tant negotiations with Count Jordana which 
bi-ought great benefits to the Spanish people as 
well as to the United States and its Allies. The re- 
cent wolfram negotiations were outstanding in 
this category. 

With Count Jordana's cooperation many thou- 
sands of Allied and stateless refugees who had 
escaped from Nazi oppression and entered Spain, 
most of them clandestinely, were evacuated with 
American assistance to destinations of their choice. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BVLLETm 

Meetings on Post- War 
Telecommunications Problems 

[Released to the press August 4] 

The Department of State has issued invitations 
to meetings to be held on August 11 and 12, 1944 
in Washington to consider certain problems in- 
volving post-war telecommunications, particu- 
larly with a view to international telecommunica- 
tions conferences, some of which it is anticipated 
may be held within a year, and others immediately 
following the conclusion of the war. 

The Department has circulated documents about 
which the meetings of August 11 and 12 will pri- 
marily revolve. They include possible revision of 
the International Telecommunications Convention 
of Madrid, 1932, and of the International General 
Radio Regulations of Cairo, 1938, as well as a pro- 
posed revision of the frequency spectrum. 

These documents are not put forward as having 
approval of all United States Government agen- 
cies concerned but rather are designed for use as a 
basis of discussion between government and indus- 
try at the forthcoming meetings. It is the hope of 
the Dei^artment that {jroposals will also be submit- 
ted by members of industry and by other United 
States Government agencies looking toward the 
most complete collaboration between Government 
and industry and toward appropriate interna- 
tional conferences, so that the plans ultimately 
worked out will be in the best interest of all the 
public and private American agencies involved. 

Death of President Quezon 

Statement by THE ACTING SECRETARY OF STATE 

[Released to the press August 1] 

I have learned with profound regret of the 
death of President Quezon. His passing is a great 
shock to all of us in the Department and is a very 
great loss both to the Filipino people and the peo- 
ple of the United States. Throughout his life 
President Quezon was a staunch friend of the 
United States and gave this country unstinted loy- 
alty and cooperation. His passing at this moment 
is especially sad when he was working in comiec- 
tion with the post-war planning for the independ- 
ence of the Philippines and when he was counting 
upon his early return to his native land. 



AUGUST 6, 1944 



135 



World Affairs in Three Dimensions 



Address by ASSISTANT SECRETARY BERLE' 



[Released to the press August 3] 

This talk tonight is merely to set out some of 
the new problems which modern science is throw- 
ing up to the Department of State. They can 
be summed up in a sentence. They are the prob- 
lems of a world of three dimensions instead of the 
old {Jroblems of the flat map we knew in our school 
days. We are seeing, today, the end of the flat 
map. 

When most of us were in school, practically all 
international problems were on the surface of 
the earth or the surface of the sea. You could stop 
intercourse between nations by putting up a fence 
on any boundary. Many boundaries, in fact, lit- 
erally did have fences, with gates where the roads 
crossed from one country to another. 

The greatest gift a government can give its peo- 
ple is to keep war away from their soil. Accord- 
ingly, these boundaries or fences were protected. 
Sometimes protection consisted of a line of for- 
tresses, like the line between France and Germany, 
or still later the Maginot Line by which, we all 
remember, France hoped to keep Hitler out. 
Where a country had the sea as a boundary, it 
defended there, too, with naval fleets, coast guns, 
and so forth. In World War I, in which I served 
as second lieutenant, the entire strategy was built 
on national boundaries and how to fortify and 
defend them. 

But in our own time that whole situation has 
changed. It began, I suppose, when the Wright 
brothers first flew their experimental plane, the 
Kitty Hawk ; one wonders whether they knew what 
changes they were going to make in the world's 
history and the fate of empires. 

Now there is no fence high enough or strong 
enough to keep out aircraft; the aeronautical en- 
gineers have learned how to fly to the upper 
reaches of the air itself. No gun has range enough 
to shoot that high. And there are not airplanes 
enough in the world to stop all the enemy aircraft 
at the borders. 

This is simple to say. What this is doing to 
world affairs is not so simple. 

The strongest and biggest power in the world 



can no longer guarantee that an enemy shall not 
cross its border and bomb its cities. You can make 
it dangerous and expensive for the other fellow 
to do it, because you can cross the border in his 
country, too; and if you have more planes and 
more bombs than he does you can see that he gets 
the worst of the exchange. But that is not the 
same thing as being able to tell your country that 
no one can touch it. Thei-e are, of course, limits to 
what airplanes can do. But we now have robot 
bombs, which are really flying torpedoes. They 
are harder to shoot Aovnx than airplanes, though a 
good many are being shot down by British, Cana- 
dian, and American fighter planes on the English 
coast. But if you really want to stop them you 
have to get back into your enemy's country and 
smash the emplacement from which he shoots them. 

What that means is that an enemy can sit deep in 
his own country, building these machines, and 
without moving can shoot them across his 
boundary, and perhaps across two or three small 
countries in between, hitting you or some other 
country a great many miles away. 

Tlie old flat map is still there. There may still 
be a fence on the national boundary. But the 
robot never heard of a map and wouldn't know a 
frontier if it met one. 

During the same period in which the airplane 
and the robot bomb are making international 
fences look old-fashioned another scientific devel- 
opment is going on which is making even more 
trouble for the flat map. This is the science of 
using electric wavelengths, like the wavelengths 
which are bringing this broadcast to you tonight. 
Being no scientist, I don't try to explain how it is 
done; but we all know, fairly well, what is being 
done, and we can guess some more things that will 
be done in the future. You can, by using elec- 
tricity, set up electric waves which will go all over 
the earth. A national boundary is just nothing 
in their lives. These waves go straight through 
most fences, just as some of your radios have no 



' Delivered on the "World Statesmen" program over the 
facilities of station WMCA and the Atlantic network, Aug. 
.3, 1944. 



136 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



aerials and yet the wavelengths come right into 
your room. Development along this line has for- 
tunately been mainly peaceful : wireless messages, 
radio, and radiotelephones, with television coming 
along. Yet in international affairs the flat map 
took its worst and biggest beating at this point. 
You can be sovereign of the air if you like; but 
the most sovereign country can no more stop a 
radio wave from coming into its borders than King 
Canute in the old legend could order the tide to 
stoi) rising. 

These waves could carry music, speeches or com- 
mercial messages, and pictures. They also can 
can-y propaganda and signals to the fifth columns. 

Can they do anything else ? We don't yet know. 
They can tell a good distance away whether an 
airplane or ship is coming toward you. At pres- 
ent this use of radio waves — now called "radar" — 
is still in its infancy. 

There are other scientific experiments going on 
today which will add still further to our problems; 
but they can wait for another time. The two sets 
of questions raised by the air and the wavelengths 
through the earth are enough to keep us busy for a 
while. What will they do to your life and mine — 
and still more to the lives of the children who are 
just coming along? What happens when the flat 
map of our school days begins to crumple up? 

Well, the first thing that happens is that you 
begin thinking about other countries. You have 
to. If a fellow far outside your country can build 
a concrete rigging from which he can land a rocket 
contraption loaded with high explosive in your 
backyard, you become somewhat interested in that 
other fellow. You want to know whether, when 
he starts building something out of concrete, it is a 
football stadium or a rocket-bomb emplacement. 

You can have a fair guess as to what he is think- 
ing. You can listen in on his radio to what his 
govermnent is saying and what his news-people 
are saying. He and his friends are perhaps listen- 
ing in on you and your friends, wondering, just 
as you are, what the international weather looks 
like. 

You no longer feel quite so sure that safety de- 
pends on a couple of oceans. You probably know 



that planes already in existence — the Constellation, 
for instance — can cross the Atlantic in about seven 
hours. If you had the luck to look on some of the 
drawing-boards in some of the laboratories you 
would see designs for planes which probably could 
cross the Atlantic in far less time. A few years 
from now the Atlantic Ocean will no more save 
the United States from trouble than the English 
Channel saves the British Isles tonight. 

And so you begin to think, perhaps, of world 
organization. The boys on the beachheads in Nor- 
mandy are fighting to smash this present attack. 
But it will take something more than victory to 
stop this from happening again. The United 
States has not seen a foreign foe on its soil for more 
than a century and a quarter, thanks to the flat 
map. But the flat map is no longer a going con- 
cern. So we have to start working at the business 
of keeping the peace, at the business of helping to 
work with other nations so that no one of them 
shall break the peace, so that everyone can be 
reasonably sure at all times that the men in all the 
cf)untries working with the concrete mixers are 
building dwelling-houses or peaceful factories, 
not rocket emplacements. 

Practically everyone in the world wants a sys- 
tem of international peace. But not everybody has 
made up his mind to do the things that have to be 
done if war is going to be prevented. The mainte- 
nance of peace does mean use of force from time to 
time. It does mean that while looking out for 
yourself you give the other fellow a chance to live 
and sell his goods. It does mean settling quarrels 
by law instead of by fifth columns and rocket 
bombs. It means making international agreements 
about a lot of things — air and communications and 
commerce and trade. Some of these were not 
agreements you thought you had to make in 
earlier days; but those were the days when you 
could put up your fence on your flat map and for- 
get about the man on the other side of it. 

You are living with that man now : at long 
distance, but at close range. You and he, and 
millions of people like us and like him, are neigh- 
bors, whether they like it or not. We cannot escape 
the task of building a system of good neighbors. 



AUGUST 6, 1944 



137 



Allied Control Commission for Italy ^ 



The armistice with Italy provided for a Control 
Commission to i-egulate and execute the terms of 
the armistice under the direction of the Supreme 
Allied Commander. On November 10, 1943 Gen- 
eral Eisenhower announced the establishment of 
the Allied Control Commission for Italy to assume 
"the duty of carrying out the terms of the armistice 
and of aligning Italian economy in complete sup- 
port of the United Nations fight against Ger- 
many". The president of the Allied Control Com- 
mission is the Supreme Allied Commander, Medi- 
terranean Theater, Gen. Sir Henry Maitland Wil- 
son. General Wilson has delegated his authority 
as president of the Control Commission to General 
Alexander, the Allied Theater Commander in 
Italy. The active head of the Control Commis- 
sion, however, is the deputy president or chief 
commissioner, as he is more commonly referred to, 
who was, until his recent resignation for reasons 
of health, Lt. Gen. Noel Mason-MacFarlane, for- 
mer Governor of Gibraltar. General Mason-Mac- 
Farlane's immediate assistant, Capt. Ellery Stone, 
U.S.N.R., is acting chief commissioner until the 
aiDpointment of General Mason-MacFarlane's suc- 
cessor. 

The Control Commission is divided into four 
sections, headed by vice presidents of the Control 
Commission, and six independent subconunissions : 

1. Political Section 

2. Economic Section 

3. Admiuistrative Section 

4. Regional Control and Military GoTemmeut Section 

5. Navy Subcommission 

6. Army Subcommission 

7. Air SubcommLssion 

8. War Material Subcommi.ssion 

9. Telecommunication Subcommission 

10. Prisoners of War and Displaced Persons Subcommis- 

sion 

The Economic Section and the Administrative 
Section are further divided into subcommissions, 
as follows : 

Administrative Section 

1. Interior 

2. Public Safety 

3. Public Health 

4. Legal 

5. Kducation 



6. Property Control 

7. Monuments and Fine Arts 

Economic Section 

1. Industry and Commerce 

2. Labor 

3. War Factories 

4. Agriculture 

5. Food 

6. Public Works and Mines 

7. Finance 

8. Internal Transportation 

The Political Section is headed by joint vice 
presidents, one American and one Englishman: 
Samuel Reber and Harold Caccia. The Economic 
Section is headed by Col. William O'Dwyer, 
American, with the title of Vice President of the 
Control Commission and personal rank of 
Minister. The Administrative Section is headed 
by Air Commodore Lord Stansgate, a British offi- 
cer, with the title of Vice President of the Control 
Commission. The Regional Control and Military 
Government Section is headed by Brig. Maurice 
Lush, an English Army officer, with the title of 
Vice President of the Control Commission. 

The personnel of the Control Commission is 
roughly 50 percent American and 50 percent 
British, the only exceptions being a Soviet and a 
French representative on the Control Commission 
attached to the staff of the chief commissioneh 
The personnel of the Commission was originally 
entirely military except for the members of the 
Political Section and a limited number of experts 
in the Economic Section. It is present policy, how- 
ever, to assign civilian experts of both nationali- 
ties to the Control Commission to relieve the in- 
creasing personnel problem and to provide for the 
time when the Allied military authorities may 
wish to turn over the function of the Control Com- 
mission to civilian agencies of the Allied Govern- 
ments. 

The chief commissioner of the Allied Control 
Commission is also chief civil-affairs officer for 
Allied Military Government. Originally Allied 
Military Government and the Allied Control Com- 



• Prepared in the Division of Southern European Af- 
fairs, Office of European Affairs, Department of State, 



738 

mission were separate entities: the former under 
the direct command of the Theater Commander in 
Italy, the latter under the Supreme Allied Com- 
mander in Algiers. In the reorganization of the 
Control Commission in January 1944 the head- 
quarters and general staffs of the two organiza- 
tions were combined and made identical Ihey 
are now known as AMG/ACC in Italy. The dis- 
tinction between the two branches of the now com- 
bined organization is briefly that the Allied Mil- 
itary Government functions in territory m the for- 
ward areas behind the Allied lines where adminis- 
tiation of Allied forces is necessary, while the 
Allied Control Commission functions in that ter- 
ritory more remote from the front line which it has 
been possible to restore to Italian administration. 
Since the beginning of the Italian campaign the 
Supreme Allied Commander has, upon the recom- 
mendation of the Advisory Council for Italy, with- 
drawn Allied Military Government from and re- 
stored to Italian administration the Islands of 
Sicily and Sardinia and the 15 southern Provinces 
of the mainland (with the exception of the port of 
Naples) ; that is, all territory south of the northern 
boundaries of the Provinces of Naples and Campo- 
basso. It is contemplated that on August 15 the 
Provinces of Littoria, Frosintme, and Rome (in- 
cluding the city of Rome) will be added to that 
territory already restored to Italian administra- 
tion. The remaining areas behind the Allied lines 
will be administered directly by Allied Military 
Government. The Supreme Allied Commander 
will, however, continue to exercise supreme au- 
thority in all of liberated Italy through the Allied 
Control Commission of which he is president ex 
ofpcio. The relationship of the Control Commis- 
sion to the Italian Government and to Italian ad- 
ministration in liberated areas is one of supervi- 
sion and guidance rather than one of direct ad- 
ministration as in the case of Allied Military Gov- 
ernment. 

The Allied Control Commission for Italy is the 
organ through which relations between the United 
Nations and the Italian Government are con- 
ducted. Consequently, the relations of the United 
Nations, including the United States and Great 
Britain, with the Italian Government are on a 
military basis. 

The Allied Control Commission established it- 
self in Rome on July 15, 1944 at the time the Ital- 
ian Government returned to the capital. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

Mission of Educators 

[Released to the press August 5] 

A mission of three North American educators 
leaves on Monday, August 7, by plane for La 
Paz, Bolivia, at the invitation of the Bolivian 
Government. 

The mission consists of Roy Tasco Davis, direc- 
tor of the Inter- American Schools Service; E. 
Duncan Grizzell, chairman of the Executive Com- 
mittee on the Cooperative Study of Secondary 
School Standards; and John Jacob Seidel, Assist- 
ant State Superintendent of Education of Mary- 
land. They will spend six weeks in surveying the 
public-school system in Bolivia and will make 
a report on their findings, with appropriate 
itcommendaticns. 

According to the Bolivian Minister of Foreign 
Affairs, the work of this mission of educators is 
"in keeping with the full spirit of continental co- 
operation which permeates the policy of the Amer- 
ican nations." The visiting experts, he says, will 
"put themselves in contact with the Ministry of 
Education of Bolivia" in order to study jointly the 
present educational needs in that country and to 
"decide how many experts and in what different 
fields should lend their service to Bolivia." The 
most pressing immediate problems have to do with 
educational administration, the organization of 
normal schools, and the organization of pre-voca- 
tional and vocational institutions. 



Inter-American Coffee Board 

[ Released to the press August 5] 

Reference is made to the Department's press 
release 199 of May 30, 1944 concerning the Inter- 
American Coffee Board which administers the 
Inter-American Coffee Agreement.^ 

The President has now approved the designa- 
tion of Mr. James H. Wright, Assistant to the 
Director of the Office of American Republic Af- 
fairs, Department of State, as this Government's 
alternate delegate to the Board. Mr. Wright suc- 
ceeds Mr. AValter N. Walmsley, Jr., in this capac- 
ity. Mr. Walmsley, who was formerly Chief of 
tlie Division of Brazilian Affairs, has now been 
assigned to duties away from the Department. 



' BuiiBriN of June 3, 1944, p. 512. 



AUGUST 6, 19U 



139 



Agreement With Canada Regarding Certain 
Defense Installations 



Statement by THE PRIME MINISTER OF CANADA 



[Released to the press August 1] 

A statement by the Prime Minister of Canada, 
the Right Honorable W. L. Mackenzie King, re- 
garding reimbursement to the United States for 
defense facilities constructed in Canada, follows: 

"I wish to lay on the table an exchange of notes 
dated June 23, 1944 between the Canadian Ambas- 
sador in Washington and the Secretary of State 
of the United States, constituting an agreement 
under which the Canadian Government undertakes 
to reimburse the United States Government for 
certain works which the latter have constructed 
in Canada. It covers also certain United States ex- 
penditures at the base constructed by Canada at 
Goose Bay in Labrador.^ 

"The Minister of Munitions and Supply in- 
formed the House in February of the Government's 
decision to reimburse the United States Govern- 
ment for permanent improvements which they had 
made to airfields on the northwest staging route 
and in the northwest generally. Then in April the 
Minister of Finance stated that as part of an un- 
derstanding which he had reached with the Sec- 
retary of the Treasury of the United States in con- 
nection with The Hyde Park Declaration, the 
Canadian Government would reimburse the 
United States Government for permanent im- 
provements which they have made to other airfields 
in Canada and for the telephone line from Ed- 
monton to the Alaska boundary which was also 
built by the United States. The exchange of notes 
which I have tabled is an agreement between the 
two Governments on this subject and, with its ap- 
pendices, goes into considerable detail as to the 
amounts spent in various localities. 

"It has been agreed that Canada will reimburse 
the United States to the extent of 76.8 million dol- 
lars (United States funds). This covers construc- 
tion costs incurred by the United States Govern- 
ment on works of permanent value on the north- 
west staging route, .the flight strips along the 
Alaska Highway, the flight strips along the Mac- 
kenzie River, the airfields in northeastern Canada, 
the airfield at Mingan, Quebec, the airfield at Goose 
Bay, Labrador, and the telephone line from Ed- 

603106 — 44 2 



monton to the Alaska boundary. An additional 
13.8 million dollars spent by the United States on 
these projects is not being repaid by Canada since, 
while necessary for the prosecution of the war, it 
represents wartime expenditure for United States 
purposes and provides nothing of permanent 
value — for example, temporary barracks and other 
housing facilities. However, all these works, 
whether of permanent or non-permanent value, are 
relinquished to the Canadian Government and it 
is I am sure a source of satisfaction to both Gov- 
ernments that a specific agreement has been 
reached regarding the disposition of these facili- 
ties. 

"I should also point out that in addition to reim- 
bursing the United States for the outlays under 
reference Canada has assumed substantial expend- 
itures for the construction of wartime facilities 
which were originally made on the understanding 
that we would be reimbursed by the United States. 
Our expenditures under this head in Canadian 
funds will total 34.7 million dollars. Thus in- 
cluding our reimbursements to the United States 
and the expenditures which we are making our- 
selves the amount expressed in Canadian dollars 
which the Canadian Government is spending on 
the airfields and related projects mentioned in the 
exchange of notes is of the order of 120 million 
dollars. 

"Members will observe that all of the foregoing 
expenditures were incurred in connection with de- 
fence installations in northwestern and northeast- 
ern Canada. Both are vital areas in the joint 
defence plans of the United States and Canada. 
Through the permanent joint board on defence 
far-reaching defence measures have been taken to 
close these back doors of the continent against at- 
tack by Germany and Japan. In concept and in 
execution the defence plans for these areas repre- 
sent one of the most effective examples of co-opera- 
tion among the United Nations. At the same time 
these facilities have become links in the offensive 
plans of the Allies. Planes fly across the north- 



' Bulletin of July 30, 1944, p. 127. 



140 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



west to the Pacific theatre of war and across the 
northeast to Europe. 

"Considerable information has ah-eady been 
given to the House and to the public about the 
Northwest staging route, but for reasons of secu- 
rity little information about the northeast staging 
route has so far been made available. 

"The need for a northeast staging route was 
originally suggested to Canada by the United 
Kingdom Government in August 1940, with the 
suggestion that the matter be discussed with the 
United States. Long-range bombers were already 
being ferried across the Atlantic through the New- 
foundland Airport at Gander, but this airport was 
congested and there were no facilities for ferrying 
short-range bombers or fighters which were be- 
ginning to come off United States assembly lines 
in considerable volume. Following discussions be- 
tween Canada and the United States the United 
States proceeded to investigate the possibilities of 
establishing airfields in Greenland wlule Canada 
proceeded to reconnoitre Labrador. In June 1941, 
Mr. Ei'ic Fry of the Topographical Survey, who 
had been seconded to the Royal Canadian Air 
Force, discovered an ideal site at Goose Bay, North 
West River, and a preliminary survey was made. 
A United States Army Air Force party subse- 
quently examined and recommended the site. By 
agreement with the Government of Newfoundland 
construction was begun by Canada almost im- 
mediately and the field was in use before winter 
closed in. 

"It was subsequently agi-eed by the Governments 
of Newfoundland and of the United Kingdom 
that Canada should be given a ninety-nine year 
lease to Goose Air Base for defence purposes; that 
this air base should be available to the Royal Air 
Force and to the United States Air Forces for the 
duration of the war and for such time thereafter 
as tlie parties might agree to be necessary or ad- 
visable in the interests of common defence; that 
the question of civil air use should remain over for 
settlement after the war, but that in any event 
civil and military aircraft owned by the Govern- 
ment of Newfoundland should have rights to use 
tlie base on terms not less favourable than aircraft 
owned by the Government of Canada. 

"In tlie meantime, the United States, by agree- 
ment with the Danish Minister at Washington, 
had in April 1941 assumed responsibility for the 



defence of Greenland and had begun constructing 
airfields there which were to be available to other 
'American nations', which included Canada. 
Shortly afterwards the United States also made 
an agreement with Iceland for the defence of that 
island, and airfields were rapidly constructed 
there. With the completion of Goose Airfield and 
the Greenland and Iceland fields, a staging rout© 
was available for relatively short-range aircraft. 

"With the entry of the United States into the 
war on December 7, 1941, the strain on the existing 
ferry routes became even heavier. In May 1942 the 
United States Army Air Force proposed to the 
Permanent Joint Board on Defence the establish- 
ment of air routes over northeastern Canada to 
ferry long, medium and short-range aircraft to 
Europe. From the factories of the United States 
Pacific Coast aircraft wovdd be ferried across the 
Canadian prairies to the Pas and Churchill. From 
this Hudson Bay port planes would fiy to South- 
ampton Island, Frobisher Bay, Greenland and Ice- 
land and from there to their destination. Planes 
from another great focal point of United States 
aircraft production in the midwest States would 
fly across Ontario and Quebec to Fort Chimo on 
LTngava Bay at the northernmost tip of Quebec 
and from there would link up with the other north- 
east air route at Frobisher. 

"These two channels were to be in addition to the 
ferry route already established to the United 
Kingdom via Goose Bay, Greenland and Iceland. 

"Another purpose for the speedy construction of 
the route was to permit forces from interior points 
to be rushed to the defence of Greenland and Ice- 
land should the occasion arise. While this defen- 
sive phase of the war now seems remote Members 
will recall that in the summer of 1941 the German 
Battleship Bismarck operated in this area, and, as 
is also well known, the Germans established 
weather stations on different occasions in Green- 
land. 

"On June 9, 1942, the Permanent Joint Board on 
Defence approved of the proposal of the United 
States Army Air Force. It recommended imme- 
diate construction of the proposed airfields on 
Canadian territory, either by the Canadian Gov- 
ernment or by the United States Government with 
the approval of the Canadian Government. Fa- 
cilities of the new routes were to be made available 
to the Royal Air Force. 



AUGUST 6, 1944 



141 



"For several reasons the Hudson Bay leg of the 
northeast route has not been used to the extent 
anticipated and the original plans were never com- 
pletely implemented. As the submarine menace 
was mastered there was a parallel improvement in 
the shipping situation, permitting the transporta- 
tion of more aircraft by ship. Increased facilities 
at Goose Air Base and at Newfoundland airports 
permitted a greater flow of aircraft through these 
fields. Amazing technological advances, which in- 
creased the flying range and reliability of aircraft, 
as well as improved meteorological services, made 
the route from Goose Air Base more serviceable 
for short-range planes. The successful Allied 
landing in North Africa made it possible for air- 
craft used in this area to be flown over the southern 
route, thus relieving the pressure on the northern 
I'oute. As the fortunes of the United Nations rose 
in the North Atlantic theatre the threat of enemy 
action against the northeastern section of this Con- 
tinent diminished. 

"In reaching this agreement for repayment for 
expenditures incurred for these defence facilities 
in northwestern and northeastern Canada and 
Labrador, the Government had two considerations 
in mind. In the first place, it believed that, as part 
of the Canadian contribution this country should 
take general responsibility for the provision of 
facilities in Canada and in Labrador required for 
the use of Canadian, United Kingdom and United 
States Forces. In the second place, it was thouglit 
that it was undesirable that any other country- 
should have a financial investment in improve- 
ments of permanent value, such as civil aviation 
facilities for peacetime use in this country. I am 
happy to say that our views on this subject were 
understood by the Government of the United 
States and the agreement which I have tabled is 
the result of this understanding." 

Visit of Mexican Mycologist 

Dr. Antonio Gonzalez Ochoa, chief of the Lab- 
oratory of Mycology at the Institute of Public 
Health and Tropical Diseases in Mexico City, is a 
guest of the Department of State for several 
months' study, observation, and research on 
mycological work in the United States. He will 



confer with specialists in tropical medicine at the 
National Institute of Health in Bethesda, Mary- 
land, and at Duke and Stanford Universities. 

Dr. Gonzalez Ochoa has made valuable contribu- 
tions to the increasing scientific knowledge about 
mycology, the study of fungi, and to methods of 
combating diseases arising from fungus infection. 



Birthday of the King 
Of Norway 

(Released to the press August 4] 

The President has sent the following message to 
His Majesty Haakon VII, of Norway : 

The White House, August 3, 1944. 

It gives me pleasure to express to you on this an- 
niversary of Your Majesty's birthday the congrat- 
ulations and best wishes of the people of the 
United States as well as my own felicitations and 
greetings on the occasion. 

Franklin D Roosevelt 



Return of George B. Cressey 
From China 

[Released to the press August 5] 

Dr. George B. Cressey has just returned from 
China, where he served as visiting professor under 
tlie Department of State's program of cultural re- 
lations. Professor Cressey has been on leave of 
absence from Syracuse University where he is 
chairman of the Department of Geology and Geog- 
raphy. He also served in China as the representa- 
tive of the National Academy of Sciences and car- 
ried the greetings of many American scholarly 
organizations. 

During his stay in China Professor Cressey 
visited nearly thirty universities and research in- 
stitutions in the vicinity of Chungking, Chengtu, 
Kunming, Kweiyang, Kweilin, and as far east as 
Foochow on the Pacific. On his way to China last 
fall he spent a month in India where he studied 
university problems at a dozen centers. 



142 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BVLLETIN 



Special War Problems Division 



By GRAHAM H. STUAKT 

Eepresentation of Foreign Interests 



C. THE KEPATRIATION UNIT 

General principles and problems 

We have already discussed the work of repatria- 
tion of nationals before the United States entered 
the war, a function performed by the Welfare Sec- 
tion/ the repatriation of sick and wounded pris- 
oners of war by the Internees Section,^ and certain 
negotiations regarding the repatriation of foreign 
diplomats and consuls by the Enemy Interests 
Unit of the Representation Section.-" Repatria- 
tion in its various aspects has been one of the most 
important activities of the Special War Problems 
Division. The Repatriation Unit proper has the 
responsibility of making the necessary arrange- 
ments for the repatriation of nationals of the 
United States and its Allies and associates from 
enemy territory and the repatriation of enemy na- 
tionals from the territories of the United States 
and other countries of the Western Hemisphere 
upon the basis of an equable and reciprocal ex- 
change. 

The desire for rei^atriation is a very keen one, 
on the part not only of the individual concerned 
but also of his relatives and friends. Since every- 
one seeking repatriation cannot be accommodated 
simultaneously, the compilation of lists of the per- 
sons to be repatriated, taking into consideration 
all the facts and circumstances pertinent to a fair 
and just evaluation, requires thorough investiga- 
tion, careful consideration, and balanced judg- 
ment. It also requires considerable negotiation 
and implementation with the enemy and protect- 
ing powers and the governments of the American 

' This is the fourth in a series of articles on the Special 
War Pi'oblenis Division liy Dr. Stuart, Confiultant in tlio 
Division of Research and Publication, Office of Public 
Information, Department of State. 

■ Bui.i.ErnN of July 2, 1944, p. 6. 

• Bui-LETIN of July 16, 1944, p. 63. 

* Bulletin of July 30, 1944, p. 115. 

'With War Relocation Authority, Immigration and 
Naturalization Service, Provost Marshal General's Office, 
Office of Naval Intelligence, Military Intelligence Office, 
Federal Bureau of Investigation, Alien Enemy Control, 
Census Bureau, and Selective Service. 



reiDublics and also with the militai-y, naval, and 
civil security agencies of the United States. 

As a preliminary to the act of repatriation the 
Repatriation Unit maintains a card file of all 
American citizens known to be residing in enemy 
territory, whether in Europe or in the Far East, 
in which is entered all information obtainable in- 
dicating the repatriability of the individuals 
named. This information includes citations to 
any correspondence between the protecting power 
and enemy governments in regard to any indi- 
vidual's repatriation. The Far Eastern file con- 
tains from 6,500 to 7,000 names of Americans. 

Since repatriation after war begins is a two- 
way street and becomes practically an equivalent 
exchange of nationals, the Repatriation Unit main- 
tains a similar card index of German, Italian, 
Bulgarian, Hungarian, and Rumanian nationals 
resident in the Western Hemisphere indicating 
their current repatriation status. That index 
contains more than 20,000 names. 

The Unit has compiled a third file of the indi- 
viduals of the Japanese race in the United States 
and other countries of the Western Hemisphere. 
That compilation has been one of the most diffi- 
cult problems facing the Unit. The Japanese 
alphabet has so many delicate nuances of meaning 
that Miss Elizabeth B. Smith, who is in charge of 
this work, has found it necessary to recheck the 
index innumerable times.^ The information re- 
ceived by the Unit from Japanese sources regard- 
ing the priority lists of Japanese to be repatriated 
was both incomplete and inaccurate, and many 
months' meticulous work was required to make 
them usable. The Unit today has a list in both 
Japanese and English characters of 100,000 names, 
with their correct addresses, and with the neces- 
sary information concerning their identification, 
whereabouts, and repatriability. In fact, this is 
the only agency which has correlated all the in- 
formation available on individuals of the 
Japanese race in the United States. As such it 
has become an invaluable source of information 
for the other agencies of the Federal Government 



AUGUST 6, 1944 



143 



regarding the loyalty and identity of persons of 
the Japanese race. 

Perliaps one of the most troublesome problems 
facing the Unit is that of deciding which Ameri- 
cans are to be brought home. The Unit received 
innumerable letters from Congressmen, officials of 
the administration, and the general public urging 
the repatriation of specific individuals. However, 
as behooves a democratic system, the Government 
of the United States, recognizing that all Ameri- 
can citizens have an equal right to consideration, 
refused to select individual Americans for inclu- 
sion in exchanges or to discriminate in any other 
way among individual Americans desiring repatri- 
ation. It was necessarj' nevertheless to give the 
Swiss representatives in cliarge of American inter- 
ests in enemy countries certain directives based 
upon broad humanitarian grounds to aid them in 
meeting the exchange quotas. In the case of the 
exchanges with Germany, except for the repatria- 
tion of Govermnent officials, the United States 
made no demands of a specific character. The 
Swiss made up the lists of Americans largely ac- 
cording to the wishes and availability of the per- 
sons to be repatriated. The situation of non-offi- 
cial internees under Japanese control made it ad- 
visable however, for humanitarian reasons, to 
single out certain groups for priority. The direc- 
tives which were set up to govern repatriation from 
tlie Far East in 1943 gave preference to (1) those 
under close arrest ; (2) interned women and chil- 
dren; (3) the .seriously ill; and (4) interned men, 
with preferences being given, other things being 
equal, to married men long separated from their 
families in the United States. For subsequent Far 
Eastern repatriation, unaccompanied interned 
women and children had absolute first priority. 
The next to be considered were the seriously sick 
and seriously wounded, whether civilian or mili- 
tary, and those luider close arrest. Any remaining 
space was to be filled by those least likely to with- 
stand the rigors of continued internment. 

Exchange of ofpcial personnel 

With the entry of the United States into the war, 
plans had to be made for the exchange of official 
and non-official nationals of the United States and 
other countries in the Western Hemisphere, in- 
cluding Canada, with the nationals of the Axis 
countries. Since most of the Latin American re- 
publics broke diplomatic relations with the Axis 



powers immediately after Pearl Harbor, the 
United States sent a circular telegram to all its 
diplomatic missions in the other American repub- 
lics stating that the United States would be glad 
to include in the arrangements which it was mak- 
ing for the exchange of its own diplomatic and 
consular rei^resentatives in Axis countries any of 
the official personnel of the other American repub- 
lics which had broken or might subsequently break 
relations with the Axis powers. The Department 
assumed the initiative in this matter in a spirit 
of cooperation and in view of the fact that trans- 
portation facilities were more readily available to 
this Government for the successful execution of 
such an exchange. The nationals of the other 
American republics and Canada were extended 
equal treatment pari passu with American na- 
tionals. 

The Special Division, as it was then called, 
had charge of all the negotiations pertaining to 
the exchange. The original proposal of Decem- 
ber 19, 1941, to Germany covered the type of per- 
sonnel to be included and the procedure to be em- 
ployed. In substance, the German-American ex- 
cliange agreement provided for the exchange of all 
nationals whether interned or not ^ with the pro- 
viso that either Government might exceptionally 
withhold from the exchange any national of the 
other who.se release might be considered inimical 
to its national interests. The Japanese- American 
exchange agreement provided for the exchange of 
all nationals (except certain permanent residents) , 
without regard to their number or possible useful- 
ness in the prosecution of the war. Subsequent 
arrangements provided that the exchanges should 
cover Latin American dijDlomats who were being 
exchanged with the Axis countries as well as those 
from the United States. 

The principal difficulties in carrying out the ar- 
rangements seemed to be the procurement of suit- 
able vessels and an agreement concerning the in- 
clusion of certain non-official persons. For ex- 
ample, Germany requested 50 prominent German 
civilians to be exchanged with the diplomatic 
transport. The United States was willing to re- 



' In all cases of repatriation of nou-officials. it is re- 
quired that men between the ages of 18 and .50 sign a 
pledge not to bear arms again for the duration of the 
present war. Anyone violating this pledge is subject to 
court-martial if recaptured. 



144 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



patriate all non-official Germans, but it insisted 
that certain persons might be retained for reasons 
of national security. The German Government 
objected to this limitation, but the United States 
was insistent and did not yield its point. Other 
points of dispute arose when the Japanese wanted 
their officials to proceed to third countries, con- 
trary to the interests of the United States and 
when the United States wished to receive as offi- 
cial personnel the American military legation 
guards and Marine detachments from China. 
Neither of these desiderata was attained. 

