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Full text of "Department of State bulletin"

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Given By 
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THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



BULLETIN 



VOLUME XII: Numbers 289-313 

January 7 -June 24, 1945 



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U. S. SUPERINTEfJCEM OF 0OCUMI4)f| 

OCT 30 1945 

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Publication 2395 



INDEX 
Volume XII: Numbers 289-513, January 7-Jmie 24, 1945 



Abdul Aziz ( King of Saudi Arabia ) . Sec Ibn Saud. 
Abdul Ilah (Kegent of Iraq), visit to U. S., address by 

Mr. Phillips, 1036. 
Academ.v of Political Science, New York, X.T., addresses : 
Mr. Haley, 038. 
Mr. Masou, 616. 
Achesou, Dean : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 
Bretton Woods proposals, 352, ^109, 469, 507, 738. 
Economic policy for peace, 507. 
Pood and Agriculture Organization of United Nations, 

686. 
Lend-lease act, proposed extension, 189. 
Mexican water treaty, statement before Senate For- 
eign Relations Committee, 302. 
Designation as member of Board of Foreign Service 
Personnel and Board of Examiners of the Foreign 
Service, 427. 
Participant in radio broadcasts, 282, 401. 
Act of Chapultepec: 
Discussion of, 525, 550, 693. 
Test, 339. 
Administrative instruction (Gen. Admin. 22) on foreign 

aviation experts, 715. 
Advisory Committee, Emergency, for Political Defense. 

3, 53, 304, 925. 
Afghanistan : 
Civil-aviation agreements : air transit, air transport, and 

interim (1944), acceptance, 968. 
U.S. Minister (Palmer), appointment, 209, .588. 
Africa. See French North Africa ; French West Africa. 
Agreements, International. Sec Treaties. 
Agricultural experiment station in Guatemala, agreement 
with Guatemala (1944), supplemental memorandum 
of understanding, 874. 
Agricultural Sciences, Inter-American Institute, conven- 
tion establishing (1944), ratification by — 
Dominican Republic (1944), 108. 



Agricultural workers, agreement with — 
Bahamas, amending 1943 agreement, 460. 
Jamaica (1044, 1945), 460. 
Newfoundland (1944), 812. 
Agriculture, farmer's stake in world cooperation, radio 

interview with Mr. Clayton, 620. 
.\guayo, Jorge, appointment as consultant to Library of 

Congress, 11G8. 
Ahmed Maher Pasha (Prime Minister of Egypt), dentli, 

nie.ssage from Mr. Grew to U.S. Minister, 304. 
Air carriers, U.S. and foreign, application of anti-trust 

laws to agreements between, 141. 
.\ir Coordinating Committee, organization of (D.O. 1317), 

838. 
Air law, international, private, article bv Mr. Lalcliford, 

11. 
Air services transit agreement, multilateral. See Civil 

aviatiort. 
Air transport agreement, multilateral. See Civil aviation. 
Airline monopolies, opposition to, statement by Mr. Clay- 
ton, 614. 
Airlines, foreign, consideration of requirements of, bv 

FEA. WPB, and State Department. 1089. 
Air-transport routes, military, agreement with Canada. 



Air-transport services, bilateral agreement, U. S. with — 
Canada, text, 305. 
Iceland, text, 170. 
Ireland, text, 172. 
Alaska, death of former Governor (Riggs), statement by 

Mr. Grew, 107. 
Alcohol (industrial), sugar, and molasses, arrangements 
for purchase in Cuba by FEA and by Commodity Credit 
Corp., 656. 
Alexander, Field Marshal Sir Harold, message from Presi- 
dent Truman on unconditional surrender of German 
Armies in Italy, 865. 
.Vlien Property Custodian : 
Annual report: 

Letter of transmittal from Custodian (Markham) to 

Presid'ent Truman, 1028. 
Letter of transmittal to Congress from President 
Truman, 1029. 
Functions and duties regarding German and Japanese 
property, (Ex. Or. 9567 amending Ex. Or. 9095 and 
9193), 1065. 
Aliens in Germany (1939), article by Mr. Odell and Mr. 

Billigmeier, 164. 
.Miens leaving U.S., Federal regulations concerning, 087. 
.\l-Koudsi, Nazem (Syrian Minister) : 
Credentials as Syrian Minister to U.S., 517. 
Declaration by United Nations, remarks on signing, 681. 
Allen, George V., designation in State Department, 839. 
Alliance and mutual assistance, treaty between U.S.S.R. 

and France (1944), text, 39. 
Allied Commission for Italy, remarks by acting president 

(Macmillan), 539. 
.\llied Military Government : 
Establishment, 539. 

Venezia Giulia, agreement between U.S., U.K., and Yugo- 
slavia regarding, 1050. 
Allied Representatives (U.S., U.S.S.R., U.K., France), as- 
sumption of Supreme authority with respect to de- 
feated Germany, text of declaration, 1051. 
Ailing, Paul H., appointment as U.S. Diplomatic Agent 

at Tangier, 1089. 
.\luniinum Co. of Canada, agreement with Metals Reserve 

Co.. statement by Mr. Clayton, 698. 
American Association for the Advancement of Science, 

Cleveland, Ohio, paper by Mr. Boggs, 183. 
American Chamber of Connnerce in France, New York, 

X.Y., .Tddress hy Mr. Cnlbertson, 299. 
American Labor Party, New York Coimty Committee, New 

York, N.Y., address by Secretary Stettinius, 622. 
.\inerican Marketing Association, Philadelphia, Pa., re- 
marks by Mr. Fetter, 501. 
American republics (see also Commissions; Conferences; 
Inter-American system ; Treaties ; and the individual 
countries) : 
Axis aggression, opposition to, annual report, in part, 
1943-44, of Emergency Advisory Committee for Po- 
litical Defense, 53. 
Civil Aviation Conference, significance of, address by 

Mr. Morgan, 33. 
Cultural leaders, visit to U.S. from: Bolivia, 315; Brazil, 
475, 913, 946; Chile, 8:34, 873, 932; Colombia, 692; 
Costa Rica, 912; Cuba, 1059; Dominican Republic, 
914; Haiti, 692: Honduras, 831; Mexico, 784; Pan- 
ama, &56; Peru, 1059; Venezuela, 1167. 

1173 



1174 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



American repviblics— Continued. 

Diplomatic relations witli Argentina, decision to resume, 

670. 
Emergency Advisory Committee for Political Defense, 

3, y, 53, 304, 925. 
Exchange of experts under travel-grant program, 64. 
Fellowships in teacher education, change in U.S. regu- 
lations, 836. 
Green<'offee ceiling prices, request by 14 coffee-producnig 

countries for increase in, and refusal by U.S., 512. 
Inter-American relations, addresses by Mr. IJoal, 90, 708. 
Ministers for Foreign Affairs, request of Argentina for 
meeting of, letter from Secretary Stettinius to Pan 
American Union, 91. 
Non-recogjiition of governments established by force, 
resolution of Emergency Advisory Committee for 
Political Defense, 9. 
Radio broadcast on America's good neighbors, o47. 
Americans United for World Organization, Wilton, Conn., 

address by Mr. O'Donnell, 580. 
Amir Faisal (Viceroy of the Hejaz and Saudi Arabian 
Hinister for Foreign Affairs) : 
Declaration by United Nations, remarks on signing, 682. 
Exchange of messages with Mr. Grew on declaration of 
war against Axis, 408. 
Amos, Paul S., article on Okinawa and the Liuchius, (43. 
Anglo-American armies, junction with Soviet forces, state- 
ments by President Truman and Mr. Grew, 808. 
Anglo-American Caribbean Commission : 
Results of sixth meeting, 514. 
U.S. Section, 716. 
Anglo-American cooperation for expansion of world trade, 

remarks by Mr. Fetter, 501. 
Anglo-American oil agreement (1944), withdrawal from 

Senate, 63. 
Anglo-Ethiopian agreement (1944), text, 200. 
Anti-trust laws, applicability to agreements between U.S. 

and foreign air carriers, 141. 
Appli l).v, Paul H., resigiinrion as chairman of U.S. Delega- 

liim U> Intcrii:ili(in:il Wlieat Council, 79. 
\rnl> Viiifrican Aft":iirs, Institute for. Inc., New York, N.T., 

.•K1.1IVS.S by Mr. Philliiis, 1036. 
Arhitnition, commercial, in the treaties and agreements 

of the U. S. S. R., article by Mr. Hilton, 890. 
Argentina (jre also American republics) : 

Acting Minister of Foreign Relations (Anieghino), mps- 
sage of condolence on death of U.S. President, 667. 
Ambassador to U.S. (Ibarra Garcia), credentials, 912. 
Asylum to war criminals, attitude, 190. 
Axis political aggression, attitude toward, reported by 
Emergency Advisory Committee for Political De- 
fense, 53. 
Declaration of war against Germany and Japan: 
Announcement, 538. 

Text of decree and of correspondence with Pan 
American Union, 611. 
Diplomatic relations, d('ci,«ion by American republics to 

resume. 670. 
Exports from U.S., amendment of Federal Regulations, 

713. 
Ministers for Foreign Affairs of the American Republics, 
request for meeting, of, letter of Secretary Stettinius 
to Pan American Union, 91. 
Pan American Union, correspondence, 4.50, 611. 
Resolution of Mexico City conference concerning: 
Discussion by Mr. Rockefeller, 695. 
Draft text, 450. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Pri.soners of war convention (1929), adherence, 878. 
Red Cross convention (1929), adherence, 878. 
Vegetable and fuel oils, exchange of, with U.S., 1110. 
UNCIO. admission, 1007. 

U.S. Ambassador (Braden), appointment, 785, 880, 904. 
U.S. policy toward, discussion in radio broadcasts, 548, 
1007. 



Armistice: 

U.K. and U.S.S.U. with Finland (1944), text, 261. 
U.S., U.K., and U.S.S.R. with Hungary, text, 83. 
Armstrong, Hamilton Fish, designation in Slate Depart- 
ment, 68. 
Art Advisory Committee, report of meeting. 259. 
Assistant Secretaries of State, authorization to prescribe 
and issue regulations, orders, and instructions for 
Foreign Service (D.O. 1310), 428. 
Assistant Secretary for economic affairs, OflSce of: 

Economic Foreign Policy, Executive Committee on, sec- 
retariat, transfer from Office of Econumic Affairs 
(D.O. 1305), 148. 
"Inter-Agency Economic Digest", transfer to, 462. 
A.ssociation of American Colleges, annual meeting, Atlantic 

City, N.J., address by Mr. MacLeish, 47. 
A.syluiu, Bulgarian political leader, 1(J23. 
Asylum to war criminals : 

Denial, by neutral countries, 190, 482. 
Resolutions of Inter-American Conference on Problems 
of War and Peace concerning, texts, 344, S47. 
Athens, inquiries on U.S. citizens, service for, 160. 
Athlone, Earl of (Governor General of Canada), visit to 

U.S., 506. 
Atrocities, German: 
Aliens, 164. 

Displaced persons, 491, 953, 1014. 
Jews, 164, 499, 960. 
Prisoners of war, 683, 811. 
Australia : 

Treaties, ag^'eements, etc. : 

Civil aviation, interim agreement (1944), acceptance, 

068. 
Marine transportation and litigation, with U.S., 621. 
Sanitary convention (1944), accession, 941. 
Sanitary convention for aerial navigation (1944), 

accession, 941. 
Shipping, continuance of control for United Nations 
purposes (1944), accession, 628. 
UNCIO, list of members of Delegation, .576. 
Austria : 

Displaced persons in Germany, 492. 
U..S. policy toward, statement by Mr. Grew. 397. 
Automotive traffic, regulation of inter-American, conven- 
tion on (1943), ratification by Brazil (1944), 108. 
.\viation (see also Civil aviation) : 

Military air-transport routes, agreement with Canada, 

309. 
Military-aviation mission, agreement with Guatemala, 
signature, 309. 
Avila Camacho, Manuel (President of Mexico) : 
Address at Mexico City conference, 273. 
(Correspondence, with President Roosevelt on Mexican- 
American Commission for Economic Affairs, 155. 
Avila Camacho, Maximino, death, messages from President 

Roosevelt and Mr. Grew, 252. 
Awa Maru (ship), sinking of: 
Exchange of communications between U.S. and Japan 

regarding, 1033. 
Report, 692. 

Safe-conduct for transport of relief supplies for Allied 
nationals interned in Far East, 188. 
Axis countries (see also Germany; Japan; Prisoners of 
war) : 
Asylum to war criminals from : 

Neutral governments, attitude regarding, 190, 482. 

Resolution of Mexico City conference, texts, 344, 347. 

Declaration of war against. Sec Aigentina ; Brazil ; 

Saudi Arabia. 
Discussion of, on radio broadcast, 480. 
Loot and assets, U.S.-U.K.-French negotiations with 

Switzerland, 601. 
Loot and assets in Western Hemisphere, resolution of f 
Mexico City conference, 926. ' 

Mexico City conference, measures to eliminate Axis in- 
fluence in Western Hemisphere, article by Mr. Mann, 



mOEX, JANUARY TO JUNE 1945 

Axis countries — Continued. 
War criminals : 

Cliiff of Counsel (U.S.) for prosecution of Axis crim- 
inality, appointment of Justice Jackson, 86G. 

Discus-sions between U.K. and U.S., 81. 

Pro.secution of, reiwrt from Justice Jackson to Presi- 
dent Truman, 1071. 

Punislimeut of, statement by Mr. Grew, 154. 

Radio broadcast on, 480. 

Resolutions of Mexico City conference on admission 
and surrender of, texts, 344, 347. 

r.abamas, agricultural workers, agreement with U.S., 

amending 1!)43 agreement, 460. 
Baker, George W., designation in State Department, 468. 
llalkans. relief supplies for civilians, 921. 
Hall, Eric G., appointment as visiting professor to Brazil, 

329. 
Bank, International, for Reconstruction and Development. 

See Bretton Woods Proposals. 
Bar Association, American, addresses by Mr. Hackworth 

and Mr. Sandifer, 124, 145. 
Bar A.ssociation. Boston, Mass., address bv Mr. Eagleton, 

650. 
Bar Association, Inter-American, addresses by Mr. Hack- 

worlli and Mr. Sandifer, 124, 145. 
Barber, Willard F., designation in State Department, 466. 
Baruch, Herman B., appointment as U.S. Ambassador to 

Portugal, 209. 
Baudet, Pbilipije (Charge d'Affaires of France), note to 

Secretary Stettinius on adherence by France to United 

Nations Declaration, 17. 
Baydur, Hiiseyin Ragip, credentials as Turkish Ambassa- 
dor to U.S., 775. 
I'.rrhhoefer, Bernhard G., designation in State Department, 

840. 
B 'Igium : 
•Ambassador to U.S. (Silvereruysl, credentials, 421. 
Displaced persons in Germany, 493, 497, 498. 
Telecommunication and postal services, restoration, 

1078. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Civil aviation, air transit agreement (1944), signa- 
ture, 714. 

Civil aviation, convention (1944), signature, 714. 

Civil aviation, interim agreement (1944), signature 
and acceptance, 714, 873. 

E\iroiK.:iii inland transport, signature, 910. 

Lend-lease and reverse lend-lease, with U.S., state- 
ments and correspondence, 763. 

Monetary agreement, ^^^th U.K. (1944), 66. 
UXi'KI. list of members of Delegation, 609. 
Belt Ramirez. Guillermo, of Cuba, report as rapporteur 

on organization of San Francisco conference, 801. 
Benes. l-Jlvard (President of Czechoslovakia), tribute to, 

from President Roosevelt, 599. 
Benninghoff, H. Merrell, designation in State Department, 

427. 
Berle, .\dolf A., Jr.. appointment as U.S. Ambassador to 

Brazil, 110. 
Bermuda, relaxation of restrictions on travel to, 913. 
Bernadotte, Count, of Sweden, activities respecting Ger- 
man surrender offer, 863. 
Bilbo, Theodore G. (U.S. Senator), exchange of letters 

with Mr. Grew on acceptance of civil-aviation agree- 
ments as executive agreements, 1101. 
Billigmeier, Robert H.. articles : 
Aliens in Germany, 164. 
Jews in Germany, 969. 
Blacklist. See Blocked Nationals. 
Blaisdell, Thomas C, Jr., appointment as Chief of Mission 

for Economic .Affairs, London, letter from President 

Roosevelt, 440. 
Blakeslee, George H., designation in State Department. 



r to U.S., 41. 
France to United Nations 



1175 

Blocked countries : 

Accounts of U.S. citizens, free operation of, 642. 
Powers of attorney, provision for sending to, 657. 
Blocked Nationals, Proclaimed List: 
Revision VIII, Cumulative Supplements 5, 6 : 67, 190. 
Revision IX and ("ninulative Supplements, 1, 2, 3, 4: 
423, 007, 871, 1167. 
Bloom, Sol, tribute to, by Secretary Stettinius, 622. 
Boal, Pierre de L. : 
Addresses : 

Relations among the American republics, 96. 
Security and inter-American relations, 708. 
Article on substance of foreign relations, 243. 
Boards. See Commissions. 
Boggs, S. W., articles : 

Mapping effects of science and technology on human 

relations, 183. 
"This Hemisphere", 845, 954. 
Bohan, Merwin L., designation in State Department, 840. 
Bolivia (see also American republics) : 
<'ultural leaders, visit to U.S., 315. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Sanitary convention for aerial navigation (1944), 109. 
UNRRA (1943), ratification, 461. 
Bombay, India, elevation to rank of Consulate General, 

995. 
Bombings of Swiss towns, statement by air. Grew, 309. 
Bonds. See Falsification. 
Bonnet, Henri : 
Credentials as French 
Remarks on adherence 
Declaration, 19. 
Booty. See Loot. 

Bordeaux, France, opening of U.S. Consulate, 110. 
Borton, Hugh, article on Formosa, 1018. 
Boundaries in Europe, statement by Mr. Grew, 902. 
Boundary and Water Commission, International, jurisdic- 
tion under U.S. -Mexican water treaty (1944), article 
by Mr. Clayton, 71. 
Braden, Spruille : 

Participant in radio broadcast, 547. 
U.S. Ambassador to Argentina, appointment, 785, 880, 
904. 
Bradshaw, J. G., visiting professor to Colombia, 197. 
Brazil (see also American republics) : 
Allied victory, contribution to, telegram froi 

Truman to President Vargas, 904. 
Cultural leaders, visit to U.S., 475, 913. 946. 
Declaration of war against Japan, 1060. 
Minister for Foreign Relations (Velloso), 

condolence on death of U.S. President, 665. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Automotive trafBc, inter-American, convention on 

regulation (1943), ratification (1944), 108. 
Civil aviation, interim agreement (1944), acceptance, 

1008. 
Civil-aviation convention (1044), 1006. 
U.S. Ambassador (Berle), appointment, 110. 
U.S. Consulate at Florianopolis, closing, 995. 
Visit of Acting Foreign Minister (Velloso) to U.S., 410. 
Visiting professors from U.S., 208, 32.0, 381, 386, 644. 
Bread-rationing for Italy, 29. 
Bretton Woods conference : 

Message of President Roosevelt to Congress on proposals 

of, 220. 
Resolution on enemy assets and loot, implementation of 
by Switzerland, 601. 
Bretton Woods Propo.sals for International Monetary Fund 
and for International Bfink for Reconstruction and 
Development : 
Addresses: Mr. Acheson, 3.52, 409, 469. 507, 73S: M"r. 
Clayton, 430. 476. 079: Mr. Mason. 616: Mr. O'Don- 
nell, 580; Mr. Taft, 578, 826; Mr. Young, 376. 
Discussion : 

Foreign Affairs Outline, .562. 
Radio broadcast. 402. 



President 



1176 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Bretton Woods Proposals — Continued. 

Message of President Koosevelt to Congress, 220. 
.Stutemeut by Mr. Stettinius, 096. 
Bridgeiwrt (Conn.) Peace Council, address by Mr. T:ift, 

Hid. 
Briggs, Ellis O., assignment to U.S. Embassy at Chung- 
king, 1G9. 
Brown, Courtney C, designation In State Department, 17G. 
Bucaramanga, Colombia, closing of U.S. Consulate, 0!).j. 
"Building the Peace" : 

Foreign ^Vffairs Outlines, 5'>8. 

State Department radio broadcasts, S2, 237, 282. 3.54, 4i)l, 
441, 480, 547, 629. 
Bulgaria : 

Displaced persons in Germany, 493. 

Inquiries on U.S. citizens in, 252. 

Protection of political leader (Dimitrov) by U. S. Reiv 

resentative at Sofia, 1023. 
Restoration of communications facilities, 546, 1078. 
Bunn, Charles, address on legal policy for trade, 142. 
Bureau of the Budget, letter to President Truman from 
Director (Smith) ou lend-lease appropriation esti- 
mate, 1062. 
Butler, George H., designation in State Department. 5S8. 
Byelorussian Soviet Socialist IJepublic, membership in 
United Nations: 
Letter from President Truman to Secretary Stettinius, 

806. 
Question concerning, 530. 
Statements by Secretary Stettinius, 60O, 1007. 
Byrne.s, James F.. Director of Office of War Mobilization 
and Ri'converslon, 448. 

Cale, Edward G., designation in State Department, 176. 
Californiii, University of, degree conferred ou Secretaiy 

Stettinius, 859. 
Camagiley, Cuba, closing of U.S. Consulate, 1089. 
Canada : 

Allied victory, exchange of messages between Presideii; 

Truman and Prime Minister King, 90;5. 
Ambassador to U.S. (Pearson), credentials. 174. 
Civil aviation, discussions with U.S.. 110, 160. 
Combined Boards, joint statement with U.S. and U.K. 

on decision to maintain, 120. 
Governor General (Earl of Athlone), message of con- 
dolence on death of U.S. President. 662. 
Permanent Joint Board on Defense. Canada-U.S.. dis- 
position of U.S. defense facilities in Canada, 162. 
Prime Minister (King), message of condolence on death 

of U.S. President, 662. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Civil aviation, air-transport services, hll:iter.Tl. with 

U.S., test, 305. 
Civil-aviation agreements: air trimsit and inleiiiii 

(1944), acceptance. 67, 16i), ]!)8. 
Defense facilities, disposition of, with U.S. (1944). 

text, 1B2. 
Double taxation and prevention of fiscal evasion, with 

U.S. (1944), ratification, 199. 42.3. 
Extraterritorial rights in China, relinquishment, witli 

China (1944), ratificatlnn. 6.37. 
Fourth Protocol, with U.S.S.R., for proviswm of nnv 

supplies, 723. 
Military air-transport routes, with U.S., W9. 
Mutual aid, with India (1944), 32. 
Sanitary convention (1944). 109. 
Sanitary convention for aerliil navigation (1944), 109. 
UNCIO, list of members of Delegation. 729. 
Visit of Governor General (Karl of Athlone) to U.S., 

506. 
Visit of Prime Minister (King) to President Roosevelt. 
434. 
Care.v, Jane Perry Clark, article on displaced popiilatlons 
in Europe in 1944 with particular reference to Ger- 
many, 491. 



Cargo availability for Argentina, amendment of Federal 

Regulations, 713. 
Caribbean Commission. See Anglo-American Caribbean 

Commission. 
Carr, Robert M., designation in State Department, 386. 
Cartels : 

Barriers to international trade, statement by Mr. Clay- 
ton, 933. 
Discussion of, in radio broadcast, 407. 
Provision against, in Economic Charter of the Americas, 

613. 
Resolution of Mexico City conference, texts, 348, 452. 
Statement by Secretary Stettinius, 598. 
Carter, Clarence E. (editor of "Territorial Papers"), ar- 
ticle on publication of documentary records of U.S. 
territories, 1109. 
Caster, Kenneth E., visiting professor to Brazil. 386. 
Center for International Understanding, San Francisco, 

Calif., address by Mr. Acheson, .507. 
Central America. See American republics and the indi- 
vidual countries. 
Central Secretariat of Secretary's Staff Committee and 
Coordinating Committee, change in name from Joint 
Secretariat (D.O. 1320). 878. 
Central Services, Division of, transfer of certain functions 

to Division of Protocol (D.O. 1321), 994. 
Chalmers, Philip O., designation in State Deparlment, ,506. 
Chamber of Commerce, Newburgh, N.Y., address by Mr. 

Taft, 955. 
Chamber of Commerce, Topeka, Kans., addre.ss by Mr. 

Holmes, 179. 
Chapln. Seidell, designation in State Di-partnient, 840, 

1017. 
Chapul tepee. Act of, 339, .525, 550, 693. 
Charter of the United Nations : 
Interim arrangements, text, 1142. 

Statute of the International Court of Justice: Organiza- 
tion of the Court, text, 1134. 
Text, 1119. 
Charts. See Maps and charts. 
Cherbourg consular district, inquiries on I'.S. citizens. 

service for, 268. 
Child, Charles, designation in State D^'p.-irtment, 111. 
Chile (see also American republics) : 
Ambassador, note and remarks on United Nations Dec- 
laration. 231, 2.35. 
Cultural leaders, visit to U.S., 8.34, 873. 9:!2. 
Nitrogen, synthetic, dLsjiosal and operation of plants, 

discussions with U.S. Government, 644. 
Treaties, agreements, etc.: 

Civil aviation, interim agreement (1944). acceptance. 

1057. 
Declaration by United Nations (1942). adherence. 231. 
Falsification of currency, public-debt bonds, and credit 

documents, with Vcvu lir'o.5), ratification, 874. 
Financial agreement, with Switzerland (1944), ratifi- 
cation by Switzerland. .SI 1. 
Naval mission, with U.S.. 9i!7. 

Transmission of judicial writs, with Peru (1935), 
ratification. 874. 
UNCIO. list of members of Delegation. 730. 
Valdivla. closing of U.S. Consulate, 466. 
Visit of President Kios to U. S., statement by President 

Truman. 10S6. 
Visiting professors from U.S.. 35.3, 460. 
China : 

Ambassador to Great Britain (Koo). message of con- 
dolence on death of U.S. President. 662. 
Briggs, Ellis O., assignment to U.S. Embassy at Chung- 
king, 169. 
Chiang Kai-shek. Generalissimo, message of condolence 

on death of U.S. President, 663. 
Committee of Jurists, address by delegate Wang Chung- 
hui, 673. 



INDEX, JANUARY TO JUNE 1945 



1177 



China— Continued. 

Cultural leadtn-s, visit to U. S., 65, 714. 
Cultural-ivhitions program, U.S. technical experts, re- 
turn to U.S., 107, 461. 
Dumbarton Oaks Proposals, .ioint amendments offered at 
San Francisco conference by sponsoring powers, 
851. 
Opium, limitation of production, exchange of notes with 

U. S., 1031. 
Shen-.ven Chen, invitation to study in U. S., 385. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Civil-aviation agreements: air transport and interim 

(1944), acceptance, 1057. 
Extraterritorial rights, relinquishment by Canada 

(1044), ratification, 637. 
Sanitary convention (1944), 109. 

Sanitary convention for aerial navigation (1944), 109. 
UNCIO : 
Address by Mr. Soong, 795. 
Delegation, list of members, 609. 
Security Council, voting procedure, (300, 1047. 
Sponsorship, 394. 
Visit of Mr. Jayne, 1166. 
Churchill, Winston : 
Combined Boards, .ioint statement with U.S. and Canada 

on decision to maintain, 120. 
Crimea Conference, .ioint report on, 213. 
Meeting with President Truman and Marshal Stalin, 

statement by President Truman, 1095. 
Okinawa, U.S. victory on, message to President Truman, 

1151. 
Surrender of Germany, message from President Truman, 

887. 
Warning to Germany against maltreatment of prisoners 
of war, joint statement with President Truman and 
Marshal Stalin, 811. 
CIXA, comparison with International Civil Aviation Or- 
ganization, article by Mr. Latchford, 411. 
CITEJA (International Technical Committee of Aerial 
Legal Experts), articles by Mr. Latchford: 
Comparison with International Civil Aviation Organiza- 
tion, 411. 
Coordination with new international civil-aviation or- 
ganizations, 310. 
Creation and activities, 11. 
I 'itizens. See United States citizens. 
< 'itizenship, cards of identity for use on Mexican border, 

1069. 
<'iv!c Commerce Association, Jlinneapolis, Minn., address 

by Mr. Taft, 534. 
Civil aviation : 
Acceptance c/f agreements as Executive agreements, ex- 
change of letters between Senator Bilbo and Mr. 
Grew, 1101. 
Air Coordinating Committee, organization (D.O. 1317), 

838. 
Anti-trust laws, applicability to agreements between U.S. 

and foreign air carriers, 141. 
Articles by Mr. Latchford : 

Acceptance of agreements as executive agreement.*, 

1104. 
CITEJA, coordination with new international civil - 

aviation organizations, 310. 
Comparison of Chicago aviation convention (1944) 

with Paris and Habana conventions, 411. 
Private international air law, 11. 
Discussions between U.S. and Canada, 110, 160. 
Foreign experts, instructions regarding visits to U.S. 

(Admin. Instr., Gen. Admin. 22), 715. 
Foreign-airlines requirements, consideration by PEA, 

^\■PB, and State Department, 1089. 
Monopolies, opposition to, statement by Mr. Clayton, 

614. 
Provisional international organization, establishment, 
1056. 



Civil aviation — Continued. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Air services transit agreement (1944), acceptances 
and signatures : Afghanistan, 968 ; Belgium, 714 ; 
Canada, 160, 198; Costa Rica, 426; Cuba, 874; 
Czechoslovakia, 873 ; El Salvador, 942, 1007 ; Ethi- 
opia, 478; Guatemala, 169; Iceland. 873; India, 
941; Liberia, 873; Netherlands, 108; New Zea- 
land, 874; Newfoundland, 224; Norway, 160; 
Poland, 644 ; Turkey, 1058 ; U.K., 1057 ; Union of 
South Africa, 10.57 ; U.S., 198. 
Air transport agreement (1944), acceptances and sig- 
natures: Afghanistan, 968; China, 10.^7; Costa 
Rica, 426; Cuba, 874; El Salvador, 942, 1057; 
Ethiopia, 478; Guatemala, 169; Iceland, 873; Li- 
beria, 873; Netherlands, 108; Turkey, 1058; U.S., 
198. 
Air-transport services, bilateral agreements, U.S. 
with— 
Canada, text, 305. 
Iceland, text, 170. 
Ireland, text, 172. 
Convention, international (1944) : 

Letter of transmittal from President Roosevelt to 

Senate, text, 437. 
Ratifications and signatures: Belgium, 714; Brazil, 
1006; Costa Rica, 426: Cuba, 874; Czecho- 
slovakia, 873: El Salvador, 942; Guatemala, 
169 ; Norway, 169 ; Poland, 644 ; Union of South 
Africa, 1057. 
Report by Mr. Grew to President Roosevelt, 436. 
U.S. attitude, 198. 
Interim agreement (1944), acceptances and signa- 
tures: Afghanistan, 968: Australia. 968; Belgium, 
714. 873; Brazil, lOOf. : Caniida. 67: Chile, 1057: 
Chin.T. Km": <',.ininiMn. Mi''^. Mr-; Costa Rica, 42G; 
Culu, S7(: Cz-.li. -:'..!.- :, -:■: Egypt, 874; El 
Salvndur, ;MJ, l(i.-,T : 1 T ^ : Prance, 1057 ; 

Guat.'iiKii:i. ]r,;i: ll:ni,. ii',T; I. -Kind, 1057 ; India, 
941; Iraci. I(i57; li-.'lMiia, siJl: Lebanon, 1057; Li- 
beria, 873: Mexico, OCS: Netherlands, 108; Nc'w 
Zealand, 874; Norway, 109; Panama, 942; Peru, 
9«3S: Poland. 644; Portng.al, 1056; Turkey, 10.^8; 
U.K., 10.57 : Union of South Africa, 1057 ; U.S.. lO.'^. 
Provisional International Civil Aviation Organization, 

establisiiment. 1056. 
Sanitary convention for aerial navigation (1944). See 
Sanitary. 
Civil Aviation, International Conference: 
Addresses : 
Mr. Acheson, 511. 
Mr. Morgan, 33. 701. 
Comparison of Chicago aviation convention (1944) with 
Paris and Habana conventions, article by Mr. 
Latchford, 411. 
List of countries signing documents concluded at, 67, 
1169. 
Civil strife, rights and duties of states in the event of, 
convention on (1928), ratification by Honduras, 874. 
Civilian internees. See Prisoners of war. 
Civilian Supplies. Inter-Agency Committee To Coordinate 

Export of, 448. 
Civilian supplies for liberated areas of northwest Europe, 

summary of report of Mr. Rosenman, 800. 
Civilian-supply problems in Europe, article by Mr. Still- 
well, 917. 
Claims convention, with Mexico (1934), final payment by 

Mexico of instalments due under, 43. 
Clark, General Mark. mes.?age from President Truman on 
unconditional surrender of German armies in Italy, 



Clark-Kerr, Sir Archibald (British Ambassador to 
U.S.S.R.), consultation with other Allied representa- 
tives and Polish groups on reorganization of Provi- 
sional Polish Government, 1095. 



1178 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Clayton, Frank I!., article on L'.S.-Mexican water treaty, 71. 
Clayton, Williaiu L. : 

Addresses and statements: 

Airline monopolies, opposition to, 614. 

Aluminum Co. of Canada, negotiations, 698. 

Bretton Woods Proposals in post-war economic policy, 

439. 
Cartels, tilS, 933. 

Economic cooperation for peace, 476. 
Farmer's stake in world cooperation, 620. 
Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations, 

689. 
Foreign economic policy of State Department, 979. 
Inter-American Conference on Problems of War and 

Peace, 334. 
Small business, relation to foreign trade, 698, 760. 
Trade, private barriers to, 613, 933. 
Trade Agreements Act, renewal, 752, 1024. 
U. S. telecommunications facilities, 602. 
Participant in radio broadcast, 401. 
Close, Ralph William (South African Minister to U.S.), 

death i.f, sialciuciit by Mr. Grew, 503. 
Coal, shortaijf in EiU'diK', 922. 
Cochran, \\ illiam i'., .Jr., designation in State Department, 

839. 
Code of Federal Regulations : 

Cargo availability, shipments to Argentina, 713. 
Control of persons entering and leaving the U.S., amend- 
ment respecting aliens leaving, 987. 
Fellowships in teacher (education, change in title, 836. 
Cody, Morrill, article on work of cultural-relations attach^, 

574. 
Coffee, green, request by 14 American republics for increase 

in ceiling prices and refusal by U.S., 512. 
Cole, Felix, appointment as U.S. Minister to Ethiopia, 315. 
Collado, Emilio G., designation in State Department, 176. 
Colombia (see also American republics) : 
Cultural leader, visit to U.S., 692. 

Minister of Foreign Relations (Lleras), message of con- 
dolence on death of U.S. President, 665. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Civil aviation, interim agreement (1&44), signature 

and acceptance, 9C8, 1057. 
Commercial agreement with Venezuela (1936), re- 
newal, 834. 
UNRRA (1943), ratification, 478. 
U.S. Consulate at Bucaramanga, closing, 995. 
Visiting professor from U.S., 197. 
Combined Boards: 

Joint statement with Canada and U.K. on decision to 

maintain, 120. 
Relief for European civilians, reference of plans to, !lin. 
Representation on, 461. 

Statement by President Roosevelt on decision to main- 
tain, 119. 
Combined Chiefs of Staff, designation of Mr. Matthews as 
representative of Combined Civil Affairs Committee, 
269. 
Combined Civil Affairs Committee: 
Relief plans referi-ed to, 917. 
Representative (Matthews) designation, 2(i!i. 
Combined Food Board, 119. 
Combined Liberated Areas Committee, establisbnuMil of, 

919. 
Combined Production and Resources Board, 119. 
Combined Raw Materials Board, 119. 
Comit(5 International Technique d'Experts .Turidiques 

Afiriens. See CITEJA. 
Commerce, Baltimore Association of, address bv Mr. Bunn, 

142. 
Commerce Department, joint announcement with State 
Department, French Supply Council, and FEA on 
re.sumption of private export trade to French North 
and West Africa, 832. 
Commercial agreement, Colombia-Venezuela (1936), re- 
newal, 834. 



Commercial agreements, provisional, Egypt with— 
Ireland (1930), extension, 978. 
United Kingdom (1930), extension, 978. 
Commercial arbitration in the treaties and agreements of 

the U.S.S.R., article by Mr. Hilton, 890. 
Commercial aviation convention (1928), comparison with 
1919 and 1944 conventions, article by Mr. Latchford, 
411. 
Commercial Policy, Division of, establishment of Foreign 

Trade Branch in (D.O. 1303), 68. 
Commercial Policy, OflBce of: 

Establishment and functions (D.O. 1306), 176. 
Name changed to Office of International Trade Policy 
(D.O. 1312), 402. 
Commi.ssion on Post-War Economic and Social Problems, 
established by Mexico City conference, discussion by 
Miss Parks. 734. 
Commissions, committees, etc., international : 
Advisory Committee for Political Defense, 3, 53. .304, 925. 
Anglo-American Caribbean Commission, 514, 716. 
Art Advisory Committee, 259. 

Boundary and Water Commission, U.S. and Mexico, 71. 
CITEJ.\ (International Technical Committee of Aerial 

Legal Exijerts), 11, 310, 411. 
Combined Boards, 119, 461, 919. 
Cotton Advisory Committee. 52, 301, 475, .545, 772. 
Emergency Advisory Committee for Political Defense, 

3, 53, 304, 925. 
Food and Agriculture Organization, United Nations, 225, 

599, 685. 
Inter-Agency Committee to Coordinate Export of Ci- 
vilian Supplies, 448. 
Inter-American Financial and Economic .\dvi.sory Com- 
mittee, 92, 732. 
Inter-American Judicial Committee, 194. 
Inter-American Neutrality Committee, li>4. 
Intergovernmental Committee on Itefugees, 4."i2. 
Mexican-American Commission for Economic Coopera- 
tion, 1.5.5. 
Office of education, 932. 

Permanent Joint Board on Defense. Canada-U.S., 1<<2. 
Political Dpfen.'ie. Advisory Committee for. 3. .53, 304, 925. 
Post-War Economic and Social Problems. 734. 
Provisional International Civil Aviation Organization, 

1056. 
Reparations Commission, 434, 807, 931. 
Rubber Study Group, 108, 128, 161. 
War Crimes Commission, United Nations. 123, 1.54. 483, 

1073. 
Wheat Council, 79. 
Committee of Jurists. See Jurists, Committee of. 
Commodities Division, consolidation with War Supply and 
Resources Division and establishment of new Com- 
modities Division (D.O. 1319), 839. 
Commodity ,\^'rcenicnt.s, U.S. policy regarding, address 

by Mr. Il.ilcy, i«8. 
Commodity Credit Cnrporation, Cuban sugar crop, arrange- 
ments to purchase, (5.56. 
Conmionwealth Club of California, San Francisco, Calif., 

address by Mr. Acheson, 469. 
• 'ommunications. See Postal: Telecommunications. 
Conference of Private Organizations on the Bretton Woods 
Proposals, Washington, D. C, address by Mr. Ache- 
son 3.52 
Conferences, congresses, etc. (nee also name of con- 
frrcnrr) : 
International : 

Civil Aviation, 33, 67. 310. 411, 436, 511. 701, 1169. 
Crimea Conference, 213, 321. 393, 530, 600, 864. 
Food and Agriculture, United Nations, 225. 
Inter-American Conference on Problems of War and 
Peace, 60. 192, 273. 277, 3.33, 339, 393, 398, 400, 
449, 525, 547, 613, 624. 670, 675, 6.03. 732, 924, 1035. 
Inter-American Radio Conference (3d), 054. 
Jurists, Committee of, 533, 643, 668, 672, 759. 



INDEX, JANUARY TO JUNE 1945 

Conferences, Congresses, etc. — Continued. 
International — Continued. 
Ministers for Foreign Affairs of the American Re- 
publics, 3, 91, 194, 732, 925. 
Rubber Study Group, 108, 128, 161. 
Telecommunications, 386, 500. 

United Nations Conference on International Organi- 
zation, 214, 217, 223, 253, 382, 394, 433, 435, 441, 
530, 576, 600, 605, 608, 650, 669, 724, 789, 851, 903, 
928, 949, 1007, 1043, 1119, 1103. 
United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference, 

220, 352. 
UNRRA Council, third session, 1114. 
National : 
Books for Devasted Libraries, 366. 
Congress, U.S. : 

All-American Flag Line bill (S. 326) statement by 
Mr. Clayton before Aviation Subcommittee of Sen- 
ate Commerce Committee, 614. 
Anglo-American oil agreement (1944), withdrawal from 

Senate, 63. 
Assistant Secretary in charge of congressional relations, 

duties, 993. 
Dougliton bill. See Trade Agreements Act, renewal. 
House Banking and Currency Committee, statement by 

Mr. Acheson on Bretton Woods Proposals, 409. 
Hou.se Foreign Affairs Committee : 

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United 
Nations, statements by Mr. Acheson, Mr. Clay- 
ton, and Secretary Stettinius, 685. 
Lend-Lease act, statement by Mr. Acheson on pro- 
posed extension, 189. 
House Merchant Marine and Fisheries Committee, let- 
ter from Secretary Stettinius on shipping under 
lend-lease agreement with France, 500. 
House Military Affairs Committee, statement by Mr. 
Plitt on prisoners of war and Red Cross conven- 
tions, 809. 
House of Representatives, new members, support of 

President, 181. 
House Ways and Means Committee, statements by 
Secretary Stettinius, Mr. Clayton, Mr. Rockefeller, 
and Mr. Taft on renewal of Trade Agreements Act, 
748. 905. 
- Legislation, listed. 110. 209. 269, 316, 388, 428, 466, 518, 
588, 716, 785, 840, 881, 914, 946, 995, 1039, 1090. 
Lend-Lease : 

Appropriation estimate, letter from President Tru- 
man to Speaker of House, 1061. 
Reports (18th and 19th), letters of transmittal, 

317, 952. 
U. S. and France, letter from Secretary Stettinius on 
shipping, 500. 
Lend-Lease Act, extension : 

Statement by Mr. Acheson before House Foreign 

Affairs Committee, 189. 
Statement by the President on signing, 773. 
Messages from President Roosevelt: 
Anglo-American oil agreement, withdrawal from 

Senate, 63. 
Annual message, 22. 
Bretton Woods Proposals, 220. 

Civil aviation convention, letter of transmittal, 437. 
Crimea Conference, report on, 321. 
Trade Agreements Act, renewal, 531. 
United Nations Interim Commission on Food and 

Agriculture, transmittal of first report, 536. 
UXRRA, 2d quarterly report, letter of transmittal, 
684. 
Messages from President Truman : 
Alien Property Custodian, report of, letter of trans- 
mittal. 1029. 
Japan, plans for victory over, 999. 
Lend-lease report (19th), letter of transmittal, 952. 
President Truman's first address, 721. 
Presidential succession, 1150. 

665375—45 2 



1179 

Congress, U. S.— Continued. 

Military training, compulsory, statement by Mr. Grew 

before Postwar Military Policy Committee, 1063. 
O'Malioney bill, S-11, statement by Mr. Clayton on 

agreements in restraint of trade, 933. 
Philippine independence (S. J. Res. 93), statement on 

by President Truman, 867. 
Publications, listed, 44, 110, 209, 269, 316, 388, 428, 466, 
518, 588, 657, 716, 785, 840, 881, 914, 946, 995, 1089, 
1090. 
Senate Commerce Committee, Aviation Subcommittee 
of, statement by Mr. Clayton concerning All-Ameri- 
can Flag Line bill (S. 326), 614. 
Senate Finance Committee, statements by Mr. Clayton 
and Mr. Taft on renewal of Trade Agreements 
Act, 1024, 1079. 
Senate Foreign Relations Committee, statements by 
Mr. Stettinius, Mr. Acheson, and Mr. Grew on Mexi- 
can water treaty, 122, 302, 303. 
Senate Interstate (IJommerce Committee, statement by 
Mr. Clayton on telecommunications facilities, 602. 
Senate Judiciary Committee, subcommittee of, state- 
ment by Mr. Clayton on cartels, 933. 
Senate Small Business Committee, statements by Mr. 

Clayton, 698; 760. 
Senate special committee investigating petroleum re- 
sources and subcommittee of Senate Judiciary Com- 
mittee, statement by Mr. Clayton on cartels, 933. 
Senators, new, letter to President Roosevelt supporting 
United Nations Organization, and statement by Mr. 
Grew, 121. 
Trade agreements act, renewal : 

House passage, statement by Mr. Grew, 955. 
Senate approval, statement by Mr. Grew, 1149. 
Statements before House and Senate committees by 
Secretary Stettinius, Mr. Clayton, Mr. Rocke- 
feller, and Mr. Taft, 748, 905, 1079. 
Striking out of bargaining power by Senate Finance 
Committee, statement by Mr. Grew, 1080. 
UNCIO, budgetary problems, 802. 
Congressional relations. Assistant Secretary in charge of, 

responsibility (D.O. 1322), 993. 
Consular oflices. See Foreign Service. 
Consulates and Embassies, U.S., surveys of, 387, 458. 
Continuity of U.S. foreign policy, statement by Secretary 

Stettinius, 1012. 
Control Council, for government of Germany : 
Functions, 1054. 
Plans, 214, 480, 900. 
Controls, Oflice of, 148. 
Conventions. See Conferences ; Treaties. 
Cooperative education, agreement with Ecuador, 438. 
Cooperative fellowship program, second Peruvian-U.S., 

agreement for (1944-1945), 218. 
Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs, Oflice of. See 

Office of Inter-American Affairs. 
Openhagen, Denmark, opening of U.S. Mission (later 

Legation), 1032, 1168. 
Coppock, Joseph D., designation in State Department, 994. 
Cordier, Andrew W., address on functions of peace and 

security Organization, 253. 
Corliss, James C, designation in State Department, 466. 
Costa Rica (see also American republics) : 
Cultural leader, visit to U. S., 912. 
Gift of property to U.S., 1167. 
President (Picado), message of condolence on death of 

U.S. President, 664. 
Treaties, agreements, etc.: 
Civil-aviation agreements: air transit, air transport, 

and interim (1944), 426. 
Civil-aviation convention (1944), 426. 
UNCIO, list of members of Delegation, 730. 
Visiting professors from U.S., 208, 938. 



1180 

Cotton Advisory Committee, International : 
Article by >lr. Kvans, 52. 
Fourth meeting, 301. 

Lists of delegates, 475, 545. 
Resolution on international collaboration, 772. 
World supplies, .lata, 773. 
Council for a Liisihi;; Peace, Milwaukee, Wis., address 

by Mr. IlnlnifS, 727. 
Council (111 FmviKii Uclations, Chicago, 111., address by 

Secretary StiMtiiiius, ■'I'Xi. 
Council on Forcina K.hiiic.Hs, New York, N. T., address 

by Secretary Stctliiiius, CO."). 
Court of Justice, Inteniali'inal. See International Court 

of Justice. 
Coville, Cabot, article on Formosa, 1018. 
Cox, Oscar, statement on resolution of Mexico City con- 
ference on problems of looted and enemy proiierty, 
350. 
Credentials. See Diplomatic representatives in the U.S. 
Credit documents. See Falsification. 
Crime. See War criminals. 
Crimea Conference : 
List of participants, 213. 
Membership in United Nations by two Soviet republics, 

proposal, 600. 
Message from President Roosevelt to Congress on, 321. 
Message to Cordell Hull, 216. 

Polish question, statement by Secretary Stettinius, IOCS. 
Repatriation of Allied prisoners of war, Soviet allega- 
tions concerning, 864. 
Report, by President Roo.sevelt, Prime Minister 

Churchill, and Marshal Stalin, 213. 
Report, by Secretary Stettinius, 393. 
Representation in General As.sembly of proiiosed Or- 
ganization, statement by Secretary Stettinius, 600. 
Statement by Mr. Grew, 217. 

Trusteeship principle, statement by Secretary Stetti- 
nius, 600. 
U.S.S.R., request for three votes in Assembly of tJnited 

Nations Organization, 530. 
Voting procedure in Security Council : 

Discussion at San Francisco conference, 1047. 
Proposed text, 394. 

Statement of Secretary Stettinius, 600. 
Croats. See Yugoslavia. 

Crowley, Leo T. (Foreign Economic Administrator), joint 
statements on lend-lease and reverse lend-lease agree- 
ments with France, Belgium, and the Netherlands, 
363, 765, 876. 
Cuba (see also American republics) : 

Appointment of Cuban librarian (Aguayo) as consul- 
tant to Library of Congress, 1168. 
Closing of U.S. Consulate at Camagiiey, 10S9. 
Cultural leader, visit to U.S., 1059. 
Minister of State (Cuervo), message of condolence on 

death of U.S. President, 666. 
Sugar, molasses, and industrial alcohol, arrangements 
for purchase by Commodity Credit Corp. and by 
FEA, 656. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Civil-aviation agreements : air transit, air transport, 

and interim (1944), 874. 
Civil-aviation convention (1944), 874. 
Sanitary convention (1944), 109. 
Sanitary convention for aerial navigation (1944), 109. 
Visit of Secretary Stettinius to Habana, 397. 
Culbertson, William S., address on economic policy, 299. 
Cultural cooperation {see also American republics; 
China) : 
English as a foreign language, article by Mr. Pierson, 

453. 
Exchange of experts among American republics under 

travel-grant program, 64. 
Peruvian-U.S. cooperative fellowship program, second, 

218. 
Scholarship opportunities in U.S. for Korean students. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

Cultural cooperation — Continued. 

Visiting professors from U.S. to: Brazil, 208, 329, 381, 

386, 644; Chile, 353, 460; Colombia, 197; Costa 

Rica, 208, 938; Honduras, lliiS; Mexico, 197; 

Paraguay, 314. 

Cultural-relations attach^, work of, article by Mr. Cody, 

574. 
Currency. See Falsification. 
Currie, Lauchlin : 

Economic negotiations with Switzerland regarding Ger- 
man assets and imports, 128, 601. 
Resignation, 1108. 
Czeclioslovakia : 

Anniversary (6th) of Nazi invasion, statement by Sec- 
retary Stettinius, 438. 
Opening of U.S. Embassy at Prague, 1089, 1096. 
President Bene§, tribute from President Roosevelt, 599. 
Telecommunication services, restoration, 1078. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Civil-aviation agreements : air transit and Interim 

(1944), signature and acceptance, 873. 
Civil-aviation convention (1944), signature, 873. 
Sanitary convention (1944), 109. 
UNCIO, list of members of Delegation, 577, 730. 

Darlington, Charles F., designation in State Department, 

176. 
Davies, Joseph E., special mission to London for President 

Truman, 953. 
Davis, Monnett B. : 

Appointment as U.S. Minister to Denmark, 1089. 
Designation in State Department, 111, 840. 
Davis, Nancy W., designation in State Department, 387. 
Davis, Nathaniel P., designation in State Department, 840. 
Declaration by United Nations (1942) : 

Adherence by: Chile, 231; Ecuador, 231; Egypt, 373; 
France, 17 ; Lebanon, 575, 682 ; Paraguay, 231 ; Peru, 
231 ; Saudi Arabia, 682 ; Syria, 575, 681 ; Turkey, 373 ; 
Uruguay, 294 ; Venezuela, 292. 
Ceremonies on signing, 17, 234, 292, 373, 681. 
Remarks by Mr. Savage, 504. 
Defense, Permanent Joint Board on, Canada-U.S. See 

I'ermanent Joint Board on Defense. 
Defense aid. See Lend-lease. 
Defense Board, Inter-American, draft resolution of Jlex- 

Ico City conference, text, 400. 
Defense facilities in Canada, disposition of, agreement 

with Canada (1944), text, 162. 
de Gaulle, Gen. Charles : 

Invitation to meet President Roosevelt in Algiers, 291. 
Message from President Truman on surrender of Ger- 
many, 888. 
Delaplane, Walter H., appointment as visiting professor 

to Paraguay, 314 . 
Denmark : 

Anniversary of Nazi attack, statement by President 

Roosevelt, 684. 
Displaced persons in Germany, 493. 
Invitation to San Francisco conference and acceptance, 

correspondence, 1048. 
Liberation of, statement by Mr. Grew, SijO. 
Oiieuing of U.S. Mission (later Legation) at Copen- 
hagen, 1032, 1168. 
Telecommunication and postal services, restoration, 

1078. 
U.S. Minister (Davis), appointment, 1089. 
Departmental orders : 

Air Coordinating Committee, organization (D.O. 1317), 

838. 
Assistant Secretary in charge of Congressional rela- 
tions, responsibility (D.O. 1322), 993. 
Central Secretariat, change in name from Joint Secre- 
tariat (D.O. 1320), 878. 
Commodities Division, consolidation with War Supply 

and Resources Division (D.O. 1319). 839. 
Consultation with returning Foreign Service officers 
(D.O. 1308), 268. 



Ii\DEX, JANUARY TO JUNE 1945 

Departmental orders— Continued. 

Economic Foreign Policy, Executive Committee on, sec- 
retariat, transfer from Office of Economic AfEairs 
to Office of Assistant Secretary for Economic Af- 
fairs (amendment of D.O. 12S0 and 1301 by D.O. 
1305), 148. 

Financial and Development Policy, Office of, responsi- 
bilities (D.O. 1311). 4G3. 

Foreign Trade Branch in Division of Commercial 
Policy, establishment of (D.O. 1303), 68. 

"Inter-Agency Economic Digest", transfer of secretariat 
(D.O. 1313), 462. 

International Trade Policy, Office of, change in title 
from Office of Commercial Policy (D.O. 1312), 4U2. 

Issuance of Foreign Service regulations, orders, and 
instructions, authorization for Assistant Secretaries 
of State (D.O. 1310), 428. 

Reorganization of ecoiiomic offices (D.O. 1306), 175. 

Reorganization of Office of the Foreign Service (D.O. 
1314), 777. 

Southeast Asian Affairs, Division of, change in name 
from Division of Southwest Pacific Affairs (D.O. 
1323), 1089. 

Special War Problems Division, functions (D.O. 1301, 
D.O. 1304), 148. 

Territorial Studies, Division of, abolition (D.O. 1309), 



Transfer of certain functions of Division of Central 

Services to Division of Protocol (D.O. 1321), 994. 
Transport and Communications Policy, Office of, change 
in name from Office of Transportation and Com- 
munications (D.O. 131S), 839. 
War Areas Economic Division, responsibilities (D.O. 
1312), 462. 
Despres, Emile, designation in State Department, 176. 
Devastated Libraries, Conference on Books for, 3G6. 
de Wolf, Francis Colt, addresses on telecommunications, 

133, 250. 
Dickover, Erie H., address on Japanese war-maciiine, 

240. 
Dimitrov, G. M. (Secretary General of Agrarian Party in 
Bulgaria), protection of, by U.S. Representative in 
Sofia, 1023. 
Diplomatic officer, death of, 208. 
Diplomatic relations with — 

Argentina, decision by American republics to resume, 

670. 
El Salvador, renewal, statement by Mr. Grew, 304. 
Finland, informal, establishment, 52. 
Japan, severance by Turkey, 20. 
Diplomatic representatives in U.S., credentials, 40, 41, 42, 

174, 421, 422, 516, 517, 775, 776, 875, 912. 
Displaced persons in Europe, announcement, on inquiries 

for, 953. 
Displaced persons in Germany, SHAEF operations regard- 
ing, 1014. 
Displaced populations in Europe in 1944 with particular 

rplerpnce to Germany, article by Mrs. Carey, 491. 
Dominican Republic (.see also American republics) : 
Ambassador to U.S. (Garcia Godoy), credentials, 40. 
Cultural leader, visit to U.S., 914. 
President (Trujillo Molina), message of condolence on 

death of U.S. President, 662. 
Secretary of State for Foreign Relations (Pena Battle), 
message of condolence on death of U.S. President, 
666. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Agricultural Sciences, Inter-American Institute, con- 
vention on (1944), ratification (1944), 108. 
Sanitary convention (1944). 109. 
Sanitary convention for aerial navigation (1944), 109. 
UNCIO, list of members of Delegation. 609. 
U.S. Ambassador (McGurk), appointment, 209. 
Dooman, Eugene H. : 

Article on Formosa, 1018. 
Designation in State Department, 68. 



1181 



Double-taxation convention, U.S. and— 
Canada (1944), 199, 423. 
France (19.39), proclamation, 38. 
U.K. 197, 334, 834. 
Dulles, John Foster, acceptance of invitation to serve as 
adviser to U.S. Delegation to San Francisco confer- 
ence, 608. 
Dumbarton Oaks Proposals: 

Addresses: Mr. Cordier, 253; Mr. Eagleton, 650: Mr. 
Hackworth, 124; Mr. Holmes, 179, 727; Mr. O'Don- 
nell, 580; Mr. Sandifer, 145; Secretary Stettinius, 
855; Mr. Taft, 382; Mr. Villard, 136; Mr. Young, 
376. 
Amendments to, offered by — 
Certain countries, 903. 
Sponsoring powers, text. 851. 
Articles: Mr. Boal, 243; Miss Fosdick, 295; Secretary 

Stettinius, 115. 
Basis for Charter of United Nations, 394, 396. 
Chart of proposed Organization, 556. 
Foreign Affairs Outlines on "Building the Peace", 5.58. 
General Assembly : 

Representation in, statement by Secretary Stettinius, 

600. 
Text of redraft proposed at San Francisco conference, 
931. 
International court of justice, provision for, 672. 
Main Street and Dumbarton Oaks, radio broadcast by 

State Department, 354. 
Mexico City conference, resolution concerning, text, 449. 
Security Council, voting procedure in : 
Statement by Mr. Grew, 479. 
Text, 394. 
Statute of International Court of Justice, .533. 
Dunn, James Clement, participant in radio broadcasts, 
441, 480. 

Eagleton, Clyde, address on Dumbarton Oaks Proposals, 

650. 
Earley, James S., designation in State Department, 839. 
Economic Affairs, Mission for, in London, 440. 
Economic Affairs, Office of : 
Abolishment (D.O. 1306), 176. 

Economic Foreign Policy, Executive Committee on, sec- 
retariat, transfer to Office of Assistant Secretary 
for Economic Affairs (D.O. 1305), 148. 
Economic and Social Council : 
Charter text, 1127. 

Powers of. discussion at San Francisco conference, 1011. 
Economic Charter of the Americas : 

Cartels, and other trade practices, provisions relating 

to, 613. 
Discussion bv: Miss Parks. 737; radio broadcast, 552; 

Mr. Rockefeller, 696; Mr. Smith, 626. 
Resolution of Jlexico City conference, texts, 347, 451. 
Economic Club, Detroit, Mich., address by Mr. Clayton, 979. 
Economic Club. New York. N.Y., addresses by Mr. Achcson 

and Mr. Taft, 738. 964. 
Economic Cooperation, Commission for, Mexican- 
American : 
Exchange of letters between President Avila Camuclio 

and President Roosevelt. 155. 
Text of final report of the Commission. 1.57. 
Economic Foreign Policy, Executive Committee on : 
Appointment of chairman (Clayton), 148. 
Secretariat, transfer from Office of Economic Affairs 
to Office of Assistant Secretary for Economic Affairs 
(D.O. 1305), 148. 
Economics (see also Bretton Woods Proposals; Trade 
Agreements Act) : 
Arbitration, commercial, in the treaties and agreements 

of the U.S.S.R., article by Mr. Hilton, 890. 
Basis for lasting peace, address by Secretary Stet- 
tinius, .593. 
Europe, rehabilitation, summary of report of Mr. Rosen- 
man, 860. 



1182 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Economics — Continued. 
Foreign economic policy, addresses and statements by 
Mr. Taft. 129, 382, 534, 578, 826, 905, 942, 9.55, 964, 
1079, 1115. 
Inter-Agency Committee to Coordinate Export of Civil- 
ian Supplies, creation, 448. 
Inter-American Financial and Economic Advisory 
Committee: 
Remarks by Mr. Rockefeller on accepting chairman- 
ship, 92. 
Replaced by Inter-American Economic and Social 
Council, 732. 
International Cotton Advi-sory Committee, 52, 301, 475, 

545, 772. 
International problems, address by Mr. TounR, 3i6. 
Maintenance of economies of litierated countries, joint 
statement by State Department and British Em- 
bassy, 95. 
Peace, relation to, address by Mr. O'Donnell, 580. 
Policy for peace, addresses and statements by Mr. Ache- 
son, 189, 302, 352, 409, 469, 507, 686, 738. 
Post-war plans, address by Mr. Culbertson, 299. 
Rubber Study Group, discussion of future rubber situa- 
tion, 161. 
Special Economic Mission, report on work of, 62. 
Trade, removal of barriers to, addresses and statements 
by Mr. Clavton, 334, 439, 476, 013, 614, 620, 689, 698, 
760, 033, 979. 
Ecuador {see also American republics) : 

Ambassador, letter and remarks on United Nations 

Declaration, 231, 235. 
Radiotelephone circuit with U.S., opening, 1005. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Declaration by United Nations (1942), adherence, 

231. 
Education, cooperative, with U.S., 438. 
Health and sanitation agreement with U.S. (1942), 

extension, 314, 461. 
Sanitary convention (1944), 109. 
Sanitary convention for aerial navigation (1944), 109. 
UNCIO, list of members of Delegation, 730. 
Eden, Anthony (Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs 
of Great Britain) : 
Address at San Francisco conference, 799. 
Joint message to Cordell Hull, 857. 
Edman, Irwin, appointment as visiting professor to 

Brazil, 644. 
Education, cooperative, agreement with Ecuador, 438. 
Education, international (jflHce of, letter from Mr. Grew 

to Sol Bloom concerning formation of, 932. 
Egypt : 

Death of Prime Minister (Ahmed Maher), message 

from Mr. Grew, 304. 
King Farouk, meeting with President Roo.sevelt. 289. 
Minister (Hassan), letter and remarks on United Na- 
tions Declaration, 373, 374. 
Treaties, agreements, etc.: 

Civil aviation, interipi agreement (1944), acceptance, 

874. 
Commercial agreement, provisional, with : 
Ireland (1930), extension, 978. 
United Kingdom (1930), extension, 978. 
Declaration by United Nations (1942), adherence, 

373. 
Foreign-exchange requirements for 1945, with U. K., 

text, 586. 
Sanitary convention (1944), 109. 
Sanitary convention for aerial navigation (1944), 109. 
UNCIO, list of members of Delegation, 577. 
Eire. See Ireland. 

Eisenhower, Gen. Dwight D., U.S.A., message from Pres- 
ident Truman on surrender of Germany, 887. 
El Salvador (see also American republics) : 
Renewal of U. S. diplomatic relations with, statement 
by Mr. Grew, 304 . 



El Salvador — Continued. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Civil aviation agreements: air transit, air transport, 
and interim (1944), signature, and acceptance, 
942, 1057. 
Civil-aviation convention (1944), 942. 
Military mission, with U. S., (1943), extension, 1030. 
UN'CIO, list of members of Delegation, 730. 
Vice President (Vilanova), message of condolence on 
death of U.S. President, 664. 
Embassies and Consulates, U.S., surveys of, 387, 458. 
Emergency Advisory Committee for Political Defense: 
Activities of, 92,5. 

Annual report, in part, (1943-44), 53. 
Article on organization and activities, 3. 
Diplomatic relations with El Salvador, initiated under, 

.301. 
Membership list, 5. 
Employment. See Post-war plans. 
Knemy countries, discussed in radio broadcast, 480. 
Enemy property (.see also Alien Property Custodian), 
resolution of Mexico City conference, statement by 
Mr. Cox, 350. 
Engineers Club of Baltimore, Md., address by Mr. Dick- 
over, 240. 
English as a foreign language, article by Mr. Pierson, 453. 
Equalitv. sovereign, of peace-loving nations, principle 

of, 600. 
Erol. Orhan H. (Charg<5 d'Aflfaires ad interim of Turkey), 
letter and remarks on signing Declaration by United 
Nations, 374. 
Escalante, Di6genes (Ambassador of Venezuela), remarks 
on adherence of Venezuela to the Declaration by 
United Nations, 293. 
Estates. See Powers of attorney. 
Estonia, displaced persons in Germany, 493. 
Ethiopia : 

Emperor Haile Selassie, meeting with President Roose- 
velt, 290. 
Radiotelegraph circuit with U.S., opening, correspond- 
ence between President Truman and Emperor Haile 
Selassie, 939, 982. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Anglo-Ethiopian agreement (1944), text, 200. 
Civil-aviation agreements : air transit, air transport, 
and interim (1944), acceptance, 478. 
UNCIO, list of members of Delegation, 610. 
U.S. Minister (Cole), appointment, 315. 
European inland transport: 

Agreement for provisional organization, signature, 910. 
Conditions, 922. 
Evans, James G.. article on International Cotton Advisory 

Committee, 52. 
Exchange of nationals with — 
Germany, 44, 196, 252. 
Japan, proposed, 132. 
Executive agreements (see also Treaties), acceptance of 
civil-aviation agreements as: 
Article by Mr. Latchford, 1104. 

Exchange of letters between Senator Bilbo and Mr. 
. Grew, 1101. 
E.xecutive Committee on Economic Foreign Policy. See 

Economic Foreign Policy, Executive Committee on. 
Executive orders : 

Alien Property Custodian, functions and duties regard- 
ing enemy property ( Ex. Or. 9567 amending Ex. Or, 
9005 and 9193). 1065. 
Foreign Service regulations, Secretary of State author- 
ized to issue (amendment of Ex. Or. 9452 by Ex. Or, 
9514), 210. 
Foreign Service Regulations, Secretary of State author- 
ized to prescribe (Ex. Or. 9521 amending Ex. Or. 
9452 and 9514), 388. 
Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs, 
change in name of (Ex. Or. 9532), 585. 



INDEX, JANUARY TO JUNE 1945 

Export Managers' Club, New York, N.Y., address by Mr. 

Haley, &45. 
Extraterritorial rights in China, relinquishment of, agi-ee- 

nient between Canada and China (1944), ratification, 

637. 

Falsification of currency, public-debt bonds, and credit 
documents, agreement between Chile and Peru (1935), 
ratification, 874. 
FAO. See Food and Agriculture Organization of the 

United Nations. 
Par East (see also the individual countries) : 

Formosa, article by Mr. Doomau, Mr. Bortou, and Mr. 

Coville, 1018. 
Korea : 

Scholarship opportunities in U.S. for students from, 

1059. 
U.S. policy regarding, statement by Mr. Grew, 1058. 
Okinawa, U.S. victory on, message from Prime Minister 

Churchill to President Truman, 1151. 
Okinawa and the Liuchius, article by Mr. Amos, 743. 
Relief for Allied nationals interned in, 32, 188. 
Welfare of liberated internees in Philippines, 182. 
Farmer's stake in world cooperation, radio interview with 

Mr. Clayton, 620. 
Farouk, of Egypt, meeting in Near East with Pi-esident 

Roosevelt, 289. 
FEA. See Foreign Economic Administration. 
Federal Bureau of Investigation, investigation of leak of 
secret material in State Department and arrests, 1088. 
Fellowship program, cooperative, second Peruvian-U.S., 

agreement for (1944-1945), 218. 
Fellowships in teacher education for teachers from other 
American republics, U.S. regtilations, change in, 836. 
Fenwick, Charles G., article on Inter-American Juridical 

Committee, 194. 
Ferguson, John H., designation in State Department, 994. 
Fetter, Frank W. : 
Designations in State Department, 466, 839. 
Remarks on Anglo-American cooperation for expansion 
of world trade, 501. 
Fifield, Russell H., article on geopolitics at Munich, 1152. 
Finance. See Bretton Woods Proposals ; Economics. 
Financial agreements : 

Chile and Switzerland (1944), ratification bv Switzer- 
land, 314. 
France and U.K., 1016. 

Haiti and U.S. (1943), text of supplementary agree- 
ment (1944), 144. 
Financial and Development Policy, Office of: 
Establishment and functions (D.O. 1306), 176. 
Responsibilities (D.O. 1311), 463. 
Finland : 
Armistice with U.K. and U.S.S.R. (1944), text, 261. 
Establishment by U.S. of informal relations, 52. 
Opening of U.S. Special Mission at Helsinki, 148. 
Telecommunication and postal services, restoration, 

1078. 
U.S. representative (Hamilton), appointment, 52. 
Welfare of U.S. nationals in, 968. 
Fisheries Mission to Mexico (1942), extension of agree- 
ment (1944), 66. 
Five Freedoms agreement. See Air-transport agreement 

vnder Civil aviation. 
Flag Line, Ail-American, bill to create ( S. 326) , statement 
by Mr. Clayton before Aviation Subcommittee, Senate 
Commerce Committee, 614. 
Florianopolis, Brazil, closing of U.S. Consulate, 995. 
Food and Agriculture, United Nations Interim Commis- 
sion, mes.sage of President Roosevelt to Congress trans- 
mitting first report, 536. 
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations: 
ArticIe_on purjwses, by Mr. ToUey and Mr. Stinebower, 

Statements by : 
Mr. Acheson, 686. 
Mr. Clayton, 689. 
Secretary Stettinius, 599, 685, 



1785 

Food for Freedom, Inc., letter from President Truman 

regarding food-supply commitments abroad, 926. 
Pood for the family of nations, article by Mr. ToUey and 

Mr. Stinebower, 225. 
Pood supply, reappraisal, joint statement by State De- 
partment and British Embassy, 546. 
Food-supply program, draft resolution of Mexico City con- 
ference, text, 345. 
Forbes, John T., designation in State Department, 466. 
Forced labor. See Displaced persons. 
Foreign Affairs Outlines on "Building the Peace" : 
Freedom — how can we achieve it, 570. 
Prosperity — how can we promote it, 562. 
Social progress — how can we work for it, 566. 
War — how can we prevent it, 558. 
Foreign Economic Administration: 

Cuban molasses and industrial alcohol, arrangements to 

purchase, 656. 
Foreign-airlines requirements, consideration of, with 

WPB and State Department, 1089. 
French North and West Africa, joint announcement with 
State Department, French Supply Council, and Com- 
merce Department on resumption of private export 
trade, 832. 
Inter-Agency Committee To Coordinate Export of Ci- 
vilian Supplies, relation to, 448. 
Lend-lease and reverse lend-lease agreements, joint 
statement with State and Treasury Departments on 
mutual aid between U.S. and — 
Belgium, 765. 
France, 363. 
Netherlands, 876. 
Letter from Administrator, transmitting 18th report to 

Congress on lend-lease operations, 317. 
Relief of European civilians, reference of plan to 917 
Representation, 440. 

Shipments to Argentina, amendment of Federal Regula- 
tions concerning, 713. 
Foreign-exchange requirements for 1945, agreement be- 
tween U.K. and Egypt, text, 586. 
Foreign policy, U.S., continuity of, statement by Secretary 

Stettinius, 1012. 
Foreign Policy Association, Baltimore, Md., address bv 

Mr. Boal, 708. 
Foreign Policy Association, Philadelphia, Pa., address by 

Mr. Grew, 151. 
"Foreign Relations of the United States, 1930", publica- 
tion of vol. I, 330. 
Foreign secretaries of U.S.S.R., U.K., and U.S., meetings 

of, during Crimea Conference, 216. 
Foreign Service, Office of the, reorganization (D.O. 1314) 

777. 
Foreign Service, U.S. : 

Ambassadors, appointment: Argentina (Braden), 785, 
880, 904; Brazil (Berle), 110; Dominican Republic 
(McGurk), 209 ; Guatemala (Kyle), 209 ; Iran (Mur- 
ray), 315; Nicaragua (Warren), 657; Panama (Nor- 
web), 209; Peru (Pawley), 1096; Portugal 
(Baruch), 209; Turkey (Wilson), 148. 
Arrest of Foreign Service officer by FBI, 1088. 
Board of Examiners for the Foreign Service, designa- 
tions, 427. 
Board of Foreign Service Personnel, designations, 427. 
Briggs, Ellis O., assignment to U.S. Embassy at Chung- 
king, 169. 
Consular offices : Bordeaux, France, opening, 110 ; Bom- 
bay, India, elevation to rank of Consulate General, 
995; Bucaramanga, Colombia, closing, 995; Cama- 
giiey, Cuba, closing, 1089; Florianopolis, Brazil, 
closing, 995 ; Genoa, Italy, opening, 1032 ; Iquitos, 
Peru, closing, 1089 ; Le Havre, France, opening, 315, 
428; Lyon, France, oiiening, 995; Manila, P. I., 
opening, 332. 588; Milan, Italy, opening, 1032; 
Valdivia, Chile, closing, 466. 
Consulates, surveys of, 387, 458. 

Consultation of returning Foreign Service officers with 
Department officials (D.O. 1308), 268. 



1184 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Foreign Service, U.S. — Cootinued. 

Cultural-relations attach^, work of, article l)y Mr. Cody, 

574. 
Diplomatic Agent at Tangier (Ailing), appointment, 

1089. 
Economic Affairs, Mission for, in London, appointment 

of cliief (Blaisdell), 4-tO. 
Kmbassies : Pragiie, Czechoslovakia, opening, 1089, 10915 ; 

Kome, Italy, opening as combined office, 148. 
Embas.sics anil Consnlatcs, .surveys of, list of members 

of Kioups and ilincrarics, 3S7, 4.->S. 
Establisiiniiiit iif iMfornial relations with Finland, 52. 
Legation at CniMiiluigcri, Denmark, opening, 11«JS. 
Ministers, aMioinlmcnt ; Alfjhani.stan (Palmer), 200. 

588; Denmark (Duvjsl. lilV.l ; Ethiopia (Cole), 315; 

Hungary ( SclHjentVl.l i, 1:^7; India (Merrell), 388. 
Missions: Copenhagen. DtMimark, oi>ening, 1032; Hel- 
sinki, Finland, opening, 148. 
Personnel, and promotions, readjustment of, 939. 
Regulations, orders, and instructions: 
Assistant Secretaries of State to prescribe and issue 

(D.O. 1310), 428. 
Secretary of State to prescribe and issue (Ex. Or. 

9514 and 9521 amending Ex. Or. 9452), 210, 388. 
Representation of foreign interests, regulations, 837. 
Representative in Finland (Hamilton), appointment, 52. 
Representative in Hungary (Sulioenfeld). arrival in 



Surveys of U.S. Embassies and Consulates, 387, 458. 
Work of, discussed in radio broadcast, G29. 
Foreign Service Educational Foundation, address by Mr. 
Grew before School of Advanced International 
Studies, 1145. 
Foreign Trade Branch, establi.shment in Division of Com- 
mercial Policy (D.O. 1303), fi8. 
Formosa, article by Mr. Doonian, Jlr. Bortou, and air. 

Coville, 1018. 
Fosdick, Dorothy, article on Dumbarton Oaks Proposals, 

295. 
Foster, Carol H., designation in State Department, 840. 
F'^our Freedoms, as stated by President Roosevelt, 1011. 
Fourth Protocol, provision of war supplies to U.S.S.R. 

by U.S., U.K., and Canada, 723. 
Fowler. William A., designation in State Department, 

176. 
France: 

Ambassador to U. S. (Bonnet) : 
Credentials, 41. 

Message of condolence on de.ith of U.S. President, 
6(!2. 
Clearing arrangement with Switzerland, (lOl. 
Displaced persons in Germany, 491, 493, 497, 498. 
Foreign Minister (Bidault), message of condolence on 

death of U.S. President, 667. 
French Supply Council, joint announcement with State 
Department, Commerce Department, and FEA on 
resumption of private export trade to French North 
;ind West Africa, 832. 
Gaulle. Gen. de, inability to meet President Roosevelt 

in Algiers, 291. 
llnstllities in Syria and Lebanon, note from U.S. Govern- 
ment, 1013. 
Import program, endorsement by U.S., 90. 
Inquiries on U.S. citizens in Cherbourg area, service for, 

268. 
Opening of U.S. Consulate at Bordeaux, 110. 
Provisional Consultative Assembly, composition, and 

powers, 872. 
Relations of U.S. with, address by Mr. Grew, 151. 
Relief supplies for civilians, 919. 
Role in settlement of questions of world and European 

interest, statement by President Truman, 927. 
Telecommunication and postal services, restoration, 1078. 
Trade, resumption of exports to U.S. through private 

channels, plans for, 691. 
Trade with U.S., license relating to, 813. 



France — Continued. 
Treaties, agreements, etc.: 

Alliance and mutual assistance, with U.S.S.R. (1944), 

text, ^. 
Assumption of supreme authority in Germany by Al- 
lied Representatives, text of declaration, 1051. 
Civil aviation, interim agreement (1944), accfeptance, 

1057. 
Declaration by United Nations (1942), adherence, 17. 
Douljle taxation, with U.S. (1939), proclamation by 

President Roosevelt, 38. 
European inland transport, 910. 
Financial, with U.K., 1016. 
Lend-lease, with U.S., statements and correspondence, 

193, 362, 366, 500. 
Refugees, international status, convention relating to 
(1933), cancelation (1944) of denunciation 
(1942), 110. 
Sanitary convention (1944), 10, 109. 
Sanitarv convention for aerial navigation (1944), 

10, 109. 
Shipping, continuance of control for United Nations 

purposes (1944), accession, 628. 
Visa procedure for French or U.S. citizens, with U.S., 
81S. 
UNCIO : 

Participation in, 1009. 

Security Council, consultation on voting procedure, 

600. 
Sponsorship, declination, 394. 
U.S. Consulates, ojiening: 
Le Havre, 315, 428. 
Lyon, 995. 
Frank, Lawrence C., designation in State Department, 840. 
Frantz, Harry W., designation in State Department, 269. 
Free enterprise, address by Mr. Taft, 942. 
Freedom — how can we achieve it (Foreign Affairs Outline 

no. 4), 570. 
Freedom of speecli, including freedom of the press and of 

information. See Information. 
French North Africa {see also Special Economic Mission), 

resumption of private export trade to, 832. 
French Provisional Consultative Assembly, composition 

and iwwers, 872. 
French West Africa, restmiption of private export trade 

to, 832. 
Friendship, mutual aid and post-war cooperation, treaty 

between U.S.S.R. and Yugoslavia, text, 774. 
Friendship rally, U.S.-Soviet, New York, N.T., message 

from President Truman, 1017. 
Fund, International Monetary. See Bretton Woods. 

Gauge, John F., designation in State Department, 880. 
Garcfa Arias, Rodolfo (Argentine Charge d'Affaires), mes- 
sage to Director General of Pan American Union on 
declaration of war by Argentina against Japan and 
Germany, 611. 
Garcia Godoy, Emilio, credentials as Dominican Ambas- 
sador to U.S., 40. 
Garland, Eduardo (Charge d'Affaires ad interim of Peru), 
letter and remarks on signing United Nations Declara- 
tion, 233, 236. 
Gaulle, Gen. Charles de: 

Invitation to meet President Roosevelt in Algiers, 291. 
Message from President Trimian on surrender of Ger- 
many, 888. 
General Assembly of United Nations : 
Charter text, 1121. 

Discussion of representation, 600, 1007. 
Peaceful adjustment of situations likely to impair the 
general welfare, U.S. proiwsal at San Francisco con- 
ference, 854, Kill. 
Redraft at San Francisco conference, text, 931. 
Geneva conventions. See Prisoners of war convention ; 

Red Cross convention. 
Genoa, Italy, opening of U.S. Consulate General, 1032. 



I^DEX, JANUARY TO JUNE 1945 



1185 



Geography and Cartography, Division of, 183, 845, 054. 
Geopolitics at Munich, article by Mr. Fifield, ll.o2. 
Gerig, Benjamin, designation in State Department, 316. 
Germany : 

Aliens in (1939), article by Mr. Odell and Mr. Billig- 

meier, 164. 
Allied armies, junction in, statements by President Tru- 
man and Mr. Grew, SOS. 
Assets iu Switzerland, freezing of, 601. 
Attack on Denmark and Norway, anniversary of, state- 
ment by President Roosevelt, 684. 
Coal, shipments to Italy, stoppage, 601. 
Crimea declarations on defeat, occupation, and repara- 
tions, 213. 
Declaration of Allied Representatives regarding defeat 

and assumption of authority, 1051. 
Declaration of war by : 
Argentina, 538, 611. 
Saudi Arabia, 375, 408. 
Disappearance of U.S. citizens deported from occupied 

areas, 577. 
Displaced persons in, 491, 953, 1014. 
Exchange of prisoners of war and civilian internees 
with U.S. and other American republics via "Grips- 
holm", 44, 196, 252, 1035. 
Geopolitics at Munich, article by Mr. Fifield, 1152. 
Government by Control Council of the occupying powers, 

plans for U.S. zone, 900. 
Invasion of Czechoslovakia, 6th anniversary, statement 

by Secretary Stettinius, 438. 
Iron and steel industry of, in relation to foreign trade, 

article by Mr. Merlin, 814. 
Jews in, 1933-39, article by Mr. Odell and Mr. Billig- 

meier, 969. 
Militarism and Nazism, U.S. intention to destroy, state- 
ment by Secretary Stettinius, 1010. 
Nazi post-war plans, discovery of, .537. 
Occupation by Allied Representatives : 
Control machinery, 1054. 

Intention to consult with other United Nations, 1053. 
Plans for, 214, 480, 900. 
Zones of occupation, 900, 1052. 
Political aggression, defense of Americas against: 
Annual report, in part, 1943-44, of Emergency Ad- 
visory Committee for Political Defense. .53. 
Article on Emergency Advisory Committee for Politi- 
cal Defense, 3. 
Prisoners of war and civilian internees, warning by 
President Truman, Prime Minister Churchill, and 
Marshal Stalin against maltreatment, 811. 
Property and loot in Western Hemisphere, attitude of 

Mexico City conference, 925. 
Property in Washington, transfer to U.S. as trustee, 

000, 954. 
Publications, imiwrtation into, statement by President 

Truman, 926. 
Racial Germans, return to Reich, 498. 
Reeducation from Nazi influence, 480. 
Representation of interests in U.S. by Swiss Legation, 

termination, 900, 954. 
Surrender : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 
Mr. Grew, 888. 
Secretary Stettinius, 887. 
President Truman, 885, 886. 
Armies in Italy, statements by President Truman and 
Mr. Grew and messages to Field Marshal Alex- 
ander and General Mark Clark, 865. 
Declaration by Allied Representatives of terms, 1051. 
Himmler's offer, chronological account, 863. 
Messages from President Truman to high officials, 887. 
Proclamation by President Truman, 886. 
U.S. prisoners of war : 

Abandonment of, in camps, assurances, 810, 866. 
Hardships suffered, joint statement by Secretary Stet- 
tinius and Secretary of War, 683. 
Relocation of camps for military reasons, 237, 314. 
Sick and wounded, notification on exchange, 737. 



Gie, S. F. N. (South African Minister (o U.S.), death, 674. 
Great Britain. See United Kingdom. 
Greece : 

Displaced persons in Germany, 494. 
Inquiries on U.S. citizens in Athens area, service for, 160. 
Relief supplies for civilians, 921. 
Repatriation of citizens via "Gripsholm", 1035. 
Restoration of liberties to, exchange of messages be- 
tween Prime Minister Plastiras and President 
Roosevelt, 91. 
Telecommunication and postal services, restoration, 426, 

1078. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Sanitary convention (1944), 109. 
Sanitary convention for aerial navigation (1944), 109. 
UNCIO, list of members of Delegation, 577, 610. 
Grew, Joseph C. : 
Addresses, statements, etc.: 
Allied armies, junction in Germany, 808. 
Austria, U.S., policy toward, 397. 
Bombings of Swiss towns, 309. 

Books for Devastated Libraries, Conference on .367. 
Brazilian declaration of war against Japan, 1061. 
Briggs, Ellis O., assignment to U.S. Embassy at 

Chungking, 169. 
Bulgarian political leader, protection by U.S. Repre- 
sentative in Sofia, 1023. 
Compulsory military training, 1063. 
Crimea Conference, 217. 
Deaths : 

Former Governor of Alaska (Riggs), 107. 
South African Minister to U.S. (Close), 503. 
Soviet Ambassador to Mexico (Oumansky), 141. 
Declaration by United Nations, adherences, 235, 294, 

375. 
Denmark, liberation, 850. 

El Salvador, renewal of diplomatic relations, 304. 
Europe, territorial questions in, 902. 
FBI investigation of leak of secret material in State 

Department and arrests, 10S8. 
France, U.S. relations with, 151. 
Freedom of information, 1097. 
International Studies, School of, 1145. 
Italy: formation of new Government in, 1006, 1149; 
surrender terms, 182; territorial questions in, 902. 
Japanese war-machine, 327. 
Korea, U.S. policy regarding, 1058. 
Lend-lease, 940. 

Lend-lease, joint statements with Treasury Depart- 
ment and FEA. on agreements with France and 
Netherlands, 363, 876. 
Lend-lease agreements with France, 366. 
Manila, liberation, and opening of U.S. Consulate, 

193, 332. 
Mexican water treaty, favorable report of Senate 

Foreign Relations Committee, 303. 
Netherlands, liberation of, 862. 
New Year's Day message, 31. 
New York Times Hall, New York, N. Y., 87. 
Norway, liberation, 904. 

Public interest in proposed international Organiza- 
tion, 806. 
Punishment of war criminals, 154. 
Representatives, new, letter on foreign policy to 

President Roosevelt, 181. 
Saint Patrick's Day message, 4.31. 
Security Council, voting procedure in, 479. 
Senators, new, letter on foreign policy to President 

Roosevelt, 121. 
Shipping for transport of civilian-relief supplies, 219. 
Surrender of German armies in Italy, 865. 
Surrender of Germany, 888. 
Town meeting, as basis of democracy, 835. 
Trade Agreements Act, renewal, 955, 1080, 1149. 
UNCIO, 223. 

War Crimes Commission, United Nations, discontinu- 
ance of services of Mr. Pell, 123. 



1186 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Grew, Joseph C. — Continued. 

Addresses, statements, etc. — Continued. 
Wasliington Catliedral, 803. 
Yugoslavia, proposed united government, 153. 
Correspondence : 

Senator Bilbo, on acceptance of civil-aviation agree- 
ments a.s executive agreements, 1101. 
Bloom, Sol, c<incerning formation of international 

office of education, 9.32. 
Brazilian Acting Foreign Minister (Macedo Soares), 
on declaration of war by Brazil against Japan, 
1060. 
Coffee, refusal of request by American republics for 

increase in price, 512. 
Deaths : 

Gen. Avila Camacho of Mexico, 252. 
Egyptian Prime Minister (Ahmed Maher), 304. 
Lebanese Foreign Minister (Selim Takia), 51. 
Lloyd George, 538. 
Declaration bv United Nations, adherences, 231, 232, 

233, 293, 294, 373, 374, 575. 
Governor of California (Warren) on San Francisco 

conference, 217. 
Italian interests in U.S., relinquishment by Switzer- 
land of representation of. 361. 
Lend-lease agreements with France, 362, 366. 
Mayor of San Francisco (Lapham) on San Francisco 

conference, 218. 
President Roosevelt, report to, on Convention on Inter- 
national Civil Aviation, 436. 
Saudi Arabia, on declaration of war against Axis, 
408. 
Participant in radio broadcast, 354. 
Water treaty, U.S. and Mexico, statement of Secre- 
tary Stettinius read by, 1-2. 
Gripsholm (ship) : 

exchange of U.S. and German prisoners of war and 
civilian internees (voyage of Jan.-Feb. 1945), 44, 
196, 252. 
Repatriation of Italian, Greek, and U.S. nationals 
(voyage of May 31-Aug. 2, 1945), 1035. 
Guatemala (see also American repuljlies) : 

Ambassador to U.S. (Silva Pefia), credentials, 42. 
Minister for Foreign Relations (Toriello), message of 

condolence on death of U.S. President, (>6S. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agricultural experiment station in Guatemala, with 
U.S. (1914), supplemental memorandum of un- 
derstanding, 874. 
Civil-aviation agreements: air transit, air transport, 

and interim (1944), 16!). 
Civil-aviation convention (1944), signature, 169. 
Military mission, with U.S., signature, 978. 
Military-aviation mission, with U.S., 309. 
U.S. Ambassador (Kyle), appointment, 209. 

Habana, Cuba, visit of Secretary Stettinius, 397. 
Hackworth, Earl C, designation in State Department, 466. 
Hackworth, Green H., address on Dumbarton Oaks Pro- 
posals, 124. 
Haile Selassie I, of Ethiopia : 

Correspondence with President Truman on opening of 
direct radiotelegraph circuit between U.S. and 
Ethiopia, 939, 982. 
Meeting in Near East with President Roosevelt, 290. 
Haiti (see also American republics) : 
Cultural leader, visit to U.S., 602. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Civil aviation, interim agreement (1944), ratifliation, 

1057. 
Financial, with U.S. (1943), text of supplementary 

agreement (1944), 144. 
Rubber investigations, cooperative (1941), supple- 
mentary agreement (104J-1945), 199. 
Sanitary convention (1944), 109. 
Sanitary convention for aerial navigation (1944), 109. 



Haiti— Continued. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued. 
Trade-marks, protocol on inter-American registration 
of (1929), denunciation (1944), 107. 
UNCIO, list of members of Delegation, 610. 
Haley, Bernard F. : 
Addresses : 

Commodity agreements, U.S. policy, (538. 
Trade-agreements program, 645. 
Designation in State Department, 176. 
Hamilton, M.iswtll M., appointment as U.S. representa- 
tive in Finl.nid. -<2. 
Hanson, Hal.ldii', dcsij^nation in State Department, 994, 
Harriman. \V. Avcii'll, consultation with other Allied rep- 
resentatives and Polish groups on reorganization of 
Provisional Polish Government, 1095. 
Harrington, Julian F., designation in State Department, 

1017. 
Harrison, Earl G., appointment as U.S. representative on 

Intergovernmental Committee on Refugees, 452. 
Hartley, Robert W., designation in State Department, 209. 
Hassan, M. (Egyptian Minister), letter and remarks on 

signing Declaration by United Nations, 375. 
Health, sanitation, and food-supply programs, draft reso- 
lution of Mexico City conference, text, 34.5. 
Health and sanitation agreement with Ecuador (1942), 

extension (1944-1945), 314, 461. 
Helsinki, Finland, opening of U.S. Special Mission, 148. 
Henderson, Loy W., designation in State Department, 386, 

839. 
Henry, R. Horton, designation in State Department, 840. 
Hilton, Howard J., Jr., article on commercial arbitration 

in the treaties and agreements of the U.S.S.R., 890. 
Himmler, Heinrich. surrender offer, chronological ac- 
count, 863. 
Hiss, Alger : 

Designation in State Department, 316, 657. 
Letter to Danish Foreign Minister inviting Denmark 
to United Nations Conference on International Or- 
ganization, 1040. 
Participant in radio broadcast, 3.54. 
Secretary-General of San Francisco conference, 801. 
Hiss, Donald, designation in State Department, 387. 
Holmes, Julius C. : 
Addresses : 
UNCIO, 727. 

U.S. responsibilities for victory and peace, 179. 
Appointment as chairman of Committee on Occupa- 
tional Deferments, 269. 
Designation as chairman of Board of Foreign Service 
Personnel and Board of Examiners for the Foreign 
Service, 427. 
Participant in radio broadcast. 629. 
Honduras (see also American republics) : 
Cultural leader, visit to U.S., S31. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Agricultural Sciences, Inter-American Institute, con- 
vention on (1944), ratification, 656. 
Rights and duties of states in the event of civil 

strife (1928). ratification, 874. 
Sanitary convention (1944), 109. 

Sanitary convention for aerial navigation (1944), 109. 
UNCIO, list of members of Delegation, 610. 
Vi-siting professor from U.S., appointment, 1168. 
Hooker, Robert G., Jr., designation in State Department, 

839. 
Hopkins, Harry, special mission to Moscow for President 

Truman, 953. 
Hosi Maru (ship), transport of relief supplies to Allied 

nationals interned in Par East, 32, 188. 
House of Representatives. See Congress, U.S. 
Hovde, Bryn J. : 

Address on youth of world and problem of peace. 487. 
Statement at Art Advisory Committee meeting, 259. 
HufC, Clay G., visiting professor to Mexico, 197. 



INDEX, JANUARY TO JUNE 1945 



1187 



Hull, Cordell : 

Crimea Conference, message from participants, 21G. 
Death of President Roosevelt, statement on, G62. 
Decoration by Peruvian Government, 1151. 
UNCIO : 
Excliange of letters with Secretary Stettinius, 72fi. 
Joint message from, 857. 
Human rights. Charter of United Nations, provisions for, 

statements by Secretary Stettinius, 928, 1011. 
Hungary : 

Armistice with U. S., U.K., and U.S.S.R., text, 83. 
Displaced persons in Germany, 494. 
U.S. Representative (Schoenfeld) : 
Appointment, 127. 
Arrival in Budapest, 9G8. 
Huston, Cloyce K., designation in State Department, 1172. 



Ibarra Garcia, Oscar, credentials as Argentine 

sador to U.S., 912. 
Ibn Saud (King Abdul Aziz of Saudi Arabia) : 

Declaration of war against Axis, letter to President 

Roosevelt, 375. 
Meeting in Near East with President Roosevelt, 290. 
Iceland : 

Minister of Foreign Affairs (Thors), message of con- 
dolence on death of U.S. I?resident, 667. 
Telecommunication and postal services, restoration, 

107S. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Air-transport services, with U.S., text, 170. 
Civil-aviation agreements: 

Air transit and air transport (1944), signature, 873. 
Interim agreement (1944), acceptance, 1057. 
ILO. Sec International Labor Organization. 
Independent Citizens Committee of the Arts, Sciences, and 

Professions, address by air. MacLeish, 238. 
India : 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Civil Aviation agreements: air transit and interim 

(1944), acceptance, 941. 
Mutual aid, with Canada (1944), 32. 
Shipping, continuance of control for United Nations 
purposes (1944), accession by India, 858. 
UNCIO, list of members of Delegation, 577. 
U.S. Consulate at Bombay, elevation to rank of Con- 

.sulate General, 995. 
U.S. Minister (Merrell), appointment of, 388. 
Information, freedom of: 
Address by Mr. Grew, 1097. 
Article by Miss Wright, 1099. 
Press, letter from President Truman to Mr. Forrest, 

1144. 

Press, radio, and motion pictures, proposed procedure 

at San Francisco conference, statement by Secretary 

Stettinius, 435. 

Resolution of Mexico City conference, texts, 343, 451. 

Institute of World Economics, Philadelphia, Pa., remarks 

by Mr. Fetter, 501. 
Inter-Agency Committee To Coordinate Export of Civilian 

Supplies, creation, 448. 
"Inter-Agency Economic Digest", transfer of secretariat 

(D.O. 1313), 462. 
Inter-Allied Governing Authority, occupation of Berlin, 

1052. 
Inter-American Affairs, OflSce of. See Office of Inter- 
American Affairs. 
Inter-American automotive traffic, convention on regula- 
tion of (1943), 108. 
Inter-American Conference on Problems of War and 
Peace : 
Act of Chapultepec, text, 339. 

Addresses, statements, etc. : President Avila Camaeho 
(Mexico), 273; Mr. Clayton, 334; Mr. Cox, 350; Mr. 
Rockefeller, 675, 693 ; Secretary Stettinius, 277, 333, 

Appointment of Secretary Stettinius as U.S. Delegate, 61. 

665375 — 45 3 



Inter-American Conference — Continued. 

Argentina, fulfilment of criteria stated in resolution on, 

670. 
Articles: Mr. Mann, 924; Mr. Munro, 525; Miss Parks, 

732 ; Mr. Smith, 624. 
Economic Charter of the Americas, provisions against 

cartels, 613. 
Message from President Roosevelt to President of Con- 
ference (Padilla), 273. 
Pan American Union, publication of report of Director 

General, 1035. 
Plans, 60. 

Radio broadcast, discussion in, 547. 
Radio statement by Mr. Rockefeller, 61. 
Report of Secretary Stettinius on return from, 393. 
Resolution, Mexican, on loot and enemy property, state- 
ment by Mr. Cox, 350. 
Re.solutions : 

Discussion of, by Mr. Rockefeller, 693. 
U.S., texts of drafts, 339, 341, 343, 400, 449. 
UNCIO, attitude toward, 449, 525, 694. 
U.S. Delegation, 192. 
Inter-American Defense Board : 
Address by Mr. Otterman, 2.56. 
Draft resolution on continuance, 400. 
Inter-American Economic and Social Council, created at 
San Francisco conference, discussion by Miss Parks, 
732. 
Inter-American Financial and Economic Advisory 
Committee : 
Remarks by Mr. Rockefeller on accepting chairman- 
ship, 92. 
Replaced by Inter-American Economic and Social Coun- 
cil, 732. 
Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences, con- 
vention on (1944), 108, 656. 
Inter-American Juridical Committee : 
List of members, 195. 

Organization and activities, article by Mr. Fenwiek, 194. 
Inter-American Neutrality Committee. See Inter-Ameri- 
can Juridical Committee. 
Inter-American Radio Conference (3d), preparations for, 

954. 
Inter-American relations. See American republics. 
Inter-American system : 

Charter of world organization, relation to, statements 

by Secretary Stettinius, 930, 949, 1009. 
Mexico City conference, resolution concerning, article 

by Mr. Munro, 525. 
Relation to world organization, address by Mr. Rocke- 
feller, 675. 
Reorganization of, resolution of Mexico City conference, 
341, 694. 
Inter-American University, convention on (1943), rati- 
fication by Venezuela (1944), 175. 
Intergovernmental Committee on Refugees, appointment 

of Mr. Harrison as U.S. representative, 452. 
Interim agreement on international civil aviation. See 

Civil aviation. 
Interim Arrangements Concluded by the Governments 
Represented at the United Nations Conference on 
International Organization, text, 1142. 
Interim Commission on Food and Agriculture. See Food 
and Agriculture, United Nations Interim Commission. 
Inter-Mountain Mining and Economic Association, ad- 
dress by Mr. Taft, 129. 
International agencies, related to — 
Economics, listed, 565. 
Problems of freedom, listed, 573. 
Social progress, listed, 509. 
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development. 

See Bretton Woods Proposals. 
International Civil Aviation Conference, see Civil 

aviation. 
International Cotton Advisory Committee. 301, 475. 



1188 

International Court of Justice : 
Addresses on by Secretary Stettinlus and others at 

meeting of Committee of Jurists, 672. 
Charter text and annexed Statute, 1132, 113-1. 
Statute, drafting of, by Committee of Jurists, 533, 759. 
International Labor Organization, preparations for 27th 

conference, article by Mr. Wiesman, 424. 
International Monetary Fund. See Bretton Woods Pro- 
posals. 
International OfiBce of Public Health, Paris, temporary 

performance of duties by UNRRA, 10, 109, 941. 
Inlernaticmal peace and security organization. See Dum- 
barton Oaks Proposals ; United Nations. 
International Technical Committee of Aerial Legal Ex- 
perts. See CITEJA. 
International Trade Policy, Office of, change in name from 

Office of Commercial Policy (D.O. 1312), 462. 
Internment. See Prisoners of war and civilian Internees. 
Iquitos, Peru, closing of U.S. Vice Consulate, 1089. 
Iran : 

.\cting Foreign Minister (Homayoundjah), messiige of 

condolence on death of U.S. President, 666. 
U.S. Ambassador (Murray), appointment, 315. 
Iraq : 
Civil aviation, interim agreement, (1944), acceptance, 

1057. 
Regent (Prince Abdul Hah), visit to U.S., 1036. 
UNCIO, list of members of delegation, 730. 
Ireland : 
Ajsylum to war criminals, attitude, 190. 
President (Hyde) and Prime Minister (De Valera), 
messages of condolence on death of U.S. President, 
664. 
Telecommunication and postal services, restoration, 

1078. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Air-transport services, with U.S., fext, 172. 
Civil aviation, interim agreement (1944), acceptance, 

941. 
Commercial agreement, provisional, with Egypt 
(1930), extension, 978. 
Ireland, Philip W.. designation in State Department, 716. 
Iron and steel industry of Germany in relation to foreign 

trade, article by Mr. Merlin, 814. 
Italy : 

Ambassador to U.S. (Tarchiani) : 
Credentials, 422. 

Message of condolence on death of U.S. President. 662. 
Bread rationing, 29. 

Displaced persons in Germany, 494, 498, 500. 
Opening of U.S. Embassy as combined office. 148. 
Relief supplies for civilians, 921. 
Repatriation of citizens via "Gripsholm," 1035. 
Representation of interests in U.S., relinquishment by 

Switzerland, 361. 
Supply program, statement by Secretary Stettinius on 

inquiries relating to U.K. and U.S. policies, 29. 
Surrender of German armies in, 865. 
Surrender terms, statement by Mr. Grew, 182. 
Telecommunication and postal services, restoration, 

871, 1078. 
UNRRA agreement for relief, signature and summary 

of, 543. 
U.S. Consulates at Genoa and Milan, opening, 1032. 
U.S. policy toward new Government in, statements by 
Mr. Grew, 1006, 1149. 
Italy, Allied Commission for, remarks by acting presi- 
dent (Macmillan), 539. 

Jackson, Robert H. (Justice of U.S. Supreme Court) : 
Appointment as U.S. Chief of Counsel for prosecution 
of Axis criminality, statement by President Tru- 
man, 866. 
Report to President on prosecution of Axis war crim- 
inals, 1071. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Jackson, Wayne G., designation in State Department, 269. 
Jamaica, agricultural workers, agreement with U.S. (1944), 

460. 
Japan : 

Addresses by — 

Mr. Diekover, on war-machine, 240. 
Mr. Grew, on war with, 327. 
"Awa Maru", sinking of: 
Exchange of communications with U.S., 1033. 
Report, 602. 

Safe-conduct for transport of relief supplies to Allied 
nationals in Far East, 188. 
Declaration of war against : 
Argentina, 538, 611. 
Brazil, 1060. 
Saudi Arabia, 375, 408. 
Exchange of nationals with U.S., proposed, 132. 
Formosa, article by Mr. Dooman, Mr. Borton, and Mr. 

Coville, 1018. 
Internee camps, reciprocal visits, with U.S., attitude, 

191. 
Korea, U.S. policy regarding, statement by Mr. Grew, 

1058. 
Naval ratio, established by Washington treaty of 1922, 

attitude, 330. 
Neutrality pact, with U.S.S.R. (1941), denunciation by 

U.S.S.R., 811. 
Okinawa, U.S. victory on, message from Prime Minister 

Churchill to President Truman, 1151. 
Okinawa and the Liuchius, article by Mr. Amos, 743. 
Relief supplies for Allied nationals in Far East, attitude, 

32, 188. 
Representation of interests in U.S., relinquishment by 
Spain, exchange of notes between State Department 
and Spanish Embassy, 649. 
Severance of relations with, by Turkey, statements by 

President Roosevelt and Secretary Stettinius, 20. 
Western Hemisphere, interests in, attitude of Mexico 
City conference, 925. 
Jayne, Horace H. F., visit to China, 1166. 
Jews: 

Jews in Germany. 1933-39, article by Mr. Odell and Mr. 

Billigmeier, 969. 
Treatment in Germany, 164, 499. 
Johnston, Feltnn M., designation in State Department, 

994. 
Joint Secretariat of Secretary's Staff Committee and Co- 
ordinating Committee. See Central Secretariat. 
Judicial writs, transmission of, agreement between Chile 

and Peru (1935), ratification, 874. 
Juridical Committee, Inter-American. See Inter-American 

Juridical Committee. 
Jurists, Committee of : 
Addresses : 

Sir Michael Myers, of New Zealand, 673. 
Secretary Stettinius, 672. 
Wang Chung-hui, of China, 673. 
Meetings of, 533, 643, 674. 
Message of condolence on death of President Roosevelti 

668. 
Statute of International Court of Justice, drafting of, 
533, 759. 
Justice, International Court of. See International Court 
of Justice. 

Kauffmann, Henrik de (Danish Minister to U.S.), state- 
ment on acceptance of invitation to Denmark to take 
seat at San Francisco conference, 1049. 

Kelly, Helen G., article on international mails during war- 
time, S68. 

Kennedy, Donald D., designation in State Department, 
1116. 

Khalid el-Azm (Syrian Acting Minister for Foreign Af- 
fairs), correspondence with Mr. Grew on adherence of 
Syria to Declaration by United Nations, 575. 



INDEX, JANUARY TO JUNE 1945 



1189 



Kiug, W. L. Mackenzie (Prime Minister of Canada) : 
Combined Boards, joint statement with U.S. and U.K. 

on decision to maintain, 120. 
Exchange of messages with President Truman on Allied 

victory, 903. 
Visit to President Roosevelt, 4S4. 
Knox, Charles F., designation in State Department, 4QQ. 
Komendatura, occupation of Berlin, 1052. 
Korea : 

Scholarship opportunities in U.S. for students from, 

1059. 
U.S. policy regarding, statement by Mr. Grew, 1058. 
Kurth, Harry M., designation in State Department, 209. 
Kyle, Edwin Jackson, appointment as U.S. Ambassador 
to Guatemala, 209. 

Lapham, Roger D. (Mayor of San Francisco), arrange- 
ments for San Francisco conference : 
Exchange of messages with Mr. Grew, 218. 
Statement by Secretary Stettinius, 435. 
Lares, Arturo (Venezuelan Counselor of Embassy), letter 
to Secretary Stettinius on adherence by Venezuela to 
United Nations Declaration, 292. 
Larkin, Frederick, designation in State Department, 840. 
Larsen, Emmanuel S., arrest for unauthorized use of secret 

information, 1088. 
Latchford, Stephen, articles by : 
Acceptance of civil-aviation agreements as executive 

agreements, 1104. 
Comparison of Chicago aviation convention with Paris 

and Habana conventions, 411. 
Coordination of CITEJA with new international civil- 
aviation organizations, 310. 
Private international air law, 11. 
Latin America. See American republics and the individ- 

iial countries. 
Law, Richard, British Minister of State, discussions In 
Washington on maintenance of economies of liberated 
countries, 95. 
Le Havre, France, opening of U.S. Consulate, 315, 428. 
Lebanon : 

Death of Foreign Minister (Selim Takla), statement 

by Mr. Grew, 51. 
Foreign Minister (Pharon), message of condolence on 

death of U.S. President, 666. 
Hostilities in, note from U.S. Government to Provisional 

French Government, 1013. 
Invitation to San Francisco conference, 576. 
Minister to U.S. (Malik), credentials, 776. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Civil aviation, interim agreement, (1944), ratification, 

1057. 
Declaration by United Nations (1942), adherence, 
575, 682. 
Legislation. See Congress, U. S. 
Lend-lease : 
Agreements with — 

Belgium, statements and correspondence, 763. 
France, statements and correspondence, 193, 362, 366, 

500. 
Netherlands, statement, 876. 
Appropriation estimate, letter from President Truman 

to Speaker of House of Representatives, 1061. 
Appropriation estimate, letter to President Truman from 

Director of Bureau of the Budget (Smith), 1062. 
Joint statements of State and Treasury Departments 
and FEA respecting mutual aid between U.S. and— 
Belgium, 765. 
France, 363. 
Netherlands, 876. 
Report of operations (18th), letter of transmittal from 

Administrator of FEA to Congress, 317. 
Report of operations (19th), letter of transmittal from 

President Truman to Congress, 952. 
Statements : 
Mr. Grew, 940. 
Secretary Stettinius, 596, 940. 



Lend-lease — Continued. 

U.S.S.R., exchange of messages on 3d anniversary be- 
tween Foreign Commissar Molotov and Secretary 
Stettinius, 1162. 
Lend-Lease Act, extension of : 
Mr. Acheson on proposed, 189. 
President Truman, on signing, 773. 
Lepers, American Mission to, address by Mr. Villard, 136. 
Letters of credence. See Diplomatic representatives in 

U.S. 
Lewis, Samuel, credentials as Panamanian Ambassador to 

U.S., 516. 
Liberated areas: 

Accounts of U.S. citizens in, free operation of, (U2. 
Austria, U.S. policy toward, statement by Mr. Grew, 397. 
Crimea declaration on liberated Europe, 215. 
Denmark, statement by Mr. Grew, 850. 
Europe, northwest, civilian supplies for, summary of 

report of Mr. Rosenman, 860. 
Europe, problems of civilian supply, article by Mr. Still- 
well, 917. 
Greece, restoration of liberties to, exchange of messages 
between Prime Minister Plastlras and President 
Roosevelt, 91. 
Italy : 
Allied Commission for Italy, remarks by acting presi- 
dent (Macmillan), 539. 
Bread rationing, 29. 
UNRRA agreement for relief, 543. 
Maintenance of economies of, joint statement by State 

Department and British Embassy, 95. 
Manila, P.I., 193, 332, 588. 
Netherlands, statement by Mr. Grew, 862. 
Non-military traffic in, regulations, 30. 
Norway, statement by Mr. Grew, 904. 
Philippines : 

Funds, transmission to U.S. citizens in, 408, 968. 
Manila, 193, 332, 588. 
Repatriation of U.S. citizens from, 427. 
Welfare of liberated internees in, 182. 
Radio broadcast on, 441. 
Liberated Areas Committee, Combined, establishment of, 

919. 
Liberia : 

Civil- Aviation agreements : air transit, air transport, and 

interim (1944), acceptance, 873. 
Secretary of State (Dennis), message of condolence on 

death of U.S. President, 665. 
UNCIO, list of members of Delegation, 610. 
Visit of Secretary Stettinius to, 219, 291. 
Librarians, responsibility of, in shaping post-war world, 

address by Mr. Spaulding, 9S3. 
Libraries, Devastated, Conference on Books for : 
Announcement of plans, 366. 
Remarks by Mr. Grew, 367. 
Library of Congress, appointment of Cuban librarian 

(Aguayo) as consultant, 1168. 
Liechtenstein, Prince Franz Joseph, message to President 

Truman on death of President Roosevelt, 664. 
Liuchiu Islands, including Okinawa, article by Mr. Amos, 

743. 
Livesey, Frederick, designation in State Department, 387. 
Lloyd George, David, death, telegram from Mr. Grew, 538. 
Lockhart, Oliver, designation in State Department, 486. 
Loot seized by the enemy : 

Mexico City conference, attitude 350, 926. 

Resolution of Mexico City conference, statement by Mr. 

Cox, 350. 
Switzerland, action to prevent secretion of, 601. 
Lubin, Isador : 

Appointment as Associate to Mr. Pauley on Reparations 
Commission, statement by President Truman, 807. 
Appointment as U.S. member of Reparations Commis- 
sion, statement by Secretary Stettinius, 434. 
Luthringer, George P., designation in State Department, 



1190 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Luxembourg : 
Displaced persons in Germany, 497. 
Prime Minister (Bech), message of condolence on death 

of U.S. President, 666. 
Telecommunication and postal services, restoration, 

1078. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

European inland transport, signature, 910. 
Sanitary convention (1944), 109. 
Sanitary convention for aerial navigation (1944), 
109." 
•UXCIO, li.st of members of Delegation, 730. 
Lyon, France, opening of U.S. Consulate, 995. 

Macedo Soares, Jos6 Roberto de (Acting Foreign Minister 
of Brazil), exchange of messages with Mr. Grew on 
declaration of war by Brazil against Japan, 1060. 
MacLeish, Archibald : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Association of American Colleges, annual meeting, At- 
lantic City, N.J., 47. 
Human rights and fundamental freedoms (in Foreign 

Affairs Outline), 570. 
Independent Citizens Committee of the Arts, Sciences, 

and Professions, 238. 
United Nations Information Board, 100th session, 21, 
U.S.-Soviet relations, 950. 
Participant in radio broadcasts, 282, 354, 401, 441, 480, 
547, 629. 
Macmilian, Harold (Acting President of Allied Commis- 
sion for Italy), remarks on Allied Commission, 539. 
Mails. See Postal service. 
Main Street and Dumbarton Oaks, radio broadcast by 

State Department, 354. 
Maintenance and development of the internal economies 
of the American republics, draft resolution of Mexico 
City conference, text, 349. 
Malik, Charles (Lebanese Minister) : 

Credentials as Lebanese Minister to U.S. 776. 
Declaration by United Nations, remarks on signing, 682. 
Manila, P.I. : 

Message from President Roosevelt to President Osmena 

and statement by Mr. Grew on liberation, 193. 
Opening of U.S. Consulate, 332, 588. 
Mann, Thomas C. : 

Article on elimination of Axis influence in Western 

Hemisphere, 924. 
Designation in State Department, 466. 
Maps and charts : 

Aliens in Germany (1939), 166. 

Dumbarton Oaks Proposals, chart of proposed Organiza- 
tion, 556. 
Foreign workers in Germany (1944), distribution and 

nation of origin, 494. 
Formosa, 1018. 
Geopolitics : 

Admiral A. T. Mahan's ideas. German illustration of, 

1153. 
Strategic location of Dakar, German illustration of, 
1160. 
Hemispheres, 845, 954. 

Jews, confessional, in Germany, distribution (1939), 972. 
Jews in Germany, age pyramids of (1933), 975. 
Liuchiu Islands, 745. 
Science, effects on history of human relations, three 

cartograms illustrating, 184, 185, 187. 

State Department organization (May 1, 194,'i), 898. 

March, Frank A., designation in State Department, 588. 

March of Time broadcast, remarks by Mr. Rockefeller, 61. 

Marine transportation and litigation, agreement with 

Australia, 621. 
Markham, James E. (Alien Property Custodian), letter 
to President Truman transmitting annual report, 
102S. 
Marks, Herbert S., designation in State Department, 994. 



Mason, Edward S. : 
Address on world monetary stability, 610. 
Designation in State Department, 148, 176. 

Massachusetts Library A.ssociation, Boston, Mass., ad- 
dress by Mr. Spauldlng, 983. 

Matthews, H. Freeman, designation as representative of 
State Department on Combined Civil Affairs Commit- 
tee, Combined Cliiefs of Staff, 209. 

Maxwell, James A., designation in State Department, 466. 

Mayors, conference of, at Miami, address by Mr. Morgan, 

McClintock, John C, designation in State Department, 111. 
McDermott, Michael J., participant in radio broadcast, 629. 
McGurk, Joseph F., appointment as U.S. Ambassador to 

Dominican Republic, 209. 
Mcintosh, Kenneth, designation in State Department, 880. 
Alclvor, Carlisle C, designation in State Department, 466. 
McKenna, James E., designation in State Department, 68. 
Medical commissions, establishment of under prisoners of 
war convention, attitude of U.S. and German Govern- 
ments, 809. 
Merchant, Livingston T., designation in State Department, 

176. 
Merchant shipping. See Shipping. 

Merkling, Frank J., designation in State Department, 994. 
Merlin, S. D., article on German iron and steel industry 

in relation to foreign trade, 814. 
Merrell, George R., appointment as U.S. Minister to 

India, 388. 
Metals Reserve Co., agreement with Aluminum Co. of 

Canada, statement by Mr. Clayton, 698. 
Metropolitan Opera House, New York, N.Y.. address by 

Mr. Clayton, 439. 
Metropolitan Opera Rally, address by Jlr. Grew broadcast 

on, 223. 
Mexico (see also American republics) : 

Conference at Mexico City. See Inter-American Con- 
ference. 
Cultural leader, vi.sit to U.S., 784. 

Death of Maximino Avila Camacho, messages from Pres- 
ident Roosevelt and Mr. Grew, 252. 
Economic Cooperation, Mexican-American Commission 
for: 
Exchange of letters between President Avila Camacho 

and President Roosevelt, 1.55. 
Text of final report of the Commission, 157. 
Opium, limitation of production, exchange of notes 

with U.S., 911. 
President Avila Camacho, address at Mexico City con- 
ference, 273. 
Soviet Ambassador (Oumansky) : 
Death, statement by Mr. Grew, 141. 
Transportation of ashes by U.S. Army plane to Mos- 
cow, 208. 
Summer .school of National Autonomous University, an- 

noucement concerning, 946. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Civil aviation, interim agreement (1944), acceptance, 

968. 
Claims convention, with U.S. (1934), final payment 

of instalments due under, 43. 
U.S. Fisheries Mission to Mexico (1942), extension 

(1944), 66. 
Water treaty, with U.S. (1944) : 
Article by Mr. Clayton, 71. 

Statements on ratification: Mr. Acheson, 302; Mr. 
Grew, 303 ; Secretary Stettinius, 122, 742 ; Pres- 
ident Truman, 742. 
Visiting professor from U.S., 197. 
Mexico City. American Community in, remarks by Secre- 
tary Stettinius, 333. 
Mexico City conference. Sec Inter-American Conference 

on Problems of War and Peace. 
Miami (Fla.), passport agency, opening of, 1070. 
Middle East Supply Center, relaxation of trade controls 
in Middle East, article by Mr. Winant, 80. 



INDEX, JANUARY TO JUNE 1945 



1191 



Milan, Italy, opening of U.S. Consulate, 1032. 

Military air-transport routes, agreement with Canada, 

309. 
Military training, compulsory, statement by Mr. Grew, 

1063. 
Military-aviation mission, agreement with Guatemala, 309. 
Military-mission agreement, with — 
EI Salvador (1943), extension, 1030. 
Guatemala, 978. 
Milwaukee Joint Committee on Dumbarton Oaks week, 

address by Mr. Holmes, 727. 
Mineral resources, U.S. concern with, address by Mr. Taft, 

129. 
Ministers for Foreign Affairs of the American Republics : 
Argentina, request for meeting of, letter from Secretary 

Stettinius to Pan American Union, 91. 
Establishment of Inter-American Financial and Eco- 
nomic Advisory Committee (1939), 732. 
Inter-American Juridical Committee, relation to, 194. 
Inter-American Neutrality Committee, relation to, 194. 
Third Meeting (Rio de Janeiro, 1942), establishment of 
Emergency Advisory Committee for Political De- 
fense, 3, 925. 
Minnesota United Nations Committee, Minneapolis, Minn., 

address by Mr. Taft, 534. 
Mission for Economic Affairs in London, appointment of 
Mr. Blaisdell as Chief, letter from President Roosevelt, 
440. 
Missions, U.S. : 

Economic, Mediterranean area, 62. 

Fisheries, Mexico, 66. 

Military: 

El Salvador, 1030. 
Guatemala, 978. 
Military aviation, Guatemala, 309. 
Naval, Chile, 067. 
Molasses, sugar, and industrial alcohol, arrangements for 
purchase in Cuba by FEA and by Commodity Credit 
Corp., 656. 
Molotov, Vyacheslav M. (Commissar for Foreign Affairs 
of U.S.S.R.) : 
Address at San Francisco conference, 796. 
Attendance at San Francisco conference, 671. 
Consultation with Polish groups on reorganization of 

Provisional Polish Government, 1095. 
Lend-lease, with U.S., exchange of messages with Sec- 
retary Stettinius on 3d anniversary, 1162. 
Messaee to Cordell Hull from San Francisco conference, 

857. 
Polish question and San Francisco conference, consul- 
tations with President Truman, 802. 
Monetary agreements, U.K. and — 
Belgium (1944), 66. 
Sweden, 585. 
Monetary Fund, International. See Bretton Woods pro- 
posals. 
Monnet, Jean (French Commissaire en Mission), corre- 
spondence with Mr. Grew on lend-lease agreements. 

Monopolies, airline, opposition to, statement by Mr. Clay- 
ton, 614. 

Moore, R. Edgar, designation in State Department, 994. 

Mora, Marcial (Chilean Ambassador), letter and remarks 
on signing United Nations Declaration, 231, 235. 

Morgan, Stokeley \V., addresses on Civil Aviation, 33, 701. 

Morgenstierne, Willielm (Norwegian Ambassador), letter 
to Secretary Stettinius, requesting invitation of Den- 
mark to San Francisco conference, 1048. 

Morgenthau, Henry, Jr. (Secretary of the Treasury), joint 
statements on lend-lease and reverse lend-lease agree- 
ments with France, Belgium, and the Netherlands, 
363, 765, 876. 

Morln, Richard W., designation in State Department, 269. 

Morris, Corlnne D., designation in State Department, 427. 

Moseley, Harold W., designation in State Department, 269. 

Mulliken, Otis F., designation in State Department, 176, 



Munro, Dana G. : 

Article on Mexico City conference resolution concerning 

inter-American system, 525. 
Designation Ui State Department, 269. 
Murphy, Robert D., participant in radio broadcast, 480. 
Murray, Wallace, appointment as U.S. Ambassador to Iran, 

315. 
Mutual aid (see also Lend-lease) : 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Canada and India (1944), 32. 
France and U.S.S.R. (1944), text, 39. 
Yugoslavia and U.S.S.R., text, 774. 
Union of South Africa, exchange of notes establishing 
cash basis, 769. 
Myers, Sir Michael, representative of New Zealand on 
Committee of Jurists, address, 673. 

Narcotics. See Opium. 

National Association of Manufacturers, Committee on 
Aviation and Communications, New York, N.Y., ad- 
dress by Mr. Morgan, 701. 
National Autonomous University of Mexico, announcement 

concerning summer school, 946. 
National Jewish Hospital, Denver, Colo., address by Mr. 

Taft, 942. 
Nationality. See Asylum ; Displaced persons ; Refugees. 
Naval-mission agreement, with Chile, 967. 
Navy Department, relation to Inter-Agency Committee To 

Coordinate Export of Civilian Supplies, 448. 
Netherlands : 

Ambassador to U.S. (Loudon), message of condolence 

on death of U.S. President, 663. 
Displaced persons in Germany, 494, 498, 500. 
Liberation, statement by Mr. Grew, 862. 
Rubber study group, with U.S. and U.K., 108, 128, 161. 
Telecommunication aud postal services, restoration, 

1078. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Civil-aviation agreements : air transit, air transport, 

and interim (1944), acceptance, 108. 
Euroiiean inland transijort, signature, 910. 
Lend-lease, joint statement by State and Treasury 

Departments and FEA, 876. 
Sanitai-y convention (1944), accession, 1038. 
Sanitary convention for aerial navigation (1944), ac- 
cession, 1038. 
UNCIO, list of members of Delegation, 730. 
Neutral governments, denial of asylum to war criminals, 

statements, 190. 
Neutrality Act of 1937, enforcement of provisions, dis- 
cussed in article by Mr. Stuart, 1067. 
Neutrality pact, U.S.S.R. and Japan (1941), denunciation 

by U.S.S.R., text, 811. 
New York City schools, staff, address by Mr. Boal, 96. 
New York Rotary Club, New York, N. Y., address by Mr. 

Rockefeller, 693. 
New York Times Hall, New York, N. Y., address by Mr. 

Grew, 87. 
New Zealand : 

Acting Prime Minister (Nash), message of condolence 

on death of U.S. President, 665. 
Committee of Jurists, address by delegate (M.vers), 673. 
Prime Minister (Eraser), message of condolence on 

death of U.S. President, 663. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Civil-aviation agreements: air transit and interim 

(1944), acceptance, 874. 
Sanitary convention (1944), accession, 1038. 
Sanitary convention for aerial navigation (1944), 

accession with reservation, 1038. 
Shipping, continuance of control for United Nations 
purposes (1944), accession, 1017. 
UNCIO, list of members of Delegation, 577. 
Newfoundland, agreements : 

Agricultural workers (1944), signature, 812. 

Civil aviation, transit agreement (1944), acceptance, 



1192 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Nicaragua {see also American republics) : 
Treaties, agreements, etc.: 

Sanitary convention (1944), 109. 
Sanitary convention for aerial navigation (1944), 109. 
UNCIO, list of members of Delegation, 730. 
U.S. Ambassador (Warren), appointment, 657. 
Nitrogen, synthetic, operation and disposal of, discussions 

with Chilean Government, 644. 
Non-recognitiou of governments established by force, reso- 
lution on by Emergency Advisory Committee for 
Political Defense (1943), 9. 
Norway : 
Anniversary of Nazi attack, statement by President 

Roosevelt, 6S4. 
Displaced persons in Germany, 496, 500. 
Haakon VII, message of condolence on death of U.S. 

President, 663. 
Liberation, statement by Mr. Grew, 904. 
Telecommunication and postal services, rostoratit)n, 

107S. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. ; 

Civil-aviation agreements: air transit and interim 

(1944), 169. 
Civil-aviation convention (1944), 169. 
Euroi^ean inland transport, signature, 910. 
UNCIO : 

Delegation, list of members, 609. 
Invitation to Denmark, letter from Norwegian Dele- 
gation to Secretary Stettinius, requesting, 1018. 
Norweb, R. Henry, appointment as U.S. Ambassador to 



Occidental College Institute of Economics and Finance, 

Los Angeles, Calif., address by Mr. Toimg, 376. 
Occupation of Germany: 
Berlin, 1052. 
Control machinery, 1054. 
Intention of four Powers to consult with other United 

Nations, 1053. 
Plans for 214, 480. 
U.S. zone, plans, 900. 
Zones of occupation, 1052. 
Occupational Deferments, Committee on, appointment of 

Mr. Holmes as chairman, 269. 
Occupied areas, disappearance of U.S. citizens deported by 

Germans from, 577. 
Odell, Clarence B., articles : 
Aliens in Germany, 164. 
.Tews in Germany, 969. 
O'Donnell, Charles, address on peace and economic pol- 
icy, 580. 
Office of Inter-Anieriean Affairs, change in name from 
Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs 
(Ex. Or. 9532), .5S5. 
Office of Production Management, aluminum shortage, 698. 
Office of War Mobilization and Reconversion, creation of 
Inter-Agency Committee To Coordinate Export of 
Civilian Supplies, 448. 
Oil. See Petroleum. 
Okinawa, victory on, message from Prime Minister 

Churchill to President Truman, 1151. 
Okinawa and the Liuchius, article by Mr. Amos, 743. 
Oliver, Covey T., designation in State Department, 176, 466. 
Opium, limitation of production of, exchange of notes 
between U.S. and — 
China, 1031. 
Mexico, 911. 
Orchard, John E., designation in State Department, 176. 
Organization, international. Sec United Nations. 
Otterman, Harvey, address on international regulation of 

radio, 256. 
Oumansky, Constantine (Soviet Ambassador to Mexico), 
and Mrs. Oumansky : 
Death, statement by Mr. Grew, 141. 
Transportation of ashes by U.S. Army plane to Moscow, 
208. 
Overseas Writers dinner, address by Mr. Grew, 327. 



Padilla, Ezequiel (president of Mexico City conference) : 
Message from President Roosevelt, 273. 
Tribute to, by Secretary Stettinius, 398. 
Palmer, Ely E., appointment as U.S. Minister to Afghan- 
istan, 209, 588. 
Pan American Day, remarks by Secretary Stettinius, 669. 
Pan American Society of Massachasetts and Northern New 
England, Boston, Msiss., address by Mr. Rockefeller, 
675. 
Pan American Union: 

Argentine declaration of war against Japan and Ger- 
many, resolution of Governing Board and corre- 
spondence, 61L 
Publication of report of Director General on Mexico City 

conference, 1035. 
Remarks by Mr. Rockefeller on accepting chairmanship 
of Inter-American Financial and Economic Advisory 
Committee, 92. 
Reorganization of, by resolution of Mexico City confer- 
ence, 341, 528, 552, 695. 
Resolutions by Governing Board : 

Argentine declaration of war against Japan and Ger- 
many, 611. 
Death of President Roosevelt, and response by Presi- 
dent Truman, 068, 669. 
Panama (see also American republics) : 

Ambassador to U.S. (Lewis), credentials, 516. 
Civil aviation, interim agreement (1944), signature, 942. 
Cultural leader, visit to U.S., 656. 
UNCIO, list of members of Delegation, 731. 
U.S. Ambassador (Norweb), appointment, 209. 
Paraguay (see also American republics) : 

Declaration by United Nations (1942), adherence, 231. 
Visiting professor from U.S. 314. 
Parks. Marion, article on Mexico City conference, 732. 
Passport agency, at Miami, Fla., opening, 1070. 
Passport control, article by Mr. Stuart, 1066. 
Passport Division, activities described in article by Mr. 

Stuart, 1066. 
Passports : 

Bermuda, travel to, 913. 
Non-military traffic on foreign air routes, 30. 
Pauley, Edwin W., appointment as President's Personal 

Representative on Reparations (Dommission, 807. 
Pawlev, William D., appointment as U.S. Ambassador to 

Peru, 1096. 
Peace, economic basis for, address by Secretary Stettinius, 

593. 
Peace and economic policy, address by Mr. O'Donnell, 580. 
Peace and security organization, international. See Dum- 
barton Oaks Proposals ; United Nations. 
Pearson, L. B., credentials as Canadian Ambassador to 

U.S., 174. 
Pell, Herbert C, discontinuance of services on United Na- 
tions War Crimes Commission. 123. 
Permanent Court of International Justice: 

International Court of Justice, relation to, 672. 
President (Guerrero), message of condolence on death 
of U.S. President, 667. 
Permanent Joint Board on Defense, Canada-U.S., dispo- 
sition of U.S. defense facilities in Canada, 162. 
Peru (see also American republics) : 

Charge d'Affaires, letter and remarks on United Nations 

Declaration, 233, 236. 
Closing of U.S. Vice Consulate at Iquitos, 1089. 
Cordell HuU decorated by, 1151. 
Cultural leader, visit to U.S., 1059. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Civil aviation, interim agreement (1944), aproval, 968. 
Cooperative fellowship program with U.S., second 

(1944-1945), 218. 
Declaration by United Nations (1942), adherence, 231. 
Falsification of currency, public-debt bonds, and credit 
documents, with Chile (1935), ratification, 874. 
Sanitary convention (1944), 109. 
Sanitary convention for aerial navigation (1944), 109. 



INDEX, JANUARY TO JUNE 1945 

Peru— Continued. 

Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued. 
Transmission of judicial writs, witli Chile (1935), rati- 
ficatiou, 874. 
UNCIO, accepjance of invitation to, 608. 
U.S. Ambassador (Pawley), appointment, 1096. 
Petroleum : 

Anglo-American oil agreement (1944), withdrawal from 



i 



Exchange for Argentine vegetable oils, agreement with 
Argentina, 1116. 
Petroleum Administrator for War, representation, 440. 
Plielps, Dudley M., designation in State Department, 4C6. 
Philippines: 

Pounds, transmission to U.S. citizens in, 408, 968. 
Independence, under S.J. Res. 93, statement by Presi- 
dent Truman, 867. 
Liberation of Manila, message from President Roose- 
velt to President Osmeiia, and statement by Mr. 
Grew, 193. 
Opening of U.S. Consulate at Manila, 332, 588. 
President (Osmeila), message of condolence on death 

of U.S. President, 664. 
Repatriation of U.S. citizens from, 427, 867. 
UNCIO, list of members of Delegation, 609. 
Welfare of liberated internees in, 182. 
Phillips, William: 
Address at ceremony in honor of Regent of Iraq (Abdul 

Ilah), 1036. 
Appointment as Special Assistant to Secretary of State, 
840. 
PICAO. See Provisional International Civil Aviation 

Organization. 
Pierson, Harry H., article on English as a foreign language, 

453. 
Plastiras, Nicolas, Prime Minister of Greece, exchange of 
messages with President Roosevelt on restoration of 
liberties to Greece, 91. 
Plaza, Galo (Ecuadoran Ambassador), letter and remarks 

on signing United Nations Declaration, 231, 235. 
Plitt, Edwin A., statement before House committee on 

prisoners of war and Red Cross conventions, 809. 
Poland : 
Arrest of democratic leaders by U.S.S.R., statement by 

Secretary Stettinius, 850. 
Consultations of Mr. Molotov and President Truman 

preceding San Francisco conference, 802. 
Crimea declaration on Polish Provisional Government 

of National Unity, 215. 
Displaced persons in Germany, 496, 497, 499. 
Minister for Foreign Affairs (Tarnowski), message of 

condolence on death of U.S. President, 667. 
Postal service, restoration, 1078. 
Provisional government, invitation to representatives 

of, to consult with Allied Representatives, 1095. 
Soviet request to invite Warsaw provisional government 
to San Francisco conference, statement by State 
Department, 725. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Civil-aviation agreements : air transit and interim 

(1944), acceptance, 644. 
Civil-aviation convention (1944), acceptance, 644. 
Sanitary convention (1944), 10, 109. 
Sanitary convention for aerial navigation (1944), 10, 

109. 
UNRRA (1943), ratification, 426. 
Polish Provisional Government of National Unity : 

Crimea declaration on, 21.5. 
Political Defense, Emergency Advisory Committee for, 3, 

53, 304, 923. 
Poore. Charles G., designation in State Department, 994. 
Pope Pius XII, message to President Truman on death of 

President Roosevelt. 604. 
Populations, displaced, in Euroije, article by Mrs. Carey, 



1193 

Portugal : 

Asylum to war criminals, attitude, 190. 

Civil aviation, interim agreement (1944), acceptance. 

1056. 
Telecommunication and postal services, restoration, 

1078, 1114. 

U.S. Ambassador (Baruch), appointment, 209. 
Postal service, international, during wartime, article by 

Miss Kelly, 868. 
Postal service to Europe, restoration, 426, 546, 1078. 
Post-War Economic and. Social Problems, Commission on, 

734. 
Post-war plans (see also Bretton Woods Proposals; Con- 
ferences ; Dumbarton Oaks Proposals) : 
Addresses by Mr. Grew, 87, 223, 431. 
Defense facilities in Canada, agreement with Canada 

on disposition of (1944), text, 162. 
Economic basis for peace, address by Secretary Stet- 

tinius, 593. 
B5conomic policy for peace, addres.ses and statements 
by Mr. Acheson, 189, 302, 352, 409, 469, 507, 686, 738. 
Economic proposals, address by Mr. Young, 376. 
Foreign economic policy, addresses and statements by 
Mr. Taf t, 129, 382, 534, 578, 826, 905, 942, 955, ' 

1079, 1115. 
Inter-American cooperation, address by Mr. Rockefeller, 

693. 
International understanding, address by Mr. MacLeish 

47. 
Liberty and equality, economic, address by Mr. Culbert 

son, 299. 
Military training, compulsory, statement by Mr. Grew 

1063. 
Monetary stability, address by Mr. Mason, 616. 
Nazi, for future wars, discovery of, 537. 
Radio, international regulation of, address by Mr. Otter- 
man, 256. 
Telecommunications, address by Mr. de Wolf, 250. 
Trade, removal of barriers to, addresses and statements 
by Mr. Clayton, 334, 439, 476, 613, 614, 620, 689, 698, 
760, 933, 979. 
Trade-agreements program in system of world coopera- 
tion, address by Mr. Haley, 645. 
Potomac Cooperative Federation, Washington, address by 

Mr. Taft, 368. 
Powers of attorney, provision for exportation to blocked 

countries, 657. 
Prague, Czechoslovakia, opening of U.S. Embassy, 1089, 

1096. 
Praba. See Prague. 
Presbyterian Social Union, Philadelphia, Pa., address by 

Mr. Taft, 382. 
President, U.S. See Roosevelt; Truman. 
Presidential succession, message from President Truman 

to Congress, 1150. 
Press, radio, and motion pictures, proposed procedure at 
San Francisco conference, statement by Secretary 
Stettinius, 435. 
Prisoners of war and civilian internees (see also Displaced 
I)ersons) : 
Exchange, U.S. and Germany, via "Gripsholm", 44, 196, 

252. 
Exchange, U.S. and Japan, proposed, 132. 
Geneva conventions, observance by U.S. and Germany, 
statement before House committee by Mr. Plitt, 809. 
German offer to leave prisoners of war in camps for 

liberation by Allied armies, 810, 866. 
Joint statement by Secretary Stettinius and Secretary 
of War on hardships suffered by prisoners in Ger- 
many, 683. 
Philippines, evacuees from, arrival in U.S., 867. 
Reciprocal visits to internee camps, proposal to U.S. by 

Japan, 191. 
Relief supplies for Allied nationals in Far East, 32, 188. 
Relocation of camps in Germany, 237, 314, 683. 



1194 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Prisoners of war and civilian internees— Continued. 
Sick and wounded, notification by Germany concerning 

exchange of, 737. 
Soviet allegations of delay in repatriation of, U.S. state- 
ment, 8&4. 
Warning by U.S., U.K., and U.S.S.R. to Germany against 

maitreatuient, 811. 
Welfare of liberated internees in the Philippines, 182. 
Prisoners of War and Displaced Persons Division in U.S. 

zone in occupied Germany, tasks, 901. 
Prisoners of war convention (1929) : 
Argentina, adherence, 878. 

Observance by U.S. and Germany, statement before 
House Committee by Mr. Plitt, 809. 
Proclaimed List of Certain Blocked Nationals. See 

Blocked Nationals. 
Proclamations : 

Death of President Roosevelt, 661. 
Surrender of Germany, 886. 
Property. See Powers of attorney. 
Property, Alien, report of Custodian of, 1028. 
Prosiierity— how can we promote it (Foreign Affairs Out- 
line no. 2), 562. 
Protecting power, relations of State Department with, re- 
specting prisoners of war, 810. 
Protocol, Division of, transfer of certain functions from 

Division of Central Services to (D.O. 1321), 994. 
Provisional French Government. See France. 
Provisional International Civil Aviation Organization : 
Appointment of Mr. Warner as U.S. Delegate, 1057. 
Establishment, 1056. 
Membership, 1056. 
Publications: 

Importation into Germany, statement by President Tru- 
man, 926. 
Lists: 
Agriculture in the Americas, 995. 
Anglo-American Caribbean Commission, 1172. 
Congress, 44, 110, 209, 269, 316, 388, 428, 466, 518, 588, 

657, 716, 785, 840, 881, 914, 946, 995, 1039, 1090. 
Department of State, 44, 111, 210, 269, 316, 388, 427, 
466, 519, 588, 657, 716, 771, 840, 880, 914, 995, 
1039, 1089, 1170. 
Foreign Agriculture, 1172. 
Foreign Commerce Weekly, 44, 111, 316, 388, 521, 588, 

657, 716, 881, 840, 995, 1039, 1089. 
United Nations, oflBcial publications dealing with, 561. 
Pan American Union, report of Director General of, 

on Mexico City conference, 1035. 
Proclaimed List of Certain Blocked Nationals. See 

Blocked Nationals. 
State Department : 
Address by Dr. Spaulding, 983. 
Bulletin, growth of, 985. 
Foreign Affairs Outlines, 5.58. 

Foreign Relations of the United States (1930), 330. 
Territorial Papers of the United States, 1100. 

Radio. See Telecommunications. 
Radio broadcasts. State Department : 

"Building the Peace," 82, 237, 282, 354, 401, 441, 480, 

547, 629. 
Mr. Clayton, 439, 476, 620. 
Mr. Grew, 31, 223, 835, 888, 1097. 
Mr. MacLeish, 950. 
Mr. Rockefeller, 61. 
Secretary Stettinius, 593, 605, 1007. 
Itailiii Conference, Third Inter-American, preparations 

U>T. 9,54. 
Uailin p:iigineers. Institute of, address by Mr. de Wolf, 133. 
Kailins, Walter A., designation in State Department, 839. 
Raw materials, free access of all nations to, U.S. policy, 

079. 
"Reader's Digest," article by Secretary Stettinius re- 
printed from, 115. 
Red Army, 27th anniversary, me.ssage from President 
Roosevelt to Marshal Stalin, 304. 



Red Cross, International : 

Activities under prisoners of war convention and Red 

Cross convention, statement by Mr. Plitt, 809. 
Japanese attitude toward visits to internment camps, 
191. 
Red Cross convention (1929), adherence by Argentina, 

878. 
Refugees (see also Displaced persons) : 

Convention relating to international status of (1933), 
cancelation (1944) of denunciation (1942) by 
France, 110. 
Intergovernmental Committee on, appointment of Mr. 
Harrison as U.S. representative, 452. 
Regional arrangements (see also Inter-American sys- 
tem) : 
Charter of United Nations, relation to, statement by 

Secretary Stettinius, 930, 1009. 
Charter text, 1126. 

Dumbarton Oaks Proposals, provisions in, 145. 
Regional Committee, of San Francisco conference, pro- 
posals submitted to, 949. 
U.S. proposal at San Francisco conference, text, 854. 
Reinstein, Jacques J., designation in State Department, 

466. 
Relief (see aJso Prisoners of war; United States citizens) : 
"Awa Maru," Japanese relief ship, 188, 692, 1033. 
Europe, civilian-supply problems in, article by Mr. 

Stillwell, 917. 
Far East, supplies for Allied Nationals interned in, 

32, 188. 
Food-supply commitments abroad, letter from President 

Truman to Mrs. Morrow, 926. 
Italy : 
Bread-rationing, 29. 
Supplies for, statement by Secretary Stettinius on 

Inquiries relating to U.K. and U.S. policies, 29. 
UNRRA agreement for, 543. 
Liberated internees in the Philippines, 182. 
Shipping for transport of civilian-relief supplies, state- 
ment by Mr. Grew, 219. 
Relief and Rehabilitation Administration, United Nations. 

See UNRRA. 
Remer, Carl F., designation in State Department, 466. 
Reparations Commission : 
List of members of staff, 931. 
Lubin, Isador, appointment on, 434, 807. 
Pauley, Edwin W., appointment as President's Personal 

Representative, 807. 
Problems facing settlement of reparations, statement by 

President Truman, 931. 
Repatriation of U.S. citizens, 44, 196, 252, 427, 1035. 
Representation of foreign interests by U.S. : 
Foreign Service Regulations, revision of, 837. 
Special War Problems Division, function of, 148. 
Representation of interests: 

German property in Washington, transfer by Swiss 

Minister to U.S. as trustee, 900, 954. 
Italian, in U.S., relinquishment by Switzerland, 361. 
Japanese, in U.S., relinquishment by Spain, 649. 
Research and Publication, Division of (see also Publica- 
tions), 983. 
Riggs, Thomas, former Governor of Alaska, death, state- 
ment by Mr. Grew, 107. 
Rights. See Human rights. 

Rights and duties of states in the event of civil strife, con- 
vention on (1928), ratification by Honduras, 874. 
Rios, Juan Antonio (President of Chile), visit to U.S., 

statement by President Truman, lOSO. 
Rockefeller, Nelson A. : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Acceptance of chairmanship of Inter-American Finan- 
cial and Economic Advisory Committee, 92. 
Inter-American Conference on Problems of War and 
Peace, 61, 693. 



INDEX, JANUARY TO JUNE 194S 



1195 



Rockefeller, Nelson A. — Continued. 
Addresses — Continued. 

Inter-American system, relation to world organiza- 
tion, 675. 
Trade Agreements Act, renewal, 7.57. 
Designation as member of Board of Foreign Service 
Personnel and Board of Examiners of the Foreign 
Service, 427. 
Participant in radio broadcast, 547. 
Rockwell, Leo L., visiting professor to Chile, 353. 
Rome, opening of U.S. Embassy as combined oflBce, 148. 
Roosevelt, Franklin D. : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 
Anniversaries : 

Nazi attack on Denmark and Norway, 6S4. 
Pan American Day, read by Secretary Stettinius, 
670. 
Combined Boards, decision to maintain, 119. 120. 
Diplomatic representatives, credentials, 41, 42, 43, 

174, 421, 422, 516, 517. 
Turkey, severance of relations with Japan, 20. 
Correspondence : 
Anniversaries : 

Red Army (27th), 304. 

Yugoslavia, 4th anniversary of new government, 
577. 
President Avila Camacho, of Mexico, on Mexican- 
American Commission for Economic Affairs, 155. 
Mr. Blaisdell, appointment as Chief of Mission for 

Economic Affairs, London, 440. 
Czechoslovakia, tribute to President Benes, 599. 
Deaths : 

Gen. Avila Camacho of Mexico, 252. 
South African Minister to U.S. (Gie), 674. 
Greece, restoration of liberties to, exchange of mes- 
sages with Prime Minister of Greece (Plastiras), 
91. 
Ibn Sand, on declaration of war by Saudi Arabia 

again.st Axis, 375. 
Mexican Foreign Minister (Padilla), president of 

Mexico City conference, 273. 
President Osmeiia on liberation of Manila, 193. 
Senators, new, support of United Nations, 121. 
Secretary Stettinius, on adherence by France to 
United Nations Declaration, 17. 
Crimea conference, joint report on, 213. 
Death : 

Messages of condolence, 662. 
Orders for official mourning, 668. 
Proclamation by President Truman, 661. 
Resolution by Pan American Union, 668. 
Statement by Cordell Hull, 662. 
Statement by Secretary Stettinius, 659. 
Executive orders. See Executive orders. 
Messages to Congress : 
Anglo-American oil agreement, withdrawal from Sen- 
ate, 63. 
Annual message, 22. 

Bretton Woods proposals for International Monetary 
Fund and International Bank for Reconstruction 
and Development, 220. 
Convention on International Civil Aviation, letter of 

transmittal, 437. 
Crimea Conference, report on, 321. 
Trade Agreements Act, renewal, 531. 
United Nations Interim Commission on Food and Ag- 
riculture, transmittal of first report, 536. 
UNRRA, 2d quarterly report, text of letter of trans- 
mittal, 6^1. 
Near East, report on trip to, 289. 
Visit of Prime Minister (King) of Canada, 434. 
Rosenman, Samuel I., summary of report on civilian sup- 
plies for liberated areas of northwest Europe, 860. 
Rowe, L. S. (Director General of Pan American Union), 
publication of report on Mexico City conference, 1035. 



Rubber : 

Cooperative investigations, agreement with Haiti, 190. 

Study group, U.S., U.K., and Netherlands, meeting, 108, 
128, 161. 
Rubin, Seymour J., designation in State Department, 466. 
Rumania : 

Displaced persons in Germany, 496. 

Inquiries on U.S. citizens in, 697. 

Telecommunication and postal services, restoration, 546, 
1078. 
Russell, Francis H., designation in State Department, 269. 
Ryukyus. See Liuchiu Islands. 

Safe haven for Axis property and loot, attitude of Mexico 

City conference, 926. 
Safe-conduct. See "Awa Maru". 
Saint Patrick's Day, address by Mr. Grew, 431. 
San Francisco, Calif., arrangements with Mayor (Lap- 
ham) regarding San Francisco conference, statement 
by Secretary Stettinius, 435. 
San Francisco conference. See United Nations Confer- 
ence on International Organization. 
Sandifer, Durward V., address on regional aspects of 

Dumbarton Oaks Proposals, 145. 
Sanitary convention concerning maritime travel (1926), 
amendment (1944) : 
Accessions. 941, 103& 
British territories, application to, 308. 
Effective date, 109. 
Ratification by U. S., 1038. 
Signatory countries, 10, 109. 
Sanitary convention for aerial navigation (1933), amend- 
ment (1944) : 
Accessions, 941, 1038. 
British territories, application to, 308. 
Effective date, 109. 
Ratification by U.S., 1038. 
Signatory countries, 10, 109. 
Sanitation program, draft resolution of Mexico City con- 
ference, text, 345. 
Saudi Arabia : 
Declaration by United Nations (1942), adherence, 682. 
Declaration of war against Germany and Japan : 

Exchange of messages between Foreign Minister 

Amir Faisal and Mr. Grew, 408. 
Exchange of messages between King Ibn Saud and 
President Roosevelt, 375. 
King Ibn Saud, meeting with President Roosevelt, 290. 
UNCIO, list of members of Delegation, 577, 731. 
Savage, Carlton, remarks on concept of United Nations, 

504. 
Savage, John L., return from China, 461. 
Schoenfeld, H. F. Arthur: 
Appointment as U.S. Representative in Hungary, 127. 
Arrival in Budapest, 968. 
Schoenfelder, Otto W., designation in State Department, 

387. 
Scliurz, William L., designation in State Department, 111. 
Seamen, passports, regulations respecting, 988, 1068. 
Secretary of State («ee also Stettinius, Edward R., Jr.) : 
Authorization to issue regulations and orders for the 
Foreign Service (Ex. Or. 9514 and Ex. Or. 9521 
amending Ex. Or. 9452), 210, 388. 
Authorization to prescribe Foreign Service Regulations 
conveyed to Assistant Secretaries of State, (D. O. 
1310), 428. 
Security, economic collective, place of Bretton Woods in, 

address by Mr. Acheson, 469. 
Security and inter-American relations, address by Mr. 

Boal, 708. 
Security Council of United Nations : 
Charter text, 1123. 

Powers, discussion at San Francisco conference, 1009. 
Voting procedure : 

Memorandum and statement from committees, 1043, 
1044. 



1106 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Security Council— Continued. 
Voting procedure — Continued. 
Questionnaire on exercise of veto, 1044. 
Statements: 
Delegations of four sponsoring Governments, 1047. 
Mr. Grew, 479. 

Secretary Stettinius, 1010, 1043. 
Text proposed by Crimea Conference, 394. 
Security measures in State Department, investigation by 

FBI, 1088. 
Security organization. See United Nations Conference 
on International Organization ; Dumbarton Oaks Pro 
posals. 
Self-defense, right of, proposal for inclusion in Charter 

950. 
Senate. See Congress, U.S. 
Serbs. See Yugoslavia. 

Serrato, Jos6 (Uruguayan Minister of Foreign Affairs) 
letter on adherence by Uruguay to United Nations 
Declaration, 294. 
Service, John S., arrest for unauthorized use of secrei 

information, 1088. 
SHAEP, operations of, regarding displaced persons in Ger- 
many, 1014. 
Shen-yen Chen, invitation to study in U.S., 385. 
Shipley, Ruth B., work as Chief of Passport Division dis- 
cussed in article by Mr. Stuart, 1070. 
Shipping : 

Cargo availability for Argentina, amendment of Fed- 
eral Regulations, 713. 
French ships, use of to carry cargo to France, 90. 
Release of to UNRRA for transport of relief supplies 

statement by Mr. Grew, 219. 
Resumption of exports from France to U.S. through 

private channels, 691. 
Treaties, agreements, etc.: 

Continuance of control for United Nations purposes 
(1944), accessions: Australia, 628; France, 628; 
India, 858; New Zealand, 1017; Union of South 
Africa, 1017. 
Lend-lease agreement with France, ocean-going mer- 
chant vessels not included, 500. 
Ships: 
Awa Maru, 188, 692, 1033. 
Gripsholm, 44, 196, 252, 1035. 
Hosi Maru, 188. 
Silva Peiia, Eugenio, credentials as Guatemalan Ambas- 
sador to U.S., 42. 
Silvercruys, Robert, Baron : 
Credentials as Belgian Ambassador to U.S., 421. 
Exchanges of letters with Secretary Stettinius on lend- 
lease and reverse lend-lease between U.S. and Bel- 
gium, 763, 767. 
Simering, Chauncey L., designation in State Department, 

716. 
Simic, Stanoje, credentials as Yugoslavian Ambassador to 

U.S., 875. 
Small business : 

Foreign trade, relation to, address by Mr. Clayton, 7(>0. 
Problems of, statement by Mr. Clayton, 698. 
Smith, H. Gerald, article, on economic aspects of Mexico 

City conference, 624. ' 
Smith, Harold D. (Director of Bureau of the Budget), let- 
ter to President Truman on lend-lease appropriation 
estimate, 1062. 
Smith, Kenneth E., appointment as visiting professor to 

Honduras, 1168. 
Smith, Robert S., visiting professor to Costa Rica, 938. 
Social and Economic Problems, Post-War Commission on, 

734. 
Social Principles of America, Declaration of, by Mexico 

City conference, discussed by Miss Parks, 732. 
Social progress — how can we work for it (Foreign Affairs 

Outline no. 3), 566. 
Social security and social welfare, draft resolutions of 
Mexico City conference, texts, 345, 346. 



Society of the Friendly Sons of St Patrick, address by Mr. 

Grew, 431. 
Sofianopoulos, John, statement on Security Council, 1043. 
Soong, T. v., address at San Francisco conference, 795. 
South America. See American republics and the individual 

countries. 
Southeast Asian Affairs, Division of, change in name from 
Division of Southwest Pacific Affairs (D.0. 1323), 1089. 
Southwest Pacific Affairs, Division of. See Southeast Asian 

Affairs, Division of. 
Southwest Radio Forum, Tulsa, Okla., address by Mr. 

Cordier, 2.53. 
Sovereign equality of peace-loving nations, principle of, 

600. 
Soviet Union. See Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. 
Spain : 
Ambassador to U.S. (Cilrdenas), message of condolence 

on death of U.S. President, 666. 
Asylum to war criminals, attitude, 190. 
Representation of Japanese interests in U.S., relinquish- 
ment, exchange of notes between State Department 
and Spanish Embassy, 649. 
Telecommunication and postal services, restoration, 
1078, 1114. 
Spaulding, E. Wilder, address on State Department publi- 
cations, 983. 
Special Economic Mission to North Africa and the Middle 

East, 62, 80, 299. 
Special Political Affairs, Office of, 316, 657. 
Spiegel, Harold S., designation in State Department, 466. 
Stalin, Joseph V. : 
Crimea Conference, joint report on, 213. 
Joint statement with President Truman and Prime 
Minister Churchill, warning Germany against mal- 
treatment of prisoners of war, 811. 
Meeting with President Truman and Prime Minister 

Churchill, statement by President Truman, 1095. 
Message from President Truman on surrender of Ger- 
many, 887. 
Stanley, Oliver, British Secretary of State for the Colonies, 

visit to Washington, 107. 
Stanton, Edwin F., designation in State Department, 68. 
State Department (see also Administrative instruction; 
Departmental orders; Executive orders; Radio broad- 
casts) : 
Arrest of employee and Foreign Service officer, 1088. 
Chart of organization (May 1, 1945), 898. 
Foreign Affairs Outlines on "Building the Peace", 558. 
French North and West Africa, joint announcement with 
French Supply Council, Commerce Department, and 
FEA on resumption of private export trade, 832. 
Inter-Agency Committee To Coordinate Export of Civil- 
ian Supplies, relation to, 448. 
International Information Division, activities discussed 

by Miss Wright, 1099. 
Joint statement with British Embassy on maintenance 

of economies of liberated countries, 95. 
Joint statement with British Embassy on reappraisal of 

food supply, 546. 
Publications. See Publications. 
Work of, discusseil in radio broadcast, 629. 
Statistical studies : 

Aliens in Germany, 1939, article by Mr. Odell and Mr. 

Billigmeier, 164. 
Displaced populations in Europe in 1944 with particular 

reference to Germany, article by Mrs. Carey, 491. 
Jews in Germany, 1933-39, article by Mr. Odell and Mr. 
Billigmeier, 969. 
Statute of the International Court of Justice: 
Charter text, 1134. 

Drafting of, by Committee of Jurists, 533, 643, 674, 759. 
Steintorf, Paul I'., appointment as Consul General at 

Manila, 332. 
Stenger, Jerome J., designation in State Department, 466. 



INDEX, JANUARY TO JUNE 1945 



1197 



Stettinius, Edward R-, Jr. : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 
Bloom, Sol, tribute to, 622. 
Cliarter, proposed provisions for, 605, 928. 
Committee of Jurists, 672. 

Conferences in Crimea and at Mexico City, 393, 1008. 
Cuba, visit to, 397. 
Death of President Roosevelt, 659. 
Declaration by United Nations, adherence by : France, 

18 ; Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, and Syria, 681. 
Degree conferred by University of California, 859. 
Dumbarton Oaks Proposals, amendments offered at 

San Francisco conference, 855. 
Economic basis for lasting peace, 593. 
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Na- 
tions, 685. 
Foreign Affairs Outlines, 558. 
General Assembly, size of representation by U. S. in, 

600, 1007. 
Human rights, proposals at San Fi'ancisco conference, 

928, 1011. 
Inter-American Conference on Problems of War and 

Peace, 277, 333, 398. 
Italian supply program, U.K. and U.S. policies, 29. 
Lend-lease, current problems, 940. 
Lend-lease, joint statements with Treasury Depart- 
ment and FEA on agreements with Prance and 

Belgium, 363, 765. 
Liberia, visit to, 219. 
Nazi invasion of Czechoslovakia, sixth anniversary, 

438. 
Pan .American Day, 669. 
Polish question, 850, 1008. 
Press, radio, and motion pictures, proposed procedure 

at United Nations Conference, 435. 
Regional arrangements, proposal at San Francisco 

conference, 930, 949, 1009. 
Reparations t'ommission, appointment of Mr. Lubin as 

U.S. member, 434. 
San Francisco, mayor, arrangements for conference, 

435. 
Security Council, voting procedure, 395, 396, 1010, 1043 
Surrender of Germany, 887. 
Trade Agreements Act, renewal, 748. 
Trusteeship system, 600, 857, 929, 1010. 
Turkey, severance of relations with Japan, 20. 
UNCIO, 435. 600, 605, 608, 669, 671, 724, 791, 792, 

949, 1007, 1144. 
Unconditional.«urrender principle, reply to Senator 

Wheeler's attack upon, 43. 
U.S. prisoners of war in Germany, joint statement 

with Secretary of War, 683. 
U.S. representation in General Assembly of proposed 

Organization, 600. 
Water treaty, U.S. and Mexico, 122, 742. 
Article on Dumbarton Oaks peace plan, 115. 
Correspondence : 
Belgian Ambassador (Silvercruys), on lend-lease 

agreements, 764, 768. 
Death of South African Minister to U.S. (Gie), mes- 
sage to Field Marshal Smuts, 674. 
French Ambassador (Bonnet), on adherence by 

France to United Nations Declaration, 17. 
Mr. Hull, concerning San Francisco conference, 726, 

857. 
Lend-lease with Prance, joint letter on shipping, to 

chairman of House committee, 500. 
Molotov, on third anniversary of lend-lease agree- 
ment with U.S.S.R., 1162. 
Pan American Union, concerning request of Argen- 
tina for meeting of Ministers of Foreign Affairs 
of the American Republics, 91. 
South African Charge (Jordaan) on mutual-aid 
agreement, 769. 
Designation as U.S. Delegate to Mexico City confer- 
ence, 61. 



Stettinius, Edward R., Jr.— Continued. 
Liberia, visit to, 219, 291. 
Participant in radio broadcast, 282. 
U.S.S.R., visit to, 291. 
Stevenson, Adlai E., designation in State Department, 

316, 588. 
Stillwell, James A., article on civilian-supply problems in 

Europe, 917. 
Stimson, Henry L. (Secretary of War), joint statement 
with Secretary Stettinius on U.S. prisoners of war in 
Germany, 683. 
Stinebower, Leroy D. : 
Article on United Nations Food and Agriculture Or- 
ganization, 225. 
Designation in State Department, 176. 
Stocking, Hobart B., visiting professor to Coeta Rica, 208. 
Strategic materials {see also Combined boards; Cotton; 

Nitrogen; Petroleum; Rubber), 129. 
Stuart, Graham H., article on passport control, 1066. 
Sturgeon, Leo D., designation in State Department, 387. 
Subasic, Ivan (Foreign Minister of Yugoslavia), letter 
to U.S. Ambassador concluding agreement with U.S. 
and U.K. on military administration of Venezia 
Giulia, 1096. 
Subversive activities : 
Efforts of Passport Division to uncover, 1066. 
Nazi post-war plans, 537. 

Resolution of Mexico City conference concerning, text, 
344. 
Sugar, industrial alcohol, and molasses, arrangements 
for purchase in Cuba by Community Credit Corp. and 
by FEA, 656. 
Sugar, regulation of production and marketing, interna- 
tional agreement (1937), proclamation by President 
Truman, 836. 
Supplies, civilian, for liberated areas of northwest Europe, 

summary of report of Mr. Rosenman, 860. 
Supply problems in Europe, article by Mr. Stillwell, 917. 
Supreme Headquarters, Allied Expeditionary Force. See 

SHABF. 
Surrender. See Germany ; Italy. 
Survey of U.S. Embassies and Consulates, list of members 

of groups and itineraries, 458. 
Sweden : 
Asylum to war criminals, attitude, 190. 
Crown Prince and Crown Princess, message of condo- 
lence on death of U.S. President, 663. 
Monetary agreement, with U.K., .585. 
Telecommunication and postal services, restoration, 
1078. 
Switzerland : 
Asylum to war criminals, attitude, 190. 
Bombings of Swiss towns, statement by Mr. Grew, 309. 
Clearing arrangement with France, 601. 
Economic negotiations, participation in by Mr. Currie, 

head of U.S. Delegation, 128, 601. 
Financial agreement, with Chile (1944) . ratification, 314. 
Foodstuffs and raw materials, U.S.-U.K.-French ar- 
rangement to permit import, 601. 
Negotiations with U.S., U.K., and France on German 

assets, 128, 601. 
Protecting power for U.S. under prisoners of war con 

vention, 810. 
Representation of German interests in U.S., transfer of 
German property in Washington to U.S. as trustee, 
900 954 
Representation of Italian interests in U.S., relinquish- 
ment, 361. 
Telecommunication and postal services, restoration 
1078, 1114. 
Syria : 
Declaration by United Nations (1942), adherence, 575, 

681. 
Hostilities in, note from U.S. Government to Provisional 

French Government, 1013. 
Invitation to San Francisco conference, 576. 
Minister to U.S. (Al-Koudsi), credentials, 517. 



1198 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Taf t, Charles P. : 
A<l(lresses, and statements before Congress : 
Bretton Woods, 578, 826. 
Economic and Social Council, 1115. 
Free enterprise, a basis for peace, 942. 
Mineral resources, concern of U.S. with, 129. 
Trade Agreements Act, renewal, 534, 826, 905, 955, 

964, 1OT9. 
UNRRA and its relation to other agencies, 368. 
World organization and economic phases, 382. 
Designation in State Department, 176, 716. 
Participant in radio broadcast, 441. 
Taiwan. See Formosa. 
Takla, Selim, Lebanese Foreign Minister, death, statement 

by Mr. Grew, 51. 
Tamiment Social and Economic Institute, Camp Tamiment, 

Pa., address by Mr. Williams, 1163. 
Tangier International Zone, appointment of U.S. Diplo- 
matic Agent (Ailing), 1089. 
Tarchiaui, Alberto, credentials as Italian Ambassador to 

U.S., 422. 
Taxation. See Double taxation. 

Teacher education, fellowships in, for teachers from other 
American republics, change in U.S. regulations re- 
garding, 836. 
Telecommunications : 

Inter-American agreement concerning radiocommunica- 
tions (Santiago revision 1940), ratification by Vene- 
zuela (1944}, 147. 
Inter-Americiin 'arrangement concerning radiocommuni- 
cations (1937). See Inter-American agreement con- 
cerning (Santiago revision 1940). 
International regulations, addresses: 
Mr. de Wolf, 133. 250. 
Mr. Otterman, 256. 
London meeting, 386, 500. 
Radio Conference, Third Inter-American, preparations 

for, 954. 
Radiotelegraph circuit between U.S. and Ethiopia, open- 
ing, 939, 982. 
Radiotelephone services with — 
Ecuador, opening, 1065. 

U.K., relaxation of wartime restrictions, 1149. 
Restoration of facilities with: Bulgaria, 546; Europe, 
426, 1078, 1114; Greece, 426; Italy, 871; Rumania, 
546. 
South American radio agreement (1940), ratification by 

Venezuela (1944), 147. 
U.S. facilities, statement by Mr. Clayton before Senate 
Committee on Interstate Commerce, 602. 
Telegraph. See Telecommunications. 
Tenney, E. Paul, designation in State Department, 1116. 
"Territorial Papers of the United States", article on pub- 
lication of by the State Department, 1109. 
Territorial questions in Europe, equitable solution, state- 
ment by Mr. Grew, 902. 
Territorial Studies, Division of, abolition (D.O. 1309), 387. 
Tito-Subasie agreement, statement by Mr. Grew on pro- 
posed united government of Yugoslavia, 153. 
Tolley, Howard R., article on United Nations Food and 

Agriculture Organization. 225. 
Town Meeting of the Air, Washington, remarks by Mr. 

Grew, 835. 
Trade, international (see also Blocked Nationals; Cartels; 
Lend-lease; Trade agreements; Treaties) : 
Anglo-American cooperation for expansion of, remarks 

by Mr. Fetter, 501. 
Arbitration, commercial, in the treaties and agreements 

of the U.S.S.R., article by Mr. Hilton, 890. 
Barriers, removal, addresses and statements bv Mr. 
Clayton, 334, 439, 476, 613, 614, 620, 689, 698, 7G0, 
933, 979. 
Cargo availability for Argentina, amendment of Federal 

regulations, 713. 
Commodity agreements, address by Mr. Haley, 638. 
Controls, relaxation of in Middle East, article by Mr. 
Winant, 80. 



Trade, international — Continued. 

Economic basis for peace, address by Secretary Stet- 

tinius, 593. 
Employment in U.S., relation to, statement by Secretary 

Stettinius, 597. 
France, license relating to U.S. trade with, issued by 

Treasury Department, 813. 
France, resumption of, plans for, 90, 691. 
Free access of all nations to, U.S. policy, 979. 
French North and West Africa, resumption of export 

trade, 832. 
German iron and steel industry in relation to, article 

by Mr. Merlin, 814. 
International Cotton Advisory Committee, 52, 301, 475, 

545, 772. 
Policies under U.S. law, address by Mr. Bunn, 142. 
Policy, economic, addresses and statements by Mr. 
Taft, 129, 382, 534, 578, 826, 005, 942, 955, 964, 1079, 
1115. 
Policy for peace, addresses and statements by Mr. Ache- 
son, 189, 302, 352, 409, 469, 507, 686, 738. 
Radio broadcast, 401. 
Rubber Study Group, 108, 128, 161. 
Small business, relation to, statement by Mr. Clayton, 
698, 760. 
Trade Agreements Act, renewal : 

Action by Congress, statements by Mr. Grew, 955, 1080, 

1149. 
Addresses: Mr. Ache.son, 509; Mr. Clayton, 979; Mr. 
Haley, 645 ; Mr. O'Donnell, 583 ; Mr. Taft, 534, 826, 
955, 964. 
Message of recommendation from President Roosevelt 

to Congress, 531. 
Statements before Congress: Mr. Clayton, 752, 1024; 
Mr. Rockefeller, 757 ; Secretary Stettinius, 598, 748 ; 
Mr. Taft, 905, 1079. 
Trade controls, wartime, draft resolution of Mexico City 

conference, text, 345. 
Trade-marks, protocol ^n inter-American registration 

(1929), denunciation by Haiti (1944), 107. 
Transport and Communications Policy, Office of, change 
in name from Office of Transportation and Communi- 
cations (D.O. 1318), 839. 
Transportation : 

Automotive traffic, inter-American, agreement for reg- 
ulation of (1943), ratification by Brazil (1944), 108. 
Europe, conditions, 922. 

European inland transport, agreement for provisional 
organization, signature, 910. 
Transportation and Communications, Office of, 716, 839. 
Transportation and litigation, marine, agreement with 

Australia, 621. 
Travel : 

Bermuda, relaxation of restrictions on. 913. 
Non-military, on foreign air routes, regulations, 30. 
Travel-grant program, exchange of experts among Ameri- 
can republics under, 64. 
Treasury Department : 

Lend-lease and reverse lend-lease agreements, joint 
statement with State Department and FEA on 
mutual aid between U.S. and — 
Belgium, 765. 
France. 303. 
Netherlands, 876. 
Trade with France, license relating to, issued by, 813. 
Treaties, agreements, etc.: 

Agricultural experiment station in Guatemala, agree- 
ment with Guatemala (1944), supplemental memo- 
randum of understanding, 874. 
Agricultural Sciences, Inter-American Institute of, con- 
vention establishing (1944), ratification: 
Dominican Republic (1944), 108. 
Honduras, 656. 
Agricultural workers, with — 

Bahamas, amending 1943 agreement, 460. 
Jamaica (1944), 460. 
Newfoundland (1944), 812. 
Alliance and mutual assistance, U.S.S.R. and France 
(1944), text, 39. 



INDEX, JANUARY TO JUNE 1945 



1199 



Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued. 

Aiiglo-Ameriain oil agreement (1944), witlidrawal from 

Senate, 63. 
Anglo-Ethiopian agreement (1944), text, 200. 
Arbitration, commercial, in the treaties and agreements 

of U.S.S.R., article by Mr. Hilton, 890. 
Armistice, U.K. and U.S.S.R. with Finland (1944), text, 

2(J1. 
Armistice, U.S., U.K., and U.S.S.R. with Hungary, text, 

Automotive traffic, inter- American, regulation (1943), 

ratification by Brazil (1944), 108. 
Aviation (see also under Civil; Military), addresses and 
articles by — ■ 
Mr. Latchford, 11, 310, 411, 1104. 
Mr. Morgan, 33, 701. 
Civil-aviation agreements (1944) : 
Acceptance as Executive agreements : 
Article by Mr. Latchford, 1104. 
Exchange of letters between Senator Bilbo and Mr. 
Grew, 1101. 
Action by : Afghanistan, 968 ; Australia, 968 ; Belgium, 
714, 873; Brazil, 1006; Canada, 67, 160, 198; 
Chile, 1057; China, 10.57; Colombia, 968, 10.57: 
Costa Rica, 426 ; Cuba, S74 ; Czechoslovakia, 873 : 
Egyi)t, 874 ; El Salvador, 942. 1057 ; Ethiopa, 478 ; 
France, 1057; Guatemala, 169; Haiti, 1057; Ice- 
land, 873, 1057 ; India, 941 ; Iraq, 1057 ; Ireland, 
941; Lebanon, 1057; Liberia, 873; Mexico, 968; 
Netherlands, 108; New Zealand, 874; Newfound- 
laud, 224 ; Norway, 169 ; Panama, 942 ; Peru, 968 ; 
Poland, 644 ; Portugal, 1056 ; Turkey, 1058 ; U.K.. 
1057 ; Union of South Africa, 1057 ; U.S., text of 
reservations, 198. 
Establishment of Provisional International Civil Avi- 
ation Organization, 10.56. 
List of countries signing, 67. 
Civil-aviation agreements, bilateral : 
Air-transport services, U.S. with — 
Canada, text, 305. 
Iceland, text, 170. 
Ireland, text, 172. 
Civil-aviation convention (1944) : 

Action bv: Belgium, 714; Brazil, 1006; Costa Rica, 

426 ; Cuba, 874 ; Czechoslovakia, 873 ; El Salvador, 

042; Guatemala, 169; Norway, 169; Poland, 644; 

Union of South Africa, 1057. 