The long delay before the first exchange 
was finally consummated — approximately four 
months— was caused partly by the lack of direct 
communications. For example, an average of 18 
days was required for a reply from Germany or 
Japan through the channels of the protecting 
power even though the reply did not require much 
reflection on the part of the enemy government. 
The negotiations were also delayed by the fact that 
the United States had to deal, in one way or an- 
other, with every government in the Western 
Hemisphere and all except a few governments in 
Europe and Asia. Finally, the negotiations were 
hampered by a lack of shipping, particularly on 
the west coast of South America, which delayed 
the arrival in the United States of the Axis diplo- 
matic nussions from Bolivia, Peru, and Ecuador. 

In the repatriation of German citizens the Ger- 
man Government requested (1) that German citi- 
zens from the other Americas be repatriated first; 
(2) that Germans interned before the outbreak of 
the war should come next; and (3) that all in- 
ternees were to have preference over those at 
liberty. The Special Division had to check all 
official lists, both those compiled of Germans in 
the United States and, with the help of the Pass- 
port Division, those of Americans in Germany. 
It also had to prepare a list of all Germans de- 
tained or interned in the United States who wished 
to return home and to obtain the approval of the 
Office of Naval Intelligence, Military Intelligence, 
Federal Bureau of Investigation, and Alien En- 
emy Control Unit, Department of Justice, for 
their repatriation. 



' On its way over from Sweden, arriving in New 'XGrk on 
June 9, 1942, the Oripsholm brought 194 Americans and 
alien relatives still remaining in Sweden in return for our 
promise that we would reciprocate to the vessel's capacity 
on her return to Goteborg. 



The United States chartered the Swedish steam- 
ship Drottningkohn to serve as the exchange vessel. 
On its trip from Goteborg, Sweden, on April 19, 
1942, under safe-conduct of all belligerent govern- 
ments, it brought to the United States 114 Ameri- 
can citizens sti-anded in Sweden since 1940. The 
Swiss Goveamient consented to act as guarantor 
for compliance with the terms of the agreement 
reached by the various governments concerned 
for the exchange of Axis and American diplo- 
mats and nationals. The Portuguese Government 
consented to act for all governments concerned 
as guarantor for the exchange operation on Por- 
tuguese territory. When the Drottningholm sailed 
from New York on May 7, 1942 its passenger list 
of 948 comprised 652 German, Italian, Rumanian, 
and Bulgarian officials from the United States and 
215 German and Italian officials from Latin 
American countries. The remaining 81 passengers 
were German non-officials. On its return trip from 
Lisbon on June 1, 1942 the Drottningholm brought 
back 133 iVmerican officials and 46 Latin American 
officials. On the same trip were included 561 
American non-officials and 169 Latin American 
non-officials. 

To safeguard national interests the responsible 
security agencies had rightly taken the stand that 
no one should be repatriated who might be of as- 
sistance to the enemy, intellectually or physically. 
This position, fully supported by the Department 
of State, made it increasingly difficult to find an 
adequate passenger list for the second exchange 
with Germany. When Germany I'efused safe- 
conduct for the vessel unless it changed its port 
of call in the United States to an American port 
specifically designated by Germany to fit in with 
the extension of her submarine campaign in the 
North Atlantic, it was decided, with the approval 
of the Chief Executive, to terminate the European 
exchanges at least for the time being. When the 
next European exchange was made in 1944 the 
security and military authorities considered that 
developments in the war had reduced the dangers 
of such repatriation movements. 

In the case of the Japanese official personnel the 
Swedish motorship Gnpsholin ^ served as the ex- 
change vessel from New York to Louren^o Mar- 
ques in Portuguese Africa. The Japanese Gov- 
ernment utilized one of its own vessels, the Asarrw 
Maru, which sailed from Japan and stopped at 
Saigon, and an Italian vessel, the Conte Verde, 



AUGUST 6, 1944 



145 



with an Italian crew, to carry the American re- 
patriates from Shanghai and Hong Kong. 

An even greater delay than in the case of the 
European exchange occurred because of the non- 
receipt of the list of Americans to be repatriated 
from China and the refusal of the Japanese Gov- 
ernment to grant safe-conduct to the Gripsholm 
until June 16. When the Gripsholm sailed from 
New York on June 18, 1942 there were on board 
approximately 495 Japanese and Thai officials, as 
well as 602 non-official Japanese and Thais. Ac- 
cording to the arrangements the vessel was to call 
en route at Rio de Janeiro to take on board ap- 
proximately 403 additional Japanese official and 
non-official nationals from Brazil and Paraguay. 
Thus, a total of about 1,500 persons were trans- 
ported by the American exchange vessel on its 
first voyage to Lourengo Marques. 

The first exchange with Japan brought about 
the repatriation of 1,378 nationals of the United 
States of whom 288 were officials; 104 Latin 
Americans ; 71 Canadians and 1 Spaniard, making 
a total of 1,554 persons. The majority of non- 
officials included in this exchange came from 
Japan, the remote areas of China under Japanese 
control, and Hong Kong. 

Second exchange with Japan 

A second exchange with Japan was expected to 
follow immediately after the first, but long delays 
resulted. The Japanese resented the publication 
of atrocity stories recounted by Amercians re- 
turned from the Far East, and undoubtedly they 
felt that the statements concerning America's war 
effort made by returning Japanese undermined to 
some extent the Japanese war effort. The Japa- 
nese Government also attempted to interpret the 
agreement to repatriate the Manila group of For- 
eign Service officers as covering only officers 
formally stationed at Manila. The United States 
rejected in strong terms this interpretation. An- 
other delaying factor was the difficulty in 
identifying and locating the Japanese requested by 
the Japanese Government. 

The Department's position was laid down in a 
telegram to Bern, dated April 20, 1942. In this 
communication the Department stated that in 
agreeing to the repatriation of non-official persons 
the United States "accepted the Japanese proposal 
that all includable persons be exchanged without 
question of their usefulness for the prosecution of 



the war and contemplated proposing no limitation 
upon repatriation of persons because of their mili- 
tary age." The Department followed an identical 
policy in its telegram of July 29, 1942 to proceed 
with the second exchange, and the Japanese ac- 
cepted on the same basis as the first, which the 
Special Division interpreted to mean that the 
United States was obligated to repatriate, without 
exception, all persons specifically named by the 
Japanese Government unless such persons refused 
repatriation.^ In attempting to do so, however, 
great difficulties were encountered. The Japa- 
nese Government's priority list, which had 
been made up, evidently from memory, on board 
the Gripsholm by the returning Japanese offi- 
cials, contained thousands of names, many of 
which were incorrectly spelled and of which the 
addresses given were inexact. Since many of the 
names had not previously been suggested for re- 
patriation they were unknown to the Special Divi- 
sion. The most expeditious procedure was to ob- 
tain Japanese acceptance of a list of passengers 
whose identity, whereabouts, and willingness to be 
repatriated were already known. 

Successive passenger lists suggested and sub- 
mitted to the Japanese Government on the basis 
of identified Japanese who were willing to be re- 
patriated were rejected by Japan on the ground 
that certain Japanese requested by Japan were not 
included. Furthermore, Jajjan refused to believe 
that so many, more than 3,000 out of 5,000, of those 
named by her for repatriation refused the oppor- 
tunity when offered. 

Another factor which may have affected the 
Japanese attitude was the change of ministry 
which occurred in the Japanese Government in 
September 1942, when a certain Masayuki Tani, 
who was reported to hold the militaristic point of 
view, was placed in charge of the Japanese For- 
eign Office. During his incumbency there was 
manifest a disinclination to proceed with the sec- 
ond exchange, and it was not before he left office 
in the spring of 1943 that the Special Division was 
able to proceed with some hope of effecting the 
second exchange. 

It was finally decided to ask the Japanese again 
to state precisely whom in the light of all difficul- 

'This policy was based on the fact that Americans In 
in the hands of tlie Japanese were in a less favorable posi- 
tion physically than those in the power of the European 
enemies. 



746 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BVLLETIN 



ties encountered they wished exchanged, hoping 
thus to obtain information that would enable us 
to. meet Japan's wishes. A note worded so as to 
permit a flexible interpretation brought a rather 
favorable reply from the Japanese. After a year 
of disappointing delays the State Department was 
in a position to proceed with some hope of success. 
Numerous details yet remained to be worked out, 
but as a result of the whole-hearted cooperation of 
all agencies, growing out of a meeting in the De- 
partment on August 19, 1943, the G-ripsholm, was 
able to leave on its second exchange voyage (this 
time to Mormugao, Portuguese India) on Septem- 
ber 2, 1943.1 

It is possible that the delay in effecting the sec- 
ond exchange made more difficult the possibility of 
future exclianges with the Japanese. More im- 
portant is the fact that the delay undoubtedly 
caused much suffering among American prisoners 
of war in Japanese custody, whose lives, in many 
instances, probably depended upon the medicine 
that could be obtained only on the exchange vessels. 
However, the experience gained by the Depart- 
ment may yet prove of the greatest value. Since 
the return of the Grifsholm from the second ex- 
change the State Department has been persist- 
ently attempting to negotiate a third exchange. 
Accurate information is now on file regarding 
practically all Japanese willing to accept repatri- 
ation, numbering more than 9,000. The officials 
of the Special War Problems Division hope that as 
the demand for manpower increases, the Japanese 
Govermnent may again be willing to carry on nego- 
tiations for further exchange of its nationals. 

Other exchanges with Germany 

The Drottninghohn, on ite second voyage from 
New York, repatriated 950 non-officials, of which 
819 were Germans; 120 Italians; 6 Bulgarians; 
5 Rumanians ; and 10 Hungarians. On its return 
trip it brought back 785 North Americans and 157 
Latin Americans. On its third trip to Lisbon, 
June 3, 1942, the Drvti-ninghohn carried 646 Ger- 
mans, 124 Italians, 2 Hungarians, and 43 Swedish, 
a total of 815. Two other vessels were used to 
repatriate German non-officials, the Nyassa, June 
13, 1942, and the Scrpa Pinto, July 3, 1942, which 
together took over 351. 



'On its second voyage the Oripsholm took over 1,507 
Japanese and brought back the same number of nationals 
from North and South America, including 221 Canadians, 



No other exchanges with Germany were made 
before the spring of 1944 when the Gripsholm, re- 
patriated 1,145 Germans and 18 French officials 
and brought back 533 Americans and 95 Latin 
Americans. On this last exchange a considerable 
number of the passengers were being repatriated 
on humanitarian grounds because of serious illness 
or because they were seriously woimded prisoners 
of war. No arrangements have yet been concluded 
for further group exchanges with Germany, al- 
though negotiations are under way. In the mean- 
time, a small number of civilians are being included 
in current exchanges of seriously sick and wounded 
prisoners of war. 

The total number of Americans who have been 
repatriated from Europe up to April 1, 1944 has 
been 2,361 and from the Far East, 3,080. In return, 
4,176 nationals of the European Axis powers have 
been sent back to Eurojie and 2,950 Japanese na- 
tionals have been repatriated to Japan. 

The removal of subversive aliens from the other 
American repiiblics 

Within a short time after the entrance of the 
United States into the World War the Latin 
American republics, with the exception of 
Argentina and Chile, either broke relations with 
or declared war upon the Axis powers. At the 
Conference of Foreign Ministers of the American 
Republics, held in Rio de Janeiro in January 
1942, several resolutions were passed which aimed 
at combating the subversive activities of enemy 
aliens and an Emergency Advisory Committee for 
Political Defense was set up at Montevideo. This 
Committee adopted a resolution drafted by the 
Department of Justice in consultation with the 
Special Division and the Division of American 
Republics in the Department of State. The reso- 
lution was presented by the American member of 
the Committee, which recommended to the gov- 
ernments of the American republics the need for 
the adequate detention of dangerous Axis na- 
tionals and for the deportation of such persons 
to another American republic for detention when 
adequate local detention facilities were lacking. 

The Department, as well as other agencies of 
the Government, including the Departments of 
War, Na\^, and Justice, felt that the presence 
of large numbers of dangerous and potentially 
dangerous Germans, Italians, and Japanese in the 



AUGUST 6, 1944 



147 



countries to the south was a serious threat to con- 
tinental safety. These aliens had access to com- 
munication facilities, to mines engaged in pro- 
ducing essential materials, to public-utility power 
plants, and to wharves and harbor facilities used 
by our shipping in the transportation of defense 
materials. Because of the political influence ex- 
erted by many of these aliens, measures of strict 
control could hardly be hoped for. Tlie safest 
procedure was to remove as many of these aliens 
as possible, either by repatriation to their home- 
lands or by bringing them to the United States 
where adequate internment facilities to take care 
of large groups of alien enemies had been 
prepared. 

As an aid to repatriation tlie United States, in 
its negotiations with enemy governments for the 
repatriation of nationals, provided for the inclu- 
sion of the nationals of all other American gov- 
ernments which might be interested. All but 
three — Brazil, Uruguay, and Paraguay — of the 
Latin American republics which had broken with 
the Axis took advantage of our exchange agree- 
ment with the European Axis powers. By this 
means, some 2,000 German and Italian nationals 
who were regarded as dangerous enemy aliens were 
returned to Europe on the three voyages of the 
Drottningholm and on the t.wo supplementary 
sailings of neutral vessels. 

In addition to this exchange procedure, the 
United States has provided, at its own expense, 
facilities for the transportation of any Axis na- 
tionals who might be under consideration for de- 
portation to this country and for their accommo- 
dation once they arrive here.^ 

The Special War Problems Division handles all 
arrangements regarding the transportation of 
alien enemies from the other American republics 
deported for internment in the United States. 
They have been transported to the United States 
by tlie following means : Ai-my transports. Army 
air transports, commercial airlines, and Chilean 
conmiercial steamship lines. The majority of the 



alien enemies have been transported to the United 
States by Army transports, the use of which has 
been limited to cases where the removal of a par- 
ticular group of alien enemies is considered urgent. 

The use of commercial lines for the transporta- 
tion of alien enemies lias been confined mainly to 
the families of potentially dangerous men already 
interned in the United States. By use of such 
transportation, the individuals have been trans- 
ported from time to time in small groups as space 
became available. 

On two occasions space on Chilean passenger 
vessels proceeding to the United States has been 
used for the transportation of alien enemies and 
their families from Peru. This means was not 
continued because, toward the end of June 1943, the 
passenger vessels on the run from Santiago to New 
Orleans were taken over by the United States Mari- 
time Commission. 

The cooperation received from the other Amei'i- 
can republics has varied according to the local laws 
and the national policy of each country. The bel- 
ligerent republics of the Caribbean area have sent 
us subversive aliens without limitation concerning 
their disposition. Peru has followed a similar 
policy. On the other hand Venezuela, Colombia, 
Ecuador, and Mexico have insisted upon explicit 
guarantees before turning over aliens for repatria- 
tion. 

The success of the repatriation program may be 
gaged from the results which have been obtained. 
The total number of enemy aliens brought to the 
United States from South and Central America is 
4,707, of which 2,584 have been repatriated, and 
2,118 are interned in the United States. In regard 
to security this means that the Jaf)anese colonies 
in many states have been virtually eliminated and 
the local German organizations substantially disor- 
ganized. 

' Potentially dangerous alien enemies brought to the 
United States for internment are not "entered" into the 
United States under the provisions of immigration laws 
of this country and are subject to deportation proceedings 
at the conclusion of the war. 



148 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



TREATY INFORMATION 



Agricultural Experiment Station 
In Guatemala 

On July 15, 1944 the American Ambassador in 
Guatemala and the IVIinister for Foreign Affairs 
of Guatemala signed a memorandum of under- 
standing providing for the establishment and 
operation of an agricultural experiment station in 
Guatemala. 

The agi-eement provides, in part, for the de- 
velopment of tropical agriculture in general, and, 
specifically, for the promotion of the cinchona in- 
dustry in Guatemala. The Government of Guate- 
mala agrees to provide certain lands, laboratory 
and office space, farm implements, Guatemalan 
assistants, and unskilled labor as may be essential 
to conduct the work of the experiment station. 
The Goverimient of the United States agrees to 
provide the services of scientists, scientific jour- 
nals, equipment, and apparatus, and land motor 
vehicles, subject to the availability of such vehi- 
cles in the United States, in order to carry out 
the purposes of the experiment station. Provision 
is made for the training of certain approved 
Guatemalan students on problems pertaining to 
cinchona. 

The agreement provides that it "shall come in 
force on the day of signature and shall continue in 
force for a period of ten yeai's unless either of the 
Governments shall fail to provide the funds neces- 
sary for its execution in which event it may be 
terminated on written notice by either Govern- 
ment." 

Convention on the Pan American 

Union 

Bolirin 

The Director General of the Pan American 
Union informed the Secretary of State, by a letter 
of Jidy 27, 10-14, of the deposit with the Pan Amer- 
ican Union on July 24, 1944 of the instrument of 



ratification by the Government of Bolivia of the 
Convention on the Pan American Union signed at 
Habana on February 20, 1928 at the Sixth Inter- 
national Conference of American States {Report 
of the Delegates of the United States of America 
to the Sixth International Conference of American 
States, Government Printing Office, 1928, pp. 231- 
238). 

The instrument of ratification is dated October 
20, 1943. 



Pan American Highway 

Bolivia 

The Director General of tlie Pan American 
Union informed the Secretary of State, by a letter 
of July 27, 1944, of the deposit with the Pan Amer- 
ican Union on July 24, 1944 of the instrument of 
ratification by the Government of Bolivia of the 
Convention on the Pan American Highway signed 
at Buenos Aires on December 23, 1936 at the Inter- 
American Conference for the Maintenance of Peace 
(Treaty Series 927). 

The instrument of ratification is dated October 
20, 1943. 



Promotion of Inter-American 

Cultural Relations 

Bolivia 

The Director GeneraJ of the Pan American. 
Union informed tlie Secretary of State, by a letter 
of July 27, 1944, of the deposit with the Pan Amer- 
ican Union on July 24, 1944 of the instrument of 
ratification by the Government of Bolivia of the 
Convention for the Promotion of Inter- American 
Cultural Relations signed at Buenos Aires on De- 
cember 23, 193G at the Inter-American Conference 
for the Maintenance of Peace (Treaty Series 928). 

The instrument of ratification is dated October 
20, 1943. 



AUGUST 6, 19U 



149 



Regulation of Inter-American 
Automotive Traffic 

Dominican Republic 

The American Embassy at Ciudad Trujillo in- 
formed the Department by a despatch of July 20, 
1944 that tlie Dominican Government has ratified 
tlie Convention on tlie Regulation of Inter- Ameri- 
can Automotive Traffic, which was opened for sig- 
nature at the Pan American Union on December 
15, 1943. The convention was approved by the 
Chamber of Deputies on June 21, 1944 and by the 
Senate on June 27, 1944 and was promulgated by 
the President on June 29, 1944. The congressional 
resolution aj^proving tlie convention, and its pro- 
mulgation, were published in the Dominican 
Gaceta Oficial of July 11, 1944. 

Peru 

The Director General of the Pan American 
l^nion informed the Secretary of State by a letter 
of July 28, 1944 that the instrument of ratification 
by tlie Government of Peru of tlie Convention on 
the Regulation of Inter-American Automotive 
Traffic was deposited with the Pan American 
Union on July 25, 1944. The instrument of rati- 
fication is dated July 7, 1944. 

Corrigendum 

Cfuatemala 

BuLUETiN of July 23, 1944, page 104, first column, 
first paragraph, fourtli line : Dtdete "El Salvador" 
and in lieu thereof insert "Guatemala". 

Inter- American Institute of Agricultural 
Sciences 

Bolivia 

Tlie Director General of the Pan American 
Union by a letter of July 17, 1944 infoniied the 
Secretary of State that on July 12, 1944 the Charge 
d'Affaires ad interim of Bolivia in the United 
States, Senor Don Carlos Dorado Chopitea, signed 
in the name of his Government the Convention on" 
the Inter-American Institute of Agricultural 
Sciences, which was opened for signature at the 
Pan American Union on January 15, 1944. 

Nicaragua 

The American Embassy at Managua has in- 
formed the Department that on June 21, 1944 the 



Nicaraguan Congress approved the Convention on 
the Inter-American Institute of Agricultural 
Sciences and that the President ratified the con- 
vention on July 18, 1944. 



^ THE DEPARTMENT ^ 



Appointment of OflGcers 

Cailisle C. Mclvor as Assistant Chief of the 
Division of World Trade Intelligence, effective 
July 21, 1944. 

Donald R. Heath as Chief of the Division of 
North and West Coast Affairs, Office of American 
Republic Affairs, effective July 26, 1944. 

Cecil B. Lyon as Assistant Chief of the Division 
of North and West Coast Affairs, Office of Ameri- 
can Republic Affairs, effective July 26, 1944. 

Robert F. Woodward as Acting Assistant Chief 
of the Division of Nortli and West Coast Affairs, 
Office of American Republic Affairs, effective July 
26, 1944. 

Henry P. Fletcher as Special Adviser to the 
Secretary of State, on post-war problems and 
plans, effective July 27, 1944. 

Isaiah Bowman as Special Adviser to the Secre- 
tary of State, on post-war problems and plans, 
effective July 27, 1944. 

Joseph F. McGurk as Acting Director of the 
Office of American Republic Affairs, effective July 
31, 1944. 



PUBLICATIONS 



Other Government Agencies 

The articles listed below will be found in the August 5 
issue of the Department of Commerce publication entitled 
Foreign Commerce Weeklii, copies of which may be obtained 
from the Superintendent of Documents, Government Print- 
ing Office, for 10 cents each : 

"Free China's Industry : Recent Salient Trends", based 
on a report from J. Bartlett Richards, commercial attach^, 
American Embassy, Chungljing. 

"Organic Drugs and Chemicals : Markets and Industry 
in Chile", by R. F. Schneider, economic analyst, American 
Embassy, Santiago. 

U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1944 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 





J 



J 



J 




^ r 




1 




r 



VOL. XI, NO. 268 



AUGUST 13. 1944 



In this issue 



PETROLEUM AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES 
AND THE UNITED KINGDOM ******* 



THE DEPARTMENT'S DIVISION OF LABOR RELATIONS: By 
Otis E. Mulliken &•&*■*•&*«■&«« 



A NEW PATTERN IN INTERNATIONAL WARTIME COLLABO- 
RATION: By Marion Parks ir*6,iirA«ft 




U. S. BDPrraflTENCENT of OOCUI.-.LHTS 

OCT 3 1944 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

BULLETIN 




Pdblication 2160 



August 13, 1944 



The Department of State BULLE- 
TIN, a weekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Research and 
Publication, Office of Public Informa- 
tion, provides the public and inter- 
ested agencies of the Government with 
information on developments in the 
field of foreign relations and on the 
tcork of the Department of State and 
the Foreign Service. The BULLETIN 
includes press releases on foreign policy 
issued by the White House and the De- 
partment, and statements and addresses 
made by the President and by the Sec- 
retary of State and other officers of the 
Department, as ivell as special articles 
on various phases of international af- 
fairs and the functions of the Depart- 
ment. Information concerning treaties 
and international agreements to tchich 
the United States is or may become a 
party and treaties of general inter- 
national interest is included. 

Publications of the Department, 
cumulative lists of which are published 
at the end of each quarter, as well as 
legislative material in the field of inter- 
national relations, are listed currently. 

The BULLETIN, published with the 
approval of the Director of the Bureau 
of the Budget, is for sale by the Super- 
intendent of Documents, United States 
Government Printing Office, Washing- 
ton 25, D. C, to ir/iom all purchase 
orders, with accompanying remittance, 
shoidd be sent. The subscription price 
is $2.75 a year; a single copy is 10 
cents. 



Qontents 



American Republics Page 

Non-Recognition of Argentine Regime 158 

A New Pattern in International Wartime Collaboration: 

By Marion Parks 160 

Economic Affairs 

Petroleum Agreement Between the United States and the 

United Kingdom 153 

Statement by the Acting Secretary of State 153 

Statement by the Secretary of the Interior 154 

Exploratory Talks on Post- War Rubber Problems .... 156 

Meeting of United Nations Shipping Representatives ... 157 

Committees To Consider Telecommunications Problems . . 158 

Questions Relating to Lend-Lease 158 

International Conferences, Commissions, Etc. 

Pan American Conference on Geography and Cartography . 159 

Post-Wah Matters 

International Peace and Security Organization: 

Postponement of Conversations 157 

United Kingdom Representatives 157 

Treaty Information 

Naval-Mission Agreement With Colombia 159 

MiUtary- Aviation- Mission Agreement With Ecuador ... 159 

Petroleum Agreement 'With United Kingdom 153 

The Department 

The Department's Division of Labor Relations: By Otis E. 

Mulliken 166 

ConsoHdation of Two Divisions in the Office of American 
Republic Affairs: Departmental Order 1283 of July 26, 
1944 169 

Appointment of Officers 169 

The Foreign Service 

Confirmations 168 

Consular Offices 168 

Publications 165 

Legislation , 168 



Petroleum Agreement Between the United States 
And the United Kingdom 



[Released to the press August 8] 

An agreement on petroleum between the Govern- 
ment of the United States and the Government of 
the United Kingdom was signed in the State De- 
partment at Washington on August 8, 1944 by the 
Hon. Edward R. Stettinius, Jr., Acting Secretary 
of State, on belialf of the United States Government 
and by Lord Beaverbrook, who led the United 
Kingdom delegation, on behalf of the Government 
of the United Kingdom. 

(For members of the delegations of the United 
States and the United Kmgdom see the Bulletin 
of July 23, 19i4, p. 93. An additional member, the 
Right Honorable Ben Smith, M.P., Minister Resi- 
dent in Washington, has been appointed to the 
United Kingdom delegation.) 

The agreement will become effective upon notifi- 
cation by both Governments of their readiness to 
bring the agreement into force. 

Tlie agreement lays 
down certain broad 
principles governing 
international trade in 
petroleum. These 
principles have to do 
with (1) assuring the 
availability of adequate 
petroleum supplies to 
all peaceable comitries 
at fair prices and 
on a nondiscriminatory 
basis, subject to such 
collective security ar- 
rangements as may at 
any time be in force; 
(2) the development 



of petroleum resources 
witli a view to the 
sound economic ad- 
vancement of produc- 
ing countries; (3) rec- 
ognition of the prin- 
ciple of equal oppor- 
tmiity in the acquisition 



Statement by the Acting 
Secretary of State 

[Released to the press August 8) 

In connection with the signing of the 
agreement Acting Secretary of State Stet- 
tinius stated on behalf of Secretary Hull, 
chaix'man of the American delegation: 

"This agreement on petroleum between 
the Governments of the United States and 
the United Kingdom is a most constructive 
forward step toward long-range collabora- 
tion between the two countries in the inter- 
national economic field. It is intended that 
this agi-eement be followed in due course by 
a multilateral petroleum agreement among 
all interested countries. This agreement is 
an example of the kind of arrangement 
which it is hoped can be concluded from 
time to time in order that international 
economic collaboration may be assured." 



of concessions; (4) respect for valid concession 
contracts; and (5) freeing the production and dis- 
tribution of petroleum from unnecessary restric- 
tions. 

The agreement provides for the establisliment 
of an International Petroleum Commission com- 
posed of representatives from the two Govern- 
ments. The Commission is charged with the re- 
sponsibility of estimating world demand for pe- 
troleum and recommending to the two Govern- 
ments the manner in which this demand may best 
be satisfied in accordance with the general princi- 
ples of the agreement as referred to above. The 
recommendations of this Commission, if approved 
by the two Governments, will be issued with a view 
to their adoption by the American and British 
companies operating in the international petro- 
leum trade. The Commission is further charged 
with the duty of investigating Anglo-American 

problems relating to 
efficient and orderly op- 
eration of the interna- 
tional petroleum indus- 
try and of making ap- 
propriate recommenda- 
tions to the two Govern- 
ments. 

This agreement, 
which is terminable on 
three months' notice by 
either Government, is 
of an interim character 
and is preliminary to 
the negotiation of a 
multilateral agreement 
on petroleum to which 
the governments of all 
producing and consum- 
ing countries interested 
in the international pe- 
troleum trade will, it is 
hoped, become signa- 
tories. The agreement 
pi-ovides that the requi- 

153 



154 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Statement by the Secretary 
Of the Interior' 

[Released to the press August 8] 

This agreement on petroleum represents 
the successful culmination of an effort ex- 
tending over a long period. It marks a 
great step forward in international oil re- 
lations and introduces an advanced tech- 
nique in dealing with international oil 
affairs. I have long cherished the hope that 
such a basis for cooperation might be 
reached. It augurs well for stability and 
order in the period ahead. Now we must 
work for the expansion of this Anglo- 
American agreement so as to embrace all 
countries interested in the petroleum trade. 



site steps preparatory to the convocation of a world 
petroleum conference for the negotiation of a mul- 
tilateral agreement will be taken as soon as prac- 
ticable. 

The two signatory countries agree to seek the 
collaboration of other interested countries in the 
implementation of the agreed principles and to 
consult as appropriate with the governments of 
such countries in connection with activities under- 
taken on the basis of recommendations of the Pe- 
troleum Commission. 

The test of the agreement follows : ^ 

Introductory Article 

The Government of the United States of Amer- 
ica and the Government of the United Kingdom 
of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, whose 
nationals hold, to a substantial extent jointly, 
rights to explore and develop petroleum resources 
in other countries, recognize: 

1. That ample supplies of petroleum, available 
in international trade to meet increasing market 
demands, ai'e essential for both the security and 
economic well-being of nations; 

2. That for the foreseeable future the petroleum 
resources of the world are adequate to assure the 
availability of such supplies; 

' Mr. Ickos is also Petroleum Administrator for War and 
vice chairman of the American (lelegntion. 

' The text here printed conforms to the signed original. 



3. That such supplies should be derived from 
the various producing areas of the world with 
due consideration of such factors as available re- 
serves, sound engineering practices, relevant eco- 
nomic factors, and the interests of producing and 
consuming countries, and with a view to the full 
satisfaction of expanding demand; 

4. That such supplies should be available in 
accoi-dance with the principles of the Atlantic 
Charter and in order to serve the needs of collec- 
tive security; 

5. That the general adoption of these principles 
can best be promoted by international agreement 
among all countries interest^ed in the petroleum 
trade whether as producers or consumers. 

Article I 

The two Governments agree that the develop- 
ment of petroleum resources for international 
trade should be expanded in an orderly manner on 
a world-wide basis with due consideration of the 
factors set forth in paragraph 3 of the Introduc- 
tory Article and within the framework of appli- 
cable laws or concession contracts. To this end, 
and as a preliminary measure to the calling of the 
international conference referred to in Article 
II below, the two Governments will so direct their 
efforts, with respect to petroleum resources in 
which rights are held or may be acquired by the 
nationals of either country : 

1. That, subject always to considerations of 
military security and to the provisions of such 
arrangements for the preservation of peace and 
prevention of aggression as may be in force, ade- 
quate supplies of petroleum shall be available in 
international trade to the nationals of all peace- 
able countries at fair prices and on a nondiscrimi- 
natory basis ; 

2. That the development of petroleum resources 
and the benefits received therefrom by the produc- 
ing countries shall be such as to encourage the 
sound economic advancement of those countries; 

3. That the development of these resources shall 
be conducted with a view to the availability of 
adequate supplies of petroleum to both countries 
as well as to all other peaceable countries, sub- 
ject to tlie provisions of such collective security 
arrangements as may be established; 

4. That, with respect to the acquisition of ex- 
ploration and development rights in areas not now 
under concession, the principle of equal oppor- 
tunity shall be respected by both Governments; 



AUGUST 13, 1944 



155 



5. That the Government of each country and 
the nationals thereof shall respect all valid con- 
cession contracts and lawfully acquired rights, 
and shall make no effort unilaterally to interfere 
directly or indirectly with such contracts or 
rights ; 

6. That, subject always to the considerations 
mentioned in paragraph 1 of this Article, the ex- 
ploration for and development of petroleum re- 
sources, the construction and operation of refiner- 
ies and other facilities, and the distribution of 
petroleum shall not be hampered by restrictions 
imposed by either Government or its nationals, in- 
consistent with the purposes of this Agreement. 

Article II 

The two Governments recognize that the princi- 
ples declared in Article I hereof are of general 
applicability and merit adherence on the part of 
all countries interested in the international petro- 
leum trade of the world. 

Therefore, with a view to the wider adoption 
and effectuation of the principles embodied in this 
Agreement they agree that as soon as practicable 
they will propose to the governments of other in- 
terested producing and consuming countries an 
International Petroleum Agreement which, inter 
alia, would establish a permanent International 
Petroleum Council composed of representatives of 
all signatory countries. 

To this end the two Governments hereby pledge 
themselves to formulate plans for an international 
conference to consider the negotiation of such a 
multilateral Petroleum Agreement. They also 
pledge themselves to consult with other interested 
governments with a view to taking whatever ac- 
tion is necessary to prepare for the proposed con- 
ference. 

ARTICLE III 

There are, however, numerous problems of joint 
immediate interest to the two Governments, with 
respect to petroleum resources in which rights are 
held or may be acquired by their nationals, which 
must be discussed and resolved on a cooperative 
interim basis if the general petroleum supply sit- 
uation is not to deteriorate. 

With this end in view the two Governments 
hereby agree to establish an International Pe- 
troleum Commission to be composed of eight mem- 
bers, four members to be appointed immediately 
by each Government. This Commission, in fur- 
therance of and in accordance with the principles 



stated in Article I hereof, shall consider problems 
of mutual interest to both Governments and their 
nationals, and, with a view to the equitable dis- 
position of such problems, shall be charged with 
the following duties and responsibilities: 

1. To prepare long-term estimates of world de- 
mand for petroleum, having due regard for the 
interests of consuming countries and expanding 
consumiation requirements ; 

2. To suggest the manner in which, over the 
long term, this estimated demand may best be sat- 
isfied by production equitably distributed among 
the various producing countries in accordance 
with the criteria enumerated in paragraph 3 of the 
Introductory Article ; 

3. To recommend to both Governments broad 
policies for adoption by operating companies with 
a view to effectuating programs suggested under 
the provisions of paragraph 2 of this Article ; 

4. To analyze such short-term problems of joint 
interest as may arise in connection with produc- 
tion, processing, transportation and distribution 
of petroleum on a world-wide basis, wherever the 
nationals of either country have a significant in- 
terest, and to recommend to both Governments 
such action as may appear appropriate; 

5. To make regular reports to the two Govern- 
ments concerning its activities ; 

6. To make, from time to time, such additional 
reports and recommendations to the two Govern- 
ments as may be appropriate to carry out the pur- 
poses of this Agreement. 

The Commission shall establish such organiza- 
tion as is necessary to carry out its functions un- 
der this Agreement. The expenses of the Com- 
mission shall be shared equally by the two Gov- 
ernments. 

Article IV 

To effectuate this Agreement the two Govern- 
ments hereby grant reciprocal assurances : 

1. That they will adhere to the principles set 
forth in Article I, paragraphs 1 to C inclusive ; 

2. That they will endeavor to obtain the col- 
laboration of the governments of other producing 
and consuming countries in the implementation 
of the principles set forth in Article I, and will 
consult, as appropriate, with such governments 
in connection with activities undertaken under 
Article III ; 

3. That upon approval of the recommendations 
of the Commission they will endeavor, in accord- 



156 

ance with their respective constitutional proced- 
ures, to give effect to such approved recommenda- 
tions ; 

4. That each Government will undertake to keep 
itself adequately informed of the current and pro- 
spective activities of its nationals with respect to 
the development, processing, transportation and 
distribution of petroleum; 

5. That each Government will make available to 
the Commission such information regarding the 
activities of its nationals as is necessary to the 
realization of the purposes of this Agreement. 