Letter of transmittal from President Roosevelt to 

Senate, 437. 
List of countries signing, 67. 
Report by Mr. Grew to President Roosevelt, 436. 
Claims convention, with Mexico (1934), final payment 

by Jlexico of instalments due under, 43. 
Commercial agreement, Colombia-Venezuela (1936), re- 
newal, 834. 
Commercial agreement, provisional, extension, Egypt 
and — 
Ireland (1930), 978. 
U.K. (19.S0), 978. 
Commercial arbitration in the treaties and agreements 

of U.S.S.R., article by Mr. Hilton, 890. 
Commoditv agreements, U.S. policy regarding, address 

by Mr. Haley, 638. 
Cooperative fellowship program, second, with Pern 

(1944-1945), 218. 
Declaration bv United Nations (1942), adherence by: 
Chile, 231; Ecuador, 231; Egypt, 373; France, 17: 
Lebanon, 575, 682 ; Paraguay, 231 ; Peru, 231 ; Saudi 
Arabia, 682 ; Syria, 575, 681 ; Turkey, 373 ; Uruguay, 
294 ; Venezuela, 292. 
Defense facilities in Canada, disposition of, agreement 

with Canada (1944), text, 162. 
Double-taxation : 

Canada (1944), proclamation by U.S., 199, 423. 
France (1939). proclamation by U.S., 38. 
U.K., on estates of deceased persons, 834. 
U.K., on income, 834. 



Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued. 
Education, cooperative, with Ecuador, 438. 
Egyptian foreign-exchange requirements for 1945, U.K. 

and Egypt, text, 586. 
European inland transport, 010. 
Extraterritorial rights, in China, relinquishment, 

Canada and China (1944), ratification, 637. 
Falsification of currency, public-debt bonds, and credit 
documents, Chile and Peru (1935), ratification, 874. 
Financial : 

Chile and Switzerland (1944), ratification by Swit- 
zerland, 314. 
France and U.K., 1016. 

Haiti and U.S. (1943), text of supplementary agree- 
ment (1944), 144. 
Fisheries Mission to Mexico (1942), extension (1944), 

Fourth Protocol, U.S., U.K., and Canada with U.S.S.R., 

for provision of war supplies, 723. 
Friendship, mutual aid and post-war cooperation, 

U.S.S.R. and Yugoslavia, text, 774. 
Friendship and commerce, with Lew Chew (1854), text, 

743 n. 
Germany, assumption of supreme authority over, dec- 
laration bv Allied Representatives (U.S., U.K., 
U.S.S.R., and France), text, 1051. 
Health and saiiifatinn, with Ecuador (1942), exten- 
sion (1944-1111.-,), :n4, 461. 
Inter-American Univcr.'^itv (1943), ratification by Vene- 
zuela (1944), 175. 
Lend-lease, with^ 

Belgium, statements and correspondence, 763. 
France, statements and correspondence, 193, 362, 366, 

500. 
Netherlands, statement, 876. 
U.S.S.R. (1942), third anniversary, 1102. 
Marine transportation and litigation, with Australia, 

621. 
Military air-transport routes, with Canada, 309. 
Military-mission, with — 

El Salvador (1943), extension, 1030. 
Guatemala, 978. 
Militarv-aviation mission, agreement with Guatemala. 

309. 
Monetary, U.K. and — 
Belgium (1944), 66. 
Sweden, 585. 
Mutual aid : 

Canada and India (1944), 32. 

Union of South Africa, with U.S., on cash basis, text. 

Naval-mission agreement with Chile, 967. 

Xeutralitv pact. U.S.S.R. and Japan (1941), denuncia- 
tion iiv U.S.S.R., text, 811. 

Oil. See under Vegetable and fuel oils. 

Prisoners of war and Red Cross conventions (1929), 
statement before House committee by Mr. Plitt, 809. 

Prisoners of war convention (1929), adlierence by Ar- 
gentina, 878. 

Radio agreement. South American (1940) , ratification by 
Venezuela (1944), 147. 

Radioeommunications, inter-American agreement con- 
cerning (Santiago revision 1940), ratification by 
Venezuela (1944), 147. 

Reciprocal aid. See Lend-lease. 

Red Cross and prisoners of war conventions (1929), 
statement before House committee by Mr. Plitt, 809. 

Red Cross convention (1029), adherence by Argentina, 

Refugees, international status, convention relating to 

(1933), cancellation (1944) of denunciation (1942) 

by France, 110, 
Rights and duties of .states in the event of civil strife 

(1928), ratification by Honduras, 874. 
Rubber investigations, cooperative, with Haiti (1941), 

supplementary agreement (1944, 1945). 199. 



1200 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued. 

Sanitary convention concerning maritime travel (1020), 
amendment (1044) : 
Accessions by: Australia, 041; Netherlands, 103S; 

New Zealand, 1038. 
British territories, application to, 308. 
Effective date, 100. 
Ratification by U.S., 1038. 
Signatory countries, 10, 109. 
Sanitary convention for aerial navigation (1933), 
amendment (1944) : 
Accession by : Australia, 941 ; Netherlands, 1038 ; New 

Zealand, 1038. 
Britisli territories, application to, 308. 
Eftective date, 109. 
Ratification by U.S., 1038. 
Signatory countries, 10, 109. 
Shipping, continuance of control for United Nations 
purposes (1944), accessions: Australia, C28; 
France, 628 ; India, 858 ; New Zealand, 1017 ; Union 
of South Africa, 1017. 
Sugar, international agreement regarding production 
and marketing (1937), proclamation by President 
Truman, 836. 
Taxation. See under Double taxation. 
Trade agreements. See Trade Agreements Act. 
Trade-njarks, protocol on the inter-American registra- 
tion of (1929), denunciation by Haiti (1944), 107. 
Transmission of jiiOicial writs, agreement between 

Chile and Peru (1935), ratification, 874. 
UNRRA (19-13), ratification by: Bolivia, 461; Colom- 
bia, 478; Poland, 426. 
UNRRA agreement for relief program in Italy, signa- 
ture and summary of principal points, 543. 
Vegetable and fuel oils, exchange with Argentina, 1116, 
Venezia Giulia, military administration of, between 
U.S., U.K., and Yugoslavia: 
Note from Yugoslav Foreign Minister, 1096. 
Text, 1050. 
Visa procedure for French or U.S. citizens, agreement 

with French Provisional Government, 813. 
War supplies, provision to U.S.S.R. by U.S., U.K., and 

Canada, signature of Fourth Protocol, 723. 
Water treaty, with Mexico (1944) : 
Article by Mr. Clayton, 71. 
Statements on ratification : 
Mr. Acheson, 302. 
Mr. Grew, 303. 

Secretary Stettinius, 122, 742. 
President, Truman, 742. 
Trieste. See Venezia Giulia. 
Truman, Harry S. : 

Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Allied armies, junction in Germany, 808. 
Appointment of Justice Jackson as U.S. Chief of 
Counsel for prosecution of Axis criminality, 8(><i. 
Chilean President (Rios), visit to U.S., 1086. 
Diplomatic representatives, credentials, 775, 776, 875, 

912. 
France's role in settlement of questions of world 

and European interest, 927. 
Lend-Lease Act, extension of, 773. 
Meeting with Prime Minister Churchill and Marshal 

Stalin, 1095. 
Oath of office as U.S. President, statement, 669. 
Philippines, independence for, 867. 
Prisoners of war, joint statement with Prime Min- 
ister Churchill and Marshal Stalin, warning 
Germany against maltreatment, 811. 
Publications", importation into Germany, 926. 
Reparations Commission, appointment of Jlr. Lubin 

as Associate to Mr. Pauley, 807. 
Reparations problems, 931. 
Surrender of German armies in Italy, 865. 
Surrender of Germany, 885, 886. 
UNCIO, 789. 



Truman, Harry S.— Continued. 

Addres.ses, statements, etc.^ — Continued. 
War, prosecution of, 609. 

Water treaty with Mexico, Senate approval of, 742. 
Correspondence : 
Field Marshal Alexander on surrender of German 

armies in Italy, 805. 
Brazilian President Vargas: 
Allied victory, 904. 

Declaration of war by Brazil against Japan, 1060. 
Prime Minister Churchill, on surrender of Germany, 

887. 
General Mark Clark on surrender of German armies 

in Italy, 865. 
Mr. Currie. on resignation as Administrative Assist- 
ant to President, 1108. 
General Eisenhower, on surrender of Germany, 887. 
Food for i^-eedom. Inc.. regarding food-supply com- 
mitments abroad, 926. 
Freedom of the press, Mr. Forrest of N.Y. Herald 

Tribune, 1144. 
General do Gaulle, on .surrender of Germany, 888. 
Haile Selassie, of Ethiopia, opening of direct radio- 
telegraph circuit between U.S. and Ethiopia, 939, 
982. 
Prime Minister King, on Allied victory, 903. 
Lend-lease, appropriation estimate, letter to Speaker 

of House of Representatives, 1061. 
Pan American Day, 669. 

Mr. Pauley, on appointment as Personal Representa- 
tive on Reparations Commission, 807. 
Speaker Rayburn, on renewal of Trade Agreements 

Act, 1026. 
Marshal Stalin, on surrender of Germany, 887. 
Secretary Stettinius on admission of Ukrainian and 
Byelorussian Republics as members of United Na- 
tions, 806. 
U.S.-Soviet Friendship Rally, 1017. 
Executive orders. See Executive orders. 
Messages to Congress: 

Alien Property Custodian, report of. letter of trans- 
mittal, 1029. 
First address (Apr. 16, 1945), 721. 
Japan, plans for victory over, 999. 
Lend-lease report (10th). letter of iransniitlal, 952. 
Presidential succession, 1150. 
Polish question and San Francisco conference, consulta- 
tions with Mr. Molotov, 802. 
Proclamations : 

Death of President Roosevelt, 661. 
Surrender of Germany, 886. 
Trusteeship Council, charter text, 1131. 
Ti-usteeship system, international : 
Charter text, 1129. 

Statements by Secretary Stettinius on principle dis- 
cussed at Crimea Conference, 600, 857, 929, 1010. 
U.S. proposal at San Francisco conference, text. 854. 
Tunnicliff, Everett A., return from China, 107. 
Turkey : 

Ambassador to U.S. (Baydur), credentials, 775. 
Charge- d'Affaires, letter and remarks on United Nations 

Declaration, 373, 374. 
Severance of relations with Japan, statements by Presi- 
dent Roosevelt and Secretary Stettinius, 20. 
Telecommunication and postal services, restoration, 1078. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Civil-aviation agreements: air transit, air transport, 

and interim (1944). ratification, 1058. 
Declaration by United Nations (1942), adherence, 373. 
UNCIO, list of members of Delegation, 731. 
U.S. Ambassador (AViLson), appointment, 148. 
Two Freedoms agreement. Sec Air services transit agree- 
ment under Civil aviation. 



INDEX, JANUARY TO JUNE 1945 



1201 



Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, membership in United 
Nations : 
Letter from President Truman to Secretary Stettinius. 

806. 
Question concerning, 530. 

Statements by Secretary Stettinius, GOO, 1007. 
UNCIO. Sec United Nations Conference on International 

Organization. 
Unconditional surrender (see also Germany) : 
Policy announced at Cairo Conference, discussion in 

radio broadcast, 485. 
Reply of Secretary Stettinius to Senator Wheeler's at- 
tack on, 43. 
Under Secretary of State. See Grew, Joseph C. 
Underwood, Pierson, designation in State Department, 111. 
Union of South Africa : 
Death of former Minister to U.S. (Close), statement by 

air. Grew, 503. 
Death of Minister to U.S. (Gie), messages from Presi- 
dent Roosevelt and Secretary Stettinius, 674. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Civil-aviation agreements : air transit and interim 

(1944), signature, 1057. 
Civil-aviation convention (1944), signature, 1057. 
Mutual aid with U.S., on cash basis, exchange of 

notes, 769. 
Sanitary convention (1944), 109. 
Sanitary convention for aerial navigation (1944), 109. 
Shipping, continuance of control for United Nations 
purposes (1944), accession, 1017. 
UNCIO, list of members of Delegation, 577, 731. 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (see also Byelorussian 
S.S.R. and Ukrainian S.S.R.) : 
Allied armies, junction in Germany, statements by Presi- 
dent Truman and Mr. Grew, 808. 
Ambassador to Mexico (Oumansky) : 
Death, statement by Mr. Grew, 141. 
Transportation of ashes by U.S. Army plane to Mos- 
cow, 208. 
Anniversary (27th), of Red Army, message from Presi- 
dent Roosevelt to Marshal Stalin, 304. 
Commercial arbitration in treaties and agreements of. 

article by Mr. Hilton, 890. 
Commissar for Foreign Affairs (Molotov), message of 

condolence on death of U.S. President, 665. 
Crimea Conference, participation in, 213. 
Displaced persons in Germany, 492, 496, 497. 
Mr. Hopkins, special mission to Moscow for President 

Truman, 953. 
Meeting of Marshal Stalin. President Truman, and 

Prime Minister Churchill, 1095. 
Polish question : 
Arrest of Polish democratic leaders, statement by Sec- 
retary Stettinius, 850. 
Consultation in Moscow with Polish groups on Pro- 
visional Polish Government, 1095. 
Mr. Molotov, consultation with President Truman, 802. 
Request to invite Warsaw provisional government to 
United Nations Conference, statement by State 
Department, 725. 
Prisoners of war, Soviet allegations on delay in re 

patriation, and U.S. statement, 864. 
Prisoners of war and civilian internees, warning to 
Germany, statement by Marshal Stalin, President 
Truman, and Prime Minister Churchill, 811. 
Relations with U.S.. remarks by Mr. MacLeish, 950. 
Telecommunication and postal services, restoration, 

1078. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Alliance and mutual assistance, with France (1944), 

text, 39. 
Armistice with — 

Finland (1944), text, 261. 
Hungary, text, 83. 
Assumption of supreme authority in Germany by Al- 
lied representatives, text of declaration, 1051. 



Union of Soviet Socialist Republics— Continued. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued. 

Fourth Protocol, with U.S., U.K., and Canada, for 

provision of war supplies, 723. 
Friendship, mutual aid and post-war cooperation, with 

Yugoslavia, text, 774. 
Lend-lease, with U. S. (1942), third anniversary, ex- 
change of messages between Commissar for For- 
eign Affairs (Molotov) and Secretary Stettinius, 
1162. 
Neutrality pact, with Japan (1941), denunciation, 
text, 811. 
UNCIO : 

Delegation, list of members, GOO. 

Dumbarton Oaks Proposals, joint amendments offered 

at Conference by sponsoring powers, 851. 
Coniiiiissar for Foreign Affairs (Molotov), participa- 
tion, t;71, 700, 802. 
Gcnonil Ass(ii]l>ly, representation by three votes, atti- 

tiido of r.S. and U.K., 530, 600, 806, 1007. 
Polish quoslion. .S'ee under Polish question. 
Security Council, joint statement on voting procedure, 

1047. 
Sponsorship, 394. 

Ukrainian and Byelorussian republics, admission as 
initial members of United Nations, 530, 600, 806, 
1007. 
U.S.-Soviet Friendship Rally, New York, N.Y., message 

from President Truman, 1017. 
Visit of Secretary Stettinius to, 201. 
United Americans for United Nations, New York, N.Y., 

address by Mr. Taft, 826. 
United Kingdom : 
Anglo-American Caribbean Commission, results of sixth 

meeting, 514. 
Combined Boards, joint decision to maintain, 119, 120. 
Consultation of Allied representatives and Polish groups 

on Provisional Polish Government, 1095. 
Cooperation with U.S. for expansion of world trade, 

remarks by Mr. Fetter, 501. 
Crimea Conference, participation in, 213, 530, 600, 1007. 
Mr. Davies, special mission to London for President 

Truman, 953. 
King George, messages of condolence on death of U.S. 

President, 663, 664. 
Joint statements by British Embassy and State Depart- 
ment : 
Maintenance of economies of liberated countries, 95. 
Reappraisal of food supply, 546. 
Lloyd George, death, telegram from Mr. Grew, 538. 
Queen Mary, message of condolence on death of U.S. 

President, 663. 
Meeting of Prime Minister Churchill, President Truman, 

and Marshal Stalin, 1095. 
Military authorities, relief of European civilians, 917. 
Petroleum agreement, Anglo-American (1944), with- 
drawal from U.S. Senate, 63. 
Prisoners of war and civilian internees, warning to 
Germany, statement by Prime Minister Churchill, 
President Truman, and Marshal Stalin, 811. 
Rubber study group, with U.S. and Netherlands, 108, 

128, 161. 
Telecommunication and postal services, restoration, 

1078, 1149. 
Telecommunications discussions with U.S., 509. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Anglo-Ethiopian agreement (1944), text, 200. 
Armistice with — 

Finland (1944). text, 201. 
Hungary, text, S3. 
Assumption of supreme authority in Germany by 
Allied representatives, text of declaration, 1051. 
Civil aviation agreements : air transit and interim 

(1944), acceptance, 1057. 
Commercial agreement, provisional, with Egypt 
(1930), extension, 978. 



1202 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



United Kingdom— Continued. 
Treaties, aKi-eeinents, etc. — <'iiMlin'icil. 
Double taxation, exploratory conversations with U.S., 

197. 
Double taxation on estates of deceased persons, with 

U.S., 834. 
Double taxation on incomes, with U.S., 834. 
Egyptian foreign-exchange requirements for 1945, text, 

586. 
European inland transport, 010. 
Financial agreement, with France, 1016. 
Fourlli Protocol, with U.S.&.R., for provision of war 

supplies, 723. 
Jlonetary agreement with — 
Belgium (1944), G6. 
Sweden, 5S5. 
Sanitary convention (1944), 10, 109, 308. 
Sanitarv convention for aerial navigation (1944), 

10, 109, 308. 
Venezia Giulia, military administration of, with U.S. 
and Yugoslavia, 1050, 1096. 
UNCIO : 

Address by Mr. Eden, 799. 

Delegation, list of members 570. 

Dumbarton Oaks Troposals, joint amendments offered 

at Conference by sponsoring powers, 851. 
General Assembly, attitude toward additional votes 

for U.S. and U.S.S.R., 530, 600, 1007. 
Security Council, joint statement on voting procedure, 

1047. 
Sponsorship, 394. 
Visit of Minister of State (Law) to Washington, 95. 
A'isit of Secretary of State for the Colonies (Stanley) 

to WasliinKton. 107. 
War ciimrs, discussions with U.S., 81. 
United N;ili(iiis ci.s set up by Charter signed at San Fran- 
cisco .lunc :;G, 1945) : 
Chart of proposed organization, 556. 
Charter — 

Discussed by Secretary Stettinius, 605, 928. 
Text, 1U9. 
General A.ssembly, decision at Crimea Conference in 
respect to number of votes of U.S. and U.S.S.R., 
statements by Secretary Stettinius, 600, 1007. 
Humap rights, provisiops on, 928, 1011. 
International Court of Justice, 533, 672, 759, U32, 1134. 
Membership and purposes. Charter text, 1120. 
Polish question. See Poland. 

Regional arrangements, statements by Secretary Stet- 
tinius, 930. 949, 1009. 
Security Council, voting procedure, 394, 395, 1010, 1043. 

1044, 1047. 
Trusteeship principle, statements by Secretary Stet- 
tinius, 600, 857, 929, 1010. 
United Nations Club, Washington, remarks by Mr. Savage, 

504. 
United Nations Committee, Milwaukee, Wis., address by 

Mr. Holmes, 727. 
United Nations Conference on International Organization : 
Addresses: Mr. Cordier, 2."3; Mr. Eagleton, 6.50; Mr. 
Eden, 799 ; Mr. Grew, 223, 431, 803, 806 ; Mr. Holmes, 
727: Mr. Molotov, 796; Mr. Soong, of China, 795; 
Mr. Taft, 382 ; President Truman, 789 ; Mr. Williams, 
1163. 
Addresses, statements, etc., bv Secretary Stettinius, 303. 
395, 396, 435, 600, 605, 608, 669, 671, 724, 791, 792, 
850, 855, 928, 929, 030, 949, 1007, 1011, 1043, 1144. 
Charter of the United Nations, text, 1119. 
Commissions, lists of U.S. members, 858. 
Congress, U.S. members to confer with U.S. Delegation 

on budgetary problems, 802. 
Crimea Conference decisions, 214, 1008. 
Delegations, lists of members, 576, 609, 729. 
Denmark, invitation to, 1048. 
Dumbarton Oaks Proposals : 

Amendments offered by sponsoring powers, text, 851. 
Discussion of amendments. 855; 903. 



United Nations Conference — Continued. 
Executive Committee, membership, 801. 
General Assembly : 

Proposed redraft concerning, text, 931. 
Representation in, statements by Secretary Stettinius, 
COO, 1007. 
Hull, Cordell, exchange of messages with, 726, 857. 
Human rights, provisions in Charter for, statements by 

. Secretary Stettinius, 928, 1011. 
Inter-American Conference on Problems of War and 

Peace, attitude, 449, 525, 694. 
International Court of Justice, 533, 672, 7.^9, 1132, 1134. 
Invitations : 
Acceptances, 576, 608. 
Mr. Dulles as adviser to U.S. Delegation, acceptance, 

608. 
Extended to Syria and Lebanon, 576. 
Text, including voting provisions supplementary to 
Dumbarton Oaks Proposals, 394. 
Languages of the Conference, official, 801. 
Officers, election, 801. 
Organization, report by rapporteur, 801. 
Polish question : 

Consultations of President Truman and Commissar 

Molotov, 802. 
Request of U.S.S.R. to invite Warsaw Government 
to Conference, statement by State Di>partment, 
725. 
Postponement, denial by Secretary Stettinius, 608, 669, 

671. 
Preliminary arrangements with California officials, 217, 

218, 435. 
Press, radio, and motion pictures, proposed procedure, 

statement by Secretary Stettinius, 435. 
Public interest, statement by Mr. Grew, 806. 
Radio broadcast, 441. 
Regional arrangements, relationship of, statements by 

Secretary Stettinius, 930. 949, 1009. 
Security Council, voting procedure : 
Memorandum and statement from committees, 1043. 
Questionnaire on exercise of veto, 1044. 
Statement by Delegations of four sponsoring Govern- 
ments. 1047. 
Statements bv Secretary Stettinius, 395, 396, 1010, 

1043. 
Suppleraentarv to Dumbarton Oaks Proposals, text, 
394. 
Sessions, 789, 792. 
Sponsoring governments, 394. 
Trusteeship system, basic objectives of, statements by 

Secretary Stettinius, 600, 857, 929, 1010. 
I^rainian and Byelorussian Republics, admission as 
initial members of the United Nations, 530, 600, 
8(«. 1007. 
United States Delegation : 
Advisers, listed, 608. 
Assignments to commissions, 858. 
Consultants, 671, 724. 
Meetings, 435, 724. 
Members, listed, 217. 
U.S.S.R., request to invite Warsaw provisional govern- 
ment to Conference, statement by State Depart- 
ment, 725. 
United Nations Declaration (1942), adherences, 17, 231, 

292. 373, 575, 681. 
United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. See 

Food. 
United Nations Information Board, 100th session, re- 
marks by Mr. MacLeish, 21. 
United Nations Interim Commission on Food and Agri- 
culture, message of President Roosevelt to Congress 
transmitting first report, .536. 
United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference. See 

r.retton Woods Proposals. 
United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration. 
See UNRRA. 



INDEX. JANUARY TO JUNE 1945 



1203 



United Nations sliipping agreement, for continuance of 

control (1944), accessions: Australia, 628; France, 

628 ; India, 858 ; New Zealand, 1017 ; Union of South 

Africa, 1017. 

United Nations War Crimes Commission. See War Crimes 

Commission. 
United States Army (see aUo Anglo-American armies), 

assistance to European civilians, 917. 
United States citizens (see also Prisoners of war and 
civilian internees) : 
Accounts, free ope-ation of, in blocked countries, 642. 
Deported by Germans from occupied areas, disappear- 
ance of, 577. 
Displaced persons in Europe, announcement, 953. 
Funds, transmission to, in Philippines, 408. 
Inquiries concerning nationals in: Bulgaria, 252; Cher- 
bourg area, 268 ; Europe, 953 ; Finland, 968 ; Greece, 
160, 426; Rumania, 697. 
Repatriation of, from Philippines, 427. 
Repatriation of, via "Gripsholm", 44, 196, 252, 1035. 
University of Mexico, National Autonomous, announce- 
ment concerning summer school, 946. 
UNRRA: 

Agreement (1943), ratification: 
Bolivia, 461. 
Colombia, 478. 
Poland, 426. 
Agreement for relief in Italy, signature and summary 

of principal points, 543. 
Civilian-supply problems in Europe, article by Mr. Still- 
well, 917. 
Council of, third session, at London, plans, 1114. 
Food supplies, reports of inability to obtain in sufficient 

amounts, 926. 
F<iod-suiiply coniniitments abroad, letter from President 

Truman to Food for Freedom, Inc., 926. 
International Office of Public Health, performance of 

duties of, 10, 109, 941. 
Quarterly report (2d), text of letter of transmittal, 684. 
Sanitary conventions, functions under, 10, 109, 308, 941, 

1038. 
Scope, functions, and relation to other agencies, address 

by Mr. Taft, 368. 
Shipping for transportation of civilian-relief supplies 
for Italy, Czechoslov;ikia, and Poland, 219. 
Uruguay (see also American republics) : 
Declaration by United Nations (1942), adherence, letter 

from Foreign Jlinister, 294. 
UNCIO, list of members of Delegation, 731. 

Valdivia, Chile, closing of U.S. Consulate, 466. 

Van Vactor, David, appointment as visiting professor to 

Chile, 460. 
Velftzquez, Celso R. (Paraguayan Ambassador), letter and 
remarks on signing United Nations Declaration, 232, 
236. 
Velloso, Pedro Leao (Acting Foreign Minister of Brazil), 

visit to U.S., 410. 
Venezia Giulia : 
Agreement between U.S., U.K., and Yugoslavia on mili- 
tary administration of, text, 1030. 
Statement by Mr. Grew on disposition of, 902. 
Yugoslav Foreign Minister (Subasic), note to U.S. Am- 
bassador in Yugoslavia (Patterson), 1096. 
Venezuela (see also American republics) : 

Acting Minister of Foreign Affairs (Picon Lares), mes- 
sage of condolence on death of U.S. resident, (367. 
Ambassador to U.S. (Escalante), remarks on signing 

United Nations Declaration, 293. 
Cultural leaders, visit to U.S., 1167. 
Foreign Minister (Parra P^rez). message of condolence 

on death of U.S. President, 666. 
Treaties, agreements, etc.: 
Commercial agreement with Colombia (1936) , renewal, 

834. 
Declaration by United Nations (1942), adherence, 292. 



\'enezuela — Continued. 

Ti-eaties, agreements, etc.— Continued. 

Inter-American University (1943), ratification (1944), 

175. 
Radio agreement. South American (1940), ratification 

(1£H4), 147. 
Uadiocommunications, inter-American agreement 
(Santiago revision 1940), ratification (1944), 147. 
UNCIO, Delegate to, 731. 
Veteran Wireless Operators Association, address by Mr 

de Wolf, 250. 
Villard, Henry S., address on Dumbarton Oaks Proposals, 



A'isa procedure for Vn 
French Provision; 

Voting procedure in 
Organization. S( 



ich iir T'.S. citizens, agreement with 
1 Cnvcniiueiit, Si:?. 
eiui-ily Ciiuncil of United Nations 
Security C'luucil. 



Wadih Naim (Lebanese Acting Minister for Foreign Af- 
fairs), letter to Mr. Grew on adherence of Lebanon to 
War criminals : 

Wailes, Edward T., designation in State Department, 209. 
Walsted, John P., appointment as visiting professor to 

Brazil, 381. 
Wang Chung-hui, representative of China on Committee 

of Jurists, address, 673. 
War, declaration of. See Argentina; Brazil; Saudi 

Arabia. 
War — how can we prevent It (Foreign Affairs Outline 

no. 1 ) , 558. 
War Areas Economic Division, responsibilities (D.O. 

1312), 462. 
War Crimes Commission, United Nations : 
Conferences, 1073. 

Discontinuance of services of Mr. Pell, 123. 
Discussion in radio broadcast, 483. 

Punishment of war criminals, statement by Mr. Grew, 
154. 
War criminals : 

Asylum to, attitude of neutral governments, 190, 482. 
Chief of Counsel (U.S.) for prosecution of Axis crim- 
inality, appointment of Justice Jackson, 866. 
Discussions between U.S. and U.K., ,81. 
Punishment of, statement by Mr. Grew, 154. 
Radio broadcast on treatment of, 480. 
Report of Justice Jackson to President Truman, 1071. 
Resolutions of Mexico City conference regarding, 344, 
347, 924. 
War Department, Inter-Agency Committee To Coordinate 

Export of Civilian Supplies, relation to, 448. 
War Food Administration, representation, 440. 
War Food Administrator, Inter-Agency Committee To 
Coordinate Export of Civilian Supplies, relation to, 
448. 
War prisoners. See Prisoners of war. 
War Production Board: 

Foreign-airlines requirements, consideration of, with 

FEA and State Department, 1089. 
Inter-Agency Committee To Coordinate Export of 

Civilian Supplies, relation to, 448. 
Reiireseutation, 440. 
War Shipping Administration : 

luter-Agency Committee To Coordinate Export of Ci- 
vilian Supplies, relation to, 448. 
Representation, 440. 
War supplies, provision of to U.S.S.R. by U.S., U.K., and 

Canada, signature of Fourth Protocol, 723. 
War Supply and Resources Division. See Commodities 

Division. 
Warfel, Harry R., designation in State Department, 111. 
Warner, Edward, appointment as U.S. Delegate on Coun- 
cil of Provisional International Civil Aviation Organi- 
zation, 1057. 
Warren, Avra, participant in radio broadcast, 547. 



1204 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Warren, Earl (Governor of California), exthanse of mes- 
sages with Mr. Grew on United Nations Conference, 
217. 

Warren, Fletcher, appointment as U.S. Ambassador to 
Nicaragua, 657. 

Warren, George L., designation in State Department, .ISC. 

Warsaw provisional government. See Poland. 

Wartime Economic Affairs, Office of, abolishment (D.O. 
130G), 176. 

Washington Cathedral of St. Peter and St. Paul, address 
by Mr. Grew, 803. 

Water treaty, U.S. and Mexico (1944) : 
Action by Congress, statements by President Truuiun, 

Secretary Stettinius, and Jlr. Grew, 303, 742. 
Article by Mr. Clayton, 71. 

Statements before Congress by Secretary Stettinius and 
Mr. Acheson, 122, 302. 

Welfare and whereabouts of Americans abroad. See 
United States citizens. 

West Indies. See Anglo-American Caribbean Commis- 
sion and the individual countries. 

Wheat Council, International, designation of chairman of 
U.S. Delegation (Wheeler), 79. 

Wheeler, Senator Burton K.. attack upon unconditional- 
surrender principle, statement by Secretary Stettin- 
ius, 43. 

Wheeler, Leslie A., designation as chairman of U.S. Dele- 
gation to International Wheat Council, 79. 

White Russian Soviet Socialist Republic. See Byelorus- 
sian Soviet Socialist Republic. 

Wiesman, Bernard, article on preparations for Interna- 
tional Labor Conference, (27th), 424. 

Williams, Chester S., address on San Francisco confer- 
ence, 1163. 

Wilson, Edwin C, appointment as U.S. Ambassador to 
Turkey, 148, 316. 

Winant, Frederick, article on relaxation of trade controls 
in Middle East by Middle East Supply Center, SO. 

Women's National I're.ss Club, Washington, address by 
Mr. Clayton, 439. 

World Affairs Council, Tacoma, Wash., address by Mr. 
Taft, 578. 

World cooperation, addresses by Mr. Haley, 638, 645. 



World trade and world pcare, radio broadcast sponsored 

by State Department, 401. 
World Youth Rally, New York, N. X., address by Mr. 

Hovde, 487. 
WPB. See War Production Board. 
Wright, Irene A., article on international information, 

1099. 
Wright, William D., preliminary arrangements for United 

Nations Conference, 218. 
Writs. See Judicial writs. 

Yalta agreement and Yalta conference. See Crinnu 

Conference. 
Young, John Parke : 
Address on international economic problems, 376. 
Designation in State Department, 466. 
Youth of world and problem of peace, address by Mr. 

Hovde, 487. 
Yugoslavia : 

Ambassador to U.S. (Simic), credentials, 875. 
Anniversary (4th) of new government, message fr(jm 

President Roosevelt, .577. 
Crimea declaration on formation of new government, 216. 
Displaced persons in Germany, 496, 497. 
Foreign Minister (Subasic), note to U.S. Ambassador on 

military administration of Venezia Giulia, 1096. 
Interest in Trieste and Venezia Giulia, statement by 

Mr. Grew, 902. 
Proposed united government, statement by Mr. Grew, 

153. 
Relief for civilians, 923. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Friendship, mutual aid and post-war cooperation, with 

U.S.S.R., text, 774. 
Venezia Giulia, military administration of, with U.S. 
and U.K., text, 1050. 
UNCIO : 

Acceptance of invitation to, 608. 
List of members of Delegation, 610. 

Zariski, O., visiting professor to Brazil, 208. 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

BULLETIN 



VOL. XII, M). 28'* JAiNUARY 7, 1945 



In this issue 



THE STATE OF THE UNION: 

Annual Message of the President to the Congress 

PRIVATE INTERNATIONAL AIR LAW 

Article by Stephen Latchford 

IN DEFENSE OF THE AMERICAS AGAINST AXIS POLITICAL AGGRESSION: 
THE EMERGENCY ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR POLITICAL DEFENSE 



ji 




THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

BULLETIN 

VoL.XII -No.289 i^^y.' PuBLicATion22l3 

January 7, 1945 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a tceekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Research and 
Publication, Office of Public Affairs, 
provides the public and interested 
agencies of the Government tcith 
information on developments in the 
field of foreign relations and on the 
tcork of the Department of State and 
the Foreign Service. The BULLETIN 
includes press releases on foreign 
policy issued by the White House and 
the Department, and statements and 
addresses made by the President and by 
the Secretary of Slate and other officers 
of the Department, as ivell as special 
articles on various phases of interna- 
tional affairs and the functions of the 
Department. Information concerning 
treaties and international agreements to 
which the United States is or may be- 
come a party and treaties of general 
international interest is included. 

Publications of the Department, 
cumulatit^e lists of which are published 
at the end of each quarter, as well as 
legislative material in the field of inter- 
national relations, are listed currently. 

The BULLETIN, published with the 
approval of the Director of the Bureau 
of the Budget, is for sale by the Super- 
intendent of Documents, United States 
Government Printing Office, Washing- 
ton 25, D. C, to whom all purchase 
orders, with accompanying remittance, 
should be sent. The subscription price 
is $3.50 a year; a single copy is 10 
cents. 



Contents 

American Republics Page 

In Defense of the Americas Against Axis Political Aggres- 
sion: The Emergency Advisory Committee for Political 

Defense 3 

Presentation of Letters of Credence: 

Ambassador of the Dominican Republic 40 

Ambassador of Guatemala 42 

Final Payment by Mexico Under the Special Claims Con- 
vention of 1934 43 

Europe 

Italian Supply Program: 

Statement by the Secretary of State Concerning Inquiries 

Relative to British and United States Policies ... 29 

Bread-Rationing for Italy 29 

Presentation of Letters of Credence: Ambassador of the 

Provisional French Government 41 

Far East 

Relief Supplies for Allied Nationals Interned in the Far 

East 32 

Near East 

Turkey Severs Relations With Japan: 

Statement by the President 20 

Statement by the Secretary of State 20 

General 

The State of the Union: Annual Message of the President 

to the Congress 22 

Non-Military Traffic on Foreign Routes 30 

A Message for the New Year: Address by the Under Secre- 
tary of State 31 

Reply to Senator Wheeler's Attacli Upon the Unconditional 
Surrender Principle: Statement by the Secretary of 

State 43 

Exchange of American and German Nationals 44 

Post-War Matters 

Private International Air Law: By Stephen Latchford . . 11 

Information for a Peoples' Peace: Remarks by Assistant 

Secretary MacLeish 21 

The International Civil Aviation Conference at Chicago and 
What It Means to the Americas: Address by Stokeley 

W. Morgan 33 

Treaty Information 

Signing of Two UNRRA Sanitary Conventions 10 

Adherence by France to the Declaration by United Nations 

Exchange of Communications 17 

Ceremonies on the Occasion of the Signing of the Declara- 
tion: 
Message From the President to the Secretary of State . 17 

Statement by the Secretary of State 18 

Remarks by the Ambassador of the Provisional French 

Government 19 

List of Representatives of the United Nations in At- 
tendance 19 

Mutual-Aid Agreement, Canada and India 32 

Double-Taxation Convention and Protocol With France: 

Proclamation by the President 38 

Treaty of Alliance and Mutual Assistance, U. S. S. R. and 

France 39 

Publications 44 

The Congress 44 



In Defense of the Americas Against Axis 
Political Aggression 

The Emergency Advisory Committee for Political Defense' 



OF THE VARIOUS Inter- American agencies 
established prior to and during the war to 
advise the governments on emergency problems, 
perhaps the Emergency Advisory Committee for 
Political Defense represents the most radical de- 
parture from past experience and tradition. Al- 
though none of its characteristics can be said to be 
entirely new, their combination in and application 
by the Committee are in many respects quite novel. 
The means and manner by which the Committee 
has carried out the task with which it was charged 
appear to be of as much interest as its actual 
accomplisliments, which themselves have consti- 
tuted, during the nearly three years since its crea- 
tion, a vital contribution to the defense of the 
Americas. 



The Establishment and Organization of the 
Committee 

When the Third Meeting of the Ministers of 
Foreign Affairs of the American Republics was 
held in Rio de Janeiro in January of 1942, the 
entire continent had come to realize the seriousness 
of the threat with which it was faced. It was at 
last fully awake to the vital danger presented both 
by the well-planned and well-executed political 
and psychological offensive which the Axis states 
had been carrying on for years and by the military 
aggression of which the Americas became victims 
on December 7, 1941. 

Therefore, the governments represented at the 
Third Meeting recommended, in resolution I, the 
breaking of diplomatic relations with the Axis; 
in resolution XVII they agreed on a political- 
defense policy for the individual and collective 
defense of the continent and created the Commit- 
tee to advise them on the implementation of the 
policy and the coordination of the measures for 
joint defense against the constantly changing Axis 
attack. 



The pertinent provision of resolution XVII 
reads as follows : 

"To study and coordinate the measures recom- 
mended in this Resolution, the Governing Board 
of the Pan American Union shall elect, prior to 
March 1, 1942, a committee of seven members to 
be known as 'The Emergency Advisory Committee 
for Political Defense'." 

The Union was also requested to determine the 
function of the Committee, prepare its regulations, 
and fix its budget of expenditures, "after consult- 
ing the Governments of the American Republics". 

This directive was fulfilled, and the Committee, 
composed of members appointed by 7 governments 
but representing and acting in the interest of all 
21 American republics, held its first session at its 
permanent headquarters in Montevideo, Uruguay, 
on April 15, 1942.^ It has been in practically con- 
tinuous session since that date. 

Pursuant to its bylaws and rules of internal pro- 
cedure, the Committee has a permanent secretariat 
appointed by the Government of Uruguay, and a 
technical consultant and two assistants appointed 
by the Committee. It has appropriate subcommit- 
tees to study variants of Axis subversive activities 
and the relevant legislative and administrative 
control measures in the republics, as well as the 
suggestions and proposals received from the gov- 
ermnents. On the basis of this study the subcom- 

' The principal sources of information used in the prep- 
aration of this article are : The first and second Annual 
Reports of the Committee, and "The Emergency Advisory 
Committee for Political Defense", by Carl B. Spaeth and 
William Sanders {American Journal of International Law, 
vol. 38, No. 2, April 1944 ; published in Spanish in La Re- 
vista de Derecho, Jurisprudencia y Administracidn of 
Uruguay, August 1944). Mr. Spaeth is Chief of the Divi- 
sion of River Plate Affairs, Office of American Republic Af- 
fairs, Department of State. Mr. Sanders is the member 
appointed by the United States on the Emergency Advisory 
Committee for Political Defense. 

'Bulletin of Apr. 11, 1942, p. 322. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BlLLETiy 



mittees prepare draft resolutions or programs of 
action for consideration by the full Committee. 

Four major methods, two proposed bj' the regu- 
lations approved by the Governing Board of the 
Pan American Union and two devised by the Com- 
mittee as the result of its own experience, are 
utilized in the development of its work in conjunc- 
tion with the goverimients of the 21 American re- 
publics : 

a) Liaison officers between the governments of 

each of the republics and the Committee. 

b) National committees for political defense. 

c) Consultative visits. 

d) General and regional meetings of national 

officials. 

The employment of liaison officers as a perma- 
nent means of contact between the Committee and 
the governments is provided for in the regulations 
of tlie organization. Article 4 provides : 

"Tlie Government of each country, member of 
the Pan American Union, shall be requested to des- 
ignate a qualified official who shall reside in the 
capital city of his respective country, and who 
shall sei"ve as a contact between his Government 
and the Conunittee." 

The liaison officers constitute a permanent link 
between the governments and the Conmiittee, and 
their activities consist principally in communicat- 
ing information on the political-defense measures 
adopted by their countries, in transmitting pro- 
posals or initiatives that might serve as the basis 
of recommendations by the Committee, and in 
maintaining a permanent contact with the various 
governmental departments and agencies charged 
with the application of the measures recommended 
by the Committee. 

In view of the ramifications of the problems of 
political defense and of the great variety of gov- 
ernment agencies involved, it became evident 
shortly after the Committee began its work that the 
task of the liaison officers could be greatly facili- 
tated by the creation of national interdepartmen- 
tal committees in which all such agencies could be 
represented. The Conmiittee, therefore, urged 
such a step, and national committees have been 
created in at least 10 American republics. In most 
of the other countries procedures or arrangements 
have been put into operation which serve the same 
purposes. The system of national committees and 
their equivalent has produced excellent results, 



both in the assistance they have given the Com- 
mittee and in establishing close working relations 
among the national officials dealing with political- 
defense matters. 

The necessity for direct personal contact be- 
tween the Committee and the goverimients was 
likewise recognized in the bylaws of the Commit- 
tee, article 9 of which provides that "in the per- 
formance of its work the Committee may designate 
one or more of its members to visit the different 
countries, members of the Pan American Union." 
The Committee has made extensive use of this pro- 
cedure, having carried out consultative visits to 
almost all the republics of the continent. These 
visits are discussed, and their results are appraised 
below. 

Another method of contact between the Commit- 
tee and the governments is that of regional or gen- 
eral meetings, which is designed to test the practi- 
cal utility of the Committee's recommendations 
and to afford operating officials an opportunity for 
discussion of common problems and exchange of 
information. Since the objectives of these meet- 
ings are similar to those of the consultative visits, 
the Committee has resorted to this procedure on 
only one occasion, reserving it for use in special 
emergency cases which might affect a region or the 
continent as a whole. 

Principles of Organization of the Committee 

The Committee acts on the basis of an organic 
charter which defines its functions and the scope 
of its competence. This basic charter includes 
resolution XVII of the Third Meeting of the 
Ministers of Foreign Affairs at Rio de Janeiro, 
the memorandum annexed to that document, and 
other pertinent resolutions of the three meetings of 
foreign ministers. The existence of these con- 
trolling policy directives has had a decisive effect 
(m the activities of the Committee. 

It would have been extremely difficult for the 
Committee to devot« its attention from the outset 
to the elaboration of concrete programs of political 
defense designed for immediate application by the 
governments, if the members had found it neces- 
sary fii-st to come to an agreement on the basic 
policy of such programs. The fact that the 
Committee was created as an international or- 
ganization with a basic grant of authority which 
determined the objectives of its action made it 
possible for it to devote itself immediately to the 



JANUARY 7, 1945 



Technical Consultant: 



study of the means by 
which these objectives 
might be realized. 

The previous determi- 
nation of the Committee's 
policy directives, more- 
over, not only facilitated 
consideration and ap- 
proval of the recom- 
mendations by the Com- 
mittee, but it also ex- 
pedited and accounted 
for the acceptance of the 
recommendations by the 
various governments. 
This acceptance was a 
consequence of the fact 
that the American repub- 
lics had previously com- 
mitted themselves to the 
policy which the recom- 
mendations were de- 
signed to implement. 

In carrying out its 
policy directives, the 
Committee, and each of 
its members, represents 
and acts on behalf of all 
the American republics. 

As indicated previous- 
ly, this principle is ex- 
pressly provided for in 
article 2 of the bylaws, 
which requires that the 
Committee "shall repre- 
sent and shall f uncticm on 
behalf and in the in- 
terests of all the governments members of the 
Pan American Union." This stipulation was ac- 
cepted by the governments when they gave their 
approval to the bylaws submitted to them with 
the Governing Board's report of February 25, 1942. 

It is clear that the Governing Board of the Pan 
American Union understood that the foreign min- 
isters at Rio de Janeiro entnisted to it the respon- 
sibility of organizing a committee of 7 indiAaduals 
to represent the 21 governments and not of 7 gov- 
ernments to act in the name of and on behalf of 
themselves and the other 14. The method of selec- 
tion of the members, by having 7 governments 
designate them, was merely an incident of the 



Emergency Advisory Committee 
For Political Defense 

Chair-man 

AiaERTO GUANI 

Members* 

Pedro Aubeuo db Goes Monteiro 
Advisers: Arthur dos Guimaraes Bastos 
Manuel Pio Correa, Jr. 

Sergio Montt Rivas 
Adviser: Oscar Ramirez Sotomayor 

William Sanders 
Adviser: Ward P. Allen 

Mariano AbmendAbiz del Castillo 

RiCABDO Boza Aizcorbe** 

Alberto Guani 

Eduardo Arroyo Lambda 



Staff 



Secretary General: 
Jos6 L. Chouhy Terra 
Assistants: Subsecretary: 

Alejandro Rovira Eduardo Jimenez de 

Luis Segui Gonzalez Ar^chaga, Jr. 

*The members of the Committee, although ap- 
pointed by the Governments of Brazil, Chile, United 
States of America, Mexico, Peru, Uruguay, and 
Venezuela respectively, represent and act in the 
name of the 21 American republics. 

**Senor Ricardo Boza Aizcorbe was appointed on 
October 19, 1944 by the Government of Peru, which 
was invited by the Governing Board of the Pan 
American Union to designate a member in view of 
the withdrawal from the Committee of the member 
appointed by the Government of Argentina. 



Conmiittee's organiza- 
tion resulting from the 
urgent need for its im- 
mediate establishment. 

The Committee thus 
became the first inter- 
American body to be ex- 
pressly required by the 
American republics to 
represent the entire com- 
munity. There were 
sound reasons for this 
innovation, and the Com- 
mittee's experience has 
abundantly demonstrated 
the wisdom of the step. 

The representative 
principle may be con- 
sidered inherent in the 
nature of the Committee 
as an international body 
of limited membership, 
the policy directives of 
which constitute an 
agreement among the en- 
tire group of interested 
governments. Limited 
membership alone would 
not have required the 
representative principle. 
(Similar international 
bodies are not expressly 
required by the govern- 
ments to operate through 
accredited delegates or 
diplomatic channels. ) It 
is the fact that the policy 
directives of the Committee, to which all the 
republics are committed, authorize it to submit 
recommendations for imniediafe application by 
each country within its national territory that, in 
conjunction with its limited membership, made 
the representative principle imperative. 

Without this principle the governments which 
had not designated the members would have been 
placed at a disadvantage in relation to those au- 
thorized to make the appointments, since only the 
latter would have had, through their members, 
an opportunity to determine the necessary meas- 
ures by which the commitment entered into by 
the 21 governments at Eio de Janeiro could be 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BVLLETIN 



implemented throughout the continent. By con- 
verting the 7 members into a collective representa- 
tive of the conununity, the representative prin- 
ciple assures equalitj' to all the republics within 
the Committee. By thus placing each of the gov- 
ernments on an identical plane, the principle inex- 
orably required the Committee to rely exclusively 
on the "instructions" from the 21 governments 
contained in resolution XVII. It was conse- 
quently imperative that the members be guided, as 
they have been, with one exception, solely by the 
definition of the general interest incorporated in 
that agreement on policy and objectives. This 
rule is a guaranty that the general interest defined 
in the policy directives will be impartially served. 

Moreover, the representative principle not only 
insures equality of representation, but it also 
serves as a basic rule of interpretation by which 
the Committee measures the proposals which it 
submits to the goveriunents for the implementa- 
tion of the policy agreed upon at Rio de Janeiro. 
The members must judge all such measures from 
the point of view of suitability and utility in pro- 
moting the collective interest of the continent, 
rather than from the effect on particular national 
interests. 

The representative principle thus has empha- 
sized the supremacy of the general intei'est in the 
community of American republics as that interest 
is defined in the Committee's policy directives. 

One of the important corollaries of this princi- 
ple is that within the Committee the members act 
in an individual capacity. This expediency has 
meant a freedom from those considerations of pro- 
tocol which so often complicate and delay the ac- 
tion of a gathering of delegates, each of whom 
speaks and acts exclusively in the name and on 
behalf of a sovereign government. Moreover, 
controversial issues could be considered and re- 
solved on their merits; the individual members 
could freely express their opinions without in- 
volving their governments in any manner. As a 
result, the decisions of the majority could be sub- 
mitted to the governments as the decisions of the 
Committee with no mention of minority votes. 

Activities of the Committee 

Legislatwe Program 

Between April 15, 1942 and June 11, 1943 the 
Conunittee submitted 21 programs of action to the 
American governments. The programs are de- 



tailed applications of the policies of resolution 
XVII and are built around the four-fold division 
of the memorandum attached thereto : 

(a) The control of dangerous aliens; 

(b) The prevention of abuse of citizenship; 

(c) The regulation of entry and exit and the 
prevention of clandestine crossing of fron- 
tiers; and 

(d) The prevention of acts of political aggres- 
sion, including espionage, sabotage, and the 
dissemination of totalitarian propaganda, 
and the protection of vital information 
through censorship controls. 

The Committee, in j^reparing the programs, 
studied the problems which called for emergency 
defense action and investigated the legislative and 
constitutional structure of the several republics. 

The Committee's studies and the information 
furnished by national officials revealed that, while 
the statutes of the American republics prior to the 
Rio Conference were in general adequate to deal 
with acts prejudicial to the state and its institu- 
tions in peacetime, they could not readily be uti- 
lized to cope with the wide-spread organization 
and ever-changing tactics of Axis jjolitical war- 
fare. Hence it became evident that, in all the areas 
covered by resolution XVII, proposals would have 
to be designed to key both legislation and admin- 
istration to security problems as presented by the 
war and, particularly, to cope with the known facts 
of Nazi organization and method. Therefore, pro- 
grams wei"e submitted, under division (a), on the 
registration of aliens, certificates of identity, and 
the detention and expulsion of dangerous Axis na- 
tionals; and, under division (d), on the protection 
of ships and port facilities, the censorship of inter- 
national conmmnications, the protection of inland 
facilities against sabotage, and clandestine radio 
stations. Under divisions (b) and (c) two com- 
prehensive reconmiendations, one on each of the 
subjects indicated, were submitted. 

Variations in the character of the problems and 
in the legal structure among the republics obliged 
the Committee to base its program on general prin- 
ciples and minimum standards. Resort to mini- 
mum standards was believed imperative as a means 
of laying the groundwork for a coordinated con- 
tinental system of political defense. Hence the 
recommendations did not take the form of draft 
laws or decrees, but they provided, in considerable 
detail, a basis for such laws or decrees. 



JANUARY 7. 1945 

Although the programs were to be directed pri- 
marily against the Axis aggressors and their na- 
tionals, the foreign ministers were aware in the 
declaration of policy — as the Committee has been 
in its application — that Axis agents are often not of 
Axis nationality. Consequently the measures pro- 
posed by the Committee have included general pro- 
visions which are not keyed or limited by reference 
to nationality and in addition special, and often 
more exacting, measures directed at the Axis na- 
tionals or organizations. 

The several parts of the legislative program 
constitute an integi-ated system of defense. In gen- 
eral the measures may be divided into two main 
groups: those concerned with all aspects of con- 
trol over the individual (registration, detention 
and expulsion, abuse of citizenship, and control 
over travel) ; and those concerned with special se- 
curity problems (protection of ships, ports, and 
plant facilities ; censorship ; dissemination of prop- 
aganda). Within each group and between the 
groups there is an obvious interrelation. The con- 
trols over travel, once entry has been attained, are 
keyed into the system of registration and sur- 
veillance. The censorship controls, together with 
the travel regulations and the measures proposed 
with respect to clandestine radio stations, provide 
the means for the effective crippling of the Axis 
communications network. Supplementary both to 
the controls over persons and to communication 
facilities are the measures for the protection of 
ships, ports, and mine and plant facilities. 
''FoUmo Up" Work 

This program has consisted of two principal 
parts: first, a series of consultative visits to the 
capitals of the hemisphere, and, second, the pi-epa- 
ration and transmission to each country of special 
detailed memoranda and other communications 
dealing with particular aspects of the individual 
problems of the republics. 

The first series of consultative visits was carried 
out during the months of March and April of 1943 
with the respective national authorities in Argen- 
tina, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Uruguay. From 
June to October 1943, two delegations composed of 
representatives of the Committee simultaneously 
undertook extensive tours of the continent to con- 
duct similar consultations with the governments of 
the countries of northern South America, the 
Caribbean, Central America, and the United 
States. 



In each of the visits the procedure followed was 
substantially the same. After a formal opening 
session, a series of extensive conferences and dis- 
cussions was held over a period of several days 
and utilized as a working basis the outline of the 
minimum structure for political defense as re- 
vealed in the 21 resolutions of the Committee. 

In each republic the governments appointed 
special commissions composed of high policy offi- 
cers and specialized experts with whom the Com- 
mittee's representatives considered the following 
aspects of each topic : The nature of the manifesta- 
tions within the country of the Axis activities 
concerned, the legal and administrative steps 
which have been taken by the country, the applica- 
bility of the Committee's recommendations, and 
any additional measures which should be taken 
on the basis thereof. 

The visits were conducted without formality or 
protocol, the representatives of the Conamittee 
making it clear, usually at the first session, that 
they hoped to "get down to cases" through a full 
and frank interchange of views. Hence, when 
on occasion there was an evident desire on the part 
of a national official to describe his program in 
general terms through unsupported assertions that 
all steps had been taken as recommended, the Com- 
mittee's delegation did not hesitate to press for 
detailed substantiation. In all cases such insist- 
ence on practical detail was respected as a sincere 
effort to fulfil a responsibility to the community 
of American states. 

In many of the countries visited, the various 
suggestions for the adoption of additional legis- 
lative and administrative measures agreed upon 
during the sessions by the national officials and the 
Committee's delegation were embodied in a series 
of conclusions which at the closing session of the 
visit were read, discussed, approved, and signed by 
both the delegation of the Committee and the na- 
tional officials who took part in the various tech- 
nical sessions. 

When the visits were completed, when the re- 
ports thereon were submitted to the full Commit- 
tee, and when the extensive documentary material 
obtained from the various countries was analyzed, 
the Connnittee began the preparation of special, 
confidential, detailed memoranda to each govern- 
ment, with reference to its political-defense 
problems. 



DEPARTME1\T OF STATE BULLETIN 



In each memorandum the Committee attempted 
further to particularize its recommendations to 
the special situations in the republic to which it 
was sent and to make certain additional sugges- 
tions in the various fields covered by its resolu- 
tions. The Committee sought to supply the inter- 
ested government with information concerning 
the helpful experience of other American repub- 
lics which were confronted with similar problems, 
including, in several instances, the transmission 
of compilations of legislation of the several coun- 
tries on particular subjects. These memoranda at- 
tempted to carry on where the consultative visits 
left off. 

Although during the consultative visits an at- 
tempt was made to discuss in as great detail as 
possible every aspect of the political-defense sys- 
tem, in the "follow up" memoranda the Committee 
has sought to concentrate upon those particular 
aspects which in its opinion were of primary im- 
portance to each government — either because the 
need for the adoption of additional measures was 
great or because special difficulties in the way of 
effective control were present. 

In many cases the conclusions reached during 
the course of the visits provided the point of de- 
parture for the memoranda, and further informa- 
tion was sought as to the manner in which these 
conclusions were being carried into effect. 

These "follow up" memoranda represent the cul- 
mination of the progressive particularization of 
the general principles of political defense agreed 
upon at the Third Meeting of Foreign Ministers. 
The annex to resolution XVII of that meeting 
gave a general outline of the objectives embodied 
in the accompanying resolution. Through the pro- 
grams of action contained in its recommendations 
the Committee sought to define the general mini- 
mum standards and in some instances to detail 
methods and procedures for the accomplishment 
of those objectives. The system of consultative 
visits was designed to assist in the adaptation of 
these standards and techniques to the situations in 
each country. The series of memoranda have con- 
tinued that process. 

In a discussion of the Committee's efforts to ob- 
tain an implementation of its legislative program, 
reference is appropriate to its publication of sub- 
stantiated charges against a continental network 
of Axis agents operating from headquarters in 
Argentina and Chile. Through the publication of 
two well-documented memoranda during the 
months of November 1942 and January 1943, the 



Committee not only gave real content to the gen- 
eral assertions of Nazi activities, but it also dem- 
onstrated the practical character of and urgent 
need for action on the measures being proposed to 
the American republics. The memoranda de- 
scribed the key role of the Axis "diplomats"; they 
named the party leaders; they traced the com- 
munications system by courier and clandestine 
radio through which a constant two-way stream of 
information was moving between South America 
and Berlin; and they cited the consequences in 
terms of American lives and property. Almost 
every fact and incident disclosed by the memo- 
randa gave new practical meaning to the programs 
prepared by the Committee. 

By means of the "conclusion" technique of the 
consultative visits, through tlie informed channels 
of communication provided by the liaison officers 
and the national conunittees, by means of the 
"follow up" memoranda, and by the timely pub- 
lication of evidence of continuing Axis activity the 
Committee has gone as far, perhaps, as an ad- 
visory international body is able and competent to 
go in securing practical, down-to-earth applica- 
tion of principles and standards conceived in the 
interest of a community of states. 

Recognition of Governments Established by Force 

Near the close of 1943 it became evident that 
the slight success of the Axis attempts to sow con- 
fusion and disunity in America was making it 
necessary for them to resort to other and more 
direct methods to achieve their objective. The 
presence within the continent of subversive ele- 
ments gave the Axis powers their opportunity, and 
indications were multiplying that those groups 
were planning to participate in movements de- 
signed to overthrow established governments in 
several countries and that they were receiving ad- 
vice, encouragement, money, and other forms of 
assistance from organizations or persons known 
to be connected with or inspired by the Nazis. 

The overthrow on December 29, 1943 of the 
established Government of Bolivia brought these 
fears suddenly to the fore. Although it was pre- 
ceded and accompanied by wide-spread sugges- 
tions that this particular cojip cVctat was the first 
of a series designed to break down the existing anti- 
Axis front in South America, it was apparent that 
a political-defense question of great magnitude and 
urgency had suddenly been precipitated. The 
question was novel: There existed neither an 



JAIWAliY 7, 1945 



agreed policy nor a siieedy procedure by which 
the interested republics could promptly act to- 
gether to meet this potential threat to their indi- 
vidual and collective security and solidarity. 

On December 24, four days after the revolution 
occurred, the Committee adopted a resolution 
which supplied both the policy and the procedural 
needs : It recommended that for the duration of the 
war the American republics agree not to accord 
recognition to any new government established by 
force, prior to full exchange of information and 
consultation among themselves regarding the cir- 
cumstances surrounding the revolution and par- 
ticularly the adherence of the new regime to the 
existing inter-American undertakings for hem- 
ispheric defense.^ Nineteen interested govern- 
ments promptly announced their acceptance of this 
formula, whereupon, on January 5, the Committee 
adopted a second resolution, recommending that 
the usual diplomatic channels be utilized as the 
procedural mechanism for effectuating the neces- 
sary exchanges of information and consultations." 
Within a brief time, during which those republics 
also gave consideration to a suggestion of the Mex- 
ican Government that a special consultative meet- 
ing might be desirable, all interested governments 
accepted the second resolution. Upon completion 
of their consultations, they announced their re- 
spective individual decisions to refrain from rec- 
ognizing the new regime. 

The governments continued their joint consider- 
ation and study of the problem, however, and in 
June 1944, as a result of further consultations, 
they reached the conclusion that, during the six 
months which had elapsed, the causes which 
impeded recognition had disappeared. Conse- 
quently the republics decided to recognize the 
Bolivian Government, and a majority of them 
accepted the proposal of the Foreign Ministry of 
Mexico to the effect that this recognition should 
take place sinuiltaneously on June 23, 1944.^ 

Almost all the American nations communicated 
their decisions to the Committee, and on June 23; 
1944, the Committee approved a new resolution 
which, after giving expiession to the consequent 
general pleasure felt throughout the continent, 
made public its own satisfaction over the recogni- 
tion and which emphasized the significance of the 
fact that this inter-American action had been taken 
in the solidary manner in which the conmiunity 
of American nations confronts problems of com- 
mon interest. At the same time the chairman of 
the Committee sent its congratulations to the Min- 



ister of Foreign Affairs of Bolivia, from whom a 
courteous reply was received. 

In addition to this instance in which the pro- 
cedure counseled by the Committee was invoked 
for the first time, subsequent changes of govern- 
ment have been brought about by force in Argen- 
tina, Ecuador, El Salvador, and Guatemala; in 
every case the governments have taken the Com- 
mittee's resolution into account in reaching a de- 
cision concerning whether to recognize or not to 
recognize the new governments so instituted. In 
three of these cases the known circumstances 
which determined the establishment of the new 
governments caused the American republics, after 
an exchange of views, to delay official recognition. 

The consultations and exchange of information 
respecting the installation of the present govern- 
ment of the Argentine republic resulted in the do* 
cision of practically all the American republics to 
abstain from entering into diplomatic relations 
with that government. 

II 

The Committee is as much an innovation in 
inter-American relations as is the consultative 
procedure of which it is a product and an exten- 
sion. The procedure and its offspring reflect a 
maturing pan-Americanism. Both have the same 
basic i^reniise: namely, that inter-American soli- 
darity is a fact; that pan-Americanism has prog- 
ressed from the realm of aspiration, through the 
intermediary stage of an inorganic system of prin- 
ciples and techniques of international cooperation, 
to the point whereby full use can be made of emer- 
gency instrumentalities for joint political decision 
and action. 

The Committee has been impressed throughout 
its work by the practical working interdependence 
of its principal characteristics : The declaration of 
controlling policy by the Foreign Ministers, the 
representative responsibility of 7 members to 21 
governments, the rule of procedure by majority 
vote, and the ample machinery for continuing con- 
tact and consultation with officials of the several 
governments. Each of these characteristics has 
been indispensable to the Committee's operations. 

It is perhaps not too early to consider whether 
significant ideas for post-war organization are to 
be found in the interplay of policy and representa- 



' Bulletin of Jan. 1, 1944, p. 20. 
' Bulletin of Jan. 8. 1044, p. 28. 
■■ Bulletin of .June 24, 1944, p. .584. 



10 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



tive principle and in the organizational and oper- 
ating techniques which have characterized the 
Committee. 

Such consideration might include the possibility 
of a generalization of the techniques in a treaty or 
in a declaration of principles and procedures, to be 
applied by permanent or ad hoc entities, whether 
organized for purposes of continental defense or 
for the prevention of controversies, for inquiry, for 
conciliation, or for other political questions. 

If it were decided to give permanent form to the 
consultative procedure by granting political pow- 
ers to the Governing Board of the Pan American 
Union or by creating a permanent inter- American 
political entity paralleling the Union, the experi- 
ence of the Committee might well be of consider- 
able value. 

Likewise, the increased resort to international 
advisory committees, both in Europe and in Amer- 
ica, prompts the inquiry concerning whether cer- 
tain qualified generalizations, which may be drawn 
from the Committee's experience, may assist in de- 
termining certain characteristics which, individu- 
ally or in combination, are desirable or essential to 
the effective operation of advisory committees in 
general. 

[The special problems created in the field of 
political defense by the position and attitude of 
Argentina have only been touched upon in this ar- 
ticle. This situation, including the Committee's 
conception of the basic issues involved, the reper- 
cussions which it has had upon the work of the or- 
ganization, and the action taken by the Committee 
with regard thereto, is dealt with at length in chap- 
ter I of the Committee's second Annual Report, an 
English translation of which will be published in 
the next issue of the Bulletin.] 

Signing of Two 

UNRRA Sanitary Conventions 

[Released to the press .Tanuary 5J 

On January 5, 1945, at 11:30 a.m., there were 
signed in Washington two sanitary conventions 
concerning maritime and aerial travel amending 
the maritime International Sanitary Convention 
signed at Paris on June 21, 1926 ' and the Inter- 
national Sanitary Convention for Aerial Naviga- 
tion signed at The Hague on April 12, 1933.= The 

' Treaty Series 762. 
' Treaty Series 901. 



Honorable Edward R. Stettinius, Jr., Secretary of 
State, signed the two amendatory conventions on 
behalf of the United States of America. 

The list of the signers of the two conventions is 
as follows : 

France: Prof. Andre Mayer, Medical Counselor 
of the Provisional Government of the French 
Republic in the United States 
Poland : Mr. Jan Ciechanowski, Polish Ambassa- 
dor in Washington 
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern 
Ireland: The Right Honorable the Earl of 
Halifax, British Ambassador in Washington 
United States of America : The Honorable Edward 
R. Stettinius, Jr., Secretary of State of the 
United States. 
The following representatives of UNRRA were 
also present at the signing : 
Mr. Herbert H. Lelunan, Director General 
Dr. P. W. Kuo, Deputy Director General, Secre- 
tariat 
Mr. Francis B. Sayre, Diplomatic Adviser 
Dr. Wilbur A. Sawyer, Director of Health for 

UNRRA 
Dr. G. H. de Paula Souza, Chief of the Section on 

Epidemic Control, Health Division 
Dr. Max Habicht, Assistant Diplomatic Adviser. 
The two amendatory conventions relate particu- 
larly to the performance by the United Nations 
Relief and Rehabilitation Administration, for a 
period not longer than 18 months after the conven- 
tions become eifective, of duties and functions of 
the International Office of Public Health at Paris. 
The amendment of the Conventions of 1926 and 
1933 by the present conventions is intended to fa- 
cilitate the efforts of UNRRA in discharging its 
functions in the fields of displaced persons and 
epidemic control. The changes, particularly those 
to meet the present-day needs of aerial navigation, 
are framed in the light of the most recent advances 
in medical science and public-health practices. 

Each convention provides that it shall come into 
force as soon as it has been signed or acceded to on 
behalf of 10 or more governments. The conven- 
tions were signed on behalf of the United States 
of America with the reservation "Subject to 
ratification". 

The conventions will remain open for signature 
until 5 : 30 p.m. on January 15, 19-45, after which 
they will be open to accession by any government 
not a signatory. 



JANUARY 7, 1945 



Private International Air Law 

By STEPHEN LATCHFORD ' 

TUE DELEGATES to tlic This article is considered to be of interest in connection The mat ter of organ- 
First International iiith three resolutions relating to private irUernational izing the international 
Conference on Private air laiv adopted by the International Civil Aviation committee was taken up 
Air Law ^ held at Paris Conference, convened at Chicago on November 1, 1944, accordingly by the 
in 1925 adopted a reso- which are referred to in the article. French Government with 

lution providing for the other interested govem- 

creation of the Comite International Technique ments and, sufficient interest having been shown in 
d'Experts Juridiques Aeriens (usually referred to the matter, the committee was organized and held 



as the CITEJA), translated in the United States 
as the International Technical Committee of 
Aerial Legal Experts. This committee was organ- 
ized for the purpose of developing a comprehen- 
sive code of private international air law through 
the preparation of draft conventions on various 
subjects for reference to periodic international 
conferences on private air law held for the purpose 
of adopting and signing conventions based on the 
CITEJA 's drafts. The substance of the resolution 
adopted at the 1925 Conference was as follows: 

The Conference, considering the importance, the 
urgent nature, the complexity, and the technically 
legal character of questions of private interna- 
tional air law, expresses the wish that a special 
committee of experts be appointed as soon as pos- 
sible to prepare for the continuation of the work 
of the Conference. 

This committee should be composed of a limited 
number of members, its regular headquarters to 
be at Paris. 

Accordingly, the Conference requests the 
French Government to be good enough to get in 
touch with the governments invited to this Con- 
ference in order to ascertain what action should 
be taken on this recommendation. 

The Secretary General of the 1925 Conference 
explained that the committee to be organized 
would be a committee of experts who would act 
on their own responsibility, without committing 
their respective governments, which would, at in- 
ternational conferences, remain free to approve or 
reject the conclusions of the committee. In other 
words, the delegates to such conferences would 
use as bases of discussions the draft conventions 
prepared by a number of jurists chosen for their 
knowledge and experience instead of the drafts 
prepared by individual governments. 



its first sessions at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs 
at Paris from May 17 to 21, 1926. Twenty-eight 
countries appointed representatives to attend the 
first sessions of the committee. Wlien the com- 
mittee was organized it adopted the following 
three principles to guide it in its activities: 

(1) Establishment of a i^rogram covering vari- 
ous subjects pertaining to private air law to be 
studied by commissions of experts. 

(2) Preparation of texts of international con- 
ventions on legal subjects for consideration at peri- 
odic international conferences. 

(3) Maintenance of the principle of the pro- 
gressive elaboration of a single international code 
of private air law. 

Participation hy the United States in the Work 
of the Committee. The United States did not par- 
ticipate in the work of the committee at the time 
of its organization except by the presence of gov- 
ernmental rejiresentatives who were merely ob- 
servers. Later, however, when it was recognized 
that the code of law being drawn up by the com- 
mittee would vitally affect the operations of 
United States aircraft abroad, a congressional res- 
olution was adopted in 1931 authorizing an annual 
appropriation to pay the share of the United 
States toward the expenses of the committee. The 
funds obtained as a result of this resolution en- 
abled the Department of State to receive all the 
documents of the committee as distributed by its 
Secretary General and to keep in touch with the 



Mr. Latchford is Adviser on Air Law in the Aviation 
Division, Office of Transportation and Communications, 
Department of State, and Chairman of tiie United States 
Section of the CITEJA. 

^ The periodic international conferences on private air 
law held in 1925, 1929, 1933, and 1938 were diplomatic 
conferences. 



12 

work of the comnuttee. Li 1932 United States ex- 
perts were, with the approval of the President, 
appointed by the Secretary of State to serve on 
the committee. AUhough no fimds were available 
for the purpose of sending the experts abroad after 
their appointment in 1932, they participated in 
the work of the CITEJA to some extent through 
correspondence. An act of Congress authorizing 
an annual appropriation of a sum not in excess 
of $6,.500 to defray the expenses of the United 
States experts in going abroad to attend the ses- 
sions of the CITEJA and of its subcommittees was 
approved by President Koosevelt on August 7, 
1935.^ The subcommittees are known as the First, 
Second, Third, Fourth, and Fifth Commissions. 
Four commissions deal with legal subjects, and the 
fifth is an auditing and finance conunittee. 

The United States members of the CITEJA, be- 
ginning with the sessions held at The Hague in 
September 1935, have participated in all the ses- 
sions of the committee and of the several commis- 
sions. The permanent seci'etariat of the CITEJA 
has been continuously in Paris; Mr. Edmond 
Sudre, of France, has been Secretary General. It 
has been the practice for one or more of the com- 
missions to meet at Paris each spring. In the 
fall of each year a plenary session of the commit- 
tee, as well as sessions of one or more of the 
commissions, was held in various European 
capitals by a system of rotation. 

The CITEJA is the only permanent interna- 
tional aeronautical body on which the United 
States has been represented. The membership of 
the United States Section as last approved by the 
President (1939) consisted of seven members : four 
were Government officials; three were non-govern- 
mental members.* 



"Public Law 2.'>4, 74th Cong. (49 Stat. 540). 

' The Governiuent officials were Stephen Latchford and 
Arthur L. Lebel, of the Department of State ; and Samuel 
E. Gates and Edward C. Sweeney of the Civil Aeronautics 
Board (Mr. Gates is now in the Army and Mr. Sweeney 
in the Navy). Denis Mulligan, Arnold W. Knauth, and 
Fred D. Fagg, Jr., were designated as the non-governmental 
members. John J. Ide, former technical assistant for the 
National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics in Europe, 
was technical assistant to the United States Section of 
CITEJA. Some of the persons listed are no longer mem- 
bers of the United States Section. If the codification of 
private international air law is resumed by the CITEJA, 
it is assumed tkat due consideration will bo given to a 
reorganization of the United States Section. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

The United States Section was assisted by an 
Advisory Committee consisting of a representa- 
tive of each of the following organizations: 

National Association of State Aviation Officials 

National Conference of Commissioners on Uni- 
form State Laws 

National Aeronautic Association 

The Maritime Law Association of the United 
States 

Aeronautical Chamber of Commerce of America 

American Bar Association 

American Society of International Law 

Board of Aviation Underwriters 

Institute of the Aeronautical Sciences 

Private Fliers Association Incorporated 

American Law Institute 

Air Transport Association of America 

Air Line Pilots Association 

National Lawyers Guild 

Cauntiies Participating in the Work of the 
CITEJA. The Secretary General of the CITEJA, 
in a report that he submitted on October 20, 1944, 
stated that since its organization the membership 
of the CITEJA has included the following coun- 
tries : 



Argentina 




Lithuania 


Austria 




Luxembourg 


Belgium 




Mexico 


Brazil 




Monaco (Principality of) 


China 




Netherlands 


Colombia 




Norway 


Czechoslovakia 




Peru 


Denmark 




Poland 


Dominican Republic 




Portugal 


Keuador 




Rumania 


Eg.vpt 




Spain 


France 




Sweden 


Germany 




Switzerland 


Great Britain 




Turkey 


Greece 




Union of Soviet Socialist 


Guatemala 




Republics 


Hungary 




United States of America 


Italy 




Uruguay 


Japan 
Liberia 




Yugoslavia 


The Secretary 


General explained further th 


as of March 1939 tlie 


states officially members 



JANUARY 7, 1945 



13 



Luxembourg 

Mexico 

Norway 

Netherlands 

Poland 

Portugal 

Rumania 

Spain 

Sweden 

Switzerland 

Turkey 

United States of America 

Yugoslavia 



the CITEJA and contributing toward its annual 
expenses were as follows: 

Argentina 

Belgium 

Brazil 

China 

Czechoslovakia 

Denmark 

Egypt 

France 

Germany 

Great Britain 

Greece 

Hungary 

Italy 

Japan 

The United States members of the CITEJA 
have observed, however, that the average number 
of states represented at each meeting of the 
CITEJA has not exceeded 15 or 20. 

International Conventions Developed by CITEJA 

The Warsaw Convention of 1929. One of the 
most important conventions resulting from the 
deliberations of the CITEJA is the Convention 
for the Unification of Certain Rules Relating to 
International Transportation by Air signed at 
Warsaw in 1929 during the Second International 
Conference on Private Air Law and adhered to by 
the United States in 1934.'^ This Convention was 
adopted in provisional form by tlie delegates to the 
First International Conference on Private Air 
Law held at Paris in 1925. The Convention as 
adopted in 1925 was referred to the CITEJA for 
further study and revision; the revised text 
adopted by CITEJA constituted a basis for the 
discussions at the Warsaw Conference of 1929. 

The Warsaw Convention contains detailed pro- 
visions relating to the form and legal effect of air- 
transport documents consisting of baggage checks, 
air waybills, and passenger tickets, and it con- 
tains important provisions dealing with the extent 
to which the air carrier shall be liable for damages 
to persons and property in international air 
transportation." 

The Rome Convention for the Unification of 
Certain Ruie.s Relating to Damages to Third 
Parties on the Surface {1933) and the Bi-u.tsels 
Protocol on Aviation Insurance under this Con- 
vention {1938) . A Convention for the Unification 
of Certain Rules Relating to Damages Caused by 
Aircraft to Third Parties on the Surface was 
signed at Rome on May 29, 1933 during the Third 



International Conference on Private Air Law.' 
This Convention is based on the theory (jf absolute 
liability of the operators of aircraft in interna- 
tional flights for damage caused by the aircraft 
to persons and property on the surface, although 
limitations of liability are permitted, under certain 
conditions, to the operators of the aircraft. The 
Convention provides that the operator shall make 
a cash deposit or shall be insured against damages 
caused by aircraft to persons or property on the 
surface in the countries flown over. Provided a 
cash deposit is made or insurance is obtained, the 
carrier is entitled to a limitation of liability.** 

The question of aviation insurance with respect 
to this Convention has been a difficult problem. 
The insurers contended that they were not in a 
position to provide insurance unless they were 
allowed to interpose certain defenses against the 
payment of insurance claims. The Rome Con- 
ference of 1933 therefore referred the insurance 
problem to the CITEJA for study and the latter's 
recommendations were submitted to the Fourth 
International Conference on Private xVir Law held 
at Brussels in September 1938. As a result, the 
Brussels Conference adopted a protocol to the 
Rome Convention of 1933 allowing the aviation 
insurers a limited number of defenses." 



° Treaty Serie.s 876. 

° According to the records of the Department of State 
the following countries have become parties to the Warsaw 
Convention by ratification or adherence: United States 
of America (subject to a resei-vation that the first para- 
graph of art. 2 of the Convention shall not apply to inter- 
national transportation that may be performed by the 
United States of America or any territory or possession 
under its jurisdiction), Australia, Belgium, Brazil, 
Czechoslovakia, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain 
and Northern Ireland, Greece, Italy, Latvia, Netherlands, 
Norway, Poland, Rumania, Spain, Switzerland, Union of 
Soviet Socialist Republics, Yugoslavia, Free City of Danzig, 
Finland, Hungary, India, Ireland, Liberia, Liechtenstein. 
Mexico, New Zealand, and Sweden. In addition the Con- 
vention is aiJplieable to certain outlying teiTitories, p<js- 
sessions, colonies, and so forth, under the jurisdiction of 
some of the countries listed. 

' For a translation of the Convention, see Department of 
State Treaty Information Bulletin 47 (Aug. 1933), p. 27. 

'According to the records of the Department of State, 
the Rome Convention referred to has been ratified by 
Belgium, Brazil, Guatemala, Rumania, and Spain (in- 
cluding the Spanish Zone of Morocco but not the Spanish 
colonies). 

'For a translation of the protocol, see the Report of 
the American Delegation to the Fourth International Oofir 
ference on Private Air Law (Brussels, 1938), Conference 
Series 42, p. 83. 



14 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



The protocol provides that beginning with the 
date on which it was signed at Brussels, September 
29, 1938, ratification of or adherence to the Rome 
Convention on third-party liability shall imply 
ratification of or adherence to the protocol, but 
that the protocol and the Convention may be rati- 
fied or adhered to simultaneously by separate in- 
struments. Both the Rome Convention referred 
to and the Brussels protocol were signed on behalf 
of the United States, but neither of them has been 
ratified by this Government.'" 

The Rome Convention for the Unification of 
Certain Rules Relating to the Precautionary At- 
tachment of Air ci'aft {1933)}^ Another conven- 
tion (relating to the precautionary attachment of 
aircraft) was signed at Rome on May 29, 1933 
during the Third International Conference on 
Private Air Law. Under the terms of this Con- 
vention, govermnent aircraft and aircraft em- 
ployed in international air-transport services 
would, under the conditions set forth in the Con- 
vention, be exempt from attachment before judg- 
ment is entered. In cases where attachment be- 
fore judgment is not prohibited under the Con- 
vention or an exemption is not invoked, an ade- 
quate bond will prevent the precautionary at- 
tachment or will give a right to an immediate 
release of the aircraft. The primary purpose of 
the Convention as explained by the chairman of 
the United States Delegation to the Rome Con- 
ference of 1933 is to provide a uniform rule with 
reference to the attachment of aircraft registered 
in one country while flying through the territory 
of another country. He stated that the seizure 
of an aircraft engaged in regular transportation 
of passengers and property would necessarily de- 
lay such transportation and might result in seri- 
ous inconvenience and loss and that the Conven- 
tion would prevent frivolous seizure of such 
aircraft. 

The delegates to the International Civil Avia- 
tion Conference convened at Chicago on Novem- 
ber 1, 1944 adopted a resolution recommending 
that the various governments represented at that 
Conference give consideration to the ratification 
of or adherence to the Convention on Precaution- 
ary Attachment so far as such governments have 
not already taken such action.'^ The Convention 
was signed on behalf of the United States but has 
not yet been ratified by this Government. 

The Brussels Salvage Convention for the Uni- 
fication of Certain RiJes Relating to the Assist- 



ance and Salvage of Aircraft or by Aircraft at 
Sea {1938). ^^ A Convention for the Unification 
of Certain Rules Relating to the Assistance and 
Salvage of Aircraft or by Aircraft at Sea 
was signed on behalf of a number of countries 
including the United States at the Fourth 
International Conference on Private Air Law 
held at Brussels in September 1938. This Con- 
vention places certain obligations upon aircraft 
to render assistance to other aircraft and to 
surface ships in distress at sea, and likewise 
places an obligation on surface ships to render 
assistance to aircraft in distress at sea. The 
Convention contains a number of the principles 
embodied in the Maritime Salvage Conven- 
tion of 1910, but it has certain new provisions 
deemed to be especially suitable to aviation, includ- 
ing those for the payment of indemnity for ex- 
penses incurred in salvage operations." 

The uncertain situation with respect to salvage 
operations resulting from the outbreak of war has 
apparently been a factor in influencing the various 
governments to postpone any definite decision in 
the matter of giving effect to the principles of the 
1938 Brussels Convention. 

CITE J A Draft Convention on the Ownership 
of Aircraft and the Aeronautic Register {1931)}^ 
In 1931 the CITEJA adopted a draft convention 



"According to the records of the Department of State 
only Brazil and Guatemala have so far ratiflied the Brus- 
sels protocol on insurance. 

"For a translation, see Department of State Treaty 
Information Bulletin 47 (Aug. 1933), p. 22. 

"According to the records of the Department of State 
the Convention on Precautionary Attachment has been rati- 
fied or .odhered to by Belgium, Brazil, Denmark (not in- 
cluding Greenland), Germany, Guatemala, Hungary, Italy 
(including colonies and possessions), Netherlands, Norway, 
Poland, Rumania, Spain (including the Spanish zone of 
Morocco but not the Spanish colonies), and Sweden. 

" For a translation of the Brussels Salv.ige Convention 
of 1938, see Report of American Delegation to the Fourth 
International Conference on Private Air Law (Brussels 
1938), Conference Series 42, p. 75. 

"According to the records of the Department of State 
there has been so far no ratification of or adherence by 
any country to the Brussels Salvage Convention of 1938. 
Under date of Jan. 7, 1943 there was introduced in the first 
session of the 78th Congress a bill, S. 14, for the purpose 
of giving effect to certain of the basic provisions of the 
Brussels Salvage Convention of 1938. 

" For a translation of the CITEJA draft convention on 
the ownership of aircraft and the aeronautic register, see 
Department of State Treaty Information Bulletin 40, 



JANUARY 7, 1945 

setting up what is known as an aeronautic reg- 
ister.^" This draft provides that aircraft reg- 
istered in a state and used in international naviga- 
tion (registration in this sense meaning that which 
establishes the nationality of the aircraft under 
public air law) shall be recorded by the owner in 
a public registry for the purpose of giving notice 
of title and property claims. Aircraft recorded 
in one state cannot be recorded in another miless 
the owner proves that the first inscription on the 
public registry has been canceled. The conven- 
tion goes into some detail with respect to the effect 
of the recording of mortgages, liens, or other 
property claims. 

This draft convention was never referred to a 
periodic international conference on private air 
law for final adoption and signature. It was con- 
sidered to be more urgent that action be taken at 
such conferences on other projects developed by 
the CITEJA. In addition to this reason there 
was a feeling on the part of a number of the 
CITEJA members that the provisions of the 
draft convention should be given further study 
by the CITEJA before being submitted to a peri- 
odic international conference for final adoj^tion 
and signature. 

The delegates to the recent International Civil 
Aviation Conference at Chicago adopted a resolu- 
tion calling attention to the desirability of having 
the various governments reach a common under- 
standing on the legal questions involved in the 
transfer of title to aircraft. The delegates rec- 
ommended that consideration be given to the early 
calling of an international conference on private 
air law for the purpose of adopting a convention 
dealing with this matter. The resolution recom- 
mended that the proposed conference include in 
the bases of discussion the CITEJA draft con- 
vention on the ownership of aircraft and th^ 
aeronautic register as well as the draft convention 
on aerial mortgages, other real securities, and 
aerial privileges described below. 