Aeticle V 
The two Governments agree that in this Agree- 
ment : 

1. The words "country" or "territories" 

(a) in relation to the Government of the United 
Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, 
include, in addition to the United Kingdom, all 
British colonies, overseas territories, protectorates, 
protected states and all mandated territories ad- 
ministered by that Government; and 

(b) in relation to the Government of the United 
States of America, include, in addition to the 
United States, all territory under the jurisdiction 
of the United States ; 

2. The word "nationals" means 

(a) in relation to the Government of the United 
Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, 
all British subjects and British protected persons 
belonging to the territories referred to in 1 (a) 
above and all companies incorporated under the 
laws of any of the above-mentioned territories, and 
also companies incorporated elsewhere in which 
the controlling interest is held by any of such 
nationals ; 

(b) in relation to the Government of the United 
States of America, all nationals of the United 
States including companies incorporated under 
the laws of the territories referred to in 1 (b) 
above, and also companies incorporated elsewhere 
in which the controlling interest is held by any of 
such nationals ; 

3. Tlie word "petroleum" means cnide petro- 
leum and its derivatives. 

Article VI 

This Agreement shall enter into force upon a 
date to be agreed upon after each Government 
shall have notified the other of its readiness to 



DEPARTMENT Of STATE BULLETIN 

bring the Agreement into force and shall continue 
in force until three months after notice of termina- 
tion has been given by either Government or until 
it is superseded by the International Petroleum 
Agreement contemplated in Article II. 

In witness whereof the undersigned, duly au- 
thorized thereto, have signed this Agreement. 

Done in Washington, in duplicate, this eighth 
day of August, one thousand nine hundred and 
forty-four. 
For the Government of the United States of 
America : 

Edward R. STETTiNitis, Jr. 

Actmg Secretary of State 
of the United States of America 
For the Go\-ernment or the United Kingdom 
OF Great Britain and Northern Ireland: 
Beaverbrook 

Lord Privy Seal 

Exploratory Talks on 
Post- War Rubber Problems 

[Released to the press August 10] 

The Department of State announced on July 18 
that it had accepted an invitation from the Gov- 
ernment of the United Kingdom to take part in 
exploratory conversations on post-war rubber prob- 
lems with the Governments of the Netherlands and 
the United Kingdom.^ 

It was made clear at the same time that the 
drafting of a tentative program of studies would 
be considered and also the desirability of estab- 
lishing a committee to keep the rubber situation 
under review. 

OiBcials of the three Governments assisted by 
members of various branches of the industry have 
now concluded these conversations, which were 
held in London between August 1 and August 9. 
A comprehensive survey was made of the rubber 
situation covering natural and synthetic rubber 
and related problems. 

In the course of these discussions a full exchange 
of views took place, and a large measure of agree- 
ment was reached on the broad outlines of the 
rubber position and on the nature of the problems 
that lie ahead. It was recognized that these prob- 
lems were matters of common concern to the three 
Governments. 



' BULLETTIN Of July 23, 1»44, p. 84. 



AUGUST 13, 1944 



157 



A first progi'am of studies has been prepared, and 
arrangements for carrying out these studies are 
being made. 

Consideration was also given to the best way, 
having regard to existing circumstances, of secur- 
ing continuing examination and further discussion 
of the problems likely to arise with respect to rub- 
ber and rubber substitutes, and it was agreed to 
resume the conversations in the near future. 

Meeting of United Nations 
Shipping Representatives 

[Released to the press August 8] 

Shipping representatives of governments of the 
United Nations that are parties to existing ar- 
rangements for provision of ships to meet the 
need of the United Nations have recently met in 
London to discuss arrangements to insure the con- 
tinued availability of their tonnage resources for 
all purposes of those nations in the changed cir- 
cumstances anticipated during the latter phases 
of the war. 

The Governments of Belgium, Canada, Greece, 
the Netherlands, Noi-way, Poland, the United 
Kingdom, and the United States have declared 
that they accept as a common responsibility the 
provision of shipping for all military and other 
tasks necessary for and arising out of the com- 
pletion of the war in Europe and the Far East 
and for the supplying of all liberated areas as 
well as of the United Nations generally and ter- 
ritories under their authority. Existing madiin- 
ery for control of ships' employment is to be ad- 
justed to implement the declaration. Further 
discussions will take place as soon as possible to 
complete the details of this adjustment. 

The arrangements shall not extend beyond six 
montlis after the general suspension of hostilities 
in Europe or the Far East, whichever may be the 
later. 

All French shipping is and remains at the dis- 
posal of the United Nations, and the French Com- 
mittee of National Liberation took part in the 
discussions. 

Denmark was represented by an observer. 

Other governments concerned are being in- 
formed and will be invited to associate themselves 
with the arrangement. 



International Peace and 
Security Organization 

POSTPONEMENT OF CONVERSATIONS 

[Released to the press August 7] 

At his press and radio news conference on 
August 7 Acting Secretary Stettinius said: 

"The Russian Government finds that it needs a 
little more time for preparation with its repre- 
sentatives before they leave Moscow for Washing- 
ton. We have been very glad indeed to meet their 
wishes in the matter and have put off the opening 
of the conversations from the fourteenth to the 
twentj'-first of August. It will probably save 
time in the end." 



UNITED KINGDOM REPRESENTATIVES 

[Released to the press August 12 ] 

A list of the United Kingdom representatives 
to the International Security Organization con- 
ferences, who arrived on the afternoon of August 
12 at the National Airport, follows : 

The Honorable Sir Alexander Cadogan, G.C.M.G., K.C.B., 
Permanent Under Secretary of State for Foreign 
Affairs, chairman of the delegation 

Gladwyn Jebb, C.M.G., Foreign Office Secretary General 

A. H. Poynton, Colonial Office 

Col. Capel Dunn, War Cabinet Offices 

Paul Falla, Foreign Office 

Peter Loxley, private secretary to Sir Alexander Cadogan 

Miss Collard, secretary to the delegation 

Others accompanying the representatives on the 
same plane at the National Airport were : 

His Excellency the Right Honorable the Earl of Halifax, 

K.G., British Ambassador 
The Honorable Sir R. I. Campbell, K.C.M.G., C.B., E.E. 

and M.P., British Minister 
Maj. J. G. Lockhart, First Secretary of the British 

Embassy 
Maj. Gen. Grove-White, Assistant to Lt. Gen. 0. N. 

Macready, Chief of British Army Staff and member 

of delegation 
Miss M. Randall, secretary to the Ambassador 

The American group, including the Honorable 
Edward R. Stettinius, Jr., Under Secretary of 
State, Charles Yost, Department of State, and Lt. 
Frederick Holdsworth, U.S.N.R., met the United 
Kingdom group in New York and accompanied 
them to Washington. 



158 

Non-Recognition of 
Argentine Regime 

[Released to the press August 10] 

In his press and radio news conference on 
August 10, Acting Secretary Stettinius said : 

"The joint statement by Colombia and Vene- 
zuela is further proof of the unity of purpose and 
action among the American republics in main- 
taining the policy of non-recognition with respect 
to the present regime in Argentina. As stated by 
Mr. Hull on July 24, there has been constant con- 
sultation among the American republics on this 
problem, which, as the joint statement of the 
Governments of Venezuela and Colombia makes 
clear, involves not only the immediate security of 
the hemisphere but the future solidarity and well- 
being of all free peoples of the Americas. We 
don't want Fascism in this hemisphere. As you 
know, there have been similar public statements 
by most of the other American governments." 

Committees To Consider 
Telecommunications Problems 

[Released to the press August 11] 

A meeting was convened at 10 a. m. on August 
11 in the Interdepartmental Auditorium under the 
aegis of the Department of State to consider pos- 
sible revisions of the International Telecommuni- 
cations Convention, Madrid, 1932, and the General 
Radio IleguhUions, Cairo, 1938. It was opened 
by Mr. Francis Colt de Wolf of the State Depart- 
ment and the permanent chairman of the meeting 
was Dr. J. II. Dellinger of the National Bureau 
of Standards. 

The problems discussed involved an effort on 
the part of the Government and radio industry to 
reach an agreement on telecommunications ques- 
t ions which will arise at forthcoming international 
telecommunications conferences.^ 

While a large field was comprehended within 
the studies presented at the morning's meeting, the 
discussions, particularly on the part of industry 
representatives, centered mainly about the future 



' Bulletin of Aug. C, 1944, p. 134. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

of short-wave international broadcasting. The 
future position of television and frequency -modu- 
lation broadcasting was also discussed. There 
was, furthermore, some discussion of frequency 
allocations for police-radio services. 

The conference then resolved itself into three 
committees, namely, a committee under Mr. H. B. 
Otterman of the State Department to study the 
Madrid convention ; a connnittee under the chair- 
manship of Dr. Dellinger to work on frequency 
allocations and related subjects; and a committee 
under Capt. E. M. Webster of the Coast Guard to 
consider other technical phases, princii^ally of an 
oijerational nature. 

At this meeting the convention and operational 
committees completed their preliminary work and 
will meet at a later date for further discussions. 
The allocations committee met in the afternoon. 

Questions Relating to 
Lend-Lease 

[Released to the press .\ugust 7] 

In his press and radio news conference on August 
7 Acting Secretary Stettinius made the following 
statement in reply to a question regarding future 
lend-lease to Great Britain : 

"The British Government has not raised with us 
the future of lend-lease. For the time being both 
Governments are completely occupied with the war 
campaigns in Europe and the Far East. The press 
knows, from what Secretary Hull has said, the 
major post-war questions which have been taken up 
for active negotiation. Perhaps the most vital of 
these are the security talks soon to begin. The 
monetary talks have passed their first stage. Food 
and relief questions are progressing well. 

"So far as lend-lease is concerned, that is daily 
and hourly an administrative task which is neces- 
sarily confined to its current phases. No one can 
possibly foresee what changes in the situation the 
fortunes of war in Europe may bring about or how 
soon these changes may reflect themselves in lend- 
lease operations. 

"Since steps necessary to maintain tlie flow of 
supjilies for the prosecution of the war require 
plans which are projected into the future, there 
have been from the outset, and will continue to be, 



AUGUST 13, 1944 



159 



discussions of prospective requirements taking into 
consideration various phases of the war. 

"Our policy has been, and continues to be, to con- 
duct lend-lease operations to bring about the great- 
est mobilization of our joint resources. 

"The Lend-Lease Act as amended provides that 
(he powers granted to transfer materials shall end 
on June 30, 1945, or prior to that time if the two 
Houses of Congress pass a concurrent resolution, 
subject to contracts which may be made to effect 
orderly liquidation. 

"Any questions on the administration of lend- 
lease should be directed to Mr. Leo T. Crowley." 

Pan American Conference 

On Geography and Cartography 

[Released to the press August 9] 

This Government has accepted the invitation of 
tlie Brazilian Government to participate in the 
Second Consultative Pan American Conference on 
Geography and Cartography, which will be held at 
Kio de Janeiro, Brazil, from August 15 to Septem- 
ber 2, 1944. The President has approved the desig- 
naiion of the following persons as delegates on 
the part of the United States of America to the 
meeting : 

Dilegales 

Robert H. Randall, United States Member and Chairman, 
Committee on Cartography, Pan American Institute 
of Geography and History, Bureau of the Budget, 
chairman of the delegation 

Lt. Col. Gerald Fitzgerald, Air Corps, Commanding 
Officer, Aeronautical Chart Service, Army Air Forces, 
Department of War 

Capt. Clem L. Garner, Coast and Geodetic Survey, De- 
partment of Commerce 

Otto E. Guthe, Assistant Chief, Division of Geogi-aphy 
and Cartography, Department of State 

T. P. Pendleton, Chief Topographic Engineer, Geological 
Survey, Department of the Interior 

Capt. Charles C. Slayton, U.S.N., Retired, Hydrographic 
OflBce, Department of the Navy 

Secretary of the delegation 

Reginald S. Kazanjian. Second Secretary, American 
Embassy, Rio de Janeiro. 

The Conference is being held under the auspices 
of the Pan American Institute of Geogi-aphy and 
History, with headquarters at Mexico City, and a 
parallel invitation has also been received from the 
Director of that Institute. The first meeting, 

604481 — 44 2 



which was not of an oiBcial character, was called by 
the Committee on Cartography of the Pan Ameri- 
can Institute of Geography and History and was 
held at Washington from September 29 to October 
14, 1943. 




TREATY INFORMATION ^^ 



enosaa^H^stsKai 



Naval-Mission Agreement With 
Colombia 

By an exchange of notes of June 26, 1944 and 
July 18, 1944 between the Ambassador of Colombia 
in Washington and the Secretary of State, the 
agreement providing for the assignment of a 
United States Naval Mission to Colombia, signed 
at Washington on November 23, 1938, as amended 
;ind extended (Executive Agreement Series 140, 
218, 280, and 337), has been extended for an addi- 
tional jjeriod of one year effective from November 
23, 1944. 



Military- Aviation-Mission Agreement 
With Ecuador 

There has been effected by an exchange of notes 
signed in Washington on June 13 and July 13, 1944 
between the Charge d'Affaires ad interim of Ecua- 
dor in Washington and the Secretary of State, a 
renewal, for a period of four years from December 
12, 1944, of the agreement providing for the assign- 
ment of a United States Military Aviation Mis- 
sion to Ecuador, signed at Washington on Decem- 
ber 12, 1940 (Executive Agi-eement Series 189). 
The exchange of notes of June 13 and July 13, 1944 
also provides for the detail of additional personnel 
as members of the mission. 



Petroleum Agreement With 
United Kingdom 

The text of an agreement on petroleum between 
the Government of the United States and the Gov- 
ernment of the United Kingdom signed at Wash- 
ington on August 8, 1944 appears in an article 
entitled "Petroleum Agreement Between the 
United States and the United Kingdom" in this 
issue of the Bulletin. 



160 

ANEW and significant chapter in the relations 
between the United States and Mexico is un- 
folding m connection with the presence on th.s side 
of tlie Kio Grande of more than 110,000 Mexican 
workers who are aiding the war effort by harvestmg 
vital crops and keeping railroad tracks m repair 
for the movement of troops and supphes. Betore 
the year is out a total of 125,000 will be employed : 
75,000 assigned to agriculture and 50,000 to rail- 
way maintenance. 

While the employment of Mexican laborers on 
the farms and railways of California and ;the 
southwestern States is an old and familiar practice, 
the current temporary migration of these workers 
is unique. It is a planned movement, conducted 
under official auspices in accordance with inter- 
national agreements which are the first of their 
kind tetween tlie United States and Mexico. The 
immigrant workers, moreover, are not concen- 
trated in border regions, as in the past, but are 
working in almost every State in the Union. 

Tlie workers \-oluiiteer in Mexico, under the 
auspices and protection of tlieir own Government, 
and are then assigned to private companies 
throughout the United States. The terms of their 
contracts and the provisions for their entry and 
temporary .sojourn in the United States are speci- 
fied in two agreements between the two Govern- 
ments whicli were elTected by exchanges of notes 
signed at Mexico City on August 4, 1942 and April 
29, 1943. Tliat of August 4, 1942, re^^sed on April 
26, 194.3, is ent itled "Temporary Migration of Mex- 
ican Agricultural Workers";- and that of April 
29, 1943, "Recruiting of Mexican Non-Agricul- 
tural Workers".' These agreements established 
Die pattern wliich later was followed in providing 
for the entry of some 15,000 workers from New- 
fomidland, Jamaica, and the Bahamas, who are 
now similarly employed to relieve the labor short- 
age in this country. 

The sending of these Mexican workers to replace 
men whom our (lovernment was sending to the 
front was Mexico's first direct contribution of nian- 

' Bliss Parks is Divisional Assistant in tlie Division of 
American Republics Analysis and Liaison. Office of Amer- 
ican Republic Affairs, Department of State. Tbis article 
was prepared in cidiaboratlon with William G. MncLean. 
Divisional Assistant, Division of Mexican Affairs, who is 
in charge of these Mexican labor programs for the 
Department. 

' Executive Agreement Series 351. 

' Executive Agreement Series 376. 



A New Pattern in iLiiational Wartime 
Collallration 



'Bj-MAJtipABKS' 



power to the war effort. Mexican collaboration in 
this way was asked in July 1942. The concentra- 
tion of men in the armed forces of the United 
States and the necessity this country was under of 
supplying to our forces and those of our Allies 
food and war materials had by that time built up 
a manpower demand which could not be met from 
sources within the United States. 

The Department of State arranged the agree- 
ment regarding agricultural workers in the sum- 
mer of 1942 at the request of the. United States 
Department of Agriculture, the Attorney Gen- 
eral, the Federal Security Agency, and the United 
States Employment Service, studies leading to the 
agreement having been made by these agencies 
and by the Toland Congressional Committee. 
The agreement regarding non-agricultural work- 
ers was arranged by the Department of State at 
the request of the War Manpower Commission, 
with the advice of the Attorney General. The 
War Department and the Office of Defense Trans- 
portation were greatly interested in the successful 
consummation of both agreements. 

The interested agencies of the Mexican Govern- 
ment which participated in shaping the two agree- 
ments were the Foreign Office, the Department of 
Labor, and the Department of Government. Pres- 
ident Manuel Avila Camacho at all times has given 
his personal support and attention to this measure 
of cooperation in the war effort, and has shown an 
active interest in the welfare of these workers 
while they are away from Mexico. 

Four fundamental guarantees to protect the in- 
terests of both workers and employers are em- 
bodied in the agreements : (1) The recruited work- 
ers shall not be engaged in any military service; 
(2) they shall suffer no discriminatory treatment 
of any kind; * (3) they are assured of transporta- 
tion, living expenses, and repatriation; (4) they 
must be paid in accordance with the prevailing 
wage for the same kind of labor in the locality 
where they work and they may not be employed 

' In accordance with Executive Order 8802 June 25, IWI 



to displace other workers or for the purpose of 
reducing rates of pay previously established. 

Besponsibility for development and execution 
of the program for employment of agricultural 
workers was at first placed with the Farm Se- 
curity Administration. In March 1943 the Of- 
fice of Labor was set up within the War Food Ad- 
ministration and assumed all the obligations of 
the Farm Security Administration under the in- 
ternational agreement. This office is responsible 
for the workers from Jamaica, the Bahamas, and 
other countries as well as for the Mexican na- 
tionals. It is charged with providing their trans- 
portation, housing, and food, and with other de- 
tails of administration. 

The United States Public Health Service, 
jointly with the Mexican Public Health authori- 
ties, examines recruits for physical fitness in Mex- 
ico, and in cooperation with the War Food Ad- 
ministration Office of Labor looks after their phys- 
ical well-being while they are in the United States. 
During the recruitment in Mexico and until after 
the workers have crossed the border, for every 
United States official concerned including the 
Public Health agents, a Mexican counterpart is 
on the job. In the United States the Mexican 
consuls and special labor inspectors are given every 
facility for keeping in close touch with the work- 
ers and protecting their interests as Mexican na- 
tionals. All in all the project has been an im- 
pressive demonstration, from its inception, of 
amicable, effective, and mutually beneficial inter- 
national cooperation. 

Mexico, a fellow belligerent with the United 
!5tates in the war, has not spared its workers with- 
out sacrifice.' That Government has approved 
:, r«"'uitwg of these men as a contribution to 
T' ''!"' '^ff«'-t of the United Nations. It reserves 
^6 I'lgnt, however, to determine what workers 
Ren 1 r*^ ^'^'^ fJountiy and from what area of the 
__P^^ they may be spared, so that Mexico's 



'Mexi 



CO declared 



'"exist on May 22, 1942' 



a state of war with the Axis powers 



161 

own food-production program and railway-main- 
tenance task— both of which are extremely critical 
problems for our southern neighbor at the present 
time— will not suffer from the loss of workers or 
the excessive depletion of labor in any given region. 
The contribution to agriculture of the amiable 
Mexican piscadores (anglicized Spanish for pick- 
ers) has been of incalculable value. Their coming 
saved crops in 82 States which otherwise could not 
have been harvested. In 1943 they were credited 
with saving 21 percent of California's crops alone. 
The first contingent left Mexico City on Septem- 
ber 25, 1942 in time to help with the California 
sugar-beet crop. By the end of 1943 a total of 
56,301 Mexican agi'icultural workers under six- 
month renewable contracts had been signed up and 
transported to this country, the majority going 
to California. 

This year the full quota of 75,000 agricultural 
workers specified in the Government agreements 
will be employed. They are engaged in farming 
every kind of crop, including fruit, grain, flax, cot- 
ton, sugar beets, vegetables, and the war-important 
guayidc rubber. They also have worked in cattle 
production. In addition to the direct value of 
their labor, the availability of these workers has 
been an important factor in stabilizing the labor 
market, thus encouraging farmers to undertake 
large plantings. On the other hand, during tlieir 
employment the workers are receiving invaluable 
experience in agricultural methods, in the use and 
care of modern equipment and macliinery, and in 
the packing of products on the farm. Some of the 
non-agricultural workers are employed in the icing 
of fruit and vegetable refrigerator cars. This ex- 
perience will be of future value particularly to 
Mexico's rapidly developing fruit and vegetable 
industry. 

The importance of railway-track maintenance 
carried on by the contingent of 50,000 Mexican 
non-agricultural workers can scarcely be exagger- 
ated. These workers have performed a great part 
of the maintenance of way on most of the western 
railroads and have lent a hand on lines from New 
England to Florida and in the Middle States. 
They are to be seen along the rights-of-way of 
railroads in almost every part of the United States 
except the Deep South. On some of the principal 
western roads their work makes the difference be- 
tween efficient, safe operation and a break-down 
of vital trunk lines. 



162 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



More than 12,000 Mexican workers have been 
assigned to the Southern Pacific Company, wliich 
has the largest single quota. The Santa Fe is sec- 
ond with 7,900; the Pennsylvania Railroad has 
6,800; and the New York Central, 3,865. The 
smallest quota is 100 to the Colorado and Southern 
Line, while 150 of the Mexican braceros are as- 
signed to the Boston and Maine Eailway. 

Both agricultural and non-agricultural workers 
enter the United States under six-month contracts 
which are signed by each worker individually with 
the War Food Administration or the War Man- 
power Commission. The workers are then as- 
signed or allocated to the regions, growers, or rail- 
roads where their services are needed under con- 
tracts made, in turn, by the employers with either 
of the United States Government agencies con- 
cerned. The system thus includes (1) the basic 
agreements between the United States and Mex- 
ican Governments; (2) the contracts of individual 
workere with WFA or WMC, under which they 
enter the United States and under which the guar- 
antees of the international agreements are imple- 
mented; and (3) the contracts for gi'oups of work- 
ers made by railroad companies, growers' associa- 
tions, or individual farmers with WFA or WMC. 

New needs and conditions are constantly arising 
in our war economy requiring new relations or ad- 
justments of old ones under these programs. The 
Department of State, through the Division of Mexi- 
can Affairs in the Office of American Eepublic 
Affairs and the American Embassy in Mexico City, 
remains constantly active as the official channel of 
communication with the interested agencies of the 
Mexican Government. 

Recruitment of agricultural workers has been 
carried on in Mexico City exclusively. Non-agi-i- 
cultural workers were formerly contracted there 
but are now signed at Queretaro. The National 
Stadium in Mexico City has been turned over for 
tliis purpose by the Mexican Government. The 
large space under the grandstands has been adapted 
for examination rooms, including medical and 
X-ray facilities. One of the most interesting parts 
of the recruiting procedure is the interviewing of 
prospective workers by teams of Mexican and 
American officials. The opportunity of traveling 
and living in a foreign country naturally has ap- 
pealed to the adventurous in all classes of society. 
As college boys in this coimtry would do in similar 
circmnstances, a number of Mexican University 



students and the sons of some officials have applied. 
If qualified they are signed under the regular con- 
tracts. The first step in weeding out the unquali- 
fied is the "hand examination" to determine whether 
the applicant is a genuine hracero or a white-collar 
man in search of adventure. Spurious calluses, no 
matter how carefully cultivated, have to be rejected. 

Wlien the news of the international agx-eements 
was first published in Mexico prospective workers 
flocked to the border. The rush was checked by 
Mexican Government propaganda as well as by the 
spread of knowledge of the hard experience had by 
those who reached border towns only to learn that 
recruiting was done in Mexico City alone and that 
they could not cross the border except through that 
channel. Many were destitute and had to be re- 
turned to their homes by the Mexican Government. 

In this connection it is interesting to note that 
no Mexican workers are permitted to leave Mexico 
without the special permission of their Government, 
except under the two Government agreements of 
1943 just described. However, the knowledge that 
abundant jobs at high wages are available on the 
United States side of the boundary still oilers an 
irresistible temptation for many to attempt illegal 
entry by a great variety of clandestine means. The 
two Governments have collaborated in efforts to 
meet this situation reasonably and firmly without 
resorting to midesirably drastic measures. Both 
Governments maintain immigration border patrols, 
operating along the boundary. Workers who enter 
the United States illegally are delivered back across 
the border. 

Transportation of the Mexican workers to the 
United States from the jDoint of contract in Mexico 
is arranged and paid for by WFA and WMC. The 
workers enter the United States by train and are 
transported to their jobs on trains, buses, and 
trucks. Bilingual transportation crews, uicluding 
American and Mexican officials, accompany the 
workers to their destination and arrange for meals 
and other necessary care en route. When they start 
out the Mexican workers are divided into groups 
of ten, each of which selects its own leader. At 
their destinations they are lodged in various kuids 
of carefully inspected quarters, including tourist 
camps, schools, other community buildings, and 
former CCC camps. 

The individual contract of a worker may be re- 
newed as many times as he desires. There is a high 
percentage of renewals and reapplications. Some 



AUGUST 13. 1944 



163 



of the Mexican workers have been in this country 
continuously since the first contingents came in 
1942. Otliers have returned to Mexico at the ex- 
piration of one contract, then have made new appli- 
cation and returned to the United States after a 
visita with the folks at home. In numerous in- 
stances valued workers have been granted fur- 
loughs for such visits, made at their own expense. 
Comparatively few individual contracts have been 
broken before the established expiration date. 
However, a liberal policy has been followed, and 
no difficulty is interposed by our Government au- 
thorities if a foreign worker wants to go home for 
a valid reason such as sicltness. Even homesick- 
ness is recognized as an incapacitating ailment in 
severe cases. Homesickness is most acute when 
winter sets in, especially after the first snowfall. 
Indeed, at certain periods of the year the list of non- 
agricultural workers returning to Mexico looks 
formidable. But railway-management authorities 
point out that this turnover, ruiming from 12 to 15 
percent, is small compared with a turnover amount- 
ing at times to 200 percent with which they have 
had to cope in some highly industrialized ai-eas. 

The international agreements for the employ- 
ment of Mexican workers have the blessing of or- 
ganized labor in Mexico and the United States as 
well as of agriculture and industry in this country. 

There have been disputes and complaints from 
time to time involving wages, housing conditions, 
and working conditions. Such controversies have 
been few, however, considering the number of 
workers involved, the emei'gency situations which 
often have prevailed, and the fact that the workers 
are separated from their homes and families by 
thousands of miles and have had to adapt them- 
selves to a new language and to customs and cli- 
matic conditions differing greatly from their own. 
Prompt investigation of complaints is made under 
procedures set up in the agreements. Disputes in 
most cases are settled on the spot by mediation, but 
if this fails formal complaint proceedings are used. 
Hearings then are held at which the worker and 
the employer may be represented, as well as the 
Mexican consul if desired. If the worker is found 
to be at fault he is transferred to another employer 
or repatriated if he feels he cannot conform. If 
the employer is held responsible he may be required 
to remove the cause of the complaint and keep the 
worker or if he refuses suffer the loss of his woikers. 

In contrast to the few disagreeable incidents 



which have occurred, the foreign workers have 
been accorded public tribute and appreciation in 
numerous instances. Such cities as Santa Bar- 
bara, California, have made a point of arranging 
gala observances of Mexico's Independence Day, 
September 16, hundreds of workers being supplied 
with transportation by truck from surrounding 
ranches and towns to enjoy the festivities at the 
expense of the growers and the community. Such 
programs are given in the Spanish language and 
include typical music and dances of the Mexican 
homeland. When the first Mexican workers left 
Denver, Colorado, after helping to save crops in 
the crisis of 1943, formal expressions of thanks by 
public officials and leading citizens marked their 
departure. A fine tribute was paid them last 
month by Governor John Moses of North Dakota, 
who personally delivered an address of welcome, 
through an interpreter, to more than 3,000 Mexi- 
can workers arriving to lieli^ with the grain 
harvest. 

The chief problem in keeping the Mexican 
worker contented has been that of satisfying his 
simple but distinctive taste in food. Mexico's 
Juan Trabajador traditionally asks only the most 
modest comforts in life; he is a willing and un- 
complaining worker ; he possesses a genius for de- 
vising his own recreations; he is rarely a heavy 
eater, but he likes his corn-meal tortillas, his beans, 
and his chili, and no amount of ham "sanweech" 
will quite satisfy him as a substitute. In common 
with most strangers in a strange country, he enter- 
tains doubts and fears about new foods that taste 
queer. A Mexican consul recently had to investi- 
gate complaints from one group of workers that 
the cook was giving them for breakfast a "bitter 
water" which they thought suspicious. It turned 
out to be grajDefruit juice. 

The language barrier is a natural difficulty. To 
meet it, instruction in English has been arranged 
for the Mexican workers in many communities. 
In any case, when they start for the United States 
each of them is given a compact booklet of English 
phrases with a pronmiciation guide especially pre- 
pared to meet their needs. The California State 
Department of Education has undertaken a special 
program of education for the Mexican nationals. 
It is conducted under the supervision of the Bu- 
reau of Agriculture and Education with funds pro- 
vided through the Food Production War Finance 
Program. Instruction in farm work is given and 



164 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



sjiecial classes in English are held. From July to 
November, 1943, 7,600 Mexican nationals attended 
these courses. 

Wlierever they are established the Mexican 
■workei-s take with them their own music, carrying 
along guitars, violins, and other instruments. 
Their fund of folk songs is inexhaustible. They 
add to it as they go along, creating new comdos 
or ballads, telling the saga of the braceros and 
piscadores in the "United States of the North". 
These new songs no doubt will go back to Mexico 
with them to convey in many remote places a new 
concept of life in the United States. 

The Mexican workers as a group have shown 
a commendable attitude toward their work and 
their life here. During the two years they have 
been in the United States they have established a 
high record for good and law-abiding conduct. 
Delinquencies have been infrequent and mostly of 
a minor nature. 

The health of the workers, in general, is good. 
The physical examinations given in Mexico by the 
Mexican and United States Health Services are 
thorough. They include X-ray of lungs and di- 
gestive tract as well as blood tests. No individuals 
are accepted for contract before they have passed 
those examinations. Despite the acute shortage 
of physicians and nurses, the objective has been to 
provide health care for every foreign worker while 
in the United States. Professional facilities have 
been pooled in the various regions concerned to 
make such care possible. The non-agricultural 
workers have the benefit of the established medical 
services of the railways. Those engaged in agri- 
culture have received attention from various agri- 
cultural workers' health associations with the co- 
operation of local medical personnel and health 
departments. Naturally, the demand for this 
service has increased as the workers have become 
more and more aware of its value and particularly 
of its availability to them. The service given in- 
cludes hospitalization and dental care. Sanitary 
engineers have constantly inspected the workers' 
living quarters. The activities of safety officers 
have helped to keep accident rates down. 

The wages paid Mexican agricultural workers in 
1943 averaged 61 cents an hour. The average for 
railroad workers is very near that figure. The 
earnings of this group of 43,000 during the year 
approximated $20,000,000. This year the figure 
will be considerably higher. At the request of the 
Mexican Government the controlling international 



agreements include the provision that 10 percent 
of the monthly salary of all workers, both agi-icul- 
tural and non-agricultural, be deducted and trans- 
ferred to specially authorized savings banks in 
Mexico. These funds are held for the workers and 
are paid to them upon request on their return to 
Mexico. 

Besides this, voluntary additional savings by the 
workers run into impressive figures. Mexican 
workers are sending so much money home every 
month that it has been necessary to double the force 
in the money-order section of the Mexican post 
office at Ciudad Juarez where the exchange from 
dollars to pesos is made. These remittances are a 
high testimony to the loyalty and consideration of 
the Mexican workers for their families and depend- 
ents at home, as well as to the frugality with which 
they live while in the United States, in spite of the 
multiple temptations for squandering money which 
confront them in our complex North American 
environment. 

Most of the money that the workers spend while 
in this country is for their own clothing and for 
gifts to take home. The Mexican Government has 
provided for the admission of such goods free of 
duty, including specifically the tools and imple- 
ments of the worker's trade. No one has as yet 
tried to carry home a tractor, but anything may be 
expected. The returning workers go home in pic- 
turesque caravans, loaded down with everything in 
the world for mamacita and the children, from 
dishpans to baby carriages, shoes, and toys, as well 
as with good collections of well-forged American 
agricultural implements and other tools. Little is 
wasted on the wrappings, so the whole miscel- 
laneous and wonderful lot usually goes in full sight 
on the train with Juan Trabajador. Nearly always 
too each man returns well supplied with pei-sonal 
clothing. Felt hats, blue jeans, stout shoes, and 
windbreakers are standard selections, not omitting 
a reasonable expression of personal uplift in the 
form of pink shirts and purple neckerchiefs. See- 
ing them one who knows Mexico cannot fail to 
recall the charming folk song, Adios mi Chaparrita, 
"Don't cry now for your Pancho, for though he 
leaves the raivcho^ he'll come back home. He'll 
bring presents from the city . . . for you a pair of 
sidecombs, and for your mamacita, a new reboso 
and a percale petticoat !" 

In some instances voluntary savings are made 
with some specific, long-range project in view. One 
family of workers, a father and two sons, have in 



AUGUST 13, 194i 



165 



mind a particular piece of land in their home State 
in Mexico which they intend to buy. The pur- 
chase price is 40,000 pesos, or about 8,000 dollars. 
Among the three of them they already have ac- 
cumulated 25,000 pesos and are plamiing to keep on 
the job under renewed contracts until they have 
saved up the remaining 15,000 pesos. In addition, 
while they work and save, they are accumuhiting 
practical experience for the future development 
of their rmicho when they get it. 

All the contracted Mexican workers enter the 
United States as unskilled labor, but nothing in 
their contracts prevejits them from being promoted. 
Many agricultural workers have been made fore- 
men and given other responsible jobs. Among non- 
agricultural workers a large number who have 
shown marked ability have been promoted from 
track maintenance to shop work where they are 
receiving sjjecialized training. On the eastern 
and northern railroads many track workers are 
given a chance in the shops during the winter 
months so that tlieir services may be retained. 

Thus one of the important results of the under- 
taking will be the return to Mexico of thousands 
of workers who "enlisted" as unskilled labor but 
who will go home with exceptionally fine training 
along many different lines. Not a few of them will 
have risen to the categories of skilled machinists, 
sho[) and railway workers, or agricultural tech- 
nicians. When Mexico's Minister of Labor Fran- 
cisco Trujillo Gurria was in the United States to 
attend the I.L.O. conference last April, he visited 
the camps of Mexican railway workers in New 
York State. He expressed himself as highly satis- 
fied with the living conditions of the workers and 
with the opportunity for work and training they 
were receiving. Since then a spokesman of the 
Mexican Foreign Office has said: "The returning 
hrwcero will come home a 'new man', with awakened 
ambitions, with technical training in agriculture or 
railway work ; he will have a new understanding of 
the world because of his exchanges with people of 
another nationality and race. Because of his mflur 
ence the standard of living of his contemporaries 
will be raised as he teaches others what he has 
learned of modern agriculture and mechanics. 
These things will have results of incalculable value 
with the passing of years, not the least of which 
will be the fruits of better international under- 
standing." ^ 



Some concern has been felt regarding the prob- 
lem of reabsorbing 125,000 returning workers into 
Mexico's economy after the war is over. How- 
ever, the impact of their repatriation will not be 
sharp. They will not be sent home en masse but 
will return as they came in groups as their con- 
tracts progressively expire. In the recruitment 
thej' were selected from widely scattered areas 
of the Republic. They will tend to return to 
their original homes, thus avoiding large con- 
centrations in any locality. The Mexican Gov- 
ernment is preparing for those agricultural work- 
ers who do not have home ties by setting aside a 
large tract of land in the State of Veracruz to be 
colonized by returning workers. 