Draft Coiwention on Aerial Mortgages^ Other 
Real Securities, and Aerial Pnvileges. This draft 
convention was also adopted by the CITEJA in 
1931, but for the reasons given above, with respect 
to the draft on ownei-ship of aircraft and the 
aeronautic register, it was never referred to a 
periodic international conference on private air 
law for final adoption and signature. The draft 
convention on aerial mortgages and other real 



15 



securities and aerial privileges defines the term 
"aerial mortgage" and provides that such mort- 
gages, duly established under the law of the state 
of registration of the aircraft, shall produce cer- 
tain legal effects as determined by the draft. The 
term "aerial privileges" under the convention has 
reference to certain claims entitled to preference 
over mortgage claims.^' 

CITEJA Draft Convention for the Unification 
of Certain Rules Relating to Aerial Collisions 
{1936). At its eleventh plenary session, held at 
Bern, Switzerland, in September 1936, the 
CITEJA adopted a draft convention on aerial col- 
lisions which dealt with the liability of operators 
of aircraft for damages resulting from collisions 
between aircraft. This draft convention was re- 
ferred to the Fourth International Conference on 
Private Air Law at Brussels in September 1938 
for final adoption and signature. The Brussels 
Conference decided, however, to withhold action 
on the draft convention, and it adopted a resolu- 
tion requesting that the CITEJA give the draft 
further consideration. An important factor in 
the decision to withhold action on the draft at 
Brussels was the objection raised by the United 
States Delegation to immediate consideration of 
the draft, on the ground that there had not been 
sufiicient experience on which to base a conven- 
tion dealing with the liability of operators of 
aircraft in the event of aerial collisions.^* 

Current Projects on the Agenda of CITEJA 

On October 20, 1944 the Secretary General of 
the CITEJA reported that the current projects 
on the agenda of CITEJA are as follows : 

1. Legal status of the navigating personnel of 
aircraft ; 

2. Legal status of the commander of the air- 
craft: 



" Such register or recording in a public registry under 
the Convention is to be distinguished from ordinary regis- 
tration by a government for the purpose of establishing 
the nationality of the aircraft. 

" For a translation of the full text of the draft conven- 
tion, see Department of State Treaty Information Bulletin 
40, p. 33. 

" For a translation of the CITEJA draft on aerial col- 
lisions, see Report of the American Delegation to the 
Fourth Internatioml Conference on Private Air Law 
18), Conference Series 42, p. 48. 



16 

3. Collaboration of the CITEJA in the inter- 
pretation and execution of conventions on private 
international air law; 

4. Assistance and salvage of aircraft and by air- 
craft on land ; 

5. Kesolution of the Brussels International Air 
Law Conference of 1938 recommending that the 
CITEJA make a study of the subject of contribu- 
tion by interested parties in the payment of re- 
muneration for assistance with particular refer- 
ence to the contribution of "postal freight" (as 
related to salvage operations) ; 

6. Authority of decisions rendered by courts 
having jurisdiction under existing air-law conven- 
tions, and the question of distribution and allo- 
cation of liability awards raised by such conven- 
tions ; 

7. Revision of the draft convention on the own- 
ership of aircraft and the aeronautic register, and 
of the draft convention relating to mortgages, 
other real securities, and aerial privileges; 

8. Tourist aviation ; 

9. General average; 

10. Chartering of aircraft; 

11. Revision of the Warsaw Convention of 
1929, relating to the liability of the air carrier in 
international transportation ; 

12. Resumption of the study of aerial collisions ; 

13. Abandonment of aircraft ; 

14. Genei-al study of aviation insurance. 

The Secretary General adds the following 
comment : 

"To these questions, which are numerous and 
important, there will be added new problems 
which will be raised by the very important his- 
torical events which are now taking place. Aerial 
navigation will be one of the very tirst subjects to 
be dealt with in the organization of Europe and 
of the world, and its development will be en- 
hanced by technical and scientific improvements 
which were achieved during the course of the hos- 
tilities and by the needs of states and of individ- 
uals in the way of air navigation." 

Although it will not be possible within the space 
of the present article to enter into a detailed ex- 
planation of all of the items on the current agenda 
of CITEJA as described above, special mention 
might be made of the draft convention on the 
legal status of the navigating personnel of air- 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

craft on which the CITEJA had practically com- 
pleted action before it suspended sessions at the 
outbreak of war. This draft convention contains 
a number of detailed provisions governing the 
making of the contracts of hire of the navigat- 
ing personnel of aircraft and defines the obliga- 
tions resting upon their employers in the matter 
of repatriation of the personnel on the termina- 
tion of their services. The draft also defines the 
jurisdiction of the commander of the aircraft over 
the personnel while in foreign countries. 

In this connection reference might be made also 
to a draft convention dealing specifically with the 
legal status of the commander of the aircraft. A 
draft convention on this subject was adopted pro- 
visionally by the CITEJA in 1931. This draft sets 
forth the detailed powers of the commander in 
matters of safety of the aircraft and deals with 
his authority over the passengers and members of 
the crew. The commander is given also the power 
to act as the agent of his employer in various trans- 
actions including the authority to incur necessary 
expenses. The Secretary General of the CITEJA 
stated in his report of October 20, 1944 that the 
CITEJA is to decide whether the draft dealing 
with the legal status of the connnander should be 
combined with the draft relating to the legal status 
of the aircraft-navigating personnel. 

The delegates to the recent International Con- 
ference on Civil Aviation held at Chicago adopted 
the following resolution concerning the future ac- 
tivities of CITEJA: 
"considering : 

"That the Comite International Technique 
d'Experts Juridiques Aeriens (CITEJA), created 
pursuant to a recommendation adopted at the First 
International Conference on Private Air Law held 
at Paris in 1925, has made considerable progress 
in the development of a code of private interna- 
tional air law through the preparation of draft 
international conventions for final adoption at 
periodic international conferences on private air 
law; 

"That the further elaboration of this code of 
private international air law through the com- 
pletion of pending CITEJA projects and the initi- 
ation of new studies in the field of private air law 
will contribute materially to the development of 
international civil aviation : 

(Continued on page 2S) 



JANUARY 7, 1945 



Adherence by France to the Declaration by 
United Nations 

Exchange of Communications 



[Translation] 

Embassy of the French Republic 

IN THE United States 
Washington, December 26^ 19^.^. 
Mr. Secretary of State : 

I have the honor to inform Your Excellency, by 
order of my Govermnent, that the Provisional 
Government of the French Republic has decided 
to adhere to the Declaration of the United Nations 
of January 1, 1942, the principles of which consti- 
tute the very basis of its action. 

Mr. Henri Bonnet. Ambassador-designate, has 
been instructed to sign this declaration in the name 
of the French Government. 

I should be grateful to Your Excellency if you 
would be good enough to employ your good offices 
to communicate this decision of the French Gov- 
ernment to all the Governments which are sig- 
natories to the Declaration of January 1, 1942. 
Please accept [etc.] 

Philippe BAtroET, 
Charge (ff Affaires of France 



30, 1944. 
Excellency : 

I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of 
your Embassy's note of December 26, 1944, stating 
that the Provisional Government of the French 
Republic has decided to adhere to the Declaration 
by United Nations, the principles of which consti- 
tute the very basis of its action. 

It is a source of genuine satisfaction for this 
Government, as depositoiy for the Declaration, to 
welcome France formally into the ranks of the 
United Nations. We have been pleased to make 
arrangements for you to sign the Declaration on 
January 1, 1945. 

In accordance with your Embassy's request, this 
Government will transmit to the other United Na- 
tions the notice of the decision of the Provisional 
Government of the French Republic to adhere to 
the Declaration. 

Accept [etc.] 

Edward R. Stethnius, Jr. 

His Excellency Henri Bonnet, 

Appointed Ambassador of the Provisional 
Government of the French Republic. 



Ceremonies on the Occasion of the Signing of the Declaration 

MESSAGE FROM THE PRESIDENT TO THE SECRETARY OF STATE 



[Released to the iiress January 1] 

January 1, 1945. 
Dear Mr. Secretary: 

On this third anniversary of the United Nations 
I extend my most cordial greetings to the repre- 
sentatives of the nations who are assembled for 
the occasion. It is a matter of profound grati- 
fication to all of us that at this ceremony France 
will formally adhere to the Declaration by United 
Nations. 



France was the first ally of our country in our 
own war of liberation. For 150 years her tradi- 
tions of liberty have been an inspiration to free 
men everywhere. In this war all the brutalities of 
four years of Nazi occupation could not quench 
the flame of her unconquerable spirit or suppress 
the resistance of her people to the enemy. And 

■ Held at the Department of State, Jan. 1, 1945, on the 
occasion of the third anniversary of the Declaration by 
United Nations. 



18 

now, France stands beside us a strong ally — once 
more in the first rank of the free and peace-loving 
nations of the world. 

The United Nations have gone far since that day 
three years ago when we made our compact. Then 
the enemy's military strength was at its zenith 
and was being ruthlessly used in an all-out attempt 
to conquer the world. Together we have reversed 
the early years of retreat and beaten back the 
enemy— in Africa, in Eastern and Western Europe 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

and in the Pacific. Together we have laid the 
foundations for a United Nations peace. 

We still have far to go. We know that it is 
only as United Nations that we have it within 
our power to win complete and final victory in 
this war and then to win the peace. We know that 
by maintaining and strengthening the United Na- 
tions we shall do both. 

Very sincerely yours, 

Franklin D. Roose\'elt 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY OF STATE 



[Released to the press January IJ 

It is a significant manifestation of the growing 
strength of the United Nations that we should 
mark today the third anniversary of the Declara- 
tion by United Nations by receiving the signature 
on behalf of France of His Excellency Ambassador 
Henri Bonnet. 

While his signature will be the thirty-sixth for- 
mally appended to this Declaration, the whole 
world kjiows that the people of France have in 
spirit and in fact always been associated with us. 
France was one of the first nations to challenge 
the Nazi aggressors. Through four years of Ger- 
man oppression the French people maintained 
their heroic resistance behind the enemy lines. 
The members of the Resistance Movement and 
the soldiers of the reborn French Army con- 
tributed in vital measure to the successful libera- 
tion of their homeland by our Allied armies. They 
wrote in blood and sacrifice another glorious chap- 
ter in France's record of devotion to liberty. 

The nations signatory to the Declaration by 
United Nations welcome the formal adherence of 
France to this compact. It was drawn up and 
signed three years ago when France was under 
the invader's heel and all the world was in mortal 
danger from the Nazi and Japanese aggressors. 

This compact is the foundation stone of what 
has become the mightiest coalition in history. It 
is also the foundation stone of the peace that this 
coalition is striving to build. 

In the Declaration by United Nations the signa- 
tories proclaim their conviction "that complete 
victory over their enemies is essential to defend 
life, liberty, independence and religious freedom, 
and to preserve human rights and justice in their 
own lands as well as in other lands". They there- 



fore pledge themselves to employ theii' full re- 
sources against their enemies, to cooperate with 
each other, and not to make a separate armistice 
or peace. They do more. They subscribe to the 
common program of purposes and principles em- 
bodied in the Joint Declaration of President Roose- 
velt and Prime jNIinister Churchill made on 
August 14, 1941 and known as the Atlantic Charter. 

The principles and purposes set forth in the At- 
lantic Charter thus became the goal of the United 
Nations in building a peace which will, in the 
words of the Charter, "afford to all nations the 
means of dwelling in safety within their own 
boundaries, and which will afford assurance that 
all the men in all the lands may live out their lives 
in freedom from fear and want". 

That is the peace objective toward which the 
United Nations have been working together for 
three years. Step by step progress has been made — 
at Moscow and Cairo and Tehran, in the Dumbar- 
ton Oaks proposals for the maintenance of peace 
and security, and in the conferences and other 
preparatory work on international social and eco- 
nomic problems which are the joint concern of all 
the nations and the solution of which is an essential 
part of the task of building peace. Because of 
that progress, our goal is now much closer to real- 
ization than it was three years ago. 

We have much still to do and many difficulties 
still to overcome, both in the winning of the war 
and in winning the peace. In making the peace, 
as in waging the war to final victory over our ene- 
mies, the United Nations will be stronger because 
France is herself again. The signature which 
Ambassador Henri Bonnet will now aifix to the 
Declaration by United Nations is symbolic of her 
full partnership in that great enterprise. 



JANUARY 7, 1945 



REMARKS BY THE AMBASSADOR OF THE PROVISIONAL FRENCH GOVERNMENT' 



[Released to the press January 1] 

The will expressed in the Declaration by United 
Nations to end this war by a total victory over 
the enemy and to devote all national resources to 
the defense of the sacred rights of man and of the 
peoples' freedom, is the will of France. 

I feel strongly that, in signing this Declaration 
in her name, I am true to her dearest and firmest 
aspirations, already expressed by the statement of 
adherence to the Atlantic Charter made on Sep- 
tember 24, 1941 by General de Gaulle interpreting 
the feelings of the French people. 

It was with emotion that I listened to President 
Roosevelt's message. I sincerely thank him for 
having recalled the friendship which has linked 
our two countries since the birth of our two Re- 
publics. Their founders, of glorious memory, were 
already united, like their peoples, by a friendship 
inspired by a community of ideals. 

I also thank you, Mr. Secretary, for having re- 
called that France has always been on the side 
of the United Nations. She was one of them, 
thanks to the fighting of those who were able to 
rally around her free flag, thanks to her internal 
resistance, and to the ardor of her people. 

It is true that on the day, the third anniversary 
of which we today are celebrating, Germany, 
Japan, and their satellites were still expanding 
their conquest. But they had not bent the will of 
the free world. From that day on, their fate was 
sealed, since hundreds of millions of men and the 
most powerful countries notified them that their 
plans for universal domination were to be smashed 
to nothingness. To the immense material resources 
was also added the weight of moral forces. Brute 



force beat against the invincible faith of man in 
his destiny and in the future that freedom opens 
to his genius. France is proud to have been, like 
the other enemy-occupied countries, an element of 
this superior force which was to bring victory 
back into our camp. 

The United Nations were born amidst suffering 
and danger. They have applied in their decisive 
fight for existence the principles which must in- 
sure international security. They must remain 
invincible in peace. 

To this great cause France is prepared to devote 
herself whole-heartedly. During the two World 
Wars, it was through her peaceful countryside 
that death and destruction were first let loose. She 
knows that from now on in a world where science 
and teclmology have suppressed distances, war 
once begun will spread over the entire globe. Con- 
sequently, she is convinced that any threat of at- 
tack must be met and, if necessary, curbed. She 
knows also that during this war the fraternal coop- 
eration of the United Nations has proved that 
splendid results may be obtained in all domains 
through mutual aid, division of work, and the 
organization of a common effort toward the same 
goal. 

The greatest task awaiting us is to maintain this 
solidarity after victory. To overcome the inevi- 
table difficulties that we shall inherit from the most 
atrocious of wars, and that we shall encounter in 
the reestablishment of peace and prosperity in our 
complex and magnificent world, the United Na- 
tions will have to remain strong and organized, as 
they have been in trial and in triumph. 



LIST OF REPRESENTATIVES OF THE UNITED NATIONS IN ATTENDANCE 



[Released to the press January 1] 
Australia 
The Honoralile Sir Frederic Eggleston, Minister of 
Australia 
Belgium 

His Excellency Count Robert van der Straten-Ponthoz, 
Ambassador of Belgium 
Bolivia 

His Excellency Seiior Don Victor Andiade, Ambassador 
of Bolivia 



Brazil 

His Excellency Carlos Martins, Ambassador of Brazil 
Canada 

Mr. Merchant Mahoney, C. B. E., Counselor of Embassy 
China 

His Excellency Dr. Wei Tao-ming, Ambassador of China 
Colombia 

Seiior Don Alberto Vargas Nariiio, Counselor of Embassy 



His Excellency Henri Bonnet. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



OOMMONWEALTU OF THE PHILIPPINES 

The Honorable Jaime Hernandez, Secretary of Finance 
in charge of Commonwealth Oovernment Affairs 
Costa Rica 

His Excellency Sefior Don Francisco de P. Gutierrez, 
Ambassador of Costa Rica 

OUBA 

The Honorable Seuor Dr. Jos6 T. Barfin, Minister Coun- 
selor, Charge d'Affaircs ad interim of Cuba 

OZECHOSLOV A KI A 

The Honorable Dr. Karel Cervenka, Minister of Czecho- 
slovakia 
Dominican Republic 

His Excellency Sefior Don Emilio Garcia Godoy, Am- 
bassador of the Dominican Republic 
Ethiopla 

The Honorable Blatta Ephrem Tewelde Medhen, Min- 
ister of Ethiopia 
Gbeece 

His Excellency Cimon P. Diamantopoulos, Ambassador 
of Oreece 
Guatemala 

His Excellency Sefior Don Eugenic Silva Pena, Am- 
bassador of Guatemala 
Haiti 

Mr. Elie Garcia, First Secretary, Chargd d'Affaires ad 
interim of Haiti 
Hondtjeas 

His Excellency Sefior Dr. Don Julian R. Caceres, Am- 
bassador of Ho7iduras 
India 

The Honorable Sir Girja Shanliar Bajpai, Agent General 
for India 
Iran 

The Honorable Mohammed Shayesteh, Minister of Iran 

lEAQ 

The Honorable Ali Jawdat, Minister of Iraq 

LUXEIMBOUKO 

The Honorable Hugues Le Gallais, Minister of Luxem- 
bourg 

Mexico 

Sefior Don Salvador Duhart, First Secretari/ of Embassn 
Netherlands 

His Excellency Dr. A. Loudon, Ambassador of the 
Netherlands 
New Zealand 
The Honorable C. A. Berendsen, C.M.G., Minister of New 
Zealand 
Nicaragua 

His Excellency Sefior Dr. Don Guillermo Sevilla Sacasa, 
Ambassador of Nicaragua 
Norway 

His Excellency Wilhelm Munthe de Morgenstierne, Am- 
bassador of Nortvag 



Panama 
His Excellency Senor Don Enrique A. Jim6nez, Ambas- 
sador of Panama 
Poland 

His Excellency Jan Ciechanow.ski, Ambassador of 
Poland 

Union op South Africa 
The Honorable Dr. S. F. N. Gie, Minister of the Union 
of South Africa 
Union of So\-iet Sociaust Republics 

His Excellency Andrei A. Gromyko, Ambassador of the 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 
His Excellency the Right Honorable the Earl of Halifax, 
K.G., British Ambassador 

Unitbj) States of America 

The Honorable Edward R. Stettinius, Jr., Secretary of 

State 

Yugoslavia 

Dr. Ivan FrangeS, Counselor, Chargd d'Affaires ad 
interim of Yugoslavia 



Turkey Severs Relations 
With Japan 

Statement by THE PRESIDENT 

[Released to the press by tlie White House January 4] 

Turkey's decision to sever relations with Japan 
is further evidence of Turkey's desire for the rapid 
and complete victory of the Allies. This action 
will result in the closing of Japanese Government 
establishments in Turkey, which, since the German 
establishments were closed by the Turkish Govern- 
ment, were the last footholds of the Axis on Turk- 
ish soil. 

I welcome this action by the Republic of Turkey. 

Statement by THE SECRETARY OF STATE 

[Releaserl to the press January 4] 

The action of the National Assembly of the Re- 
public of Turkey in voting unanimously to sever 
diplomatic and economic relations with Japan is 
welcomed by this Government as a further step 
toward limiting the activities of the Axis in for- 
eign countries and as a concrete contribution by 
Turkey to the victory of the Allies over the Axis. 
The severance of relations will prevent Japanese 
officials and agents from using Turkey as an obser- 
vation point from which to report on Allied move- 
ments to the detriment of the United Nations' war 
effort. 



JANUARY 7, 1945 



Information for a Peoples' Peace 

Remarks by ASSISTANT SECRETARY MACLEISH ' 



ONLY the over-educated doubt the significance 
of numerical phenomena. The rest of us know 
as a matter of course that anything which hajjpens 
a hundred times is important — even the fii-st day 
of the year, which recurs quite mechanically and 
without any effort of its own. It can hardly sur- 
prise anyone, therefore, that we meet to celebrate 
the one-hundredth anniversary of an event which 
would never have taken place at all without a very 
considerable and determined eifoi-t. 

Wlien a number of governments do anythuig 
together even once it is a matter of surprise among 
the cynics. "Wlien they do the same thing together 
not once but a hundred times people— and particu- 
larly the people who deserve the credit — may be 
excused for calling attention to the fact. I testify 
quite objectively as a man who deserves no credit 
whatever beyond the credit, which is not incon- 
siderable, of having brought your present chair- 
man into the information service of this Govern- 
ment as a Deputy Director of the Office of Facts 
and Figures. 

Those who know little of such things — those 
who regard the information service with suspi- 
cion — will be astonished to learn that the infor- 
mation officers of so many of the United Nations 
have worked successfully together for so many 
months. That the United Nations should be united 
in arms, or in production, or in transport is not, 
they think, extraordinary. That the United Na- 
tions should be united in the public labor of com- 
munication is astonishmg. 

But is it really astonishing? You do not think 
so — nor does any informed observer of the work 
you have done over the past three years. You 
know what all of us who have worked with you 
have learned — that the one service in which the 
united peoples of this peoples' war are most truly 
and most passionately united is precisely this serv- 
ice of communication and of understanding in 
which you are engaged. The common cause of 
the peoples of the world in every free man's coun- 
try is the people. It is to secure a peace for the 
people, to end war for the people, to build a 
habitable world for the people that the people 
fight. They have learned through the miracle of 
modem electric communication of each other's 
presence, of each other's lives, of each other's pur- 



poses. They know that if they can communicate 
with each other, if they can share their dream 
with each other, if they can share their knowledge 
of each other's sufferings and each other's hopes, 
they can make together what none of them can 
make alone. They believe, therefore, in knowledge 
of each other, in works about each other, in "infor- 
mation". 

And surely they are right. As long as the people 
of one country think in terms of the people of an- 
other — as long as they think as men of other men — 
they are wise and their judgments are right judg- 
ments. The moment they forget the men and 
women and begin to think in terms of a govern- 
ment, or an officer of government, or a policy of 
government — in terms of a symbol like the arbi- 
trary symbols of the old-fashioned newspaper car- 
toons — they think in abstractions and they judge 
in abstractions, as we in the United States were 
judged for years in terms of an abstraction which 
never fitted the American people and never could 
have fitted them. 

Tliis Nation has believed from the beginning of 
its history in the right of the people to know. It 
has declared that right in the first amendment to 
its Constitution. It believes that if the people are 
informed, the decisions of the people will be wise. 
It believes this not only of the decisions of the 
people of a village, or a town, or of a city, or 
of a nation, but of the decisions of the people of the 
world. It believes; that is to say, that if the 
peoples of the world are informed about each other 
their decisions with relation to each other will be 
just decisions — which means, in the actual rela- 
tions of peoples, that they will be decisions for the 
maintenance of peace. It is, in consequence, the 
desire of this Nation to see the information of the 
peoples of the world about each other increased 
and deepened. This Board has done much in the 
three years of its existence to realize that aspira- 
tion. I am certain that I speak for the great num- 
ber of my countrymen, therefore, when I congratu- 
late you upon what you have already accomplished 
and wish you well for the future of your work 
together. 

' Made at the 100th session of the United Nations Infor- 
mation Board on Jan. 4, 1945. 



To THE CONORESS OF THE UNITED STATES : 

In considering the state of the Union, tlie war, 
and the peace that is to follow, are naturally 
uppermost in the minds of all of us. 

This war must be waged— it is being waged — 
with the greatest and most persistent intensity. 
Everything we are and have is at stake. Every- 
thing we are and have will be given. American 
men, fighting far from home, have already won 
victories which the world will never forget. 

We have no question of tile ultimate victory. 
We have no question of the cost. Our losses will 
be heavy. 

We and our Allies wiU go on fighting together 
to ultimate total victory. 

We have seen a year marked, on the whole, by 
substantial progress toward victory, even though 
(he year ended with a set-back for our arms, when 
the Germans launched a ferocious counter-attack 
into Luxembourg and Belgium with the obvious 
objective of cutting our line in the center. 

Our men have fought with indescribable and 
unforgettable gallantry mider most difficult con- 
ditions, and our German enemies have sustained 
ronsidi'i-able losses while failing to obtain their 

Ilie high tide of this German effort was reached 
I w, I days after Christmas. Since then we have re- 
assumed the offensive, rescued the isolated garri- 
son at Bastogne, and forced a German withdrawal 
along the whole line of the salient. The speed 
with which we recovered from this savage attack 
was largely possible because we have one Supreme 
Commander in complete control of all the Allied 
armies in France. General Eisenhower has faced 
this period of trial with admirable calm and reso- 
lution and with steadily increasing success. He 
has my complete confidence. 

Further desperate attempts may well be made 
to break our lines, to slow our progress. We must 
never make the mistake of assuming that the Ger- 
mans are beaten until the last Nazi has surren- 
dered. 

And I would express another most serious warn- 
mg against the poisonous effects of enemy propa- 
ganda. 

The wedge that the Germans attempted to drive 

in Western Europe was less dangerous in actual 

Tho complete text of the message of Jan. 6, 1945. 1b 



The State of the Union 

ANNUAL MESSAGE OF THE PRESIDENT TO THE CONGRESS* 

men and materials into direct competit 



terms of winning the war than the wedges which 
they are continually attempting to drive between 
ourselves and our Allies. 

Every little rumor which is intended to weaken 
our faith in our Allies is like an actual enemy 
agent in our midst— seeking to sabotage our war 
effort. There are, here and there, evil and base- 
less rumors against the Russians — rumors against 
the British— rumors against our own American 
commanders in the field. 

When you examine these rumors closely, you 
will observe that every one of them bears the same 
trade-mark — "Made in Germany". 

We must resist this divisive propaganda— we 
must destroy it — with the same strength and the 
same determination that our fighting men are dis- 
playing as they resist and destroy the panzer 

In Europe, we shall resume the attack and — de- 
spite temporary set-backs here or there — we shall 
continue the attack relentlessly until Germany is 
completely defeated. 

It is appropriate at this time to review the basic 
strategy which has guided us through three years 
of war, and which will lead, eventually, to total 
victory. 

The tremendous effort of the first years of this 
war was directed toward the concentration of men 
and supplies in the various theaters of action at 
the points where they could hurt our enemies most. 

It was an efforts — in the language of the military 
men — of deployment of our forces. Many battles — 
essential battles — were fought; many victories- 
vital victories— were won. But these battles and 
these victories were fought and won to hold back 
the attacking enemy and to put us in positions from 
which we and our Allies could deliver the final, 
decisive blows. 

In the beginning, our most important military 
task was to prevent our enemies — the st rongest and 
most violently aggressive powers that ever have 
threatened civilization — from winning decisive 
victories. But even while we were conducting de- 
fensive, delaying actions, we were looking forward 
to the time when we could wrest the initiative from 
our enemies and place our superior resources of 



with 
them. 

It was plain then that the defeat of either enemy 
would require the massing of overwhelming 
forces— ground, sea, and air — in positions from 
which we and our Allies could strike directly 
against the enemy homelands and destroy the Nazi 
and Japanese war machines. 

In the case of Japan, we had to await the com- 
pletion of extensive preliminary operations — oper- 
ations designed to establish secure supply lines 
through the Japanese outer-zone defenses. This 
called for overwhelming sea power and air power — 
supported by ground forces strategically employed 
against isolated outpost garrisons. 

Always — from the very day we were attacked — 
it was right militarily as well as morally to reject 
the arguments of those shortsighted people who 
would have had us throw Britain and Russia to 
the Nazi wolves and concentrate against the Japa- 
nese. Such people urged that we fight a purely 
defensive war against Japan while allowing the 
domination of all the rest of the world by Nazism 
and Fascism. 

In the European theater, the necessary bases for 
the massing of ground and air power against Ger- 
many were already available in Great Britain. 
In the Mediterranean area we could begin ground 
operations against major elements of the German 
Army as rapidly as we could put troops in the 
field, first in North Africa and then in Italy. 

Therefore, our decision was made to concentrate 
the bulk of our ground and air forces against 
Germany until her utter defeat. That decision 
was based on all these factors; and it was also 
based on the realization that, of our two enemies, 
Germany would be more able to digest quickly her 
conquests, the more able quickly to convert the 
manpower and resources of her conquered territory 
"ito a war potential. 

We had in Europe two active and indomitable 
AUies— Britain and the Soviet Union— and there 
Were also the heroic resistance movements in the 
occupied countries, constantly engaging and har- 
assing the Germans. 



We cannot forget how Britain held the line 
alone, in 1940 and 1941; and at the same time, 
despite ferocious bombardment from the air, built 
up a tremendous armaments industry which en- 
abled her to take the offensive at El Alamein in 
1942. 

We cannot forget the heroic defense of Moscow 
and Leningrad and Stalingrad, or the tremendous 
Russian offensives of 1943 and 1944 which de- 
stroyed formidable German armies. 

Nor can we forget how, for more than seven 
long years, the Chinese people have been sus- 
taining the barbarous attacks of the Japanese and 
containing large enemy forces on the vast areas 
of the Asiatic mainland. 

In the future we must never forget the lesson 
that we have learned— that we must have friends 
who will work with us in peace as they have fought 
at our side in war. 

As a result of the combined effort of the Allied 
forces, great military victories were achieved in 
1944: the liberation of France, Belgium, Greece, 
and parts of the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, 
Yugoslavia, and Czechoslovakia; the surrender of 
Rumania and Bulgaria ; the invasion of Germany 
itself and Hungary ; the steady march through the 
Pacific Islands to the Philippines, Guam, and 
Saipan ; and the beginnings of a mighty air offen- 
sive against the Japanese islands. 

Now, as this seventy-ninth Congress meets, we 
have reached the most critical phase of the war. 

The greatest victory of the last year was, of 
course, the successful breach on June 6, 1944 of 
the German "impregnable" sea wall of Europe 
and the victorious sweep of the Allied forces 
through France and Belgium and Luxembourg— 
almost to the Rhine itself. 

The cross-Channel invasion of the Allied armies 
was the gi-eatest amphibious operation in the his- 
tory of the world. It overshadowed all other 
operations in this or any other war in its im- 
mensity. Its success is a tribute to the fighting 
courage of the soldiers who stormed the beaches— 
to the sailors and merchant seamen who put the 
soldiers ashore and kept them supplied— and to 
the military and naval leaders who achieved a 
real miracle of planning and execution. And it 
is also a tribute to the ability of two nations, 
Britain and America, to plan together, and work 
together, and fight together in perfect cooperation 
and perfect harmony. 



24 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



This cross-Channel invasion was followed in 
August by a second great amphibious operation, 
landing troops in Southern France. In this, the 
same cooperation and the same harmony existed 
between the American, French, and other Allied 
forces based in North Africa and Italy. 

The success of the two invasions is a tribute also 
to the ability of many men and women to main- 
tain silence, when a few careless words would 
have imperiled the lives of hundreds of thousands 
and would have jeopardized the whole vast 
undertakings. 

These two great operations were made possible 
by success in the Battle of the Atlantic. 

Without this success over German submarines, 
we could not have built up our invasion forces or 
air forces in Great Britain, nor could we have 
kept a steady stream of supplies flowing to them 
after they had landed in France. 

The Nazis, however, may succeed in improving 
their submarines and their crews. They have re- 
cently increased their U-boat activity. The Battle 
of the Atlantic — like all campaigns in this war — 
demands eternal vigilance. But the British, Cana- 
dian, and other Allied Navies, together with our 
own, are constantly on the alert. 

The tremendous operations in Western Europe 
have overshadowed in the public mind the less 
spectacular but vitally important Italian front. 
Its place in the strategic conduct of the war in 
Europe has been obscured, and — ^by some people, 
unfortunately — underrated. 

It is important that any misconception on that 
score be corrected — now. 

What the Allied forces in Italy are doing is a 
well-considered part in our strategy in Europe, 
now aimed at only one objective — the total defeat 
of the Germans. These valiant forces in Italy are 
continuing to keep a substantial portion of the 
German Army under constant pressure — including 
some twenty first-line German divisions and the 
necessary supply and transport and replacement 
troops — all of which our enemies need so badly 
elsewhere. 

Over very difficult terrain and through adverse 
weather conditions, our Fifth Army and the Brit- 
ish Eighth Army — reinforced by units from other 
United Nations, including a brave and well- 
equipped unit of the Brazilian Army — have, in the 
past year, pushed north through bloody Cassino 
and the Anzio beachhead and through Rome until 



now they occupy heights overlooking the valley of 
the Po. 

The greatest tribute which can be paid to the 
courage and fighting ability of these splendid sol- 
diers in Italy is to point out that although their 
strength is about equal to that of the Germans they 
oppose, the Allies have been continuously on the 
offensive. 

That pressure, that offensive, by our troops in 
Italy will continue. 

The American jDcople — and every soldier now 
fighting in the Apennines — should remember that 
the Italian front has not lost any of the importance 
which it had in the days when it was the only 
Allied front in Europe. 

In the Pacific during the past year, we have 
conducted the fastest-moving offensive in the his- 
tory of modern warfare. We have driven the en- 
emy back more than 3,000 miles across the central 
Pacific. 

A year ago, our conquest of Tarawa was a little 
more than a month old. 

A year ago, we were preparing for our invasion 
of Kwajalein, the second of our great strides across 
the central Pacific to the Philippines. 

A year ago, General MacArthur was still fight- 
ing in New Guinea almost 1,500 miles from his 
present position in the Philippine Islands. 

We now have firmly established bases in the 
Mariana Islands from which our Superfortresses 
bomb Tokyo itself — and will continue to blast 
Japan in ever-increasing numbers. 

Japanese forces in the Pliilippines have been 
cut in two. There is still hard fighting ahead — 
costly fighting. But the liberation of the Philip- 
pines will mean that Japan has been largely cut 
off from her conquest in the East Indies. 

The landing of our troops on Leyte was the 
largest amphibious operation thus far conducted 
in the Pacific. 

Moreover, these landings drew the Japanese fleet 
into the first great sea battle which Japan has 
risked in almost two years. Not since the night 
engagements around Guadalcanal in November- 
December 1942 had our Navy been able to come to 
grips with major units of the Japanese fleet. We 
had brushed against their fleet in the first battle of 
the Philippine Sea in June 1944, but not until last 
October were we able really to engage a major por- 
tion of the Japanese Navy in actual combat. The 
naval engagement which raged for three days was 



JANUARY 7, 1945 



25 



the heaviest blow ever struck against Japanese 
sea power. 

As the result of that battle, much of what is left 
of the Japanese fleet has been driven behind the 
screen of islands that separates the Yellow Sea, 
the Chiaia Sea, and the Sea of Japan from the 
Pacific. 

Our Navy looks forward to any opportunity 
wliicli the lords of the Japanese Navy will give us 
to fight them again. 

The people of this Nation have a right to be 
proud of the courage and fighting ability of the 
men in the armed forces — on all fronts. They 
also have a right to be proud of American leader- 
ship which has guided their sons into battle. 

The history of the generalship of this war has 
been a history of teamwork and cooperation, of 
skill and daring. Let me give you one example 
out of last year's operations in the Pacific. 

Last September Admiral Halsey led American 
naval task forces into Philippine waters and north 
to the East China Sea and struck heavy blows at 
Japanese air and sea power. 

At that time, it was our plan to approach the 
Philippines by further stages, taking islands 
which we may call A, 0, and E. However, Ad- 
miral Halsey reported that a direct attack on 
Leyte appeared feasible. Wlien General Mac- 
Arthur received the reports from Admiral Hal- 
sey's task forces, he also concluded that it might 
be possible to attack the Japanese in the Philip- 
pines directly — by-passing islands A, C, and E. 

Admiral Nimitz thereupon offered to make 
available to General MacArthur several divisions 
which had been scheduled to take the intermediate 
objectives. Tliese discussions, conducted at great 
distances, all took place in one day. 

General MacArthur immediately informed the 
Joint Chiefs of Staff here in Washington that he 
was prepared to initiate plans for an attack on 
Leyte in October. Approval of the change in 
plan was given on the same day. 

Thus, within the space of 24 hours, a major 
change of plans was accomplished which involved 
Army and Navy forces from two different theaters 
of operations — a change which hastened the liber- 
ation of the Philippines and the final day of vic- 
tory — a change which saved lives which would 
have been expended in the capture of islands which 
are now neutralized far behind our lines. 



Our over-all strategy has not neglected the im- 
portant task of rendering all possible aid to China. 
Despite almost insuperable difficulties, we increased 
this aid during 1944. At present our aid to China 
must be accomplished by air transport — there is 
no other way. By the end of 1944, the Air Trans- 
port Command was carrying into China a tonnage 
of supplies three times as great as that delivered 
a year ago, and much more, each month, than the 
Burma road ever delivered at its peak. 

Despite the loss of important bases in China, the 
tonnage delivered by air transport has enabled 
General Chennault's Fourteenth Air Force, which 
includes many Chinese flyers, to wage an effective 
and aggressive campaign against the Japanese. 
In 1944, aircraft of the Fourteenth Air Force flew 
more than 35,000 sorties against the Japanese and 
sank enormous tonnage of enemy shipping, greatly 
diminishing the usefulness of the China Sea lanes. 

British, Dominion, and Chinese forces together 
with our own have not only held the line in Burma 
against determined Japanese attacks but have 
gained bases of considerable importance to the 
supply line into China. 

The Burma campaigns have involved incredible 
hardship, and have demanded exceptional forti- 
tude and determination. The officers and men who 
have served with so much devotion in these far- 
distant jungles and mountains deserve high honor 
from their countrymen. 

In all of the far-flung operations of our own 
armed forces — on land, and sea, and in the air — 
the final job, the toughest job, has been performed 
by the average, easy-going, hard-fighting young 
American who carries the weight of battle on his 
own shoulders. 

It is to him that we and all future generations 
of Americans must pay grateful tribute. 



In the field of foreign policy, we propose to stand 
together with the United Nations not for the war 
alone but for the victory for which the war is 
fought. 

It is not only a common danger which unites us 
but a common hope. Ours is an association not of 
governments but of peoples — and the peoples' hope 
is peace. Here, as in England ; in England, as in 
Eussia; in Russia, as in China; in France, and 
through the continent of Europe, and throughout 
the world; wherever men love freedom, the hope 



26 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



and purpose of the people are for peace — a peace 
that is durable and secure. 

It will not be easy to create this peoples' peace. 
We delude ourselves if we believe that the surren- 
der of the armies of our enemies will make the 
peace we long for. The unconditional surrender 
of the armies of our enemies is the first and neces- 
sary step — but the first step only. 

"We have seen already, in areas liberated from 
the Nazi and the Fascist tyranny, what problems 
peace will bring. And we delude ourselves if we 
attempt to believe wishfully that all these problems 
can be solved overnight. 

The firm foundation can be built — and it will be 
built. But the continuance and assurance of a 
living peace must, in the long run, be the work of 
the people themselves. 

We ourselves, like all peoples who have gone 
through the difficult processes of liberation and 
adjustment, know of our own experience how great 
the difficulties can be. We know that they are not 
difficulties peculiar to any continent or any nation. 
Our own Eevolutionary War left behind it, in the 
words of one American historian, "an eddy of law- 
lessness and disi'egard of human life". There 
were separatist movements of one kind or another 
in Vermont, Pennsylvania, Virginia, Tennessee, 
Kentucky, and Maine. There were insurrections, 
open or threatened, in Massachusetts and New 
Hampshire. These difficulties we worked out for 
ourselves as the peoples of the liberated areas of 
Europe, faced with complex problems of adjust- 
ment, will work out their difficulties for themselves. 

Peace can be made and kept only by the united 
determination of free and peace-loving peoples who 
are willing to work together — willing to help one 
another — willing to respect and tolerate and try to 
understand one another's opinions and feelings. 

The nearer we come to vanquishing our enemies 
the more we inevitably become conscious of dif- 
ferences among the victors. 

We must not let those differences divide us and 
blind us to our more important common and con- 
tinuing interests in winning the war and building 
the peace. 

International cooperation on which enduring 
jDcace must be based is not a one-way street. 

Nations like individuals do not always see alike 
or think alike, and international cooperation and 
progress are not helped by any nation assummg 
that it has a monopoly of wisdom or of virtue. 

In the future world, the misuse of power, as 
implied in the term "power politics", must not be a 



controlling factor in international relations. That 
is the heart of the principles to which we have 
subscribed. We cannot deny that power is a factor 
in world politics any more than we can deny its 
existence as a factor in national politics. But in a 
democratic world, as in a democractic nation, 
power must be linked with responsibility, and 
obliged to defend and justify itself within the 
framework of the general good. 

Perfectionism, no less than isolationism or im- 
perialism or power politics, may obstruct the paths 
to international peace. Let us not forget that the 
retreat to isolationism a quarter of a century ago 
was started not by a direct attack against inter- 
national cooiDeration, but against the alleged im- 
perfections of the peace. 

In our disillusionment after the last war, we 
preferred international anarchy to international 
cooperation with nations which did not see and 
think exactly as we did. We gave up the hope 
of gradually achieving a better peace because we 
had not the courage to fulfil our responsibilities in 
an admittedly imperfect world. 

We must not let that happen again, or we shall 
follow the same tragic road again — the road to a 
third world war. 

We can fulfil our responsibilities for maintain- 
ing the security of our own country only by ex- 
ercising our power and our influence to achieve 
the principles in which we believe and for which 
we have fought. 

In August 1941 Prime Minister Churchill and I 
agreed to the principles of the Atlantic Charter, 
these being later incorporated into the Declaration 
by United Nations of January 1, 1942. At that 
time certain isolationists protested vigorously 
against our right to proclaim the principles — and 
against the very principles themselves. Today, 
many of the same people are protesting against 
the possibility of violation of the same principles. 

It is true that the statement of principles in the 
Atlantic Charter does not provide rules of easy 
application to each and every one of this war-torn 
world's tangled situations. But it is a good and 
useful thing — it is an essential thing — to have 
principles toward which we can aim. 

And we shall not hesitate to use our influence — 
and to use it now — to secure so far as is humanly 
possible the fulfilment of the principles of the 
Atlantic Charter. We have not shrunk from the 
military responsibilities brought on by this war. 
We cannot and will not shrink from the political 
responsibilities which follow in the wake of battle. 



JANUARY 7, 1945 



27 



I do not wish to give the impression that all 
mistakes can be avoided and that many disap- 
pointments are not inevitable in the making of 
peace. But we must not this time lose the hope 
of establishing an international order which will 
be capable of maintaining peace and realizing 
through the years more perfect justice between 
nations. 

To do this we must be on our guard not to exploit 
and exaggerate the differences between us and our 
Allies, particularly with reference to the peoples 
who have been liberated from Fascist tyranny. 
That is not the way to secure a better settlement 
of those differences or to secure international ma- 
chinery which can rectify mistakes which may be 
made. 

I should not be frank if I did not admit concern 
about many situations — the Gi'eek and Polish for 
example. But those situations are not as easy 
or as simple to deal with as some spokesmen, whose 
sincerity I do not question, would have us believe. 
We have obligations, not necessarily legal, to the 
exiled governments, to the underground leaders 
and to our major Allies who came much nearer the 
shadows than we did. 

We and our Allies have declared that it is our 
purpose to respect the right of all peoples to choose 
the form of government under which they will live 
and to see sovereign rights and self-government 
restored to those who have been forcibly deprived 
of them. But with internal dissension, with many 
citizens of liberated countries still prisoners of 
war or forced to labor in Germany, it is difficult 
to guess the kind of self-government the people 
really want. 

During the interim period, until conditions per- 
mit a genuine expression of the peoples' will, we 
and our Allies have a duty, which we cannot ignore, 
to use our influence to the end that no temporary 
or provisional authorities in the liberated coun- 
tries block the eventual exercise of the peoples' 
right freely to choose the government and insti- 
tutions under which, as free men, they are to live. 

It is only too easy for all of us to rationalize 
what we want to believe, and to consider those 
leaders we like responsible and those we dislike 
irresponsible. And our task is not helped by stub- 
born partisanship, however understandable, on 
the part of opposed internal factions. 

It is our purpose to help the peace-loving peoples 
of Europe to live together as good neighbors, to 
recognize their common interests, and not to nurse 



their traditional grievances against one another. 

But we must not permit the many specific and 
immediate problems of adjustment connected with 
the liberation of Europe to delay the establish- 
ment of permanent machinery for the mainte- 
nance of peace. Under the threat of a common 
danger, the United Nations joined together in war 
to presei've their independence and their freedom. 
They must now join together to make secure the 
independence and freedom of all peace-loving 
states, so that never again shall tyranny be able 
to divide and conquer. 

International peace and well-being, like national 
peace and well-being, require constant alertness, 
continuing cooperation, and organized effort. 

International peace and well-being, like na- 
tional peace and well-being, can be secured only 
through institutions capable of life and growth. 

Many of the problems of the peace are upon us 
even now while the conclusion of the war is still 
before us. The atmosphere of friendship and 
mutual understanding and determination to find a 
common ground of common understanding, which 
surrounded the conversations at Dumbarton Oaks, 
gives us reason to hope that future discussions will 
succeed in developing the democratic and fully in- 
tegrated world-security system toward which 
these preparatory conversations were directed. 

We and the other United Nations are going for- 
ward, with vigor and resolution, in our efforts to 
create such a system by providing for it strong 
and flexible institutions of joint and cooperative 
action. 

The aroused conscience of humanity will not per- 
mit failure in this supreme endeavor. 

We believe that the extraordinary advances in 
the means of intercommunication between peoples 
over the past generation offer a practical method 
of advancing the mutual understanding upon 
which peace and the institutions of peace must 
rest, and it is our policy and purpose to use these 
great technological achievements for the common 
advantage of the world. 

We support the greatest possible freedom of 
trade and commerce. 

We Americans have always believed in freedom 
of opportunity, and equality of opportunity re- 
mains one of the principal objectives of our na- 
tional life. What we believe in for individuals, 
we believe in also for nations. We are opposed 
to restrictions, whether by public act or private 



28 



arrangement, which distort and impair com- 
merce, transit, and trade. 

We have house-cleaning of our own to do in this 
regard. But it is our hope, not only in the interest 
of our own prosperity but in the interest of the 
prosperity of the world, that trade and commerce 
and access to materials and markets may be freer 
after this war than ever before in the history of 
the world. 

One of the most heartening events of the year in 
the international field has been the renaissance of 
the French people and the return of the French 
nation to the ranks of the United Nations. Far 
from having been crushed by the terror of Nazi 
domination, the French people have emerged with 
stronger faith than ever in the destiny of their 
countiy and in the soundness of the democratic 
ideals to which the French nation has traditionally 
contributed so greatly. 

During her liberation, France has given proof 
of her unceasing determination to fight the Ger- 
mans, continuing the heroic efforts of the resistance 
groups under the occupation and of all those 
Frenchmen throughout the world who refused to 
surrender after the disaster of 1940. 

Today, French armies are again on the German 
frontier, and are again fighting shoulder to shoul- 
der with our sons. 

Since our landings in Africa, we have placed in 
French hands all the arms and material of war 
which our resources and the military situation per- 
mitted. And I am glad to say that we are now 
about to equip large new French forces with the 
most modern weapons for combat duty. 

In addition to the contribution which France 
can make to our common victory, her liberation 
likewise means that her great influence will again 
be available in meeting the problems of peace. 

We fully recognize France's vital interest in a 
lasting solution of the German problem and the 
contribution which she can make in achieving in- 
ternational security. Her formal adherence to the 
Declaration by United Nations a few days ago and 
the proposal at the Dumbarton Oaks discussions, 
whereby France would receive one of the five per- 
manent seats in the proposed Security Council, 
demonstrate the extent to which France has re- 
sumed her proper position of strength and 
leadership. 

We have a great many problems ahead of us and 
we must approach them with realism and courage. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

This new year of 1945 can be the greatest year 
of achievement in human history. 

1945 can see the final ending of the Nazi-Fascist 
reign of terror in Europe. 

1945 can see the closing in of the forces of retri- 
bution about the center of the malignant power of 
imperialistic Japan. 

Most important of all — 1945 can and must see the 
substantial beginning of the organization of world 
peace. This organization must be the fulfillment 
of the promise for which men have fought and died 
in this war. It must be the justification of all the 
sacrifices that have been made — of all the dreadful 
misery that this world has endured. 

We Americans of today, together with our Allies, 
are making history — and I hope it will be better 
history than ever has been made before. 

We pray that we may be worthy of the unlimited 
opportunities that God has given us. 

AIR LAW— Continued from page 16. 

"The International Civil Aviation Conference 
'■recommends : 

"1. That the various governments represented 
at this International Civil Aviation Conference 
give consideration to tlie desirability of bringing 
about the resumption at the earliest possible date 
of the CITEJA sessions which were suspended 
because of the outbreak of war, of making neces- 
sary contributions toward the expenses of the 
Secretariat of CITEJA. and of appointing legal 
experts to attend the CITEJA meetings; and 

"2. That consideration also be given by the 
various govermnents to tlie desirability of coordi- 
nating the activities of CITEJA with those of the 
Provisional ^^ International Civil Aviation Or- 
ganization and, after it shall have come into exist- 
ence, of the permanent "" International Civil Avia- 
tion Organization established pursuant to the Con- 
vention on International Civil Aviation drawn up 
at Chicago on December 7, 1944." " 

"The Organization which will function under the terms 
of the Interim Agreement on International Civil Aviation, 
signed at Chicago on Dec. 7, 1944, when that Agreement 
comes into force. 

* The Organization which will function under the terms 
of the Convention on International Civil Aviation, signed 
at Chicago on Dec. 7, 1944, when that Convention comes 
into force. 

" In connection with the foregoing discussion, see ad- 
dress on "Codification of Private International Air Iiaw" 
by Mr. Latchford as printed in Press Releases, Feb. 1, 
1930, p. 121. See also the article by Mr. Latchford on "The 
Right of Innocent Passage in the International Civil Air- 
Navigation Agreement", Buixetin of July 2, 1944, p. 19. 



JANUARY 7, 1945 



29 



Italian Supply Program 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY OF STATE CONCERNING INQUIRIES RELATIVE TO BRITISH 
AND UNITED STATES POLICIES 



[U.lraseii to tb.- prvss January 4] 

The Secretary of State, m answer to inquires of 
newspaper correspondents concerning a recent 
publication which gave the impression that the 
British and American Governments are in dis- 
agreement with reference to their policies concern- 
ing the supplying of necessities to Italy, issued the 
following statement : 

"Quoted passages in the article are excerpts from 
an aide-memoire submitted by the British Ambas- 
sador to the Department of State on August 22, 
1944. The document is part of the confidential 
records of the Department. The unauthorized 
publication of any part of it is in the highest degi-ee 
regrettable, and the matter is being pursued. 

"The aide-memoire itself was part of a series of 
confidential documents and conversations which 
led up to the statement of September 26 by the 
President and Prime Minister Churchill on the 
subject of Italy. It cannot fairly be appraised 
out of the context of those documents and conver- 
sations. For example, in the aide-memoire de- 
livered on August 22 appears the following lan- 
guage: 

" 'The question of an expansion of the scope of 
the Italian supply program is already under con- 
sideration by an interdepartmental committee in 
London. His Majesty's Government would not, 
therefore, wish to prejudice the work of this com- 
mittee by agreeing in advance what the conclu- 
sions of its study should be. So soon as the rec- 
ommendations of the committee have been made 
His Majesty's Govermnent would wish to discuss 
the matter further with the United States Gov- 
ernment.' 

"In its reply to the British memorandum the 
Department stated : 

'• 'From the information now available to the 
Department, the Department believes it probable 
that such discussions would result in agreement 
between the two governments as to the scope of 
the program.' 



''The British Govermnent, after its examination 
of the problem, reached the conclusion that an ex- 
panded supply program to commence a restora- 
tion of the Italian economy was advisable. On 
September 26, 1944 the British Prime Minister 
and the President joined in a statement setting 
forth the agreed policy of the two Governments 
concerning Italy. Pertinent parts of this state- 
ment are as follows : ^ 

" 'First and immediate considerations in Italy 
are the relief of hunger and sickness and fear. To 
this end we instructed our representatives at the 
UNRRA Conference to declare for the sending of 
medical aids and other essential supplies to Italy. 
We are happy to know that this view commended 
itself to other members of the UNRRA Council. 

" 'At the same time, first steps should be taken 
toward the reconstruction of an Italian economy — 
an economy laid low under the years of the misrule 
of Mussolino, and ravished by the German policy 
of vengeful destruction. 

" 'These steps should be taken primarily as mili- 
tary aims to put the full resources of Italy and the 
Italian jjeople into the struggle to defeat Germany 
and Japan. For military reasons we should assist 
the Italians in the restoration of such power sys- 
tems, their railways, motor transport, roads and 
other communications as enter into the war situa- 
tion, and for a short time send engineers, tech- 
nicians and industrial experts into Italy to help 
them in their own rehabilitation.' 



BuixEiiN of Oct. 1, 1944, p. ; 



Bread-Rationing for Italy 

[Released to the press January 4] 

The British and American Governments 
have been in agreement for some time on 
the question of bread-rationing for Italy 
of 300 grams daily a person. Putting it 
into effect will be dependent upon obtain- 
ing the necessary shipping. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



"A series of discussions subsequently has taken 
place between British and American officials con- 
cerning the methods of implementing the joint 
policy set forth above. There have been no major 
differences between the British and ourselves in 
these discussions, and they have resulted in sub- 
stantial agreement between the two Governments. 

"It is perfectly clear that the United States and 
the United Kingdom Governments are in basic 
agreement in a desire to provide assistance to en- 
able the Italians to start rebuilding their economic 
life and furnish the maximum contribution to the 
war effort. 

"It is especially regrettable that, as generally 
happens when excerpts from documents or one of 
a series of documents are published without au- 
thorization, an erroneous and unjustified impres- 
sion has been created." 

Non-Military Traffic 
On Foreign Routes 

[Released to the press January 3] 

In pursuance of the procedure described in the 
War Department's recent announcement ^ regard- 
ing the movement of non-military traffic on foreign 
routes of the Army Air Transport Command, the 
Department of State and American diplomatic and 
consular establishments abroad are prepared, effec- 
tive January 1, 1945, to receive applications for air 
priorities on behalf of passengers and shippers 
of cargo who are able to meet the priority require- 
ments for the use of planes of the Air Transport 
Command and the Naval Air Transport Service 
under the provisions of Execvitive Order 9492, 
dated October 24.1944.= 

Briefly, such traffic will include non-military and 
non-naval cargo and passengers certified by the 
State Department as being in the national interest 
because their transportation will contribute — 

(1) directly or indirectly to the war effort, or 

(2) to relief or rehabilitation activities in areas 
affected by the war, or 

(3) to the resumption of economic or other 
activities disrupted by the war that are necessary 
for the prompt reestablishment of peacetime 
conditions, 

provided that such traffic is of sufficient impor- 
tance to justify by air. 

and provided that such traffic cannot reasonably 
be handled by a United States civil air-carrier. 



Applications will be received from individuals, 
representatives of business firms, religious, educa- 
tional, and philanthropic organizations. United 
States Government civilian agencies, or agencies 
of foreign governments. The forms for applying 
for transportation are obtainable from the Depart- 
ment of State, dijjlomatic and consular establish- 
ments abroad, passport agencies in the United 
States, the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Com- 
merce in Washington, and the 26 regional offices 
of the Department of Commerce throughout the 
United States. The applications of representatives 
of business firms for passenger transportation may 
be filed with the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic 
Commerce or with the regional offices. Other ap- 
plications should be filed direct with the Depart- 
ment of State. 

The Department of State and its representatives 
abroad will maintain close liaison with the priority 
officers of both the Air Transport Command and 
the Naval Air Transport Service and certify only 
such non-war-effort traffic as can be moved on the 
air-transport facilities of the armed services in 
space not required for war purposes. Certifica- 
tions will also be made only when United States 
commercial airline facilities cannot fill the need 
and when the traffic is of such importance as to 
justify movement by air. 

Since neither the ATC nor the NATS antici- 
pates that much space will be available in the near 
future for the movement of non-war-effort traffic, 
arrangements have been made whereby the over- 
flow of passengers who cannot be moved because 
of the lack of space may be carried on American 
flag- vessels under the control of the War Shipping 
Administration, the Army, and the Navy. 

Travelers should, of course, be in possession of 
passports validated for the desired countries of 
travel and visaed for those countries.^ Evidence 
of effective inoculation against typhoid, para- 
typhoid, and typhus and vaccination against 
smallpox is required for travel on most American 
facilities. In addition, travel to some areas re- 
quires inoculation against yellow fever and in 
some seasons against cholera. The procurement 
of a passport and the completion of travel ar- 
rangements should be accomplished simultane- 
ously in order to avoid confusion and delay. 

' War Department press release of Dec. 20, 1944. 
= 9 Federal Register 12859. See Bulletin of Nov. 12, 
1944, p. 584. 
" BuLLEmN of Dec. 17, 1944, p. 760. 



JANUARY 7, 1945 



A Message for the New Year 

Address by THE UNDER SECRETARY OF STATE ' 



(Released to the press January 1] 

A New Year's Day message should be a message 
of liope. There have been few occasions in Ameri- 
can history when the New Year's Day was cele- 
brated with a greater awareness by our citizens that 
the future of our Nation and, indeed, of our civili- 
zation is being decided now by the actions and 
attitudes of each of us. 

We have passed thi-ough a year of bitter strife. 
It has been a year, in that sense, not unlike other 
years when our national stamina has been tested 
in trial by battle and not found wanting. As a 
nation at war, we have much for which to be grate- 
ful. As individuals, many of our people already 
bear the cost of our country's salvation in personal 
loss and tragedy. 

But today we must look forward, not back, ex- 
cept to profit from the lessons of our errors of the 
past. 

We have before us two fundamental problems 
beside which all else pales into comparative in- 
significance, for all else depends upon our attain- 
ment of those objectives. Stated tritely, one of 
those objectives is to win the war against both 
Germany and Japan and to win it so conclusively 
that we shall have broken the back of aggressive 
militarism. The other objective is to build such 
a peace as has never yet been built by man. Let 
us then dedicate this day to facing these problems 
realistically, patriotically, honestly, and soberly. 

First, the war. False optimism and wishful 
thinking are dangerous playthings. They hold us 
back, and we cannot afford to be held back by any 
considerations whatsoever. They obscure and be- 
fog realistic thinking and the action prompted 
by realistic thinking. They induce relaxation of 
effort, and we can afford no relaxation— yet. We 
still have a hard road ahead, and it may be long. 
The Nazis are far from beaten. As for Japan, we 
have but cut into the outer periphery of the Em- 
pire. This statement is not for a moment to 
underrate the magnificent work already accom- 
plished by our armed forces. By every right they 
have won our confidence and our grateful pride. 
With brilliant strategy and tactics, with resolute- 



' Broadcast over the Blue Network on Jan. 1, 1945 



ness and grit, they have brought us into position 
where eventual and certain victory is assured. 
Similarly our Allies, by almost superhuman gal- 
lantry and in spite of appalling losses, have demon- 
strated a stamina and staying power unknown in 
the annals of war. Let us never for a moment 
forget or underestimate their prodigious efforts 
or their almost indescribable sacrifices. They also 
deserve our national gratitude. 

But in the meantime, let us not give in to the 
temptation that besets every one of us — the tempta- 
tion to indulge in the pleasant but unrealistic 
thinking that the final victory is just around the 
corner. This New Year's Day should be a day of 
rededication to the work in hand, a day of girding 
up our loins for more intensive effort, for willing 
sacrifice, for grim determination. We Americans 
do not leave a job half done. 

Then, the jDeace, a peace such as has never yet 
been built by man. That statement, in itself, may 
sound like wishful thinking. But that thinking 
is based on the solid ground of such an upsurge 
of determination among the peoples of the world 
as has never before been seen in history— the de- 
termination that war, like slavery and torture 
and disease, must go. And we shall succeed. 
Have no doubt about that. 

Now, in erecting our future world structure for 
the maintenance of security and peace, we need 
a new approach to this whole tremendous problem. 

First, we must profit from the errors of the 
past. The flaws and weaknesses of our past in- 
effective peace machinery must be overcome, as 
they will be overcome. The peace structures of 
the past failed because they were superficial ; they 
were like poultices prescribed for cancer— and you 
can't temporize with cancer. 

Second, we must be prepared to make what in 
the past has been considered sacrifice. I do not 
mean a sacrifice of sovereignty. The thought of 
fashioning any kind of superstate is to us wholly 
repugnant, and no such thought has entered or 
can enter into our counsels. But we and the other 
nations devoted to peace must be prepared to 
join our efforts and a part of our armed forces 
not only for the common good but for the future 
security of our own Nation. Is that too great a 



S2 

sacrifice to avoid the horrors of another world 
war, waged with the terrific and as yet un imag- 
ined scientific engines of destruction of both mili- 
tary and civilian life that will certainly be used if 
war comes again ? Can any sacrifice be too great 
to avoid that sort of cataclysm ? 

Third, we must realize that whatever peaces 
structure is erected, it will not satisfy everybody. 
We can only aim for what is desirable witliin 
the scope of what is attainable. But for the 
sake of our national way of life and our as yet 
unborn generations, let us be prepared to give 
whatever plan may ultimately emerge from the 
eventual United Nations conference a chance to 
succeed, with implicit confidence that by the proc- 
ess of trial and error it will mature and prove 
effective. Whatever plan emerges from that mo- 
mentous conference mu-^t be made to succeed, for 
the alternative is utter tragedy. 

I believe with all my heart that if the American 
people will hold fast to the bright hopes and prin- 
ciples and ideals which have inspired them in the 
past; if they will refuse to allow their hope for 
permanent peace to be frustrated; if they will 
believe in themselves and not only resolutely face 
their own difficult problems but also seek to under- 
stand those of their Allies, who want peace and 
security as much as we do ; and if, above all, they 
will believe in the future world for which they 
have fought, they can have thxit world. 

Thus we enter 1945. 

Mutual-Aid Agreement, 
Canada and India 

The American Embassy at Ottawa transmitted 
to the Department, with a despatch of December 2, 
1944, a copy of a press release, dated November 27, 
1944, of the Department of External Affairs, an- 
nouncing that a mutual-aid agreement had been 
concluded between Canada and India. The press 
release states that the agreement is identical in 
contents with previous mutual-aid agreements 
which have been concluded by Canada with the 
Governments of the United Kingdom, Australia, 
and New Zealand, the Provisional Government of 
the French Republic, and the Soviet and Chinese 
Governments. 

The agreement was signed at Ottawa November 
17, 1944 and came into force that day. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

Relief Supplies for Allied 
Nationals Interned in the 
Far East 

[Keleased to the press January IJ 

On October 24, 1944, the Department announced 
that the Japanese Government had agreed to dLs- 
patch a Japanese ship to a Soviet port to pick up 
relief supplies previously sent from the United 
States and Canada intended for distribution to 
American, British, Canadian, Dutch, and other 
Allied prisoners of war and civilian internees heUl 
by Japan.' 

More than 2,000 tons of food, clothing, medi- 
cines, comfort articles, and recreational supplies 
were taken aboard the Japanese ship, which ar- 
rived in Japan on November 11. En route 150 
tons of assorted supplies were unloaded at a 
Korean port for distribution to Allied nationals 
held in camps in Manchuria and Korea. 

Eight hundred tons of these supplies have been 
allocated by the International Red Cross Commit- 
tee delegation in Japan for distribution to Allieil 
nationals in camps located in Japan. The re- 
mainder, approximately 1,100 tons, has been ear- 
marked for distribution to camps in the Philip- 
pines, occupied China, the Netherlands Indies, and 
other areas to the south where Allied nationals are 
held. 

Recently the Japanese Government offered to 
transport the supplies allocated for camps outside 
Japan provided the Allied governments would 
grant safe-conduct for Japanese ships carrying 
these supplies as part of their cargo. The Allied 
military authorities agreed in principle to this 
proposal. The Japanese Government then made 
a specific request for safe-conduct for a ship to 
proceed to Shanghai carrying that portion of these 
supplies earmarked for camps in occupied Cliina. 
This Government, acting for itself and its Allied 
governments, has communicated to the Japanese 
Government Allied agreement to this request. 
According to the terms of the safe-conduct the 
Japanese ship, the Hosi Mara, will depart from 
Japan on Januarj' 4 and is scheduled to arrive at 
Shanghai on January 12. 



BLTT.I.ETIN of Oct. 29, 1944, p. 494. 



JANUAIiY 7, 1945 



The International Civil Aviation Conference at 
Chicago and What It Means to the Americas 



Address by STOKELEY W. MORGAN ' 



[Released to the press January 2] 

The International Civil Aviation Conference, 
which met in Chicago November 1, was called pri- 
marily for the purpose of making arrangements 
which would allow international airlines to get 
into operation as soon as military considerations 
permit, thus enabling commercial air transport to 
perform without delay its proper function of pro- 
viding rapid communication between nations and 
peoples, in order to renew world trade and com- 
merce after the long stagnation caused by the war. 
The task was a formidable one because the situa- 
tion confronting the air-transport industry after 
the war will be totally different from that in 1939, 
and because the international machinery which 
served then would be totally inadequate to meet 
the new conditions. Especially needed was a new 
international agreement governing air navigation 
and air transport to replace the out-of-date Paris 
and Havana agreements of 1919 and 1929, a new 
set of technical standards to reflect the gigantic 
strides which have been made in aviation practice 
and technique during recent years, and some form 
of provisional interim arrangements to serve until 
a new agreement and new standards could be 
worked out and adopted by all the nations. The 
Conference was seeking a means to start flying 
the minute the green light replaces the red on the 
commercial airways of the world. 

During the Conference a group of nations led by 
Canada and Great Britain stressed the desirability 
of strict regulation, envisaging a sort of interna- 
tional Civil Aeronautics Authority. Their desire 
for such control was motivated in part by a fear 
that without it international services would be put 
into operation greatly exceeding the actual traffic 
demands; and that such services, tied as they 
would be to national political interests and na- 
tional prestige, must inevitably seek government 
support, with resulting subsidy races and rate wars. 
Perhaps even more influential in their thinking 

' Delivered before a couference of mayors at Miami on 
Jan. 2, 1945. Mr. Morgan is Chief of the Aviation Division, 
Office of Transportation and Communications, Department 
of State. 



was the fear lest, without some form of interna- 
tional control over routes, rates, and schedules, the 
United States, with its undisputed leadership in 
the field of air transjDOrt and with what comes close 
to being a monopoly of long-range transport 
planes, would so monopolize the world air trans- 
port of the immediate future that other nations 
when ready to enter the competitive race would 
find themselves outdistanced, the field preempted, 
and no room left for a newcomer. There was also 
in some quarters a very apparent desire to offset 
American skill and efficiency by arbitrary restric- 
tion which would give an artificial equality — a 
desire to put handicap weight on the American 
entry, so to speak. It is noteworthy that the 
leading maritime nations had never proposed this 
form of international control for their merchant 
shipping. 

The United States Delegation opposed the es- 
tablishment of any international authority with 
arbitrary regidatory powers in the economic field. 
They recognized the need for some form of control 
which would prevent vast numbers of empty or 
partly empty planes from flying a multiplicity of 
air routes, supported by government subsidy and 
operated for reasons of politics rather than busi- 
ness. They felt, however, that the formation of 
such a regulatory body at this time would be pre- 
mature since it must work largely without expe- 
rience and in a new field. Pending the time when 
world organization in many fields will have become 
increasingly effective, the United States Delegation 
took the position that an international civil-avia- 
tion council acting as a purely technical study 
group and in an advisory or consultive capacity 
would be a valuable instrument for solving many 
of the problems confronting international avia- 
tion, and such a council was proposed by the Con- 
ference. It is to be established first, on a pro- 
visional basis and later, if experience proves the 
soundness of the idea, as a permanent institution. 

The provisional International Civil Aviation 
Organization consists of an Assembly to meet once 
a year, to which all the nations represented at 
Chicago will belong, and a Council of 21 member 



34 

states, elected by the Assembly every 2 years. The 
Council will formulate and recommend the adop- 
tion of technical standards and procedures, and 
will study, report, and recommend on problems 
relating to air navigation and international air 
transport. 

It is worthwhile to note the objectives of the new 
International Civil Aviation Organization. They 
are to — 

(a) insure the safe and orderly growth of in- 
ternational civil aviation throughout the world; 

(b) encourage the arts of aircraft design and 
operation for peaceful purposes ; 

(c) encourage the development of airways, air- 
ports, and air-navigation facilities for interna- 
tional civil aviation; 

(d) meet the needs of the peoples of the world 
for safe, regular, efficient, and economic air trans- 
port; 

(e) prevent economic waste caused by unreason- 
able competition; 

(f) insure that the rights of contracting states 
are fully respected and that every contracting 
state has a fair opportunity to operate interna- 
tional airlines; 

(g) avoid discrimination between contracting 
states; 

(h) promote safety of flight in international 
air navigation ; and 

(i) promote generally the development of all 
aspects of international civil aeronautics. 

In the technical field, 12 subcommittees of the 
Conference labored to produce draft technical 
annexes to the international agreement, which 
were accepted by the Conference for further study 
by the Interim Council. The completeness with 
which the field was covered is shown by the titles 
of these annexes : 

(a) Airways Systems 

(b) Communications Procedures and Systems 

(c) Eules of the Air 

(d) Air Traffic Control Practices 

(e) Standards Governing the Licensing of Op- 
erating and Mechanical Personnel 

(f ) Log Book Requirements 

(g) Airworthiness Requirements for Civil Air- 
craft Engaging in Liternational Air Naviga- 
tion 

(h) Aircraft Registration and Identification 
Marks 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

(i) Meteorological Protection of International 

Aeronautics 
(j) Aeronautical Maps and Charts 
(k) Customs Procedures and Manifests 
(1) Search and Rescue, and Investigation of 

Accidents 
The Conference passed a resolution under which 
the signatory nations agreed to accept these prac- 
tices as ones toward which the national practices 
of these nations should be directed as far and as 
rapidly as may prove practicable. In other words, 
it is hoped that the nations of the world will 
voluntarily adopt these technical standards and 
practices as their own laws and regulations prior 
to the time when they can, after further study and 
revision by the Interim Council, become part of 
fixed international law. Thus we may very 
shortly achieve the desirable end that aircraft, 
flying in all parts of the world, will comply with 
the same standards, follow the same procedures, 
give and recognize the same signals, everywhere. 
But it was not the most difficult problem of the 
Conference to agree upon technical matters. As 
Mayor LaGuardia said on one occasion, "Every- 
body is against bad weather." Nor was it suf- 
ficient to agree upon modern revised prijiciples 
governing air navigation between nations and to 
set up an advisory council. All this had been 
done to a limited extent in Paris in 1919. The 
problem of getting the transport planes into the 
air and providing for air commerce between the 
nations was still unsolved. This problem has been 
side-stepped by both the Paris and Havana con- 
ventions, which specified that matters relating to 
international air transport should be arranged 
between the nations by direct agreement. The re- 
sult had been thoroughly unsatisfactory. Every 
air-transport line necessitated a series of bargains, 
one with each nation through which it passed. A 
nation holding a strategic geographic position on 
the route was in a position to exercise holdup 
tactics and in many cases it did so. Special deals 
were worked out by which one nation or its air- 
craft were favored at the expense of others; ex- 
clusive rights were granted and paid for; discrimi- 
nation was the rule rather than the exception. 

At the beginning of the Conference, the United 
States Delegation announced the United States 
doctrine that aircraft should be permitted to go 
wherever there was a legitimate traffic need, pro- 
vided only that they should fly reasonably full, a 
65 percent load factor being suggested as a reason- 



JANUARY 7, 1945 



35 



able utilization. Schedules, however, should be 
increased as rapidly as needed, specifically when 
planes were operating at more than 65 percent of 
capacity. Airlines should be free to fly such types 
of aircraft and such frequencies as sound business 
judgment should dictate, and there should be no 
discriminatory practices favoring the aircraft of 
one nation operating in a given country over the 
aircraft of another. 

The Canadian Delegation was responsible for 
suggesting what later came to be called the doc- 
trine of the freedoms. They suggested that the 
nations should grant each to the others the fol- 
lowing freedoms of the air with respect to sched- 
uled international air services : 

(1) The privilege to fly across its territory with- 
out landing ; 

(2) The privilege to land for non-traffic pur- 
poses ; 

(3) The privilege to put down passengers, mail 
and cargo taken on in the territory of the state 
whose nationality the aircraft possesses ; 

(4) The privilege to take on passengers, mail 
and cargo destined for the territory of the 
state whose nationality the aircraft possesses. 

This, as can readily be seen, contains one serious 
omission. It makes no provision for intermediate, 
so-called "pick-up", traffic. An airline operating 
a long route under this Canadian formula would 
fly with a constantly growing number of empty 
seats. For example, a plane from New York to 
Cairo via London, Paris, Geneva, and Rome would 
drop off at each city the passengers booked to that 
point and take on none, thus probably arriving at 
Cairo with perhaps two or three seats occupied. 
Between New York and Buenos Aires, for instance, 
only 15 percent of the traffic is through traffic, and 
therefore we should be able to operate only about 
one plane a week on that trade route. Such a re- 
striction would strangle the lines of every country 
except those operated for political reasons with 
heavy government subsidies. 

Nevertheless, this formula was strenuously sup- 
ported to the last by a number of nations, their 
reason being that if planes, specifically American 
planes, were permitted to pick up traffic as they 
went along and operate all frequencies necessary 
to accommodate that traffic, local airlines would 
be stifled in development ; the through lines would 
take it all. 



The United States viewpoint, supported with 
equal vigor by a number of other nations, was that 
in the post-war world there would be plenty of 
room for all, and it was not our intention to use 
through lines to monopolize local traffic. Fur- 
thermore, to show that it was not our intention to 
do so. Dr. Berle, Chief of the United States Dele- 
gation and President of the Conference, expressly 
stated that this Government is prepared to make 
available civil air-transport planes, when they can 
be released from military service, to those coun- 
tries which recognize as we do the right of each 
nation to maintain friendly intercourse with 
others. However, through lines could not live or 
develop on terminal traffic alone as provided under 
the Canadian formula. 

In efi'ect, the formula of the four freedoms alone 
might well have stopped American operations at 
the western gateways of Europe, and on the South 
American routes might have made it impossible 
to operate on a business basis beyond Trinidad on 
the east coast and perhaps Guayaquil on the west. 

Therefore, the United States Delegation pro- 
posed what was designated the fifth freedom :^ 

(5) The privilege to take on passengers, mail 
and cargo destined for the territory of any 
other contracting state and the privilege to 
put down passengers, mail and cargo coming 
from any such territory. 

It should be observed that in this proposed mu- 
tual grant of freedoms three, four, and five, they 
are only to apply to through services on a reason- 
ably direct route out from and back to the home- 
land of the state whose nationality the aircraft 
possesses. The granting of these freedoms does 
not in any way alter the fact that each state exer- 
cises complete and exclusive sovereignty over the 
airspace above its territory. Furthermore, each 
nation retains the right to reserve for its own car- 
rier traffic between points within its own territory, 
so-called "cabotage". 

Debate concentrated to a large extent on the so- 
called "fifth freedom". The Latin American na- 
tions in general took the same position as the 
United States. They had experienced the advan- 
tage of having established international air trans- 
port serving their countries for many years. 
While they were to some extent operators them- 
selves and hoped in future to be operating on a 
larger scale, they were also users of the services 
of others and realized the benefits to be derived 



36 



DEPARTMEIST OF STATE BLLLETIN 



from free and unrestricted operations. They had 
been accustomed to grant what had now become 
known as the fifth freedom without reservation, 
and they realized from the traffic statistics of their 
own countries that long trunk-line operations were 
impossible without it. They supported the United 
States Delegation in full measure. The Scandi- 
navian nations and the Netherlands likewise sup- 
ported the position of the United States. 

In the end, since unanimity could not be 
achieved, it was decided that separate documents 
should be drafted by which the nations could grant 
and receive the two fi-eedoms and the four free- 
<loms, with or without the fifth. To protect the 
nations which were fearful that development of 
their own regional services would be unduly handi- 
capped, it was provided that any state might grant 
only the four freedoms and neither grant nor re- 
ceive the fifth. To date, 29 nations have signed the 
document under which they grant right of transit 
and technical stop. This, I believe, is the great 
achievement of the Conference. It gets the plane 
into the air, not after prolonged bilateral negotia- 
tions, with bargaining balanced pro and con, with 
every nation. American aircraft can now fly to 
virtually all parts of the world as soon as they 
are ready. 

Some people will say the United States gives up 
more than it receives by such a grant. I do not 
think so. Under the system of bilateral agree- 
ments you may obtain commercial rights to operate 
and do business in a certain country and be wholly 
unable to get there. You must at least have transit 
rights in all the intervening countries. For ex- 
ample, it does us no good to have commercial rights 
in continental Europe, Scandinavia, and the Mid- 
dle and Near East if we cannot cross the Atlantic. 
And to cross the Atlantic we must have transit 
rights granted by Canada, Newfoundland, and, if 
possible, Iceland, Bermuda, and the Azores. In 
the present development of transport aircraft it 
is impossible to fly economically from the United 
States to European territory non-stop. As the 
result of the agreement prepared at Chicago and 
submitted for signature by all nations, we are now 
reasonably sure of obtaining these transit rights. 
And what do we give up of bargaining value in 
return? One thing, the Hawaiian stop in the 
Pacific. By the reciprocal grant of transit rights 
to Canada and Great Britain, we make possible a 
Canadian line to Australia and a British line to 



the Far East via the Pacific. Well, transit rights 
in Canada for our trans-Atlantic planes are more 
than a fair return for letting Canada get through 
to Australia ; and while the British may ultimately 
run a line to the Far East via Hawaii, they are not 
dependent on that route; the logical way to go 
from Great Britain to Australia and the Far East 
is from London eastward via the Mediterranean, 
the Near East, and India. Transit rights in New- 
foundland and Bernmda and the British Isles are 
worth far more to us than transit rights at Hawaii 
are worth to them. 

At this point someone should ask, "But what 
good are these transit rights if no commercial 
rights go with them ?" No good at all if we have 
no commercial rights anywhere. Their value does 
indeed depend upon their use to us in reaching 
countries with which we exchange commercial 
rights. It is true that only 16 nations signed the 
five-freedom document at Chicago and all but 4 
of them were Latin American nations with which 
we are already doing business. However, that 
will not be the final score. For some time it will 
still be necessary to execute special agreements with 
the countries which, while not ready to extend 
these commercial freedoms on a wide basis, are yet 
ready and willing to welcome American air car- 
riers into their territory. The number is consider- 
able, and in each case as a new nation is added to 
our list of customers, the right of access will 
exist based on the general grant of the two free- 
doms. The full picture and the benefits derived 
from the Conference cannot be completely ascer- 
tained until these supplementary agreements have 
been concluded. What has been done is very con- 
siderable, and each further step will be a step in 
the right direction. There is still some anxiety 
and suspicion to be overcome, but once American 
carriers are in the air and the benefits to be derived 
from the services they are able to supply become 
apparent, and the fear that they will stifle local 
interests becomes allayed, the wider our services . 
will spread and the more useful to ourselves and 
all the world our aviation will become. 

The United States — as it should — has shown the 
way towards a sound, reasonable but not excessive 
freedom of the air. It has gone all out for that 
freedom which Grotius argued for and the ad- 
vanced nations of two centuries ago fought for as 
the freedom of the seas — the right of every nation 
to communicate with everv other nation and to 



JANUARY 7, 1945 

build up its ties of commei-ce and culture by air as 
it lias been able to do by water. 

Against this we have only the views of what 
I believe is a small minority in this country who 
think that we should bargain at every step, ask 
all and give little, and proceed on a basis of strictly 
power politics. Their position merits careful con- 
sideration for it is no doubt sincere, and much 
will be heard along these lines in the near future. 
Their chief reason for advocating this course is a 
fear that our airline industry will be unable to 
hold its own in competition with foreign opera- 
tors coming to this country under the reciprocal 
grant of the so-called "freedom" which foreign 
nations grant to us. 

The idea that American aviation must be pro- 
tected against foreign competition by closing the 
doors to foreign operators while forcing them 
open for our own has, I am glad to say, little sup- 
port among the people who hope and expect to 
operate our planes. The American Delegation at 
Chicago was ably advised by a large group of 
technical consultants borrowed from the air- 
transport industry. No step was taken without 
their advice; nothing was done without this 
okay. The documents setting up an interim 
aviation organization and offering the two or the 
five freedoms to those nations which wished to 
make similar grants had the full approval of both 
the policy makers — representatives of the Civil 
Aeronautics Board, the Civil Aeronautics Author- 
ity, and the Department of State — and also of 
the consultants representing the War and Navy 
Departments, the airlines, and the manufacturers. 
It is to be hoped that the nation as a whole will 
approve and support their decisions. 

We must not overloolc the fact that if we wish 
to operate in the territory of foreign nations we 
must be willing to permit the aircraft of those 
nations to operate on a basis of reciprocity in 
United States territory. It is true that before 
the war American flag carriers operated a net- 
work through the Western Hemisphere without 
the carriers of those nations operating reciprocal 
services to this country under their own flag. 
But that was simply because they were not ready 
or desirous of instituting such operations. Those 
days are past. Indeed, as soon as American car- 
riers were ready to fly the Atlantic early in 1939, 
reciprocal rights were demanded by England and 
France, and even then no nation which had per- 
mitted an American carrier to opei-ate in its terri- 



37 



tory would admit that it was not entitled to recip- 
rocal rights as soon as its carriers were ready to 
enjoy them. 

The theory that by some form of shrewd bar- 
gaining we can obtain landing rights and rights 
of commercial entry for our carriers while deny- 
ing them to the nations which grant them to us 
is unrealistic in the extreme. Nor would it be in 
our best interest or in the interest of the world in 
which we must live and work to have such prin- 
ciples prevail. Freedom of transit, freedom of 
commercial intercourse, unrestricted voyaging in 
furtherance of legitimate interests on the seas has 
been a fundamental American principle for cen- 
turies. Shall we now favor a return to the restric- 
ive principle of the closed sea and advocate a 
restricted air and a closed-air commerce? 

One very important provision of the Interim 
Agreement calls for the filing of all existing and 
future international agreements on aviation mat- 
ters with the Council, to be made available for 
public inspection. So ends the era of secrecy and 
so begins an era of open dealing. 

I am asked to tell you what the effect of this 
Conference will be on the Americas. So far as 
our relations with Latin America are concerned, 
it served to show once more the community of in- 
terest between ourselves and our neighbors south 
of the Rio Grande, and our strength in interna- 
tional affairs when we stand together. The Latin 
American nations supported the United States 
doctrine of freedom of intercourse and the right to 
develop air transport in the best interest of all. 

Acting on their experience in the past, they 
showed every willingness to encourage United 
States operations in their territory and no anxiety 
lest their own operators be forced out of business. 
They showed, as capable independent nations 
should, a confidence in their own ability to take 
their just and reasonable place in the modern avia- 
tion world. 

They showed an eagerness to participate in the 
work of the new organization, through the Assem- 
bly and the Council, and to heliJ solve the prob- 
lems of the new era in aviation. Even before the 
Conference ended they showed a fine spirit of co- 
operation and readmess to make sacrifices for the 
common good. When tlie votes which elected 20 
members to the first Council were counted up, it 
was found that Latin America had 7 seats to 6 for 
the continent of Europe, excluding India which 
had been a helpful and prominent participant in 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



the Conference, one of the leading candidates for a 
seat. Therefore, when Norway offered to cede her 
seat to India, which would have reduced European 
participation on the Council to 5, Cuba innnedi- 
ately ofiFered to yield her seat to India in place 
of Norway, thus redressing the balance to 6 seats 
for Latin America and 6 for Europe and providing 
a seat for India. I think great praise is due to the 
Cuban Delegation which, faced with the necessity 
for quick action and without the opportunity to 
consult with its Government, did the gallant thing 
at the right time. By its quick action it enhanced 
the reputation of all the Latin American group 
and set an example to all the world. 

The Conference means for the Americas, North, 
Central, and South, not forgetting our air-minded 
neighbor Canada, the cliance to get going in air 
transport; it opens the door to opportunity to 
serve and be served, to put to practical commercial 
use the operational lessons that have been learned 
by millions of miles of military-transport flying 
during the war. It means the flags of the Ameri- 
can nations can and should soon be seen in many 
lands, on their own aircraft; it means for the 
Americas that aviation is to be developed along 
the lines that are inherent in the political phi- 
losophy of these nations— equality of opportunity, 
rewards based on efficiency, not favor, without dis- 
crimination, without exclusion, above all on a basis 
of expansion to meet the needs of the many, not 
restriction to protect the interest of the few. 

You will ask me what this means for our cities, 
particularly the inland cities of this country. Will 
all the benefits accrue to the seaports which dis- 
patched and received the bulk of our commerce 
by sea? The answer is definitely no. The air- 
traffic centers of the future will not be coastal 
cities as such or inland cities as such, but those 
which economic considerations dictate. An inter- 
nationally regulated air-transport might not have 
had such effect. Just as we should in all prob- 
ability have been forced to stop at the western 
gateways of Europe and the eastern gateways of 
Asia, so foreign planes would probably have been 
stopped at our coastal and territorial frontiers. 
But the great advantage of aviation is that it 
utilizes an ocean of air which extends over both 
land and sea. It need not stop at the water's edge, 
or hesitate at mountain barriers. To do so is to 
deny its God-given right of universal entry. So 
we should see the great airliners of the future tak- 
ing off from many inland as well as coastal cities 
on direct routes to foreign cities all over the world. 



Similarly, the same cities will become acquainted 
with the flags of many nations emblazoned on their 
aircraft making voyages for peaceful commerce. 
If, as has been said, travel broadens us, travelers 
in our midst have the same effect. The impact of 
foreign contacts and the advantages that we derive 
therefrom hitherto enjoyed by only a few favored 
cities will be extended to and will be shared by 
many. 

In the words of the President of the Conference, 
the Honorable Adolf Berle : 

"We met in an era of diplomatic intrigue and 
private and monopolistic privilege. We close in 
an era of open covenants and equal opportunity 
and .status. . . . We met in the seventeenth cen- 
tury in the air. We close in the twentieth century 
in the air." 

Double-Taxation Convention 
And Protocol With France 

PROCLAMATION BY THE PRESIDENT 

[Releasea to the press January 6] 

On January 5, 1945 the President proclaimed the 
convention and protocol between the United States 
of America and France, signed at Paris on July 
25, 1939, for the avoidance of double taxation and 
the establishment of rules of reciprocal adminis- 
trative assistance in the case of income and other 
taxes. 

It is provided in article 27 of the convention that 
it shall become effective on the first day of January 
following the exchange of the instruments of rati- 
fication. According to information cabled to the 
Department by the American Embassy in Paris, 
the instruments of ratification of the two Govern- 
ments were exchanged in the French Foreign Office 
at 7 p.m. on December 30, 1944. The convention 
and protocol became effective, therefore, on Janu- 
ary 1, 1945, as indicated in the President's 
proclamation. 

It is provided also in article 27 that upon the 
coming into effect of this convention the conven- 
tion for the avoidance of double income taxation 
between the United States of America and France, 
signed April 27, 1932, shall terminate. 

A statement regarding the ratification of the 
convention and protocol by the President on De- 
cember 15, 1944, was made in the Department's 
press release of December 18, 1944.^ 

> Bulletin of Dec. 24, 1944, p. 836. 



JANUARY 7, 1945 



39 



Treaty of Alliance and Mutual Assistance, U.S.S.R. and France 



On page 1 of the Information Bulletin of Decem- 
ber 28, 1944 issued by the Soviet Embassy at Wash- 
ington, a translation of the text of the Treaty of 
Alliance and Mutual Assistance between the Gov- 
ernments of France and the U.S.S.R., signed at 
Moscow December 10, 1944, appears as follows : 

Treaty of Alliance and Mutual Assistance Be- 

TAVEEN TIIE USSR AND THE FrENCH REPUBLIC 

The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the Pro- 
visional Government of the French Republic, de- 
termined to prosecute jointly and to the end the 
war against Germany, convinced that once victory 
is achieved, the reestablishment of peace on a 
stable basis and its prolonged maintenance in the 
future will be conditioned upon the existence of 
close collaboration between them and with all the 
United Nations; having resolved to collaborate in 
the cause of the creation of an international system 
of security for the effective maintenance of gen- 
eral peace and for insuring the harmonious de- 
velopment of relations between nations; desirous 
of confirming the mutual obligations resulting 
from the exchange of letters of September 20, 1941, 
concerning joint actions in the war against Ger- 
many; convinced that the conclusion of an alliance 
between the USSR and France corresponds to the 
sentiments and interests of both peoples, the de- 
mands of war, and the requirements of peace and 
economic reconstruction in full conformity with 
the aims which the United Nations have set them- 
selves, have decided to conclude a Treaty to this 
effect and appointed as their plenipotentiaries: 

The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics — Vyacheslav 
Mikliailovich Molotov, People's Commissar of 
Foreign Affairs of the USSR; 

Tlie Provisional Government of the French Re- 
public — Georges Bidault, Minister of Foreign 
Affairs; 

Who after exchange of their credentials, found 
in due form, agreed upon the following : 

Article I 

Each of the high contracting parties shall con- 
tinue the struggle on the side of the other party 
and on the side of the United Nations until final 



victory over Germany. Each of the high contract- 
ing parties undertakes to render the other party 
aid and assistance in this struggle with all the 
means at its disposal. 

Article II 

The high contracting parties shall not agree to 
enter into separate negotiations with Germany or 
to conclude without mutual consent any armistice 
or peace treaty either with the Hitler government 
or with any other government or authority set up 
in Germany for the purpose of the continuation 
or support of the policy of German aggression. 

Article III 

The high contracting parties undertake also, 
after the termination of the present war with Ger- 
many, to take jointly all necessary measures for 
the elimination of any new threat coming from 
Germany, and to obstruct such actions as would 
make possible any new attempt at aggression on 
her part. 

Article IV 

In the event either of the high contracting par- 
ties finds itself involved in military operations 
against Germany, whether as a result of aggres- 
sion committed by the latter or as a result of the 
operation of the above Article III, the other party 
shall at once render it every aid and assistance 
within its power. 

Article V 

The high contracting parties undertake not to 
conclude any alliance and not to take part in any 
coalition directed against either of the high con- 
tracting parties. 

Article VI 

The high contracting parties agree to render 
each other every possible economic assistance after 
the war, with a view to facilitating and accelerat- 
ing reconstruction of both countries, and in order 
to contribute to the cause of world prosperity. 

Article VII 

The present treaty does not in any way affect 
obligations undertaken previously by the high con- 



40 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



trading parties in regard to third states in virtue 
of published treaties. 

Article VIII 
The present treaty, whose Russian and French 
texts are equally valid, shall be ratified and ratifi- 
cation instruments shall be exchanged in Paris as 
early as possible. It conies into force from the 
moment of the exchange of ratification instru- 
ments and shall be valid for 20 years. If the treaty 
is not denounced by either of the high contracting 
parties at least one year before the expiration of 
this term, it shall remain valid for an unlimited 
time; each of the contracting parties will be able 



to terminate its operation by giving notice to that 
effect one year in advance. 

In confirmation of which, the above plenipoten- 
tiaries signed the present treaty and affixed their 
seals to it. 

Done in Moscow in two copies, December 10, 
1944. 

On the authorization of the Presidium of the 
Supreme Soviet of the USSR 

MoLOTOV 

On the authorization of the Provisional Govern- 
ment of the French Republic 

BiDAULT 



Presentation of Letters of Credence 



AMBASSADOR OF THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 

[Released to the press January 1] 

A translation of the remarks of the newly ap- 
pointed Ambassador of the Dominican Republic, 
Senor Emilio Garcia Godoy, upon the occasion of 
the presentation of his letters of credence, Jan- 
uary 1, 1945, follows: 

Mr. President: It is with profound satisfac- 
tion that I place in Your Excellency's hands the 
letters of credence accrediting me as Ambassador 
Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the Gov- 
ernment of the Dominican Republic before the 
Government of the United States of America. 

A few years ago I had the good fortune to fill 
a diplomatic position in this capital, and at that 
time I began to admire the brilliant effoi'ts which 
Your Excellency's Government disjolayed in be- 
half of the proper form of common existence of all 
peoples and particularly of those forming the 
great American family. 

In those days of peace the words of Your Excel- 
lency and those of the distinguished ex-Secretary 
of State, Mr. Cordell Hull, indicated to Amer- 
ican consciousness the necessity for drawing 
spiritual ties closer and for creating in our hemi- 
sphere an atmosphere favorable to solidary action. 
The Government of the Dominican Republic has 
always adhered with sincere and warm friend- 
ship to those noble aims of continental solidarity, 
as is proved by the significant fact that as far back 
as the beginning of the year 1935 President Tru- 
jillo pointed out, in a letter which he addressed 



to Your Excellency, the advisability of creating 
an Association of American Nations which should 
give to such solidarity a firm juridical structure 
and an adequate organ of expression and orien- 
tation. 

Wlien the most reprehensible attack on Pearl 
Harbor took place on December 7, 1941, the 
Dominican Government and people, loyally in- 
spired by those same sentiments of solidarity, felt 
in body and soul the grief of your gi'eat nation 
so cunningly betrayed and attacked. In con- 
sequence of that attitude of complete identifica- 
tion with the tragedy and the protest, the Domin- 
ican Government, directed by the political thought 
of General Trujillo, declared war upon the totali- 
tarian powers. Since that time my Government 
has been unreservedly at the side of your Govei'n- 
ment and at the side of all the governments of 
the United Nations, sharing to the very limit of 
its possibilities in the sacrifices and the efforts 
which will very shortly culminate in the definitive 
defeat of the Nazi and Fascist forces and in the 
organization of a world suited for human dignity 
and Christianly civilized living. 

It is for me, Mr. President, a cause of legitimate 
satisfaction to return to this capital on a diplo- 
matic mission and, in particular, to begin my new- 
work by giving to Your Excellenc}', who is at this 
crucial moment for mankind the noblest incarna- 
tion of the democratic ideals of the American peo- 
ple and one of the most brilliant promotei's of con- 
structive pan-Americanism, the full assurance that 
both the Dominican people and the Govei'nment 



JANUARY 7, 1945 



41 



which guides it with rare ability are continuin<i 
and will continue to make, with the same faith as 
alwaj^s, efforts and sacrifices in behalf of the cause 
of democracy, which is our common cause. 

It gives me further satisfaction to express to 
Your Excellency the absolute assurance that the 
Dominican Republic and its illustrious President 
will cooperate with a deep sense of understanding 
and with their traditional role of collaboration in 
the establishment of the world of the future, that 
new world which will have to be organized, as 
Your Excellency has repeatedly declared, on a 
basis of mutual respect, legal equality of nations, 
good understanding among peoples, and devotion 
to the inherent principles of justice. 

Permit me, Mr. President, to perform now the 
honor-giving duty which has been entrusted to 
me by His Excellency President Trujillo of pre- 
senting to Your Excellency his most cordial greet- 
ings and his sincere good wishes for the greatness 
of the United States and for Your Excellency's 
personal well-being. 

I respectfully beg Your Excellency to accept at 
the same time the expression of my most friendly 
sentiments. 

The President's reply to the remarks of Seiior 
Garcia Godoy follows : 

Mr. Ambassahor : It gives me great pleasure, Mr. 
Ambassador, to receive from you the letters 
whereby His Excellency the President of the 
Dominican Republic accredits you as Ambassador 
Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the Domin- 
ican Republic near the Government of the United 
States of America. My gratification on this 
occasion is tempered only by my profound sorrow 
at the sudden and untimely death of your distin- 
guished predecessor, Seiior Don Anselmo Copello. 

Your Excellency's remarks concerning the long 
collaborati(m between our two countries in the 
effort to achieve true inter- American solidarity fill 
me anew with a deep sense of the highly significant 
role played by the Dominican Republic in the at- 
tainment of this objective. The immediate and 
whole-hearted support your Government and peo- 
ple accorded a sister republic when it was attacked 
in so brutal and unprovoked a manner at Pearl 
Harbor demonstrated again the devotion of your 
country to the cause of pan-Americanism and the 
unity of the hemisphere in the face of a common 
foe. My Government and people will never forget 



this spontaneous manifestation of true friendship 
on the part of the Dominican people. I know Your 
Excellency joins me in hoping for the speedy tri- 
umph of our just cause in our common struggle to 
preserve the principles of democracy and human 
liberty. 

I also wish to express again, Mr. Ambassador, 
my whole-hearted agreement with your comments 
concerning the necessity that the world order of 
the future be based on respect for the independence 
and freedom of all nations and on their staunch 
adherence to the eternal principles of justice. 

I recall with pleasure Your Excellency's previ- 
ous record of service as a member of the diplomatic 
corps in Washington and cordially welcome your 
return as your country's Ambassador here. The 
officials of this Govermnent and I are prepared to 
cooperate with you in every way possible in the per- 
formance of your duties and in furthering the 
friendly spirit which animates our two peoples in 
their relations with one another. 

Please convey to President Trujillo my warm 
thanks for his greetings and my sincere regard for 
his well-being and the happiness of the Dominican 
people. At the same time, please accept my appre- 
ciation for Your Excellency's personal expression 
of friendship, and permit me to extend to you my 
best wishes for your stay here. 

AMBASSADOR OF THE PROVISIONAL 
FRENCH GOVERNMENT 

[Released to the press January 1] 

A translation of the remarks of the newly ap- 
pointed Ambassador of the Provisional Govern- 
ment of the French Republic, Mr. Henri Bonnet, 
upon the occasion of the presentation of his letters 
of credence, January 1, 1945, follows : 

Mr. PREsmENT: I have the honor to hand Your 
Excellency the letters which accredit me near you 
as Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipoten- 
tiary of the French Republic. 

On this occasion I am happy to tell you of the 
value which, today more than ever, France sets on 
the traditional friendship which unites her with 
the United States and of her profound wish that 
this friendship shall become ever stronger and 
more vital. 

During the difficult years of trial through which 
she has passed, while remaining with all her soul 
on the side of free peoples, France has followed 
with admiration the immense effort realized by 



42 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



the United States in order to overthrow, in part- 
nership with our Allies, the powers of aggression 
responsible for the World War. She is proud to 
have organized her resistance in the face of atro- 
cious persecutions and to have participated at the 
side of your powerful forces in the liberation of 
her territory. She holds no wish more dear than 
to contribute with all her restored strength to the 
final defeat of our common enemies. 

New ties are thus created between our two coun- 
tries which were already united by a deep affinity 
and by a common democratic ideal of progress 
and liberty. This solidarity in war appears to me 
as a sure promise of reciprocal understanding and 
of close cooperation on the morrow of victory. 

You may be assured that my Govei-nment will 
spare no effort in order that the peace which has 
been won at the price of so many sacrifices shall 
be guaranteed by a solid system of security. To 
this end it is ready to bring its full contribution to 
the work of international organization which will 
unite the peace-loving nations in mutual respect 
and justice. 

For my part, Mr. President, I shall let no occa- 
sion pass to develop and make more profitable the 
harmonious relations which exist between our two 
countries. And I shall consider my most valued 
privilege that of being able to count on Your Ex- 
cellency's confidence and kind cooperation in the 
fulfihnent of my mission. 

The President's reply to the remarks of Mr. 
Bonnet follows : 

Mk. Ambassador : The return of a French Am- 
bassador to the United States is an event which 
gives to me, and will give to the people of this 
country, a feeling of very special gratification. 
To you personally I extend a warm welcome and 
my best wishes for the full success of your mission. 

The trials through which the people of France 
have passed are well known here, and I am con- 
fident that nowhere has there been greater satis- 
faction over the heroic manner in which those 
trials have been met and are being overcome. At 
no time did the people cf this country doubt the 
will of the French people to rise against the enemy 
from without her borders and to reject the un- 
democratic principles of government which were 
imposed temporarily from within. 

Today we stand at a critical period in the war. 
Though the road may still be hard, the triumph, 



in which all the Allied nations will share, is cer- 
tain. 

I welcome particularly your statement that your 
Government will spare no effort to bring its full 
contribution to the maintenance of peace. I know 
well how important that contribution will be to 
Europe and the world, and it was this realization 
which prompted the representatives meeting at 
Dumbarton Oaks to insure for France in the fu- 
ture world organization the place to which her 
traditions, her ideals, and her importance entitle 
her. 

You will find every disposition on the part of 
officials of this Government to facilitate the work 
of your mission to the fullest possible extent and 
to work with you for the victory which is our 
common and immediate goal, as well as for the 
undying principles which have bound our coun- 
tries together for a century and a half. 

AMBASSADOR OF GUATEMALA 

[Released to the press January 1] 

A translation of the remarks of the newly ap- 
pointed Ambassador of Guatemala, Seiior Don 
Eugenio Silva Peiia, upon the occasion of the 
presentation of his letters of credence, January 1, 
1945, follows: 

Mr. President: The Revolutionary Junta, 
which at present constitutes the popular Govern- 
ment of my country, has deemed fit to appoint me 
to represent it, in the capacity of Ambassador and 
Envoy Extraordinary, before the Government 
over which Your Excellency so worthily presides. 

Surely the sincerity of my personal feelings of 
affection for the people of the United States, 
where I received part of my education, and the 
frank and enthusiastic friendship which I have 
always expressed for this great democracy were 
determining factors in my appointment. I have 
accepted this high honor, Mr. President, with the 
desire to serve my country and in the assurance 
that I shall obtain from Your Excellency the sup- 
port and cooperation necessary for expanding the 
good relations existing between our two coun- 
tries, strengthening them by means of a solid 
structure of mutual esteem and of reciprocal in- 
terest in common problems. 

From the beginning the Guatemalan people 
fell in line with the United Nations, and con- 
scious of the era through which the world is pass- 
(Oontinued on next page) 



JANUARY 7, 1945 

Reply to Senator Wheeler's 
Attack Upon the Unconditional 
Surrender Principle 

Statement by THE SECRETARY OF STATE 

[Released to the press January 6] 

Tlie Secretary of State made the following 
statement concerning the radio address of Jan- 
uary 5 by Senator Burton K. Wlieeler: 

"Whatever the intention of the speaker, Senator 
Wlieeler's attack upon the unconditional-sur- 
render principle agreed to by the British Govern- 
ment, the Russian Government, the Chinese 
Government, and our own will be understood in 
Germany and in Japan as meaning that if these 
countries can resist long enough, and can kill 
enough American soldiers, the will of the Amer- 
ican people to achieve a complete victory will be 
broken and a negotiated peace can be secured. 
The people of Gennany and Japan do not know, 
as the people of the United States do know, that 
Senator Wheeler speaks not for the American 
people but for a discredited few whose views have 
been overwhelmingly rejected by their fellow 
citizens of every party. Senator Wheeler's state- 
ment is, therefore, profoundly regrettable." 

GUATEMALA — Continued from page 42. 
ing, has desired to enter the course of an authentic 
democracy by giving itself a government deeply 
rooted in the freely expressed will of the nation 
and capable of preserving domestic order and 
tranquillity as well as fulfilling its international 
obligations. And it has been cause, Mr. President, 
for the highest satisfaction of the Guatemalan 
people tliat your enlightened Government should 
have granted recognition to a Revolutionary 
Junta, an act unprecedented in the histoi-y of 
American public law. 

Guatemala, Mr. President, wishes to prepare it- 
self to solve properly the complex problems of the 
post-war period and, within the framework of 
continental solidarity, hopes for and will highly 
appreciate the assistance and good-will of the 
people and Government of the United States, in 
whose sincere friendship it trusts. 

As I deliver to your hands the autograph cre- 
dentials which accredit me as Ambassador and 
Envoy Extraordinary near your Government, 
please accept the assurances of my consideration 



43 



and high esteem together with the sincere 
which I formulate for your personal happiness 
and the prosperity of your Nation. 

The President's reply to the remarks of Senor 
Silva Peiia follows : 

Mr. Ambassador: I am pleased to receive from 
Your Excellency the letters accrediting you as Am- 
bassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of 
Guatemala and to extend to you a most cordial wel- 
come to the United States. 

I am deeply grateful for the contribution which 
the people and Government of Guatemala have 
made to hemisphere solidarity and defense. Your 
profound knowledge of the United States and its 
democratic institutions coupled with the fact that 
you have received part of your education here as- 
sures me that the spirit of harmony and mutual 
understanding, which has characterized the close 
relationship between our two countries, will con- 
tinue to strengthen under your guidance. 

The post-war problems are indeed great. They 
vie with each other in their complexity. I am 
confident, however, that their solution will be 
found within that framework of continental soli- 
darity to which you refer. 

In accepting your personal expression of good 
wishes, please convey to the Jimta which heads 
your Government my own best wishes for their 
continued health and well-being and for the weU 
fare of the people of Guatemala. 

Final Payment by Mexico . 
Under the Special Claims 
Convention of 1934 

[Released to the press January 2] 

The First Secretary of the Mexican Embassy, 
Senor Don Salvador Duliart, presented to the 
Secretary of State on January 2, 1945 his Gov- 
ernment's check for $448,020.14, representing the 
final payment, due January 1, 1945, in accordance 
with article II of the convention between the 
United States of America and the United Mex- 
ican States signed at Mexico City on April 24, 
1934,1 providing for the e?i bloc settlement of the 
claims presented by the Government of the United 
States to the Commission established by the Spe- 

' Press Releases, Apr. 28, 1934, p. 224. 



u 

cial Claims Convention concluded September 10, 
1923. With the present payment the total instal- 
ments paid since January 2, 1935 amount to 
$5,448,020.14. 

The First Secretary also presented a check cov- 
ering interest due under article III of the con- 
vention of April 24, 1934. 

The Secretary of State thanked the First Secre- 
tary for the payment and requested him to con- 
vey to his Government an expression of this 
Government's appreciation. 



Exchange of American 
And German Nationals 

[RcIeaBed to the press January 5] 

The Department of State and the War Depart- 
ment announce that the M.S. Gripsholm is expected 
to leave New York for Marseille on or about Janu- 
ary 6 to carry out a further exchange with Ger- 
many of seriously sick and seriously wounded 
prisoners of war who have been found eligible for 
repatriation under the terms of the Geneva Pris- 
oners of War Convention. There will also be in- 
cluded in this exchange a number of German civil- 
ians in United States custody and a number from 
Mexico who are being repatriated in exchange for 
United States nationals and nationals of certain 
of the other American republics. It has been 
agreed that the repatriables of each side will be 
delivered in Switzerland on or about January 17 
and January 25, 1945 in two separate exchange 
operations. The Swiss Government has agreed to 
the use of its facilities to carry out this exchange 
and is making available approximately 18 hospital 
trains. The last exchange of sick and wounded 
prisoners of war with Germany took place at Gote- 
borg, Sweden, in September 1944. The Swedish 
Government also offered the use of its facilities in 
the forthcoming exchange. 

The Gripsholm is expected to return to New 
York late in February with the American repatri- 
ates. This vessel will travel both ways under 
safe-conduct assurances from all belligerents. 

Every effort will be made to dispatch notification 
to the next of kin of the American repatriates at 
the earliest possible moment after their identity 
has been established beyond possibility of doubt. 

A representative of the Swiss Government, 
which acted as intermediary in the exchange nego- 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLET ly 

tiations, will travel on the vessel as guarantor of 
the execution of the exchange agreement, repre- 
sei.i ng the interests of the parties thereto. 



PUBLICATIONS 



Department of State 

Nominations for Under Secretary of State and Assistant I 
Secretaries of State : Hearings Before the Senate Com- 
mittee on Foreign Relations, December 12, 1944. Publica- 
tion 2231. 20 pp. 5((. 

Dumbarton Oaks Proposals : Address by Leo Pasvolsky, 
Special Assistant to the Secretary of State. Conference 
Series 61. Publication 2232. 14 pp. 5(. 

Foreign Commerce Weekly 

The article listed below will be found in the Decem- 
ber 30 is.sue of the Department of Commerce publication 
entitled Forei(jn Commerce Weekly, copies of which may 
he obtained from the Superintendent of Documents, Gov- 
ernment Printing Office, for 10 cents each : 

"The Spanish Bottle Industry", by William L. Smyser, 
third secretary, American Embass}-, Madrid, and Catherine 
B. Welch. Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, 
Department of Commerce. 

The following article will be found in the January 6 
issue : 

"Tobacco in Venezuela", by William P. Wright, assist- 
ant commercial attach^, American Embassy, Caracas. 



THE CONGRESS 



First Supplemental Appropriation Bill for 1945. Hear- 
ings Before the Subcommittee of the Committee on Appro- 
priations, United States Senate, 7Sth Cong., 2d sess., on 
H.R. 5587, an act making appropriations to supply defi- 
ciencies in certain appropriations for the fiscal year ending 
June 30, 1944, and for prior fiscal years, and to provide 
supplemental appropriations for the fiscal years ending 
June 30, 1945, and June 30, 1946, and for other purposes, 
ii, 294 pp. [State Department, pp. 26-31.] 

Naturalization of Filipinos. Hearings Before the Com- 
mittee on Immigration and Naturalization, House of Rep- 
resentatives. 78th Cong., 2d sess., on H. R. 2012, H.R. 2776, 
H.R. 3633, H.R. 4003, H.R. 4229, and H.R. 4826, bills pro- 
viding for the naturalization of Filipinos. November 22, 
1944. iii, .TOpp. [State Department, p. 28.] 

Senate Manual : Containing the Standing Rules and Or- 
ders of the United States Senate. Prepared under the 
Direction of the Senate Committee on Rules. 7Sth Cong., 
2d sess., S. Doc. 225. 765 pp. 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



BUL 



J 



H 



■^ rm 



Tin 



VOL. XII. xNO. 2'm 



JANUARY 14, 1945 



In this issue 



POPUI-AR RELATIONS AND THE PEACE 

Address by Assistant Secretary MacLeish 

AMERICAN SOLIDARITY AND TOTALITARIAN AGGRESSION 
Opposition to a United Front Against the Common Enemy 



V^eNT o^ 




THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



BULLETIN 



January 14, 1945 



The Department of State BVLLETIN, 
a weekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Research and 
Publication, Office of Public Affairs, 
provides the public and interested 
afiencies of the Government with 
information on developments in the 
field of foreign relations and on the 
uork of the Department of State and 
the Foreign Service. The BULLETIN 
includes press releases on foreign 
policy issued by the If hite House aitd 
the Department, and statements and 
addresses made by the President and 
by the Secretary of Stale and other 
officers of the Department, as ivell as 
special articles on various phases of 
international affairs and thefunctions 
of the Department. Information con- 
cerning treaties and international 
agreements to which the United States 
is or may become a party and treaties 
of general international interest is 
included. 

Publications of the Department, 
cumulative listsoftvhicharepublishcd 
at the end of each quarter, as well as 
legislative material in thefield of inter- 
national relations, are listed currently . 

The BULLETIN, published with the 
approval of the Director of the Bureau 
of the Budget, is for sale by the Super- 
intendent of Documents, UniledStales 
Government Printing Office, Wash- 
ington 25, D. C., to ivhom all pur- 
chase orders, with accompanying 
remittance, should be sent. The sub- 
scription price is $3.50 a year; a single 
copy is 10 cents. 



Contents 



American Republics Pag 

American Solidarity and Totalitarian Aggression: Opposi- 
tion to a United Front Against the Common Enemy . 5 
Conference of the American Republics: 

Announcement of Plans 6 

Designation of the Secretary of State as United States 

Delegate 6 

Remarks by Assistant Secretary Rockefeller 

Europe 

Informal Relations With Finland Established 5! 

Near East 

Death of Foreign Minister of the Lebanese Republic ... 5 

Cultural Cooperation 

Exchange of Experts Among the American Republics Under 

Travel-Grant Program 6' 

Visiting Professors From China 6i 

Economic Affairs 

International Cotton Advisory Committee. By James 0. 

Evans 5! 

The Work of the Special Economic Mission 6! 

Consideration of the Purposes of the Anglo-American Oil 

Agreement 65 

Message of the President to the Senate 63 

The Proclaimed List 61 

Post- War Matters 

Popular Relations and the Peace: Address by Assistant 

Secretary MacLcish 47 

Treaty Information 

Monetary Agreement, United Kingdom and Belgium ... 66 

United States Fisheries Mission to Mexico 66 

Countries Signing Documents Concluded at International 

Civil Aviation Conference 67 

Interim Agreement on Aviation 67 

The Department 

Appointment of Officers 68 

Establishment of the Foreign Trade Branch in the Division 

of Commercial Policy 68 



Popular Relations and the Peace 

Address by ASSISTANT SECRETARY MACLEISH ' 



[Released to the press January 10] 

There are not many occasions when a man can 
begin a speech in the definite and foreseeable cer- 
tainty that his audience will be disappointed. You 
were disappointed before I opened my mouth : You 
had expected to hear the President of the United 
States and instead you are obliged to listen to an 
Assistant Secretary of State. You will be even 
more disappointed before I have finished this sen- 
tence : You had expected that an Assistant Secre- 
tary of State would at least speak like one, whei-eas 
I propose to speak to you not as an oiBcer of the 
Department at all but as a poet. I feel — and some 
of you I think will agree with me — that mere logic 
requires it. If poetry is relevant to the Depart- 
ment of State in the minds of some who i-ead poetry 
as politicians, then the Department of State must 
sertainly have relevance to poetry in the minds of 
those who read it as college presidents. 

And besides, there are practical reasons. I have 
)een trying to learn to look at the world as an As- 
sistant Secretary of State for 21 days — most of 
;li:it time without either an oiSce or a desk to help 
me. I have been trying to learn to look at the world 
is a poet for 30 years. How a man ought to see 
:he world as an Assistant Secretary of State I am 
lot yet certain. But I am very clear in my mind 
low he ought to see it as a poet. He ought to see 
t not witli the eye of custom but with the eye of 
surprise. He ought to see, that is to say, what the 
•est (if us merely look at and take for granted and 
hoiefore do not see. 

It is a difficult skill to acquire — so difficult that 
few men in any time have mastered it. Certamly 
[ make no clami to the possession of that true 
lakedness of eye. But even the eifort to achieve it 
produces certain habits of observation which have, 
perhaps, their value. One learns that it is danger- 
)us to ignore the obvious or to assume that what 
s said to be obvious really is. Or rather, one learns 



Delivered before the annual meeting of the Association 
)f American Colleges at Atlantic City, N. J., on Jan. 10, 
1945. 



that it is precisely the obvious which, like the fa- 
miliar word too long regarded, may come to look 
most strange. It is when familiar things look 
strange that a man first sees them. 

The obvious thing, for example, to say about the 
Department of State is that it handles the foreign 
relations of this country. The fact is obvious. It 
is taken for granted. It is true. But is it really 
true? Where, for instance, have the relations of 
the United States and Great Britain been handled 
over the past two or three weeks? In the State 
Department and the Foreign Office, of course. In 
the Wlrite House and in 10 Downing Street. 
But also, and with equal importance — conceivably 
with far greater importance — directly between the 
American and British peoples through the chan- 
nels of the press and radio with the whole world 
looking on. 

The relations of the American people to the 
British people and of the British people to the 
American people have been under direct and open 
and public discussion between the peoples them- 
selves not only through the editorial exchanges set 
off by the London Economist but also through the 
comments of other newspapers on those exchanges, 
and through the comments of the people on the 
comments of the newspapers. Moreover, the rela- 
tions which were under discussion were the true 
and basic relations of the two peoples — the foreign 
relations upon which all other foreign relations 
depend. The question the editor of the Economist 
proposed for debate, whether he so intended or 
not, was the question whether the American people 
and the British people wish to work together or 
to work apart. There is no need for me to point 
out that that question is the most important ques- 
tion bearing upon the relations of our two peoples 
which could possibly be raised. 

The fact that it is a question to which the answer 
is obvious in advance detracts in no way from its 
significance. We learned what we thought about 
the British in the Battle of Britain, and the Brit- 
ish learned what they thought about us during the 
years when our soldiers were billeted in British 



48 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



towns and during the terrible and gallant weeks 
•when those same soldiers, with British soldiers at 
their side, fought and won the battles of Nor- 
mandy and of France. The ill-tempered and often 
irresponsible criticism of the past few weeks on the 
two sides of the Atlantic never touched the basic 
reality of our mutual respect and admiration for 
each other, and the effort to endow those super- 
ficial exchanges with the importance of a solemn 
debate on the fundamental issue of our willingness 
to work together was, to put it mildly, ill-consid- 
ered. But the fact remains that the debate did, in 
fact, take place and that the peoples participated 
in it. 

And the further fact remains that the incident 
is not isolated or peculiar : It is merely more dra- 
matic because more dangerous than other instances 
of the same sort. The peoi^les of the civilized 
world — what we are accustomed to call the civil- 
ized world — are engaged in a continuing consulta- 
tion through just such public channels of just such 
fundamental questions of their relations to each 
other — their "foreign relations". Modern electri- 
cal communication has created in fact the Parlia- 
ment of Man of which Tennyson dreamed. And 
the circumstances that it sometimes exists, in Carl 
Sandburg's phrase, rather as a humiliating reality 
than as a beautiful hope, deprives its existence of 
none of its meaning. It is possible to dislike the 
Parliament of Man : There are those certainly who 
do dislike it — who would like to return to the old 
system of foreign relations conducted exclusively 
through the chancelleries in the secret codes. It is 
not possible to ignore it. The Parliament of Man 
is now convened in continuing and constant session 
without rules of order, limitations of debate, or 
privileges of the house, and those who refuse to 
take account of its proceedings may wake up to find 
that its proceedings have taken no account of them. 

All this, of course, is obvious enough. Indeed, 
it is i^recisely because it is obvious that I take your 
time to talk about it. Everyone who has given 10 
minutes to the consideration of the facts agrees 
that modern electrical communications are capable 
of altering the social structure of the world as 
modern air transport is capable of altering the 
geography of the world. The difficulty is that the 
admission of that fact is not followed by its recog- 
nition as a fact. People get used to the new and 
startling discovery without realizing what it is 
they have discovered. They do not see it though 



they look at it. Indeed, the more often they look 
at it — the more often they agree that it is there — 
the less they recognize it for what it is. 

Air transport is an excellent example. There, 
as Air Marshal Bishop has pointed out in his 
Winged Peace, the practical men, the financial ex- 
perts, the business authorities continue to treat as 
a theory what is already a condition. They re- 
fuse to realize that the world of four-hour Atlan- 
tic hops with all it implies is not a future world to 
be constructed or not constructed as we choose. 
It is a world which now exists in all its potentiali- 
ties whether we wish it to exist or not — a world 
we must prepare ourselves to live m. 

The same thing is true of the world of radio 
transmission. Instantaneous intercommunication 
between peoples — between peoples as peoples — is 
not something we can achieve or refuse to achieve 
as we wish. It is something which exists — which 
exists in all its potentialities — now. And which 
we will deal with now. Or fail to deal with. 

We talk too much, as we look toward the fu- 
ture, of the new world we would like to create — 
the new world we propose to build. We talk too 
little and think too little of the new world which 
will exist whether we act to create it or not — the 
new world we have already created by an inven- 
tion here, a development there, without altogether 
foreseeing, and certainly without intending, the 
total resultant consequences of our acts. I believe, 
for my own part, that we will have an opportu- 
nity at this war's end to build the world we want — 
such an ojjportunity as no generation has ever 
had before us. But I believe also that in building 
that newly imagined world we will have to take 
account of the world already newly built — the 
world we say we know but have never lived in — 
the world we cannot escape. 

It is customary to speak of this new world of 
instantaneous communication and rapid transport 
as a world shrunk and shriveled in size, a smaller 
world. But surely, if we are to talk in metaphors 
of that character, the world of air transport and 
radio communication is a world greater in size, 
not smaller in size. It is time, not s^Jace, which 
has shriveled. And in this universe, whatever 
may be true of other universes, the contraction of 
time in this metaphoric sense means of necessity 
the expansion of space. To enable a man to cover 
400 miles instead of 4 in a single hour is to increase 
by a hundred times the space he can put beliind 



JANUARY 14, 1945 



49 



him in any given period of time and to increase, 
therefore, in the same possible proportion the 
spaces of the world available to his experience. 

And what is true of transport is even truer of 
communication. A system of communication 
which is capable of delivering messages around the 
world almost instantaneously is a system M'hich 
increases the number and the distribution of hu- 
man beings capable of communicating with each 
other. Indeed, it is precisely this increase in num- 
bers and in distribution which gives modern elec- 
trical communication its principal significance. 

It is miraculous and sometimes important to get 
an answer from Rangoon in a matter of minutes. 
It is far more of a miracle, and infinitely more 
important, to put people everywhere in the world 
into conamon intercommunication with each other 
so that men can speak back and forth across the 
bands of time and the hours of the day and the 
positions of the sun, whether overhead or under- 
foot or rising or setting, in such a manner that 
the time, to all of them, is now. Wlien, to that 
miracle of a socially expanded world, is added the 
other and related miracle of mass communication 
so that messages are carried, not to a single listener 
or to a few correspondents, but to millions of lis- 
teners, millions of readers, then the expansion in 
space accomplished by the contraction in time is 
obvious indeed. A speech by the President of the 
United States which had once an audience of a 
few million straggling across the days and even 
weeks which followed its delivery has now an audi- 
ence of hundreds of millions at the instant it is 
spoken or within a few hours after. 

Whether we like it or not we will find ourselves 
living at the war's end in a speaking, listening 
net of international intercommunication so sensi- 
tive and so delicately responsive that a whisper 
anywhere will be heard around the earth. There 
is a wonderful story you have all heard of the early 
days of microphones and public address systems — 
the story of the two well-wined gentlemen on one 
of the great trans-Atlantic ships who sat down to 
i tell each other raucous stories after luncheon with 
I a small, black, unfamiliar object on the table at 
their elbow. The shudder that went round the 
deck chairs and through the cabins as that unin- 
tended broadcast howled and boomed from the 
loudspeakers above decks and below was a presage 
of a world at that time unimagined — a world that 
now exists. 
,j The question, then — the principal question in 



the field of foreign i-elations in our time — is this : 
What will we do with that world? How wUl we 
live in it? How will we prevent war and preserve 
peace and attain the other basic objectives of our 
foreign policy in a world in which the substantial 
foreign relations of peoples are direct relations 
by direct and continuing conimunication with each 
other ? How will we realize the tremendous prom- 
ise of common understanding and mutual confi- 
dence which that world holds out? How will we 
avoid its dangers of bickering quarrels, whispered 
suspicions, inspired panics, fear? 

There may be questions of greater importance to 
the future peace of the world than these. If there 
are I do not know them. If the direct relations of 
peoples to i^eoples which modern communications 
permit are relations of understanding and con- 
fidence, so that the men and women of the world 
feel each other's presence and trust each other's 
purposes and believe that the common cause of all 
the people everywhere is peace, then any reason- 
ably intelligent organization of the world for peace 
will work. If, however, the direct relations of the 
peoples with each other are relations of doubt and 
suspicion and misunderstanding, then no interna- 
tional organization the genius of man can contrive 
can possibly succeed. 

Believers in the people have always felt that if 
the men and women of the world could reach each 
other across the apparatus of their governments 
they would recognize each other, and understand 
each other, and find their conamon purpose in each 
other. It is now technically possible, or all but 
technically possible, to realize that hope, at least so 
far as the industrialized nations of the world are 
concerned. Is it possible to realize it politically 
and socially also? And if so, how ? 

One practical way to answer that question is, of 
course, to deny that the hope has any basis in fact — 
which is another way of denying the belief in the 
people on which the hope is founded. Govern- 
ments like the Nazi government in Germany and 
the militarist government in Japan have no dif- 
ficulty with the new world of international com- 
munication. They exclude it so far as their own 
people are concerned, and for the rest betray it. 
Japanese radio sets were controlled by law before 
the war to prevent the reception of broadcasts 
originating outside the Japanese islands, and the 
Nazi leaders made the perversion of radio com- 
munication a principal instrument for the befud- 



50 



(llement and deception of their own people and the 
beguilement and deception of their neighbors. 

For the democratic nations, however, and par- 
ticularly for our own Nation, which has made the 
belief in the people its deepest and most enduring 
earthly belief, there is no easy escape by suppres- 
sion or by fraud from the question technologj' has 
posed for us. Believing in the people, we believe 
necessarily in the people everywhere — not the 
people of this country only or of any other single 
country but throughout the world. We believe, 
that is to say, in the dignity and decency and good- 
will of men as men wherever they are free to act 
and think as men. We have no choice, therefore, 
but to face the question in the terms in which it is 
asked and to make our answer. 

If we believe in the people — in their motives and 
their instincts and their purposes as the people — 
we believe necessarily in communication between 
the peoples. We believe in the greatest possible 
freedom of such communication. Freedom of 
communication, freedom of exchange of ideas, is 
basic to our whole political doctrine. But at the 
same time we cannot help but realize that complete 
freedom of international communication, particu- 
larly when that communication is instantaneous 
and has all the emotional urgency of immediate 
and first-known things, can be dangerous also. We 
have seen skilful and dishonest demagogs pervert 
the instruments of international communication to 
their own purposes without the knowledge of their 
victims. And we have seen honest misunderstand- 
ings blown up into critical issues by ignorance and 
hysteria. We should be less than intelligent and 
certainly less than realistic if we did not take ac- 
count of these things in deciding how we propose 
to live in the world we shall have to live in. 

To me — and I must repeat again that I am speak- 
ing here for myself and not as an officer of a de- 
partment in which I feel myself still strange — to 
me there is only one possible answer to this ques- 
tion from the democratic point of view — at least 
from the democratic point of view as we, in this 
country, hold it. The only possible protection 
against misuse of international communication, or 
misinterpretation of international communication, 
is not less communication but more. 

We cannot exclude communication from this 
country without being false to every principle 
upon which this country was founded, and we can- 
not barricade ourselves against the interchange of 



DEPARTMEM OF STATE BULLETIN 

ideas without implying a mistrust of the ability of 
this people to separate the true ideas from the 
false which would be unworthy of any believer in 
the propositions of Thomas Jefferson and Abra- 
ham Lincoln. Let us be clear and clean and honest 
on that point first. No amount of metaphoric 
verbiage will ever obscure the fact that those who 
would keep the knowledge of ideas from the Amei-- 
ican peoj^le declare by that action that they do not 
trust the American people to laiow the true from 
the false, the decent from the vile, the pure from 
the impure. In a country in which the people are 
sovereign by basic law and the right of the people 
to decide for themselves has been established by 
constitutional guaranty, such a purpose is, in the 
most literal sense, subversive. Until the people 
decide for themselves, by constitutional procedure, 
to protect themselves in time of peace from the 
seduction of any man's words or any man's notions, 
it hardly lies in the mouths of others to protect 
them from themselves. 

If that is clear — if it is clear that a democratic 
nation cannot protect itself from the risks of 
modern communication by less communication but 
only by more — the practical question for discus- 
sion becomes the question how and in what way 
communication between the democratic peoples of 
the world shall be increased and supplemented 
when it is necessary to increase it. If we are to 
meet the danger of misunderstanding by more un- 
derstanding, and of ignorance by greater knowl- 
edge, and of incompleteness by completeness, how 
are we to proceed? 

There may be occasions when it will be neces- 
sary for some agency of government to correct 
false statements capable of doing mischief. It 
may be desirable under certain circumstances to 
require the propagators of ideas to identify them- 
selves and take responsibility for their doctrines 
in international communication as they do in or- 
dinary conversation. But by and large the an- 
swer to the question of more communication inter- 
nationally, like the answer to the question of less 
communication internationally, derives, for us at 
least, from the basic principle on which this Nation 
was established. 

Those who believe in the people must believe 
that if the peoples of the world know each other 
and understand each other they will be able to deal 
with the distortions and the lies themselves. What 
is essential, then, is not to correct each mischievous 



JANUARY 14, 1945 

inaccuracy, each intended falsehood, each outburst 
of divisive propaganda. AVliat is essential is to 
see to it that the peoples of the world know each 
other as peoples, that they understand each other 
as peoples. For if they know and if they under- 
stand they will fill in the gaps for themselves as 
they have been filling in the gaps for centuries — 
for countless generations. They will allow for the 
falsehoods as they have always allowed for them. 
They will trust in common human nature to set 
things straight. 

The people are wiser over centuries and genera- 
tions than those who think themselves far wiser 
than the peojDle. They have the easy-going, sage, 
salt, human wisdom of the anonymous proverbs 
which no man ever signs because no man has the 
right to sign them. All they need to be wise with 
each other is the sense of each other — the human 
sense of each other as human beings. 

It is a curious thing — a thing which will seem 
curious to our successors in this Nation — that the 
phrase we have used for this kind of added inter- 
national information — this supplementary and 
saving information to the peoples about each 
other — is the phrase "cultural relations." What 
we mean, of course, is something quite different 
from the popular meaning of those words. Wlaat 
we wish the people of other countries to know 
about ourselves, and what we, for our part, wish 
to know about the peoples of other countries, is 
not the condition of culture in the popularly dis- 
torted sense of that term. What we wish to know, 
and what we wish them to know, is something far 
deeper and far wider. We want men and women 
in other continents to know what our life as a peo- 
ple is like, what we value as a people, in what we 
are skilled and in what not skilled — our char- 
acter, our qualities, our beliefs. We want them, 
when they hear or read of this dramatic event or 
that, to think at the same time who we are, what 
we are like — and, therefore, how the event should 
be interpreted. We want them to know our habits 
of laughing and of not laughing so that they will 
hear not only the words but the tone too and un- 
derstand it. We want them to have the sense of 
us as men and women as we wish too to have the 
sense of them. Knowledge of all these things is, 
it is true, a knowledge of culture, but it is more 
than that. It is a knowledge of character. It is a 
knowledge of men. 

Any man who wishes seriously to quarrel with a 



51 

phrase, however, must have a better phrase, and 
I have none to offer. I have only the deeply held 
conviction that the thing this phrase intends is, 
of all the things a democratic government can do 
to make the new-built world of international com- 
munication habitable, the most important. 

Wliat is unfortunate about the current designa- 
tion is its suggestion to certain minds that a pro- 
gram of cultural relations is a decoration, a frill, 
an ornament added to the serious business of the 
foreign relations of the United States. You gen- 
tlemen, who know that a nation's culture is a na- 
tion's character, would not so interpret it, but 
others do. And when they do, they endanger the 
best hope this country now possesses of preparing 
the climate of understanding in which peace can 
breathe. The people of the five continents and the 
innumerable islands can only live together peace- 
fully in the close and urgent contact of modern in- 
tercommunication if they feel behind the jangle 
and vibration of the constant words the living men 
and women. It is our principal duty, because it 
is our principal opportunity, to make that sense 
of living men and women real. Our country, with 
its great institutions of education and of culture, 
is prepared as are few others to undertake the work 
that must be done. If we will undertake it, believ- 
ing in it with our hearts as well as with our heads, 
we can create not only peace but the common un- 
derstanding which is the only guaranty that peace 
will last. 

Death of Foreign Minister 
Of the Lebanese Republic 

[Released to the press January 12] 

The Acting Secretary of State has sent the fol- 
lowing message to His Excellency Abdul Hamid 
Karami, Prime Minister of the Republic of Leba- 
non, Beirut : 

I am deeply grieved to learn of the death of the 
eminent Foreign Minister of Lebanon Selim Takla, 
in whose untimely passing the Lebanon has lost a 
courageous leader and all the peace-loving peoples 
a faithful and devoted friend and co-worker. I 
desire to express to Your Excellency and would 
request you to convey to the Lebanese people the 
deep sympathy of the American Government and 
people. 

Joseph C. Grew 
Acting Secretary of State 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



International Cotton Advisory Committee 



By JAMES G. EVANS' 



THE International Cotton Advisory Committee 
was established in accordance with a resolu- 
tion approved by the participating governments at 
the International Cotton Meeting held in Wash- 
ington, September 6-9, 1939. Recognizing the 
potential impact of the war wliich had just broken 
out in Europe, the participants limited the scope 
of their recommendations to approval of the fol- 
lowing resolution : 

"We the representatives of the Governments of 
India, Egypt, Brazil, the British Cotton Exporting 
Colonies, the French Cotton Exporting Colonies, 
the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, Peru, 
Mexico, the Sudan and the United States, have con- 
sidered the world cotton situation and we agree 
that the regulation of world cotton supplies in rela- 
tion to demand would help materially in improv- 
ing the existing unbalanced condition. 

"Normally we would have recommended steps 
to achieve international agreement for this pur- 
pose. We realize, however, that under existing 
international conditions, such a course is imprac- 
ticable. 

"As an interim measure, therefore, we have 
agreed to make the following recommendation to 
our respective Govermnents. 

"That an advisory com- 
mittee be set up in Wash- 
ington embracing the 
different countries repre- 
sented at the present con- 
ference and including in 
addition representatives of 
other nations of impor- 
tance in the production 
and exporting of cotton; 
such committee to under- 
take the following func- 
tions : 



"(a) To observe and 
keep in close touch with 
developments in the world 
cotton situation. 

"(b) To suggest, as and 
when advisable, to the 
Governments represented 



Informal Relations With Finland 
Established 



[Rt'lpased to the press January 12] 

The President has approved the 
ment of Maxwell M. Hamilton, Foreign 
Service officer of class one, as United 
States representative in Finland with per- 
sonal rank of Minister. Pending Mr. 
Hamilton's arrival, L. Randolph Higgs, a 
Foreign Service officer, will be in charge 
of the United States Mission in Finland. 
Mr. Hamilton's assignment does not con- 
stitute a resumption of formal diplomatic 
relations between the United States and 
Finland. The Soviet and British Govern- 
ments have been kept fully informed. 



on it any measures it considers suitable and prac- 
ticable for the achievement of ultimate inter- 
national collaboration." 

Representatives on the International Cotton 
Advisory Committee were designated by the gov- 
ernments participating in the above resolution, 
and in addition a representative was designated 
by the Government of Turkey. Three meetings 
have been convened since its formation: April 1, 
1940, October 17, 1940, and April 11, 1941. At each 
of these meetings, which were held in Washington, 
the Committee reviewed the world cotton situation 
as well as the condition with respect to cotton in 
each of the countries represented. 

Wien the International Cotton Meeting was 
called in the summer of 1939, the world carry-over 
of stocks of cotton was at a record high level and 
the United States had adopted a special export 
program to permit its cotton to move into foreign 
markets. This program was suspended early in 
1940, but a similar one has recently been insti- 
tuted. 

At the present time the world carry-over stocks 
are even higher than in 1939, with prospects of 
still larger accumulations.- These conditions sug- 
gest the desirability of convening the fourth meet- 
ing of the International 
Cotton Advisory Commit- 
tee as soon as possible to 
review the world situation 
and to consider suitable 
and practicable measures 
for the furthering of in- 
ternational collaboration 
with respect to surplus 
cotton stocks. 



' Mr. Evans is an officer in 
the Commodities Division, 
Office of Economic Affairs, 
Department of State. 

' For a discussion of United 
States cotton policy, see state- 
ment by Assistant Secretary 
Acheson as printed in tlie 
Tjulletin of Dec. 10, 1944, 
p. 700. 



JANUARY 14, 1945 



53 



American Solidarity and Totalitarian Aggression 

Opposition to a United Front Against the Common Enemy 



IN the period covered by the present report,^ the 
United Nations have passed from defense to 
offense and are now pressing toward final victory 
over the Axis powers. 

In this same period, the great majority of the 
American republics have made an important con- 
tribution to this result by giving practical effect, 
in the form of affirmative individual and collec- 
tive action against the aggressors, to the inter- 
American agreements for the defense of the conti- 
nent. In almost all of the republics adequate legis- 
lative and administrative measures have been taken 
for national and continental defense; and, what 
is more important, these measures have been ap- 
plied with success because of the unswerving de- 
termination of the governments and peoples of the 
inter-American community to cooperate as fully 
as possible in the struggle agamst the common 
enemy. 

However, it must unfortunately be recorded that 
the American republics have not been accompanied 
in this action by one of their members. The posi- 
tion taken by the Argentine Government immedi- 
ately after the Third Meeting of the Ministers of 
Foreign Affairs at Rio de Janeiro set in motion cer- 
tain divergent tendencies which have finally 
brought about a definite cleavage between that Gov- 
ernment and the other members of the community 
of American nations. 

The position of the Argentine Government raises 
questions of the most fundamental character with 
respect to the principles and interests involved in 
the present world conflict and with respect to the 
nature and implications of American solidarity. 
The great majority of the republics of the conti- 
nent have considered that the security, sovereignty, 
and independence of each one of them were at stake 
in the struggle between the Axis powers and the 
United Nations. It has also considered that cer- 
tain moral and legal principles, collectively agreed 
upon, make imperative inter-American coopera- 
tive action for defense against a common danger 
or an attack by a non-American state against a 
member of the American community. The course 

C26B93 — 45 2 



followed by the Argentine Government since the 
Third Meeting of the Ministers of Foreign Affairs 
indicates that it does not share the general convic- 
tion on these two vital questions which has deter- 
mined the attitude of the other 20 republics. 

This cleavage within the continent not only pre- 
vented it from presenting a united front against 
Axis political aggression, but has also given com- 
fort and assistance to those elements within the 
hemisphere which could be used by the totalitarian 
powers to serve their ends. The continuous activi- 
ties of the Axis in America were not without effect, 
and there are groups of men within the continent 
who either actively favor the Axis cause because 
of their sympathies or convictions or can be used 
to serve that cause directly or indirectly because 
they hold views or interests antagonistic to con- 
tinental unity. By adroitly exploiting these ele- 
ments of dissension and disunity and by encourag- 
ing their aspirations to achieve governmental 
power. Axis influence created a real danger to 
the defense of the continent, through the alienation 
of those American republics which were victims of 
such activities from the principles of continental 
solidarity.^ 

It is evident from the foregoing that the crucial 
problem of political defense in America during 
the period covered by the present report has re- 
lated to the maintenance of continental unity, the 
indispensable foundation for that defense. It is 
therefore appropriate that in the first two chap- 
ters the scope and significance of American soli- 
darity, as well as the manner in which it has been 
given expression and maintained during the emer- 
gency, should be examined in detail. 



' Chap. I of the Annual Report of the Emergency Advis- 
ory Committee for Political Defense, 1943-44 ; prepared by 
the Comity Consultivo de Emergencia para la Defensa 
Polftica at Montevideo. For an article on the organization 
and work of the Committee, see Bulletin of Jan. 7, 1944, 
p. 3. 

' Chap. II of the Annual Report of the Emergency Adrl- 
sory Committee for Political Defense, 1043-44, discusses 
the measures adopted by the American republics to meet 
this situation. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



A. The Bases of American Solidarity 

When the second World War began in Septem- 
ber 1939, the pan-American system was in fact, 
if not in form, a close union of 21 sovereign states. 

In this system, the obligatory or compulsory 
cliaracter of the commitments is secondary to the 
spirit in which they are assumed; they rest upon 
a high sense of moral values in international rela- 
tions and upon an enlightened self-interest which 
postulates that the security and peace of each mem- 
ber of the community is of vital concern to all the 
others. The relations among the members of the 
community are governed by a series of basic prin- 
ciples wiiich include the following: equality of all 
states, large or small; respect for treaty obliga- 
tions; non-intervention by one state in the internal 
or external affairs of another; condemnation of 
aggression; non-recognition of territory acquired 
by force; peaceful settlement of international dis- 
putes and collective responsibility for the mainte- 
nance of peace, including the exercise of political, 
juridical, or economic pressure to induce states not 
to disturb the peace and tlius endanger inter- 
American unity. These principles are essentially 
and inherently antagonistic to policies or acts 
based upon ideas of dom.ination, balance of power, 
or division of the continent into rival groups of 
states.' 

It is highly significant that, in preparing to meet 
the danger to world peace which began to take 
definite shape in Central Europe and Asia in 1933, 
the American community first completed the po- 
litical and juridical structure designed to preserve 
internal peace and unity. At the Inter- American 

' The idea of collective action to maintain peace and unity 
Is an inheritance from the Hispanic-American conferences 
held during tlie nineteenth century, which established the 
Ideological bases of pan-Americanism. See treaties of 
union and confederation signed at the conferences held at 
Panamft in 1826, Lima in 1848, Santiago in 1856, and 
Lima in 1864. 

'These agreements were: (1) Convention for the 
Maintenance, Preservation and Reestablishment of Peace; 
(2) Additional Protocol Relative to Non-intervention; (3) 
Convention to Coordinate, Extend and Assure the Fulfill- 
ment of the Existing Treaties Between American States; 

(4) Inter-American Treaty on Good Offices and Mediation ; 

(5) Treaty on the Prevention of Controversies; and (6) 
Declaration of Principles of Inter-American Solidarity and 
Cooperation. 



Conference for the Maintenance of Peace held at 
Buenos Aires in 1936, the American republics 
adopted certain treaties and agreements giving 
more definite and concrete expression to the above- 
mentioned principles of continental policy, and 
agreed upon a great variety of methods and pro- 
cedures to improve and intensify their cooperative 
relations.* 

After thus safeguarding the internal front, these 
republics agreed, at the same conference, to con- 
sult together "in the event of an international war 
outside America which might menace the peace of 
the American republics" in order to determine the 
action necessary to preserve the peace of the con- 
tinent. Two years later, at the Eighth Interna- 
tional Conference of American States, held at 
Lima, the American republics reaffirmed their de- 
cision to maintain the principles of continental 
solidarity, and to defend them against "any 
foreign intervention or activity that may threaten 
them". It was specifically established that the 
peace, security, and territorial integrity of each 
of the American republics is a matter of common 
concern and that in the event they should be 
threatened by acts of any nature these republics 
were determined "to make effective their solidarity, 
coordinating their respective sovereign wills by 
means of the procedure of consultation", and would 
use for this purpose "the measures which in each 
case the circumstances may make advisable". 

Several months later, the second World War 
began with the German invasion of Poland. In 
accordance with the above-described agreements, 
the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the American 
republics met in Panama in September 1939 and 
agreed upon a series of measures by which they 
hoped to prevent the war from spreading to the 
American continent. The fall of France early in 
1940, and the prospect of the creation of a new 
Axis-impo.sed order in Europe, led to the Second 
Meeting of Foreign Ministers at Habana in July 
of that year. It was agreed at this meeting that 
". . . any attempt on the part of a non-American 
state against the integrity or inviolability of 
the territory, the sovereignty or the political inde- 
pendence of an American state shall be considered 
as an act of aggression against the states which 
sign this declaration," 



JANUARY 14, 194S 

It was likewise agreed that in tlie event such an 
act of aggression were committed, or there was 
reason to believe that such an act was being pre- 
pared for by a non-American state, the American 
republics would consult among themselves in order 
to agiee upon the measures which it might be ad- 
visable to take, and likewise that all the signatory 
states, or two or more of them, should proceed to 
negotiate the complementary agreements necessary 
hi order to organize cooperation for defense and 
the assistance that they should lend eacli other. 
The Third Meeting of the Ministers of Foreign 
Affairs was held 5 weeks after the war had at last 
reached the American continent. The issue before 
the meeting was whether an act of aggression 
within the meaning of the existing agreements had 
been committed against one of the members of the 
community, and if so, what measures should be 
taken, individually and collectively, to implement 
these agreements, pursuant to the Declaration of 
Habana and other inter-American commitments 
above mentioned. A full and complete answer to 
both questions is found in the 40 resolutions ap- 
proved by the meeting. These resolutions estab- 
lished the policies and procedures to be followed 
in order that each country might make the fullest 
contribution to the common defense. The Ameri- 
can governments thus coordinated "their respec- 
tive sovereign wills by means of the procedure of 
consultation" in a matter of supreme individual 
and collective importance, acting independently in 
their individual capacity and fully recognizing 
their juridical equality as sovereign states. 

B. American Solidarity in the Present War 

The keystone of the program of defense and 
offense against the Axis agreed upon at Rio de 
Janeiro is found in resolution I of that meeting, 
in which the American republics reaffirmed "their 
declaration to consider any act of aggression on 
the part of a non-American State against one of 
them as an act of aggression against all of them, 
constituting as it does an immediate threat to the 
liberty and independence of America". They like- 
wise reaffirmed "their complete solidarity and their 
determination to cooperate jointly for their mutual 
protection until the effects of the present aggres- 
sion against the Continent have disappeared". 

As the indispensable basis for this joint coopera- 



55 



tive effort, they agreed to sever diplomatic rela- 
tions with Japan, Germany, and Italy, "since the 
fii'St-mentioned State attacked and the other two 
declared war on an American country". That is to 
sa}', the attack and the declarations of war referred 
to in and of themselves constituted the casus 
fcfderis, and were so considered by the American 
republics. The fact that the same attack and 
declarations carried with them an immediate 
threat to all tlie other members of the American 
community, and that, moreover, each one of them 
was the victim of direct acts of political aggres- 
sion, characterized by the ministers of foreign 
affairs as "preliminary to and an integral part of 
a jirogram of military aggression" (resolution 
XVII), was a contributing cause of the decisions 
adopted by the American governments at Rio de 
Janeiro. 

However, in an effort to preserve the unanimity 
which is one of the most cherished ideals of the 
pan-American system, the Meeting abandoned a 
more categorical and unequivocal condemnation of 
the Axis in resolution I, which would have pro- 
vided for immediate action by the governments, 
and accepted the formula proposed by the Minis- 
ter of Foreign Affairs of the Argentine Republic. 
In accordance therewith, it was agreed that the 
American republics would sever relations with the 
aforementioned Axis states "in accordance with 
the procedures established by their own laws and 
in conformity with the position and circumstances 
obtaining in each country in the existing continen- 
tal conflict". 

In view of the grave danger to which the Rio 
resolutions refer, which manifestly could not be 
met by dilatory or indecisive measures, and of the 
spirit and principles of American solidarity, 20 
republics arrived at the same conclusion with re- 
spect to the significance which should be given the 
aforementioned formula and, each following its 
own procedures, assumed without vacillation or 
qualification the common responsibility for the 
individual and collective defense of the continent 
envisaged by those resolutions. The basic reasons 
for the adoption of this attitude by the American 
republics have been clearly set forth by the Gov- 
ernments of Venezuela and Colombia in the joint 
declaration of August 7, 1944, explaining their 
decision to abstain from entering into diplomatic 
relations with the Argentine Government: 



56 

"Venezuela and Colombia understand that the 
collective interest in the maintenance of the se- 
curity of the Continent does not admit of any 
special interests of nations or groups of nations 
to which the supreme welfare of America could 
be subordinated or which should at this time be 
given expression in a manner different or apart 
from that agreed upon in the Pan American Con- 
ferences. 

"^^■hile recognizing that there are economic, 
political and social problems within the Conti- 
nent wliich must be studied and solved in a dif- 
ferent manner in each country, it is clear to the 
Governments of Venezuela and Colombia that in 
America only uniform action before, during and 
after the war can assure to the group of free na- 
tions of America the importance and influence to 
which they are naturally entitled in the struggle 
for the supremacy of the principles upon which 
their political organization is founded." 

The Argentine Government has, however, 
adopted a different view of inter-American com- 
mitments, because of which, both before and after 
its severance of diplomatic relations with the 
Axis, it has withheld from the common effort in 
a war in which the highest values of civilization 
are at stake. 

At the time of the Meeting of the Ministers of 
Foreign Affairs at Kio de Janeiro, the Argentine 
Government took the position that circumstances 
prevailing in the country required that it remain 
neutral. Pursuant to that decision, steps were 
taken to insure that war problems should not be 
freely and openly discussed. Certain measures of 
control over aliens, of a regulatory nature, were 
adopted, but, in view of the neutrality decreed by 
the Government, these could not be applied against 
Axis nationals. It was, therefore, impossible to 
utilize them to prevent subversive activities by 
such nationals; nor was the excellent system of 
peacetime legislation or the existing police organi- 
zation for the defense of the state and its institu- 
tions available to serve this purpose. 

The Argentine Government considered that it 
had adequately responded to the requirements of 
American solidarity in this emergency by granting 
non-belligerency status to ships of the American 
republics entering Argentine ports. 

In effect, the decision of the Argentine Govern- 
ment appeared to place the Axis and the United 



Nations on an equal footing, 

without taking into account the 

fact that the Axis organization 

of espionage agents, saboteurs, 

and propagandists, which was 

the result of long years of care- 
ful preparation, gave the Axis 

a base in Argentina from which 

to attack, more or less at will, 

the republics of the continent. 
Subsequent regimes have 
maintained the same attitude, 
with the exception of the deci- 
sion of President Ramirez to 
sever relations with the Axis. 
However, this measure was 
very promptly nullified by the 
present administration, which 
stopped the anti-totalitarian 
program by which it was pro- 
posed to implement the sever- 
ance of relations. The repatri- 
ation of Axis diplomatic offi- 
cials and other measures which appear to be 
designed to combat Axis subversive activities have 
not affected the basic attitude of the Government 
with respect to the world conflict and the inter- 
American agreements. In fact, any suggestion, 
from any source, that the Argentine Government 
give effect to the severance of relations in accord- 
ance with existing commitments and American 
solidarity is viewed by that Government as an 
attempt at external pressure and, therefore, derog- 
atory of the national prestige and sovereignty. 

The course followed by the Argentine Govern- 
ment has compelled the great majority of the other 
republics, after exchange of information and mu- 
tual consultation, to refrain from entering into 
diplomatic relations with that Government. Dur- 
ing July and the early part of August, most of the 
governments made public statements of the reasons 
for that decision. 

In view of the attitude of the Argentine Govern- 
ment, the Committee has found itself obliged on 
several occasions to reaffirm, in its relations with 
that Government, the bases established by the 
American republics for the political defense of the 
hemisphere. 

These occasions were as follows: (1) On Janu- 
ary 22, 1943 the Committee published a memoran- 



The second Annua, Report of the Emer- 
gency Advisory tWte^ f°^ ^"'"'u 
Defense describes tie measures taken by 
the American repm^^ for defending this 
continent from politi,„i attack by the Axis 
powers. The Committee's report evaluates 
American solidarity and the measures 
taken to maint,in that solidarity. 
Through a system of intensive collabora- 
tion suggestions fo, meeting particular 
situations were recommended to the par- 
ticipating govermiients. Tiie experience 
of the Committee as ui effective corporate 
body in international organization may be 
a model for post-war world collaboration. 
The Committee ofa an appraisal of the 
defense structure erected by the American 
republics in order to protect themselves 
against subversive poUtical attack. 



dum which established the ex- 
istence of a widespread and 
well-organized ring of totalita- 
rian spies in Argentina, whose 
activities had resulted in severe 
loss of American lives and 
property; (2) on May 31, 1943, 
it transmitted to the Govern- 
ment of that country the report 
of the Committee's delegation 
which had made a consultative 
visit to Argentina, which con- 
tained a series of observations 
on the political-defense situa- 
tion in that country, particu- 
larly with respect to the way in 
which that defense was affected 
by the continuance of relations 
with the Axis; (3) on June 2, 
1944 the Committee transmitted 
to the Argentine Government a 
memorandum on existing secu- 
rity measures in the country, 
used for political defense, in 
!ssed that such measures could 



which could 
which it was 

produce no practical results if they were not ap- 
plied with the specific purpose of achieving the 
objectives agreed upon at Rio de Janeiro; (4) on 
September 6, 1944 it sent a memorandum to the 
American governments and to the Pan American 
Union, reconmiending that they solve the problem 
created in the Committee as a result of the funda- 
mental divergence between the Argentine Govern- 
ment and the other republics. This led to Uie 
withdrawal of the Argentine Delegation from the 
Committee. 



i. Memorandum 
Argentina '■ 



Axis-Espionage Activi 



^ This memorandum revealed that Argentina was 
emg used as a base for intensive Axis subversive 
„!;7/i, tt''"'"'"'^ '''e''^"^* the American continent 
ana the United Nations. It was conclusively dem- 
onstrated that Axis diplomatic officials were fla- 
g-'antly abusing the principles which govern diplo- 
rnerifi'lf'""' ^'^^^^ "^ili^ed nations. It was 
orS' "i"'^'"'"'^ ""^ "-^•^ '"P'"'""^ had 
ordin ilT ""'' -"^'''''''"S, financing, and co- 
or cells ni^ "'"^"'"^ °^ the different groups 
ffiatic Z "^T'"' ""'' '' "^"S "'^o ^hown that diplo- 
chamiels were being used for the transmis- 



57 

Berlin"* S™'","""' ""^ "'S^ Command in 
fffe tL T^IT^'^'T-'"'' '"^"P'^ble that an 
ellective basis for political defense against sub 

i''z::Tfrf' "°' "^ estabushTd iltht; 

a severance of relations with the Axis, pursuant to 
resolution I of Bio de Janeiro. 

2. Report on the Consultative VUi, to Argentina 

The delegation which made the consultative visit 
the Argentme Republic in April 1943 was able 
to demonstrate how the failure of the Argentine 
Government to act jointly with the other republics, 
in accordance with the agreements of Rio de Jan! 
eiro, had made it impossible for the continent to 
present a united front to the Axis. After point- 
ing out the consequences of neutrality, in terms of 
the madequate political-defense structure of the 
country, the delegation indicated that it was natu- 
ral and understandable that the officials, char-^ed 
with applying general peacetime formulae for Ae 
defense of the state and its institutions instead of 
a specific emergency formula for defense against 
the totahtarians, should be guided by the policy 
of their Government. This was evidenced by the 
inability of the Argentine officials to act energeti- 
cally against Axis nationals and agents in the man- 
ner envisaged by the conclusions of the Rio Meet- 
ing and the resolutions of the Committee. 

The delegation also indicated that a declaration 
of intention to cooperate in continental defense is 
not sufficient if unanimity does not exist in the 
recognition of the nature and source of the danger 
which menaces the continent. It stated that the 
Third Meeting of Ministers of Foreign Affairs 
clearly recognized that continental defense is indi- 
visible and must of necessity be total in character. 
To achieve and maintain this unity, there must 
necessarily be a common basis of action, the first 
requisite of which is that a clear distinction be 
drawn between friend and foe. 

3. Memorandum of June 2, 1944 

This memorandum was sent to the Government 
of Argentina more than four months after its sev- 
erance of relations with the Axis, and in it the 
Committee reiterated the considerations set forth 
in the above-mentioned report on the consultative 



• Si'e first .Annual Report of the Committee, pp. 107-129 
for the teit of the memorandum and pp. 43-46 for a dis- 
cussion of the memorandum. 



58 



visit. In its judgment, the severance of diplomatic 
relations had not affected the previous situation. 

In this document the Committee again stressed 
that a technically complete political-defense struc- 
ture would be inadequate if not employed for the 
purposes determined at Rio de Janeiro. In the 
Committee's opinion, as set forth in the memoran- 
dum, organization alone, or legislative measures, 
no matter how perfect, cannot be effective in the 
absence of a firm determination on the part of the 
American governments to assume the responsibil- 
ity and undertake the action necessary for the de- 
fense of the continent against the Axis. Without 
that determination, any measure which might be 
taken, including severance of relations with the 
totalitarians, would be without significance. 

4. Communication of September 6, 1944 to the 
American Governments 

It is highly significant that the division within 
the continent described above has had profound 
repercussions upon the Committee's organization 
and deliberations, culminating in the withdrawal 
of the Argentine Delegation, which took place on 
September 9, 1944. Those repercussions were in- 
evitable in view of the fact that the objectives of 
political defense which the American republics 
committed themselves to achieve at Rio de Janeiro 
constitute the policy directives of the Committee 
and that, pursuant to article 2 of its regulations, it 
must represent and act "on behalf and in the in- 
terest of all the Governments, members of the Pan 
American Union". 

However, because of the basic cleavage between 
the policy agreed upon at Rio de Janeiro and the 
attitude of the Argentine Government with respect 
to the present world conflict, the member ap- 
pointed by that Government found it impossible 
to support the Committee's policy directives and 
consequently to act as the representatives of the 
collective interests of the continent which they de- 
fine. This member, therefore, considered himself 
as the exclusive "delegate" of the country which 
named him and, hence, obliged to reflect its inter- 
national position. As a consequence he considered 
himself bound to oppose or unable to favor 
measures by which the Committee sought to im- 
plement the declared policy of the American 
republics. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

Moreover, since the Committee represents and 
acts on behalf of the American republics, pursuant 
to article 2 of the above-mentioned regulations, 
only in relation to the interest defined by the policy 
directives of resolution XVII of Rio de Janeiro, 
the Committee found it impossible to represent 
and act on behalf of the Argentine Government, in 
view of the divergence between these directives and 
the concept of national and continental interest 
on which the present international position of that 
Government is based. 

In view of this situation, the Committee re- 
solved, on December 3, 1943, that its secretariat 
should maintain strict secrecy with respect to the 
confidential documents and reports received by 
the delegations that carried out the consultative 
visits to the various republics, and should make 
them available "only to those members of the Com- 
mittee who act on behalf of the community of 
States which, by breaking diplomatic relations 
with or declaring war against the Axis, have rec- 
ognized that the said Axis has committed against 
them, either individually or collectively, acts of 
aggression as defined by the pertinent resolutions 
of inter-American conferences." This decision was 
considered to be in the nature of a provisional 
emergency measure, designed to continue only so 
long as the circumstances in which it originated 
remained unchanged. 

The measure therefore became inoperative after 
the Argentine Government severed relations with 
the Axis on January 26, 1944, since the Commit- 
tee expected that this action would enable the 
member designated by that country to join fully 
and without qualifications in the work of his col- 
leagues. However, such was not the case, and the 
previous situation remained unchanged. 

For this reason, the Committee transmitted to 
the governments of the American republics and 
to the Pan American Union a communication dated 
September 6, 1944 calling their attention to the 
problem and recommending that they "terminate 
the division existing within the Committee as a 
result of the above-mentioned fundamental di- 
vergence on policy which separates the government 
of the Argentine Republic from the other coun- 
tries of the Continent". 



JANUARY 14. 1945 

In view of the issues involved in the conflict and 
of the traditions and principles of American 
solidarity, the Committee for Political Defense 
has from the very beginning of its labors pro- 
ceeded on the assumption that the American con- 
tinent would act as a unit against the Axis. It 
could not proceed upon any other basis because of 
the categorical and unequivocal directives con- 
tained in its charter and of the terms of other exist- 
ing inter- American agreements. These were con- 
cluded in response to an immediate threat to the 
security and integrity of each and every American 
republic and to the principles of liberty and free 
government and of progressive and civilized inter- 
national order which are among the most precious 
heritages and achievements of the new world. 

C. American Solidarity in the Post-War 

In its first Annual Report, the Committee for 
Political Defense stated that : 

"A life and death clash between the aims and 
strategy of the Axis and those of the people of the 
American Republics was inevitable. This had to 
be so, not only because of the direct threat to the 
independence and integrity of our Republics im- 
plicit in the expanding conquests of the members 
of the Tripartite Pact, but because a compromise 
or an attitude of neutrality between the two sys- 
tems is inconceivable. There is a fundamental 
and absolute incompatibility between them." 

Upon being informed of this action, the Ar- 
gentine Government immediately withdrew its 
delegation from the Committee, which made it un- 
necessarj' for the governments and the Pan Ameri- 
can Union to take action on the problem.* 

The step taken by the Committee and the action 
of the Argentine Government were unfortunate 
but inevitable consequences of the fundamental 
divergence in the attitude with respect to the pres- 
ent world conflict assumed by that Government on 
the one hand and by the other American republics 
on the other. 

The Americas had reason to expect from the Ar- 
gentine Government more than an attitude which 
placed the Axis aggressors and the United and 
Associated Nations, including the 20 American 
republics, on a footing of apparent equality. This 
I attitude, as indicated previously, has manifestly 



59 

been prejudicial to these republics and to Ameri- 
can unity. 

The conflict referred to above is now being 
rapidly and definitely decided in favor of the 
United and Associated Nations, among whom are 
20 American republics. 

In meeting the challenge of the Axis powers, the 
American republics have relied upon principles 
and procedures of cooperation which many be- 
lieved a few years ago to represent, at best, an 
idealistic or wishful approach to the hard realities 
of international relations. It is precisely because 
the inter-American system has as its principal ob- 
jective the promotion and protection of the best 
interests of the peoples of the continent that it has 
so adequately stood the test of this war and has, in 
fact, been developed and extended to meet the ur- 
gent problems arising from the war. The premise 
of this system is that only through cooperation 
and the assumption of a common responsibility 
for the maintenance of the peace and security of 
each member of the community can the vital inter- 
ests of all be fully served, and that thus alone can 
the sovereignty and independence of each state be 
eifectively assured. 

It is out of principles and instrumentalities such 
as those of the American system that the new in- 
ternational order must be built after the defeat of 
the Axis and of the retrogressive forces which it 
represents. 

In making these observations, the Committee for 
Political Defense has in mind its own experience 
acquired in carrying out the task entrusted to it 
by the governments of the American republics. 
As an international body representing all of these 
republics, it has operated in a field in which the 
sovereignty of each state has its most vital and 
characteristic expression: the constitutional and 
institutional means for the preservation of the na- 
tion's security and existence. Instead of an atti- 
tude of reserve or distrust on the part of the gov- 
ernments and national officials, the Committee has 



*In withdrawing from the Committee, the Argentine 
Government issued a press release, in which part of the 
Committee's communication was quoted and in which 
reference was made to supposed procedural irregularities 
in its adoption. In view of this, the Committee published 
the complete text of the document and set forth the facta 
with respect to the procedure which had been followed. 



60 

met with the most complete assistance and coopera- 
tion. The Committee believes that this attitude — a 
reflection of the unity of purpose and of objective 
that has moved all but one of the governments dur- 
ing this emergency — has great significance for the 
future and justifies the belief, now frequently ex- 
pressed, that the inter-American system may offer 
valuable suggestions in the construction of the 
post-war world. 

However, as indicated previously in this chap- 
ter, the Committee's experience demonstrates that 
existing commitments and instrumentalities for 
action would be of little or no use in the absence 
of the determination to use them in order to 
achieve the objectives agreed upon by the Amer- 
ican community of free nations. Any break in 
American unity weakens the foundations of the 
whole structure and seriously jeopardizes the 
progress of the system. 

The Committee is firmly convinced, moreover, 
that the end of the war will call for intensification 
of the cooperative effort and action which have 
characterized the American contribution to the de- 
feat of the Axis. 

This is so not only because of the vital part that 
the Americas must have in the reconstruction of 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

the world upon firmer foundations than those of 
the past, but also because the end of the war will 
not signify the end of the dangers against which 
the continent has struggled during this period of 
grave emergency. The seeds of a future resur- 
gence of totalitarian ideas have already been sown 
in America, and they are being nurtured by the 
same kind of misguided and suicidal nationalism 
which plunged the world into the present conflict. 

These dangers must be carefully prepared 
against with forethought and fought with vigor- 
ous and timely action in order to prevent the de- 
velopment within the continent of dangerous sit- 
uations which will be a source of weakness and 
disunity in the inter- American community. The 
lack of unity and of purposeful orientation which 
was an important contributing cause of the great 
tragedy of this generation must not be repeated. 

The preservation of inter-American unity is of 
vital present and future importance to the welfare 
and security of the continent. It must, however, 
be a unity based upon the principles of American 
solidarity, which require positive cooperative ac- 
tion in the realization of common objectives and 
which are antagonistic to totalitarian ideas of 
force and domination, either in their national or 
international manifestations. 



Conference of the American Republics 



ANNOUNCEMENT OF PLANS 



[Released to the press January 9] 

As the result of a full exchange of views among 
the interested American republics within recent 
weeks, agreement has been reached on the desir- 
ability of a conference of the American republics 
collaborating in the war effort to consider war and 
post-wur problems of common interest. 

The Government of the United States has felt 
for some time that there is need for such a con- 
ference and looks forward to it with the confident 
expectation that it will serve to strengthen the 
contribution of the American republics to the 
achievement of our common objectives in the war 
and at the same time to reaffirm their leadership 



in the constructive effort to win a secure and last- 
ing peace. It will be the work of the conference to 
implement the inter-American system in full sup- 
port of these great objectives. At the same time, 
the conference will have the opportunity to ex- 
plore fully what measures of economic cooperation 
can be adopted, with a view to laying the founda- 
tion for the general improvement of basic eco- 
nomic conditions in the Americas, looking toward 
a rising standard of living throughout the hemi- 
sphere. 

Consultations are taking place with respect to 
the time, place, and agenda for this conference. 



JANUARY 14, 1945 



DESIGNATION OF THE SECRETARY OF STATE AS UNITED STATES DELEGATE 



[Released to the press January 13] 

The American republics collaborating in the 
■war have agreed, as a result of consultation 
through regular diplomatic channels, to hold a 
conference on urgent war and post-war problems. 
The Government of Mexico has now invited the 
other governments to hold the conference in Mex- 
ico City, beginning February 15, 1945. The United 
States Government is most appreciative of Mex- 
ico's graciousness in offering Mexico City as the 
site for the conference. 

The Secretary of State, the Honorable Edward 



R. Stcttinius, Jr., will be this Government's Dele- 
gate, and the Honorable Nelson A. Rockefeller, 
Assistant Secretary of State, will be Alternate 
Delegate. There will be a fuither announcement 
at a later date regarding the other members of 
the United States Delegation. 

The purpose of the conference is to discuss im- 
portant problems of war and peace of concern to 
the participating governments. The agenda is 
now being considered jointly by the respective gov- 
ernments. 



REMARKS BY ASSISTANT SECRETARY ROCKEFELLER 



[Released to the press January 11] 

Announcer : Mr. Rockefeller, there has been a 
good deal in the papers recently about a confer- 
ence in Mexico City to discuss urgent problems of 
war and peace. Wliat is the story back of this? 

Mr. Rockefeller: Our joint war effort. The 
intensification of inter-American cooperation in 
support of final victory. You know as well as I 
do what that cooperation has meant to this coun- 
try since Pearl Harbor. You know of the air and 
naval bases made available throughout this hem- 
isphere, you know of the stamping out of Axis 
activities in most of the vulnerable spots for our 
common defense. You know of the supply of 
strategic raw material from the other republics 
without which the miracle of war production in 
this country would not have been possible. Specif - 

■ ically, there will be discussion of measures for win- 
ning the war more quickly and the problems of 
collective security thereafter. The conference will 
also deal with the economic and social problems of 

j the Americas. 

> Announcer: I understand that this is to be a 

I conference of the American republics whose gov- 

i ernments are cooperating in the war effort. Is that 
why representatives of the present Argentine Gov- 

1 ernment will not be included ? 

I Mr. Rockefeller : Yes, it is. It is a meeting of 
those nations whose governments have been co- 
operating fully in the making of the war and the 
making of the peace. One of our deepest regrets 
is that the people of Argentina, with their gi^eat 
freedom-loving tradition, will not be represented 
in this meeting. 



Announcer: I am interested in what you say 
about the objectives of the conference. How im- 
portant are thej' to the future of the people of this 
hemisphere ? 

Mr. Rockefeller : Very important, I can assure 
you. The unity of the American Hemisphere will 
always be our first line of defense ; and more than 
that, the friendship and cooperation between these 
many nations who are devoted to freedom can and 
will have a strong influence on the peace of the 
world which the United Nations are determined 
to win for future generations. These are days that 
call for complete honesty and straightforward 
dealing — a frank facing of our common problems, 
the working out together of solutions which reflect 
the mutual best interests of all, because these are 
days when the salvation of the world depends on 
the people of the world and the people demand 
honesty, candor, and straight speaking. Democ- 
racy must be felt throughout this hemisphere as a 
dynamic force which is constantly working for the 
security, well-being, and future opportunity of the 
people of the Americas. 

It is my confident belief that the people of the 
American republics realize increasingly that their 
best interests are inseparably interwoven with 
those of their neighbors and thus the problems of 
all must be discussed and plans made which will 
lead, when victory has been won, to higher earning 
power, better living standards, better health, edu- 
cation, security, and freedom from fear for all 
people of the Americas. 



' Made on the March of Time broadcast over the blue 
network on Jan. 11, 1&45. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



The Work of the Special Economic Mission 



[Released to the press January 14] 

The Department of State is now able to an- 
nounce the first gratifying result of the work of 
the Special Economic Mission, which, under the 
chairmanship of Ambassador William S. Culbert- 
son, spent last summer and fall in French North 
Africa and the Middle East, investigating the 
prospects of resumption of private trade with 
those areas.^ 

In December, Ambassador Culbertson proceeded 
to Paris to collaborate with our Embassy in con- 
versations with the Provisional Government of the 
French Kepublic. These conversations had for 
their purpose the implementation for French 
North Africa and West Africa of certain of the 
recommendations of the Special Economic Mis- 
sion. The Embassy in Paris has informed the 
Department of State that as a result of these dis- 
cussions the Fi'ench authorities have agreed to the 
resumption of private trade in French North and 
West Afi'ica with certain qualifications which 
appear to be necessaiy during the transition 
period. 

The more substantive conclusions of the Special 
Economic Mission, now accepted by the French 
Provfsional Government, include, as regards ex- 
ports from the United States, the provision that 
all civilian supply for French North and West 
Africa, beginning January 1, 1945, will be on a 
cash basis, and that no French African civilian 
imports will be bought through the lend-lease 
mechanism after June 30, 1945. In the interven- 
mg period, the French authorities undertake to 
reach agreement with this Goverimient for the 
return to private commercial channels of as many 
categories of their imports for African territories 
as is possible. Certain bulk commodities such as 
coal, sugar, and wheat will remain the procure- 
ment responsibility of the French Supply Council 
as far as supplies originating in the United States 
are concerned, because of the nature of the prod- 
ucts and the distribution problem involved. 
Other proposed imports such as trucks, farm ma- 
chinery, and office equipment will be returned to 
private commercial channels, and the latter list of 



' Btjixetin of Dec. 10, 1944, p. 720. 



eligible items will be expanded as quickly as ap- 
propriate ari'angements can be made. The local 
French authorities in French Morocco, Algeria, 
Tunisia, and French West Africa will establish 
a simplified system of import-licensing for private 
commercial transactions. This control will be 
necessary to keep the volume of trade within the 
mutually agreed limits in supply and shipping and 
will also make it possible for the French to issue 
foreign-exchange permits in advance for their 
importers who propose buying in this country 
within the framework of the agreed supply pro- 
gi-am. 