There seems little doubt that the non-agricul- 
tural workers who have received training in rail- 
way maintenance and shop work will readily find 
jobs when they return to Mexico. The improve- 
ment of equipment and operations of the Mexican 
National Railways is one of the nation's most 
urgent problems, in the solution of which skilled 
workers will continue to be in demand for a long 
time to come. 

The contribution made to the war effort through 
this international undertaking can be measured 
to the great satisfaction of both Mexico and the 
United States in exact terms of thousands of miles 
of railway tracks kept in repair for vital transpor- 
tation purposes, and in terms of thousands of tons 
of food harvested, processed, and distributed for 
the use of the United Nations. On the side of the 
imponderable values, the mutual undertaking has 
demonstrated how well the good-neighbor policy 
can work; while the human contacts which the 
undertaking has brought about have helped to 
carry that international understanding already 
achieved between the two Goveriunents down 
among the rank and file of both peoples, not only 
along the frontiers but far into the interior. 



PUBLICATIONS 



' Novedades, Mexico, D.F., July 25, 19-44. 



Department of State 

Index to the Department of State Bulletin, vol. X, nos. 
236-261, January 1-June 24, 1944. Publication 2156. 
26 pp. Free. 



166 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



The Department's Division of Labor Relations 



By OTIS E. MULLIKEN' 



The Secretary of State announced on January 
15, 1944 the establishment of a Division of Labor 
Relations as part of the reorganization of the 
Department of State. This Division is one of the 
five divisions in the Office of Economic Affairs.^ 

The decision to establish the Division was based 
on a careful appraisal of the Department's past 
and current experience and upon a recognition of 
the increasing importance of certain phases of its 
responsibilities. The Division was created to pro- 
vide the necessary coordination of a number of 
functions which the Department was already per- 
forming in the fields of international labor, health, 
and social problems and to accord greater atten- 
tion to problems of increasing significance in these 
fields. The establishment of the Division, there- 
fore, represents in large part an administrative 
adjustment to increase the Department's effective- 
ness in dealing with current and future social and 
economic problems in our international relations. 

Within the limits of this article, which proposes 
to describe only the general functions of the Divi- 
sion of Labor Relations, it is not feasible to at- 
tempt an all-inclusive inventory of the problems 
with which the Division is dealing or will deal in 
the future, or to describe in detail all its functions. 
The most that can be done at this time is to provide 
a general view of these functions and problems in 
such a way as to suggest the Division's role and 
relations to the Department as a whole and to 
other agencies. 

The Division of Labor Relations is concerned 
primarily with studying, analyzing, and interpret- 
ing foreign and international developments relat- 
ing to labor and advising the Department with 
reference to them. This work is designed to com- 
plement the activities of the divisions concerned 
with other phases of the Department's economic 

'Mr. MuUiken is Chief of the Division of Labor Hala- 
tions, Office of Economic Affairs, Department of State. 

' The other four divisions of the Office of Economic 
Affairs are Division of Commercial Policy, Division of 
Financial and Jlonetary Affairs, Commodities Division, 
and Petroleum Division. 



and political responsibilities and is closely inte- 
grated with the activities of those other divisions. 
Since the Division directs its attention to foreign 
and international labor matters it does not overlap 
or conflict with the functions of other Departments 
or agencies of this Government. 

It is, of course, obvious tliat the problems which 
arise in connection with the economic, social, and 
political activities of working-men and -women 
constitute a significant part of the life of a mod- 
ern nation and an increasingly important influence 
on its foreign policy. Over the last quarter of a 
century levels of employment, together with wage 
rates and earnings, hours of work, industrial rela- 
tions, costs of living, and standards of living have 
received greater attention in the formulation of 
both national and international policies. Upon 
such factors may rest, in many situations, the vi- 
tality of democratic institutions and the main- 
tenance of peaceful international relations. While 
conditions differ from one country to another, the 
trend appears unmistakable in most countries: 
Labor and labor conditions are acquiring more and 
more international importance. The Department 
of State recognizes this fundamental fact. 

A major responsibility of the Division of Labor 
Relations is to keep the Department of State fully 
and currently informed on labor developments 
throughout the world. This information, which 
must be obtained primarily in the foreign coun- 
tries, is provided largely by this Government's 
embassies, legations, and consulates. The Depart- 
ment is now assigning specially trained personnel 
to various of our diplomatic posts for the purpose 
of reporting on all matters pertaining to labor in 
foreign countries which might influence our in- 
ternational relations. 

In this connection, the basic data with which the 
Division is concerned relate to such matters as 
wages, employment and unemployment, cost of 
living, industrial disputes, labor or social legis- 
lation, industrial relations, and the political and 
economic activities of the labor movement. In ad- 
dition, the Division is interested in obtaining in- 



AUGUST 13, 1944 



167 



formation on sucli social problems as working con- 
ditions, health, housing, and standards of living. 
A knowledge of these factors which influence the 
economic and social status of a people and the pol- 
icies of their government is essential for the main- 
tenance of satisfactory international relations. 

The staff of the Division analyzes such labor 
information from foreign and domestic sources, 
both official and private, and interprets it for the 
use of the Department. On the basis of these ac- 
tivities the Division recommends appropriate pol- 
icies. It guides the work of the attaches report- 
ing on labor matters in foreign countries and pi'e- 
pares instructions to the embassies and legations 
with reference to further information which is 
needed, indicating when special attention should 
be directed to some particular development. The 
Division also provides information to our missions 
in foreign countries on labor matters in the United 
States in order to assist them in answering in- 
quiries from foreign government officials, employ- 
ers, and workers, thus contributing to a better 
understanding of the United States. 

The Division of Labor Relations, as one of the 
economic divisions of the Department, has certain 
functions pertaining to the formulation of the for- 
eign economic policies of this Government. It 
is also concerned with analyzing both the policies 
of international economic agencies in which this 
Government does or may participate and the eco- 
nomic policies of foreign countries. 

The staff of the Division analyzes the foreign 
economic policies of the United States, both exist- 
ing and proposed, with a view to determining their 
relation to the welfare of workers in this country. 
The Division collaborates with the other divisions 
of the Department to assure that the effects of our 
foreign economic policies on levels of employment, 
wage rates, and standards of living are fully con- 
sidered. In connection with this phase of its 
work it is necessary for the Division to keep in- 
formed on the views of labor in the United States. . 
The possible repercussions of this Government's 
policies upon the welfare of peoples in other coun- 
tries are also examined, since their well-being is 
closely related to the welfare and security of this 
Nation. 

The activities and policies of international eco- 
nomic agencies in such fields as monetary stabiliza- 



tion, investment, commodity arrangements, food 
and agriculture, and general commercial policy 
will exert a significant influence upon the economic 
security of working people in this country. Like- 
wise the economic policies of foreign countries may 
seriously affect levels of employment, wage rates, 
and standards of living of labor in the United 
States. The Division, therefore, analyzes the pol- 
icies of such international agencies and foreign 
governments and assists in determining the poli- 
cies of this Government with respect to these mat- 
ters. 

It is the policy of this Government to maintain 
high levels of productive employment with all that 
this connotes for the well-being of our people. 
Domestic efforts to achieve high levels of produc- 
tive employment, however, may well be counter- 
acted by economic dislocations in foreign coun- 
tries if our piolicies are not properly coordinated 
with those of other nations and supplemented by 
effective international action. The Division is re- 
sponsible for studying these international aspects 
of the full-employment problem and for advising 
the Department on the formulation of appropriate 
international policies. 

Since the Division deals with international labor 
I^roblems, the International Labor Organization 
occupies a special place in its work. The Division 
maintains liaison with the I.L.O. for the Depart- 
ment and advises the Department on the many 
questions which arise in connection with the work 
of that organization.^ When draft international- 
labor conventions, recommendations, and resolu- 
tions proposed by the International Labor Office 
and supporting governments present questions of 
foreign policy, the Division advises the Depart- 
ment with respect to these. The Division also ad- 
vises on action which might be initiated by the 
United States Government in the meetings of the 
I.L.O., including the Governing Body, and formu- 
lates instructions for the United States Govern- 
ment delegations to such meetings on matters of 
concern to the Department. The Department is 
customarily represented on such delegations. 

Political problems relating to the constitution 
and structure of the I.L.O. and the relations of that 
organization to other international organizations 



' For articles on the I.L.O. by Mr. Mulliken see BtnxETiN 
of Mar. 18, 1944, p. 25T, and Apr. 8, 1944, p. 316. 



168 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



fall within the advisory work of the Division as 
does the action to be taken by the United States 
Government on the conventions and recommenda- 
tions adopted by the International Labor Confer- 
ence. This Government's recurring financial obli- 
gation to the I.L.O. is a part of the State Depart- 
ment's budget, and the Division therefore has cer- 
tain responsibilities in connection with this obliga- 
tion. 

The Division is also concerned with the activities 
of other international organizations dealing with 
labor matters, such as the Inter-American Com- 
mittee on Social Security. 

Some of the other labor problems requiring ac- 
tion by or advice from the Department may be 
indicated. The Department has necessarily cer- 
tain responsibilities in connection with the impor- 
tation of foreign labor for employment in war 
industries. These are centralized in the Division 
of Labor Relations. There are important prob- 
lems relating to formulating reconnnendations for 
appropriate labor terms for inclusion in the armis- 
tice and peace settlements. Problems arise in con- 
nection with the employment and labor policies 
of this Govoniment and of private agencies in for- 
eign countries. It is the responsibility of the Divi- 
sion to formulate the Department's policies on 
these matters. 

There are yet other responsibilities which have 
been assigned to the Division but which are not 
suggested by the title of the Division. These 
cover the fields of migration, health, and social 
welfare. In addition to current problems of dis- 
placed persons and refugees there will inevitably 
be, following the close of hostilities, large-scale 
population movements abroad, which will directly 
or indirectly affect the interests of this country. 
The Division is studying the economic and social 
aspects of these matters and advising the Depart- 
ment on the relevant policies to be followed by the 
United States alone or in cooperation with other 
states and by international agencies of which the 
United States is a member. 

The United States possesses a world-wide repu- 
tation witli respect to international health and 
social-welfare activities. The State Depai-tment 
has long had responsibility for coordinating such 
activities among official United States agencies and 
for facilitating the work of private American or- 
ganizations in these fields. Aside from emergency 
projects of dii'ect assistance our Government has 



an active interest in the operations of such organ- 
izations as UNRRA, the Institute of Inter-Amer- 
ican Affairs, the Pan American Sanitary Bureau, 
the Permanent Central Opium Board, the Drug 
Supervisory Body, and the Opium Advisory Com- 
mittee of the League of Nations. The Division 
has charge of matters relating to international 
cooperation for the suppression of the abuse of 
narcotic drugs, performing the various duties im- 
posed by statutes and arising from treaty obliga- 
tions. The Division of Labor Relations maintains 
for the Department relations with official and pri- 
vate agencies concerned with international health 
and welfare activities and advises the Department 
on foreign policies of the Government in these 
fields. 

The preceding description of the functions of 
the new Division of Labor Relations is necessarily 
a summary statement. Some of these functions 
have already been developed ; otliers are in proc- 
ess of development. The organization of the Di- 
vision and the current exercise of its functions 
are designedly flexible and subject to adaptation 
to new problems and responsibilities. 

There is a real job to be done; the Department 
knows it, and intends to do the job. 



^ THE FOREIGN SERVICE ^ 

Confirmations 

On August 11, 1944 the Senate confirmed the 
nomination of Col. William A. Eddy as Envoy 
Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to 
the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. 

Consular Offices 

'The American Consulate at Gibraltar was re- 
established on July 25, 1944. 



LEGISLATION 



Post- War Economic Policy and riaiming: Joint Hear- 
ings Before the Special Committees on Post-War Economic 
Policy iind Planning, Congress of the United States, 78th 
Cong., 2d sess., pursnant to S. lies. 102 and H. Res. 408, 
resolutions creating special committees on post-war eco- 
nomic polic.v and planning. Part I, June 16 and 20, 1944. 
Disposal of surplus Government property and plants. 
[State Department, p. 54.] iv, 79 pp. 



AUGUST 13, 1944 



^ THE DEPARTMENT ^ 

Consolidation of Two Divisions in the 
Office of American Republic Affairs 

DEPARTMENTAL ORDER 1283 OF JULY 26, 1944' 

Pur-pose. This order is issued to rearrange the 
internal organization of the Office of American 
Republic Affairs by the consolidation of two divi- 
sions. 

1 Consolidation of dhnsions. The Division of 
Bolivarian Affairs and the Division of West Coast 
Affaii-s, in the Office of American Republic Affairs, 
are hereby consolidated into one division entitled 
North and West Coast Division. 



• Eflfective July 26, 1944. 



2 Transfer of personnel. Personnel presently 
assigned to the Division of Bolivarian Affairs and 
the Division of West Coast Affairs are hereby 
transferred to the North and West Coast Division. 

3 Routing symbol. The routing symbol of the 
North and West Coast Division is to be NWC. 

4 Amendment of previous order. Departmental 
Order 1218 of January 15, 1944, pp. 22 and 23, is 
accordingly amended.^ 

CoEDELL Hun, 

July 26, 1944. 

Appointment of Officers 

Edwin H. Schell as Consultant on Administra- 
tion, Office of Departmental Administration, effec- 
tive August 2, 1944. 

- Bulletin of Jan. 15, 1944, p. 54. 



tl. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OPFIce^ 1944 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 




^\^ 



J 



J 



A 






1 




VOL. XI, NO. 269 



AUGUST 20, 1944 



In this issue 



SPECIAL WAR PROBLEMS DIVISION 
By Graham H. Stuart 



PHILIPPINE-AMERICAN RELATIONS SINCE 1939 
By Richardson Dougall 



.jjlENT o^ 




■^-te* o^ 



uoi o nm 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

BULLETIN 



Vol. XI • No. 269, ^KTSffi , Poblicatioii 2164 




The Department of State BULLE- 
TIN, a leeekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Research and 
Publication, Office of Public Informa- 
tion, provides the public and inter- 
ested agencies of the Government with 
information on developments in the 
field of foreign relations and on the 
work of the Department of State and 
the Foreign Service. The BULLETIN 
includes press releases on foreign policy 
issued by the White House and the De- 
partment, and statements and addresses 
made by the President and by the Sec- 
retary of State and other officers of the 
Department, as well as special articles 
on various phases of international af- 
fairs and the functions of the Depart- 
ment. Information concerning treaties 
and international agreements to which 
the United States is or may become a 
party and treaties of general inter- 
national interest is included. 

Publications of the Department, 
cumulative lists of which are published 
at the end of each quarter, as well as 
legislative material in the field of inter- 
national relations, are listed currently. 

The BULLETIN, published with the 
approval of the Director of the Bureau 
of the Budget, is for sale by the Super- 
intendent of Documents, United States 
Government Printing Office, Washing- 
ton 25, D. C; to whom all purchase 
orders, with accompanying remittance, 
should be sent. The subscription price 
is $2.75 a year; a single copy is 10 
cents. 







ontents 



American Republics page 

Visit of Cuban Educator 176 

Burning of the "Rio de La Plata" 191 

Australasia 

Capture of Prizes 192 

The Caribbean 

Caribbean Land-Tenure Symposium 181 

Europe 

Offer by Hungarian Government To Release Jews .... 175 
Far East 

Liberation of Guam 174 

Radiotelegraph Circuit Between the United States and 

India 180 

Philippine-American Relations Since 1939: By Richardson 

Dougall 182 

Fred O. McMillan Returns From China 191 

Iceland 

Visit of the President of Iceland 175 

Economic Affairs 

Tenth Anniversary of United States Membersliip in the 

I.L.O. : Statement by the Secretary of State 175 

General 

Resignation of William Phillips as Adviser to Eisenhower: 

Statement by the Secretary of State 181 

Post- War Matters 

International Collaboration of the United Nations: State- 
ment by the Secretary of State 173 

Denial That Four Major Nations Plan Permanent Military 

Alliance: Statement by the Secretary of State .... 173 

Secretary of State To Confer With .Governor Dewey's 

Representative 174 

International Peace and Security Organization: Soviet and 

British Representatives 174 

Civil Aviation 191 

The Department 

Special War Problems Division: Relief for Americans and 
Other Allied Nationals in Enemy Custody. By 
Graham H. Sluarl 176 

Abolishing the Executive Committee on Commercial 

Policy. . 192 

Allowances to Citizens of the Other American Republics: 

Departmental Order 1280A 192 

Appointment of Officers 192 

The Foreign Service 

Consular Offices 192 

Publications 

Reproduction of the International Convention Relating to 
the Regulation of Aerial Navigation Adopted at Paris 
on October 13, 1919 193 



International Collaboration 
Of the United Nations 



Statement by THE SECRETARY OF STATE 



[Released to the press August 14] 

Since the Atlantic Charter was proclaimed 
three years ago today, signiflcant advances have 
been made in international collaboration. Some 
examples, in addition to military conferences, are 
the Declaration by United Nations of January 1, 
1942 ; the Meeting of American Foreign Ministers 
of that same month; the Food and Agi-iculture 
Conference; the Conference on Relief and Reha- 
bilitation ; the Moscow, Tehran, and Cairo Confer- 
ences; the International Labor Conference; the 



Conference of Allied Ministers of Education ; the 
F'inancial and Monetary Conference; and the 
forthcoming informal conversations on peace and 
security. 

There is sound reason for believing that the 
present effective collaboration of the United Na- 
tions, which began m the midst of a terrible war 
for survival, will be continued and strengthened 
in the future for the maintenance of peace and 
security. 



Denial That Four Major Nations Plan 
Permanent Military Alliance 



Statement by THE SECRETARY OF STATE 



[Released to the press August 17] 

Governor Dewey can rest assured that the fears 
which he expressed in his statement are utterly and 
completely unfoimded. No arrangement such as 
described by him, which would involve a military 
alliance of the four major nations permanently to 
coerce the rest of the world, is contemplated or has 
ever been contemplated by this Government or, as 
far as we know, by any of the other governments. 
In the Moscow declaration the four nations placed 
themselves on record as advocating a "general 
international organization, based on the principle 
of sovereign equality of all peace-loving states and 
open to membership of all such states, large and 
small, for the maintenance of international peace 



and security" ; this statement was embodied in the 
Connally resolution passed in the United States 
Senate by an overwhelming bipartisan vote of 85 
to 5. The meeting at Dumbarton Oaks is for the 
purpose of a discussion among the signatories of 
the Moscow declaration as to the most feasible and 
desirable methods of establishing the kind of 
organization envisaged in that declaration and in 
the Senate resolution, preliminary to similar dis- 
cussion and early conference among all the United 
Nations and other peace-loving countries, large 
and small. 

Any reports to the contrary are absolutely with- 
out foundation in fact. 

173 



774 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Secretary of State To Confer 
With Governor Dewey's 
Representative 

[Released to the press August 18] 

The Secretary of State on August 18 sent the 
following telegram to the Honorable Thomas E. 
Dewey, Governor of New York : 

I am in receipt of your telegram of August 18 in 
which you say "I am happy to accept your proposal 
for consultation made at your press conference 
yesterday and to designate Mr. John Foster Dulles 
as my representative". 

I am immensely gratified to receive your assur- 
ance of bipartisan cooperation in the effort to 
establish lasting peace. 

I shall be delighted to see Mr. Dulles and to 
confer with him on any date or dates convenient 
to him. 

COEDELL HtJLL 



International Peace and 
Security Organization 

SOVIET AND BRITISH REPRESENTATIVES 

[Released to the press August 19] 

A list of the Soviet and British representatives 
who will take part in the conversations at Dimi- 
barton Oaks follows : ' 

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 

Ambassador Andrei Andreevicli Gromyko, chairman 

Grigori Georgievich Dolbiu 

Professor Sergei Alexandrovich GolunsJiy 

Professor Sergei Borisovlch Krylov 

Rear Admiral Konstantin Koustantinovicli Rodionov 

Major General Nikolai Vassilievicli Slavln 

Arkadi Alexandrovicli Sobolev 

Semen Konstantinovieh Zarapkin 

Mikhail Mikhailovich Tunin, scei'etary 

Valentin Mikhailovich Berezhkov, secretary-interpreter 

United Kingdom 

Sir Alexander Cadogan, G.C.M.G., K.O.B., cfiairmoit 
Colonel Capel Dunn 
P. H. Gore-Booth 



Major General M. F. Grove-White 

Gladwyu Jebb 

Peter Loxley 

Lieutenant General G. N. Macready 

Sir William Malkin, G.C.M.G., C.B., K. C. 

Admiral Sir Percy Noble 

A. H. Poynton 

Professor Webster 

Air Marshal Sir William Welch 

Paul Falla, secretary 

A. R. K. Mackenzie, press officer 



Liberation of Guam 



[Released to the press August 19] 

The text of a congratulatory message from His 
Majesty King George VI to the President on the 
success of the American arms in the Central Pa- 
cific follows: 

London, August 15, 1944- 

Please accept, Mr. President, my warm con- 
gratulations on the liberation of Guam from a 
brutal enemy's occupation. This successful feat 
of arms marks yet another notable stage in the 
brilliant advance of the United States forces in 
the Central Pacific and has aroused our deep ad- 
miration. It is a splendid augury of the coming 
utter defeat of Japan to which the forces of the 
British Commonwealth of Nations also will make 
an increasingly powerful contribution. 

George VI 

The text of the President's reply follows: 

Thank you for your kind message of congratu- 
lations on the success of American arms in the 
Central Pacific. We are particularly gratified at 
the liberation of the first American territory to 
fall to Japanese aggression, and at the completion 
of another long step in the relentless march to 
Tokyo. I look forward to the approaching day 
when the increased strength of the armed forces 
of both the United States and the British Com- 
monwealth can be applied with singleness of pur- 
pose to the defeat of the ruthless and savage enemy 
in the Pacific. 

Franklin -D EoosEVEivr 



^ For the list of American representatives see the Bul- 
letin of Aug. 6, 1944, p. 133. M. J. McDermott is Press 
Officer for the American group. 



AUGUST 20, 1944 



175 



Tenth Anniversary of United 
States Membership in the I. L.O. 

STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY OF STATE 

[Released to the press August 19] 

In this historic year we and our Allies are scor- 
ing triumph after triumph on the battle-fronts of 
the world. In the development of permanent ar- 
rangements and bulwarks of peace we and our 
Allies are likewise recording steady progress. It 
happens that this year is also the twenty-fifth anni- 
versary of the International Labor Organization 
and the tenth anniversary of the membership of 
tlie United States in that Organization. 

We are today witnessing a unity among the free 
nations of the world which is winning us our vic- 
tories on the battle-fronts. That unity is essential 
to the victories of peace. There must be effective 
international collaboration through appropriate 
international institutions if we are to accomplish 
the purposes for which we fight. The peoples of 
the world have now come closer to realizing this 
elemental truth and its implications than ever 
before. The International Labor Organization, 
which provides representation of employers and 
workers as well as governments, has greatly as- 
sisted in that process of enlightenment and under- 
standing. On this tenth anniversary of the mem- 
bership of the United States in the International 
Labor Organization we look forward to continuing 
collaboration in its useful work. 

Visit of Cuban Educator 

[Released to the press August 15] 

Dr. Jose M. Chacon y Calvo, distinguished 
Cuban diplomat, lecturer, historian, and critic is in 
Washington briefly as a guest of the State Depart- 
ment. He is returning to Cuba after haying de- 
livered a series of lectures on great figures of 
Hispanic America at the Spanish School of Mid^ 
dlebury College in Vermont. 

Dr. Chacon y Calvo said he considered the ex- 
change of students and teachers among colleges 
and universities of the Americas, and the visits 
back and forth of public-spirited citizens, as a 
most useful means of continuing and increasing 
inter-American friendship. 



Visit of the President of Iceland 

[Released to the press August 19] 

His Excellency Sveinn Bjomsson, President of 
Iceland, will arrive in Washington on August 24 
as a guest of the United States Government. 

Upon his arrival President Bjornsson will go 
to the 'Wliite House, where he will be a guest of the 
President at a dinner given in his honor and will 
remain at the White House until the next day. 

President Bjornsson will stay at Blair House 
during the remainder of his visit to Washington. 
On August 27 he expects to leave for New York, 
where he will remain for a few days before return- 
ing to Iceland. 

President Bjornsson will be accompanied by the 
Minister of Foreign Affairs of Iceland. 

Offer by Hungarian 
Government To Release Jews 

[Released to the press August 17] 

The International Committee of the Red Cross 
has communicated to the Governments of the 
United Kingdom and the United States an offer 
of the Hungarian Government regarding the emi- 
gration and treatment of Jews. Because of the 
desperate plight of the Jews in Hungary and the 
overwhelming humanitarian considerations in- 
volved the two Governments are informing the 
Government of Hungary through the Interna- 
tional Committee of the Eed Cross that, despite 
the heavy difficulties and responsibilities involved, 
they have accepted the offer of the Hungarian 
Government for the release of Jews and will make 
arrangements for the care of such Jews leaving 
Hungary who reach neutral or United Nations 
territory, and also that they will find temporary 
havens of refuge where such people may live in 
safety. Notification of these assurances is being 
given to the governments of neutral countries 
which are being requested to permit the entry of 
Jews who reach their frontiers from Hungary. 
The Govermnents of the United Kingdom and the 
United States emphasize that, in accepting the 
offer which has been made, they do not in any way 
condone the action of the Hungarian Government 
in forcing the emigration of Jews as an alternative 
to persecution and death. 



176 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Special War Problems Division 



By GRAHAM H. STUART' 



Relief for Americans and Other Axlied 
Nationals in Enemy Custody 

The problem of relief for Allied prisoners of 
war and civilian internees in enemy custody and 
for the many peojjles of Europe whom the war has 
made destitute is one in which both the Govern- 
ment and the peojDle of the United States are 
vitally interested. The Department of State has 
consistently expressed itself as favoring any 
practicable plan for the relief of the distressed 
populations of the occupied countries. 

Tlie determination of policy and the effective 
operation of a relief program are the responsibili- 
ties of the Relief Section of the Special War Prob- 
lems Division.^ Such a program directly concerns 
Americans and other Allied nationals in enemy 
custody as well as civilian nationals in enemy terri- 
tory, whether interned or at liberty; and it con- 
cerns, furthermore, the aiding of refugees in 
enemy and enemy-occupied Europe and in neutral 
countries. The responsibility of carrying out suc- 
cessfully a relief program involves also the sup- 
plying of both commodities and financial aid and 
includes both ti-ans-blockade and intra-blockade 
operations. 

Since the Governments of the United States 
and Great Britain are jointly responsible for the 
blockade of Germany and German-occuijied terri- 
tory they must sponsor or approve any measures 
of civilian relief in the occupied countries of Eu- 
rope. The fact that in the previous war the Hoover 
Committee for Relief in Belgium did such a mag- 
nificent job has to a considerable extent placed the 
responsibility for initiating a similar program 

' Tills is the last in a series of five articles on the Special 
War Problems Division by Dr. Stuart, head of the War 
Records Unit, Division of Research and Publication, Of- 
fice of Public Information, Department of State. See 
Bulletin of July 2, 1944, p. 6, July 16, 1944, p. 63, July 30, 
1944, p. 115, and Aug. 6, 1944, p. 142. 

' The Belief Section was not originally a part of the 
Special War Problems Division. In the fall of 1941, when 
the Division of Controls was abolished, its Relief Unit 
was placed in the Special Division, as it was then known. 
Eldred D. Kuppinger, Assistant Chief of the Division, 
heads the Belief Section. 



upon the Government of the United States in the 
present war. 

It must be conceded that conditions in this war 
are not comparable with those of the last war, con- 
sidering the vastly greater area and populations 
under control of the enemy and the intensive 
mobilization of their resources in the interest of 
the German war effort. Food in the present war 
is equivalent to manpower. The governments, 
therefore, which are fighting to destroy the Nazi 
war-machine must see to it that no supplies which 
even indirectly might be utilized to the enemy's 
benefit shall be permitted to pass the blockade. 

For that reason the blockade authorities, while 
sympathetic to the suffering of innocent victims, 
found it necessary to reject the various food-relief 
schemes which were proposed early in the war. 
The most feasible of these perhaps was the so- 
called "'Hoover Plan", which included supervision 
of the distribution of imported foods by a neutral 
commission and certain assurances from the oc- 
cupying authorities. A plan of that scope was 
submitted to the German Government in 1941. 
That Government's reply was general in nature 
and failed to give assurance that imported food- 
stuffs would actually supplement the diet of the 
intended recipients. It should be noted that the 
relief program in Poland which the American 
Red Cross and the Commission for Polish Relief 
put into effect immediately after the defeat of that 
country was made inoperative by the restrictions 
imposed by the German authorities. American 
relief efforts in the then "unoccupied zone" of 
France met with ever-increasing restrictions and 
obstacles of an official nature. 

Humanitarian considerations, however, required 
that certain minimum measures of relief be taken, 
on the ground that they were both essential and 
justifiable. These were of two types: intra-block- 
ade measures, such as the provision of food pai-- 
cels from Portugal and Sweden to neighboring 
occupied countries; and trans-blockade measures, 
such as the Greek Relief Program and the ship- 
ment of medical supplies for distribution through 
the International Red Cross to the civilian popu- 
lation of various occupied territories. 



AUGUST 20, 1944 



177 



Relief for Allied prisoners of war in Europe 

From the beginning of the war the British and 
American Governments have regularly sent 
through the International Red Cross food and 
clothing to their prisoners of war. In some cases 
these prisoners were housed in the same camps 
with other Allied prisoners who received only the 
very meager rations distributed by the German 
Government. British and American prisoners 
were, therefore, in a preferred position to that of 
other Allied prisoners. Since there is some ques- 
tion as to whether Germany considers itself bound 
by the Geneva Prisoners of War Convention in 
respect of these prisoners, its treatment of Polish, 
Belgian, Yugoslav, Greek, Dutch, Norwegian, and 
French prisoners of war has been more harsh than 
that accorded to the American and British pris- 
oners. In an effort to improve the situation of 
the Allied prisoners of war, relief programs were 
worked out in their behalf with a view to extend- 
ing aid on a substantially equal basis. 

Since the United States was the only country 
where any significant amounts of supplies wei-e 
available, the major portion of the supplies sent 
to these prisoners has come from this country. 
In order to avoid confusion in procurement, to 
utilize available shipping most effectively, and to 
maintain an equitable balance in the various pro- 
grams, informal agreements were reached with the 
various governments concerned with respect to 
amounts and types of supplies to be procured and 
shipped. Initially some shipments were made in 
bulk, but since the fall of 1942 all food supplies 
for Allied prisoners of war, including our own, 
have been in the form of standard food parcels 
weighing 11 pounds and made up scientifically to 
provide a well-balanced diet.^ These parcels are 
packed by the American Red Cross, which main- 
tains assembly-line jDaekaging plants in several 
large cities where volunteer woi'kers under expert 
Red Cross supervision turn out around a million 
and a half packages a month. 

In the case of the Polish and Yugoslav pris- 
oners, arrangements were made late in 1942 to 
finance the shipment of food packages and clothing 
under lend-lease aid. In the case of Belgian, 
Dutch, Norwegian, and Greek prisonere, sufficient 
funds were available from Government and pri- 
vate sources to finance the purchase and shipment 
of supplies. Relief supplies for French prisoners 



have, since the spring of 1944, been procured under 
cash-reimbursable lend-lease. 

During 1943 and 1944, some 140,000 Yugoslav 
prisoners received clothing outfits, and a food par- 
cel was given to each man every month. Similar 
supplies were made available for 56,000 Polish 
prisoners. The 70,000 Belgian prisoners have re- 
ceived clothing outfits, together with one food par- 
cel a month for each man. Food packages are 
being sent to 10,000 Netherlands prisoners, and ar- 
rangements have been made to supply them with 
necessary clothing. French prisoners were receiv- 
ing 400,000 food packages a month, but in the 
spring of 1944 these shipments were increased to 
872,000 monthly. Approval has been given for an 
initial shipment of 300,000 clothing outfits. Greek 
and Norwegian prisoners are also receiving food 
packages and clothing items. 

In addition to food packages and clothing, med- 
ical supplies and comfort articles are being sent 
from the United States to prisoners of all the 
above-mentioned nationalities. Such shipments 
are financed either by the government concerned or 
by private American relief organizations. 

The War Prisoners Aid of the Y. M. C. A. has 
supplied in substantial amounts articles necessary 
to meet the spiritual, educational, and recreational 
needs of the prisoners. The War Relief Services 
of the National Catholic Welfare Conference has 
also played an important role in this phase of 
prisoner-of-war relief. 

The working out of these programs with the 
American Red Cross, the blockade authorities, and 
the representatives of the United Nations was the 
duty of the Relief Section of the Special War Prob- 
lems Division. The carrying out of this function 
required frequent consultations with the Foreign 
Economic Administration, the Treasury Depart- 
ment, the British Embassy, the American Red 
Cross, the President's War Relief Control Board, 
and other organizations. 

Relief for civilians in the occupied countries of 
Europe 
The problem of affording relief to civilians in 
enemy-occupied territory is more difficult than 

' While cbanges in detail are made from time to time to 
provide variety, the current standard food parcel consists 
of the following items: biscuits, cheese, chocolate, ciga- 
rettes, coffee concentrate, corned beef, dried fruit, liver- 
paste, milk (whole, powdered), oleomargarine, orange 
concentrate, pork luncheon meat, salmon, soap, and sugar. 



278 

that of distributing supplies to prisoners of war 
and civilian internees. This paradoxical situation 
is caused by the fact that the safeguards of the 
Geneva Prisoners of War Convention do not apply 
to civilians at liberty. For that reason less prog- 
ress has been made in that field of endeavor. The 
blockade authorities have felt that it would be 
very difficult to control distribution to the civilian 
populations of enemy-occupied areas because even 
if the Germans did not molest imported foodstuffs 
they could control the distribution of European 
agricultural produce for German benefit. The 
Governments of the United States and Great 
Britain have considered jointly numerous pro- 
posals, but thus far no plan for general trans- 
blockade relief has been developed which meets 
satisfactorily the objections of the blockade and 
military authorities. However, the problem con- 
tinues to receive constant attention. 

Various relief operations not involving the ship- 
ment of foodstuffs through the blockade have been 
arranged with funds from United States sources. 
Parcels from Portugal containing food indigenous 
to that country are being forwarded to Belgium, 
the Netherlands, Czechoslovakia, and Poland. A 
similar scheme operates from Sweden for the bene- 
fit of Norway. Other intermittent transactions 
have occurred as, for example, the shipment of or- 
anges from Spain to the Netherlands and the 
shipment of food from Turkey to Yugoslavia. 

The one outstanding trans-blockade measure is 
the Greek relief scheme, which was put into effect 
in the summer of 1942 under the supervision of a 
Swedish-Swiss Belief Commission. In that pro- 
gram the Axis powers agreed that they would not 
remove any imported food from Greece, that they 
would replace by compensatory shipments from 
Axis sources requisitioned Greek produce, and that 
they would permit a neutral commission to super- 
vise the distrilnition of the relief foodstufl's. 
Because Greece was not in a position to produce for 
the German war-machine like other German- 
occupied countries, the enemy had no incentive to 
aid even the Greek working-class and accordingly 
had callously left the Greeks to starve. The relief 
program began with monthly shipments of about 
15,000 tons of wheat, which now has been raised to 
over 33,000 tons of wheat and other foodstuffs a 
month. Medical supplies have also been shipped 
re,gularly, as well as automotive equipment, gaso- 
line, and other supplies necessary to enable the 
Commission to carry out its task. The shipment 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

of 300,000 sets of children's clothing was recently 
authorized on a trial basis, although the blockade 
authorities are not willing to permit the shipment 
of clothing for adults. 

Ajiother relief measure in exception to the block- 
ade of Europe has been the shipment from time to 
time of certain medical supplies from this country 
for distribution through the International Ked 
Cross to the civilian populations of various occu- 
pied countries. Medical supplies permissible 
under this program are defined as drugs of strictly 
humanitarian application, not susceptible to con- 
version to other uses. 

Relief for prisoners of war and civilian internees 
in the Far East 
The Japanese Government signed but did not 
ratify the Geneva Prisoners of War Convention. 
Nevertheless, the Japanese agreed, with reserva- 
tions, to abide by its provisions. In Japan, how- 
ever, American prisoners of war and internees 
have found the standard of living, which is very 
low according to our dietary requirements, totally 
inadequate. It is vital, therefore, that additional 
food be provided to supplement the inadequate 
rations provided by the Japanese. 

The Relief Section of the Special War Problems 
Division has been charged with the responsibility 
of working out, in consultation with the American 
Red Cross, arrangements by which relief supplies 
might be made available to American and Allied 
internees and prisoners of war in the Far East. 
The first problem was the chartering of a suitable 
neutral ship. The Vasaland was found, but the 
Germans refused to permit that vessel to leave the 
Baltic. In the summer of 1942 the American Red 
Cross chartered the Swedish vessel, Kanangoora, 
and loaded it with a cargo of food, clothing, and 
medicines. Wlien the Japanese Government, how- 
ever, refused to grant a safe-conduct for alleged 
strategic reasons the vessel was unloaded. 

The Japanese Govermnent agreed to permit 
supplies to be sent in the exchange vessels and 
promised to distribute them upon arrival. On the 
first voyage of the Gripsholm the American Red 
Cross sent 20.000 standard food parcels, 10,000 
articles of clothing, and $50,000 worth of medical 
supplies. 

Since the exchange ships could carry only a very 
inconsiderable amount of cargo in relation to the 
need, the United States was eager to make ar- 
rangements for regular continuous shipments. 



AUGUST 20, 1944 



179 



Exploration was begun concerning the possibility 
of sending supplies in Soviet ships running be- 
tween American west-coast ports and the Soviet 
Union. The Soviet Government was approached 
with regard to its reception of the idea. Wliile 
awaiting a rejjly the American Red Cross pro- 
posed to send a neutral ship from Japan to pick 
up the cargo and deliver it to various points in the 
Far East where United Nations prisoners were 
held. Although the Japanese Government re- 
fused the latter suggestion, it did agree to con- 
sider a plan whereby supplies might be sent by 
ship or by land from the Soviet Union. 

Long negotiations followed in working out that 
plan. The Soviet Government was willing to 
cooperate if the Japanese Government agreed, but 
throughout the year 1943, despite repeated urging, 
the Japanese Government failed to indicate the 
manner by which that Government would be will- 
ing for the supplies to be forwarded from the 
Soviet Union to Japanese territory. As a means 
of speeding up action the United States started 
the .shipment of relief supplies to Vladivostok in 
October 1943, the Soviet authorities having agreed 
to accept and store 1,500 tons of supplies until the 
Japanese and American Governments had reached 
an agreement concerning transhipment. After 
considerable prodding the Japanese Government 
replied on January 11, 1944 that no action would 
be taken on the question of transporting to Japan 
supplies then at Vladivostok before a satisfactory 
reply had been received to its protests against 
alleged attacks on Japanese hospital ships and 
before its asserted apprehension over the treat- 
ment of detained Japanese nationals had been 
satisfied. 

In the meantime, on the second voyage of the 
Gripsholm, which sailed from Jersey City Septem- 
ber 2, 1943, there were sent 140,000 special Far 
East food packages in addition to clothing and 
medical supplies — a relief cargo that was valued 
at over $1,300,000. The Japanese exchange ship 
Teia Mam left the exchange jDort of Mormugao in 
Portuguese India on October 21 carrying, in addi- 
tion to the cargo of relief supplies, 3,403 bags of 
next-of-kin packages and mail for prisoners of 
war and civilian internees in the Far East. 

The United States Government has continued 
its efforts to arrange with the Japanese Govern- 
ment for the regular movement of relief supplies 
to the Far East. It has even approved of a pro- 

604993 — 44 2 



posal by the American Red Cross, through the 
International Red Cross, that American ships be 
offered to the Japanese Red Cross to be manned 
for this purpose by Japanese crews in Far Eastern 
waters. Thus far, however, the Japanese Govern- 
ment has permitted the movement of supplies into 
Japanese-controlled territory only in diplomatic 
exchange ships. 

In May 1944 the Japanese Government for- 
warded to this Government an offer to send at 
regular intervals a Japanese ship to Vladivostok 
to pick up relief supplies sent from the United 
States for Allied nationals in Japanese custody. 
The Soviet Government was immediately con- 
sulted, and it expressed a willingness to cooperate 
but found it necessary to name an alternative 
Soviet Pacific port to which Japanese ships might 
have access for that purpose. The United States 
Government informed the Japanese Government 
of the plan. Subsequently the Japanese Govern- 
ment replied that it agreed to the port proposed by 
the Soviet Government but that it imposed cer- 
tain additional conditions to be met. The Soviet 
Government is now considering those conditions. 
It is hoped that arrangements to permit shipments 
of relief supplies to the Far East on a continuing 
basis will be completed in the near future. 

Conclusion 

The Special War Problems Division, as it is 
called by Departmental Order 1218 of January 
15, 1944, is charged with the initiation and co- 
ordination of policj' in the various fields which 
have been discussed in this series of articles. Since 
by its very nature the Division has been set up as 
a temporary emergency agency, the problems of 
recruitment of eflncient and adequate personnel 
and the administration of its numerous, varied, 
and constantly changing fields of activity are 
necessarily more complicated and more difficult 
than those encountered in the old-line divisions. 

In the first place, within the period of five years, 
the Special War Problems Division has expanded 
from an initial detail of 10 officers and clerks to 
over 100 — an increase of over 1,000 perceiit. In 
the second place, it has had to move its quarters 
five times. Much of the work of the Division is 
of a highly technical and complex nature and, 
therefore, requires specially trained officials who 
must remain with the Division for a considerable 



180 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



period of time before they can master its intri- 
cacies. The key positions have been filled with 
Foreign Service officers whose experience and fa- 
miliarity with conditions existing abroad espec- 
ially equip them for their duties. Foreign Serv- 
ice ofiicers, however, may remain on assignment 
in the Department for maximum periods of only 
four years, and under the rigid Civil Service re- 
strictions imposed, particularly as regards sal- 
aries, replacement of personnel of equal ability, 
training, and willingness to assume the incumbent 
responsibilities for the low remuneration offered 
has been an almost impossible task. Finally, the 
work of the Division has expanded so rapidly 
that there has never been sufficient personnel to 
(Cope effectively with the constantly increasing 
volume of work. 

As a result of these difficulties the effective exe- 
cution of the Division's work has proved a very 
considerable strain upon the executive and ad- 
ministrative officers. In the five years of its 
existence the Special Division has had five chiefs : 
Breckinridge Long, Joseph E. Davies, George 
Louis Brandt, Joseph C. Green, and James Hugh 
Keeley, Jr., two of whom. Long and Davies, are 
former ambassadors, and two others, Brandt and 
Keeley, are Foreign Service officers. 

The present Chief of the Division, James Hugh 
Keeley, Jr., a Foreign Service officer, was first de- 
tailed to the Division in October 1939, shortly after 
its establishment. On January 2, 1941 he was 
made Assistant Chief, and on March 27, 1943, 
Chief of the Division. 

The Chief of the Special War Problems Di- 
vision is responsible for the broad policies of the 
Division, for the action to be taken to meet 
emergency problems, and for the supervision of 
all phases of the Division's work. He also repre- 
sents the Department on the Interdepartmental 
Boards on Prisoners of War and Civilian In- 
ternees and on the Committee on the Status of 
Italian Prisoners of War. 

Tlie Senior Assistant Chief of the Division and 
head of the Executive Section is Edwin A. Plitt, 
a Foreign Service officer, who was appointed As- 
sistant Chief of the Division on March 28, 1942. 
He becomes Acting Chief in the absence of the 
Chief and is responsible for all administrative 
matters, including office organization, the direc- 
tion of the Division's personnel, and the handling 
of such special problems and duties as are not read- 



ily assimilable with the regidar activities of the 
other sections of the Division. 

When the war ends and the work of the Division 
diminishes, its personnel will for the most part 
return to the field, since the Chief, the Senior 
Assistant Chief, the heads of four of the five Sec- 
tions, and the heads of most of the Units, are For- 
eign Service officers. Nevertheless, the problems 
of welfare and whereabouts, relief, and the ques- 
tions of representation and repatriation of pris- 
oners and internees, will be so many and impor- 
tant that a skeleton organization will probably 
be required to function, if not permanently, at 
least for a considerable period of time after the 
war ends. 



Radiotelegraph Circuit Between 
The United States and India 

[Released to the press August 15] 

As a result of negotiations between the Govern- 
ment of the United States and the Indian Govern- 
ment and arrangements between the private com- 
panies concerned, a new direct radiotelegraph cir- 
cuit was inaugurated between the United States 
and India on August 15. This will be a forked 
circuit operated at the United States end by 
K.C.A. Communications, Inc., and Mackay Radio 
and Telegraph Company and at the Indian ter- 
minal by the Indian Radio and Cable Commimica- 
tions Company, Ltd. The circuit will operate be- 
tween New York and Bombay. 

Upon the occasion of the opening of the circuit, 
messages were exchanged between Sir Mohammad 
Usman, the honorable member of the Viceroy's 
Executive Council for Posts and Air, and the Hon- 
orable James Lawrence Fly, chairman of the Fed- 
eral Communications Commission. Mr. Fly's mes- 
sage reads as follows: 

"It is a pleasure indeed to greet the Indian Gov- 
ernment and people on the occasion of the opening 
of the first direct commercial radiotelegraph cir- 
cuit between the United States and India. By 
means of such radio circuits, messages which a 
century ago would have taken weeks or even 
months to reach their destination are now trans- 
mitted with the speed of light. I trust that the 
new circuit will further strengthen tlie bonds of 
friendship between us and will hasten the day of 
victory in the war which we are fighting together." 



AUGUST 20, 1944 



Caribbean Land-Tenure 
)osium 



Sympc 



[Released to the press August IG] 

The Caribbean Research Council, a subsidiary 
body of the Anglo-American Caribbean Commis- 
sion, is sponsoring a Caribbean land-tenure sym- 
posium which will meet in Ma3^agiiez, Puerto Rico, 
August 28 to August 31, 1944. This meeting will 
be under the immediate direction of the Agricul- 
tural Committee of the Caribbean Research Coun- 
cil of which Dr. Carlos E. Chardon of Puerto Rico 
is chairman. Governor Rexford G. Tugwell of 
Puerto Rico, a member of the Anglo-American 
Caribbean Commission, will open the formal 
proceedings. 

The symposium will be devoted to a full inter- 
change of technical information and ideas on 
aspects of land tenure as they pertain to the Carib- 
bean area. Technical papers will be read by 
experts from the United States and British islands 
in the Caribbean. The Netherlands Minister to 
Mexico, J. C. Kielstra, former governor of Suri- 
nam, will read a paper on land tenure in the 
Netherlands Indies. The independent island 
republics, Cuba, Haiti, and the Dominican Repub- 
lic, will be represented by qualified experts who 
will participate in the discussion of the papers 
along with the members of the Research Council 
and the Agricultural Committee of the Council. 
No resolutions or recommendations are to be drawn 
up at the symposium, but the papers and a record 
of the discussions will be published subsequently 
as the proceedings of the meeting. 

In going from San Juan to Mayagiiez and re- 
turning to San Juan, the participants will visit 
land-settlement projects of the Puerto Rico Re- 
construction Administration and institutions for 
agricultural research. Members of the Research 
Council's Agricultural Committee will have a 
meeting at Cidra in the interior of the island on 
September 1. This committee is composed of Mr. 
K. Bartlett, Director, Mayaguez Experimental 
Station, Puerto Rico; Mr. R. L. Brooks, Conserv- 
ator of Forests, Trinidad; Dr. H. H. Brown, Di- 
rector of Fisheries Investigation in the British 
West Indies; Dr. C. E. Chardon, Director, Insti- 
tute of Tropical Research, Mayagiiez, Puerto Rico ; 
Dr. E. Englund, Department of Agriculture, 
United States ; Mr. 0. T. Faulkner, Principal, Im- 



181 

perial College of Tropical Agriculture, Trinidad; 
Dr. P. Morales-Otero, Director, Institute of Trop- 
ical Medicine, Puerto Rico ; Dr. A. Roque, Director 
of Agricultural Experiment Station, Rio Piedras, 
Puerto Rico; Dr. S. J. Saint, Director of Agri- 
culture, Barbados, British West Indies; Mr. A. 
Upson, Director of Forestry Re.search Institute, 
Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico ; Mr. A. J. Wakefield, In- 
spector General of Agriculture for the British 
West Indies ; Mr. E. G. Whitbread, Deputy Com- 
missioner of Commerce and Industry, Jamaica; 
and a Netherlands representative to be nommated 
later. 

Immediately after the symposium a meeting of 
the Caribbean Research Council, which is com- 
posed of representatives of the United States, 
Great Britain, and the Netherlands, will be held 
in St. Thomas, Virgin Islands (U. S.). Members 
of four new sectional committees will consider the 
work to be done in their fields of public health 
and medicine, social sciences, industries and build- 
ing and engineering research. 



Resignation of William Phillips 
As Adviser to Eisenhower 

STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY OF STATE 

[Released to the press .\ugust 17] 

The Honorable William Phillips,' who has been 
serving as political adviser to General Eisen- 
hower, has for several months been considering 
relinquishing his present duties and returning to 
the United States for urgent family reasons. In 
accepting this post Mr. Phillips originally ex- 
pected to remain in London only during the period 
of planning for military operations on the Con- 
tinent, but his sei-vice has been so effective that 
he consented to stay on at the insistent request of 
both the State Department and General Eisen- 
hower. He feels, however, that he can no longer 
jjostpone his return to this country and is conse- 
quently' resigning, to the great regret of all of us. 
His departure from Supreme Headquarters of the 
Allied Expeditionary Forces will take place in 
September. 



' Mr. Phillips is personal representative of the Presi- 
dent near the Government of India, with the rank of 
Ajnbassador. 



182 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Philippine - American Relations Since 1939 



By 
RICHARDSON DOUGALL' 



Wlien the Japanese followed up the bombing 
of Manila on December 7, 1941 (Dec. 8, Manila 
time) with a full-fledged invasion of the Philip- 
pine Islands they believed that they had destroyed 
overnight the foundation for Philippine inde- 
pendence which the United States laid in 1934. 
The Philippine Independence Act of that year, 
better known as the Tydings-McDuffie act, had 
provided for the independence of the Philippines 
as the culmination of a 10-year cooperative pro- 
gram between the United States and the Com- 
monwealth of the Philippines to prepare the peo- 
ple of the Islands for complete self-govermiient. 

On December 24, 1941 the United States and 
the Commonwealth officials, fully aware of the 
Japanese invasion plans, transferred as a pre- 
cautionary measure the' seat of the Government 
of the Commonwealth from Manila to Fort Mills, 
Corregidor. There, under the protection of the 
United States Army, Mr. Francis B. Sayre, the 
United States High Commissioner to the Philip- 
pines, and Mr. Manuel L. Quezon, the President 
of the Commonwealth, carried on limited func- 
tions of the Government. With them on Corregi- 
dor were Mr. Quezon's family, Mrs. Sayre, and 
a number of high-ranking Commonwealth offi- 
cials, including Vice President Sergio Osmena, 
now President of the Commonwealth. 

The continued freedom of these officers, who 
symbolized constitutional government and ad- 
herence to the American cause, was considered es- 
sential for Filipino morale and for the preserva- 
tion of the Commonwealth Government itself. 
The Department of State therefore studied most 
carefully a radio message that the High Commis- 
sioner had dispatched on January 24, 1942 relat- 
ing to the possible withdrawal of President Que- 
zon from the Philippines. Officers of the 
Department conferred with the Secretary of War, 
General Marshall, Admiral King, and General 
Eisenhower (then on duty in Washington) and 

' Dr. Dougall is a historian in tlie War Records Unit, 
Division of Research and Publication, OtBce of Public In- 
formation, Department of State. 



prepared for the President's signature a message 
which was Sent to Mr. Sayre on January 27. It 
suggested that the question of evacuating the offi- 
cers of the Commonwealth Government be de- 
termined by General MacArthur, the commanding 
general in the Philippines, in the light of his 
knowledge of the military situation. 

On February 2, however, after a message from 
General MacArthur had been received, the De- 
partment drafted a further message stating that 
it would be desirable for the officials of the Com- 
monwealth Government to leave Corregidor as 
soon as their presence in the Philippines was no 
longer necessary for military reasons. Shortly 
thereafter the High Commissioner, President 
Quezon, Vice President Osmena, and other Com- 
monwealth officials, together with certain mem- 
bers of their families and staffs, were evacuated 
from the Philippines, leaving Corregidor in small 
groups by submarine. The members of the Com- 
monwealth Government were taken first to Aus- 
tralia and embarked for the United States late 
in April. 

The matter of receiving President Quezon and 
his party was a question of concern primarily to 
the Dei)artment of the Interior, but other branches 
of the Government lent assistance. It was neces- 
sary, for example, for the Visa Division of the De- 
partment of State, through the Department of 
Justice, to authorize immigration officials in San 
Francisco to admit the party to the United States 
without the usual travel documentation. The Di- 
vision of Protocol also made its technical knowl- 
edge available to the Interior Department officials 
in charge of arranging for President Quezon's 
reception in Washington. Mr. Quezon arrived in 
this city on May 13, 1942 and was met at the Union 
Station by President Roosevelt, certain members 
of the Cabinet, and a group composed of former 
Governors General and High Conunissioners. He 
immediately established the Commonwealth Gov- 
ernment-in-exile in the Capital of the United 
States. 

Since that time a considerable part of the rela- 
tions of the United States Government with Mr. 



AUGUST 20, 1944 



183 



Quezon and the Commonwealth Government has 
been carried on, by presidential directive of Octo- 
ber 1942, in the Division of Territories and Island 
Possessions of the Department of the Interior, to 
which the functions of the War Department Bu- 
reau of Insular Affairs had been transferred on 
July 1, 1939. From the latter date until the estab- 
lishment of the Commonwealth Government in 
Washington the Department of the Interior had 
been responsible for securing appropriations, co- 
ordinating the work of other agencies, and acting 
in a liaison capacity for all contact between the 
United States Government and the United States 
High Commissioner to the Philippines, with one 
exception: Direct communication between the 
Secretary of State and the High Commissioner 
was permitted by the President's letter of June 
16, 1939 on such subjects as internal Philippine 
affairs affecting United States international ob- 
ligations, international communications with the 
Philippines, and such matters as immigration, 
passjjorts, extradition, and foreign consular ac- 
tivity in the Philippines. 

At the same time the Treasury Department was 
concerned with fiscal matters arising from the 
importation of goods from the Philippines. The 
collection of import duties and excise taxes on 
major Philippine products such as coconut oil, 
sugar, and tobacco fell of course within the scope 
of Treasury functions. The collection of the 
coconut-oil and sugar taxes was particularly im- 
portant because, under special procedures set up 
by the Treasury, the returns from those taxes were 
to be transferred to the Commonwealth Govern- 
ment. That Government was then to use the 
money received to adjust the Philippine economy 
from complete dependence on trade with the 
United States to complete independence from the 
necessity for preferential tariff' treatment. 

The Treasury also began, on January 1, 1941, 
to administer the annually declining free-quota 
system for Philippine imports established by the 
act of August 7, 1939. On the same date it 
assumed responsibility for the custody and invest- 
ment of a sinking fund raised by Philippine 
export taxes and earmarked for the redemption of 
Philippine bonds. Since the JajDanese invasion 
the Treasury Department has been concerned with 
the freezing of Philippine funds under its foreign- 
funds control program. 

During the period before Pearl Harbor the War 
and Navy Departments, operating through the 



commanding general of the Philippine Depart- 
ment and the conmiander in chief of the Asiatic 
Fleet, had exclusive jurisdiction in matters con- 
cerning the defense of the Philippines and the 
use of the Islands as a Far Eastern base. The 
War Dejjartment in jjarticular gave assistance to 
the Commonwealth Government in training the 
Filipino Army and furnished military aides and 
advisers to the High Commissioner. It also took 
the initiative in recommending to Congress the 
use of sugar revenue for Philippine defense rather 
than for economic adjustment. 

Befoi-e the invasion of the Philippines the 
Department of Commerce performed functions 
relating generally to the numerous problems of 
Philijipine trade. Its Bureau of Foreign and 
Domestic Commerce analyzed consular and other 
reports, for example, and furnished trade infor- 
mation to American business interests. The Coast 
and Geodetic Survey carried on mapping activi- 
ties in the Philippines, and the Civil Aeronautics 
Board and Administration were concerned with 
another specialized aspect of Philippine affairs. 

The Department of Agriculture also analyzed 
reports from Foreign Service officers in the Philip- 
pines and performed duties in connection with the 
importation of Philippine sugar, beside making 
payments to sugar growers in the Islands as com- 
pensation for the destruction of sugarcane crops. 
The Department of Labor and the Department of 
Justice (after the transfer of the Immigration and 
Naturalization Service from the Labor Depart- 
ment in June 1940) were concerned with certain 
immigration problems. And the Post Office 
Department was interested in the Philippines from 
the point of view of mail subsidies and mail 
contracts for postal service between the Philip- 
pines and points outside. 

All the executive Departments of the United 
States Government were thus in some degree 
concerned with Philippine affairs. In addition, a 
number of independent establishments, such as the 
Tariff Commission in peacetime and the Office of 
War Information in wartime, have performed spe- 
cial duties relating to the Philippines such as the 
study of United States-Philippine trade and the 
I^reparation of radio broadcasts for use in the 
United States Government program of psycho- 
logical warfare. 

The President of the United States is of course 
responsible for the conduct of the work of all 
these agencies and he personally has made impor- 



184 

tant policy decisions on Philippine questions. He 
has recommended to Congress the passage of 
Philippine legislation. He has had direct deahngs 
with the President of the Commonwealth. He has 
appointed the High Commissioners to the Philip- 
pines. He has broadcast words of encouragement 
to the Filipino people. He has signed acts of Con- 
gress concerning the Philippines and those acts of 
the Philippine National Assembly that required 
his approval. In this last function he had the as- 
sistance of the Bureau of the Budget, which con- 
sulted the interested departments in the prepara- 
tion of reconunendations for the President. The 
Bureau of the Budget was also called upon to in- 
dicate whether draft bills being presented to Con- 
gress were in accord with the program of the 
President, and in this connection it consulted the 
interested executive Departments, including the 
Department of State. 

The interest of the Department of State in 
Philippine affairs arose largely from the fact that 
the Philippines became a potential foreign nation 
on March 24, 1934 when President Koosevelt ap- 
proved the Tydings-McDuffie act providing for 
independence upon the expiration of a Common- 
wealth period. In the interim the Government of 
the Commonwealth of the Philippines was to con- 
trol in large measure the affairs of the Islands. 
To the Government of the United States were re- 
served, however, considerable powers. Control 
of Philippine foreign affairs and control of in- 
ternal Philippine affairs that affected international 
obligations of the United States were among the 
powers reserved by the Independence Act, and the 
exercise of this control was a responsibility of the 
Department of State. 

An Assistant Secretary of State, Mr. Francis 
B. Sayre, was appointed chairman of the Govern- 
ment's Interdepartmental Committee on Philip- 
pine Affairs. The execution of Mr. Sayre's duties 
as chairman of that committee entailed participa- 
tion of the Department of State in all matters 
pertaining to the Philippines, particularly since 
a United States ambassador and two officers of 
the Department were named to the Joint Prepara- 
tory Committee on Philippine Affairs, which com- 
pleted its work in 1938. The major portion of 
this work was done in the Office of Philippine 
Affairs, Department of State, and a bill was 
drafted in that office to carry out the committee's 

'Press Releases, Dec. 19, 1936, p. .528. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

recommendations. After Mr. Sayre's appoint- 
ment in 1939 as High Commissioner to the Philip- 
pines, however, the Department of State confined 
its activities, with respect to Philippine affairs, 
largely to matters in the international field. 

The Office of Philippine Affairs mentioned 
above (now the Division of Philippine Affairs) 
was created, with the specific approval of the 
President, on December 12, 1936 to carry out the 
responsibilities of the Department of State under 
the terms of the Philippine Independence Act 
"and (in conjunction especially with the Division 
of Far Eastern Affairs and with other interested 
divisions) to have general charge of such other 
matters as concern this Department in relation to 
the Philippine Islands"'.^ Mr. Joseph E. Jacobs, 
the first Chief of the Office, served as chairman of 
the American group of members of the Joint Pre- 
paratory Committee on Philippine Affairs. The 
present" Chief of the Division of Philippine Af- 
fairs, Mr. Frank P. Lockliart, is a Foreign Service 
officer with long experience in the Far East, whose 
last post was that of consul general at Shanghai. 
The Assistant Chief of the Division is Mr. Paul 
P. Steintorf, former trade commissioner and 
consul at Manila, who was interned by the Jap- 
anese and returned to the United States on the 
Gripshohn only a few months ago. 

In peacetime the principal operations of the 
Department of State in the field of Philippine 
affairs concerned representation of the Philippines 
in the diplomatic field and special aspects of 
Philippine interests, such as legislation, immigi-a- 
tion, trade, communications, and other matters of 
direct and special concern to the Department. 

Tlie Foreign Service of the United States has 
been— for that matter, still is— the channel for 
Philippine representation abroad. It was Ameri- 
can Foreign Service officers, for example, who 
performed such routine representation services as 
issuing visas for entry into the Philippines and 
collecting the appropriate fees, which were trans- 
mitted through the Department and the High 
Commissioner to the Conunonwealth Government. 
Many examples could be given of less routine 
representation of Philippine interests abroad. 
United States representatives, for instance, spoke 
for the Philippines on questions before the Inter- 
national Sugar Council at London. Officers of 
the Department of State carried on conversations 
in Washington with Chinese and French diplo- 
mats who had raised objections to the Philippine 



AUGUST 20, 1944 



185 



parity law that fixed rates of exchange for pay- 
ment of Philippine customs duties. The Depart- 
ment also performed liaison work in connection 
with the registration of Philippine radio stations 
with the Bureau of International Telecommunica- 
tion Union at Bern (this work involved coopera- 
tion with the Department of the Interior and the 
Federal Communications Commission) and at the 
request of the Conmionwealth Government took up 
with foreign powers, formally or informally, a 
variety of other matters, including many relating 
to postal aifairs. 

The Department studied ways and means of 
extending Philippine trade to countries other 
than the United States in order to decrease de- 
pendence upon American markets and to facili- 
tate the economic adjustment of the Philippines 
after independence. In this connection the De- 
partment decided to extend to the Conunonwealth 
Government and to Filipino individuals and firms 
the commercial facilities of the Foreign Service, 
already available to American companies and in- 
terests in the Philippines. A circular instruction 
to this effect was sent on May 1, IQ-IO to American 
Foreign Service officers abroad. 

It was expected, of course, that after July 4, 
1946, the date set for Philippine independence, the 
new Pliilippine Government would establish a 
foreign office and a foreign service of its own, 
although it was anticipated that the United States 
might continue to represent Philippine interests, 
if requested to do so, in areas to which Filipino 
officers were not assigned. The Department 
wished, therefore, to assist the Commonwealth 
Government in the process of preparing for the 
establishment of a foreign service, and to that end 
the Office of Philippine Affairs drew up in some 
detail plans for the organization of a foreign office 
and foreign service for the Philippines and sent 
them to the High Commissioner for his use in dis- 
cussions with Philippine officials. It also made 
suggestions concerning the qualifications and 
training of future officers of the Philippine for- 
eign service and the development and staifing of a 
foreign-relations division of the Commonwealth 
Government which could pave the way for assum- 
ing full responsibility for the conduct of foreign 
affairs. 

In the field of Philippine trade the Department, 
by an excliange of notes with the Japanese Em- 
bassy, had concluded annually since 1935 a so- 
called cotton-textile agreement. Each year the 



Association of Japanese Exporters of Cotton 
Piece Goods agreed to restrict exports of cotton 
textiles from Japan to the Philippines to 45 mil- 
lion square meters a year, and the United States 
Government in return undertook not to recom- 
mend an increase of the Philippine tariff on these 
goods during the term of the agreement. Ameri- 
can textile interests, represented by the Cotton 
Textile Institute and the Cotton Textile Exporters 
Association, supported the arrangement. Rep- 
resentatives of those organizations came to the 
Department each year to discuss renewal with the 
Assistant Secretary of State concerned (succes- 
sively Mr. Sayre, Mr. Henry Grady, and Mr. 
Breckinridge Long). After renewal had been 
decided upon in principle the American business 
interests brought about a request from the Japa- 
nese Embassy for a new exchange of notes, which 
was accomplished after final approval by the Com- 
mercial Policy Committee, the Tariff Commission, 
the Department of Commerce, the High Commis- 
sioner, the Commonwealth Government, and the 
Department of State. 

In 1941 the general political situation in the 
Far East was so grave that the Department con- 
sidered renewing the agreement for only three 
months or allowing it to lapse. While this point 
was still under consideration Japanese aggression 
in Indochina injected another factor into the situ- 
ation, on the basis of which it was determined that 
the cotton-textile agreement should be permitted 
to lapse on July 31, 1941. 

Of long standing also was the project of an 
aviation agreement with the Netherlands to per- 
mit the institution of regular air service on a 
reciprocal basis between the Philippines and the 
Netherlands East Indies. Diplomatic negotia- 
tions looking toward such an agreement had been 
opened in 1935 and were still in progress when 
war broke out in western Europe. Shortly there- 
after a draft agreement prepared in the Depart- 
ment was discussed with officers of other agencies 
and forwarded to the High Commissioner for 
his comments and those of the Connnonwealth 
Government. 

German aggression against the Netherlands in 
May 1940 raised a question of policy concerning 
the desirability of concluding the proposed agree- 
ment. The Department by August 1940 came to 
the conclusion that because of Japanese pressure 
on the Netherlands for a similar agreement the 
negotiations should be postponed. In January 



186 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



1941, however, the Dutch indicated that the re- 
cent extension of Japanese air service in the 
South Pacific area made them more anxious than 
ever to improve communications with the United 
States. Accordingly, the di-aft agreement, when 
it had been approved by the Commonwealth Gov- 
ernment, was submitted to the Netherlands Lega- 
tion. The Dutch counter-proposals were still un- 
der discussion between the Department and the 
Civil Aeronautics Board when the entry of the 
United States into the war niade it necessary to 
suspend further negotiations. 

The Department's connection with the Philip- 
pine sugar problem is another good example of 
the way in which diplomacy relating to Philippine 
affairs long before Pearl Harbor was conditioned 
by the general political situation in the Far East 
and by the threat of war in the Pacific. 

The Philippine Independence Act had provided 
duty-free quotas for the importation of Philippine 
sugar into the United States. The International 
Sugar Agreement of 1937, to which the Common- 
wealth Govermnent was a party, provided that 
the Philippines should export its sugar only to 
the United States unless those quotas should be cut 
or unless the world demand increased. From 1937 
to 1939 the Department of State was concerned 
with representing the Philippines on matters 
brought to the attention of the United States Em- 
bassy in London by the International Sugar Coun- 
cil and with making available to the Common- 
wealth Government the money collected by the 
Treasury as excise taxes on the processing of Phil- 
ippine sugar in the United States. 

After. 1939, however, the sugar problem was 
changed radically by the increasing scarcity of 
shipping space to carry sugar from the Philip- 
pines to the United States. The Maritime Com- 
mission in allocating shipping gave priority to 
Philippine ore and abaca (Manila hemp), which 
were considered essential strategic materials; and 
in consequence the Philippines was unable to ship 
its quota of sugar to the United States. Since the 
Philippine sugar growers could sell their sugar 
only to the United States, they had large quanti- 
ties of an unmarketable commodity on their hands, 
and the Philippine banks, which had regularly 
lent money to planters on security of the sugar 
crop, were now less willing to finance the plant- 
ing and harvesting of future crops that could not 



be sold. If relief were not obtained, Philippine 
sugar interests were thus facing a major disaster. 

A number of relief plans of interest to the 
Department of State were considered. At a meet- 
ii^ held in April 1941 and attended by representa- 
tives of the Departments of State, Agriculture, and 
the Interior and of the Defense Commission it was 
generally agreed, since the Philippines appar- 
ently would be unable to fill its quota because of 
action by the American Government in diverting 
ships, that there was some obligation to compen- 
sate the Philippine sugar producers. 

One of the solutions studied was the possibility 
of lend-leasing Philippine sugar to Kussia. Most 
of the interested officers of the Department be- 
lieved that the Philippines would be unable to 
obtain from the International Sugar Council a 
release to ship sugar to Russia in contravention 
of the International Sugar Agreement, since such 
a release would require the consent of other gov- 
ernments with important sugar interests in the 
South Pacific. The Commonwealth Government, 
the High Commissioner, and the Department of 
the Interior, however, all recommended that the 
Department of State request a release. The 
United States Embassy in London therefore was 
instructed in November 1941 to make that request. 
It was to emphasize the lend-lease character of the 
proposed shipments and to leave the door open for 
the inclusion in them of some sugar from areas 
other than the Philippines. 

The Council's permission was granted on 
December 19, 1941. By that time, of course, it had 
become impossible for the Philippines to avail 
itself of the permission granted. 

In the meantime another proposal had been 
under active consideration: a loan to the Pliilip- 
pine National Bank from the Export-Import Bank 
of Washington, a subsidiary of the Federal Loan 
Agency. The loan was made on the basis of that 
portion of the 1941 and 1942 duty-free import 
quotas that could not be shipped to the United 
States. It was to be secured, liowever, not by the 
sugar but by the pledge of the Philippine National 
Bank, guaranteed by the Commonwealth Govern- 
ment. On Decemljer 3, 1941 the Departments of 
State, Agriculture, and the Interior and the Fed- 
eral Loan Agency endorsed the loan proposal, but 
it was dropped after the Japanese invasion of the 
Philippines. 



AUGUST 20, 1944 



187 



The shipping situation also affected trade in 
copra between the Philippines and the United 
States. Since Philippine copra was an impor- 
tant source of coconut oil in this country it was 
proposed to reduce the processing tax on coconut 
oil until there was again an adequate supply of 
Philippine copra. The Bureau of the Budget con- 
sulted the Department of State both when the bill 
to accomplish this purpose was first considered and 
again when the engrossed bill awaited the Presi- 
dent's signature. After consideration the Depart- 
ment reported that it had no objection to the bill. 

The importation of jute and jute products from 
India into the Philippines was another trade ques- 
tion that because of war conditions required diplo- 
matic attention. In November 1940 the British 
Embassy in Washington explained to the Depart- 
ment of State that the Government of India had 
reached the conclusion that the export of jute and 
jute products from India would have to be con- 
trolled. The purpose of the control was to restrict 
Japanese imports of such items so severely that 
Japan would be forced to discontinue shipping 
Manchurian soybeans in jute bags to Germany. 

The upshot of conversations in Washington was 
a recommendation to the British Government that 
jute exports from India to the Philippines be re- 
stricted to those Philippine importers whose ap- 
plications the British consul general in Manila had 
approved on the basis of acceptable assurances that 
the jute products would not be reexported. The 
Government of India soon adopted a system along 
the lines of this suggestion. It remained in force 
but a very short time, however, since the extension 
of the United States export control to the Philip- 
pines on May 28, 1941 made British control in In- 
dia unnecessary. 

The extension of control to exports from the 
Philippines had been under consideration for 
months. The Administrator of Export Control 
had instructed the Division of Controls of the 
Department of State tliat all materials subject to 
the export-license system in the United States (ex- 
cept arms, ammunition, and implements of war) 
that were shipped to the Philippines must have 
export licenses.! That instruction was designed to 
prevent the unlicensed reexport from the Philip- 
pines of goods which could not have been shipped 
directly from the United States without a license. 
It did not, however, limit in any way the exporta- 



tion of goods produced in the Philippines, of which 
only arms, ammunition, and implements of war 
were then subject to a licensing system. 