As a result of the recent negotiations in Paris, 
the French will also henceforth permit all exports 
from French North and W*st Africa to be handled 
as normal private commerce, with the exception 
of strategic commodities critically needed by and 
allocated to the French or their Allies in connection 
with the combined war effort. The United States 
Government, in view of the continued existence of 
certain problems in connection with internal and 
ocean transport, will temporarily maintain a rep- 
resentation of the U. S. Commercial Company in 
French North Africa, which staff will be available 
as an optional service agency to United States 
importers in completing their purchasing and for- 
warding arrangements with French exporters. The 
above procedure envisages complete freedom of ex- 
change of communication between buyer and seller, 
with Government participation limited to an expe- 
diting function only, at the request of the private 
business interests that may be involved. 

In anticipation of the reopening of private trade 
between French North and West Africa and the 
United States, which has now been accepted in 
principle by the French Provisional Government, 
the Department has been strengthening its com- 
mercial services and personnel in the consular offi- 
ces throughout the area. These consular posts are 
therefore now preparing to assist American import 
and export trade in any way possible and to facili- 
tate either the resumption of former commercial 
connections or the development of new business 
relations. French North Africa, like French West 
Africa, is no longer considered a military zone, 



JANUARY 14, 1945 

and commercial travel is permitted, subject to the 
necessary limitations of air and ocean passenger 
transport. The French authorities have under- 
taken to act promptly on applications for travel to 
French Africa which may be referred to them. 
This Government will maintain an active interest 
in facilitating such commercial travel. 

The negotiations recently concluded in Paris are 
considered a significant development in the pattern 
of American post-war commercial relations with 
other nations, in that French North and West 
Africa are the first liberated areas wherein trade 
can now be expected to return to private channels. 
The existence of military opei-ations, and the con- 
trols of shipping and supply which were necessary 
in the southern Mediterranean long after that terri- 
tory ceased to be a scene of actual operations, have 
delayed the resumption of private trade with 
French territories longer than the Department and 
other interested agencies of the Government had 
hoped. The Embassy in Paris has reported, how- 
ever, tliat the recent discussions with the French 
authorities took place in a spirit of cordiality and 
mutual understanding which, it is anticipated, will 
lead to a relatively earlier solution of similar prob- 
lems in metropolitan France. 

Consideration of the Purposes 
Of the Anglo-American Oil 
Agreement 

[Released to the press January 10] 

The Department of State has consistently advo- 
cated the development of broad international 
understandings for the promotion of sound trade 
and commerce between nations as essential to the 
building of world-wide peace and prosperity. 
The Anglo-American Oil Agreement was con- 
cluded in an endeavor to apply this cooperative 
approach to particular problems and to lay the 
basis for the removal of possible causes of friction 
in the field of international oil. 

However, in view of the misunderstanding that 
has arisen concerning the purpose and scope of 
that agreement, the Department has requested the 
President to witlidraw the agreement from the 
Senate. The purpose of this course is to permit 
consideration of the best way to achieve the funda- 
mental purposes imderlying the agreement — pre- 



63 

venting friction between nations growing out of 
problems of foreign oil and assuring to all an 
adequate supply. It appears to the Department 
that the misunderstandings which have arisen 
come not fi-om lack of agreement upon these ob- 
jectives but from the implementing features 
attending them. 

MESSAGE OF THE PRESIDENT TO THE SENATE 

[Released to the press by the White House January 10] 

Pursuant to the recommendation of the Secre- 
tary of State, on August 24, 1944, I transmitted 
to the Senate for its advice and consent to ratifica- 
tion an agi-eement on petroleum between the Gov- 
ernments of the United States and of the United 
Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 
which was signed in Washington on August 8, 
1944. 

At that time I considered that the agreement 
constituted an important step forward in removing 
possible causes of friction in international trade 
in petroleum and promoting cooperation among 
the nations in the development of that trade. I 
have not changed my opinion in this respect. 
However, I am informed that fears have been ex- 
pressed as to the scope and effect of the document, 
as now worded: some voicing concern lost it au- 
thorize acts by the petroleum industry inconsistent 
with the provisions of existing law, others lest it 
hold potentialities harmful to the industry. It is 
my belief that these fears are without foundation. 
Certainly no such possibilities were intended or 
designed by the American representatives who 
negotiated the agreement. 

Since there is general accord that an understand- 
ing on international trade in petroleum between 
the United States and the United Kingdom is de- 
sirable and in the public interest, it would be 
unfortunate if this should be delayed, if not pre- 
vented, through a misunderstanding as to the 
purpose and scope of a particular document. 

The Secretary of State, accordingly, has recom- 
mended that I request the Senate to return the 
agreement in order that consideration may be 
given, in consultation with the Government of the 
United Kingdom, to whatever revision appears to 
be necessary to achieve its objectives and to re- 
move grounds for misunderstanding. I, there- 
fore, request that the agreement be returned for 
this purpose. 



64 



DErARTMEyT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Exchange of Experts Among the American Republics 
Under Travel-Grant Program 



[Released to the press January 8] 

During the last 6 months, from July through 
December 1944, 16 professors or technical experts 
of this country have received travel grants as 
visiting professors and consultants, or for special 
projects, in the other American republics, under 
the program for the exchange of professors and 
leaders between this country and the other Ameri- 
can republics, administered by the Department of 
State of the United States Government. 

This program of cultural and scientific inter- 
change among the republics of the Western Hemi- 
sphere, inaugurated in July 1940, is administered 
by the Division of Cultural Cooperation, Depart- 
ment of State. In the case of the visiting profes- 
sorships, the Department of State and the receiv- 
ing university jointly assume the financing of the 
program. Upon the request of a university in one 
of the other American republics, the Department 
of State consults with government and private 
agencies and prepares a panel from which the 
professor is selected. 

In addition to arranging for these visits of pro- 
fessors and consultants, the Department of State 
has awarded a limited number of travel grants to 
specialists requested by public or private agencies 
in the other American republics and to specialists 
and investigators engaged in scientific or cultural 
projects of mutual interest to the United States 
and the other American republics. These grants 
are financed entirely, or in part, by the Depart- 
ment of State. 

The following persons have received grants for 
visiting professorships: Dr. J. A. Thompson, pro- 
fessor of Romance languages, Louisiana State Uni- 
versity : lecturer at the University of Habana Sum- 
mer School, Habana, Cuba; Dr. W. E. B. DuBois, 
professor of sociology, Atlanta University: lec- 
turer at the Haitian Summer School, Poi't-au- 
Prince, Haiti ; Dr. James C. Andrews, professor of 
medicine, University of North Carolina : visiting 
professor at the University of Guatemala under 
the Convention for the Pjomotion of Inter-^\jneri- 
can Cultural Relations; Dr. E. W. Lindstrom, 
vice dean. Graduate College, Iowa State Univer- 
sity : visiting professor in the School of Agricul- 
ture, National University, Medellin, Colombia; 



Dr. F. C. Hayes, head of the department of modern 
languages, Guilford College : visiting professor of 
English at Chuquisaca University, Sucre, Bolivia; 
Professor V. L. Annis, associate professor of 
architecture. University of Southern California: 
visiting professor of architecture at the University 
of Guatemala ; Dr. Walter H. Delaplane, assistant 
professor of economics, Duke University : visiting 
professor of economics at the National University, 
Asuncion, Paraguay ; Mr. J. G. Bradshaw, of Se- 
attle, Washington : visiting professor at and ad- 
viser to the president of the Gimnasio Moderno, 
Bogota, Colombia. 

The following two visiting professors received 
renewals of their grants for the coming year : Dr. 
Donald Pierson, who has served for the pa.st sev- 
eral years as visiting professor of sociology at the 
Escola Livre de Sociologia e Politica, Sao Paulo, 
Brazil; and Dr. Morton D. Zabel, professor of 
English, Loyola University, Chicago, for the past 
year visiting professor of American literature on 
the Faculty of Philosophy and Letters, University 
of Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 

The following persons received gi-ants to serve 
as advisers or consultants in their special field of 
investigation : Dr. Ruth Leslie, assistant professor 
of home economics. University of Texas, serving 
as biochemical technician in the Brazilian Ministry 
of Labor, Industry, and Commerce, Rio de Janeiro, 
Brazil; Dr. C. L. Christenson, professor of eco- 
nomics, Indiana University, serving as adviser on 
price control in the Costa Rican Ministry of 
Fmance, San Jose, Costa Rica ; Dr. Clay Huff, pro- 
fessor of bacteriology. University of Chicago, 
serving as guest investigator in the Institute of 
Public Health and Tropical Diseases, Mexico, D.F. 

Grants for special projects were awarded to the 
following professors : Dr. E. B. Helm, head of the 
Department of Music, Western College, to visit 
Brazil to study Brazilian music; Dr. Samuel F. 
Bemis, professor of history, Yale University, to 
visit Cuba to carry on archival research and confer 
witli Cuban historians; Mr. Aubrey Gates, associ- 
ate director. Agricultural Extension Service, Little 
Rock, Arkansas, to study extension education work 
in several of the other American i-epublics. 

Since the inauguration of the program of the 



JANUARY 14, 1945 

Department of State for tlie exchange of profes- 
sors and leaders of thought and opinion between 
the United States and tlie otlier American repub- 
lics, approximately 250 such professors and lead- 
ers have visited the United States, and a lesser 
number from the United States have visited the 
other American republics. In addition, the De- 
partment of State serves as a clearing house for 
similar programs with the other American repub- 
lics curried on by other government agencies and 
by professional groups, scientific and educational 
foundations, and other private agencies. 



Visiting Professors From China 

[Released to the press January 9] 

Six professors from leading Chinese universities 
are expected to arrive in this country in the spiing 
of 1945. These men will spend a year in the United 
States as guests of the Department of State. Each 
man has been appointed by his university as an 
official representative in this country to visit 
American universities, to give public lectures, to 
read recently published material in his own field, 
and to make the acquaintance of American scholars 
and educators. 

This program of the Department to bring visit- 
ing professors from China to the United States is 
now entering its third year. A total of 12 Chinese 
professors have visited American colleges and uni- 
versities under similar arrangements during the 
last 2 years. Five of the professors who will spend 
the year 1945-46 in the United States are listed 
below. 

Y. P. Met, philosopher and president of Yen- 
ching University. President Mei has been selected 
to represent his university, which has recently 
opened in Chengtu after the loss to the Japanese 
of its home campus outside Peiping. He received 
his B.A. degi-ee from Oberlin in 1924 and his Ph.D. 
degree in 1927 from the University of Chicago. 
He has also studied at Harvai'd. He hopes to come 
to the United States in February and to travel 
extensively' in this country. 

L. K. Tao (Tao Meng-ho), director of the In- 
stitute of Social Sciences, Academia Sinica. Dr. 
Tao, a graduate of London University, was a pro- 
fessor at National Peking University from 1914 
to 1925. In 1926 he founded the Institute of So- 



65 



cial Research in Peiping, under the auspices of the 
China Foundation, and became its director. When 
the Institute was incorporated with the Institute 
of Social Sciences of Academia Sinica in 1935, he 
was made its director and since that time has held 
the post. Dr. Tao intends to visit as many similar 
research agencies in the United States as possible 
during his year's stay. 

TuKG-CHi Lin, professor of political science at 
Fuhtan University, Chunghing. Dr. Lin received 
a Ph.D. degree in political science at the Univer- 
sity of California in 1934. From 1931 to 1933 he 
was lecturer in the department of government and 
history at Mills College. Since his return to China 
in 1934 he has taught at Nankai University and 
edited the Nankai Quarterly, 1935-37, has been 
dean of the College of Letters and Law and chair- 
man of the department of political science of the 
National University of Yunnan, 1937-42, and since 
1942 has been in his present position. During the 
past 10 years he has published many research arti- 
cles both in China and abroad and has worked 
particularly in the field of the development of 
Chinese culture and polity. 

Tsi-ZE Nt, director of the Institute of Physics, 
National Academy of Peiping, Kunming.. Dr. Ny 
is a specialist in spectroscopy and applied optics. 
This will be his first visit to the United States. 
He studied in France at the University of Paris 
from 1924 to 1927 and from 1929 to 1931. He has 
held his present position since 1931. He was a 
member of the Council of the French Physical 
Society from 1935 to 1938 and has been vice presi- 
dent of the Chinese Physical Society since 1942. 
He has published 50 papers in his field, many of 
them in French journals. He will come to the 
United States in March or April. 

Thomas L. Yuan, professor of health and physi- 
cal education and dean of students. Northwest 
Teachers College, Lanchow. Dr. Yuan took his 
B.S. in physiology at the University of Chicago in 
1925 and studied at Johns Hopkins and Columbia 
during the next two years. Upon his return to 
China in 1927 he taught at Peiping Normal Uni- 
versity almost continuously for 10 years. Since 
1937 he has been in his present position. He ex- 
pects to arrive in the United States in June and 
hopes to visit centers of health education and in- 
tends to study particularly school health work. 

An announcement concerning the sixth professor 
will be made at a later date. 



66 

American institutions and individuals may send 
greetings, letters, or invitations to these pi'ofessors 
in care of the Division of Cultural Cooperation, 
Department of State. This Division will be glad 
to answer any inquiries. 

Monetary Agreement, United 
Kingdom and Belgium 

The American Embassy at London transmitted 
to the Department, with a despatch dated October 
10, 194-i, a copy of Command Paper 6557 contain- 
ing the text of the Monetary Agreement between 
the Government of the United Kingdom of Great 
Britain and Northern Ireland and the Govern- 
ment of Belgium signed at London October 5, 
1944. 

The agreement, which abrogates the Anglo- 
Belgian Financial Agreement of June 7, 1940, 
came into force on the date it was signed and will 
terminate three years from that date unless the 
contracting governments agree otherwise. The 
agreement provides, however, that either party 
may at any time give notice of its intention to 
terminate the agreement and that the agreement 
shall cease to have effect three months after the 
date of such notice. 

The agreement embodies several provisions de- 
signed to facilitate exchange relations and main- 
tain stable exchange value for the two currencies. 
It establishes a rate for the Belgian franc at 
176.625 to the pound, to be altered only after con- 
sultation. This rate is to serve as the basis for all 
cui-rency transactions between the two countries 
and the territories over which they have jurisdic- 
tion. Belgian francs and pounds necessary for 
financing of payments between the sterling and 
Belgian franc areas will be supplied by the Bank 
of England and the National Bank of Belgium 
up to a limit of £5,000,000 or its equivalent, after 
which the excess is to be paid in gold at the free 
disposal of the creditor. Exi)rcssly excluded, 
however, are the sterling balances already held on 
Belgian account. 

Looking toward the eventual reestablishment of 
multilateral payments and free convertibility of 
the currencies is a provision that pounds held by 
residents of the Belgian monetary area or Belgian 
francs held by residents of the sterling area are 
to be freely transferable between residents of the 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

two currency areas, and that later if conditions 
permit the currencies may be made available to 
persons outside these areas for payments of a cur- 
rent nature. 

Article 9 of the agreement provides that "the 
sterling ai-ea" shall have the meaning from time 
to time assigned to it by the exchange-contiol regu- 
lations in force in the United Kingdom, and de- 
fines "the Belgian monetary area" as including 
Belgium, Luxembourg, Belgian Congo, and the 
Mandated Territoi-y of Euanda-Urundi. 

Article 8 provides that if during the currency 
of this agreement the contracting governments 
adhere to a general international monetary agree- 
ment, they will review the terms of the present 
agreement with a view to making any amend- 
ments that may be required. 



United States Fisheries 
Mission to Mexico 

By an exchange of notes signed at Mexico City 
September 7 and October 18, 1944 the Govern- 
ments of the United States and Mexico agi-eed to 
extend for a period of two years, or until October 
23, 1946, the agreement relating to the United 
States Fisheries Mission to Mexico effected by ex- 
changes of notes signed at Mexico City April 17, 
May 22, July 22 and 27, and October 24, 1942. 

The agreement of 1942 relates to the activities 
of the United States Fisheries Mission in Mexico 
and provides for the assignment to Mexico, on a 
part-time basis for a period of two years, of Milton 
J. Lindner, aquatic biologist of the Fish and Wild- 
life Service, and J. Adger Smyth, associate 
aquatic biologist of that Service. 

Mr. Lindner, who at the request of the Mexican 
Government has been assigned to Mexico for vary- 
ing periods since 1940, is assisting in planning 
and directing a cooperative study to formulate 
through biological and statistical research a plan 
for the administration, regulation, and scientific 
management of the shrimp and other marine fish- 
eries of Mexico. 

Mr. Smyth, who, also at the request of the Mexi- 
can Government, had previously been assigned to 
Mexico for a period of one year beginning in April 
1941, is assisting in the cooperative program to 
improve the fresh-water fisheries of Mexico. 



JANUARY 14, 1945 

Countries Signing Documents Concluded 
atlnternationalCivil Aviation Conference 



Country 


1 

■a 

.a 


i 

1 


1 


III 


if 
pi 




X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 


X 
X 


X 
X 


X 




Australia 












X 


X 


X 




Brazil 






X 
X 
X 


X 
X 
X 








X 




China 


X 


Colombia 












" 


Cuba 










Czechoslovakia 












X 
X 
X 


X 
X 
X 


X 
X 








Egypt 


















France 


X 
X 


X 

X 


X 
X 




Greece 










X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 


X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 


X 
X 




Honduras 


X 








X 
X 
X 




Iran 




Iraq 








Lebanon 


X 
X 


1 X 


Liberia 


X 






Mexico 


X 
X 
X 
X 


X 
X 
X 
X 


X 
X 
X 
X 


X 


Netherlands 


1 X 










Norway 
























Peru . 


X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 


X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 


X 
X 
X 


X 


Philippine Commonwealth 








Portugal 




Spain 


X 
X 








Switzerland 




Syria. 


X 
X 








X 




Union of South Africa . 




United Kingdom 


X 
X 
X 
•X 


X 
X 
X 


•X 
X 
X 

»X 












Venezuela 


•X 
















Danish Minister . 


52 
X 
X 

54 


37 
X 
X 


35 
X 
X 

37 


28 
X 
X 

30 


18 
X 


Thai Minister 










39 


20 



X Indicates signature up to and including Jan 12, 1945. 

' With reservation. 

• Reservation that signature did not cover Newfoundland. On 
Jan. 15, 1945 the Newfoundland Government announced Its 
decision to request withdrawal of the reservation and to agree 
that the "Two Freedoms Agreement" should apply to New- 
foundland. 

' Ad referendum. 



67 

Interim Agreement on Aviation 

Canada 

The Canadian Ambassador informed tlie Secre- 
tary of State in a note dated December 30, 1944 that 
the signature by H. J. Symington, on behalf of the 
Canadian Government, of the Interim Agreement 
on International Civil Aviation concluded at Chi- 
cago December 7, 1944 constitutes an acceptance 
of the Agreement by the Canadian Government 
and an obligation binding upon it. The note refers 
to the first paragraph of article XVII of the In- 
terim Agreement which provides "that the Gov- 
ernment of the United States of America shall be 
informed at the earliest possible date by each of 
the Governments on whose behalf the Agreement 
has been signed whether signature on its behalf 
shall constitute an acceptance of the Agi-eement 
by that Government and an obligation binding 
upon it". 



The Proclaimed List 

[Released to the press January 14] 

The Acting Secretary of State, acting in conjunc- 
tion with the Acting Secretary of the Treasury, the 
Attorney General, the Secretary of Commerce, the 
Administrator of the Foreign Economic Adminis- 
tration, and the Coordinator of Inter-American 
Affairs, on January 13 issued Cumulative Supple- 
ment 5 to Revision VIII of the Proclaimed List 
of Cei-tain Blocked Nationals, promulgated Sep- 
tember 13, 1944. 

Cumidative Supplement 5 to Revision VIII su- 
persedes Cumulative Supplement 4 dated Decem- 
ber 15, 1944. 

Part I of Cumulative Supplement 5 contains 40 
additional listings in the other American republics 
and 364 deletions; Part II contains 97 additional 
listings outside the American republics and 69 
deletions. 

The names of a considerable number of persons 
and firms in Ecuador have been deleted in the cur- 
rent supplement. These deletions are a conse- 
quence of the effective action taken by the Ecua- 
doran Government to eliminate Axis interests from 
the economy of the country. The individuals whose 
names have been deleted in this supplement no 
longer reside in Ecuador, and the assets of these 
persons in Ecuador are mider the control of the 
Ecuadoran Government. It is the previously an- 



68 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



nounced policy of the United States Government to 
coordinate its Proclaimed List controls with the 
controls established bj' other governments. Simi- 
lar deletions will be made as rapidly as the effec- 
tiveness of the local control laws in the various 
countries makes the continued inclusion of particu- 
lar names in the Proclaimed List no longer neces- 
sary . 



'^ THE DEPARTMENT 



Appointment of Officers 

James E. McKenna as Special Assistant to the 
Director of the Office of the Foreign Service, for 
the orientation of Chiefs of ilission, concurrently 
with his duties as Special Assistant to the Director 
of the Office of Public Affairs, effective Jan- 
uary 2, 1945. 

Eugene H. Dooman as Special Assistant to Mr. 
Dunn, effective January 1, 1945. 

Edwin F. Stanton as Deputy Director of the 
Office of Far Eastern Affairs, effective January 
1, 1945. 

Hamilton Fish Armstrong as Special Adviser 
to the Secretary, effective December 29, 1945. 



Establishment of the Foreign Trade 

Branch in the Division of 

Commercial Policy^ 

Purpose. This Order establishes a branch in the 
Division of Commercial Policy to coordinate and 
conduct the activities relating to the protection 
and promotion of foreign trade that are within 
the scope of the Department's responsibilities, and 
to cooperate with other government departments 
that have responsibilities in regard to such 
matters. 

1 Background. Reorganization Plan No. II as 
authorized by the Reorganization Act of April 3, 

' Departmental Order 1303, dated and effective Jan. 8, 
1945. 



1939 became effective July 1, 1939. and provided 
for the transfer to the Department of State of 
the Foreign Commerce Service and its functions 
in the Department of Commerce, and of the For- 
eign Agricultural Service and its functions in the i 
Department of Agriculture. The functions with | 
respect to such services pertaining to activities in , 
the United States and to the compilation, publi- t 
cation, and dissemination of information were ? 
specifically excluded from the transfer and remain 
with the Dex^artments of Commerce and Agri- 
culture. 

A description of the functions transferred to 
the Department of State as now performed by 
the consolidated Foreign Service of the United 
States under the direction and supervision of the 
Secretary of State is included in Chapter XIV 
of the Foreign Service Regulations, which was 
prescribed by Executive Order 8307 of December 
19, 1939 under the title "Protection and Promo- 
tion of American Economic Interests." 

The Department's responsibilities in such mat- 
ters were vested in the Division of Commercial 
Policy by Departmental Order 1218 of January 
15, 1944 which charged the Division with respon- 
sibility for the initiation and coordination of pol- 
icy and action in all matters pertaining to the 
protection and promotion of American commer- 
cial and agricultural interests in foreign countries 
under the terms of Reorganization Plan No. II. 

2 Establishment of Branch. To carry out these 
responsibilities in close cooperation with the De- 
partments of Coumierce and Agriculture, and to 
coordinate the activities of other Divisions and 
Offices of the Department and of other govern- 
ment departments and agencies concerned with 
such matters, there is hereby established in the 
Division of Commercial Policy a Foreign Trade 
Branch (for Coordination of Protection and Pro- 
motion Activities) . Establishment of this Branch 
does not affect the functions assigned to the Divi- 
sion of Conununications and Records, Office of 
Departmental Admini.stration, nor the functions 
assigned to the Oilice of the Foreign Service by 
Departmental Order 1218, January 15, 1944, p. 36 
and p. 40. 

E. R. Stettinius, Jr. 

January 8, 194S. 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



l5 U JLj Jij 



A 



1 r 



I 




VOL. XII, NO. 291 



JANUARY 21, 1945 



In this issue 



AMERICA'S PLACE IN WORLD AFFAIRS 

Address by the Under Secretary of State 

UNITED STATES -MEXICAN WATER TREATY: Jurisdiction of the 
International Boundary and Water Commission and Its National Sections 

TRADE CONTROLS TODAY IN THE MIDDLE EAST 
By Frederick Winant 



,Vi«^NT o^ 




^-ITES o^ 



MAR 9 1945 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

BULLETIN 



January 21, 1945 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Research and 
Publication, Office of Public Affairs, 
provides the public and interested 
agencies of the Government with 
information on developments in the 
field of foreign relations and on the 
tvork of the Department of State and 
the Foreign Service. The BULLETIN 
includes press releases on foreign 
policy issued by the ff'hite House and 
the Department, and statements and 
addresses made by the President and 
by the Secretary of State and other 
officers of the Department, as tcell as 
special articles on various phases of 
international affairs and the functions 
of the Department. Information con- 
cerning treaties and international 
agreements to which the United States 
is or may become a party and treaties 
of general international interest is 
included. 

Publications of the Department, 
cumulative lists of tvhich are published 
at the end of each quarter, as well as 
legislative material in the field of inter- 
national relations, are listed currently. 

The BULLETIN, published with the 
approval of the Director of the Bureau 
of the Budget, is for sale by the Super- 
intendent of Documents, United States 
Government Printing Office, Washing- 
ton 25, D. C, to whom all purchase 
orders, with accompanying remittance, 
should be sent. The subscription price 
is $3.50 a year; a single copy is 10 
cents. 



(^ontents 



American Republics p^g^ 

Recommendation on Argentina's Request Concerning Her 

Relations With the American Republics 91 

People-to-People Relations Among the American Repub- 
lics: Address by Pierre De L. Boal 96 

Europe 
On Restoration of Liberties to Greece: Exchange of Mes- 
sages Between the Prime Minister of Greece and the 

President 91 

Cultural Cooperation 

Everett A. TunnicliS Returns From China 107 

Economic Affairs 

International Wheat Council: Designation of Chairman of 

American Delegation 79 

Trade Controls Today in the Middle East. By Frederick 

Winant 80 

Endorsement of the French Import Program 90 

Meeting of the Inter-American Financial and Economic 

Advisory Committee: Remarks by Assistant Secretary 

Rockefeller Upon Accepting the Chairmanship .... 92 

Maintenance of the Economics of the Liberated Countries: 

Joint Statement by the Department of State and the 

British Embassy 95 

Meeting of the Rubber Study Group 108 

General 

Radio Programs To Be Sponsored by the Department of 

State 82 

Death of Thomas Riggs: Statement by Acting Secretary 

Grew 107 

Visit of British Secretary of State for the Colonies .... 107 
Post-War Matters 

Discussions Between the United States and the United 

Kingdom on War Crimes 81 

America's Place in World Affairs: Address by the Under 

Secretary of State 87 

Discussions on Civil Aviation Between United States and 

Canadian Representatives 110 

Treaty Information 

United States- Mexican Water Treaty: Jurisdiction of the 
International Boundary and Water Commission and 

Its National Sections 71 

Armistice Terms for Hungary S3 

Trade Marks 107 

Acceptance of Aviation Agreements 108 

Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences 108 

Inter-American Automotive Traffic 108 

UNRRA Sanitary Conventions of 1944 109 

International Status of Refugees 110 

The Department 

Appointment of Officers Ill 

The Foreign Service 

Confirmations 110 

Consular Offices 110 

The Congress 110 

Publications Ill 



United States-Mexican Water Treaty 

Jurisdiction of the International Boundary and Water Commission and Its 
National Sections' 



General supervision of tlie administration of the 
pending United States - Mexican water treaty, 
which was signed on February 3, lOii,- with a sup- 
plementary protocol signed on November 1-1, 19-1-i,^ 
is delegated to the International Boundary Com- 
mission created by the convention with Mexico,' 
March 1, 1889, the name of the Commission being 
changed by the pending treaty to the International 
Boundary and Water Commission. A little of the 
background and history of tliis Commission would, 
therefore, be enlightening. 

Boundary Convention of 1884 

The convention of November 12, ISSi between 
the United States and Mexico provided in sub- 
stance that the boundary line should forever re- 
main as described in the treaties of 1848 and 1853 
and should follow the center of the normal chan- 
nels of the Rio Grande and the Colorado River, 
where they form the boundary line, miaifected by 
alterations caused by slow and gradual erosion and 
deposits of alluvium; but that any other cliange 
wrought by force of tlie current, whether by cut- 
tmg a new bed or by deepening of another channel, 
should produce no change in the boundary line as 
fixed in the early treaties, which line should con- 
tinue to follow the middle of the original channel 
bed. 

Convention of 1889 

To facilitate the carrying out of the principles 
contained in the convention of 1884, the convention 
of 1889 made provision for an International 
Boundary Commission, to be composed of a com- 
missioner and a consulting engineer for each coun- 
try and of such other personnel as each Government 
might see fit to add to its staff. The convention 
then provided that all differences or questions that 
might arise on the water boundary, whetlier grow- 
ling out of alterations or changes in the bed of the 
boundary rivers, or of works that might be con- 



structed in these rivers, or of any other cause 
affecting the boundary line, should be submitted to 
the Commission for its decision. The Commis- 
sioners were charged with examining changes in 
the international portions of the Rio Grande and 
the Colorado River and with deciding whether or 
not the changes occurred through avulsion or 
erosion. They were also charged with the duty 
of deciding whether works are being constructed 
in the boundary portion of either of those streams, 
such as are prohibited by treaty provisions. Vari- 
ous powers were given the Commission in aid of its 
jurisdiction. Veto power was given to the two 
Governments over the decisions of the Commis- 
sion, to be exercised within one month from the 
date of the decision. 

Although this convention, by its terms, was to 
be in force for a period of five years, it was ex- 
tended from time to time; and by the convention 
of November 21, 1900 it was extended indefinitely, 
with the right being retained in either Government 
to terminate it upon certain notice. 

Banco Convention of 1905 
By the Banco Convention of March 20, 1905 
the powers of the Commission were further ex- 
tended. Under this convention the Boundary 
Commission was charged with the duty of sur- 
veying so-called "bancos", which are small tracts 
of land that have become separated from one 
country by avulsive changes of the river and at- 
tached to the other country. These bancos, within 
certain limitations, were to be eliminated by the 
Commission from the effects of the convention of 



' Prepared by Frank B. Clayton, Counsel for the United 
States Section of the International Boundary Commission, 
United States and Mexico. See also Btjixetin of Mar. 25, 
1044, p. 2S2, for an article by Charles A. Timm on the 
water treaty. 

= BuiXBTEN of Feb. 5, 1944, p. 161. 

" Buixetin of Nov. 19, 1944, p. 616. 

71 



12 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



1884, so as to preserve so far as possible the arci- 
finious boundary as the real boundary between the 
two countries, by transfer of sovereignty and juris- 
diction. This was to apply on both rivers, not only 
as to bancos which were formed and surveyed at 
the time of the convention, but also as to those 
which might subsequently be formed. 

Water Convention of 1906 

The convention of May 21, 1906 provided for 
the equitable distribution of the waters of the Rio 
Grande above Fort Quitman, Texas. The United 
States Section of the International Boundary Com- 
mission has exercised supervisory administration 
over the terms of this convention, since the act of 
June 30, 1932 transferred the powers, duties, and 
functions of the United States Section of the Inter- 
national Water Commission to the United States 
Section of the International Boundary Commis- 
sion. 

Rectification Convention of 1933 

By the convention of February 1, 1933 the two 
Governments agreed upon a rectification of the 
channel of the Rio Grande between El Paso and 
Fort Quitman, Texas, and the International 
Boundary Commission was charged with the duty 
of constructing the works and of maintaining and 
preserving the rectified channel. This project was 
completed some years ago and is now being oper- 
ated and maintained jointly by the two Sections of 
the Commission. 

Acts of Congress 

The foregoing treaties constitute the principal 
source of the present jurisdiction, powers, and 
duties of the International Boundary Commission. 
The powers of the Commission have, however, been 
extended from time to time by exchanges of diplo- 
matic notes, implemented by congressional acts 
and appropriations. The jurisdiction of the 
United States Section has also been amplified by 
acts of Congress. Reference has already been made 
to the act of June 30, 1932, whereby the powers, 
duties, and functions of the United States Section 
of the International Water Commission were trans- 
ferred to the United States Section of the Inter- 
national Boundary Commission. By the act of 
August 19, 1935'' Congress authorized the Presi- 
dent to designate the United States Commissioner 



to cooperate with representatives of Mexico in a 
study regarding the equitable use of the waters 
of the Lower Rio Grande and the Lower Colorado 
River and Tijuana River, for the purpose of ob- 
taining information which might be used as a 
basis for the negotiation of a treaty with Mexico 
relative to the use of the waters of those rivers. 
It was under the authority of this act that the data 
were assembled and negotiations with Mexico were 
commenced which led to the formulation of the 
I^resent treaty. 

This act further authorized the Secretaiy of 
State, acting through the United States Commis- 
sioner, to conduct investigations relating to the 
defining, demarcation, fencing, or monumentation 
of the land and water boundaries between the 
United States and Mexico, to flood control, water 
I'esources, conservation and utilization of water, 
sanitation and prevention of pollution, channel 
rectification and stabilization, and other related 
matters on the international boundaries; to con- 
struct and maintain fences, monuments, and 
other demarcations of the boundaries, and sewer 
systems, water systems, and electric light, power, 
and gas systems crossing the international border; 
and to continue such works and operations as were 
then in progress and authorized by law. The 
President was authorized to construct, operate, 
and maintain, on the Rio Grande below Fort Quit- 
man, Texas, such works as were recommended to 
him as the result of such investigations and which 
he deemed necessary and proper, and to construct 
any works which might be provided for in a treaty 
with Mexico; and to repair, protect, maintain, or 
complete works then existing or under construc- 
tion, and to construct any works designed to facili- 
tate compliance with the provisions of the treaties 
between the United States and Mexico. This act 
served the purpose of more definitely determining 
the scope of activity of the United States Section 
and of crystallizing its functions. 

Under the authority conferred by tliis act, and 
jjursuant to exchanges of diplomatic notes with 
Mexico, several pi-ojects, implemented by congres- 
sional acts and appropriations, have been initi- 
ated by the Boundary Commission. Among them 
are the Nogales Flood Control Project, the Lower 
Tijuana Valley Sanitation Project, and the Lower 
Rio Grande Flood Control Project. The first two 
projects have been completed. The last, which is 



JANUARY 21, 1945 

desig:ned to aflford flood protection to the Lo\yer 
Rio Grande Valley in the United States and Mex- 
ico, is in the process of completion. Each Section 
of the Commission — the United States and the 
Mexican — is carrying on the works situated within 
its own borders, independently of the other. 

By Public Resolution approved February 13, 
1935= the United States Section was authorized 
to conduct an investigation to determine the feasi- 
bility of effecting the canalization of the Rio 
Grande from the Caballo reservoir site in New 
Mexico to the international diversion dam near 
El Paso, in order to facilitate Federal control of 
the channel of the Rio Grande and compliance by 
the United States with its obligations under the 
Water Convention of 1906. As a feature of this 
project, the construction of a diversion dam on 
the Rio Grande just above El Paso, wholly within 
the United States, was authorized by the act ap- 
proved August 29, 1935.^ In order to regulate and 
control water deliveries to Mexico under the con- 
vention of 1906, the construction by the United 
States Section of the canalization feature of the 
project was authorized by the act of June 4, 1936.'' 
This project, consisting of the canalization of the 
channel of the Rio Grande from Caballo Dam to 
the American dam, a distance of about 100 miles, 
is nearing completion. The American dam and 
canal feature of the project is completed and is 
now being maintained by the United States Section 
under the authority of the act of August 19, 1935. 
Tlie United States Section has also built and is 
maintaining fences along the land boundary. In 
connection with its hydrographic studies along the 
Rio Grande the United States Section operates 
some 50 gaging stations, over a distance of some 
1,500 miles of the Rio Grande stream system. 

Precedents for International Commissions 

The foregoing account presents a background 
of the Commission and its jurisdiction and func- 
tions. The pending treaty serves merely to extend 
that jurisdiction to embrace general supervision 
over the carrying out of treaty functions. The 
designation of an international joint commission 
to administer the terms of a treaty is by no means 
novel. Many precedents exist, some of them going 
back many years into the past. Among these 
precedents might be mentioned the treaty of De- 
cember 24, 1915 between Great Britain and Italy 



73 

providing for a permanent mixed commission to 
give effect to the agreements for the administration 
of the River Juba; the series of treaties relating 
to the utilization and distribution of the waters of 
the Tartaro River, including the treaty of Novem- 
ber 16, 1599 between Venice and Mantua, which 
provided for the appointment of commissioners to 
carry out the provisions of that treaty and of an 
earlier treaty; the treaties of May 26, 1866 and 
July 11, 1868 between France and Spain relating 
to the utilization of the boundary waters of the 
two countries; the treaty of December 17, 1914 
between France and Italy with regard to the 
utilization of the waters of the River Roya and 
its affluents, and which likewise provided for an 
international commission to administer the agree- 
ment; and the treaty of August 11, 1927 between 
Spain and Portugal relating to the River Dure, 
providing for an international commission to 
carry out certain of its provisions. Two of the 
oldest commissions set up to administer the use 
of the waters of international streams are the 
Central Commission of the Rhine, which was set 
up in 1815, and the European Commission of the 
Lower Danube, which was set up in 1856. 
Finally, there might be mentioned the treaty of 
January 11, 1909 between the United States and 
Great Britain relating to boundary watei's and 
questions arising along the boundary between the 
United States and Canada, which set up an Inter- 
national Joint Commission with jurisdiction to 
pass upon the various questions arising under the 
treaty and to supervise the enforcement of various 
treaty provisions, including those relating to the 
use, obstruction, or diversion of boundary waters 
on either side of the line. This latter treaty, it is 
true, is subject to termination upon 12 months' 
notice by either party. The substantive provisions 
of this treaty and the pending United States- 
JNIexican water treaty, however, are quite dis- 
similar, and there is no provision in the treaty of 
1909 for the construction of any joint works of a 
permanent character, as is true of the present 
treaty. Because of the necessity of determining, 
with finality, the respective rights of the two 
countries in the waters of their international 
streams, and because of the fact that great inter- 

' 49 Stat. 24. 
'49 Stat. 961. 
'49 Stat. 1463, 



14, 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



national works of a permanent character are pro- 
vided for, it was inexpedient in the present treaty 
to provide for its unilateral termination. This 
may be done only by mutual agreement. 

Jurisdiction of Commission Under Treaty 

The specific powers and functions imposed upon 
the International Boundary Commission in the 
pending treaty must be considered. It is im- 
jiortant, therefore, to bear in mind the distinction 
between the jurisdiction of the Commission, as 
such, and the jurisdiction of its two component 
Sections: the United States and the Mexican. 
The powei-s of the Commission can be conveniently 
discussed as falling into three main categories: 
(1) jurisdiction over works; (2) jurisdiction over 
the administration of treaty functions; and (3) 
jurisdiction over the settlement of disputes. 
There is some overlapping of these functions. 

Jurisdiction Over Works 

With regard to the first, the pertinent portions 
of certain articles of the treaty are as follows : 



"The jurisdiction of the Commission shall ex- 
tend to the limitrophe parts of the Rio Grande 
(Rio Bravo) and the Colorado River, to the land 
boundary between the two countries, and to works 
located upon their common boundary, each Section 
of the Commission retaining jurisdiction over that 
part of the works located within the limits of its 
own country. Neither Section shall assume juris- 
diction or control over works located within the 
limits of the coimti-y of the other without the ex- 
press consent of the Government of the latter. 
The works constructed, acquired or used in fulfill- 
ment of the provisions of this Treaty and located 
wholly within the territorial limits of either coun- 
try, although these works may be international in 
character, shall remain, except as herein otherwise 
specifically provided, under the exclusive jurisdic- 
tion and control of the Section of the Commission 
in whose country the works may be situated." 

The purpose of this provision was to delimit 
the jurisdiction of the Commission and of the re- 
spective Sections. It makes plain that, as between 
the two nations, the joint jurisdiction of the Com- 
mission extends only to the limitrophe portions of 



the boundary rivers, to the land boundary, and to 
works located thereon, and that neither Section of 
tlie Commission has any jurisdiction over works 
situated within the country of the other, even 
though these works are acquired or utilized in 
carrying out the provisions of the treaty. 

By way of illustration, the effect of this provi- 
sion is that the Mexican Section shall have no voice 
in the operation of Davis Dam, Imperial Dam, or 
the All-American Canal, even though these struc- 
tures are used in making deliveries of water to 
Mexico under the treaty. The provision has no 
bearing upon internal arrangements with respect 
to the operation and maintenance of these struc- 
tures. 

"article 1 2 

"(b) The United States, within a period of five 
years from the date of the entry into force of this 
Treaty, shall construct in its own territory and at 
its expense, and thereafter operate and maintain 
at its expense, the Davis storage dam and reservoir, 
a part of the capacity of which shall be used to 
make possible the regulation at the boundary of 
the waters to be delivered to Mexico in accordance 
with the provisions of Article 15 of this Treaty." 

It will be noted that the obligation here imposed 
is simply that the United States, and not any par- 
ticular agency thereof, shall construct, operate, 
and maintain the Davis Dam and reservoir, a part 
of the capacity of which is necessary to make pos- 
sible the regulation at the boundary of the waters 
to be delivered to Mexico. No specific jurisdiction 
is conferred on the United States Section of the 
Boundary Commission by virtue of tliis provision. 



"The two Governments shall, through their I'e- 
spective Sections of the Commission, carry out the 
construction of works allotted to them. For this 
puqjose the respective Sections of the Conmiission 
may make use of any competent public or private 
agencies in accordance with the laws of the re- 
spective countries." 

The effect of this provision is to vest in the re- 
spective Sections of the Commission the responsi- 
bility for the construction of the works required by 
the terms of the treaty. The actual construction 
may be carried on by any competent public or pii- 



JANUARY 21, 1945 

vate agency. The sole purpose of the provision is 
to vest the responsibility for carrying out the pro- 
visions of the treaty in one central agency, to which 
either country may look for compliance with the 
treaty terms. Here again, control of internal 
arrangements is not sought. 

"article 2 3 

"Each Government shall retain, through its own 
Section of the Commission and within the limits 
and to the extent necessary to effectuate the pro- 
visions of this Treaty,^ direct ownership, con- 
trol and jurisdiction within its own territory and 
in accordance with its own laws, over all real 
property — including that within the channel of 
any river — rights of way and rights in rem, that it 
may be necessary to enter upon and occupy for the 
construction, operation or maintenance of all the 
works constructed, acquired or used pursuant to 
this Treaty. Furthermore, each Government shall 
similarly acquire and retain in its own possession 
the titles, control and jurisdiction over such 
works." 



I "The International Boundary and Water Com- 
' mission shall have, in addition to the powers and 
duties otherwise specifically provided in this 
Treaty, the following powers and duties : 

"(b) To construct the works agreed upon or to 
supervise their construction and to operate and 
maintain such works or to supervise their opera- 
tion and mainten-ance, in accordance with the re- 
spective domestic laws of each country. Each Sec- 
tion shall have, to the extent necessary to give 
effect to the provisions of this Treaty, jurisdiction 
over the works constructed exclusively in the ter- 
ritory of its country whenever such works shall be 
comiected with or shall directly affect the execu- 
tion of the provisions of this Treaty." * 

These two provisions are the crucial ones in de- 
termining the extent of the jurisdiction of the two 
Sections over works situated within their respec- 
tive countries. It was felt necessary to have a cen- 
tral agency in which would be vested sole respon- 
sibility, subject, of course, to the control of the two 
Governments, for the carrying out of treaty terms. 
It would be impracticable to require the United 
States to deal with several Mexican agencies with 
respect to various provisions of the treaty, even 



75 

though these agencies should, as a matter of inter- 
nal arrangement, discharge some of the functions 
imposed upon the Mexican Section. By virtue of 
these provisions the United States looks to, and 
deals only with, the Mexican Section. The Mexi- 
can Section, in turn, deals with whatever Mexican 
agencies may be entrusted with various functions 
connected with the fulfilment of treaty terms. 
Similarly, the Mexican Section has a right to deal 
only with the United States Section of the Com- 
mission and is not required to deal with various 
other agencies, although, as a matter of internal 
arrangement, other agencies within the United 
States may directly operate and maintain some of 
the facilities connected with the fulfilment of 
treaty terms. The significant words in article 23 
are "within the limits and to the extent necessary 
to effectuate the provisions of this Treaty" and, in 
article 24, "to the extent necessary to give effect to 
the provisions of this Treaty." 

By way of illustration, part of the capacity of 
Davis Dam is necessary to regulate Mexico's water 
at the boundary. This does not mean that the 
United States Section of the Commission must 
build Davis Dam, nor that it must exercise juris- 
diction over its maintenance and operation. 
Neither does article 12(b), quoted above, require 
this. On the contrary, the only requirement is that 
the dam be built by the United States and that 
its operation and maintenance be such as to insure 
that releases are made at the times and in the 
amounts necessary to satisfy treaty requirements. 

RIO GRANDE 

On the Lower Rio Grande the treaty works 
which would fall under the jurisdiction of the 
Commission are the international storage, flood- 
control, and diversion dams and incidental works. 
Since from Fort Quitman, Texas, to the Gulf of 
Mexico the Rio Grande is the boundary between 
the two nations, it is obvious that these works are 
purely international in character, and consequently 
they must be under the jurisdiction of an inter- 
national agency. 

Certain international storage dams are specifi- 
cally provided for by the treaty. With respect to 
the other works, there is no absolute obligation 
upon the part of the two Governments to con- 



Italics are the author's. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



struct any of them. The jurisdiction of the Com- 
mission with respect to these works in the first 
instance is to investigate, study, prepare plans, 
and make recommendations. Only with the ap- 
proval of the two Governments can any of such 
works, including hydroelectric works at the in- 
ternational storage dams, be built. 

COLORADO RIVER 

With respect to the Colorado Kiver, the only 
works wliich are specifically enumerated are those 
provided for by article 12 of the treaty. The first 
of these is the Mexican diversion structure, which 
will be under the jurisdiction of the Commission 
only if it is built in the boundary section of the 
river. In that event the structure wnll be built, 
operated, and maintained by the Commission, but 
at the expense of Mexico. Kegardless of where it 
is located, provision is made for the construction of 
such levees, interior di'ainage facilities, and other 
works as may be necessary to protect lands within 
the United States against damage from such floods 
and seepage as might result from the construction, 
operation, and maintenance of this diversion struc- 
ture. These works are to be constructed, operated, 
and maintained at the expense of Mexico by 
the respective Sections of the Commission or 
under their supervision, each within the territory 
of its own country. The United States agrees to 
build the Davis storage dam and reservoir within 
its own territory. It should be noted that the Com- 
mission is to have no jurisdiction whatsoever over 
the construction, maintenance, or operation of this 
structure. Congress had already authorized the 
building of this dam by the Bureau of Reclamation 
prior to the negotiation of the present treaty, and 
work had actually started before the necessity of 
the war program required its suspension. The 
United States further agrees to construct, or ac- 
quire, in its own territory the works necessary to 
convey water to the Mexican diversion points on 
the international land boundaries, including (1) 
the canal and other woi'ks from the lower end of 
the Pilot Knob Wasteway to the international 
boundary; (2) if requested by Mexico, a canal con- 
necting the Mexican main diversion structure with 
the Mexican canal system at the international 
boundary near San Luis, Sonora. These works are 
to be constructed, or acquired, and operated and 
maintained at the expense of Mexico. Here again 
neither the Commission nor the Mexican Section 



has any jurisdiction over their construction, opera- 
tion, or maintenance. Provision is made for 
the construction, operation, and maintenance of 
stream-gaging stations and water-measuring de- 
vices in the limitrophe section of the river and on 
all facilities used for the delivery of water to Mexi- 
co. The Commission, however, has jurisdiction 
over only those situated in the limitrophe section of 
the river. Article 13 of the treaty authorizes the 
Commission to investigate and prepare plans for 
flood control on the Lower Colorado River between 
Imperial Dam and the Gulf of California, but the 
two Governments agree to construct only such 
works as they may specifically approve. 

The works enumerated are all the works pro- 
vided for by the treaty with respect to the Colo- 
rado River. No others can be constructed by the 
Commission or by the United States Section under 
the terms of the treaty. 

TUTTANA RI\-ER 

With respect to the Tijuana River, the jurisdic- 
tion of the Commission is limited to investigating 
and submitting to the two Governments for their 
approval recommendations for the equitable dis- 
tribution of the Tijuana River system, plans for 
storage and flood control, estimates of costs, and 
recommendations as to the manner in which the 
works or the costs thereof should be prorated be- 
tween the two Governments. The two Govern- 
ments assume no obligation other than to construct 
such works and to carry out such other recom- 
mendations of the Commission as they may mu- 
tually approve. 

Jurisdiction of Commission Over Administration 
Of Treaty Functions 

With respect to the administration of treaty 
functions, general supervision is confined to the 
International Boundary Commission. This was 
likewise true with respect to the convention of 
March 1, 1889, the convention of March 20, 1905 
providing for the elimination of bancos from the 
effects of the treaty of 1884, and the convention of 
February 1, 1933 providing for the rectification of 
the Rio Grande in the El Paso - Juarez Valley. 
Its jurisdiction is confined by article 2 of the treaty 
to the land and water boundaries and to works 
thereon. By paragraph (c) of article 24, the Com- 
mission is given jurisdiction 



JANUARY 21, 1945 



77 



"to exercise and discharge tlie specific powers and 
duties entrusted to the Commission by this and 
other treaties and agreements in force between the 
two countries, and to carry into execution and pre- 
vent the violation of the provisions of those treaties 
and agreements". 

Its jurisdiction, then, is limited to the discharge 
of the functions specifically provided for by treaty 
or by other agreement. These functions, as far as 
the jomt Conmiission is concerned, are confined to 
the construction, operation, and maintenance of 
purely international works, which have already 
been discussed, and to matters of international im- 
port arising on the land and water boundaries be- 
tween the two countries. 

Jurisdiction Over Settlement of Disputes 

Very little need be said about the jurisdiction of 
the Commission over the settlement of disputes. 
Paragraph (d) of article 24 vests in the Com- 
mission power 

"to settle all differences that may arise between the 
two Governments with respect to the interpreta- 
tion or api^lication of this Treaty, subject to the 
approval of the two Governments. In any case 
in which the Commissioners do not reach an agree- 
ment, they shall so inform their respective govern- 
ments reporting their respective opinions and 
the grounds therefor and the points upon which 
they differ, for discussion and adjustment of the 
difference through diplomatic channels and for 
application where proper of the general or special 
agreements which the two Governments have 
concluded for the settlement of controversies." 

Since the decisions of the Commission in this re- 
spect are subject to the approval of the two Gov- 
ernments, the Commission in effect acts only in 
an advisory capacity. 

Approval or Veto Power of Governments 
It should be noted at this point that all the de- 
cisions of the Commission, whether they pertain 
to works, or to the administration of treaty provi- 
sions, or to the settlement of disputes, are subject 
to the approval of the two Governments. In many 
cases specific approval is required. In all other 
cases a veto power is reserved in each of the two 

627196—45 2 



Governments by virtue of article 25, which pro- 
vides in part that — 

"except where the specific approval of the two 
Governments is requii'ed by any provision of this 
Treaty, if one of the Governments fails to com- 
municate to the Commission its approval or dis- 
approval of a decision of the Commission within 
thirty days reckoned from the date of the Minute 
in which it shall have been pronounced, the Minute 
in question and the decisions which it contains 
shall be considered to be approved by that Govern- 
ment. The Commissioners, within the limits of 
their respective jurisdictions, shall execute the 
decisions of the Commission that are approved 
by both Governments. 

"If either Government disapproves a decision 
of the Commission the two Governments shall take 
cognizance of the matter, and if an agreement 
regarding such matter is reached between the two 
Governments, the agreement shall be communi- 
cated to the Commissioners, who shall take such 
further proceedings as may be necessary to carry 
out such agreement." 

Jurisdiction of the United States Section 

Much of what has been said with respect to the 
jurisdiction of the Commission is applicable also 
to the jurisdiction of the United States Section. 
The jurisdiction of the Commission, of course, at- 
taches only to the purely international works and 
to the joint administration of treaty functions. 
The jurisdiction of the United States Section of 
the Commission attaches to tlie United States 
portion of the international works, to works in 
this country to be used exclusively or primarily 
for the performance of treaty functions, and to 
general administration of the United States ob- 
ligations and the protection of its rights under 
the treaty. If this was not made plain by the 
treaty itself, it is now made entirely clear by the 
provisions of the protocol, which will become an 
integral part of the treaty, if and when both are 
ratified. The protocol refers primarily to juris- 
diction over works under the terms of the treaty. 
To the extent that works situated in this country 
are to be used exclusively for the performance 
of treaty functions, they will be under the juris- 
diction of the United States Section. The same 



78 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



is true as to those works along the boundary used 
primarily for this purpose. The works that are 
to be used only partly for the discharge of treaty 
functions will be left under the jurisdiction and 
control of the agency which now or hereafter may 
be vested by domestic law with such jurisdiction 
and control. The Commission, as such, has no con- 
trol over any works situated within this country. 
Most of the works which are to be constructed are 
specifically enumerated in the treaty. Those which 
are not specifically enumerated, but which are to 
await further investigation and study, are nar- 
rowly circumscribed. Those on the Rio Grande 
are confined almost entirely to the main stream. 
No works other than stream-gaging stations on 
the United States tributaries of the Rio Grande 
are provided for. On the Colorado River the only 
works the construction of which is not specifically 
provided for by the treaty but which may be built 
under its terms are flood-control works below Im- 
perial Dam. AVith respect to all the works which 
are left to future determination there is, of course, 
the necessity for the joint api^roval of the two Gov- 
ernments and the necessity for congressional ap- 
propriations. A few illustrations will be helpful: 

EIO GRANDE 

On the Rio Grande, as has been said, the only 
works which are contemplated immediately are 
the international storage and flood-control dams, 
which must necessarily fall under the jurisdiction 
of the Commission. Diversion dams and other 
ancillary worlcs, and works of flood control and 
river rectification are left for future determina- 
tion. To the extent that they may be built in the 
future, the international works of this character 
would likewise be under the jurisdiction of the 
Commission. The only works, then, which appar- 
ently come under the jurisdiction of the United 
States Section alone are the gaging stations near 
the moutlis of the tributaries, necessary to measure 
the United States contributions to the main stream. 
Many of these gaging stations are presently being 
operated and maintained by the United States 
Section. 

COLORADO RI\T:R 

With respect to the Colorado River, the juris- 
diction of the United States Section is confined 
to those works situated along the boundary and 
to those which are to be devoted exclusively to the 



fulfilment of treaty provisions, such as flood con- 
trol and other protective works provided for by 
the treat}-; the canal, and other works necessary 
to convey water from the lower end of the Pilot 
Knob Wasteway to the international boundary; 
the canal connecting the Mexican main diversion 
structure with the Mexican system of canals on the 
international land boundary near San Luis, So- 
nora, if such a canal is built under tlie provisions of 
the treaty; and the gaging stations necessary to 
measure the water deliveries to Mexico at any 
point on the boundary. 

Since Davis Dam, Imperial Dam, and the Im- 
perial Dam -Pilot Knob Reach of the All- 
American Canal are to be used only partly for the 
delivery of Mexican waters, these will presumably 
be left under the jurisdiction of the Bureau of 
Reclamation, subject, of course, to the will of 
Congress. 

Jurisdiction of United States Section Over Admin- 
istration of Treaty Functions 

The jurisdiction of the United States Section, 
as distinguished from that of the Commission, 
over the administration of treaty functions is very 
limited. The United States Section is the repre- 
sentative of the United States in performing the 
treaty obligations of the United States to Mexico, 
and also in seeing that Mexico's obligations to the 
United States are carried out. The underlying 
idea is that all treaty functions should be cen- 
tralized in an international agency and that the 
functions to be performed by interior agencies, to 
the extent that they bear upon the performance 
of international functions, should be correlated 
and carried out in cooperation with the respective 
national Section. 

RIO GRANDE 

On the Rio Grande, for instance, the principal 
duties of the Commission will be to build, oper- 
ate, and maintain the international works on the 
boundary portion of the river and to keep ac- 
count of the waters allocated to each country. 
The duty of the United States Section will be to 
measure inflows into the main stream from the 
United States tributaries, so that the United States 
will receive credit therefor, and to measure certain 
diversions and uses which are chargeable against 
the United States allocations. With respect to the 



JANUARY 21, 1945 



79 



use within the United States of its share of the 
waters, neither the Commission nor the United 
States Section has any jurisdiction whatsoever. 

Pi-esent existing diversions in both countries are 
fully protected by the treaty. With i-espect to 
those which may be made in the future, the sole 
province of the United States Commissioner is to 
determine that at the times and places where the 
diversions are proposed there is sufficient water 
within the allocated share of the United States to 
satisfy the proposed use. Aside from this it is 
entirely a matter for State authorities, under State 
laws, to determine the disposition of the waters. 

It is noteworthy that the treaty does not guaran- 
tee any contribution from the tributaries of the 
Rio Grande within the United States. It therefore 
makes no difference in the operation of the treaty 
whether these waters are utilized along the tribu- 
taries themselves or on lands in Texas bordering 
on the main stream below the tributaries. This 
is a matter entirely for the decision of the duly 
constituted State authorities under the provisions 
of State law. If and when hydroelectric power 
should be generated at the international dams, by 
agreement between the two countries, the disposi- 
tion of the United States share of the power so 
generated is a matter for congi-essional determina- 
tion. Article 19 i^rovides : 

"The two Governments shall conclude such spe- 
cial agreements as may be necessary to regulate 
the generation, development and disposition of 
electric power at international plants, including 
the necessary provisions for the export of electric 
current." 

Under this provision and under the terms of the 
protocol, the disposition of the power belonging 
to the United States will be in the hands of such 
agency as is now, or may hereafter be, vested with 
such authority by act of Congress. 

COLORADO RI^-ER 

With respect to the Colorado, jurisdiction of the 
United States Section will extend to the construc- 
tion, operation, and maintenance of the facilities 
to be used exclusively for the fulfilment of treaty 
obligations and to supervise water deliveries to 
Mexico. For this latter purpose its duty will 
simply be to communicate the Mexican schedules 
of delivery to the operators of Davis Dam, Im- 



perial Dam, and the All-American Canal, in order 
that releases may be made in such a manner as 
to make possible the regulation at the boundary 
of the waters delivered to Mexico. It will also 
have the duty of measuring the water delivered 
to Mexico at all points of delivery. 

Conclusioii 

Briefly, then, the treaty equitably apportions 
the waters of the three international streams. It 
makes provision for the construction or utilization 
of such works as are necessary to make the division 
effective and to permit the most efficient and eco- 
nomical use of the waters. It vests in an already 
existing and experienced international agency gen- 
eral supervision over the carrying out of treaty 
provisions, subject at all times to the control of the 
two Governments. The United States Section acts 
as the United States representative in the discharge 
of functions imposed upon the United States and 
in the protection of United States rights under the 
treaty, subject to the control of the United States 
Government and, where expenditures of funds are 
involved, to congressional appropriations. In ef- 
fect, it acts as a clearinghouse through which mat- 
ters involving treaty rights, obligations, and func- 
tions are cleared, without encroaching in any way 
upon the jurisdiction of any interior agency. Fed- 
eral, State, or local. 



International Wheat Council 

DESIGANATION OF CHAIRMAN OF AMERICAN 
DELEGATION 

[Released to the press January 16] 

The Honorable Paul H. Appleby, who has been 
serving as chairman of the American Delega- 
tion to the International Wlieat Council, recently 
resigned as a member of that body, and President 
Roosevelt has approved the designation of Mr. 
Leslie A. Wlieeler, Director of the Office of For- 
eign Agricultural Relations, Department of Agri- 
culture, as chairman of this Government's Dele- 
gation to take the place of Mr. Appleby. Mr. 
"Wlieeler has been a member of the American 
Delegation to the Council since it was set up in 
1942.^ 



Bulletin of Nov. 5, 1&44, p. 536. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Trade Controls Today in the Middle East 



By FREDERICK WINANT ' 



I WISH with all my heart and soul that today 
we might talk in the past tense of the war in 
Europe. Such is not our good fortune, although 
we shall be forever in debt to our fighting forces 
for their magnificent accomplisliments on land, 
at sea, and in the air. The war in Europe con- 
tinues — with the certainty of Allied victory but 
without an assurance of how long it will be until 
Diir prayers are granted. 

In considering and planning civilian supplies, 
we cannot igiiore the grim factor of a continuing 
and devastating war. In this total war, civilian 
supplies are contingent upon military supplies — 
even in an area from which military operations 
have receded. For these reasons, we must weigh 
carefully what should be done in regard to civilian 
supplies for the Middle East at this stage of 
affairs. 

For some three months we and the British have 
been working on a scheme for the orderly relaxa- 
tion of Middle East Supply Center controls. By 
way of parenthesis, I should add that when we 
started these considerations the future appeared 
brighter than it appears today. During this pe- 
riod of the past few montlis, James M. Landis, 
Director of American Economic Operations in the 
Middle East, with the personal rank of Minister, 
has concentrated to a large degree on the problem 
of relaxations. He has worked closely with officials 
concerned in our Government and with corre- 
sponding British officials in both London and 
Cairo. The subject of relaxation of Middle East 
Supply Center controls also received the serious 
attention of the Special Economic INIission to the 
Middle East under the chairmanship of Ambas- 
sador William S. Culbertson. 

From these combined efforts, a plan has evolved 
which was put into effect on January 1, 19-±5 — this, 
in spite of the change in certain timetables because 
of the continuance of the European war. 

The most important feature of the change being 
made is that for a wide range of items Middle East 
Supply Center control over imports will cease. It 
will be for the Middle Eastern countries to make 



' Mr. Winant is an Adviser in the War Areas Economic 
Division, Office of Wartime Economic Affairs, Depart- 
ment of State. 



their own arrangements with exporting countries 
for supply of these goods, subject only to limita- 
tions described below. 

The shipping situation remains so acute as to 
limit total tonnage which can be allocated to meet 
Middle East requirements. Further, a number of 
commodities are still in very short supply through- 
out the world, and in respect to these commodities 
the Middle East Supply Center will continue to 
exercise its function of insuring that essential re- 
quirements of Middle East territories are ade- 
quately and equitably met. 

It has been decided, therefore : 

(a) that Middle East requirements of commodi- 
ties, such as cereals, fertilizers, and tea, the move- 
ment of which makes heavy demands on shipping, 
will continue to be estimated and sponsored by the 
Middle East Supply Center; 

(b) that ijuport licenses for a comparatively 
short list of commodities and products in world 
short supply, such as trucks, tires, and textiles, will 
continue to require Middle East Supply Center ap- 
proval, which, where possible, will be delegated to 
local Middle East Supply Center representatives; 

(c) that for all other items Middle East Supply 
Center control will be withdrawn. There will still 
be, however, certain limitations on inicont rolled 
imports of supplies in this group. For example, 
certain exporting countries overseas may maintain 
export controls, and in addition, exchange-control 
regulations may be a limiting factor. Finally, as 
indicated above, the shipping situation will impose 
a toiniage ceiling on the amount of goods in this 
group which can be imported. It will therefore be 
the responsibility of the governments of Middle 
Eastern territories to decide what is to be imported 
and to insure that tonnage and supplies available 
are used to the best advantage and to meet essential 
needs. 

The new plan is the first step in the gradual 
freeing of trade from wartime restrictions. As 
the supply and shipping situation eases. Middle 
East Supply Center control will be pi-ogressively 
withdrawn. 

In giving thus the broad outline of the new plan, 
I believe I should add some caution as to the im- 



JANUARY 21, 1945 



mediate effect on supplies. It is not expected that 
the new plan will mean any radical change ; rather 
the new plan should be accepted as providing a 
system for the progressive freeing of restrictions 
toward a better supply position and a more speedy 
service. 

The chief difficulties in increasing quickly the 
quantity and kind of goods for Middle East con- 
sumption lie with shipping, certain supplies, and 
tlie dollar exchange. 

In the matter of shipping, it is not reasonable 
in view of increasing war demands to expect addi- 
tional tonnage. What we can anticipate, however, 
is a continued better utilization of the shipping 
space allocated for civilian cargoes, as has occurred 
in recent months. Of course, the shipping position 
for civilian cargoes will remain dependent upon 
the shipping position for military cargoes. War 
demands will continue to receive first priority. 

The shortage of certain commodities needs no 
amplification at this point. 

In regard to dollar exchange, there is little that 
can be i:)redicted at the moment. The problem is 
not confined to the Middle East ; it is a global prob- 
lem. Just what will be worked out for the Middle 
East is difficult to foretell. You may be sure that 
we shall stay as close to this problem as such a 
situation permits. 

In going ahead with the new plan at a time 
when it appears that the European war will last 
longer, perhaps much longer, than previously esti- 
mated, I believe we shall be taking some risks, 
but I feel that the risks are worth taking in order 
to start a trend away from war controls and a 
return to normal commercial transactions. Any 
such change whenever inaugurated will mean mov- 
ing from a known operation to an operation in- 
volving certain unknown elements. Progress can- 
not be made without incurring some risks. 

I believe that I could be accused of shortsight- 
edness or perhaps of evading an issue if I were 
to confide my remarks to the present only. We all 
must look to the future and we all must try to 
make something of the future. 

It was my privilege to serve as secretary of the 
Culbertson Mission in the Middle East during its 
study of existing wartime controls. The purpose 
of the Mission, as you probably know, was to re- 
view on the ground the problems involved in re- 
turning trade to normal channels as rapidly as 
wartime conditions permit and to recommend pro- 



cedures which would insure the fullest possible 
participation of private business in such govei'n- 
ment transactions as may be required in view of 
wartime exigencies. 

In the study of this problem in those countries of 
the Middle East visited by the members of the 
Mission, the relation of exports and imports 
naturally came to the fore. I believe all the mem- 
bers were struck by the great pent-up demand for 
goods of all sorts. The members were also atten- 
tive to the prospects of the long-range require- 
ments of the area for certain products of American 
manufacture. As background, they reviewed the 
pre-war status of commerce between the United 
States and the Middle East. From these studies it 
was felt that the immediate prospect of large 
trade should not be confused with the long-range 
prospect; neither should the future be appraised 
inflexibly in terms of the past. In other words, 
the opinion reached was that trade with the Middle 
East would be greater in the future than in the 
past. The degree of increase in our exports gen- 
erally will depend to a large extent on the ability 
and willingness of the United States to accept for- 
eign products as imports. We must remember 
that exports and imports are partners in world 
trade and that the success of one partner is depend- 
ent upon the success of the other partner. 

I should like to mention another matter and that 
is the role of the United States, as I see it, in the 
broader aspects of Middle East economics. 



Discussions Between the United 

States and the United Kingdom 

on War Crimes 

[Released to the press January 17] 

The Governments of the United States 
and of the United Kingdom are at present, 
as they have been for some time past, in 
regular consultation on the subject of war 
crimes and war criminals. Neither Gov- 
ernment has yet communicated to the other 
or to the United Nations War Crimes Com- 
mission its final views on the recent recom- 
mendations made by the Commission. 
Both Governments hope to do this in the 
near future as soon as the present discus- 
sions between them have been concluded. 



82 



During the war we found it desirable to par- 
ticipate in the general economic plans of the 
countries of the Middle East. We did this for 
the better prosecution of the war and for the bene- 
fit of the peoples of the Middle Eastern countries. 
In so performing a war function, we have gained 
a better insight into the problems of the area as 
a whole and of the individual countries which go 
to make up that area. At the same time, the peo- 
ple and officials of the several countries have 
learned more about American products and Amer- 
ican ways. In short, we have developed a better 
and more realistic Understanding with that part 
of the world. 

For myself, and I speak personally, I hope 
strongly that we shall continue our interests in 
the broad economic life of the Middle East. I 
have in mind certain functions performed througli 
the instrumentality of the Middle East Supply 
Center during the war period, such as agricultural 
improvement, public health as evolved from the 
handling of medical supplies, and statistical and 
research undertakings which have registered bene- 
ficial effects- 
Assistance of this kind in a form which would be 
welcomed by the people concerned would be in 
keeping with the excellent reputation of the 
United States in the Middle East in matters of 
general public welfare. The high cultural stand- 
ard of the American University at Beirut and 
other universities and educational centers of simi- 
lar origin and sponsorship; the human appeal of 
the hospitals and public-health units so wisely 
administered without religious prejudice; the 
technical ability of graduates returning from agri- 
cultural colleges in the United Stafes; the world 
renown accruing from the discoveries of our 
archeologists — all these benefits have left a lasting 
impression on the minds and hearts of the peoples 
and governments of the countries of the Middle 
East. 

There is little doubt that the Middle Eastern au- 
thorities will look to the United States for assist- 
ance in those fields where for generations our 
educators, mi.ssionaries, scientists, and technicians 
have made so large a voluntary contribution. 
There is little question that Americans will be 
wanted as advisers on problems of agriculture, 
sanitation, disease, nutrition, and rural education. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

They will also be wanted in other technical fields, 
such as motor transport and communications. 

In my opinion, it will be sound foreign policy 
and in the public interest for the United States 
Government to prepare for these anticipated re- 
quests with a broad-gage program for providing 
competent technicians at a reasonable cost. I be- 
lieve that a continued association of this nature on 
the part of our citizens with the peoples of the 
Middle East will help in making something of the 
future. 



Radio Programs To Be 
Sponsored by the Department 
Of State 

[Released to the press January 19] 

The Department of State will sponsor the first 
six in a series of programs dealing with the sub- 
ject "America's Foreign Policy", to be broadcast 
over the network of the National Broadcasting 
Company on consecutive Saturdays at 7 p.m., 
E.AV.T., beginning February 24. 

The theme of the Department's programs will be 
"Building the Peace". Secretary of State Edward 
R. Stettinius, Jr., it is expected, will participate in 
the opening program. Participating in subsequent 
programs will be Under Secretary Joseph C. Grew 
and Assistant Secretaries Dean Acheson, William 
L. Clayton, Nelson A. Eockefeller, James C. Dunn, 
Julius C. Holmes, and Archibald MacLeish. Mr. 
MacLeish will act as chairman for the six broad- 
casts. 

The broadcasts will undertake first to study the 
Dumbarton Oaks proposals. Subsequently the 
series will turn to foreign economic policy, policy 
toward liberated areas and enemy countries, and 
Latin American relations. Questions from quali- 
fied experts and the radio audience will be invited. 

Specific participants in the individual broad- 
casts will be announced later. 

This will be the second time that officials of the 
Department of State have appeared on the air to 
interpret the Department's organization and its 
actual work in promoting international coopera- 
tion and security. A series of four broadcasts en- 
titled "The Department of State Speaks", was 
presented by the National Broadcasting Company 
during January 1944, 



JANUARY 21, 1945 



83 



Armistice Terms for Hungary 



[Released to the press January 21] 

The terms of the Hungarian armistice agree- 
ment wliich has been signed in Moscow follow : ^ 
Agreejient Coxcerxing ax Arjiistice Betweex 
THE UxiON OF Soviet Socialist Republics, the 
United Kingdom of Great Britain and North- 
ern Ireland, and the United States of 
America on the One Hand and Hungary on 
the Other 

The Provisional National Government of Hun- 
gary, recognizing tlie fact of the defeat of Hun- 
gary in the war against the Soviet Union, the 
United Kingdom, the United States of America, 
and other United Nations, accepts the armistice 
terms presented by tlie Governments of the above- 
mentioned three powers, acting on behalf of all the 
United Nations which are in a state of war with 
Hungary. 

On the basis of the foregoing the representative 
of the Allied (Soviet) High Command, Marshal 
of the Soviet Union K. E. Voroshilov, duly au- 
thorized thereto by the Governments of the Soviet 
Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States 
of America, acting on behalf of all the United Na- 
tions which are at war witli Hungary, on the one 
hand and the representatives of the Provisional 
National Government of Hungary, Minister for 
Foreign Affairs, Mr. Janos Gyongyosi, Colonel 
General Janos Voros, and State Secretary of the 
Cabinet of Ministers, Mr. Istvan Balogh, on the 
other, holding proper full powers, have signed the 
following conditions: 

Article I. (A) Hungary has withdrawn from 
the war against the U. S. S. R. and the other United 
Nations, including Czechoslovakia, has severed all 
relations with Germany and has declared war 
on Germany. 

(B) The Government of Hungary undertakes 
to disarm the German armed forces in Hungary 
and to hand them over as prisoners of war. 

The Government of Hungary also undertakes to 
intern nationals of Germany. 

(C) The Government of Hungary undertakes to 
maintain and make available such land, sea and 
air forces as may be specified for service under the 
general direction of the Allied (Soviet) High Com- 



mand. In this connection Hungary will provide 
not less than eight infantry divisions with corps 
troops. These forces must not be used on Allied 
territory except witli the prior consent of the Allied 
Government concerned. 

(D) On the conclusion of hostilities against 
Germany, the Hungarian armed forces must be de- 
mobilized and put on a peace footing under the 
supervision of the Allied Control Commission. 
(See Annex to Article I.) 

Article II. Hungary has accepted the obliga- 
tion to evacuate all Hungarian troops and officials 
from the territory of Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia 
and Rumania occupied by her within the limits of 
tlie frontiers of Hungary existing on December 31, 
1937, and also to repeal all legislative and adminis- 
trative provisions relating to the annexation or in- 
corporation into Hungary of Czechoslovak, Yugo- 
slav and Rumanian territory. 

Article III. The Government and High Com- 
mand of Hungary will ensure to the Soviet and 
other Allied forces facilities for the free movement 
on Hungarian territory in any direction if, in the 
opinion of the Allied (Soviet) High Command, the 
military situation requires this, the Government 
and High Command of Hungary giving such move- 
ment every possible assistance with their own 
means of communication and at their own expense 
on land, on the water and in the air. (See Annex 
<o Article III.) 

Article IV. The Government of Hungary will 
immediately release all Allied prisoners of war and 
internees. Pending further instructions the Gov- 
ernment of Hungary will at its own expense pro- 
vide all Allied prisoners of war and internees, dis- 
placed persons and refugees, including nationals of 
Czealioslovakia and Yugoslavia, with adequate 
food, clothing, medical services, and sanitary and 
hygienic requirements, and also with means of 
transportation for the return of any such persons 
to their own country. 

Article V. The Government of Hungary will 
immediately release, regardless of citizenship and 
nationality, all persons held in confinement in 



' Telegraphic text. For armistice terms for Rumania, 
see RfiXETiN of Sept. 17, 1944, p. 289, and for Bulgaria, 
Oct. 29, 1944, p. 492, 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



connection with their activities in favor of the 
United Nations or because of their sympathies 
with the United Nations' cause or for racial or 
religious reasons, and will repeal all discrimina- 
tory legislation and disabilities arising therefrom. 
The Government of Hungary will take all the 
necessary measures to ensure that all displaced per- 
sons and refugees within the limits of Hungarian 
territory, including Jews and stateless persons, 
are accorded at least the same measure of protec- 
tion and security as its own nationals. 

Article VI. The Government of Hungary un- 
dertakes to return to the Soviet Union, and also to 
Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia and to the other 
United Nations, by the dates specified by the Al- 
lied Control Commission, and in complete good 
order, all valuables and materials removed during 
the war to Hungary from the United Nations' 
territory and belonging to state, public or coopera- 
tive organizations, enterprises, institutions or 
individual citizens, such as factory and works 
equipment, locomotives, rolling stock, tractors, 
motor vehicles, historic monuments, museum 
treasures and any other property. 

Article VII. The Government and High Com- 
mand of Hungary undertake to hand over ae 
booty into the hands of the Allied (Soviet) High 
Command all German war material located on 
Hungarian territory including vessels of the fleet 
of Germany. 

Article VlII. The Government and High Com- 
mand of Hungary undertake not to permit, with- 
out the authorization of the Allied Control Com- 
mission, the export or expropriation of any form 
of property (including valuables and currency) 
belonging to Germany or her nationals or to per- 
sons resident in German territory or in teii-itories 
occupied by Germany. They will safeguard such 
property in the maimer siiccified by tlie Allied 
Control Commission. 

Article IX. The Government and High Com- 
mand of Hungary undertake to hand over to the 
Allied (Soviet) High Command all vessels belong- 
ing to or having belonged to the United Nations 
wiiich are located in Hungarian Danubian ports, 
no matter at whose disposal these vessels may be, 
for use during the period of the war against Ger- 
many by the Allied (Soviet) High Command in 
the general interests of the Allies, these vessels 
subsequently to be returned to their owners. 



The Government of Hungary will bear the full 
material responsibility for any damage or destruc- 
tion of the aforementioned property until the mo- 
ment of its transfer to the Allied (Soviet) High 
Command. 

Article X. Hungarian merchant vessels, 
wiiether in Hungarian or foreign waters, shall be 
subject to tlie oi^erational control of the Allied 
(Soviet) High Command for use in the general 
interests of the Allies. 

Article XL The Government of Hungary will 
make regular payments in Hungarian currency 
and provide commodities (fuel, foodstuffs, et 
cetera), facilities and services as may be required 
by the Allied (Soviet) High Command for the 
fulfillment of its functions as well as for the needs 
of missions and representatives of the Allied states 
connected with the Allied Control Commission. 

The Government of Hungary will also assure, in 
the case of need, the use and regulation of the 
work of industrial and transport enterprises, 
means of communication, power stations, enter- 
prises and installations of public utility, stores of 
fuel and other material in accordance with in- 
structions issued duruig the armistice by the 
Allied (Soviet) High Command or the Allied 
Control Commission. (See Annex to Article XI.) 

Article XII. Losses caused to the Soviet Union. 
Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia by military opera- 
tions and by the occupation by Hungary of the ter- 
ritories of these states will be made good by Hun- 
gary to the Soviet LTnion, Czechoslovakia and 
Yugoslavia, but taking into consideration that 
Hungary has not only withdrawn from the war 
against the United Nations but has declared war 
against Germany, the parties agree that compen- 
sation for the indicated losses will be made by 
Hungary not in full but only in part; namely, 
to the amount of 300,000,000 American dollars 
payable over six years in commodities (machine 
ecjuipment, river craft, grain, livestock, et cetera), 
the sum to be paid to the Soviet Union to amount 
to 200,000,000 American dollars and the sum to be 
paid to Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia to amount 
to 100,000.000 American dollars. 

Compensation will be paid by Hungary for los.s 
and damage caused by the war to other Allied 
states and their nationals, the amount of com- 
pensation to be fixed at a later date. (See Annex 
to Article XIL) 



JANUARY 21, 1945 

Article XIII. The Government of Hungary 
undertakes to restore all legal rights and interests 
of the United Nations and their nationals on Hun- 
garian territory as they existed before the ^var and 
also to return their property in complete good 
order. 

Article XIV. Hungary will cooperate in the 
apprehension and trial, as well as the surrender 
to the Governments concerned, of persons accused 
of war crimes. 

Article XV. The Government of Hungary un- 
dertakes to dissolve immediately all pro-Hitler or 
other fascist political, military, para-military and 
other organizations on Hungarian territory con- 
ducting propaganda hostile to the United Nations 
and not to tolerate the existence of such organiza- 
tions in the future. 

Article XVI. The publication, introduction 
and distribution in Hungary of jjeriodical or non- 
periodical literature, the presentation of theatrical 
performances or films, the operation of wireless 
stations, post, telegraph and telephone services 
will take place in agreement with the Allied (So- 
viet) High Command. (See Annex to Article 
XVI.) 

Article XVII. Hungarian civil administration 
will be restored in the whole area of Hungary sep- 
arated by not less than 50-100 kilometres (depend- 
ing upon conditions of terrain ) from the front line, 
Hungarian administrative bodies undertaking to 
carry out, in the interests of the reestablishment 
of peace and security, instructions and orders 
of the Allied (Soviet) High Command or Allied 
Control Commission issued by them for the pur- 
pose of securing the execution of these armistice 
terms. 

Article XVIII. For the whole of the period 
of the armistice there will be established in Hun- 
gary an Allied Control Commission which will 
regulate and supervise the execution of the armis- 
tice terms under the chairmanship of the repre- 
sentative of the Allied (Soviet) High Command 
and with the participation of representatives of 
the United Kingdom and the United States. 

During the period between the coming into force 
of the armistice and the conclusion of hostilities 
against Germany, the Allied Control Commis- 
sion will be under the general direction of the 
Allied (Soviet) High Command. (See Annex to 
Article XVIII.) 

627196—45 3 



85 

Article XIX. The Vienna Arbitration Award 
of November 2, 1938 and the Vienna Award of 
August 30, 1940, are hereby declared to be null 
and void. 

Article XX. The present terms come into force 
at the moment of their signing. 

Done in Moscow January 20, 1945, in one copy 
which will be entrusted to the safekeeping of the 
Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Re- 
publics, in the Russian, English and Hungarian 
languages, the Russian and English texts being 
authentic. 

Certified copies of the present agreement, with 
Annexes, will be transmitted by the Government 
of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics to each 
of the other Governments on whose behalf the pres- 
ent agreement is being signed. 

For the Governments of the Union of Soviet 
Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom and the 
United States of America: 

Marshal K. E. Voroshilov. 

For the Provisional National Government of 
Hungary : 

Janos Gtongtosi, Colonel General Janos 
VoROS, and Istvan Balogh. 

Annex to Agreement Concerninq an Arjhstice 
Between the Union of Soviet Socialist Re- 
publics, the United Kingdom of Great Britain 
and Northern Ireland, and the United States 
OF America on the One Hand and Hungary on 
the Other, Signed in Moscow, January 20, 
1945. 

A. Annex to Article I. 

The Hungarian Military Command shall hand 
over to the Allied (Soviet) High Command within 
a period fixed by the latter all the information at 
its disposal regarding the German armed forces 
and the plans of the German Military Command 
for the development of military operations against 
the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the 
other United Nations and also the charts and maps 
and all operational documents relating to the mili- 
tary operations of the German armed forces. 

The measures provided for in Article I of the 
agreement regarding the internment of nationals 
of Germany now in Hungarian territory do not 
apply to nationals of that country of Jewish origin. 

B. Annex to Article III. 

The assistance specified in Article III of the 
agreement shall be taken to mean that the Govern- 
ment and High Command of Hungary will place 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



at the disposal of the Allied (Soviet) High Com- 
mand, for use at its discretion during the armistice, 
in complete good order and with the personnel 
required for their maintenance, all Hungarian 
militarj', air and river fleet installations and build- 
ings, ports, barracks, warehouses, airfields, means 
of communication and meteorological stations 
which might be required for military needs. 

C. Annex to Article XI. 

The Government of Hungary will withdraw 
and redeem within such time limits and on such 
terms as the Allied (Soviet) High Command may 
specify, all holdings in Hungarian territory of 
currencies issued by the Allied (Soviet) High 
Command, and will hand over currency so with- 
drawn free of cost to the Allied (Soviet) High 
Command. 

The Government of Hungary will not permit 
the disposal of external Hungarian assets or dis- 
posal of internal Hungarian assets to foreign Gov- 
ernments or foreign nationals without the per- 
mission of the Allied (Soviet) High Command 
or the Allied Control Commission. 

D. Annex to Article XII. 

The precise nomenclature and varieties of com- 
modities to be delivered by Hungary to the Soviet 
Union, Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia in accord- 
ance with Article XII of the agreement and also 
the more precise periods for making these deliv- 
eries each year shall be defined in special agree- 
ments between the respective Governments. These 
deliveries will be calculated at 1938 prices with an 
increase of 15% for industrial equipment and 10% 
for other goods. 

As the basis of calculation for payment of the 
indemnity foreseen in Article XII of the agree- 
ment, the American dollar is to be used at its gold 
parity on the day of signing of the agreement, 
i. e. 35 dollars to one ounce of gold. 

In connection with Article XII it is understood 
that the Hungarian Government will immediately 
make available certain food and other supplies 
required for relief and rehabilitation of the popu- 
lation of those Czechoslovakian and Yugoslavian 
territories which have suffered as a result of Hun- 
garian aggression. The quantities of products to 
be delivered will be determined by agreement be- 
tween the three governments and will be considered 
as part of the reparation by Hungary for the loss 
and damage sustained by Czechoslovakia and 
Yugoslavia. 

E. Annex to Article XVI, 



The Government of Hungary will ensure that 
wireless communication, telegraphic and postal 
correspondence, and correspondence in cipher and 
by courier, as well as telephonic communication 
with foreign countries, of Embassies, Legations 
and Consulates situated in Hungary will be con- 
ducted in the manner laid down by the Allied (So- 
viet) High Command. 

F. Annex to Article XVIII. 

Control over the exact execution of the armistice 
terms will be entrusted to the Allied Control Com- 
mission to be established in conformity with Ar- 
ticle XVIII of the armistice agreement. 

The Government of Hungary and its organs 
shall fulfill all the instructions of the Allied Con- 
trol Commission arising out of the armistice agree- 
ment. 

The Allied Control Commission will set up spe- 
cial organs or sections entrusting them respectively 
with the execution of various functions. In addi- 
tion, the Allied Control Commission may have its 
officers in various parts of Hungary. 