By October 1940 the Army-Navy Munitionp 
Board and the Advisory Commission to the Coun- 
cil of National Defense had begun to feel that 
the exportation of abaca, chrome, iron ore, and 
other products from the Philippines to Japan 
might be against the best interests of national de- 
fense. The United States was already having 
difficulty in buying Philipijine abaca, the best 
grades of which were produced by Japanese com- 
panies in the Philijjpines and shipped to Japan. 
An amendment to the Export Control Act to ex- 
tend the licensing system to the Philippines was 
therefoi-e drafted in the Department's Division 
of Controls, and an officer of that division served 
with representatives of other Government agencies 
on an interdepartmental subcommittee appointed 
to consider extension of export control to the Phil- 
ippines. 

The Department of State felt that the restric- 
tion or stoppage at that time of such exports to 
Japan as iron ore would be inopportune and would 
cause further maladjustments in the Philippine 
economy. It felt nevertheless that the act should 
be amended so that it would be possible to put re- 
strictions into eflect promptly in case of hostili- 
ties or near hostilities with Japan but that licens- 
ing should be continued for the time being. 

The Department's representative therefore ap- 
proved the subcommittee's report of mid-April 
which called for legislation to extend export con- 
trol to the Philippines and which recommended 
that control in the Islands be administered under 
the direction of the Administrator of Export Con- 
trol through the High Commissioner to the 
Philippines. Necessary directives were to be 
transmitted to the High Commissioner through 
tlie Department of State. 

When the legislation called for by the sub- 
committee was submitted to the Department for 
comment before being signed by the President, 
the Department strongly recommended its ap- 
proval. Tlie act accomplishing the desired ex- 
tension of export control was signed on May 28, 
1941 and thereafter the Department carried on a 
considerable amomit of largely routine work in 

1 Bulletin of June 7, 1941, p. 707, June 14, 1941, p. 728, 
and June 28, 1941, p. 766. 



758 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



connection with the administration of export con- 
trol in the Philippines. This work was done first 
by the Division of Controls and later by the Di- 
vision of Exports and Defense Aid and the Di- 
vision of Defense Materials. 

As the situation in the Pacific became more 
serious the War and Navy Departments undertook 
a number of precautionary measures with re- 
spect to Philippine defense, and the Department 
of State was sometimes called upon for legal ad- 
vice or diplomatic assistance. For example, at the 
request of the Navy Department, the Department 
of State lent a hand in defense preparations by 
issuing a circular note to the diplomatic missions 
in Washington announcing the mining of the en- 
trances of Manila and Subic Bays. The Depart- 
ment also endorsed the executive order drafted 
by the Navy Department establishing a Manila 
Bay Defensive Sea Area and the legislation spon- 
sored by the Navy Department relating to the 
creation of such areas. 

The Department of State was also concerned 
in the period just before Pearl Harbor with efforts 
to check subversive activity on the part of officials 
and individuals in the Philippines who were 
friendly to Axis interests. Action with respect to 
private individuals who received financial assist- 
ance from Japan was of first concern to other 
agencies of the United States Government. The 
Department of State, however, had primary re- 
sponsibility for action with respect to consular 
officers of other nations who overstepped the 
bounds of proper consular activity. Thus the 
Department acted through the High Commissioner 
to restrain the German and Italian consuls in 
Manila from improper activity. 

Since the Japanese invasion of the Philippines 
the Department of State has been concerned to 
some extent with the problem of combating Jap- 
anese propaganda and Japanese efforts to alienate 
the Filipinos from their traditional friendship 
toward the United States by converting them to 
the Japanese New Order. The psychological- 
warfare activities of the United States Govern- 
ment with respect to the Philippines are carried 
out principally by the San Francisco field office 
of the Office of War Information, but representa- 
tives of the Department of State, the armed serv- 
ices, and the British Psychological Warfare 
Executive meet with officials of the Office of War 



' Bulletin of July 16, 1944, p. 68. 



Information each week to consider a general 
directive on Pacific matters. This directive guides 
the field office during the ensuing week in prepar- 
ing scripts and arranging short-wave broadcasts 
to the Philippines, to other occupied areas in the 
Pacific theater, and to Japan. 

Although it has only a general advisory function 
in relation to information broadcast to the Philip- 
pines, the Department of State has been more 
intimately concerned with operations relating to 
the gathering of information /rom the Philippines. 
A representative of the Office of Philippine Af- 
fairs, for instance, was sent to New York when 
the Gnpshohn completed its first exchange voyage 
to interview the few people aboard who had been 
evacuated from the Philippines in exchange for 
Japanese nationals returned to Japan from the 
United States. A good example of the type of 
information received in the Department from 
Americans returning by exchange from the Philip- 
pines is the Japanese attempt to use the Philip- 
pines in various ways to facilitate acceptance of 
the New Order in East Asia. 

The Department of State, through its Special 
War Problems Division (formerly the Special 
Division), has been most closely concerned also 
with the questions of relief and repatriation for 
Ajnericans, both civilian and military, interned 
by the Japanese in the Philippines.' There has 
been close cooperation between the Special War 
Problems Division and the Division of Philippine 
Affairs in these matters. 

With regard to relief, the situation in the 
Islands was made particularly difficult because the 
Japanese considered them conquered American 
territory and therefore in a class by themselves. 
It was some time before the Department received 
any information whatever about the conditions 
which it must attempt to relieve, since the Swiss 
Goverimient, which is protecting American inter- 
ests in Japan and in Japanese-occupied territory, 
was unable to get reports from Manila. 

In the meantime officers of the Department of 
State worked closely with the officials of the Amer- 
ican Red Cross in an attempt to secure Japanese 
assent to the appointment of an International Red 
Cross representative in Manila. The Japanese 
Government has consistently refused to permit 
such an appointment, but the American Red Cross 
in the Philippines was permitted to use its funds in 
the Philippine National Bank for the relief of the 
inhabitants of the Santo Tomas internment camp 



AUGUST 20. 1944 



189 



at Manila. The transmission of additional funds 
to the Philippines through Japanese channels has 
also been allowed. The Japanese, furthermore, 
have established a Red Cross organization under 
their otfu auspices to care to some extent for the 
Filipinos. 

Relief supplies sent from the United States to 
the Philippines on the first voyage of the Grips- 
holm are known to have reached their destination. 
A larger consignment was sent on her second voy- 
age. In general, the relief situation has improved 
considerably since the early months of the war 
with Japan, although there is still probably a 
shortage of medical supplies and clothing and of 
some essential foods. 

The Japanese Government, with which the 
Department carried on long and complex negotia- 
tions through the Swiss Government, permitted 
the exchange of only a handful of Americans from 
the Philippines on the first voyage of the Grips- 
holm. On the second voyage, however, it per- 
mitted 132 civilians from the Philippines to be 
exchanged. The personnel chosen for exchange 
was named by the Japanese authorities, but it is 
not known on what basis the selection was made, 
although most of the persons designated were in 
transit through Manila en route to or from the 
United States when war was declared.' 

Shortly after the Japanese occupation of Manila 
the Department of State and the Department of 
the Treasury took steps to protect the Philippine 
currency and Philippine securities. On January 
14, 1942 the Treasury after consultation with the 
Department of State issued a general I'uling re- 
quiring all Philippine currency in the United 
States to be deposited in blocked accounts in 
United States banks on or before February 1. The 
order further required that all Philippine secvu'i- 
ties be presented to Federal Reserve Banks for 
registration and at the same time prohibited the 
acquisition, disposition, or ti'ansfer of Philippine 
currency and securities. 

Six days later the Department of State in- 
structed American Foreign Service officers abroad 
to take such steps as might be necessary at their 
particular posts to notify holders of Philippine 
currency and securities in other countries that 
their holdings must be deposited in or registered 
with reputable banks. The Department of State 
has also been called upon at infrequent intervals 
to make recommendations to the Treasury con- 
cerning the handling of certain individual appli- 



cations relating to frozen Philippine accounts 
where special problems were involved. 

As American forces in the Pacific move closer 
and closer to the Philippines the time approaches 
when the entire character of the Department of 
State's relation to Philippine problems will be 
fundamentally changed. Wlien a Philippine Re- 
public is established it will immediately assume 
responsibility for the conduct of Philippine for- 
eign affairs, and the Department of State will then 
become the channel of diplomatic communication 
between the United States Government and the 
government of an independent Philippine nation. 
The Department has therefore followed with the 
keenest interest the developments of the last 12 
months relating to the final attainment of Philip- 
pine independence, which, under the formula pro- 
vided in the Philippine Independence Act, had 
been scheduled for July 4, 1946. 

On October 6, 1943 President Roosevelt, after 
consulting with officers of various agencies, includ- 
ing the Department of the Interior and the De- 
partment of State, recommended to Congress that 
he be authorized "to advance the date provided in 
existing law and to proclaim the legal independ- 
ence of the Philippines, as a separate and self- 
governing nation, as soon as feasible." The 
President recommended also that Congress make 
provision for carrying out the necessary steps to 
make good his pledge that in the future Philippine 
independence would be protected. He requested 
fiu-ther that Congress provide for the economic 
security, wherever possible, of an independent 
Filipino nation and "for the physical and economic 
rehabilitation of the Philippines made necessary 
by the ravages of war which the invaders have 
inflicted upon them." " 

On November 3, 1943, less than a month after the 
receipt of the President's message in Congress, 
Senator Tydings introduced Senate Joint Resolu- 
tions 93 and 94 to accomplish the objectives defined 
in the message. These resolutions passed the Sen- 
ate quickly but wei'e kept under consideration in 
the House of Representatives until June 1944 and 
became law, as amended, only on June 29.^ In the 
meantime the Department of State had submitted 
two favorable reports to Representative Bell, 
chairman of the House Committee on Insular 



• Bulletin of Aug. 6, 1944, p. 142. 

' Congressional Record, Oct. 6, 1943, p. 8200. 

" Bulletin of July 2, 1944, p. 17, 



190 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Affairs, one with regard to changing the date of 
independence, submitted November 20, 1943, and 
one with regard to the creation of a Filipino Re- 
habilitation Commission, submitted December 13, 
1943. 

Senate Joint Resolution 94, now Public Law 381 
(78th Congress), amends that part of the Philip- 
pine Independence Act of 1934, as amended, that 
required the convening before July 4 of this year 
of a joint commission to study trade relations be- 
tween the United States and the Philippines. The 
act now provides that the Filipino Rehabilitation 
Commission which it establishes shall make recom- 
mendations "for future trade relations between 
the United States and the independent Philippine 
Republic when established" and shall "consider the 
extension of the present or heretofore agreed upon 
trade relations . . . for a period of years to 
make adjustments for the period of occupancy by 
the Japanese in order to reestablish trade relations 
as provided for in the original Independence Act". 
The new resolution also provides that the Commis- 
sion shall "investigate all matters affecting post- 
war economy, trade, finance, economic stability, 
and rehabilitation of the Philippine Islands, in- 
cluding the matter of damages to public and pri- 
vate property and to persons occasioned by enemy 
attack and occupation".^ In other words, the 
Commission is to consider the entire question of 
Philippine economy and to formulate recommen- 
dations for dealing with the multitudinous knotty 
problems that will demand attention as soon as 
the Japanese are driven from the Islands. 

In accordance with the terms of the resolution 
nine members of the Filipino Rehabilitation Com- 
mission have been designated by the United States : 
Senators Tydings, Clark, and Vandenberg; Repre- 
sentatives Bell, McGehee, and Welch ; Wayne Coy, 
of the Washmgton Post; Lynn R. Edminster, 
vice chairman. United States Tariff Commission, 
formerly Special Assistant to the Secretary of 
State and a member of the Joint Preparatory Com- 
mittee on Philippine Affairs in 1937 and 1938; and 
Evett D. Hester, economic adviser. Office of the 
United States High Commissioner to the Philip- 
pine Islands, Department of the Interior. Presi- 
dent Quezon appointed before his death only seven 
of the nine Filipino members : Vice President (now 
President) Osmena; Joaquin M. Elizalde, Resi- 



dent Commissioner; Jaime Hernandez, Auditor 
General; Colonel Manuel Nieto, Secretary of the 
Philippine Cabinet; Colonel Carlos P. Romulo, 
Secretary of Information; Colonel Alejandro 
Melchor, Philippine Army ; and Urbano A. Zafra, 
Commercial Adviser to the Resident Commis- 
sioner. The Commission met for the first time 
on July 24, 1944. 

Senate Joint Resolution 93, now Public Law 380 
(78th Congress), pays tribute to the Filipino 
people, castigates the Japanese puppet govern- 
ment in the Philippines as having been "conceived 
in intrigue, born in coercion, and reared primarily 
for the purpose of Jajjanese selfishness and ag- 
grandizement",^ and authorizes the President (1) 
to make appropriate arrangements for such United 
States bases in the Philippines as he deems neces- 
sary for the mutual protection of the Philippines 
and the United States, and (2) to proclaim the 
independence of the Philippine Islands prior to 
July 4, 1946 if constitutional processes and noi-mal 
functions of government have been restored in the 
Islands before that date and if the President has 
proclaimed their restoration.^ 

Under this act the Department of State, in co- 
operation with the security agencies and other in- 
terested Departments, will presumably be called 
upon to carry a considerable share of the responsi- 
bility for negotiating with the Commonwealth 
Government or with the independent Filipino 
Government, as the case may be, for the retention 
or acquisition of bases in the Philippines. The 

'- .58 Stat. 626. 

= .58 Stat. 625. 

' In connection with the reestablishment of constitu- 
tional processes in the Philippines, note Public Law 186 
(78th Cong.), approved Nov. 12, 1943. This act provided 
that, notwithstanding the Constitution of the Philippines 
(which limits to eight years the time one man can serve as 
President), President Quezon should continue to serve as 
President of the Commonwealth until the President of the 
United States should proclaim "tliat constitutional proc- 
esses and normal functions of government shall have been 
restored in the Philippine Islands", whereupon Mr. Os- 
mena, the Vice President, should succeed him. Upon the 
death of President Quezon on Aug. 1, 1044, Mr, Osmena 
became President of the Commonwealth under the terms 
of the Philippine Constitution. The net effect of Public 
Law 186, therefore, was to keep Jlr. Quezon in oHice eight 
and one-half months beyond the constitutional limit on 
his tenure of office. 



AUGUST 20, 1944 



191 



original Pliilippine Independence Act made pro- 
vision for the retention by the United States of 
naval reservations and fueling stations in the Pliil- 
ippine Islands, but the new legislation broadens 
the scope of the old act by providing for the re- 
tention or acquisition of additional bases "for the 
mutual protection of the Philippine Islands and 
of the United States." 

The new policy of maintaining bases in the Phil- 
ippines (upon which the Department of State did 
not make a recommendation to Congress because 
it was considered to be a matter of concern prima- 
rily to the War and Navy Departments) will of 
course affect deeply the Department's work, be- 
cause it will have a bearing on the foreign policy 
of the United States in the Pacific, particularly 
with regard to the Philippine Republic that will be 
established under the terms of the act which gives 
effect to this policy. 

Once Philippine independence has been pro- 
claimed diplomatic relations will at once be estab- 
lished through the Department of State. The 
United States will then have fulfilled its pledge to 
sever all constitutional ties with its former pos- 
session and it will welcome the Philippine Repub- 
lic into the fraternity of nations as a fuUy inde- 
pendent sovereign state. 

Civil Aviation 

[Released to the press August 14] 

At the invitation of the United States Govern- 
ment, a series of exploratory talks between Ameri- 
can and Soviet groups took place in Washington, 
during June and July 1944, on the subject of post- 
war civil aviation. These conversations were of a 
preliminary exploratory character, and no com- 
mitments were made on either side. 

Views were exchanged in a friendly atmos- 
phere, and an understanding was reached of the 
pomts of view of both countries with respect to 
post-war developments in civil aviation. 

In particular, it was indicated that the organiza- 
tion of an international authority for civil avia- 
tion with consultive and technical functions to 
facilitate international operations and to increase 
their safety might be desirable. 

It was agreed that in the near future opinions 
should be exchanged between the technical experts 



of the United States and the Soviet Union with 
regard to coordination of technical measures in the 
field of international air transport. 

Burning of the 

"Rio de La Plata" 

[Released to the press August 18] 

The American Embassy at Mexico City in- 
formed the Department of State by telephone on 
August 18 that the Argentine vessel Rio de La 
Plata had burned at Acapulco, Mexico. AU United 
States citizens on board are reported to be safe al- 
though it is understood they have lost all their 
personal effects and money. The United States 
citizens who were on the ship are being trans- 
ported to Mexico City on August 19. Efforts are 
being made to obtain their names and the addresses 
of their relatives. 

Friends or relatives desiring to remit money to 
persons who were on board the vessel may do so, 
in care of the American Embassy, Mexico City. 

Fred 0. McMillan 

Returns From China 

[Released to the press August 17] 

Professor Fred O. McMillan has returned from 
China where during the past year he has served 
the Department of State as a specialist in electrical 
engineering under the cultural-relations jn-ogi-am. 
In China he was detailed at the request of the 
Chinese Government to work with the Ministries 
of Education, Economic Affairs, and Communica- 
tions. 

During his stay in that country Professor Mc- 
Millan lectured in the leading engineering col- 
leges and collaborated with the Chinese Institute 
of Electrical Engineering and the Ministry of 
Education in the revision of their electrical- 
engineei'ing curricula. 

In joint conferences with the engineers of the 
electricity department of the National Resources 
Commission and with the Department of Posts 
and Telecommunications, Professor McMillan 
helped to further plans for the inductive coordina- 
tion of the electric-power and communication sys- 
tems of China. 



m 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Capture of Prizes 



President Koosevelt, acting under the power 
vested in him by the act of August 18, 1942 con- 
cerning the jurisdiction of prizes captured during 
the war, issued a procLamation (no. 2617) on Au- 
gust 12, 1944 extending to the Government of 
Australia "privileges with respect to prizes cap- 
tured under authority of the said Government and 
brought into the territorial waters of the United 
States or taken or appropriated in the territorial 
waters of the United States for the use of the said 
Government," Australia having already consented 
to like treatment for prizes of the United States. 
The full text of the proclamation appeai-s in the 
Federal Reghter for August 17, 1944, page 9969. 



'g THE DEPARTMENT g^ 

Abolishing the Executive Committee 
On Commercial Policy ' 

By virtue of the authority vested in me as Presi- 
dent of the United States, the Executive Com- 
mittee on Commercial Policy, established by the 
letter of November 11, 1933, from the President to 
the Secretary of State, and continued by Executive 
Order No. 6656 of March 27, 1934, and Executive 
Order No. 7260 of December 31, 1935, is hereby 
abolished. 

Franklin D Roose\'elt 

The White House, 

August 7, 1944- 



Allowances to citizens of the other American 
Rejyuhlics. The provisions of Departmental Order 
1157 of April 1, 1943, as amended by Departmental 
Order 1186 of August 14, 1943, prescribing the 
regulations governing the payment of mainte- 
nance allowances, transportation expenses, tuition, 
compensation, monthly allowances and per diem 
in lieu of subsistence and other expenses to citizens 
of the other American Republics, are hereby ex- 
tended to apply to grants made during the fiscal 
year 1945 which are chargeable to appropriations 
for Cooperation with the American Republics con- 
tained in the "Department of State Appropriation 
Act, 1944" and the "Department of State Appro- 
priation Act, 1945". 

CoRDEix Hull 

July 1, 1944. 

Appointment of Officers 

John T. Forbes as Acting Executive Officer of 
the Office of American Republic Affairs, effective 
August 1, 1944. 

Stephen P. Dorsey as vice chairman of the Inter- 
departmental Committee on Cooperation With the 
American Republics, effective July 7, 1944. 

Cecil B. Lyon as Acting Chief of the Division of 
North and West Coast Affairs, effective August 7, 
1944. 

John W. Carrigan as Acting Chief of the Divi- 
sion of Mexican Affairs, effective August 7, 1944. 

Norman Armour has assumed direction tempo- 
rarily of the Office of American Republic Affairs. 



Allowances to Citizens of the 
Other American Republics 

DEPARTMENTAL ORDER 1280A ^ 

Purpose and authority. This order is issued, 
under authority contained in R. S. 161 (5 U.S.C. 
22), to govern the payment of allowances to citi- 
zens of the other American Republics in compli- 
ance with the provisions of the Department of 
State Appropriation Acts of 1944 and 1945, ap- 
proved July 1, 1943 and June 28, 1944, respectively, 
under the heading "Cooperation with the Ameri- 
can Republics".' 



^ THE FOREIGN SERVICE ^ 



Consular Offices 

The Vice Consulate at Adana, Turkey, was es- 
tablished on July 17, 1944 upon the arrival there 
of Consul Richard W. Byrd. 

• Executive Order 9461 ; 9 Federal Register 9879. 

'- Dated and effective July 1, 1044. 

' Regulations concerning payments to and on behalf of 
participants in the cultural-cooperation program of the 
United States will be found in the Federal Register of 
Aug. 23, 1944, p. 10243. 



AUGUST 20, 19U 



193 



PUBLICATIONS 



Reproduction of the International 
Convention Relating to the Regulation 
Of Aerial Navigation Adopted at Paris 
On October 13, 1919 

The International Convention Kelating to the 
Regulation of Aerial Navigation, a multilateral 
convention adopted at Paris on October 13, 1919, 
was signed on behalf of the United States with 
certain reservations but was never ratified by this 
Government. It therefore had never been printed 
in the United States Treaty Series. However, the 
convention, wliich has annexes containing numer- 
ous aeronautical regulations, has been of interest 
in view of the fact that bilateral as well as multi- 
lateral air-navigation agreements entered into 
since 1919 have embodied certain of the basic prin- 
ciples of that convention. 

The Department has from time to time been 
aslied for copies of the convention, but none have 
been available for public distribution. In the 
circumstances, the convention and its annexes have 
been reproduced as a Department of State docu- 
ment, and there have been included notes and 
references containing certain information as to 
action taken by this Government concerning the 
convention. The countries which have become 
parties to tlie convention are included in this in- 
formative material. They have also been repi-o- 
duced in the document referred to certain proto- 
cols of amendment adopted on June 1, 1935 by the 
International Commission for Air Navigation 



functioning under article 34 of the convention. 
According to information received by the Depart- 
ment of State, up to the outbreak of the present 
war in Europe the amendments covered by these 
two protocols had not been signed and ratified by 
all the countries which were parties to tlie con- 
vention at the time of the adoption of the proto- 
cols. Such signatures and ratifications were 
necessary in order to put the amendments into 
force. 

For the information of anyone who may be in- 
terested in the convention from a historical 
standpoint or as a matter of reference, a limited 
number of copies of the document mentioned 
above (Department of State publication 2143; iv, 
148 pp., charts) may be purchased from the 
S^iperintendent of Documents, Government Print- 
ing Office, Washington 25, D.C., for 60 cents a 
copy. 



The following publication has also been released 
by the Department : 

Diplomatic List, August 1944. Publication 2157. ii, 123 
pp. Subscription, $1.50 a year ; single copy, 150. 

Other Government Agencies 

The article listed below will be found in the August 19 
Issue of the Department of Commerce publication entitled 
Foreign Commerce Weekly, copies of which may be 
obtained from the Superintendent of Documents, Govern- 
ment Printing Office, for 10 cents each : 

"Brazil in 1943", prepared in the American Republics 
Unit on the basis of a report from Jack B. Neathery, third 
secretary and vice consul, and Nestor C. Ortiz, junior 
economic analyst, American Embassy, Rio de Janeiro. 



U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 194 4 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 




VOL. XI. INO. 270 



\^ 




h . 


-J \ ' J 


.-^ 


_ 


^ 












AUGUST 27 


, 1944 



In this issue 



INTERNATIONAL PEACE AND SECURITY ORGANIZATION: 

Addresses by the President, Secretary Hull, Sir Alexander Cadogan, 
And Ambassador Gromyko -ftiiiiit^ir-i^^ 



WEST INDIAN RADIO NEWSPAPER: By William W. Harris * 



VV^NT o*. 







THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



BULLETIN 



Vol. XI. No. 270,°^^^^ . PoBMOi-non 2165 

August 27, 1944 



The Department of State BULLE- 
TIN, a teeekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Research and 
Publication, Office of Public Informa- 
tion, provides the public and inter- 
ested agencies of the Government with 
information on developments in the 
field of foreign relations and on the 
icork of the Department of State and 
the Foreign Service. The BULLETIN 
includes press releases on foreign policy 
issued by the White House and the De- 
partment, and statements and addresses 
made by the President and by the Sec- 
retary of State and other officers of the 
Department, as icell as special articles 
on various phases of international af- 
fairs and the functions of the Depart- 
ment. Information concerning treaties 
and international agreements to which 
the United States is or may become a 
party and treaties of general inter- 
national interest is included. 

Publications of the Department, 
cumulative lists of which are published 
at the end of each quarter, as well as 
legislative material in the field of inter- 
national relations, are listed currently. 

The BULLETIN, published with the 
approval of the Director of the Bureau 
of the Budget, is for sale by the Super- 
intendent of Documents, United States 
Government Printing Office, Washing- 
ton 25, D. C, to whom all purchase 
orders, with accompanying remittance, 
should be sent. The subscription price 
is $2.75 a year; a single copy is 10 
cents. 







ontents 



American Republics Page 

Visitors to the United States: 

Peruvian Agricultural Engineer 205 

Panamanian Soil Specialist 222 

Colombian Agricultural Engineer 223 

The Caribbean 

Meetings of Provisional Committees of the Caribbean 

Research Council 209 

The West Indian Radio Newspaper: By William W. Harris. 210 

Caribbean Land-Tenure Symposium 221 

Europe 

Liberation of Paris: Statement by the President 204 

Administration of Civil Affairs in France: Joint Statement 

by the War and State Departments. 204 

Far East 

Transfer of Funds for American Prisor r<« of War in thu 

Philippines . . 206 

Iceland 

Visit of the President of Iceland a^o 

Economic Affairs 

Lend-Lease Operations: Letter of the President to Congress 

Transmitting 16th Quarterly Report 205 

Report of the Interim Commission on Food and Agricul- 
ture 207 

Exploratory Conversations on Taxation 208 

The Proclaimed List 222 

General 

Exchange of American and German Nationals 222 

Post-War|Matterb 

International Peace and Security Organization: 

President Roosevelt's Remarks to the Delegates .... 197 
Remarks by the Secretary of State at the Opening Session . 198 
Remarks by Ambassador Gromyko at the Opening Ses- 
sion 200 

Remarks by Sir Alexander Cadogan at the Opening Ses- 
sion 201 

Discussions of General Principles 202 

Subcommittees for the Conversations 203 

Statement on News Policy 203 

Meetings of Committees 204 

Meetings To Discuss Problems of Attaining a Lasting Peace: 

Joint Statement by Secretary Hull and Mr. Dulles . . 206 

Civil Aviation 209 

Treaty Information 

Agreement With Canada Relating to the Canol Project . . 225 

Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences 229 

Commercial "Modus Vivendi", Venezuela and Haiti . . . 229 
Treaty of Peace and Friendship, Costa Rica and China . . 229 
Regulations Relating to Migratory Birds and Game Mam- 
mals 229 

Treaty of Amity, China and Mexico 229 

Regulation of Inter- American Automotive Traffic 229 

The Department 

Death of Charles Preston Roach, Jr 223 

Division of Cultural Cooperation: Departmental Order 

1281 223 

Appointment of Officers 224 

The Foreign Service 

Consular Offices 208 

Publications 230 



International Peace and Security Organization 
PRESIDENT Roosevelt's remarks to the delegates 



[Released to the press by the White House August 23] 

Gentlemen, this is an informal occasion. I 
have not prepared any speech. Tliis is merely a 
feeling on my part that I would like to shake 
hands with you. I should like to be able to go out 
to Dumbarton Oaks, to take a part in your dis- 
cussions. 

A conference of this kind always reminds me 
of an old saying of a gentleman called Alfred E. 
Smith, who used to be Governor of New York. 
He was very, very successful in settling any prob- 
lem between capital and labor, or anything that 
had to do with the State government in which 
there was a controversy. He said if you can get 
the parties into one room with a big table and 
make them take their coats off and put their feet 
up on the table, and give each one of them a good 
cigar, you can always make them agree. Well, 
there was something in the idea. 

You have a great responsibility. In a way, 
it is a preliminary responsibility. But after all 
we learn from experience, and what I hope is that 
in plamiing for the peace that is to come we will 
arrive at the same good cooperation and unity of 
action as we have in the carrying on of the war. 
It is a very remarkable fact that we have carried 
on this war with such great unanimity. 

I think tliat often it comes down to personal- 
ities. When, back in 1941, at the time of the At- 
lantic Charter, just for example, I did not know 
Mr. Churchill at all well. I had met him once 
or twice very informally during the first World 
War. I did not know Mr. Eden. But up there 
in the North Atlantic — three or four days to- 
gether, with our two ships lying close together — 
we got awfully fond of each other. I got to know 
him, and he got to know me. In other words, we 
met, and you cannot hate a man that you know 
well. 

Later on Mr. Molotov came here and we had a 
grand time together. Then during the following 
year, at Tehran, the Marshal and I got to know 
each other. We got on beautifully. We cracked 



the ice, if there ever was any ice; and since then 
there has been no ice. And that's the spirit in 
which I know you are going about your work. 

I was just talking with the Secretary of War, 
Mr. Stimson. He was saying that one of the tasks 
we face is making this conference of ours — and 
the successor conferences — something that will 
last, last a long time. He said that unfortunately 
in Germany the young people, the young Nazis, 
favor an idea which will be dangerous to the peace 
of the world just as long as they have anything to 
say about it. The prisoners of 17, 18, 20 that we 
are capturing now — both the French front and the 
Soviet front — these German prisoners of that age 
are even worse in their Nazism than the prisoners 
of 40 or 45. And, therefore, as long as these young 
men have anything to say about it, the peril of 
Nazism will always be before us. 

And we have got to make not merely a peace 
but a peace that will last, and a peace in which 
the larger nations will work absolutely in unison 
in preventing war by f6rce. But the four of us 
have to be friends, conferring all the time — the 
basis of getting to know each other — 'putting their 
feet up on the table'. 

And so I am very hopeful that it can be done 
because of the spirit that has been shown in the 
past in getting together for the winning of the 
war. But that is the spirit that we have learned 
so well in the last few years. It is something new, 
this close relationship between the British Em- 
pire and the United States. This great friendship 
between the Eussian peojjle and the American peo- 
ple — that is new. Let's hang on to both friend- 
ships, and by spreading that spirit around the 
world we may have a peaceful period for our 
grandchildren to grow up in. 

All I can do is to wish you every possible suc- 
cess in this great task that you have undertaken. 
It will not be a final task, but at least it gives us 
something to build on, so that we can accomplish 
the one thing that humanity has been looking for- 
ward to for a great many hundreds of years. 

It is good to see you. Good luck. 



197 



m 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



REMARKS BY THE SECRETARY OF STATE AT THE OPENING SESSION 



[Released to the press August 21] 

On behalf of President Koosevelt and on my 
own behalf, I welcome you to Washington. In the 
name of both of us, I desire to offer some brief 
remarks on the opening of this important meeting. 

The series of conversations which we initiate 
today marks another step toward establishing a 
lasting system of organized and peaceful relations 
among nations. We meet at a time when the war is 
moving toward an overwhelming triumph for the 
forces of freedom. It is our task here to help lay 
the foundations upon which, after victory, peace, 
freedom, and a growing prosperity may be built 
for generations to come. 

The very character of this war moves us to 
search for an enduring peace — a peace founded 
upon justice and fair dealing for individuals and 
for nations. We have witnessed — and are witness- 
ing today — the sweep of forces of savagery and 
barbarism of the kind that civilized men hoped and 
believed would not rise again. Armed with the 
weapons of modern science and technology and 
with equally powerful weapons of coercion and de- 
ceit, these forces almost succeeded in enslaving 
mankind because the peace-loving nations were 
disunited. Daring the years while these aggres- 
sors made their preparations for attack, the peace- 
loving nations lacked both unity and strength 
because they lacked a vigilant realization of the 
perils which loomed before them. These forces of 
evil now face utter defeat because, at long last, 
their intended victims attained the unity and 
armed power which are now bringing victory 
to us. 

The lessons of earlier disunity and weakness 
should be indelibly stamped upon the minds and 
hearts of this generation and of generations to 
come. So should the lessons of unity and its re- 
sultant strength achieved by the United Nations in 
this war. 

Unity for common action toward common good 
and against common peril is the sole effective 
method by which, in time of peace, the nations 
which love peace can assure for themselves security 
and orderly progress, with freedom and justice. 



In the face of what modern war means to the phys- 
ical and moral being of man, the maintenance of 
such unity is a matter of the highest and most en- 
lightened self-interest. In the final analysis it is, 
first and foremost, a thing of the spirit. 

Peace, like liberty, requires constant devotion 
and ceaseless vigilance. It requires willingness to 
take positive steps toward its preservation. It re- 
quires constant cooperation among the nations and 
determination to live together as good neighbors 
in a world of good neighbors. Peace requires an 
acceptance of the idea that its maintenance is a 
common interest so precious and so overwhelming- 
ly important that all differences and controversies 
among nations can and must be resolved by resort 
to pacific means. 

But jJeace also requires institutions through 
which the will to peace can be translated into 
action. The devising of such institutions is a 
challenge to the wisdom and ingenuity of men and 
women everywhere. That is why the United Na- 
tions, in the midst of a relentless prosecution of the 
war, have been working together to create the insti- 
tutional foundations for a just and enduring peace. 

These foundations must support arrangements 
for peaceful settlement of international disputes 
and for the joint use of force, if necessary, to pre- 
vent or suppress threats to the f)eace or breaches of 
the peace. They must also support arrangements 
for promoting, by cooperative effort, the develop- 
ment of conditions of stability and well-being 
necessary for peaceful and friendly relations 
among nations and essential to the maintenance 
of security and peace. These are basic problems 
of international organization. 

Substantial progress has already been achieved 
through the Food and Agriculture Conference, the 
Conference on Belief and Rehabilitation, and the 
Financial and Monetary Conference. These and 
other similar steps are indicative of the profound 
desire of the United Nations to act together for 
advancing the well-being of their peoples. They 
have been achieved by united effort of more than 
40 nations, large and small. 



AUGUST 27, 1944 



199 



The governments represented here are fully 
agreed in their conviction that the future main- 
tenance of peace and security — the supreme objec- 
tive of international cooijeration — must be a joint 
task and a joint responsibility of all peace-loving 
nations, large and small. They solemnly pro- 
claimed this conviction in a declaration of their 
Foreign Ministers at Moscow on October 30, 1943. 
It cannot be emphasized too often that the prin- 
ciple of the sovereign equality of all peace-loving 
states, irrespective of size and strength, as partners 
in a system of order under law, must constitute the 
foundation of any future international organiza- 
tion for the maintenance of peace and security. 

In the Moscow Declaration each Government 
also assumed its share of i-esponsibility for leader- 
ship in bringing about the creation of an interna- 
tional organization for tlais purpose through joint 
action by all peace-loving nations. Success or fail- 
ure of such an organization will depend upon the 
degree to which the participating nations are will- 
ing to exercise self-restraint and assume the re- 
sponsibilities of joint action in support of the basic 
purposes of the organization. There must be 
agreement among all whereby each can play its 
part to the best mutual advantage and bear respon- 
sibility commensurate with its capacity. 

It is generally agreed that any peace and security 
organization would surely fail unless backed by 
force to be used ultimately in case of failure of all 
other means for the maintenance of peace. That 
force must be available promptly, in adequate 
measure, and with certainty. The nations of the 
world should maintain, according to their capaci- 
ties, sufficient forces available for joint action when 
necessary to prevent breaches of the peace. 

For a long time before the Moscow Conference, 
and especially during the months which have 
elapsed since that Conference, each of our Gov- 
ernments has been making diligent preparations 
for an effort to reach the agreement to which I have 
just referred. We have committed our tentative 
thoughts to writing, and each of us has had an op- 
portunity to study the results of the work done by 
the others. All this should make easier the task 
which is now before you of reaching a consensus 
of views which you can jointly recommend to your 
respective governments. 



It is the intention of the Government of the 
United States that after similar consultations with 
the Government of China the conclusions reached 
will be communicated to the governments of all 
the United Nations and of other peace-loving 
nations. 

It is our further thought that as soon as prac- 
ticable these conclusions will be made available to 
the jjeoples of our countries and of all countries for 
public study and debate. We are fully aware that 
no institution — espex;ially when it is of as great im- 
portance as the one now in our thoughts — will 
endure unless there is behind it considered and 
complete popular support. The will to peace must 
spring from the hearts and minds of men and 
women everywhere if it is to achieve enduring 
peace. 

For us in the United States it is as natural as it is 
desirable that we gather around a table with the 
representatives of other nations to devise means for 
maintaining peace and security. No passion runs 
deeper in the thoughts of the people of this coun- 
try than the belief that all men should enjoy liberty 
under law. It has been our faith from the begin- 
ning of our nation, it is our dream for the future, 
that every individual and every nation shoidd at- 
tain freedom and the security to enjoy it. The 
people of this country are now united as never 
before in their determination that the tragedy 
which today is sweeping the earth shall not recur. 

The people of all the United Nations are hoping 
and praying for the opportunity to build anew 
toward a system of decent and just relationships 
among nations. Their noblest capacities and their 
highest skills have been diverted from the cre- 
ative pursuits of peace to the grim and terrible 
tasks of battle. They see the destruction of their 
homes and the resources of their lands. They will 
not be content with a f)recarious peace. Their 
sacrifices can only be rewarded by the fulfilment 
of their reasonable hopes. 

It is the sacred duty of the governments of all 
peace-loving nations to make sure that interna- 
tional machinery is fashioned through which the 
peoples can build the peace they so deeply desire. 
The President is confident, and I share his view, 
that this thought will govern the deliberations 
which you are now undertaking. 



200 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



REMARKS BY AMBASSADOR GROMYKO AT THE OPENING SESSION ' 



tReleaeed to the press August 21] 

The present meeting is the first meeting of ex- 
ploratory discussions between representatives of 
the United States, Great Britain, and the Soviet 
Union on the establishment of an international se- 
curity organization. I fully share the thoughts ex- 
pressed by Secretary Hull in regard to the impor- 
tance of the present discussions. The peoples of 
our countries are waging a life-and-death struggle 
against the worst enemy of humanity — Hitlerite 
Germany. This struggle has already cost our 
countries, as well as many other freedom-loving 
countries of the world, heavy human and material 
sacrifices. Waging a struggle for its freedom and 
independence, the peoples of our three great na- 
tions are also saving the freedom and independence 
of other freedom-loving peoples of the world. As 
ii result of the combined efforts of the Allies, our 
common foe — Nazi Germany — is nearing its in- 
evitable catastrophe. Our brave warriors ai-e 
squeezing the enemy from the east, west, and south. 
As a result of the latest offensive of the Red Army, 
military operations are already being carried to 
enemy soil. The time is not far off when the com- 
bined efforts of the freedom-loving countries of 
the world, and, first of all, the efforts of our na- 
tions, will bring a complete and decisive victory 
and will force Nazi Germany to her knees. 

In view of the heavy destruction and countless 
sacrifices which the present war has brought to 
humanity, the freedom-loving peoples of the world 
are naturally looking for means to prevent repe- 
tition of a similar tragedy in the future. They 
have shed too much blood and made too many sac- 
rifices to be indifferent to their future. That is 
why they are striving to establish an international 
organization which would be capable of prevent- 
ing the repetition of a similar tragedy and of 
guaranteeing for the peoples peace, security, and 
prosperity in the future. Members of such an 
organization can be, as it is said in the Four Na- 
tions Declaration signed at the Moscow Confer- 
ence on October 30, 1943, all big and small free- 
dom-loving countries of the world. All of us are 
glad that one of the distinguished participants of 



' Leader of the Soviet delegation. 



the Moscow Conference, Secretary Hull, is among 
us at the present meeting. 

It goes without saying that in order to main- 
tain peace and security it is not enough to have 
the mere desire to harness the aggressor and the 
desire to apply force against him if it should be 
demanded by circumstances. In order to guaran- 
tee peace and security it is absolutely necessary to 
have resources with the aid of which aggression 
could be prevented or suppressed and interna- 
tional order maintained. 

In the light of the above, it becomes clear what 
responsibility falls to the nations, members of the 
future security organization, and especially to the 
nations which bear the main brunt of the present 
war and which possess the necessary resources and 
power to maintain peace and security. That is 
why all those to whom freedom and independence 
are dear cannot but draw the conclusion that this 
freedom and independence can be preserved only 
if the future international security organization 
will in the interests of the freedom-loving peoples 
of the world use effectively all resources in posses- 
sion of members of the organization and, first of 
all, the resources of such great nations as the 
Soviet Union, and United States, and Great 
Britain. 

The unity displayed by these countries in the 
present struggle against Hitlerite Germany and its 
vassals gives ground for certainty that after final 
victory is achieved these nations will cooperate 
in maintaining peace and security in the future 
as they are cooperating at the present time in 
saving humanity from enslavement by the Fascist 
barbarians. In this noble striving our countries 
naturally cannot but find support on the part of 
the other United Nations, big and small, which 
will be participants of the international security 
organization, which will be based on the principle 
of the sovereign equality of all freedom-loving 
countries and which will bear joint responsibility 
for the maintenance of peace. 

The unity of the Allies displayed in the struggle 
against the common foe and their striving to main- 
tain peace in the future is a guarantee that the 
present exploratory discussions will bring positive 
results. They are the first step leading to the 



AUGUST 27, 19U 



201 



erection of a building in the foundation of which 
all freedom-loving peoples of the world are inter- 
ested — for an eflfective international organization 
on maintenance of peace and security. 

In closing I consider it necessary to note the ini- 
tiative taken by the Government of the United 
States in calling the present conference. The 
Soviet delegation is glad to begin discussions with 
the American delegation headed by Edward R. 



Stettinius, with whom I have had the pleasure 
since 1941 of meeting and discussing at different 
times various matters of mutual interest, and also 
with the British delegation headed by Sir Alexan- 
der Cadogan. I have no doubt that in the course 
of the present discussions the representatives of 
the three nations will conduct their work in a spirit 
of mutual understanding and in a friendly atmos- 
phere which cannot but add to the successful out- 
come of the discussions. 



REMARKS BY SIR ALEXANDER CADOGAN AT THE OPENING SESSION ^ 



[Released to the press August 21] 

The discussions which open today arise out of 
article 4 of the Declaration of Moscow, in the 
framing of which Mr. Hull played such a notable 
and prominent part. We have listened with ad- 
miration to the wise and powerful words with 
which he has initiated our labours, and we are, 
I know, all profoundly grateful to him for his 
indefatigable efforts in the cause of international 
understanding. Of him it may well be said that 
he embodies in his own thought and person the 
qualities which have been responsible for the cre- 
ation and the development of the country which 
he represents. 

To the Soviet Government too we all have rea- 
son to be grateful. It was, I think, on M. Molo- 
tov's initiative that the decision to hold these dis- 
cussions was taken ; and it was evident from their 
attitude at the time of the Moscow Conference 
that the Soviet Government attached the highest 
importance to the establishment of a system de- 
signed to prevent a recurrence of Nazi and Fascist 
aggression. 

My Government, for their part, have from the 
outset favoured such discussions as these and have 
done their best to facilitate them. We have ex- 
pressed our provisional views in the papers which 
have been circulated and are most happy to find 
that in the papers of all three Governments there 
is such a large measure of agreement. 

There seems, in fact, to be a general will on the 
part of what are at present the three most powerful 
states in the woi-ld to achieve some kind of world 
organization, and, what is more, to achieve it soon. 
That should itself be a good augury for the suc- 
cess of our labours. 



Chinese statesmen also have declared their wish 
to join in the establishment of such an organiza- 
tion, and I am confident that the subsequent dis- 
cussions with the Chinese delegation will show 
that there is a community of aim on the part of 
the most populous and ancient of our civilizations. 
We shall thus, I hope, be able to achieve agreement 
on principles between officials from states com- 
prising about half the inhabitants of the globe, and 
from states moreover whose combined power and 
determination is now playing so prominent a part 
in overthrowing the sinister forces of evil which 
only a few years ago came near to dominating all 
mankind. 

The victory of the United Nations, whenever it 
comes, must be complete, the military defeat of the 
aggressors must be made clear beyond all doubt, 
and most of all to the German people themselves, 
and those responsible for the wanton outrages that 
have horrified the civilized world must receive their 
just retribution. On that basis we may hope to 
build more securely for the future. In 1919 there 
was a widespread feeling in many western coun- 
tries that force was in itself an immoral thing: 
now there is a much more widespread conviction 
that it is only by the victors' remaining both 
strong and united that peace can be preserved. 
We have, I believe, learnt many salutary lessons 
during the last few years. 

We are met here to plan a system which will 
enable individual nations to cooperate effectively 
for the common good. Individual nations, small 
and great, must be the basis of our new world or- 
ganization; and our problem is to construct a 
machine which will give to each of them the re- 



1 Leader of the United Kingdom delegation. 



202 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



sponsibilities commensurate with its power. This 
is no light task, but it can be accomplished. No 
one wishes to impose some great-power dictator- 
ship on the rest of the world, but it is obvious that 
unless the great powers are united in aim and ready 
to assume and fulfil loyally their obligations, no 
machine for maintaining peace, however perfectly 
constructed, will in practice work. On the other 
hand, even Hitler has surely learnt by now, what 
we have ourselves long known, that it is not by 
riding roughshod over the smaller powers that the 
vital interests of the larger can in the long run best 
be protected. 

Another lesson I submit we may learn from ex- 
perience is that we should not attempt too closely 
to define what is perhaps undefinable. As I have 
already said, no machine will work unless there 
is, at any rate on the part of the gi'eat powers, a 
will to work it; and equally even an imperfect 
machine may function satisfactorily provided such 
a will exists. We might do well, therefore, to con- 
centrate on certain guiding principles and on cer- 
tain basic institutions, rather than on a set of 
detailed regulations, which, however ingeniously 
drafted, will probably have to be revised in the 
light of subsequent experience. 

Again, if there is a danger in excessive legalism, 
there is also a danger in believing, or at any rate 
in giving the impression, that because we may be 
able to agi'ee, fii-st as between ourselves and later 
as between all the United Nations, on some the- 
oretically perfect organization for maintaining 
peace, peace will therefore indefinitely and auto- 
matically be maintained. 

One other consideration I would put before you : 
we must remember that peace, in the negative sense 
of absence of war, is not enough. No world system 
can endure unless it permits of growth and unless 
it tends to promote the well-being of humanity as 
a whole. Hence, however we may fit the various 
non-political world organizations into our general 
system, we must attempt to discover means whereby 
the expanding force of modern scientific discov- 
eries is turned into constructive rather than into 
destructive channels. For this reason we must 
arrange for at least a measure of coordination 
between the various functional organizations now 
created or to be created and in some way gear them 
to our world international machine. All I would 
emphasize here is that we should always recognize 
that, if there is acute political instability, no eco- 



nomic or social organizations will function suc- 
cessfully; and, on the other hand, let us never 
forget that acute discomfort in the economic and 
social field will constantly hamper the smooth 
operation of the best political plans. In other 
words, freedom from fear and freedom from want 
must, so far as human agency can contrive it, move 
forward simultaneously. 

In conclusion, I must for my part emphasise that 
the working party from the United Kingdom is 
recruited from the humble official level. From 
that it follows that, so far as we are concerned, 
these talks are necessarily exploratory and non- 
committal. Within these limitations we will make 
the best contribution we can, and I can pledge 
evei-y one of us to devote his best energies and such 
knowledge and experience as he possesses to the 
search for agreed recommendations for submission 
by our Governments, if they approve them, to all 
the other United Nations. We may take comfort 
in the fact that, as will be seen from the memoranda 
already circulated, there is already much common 
ground. 

Let us also not forget the time factor. Events 
are moving fast, and peace may come sooner than 
some expect. It would be folly to delay the con- 
struction of at least some framework of future 
international cooperation until the problems of 
peace confront us with all their insistency. More- 
over, the time even of officials is limited. If 
therefore we are to establish the points on which 
there seems to be provisional agreement, we must 
work fast and well. 

Much depends on our efforts, and some give-and- 
take will probably be required. Let us go for- 
ward with a full sense of our responsibilities, not 
only to our own nations, but to the world at large. 
Let us go forward above all with the determina- 
tion to produce a scheme worthy of the men and 
women of the United Nations who are giving their 
all to make possible the construction of a better 
world. 



DISCUSSIONS OF GENERAL PRINCIPLES 

[Released to the press liy the State Department 
on the Washington Conversations August 22] 

At the meeting of the heads of the three groups 
at Dumbarton Oaks ]\Ionday afternoon, August 
21, Mr. Edward R. Stettinius, Jr., was selected as 
permanent chairman of the conversations. Should 



AUGUST 27. 1944 



203 



Mr. Stettinius be absent at any time, Ambassador 
Andrei A. Gi'omyko or Sir Alexander Cadogan 
will act alternately as chairman. 

It was decided to discuss at the outset of the 
conversations the general principles of interna- 
tional organization presented by the Soviet group. 
At the meeting on the morning of August 22 the 
Soviet group presented its views on the general 
principles of international organization. 

It was agreed that at the aftenioon meeting 
the British and American groups would make 
statements of their views on the international or- 
ganization for the maintenance of peace and 
security. 

SUBCOMMITTEES FOR THE CONVERSATIONS 

[Rele.ise(l to the press by the State Department 
on the Washington Conversations August 23] 

Drafting Subcommittee 
British representative: 

Sir "William Malkin 
Soviet representatives : 

Mr. Sobolev 

Mr. Dolbin 
United States representatives : 

Mr. Hackworth, assisted by other members, 
including one military representative 
Legal Suhcom^nittee 
Soviet representatives : 

Professor Golunsky 

Professor Krylov 
British representatives: 

Sir William Malkin, assisted by another 
member 
United States representatives : 

Mr. Hackworth 

Mr. Cohen 

Mr. Hornbeck 
Subcommittee on General Questions of Interna- 
tional Organisation 
United States representatives: 

Mr. Stettinius 

Mr. Pasvolsky 

Mr. Fletcher 

Mr. Bowman 

Mr. Grew 
Soviet representatives: 

Ambassador Gromyko 

Mr. Sobolev 

Mr. Tsarapkin 

606460 — 44 2 



British representatives : 

Sir Alexander Cadogan 

Sir William Malkin 

Mr. Jebb 

Professor Webster 
Subcommittee on Security 
Soviet representatives: 

Ambassador Gromyko 

Mr. Sobolev 

Maj. Gen. Slavin 

Rear Admiral Rodionov 
British representatives : 

Sir Alexander Cadogan 

Admiral Sir Percy Noble 

Lt. Gen. Macready 

Air Marshal Sir William Welsh 

Mr. Jebb 

Col. Capel-Dunn 
United States representatives : 

Mr. Stettinius 

Mr. Dunn 

Mr. Wilson 

Vice Admiral Willson 

Maj. Gen. Strong 

Maj. Gen. Fairchild 

Rear Admiral Train 

STATEMENT ON NEWS POLICY 

[Released to the press by the State Department 
on the Washington Conversations August 24] 

The heads of the American, British, and Soviet 
groups today made the following statement to a 
committee of correspondents who called at Dum- 
barton Oaks to urge a liberal news policy during 
the conversations. 

"We wish everybody to understand that we have 
met here at Dumbarton Oaks to hold informal 
conversations and exchanges of views on the 
general nature of an international security organ- 
ization, the results of which are subject to the 
approval of our respective governments. We hope, 
after we have had opportunity for the fullest and 
freest exchange of viewpoints, to arrive at agreed 
recommendations which we can submit to our re- 
spective Governments. 

"We will release through our press officers 
periodically joint communiques in so far as these 
will not interfere with smooth and rapid progress 
toward agreed recommendations regarding an in- 
ternational security organization." 



20.4 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



During the course of the conversations between 
the chairmen of the American, British, and Soviet 
groups and the correspondents Sir Alexander 
Cadogan referred to reports that the British 
group differed with the otlier two groups over the 
news policy during the Dumbarton Oal^s discus- 
sions. He said, "I was a little disturbed by one 
organ headline which suggested that there was a 
difference of jjolicy in this respect between my 
Delegation and the other two Delegations. I 
should like to correct that impression. As re- 
gards the policy, I am in complete agreement with 
what Mr. Stettinius has already stated." 

In concluding the meeting with the correspond- 
ents Mr. Stettinius said, "I think this has been 
most useful from the standpoint of everyone. We 
will consider the matter very carefully. I will 
consult the other principals and see if something 
can not be worked out in the way of meeting the 
conditions that you ladies and gentlemen request. 
I appreciate your attitude which I am sure is 
constructive and helpful." 



Liberation of Paris 

STATEMENT BY THE PRESIDENT 

[Released to the press by the White House August 24] 

"The joy that entered the hearts of all civilized 
men and women at the news of the liberation of 
Paris can only be measured by the gloom which 
settled there one June day four years ago when 
German troops occupied the French capital. 
Through the rising tide of Allied successes that 
patch of gloom remained and has only today been 
dispelled. For Paris is a precious symbol of that 
civilization which it was the aim of Hitler and 
his armed hordes to destroy. We rejoice with the 
gallant French people at the liberation of their 
capital and join in the chorus of congratulation to 
the commanders and fighting-men, French and 
Allied, who have made possible this brilliant 
presage of total victory." 

Administration of Civil Affairs 
In France 



MEETINGS OF COMMITTEES 

[Rele.Tsed to the press by the State Department 
on the Washington Conversations August 25] 

The Steering Committee met on August 25 at 
11 a. m. The meeting continued through the 
luncheon hour and was in session into the after- 
noon. 

The general views of the three groups have been 
clarified in the initial presentations. Now the 
Secretariat needs time to prepare materials for 
discussion in the day-to-day meetings next week. 

No meetings were scheduled for Saturday or 
Sunday. 



[Released to the press by the State Department 
on the Washington Conversations August 24] 

The Subcommittee on International Organiza- 
tion continued its discussions at a meeting on 
Thursday morning, August 24. 

The Legal Subcommittee met in the afternoon 
and began its discussions on the subject of an in- 
ternational court. 



JOINT STATEMENT BY THE WAR AND 
STATE DEPARTMENTS 

[Released to the press August 25] 

The following joint statement was issued on 
August 24 by the War Department and the De- 
23artment of State: 

By means of an exchange of letters with General" 
Koenig in London General Eisenhower as Com- 
manding General of United States Forces has to- 
day put into effect certain arrangements with 
respect to the administration of civil affairs and 
related subjects in continental France, the terms of 
which were agreed to between French and Ameri- 
can representatives in Washington. 

These arrangements, which are in the form of 
memoranda and which are intended to be essen- 
tially temporary and practical in character, deal 
with the following subjects: 

1. Civil administration and jurisdiction 

2. Currency 

3. Captured war material and property 

4. Publicity 

5. Distribution of civilian relief supplies 



AUGUST 27. 1944 



205 



These arrangements are designed to facilitate as 
far as possible the direction and coordination of 
assistance which the French authorities and people 
will be able to render to the Allied Expeditionary 
Force in continental France, the adoption in 
France of all measures deemed necessary by the 
Supreme Allied Commander for the successful con- 
duct of military operations, and the orderly re- 
sumption of responsibility for civil administration 
by Frenchmen. 

General Eisenhower as United States Command- 
ing General has been authorized to deal with the 
French authorities at Algiers as the de facto au- 
thority in France so long as they continue to re- 
ceive the support of the majoi'ity of Frenchmen 
who are fighting for the defeat of Germany and 
the liberation of France. This authorization is 
also based on the understanding that as Supreme 
Allied Commander General Eisenhower must re- 
tain whatever authority he considers necessary for 
the unimpeded conduct of military operations and 
that, as soon as the military situation permits, the 
French people will be given an opportunity freely 
to exercise their will in the choice of their 
government. 

An arrangement has also been arrived at in 
Washington providing for the initiation of ne- 
gotiations concerning mutual aid. ' 

Lend-Lease Operations 

LETTER OF THE PRESIDENT TO CONGRESS 
TRANSMITTING 16TH QUARTERLY REPORT 

[Released to the press by the White House August 23] 

The following letter of the President to the Con- 
gress, dated August 23, 1944, accompanied a report 
on lend-lease operations for the period ended June 
30, 1944.1 

To THE Congress of the United States of 
America : 

Pursuant to law, I am submitting herewith the 
Sixteenth Report to Congress on Lend-Lease 
Operations. 

Lend-Lease supplies and services provided to our 
Allies in the three months ending June 30, 1944, 
amounted to $4,045,000,000 in value. In all, lend- 



' Not printed herein. 



lease aid has been provided in the amount of $28,- 
270,000,000. 

Three years ago the Axis aggressors were well 
along the road to domination of the world. The 
United States itself was in grave danger. Today 
the United Nations are moving relentlessly along 
the roads which lead to Berlin and Tokyo. 

In the preparation and execution of the power- 
ful offensives on which we are now jointly en- 
gaged with our Allies, lend-lease has fulfilled its 
promise. Every day that the men of our Army 
and our Navy go into battle lend-lease is being 
effectively used in the common cause by the heroic 
men of the other United Nations. Through lend- 
lease, the full power of American production is be- 
ing brought to bear against our common enemies 
by the millions of fighting men of our Allies. 
Through lend-lease, American weapons and other 
war supplies are being used by our Allies to destroy 
our enemies and hasten their defeat. 

We should not permit any weakening of this sys- 
tem of combined war supply to delay final victory 
a single day or to cost unnecessarily the life of one 
American boy. Until the unconditional surrender 
of both Japan and Germany, we should continue 
the lend-lease program on whatever scale is neces- 
sary to make the combined striking power of all 
the United Nations against our enemies as over- 
whelming and as effective as we can make it. 

We know now that by combining our power we 
can speed the day of certain victory. We know 
also that only by continuing our unity can we 
secure a just and durable peace. 

Franklin D. Roose\'el,t 

The White House, 
August 23, 19U- 

Visit of Peruvian 
Agricultural Engineer 

Seiior Joaquin A. Cortez, chief of the Depart- 
ment of Tropical Animal Husbandry of the Min- 
istry of Agriculture of Peru, has arrived in the 
United States as a guest of the Department of 
State. Seilor Cortez, who is particularly inter- 
ested in types of cattle that could be introduced 
advantageously into Peru, will visit ranches and 
other cattle-raising centers in Texas, Louisiana, 
Georgia, and other southern States. 



206 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Meetings To Discuss Problems of Attaining a Lasting Peace 

JOINT STATEMENT BY SECRETARY HULL AND MR. DULLES 



[Released to the press August 25] 

In tlie three meetings between Secretary Hull 
and Mr. Dulles, Governor Dewey's representative, 
they had an exchange of views on the various 
problems connected with the establishment of an 
international peace and security organization. 
There was agreement of views on numerous 
aspects of this subject. 

Secretary Hull and Mr. Dulles expect to con- 
tinue to confer about developments as they arise. 

The Secretary maintained the position that 
the American people consider the subject of future 



peace as a non-partisan subject which must be 
kept entirely out of politics. 

Mr. Didles, on behalf of Governor Dewey, 
stated that the Governor shared this view on the 
understanding, however, that it did not preclude 
full public non-partisan discussion of the means 
of attaining a lasting peace. 

The question of whether there will be com- 
plete agreement on these two respective views 
and their carrying out will depend on future 
developments. 



Transfer of Funds for American Prisoners of War 

in the Philippines 



[Released to the press August 25] 

On May 23, 1944 the Department of State an- 
nounced that the Japanese authorities in the 
Philippine Islands had extended permission to the 
neutral delegate there of the War Prisoners' Aid 
of the Y.M.C.A. to purchase locally relief supplies 
to an amount not exceeding $25,000 monthly for 
shipment to civilian-internment and prisoner-of- 
war camps in the Philippine Islands.^ At the re- 
quest of the United States Government the Swiss 
Government, which I'epresents American interests 
in the Far East, authorized its Minister at Tokyo 
to make available from official funds of the United 
States Government $25,000 monthly to the War 
Prisoners' Aid delegate in the Philippine Islands 
for this purpose. 

The Department has now been informed that 
when the Swiss Minister at Tokyo endeavored to 
arrange for the transfer of these funds the Jap- 
anese authorities stated that "because of the special 
situation of the Philippines" the relief activities 
of the Y.M.C.A. representative which thei-etofore 
had "been tolerated by the local authorities" could 
not be permitted to continue. 

At the same time, however, the Japanese Gov- 
ernment indicated that it would be willing to con- 
sider i-equests made by the Swiss Goverimient to 



transfer funds to the Philippine Islands for the as- 
sistance of American prisoners of war. The 
United States Government, acting through the 
Swiss Government, has constantly endeavored since 
the spring of 1942 to arrange for the transfer of 
funds to American prisoners of war in the Philip- 
pine Islands. 

As in the case of funds which are being trans- 
ferred by the Stviss Government for the assistance 
of interned civilians in the Philippine Islands, re- 
mittances for prisoners of war must be made 
through Japanese military channels. The Jap- 
anese Government has limited such remittances 
to 20 pesos monthly (approximately $10.00) for 
each prisoner of war. The Swiss Government has 
been requested to arrange for the transfer on a con- 
tinuing basis of funds required to provide the max- 
imum amount permitted by the Japanese authori- 
ties for each prisoner of war. 

The Japanese authorities have also indicated a 
willingness to consider requests for the transfer 
of funds for the relief of American prisoners of 
war, interned merchant seamen, and interned civil- 
ians in the Netherlands East Indies, and the Swiss 
Government has been requested to arrange for the 
remittance of funds to the maximum amount per- 
mitted by the Japanese authorities. 

' BuiXEHN of ]May 27, 1944, p. 496. 



AUGUST 27. 19U 



207 



Report of the Interim Commission on Food and Agriculture 



tReleased to the press August 23] 

The United States Government has received 
from the United Nations Interim Commission on 
Food and Agricuhure the Commission's first re- 
port to the governments of the United Nations. 
Tliis report submits to tlie governments for their 
consideration with a view to acceptance a proposed 
constitution for a food and agriculture organiza- 
tion of the United Nations. 

This report and the constitution are a direct 
outgrowth of initiatives taken by the United States 
Government. At the initiative of the President 
tliis Government in March 1943 extended to the 
governments of all the United Nations and of 
those nations associated with them in the war an 
invitation to the United Nations Conference on 
Food and Agriculture, which was convened at Hot 
Springs, Virginia, on May 18, 1943. This invita- 
tion indicated the belief of this Government in the 
desirability of beginning joint consideration of the 
basic economic problems with which the United 
Nations and the world will be confronted after 
complete military victory shall have been attained. 
It indicated the purpose of the Conference to be 
the provision of an opportunity for an exchange of 
views and information on plans and prospects of 
various governments for the post-war period re- 
garding production and trade in foodstuffs and 
otlier agricultural products, the possibilities of 
coordinating and stimulating by international ac- 
tion national policies looking to the improvement 
of nutrition and the enhancement of consumption 
in general, and the possibilities of establishing in- 
ternational arrangements and institutions designed 
to insure for the world adequate supplies of such 
products and adequate markets for such supplies. 
The invitation stressed that the considerations of 
tliis Conference would be entirely divorced from 
the question of the provision of relief, which was 
subsequently dealt with by the establishment of 
the United Nations Eelief and Kehabilitation Ad- 
ministration. 

The agenda proposed by the United States Gov- 
ernment and accepted by the Conference consisted 
of four sections relating respectively to consump- 
tion levels and requirements, expansion of pro- 



duction and adaptation to consumption needs, 
facilitation and improvement of distribution, and 
recommendations for continuing and carrying for- 
ward the work of the Conference. In connection 
with the last topic and to carry out the policy of 
the President the United States Delegation intro- 
duced a proposal that a United Nations Interim 
Commission on Food and Agriculture be estab- 
lished to continue and carry forward the work of 
the Conference and that one of the primary func- 
tions of the Interim Commission should be to for- 
mulate and recommend to the member governments 
a specific plan for a permanent international body 
to deal with the problems of food and agriculture. 
A recommendation embodying these proposals was 
unanimously aj^proved by the Conference and sub- 
sequently by all the nations participating in the 
Conference. 

In an address to the delegates at the close of the 
Conference the President hailed the Conference as 
"a living demonstration of the methods by which 
the conversations of nations of like mind con- 
templated by article VII of the mutual-aid agree- 
ment can and will give practical application to the 
principles of the Atlantic Charter". After recall- 
ing that agriculture is the most basic of all human 
activities and food the most basic of all human 
needs, and that twice as many people are employed 
in agriculture as in all other fields, the President 
added : 

"And all people have, in the literal sense of the 
word, a vital interest in food. 

"That a child or adult should get the nourish- 
ment necessary for full health is too important a 
thing to be left to mere chance. 

"You have recognized that society must accept 
this responsibility. As you stated in your declara- 
tion: 'The primary responsibility lies with each 
nation for seeing that its own people have the food 
needed for health and life; steps to this end are for 
national determination. But each nation can 
fully achieve its goal only if all work together.' 
On behalf of the United States I accept this 
declaration." '■ 



' Bulletin of June 12, 1943, p. 518. 



208 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



The proposed food and agriculture organiza- 
tion of the United Nations will be a fact-finding 
and advisory agency through which the member 
nations may collaborate in the collection, analysis, 
interpretation, and dissemination of information 
relating to nutrition, food, and agriculture, and 
through which they may formulate recommenda- 
tions for the consideration of member govern- 
ments for separate and collective action in these 
fields. The organization will not have operating 
or executive functions nor will it have responsi- 
bilities in the field of relief and rehabilitation. 
The implementation of its recommendations is 
entirely reserved for national action. 

The report and the proposed constitution will 
be submitted to the Congress with a view to ob- 
taining approval for the adherence of the United 
States to the organization. 



Exploratory Conversations 
On Taxation 

[Released to the press August 21] 

Exploratory conversations have been taking 
place for some time between representatives of the 
Government of the United States and the Govern- 
ment of the United Kingdom in regard to the 
possibility of negotiating a treaty for the avoidance 
of double taxation in respect of incomes and death 
duties by the Governments concerned. 

The first phase of these discussions has been 
satisfactorily concluded. The representatives of 
the Government of the United States who visited 
London in order to hold these discussions are now 
returning to the United States, and it has been 
agreed that the discussions will be resumed in 
Washington with representatives of the British 
Government who will travel to Washington for 
that purpose at an early date. 

The discussions have been held in London at 
Somerset House with the Board of Inland Revenue. 
The following representatives have participated on 
behalf of the United States : Mr. Eldon P. King, 
Special Deputy Commissioner, Bureau of Internal 
Revenue, Treasury Department; and Mr. Herbert 
P. Fales, Foreign Service Officer, Division of 



Financial and Monetary Affairs, Department of 
State. 

[Released to the press August 25] 

Informal and exploratory conversations have 
recently been in progress in Pretoria between rep- 
resentatives of the Government of the United 
States and representatives of the Government of 
the LTnion of South Africa in regard to the pos- 
sibility of negotiating conventions for the avoid- 
ance by the two Goverimnents of double taxation of 
incomes and estates and for administrative co- 
operation with respect to such matters. Draft con- 
ventions on these subjects which have been pre- 
pared in the course of the conversations will be 
submitted by the representatives to their respective 
Governments for further consideration. 

There are at present in etfect conventions for 
the avoidance of double taxation of incomes and 
for administrative cooperation between the Gov- 
ernment of the United States and the Governments 
of France, Sweden, and Canada. There was signed 
recently in Ottawa a convention between the 
United States and Canada for the avoidance of 
double taxation and prevention of fiscal evasion in 
the case of estate taxes and succession duties. The 
Union of South Africa is at present a party to 
agreements with Great Britain and Southern 
Rhodesia for the avoidance of double income taxes 
upon agency profits and with Southern Rhodesia 
for the avoidance of double death duties. 

The following representatives participated in the 
conversations on behalf of the Government of the 
United States: Eldon P. King, Special Deputy 
Commissioner of Internal Revenue, Treasury De- 
partment; and Herbert P. Fales, Foreign Service 
officer. Division of Financial and Monetary Af- 
fairs, Department of State. 



•^ THE FOREIGN SERVICE ^ 

Consular Offices 

The American Mission at Tehran was raised 
from the rank of legation to the rank of embassy 
on August 21. 1944 on presentation of credentials 
by Leland B. Morris as Ambassador to Iran. 



AUGUST 27, 1944 



209 



Civil Aviation 

[Released to the press August 27] 

Representatives of the Government of India 
arrived in the United States recently at the in- 
vitation of tlie Government of the United States 
for a series of talks with American officials on the 
snbject of jjost-war civil aviation. 

The discussions, which have now terminated, 
were conducted on a friendly and informal basis 
and were preliminary and exploratory in char- 
acter. 

Both sides were agreed that it was desirable to 
adopt all practicable measures to promote the 
early exjiansion and development of international 
air services for the common benefit of the peoples 
of the world. 

Questions relating to the transit and commer- 
cial entry of aircraft, as well as the constitution 
and functions of an international air organiza- 
tion, were discussed. The exchange of views dis- 
closed a considerable measure of agreement in re- 
gard to regulatory measures in the technical field. 
Both sides were also agreed that the calling of an 
international conference to draw up a multilateral 
air-navigation convention would be both bene- 
ficial and desirable. 



Meetings of Provisional 
Committees of the Caribbean 
Research Council 

[Released to the press August 22] 

As the result of recommendations for expanding 
research made by the West Indian Conference at 
Barbados in March 1944 the Anglo-American Car- 
ibbean Commission has arranged a series of meet- 
ings of newly organized provisional committees 
of the Caribbean Research Council to be held dur- 
ing the next two weeks in the Caribbean area. 

The Industries Committee met in Port-of- 
Spain, Trinidad, B.W.I., on August 24. It is 
composed of Dr. F. Morton, superintendent of 
research and development, Trinidad Leaseholds, 
Ltd., Trinidad; Mr. G. O. Case, consulting en- 
gineer to the Government of British Guiana ; and 



Mr. T. Moscoso, manager, and Mr. F. Fernandez 
Garcia, consulting chemist, Puerto Rico Develop- 
ment Corporation, Puerto Rico. They discussed 
Caribbean problems in their field with the noted 
visiting British scientists. Professor J. L. Simon- 
sen and Sir Robert Robinson, who were conclud- 
ing their scientific tour of the area. 

The Agricultural Committee, members of which 
were announced on August 16, 1944, will meet at 
Cidra, Puerto Rico, on September 1. 

The Committees on Building and Engineering 
Research, Social Sciencies, and Public Health and 
Medicine will assemble at St. Thomas, Virgin 
Islands (U.S.) , September 5 to 10 to consider plans 
for the coordination and expansion of technical 
research in the Caribbean. Membership on the 
Committee on Building and Engineering Re- 
search includes Mr. R. J. Gardner-Medwin, town- 
planning adviser to the comptroller for develop- 
ment and welfare ; Mr. P. Martin Cooper, director 
of public works, Jamaica, B.W.I. ; Dr. Rafael Pico, 
chief, Puerto Rico Planning Board ; and Mr. Luis 
Guillermety, executive director of the Committee 
on Designs of Public Works of the same Board. 

The Committee on Social Sciences is composed of 
Mr. S. A. Hammond, educational adviser, and Mr. 
T. S. Simey, social-welfare adviser to the comp- 
troller for development and welfare ; Dr. Antonio 
Colorado, dean, College of Social Sciences, Uni- 
versity of Puerto Rico; and Seiiora Maria Pintado 
de Ravn, professor and head of Department of 
Social Work of the same University. 