The Allied Control Commission will have its 
seat in the city of Budapest. 

Moscow, January 20, 1945. 

Protocol to the Armistice Agreement with 
Hungary 

In signing the armistice agreement with the 
Government of Hungarj', the Allied Govern- 
ments signatory thereto have agreed as follows: 

One. The term "war material" used in Article 
VII shall be deemed to include all material or 
equipment belonging to, used by, or intended for 
use by the military or para-military formations 
of the enemy or members thereof. 

Ttco. The use by the Allied (Soviet) High 
Command of Allied vessels handed over by the 
Government of Hungary in accordance with 
Article IX of the armistice and the date of their 
return to their owners will be the sn.ibject of dis- 
cussion and settlement between the Government 
of the Soviet Union and the Allied Governments 
concerned. 

Done in Moscow in three copies, each in the 
Russian and English languages, the Russian and 
English texts being authentic. 

January 20, 1945. 

(Note: The foregoing Protocol was signed on behalf of 
the United States Government by Mr. W. Averell Harrl- 
man, the American Ambassador.) 



JANUARY 21. 194S 



87 



America's Place in World Affairs 



Address by THE UNDER 

[Eeleased to the press January 17] 

I sense throughout the entire nation a solemn 
air of dedication to the tasks that lie ahead. The 
fact that these are critical days is not half so im- 
portant, I submit, as the fact that we are aware 
that these are the critical days. No longer are 
■we content merely to say, without projective 
thinking, "'Total victory must be achieved". The 
meaning of that victory is now clear to us in terms 
of blood and treasure, and knowledge of the cost 
has doubled our determination. Our purpose — 
clarified and comprehended — has become more mi- 
hjiakable than ever. 

Similarly, we are no longer content merely to 
say without looking ahead, "Lasting peace must 
be achieved". We have begun to grasp the full 
meaning of those words. We have surveyed the 
road ahead. The terrain, we note, is rough. Here 
it twists and turns, there a boulder must be hurdled 
or removed. Now we are in familiar country and 
can move swiftly, knowing our way; now we pass 
through a stretch of unfamiliar ground, and must 
advance more slowlj', adapting ourselves to our 
surroundings. Gaining this knowledge has not 
always been a pleasant experience, but at all times 
it has been a necessary one. There is still much 
to be learned, and the journey remains long and 
arduous. But when we speak now of our determi- 
nation to achieve a lasting peace we speak with the 
wisdom of maturity, and the chances of our suc- 
ceeding are, therefore, I like to think, far better 
than at any previous period in our history. 

Not all men would agree, I know. Lately, a 
great many sincere and thoughtful persons have 
felt that the prospects for a democratic peace have 
lessened, rather than increased. I am inclined 
to believe that what they are saying, in effect, is 
that, because a shadow has crossed the sun, the 
sun no longer shines. I think we can measure the 
extent of this Nation's yearning for a sound demo- 
ci'atic peace in terms of the concern our peojole 
have shown lately at the possibility that such 
a peace might not be achieved. Two years ago, a 
year ago, were we aware of these deep and abiding 
hopes ? We could only guess their existence in the 



SECRETARY OF STATE" 

minds and hearts of men. Today we know that 
they exist, indeed that they are among the deepest 
aspirations of our people. Here is not only prog- 
ress toward a people's peace but a key to policy, 
for, in the great words of former Sacretary Hull, 
foreign policy "is for us the task of focusing and 
giving effect in the world outside our borders to 
the will of 135 million people through the con- 
stitutional processes which govern our democracy". 

In his recent message on the state of the Union, 
the President said plainly: 

"I should not be frank if I did not admit concern 
about many situations — the Greek and Polish for 
example. But those situations are not as easy or 
as simple to deal with as some spokesmen, whose 
sincerity I do not question, would have us believe. 
AVe have obligations, not necessarily legal, to the 
exiled governments, to the underground leaders 
and to our major Allies who came much nearer the 
shadows than we did. 

"We and our Allies have declared that it is our 
purpose to respect the right of all peoples to choose 
the form of government under which they will live 
and to see sovereign rights and self-government 
restored to those who have been forcibly deprived 
of them. But with internal dissension, with many 
citizens of liberated countries still prisoners of war 
or forced to labor in Germany, it is difficult to guess 
the kind of self-government the people really 
want." 

These problems are no longer theoretical. We 
are face to face with them in the liberated countries 
and elsewhere. In all probability, they will in- 
ciease rather than decrease. We are out in the real 
world and the going will be tough. But defeatism 
is not an American tradition. It is all well and 
good to work out in advance the course you think 
you may have to run during a race. But what 
do?s this avail a man if he withdraws from the 
race at the sound of the starting gun, takes a seat 
in the stands, and criticizes each and every runner ? 

And so I say again, if these are the critical 
days, what counts most is our awareness of that 



" Delivered at the New York Times Hall, New York, N. Y., 
1 Jan. 17, 1945. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETI.\ 



fact. We must be stripped for the race. We must 
be prepared for the sudden turn of events, the 
unexpected development. We must realize that 
in countries ravaged by war and years of Fascism — 
by the terrible brutalization of Fascism — we will 
come upon gaping wounds in the social system far 
more serious than any we could possibly imagine. 
And we must be prepared, too, for a resilience, a 
strength, and a vigor which we had not thought 
possible in people who had so suffered. We will 
find that, even as the human body has mysterious 
ways of fighting disease, these people will have 
drawn upon inner resources to keep warm their 
hope during the long night. The full beauty of 
this vigor must not astound us, nor cause us con- 
cern, nor suddenly become inconvenient or incom- 
patible with our plans. No, we must be prepared 
to utilize fully the inner strength of the liberated 
people in their own behalf. Not one iota of cre- 
ative energy must go unharnessed in the great task 
of reconstruction. 

Now, where are we going? "\\Tiat do we have in 
mind ? I shall not undertake to enunciate the for- 
eign policy of the United States, for obviously 
only the President or the Secretary of State can 
do that. But I have a passion for simplification 
of problems, and although this sort of thing can 
sometimes go too far, I find it most helpful to 
break down our problems under three main head- 
ings: (1) Principles; (2) Objectives; (3) Guides 
for action in attaining these objectives on the basis 
of those principles. The other day on assuming 
my new post I drew a chart of the picture that con- 
fronts us in the world, and this is what it looked 
like: 

Under "Principles" I wrote : The Atlantic Char- 
ter. I think the Charter covers a great deal in 
the way of justice, democracy, and good-will to- 
ward men. As the President said recently : 

"It is true that the statement of principles in 
the Atlantic Charter does not provide rules of 
easy application to each and every one of this war- 
torn world's tangled situations. But it is a good 
and a useful thing^it is an essential thing — to 
have principles toward which we can aim. And 
we shall not hesitate to use our influence — and to 
use it now — to secure so far as is humanly possible 
the fulfilment of the principles of the Atlantic 
Charter. We have not shrunk from the military 



responsibilities brought on by this war. We can- 
not and will not shrink from the political responsi- 
bilities which follow in the wake of battle." 

Under "Objectives", I wrote: (1) Win the war 
as soon as possible; and (2) help to create perma- 
nent peace and security in the world. In a box 
beneath point 2 on this chart I wrote : Dumbarton 
Oaks. 

Under "Guides for action", I wrote: (1) Con- 
stantly keep in mind the long-range interests of 
the United States and the American people; (2) 
keep in step with the other United Nations and 
maintain the alliance firm and secure; (3) help 
the liberated areas return to a healthy political and 
economic life — the hungry must be fed ; (4) reduce 
each problem to its basic factors and then apply 
common sense. 

At least three big problems emerge from that 
chart. 

First, with reference to aiding the liberated 
peoples, I have already spoken of what I consider 
to be a necessary attitude of mind. As to feeding 
the hungry, we know that hunger is among the 
M-orst enemies of man, for hunger breeds both 
physical and political disease. There can be no 
really stable world as long as hunger exists. Even 
we, in our heaven-blessed homeland, can never live 
in permanent security and well-being until that 
problem has been solved. Thus it fits directly into 
the long-range interests of the United States and 
the American people. This is an emergency prob- 
lem but it is a long-range problem too. It is one 
of our many problems requiring united effort. 
That is why the food conference was held at Hot 
Springs, Virginia, and that is why we and the other 
United Nations have established the United Na- 
tions Relief and Rehabilitation Administration to 
handle relief in the countries devastated by war. 
I cannot tonight deal with its many ramifications, 
except to say that the shipping problem is closely 
allied Mith it today and that questions of tariffs 
and other trade barriers will be closely allied with 
it tomoriow. What jjroportion of our shipping 
can properly be deflected from the war effort to 
feed the hungry abroad i How and where and in 
what propoi-tions shall rehabilitation supplies be 
distributed ? To what extent can we produce and 
send abroad supplies without jeopardizing our 
own economic life at home? These are just a few 



JANUARY 21, 1945 



of the difficult economic problems with which we 
must deal now. But underlying all our thinking 
there must remain the simple truth : 'TAe Kvm,gry 
must he fed.'''' 
\ The second big problem: Can we keep in step 
with our Allies, serve the long-range interests of 
I the United States, and stand squarely upon our 
I principles in the attainment of our objectives ? 
Here is a very large problem indeed, and in ap- 
proaching it I think we should keep one thought 
foremost in mind, namely, that our Allies want 
peace and future security just as much as we do. 
People ask what policy the State Department is 
pursuing in its relations with our Allies in the war. 
We understand, all of us, I think, why the question 
is asked. In a world confused by distance and by 
war, the lines of direction, the lines of policy, are 
not always easy to follow. But the answer, never- 
theless, need not be difficult. The policy of the 
United States, like the policy of the other Allied 
Governments, is to fight as Allies in unison. Wlien 
we differ from our Allies, as we are bound to differ 
from them on certain questions, it is the policy 
of this Government, as it is the policy of our people, 
not to let our differences interfere with the miity 
of action essential to the wimiing of the war, or 
to disrupt that unity after the war is won. That 
does not mean that this Government has neglected 
or will neglect to make its own position on these 
questions clear. Nothing has gone or will go by 
default. You may be assured that the Department 
of State, as the department of government charged 
with responsibility for the foreign jjolicy of this 
country, has vigorously stated, and will continue 
to state, the American position on issues in dispute, 
actively keeping before all other nations our own 
country's interests and the pomt of view of our 
people. You may also be assured, however, that 
this Government will use its influence to prevent 
any mterruption of the conmion effort in the prose- 
cution of the war as the result of differences on 
particular issues or particular questions. 

Human nature and national nature being what 
they are, nationalism would appear to be here to 
stay — or at least to stay for some time. But let us 
not brand as national selfishness acts which spring 
primarily from the instinct of self-preservation 
and the legitimate desire of nations for future 
peace and security — both strategic and economic 
security. Let us neither forget the recent history 

627196—45 4 



of gangster nations nor their depredations. If they 
had attacked my house I would most certainly put 
up some kind of fence for my future safety and 
tlie safety of my property. Meanwhile, I would 
do everything in my power to see that the town's 
police force was efficiently and effectively organ- 
ized to prevent those depredations in future and 
to insure security. Once that organization had 
been perfected and found worthy of my confidence, 
then I would have little need to tend the fence. 

We need not be disturbed by the anxiety ex- 
pressed in some quarters that the various inter- 
national pacts recently concluded among several 
European nations signify that our Allies are fall- 
ing out of step with us. Although I have not the 
time this evening to discuss these pacts in detail, 
let me state here that after careful study of those 
agreements, we are satisfied that they were con- 
cluded in the spirit of what we all are trying to 
achieve through the Dumbarton Oaks proposals. 

In reference to international politics in general, 
I think that all of us should remember that foreign 
relations are like a cyclorama; they are a perpet- 
ually unrolling canvas, with new aspects of the 
scene constantly emerging. We photograph the 
scene one day, draw a blueprint of the main factors 
in the picture, try to determine what action we 
should take, if any. This decision might be called 
our "policy". Yet the next day, the picture may 
be importantly altered; new factors are injected; 
another blueprint must be drawn and perhaps a 
different decision taken. Indeed, by the very na- 
ture of things as they are, policy, as it is generally 
understood, cannot be a static equation. Our prin- 
ciples should be sound — our objectives should be 
sound. Hold firmly to these, and we cannot go far 
wrong. 

And now, a word about that security organiza- 
tion. At Dumbarton Oaks we tried to lay a foun- 
dation upon which an effective and durable world 
structure for the maintenance of peace and security 
could be built, and we profoundly hope and trust 
it will be built as a result of the eventual United 
Nations conference. I shall not tonight try to de- 
scribe the outline of the plan. That plan has been 
published far and wide, yet only a few days ago a 
friend said to me: "Wliy don't you publish the 
Dumbarton Oaks proposals?" and one of our re- 
spected writers and thinkers said to a member of 
the Dumbarton Oaks delegation : "There is one big 



90 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



flaw in your plan ; it doesn't provide for so and so." 
Quite simpl}'. he had not read the plan ! My col- 
league merely pointed to the text. "There it is," 
he said. How many of our people read only the 
headlines in the press and without careful study 
presume to denounce the whole effort that has been 
made ! 

There are three points that I wish to stress con- 
cerning the Dumbarton Oaks proposals. First, we 
must profit from the errors of the past. The flaws 
and weaknesses of our past ineffective peace ma- 
chinery must be overcome, as they will be over- 
come. All formei' efforts failed because they were 
superficial ; they were like poultices prescribed for 
cancer — and you can't temporize with cancer. 

Second, we must be prejjared to make what in 
the past has been considered sacrifice. We and the 
other nations devoted to peace must be prepared 
to join our efforts and a part of our armed forces 
not only for the common good but for the future 
security of our own Nation. Is that too great a 
sacrifice to avoid the horrors of another world war. 
Can any sacrifice be too great ? 

Third, we must realize that whatever peace 
structure is erected will not satisfy everybody. 
Shall we scrap it because, in our view, it is not 
perfect? Today in the international field we face 
a situation not unlike that which confronted us in 
our national life in 1789, when the public criticism 
of, and dissatisfaction Avith, our own Constitution 
were wide-spread and bitter. Yet our Constitution 
was adopted, and it has grown and matured. It 
is still with us after 156 years. For the sake of 
everything we hold dear and for our as yet imborn 
generations, some effective international organiza- 
tion mu.st be formed. Although it may not be pos- 
sible at one stroke to devise or to gain universal 
acceptance by the peace-loving states of a perfect 
organization for keeping the peace and solving 
the problems of the world, whatever plan emerges 
from the United Nations conference 7)^iist be made 
to work and to succeed. For the alternative is 
utter tragedy. 

Tiie ingenuity and will of men made possible the 
growth of this country under the Constitution. 
Only the ingenuity and will of men will today 
translate that better world of our dreams into the 
real world about us. 

The problem will not be solved by blueprints or 
charts or little colored boxes with connecting lines. 
It will be solved, finally, in the hearts and minds 



of us all. And that is precisely why I am en- 
couraged. For I am convinced that the people have 
made clear their feelings. A lasting peace — a peace 
that will grant freedom and security and equal 
opportunity — a peace under which the peoples of 
the earth can stretch forth their arms, lift up their 
heads, and march forward as brothers — such a 
peace would answer the most fervent prayers of 
mankind. 

Thus strengthened, those charged with the for- 
mulation of the peace go forward to the uttermost 
limit of their abilities. 

Endorsement of the French 
Import Program 

[Released to the press January 16] 

Following a series of discussions between M. 
Jean Monnet and Secretary of State Stettinius 
and other members of the Administration, M. 
Monnet has been informed that it is the belief 
of the Department of State that the import pro- 
gram of France should be considered in terms of 
its contribution toward bringing the full economic 
power of France to bear on the defeat of Germany. 

The Government of the United States has en- 
dorsed the French import program for planning 
purposes and M. Monnet has been assured that 
the United States agencies concerned will co- 
operate with the French Supply Council in the 
urgent procurement of supplies so that they will 
be available for shipment. The shipping situation 
to date has been such that it has been impossible to 
provide for more than a small part of France's 
requirements, but an additional allocation of ship- 
ping for French ci\nlian use has been made for the 
first three months of this year. The matter will be 
under constant study and it is hoped that alloca- 
tions can be increased in March. 

The War Shipping Administration has given 
assurance that in case of any ships assigned to 
cai'ry cargo to France, French ships will be used to 
the maximum extent practicable. M. Momiet has 
been assured that the Department of State is 
anxious to give every practical assistance and is 
devoting its daily efforts to the best practical solu- 
tion of the problems which M. Monnet has placed 
before it. 



]AM'ARY 21, 1945 



91 



Recommendation on Argentina's Request Concerning Her 
Relations With the American Republics 



[Released to the press January 17] 

The text of a letter sent by the Secrebary of 
State to Pedro de Alba, Secretary of the Govern- 
ing Board of the Pan American Union follows: 

Jantjart 6, 1945. 
My De.\r Dr. de Alba : 

I desire to refer to your letter of October 30 
transmitting a copy of a communication and ac- 
companying memorandum addressed to the Chair- 
man of the Governing Board of the Pan American 
Union by the Argentine representative, Senor don 
Rodolfo Garcia Arias. This communication re- 
quested, on behalf of the government of General 
Farrell, that a Meeting of the Ministers of For- 
eign Affairs of the American Republics be called 
"to consider the existing situation between the Ar- 
gentine Republic and other American Republics." ' 

In the period that has elapsed since the com- 
munication was received by the Governing Board 
and transmitted to the American Republics, the 
Government of the United States has participated 
in a full exchange of views on the matter through 
ordinary diplomatic channels with the other Re- 



publics. In this exchange it has been the desire of 
tills Government, as it has been of all of the other 
participating Governments, to arrive at a decision 
acceptable to all. 

Since the American Republics which are collab- 
orating in the war effort are making arrangements 
by consultation through ordinary diplomatic chan- 
nels to meet in the near future to discuss urgent 
war and post-war problems, an opportunity will 
be afforded to the representatives of those Repub- 
lics to give joint personal consideration to the Ar- 
gentine request. It is believed that such consid- 
eration offers the best assurance of a decision on 
the request of the government of General Farrell 
which will be consonant with the best interest of 
the Continent. 

It is, therefore, the opinion of the Government 
of the United States that no action should be taken 
at this time by the Governing Board of the Pan 
American Union with respect to the request of the 
government of General Farrell. 
Sincerely yours, 

Edward R. STETriNros, Jr. 



On Restoration of Liberties to Greece 



EXCHANGE OF MESSAGES BETWEEN THE PRIME MINISTER OF GREECE 
AND THE PRESIDENT 



[Released to the press January 16] 

The text of the message of the Prime Minister 
of Greece to the President of the United States 
follows : 

In assuming the heavy task which my Govern- 
ment has undertaken I wish to expi-ess to you, 
Mr. President, and to the Government and people 
of the United States of America the profound 
gratitude of the Greek Government and people for 
the friendship and solicitude always displayed 
by your great country towards our sorely tried 
nation. In the defense of the liberties so recently 
restored to this ancient cradle of democracy and 
so dear to them the Greek people place their faith 
in the noble principles of the great Amei-ican 
democracy and hope that in her effort to recon- 



struct the ruins accumulated by the long 
occupation of the count i-y Greece will be able to 
rely on the full and so precious support of Your 
Excellency and the United States. 

Nicolas Plastiras 

Prime Minister 

The President sent the following telegram in 
reply to Prime Minister Plastiras : 

January 15, 1945. 
Thank you for your friendly message. I speak 
for the American people as well as for myself 
when I say that the recent tragic bloodshed in 
Greece has been a cause of profound sorrow. In 
assuming the leadership of the Greek Government 



' BuujrriN of Oct. 29, 1944, p. 498. 



92 

at this critical time you arc faced with problems 
the solution of which is of <^reat importance to 
the future of your country and the successful con- 
clusion of the Allied struggle against a common 
enemy. I have been reassured by your recent state- 
ments that the cessation of hostilities will not be 
followed by reprisals but will be the prelude to 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

early decisions, by means of free democratic proc- 
esses, on the vexed questions which led to civil 
strife. This Government, in collaboration with 
our Allies, stands ready to assist wherever prac- 
ticable in the rehabilitation of your long suffer- 
ing nation. I wish you all success in the patriotic 
duties you have undertaken. 

Fkanklin D. Roosevelt 



Meeting of the Inter-American Financial and Economic 
Advisory Committee 

REMARKS BY ASSISTANT SECRETARY ROCKEFELLER UPON ACCEPTING THE CHAIRMANSHIP' 



[Released to the press January 16] 

Gentlemen : In accepting the Chaii-manship of 
the Inter-American Financial and Economic Ad- 
visory Committee, I do so with a full recognition 
of the responsibilities this Committee bears and 
with a deep appreciation of the large amount of 
excellent work which has already been done by the 
Conamittee. 

I feel, too, added responsibility in succeeding my 
good friend, the Honorable Adolf A. Berle, Jr.. 
who has contributed so much sound thought and 
hard work to an attempt to find solutions for the 
problems war has brought to the American repub- 
lics. Mr. Berle has had a deep and abiding affec- 
tion for and faith in the nations of this hemisphere, 
and now goes to his new post as Ambassador to 
Brazil. 

The financial and economic problems of this 
hemisphere, due to war in Europe, were clearly 
foreseen by the Foreign Ministers of the 21 Amer- 
ican republics as early as September 1939 when this 
Committee was created. They recognized the 
necessity of constant study of these problems and 
the formulation of ideas and plans which might 
strengthen the economic defense of the hemisphere 
and might prepare all the free nations of the Ajner- 
icas for economic warfare. They placed upon this 
Committee the duty of formulating policy pro- 
posals for the purpose of creating sound economic 
relationships between all of our republics during 
the war. 

The nations of the world and particularly those 
of this hemisphere are so closely interrelated that 

' Made at the Pan American Union at Washington on 
Jan. 16, 1945. 



war in any part of the world creates financial and 
economic problems for all other nations, and as the 
war progresses these problems become more criti.cal. 

This global war is far from finished. No one can 
l)rophesy the time necessary to conquer Germany 
and Japan, but, omitting the time element com- 
pletely, we can foresee with some clarity the inten- 
sification of our war efforts, both in Europe and in 
Asia, which will be necessary to destroy the mili- 
tary might of the Axis powers. 

Thus it becomes necessary for the United Na- 
tions to concentrate increasingly on the manufac- 
ture of war materials and on the increased ship- 
ping necessary to carry men, planes, tanks, guns, 
food, and ammunition to the fighting fronts as 
well as food and materials to liberated nations 
which were left destitute by the enemy. 

This means that food and consumer products of 
all kinds become constantly shorter in supply, and 
unless we on the home front control our supplies 
stringently and see that they are distributed fairly 
and at prices that are within reason, inflation be- 
comes increasingly serious and we'll have the 
problems of critical deflation to deal with in the 
post-war period. 

Both of these evils we must fight, and that is one 
of the problems of this Committee. 

In the United States, through drastic and force- 
ful action on the part of the Government, it has 
been possible to distribute the necessary commodi- 
ties to the consumers on the home front at prices 
which have been controlled. It is only necessary 
to compare the prices of food during this war and 
the last war to realize what can be done to prevent 



JANUARY 21, 1945 

inflationary trends even under the pressui'e of 
global war. 

Some of the countries in Central and South 
America have been able to control prices and pre- 
vent serious inflation, but in other countries prices 
on food and necessary commodities have risen 
from 50 to 400 percent during the war period. 

The causes of inflation are numerous, being 
mainly the excess of exports over imports, the large 
sums of money in payment for critical war mate- 
rials, the shortage of food and consumer goods for 
import, the shortage of shipping and lack of ade- 
quate controls for the distribution of available 
products, lack of adequate price ceilings on these 
products, and the failure to stamp out the black 
market. 

A good many of the nations in this hemisphere 
have seen prices spiral upward menacingly. Other 
nations have shown that proper controls can effect 
remedies for this situation, proving that it is not 
too late to take the necessai-y action. 

One of the first actions is to siphon off through 
government loans and war taxation much of the 
increased earnings and circulation of money within 
the country. Another action is the enforcement 
of definite price ceilings on essential articles. Es- 
sential articles must be distributed fairly to all 
the people. This requires an improvement of 
transportation facilities so that citizens in con- 
centrated population areas receive food supplies 
as adequate to their needs as the citizens in pro- 
ducing sections. And, finally, in every country 
whei'e it is possible, there must be put into effect a 
definite drive for an increase in food production 
and in tlie production of other essential consumer 
items. 

Only by drastic methods can the deadly power 
of inflation be defeated so that in the post-war 
period the nations of the American Hemisphere 
can reconvert to peacetime economies in the most 
efficient and speedy fashion. 

I would like to emphasize that in 1942 definite 
ceiling-price controls were put in effect on all 
United States exports in accordance with resolu- 
tions at the Rio de Janeiro conference, so that our 
friends might benefit by everj'thing we were able 
to export to them without paying exorbitant prices. 
These ceiling prices were based on the ceiling prices 
of the articles in the United States, with a small 
premium allowed to induce their export, to which 



93 

was added a fair profit for the exporter and the 
cost of transportation. 

In some countries of this hemisphere to which 
these commodities are sent, they are subject to spec- 
ulation, or importers put an unfair profit on them, 
or the commodities are sold through a series of 
middlemen who add no service or value to them 
with the result that they are sold for from five to 
ten times their normal prices. 

In nations where the government took control 
of these imports and refused to release them until a 
fair price was set and a fair distribution was as- 
sured, the commodities were made available to the 
people at prices which conformed to the ceiling 
export prices of the United States. 

There were many examples of saving which re- 
sulted from efforts of the Office of Price Admin- 
istration to maintain ceiling prices on United 
States exports. On a shipment of skins and fur 
coats to Brazil the price to the importer was re- 
duced by OPA investigators 25 percent ; $5,000 was 
cut off as an excessive premium on a shipment of 
steel rails ; $3,000 was saved on a shipment of cold- 
rolled steel sheets to Chile through a reduction of 
packing charges ; a shipment of lard amounting to 
120,000 pounds was reduced by $1,170 as OPA 
called attention to a duplicated item in a premium 
charge ; the premium on a shipment of steel bands 
to Mexico was reduced from 50 percent to l2i/^ 
percent because the higher premium was excessive. 

There are other serious problems which must be 
foreseen and prepared for in advance, because they 
cannot be avoided. 

There is nothing constant about global war ex- 
cept change. The demands of the armed forces in 
1912 are no longer the requirements of our fighting 
forces today. In the first half of 1942 we were 
fighting defensive warfare. Today we are on the 
offensive. 

Revised plans, revised designs of planes, ships, 
tanks, landing boats, artillery, and ammunition 
have resulted. 

Therefore, some of the critical materials of 
1942 are in less demand today, and as these changes 
arise there are necessary changes in our contracts 
for materials. Some of the contracts are can- 
celed and others increased. 

These changes create unemploj'ment or a need 
to transfer workers from one area to another. 
That may require Government assistance to work- 



94 

ers for a time or transfer of these workers into new 
projects where they can be employed. 

As the war comes to an end, some of these con- 
tracts may be canceled, but many of the products 
will be as essential for peacetime commodities as 
they have been for weapons of war. Nevertheless, 
jjlans for reemployment, plans for transfer of 
workers, plans for carrying workers over the re- 
conversion period, plans for the speedy develop- 
ment of new economic projects must be made to 
prevent unemployment wherever possible. 

Careful and thoughtful consideration must be 
given to transportation. In many of the 21 Amer- 
ican republics there is today a progressive deteri- 
oration of railroads. This is due to the tremendous 
burdens which the railroads have had to assume. 
Shipping is in critical shortage due to war de- 
mands. Trucks are wearing out. There is a lack of 
spare parts, a shortage of gasoline and tires. This 
adds an extra load on the railroads. Replacement 
parts for engines and cars and rights-of-way are 
difficult to obtain, and in addition there are severe 
manpower shortages which prevent the proper care 
of equipment. 

The 90,000 miles of railroads in the 20 Central 
and South American nations have been required to 
carry the tremendous volume of critical materials 
needed by the United Nations for the war effort, a 
burden they were never expected to carry. 

In certain cases of vital necessity, such as on a 
part of the Mexican National Railways, the 348- 
mile railroad operating in Brazil from the Itabira 
Iron Mines through the Rio Doce Valley to the 
Port of Victoria, and a mining railroad in Bolivia, 
reconstruction work has been done. Railway mis- 
sions from this country have also gone to Ecuador 
and Colombia to aid in improving serious condi- 
tions. 

Tlie problem is critical and the equipment must 
be cared for in every possible way to preserve it 
and keep it in effective operation. 

As we extend our fronts farther and farther 
from our war factories, our shipping problems 
become constantly more intense. Men are being 
sent to these far-flung battlefields by the hundreds 
of thousands, farther and farther from our shores, 
increasing the time element for the round voyage 
and increasing the volume of war material that 
must be transported. In addition to our tremen- 
dous armies in these war areas, the United States 
alone now has the greatest Navy in the world and 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BVLLETiy 

this too must be supplied by our Merchant Marine. 

The intensification of air and mechanized war- 
fare and naval warfare puts a constantly increased 
strain on our petroleum resources. Thus there 
can be no alleviation of the serious problem of our 
railroads until the war is won. 

It is our objective in this Committee to assist the 
free nations of the Americas to full effort and co- 
operation in solving these most pressing matters 
of wartime transportation. 

In war we talk of controls, governmental con- 
trols, because they are necessary to the accomplish- 
ment of war purposes. We must control prices, 
commodities, distribution, production. One of the 
vital problems facing our Committee, however, 
is to make plans which will permit the discon- 
tinuance of these controls as soon as war activities 
permit. Such controls in peacetime hamper the 
free normal trade and commerce, the access to raw 
materials, the manufacture of consumer goods, 
the production of food, and all the normal proc- 
esses which lead to higher living standards and the 
prosperity of the nations individually and 
collectively. 

We must plan moreover for new industries, for 
the manufacture of new jiroducts, for the manu- 
facture of articles in countries best suited to mak- 
ing them. 

One of the vital needs of this hemisphere after 
the war, as it will be a vital need of the world, is 
the freedom of all nations to obtain the necessary 
raw materials, to manufacture and produce the 
articles for which they have particular talents, and 
to sell their products throughout the woi'ld. One 
mistake of the past which we must scrupulously 
avoid in our plans is the development of industries 
which are not of themselves profitable and which 
must be protected behind high tariff barriers. The 
post-war world will require production such as has 
never before been dreamed of and there is oppor- 
tunity for every nation to develop industries suited 
to its particular talents without attempting to 
indulge in fields of production for which adequate 
facilities are not available. 

In many nations of Central and South America 
there are great undeveloped resources in land and 
in industry. Many of these nations require in- 
creased manpower for their proper development 
and that a sound, far-sighted immigration policy 
be developed before this war is over. 



JANUARY 21. 1945 

As all of us have discovered, there are varying 
types of immigrants. Some maintain loyalty 
through generations to the nation of their origin. 
Others quickly become a part of the nation of their 
choice, bring to it a love of freedom, a talent for 
mechanical production or agricultural skills which 
immediately make them a productive part of their 
new country. This latter class can perform a great 
service for several of the American nations and 
such nations can well plan now to invite through 
proper inducements the immigrants they would 
like to have. 

There is financial responsibility involved in such 
a program. Some authorities consider that a 
thousand dollars a family is the minimum which 
should be allowed for immigrants, but increased 
production both in industry and in agriculture, 
the development of areas that are now unde- 
veloped, the development of mines and natural 
resources will soon make such investments pay 
large dividends. 

In the development of industry, mining, agri- 
culture, hydroelectric power, new transportation 
facilities, shipping, and all the factors which the 
Americas will look to in the post-war period to 
increase the earning power and the living stand- 
ards of their people, there will be investment funds 
available, both foreign and domestic. To attract 
these funds, however, safeguards and new rules 
of operation must be set up in all nations. 

Finally, we must plan carefully and effectively 
to improve the basic economy of the people by 
intensifying and enlarging the health and sanita- 
tion programs which have been initiated in the 
American republics. 

We must aid and encourage the food-production 
programs, extending this work of farm planning, 
crop production, rotation of crops, soil conserva- 
tion and fertilization, and improvement of the 
breed of farm animals as well as their care, so that 
the people of all the nations of this hemisphere 
may have better food and become stronger and 
more vigorous. One vital element in this program 
is the education of all the people in this hemisphere 
on matters of nutrition and health and welfare. 

We must encourage the extension of free educa- 
tion and encourage the people to take advantage 
of educational opportunities. 

As serious as our problems are, let us always 
remember that we do not have to rebuild and re- 
habilitate our cities and farms as will be the case 



95 

in Europe. We have much to start with, and by 
our unified effort we can accomplish great results. 
This work involving problems of great com- 
plexity, requiring patient thought and constant 
attention can be done by no one group or no one 
nation. What affects any American nation bene- 
fits the American Hemisphere. What harms any 
American nation harms the American Hemisphere. 
In union there is power, and together by using 
the Commissions of Inter- American Development, 
by working through our own Committee, and by 
working with and through the existing private 
and government organizations in each of the 
American republics, we have the opportunity and 
the obligation to develop within the American 
Hemisphere a community of nations which will 
be prosperous, strong, and productive. We can 
have a community of nations whose people enjoy 
the advantages of high earnings, high living stand- 
ards, education, and their continued and everlast- 
ing freedom. 

Maintenance of the Economies 
Of the Liberated Countries 

JOINT STATEMENT BY THE DEPARTMENT OF 
STATE AND THE BRITISH EMBASSY 

[Released to the press January 15] 

Eichard Law, British Minister of State, left 
Washington January 14. He had had a series of 
discussions with the Sscretai-y of State and other 
prominent members of the administration on the 
economic problems arising out of the liberation of 
large parts of Europe. 

The main subject of discussion has been how to 
maintain the economies of the liberated countries 
so that they may become an effective advance base 
for the operations of our armies against Germany. 
Both the United States and the United Kingdom 
Governments were from the outset fully agreed on 
the importance of this objective, but in achieving 
it difficult shipping problems have to be faced. 

As a result of the conversations, it has been pos- 
sible for the two Governments to establish the di- 
mensions of the problem and to agree upon interim 
measures which will increase the regular flow of 
supplies to liberated Europe and enable the gov- 
ernments of the European countries, as soon as 
conditions in each case permit, to have national 
import programs of their own. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



People-to-People Relations Among the 
American Republics 



[Released to the press January 18] 

Understanding Between Peoples 

Let me begin by saying that I bring you the 
greetings of the Secretary of State and that one 
of your distinguished fellow New Yorkers, Mr. 
Nefson Rockefeller, has asked me to convey his 
greetings to you also. 

It is particularly encouraging to note that the 
interest of so many superintendents, principals, 
and teachers of the city of New York in our for- 
eign relations has given me this opportunity to 
bring my grain of sand of experience to you today 
to help, if I can, in your work of constructing a 
solid bridge of understanding between the peoples 
of this hemisphere. 

It is not surprising, however, for I am not un- 
aware of the fine work that you have already done 
to furtlier this understanding. I have had some 
experience with your enlightened initiative of of- 
fering college scholarships to Latin American stu- 
dents—a project fostered by your mayor for a num- 
ber of years. I have heard, for instance, to mention 
only two of many, of tlie fine work of Dr. Hine at 
the James Monroe High School in the Bronx and 
of Mr. Levine at a school in East Harlem with a 
large Puerto Rican enrolment. I have read the 
thoughtful paper of your own Dr. James Marshall 
as well as the papers of other New York educators 
in a book which you have doubtless read called 
Approaches to World Peace. 

Right here in your own area it is obvious that 
the rehitions between New York City, Hoboken, 
and Jersey City depend less on the attitudes of 
the mayors of those cities toward each other than 
on the attitude of the populations of those cities 
toward each other. 

You have discovered, through your own experi- 
ence, that a basic understanding between the 



' Delivered before the staff of the New York City Schools 
on Jan. 18, 1945. Mr. Boal is a Foreign Service officer, 
formerly American Ambassador to Bolivia, and is at pres- 
ent as.signed to the Office of American Republic Affairs, 
Department of State. 



Address by PIERRE DE L. BOAL' 

peoples and races of the world, as represented here 
T\ ithin your city, is necessary if the causes of con- 
flict which produce violence are to be identified and 
prevented. The same experience reveals the same 
condition even more convincingly in the relations 
between the peoples of the world, for in the world 
there is as yet no over-all, organized means of pro- 
tecting international order. Such a means is being 
devised and created. What was begun at Bretton 
Woods and Dumbarton Oaks is a practical at- 
tempt based on the present degree of understanding 
between the peoples of the world with which we are 
not at war. What has been achieved there must 
be ratified — nailed down as a foundation for fur- 
ther achievement as experience and the develop- 
ment of understanding make this possible. To 
develop through experience, it must have the sup- 
port of a wider and more realistic and tolerant 
understanding between those peoples. The com- 
mon object of those peoples must be to erect a 
framework of world order which, after this long 
war is over, even the enemy peoples can discover 
to be not only strong but just. 

The Inter-American System 

You are doubtless familiar with the inter-Amer- 
ican system which traces its origins to Bolivar, 
Henry Clay, and James G. Blaine and has received 
impulsion and growing reality and effectiveness 
from the statesmen of all of the American republics 
since 1889. Since 1933, President Roosevelt, for 
our country, has encouraged and furthered the de- 
velopment of the inter- American system with every 
means at his disposal. 

It is a completely mutual system, springing 
from the community of ideal and purpose of the 
American republics. It is designed to improve 
the relations between all of the American peoples, 
not just between the Latin Americans on the one 
hand and the Americans of the United States on 
the other. 

The system was evolved and put into the form 
of agreements and resolutions at a series of inter- 



JANUARY 21, 1945 

American conferences whicli have taken place 
every few years since the end of the last century. 
One of the principal instruments of inter-Ameri- 
can understanding is a permanent organization, 
the Pan American Union. The Pan American 
Union belongs to all of the American republics 
and acts for all of them. 

Besides those of the Pan American Union there 
are a number of other inter-American committees 
and bodies of a continuing nature whose purpose 
it is to develop understanding and good practical 
relationships at all levels and in all fields of en- 
deavor. The conferences themselves have dealt 
with practically all of the subjects on which there 
is contact between the American republics. Many 
of their agreements were made to secure the de- 
fense of the hemisphere against outside aggres- 
sion and interference designed to destroy 
democracy. Others have set up methods for elimi- 
nating conflicts at their origin and for preventing 
conflicts that had already developed from turn- 
ing into wars. The inter- American juridical com- 
mittee, for instance, is trying to consolidate all the 
inter- American peace agreements into one treaty 
and to suggest improvements to that. 

Beyond that, positive means have been sought to 
establish exchange of thought, information, and of 
knowledge of ways of life between the peoples of 
the American republics. This effort exists not only 
in the cultural but in the social fields. Of course, 
cultural and social problems overlap and inter- 
mingle not only between themselves but with eco- 
nomic and psychological problems, and the prcxl- 
uct of all four becomes what we call political 
problems. 

There are outstanding political problems. I 
might devote all my time before you to discussing 
tliem, but this would be to discuss effects and not 
cau.ses. I am sure you are deeply interested in the 
prevention of war, and, therefore. I think our inter- 
est meets on causes rather than on effects. There- 
fore, while I will mention some effects, I will de- 
vote most of my time to indications of what the 
causes may be and of how to get at these causes. 

The present inter-American system is based on 
agreements freely reached between nations treating 
as equals. Each nation's decision issued from con- 
viction and consent. This means that an action 
applicable to all the American republics cannot be 
reached, for instance, if the people of the United 
States, or of Costa Rica, or Uruguay do not under- 



97 



stand the reasons advanced by the other peoples of 
the hemisphere. 

It means more than this. It means that the 
peoples of all the American nations must trust 
each other and believe in each other's sincerity. 
Without such confidence progress is impossible. 
It is because such confidence has been developed 
over a period of many years that there has been 
more teamwork between peoples of this hemi- 
sphere in recent years than between any of the 
other peoples of the world, excepting perhaps be- 
tween .some of the peoples of the British Common- 
wealth of Nations and between them and the 
United States. I am thinking particularly of our 
relations with Canada. 

In Latin America, through the operation of the 
inter-American system, many causes of war, such 
as boundary disputes, have been prevented from 
resulting in war. Some settlements have left re- 
sentments. These need to be tempered through 
the development of understanding between the 
peoples concerned. Treaty and other relations 
between peoples cannot remain static without 
danger to peace. There must be a dynamic will- 
ingness in all human relations to adjust to change 
and to remedy intolerable conditions. This must 
be done, internationally, through the mutual un- 
derstanding and resulting willingness of both par- 
ties concerned. 

One implication of the "unanimous" method of 
the inter-American system is that no country shall 
interfere in the internal affairs of another. The 
American repliblics are all committed to this prin- 
ciple by treaty. It automatically outlaws war as 
a method of settlement between them. Therefore, 
if a subsisting cause of conflict is to be adjusted, 
this must be done through the development of un- 
derstanding between the peoples concerned so that 
their governments may make an adjustment. 

All causes of conflict are not purely material. In 
fact very few are. For many years Latin America 
feared "domination" by the United States. To 
them this spelled "danger". "We might recall that 
the word danger derives from the Latin ^'donvini- 
a/'ii/m — domination, as Dr. Adolf Meyer of Johns 
Hopkins Hospital has pointed out. We must try 
to be helpful to the peoples of the other American 
republics and seek their help for ourselves, but 
we must never adopt the self-righteous, interfer- 
ing, intolerant attitudes populai-ly attributed to a 
mother-in-law. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Culture, Way of Life, and Cooperation in the 
Americas 

We speak of Latin America as distinct from the 
United States and Canada. This term Lat!n 
Amej'ica is convenient, but I am not sure that it is 
accurate. 

The cultural influence coming from overseas to 
the lands south of the Rio Grande has been pre- 
dominantly Latin, because the conquerors and 
administrators of that vast area were largely 
Spanish, or Portuguese, or French. However, in 
those lands the people who undertook the original 
aggression against the Indian population of the 
land did not resort generally to the method of ex- 
terminating the Indians. This was partly due to 
the extensive influence of a Church which wanted 
converts and partly due to the different ways of 
life and characteristics of the Indians themselves 
which permitted them to work for their conquerors. 

Within what we call Latin America there are 
great bodies of Indian peoples, many millions of 
them, whose basic characteristics, ways of life, and 
thought have permeated their nations and who are 
not Latin but Indian. 

In Mexico, where the Indian has always been 
creative, curious, and inventive with his hands, he 
has become politically habilitated and takes now a 
dominant part in the life of his country. 

In Mexico, Guatemala, Ecuador, Peru, and Bo- 
livia, and to some extent in Paraguay and much 
less in Brazil, the Indian population and its pat- 
tern of life have remained intact. In the first five 
countries named there has been some mixture, but 
a great part of the population remains practically 
pure Indian. That Indian, although in some places 
his participation in the government of his country 
is increasing, has by no means become fully habili- 
tated and integrated for political purposes. 

When you get to Uruguay, Argentina, and Chile, 
you find not only that the pure Indian has almost 
disappeared, but that the European stock is pre- 
dominant and European culture and ways of life 
are little affected by Indian tradition. 

Thus, within the framework of the Latin Ameri- 
can nations, you find side by side with a strong 
European way of life a strong Indian way of life. 
This leads to the conclusion, since Dr. Wade has 
asked me to mention conclusions, that to establish 
a comprehensive understanding between our people 
and the peoples of Latin America we need to arrive 



at mutual understanding not only with people of 
European origins but with the Indian civilizations. 
It will help us and them if you include in your 
studies the study of Indian ways of life as they 
exist in Latin America. 

When we talk of ways of life we imply the struc- 
ture of family life and the cultural life of the 
people. The way of life of the families in Latin 
America is apt to be either Indian, Spanish, or 
Portuguese, although in some smaller areas it is 
French, or Dutch, or Anglo-Saxon. The cultural 
way of life, however, corresponds largely to 
French influence, although it was originally Span- 
ish or Portuguese. To a lesser degree German and 
Italian cultures have made their way. Among 
the Indians, Indian culture persists. 

The Mecca for the Latin American intellectual 
and professional during the last century was Paris. 
And the French, with their broad interest in hu- 
manism, imparted a great deal of their literary and 
philosophical tradition of thought and initiative 
to the peoples of Latin America. For instance, 
Euben Dario, tlie great Nicaraguan poet and 
author, derived much of his inspiration from 
France, although he was also a fervent admirer 
of Walt Whitman. Although there are not a great 
many French people in Latin America, until re- 
cently at least, knowledge of the French language 
was more extensive than knowledge of English. 

Sometimes we tend to think of American cul- 
ture or Anglo-Saxon culture as being very diffei-ent 
from Latin culture. As a matter of fact, it seems 
to me that both cultures go back to the same dis- 
tant main origins of Greece and Rome and then 
come down by somewhat different routes to the 
United States and to Latin America. 

Actually the differences are not nearly as great 
as we think they are. Diffei'ences of language and 
form have served to make them seem greater than 
they are. They are more matters of development 
than they are basic. The laws in Latin America 
come largely from Rome and Spain and the Napo- 
leonic Code, whereas ours come largely from Eng- 
land. But both aspire to protect the rights of the 
individual, as such. We share the same admiration 
for the same schools of painting and sculpture and 
music and literature. There is more similarity 
than difference in our point of view on arts and 
letters. 

We have often tended to emphasize the visible 
differences between the peoples north and south 



JANUARY 21, 1945 



99 



of the Rio Grande; differences of dress and cus- 
tom, of climate and products are stressed in this 
country as they are in Latin America. This is 
doubtless necessary, because if you are going to 
attract somebody's attention you have to do it 
through making what you present picturesque 
and romantic. I hope we are reaching the point 
where we can go on from there to interest people 
in the likenesses as well as the differences. For 
the purposes of this talk I do have to talk about 
differences, some of them more apparent than real, 
as well as about likenesses. 

One of the things that I observed while living 
in Latin America was that most of the statesmen, 
the members of congress, the cabinet officers, the 
diplomats and foreign ministers are deeply in- 
terested in literature and philosophy. A high 
proportion of them are authors. Very often they 
are poets. Our own people are great readers, but 
perhaps not so many of them write poetry. 

If the qualifications of a foreign minister were 
being passed on in a Latin American country, it 
is quite possible that the question asked would not 
be "Wliy is he a poet?" but ''Why isn't he a poet?" 

This leads to a conclusion. When you see among 
your students someone who is interested in cre- 
ative thought and its expression, can you not think 
of him as someone who would be especially quali- 
fied to deal with Latin Americans? Can you not 
encourage his interest toward the peoples of the 
other American republics ? 

I am not prepared to admit that the literary 
mind is necessarily less practical than any other. 
I have never met more astute bargainers anywhere 
than among the poetic statesmen of Latin 
America. 

Sometimes we tend to consider the flow of 
tourists between our country and the other Ameri- 
can republics as unimportant or even harmful. 
My observation does not support this idea. Where 
our tourists have been most numerous, as in Mexi- 
co for instance, in spite of petty frictions there has 
been a rapid increase of understanding. The same 
can be said with regard to Latin Americans com- 
ing to this country. 

Businessmen, especially when they settle for a 
long time in the country, tend to acquire an in- 
timacy of knowledge with the people of the coun- 
try which can be extraordinarily helpful. Our 
Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs very 
wisely formed committees of American residents. 



businessmen, and teachers in each of the Ameri- 
can republics, and, by and large, the experience 
of those people in how to be compatible with the 
people of the country was of the greatest assist- 
ance. However, it is to be hoped that in the future 
the businessmen of the Americas can get to un- 
derstand each other by studying together in their 
formative years. That would really make for 
compatibility. One of the most effective ways 
of creating compatibility between individuals of 
two countries is to bring them together for an ob- 
jective purpose, such as the acquisition of knowl- 
edge or training. The governments of the Ameri- 
can republics, as well as their institutions of 
learning and their municipalities, have of recent 
years made an effort to intensify the exchange of 
students and teachers. In my opinion, this should 
be multiplied many fold as quickly as possible. 

Anything that can be done on a practical 
basis to develop exchange of persons, particu- 
larly of teachers and students, and the ex- 
change of information and of books and peri- 
odicals between the peoples of this hemisphere 
is of basic importance. Dr. Marshall, with many 
other leaders, has been working toward an inter- 
national organization in the field of education for 
this purpose on a world-wide basis, and I hope 
that this effort will be successful and will have the 
wide support of our own people. I hope, further- 
more, that all of our people who are especially 
qualified for work in our future cooperation with 
Latin America can be found and placed on a 
roster of availability for use when possible. 

One of the things I was able to observe in Latin 
America was the effect of craftsmanship on good 
citizenship. I lived for some days with a miner 
and his family at a Bolivian mine. The commu- 
nity was situated on a steep slope surrounded by 
forest. Uncut timber was readily available. The 
houses were built in rows on terraces dug into the 
hillside about six feet above each other. They were 
made of split logs planted vertically and roofed 
with galvanized-iron sheets. The chinks were 
filled with a mud compound, and sometimes the 
walls of the rooms wei-e plastered. Some of the 
houses had cement floors, but most of them had 
dirt floors. 

Some of the miners said that they were worried 
because their small children were apt to fall off 
the five- or six-foot retaining walls from one level 
to another. They wished the company carpenters 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



would put up a ft-nce. I said, "You have wood 
here; why don't you cut it and put up your own 
fence?" They looked at me in amazement and 
said they did not know how, and furthermore they 
had no tools. One of them complained that a shelf 
in his house was falling down and it might be 
months before the company carpenter got around 
to putting it up again with a couple of screws. I 
asked him why he did not put it up himself. It 
developed that not only did he have no screws and 
no screwdriver, but he didn't know how to put up 
a shelf. 

Now, it was interesting to note that these same 
Indians weave excellent cloth and blankets con- 
taining intricate designs. Weaving is a traditional 
occupation. One or two families in a village have 
learned, from father to son over thousands of years, 
how to make the instruments of weaving, and 
others have carried on the craft. Tliese same In- 
dians, taken to a vocational school, show initiative 
and ingenuity. But the pattern of their commu- 
nity is such that they rarely try anything new 
while they are in the community. 

The Indians had few sports, as we understand 
the term. Sjiorts are being widely introduced, par- 
ticularly soccer football. They enjoy it, and it is 
develo])ing many qualities in them which would 
otherwise remain latent. 

At this mme which I mentioned, there was a 
school for the children. The school-teacher and 
his wife and baby lived in one makeshift room ad- 
jacent to the classroom. The school would only 
accommodate about a third of the number of the 
mine children, so two thirds were doomed to grow 
up illiterate. The teaching in the school, as in 
many parts of Latin America, was done largely 
from a blackboard, without textbooks, because 
textbooks are rare and expensive. The teacher, 
besides the imparting of rudimentary literacy to 
all the students, had taught a few to do advanced 
algebra or recite verses which they did not under- 
stand. These were the exhibits who were trotted 
out whenever there was a visitor. But there was 
no provision at all for teaching anyone the use of a 
saw, plane, hammer, chisel, or screwdriver, or how 
to heat and shape metal at a forge. So this com- 
munity had gone on from generation to generation 
without learning how to do anything new with 
their hands excepting dig with a pick and shovel 
or, in some instances, run a pneumatic drill. 



The teacher, however, had the initiative to start 
some night classes for adult education. One of the 
most interesting things was to see that these classes 
were attended by a great many more women than 
men. But no training in cooking, hygiene, or the 
care of children was provided. 

There was no indication that one third of the 
rising generation in this community, with its smat- 
tering of literacy, would ever make much progress 
toward becoming citizens able to participate in the 
political life of the country or able to understand 
international life and issues. In the first place, the 
chances of their ever being able to buy and read 
books or periodicals was small. They are too 
costly and not readily available. 

In the big cities there are some libraries, which 
usually do not lend out books. The Indian, even 
when literate, has practically no access to books. 

It is feasible to run lending libraries in Latin 
American countries which need them. We can be 
helpful by sharing our experience in the training 
of librarians. 

It was my good fortune to share in the founding 
of American libraries in Mexico and Nicaragua. 
They were staffed by librarians trained in the 
United States and proficient in Spanish. Given 
the facilities, these can train more librarians in 
their libraries so that more national libraries can 
be opened in those countries. While many of the 
books in these libraries are in Spanish, English is 
taught in them so that our books and periodicals 
may be as useful as possible. This is particularly 
helpful to medical and other professional students, 
who can thus use the technical books and periodi- 
cals brought in by the library. Moving pictures 
are shown at the libraries. There is room in them 
for art exhibits. In fact, they grew naturally into 
cultural centers, conducted for and with the people 
of the country who participate in their operation. 
Thus they are not propaganda offices but objective, 
broad centers of learning and exchange of thought. 

■Wliile in Bolivia, knowing how successful our 
other libraries in Latin America had been, I sought 
to get one established in that country. Our Gov- 
ernment's sliare of the cost was estimated at about 
$20,000 with an annual contribution to running 
costs of $4,000 or $5,000 a year. But no funds were 
available. So one of the main ways of developing 
understanding with a people supplying us with 
vital rubber and other critical materials was 
blocked. 



JANUARY 21, 1945 

If the unclerstandin^- of our Latin American 
neighbors is to undergird a mutual effort to pre- 
vent the causes of another war, it would be cheap, 
very cheap, for us to cooperate with them in li- 
braries like this in every one of their countries 
and in the establishment of library-cultural cen- 
ters from every one of their countries in the United 
States. 

If our librarian from Nicaragua could come 
here and talk of his experiences he could tell you, 
far better than I can, how practically useful to the 
peace and unity of this hemisphere such libraries 
can be. When you, the teachers of our people, 
examine with them and witli their representatives 
and their State Department what can be done to 
further understanding between the peoples of this 
hemisphere — please remember libraries. 

I was able further to observe at the mine I men- 
tioned that the few craftsmen of the community, 
tlie carpenters, the baker, the mechanics, had 
rapidly acquired literacy and an interest in read- 
ing. In some way the mental effort of developing 
the skill of their hands had opened the road to 
education. 

Here was a place where a vocational school was 
urgently called for. 

In general, in many Latin American countries, 
particularly those where the Indian predominates 
or where standards of living are relatively low, 
there is a great place for our cooperation in the 
development of vocational schools. Our help 
would be welcome. 

While we can contribute with our own experi- 
ence in vocational training, we have to realize that 
a teacher must learn before he can teach. He must 
have a good command of the language, must un- 
derstand the customs, the needs, and the specific 
local objectives to be served. Most of the coun- 
tries (and I may say that each one has its own par- 
ticular problem; no two are really alike), most of 
the covmtries profit from vocational training in 
agricultural methods, provided the teachers them- 
selves are fully aware of the limitations and spe- 
cial conditions of agriculture in those countries. 
Most of tJie countries would be better members 
of the community of nations of this hemisphere 
if they were more nearly self-supporting and if 
they had small industries. 

One of the things we did in Bolivia was to trans- 
late locally an American textbook on carpentry 
and another on sheet-metal work into Spanish, 



101 

changing all measures in the text and illustrations 
from feet and inches to metric measures. This was 
for the vocational schools in La Paz, which were 
definitely hampered in trying to teach practical 
carpentry from a blackboard without textbooks, 
drawings, or sufficient mechanical equipment. 

It may be significant that the children of the 
educated classes are reluctant to learn to make 
things with their hands. The families of Spanish 
tradition look upon it as demeaning. Their atti- 
tude is a little like the attitude of some of our 
people toward performing domestic service for pay. 
It recalls a Chinese friend of mine who was a but- 
ler. One day I discovered he was also a mandarin. 
I asked him whether he didn't mind being a ser- 
vant. '"Not at all," he replied, "'the kind of work I 
do to earn my living does not change who I am. 
However, I should lose face if I did not do my 
butler's work competently." 

The attitude toward craftsmanship is changing 
among the educated classes in Latin America. It 
would change more rapidly if even in the few 
American schools in Latin America the children 
were led into carpentry, for instance, by making 
objects of prestige such as airplane and ship 
models. 

In La Paz there is an American school and a 
German school. They are side by side. Almost all 
their jjupils are Bolivian. I am sorry to say that 
the German school is a more efficient educational 
institution, although the American school has got- 
ten some help from the Coordinator and the State 
Department and is improving. Incidentally, the 
German school teaches English more thoroughly 
than the American school. It also inculcates ad- 
miration for Germany and Nazism. English is 
taught so that the graduates can defend and ex- 
tend that ideology. 

In Bolivia I observed there was no factory to 
make window glass or gasoline and oil drums or 
to dry and cut timber to standard lengths. Win- 
dows and doors were shaped by Indians with a 
chisel. There was no shaping machine. The re- 
sult was very poor windows and dooi's, produced 
at high cost and with undue use of manpower that 
could have been emploj'ed to better advantage. 

I frequently visited the Indian communities on 
the high plateau between the ranges of the Andes 
in Bolivia. They stem from an ancient civiliza- 
tion. Villamil de Kada, a Bolivian student of the 
origin of words, claimed that the forbears of the 



102 

Greeks were Bolivian Aymard Indians who 
reached the Eastern Hemisphere via the continent 
or islands of the lost Atlantis. He claimed Olym- 
pus was a corruption of Illiampu, the name of the 
great mountain, 23,000 feet high, which towers 
over his home town of Sorata near the high plateau 
of Bolivia. He claimed that the Garden of Eden 
was at Sorata and that Adam and Eve were the 
first Aymara Indians. I can't comment on this. 
On the plateau, at about 13,000 feet, these commu- 
nities are mostly within a reasonable distance of 
Lake Titicaca, the biggest lake in Latin America, 
comparable in size to one of our Great Lakes. I 
found the Indians carrying their drinking and 
washing water daily for miles in old gasoline cans. 
The water table of the plateau averages something 
like 30 feet below the surface. There is a constant 
wind. Each of those communities could have its 
drinking, washing, and laundry water readily ac- 
cessible by drilling a well and putting up a pump 
run by a windmill. One or two big farms or haci- 
endas have done so, but the communities them- 
selves go on carrying water from some lake or 
stream. If we could cooperate with the Govern- 
ment and the Indian communities to provide the 
equipment and drilling machinery and a few tech- 
nicians, the Indian would not only have greater 
hygienic facilities but he could water more live- 
stock. Maybe this is a sort of quixotic idea, a sort 
of tilting at windmills, but I think it would be 
worth trying. 

Down in the Amazonian-jungle part of Bolivia 
which is utterly tropical, there is a nutritional 
problem. There isn't enough food of high vita- 
min content. Up on the high plateau they grow a 
fine grain called quinua which is high in vitamin 
content, but, because of transportation difficulties 
and lack of organization, very little of it ever gets 
to the tropics. It keeps well, and a little organiza- 
tion and financial assistance coupled with develop- 
ment of communications, which is necessary and 
urgent for other reasons as well, would make it 
possible to introduce quinua in the tropics, par- 
ticularly, for a time at least, for the free provision 
of breakfasts in the schools. 

Unhygienic conditions produce typhus in the 
highlands and malaria, hookworm, and tropical 
ulcers in the tropics. In Nicaragua, the agricul- 
tural and coffee workers are devitalized by hook- 
worm and malaria. In this naturally rich country 
many are unnaturally poor. A sick man can't 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

work much, and most of the workers are sick all 
their short lives. 

The health brigades sent out by the Coordinator 
to work with and for the ministries of health have 
done fine work. But they need more persomiel, 
more funds, more teachers of public health, hy- 
giene, and nursing. They need closer integration 
with other cooperative efforts, not only educational 
but industrial. To combat hookworm you need to 
provide very cheap shoes. A child who con- 
sistently wears shoes usually doesn't get hook- 
worm. 

At the Misiones Indian School on the Chapare 
River in tropical Bolivia I found malaria preva- 
lent. We slept in hammocks under nets, but the 
mosquitoes came up from under the split-reed 
floor. They bred in the dark, damp space about 
three feet high below the floor, which is left to 
take care of flood water. I suggested that, as a 
temporary measure, when the river launches 
emptied their crankcases the teachers might ask 
for the oil and spread it under their houses to dis- 
courage mosquito breeding. They thought this 
would be a good idea, but I doubt if it was car- 
ried out. A Bolivian simply trained in public 
health by our doctors could do wonders if he stayed 
at Misiones for six months. 

Incidentally, the Yuracara Indians at this re- 
mote riverside school can rarely count beyond 10, 
and give their children the full names of such 
distinguished contemporary Bolivians as thej' hear 
mentioned, without adding a family name of their 
own. They are a civilized tribe which lives in 
mortal fear of the wild Siriano Indians roaming 
the nearby jungle. They are an amiable peo- 
ple, and the parents serve on a school board with 
the teachers and take a deep interest in the educa- 
tion of their children. They are less different from 
us than you might think. 

Making communications is being undertaken in 
a joint Bolivian-American Development Corpora- 
tion ; two main highways designed to bring meat 
and oil from the lowlands to the populous high- 
lands are under construction. The work is slow. 
There are not enough technicians and not enough 
mechanical equipment. Even if we had to defer 
building some roads of non-military importance in 
the United States for a time it would probably 
pay us in the long run to give more determined as- 
sistance to the construction of these communica- 



JANUARY 21, 1945 

tions, which are vital to the integration of the Bo- 
livian people. 

Right now they are extremely dependent on their 
neighbors for certain kinds of food and other sup- 
plies which they have in their own country but 
can't reach. It never helps relations between peo- 
ples to have one people placed at the mercy of a 
neighbor, especially when there is a potential 
danger that that dependence may be used for po- 
litical or economic leverage. 

There are several normal schools in Bolivia. 
One of them, for training Indians who are to be 
teachers in the Indian schools on the high plateau, 
is housed in a group of good small concrete build- 
ings. The work is conscientious and good. The 
place looks modern. The director of the school 
took me proudly to the spring from which the 
school got its water. One of our health officers 
accompanied me. The principal handed us each 
a glass of water. I drank mine but my companion 
didn't drink his. I looked up and saw that the 
water came out of the hill just below some native 
buildings and could readily be supposed to be 
contaminated. I learned that the normal school 
had no instruction in hygiene. I also observed 
that although they had their own vegetable gar- 
dens they had no work on nutrition or, for the 
women teachers, on the care of infants and chil- 
dren. How helpful it would have been if our 
health cooperation could have been extended to 
bring trained men or women into the school to 
teach hygiene, nutrition, cooking, and the care of 
infants and children. Each of the students would 
soon have in his or her hands the welfare and edu- 
cation of several hundred Indian children. There- 
fore, elementary knowledge and training now lack- 
ing could have been spread as far as possible 
through more complete instruction in the normal 
school. 

The school is next to a town which has no dis- 
pensary of any description. A cooperative effort 
between a doctor and a small dispensary in the 
town and the students at the school would provide 
elementary first-aid, public-health, and hygiene 
training for all their future teachers. 

Near Lake Titicaca there is a Baptist mission 
which has run a school and developed an agricul- 
tural community for over 20 years. The Indians 
are all literate. They no longer chew coca. Their 
houses are well built, warm, and dry. They make 
and use furniture. Each family owns its own land. 



205 



More and better crops are grown than in the neigh- 
boring villages. They have an interest in their 
government. It is a complete object-lesson of what 
one or two teachers can accomplish if they settle 
down permanently to try. 

Our effort at full cooperation with the peoples 
of Latin America is very recent. Because of war 
conditions and for other reasons people sent to 
carry out that cooperation in the fields of health 
and education have been inclined to consider their 
assignments as short-term, a year or two in which, 
to do what they could do. Most of that time has 
been devoted to learning the language, working out 
administrative problems, and waiting for supplies. 
It would seem to me that our programs for coop- 
eration should be based on the idea that our per- 
sonnel should expect to stay and live in the com- 
munities to which they are sent for at least 5 or 
10 years. Exchange professorships of course have 
to be for shorter terms. 

I note, for instance, that where the MaryknoU 
Order of American priests has sent missionary 
priests to Amazonian regions of South America, 
at the invitation of the local clergy, to assume par- 
ishes not otherwise provided for, they go with the 
expectation of spending the rest of their lives there. 
This produces a mental attitude toward the work 
which is different from that produced in the tran- 
sient. It also produces a much better state of mind 
toward them among the people who are to accept 
them. These priests are not only a positive means 
of assistance, they are also successful, although 
that may not be their main purpose, in bringing 
understanding of our country to other countries 
and providing to us a means of learning about 
other peoples. 

Every country has its own ideas about education 
and its own ways of developing them. In some 
countries, for instance, schools for conscripts are 
maintained in the army. This education under 
military auspices is looked upon as one of the most 
effective means of reducing illiteracy. Whatever 
the system, the authorities and the people usually 
have some pride in it. In our cooperation on edu- 
cational matters, therefore, we need to approach 
with an open mind and without any thought of 
imposing any particular pattern or content of edu- 
cation. All we can do is offer the fruits of our 
experience in surroundings which we admit to be 
different. We can make available some specialized 
training and some material facilities, but these 



104 

must be fitted into what the people and the admin- 
istrators of the country want without our attempt- 
ing to impose wliat we think is good for them 
whether they like it or not. 

If, for instance, we find tliat they want to increase 
their schedules of vocational education, we may be 
able to provide technicians not only to teach stu- 
dents to become craftsmen but to teach local teach- 
ers to become vocational teachers. It must be up to 
the people of the country, however, to determine 
what vocations they want taught. 

It often seems easier to bring normal-school 
graduates to this country for training. This 
doesn't always work out as well as we might ex- 
pect. In the first place the number that can be 
taught in this way is proportionately more costly, 
and transportation is limited. One American 
teacher who has familiarized himself with the 
surroundings and needs and objectives of another 
country can annually habilitate 20 or 30 student- 
teachers to become teachers. It may be that some 
of these, if not all of them, would benefit from a 
further course in the United States, but it is so 
important that the source of their instruction 
should be familiar with their local conditions that 
I think it is more useful for an American techni- 
cal teacher in craftsmanship, for instance, to work 
in a foreign country than it is to bring the students 
for that instruction to this country. 

Contact and Compatibility 

Sometimes we hear it said that our relations 
with Latin America are deteriorating. Usually 
this is attributed toward what is rather vaguely 
called ''policy" or "lack" of it. 

Let me express what seems to me to have been 
happening. Up to the time of the beginning of this 
war the development of our compatibility with 
the other American republics, achieved largely 
through the development of the inter-American 
system, roughly corresponded to the gradual in- 
crease of contact between our people and the peo- 
ple of those countries. When the war came it 
intensified some of our contacts with Latin 
America and discouraged others. We became al- 
most the only buyers of the produce of some of the 
countries. We became almost the only source of 
machinery and equipment. The flow of tourists to 
and from Latin America dropped off sharply. 

As the only buyers of many products, the prices 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

for these were set without the influence of compe- 
tition. This sometimes put us in an arbitrary light 
even though we tried to be fair and also tried to 
help develop the industries from which we were 
buying, not only for the critical needs of a long 
war but so that they might be viable after that 
war. 

War needs made it necessary for us to ration 
our exports to Latin America. Wliile our reasons 
for priority restriction are understood, while it is 
generally realized that what we can't send to Latin 
America goes to defend the whole hemisphere, a 
man who could afford to buy a truck but can't get 
one to take his croj) to the market nevertheless 
feels thwarted. A newspaper editor weighing his 
4-page daily in one hand and one of our 20-page 
newspa])ers in the other may feel some sense of 
frustration even tliough shipping and newsprint 
sliortages are explained. 

Latin American businessmen, administrators, 
and agriculturalists have had to come to our Amer- 
ican representatives as suppliants. One asks, 
"Can't I get a motor for my flour mill to feed our 
people?" Another saj's, "My costs of production 
have gone up because the scarcity of import has 
raised the cost of living and of production. Can't 
you pay more for my product?" 

Sometimes our people have had to say "no"; 
sometimes there have been long delays. Our rep- 
resentatives haven't liked refusing any more than 
the Latin American has enjoyed asking. The very 
fact that he has had to do more of the asking, how- 
ever, has been adverse to the development of com- 
patibility, and so most of our recent contacts have 
been on a rather one-sided business basis without 
sufficient accompanying non -business contacts, 
such as those of tourists, students, and teachers. 
Books and magazines and technical periodicals are 
not widely enough exchanged to have a sufficient 
counteracting influence either in Latin America 
or here. 

Material Cooperation 

To put it briefly, contact has outstripped com- 
patibility. 

Just as we cannot achieve reciprocal understand- 
ing in the way peoples think of each other by mate- 
rial means alone, neither can we achieve a com- 
munity of feeling only through non-material means 
by cooperating only on cultural matters with the 
other American republics. We must recognize 



JANUARY 21. 1945 



105 



that in our time of need they have cooperated mate- 
rially with us ; great quantities of critical materials 
of war and of food, including products such as cof- 
fee and sugar, have come to us from them. At our 
behest they have tried to stimulate production of 
what we need most. 

There is still a long war ahead of us, and we will 
still need tlieir help as they need ours, but many 
of them are concerned about what will happen 
when the war does end. Will we go back to buying 
tin and rubber and copper and many other prod- 
ucts where they are cheapest regardless of other 
considerations? Will the end of the war bring a 
decline of purchases by the United States of Latin 
I American products on which production was in- 
I tensified and for which no exportable alternatives 
have been developed ? After the close drawing to- 
gether in the interest of wartime economics will 
there be a post-war period of indifference on the 
part of our people toward theirs ? 

These questions leave a responsibility on the 
American people. A sudden withdrawal fi'om 
material cooperation and foreign purchases would 
probably result in many economic collapses in 
Latin America, in a bitter feeling that the greatest 
democracy has shown them that democracy will 
not help them, in a flight in some places toward 
other ideologies. It is conceivable that, after a 
great war to destroy the Nazi-Fascist menace, in- 
attention and indifference on our part might cause 
it to be reborn amid the 125 million people to the 
south of us. 

Indifference on the part of our people, the source 
of our Government's authority for the extent and 
character of its foreign relations, has fostered 
causes of war in the past. It can do so in the future. 

To ward off a future war we must keep our 
friends. More than that, to keep our prosperity 
we must keep our friends. You cannot sell any- 
thing to a man who cannot pay you. A man can- 
not buy from you unless you are willing to buy 
from him or to buy from somebody who bought 
from him. If you expect to sell a windmill pump 
to a Bolivian Indian with the thought that some 
day it will cause him to buy a bathtub as well, you 
must let him sell you some of the metals with which 
you make the pump and the bathtub. Otherwise, 
he has nothing to pay you with. You stop his 
progress and you stop your own. 

It is just as dangerous for us to be indifferent 
to the standard of living of a Bolivian tin miner 



or a Nicaraguan coffee worker as to our own. The 
subject is complex. Increases in wages alone, 
essential though they may be, are not enough to 
raise the standard much. The Bolivian Indian tin 
miner is basically an agriculturalist. He doesn't 
enjoy digging underground any more than you 
and I would. Why does he do it? He usually 
owns a little plot of land many miles away from 
the mine. 

Under his primitive conditions he can't fill 
his basic needs only by working on his plot of land. 
These needs exclude books because he can't read. 
They exclude movies because there are none. They 
exclude furniture which he has never used. They 
come down to simple clothing, food, coca leaf to 
chew, chicha, the mild native corn wine, and keep- 
ing up with the Joneses. His main delight is to 
give a big party to maintain his social standing 
in the village. He also enjoys having some leisure. 
To get a tolerable proportion of these simple needs 
he will work six or eight months yearly in a mine. 

His needs should be increased along with his 
wages if he is to progress. 

One mine owner founded a rest home to which 
he brought 200 of his mine children every month. 
Nuns taught them for 30 days to wash, to sleep in 
beds, to eat good and varied food. I asked him 
what he was trying to do. 

"I am trying to make these children discon- 
tented," he said. "I want them to complain when 
they go back to their shacks at the mine, to 
want furniture and better food and housing and 
bathrooms. At the mine, as they begin to work 
I can then give them better wages and they will 
buy these things with them and will become bet- 
ter, healthier workers and better citizens instead 
of hiking off to the hills every six months to give 
fiestas." 

There are other ways. More educational oppor- 
tunities are among them. 

Our National Security Depends on Our Foreign 
Relations 

The inter-American system and our own effort 
to implement the good-neighbor policy have been 
remarkably productive considering the relatively 
small outlay of personnel and money we have 
made — small, that is, in comparison to the need 
and the opportunity. 

Dr. Sorokin of Harvard expresses the idea that 
when the ideas and the things taken for granted 



106 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



by various peoples diverge rapidly — develop along 
different lines — and at the same time they have 
more to do with each other than they used to, the 
stage is set for trouble. 

Tlie remedy seems to be: Bring such peoples to 
understand, to moderate, and, therefore, to tolerate 
each other's points of view. This is compatibility. 

Without it international relations are an arma- 
ments race. 

War is part of foreign relations as bankruptcy is 
part of finance. Could a firm prevent bankruptcy 
by disregarding finance? 

Our national defense depends on our foreign 
relations. Our foreign relations depend on the 
state of mind of other peoples toward ours and 
of ours toward them. Our foreign relations are 
our first line of defense. Its bulwarks are far be- 
yond our shores, in the minds and hearts of other 
peoples; its arsenals are in our own. 

A generation more numerous than the present 
generation of military age in the United States 
has been educated to believe that their welfare 
depends on recourse to force. 

If another war develops after this one we may 
have no time for preparation. We may be attacked 
overnight right here in our cities and on our roads, 
railways, and airports by missiles we can't even 
hear before they strike. 

We must maintain military readiness for such 
a possibility until international means of prevent- 
ing war are big and strong and efficient enough to 
be sure-fire. But our armed forces alone will be 
of no avail if we do not work, all of us, on the pre- 
vention of the causes of war as a matter of national 
defense. 

You, the teachers, hold the key to the minds of 
our people. War can be prevented by the develop- 
ment of understanding and opinion throughout the 
world, just as slavery was reduced. It is not, how- 
ever, pacifist, negative, anti-war indoctrination 
that we need. It is a dynamic effort for practical 
understanding between peoples which will lead to 
eliminating the mental and material causes of war. 

Can you, the teachers, make it clear that all our 
means of war prevention through the conduct of 
our foreign relations should be treated as part of 
our national defense? that some slight sacrifice 
by everyone to achieve the prevention of war is 
well worthwhile? 

Can you point out that this war costs our people 
250 million dollars a day and that all our peace- 



time foreign-relations work has never cost them 
as much as 100 millions a year — less than the cost 
of half a day of war? 

The old concept of "How cheaply can we carry 
on a minimum of foreign-relations work?" needs 
to be changed to "How much do we need to carry 
on our foreign-relations work as fully and as ef- 
fectively as possible?" 

The development of people-to-people relation- 
ships is vitally important to our own welfare as 
well as to that of our neighbors. Since our popu- 
lation is larger than that of all the other American 
republics put together, our country might en- 
visage carrying at least half of the effort for a 
greatly broadened mutual effort to develop people- 
to-people relationships. Since we are very much 
wealthier than they are per capita, our country 
might meet much more than half the expenses. 

Let the peoples of the American republics ex- 
change many thousands of students and teachers. 
Let them get their books translated and exchanged. 
Let them reciprocally invite establishment of li- 
braries and cultural centers. Let them share cul- 
tural experience. Let them break down the 
language barrier. Let them make the fullest use 
of the radio, the movies, health and economic co- 
operation, not for propaganda but to understand 
and to be understood, to help and to be helped. 

Let us hope that full national support will be 
given to those who have worked on these matters 
right here among us: such organizations as the 
Foreign Policy Association, the Council for 
Foreign Relations, the Carnegie Endowment for 
International Peace, the Rockefeller Foundation, 
the Institute for International Education and the 
many learned and professional societies. 

The actions of our Government spring from the 
will of the people. The State Dopartment, like 
other parts of our Government dealing with for- 
eign relations, should be and is making every ef- 
fort to be in the closest kind of contact with all 
of you and with those you teach. It is your State 
Department, a part of your national defense; it 
cannot progress without your interest, knowledge, 
and help. 

We have to win this war with blood and sacri- 
fice. We can win the next war with work and a 
small measure of sacrifice by doing everything 
humanly possible to prevent it. Let's make a na- 
tional job — a practical job shared by the whole 
people — of preventing another war. 



JANUARY 21, 1945 

Everett A. Tunnicliff 
Returns From China 

[Released to the press January 11] 

Dr. Everett A. Tunnicliff has just returned from 
China, where for the past year he has been serving 
the Chinese Ministry of AgricuUure and Forestry, 
at its request, as a specialist in the field of veteri- 
nary science, under the program of cultural co- 
operation of the Department of State. 

On his way to China Dr. Tunnicliff visited the 
Veterinary College and the Animal Disease Con- 
trol Station at Madras. At the Bengal Animal 
Disease Control Laboratory at Calcutta, Dr. Ali, 
Director of the Laborator}', gave him a culture of 
virus, wliich Dr. Tunnicliff used in Cliina to pro- 
duce a new and much cheaper type of vaccine for 
the control of rinderpest in cattle. The Govern- 
ment of India requested him to stop in India on 
his return from China to consult with the scientists 
of various Indian institutions concerning their own 
problems in animal-disease control. 

During his year's stay in China Dr. Tunnicliff 
had an unusual opportimity to travel widely in 
China studying the diseases of animals in various 
parts of the country and helping to reorganize the 
animal-disease-control program. He visited the 
various veterinary colleges and made suggestions 
for a revised curriculum in veterinary science. He 
taught a postgraduate course at Lanchow. 

On his return journey Dr. Tunnicliff visited the 
Ondertepoort Laboratories near Pretoria, Union 
of South Africa. 

Dr. Tunnicliff will return to his duties as 
pathologist at the ISIontana Veterinary Kesearch 
Laboratory, Bozeman, Montana. 

Trade Marks 

By a letter dated December 6, 1944, the Director 
General of the Pan American Union informed the 
Secretary of State that the Government of Haiti, 
in accordance with the terms of paragraph 3 of 
article 19 of the Protocol on the Inter-American 
Registration of Trade Marks signed at Washing- 
ton on February 20, 1929,' has sent to the Pan 
American Union, under date of November 27, 1914, 
notice of its denunciation of the Protocol. The 



' Treaty Series 833, p. 46. 



107 

Govei-nment of Haiti states, however, that its de- 
nunciation of the Protocol does not imply denun- 
ciation of the General Inter-American Convention 
for Trade Mark and Commercial Protection signed 
on the same date. The Republic of Haiti remains 
a party to the convention. 

Death of Thomas Riggs 

Statement by ACTING SECRETARY GREW 

[Released to the press January 16] 

It was with deep regret that I learned of the 
death this morning of the Honorable Thomas 
Riggs, former Governor of Alaska, who for many 
years has been the United States Commissioner, 
International Boundary Commission, United 
States, Alaska, and Canada. Governor Riggs' 
death brings to an end a lifetime of distinguished 
public service devoted to Alaska and to boundary 
problems affecting Canada and the United States. 
Throughout his career, the Department has en- 
joyed the benefit of his cooperation and his effec- 
tive collaboration in numerous important matters 
concerning our relations with Canada. 

Visit of British Secretary of 
State for the Colonies 

[Released to the press January 16] 

Colonel the Right Honorable Oliver Stanley, 
Secretary of State for the Colonies, Great Britain, 
arrived in Washington January 15. Colonel Stan- 
ley, who has just finished a tour of some of the 
British West Indies, is accompanied by Mr. T. I. K. 
Lloyd, Assistant Under Secretary of State for the 
Colonies, and Mi". C. H. Thornley, his private sec- 
retary. 

During his four-day visit to Washington Colonel 
Stanley discussed the work and organization of the 
Anglo-American Caribbean Commission with Mr. 
Charles W. Taussig, the United States Co-chair- 
man of the Commission and Adviser on Caribbean 
Affairs to the Department of State, and with other 
Government oiScials dealing with the Caribbean 
area. 

Colonel Stanley and Mr. Taussig lunched with 
the President on January 16. They were the guests 
of Secretary of State Stettinius at a luncheon on 
January 18. 



108 

Acceptance of Aviation 
Agreements 

Netherlands 

The Netherlands Ambassador informed the Sec- 
retary of State in a letter dated January 11, 1945 
that the signatures of the Netherlands Delegates 
affixed to the Interim Agreement on International 
Civil Aviation, the International Air Services 
Transit Agreement, and the International Air 
Transport Agreement (with a reservation on the 
Fifth Freedom as provided for in article IV, sec- 
tion 1), concluded at Chicago December 7, 1944, 
constitute an acceptance of those agreements by 
tlie Netherlands Government and an obligation 
binding upon it. Each of the three agreements 
contains a provision that the respective govern- 
ments on whose behalf the agreement has been 
signed shall inform the Government of the United 
States as to whether such signature constitutes an 
acceptance of the agreement. 

Meeting of the Rubber 
Study Group 

[Released to the press January 17] 

A meeting of the Rubber Study Group of the 
Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the United 
States has been arranged for January 22 to 27, in- 
clusive, in Washington. The Department of State 
announced that as an outgrowth of the explora- 
tory rubber discussions held in London last Au- 
gust the United States was jirepared to partici- 
pate in this informal arrangement designed to 
provide for study and discussion of rubber 
problems of mutual interest to the participating 
governments.' Since that time a program of 
studies has been undertaken in the United States 
and a similar program in London. The purpose 
of the January meeting will be to consider and 
discuss the materials contained in these studies. 

The Department of State emphasizes that no 
formal agreement relating to post-war rubber has 
been entered into or is now contemplated. The 
sole purpose of the Rubber Study Group is to pro- 
vide a medium through which factual studies may 
be made and informally discussed. 

The United States will be represented by Ber- 
nard F. Haley, Director, Office of Economic Af- 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN' 

fairs, Department of State. Mr. Haley will have 
as his advisers the members of the Rubber Ad- 
visory Panel, namely : 

John W. Bicknell, Rubber Development Corporation 
James F. Clark, Rubber Bureau, War Production Board 
John L. Collyer, B. F. Goodrich Company 
Harvey S. Firestone, Jr., Firestone Tire & Rubber Company 
Robert A. Gordon, Combined Raw Materials Board 
H. Stuart Hotchkiss, Cambridge Rubber Company 
Howard J. Klossner, Rubber Reserve Company 
Paul W. Litchfield, Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company 
Harry E. Smith, Manhattan Rubber Manufacturing Divi- 
sion of RaybestosManhattan, Inc. 
Herbert E. Smith, United States RulAer Company 
Gilbert K. Trimble, Midwest Rubber Reclaiming Company 
A. L. Viles, The Rubber Manufacturing Association, Inc. 
R. D. Young, Rubber Trade Association of New York, Inc. 



Inter-American Institute of 
Agricultural Sciences 

Domi7}ican Republic 

The Director General of the Pan American 
Union informed the Secretary of State, by a letter 
dated January 13, 1945, of the deposit with the 
Pan American Union on January 10, 1945, of the 
instrument of ratification by the Government of 
the Dominican Republic of the Convention on the 
Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences, 
which was opened for signature at the Pan Ameri- 
can Union on January 15, 1944. The instrument 
of ratification is dated December 21, 1944. 



Inter-American Automotive 
Traffic 

Brazil 

By a letter dated January 8, 1945 the Director 
General of the Pan American Union informed the 
Secretary of State of the deposit with the Pan 
American Union on January 8, 1945 of the instru- 
ment of ratification by the Government of Brazil 
of the Convention on the Regulation of Inter- 
American Automotive Traffic, which was opened 
for signature at tlie Pan American Union on De- 
cember 15, 1943. The instrument of ratification is 
dated November 7, 1944. 



'Bui-LETiN of Sept. 24, 1044, p. 
p. 544. 



lud June 10, 1944, 



JANUARY 21, 1945 



UNRRA Sanitary Conventions of 1944 



[Released to the press January 16] 

On January 15, 1945 the International Sanitary 
Convention of 1944 and the International Sanitary 
Convention for Aerial Navigation of 1944 came 
into force between the Governments of China, 
Ecuador, France, Greece, Haiti, Honduras, Lux- 
embourg, Nicaragua, Poland, the Union of South 
Africa, and the United Kingdom of Great Britain 
and Northern Ireland. The conventions, ■which 
relate to the performance by the United Nations 
Eelief and Rehabilitation Administration of duties 
and functions of the Litcrnational Office of Public 
Health at Paris, became effective in accordance 
with article XXI of the maritime sanitary con- 
vention and article XVIII of the sanitary conven- 
tion for aerial navigation, each of which reads: 
"The present Convention shall come into force as 
soon as it has been signed or acceded to on behalf 
of ten or more goveriunents." 

The two conventions were signed also on behalf 
of the United States, Canada, Cuba, the Dominican 
Republic, Egypt, and Peru, with the reservation 
that the signatures were subject to ratification. In 
addition, the convention for aerial navigation was 
signed on behalf of Bolivia and the maritime con- 
vention on behalf of Czechoslovakia. The Bo- 
livian and Czechoslovakian signatures were also 
subject to ratification. The conventions remained 
open for signature until January 15, 1945, after 
which date they may be adliered to by nonsignatory 
governments. 

A Declaration by France relating to both con- 
ventions was signed on January 5, 1945 by the 
plenipotentiary of France, and a Declaration by 
the Egyptian Government relating to both con- 
ventions was signed on January 15, 1945 by the 
plenipotentiary of Egypt, at the time those pleni- 
potentiaries signed the two conventions. 