Members of the Committee on Public Health and 
Medicine are Dr. P. A. Clerkin, D.P.H., bacteriolo- 
gist and pathologist, British Guiana; Mr. J. L. D. 
Pawan, M.B.E., M.B., Ch.B., D.P.H., R.C.P.S., 
government bacteriologist, Trinidad; Sir Rupert 
Brierclifi'e, C.M.G., medical adviser to the comp- 
troller for development and welfare ; Dr. Pablo 
Morales Otero, director. School of Tropical Medi- 
cine, San Juan, Puerto Rico; Dr. Guillermo 
Arbona, chief, Department of Hygiene of the same 
School; and Dr. R. A. Vonderlehr, U.S.P.H.S., 
Puerto Rico. 

It is anticipated that the Netherlands territories 
will be represented on the various committees and 
that the names of their representatives will be made 
available later. 



210 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



The West Indian Radio Newspaper 



By WILLIAM W. HARRIS ' 



Few persons in Wash- 
ington or even in the 
United States itself know 
that for almost two years 
the United States Sec- 
tion of the Anglo-Amer- 
ican Caribbean Commis- 
sion (an integral part of 

the Department of State) has been daily broad- 
casting from Washington, in joint cooperation 
with the British Section of the Commission, a 
half-hour international short-wave radio program 
designed especially for the peoples in the lands 
of the Caribbean. 

The program, covering the best cultural and 
social entertainment as well as economic educa- 
tion, is known as "Tlie West Indian Radio News- 
paper" and has the distinction of being the only 
daily broadcast in the world sponsored by the 
American and British Governments. 

This outstanding broadcast evolved in a most 
natural way. With the impact of the present in- 
ternational crisis on the islands of the Caribbean 
a situation of grave concern to both the United 
States and Great Britain was produced. The 
economic status quo of the islands and the pro- 
vision of basic necessities became a primary con- 
cern of these two Governments in that area. 
Therefore, for practical reasons of security, as 
well as international conscience, it became de- 
sirable for both countries to cooperate in the social 
and economic development of the area. 

With that purpose in mind, the two Govern- 
ments announced, on March 9, 1942, the establish- 
ment of the Anglo-American Caribbean Commis- 
sion "for the purpose of encouraging and 
strengthening social and economic cooperation be- 
tween the TTnited States of America and its pos- 
sessions and bases in the area . . . and the 



A method for the carrying out of the cultural 
and educational opportunities for the initiation 
and successful accomplishment of projects deal- 
ing with the welfare of the territories and colo- 
nies of the United States and Great Britain in 
tlie Caribbean area. 



United Kingdom and the 
British colonies in the 

" 2 



'Mr. Harris is Director of Radio Communications of the 
Anglo-American Caribbean Commission, Department of 
State. 

' Report of the Anglo-American Caribbean Commission 
to the Oovernments of the United States and Great 
Britain for the Years 19.',2-19'i3, Washington, 1943, p. 3. 

' Bulletin of May 27, 1944, p. 502, 



same area . 

The Commission, serv- 
mg purely as an advis- 
ory body, consists of six 
members, three appoint- 
ed by the President of 
the United States and three by His Majesty's 
Governmeiit in the United Kingdom, one of whom 
is appointed ad hoc according to the problem 
under consideration. The United States chairman 
i-eports directly to the President, but for reasons 
of administrative convenience a departmental 
order, issued May 23, 19M, made the United States 
Section of the Commission an integral unit of the 
Department of State.^ 

The Commission straightway undertook to con- 
cern itself primarily with matters pertaining to 
labor, agriculture, housing, health, education, so- 
cial welfare, finance, economics, and related sub- 
jects. Yet one of the greatest problems of the 
Commission was the development of the means of 
letting the peoples in the area know what it was 
doing and accomplishing in the field of social and 
economic research on the matters mentioned above. 
Tlie answer was found in a single word — radio — 
and on October 15, 1942 a Radio Division of the 
Anglo-American Caribbean Commission was oflB- 
cially inaugurated to rejjresent jointly' both Gov- 
ernments concerned. A month and a half later, 
on December 1, 1942, the West Indian Radio News- 
paper flashed out its first edition to the peoples of 
the Caribbean lands. Today it is one of the most 
influential and popular radio programs enjoyed in 
that region. 

The fundamental purpose of the West Indian 
Radio Newspaper is cultural, informative, educa- 
tional, and is used for the initiation and successful 
accomplishment of projects dealing with the wel- 
fare of the territories and colonies of the United 
States and Great Britain in the Caribbean area. 
It has actually three main objectives : 

X. To help the peoples of the Caribbean area 
realize that their problems are a matter of concern 



AUGUST 27, 1944 



211 



and interest to Washington and London, that they 
figure in the total pattern of the United Nations, 
and that something is being done to solve their 
problems. 

2. To help the peoples of the Caribbean area 
help themselves in solving their own problems. 

3. To help the British and United States posses- 
sions in the Caribbean see themselves in proper 
perspective to each other and to the rest of the 
world, culturally, economically, and politically. 

With the above objectives in mind, the "news- 
paper" devotes itself purely and simply to items 
of essential interest to the Caribbean area, pri- 
marily the British West Indies, the colonies of 
British Honduras and British Guiana, and the ter- 
ritories of Puerto Kico and the Virgin Islands of 
the United States. 

At the opening of the war the morale of the 
people in the Caribbean region was a favorite tai'- 
get of Axis radio propagandists. Accumulated 
social, economic, and political shortcomings of cen- 
turies were condensed into vitriolic radio tirades 
beamed from Nazi Europe to the Caribbean and 
to South America. Sordid half-truths commin- 
gled with plausible lies became a potent weapon 
of the psychological warfare of the Axis. Illus- 
trative of the Axis broadcasts are the following 
summaries and quotations. 

Throughout the spring and summer of 1942 the 
Berlin radio reminded its listeners in the Carib- 
bean area constantly of the success of its subma- 
rine campaign in that region. Ship sinkings were 
reported, with details concerning the nationalities 
of the ships. Emphasis was placed upon increased 
hardships in the countries dependent upon Carib- 
bean sea-borne commerce and upon the loss of 
control by the United States in the Caribbean. 
"He who sails for North America sails cei'tainly 
to death" was the slogan that the Berlin radio used 
in this period. 

On January 28, 1943 the following typical propa- 
ganda was broadcast over the Berlin radio, beamed 
to Latin America : "Wliat is happening in Puerto 
Kico, next to Cuba {sic'] the most important United 
States possession in the Caribbean ? Washington 
is deeply concerned lest violence and probably riots 
disrupt the big sugar industry, which event would 
be most disagreeable in view of the shortage of 
sugar now in the United States. In Puerto Rico, 
scene of decades of Yankee exploitation, open con- 

606480 — 14 3 



The term "Caribbean area" has been taken 
to Include the United States territories In the 
Caribbean; the European possessions (British, 
Netherlands, and French) which are considered 
politically or geographically a part of the West 
Indies; and the independent island republics 
(Cuba, the Dominican Republic, and Haiti). 
The three Guianas on the South American main- 
land (British Guiana, French Guiana, and 
Netherlands Guiana, which is now known as 
Surinam) and British Honduras are commonly 
regarded as part of the Caribbean area. 



flict has broken out between Governor Tugwell 
and local politicians who seek his recall by 
Washington." "^ 

Admiral Lutzow declared, in a Berlin broadcast 
beamed to North and South America on June 19, 
1943 : "The United States is waiting for the chance 
to take over territories from Newfoundland and 
Canada to Bermuda, the Bahamas, and the 
British West Indies down to the Falkland 
Islands. . . . For years, even as long as 19 years, 
the weaker nations and island peoples of the Carib- 
bean were forced to suffer the presence of Ameri- 
can Marines in their country,^ . . ." 

Thus the problem of morale in the Caribbean 
was at times one of the most serious problems of 
all, and it was accentuated in its psychological as- 
pects by the misinformation of the short-wave Axis 
broadcasts which it spread over the islands. The 
West Indian Radio Newspaper stepped immedi- 
ately into an important role — that of keeping the 
people truthfully informed by counteracting and 
refuting such propaganda. 

Yet apart from the immediate problem of coun- 
tering Axis propaganda in the Caribbean, the Com- 
mission has recognized, too, the importance of the 
radio as a social institution. At its first meeting, 
held in March 1942, it adopted the following 
resolution : 

'■'■Broadcasting. Importance is attached to the 
development of information services through 

' The Carinean Islands and the War, Department of 
State publication 2023, p. 10. 
'Ibid. 



212 

broadcasts and to the provision of special pro- 
grams directed to the Caribbean from the United 
States and Great Britain." ' 

The West Indian Radio Newspaper arranged 
the timing of its broadcast in order not to conflict 
with the British Broadcasting Corporation's pro- 
gram to the West Indies. The Commission's pro- 
gram is today appreciated throughout the West 
Indies, and besides providing for educational and 
cultural programs it affords an opportunity for 
the peoples of the scattered islands of the Carib- 
bean to learn rapidly of the happenings elsewhere 
in the area. By bringing together the news of 
the Caribbean on the air from a central station the 
development of a greater interest in the coopera- 
tion is being fostered and general morale is being 
improved. Isolation leads often to suspicion and 
mistrust. Radio broadcasts, however, afford an 
opportunity to overcome isolation and by dissem- 
inating the facts they help to develop informed 
public opinion. 

At the beginning of the war in 1939 few broad- 
casts on the air were designed for the Caribbean 
area. The British Broadcasting Corporation did 
send out its news broadcasts to the region direct 
from England and presented summaries of parlia- 
mentary debates concerning the West Indies as 
well as greetings to their families from West 
Indian servicemen in Great Britain. The World 
Wide Broadcasting Fomidation of Boston short- 
waved a nightly dinner concert to the area as well 
as newscasts and travelogs on the region, but it 
was not before 1942 that the British Broadcasting 
Corporation increased its sei-vice to the Caribbean 
and the West Indian Radio Newspaper began to 
play its important part in supporting the morale 
of the people. 

The "newspaper", which is presented in English, 
originates in Wasliington, D.C., each evening at 
6:15 at the radio studios in the South Building, 
Department of the Interior. From there it is 
sent by wire line direct to Boston, Massachusetts, 
where it flashes out into the ether over the power- 
ful short-wave transmitting Station WKUL 
(operating on 11.73 megacycles in the 25-meter 
band) and sinuiltaneously over Station WRUW 
(operating on 15.35 megacycles in the 19-meter 
band). By the use of directional antennas, the 
program is beamed in a V-angle to blanket com- 
pletely the Caribbean area. Yet, with the wide 

' Anglo-American Caribbean CiimmissioD, op. cit.^ p. 31. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



AVGVST 27, 1944 



213 




214 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



and sometimes uncontrollable range of short -wave 
radio signals, the West Indian Radio Newspaper 
is heard clearly in Europe, Africa, South America, 
the Pacific, Central America, the United States, 
and Canada. The fame of the West Indies and 
the work of the Anglo-American Caribbean Com- 
mission is spreading daily to the far corners of 
the world. 

The West Indian Radio Newspaper is, as its 
name indicates, a newspaper of the air. In order 
to give flexibility in progranmiing, the Cormnis- 
sion decided to produce the broadcast in the format 
of a newspaper, starting with the headline news 
of the world and continuing through the radio 
newspaper with such feature pages as were ap- 
plicable to the programs, such as the editorial 
page, music, travel, sports, entertainment, women's 
world, and others. The name of the broadcast — 
The West Indian Radio Newspaper- — has proved 
itself so realistic in construction that listeners have 
written in asking for subscription rates! 

Each afternoon, seven days a week, the West 
Indian Radio Newspaper "goes to press". The 
entire show is gone through for timing at 4:30 
p. m., when the first rehearsal starts. At 5 o'clock 
the second rehearsal begins and the rough edges 
are smoothed off, after which the final dress re- 
hearsal takes place. In the case of the weekly 
dramatic productions, special rehearsals take place 
besides the regular ones. 

The most popular feature of the West Indian 
Radio Newspaper according to the mail response 
and a recent survey of that area is the Caribbean 
News Page that broadcasts the latest news of all 
the lands of that region, thus providing the peo- 
ples with information on inter-island happenings. 
Such information tends to break down insular bar- 
riers and prejudices. 

One of the greatest problems of the West Indies 
has always been that of communications. In the 
'80's and '90's trading-schooners and steamers car- 
ried the news of the world from island to island. 
But after the turn of the century wireless became 
the vogue, and the people of some of the larger 
islands of the Caribbean availed themselves of 
that medium. Yet, the greatest advent in com- 
munications among the lands of the West Indies 
has been radio — both standard and international 
short wave. Today, with Caribbean shipping at 
a minimum because of the exigencies of war, news 
takes as much as eight weeks to cross the Caribbean 
by schooner; yet, the West Indian Radio News- 



paper sends the news of the world to Caribbean 
shores from all parts of the globe and the Carib- 
bean itself in an instant. 

The "newspaper" is the only radio medium in 
existence that presents original Caribbean news 
daily (except Simday) to the Caribbean area. 
The British Broadcasting Corporation attempts 
only rarely to broadcast any Caribbean news un- 
less such news happens to originate directly or 
indirectly in Britain. This daily Caribbean news- 
cast is, therefore, one of the strongest points of 
appeal of the West Indian Radio Newspaper. 

Effective presentation of that news requires 
much correspondence, research, reading, clipping, 
and editing. Over twenty different newspapers 
from the Caribbean area arrive weekly at the office 
of the West Indian Radio Newspaper. Each is 
read, clipped, and the news items rewritten for 
radio presentation. Then too, air-mail letters 
from the Caribbean, filled with newspaper cut- 
tings and weekly newsletters, form a part of the 
daily mail, besides the releases and desi^atches 
arriving by air-mail pouch. All important and 
outstanding news events come into the West In- 
dian Radio Newspaper by cable. Thus, by such 
a broad and complete coverage of West Indian 
news and events, the radio newspaper is able to 
keep the entire area well informed on up-to-the- 
minute hapisenings. 

In establishing the Anglo-American Caribbean 
Commission, the two Governments were aware 
that the Caribbean area presented serious prob- 
lems which involved its basic economic and social 
structure. The standard of living of the majority 
of the people was low. Unemployment was per- 
sistent in certain areas. Utilization of the re- 
sources of the area was being resti'icted rather than 
expanded. Shipping problems were becoming 
acute and the supply position difficult. 

Moreover, the date of the ci-eation of the Com- 
mission coincided almost exactly with the outbreak 
of enemy submarine warfare in the Caribbean. 
The Commission, therefore, found itself plunged 
at once into a war-emergency crisis which took 
precedence over all other matters. The immedi- 
ate issue was to ward off famine in an area which, 
although primarily agricultural, was paradoxi- 
cally dependent to a great extent on imported 
foodstuffs. 

Dependence upon imported food was also accen- 
tuated in areas where United States bases were 
being constructed, since this work brought about 



AUGUST 27, 19U 



215 



a diversion of labor from agriculture to construc- 
tion work, causing an accompanying increase in 
I)urchasing power, which resulted in a greater de- 
mand for food. 

In 1942, when the maintenance of supplies be- 
came extremely difficult as a result of a shipping 
shortage, a food crisis developed in the Caribbean 
area where food reserves even in normal times are 
not large. Since it is difficult to store the staple 
foodstuffs in the tropics for any great length of 
time, many of the islands literally depended upon 
supplies from ship to ship. 

The West Indian Kadio Newspaper therefore 
began an extensive campaign over the air of 
"Grow More Food". Three special programs each 
of which speaks for itself were immediately de- 
vised, entitled as follows : "The Victory Gardener", 
"The Creole Cook", and "The Livestock Farmer". 

The "Victory Gardener" stressed the importance 
of local home food production. A "Grow More 
Food" campaign was started throughout the West 
Indies: the American and British Governments 
used both encour- 
agement and execu- 
tive action to pro- 
mote the local pro- 
duction of food- 
stuffs. In a number 
of instances market- 
ing facilities were 
established for han- 
dling the crops pro- 
duced. Sugar es- 
tates were required 
generally to divert 
a designated per- 
centage of their 
land to the growing 
of foodstuffs. In 
some cases all land- 
holders were re- 
quired to devote a 
certain proportion 
of all their arable 
acreage to food 
growing, and in 
each of these in- 
stances the West 
Indian Radio 
Newspaper kept 



The Caribbean provides a substantial supply of certaiu 
foods to the United Nations and is a vital source of a 
number of strategic materials. These lands produce 
petroleum products, some of the world's best long-staple 
cotton (from which parachutes and barrage balloons are 
made), copper, precious stones, a little gold and silver, 
and several minerals of importance to the prosecution of 
the war. The following list indicates the variety of ma- 
terials essential to the conduct of the war which are 
produced in the Caribbean area : 



Acetone 
Alcohol 
Aloes 

Anuatto and extracts 
Bauxite 
Beeswax 
Cacao 

Castor beans 
Cattle hides 
Cattle-tail hair 
Chromite 
Cinchona bark 
Coconut-shell char 
Coffee 
Copper 

Cotton, including long- 
staple cotton 
Divi-divl 
Fish-liver oils 



and is keeping the peoples of the Caribbean in- 
formed, stressing the necessity to "Grow More 
Food." 

To encourage the people and to assist them in 
having their own victory garden, each crop known 
to the West Indies was discussed on the air over 
the West Indian Radio Newspaper, so that lis- 
teners would know exactly how to plant tannias, 
eddoes, tomatoes, rice, yams, and cassava. The 
problems of garden making, soil preparation, fer- 
tilizer, farm implements, control of insects, ero- 
sion, were and are continuing to be fully discussed. 
Those radio and other escorts at victory gar- 
dening have been successful. Puerto Rico in- 
creased its food production 23 percent above the 
pre-war period. Jamaica, which is normally a 
large rice-importing island, was able to produce 
enough home-grown carbohydrates to eliminate 
the need for rice imjjorts; Barbados increased the 
area under food production to 35 percent of the 
arable acreage, and its production of carbohy- 
drate foods in an extreme emergency would have 

provided for the 
needs of the popu- 
lation for that class 
of foodstuff. 

Not only were 
those agi-icultural 
talks transmitted 
by radio but also 
official Government 
sources wrote to the 
West Indian Radio 
Newspaper for 
copies of the scripts 
for publication in 
local West Indian 
newspapers. A n 
immense amount of 
research on plant- 
ing and fai'ining 
and of study of con- 
ditions suitable for 
West Indian food 
production was re- 
quired to produce 
such an agricul- 
tural radio pro- 
gram. Volume 
upon volume had to 
be gleaned from. 



Glycerin 

Goatskins and kldskins 

Gutta balata 

Industrial diamonds 

Leather and pilocarpus 

Lignum vitae 

Loofa sponges 

Mahogany lumber and 

flitches 
Manganese 

Molasses for ethyl alcohol 
Nickel ore and matte 
Petroleum and petroleum 

products 
Rubber 

Sisal and henequen 
Sugar 
Tungsten 



216 

agricultural reports from the entire area had to be 
read, soils which varied from extremely wet to the 
sandy dry had to be discussed in order to satisfy 
local growing conditions in the Caribbean area. 
Yet, the staff of the "newspaper" was able, 
through the facilities of the Commission, to pro- 
duce accurate and effective broadcasts. 

In 1942 the West Indies found itself faced with 
famine in a few sections and potential famine in 
many others. Dominica and British Guiana were 
without bread for more than a fortnight. The 
United States consul at Antigua reported to the 
Department of State on September 5, 1942 : 

"A small loan of flour from the Army 
base here was effected through this Consulate yes- 
terday. . . . There is little doubt that consider- 
able part of the population is now going without 
food for several days in the week. A large number 
of laborers including base workers have recently 
left their jobs during the day complaining that 
they were unable to continue work because of lack 
of food." 1 

Many of the islands are small, and the fact that 
cargoes from one boat frequently supplied the en- 
tire requirements of the locality for several weeks 
literally meant living from ship to ship. Captains 
of schooners that plied among the more remote 
islands reported that in some cases a single sinking 
created a severe shortage and that the privations 
suffered in certain areas were acute. One island, 
Anguilla, in the Leeward Islands, found itself with 
a six months' supply of sardines and virtually no 
other imported foodstuffs. It was evident that the 
people of the West Indies had to be instructed in 
the use of substitutes to replace white flour and 
other normally imported foodstuffs. To offer that 
advice and instruction the West Indian Kadio 
Newspaper developed one of its most popular 
features— the Creole Cook. Through that pro- 
gram, the Commission undertook to tell ways and 
means of using new foods — ^liow to make and use 
cassava flour and sweetpotato flour, how to cook 
with dry eggs and powdered milk, and how to use 
products indigenous to the islands. 

A radio campaign was established to procure 
economical West Indian recipes fi'om housewives, 
and those were in turn broadcast from Washington 
to the Caribbean region to help other housewives 



'Th^ Caribbean Islands and the War, Department of 
State publication 2023, p. 5. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

prepare new dishes from foodstuffs that they had 
on their particular island. Every recipe used on 
the air is sent out gratis to any listener requesting a 

copy. 

One housewife in Trinidad writes : 

"I am happy to say that I received your book of 
West Indian Kecipes, and they have proved very 
helpful. If only in this respect the West Indian 
Radio Newspaper has been a boon to Trinidad 
housewives and of other islands I'm sure. But I 
guess you have sufficient assurance by now that the 
program goes over big with West Indians !" 

In the formulation of these radio broadcasts on 
agriculture and food, consideration of adequate 
nutrition for the people in the Caribbean area is of 
first importance. Diets in the region are low in 
caloric valud, but perhaps the most serious de- 
ficiency is that of animal proteins. Although vege- 
table proteins are of importance in nutrition they 
cannot entirely replace animal proteins. The es- 
sential nature of milk in infant feeding is basic, 
and the protein content of certain dairy products 
for adults is important. Pork is valuable for its 
high thiamin content, and eggs and other poultry 
products have long been recognized as valuable in 
human nutrition. In order to inform the Carib- 
bean peoples of these important points of animal 
proteins the West Indian Radio Newspaper pre- 
sented a series of broadcasts on the raising of poul- 
try and livestock, stressing that a well-balanced 
agricultural economy must include animal hus- 
bandry in its farming system. 

One must not deduce, however, that the West 
Indian Radio Newspaper is a glorified "farm and 
home hour", for to have a well-rounded, balanced, 
and popular broadcast a radio program must have 
its entertainment value and interest features. The 
West Indian Radio Newspaper is not lacking in 
that medium. 

The people of the West Indies are music lovers, 
and are avid for all types of musical programs. 
Each Sunday evening the entire "newspaper" is 
devoted to the symphony or opera. The works 
of the great composers are played. The story of 
their lives and a description of the music form a 
definite part of the program. Listener response 
is marked on these classical concerts, just as it is 
with the popular concert presented each Thursday 
evening. Both Dorothy Maynor and Hazel Scott 
(Trinidad born) appeared on the broadcast in 
their respective medium, and Paul Robeson and 



AUGUST 27, 19U 



217 



Duke Ellington performed in their particular 
nuisical fields. 

From a recent analysis of listener reaction, it 
is definite that music of the better type is far more 
appreciated by the West Indian Radio News- 
paper's Caribbean audience than the swing 
rhythms of the popular vein. 

In order for one to appreciate and understand 
tlie scope of the West Indian Radio Newspaper's 
broadcast, the following typical program schedule 
for a week is outlined : ' 

Sunday The West Indian Radio News- 

paper : Symphony Concert 

Monday Letters from Listeners ; Creole 

Cook ; Science in the News ; 
Caribbean News 

Tuesday Quiz Show; Health Chat; West 

Indian Guest Speaker; Car- 
ibbean News 

Wednesday Stamp Club; Agricultural Chat; 
Poet's Corner ; Caribbean 
News 

Thursday America at Play ; Dinner Con- 

cert ; Caribbean News 

Friday Vagabond Traveller; Caribbean 

in History ; Guest Speaker ; 
Caribbean News 

Saturday Featurette; Music; Caribbean 

News 

Under the program heading of "Letters from 
Listeners", the comments of West Indian Radio 
Newspaper listeners are acknowledged over the air, 
and answers to their questions are made, within, 
of course, all measures of wartime security. 

"Science in the News" deals with the latest de- 
velopments in the field of science. That program 
is especially designed to assist students in their 
school work and to help keep the professional man 
abreast in the fields of medicine, chemistry, and 
electricity. The popularity of the broadcast is 
evident by the fact that copies of it are requested 
for publication in local West Indian newspapers. 

A leading feature of the lighter vein, yet defi- 
nitely of serious educational scope, is the Caribbean 
Quiz Show — a program based on factual knowl- 
edge and fanciful legend of the area. It has been 
designed to inform the West Indian Radio News- 
paper audience on the historic and social back- 
ground of the region in order to stimulate interest 
in the Caribbean and to break down insularity. 
Listeners are invited to send in their questions 



' World news headlines precede all programs except on 
Sunday. 



and answers for use on this feature. The reaction 
from one listener was startling: "The Quiz Show 
is tops, but my ! how little we know of our West 
Indies!" 

Progress is being made in the protection of the 
health of all peoples in the Caribbean region. 
Cooperation and the sharing of knowledge and 
facilities among the United States and British 
Governments and local West Indian Governments 
are playing an important role and are destined to 
play a still larger part. Health is also one of the 
concerns of the West Indian Radio Newspaper. 
Information on health and on disease and its con- 
trol was gained from the Caribbean, and then, in 
conjunction with the American Medical Associa- 
tion and the United States Public Health Service, 
a series of radio chats was devised, covering all 
phases of local diseases — their symptoms, cure, and 
prevention. 

One West Indian mother wrote : 

"I want to ask a favour, for I think you are an 
answer to a mother's prayer. In the broadcast of 
the West Indian Radio Newspaper of June 20, 
there was a talk on 'Glaucoma', which interests me 
very much, as I have a young friend whose infant 
of three months has the disease. The baby was 
born with it ; the parents are distracted, as the babe 
is otherwise a perfect specimen of health and hap- 
piness. Fortunately, only one eye is affected, and 
we hope to be able to treat the infected eye and 
preserve a glimmer of sight until the child is older 
and stronger and travel is not so difficult. In the 
meantime, your talk on 'Glaucoma' is a ray of 
hope. The information is of the utmost value to 
us. Please may I have a copy of that health talk 
and any other information available." 

This request, which was immediately taken care 
of, illustrates forcibly the value of international 
radio in dealing with the problems of health 
protection. 

The West Indian Radio Newspaper carries mes- 
sages of physical health to its vast audience as well 
as messages of mental health. Because of the war, 
there are at present in Washington 120 young 
women representing all the British colonies of the 
Caribbean area. Those girls are members of the 
Auxiliary Territorial Services Division of the Brit- 
ish Army. They were trained in Canada and were 
delegated to Washington to work. Since many of 
the young women had never been away from home 
it was evident that nostalgia would be a common 



218 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Immediately following the acquisition by the 
Uuited States of naval and air bases in the 
Caribbean, the President appointed a Commis- 
sion to survey the social and economic problems 
of some parts of the area. The Commission 
consisted of Mr. Charles W. Taussig, chairman ; 
Lt. Col. A. F. Kibler; and Lt. Comdr. W. S. 
Campbell. 

Between November 15, 1040 and January 5, 
1941 this body vi.=ited Puerto Rico, the Virgin 
Islands of the United States, and all the British 
colonies in the West Indies except British 
Guiana and British Honduras. The Commission 
was immediately concerned with such matters 
as the attitude of the people of the West Indies 
toward the establishment of the bases in par- 
ticular and toward the United States in general. 
But the Commission also gave consideration, so 
far as time permitted, to the fundamentals of 
the Caribbean problem. 

The members of the Commission interviewed 
150 representative individuals, including the 
giivernors of all the colonies, legislators, sub- 
stantially all the labor leaders in the area, 
planters, merchants, educators, medical men, 
presidents of chambers of commerce, and com- 
missioners of police. In addition, visits were 
made to work projects, schools, hospitals, 
prisons, churches, and military establishments. 



occurrence during their first few weeks in the 
United States and that the j^arents of these girls 
would naturally worry about them: Were they 
well ? Did they get the proper food ? Wliat were 
their living accommodations like ? 

At that point the West Indian Radio Newspaper 
came to the rescue. It invited all the A.T.S. girls 
in Washington to appear twice a week on the 
"newspaper" to send their greetings and messages 
to families and sweethearts back home. Not only 
did that method of instantaneous contact by speak- 
ing directly by radio to parents and friends allay 
pangs of homesickness but it also eased thoughts of 
worry and apprehension over the welfare of their 
daughters in the minds of the people in the Carib- 
bean area. Again, the West Indian Radio News- 
paper scored another achievement. 

Similarly, West Indian students studying at uni- 
versities in Canada and West Indian boys in the 
Canadian Armed Services have been invited to 
speak on the program to greet their families in the 
Caribbean area. Through the medium of the Com- 
mission's liaison officer, arrangements were made 



in Canada with the Canadian Broadcasting Cor- 
poration to record those messages from West In- 
dian students and soldiers. The transcriptions 
were then sent to the West Indian Radio News- 
paper in Washington, and a different message was 
broadcast nightly to the Caribbean. Radio has 
surmounted all barriers of distance and has kept 
West Indian families in touch with one another. 

Not always were the West Indian guest speak- 
ers from the British West Indian lands. Some 
had come from Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands 
(the United States territories in the area). Stu- 
dents from those islands, studying in the United 
States, were also able to greet their family and 
friends in their homes through the Commission's 
broadcast. Moreover, West Indians now resident 
in the United States prepared special broadcasts to 
tell the peoples of the Caribbean about their life, 
work, and play under present wartime conditions. 
This medium of short-wave broadcasting has done 
much to keep West Indians in touch with their 
West Indies. 

Hundreds of letters of appreciation from the 
Caribbean families and friends of those boys and 
girls poured into the West Indian Radio News- 
paper. A fair example is this letter from 
Jamaica : 

"We were thrilled the day our daughter spoke to 
us. You will never, never know what you have 
done for us in letting her speak over the air. I 
can hardly convey our deep feelings of apprecia- 
tion for the privilege of listening to a voice that 
means so much to us. Accept our heartfelt thanks 
and congratulations for the West Indian Radio 
Newspaper." 

From Barbados comes this complimentary note: 

"I must congratulate the West Indian Radio 
Newspaper on its effort to bring us all nearer to- 
gether, and I think that it is doing a remarkable 
piece of work. It has been a source of much hap- 
piness and pleasure to hear the voices of our boys 
and girls, whether they be in the Forces or at the 
Universities. I hope that you will be able to carry 
on your good work for a long time to come." 

Since one of the main objectives of the "news- 
paper" is the development of a regional and com- 
munity point of view among the peoples of the 
Caribbean, two entertaining programs were de- 
signed to accomplish that aim : one, the Vagabond 



AUGUST 27, 1944 



219 



Traveller, and the other, the West Indian Stamp 
Club of the Air. 

The Vagabond Traveller program takes the 
radio listener on an imaginary journey from one 
Caribbean land to another, describing its discov- 
ery, history, travel highlights, life, customs, and 
music. It informs the people of one West Indian 
colony about their neighbors, what they do, and 
how they live, thus portraying to one and all in the 
Caribbean the regional point of view. 

A world traveler, who has been long familiar 
with the Caribbean area, its peoples, languages, 
background, and life, has spent months in collect- 
ing accurate material for those travelogs, which 
have brought the West Indian Radio Newspaper 
much applause. One British Guianese listener 
writes : 

"Please accept my warmest congratulations for 
your successful presentation of your travel talk on 
British Guiana. It was vivid, accurate, and you 
made us feel that we were right there on the spot 
with you wherever you went. Of course, we recog- 
nized all the places you described, and will always 
owe a debt to you for your timely and useful pub- 
licizing of our Colony — timely, because there are 
still persons in the AVest Indies, the United States, 
Britain and the world, who know absolutely noth- 
ing about the life we live here. Indeed, we are 
indebted to you." 

One United States Army private stationed at 
the American base in St. Lucia writes : 

"Several of the members of my Company lis- 
tened very attentively to your travel talk on St. 
Lucia and found it more than packed with knowl- 
edge, and especially interesting to us as we are 
stationed here. It was quite a sensation to hear 
our everyday surroundings described so beauti- 
fully. I would appreciate it very much if you 
would send my mother in the United States one 
of your booklets and a copy of your talk on St. 
Lucia, as due to censorship, I cannot send any- 
thing from here, and I do want my family to know 
of this magnificent island where I am." 

Copies of travel chats by the Vagabond Travel- 
ler and an illustrated booklet describing the won- 
ders and facts of each Caribbean land are available 
to listeners. Such informative litei'ature on the 
area has thus traveled through the mails to the 
far countries of the world, lauding the fame of the 
West Indies. 

606460 — 44 4 



The Vagabond Traveller program, an outstand- 
ing feature of the "newspaper", is one of the oldest 
and best-known programs in short-wave history. 
Originally designed before the war, at Station 
WRUL in Boston, to tell the peoples of the world 
about one another, it has been on the air contin- 
uously for four years, with fan mail running into 
thousands of letters from all corners of the globe. 
The Vagabond Traveller program which has been 
devoted to the locale of the Caribbean will shortly 
encompass the "Story of the United States", espe- 
cially designed for its West Indian audience. 

One of the greatest hobbies in the world is the 
collecting of postage stamps. The West Indian 
Radio Newspaper formed the West Indian Stamp 
Club of the Air, designed to give West Indians 
and world-wide listeners interested in philately 
the latest news in the realm of stamps and espe- 
cially the story behind the stamps of the Caribbean 
area, for the history of each West Indian colony 
from its past to the present is found in its stamps. 

The initial broadcasts of the series on stamps 
devoted themselves to beginners — telling them 
how to commence a stamp collection. Gradually 
the programs were worked up into valuable in- 
formation for advanced collectors. The "news- 
paper" prepared a booklet of terms and expressions 
used in philately, which it mailed gratis to all 
who sent for it. As the expansion of the Stamp 
Club program continued, the script-writers began 
to search philatelic magazines and newspapers for 
items of interest to inform the collectors about the 
latest issues and develojjments. Research goes on 
daily about the story behind one or more particu- 
lar stamps of each Caribbean land. 

A listener in Chile writes asking for stamps on 
St. Kitts; a firm in Barbados wants to know 
where it can sell its accumulated stamps; a boy in 
Ireland wants to contact a collector in Tobago; a 
woman in Jamaica desires to exchange stamps with 
some one in Antigua ; and thus it is that the West 
Indian Stamp Club of the Air conti-ibutes to the 
interest of the philatelists in the Caribbean. 

With the United States' acquiring 99-year leases 
for military and naval bases in the British West 
Indies, American troops found themselves living 
in several Caribbean lands. For many of them 
it was the first time they had ever been away from 
home. Especially designed broadcasts for the men 
in the United States forces were beamed there- 
fore to the Caribbean area. Music and entertain- 



220 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



meiit that particularly appealed to the boys were 
featured. United Service Organizations artists 
who had toured the Caribbean camps and bases 
came before the microphones of the "newspaper" 
and entertained the boys, giving them personal 
messages, singing favorite songs and the popular 
G.I. jive. On such festive occasions as Christmas 
and New Year's Eve of 1943 the West Indian 
Radio Newspaper devoted its entire program to 
the United States boys in the Caribbean region, 
letting them know that those at home were with 
them one hundred percent. 

Most radio features have trends of popularity, 
yet one that is always in demand is poetry. On the 
broadcast entitled ''The Poet's Corner" West In- 
dian poems are featured in conjunction with the 
best-loved poems of the centuries. Listeners are 
invited to send in their own compositions for read- 
ing over the air, and each poem presented is made 
available to anyone desiring a copy. In that way, 
the West Indian Radio Newspaper is attempting 
to compile an anthology of Caribbean poetry. 

Everyone is interested in how the other fellow 
lives and plays. West Indians are no exception 
and are thoroughly interested in how Americans 
live and play. Dramatizations based on scenes 
from Americana in every detail are presented 
each week. A visit to one of Washington's famed 
Watergate concerts was musically dr