The names of the plenipotentiaries and the 
dates on which they signed the conventions, listed 
in the order of signing, are as follows : 

Januaet 5, 1945 
France: Professor Andr6 Mayer, Medical Counselor of 
the Provisional Government of the French Republic 
in the United States ; 



Poland: Mr. Jan Ciechanowslii, Ambassador Extraordi- 
nary and rionipotentiary of Poland in Washington; 

United Kingdom of Cheat Britain and 'Sorthern Ireland: 
The Right Honorable the Earl of Halifax, Ambas- 
sador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the 
United Kingdom in Washington; 

United States of America: The Honorable Edward R. 
Stettinius, Jr., Secretary of State of the United States 
of America ; 

Janttart 11, 1945 
China: Dr. J. Heng Liu, High Adviser to the National 
Health Administration of China in the United States; 

January 13, 1945 
Union of Sonth Africa: Dr. S. F. N. Gie, Envoy Extraor- 
dinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of the Union of 
South Africa in Washington ; 

January 15, 1945 

Egypt: Mr. Mahmoud Hassan, Envoy Extraordinary and 
Minister Plenijjotentiary of Egypt in Washington ; 

Czechoslovakia: Mr. Vladimir Hurban, Ambassador Ex- 
traordinary and Plenipotentiary of Czechoslovaliia in 
Washington (signed only the International Sanitary 
Convention of 1944) ; 

Canada: Mr. L. B. Pearson, Appointed Ambassador of 
Canada in Washington ; 

Cuba: Seiior Don Guillermo Belt, Ambassador Extraordi- 
nary and Plenipotentiary of Cuba in Washington ; 

Dominican Republic: Senor Don Emilio Garcia Godoy, 
Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of 
the Dominican Republic in Washington ; 

Bolivia: Seiior Don Victor Andrade, Ambassador Extraor- 
dinary and Plenipotentiary of Bolivia in Washing- 
ton (signed only the International Sanitary Conven- 
tion for Aerial Navigation of 1944) ; 

Nicaragua: Seiior Dr. Don Guillermo Sevilla Sacasa, Am- 
bassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of Nica- 
ragua in Washington ; 

Peru: Seiior Don Pedro Beltran, Ambassador Extraordi- 
nary and Plenipotentiary of Peru in Washington ; 

Luxembourg: Mr. Hugues Le Gallais, Envoy Extraordi- 
nary and Minister Plenipotentiary of Luxembourg In 
Washington ; 

Ecuador: Seiior Sixto E. Dur5n-Ball<5n, Minister Counselor 
of the Ecuadoran Embas.sy in Washington ; 

Qreece: Mr. Cimon P. Diamantopoulos, Ambassador Ex- 
traordinary and Plenipotentiary of Greece in Wash- 
ington ; 

Honduras: Senor Dr. Don Julian R. Caceres, Ambassador 
Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of Honduras in 
Washington ; 

Haiti: Dr. Jules Th^baud, Director General of the National 
Public Health Service of Haiti. 



no 

International Status of 
Refugees 

France 

In a letter dated November 25, 1944 the Acting 
Secretary General of the League of Nations in- 
formed the Secretary of State that the Minister 
for Foreign Affairs of the French Kepublic, by a 
letter dated November 8, 1944, notified the League 
of Nations tliat the Provisional Government of the 
French Republic considers as null and void the 
denunciation by France December 2, 1942 of the 
Convention Relating to the International Status of 
Refugees signed at Geneva October 28, 1933, and 
that it will henceforth insure in its territory the 
application of all the articles of the convention. 
The cancelation of the denunciation was registered 
by the Secretariat of the League of Nations on 
November 17, 1944. 

Discussions on Civil Aviation 
Between United States and 
Canadian Representatives 

[Released to the press January 19] 

The Department of State stated on January 19 
that discussions on civil aviation will take place in 
New York between representatives of the United 
States and Canada beginning on January 25. Sub- 
jects to be discussed will cover matters arising out 
of the recent International Civil Aviation Confer- 
ence at Chicago. The 1940 arrangements for allo- 
cation of civil air routes between the two countries 
will be reviewed. 

The American Delegation will be comprised 
of Stokeley W. ^Morgan, Chief of the Aviation Divi- 
sion, Department of State; J. Graham Parsons, 
Division of British Commonwealth Affairs, De- 
partment of State; Edward P. Warner, Vice 
Chairman of the Civil Aeronautics Board ; Oswald 
Ryan, Member, Civil Aeronautics Board; and 
Lewis Clark, First Secretary of the American 
Embassy, Ottawa. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



THE FOREIGN SERVICE ^ 



Confirmations 

On January 18 the Senate confirmed the nomi- 
nation of Adolf A. Berle, Jr., as American Am- 
bassador to Brazil. 

Consular Offices 

The American Consulate at Bordeaux, France, 
was opened to tlie public on January 15, 1945. 



THE CONGRESS 



Petroleum Investigation — Petroleum Supplies for Mili- 
tary and Civilian Needs. Final Report of the Sisecial Sub- 
committee ou Petroleum Investigation of the Committee on 
Interstate and Foreign Commerce, House of Representa- 
tives, Pursuant to H.Res. 290 of the 76th Congress, H.Rcs. 
383 of the 77th Congress, and H.Res. 5S of the 78th Congress. 
Seventy-eighth Cong., H.Rept. 2096. ii, 19 pp. 

Study of Rubber in United States, Mexico, and Haiti. 
H.Rept. 209S, 7Sth Cong., pursuant to H.Res. 346. 22 pp. 

The State of the Union. Message from the President of 
the United States transmitting a mes.sage on the state of 
the Union. H.Doc. 1, 79th Cong. 16 pp. 

Continuing the Authority for a Study Into the Legal and 
Constitutional Authority for the Issuance of Executive 
Orders of the President and of Departmental Regula- 
tions, and Increasing the Limit of Expenditures. S.Rept. 
7, 79th Cong., to accompany S.Res. 16. 3 pp. [Favorable 
report.] 

Authorizing the Continuation of the Special Committee 
on I'ost-War Economic Policy and Planning. H.Rept. 
19, 70th Cong., to accompany H.Res. 60. 1 p. 

Retirement and Disability Fund, Foreign Service. Mes- 
sage from the President of the United States transmit- 
ting a report by the Secretary of State, showing all 
receipts and disbursements on account of refunds, allow- 
ances, and annuities for the fiscal year ended June 30, 
1944, in connection with the Foreign Service retirement 
and disability system. H.Doc. 23, 79th Cong. 6 pp. 

Address of the Honorable Henry A. Wallace, Vice Presi- 
dent of the United States, on May 8, 1942, before the Free 
World Association, New York City, together with certain 
addresses subsequently delivered. S.Doc. 59, 70th Cong, 
iii, 49 pp. 



JANUARY 21, 1945 



111 



^ THE DEPARTMENT ^ 



Appointment of Officers 

Jloniiett B. Davis as Director and Selden Chapin 
as Deputy Director, Office of the Foreign Service, 
effective January 10, 194:5. 

John C. McClintock as Special Assistant to Mr, 
Rockefeller, effective December 30, 1944. 

Pierson Underwood, War Areas Economic Divi 
sion, has been designated to represent the Depart 
ment on the Editorial Committee on Civil Affairs 
Studies, Civil Affairs Division of the War Depart 
ment, effective November 16, 1944. 

The following officers have been designated Ad 
visers in the Division of Cultural Cooperation 
effective December 20, 1944 : Charles Child on Art 
and Music ; Harry R. Warf el on Libraries and Pub 
lications ; W^illiam L. Schurz on Cultural Attaches, 



PUBLICATIONS 



Department of State 

America's Need for Understanding China. By Haldore 
Hanson, Division of Cultural Cooperation. Far Eastern 
Series 7. Publication 223(). 16 pp. 5(f. 

Jurisdiction Over Prizes : Agreement Between the United 
States of America and Australia ; and Proclamation — 
Agreement effected by exchange of notes signed at Can- 
berra November 10, 1942 and May 10, 1&14. Executive 
Agreement Series 417. Publication 2227. 8 pp. 5^. 



Exchange of Official Publications: Agreement Between 
the United States of America and Afghanistan— Effected 
by exchange of notes signed at Kabul February 29, 1JM4; 
effective February 29, 1944. Executive Agreement Series 
418. Publication 2219. 17 pp. 10^. 

The Proclaimed List of Certain Blocked Nationals : Cu- 
mulative Supplement No. 5, January 12, 1945, to Revision 
VIII of September 13, 1»14. Publication 2312. 73 pp. 
Free. 

Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences : Con- 
vention Between the United States of America and Other 
American Republics— Opened for signature at the P'an 
American Union at Washington January 15, 1944 ; signed 
for the United States of America January 15, 1944; pro- 
claimed by the President of the United States of America 
September 8, 1944 ; effective November 30, 1944. Treaty 
Series 987. 32 pp. 100. 

The Export-Import Bank of Washington. By Eleanor 
Lansing Dulles, Division of Financial and Monetary Af- 
fairs. Commercial Policy Series 75. Publication 2234. 
30 pp. 100. 

Dumbarton Oaks Proposals. Address by Joseph C. 
Grew, Special Assistant to the Secretary of State. Con- 
ference Series 62. Publication 2239. 18 pp. 50. 

Diplomatic List, January 1945. Publication 2241. ii, 
126 pp. Subscription, $2 a year ; single copy, 200. 

Foreign Commerce Weekly 

The articles listed below will be found in the January 13 
issue of the Department of Commerce publication entitled 
Foreign Commerce Weekly, copies of which may be ob- 
tained from the Superintendent of Documents, Govern- 
ment Printing Office, for 10 cents each : 

"Electronics in Cuba", based on a report from the Ameri- 
can Embassy, Habana. 

"Graphic Arts in Switzerland", report from the American 
Consulate General, Ziirich. 

"The Bicycle in Sweden", report by the American Lega- 
tion, Stockholm. 



THE DEPARTMENT OF 


STATE 

IN 


VOL. XII. AO. 29;; 

M i/iis issue 


jAiNLAKV 2o, 194.3 



WHAT THE DUMBARTON OAKS PEACE PLAN MEANS 

By the Secretary of Slate 

SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES UNDER THE DUMBARTON OAKS 
PROPOSALS 
Address by Green H. Hackuorth 



-Vl^NT o^ 



-A- * 




'-*tes o^ 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

BULLETIN 

Vol. XII • No. 292,° ^l^^y . Poblication 2256 

January 28, 1945 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Research and 
Publication, Office of Public Affairs, 
provides the public and interested 
agencies of the Government with 
information on developments in the 
field of foreign relations and on the 
work of the Department of State and 
the Foreign Service. The BULLETIN 
includes press releases on foreign 
policy issued by the White House and 
the Department, and statements and 
addresses made by the President and 
by the Secretary of State and other 
officers of the Department, as well as 
special articles on various phases of 
international affairs and the functions 
of the Department. Information con- 
cerning treaties and international 
agreements to which the United States 
is or may become a party and treaties 
of general international interest is 
included. 

Publications of the Department, 
cumulative lists of which are published 
at the end of each quarter, as well as 
legislative material in the field of inter- 
national relations, are listed currently. 

The BULLETIN, published icith the 
approval of the Director of the Bureau 
of the Budget, is for sale by the Super- 
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Government Printing Office, Washing- 
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orders, with accompanying remittance, 
should be sent. The subscription price 
i$ $3.50 a year; a single copy is 10 



MAR 9 1945 

Qontents 

Canada Page 

Letters of Credence 148 

Europe 

Designation of H. F. Arthur Schoenfeld as United States 

Representative in Hungary 127 

Deaths of the Soviet Ambassador to Mexico and Mrs. 

Oumansky. Statement by Acting Secretary Grew . . 141 
Far East 

Proposed Exchange of Nationals Between United States 

and Japan 132 

Economic Affairs 

Decision To Maintain Combined Boards: 

Statement by the President 119 

Announcement by President Roosevelt and the Prime 

Ministers of Great Britain and Canada 120 

The Rubber Study Group: United Kingdom and Nether- 
lands Members To Visit Synthetic Plants 128 

Designation of Lauchlin Currie To Conduct Negotiations 

With Switzerland 128 

The Concern of the United States With Mineral Resources. 

Address by Charles P. Taft 129 

Legal Policy for Trade. Address by Charles Bunn .... 142 

Post- War Matters 

Dumbarton Oaks Proposals: 

What the Dumbarton Oaks Peace Plan Means. By the 

Secretary of State 115 

Settlement of Disputes Under the Dumbarton Oaks Pro- 
posals. Address by Green H. Hackworth 124 

The Positive Approach to an Enduring Peace. Address 

by Henry S. Villard 136 

Regional Aspects of the Dumbarton Oaks Proposals. 

Address by Durward V. Sandifer 145 

Letter on Foreign Policy From the New Members of the 

Senate to the President 121 

Statement by Acting Secretary Grew 121 

United Nations War Crimes Commission. Discontinuance 
of Services of Herbert C. Pell: Statement by Acting 

Secretary Grew 123 

The International Control of Radiocommunications. Ad- 
dress by Francis Colt de Wolf 133 

Treaty Information 

United States-Mexican Water Treaty. Statement by the 

Secretary of State 122 

Applicability of Anti-Trust Laws to Agreements Between 

United States and Foreign Air Carriers HI 

Financial Agreement With Haiti 144 

Telecommunications 147 

The Department 

Functions of the Special War Problems Division of the Office 

of Controls 148 

Secretariat of the Executive Committee on Economic 

Foreign Policy 148 

Appointment of Officers 148 

The Foreign Service 

Confirmation 148 

Embassy at Rome 148 

Mission at Helsinki 1*8 



What the Dumbarton Oaks 
Peace Plan Means 



By the SECRETARY OF STATE 



THE stake of the American people in the main- 
tenance of peace aftei- this war could not be 
gi-eater. We hate war. Yet twice in a generation 
we have been forced to fight to defend our freedom 
and our vital interests against powerful aggressors. 

Our young men are giving their lives daily be- 
cause we and other peace-loving nations did not 
succeed after the last war in organizing and main- 
taining peace. It is up to us to see that their sons — 
and ours — are not forced to give their lives in an- 
other great war 25 years from now. 

In this war we were attacked last by the ag- 
gressors and we have been able to fight them far 
from our own soil. The range of the airplane and 
the new weapons already developed make certain 
that next time — if we permit a next time — the de- 
vastation of war will be brought to our own homes 
and our own soil. Next time — if we permit a next 
time — it is likely that the United States will be 
attacked first, not last, by an aggressor nation. 

After we have won this war we shall have only 
one alternative to preparing for the next war. 
That is to prevent the next war. It is imperative 
that we start now. We can do it only by planning 
and developing, in cooperation with the other 
peace-loving peoples of the world, an organized 
peace that will really work. 

I 

A sound peace plan must be based on the facts 
as they are and aimed at the realization of our 
ideals for a peaceful world. Both of these require- 
ments, I think, are met by the Proposals which 
were drafted last summer and fall at Dumbarton 
Oaks in Washington by representatives of the 
United States, Great Britain, the Soviet Union, 
and China. I wish here to state what I believe to 
be the plan's animating spirit and its practical 
opei'atuig value. 

These Proposals did not spring from thin air. 
They were preceded by long and careful studies 



among many sorts of people in each of the four 
countries. In the United States advice was sought 
not only of technical experts in the Department 
of State but of ijolitical leadei-s of both parties 
in Congress, of qualified high officers of our Army 
and Navy, and of notable private citizens of vary- 
ing views. The Proposals are the outcome of pa- 
tient research and of broad consultation. Every 
effort is now being made to submit them to the 
thoughts and suggestions of all the jjeople of 
America. 

There are four corners to the plan proposed 
at Dumbarton Oaks. 

The first is this: peace can be maintained only 
if the peace-loving nations of the world band to- 
gether for that purpose. In doing so, they must 
recognize the sovereign principle of the equality 
of all of them and, at the same time, the fact of 
the inequality of their power to prevent war. 

The phrase "sovereign equality" is enshrined in 
principle number one of the Dumbarton Oaks 
Proposals. It means that every peace-loving 
state, however small, has the same supreme au- 
thority over its own territoi'y as any other state, 
however large. Each such state, irrespective of 
size, is an international individuality. Each, 
therefore, has both a right to a voice in the affairs 
of the family of nations and a responsibility to 
share in the task of creating a peaceful world 
order. 

Conforming to this principle, the Dumbarton 
Oaks Proposals provide that membership in the 
new International Organization shall be open to 
all "peace-loving" states, large and small. The 
Proposals provide for a General Assembly in 
which all member states will be represented on an 
equal footing. They also provide for a smaller 
body of 11 members — the Security Council — in 

'This article appeared in the Reader's Digest of Feb. 
1945. It was released to the press by the Department of 
State on Jan. 23. 

115 



116 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



which the five most powerful nations will be per- 
manent members. 

All members of the Organization undertake to 
settle their disputes peacefully and to fulfil the 
other obligations to maintain and strengthen 
peace which would be assumed by them under the 
proposed Charter of the Organization. Within 
the limits of these undertakings the representa- 
tives of the member nations will cast their votes 
on any international issue in the manner that their 
own countries may direct; and each of them will 
be chosen by his own country in any way that his 
own country may prefer. National sovereignty 
remains unimpaired. 

The aim of the Organization is twofold. It is 
to prevent and suppress wars. It is also to make 
peace constantly stronger by developing closer, 
more friendly and mutually profitable relations 
among the member states. 

The primary responsibility for the prevention 
and suppression of war rests with the Security 
Council. This is because it is a task that can be 
performed effectively only by a small body which 
must include the five great powers as permanent 
members. In this function the Assembly also has 
an important secondary role to play. 

The primary responsibility for creation of the 
international political, economic, and social con- 
ditions favorable to peace rests with the Assem- 
bly. This is a x^esponsibility that can be carried 
out successfully only by continuing and develop- 
ing agreement among all member nations, large 
and small. 

II 

This war has shown that small states in an era 
of mechanized warfare are unable to defend them- 
selves against great aggressors. Only the great 
powers possess the industrial capacity and other 
military resources required by the United Nations 
to defeat the Axis aggressors. Similarly, wars can 
be prevented and suppressed in the future only if 
the great powers employ their dominant physical 
power justly and in unity of purpose to that end. 
Hence the place that the Dumbarton Oaks plan 
gives to a Security Council. Hence, too, the po- 
sition assigned to the United States, Great Britain, 
the Soviet Union, China, France as permanent 
members of the Council. In addition, the Security 
Council is to have six non-permanent members, 
elected for two-year terms by a two-thirds vote 
of the General Assembly. The supreme duty of 
the Security Council is to "take any measures nec- 



essary for the maintenance of international peace 
and security in accordance with the purposes and 
principles"' set down in the Charter of the new In- 
ternational Organization. 

These measures constitute the second corner of 
the peace plan. They fall into two groups — those 
necessary to prevent wars and those necessary to 
suppress them. 

All member states undertake the obligation to 
settle their disputes peacefully, by means of their 
own choice. They may do so by negotiation, me- 
diation, arbitration, conciliation, or judicial proc- 
esses. Many local or regional differences can be 
settled by regional arrangements without refer- 
ence to the Security Council. 

If, however, means like these fail, then the na- 
tions are obligated to come to the Security Council, 
which also has the power, on its own initiative, to 
investigate any dispute and to recommend methods 
of adjustment. In this connection the General 
Assembly is empowered to consider anj- question 
relating to the maintenance of peace and security 
and to make recommendations on it, pi'ovided that 
the Security Council is not already actively en- 
gaged in dealing with it. 

The Dumbarton Oaks Proposals also provide for 
an international court of justice to which any dis- 
pute that can be settled by rules of law shall be 
referred. Its statute — or constitution — will be 
the same as that of the present Permanent Court 
of International Justice with minor necessary mod- 
ifications, or based upon it. This court will be the 
judicial organ of the new United Nations Inter- 
national Organization. The Security Council 
maj' seek its advice on all legal questions involved 
in international disputes. 

It is only after all means for the peaceful pre- 
vention of war have been exhausted that the Se- 
curity Council will then turn to forceful means 
for the prevention or suppression of war. 

As the first of these further steps the Security 
Council may call upon all members of the new 
International Organization to apply pressure to 
any offending state by such non-military means 
as "the severance of diplomatic and economic re- 
lations" and "complete or partial interruption of 
rail, sea, air, postal, telegraphic, radio and other 
means of communication". 

If these fui'ther means are not enough, the Se- 
curity Council is empowered to take military 
action "by air, naval or land forces". 

The members of the new International Organi- 



' JANUARY 28, 1945 

zation would agree, in the Charter itself, that 
throughout these efforts the Security Council 
would be acting "on their behalf". They would 
also agree to assume the obligation to make "armed 
: forces" and "facilities" and "assistance" available 
to the Security Council "on its call" and in ac- 
cordance with special agreements previously con- 
cluded. To insure effective employment of these 
forces the Security Council is to be provided with 
a JNIilitary Staff Committee composed of the chiefs 
of staff of the permanent member nations of the 
Council or their representatives. 

The Security Council is thus given powers which 
the Council of the League of Nations did not pos- 
sess. The League's powers proved too weak. It 
is surely evident that stronger powers are neces- 
sary. 

On the other hand, these stronger powers do 
not produce what some commentators have de- 
scribed as an "irresponsible and uncontrollable 
great-power saiper-state". The plan contains 
many checks to the contrary. For example : 

(1) The Security Council cannot call upon any 
state for armed forces except to an extent agreed 
upon beforehand by that state itself. Each state 
will determine its own international contribution 
of armed forces through a special agreement or 
agreements signed by itsc-lf and ratified by its own 
constitutional processes. That is, the Dumbarton 
Oaks plan leaves each state free to set its own 
limit upon the quantity and quality of the armed 
forces and other military facilities and assistance 
that it will furnish to the Security Council. The 
Security Council cannot require it to go beyond 
that limit. The Security Council does not in any 
way become the arbitrary master of the world's 
military resources. (2) The great powers who are 
to be the five pei-manent members of the Security 
Council do not constitute a majority of the Coun- 
cil. Any decision of the Council would therefore 
require the affirmative votes of at least some of the 
six non-permanent members. (3) In the General 
Assembly the smaller powers, with their over- 
whelming majority of the membership, may adopt 
a recommendation on a question of peace before 
that question rises for action in the Security Coun- 
cil. The General Assembly is to meet at least once 
a year. It may meet oftener. It is to receive 
annual and special reports from the Security 
Council and has the power to consider them and 
to express either its appi'oval or dissent. 

Agreement among the great powers is an essen- 



ii: 



tial condition of peace. At the same time, the op- 
portunity of the smaller powers, under the 
Dumbarton Oaks plan, to stand sentinel over the 
behavior of the great powers is surely far gr.ater 
than it ever could be in a world left unorganized 
and planlessly open to predatory aggression. 

Ill 

The third corner of the peace plan is the essential 
complement of the second. To prevent and sup- 
press ware is not enough, just as winning this war 
will not of itself bring us lasting peace. If we are 
to have lasting peace, we have to build peace. We 
have to build it stone by stone continuously over 
tlie years within the framework of such an organ- 
ization as that proposed at Dumbarton Oaks. We 
have to 7}iake peace with the same strong purpose 
and the same united effort which we have given to 
making war. 

In this field the General Assembly of all the 
member states of the proposed United Nations In- 
ternational Organization will be the highest rep- 
resentative body in the world. It will represent the 
ideal of a common world humanity and a common 
world purpose to promote international coopera- 
tion, extend the rule of law in international re- 
lations, and advance the material and cultural wel- 
fare of all men. 

The function of the Assembly as a free forum of 
all peace-loving nations and its wide powers of in- 
vestigation and recommendation are in themselves 
powerful weapons for peace in an age when public 
opinion can be instantaneously mobilized by press 
and radio. 

But the Assembly will also have at its command 
an effective instrument of continuous action in 
building peace. This is the Economic and Social 
Council to be created under the Dumbarton Oaks 
Proposals. 

This arm of the General Assembly is provided 
for in recognition of a great fact which increas- 
ingly characterizes the international life of our 
times. It is the fact that the whole world is more 
and more one single area of interdependent tech- 
nological inventions, industrial methods, market- 
ing problems, and their related social effects. This 
interdependence destroys any equilibrium that may 
ever have existed between so-called "advanced" 
countries and "backward" countries. It means 
either universal economic friction which will dis- 
rupt the world toward war or universal economic 
cooperation which will harmonize the world to- 



118 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



ward peace. Failure to recognize this fact after 
the last war was one of the reasons why this war 
got started. 

The Economic and Social Council is to be 
elected, without help of the Security Council, by 
the General Assembly of all states. It is to con- 
sist of representatives of 18 states, holding their 
posts for 3-year terms. It has no power of com- 
pulsion. By voluntary means it is, under the 
direction of the Assembly, to "facilitate solutions 
of international economic, social and other hu- 
manitarian problems" and to "promote respect for 
human rights and fundamental freedoms". 

It will create commissions in all fields of eco- 
nomic and social activity that it may consider 
appropriate. The members of these commissions 
will not be political or diplomatic delegates. They 
will be technical experts. They will furnish pro- 
fessional advice to the Economic and Social Coun- 
cil and to the Assembly. There will be a secre- 
tariat and research staff for all pi'ojects. 

The Assembly and its Economic and Social 
Council will also provide a center for coordinat- 
ing the numerous separate specialized interna- 
tional organizations now or hereafter operating 
for economic and social progressive purposes. 

There is the International Labor Organization 
with its long record of successful service to sound 
hxbor causes. There is the proposed United Na- 
tions Food and Agriculture Organization with its 
heavy duty of service both to the food-producers 
of agricultural countries and to the food-consum- 
ers of all countries. There is the proposed Inter- 
national Monetary Fund and the proposed 
International Bank for Reconstruction and De- 
velopment with their highly difficult and delicate 
responsibilities toward the world's currencies and 
the world's investment funds. Under discussion 
also are new international "specialized" organ- 
izations in aviation, in cartel control, in health, 
in education, in wire and wireless communications, 
in foreign trade, and in many individual agricul- 
tural and industrial commodities. 

All these organizations, clearly, are but so many 
spokes to the international wheel. They need 
a hub. The Dumbarton Oaks plan authorizes 
the Assembly to act as' that hub with the Economic 
and Social Council as its principal operating 
mechanism. It provides that all specialized inter- 
national organizations shall be brought into rela- 
tionship with the new general International Or- 
ganization through agreements with the Economic 



and Social Council under the approval of the Gen- 
eral Assembly. It provides further that the Eco- 
nomic and Social Council shall receive reports 
from the specialized intei'national organizations 
and shall, under the General Assembly's authority, 
coordinate their policies and activities. 

Here for the first time we see the possible emer- 
gence of an advisory economic general staff of the 
world. 

It can be soundly hoped that the recommenda- 
tions of the General Assembly and its Economic 
and Social Council, proceeding from what will be 
the concentrated headquarters of the world's eco- 
nomic and social thought, will promptly reach the 
form of widely ratified treaties and agreements 
making for fuller emploj-ment and higher stand- 
ards of living in all countries. The attainment 
of these objectives is indispensable to building a 
peace that will last. 

IV 

I now come to the fourth corner of the square 
on which the Dumbarton Oaks Proposals would 
erect an edifice of peaceful international relations. 

This is the progressive reduction of armaments, 
which in the modern world have become a crush- 
ing burden on the resources of all nations. If we 
in this country, for example, could have used for 
productive peacetime purposes only one half of 
what we have devoted to arms for this war, we 
wotild have advanced beyond measure the stand- 
ard of living of the American people.. And after 
this war is won, the rate of economic advance- 
ment for ourselves and for all peoples will be 
determined in important measure by the rate of 
armaments reduction that the nations of the world 
are able to achieve. 

The General Assembly of the new International 
Organization is to "consider the general prin- 
ciples . . . governing disarmament and the reg- 
ulation of armaments". The Security Council is 
to go further. In order to achieve "the least di- 
version of the world's human and economic re- 
sources for armaments*', it is to fornuilate "plans 
for the establishment of a system of regulation of 
armaments" and it is to submit those plans to all 
members of the new International Organization. 

It is not proposed this time that the United 
States or any other members of the new Interna- 
tional Organization shall disanii as an example. 
It is proposed that all members of the Organiza- 
tion shall travel the road together and at the 
fastest possible joint pace. 



JANUARY 28, 1945 



119 



No nation, however, is likely to travel either 
fast or far on this road until it feels able to place 
full reliance for its security on the International 
Organization. The nations of the world will give 
up guns only in so far as they make the new 
Organization work, as they gradually build up a 
living body of international law, as they create 
and operate eifective joint instrumentalities to 
keep the peace, and as they develop strong and 
sure means of economic and social cooperation to 
their mutual benefit. Thus the fourth corner of 
the peace plan is dej^endent upon the other three. 



Such is the plan. I think it takes into account 
both the world's stubborn realities and the world's 
luiquenchable aspirations. Nor is it deficient, I am 
certain, in what the authors of the Declaration of 
Independence rightly called "a decent respect to 
the opinions of mankind". No other peace plan in 



history has been so fully exposed to the impact of 
those opinions. 

The Proposals emerged from their Dumbarton 
Oaks stage on October 9 of last year.' They were 
disseminated to the whole world. For months now 
they have been the subject of study by all govern- 
ments, by the press and radio, and by individuals 
and groups in all countries. They will go in due 
course to a conference of the nations which are 
fighting this war to build a world of freedom and 
peace. They will then go to their home countries 
for approval by their legislatures or other appro- 
priate governmental bodies. 

We seek a calm and considered and complete 
popular judgment upon this plan and then, if it is 
approved and ratified, a solid effective support for 
it not merely by governments but by peoples. In 
the end it is they, and only they, who by their deter- 
mined purpose, their undei-standing, and their con- 
tinuing loyalty can bring to the world peace, secu- 
rity, and progress. 



Decision To Maintain Combined Boards 



STATEMENT BY THE PRESIDENT 



(Released to the press by the White House January 19] 

We hear a good bit about differences between the 
United States and Britain, but perhaps we hear 
less of how really effectively they are working 
together in winning the war and, also, in meeting 
the economic problems of the areas they liberate. 

Together with Prime Ministers Churchill and 
Mackenzie King, I have just outlined the work the 
Combined Boards are to do from now until the 
end of the war with Japan. The Combined Food 
Board, the Combined Eaw Materials Board, and 
the Combined Production and Resources Board 
provide a strikingly successful example of United 
Nations collaboration on some of the urgent and 
difficult problems of the day.'^ 

The Boards are dealing now with serious short- 
ages in such commodities as tires and trucks, coal, 
textile, footwear, animal protein foods, and fats 
and oils. In each of these items the shortage is 
big enough to affect military requirements, civilian 
needs, and relief activities in all areas. In the 
case of the Combined Food Board, representatives 
of other countries also have participated in the 
development of appropriate international pro- 



grams for certain commodities ; e.g. Newfoundland 
fish and Australian wheat. There have also re- 
cently been added to certain commodity commit- 
tees on the Combined Food Board representatives 
of countries whose supplies and requirements, 
through progress of military operations, have 
again become, or will become, important factors 
in the international distribution of vital supplies; 
e.g. France, Belgium, Netherlands, and Norway 
in the case of fats and oils. The requirements of 
the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics have been 
related to the activities of the Boards through the 
departments of the member governments con- 
cerned with the conclusion of the annual protocols 
by which the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 
supply programs are determined. 

Through the Boards, former occupied countries 
are being helped to start up their manufacturing 
because we want to ease shortages of plants and 
manpower here, in Britain, and in Canada. We 
are acting with awareness, too, of the acute need 

' Dumbarton Oaks Documents on International Organiza- 
tion. Department of State Publication 2192. 
' Bulletin of June 13, 1942, p. 535. 



120 

to restore employment in the liberated areas, thus 
minimizing unrest. 

Coal otiers a good example of the working of 
the Combined Boards. It was clear at the begin- 
ning of 1943 that the United Nations as a whole 
faced a serious deficit. The Boards worked out 
solutions through the appropriate national 
agencies. 

These solutions reached dramatic proportions. 
From Britain came expert opinion that production 
could be stepped up if surface outcroppings could 
be worked on a mass-production basis similar to 
our American strip mining. As a consequence, 
the used machinery market of the United States 
was scoured for such types of machinery — some 
machines, for instance, which had been in service 
along the Mississippi levees for 20 years were 
requisitioned — and a total quantity of machinery 
estimated to exceed in capacity that used in digging 
the Panama Canal was expedited to Britain during 
19i4. 

Most of it has now arrived and in many parts of 
Britain the operations are under way with the re- 
sult that 12 million additional tons are expected to 
be mined before the end of the present coal year. 
This coal helps supply SHAEF needs in northwest 
Europe as well as those relief requirements for the 
Mediterranean that can be filled by our present 
limited transportation. 

The Combined Food Board has proved to be a 
most useful mechanism for assuring an efficient and 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

reasonably equitable distribution of vital food re- 
sources among the various United Nations. On the 
basis of detailed information interchanged con- 
stantly among its Commodity Committees, the 
Combined Food Board has developed many inter- 
national plans for meeting the increased war de- 
mands and for offsetting, in so far as possible, the 
early loss to the enemy of important items. The 
shortage of rice after the fall of Burma and other 
areas of southeastern Asia is illustrative of the 
problems which have confronted the Combined 
Food Board. The Japanese occupation absorbed 
areas which normally export 95 percent of the rice 
entering world trade. The Board moved promptly 
to insure : (1) that exports from the remaining rice 
areas were maximized ; (2) that such supplies were 
equitably shared; and (3) that wherever possible, 
rice substitutes were provided. 

The Boards have set a model for economic coop- 
eration between the United Nations in overcoming 
excessive nationalism and in gaining cooperation 
between former rivals both on the national and 
international plane. 

On the American side, the direction of the Raw 
Materials Board has been, since its inception, the 
job of William L. Batt. We owe him a deep debt 
of gratitude for his part in keeping an effective 
flow of strategic materials coming during the war, 
despite the fact that many of the former rich 
sources for these materials have been continuously 
in Axis hands. It has been a magnificent job. 



ANNOUNCEMENT BY PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT AND THE PRlTME MINISTERS OF 
GREAT BRITAIN AND CANADA 



[Released to the press by the White House January 19] 

The President of the United States and the 
Prime Ministers of Great Britain and Canada an- 
nounced on January 19 their decision to maintain 
the Combined Production and Resources Board, 
the Combined Raw Materials Board, and the Com- 
1 lined Food Board until the end of the Japanese 
war. This announcement followed a review by 
the member governments of the past work of these 
Boards and of their future operations. It was the 
official view that there will be a large field of use- 
fulness for these Boards for the rest of the war 
even though many materials and products may be 
in easier supply as the war progresses. It will 
be their continuing function further to coordinate 
the war effort of their member countries and, as 
appropriate, of the other United Nations, in the 



production, allocation, and supply of those prod- 
ucts, raw materials, and foodstuffs which continue 
to require combined planning in order to meet 
military and essential civilian requirements. In 
many cases it will be desirable for the Boards to 
consult, as hitherto, with other of the United Na- 
tions and with UNRRA before making recom- 
mendations. 

In making this announcement concerning the 
future of the Combined Boards, the following 
statement on behalf of the President and the two 
Prime Ministers was released : 

"1. We have followed with close interest the 
excellent work which the Combined Boards have 
done in coordinating our production and supply. 
These Boards were created for the purpose of com- 
bining our economic and industrial power during 



iANUARY 28, 1945 



a period of increasingly intensive military prepa- 
ration. Despite the fact that as the war progresses 
there will be a substantial diminution in demand 
for certain military items, studies indicate that 
there will be continuing global shortages of a lim- 
ited number of products and materials which are 
necessary to military operations and to the mainte- 
nance of essential civilian economics. We expect 
file Boards, in the future as in the past, to continue 
to play their part in facilitating the prompt and 
adequate use of our economic resources for the 
common war effort. 

"2. In addition new economic and industrial 
problems which may require common action are 
sure to develop before the end of hostilities. The 
power to act and make decisions in the economic 
sphere on behalf of our respective nations will 
remain in the duly constituted national agencies. 
However, the Boards can perform a very valuable 
additional service by providing a forum or focal 
point for consultation and the interchange of infor- 
mation and ideas on such common economic and 
industrial problems. 

"3. In their activities we shall expect the mem- 
bers of these Boards and the agencies of our gov- 
ernments which work with them to collaborate 
increasingly with representatives of other United 
Nations in the common interest." 

Letter on Foreign Policy From 
The New Members of the 
Senate to the President 

[Released to the press by the White House January 24] 

The following letter addressed to the President 
was received on January 24 : 
"Dear Mr. President : 

"The undersigned new members of the Senate 
of the United States, conscious of the profound 
significance of the Conferences soon to be held 
with our principal allies, wish to convey to you 
for your consideration, some of our thoughts con- 
cerning the foreign policy of this government. 

"We realize that it is important for you to be 
advised of the views of the new Senators who 
heretofore have not had the opportunity to make 
their position clear. 

"I. We favor the formation at the earliest pos- 
sible moment of a United Nations organization, 



to establish and preserve the peace of the world, 
along the general lines tentatively drafted at 
Dumbarton Oaks; 

"II. We believe this government should use all 
reasonable means to assure our allies and the other 
nations of the world that we intend to share in 
the direction of and the responsibility for the 
settlement of this war and the maintenance of 
peace ; 

"III. We suggest that treaties among the major 
allies be concluded as soon as possible, to demili- 
tarize Germany and Japan and to keep them de- 
militarized; 

"IV. We believe that this government should, 
as soon as possible, arrange to participate affirma- 
tively in all decisions affecting the establishment 
of law and order in the liberated or enemy 
countrfes. 

"Trusting that these suggestions may be of as- 
sistance to you and wishing you success in the 
forthcoming Conferences, we are 
"Yours respectfully, 

"Frank P. Briggs, Missouri ; Homer E. 
Capehart, Indiana; Forrest C. 
DoNNELL, Missouri; J. W. Ful- 
brigiit, Arkansas; Boueke B. 
HicKENLOoPER, lowa ; Clyde R. 
HoET, North Carolina; Clin D. 
Johnston, South Carolina; War- 
ren Magnuson, Washington ; 
Brien McMahon, Connecticut ; 
Hugh B. Mitchell, Washington; 
Wayne Morse, Oregon ; John Mo- 
ses. North Dakota; Francis J. 
Mters, Pennsylvania; Leverett 
Saltonstall, Massachusetts ; H. 
Alexander Smith, New Jersey; 
Glen H. Taylor, Idaho." 
Statement by ACTING SECRETARY GREW 
[Released to the press January 26] 

The recent letter sent to the President by 16 new 
members of the Senate of the United States is a 
courageous and forthright statement. The letter 
is especially significant in view of the fact that it 
was sent in a non-partisan spirit; that the 16 Sena- 
tors come from every section of the country ; and 
that their recent election reflects the growing de- 
termination of the people of this country that 
the United States must play its full part in build- 
ing an effective international organization for the 
maintenance of future peace and security. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



United States- Mexican Water Treaty 



Statement by THE SECRETARY OF STATE' 



[Released to the press January 22] 

Mr. Chairman axd Members of the Committee : 

1. One of the few matters of major importance 
Btill pending between the United States and Mexico 
is the equitable division of the waters of three in- 
ternational rivers — the Rio Grande, the Colorado, 
and the Tijuana. During the first two decades of 
this century this water problem received the atten- 
tion of the two Governments on several occasions 
and was the subject of study by joint commissions. 
These early efforts having failed, the Congress in 
1924 passed an act a])proving the establishment of 
an International Water Commission to make a 
study regarding the equitable use of the waters of 
the Rio Grande below Fort Quitman, Texas. The 
refusal of the Government of Mexico to consider 
the Rio Grande without also considering the Colo- 
rado led in 1927 to an amendment of the 1924 act to 
make it cover all three rivers. The joint com- 
mission, organized under the terms of these con- 
gressional statutes, made a study of these rivers 
but was unable to reach an agreement, whereupon 
in 1932 the commission was dissolved and the 
powers of the American Section were transferred 
to the United States Section of the International 
Boundary Commission. 

2. The studies and investigations which formed 
the basis for the treaty now under consideration by 
the Senate were authorized by the Congress in the 
act of August 19, 1935. Since that date the De- 
partment of State, in cooperation with Mexican 
officials, has labored earnestly to bring about a 
satisfactory solution of this long-standing and 
troublesome problem. It must be realized that 
each country owes to the other some obligation 
with respect to the waters of these international 
streams, and until this obligation is recognized and 
defined, there must inevitably be unrest and uncer- 
tainty in the communities served by them — a con- 
dition which becomes more serious with the in- 
creasing burden of an expanding population de- 
pendent upon the waters of these streams. Thus it 
lias been in the case of the Rio Grande and the 
Colorado and Tijuana Rivers. So long has settle- 



' Presented by the Under Secretary of State before the 
Senate Foreign Relations Committee on Jan. 22, 1945. 



ment of this problem been delayed that there has 
come into existence a well-nigh intolerable situa- 
tion which the completion of Boulder Dam on the 
Colorado River early in 1935 has aggravated rather 
than relieved. 

3. On the Colorado, development in the United 
States and in Mexico has been proceeding at a 
rapid rate. With an average of over seven million 
acre-feet of water now wasting annually through 
Mexican territory into the Gulf of California, it 
is of the utmost importance to both nations that 
there should be an allocation, once and for all, of 
the waters of this stream, so that, on the one hand, 
conflicting development and over-expansion with 
their attendant disastrous consequences may be 
checked and, on the other hand, development may 
proceed in an orderly and secure manner, free 
of the uncertainties as to futui'e available water 
supply which hamper and retard sound growth. 
Hardship, misunderstanding, and bitterness are 
the only alternatives to an early and equitable 
solution of the problem. 

4. The treaty now under consideration protects, 
in large measure, existing uses in Mexico on the 
Colorado River. In the United States, not only 
are existing uses protected but opportunity is given 
for great expansion. Less than half of the water 
which will be available to the United States under 
this treaty is now being beneficially' used. On the 
other hand, I am informed by men skilled in these 
matters and familiar with all the facts that more 
than half of the million and a half acre-feet of 
water allocated to Mexico will be made up, under 
conditions of ultimate development in the United 
States, of waste and return flows from lands with- 
in the United States. 

5. The Department is indebted in very great 
measure to the Committee of Fourteen and Six- 
teen of the Colorado River Basin States for its 
invaluable advice and assistance in working out a 
statesmanlike solution of the problems of this 
stream. It seemed to us to be in keeping with our 
democratic institutions and procedures that the 
representatives of the communities most vitally 
concerned should be consulted with respect to these 



JANUARY 28. 1945 

matters, despite the fact that these questions are 
also of large national and international sig- 
nificance. 

6. On the Lower Rio Grande, where most of the 
water supply originates in Mexico, a division of 
the waters was agreed upon which, when coupled 
with the building of international dams, will pro- 
tect existing uses and make possible considerable 
expansion in both countries. Floods of great mag- 
nitude periodically wreak havoc in the communi- 
ties bordering this stream and flow unused into 
the Gulf of Mexico. An average of almost four 
million acre-feet of water a year is thus wasted, 
in a region where soil and climate combine to make 
it one of the most fertile in the world, and where, 
given more adequate irrigation, a great inci-ease 
in productivity can be expected. The treaty pro- 
vides for the building of large storage dams to 
hold the floods in check and almost double the 
usable water supply. Opportunities for the gen- 
eration of hydroelectric power will also be jointly 
exploited, thus contributing to the development 
of mining and industry in the communities along 
the Rio Grande. 

7. General jurisdiction over the administration 
of the treaty provisions is vested, subject to the 
supervision of the two Governments, in the Inter- 
national Boundary Commission, organized under 
the Convention of 1889. This agency has had ex- 
perience in similar matters in connection with the 
administration of other treaties. There will be 
no encroachment, however, on the functions of 
other Federal agencies, which will continue to con- 
trol not only matters now under their jurisdiction 
but also facilities and operations in the United 
States which are to be used only partly in the 
fulfilment of treaty provisions. To provide even 
greater assurance on this point, the two Govern- 
ments signed on November 14, 1944 a protocol 
which states in explicit terms the lines of juris- 
diction between the Boundary Commission and its 
respective Sections and other federal agencies in 
each country.^ 

8. The treaty is the product of long and patient 
negotiations on the part of both Governments. 
Every detail received careful consideration by 
men qualified by training and experience in this 
particular field, and we may be justly proud of 
the result. It must be clearly recognized that the 
mutual obligations of which I have spoken are in- 



123 

ternational in scope, not merely unilateral. I am 
happy to say that the treaty which the Senate 
now has under consideration recognizes, defines, 
and makes provision for meeting these mutual 
obligations, on all three streams, in a manner 
fair and equitable to both countries. To my mind, 
it is an outstanding example of the settlement of 
international problems by mutual understanding 
and friendly negotiation. I cannot overempha- 
size its importance from the standpoint of inter- 
national good-will, brought about not by the gift 
of any natural resource but simply by the applica- 
tion of those principles of comity and equity which 
should govern the determination of the equitable 
interests of two neighboring countries in the wa- 
ters of international streams. I commend it un- 
reservedly to the favorable consideration of the 
Senate. 



United Nations War Crimes 
Commission 

DISCONTINUANCE OF SERVICES OF 
HERBERT C. PELL: STATEMENT BY 
ACTING SECRETARY GREW 

[Released to the press January 26] 

I am sorry this morning to have to announce 
that on account of the failure of the appropria- 
tion recommended by the Department of funds 
to cover the salary and expenses of the Honorable 
Herbert C. Pell as American member of the United 
Nations War Crimes Commission, it will not be 
possible to return him to London. I have ex- 
pressed my personal appreciation and the appre- 
ciation of the Department to Mr. Pell for his 
work on the Commission and our regret that on 
account of the failure of the appropriation, his 
services cannot be continued. 

This Government will continue to be repre- 
sented by Lt. Col. Joseph V. Hodgson, former 
Attorney General in Hawaii and a very capable 
man, who has been serving with Mr. Pell as Deputy 
Commissioner. 

There will be do diminution in the interest or 
activity of this Government in the general subject 
of the punishment of war criminals. 



Bulletin of Jan. 21, 1945, i 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Settlement of Disputes Under the Dumbarton 
Oaks Proposals 



[ReleaBed to the press January 27] 

There are certain features in the 
situation relating to Proposals for a 
United Xations Organization for the maintenance 
of peace and security in the world that are of 
marked significance. One is the apparently gen- 
eral agreement among the nations and peoples that 
an organization is essential; another is that the 
Government and people of the United States are 
of this view; and still another — a most heartening 
one — is that the subject is being approached from 
a non-partisan point of view. This is as it should 
be. The objective spirit demonstrated by all po- 
litical shades of thought reflects the innate desire 
of our people for peace. 

The Dumbarton Oaks Proposals are being dis- 
cussed in the columns of the press, in the assembly 
halls, in the forums of the air, and in the pulpits 
of our churches. It is well that they should be so 
discussed and that we as a people should decide, 
in our own deliberative way, whether these Pro- 
posals, if perfected and adopted by the peace-lov- 
ing nations as the guiding Charter for future in- 
ternational relations and behavior will give us 
a reasonable degree of safeguards against the out- 
break of another unspeakable war. All must 
agree that unless the nations that desire peace 
shall band together in some common undertaking 
of mutual assistance for self-preservation against 
aggression, the future outlook must be dark indeed. 
It has been only too well demonsti'ated during the 
past 25 years that pious thinking and temporizhig 
tactics do not afford security. These methods do 
not deter the law-breaker or dim his lust for world 
domination. They only give him time. 

It is particularly gratifying that this meeting 
is being held under the auspices of the Interna- 
tional and Comparative Law Section of the 
American Bar Association and of member organ- 
izations of the Inter- American Bar Association. 



Address by 
GREEN H. HACKWORTH 



Delivered before the Section of International and 
Comparative Law of tlie American Bar Association and 
constituent members of the Inter-American Bar Asso- 
ciation, Washington, Jan. 27, 1945. Mr. Hackworth is 
Legal Adviser, Department of State. 



The lawyers have a special mission 
in this field. Theirs is the responsi- 
bility for upholding the dignity and 
supremacy of law. A quickening of the sense of 
that responsibility in the international field should 
augur for good. 

Coming now more directly to the Dumbarton 
Oaks Proposals, I should like to dwell for a few 
moments on the methods there contemplated for 
the peaceful adjustment of differences between 
nations. The very first purpose of the proposed 
International Organization is, of course, the main- 
tenance of peace and security. As corollaries to 
this are the development of friendly relations 
among nations and the promotion of international 
cooperation in the solution of economic, social, and 
other humanitarian problems. The principles of 
the Organization are declared to be: (1) the sov- 
ereign equality of all peace-loving states; (2) the 
fulfilment by members of the Organization of the 
obligations assumed by them in accordance with 
the Charter; (3) the settlement of disputes by 
peaceful means; (4) the avoidance of the use of, 
or threats to Use, force in a manner inconsistent 
with the purposes of the Organization; (5) the 
obligation to give assistance to the Organization 
in any action undertaken by it under the Charter; 
(6) the obligation to refrain from giving assist- 
ance to any state against which action is under- 
taken by the Organization; and an undertaking 
by members of the Organization to see to it that 
non-member states shall act in accordance with 
these principles so far as may be necessary for the 
maintenance of peace and security. 

The Organization is not to be a closed corpo- 
ration ; rather, it is to be open to all peace-loving 
states. It would have an assembly in which all 
member states would be represented; a security 
council with limited membership but representa- 
tive of all states; an international court of justice; 
and subsidiary agencies and organizations. Both 
the Assembly and the Security Council would have 
jurisdiction to entertain questions relating to 
peace and security. Both could make recommen- 
dations regarding peaceful settlement, but the As- 



JANUARY 28, 1945 



125 



sembly ■would not, on its own initiative, make such 
recommendations as to matters concerning peace 
and security if they were being dealt with by the 
Security Council. This latter qualification is de- 
signed to prevent the possibility that the Assem- 
bly and the Security Council might be working at 
cross-purposes on a matter in which the Council 
would have ultimate responsibility. 

The Security Council, which would function 
continuously, would be charged with primary re- 
sponsibility in maintaining peace and security. 
It would be empowered to investigate any dispute 
or any situation which might lead to international 
friction or give rise to a dispute. The investi- 
gation wouH be for the purpose of determining 
whether continuance of the dispute or the situa- 
tion would likely endanger international peace 
and security. This investigation may be referred 
to as a first step in maintaining the international 
equilibrium. An investigation by a representa- 
tive group of men before a dispute reaches fever 
heat may well prevent it from ever reaching that 
stage. The focusing of the light of day on dif- 
ferences between two states is bound to have a 
sobering, as well as a deterring, effect, especially 
if it is known that this may be followed, if neces- 
sary, by more stringent measures against the recal- 
citrant state. 

The Dumbarton Oaks Proposals would place 
upon all parties to a dispute likely to endanger 
the peace an obligation to seek a solution by peace- 
ful means. Five methods of peaceful procedure 
are specifically named, that is to say, negotiation, 
mediation, conciliation, arbitration, and judicial 
settlement. The naming of these methods does 
not preclude resort to other peaceful methods. 

The provisions concerning investigations by the 
Security Council and obligations on the parties 
to a dispute are contained in chapter VIII of the 
Proposals. The same chapter provides that if 
the parties to a dispute which is likely to endanger 
international peace and security fail to reach a 
settlement, they should be obligated to refer it to 
the Security Council. It would then be the duty 
of the Council to decide whether or not continu- 
ance of the dispute is in fact likely to have that 
effect and, accordingly, whether it should deal 
with the matter. If the Council should decide 
that action by it is called for, it may at any stage 
of a dispute that seems to threaten the peace recom- 
mend procedures or methods of adjustment. It 



may also ask the International Court for advice 
on legal questions that may be involved. Should 
the parties to a dispute fail voluntarily to reach 
a settlement, whether on their own initiative or 
on the basis of a suggestion from the Council, and 
should such failure in the judgment of the Council 
constitute a threat to the peace, it would be au- 
thorized to take such measures as might be neces- 
sary for the maintenance of international peace 
and security in accordance with the purposes and 
principles of the Organization. In general, the 
Council should determine the existence of any 
threat to the peace, breach of the peace, or act of 
aggression, and should make recommendations or 
decide upon the measures to be taken. The Council 
might decide that a partial or complete interrup- 
tion of means of communication, or the severance 
of diplomatic and economic relations, would be 
sufficient to bi'ing the particular state or .states 
into a more reasonable frame of mind. But if the 
Council should decide that measures short of the 
use of force would not suffice to preserve peace, it 
would be empowered under the Proposals to use 
air, naval, or land forces to maintain or restore 
peace. Such forces might be used only in demon- 
strations, or in the establislunent of pacific 
blockade, or they might be used in such other man- 
ner as the circumstances might require. 

The Security Council might call upon all mem- 
bers of the Organization to supply military con- 
tingents or it might limit its call to some of them, 
depending upon the locality and magnitude of the 
threat or breach of the peace. 

In brief, the Security Council would be em- 
powered to inquire into any dispute or situation 
that might lead to international friction. It would 
not take further action unless there should appear 
to be a threat to the peace. Action by the Council 
might be by way of recommendation to the parties 
under section A of chapter VIII; or it might be 
more direct through the use of diplomatic or eco- 
nomic measures, or even resort to force when neces- 
sary, under section B. The pai'ties themselves 
would be under an abiding obligation to settle 
their differences by pacific methods. If they ob- 
serve this obligation there should be little or no 
occasion for resort to stringent measures. 

Coming now to the International Court of Jus- 
tice contemplated in chapter VII of the Proposals, 
little can here be .said except that the representa- 
tives of the four powers meeting at Dumbarton 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Oaks were in entire agreement that an interna- 
tional organization would be incomplete without 
a court. They were also in entire agreement that 
all members of the International Organization 
should ipso facto become parties to the Statute 
of the Court, and that the Statute should be an- 
nexed .to and be a part of the Charter of the Or- 
ganization. They realized the painstaking care 
with which the present Statute of the Permanent 
Court of International Justice had been prepared 
initially by a committee of distinguished jurists 
and with which the amendments had been drafted 
in 1929 ; also that there had developed around the 
Statute a considerable body of jurisprudence which 
it might not be desirable unnecessarily to disturb. 
On the other hand, they recognized that at least 
some changes would be necessary to fit the Statute 
to the pattern of the new Organization. They 
therefore suggested that the Statute should con- 
tinue in force with such modifications as may be 
desirable or that it should be used as the basis of 
a new statute. 

Public discussions of the Court have, to a con- 
siderable extent, revolved around three major 
topics: (1) compulsory jurisdiction, (2) enforce- 
ment of decisions, and (3) the possible creation 
within the framework of the Court of auxiliary 
courts with original jurisdiction. 

The first of these propositions (compulsory juris- 
diction) relates to the question whether, as in 
municipal law, a plaintiff should be empowered 
to bring an action against a defendant without the 
latter's consent or whether there should be a prior 
agreement between the parties to submit to the 
jurisdiction of the Court. Article 36 of the present 
Statute of the Permanent Court of International 
Justice provides that "The jurisdiction of the 
Court comprises all cases which the parties refer 
to it and all matters specially provided for in 
treaties and conventions in force." It also con- 
tains the "compulsory-jurisdiction" clause by 
which members may declare that they recognize 
"as compulsory ipso facto and without special 
agreement", in relation to any other member or 
state accepting the same obligation, the jurisdic- 
tion of the Court in all or any of four classes of 
legal disputes: 

(1) the interpretation of a treaty; 

(2) any question of international law; 



(3) the existence of any fact which, if estab- 
lished, would constitute a breach of an 
international obligation; and 

(4) the nature or extent of the reparation to 
be made. 

The declaration accepting compulsory jurisdic- 
tion of the Court may be made unconditionally or 
on condition of reciprocity on the part of several 
or certain members or states, or for a certain time. 
Approximately 50 states have accepted compulsoiy 
jurisdiction of the Court in one form or another. 
Of these, 44 states conditioned their acceptance 
on reciprocity. 

Jurisdiction of the Court, as indicated pre- 
viously, comprises all cases which the parties refer 
to it and all matters specially provided for in 
treaties and conventions. Article 26 of the British 
Mandate for Palestine, for example, provided for 
submission to the Court of any dispute between the 
MandatoiT and another member of the League of 
Nations relating to the interpretation or the ap- 
plication of the provisions of the mandate, which 
could not be settled by negotiation. In the Mavro- 
matis Palestine Concessio7is case, the Greek Gov- 
ernment brought an action against the British 
Government, relying, inter alia, upon this article. 
The British Government countered that the Court 
did not have jurisdiction, but the Court held other- 
wise and heard and decided the case. 

The number of treaties and conventions which 
make special provision for matters which shall fall 
within the Court's jurisdiction is very large. In- 
stances of application to the Court to take juris- 
diction over matters concerning which reference 
to it was specially provided for in treaties include 
the case just mentioned, the S. S. Wimbledon case, 
the case concerning German Interests in Polish Up- 
per Silesia, the Chorzow Factoi'y case, the case con- 
cerning the Rights of Minorities in Upper Silesia, 
the case concerning the Interpretation of the Stat- 
ute of Memel, the case concerning the Administra- 
tion of the Prince of Plesa, and the proceedings con- 
cerning the Polish Agrarian Reform and the Ger- 
man Minority. 

As to the enforcement of decisions of the Court, 
arguments pro and contra can of course be made, 
but to my way of thinking it is not a matter on 
which hasty conclusions should be reached. 

The Constitution of the United States provides 
in article III, section 2, that "The judicial Power 



JANUARY 28. 1945 



shall extend to . . . Controversies between two or 
more States". By the same section it is provided 
that the Supreme Court "shall have original 
Jurisdiction" in all cases "in which a State shall be 
Party". There is, however, no provision in the 
Constitution with respect to the enforcement of 
decisions in such cases. 

In 1906 the Commonwealth of Virginia filed a 
bill in equity in the Supreme Court seeking a de- 
cree for an accounting as between Virginia and 
A\"est Virginia with respect to the balance due from 
the latter state, following its separation from Vir- 
ginia, on the public debt as it existed prior to Jan- 
uary 1, 1861, and praying that West Virginia "be 
made a party defendant". West Virginia demur- 
red on the ground, among others, that the Court 
lacked jurisdiction because "this court has no power 
to i-ender or enforce any final judgment or decree 
thereon". {Virginia \. West Virginia, 206 U. S. 
■290,306,307. 1907.) The Court overruled the de- 
murrer, Mr. Chief Justice Fuller delivering the 
opinion. The Couit stated : 

"But it is objected that this court has no juris- 
diction . . . because the court has no power to en- 
force and therefore none to render any final judg- 
ment or decree herein. . . . 

"The object of the suit is a settlement with West 
Virginia, and to that end a determination and 
adjudication of the amount due by that State to 
Virginia, and when this court has ascertained and 
adjudged the proportion of the debt of the orig- 
inal State which it would be equitable for West 
Virginia to pay, it is not to be presumed on de- 
murrer that West Virginia would refuse to carry 
out the decree of this court. If such repudiation 
should be absolutely asserted we can then consider 
by what means the decree may be enforced. Con- 
sent to be sued was given when West Virginia was 
admitted into the Union, and it must be assumed 
that the legislature of West Virginia would in the 
natural course make provision for the satisfaction 
of any decree that may be rendered." {Ibid. 317, 
319. See also Virginia v. West Virginia, 220 U. S. 
1, 34, 35-36. 1911.) 

There will be various classes of cases before 
the International Court, some important, some 
less important. Public opinion will have its effect 
where the integrity of the litigant state is not 
alone sufficient. Moreover, in the important cases 
where non-compliance with a decision of the Court 



Designation of H. F. Arthur 
Schoenfeld as United States 
Representative in Hungary 

[Released to the press January 20] 

The President has designated H. F. 
Arthur Schoenfeld as the United States 
representative in Hungary for the general 
protection of American interests. As in 
the case of Rumania and Bulgaria, this 
representative will function in addition to 
and separate from the Control Commission. 

Mr. Schoenfeld has the personal rank of 
Minister. 



might constitute a threat to the peace, the Secu- 
rity Council would have jurisdiction to suggest or 
require adjustment. 

On the proposal for the erection of so-called 
auxiliary courts, the house of delegates of the 
American Bar Association at its annual meeting 
in Chicago resolved that the Permanent Court of 
International Justice should be so organized that 
a member would "be available to sit as an Inter- 
national Circuit Court, with original jurisdiction". 

Articles 26 and 27 of the existing Statute of the 
Court contain provision for the appointment by 
the Court of special chambers of five judges each, 
who may, if the parties so demand, hear and deter- 
mine labor cases and also cases relating to transit 
and communications. In these classes of cases 
recourse may also be had to the summary proce- 
dure provided for in article 29 of the Statute. This 
article provides that for the purpose of the speedy 
despatch of business, the Court shall form annually 
a chamber of five judges who, at the request of the 
contesting parties, may hear and determine cases 
by summary procedure. 

It may well be that the Court envisioned by the 
Dumbarton Oaks Proposals should have an aux- 
iliary branch or branches to pass upon certain 
classes of cases or cases which parties to a dispute 
are prepared to submit to such a chamber or court. 
Such an auxiliary court could hold its sessions at 
places other than the seat of the principal Court, 
as might be desired by the parties or as might in 
the judgment of the Court best promote the ad- 
ministration of justice. There is much to be said 
for bringing the Court closer to the people and 



128 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



closer to the locale of the dispute. Such a pro- 
cedure might follow either of two courses: one 
would be to have the chamber sit as a court of first 
instance with a right of appeal by either party to 
the full Court in any or in certain classes of cases, 
and with the right of the principal Court to de- 
termine whether it should grant an appeal; and 
another course would be to make the decisions of 
the auxiliary chamber final. Certainly it could 
hardly be said that if the right to go to such a 
chamber is made optional, denial of right of ap- 
peal would work a hardship. If the parties were 
not prepared at the outset to accept its judgment 
as final, they could take their case in the first in- 
stance to the principal Court. 

To summarize, the cardinal feature of the Dum- 
barton Oaks Proposals is peaceful settlement of 
international disputes. Those Proposals envisage 
an undertaking by the nations who would become 
parties to the Charter to be evolved to settle dis- 
putes by peaceful means. The different steps for 
such a settlement are indicated. They are nego- 
tiation, mediation, conciliation, arbitration, or 
judicial settlement, or such other peaceful means 
as the parties may choose. Any state, whether a 
member of the Organization or not, may bring 
any dispute or situation to the attention of the 
Assembly or of the Council. Both the Assem- 
bly and the Council would be empowered to con- 
sider any such dispute or situation and to make 
recommendations looking to an adjustment. If 
the dispute related to a legal question, such as the 
meaning of a treaty, the location of a boundary, 
the obligation of one of the parties toward the 
other, and solution could not be found through 
other peaceful means, the parties could have re- 
course to arbitration or to the International Court. 
The possible employment of force by the Security 
Council would be only a last resort and should, if 
these peaceful processes are followed, rarely if 
ever be necessary. 

We are faced not with a theoretical situation 
but rather with a practical question as to whether 
nations shall follow the course that they have 
followed through the centuries with one war after 
another, or whether nations are capable of re- 
formulating their attitudes and conduct along 
enlightened and constructive lines by placing wars 
of aggression in the limbo of the past. 

The lawyers of this and other countries, no less 
than other seriously minded people, have a re- 
sponsibility as well as an opportunity in this most 



important movement for the advancement of law 
and order in the international field. The main- 
tenance of law and order among nations must not 
be pursued with less vigilance than tlie mainte- 
nance of law and order within nations if peace 
is to be a-ssured. 

Designation of Lauchlin Currie 
To Conduct Negotiations 
With Switzerland 

[Released to the press January 25] 

The Secretary of State stated on January 3 that 
we have had under consideration and study our 
economic relations with Switzerland. New nego- 
tiations with regard to this problem are about to 
be undertaken. The President has agreed to the 
designation of Lauchlin Currie to conduct these 
negotiations on behalf of the United States, and 
he will shortly leave for Switzerland. 

Our efforts to shorten the war render it impor- 
tant that these negotiations be undertaken without 
delay. 

The Rubber Study Group 

UNITED KINGDOM AND NETHERLANDS MEMBERS 
TO VISIT AMERICAN SYNTHETIC PLANTS 

[Released to the press January 24] 

The rubber industry has made arrangements for 
the Netherlands and the United Kingdom mem- 
bers of the Rubber Study Group to visit several 
synthetic-rubber plants as well as rubber-manu- 
facturing and rubber-reclaiming plants in West 
Virginia, Kentucky, Ohio, and New Jersey. Tliis 
trip is for the purpose of acquainting the visiting 
delegates with the American synthetic industry 
which has been developed during the war to fill 
the gap caused by the loss of 90 percent of the 
Far Eastern rubber-producing areas. The follow- 
ing members will be included in the inspection 
group : 

United Kingdom Netherlands 

O. S. Franks, chairman P. H. Westermann, clwinnan 

Sir Gerard Clauson Lt. Col. J. T. Cremer 

R. L. Hall Dr. P. Honig 

E. M. L. Hall-Patch Captain L. Jiskoot 
Sir John Hay O. Eeuchlin 

W. G. Kellett Dr. T. A. Teiigwall 

F. G. Lee 
H. E. MlUer 
A. G. Pawson 

Sir Walrond Sinclair 



JANUARY 28, 1945 



129 



The Concern of the United States With Mineral 
Resources 



Address by CHARLES P. TAFT ' 



[Released to the press January 26] 

You have asked me to speak to you today as a 
representative of the Department of State, be- 
cause you want to know at first hand what the 
Department believes and what it is doing in these 
matters of foreign policy that affect you and your 
business of mining. That invitation deserves a 
clear and honest explanation. A year ago my 
associate, Paul Linz, came out to your congress 
and told many of you informally much of what 
the Department stands for. I shall try to be even 
more direct and specific today. 

This statement must be placed within a broader 
background than crude ores and their extraction. 
We live in a shrinking world and you cannot live 
to yourselves in the Rockies any more than we in 
Washington can be permitted to withdraw to an 
ivory tower. The United States must adjust its 
situation to that of nearly all parts of the world, 
if not because of any philosophy of brotherhood 
(though I personally believe in that) then as- 
suredly because we can't help ourselves. 

You in the mining industry are a part of the 
pipe-line of industrial raw materials. You can- 
not ignore eitlier the smelters, the transportation 
industry, the fabricators, or the consumers. You 
cannot ignore the welfare and standard of living 
of the men who work for you, but neither can you 
ignore the men who work for rail and steamship 
lines and for the industries that refine your prod- 
uct and then turn it into articles for the world's 
use. 

Your view must go further. You must take 
into account the factors affecting our national de- 
fense. More than ten years ago a group organ- 
ized by the American Institute of Mining and 
Metallurgical Engineers conducted a conference 
in cooperation with the Council on Foreign Rela- 
tions. Their findings were prophetic. They de- 
scribed our industrial organization as a giant 
among those of the other nations of the world, 
but a giant with weaknesses concerned principally 

' Delivered before the Inter-Mountain Mining and Eco- 
nomic Association, Denver, Colo., Jan. 26, 1945. Mr. Taft 
is Director of the Office of Wartime Economic Affairs, 
Department of State. 
628760—45 3 



with a lack in the United States of some of the 
basic raw materials required for its output. These 
strategic raw materials, the group pointed out, 
must come, in an emergency, from domestic pro- 
duction, from existing stocks, and it should have 
been added, from foreign production in those cases 
where our foreign purchases could be adequately 
protected from foreign attack in an emergency 
during transit to these shores. 

Cost is not a factor in such an emergency, but 
time is vital. There must be sufficient stocks to 
keep up production of needed articles, while the 
pipe-line is being filled with substitutes. 

The group of 1933 named manganese, chrome, 
mercury, mica, tin, nickel, rubber, wolfram, cobalt, 
radium, and coconut shells as missing strategic 
materials. Prophets though they were, they missed 
a large number of the items on the strategic list of 
1945, as established by the Army and Navy author- 
ities. Their basic position was entirely right, but 
their best efforts were unable to persuade the Gov- 
ernment in 1937 to do more than make a start 
toward a reserve stockpile. 

The start was made by the stockpile act passed 
tliat year under the leadership of Senator Thomas 
of Utah, and it proved most fortunate as far as 
it went. The war came, and we were caught short 
in only too many respects. The United States and 
the British Government pooled their efforts in the 
Combined Raw Materials Board early in 1942, and 
herculean efforts through the last three years have 
brought a relatively easy supply of all but a few of 
the strategic raw materials. Most of them are still 
unavailable for many normal civilian uses, and of 
course sudden demands often change the picture. 

Now we have reached the point where we must 
anticipate what will happen when hostilities cease. 
I am not predicting when the war will end. I 
am not modifying the demands on you made by 
the stated requirements of the War Production 
Board, but I am trying to state to you the foreign 
policy of the United States in order that you may 
have confidence in going forward now, full out 
for the winning of the war. 

Wlien hostilities cease altogether or in one of 
the great areas of conflict there will be cut-backs 



130 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



in requirements of raw materials. That must mean 
cut-backs in production under War Production 
Board contracts. For high-cost mines there have 
been higher prices, incentive prices. Obviously 
high-cost production must go first, but the con- 
tracting authority should taper it off, on an agreed 
basis if possible, but on a fair basis in any event. 
A government representing the taxpayers, as well 
as a government concerned with the ultimate wel- 
fare of the owners and the employees, must cut off 
the high-cost mines first and get back to a stand- 
ard market price. 

What about the question as between domestic and 
foreign producers? The State Department has 
been widely advertised among your mining fra- 
ternity as advocating the continuance of foreign 
purchases while your mines are shut down. That 
statement is not true and has never been true. 
That was not the position of Mr. Feis who preceded 
me as the officer responsible for relationships to 
the wartime policy of the Department in this 
respect. 

We do take the position that the producers 
should be treated with justice in the cutting back 
or termination of existing contracts. That means 
that all high-cost mines here or abroad should be 
treated alike, in our judgment. If they are closed 
down or cut back here they should be closed down 
or cut back abroad, and vice versa. When the re- 
quirements cease, they should all be closed down. 
The high-cost mines have to be closed down even- 
tually, and you should plan for the fairest and 
most effective way to do it when the time comes. 
You must plan for other ways for those miners 
to be employed in soundly established peacetime 
industry, after they have finished their job in the 
war. But let me repeat, their job in the war was 
never more essential than now at this crisis of the 
battle. 

There are other important considerations af- 
fecting the future of the mining industry as well 
as national defense. Reserves of many of our 
strategic metals do not assure supply for more 
than two or three decades with present technology. 
It therefore behooves the industries of this coun- 
try not only to intensify efforts to develop new re- 
sources at home but also to develop foreign sources 
of supply. It is the duty of the Government to 
provide every assistance in both tliese fields. 

The argument has been made frequently that if 
we are using up a wasting asset, in the interest of 
national defense, we should use up the other fel- 



low's wasting asset, and preserve our own. Our 
high-grade copper will be gone in 25 years, our 
best zinc concentrates in 15, they claim. Let's use 
up the other fellow's and save our own. The argu- 
ment has much force. But when an emergency 
comes, what you need at once is stocks, not ore in 
the ground. And furthermore a careful measure 
of the power of our military forces shows that 
stocks of ore in the ground in Canada or Mexico, 
and even in South America, may be just as good as 
if we had brought them here or had them in 
American soil. 

Appraisals of the present state of our mineral 
reserves by various authorities differ. However, 
few will deny that at some time in the future de- 
pletion will become a major problem and that this 
country will be in the midst of the same transition 
that England had to make at the beginning of the 
last century, that is, from a largely self-sufficient 
country to a country dependent upon imported 
mineral raw materials. In the future there will 
undoubtedly be even sharper division of opinion 
as to the proper course of action than there has 
been in the past, because fundamental economic 
decisions vitally affecting every citizen will have 
to be made. To accumulate information on a prob- 
lem of such scope is not the task of a year or two ; 
it must be done systematically and painstakingly 
over a long period. With these points in mind the 
regularly constituted agencies of our Government 
are now formulating plans to implement the efforts 
of the mineral industry in their development of 
foreign and domestic sources of supply and the 
assembly of information thereon. 

Possibly the most important reason for investi- 
gating foreign supply during the post-war years 
is that, without adequate knowledge of foreign 
resources, an intelligent domestic mineral policy 
cannot be developed or implemented. As mineral 
deposits become depleted, costs usually rise. When 
domestic costs rise above world prices, the question 
of subsidy or tariff comes to the fore. An intel- 
ligent domestic mineral policy must balance the 
admitted desirability of maintaining domestic em- 
ployment against the cost of doing so. Wlien the 
cost of the raw materials for our manufacturing 
industries becomes too high in contrast with costs 
to other manufacturing countries, our industrial 
production must suffer in the long run and unem- 
ployment will result eventually, in spite of various 
palliative measures. Industrial unemployment, of 
course, is quickly reflected in the extractive indus- 



JANUARY 28, 1945 



131 



tries. Adequate information on foreign resources 
will permit an intelligent appraisal of production 
trends and of availability of raw materials to our 
competitors and to ourselves. 

Thus our mineral extractive industry and the 
mineral deposits it exploits are in direct competi- 
tion with foreign mineral production on two fronts, 
in the raw-material stage and in the manufactured- 
product stage. It will be of considerable value to 
every mining enterprise, to the mining industry 
as a whole, and to the Government to have as much 
information as possible concerning the nature of 
the competition that this country must inevitably 
face. 

In the meantime we are faced with the problem 
of surpluses when the shooting stops, and that 
brings us to the various plans for providing stocks 
of strategic materials, to be available in case of 
emergency. 

The Minerals Inquiry Group of 1933 mentioned 
above, proposed that the World War debts, other- 
wise uncollectible, be paid off by accepting raw 
materials of this strategic character and laying 
them aside as national insurance. Similar pro- 
posals have been made more recently. It was 
admitted that accepting them for resale to Amer- 
ican consumers would reduce the trade credits 
normally created by this sale in American mar- 
kets. This would be of no assistance whatever 
in helping those countries to buy American goods, 
but, they said, transfers above and beyond nor- 
mal trade, for a frozen-security stockpile, would 
have no such effect. 

I cannot agree with that. These raw materials 
are most of them wasting assets as I have said. 
The existence of such materials abroad, which the 
United States will need after the war, is one of 
the great resources for getting international trade 
with the United States going again. We have 
more interest, more immediate and long-run self- 
ish interest, in seeing every scrap of possible and 
desirable imports come in which can stimulate 
an immediate export of new goods, than we have 
in getting any dead horses paid for. Production 
and export mean employment. 

But do we want a stockpile for security after 
the war? Well, whether we want it or not, for 
whatever purpose, we are certainly going to have 
one. Exact estimates are of course impossible, 
but the very fact that our whole war effort has 
been stepped up to a new peak means at least very 
sizeable stocks when hostilities cease. In many 
cases, we shall have on hand in Government or 



private ownership two or three years' supply above 
the normal pipe-line for peacetime demands. 
Congress has recognized the danger which that 
creates for employment in extraction and refining 
by freezing such stocks until a year from this 
spring. But what then? 

A frozen-security stockpile subject only to con- 
gressional release has been often proposed and 
widely discussed within and without the Govern- 
ment. However, neither the Government depart- 
ments nor the Congress has gone further than 
the inadequate stockpile act of 1937 and the recent 
Surplus Property Act. Such a stockpile should 
be fixed in amounts by the competent authorities 
for direct military and indirect industrial needs, 
in case of emergency. The amounts required for 
such a stockpile would in most cases be beyond 
existing stocks. That would permit, if Congress 
approved, continued buying at home and abroad 
on a fair basis of prompt tapering off. It would 
in any case remove from post-war markets the 
overwhelming threat of dumping a surplus into 
commercial channels, with the devastating results 
on employment that you oldtimers, who went 
through the early twenties, can describe better 
than I can. The plan has great advantages and 
should commend itself to the Congress if properly 
presented and supported. 

One question may well be raised. How would 
this fit in with our plans for world security, espe- 
cially those embodied in the Dumbarton Oaks 
Proposals? Are we seeking peace with our 
tongues in our cheeks and with a gun and a black- 
jack behind our backs? Certainly not! From 
Dumbarton Oaks came proposals, in the direct 
line of inheritance from the League to Enforce 
Peace and the League of Nations. They were 
worked out by able statesmen representing four 
great nations. They will soon be submitted to 
the United Nations and will grow in content and 
authority. But they will not achieve maturity, 
prestige, and power over the spirits of men and 
nations until we have all lived with them for a 
number of years. In the meantime they carry the 
hope and yearning of millions of men and women, 
and children, too, and the determined hope of the 
world's political leaders, during a period of the 
worst in brutal warfare, with chaos in civil govern- 
ment clearly possible in many areas when that 
warfare ends. We, like every other nation, must 
maintain our own security until collective security 
is firmly established, and none of us is hypocrit- 
ical or inconsistent in doing so. An adequate navy 



132 

and an adequate air force will be maintained by 
us under a woi'ld organization, and peacetime con- 
scription is no doubt proposed with similar intent. 

It is clear therefore that we can appropriately 
consider the proposal for a security stockpile on 
its own merits now. It becomes, if set up by Con- 
gress, an additional factor to back up the peace- 
loving nations in their support of the world or- 
ganization, and to insure that no anti-social minor- 
ity will again wish to make war. 

There is a brief review of our thinking in the 
Department of State. The foreign policy of the 
United States must promote the best interests of 
Americans from coast to coast, all Americans. 
That means many adjustments, obviously. Poli- 
cies must be worked out with a full understand- 
ing of every interest of every group, but it is 
equally true that every group must study its own 
problems in the light of the interest of the whole 
United States, the immediate interest and the 
long-time interest. I am sure you would ask 
nothing less from your Department of State in 
your Government of the United States. 

Proposed Exchange of 
Nationals Between United 
States and Japan 

[Released to the press January 22] 

The following communication from the Japa- 
nese Government has been forwarded to the De- 
partment of State by the Spanish Embassy at 
Washington, in charge of Japanese interests in the 
continental United States, with the request that 
it be made known to the Japanese nationals 
concerned : 

"Japanese Government are carefully consider- 
ing further exchange of nationals between Japan 
and United States and expect to be able to carry 
it out during next year (1945). In view of spe- 
cial nature of Tule Lake segregation center Japa- 
nese Government are prepared to give special con- 
sideration to repatriation of Japanese subjects de- 
tained there through exchange." 

The Department of State has requested the Swiss 
Government, in charge of United States interests 
in Japan, to obtain additional information with 
regard to the Japanese Government's plans for the 
proposed exchange of nationals between Japan 
and the United States. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

The efforts put forth by the Department for the 
repatriation of American nationals in Japanese 
custody have been many and continuous.^ The 
first exchange of nationals between the United 
States Government and the Japanese Government 
took place in the summer of 1942 when over 1,300 
American nationals were repatriated from the Far 
East. Further negotiations, lasting more than a 
year, culminated in a second exchange of civilians 
late in 1943. Approximately 1,240 nationals of the 
United States, including a small number from the 
Philippine Islands, and 260 nationals of the other 
American republics and Canada were repatriated 
by this exchange. 

In negotiating for the second exchange, and 
while that exchange was in progress, the Depart- 
ment of State proposed to the Japanese Govern- 
ment that further exchanges be effected imme- 
diately. The Japanese Government at that time 
refused to discuss further exchanges, advancing as 
its reason that it desired to receive "clarification on 
certain points respecting the treatment of Jap- 
anese nationals in the United States". Spanish 
representatives in charge of Japanese interests in 
the continental United States were requested to 
supply the information requested by the Japanese 
Government and there is reason to believe that 
they complied with this request. 

In March 1944 the Department of State re- 
opened, through the Swiss Government, the ques- 
tion of further exchanges. A complete plan was 
presented under which, on a reciprocal basis, accel- 
erated exchanges might be made. The Japanese 
Government informed the Swiss Government that 
this proposal was under study. Since then the De- 
partment of State has done everything possible to 
obtain Japanese agreement to further exchanges. 
In an effort to overcome Japanese indifference, the 
Department continued to present proposals, in- 
cluding one for a series of continuous small-scale 
exchanges involving the use of available railroad 
connections between Japanese-held territory on 
the Asiatic continent and the Soviet Union. 

The present communication from the Japanese 
Government indicates that, after long delay, 
Japan is now ready to negotiate for the further ex- 
change of American and Japanese nationals. The 
Department of State is prepared to insure the 
speedy execution of any exchange to which the 
Japanese Government's agreement can be obtained. 



' Bulletin of Oct. 15, 1944, p. 439. 



JANUARY 28, 1945 



133 



The International Control of Radiocommunications 



Address by FRANCIS COLT DE WOLF' 



[Released to the press January 25) 

On February 23, 1002 Admiral Prince Henry of 
Prussia, brother of Kaiser Wilhelm II and active 
head of the German Navy, arrived in New York 
aboard the North Gennan Lloyd liner Kronprinz 
Wilhelm. The purpose of the visit was to represent 
the Kaiser at the lamiching of the imperial racing 
yacht Meteor and incidentally to do what he could 
by his personal charm and genial presence to im- 
prove German-American i-elations, which had been 
none too friendly for a number of years. 

The visit of the Prince happened to coincide with 
the tremendous interest that was developing in re- 
gard to the sensational achievements of Marconi in 
the field of wireless telegraphy. Three months 
earlier, on December 11, 1901, Marconi had sent his 
fii-st message across the Atlantic between his Corn- 
wall and Newfoundland stations. However, the 
Marconi system was not the only one in operation. 
Other inventors had been at work on the principle 
of the Heitzian wave. The two competing Ger- 
man systems were the Slaby-Arco and the Braun, 
the former being favored by the German Govern- 
ment while the latter was officially adopted by the 
Australian Government. The Popp-Branley 
system was preferred in France where the author- 
ities had ordered it installed in all coastal stations 
and on warships of the Republic. In the United 
States, the leading systems were the De Forest and 
the Fessenden-AIoore. In Great Britain, however, 
Marconi was supreme, and he had entered into an 
arrangement with the British Govermnent which 
practically barred all competitors from getting a 
foothold throughout the British Empire. 

Opposition to the Marconi monopoly developed 
rapidly in Germany and in an order dated March 1, 
1902 the German Emperor decreed that the Slaby- 
Arco system of wireless telegraphy was to be used 
exclusively on board ships of the Imperial Navy 
and at coast stations. A furious controversy be- 
tween the various proponents of different systems 
of radio communications ensued and it was at that 
very time that Prince Henry made his memorable 
trip to the United States. As a result he had 
wireless trouble on the way over and on the voyage 
home. The Kronprinz Wilhehn was at that time 
still equipped with Marconi apparatus. Wlien the 



vessel arrived within radio distance of the Ameri- 
can coast, about 100 miles, an attempt was made 
to send a wireless message to President Theodore 
Roosevelt announcing the impending arrival of 
the royal guest. It was not until the vessel was 
inside New York Harbor that communication was 
established with the shore station on Governor's 
Island and the message sent. The failure was 
ascribed to the interference of an outward-bound 
Cunarder, which was carrying on a continuous 
conver.=-ation with the shore and refused to get off 
the air so that no message from the German vessel 
could get through. On the return voyage there 
was trouble from start to finish. 

The homeward trip was made aboard the Ham- 
burg- American liner Deutschland, equipped with 
the Slaby-Arco system. The German authorities 
had addressed an application to the management 
of the Marconi Company, requesting their oper- 
ators to receive Slaby-Arco messages during 
Prince Henry's voyage, but the request had been 
promptly refused. 

Before leaving the American coast, the liner 
attempted to communicate with the Nantucket 
Shoals Lightship, which employed the Marconi 
system, in order to send a farewell message from 
Prince Henry to President Roosevelt. The Light- 
ship refused to acknowledge the Deutschland's 
signals or to enter into any communication with 
her. 

The same thing happened again as the vessel 
approached the shores of England and tried to get 
in touch with the Marconi station at the Lizard. 
But the crowning insult to German royalty came 
as the liner neared the German coast and tried to 
establish contact with the wireless station at the 
port of Cuxhaven in Germany. 

The Kaiser had made elaborate plans to greet 
his royal brother from a German battleship 
which was to meet the Deutschland a few miles 
outside Cuxhaven and escort the vessel into port. 
Wlien the liner attempted to communicate its po- 



' Delivered before the 33d annual banquet of the Institute 
of Radio Engineers, New York, N. Y., Jan. 25, 1945. Mr. 
de Wolf is Chief of the Telecommunications Division, OflBce 
of Transportation and Communications, Department of 
State. 



134 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



sition about 100 miles from port, no message could 
get through because of interference from the 
powerful Marconi shore station at Poldhu across 
the English Channel. Consequently the Deutsch- 
larul was practically in the harbor before news of 
its arrival was delivered to the Kaiser at lunch. 
The plans of His Majesty were completely upset 
and the whole ceremony of the Prince's reception 
misfired rather badly. Whether as a result of the 
feelings of outraged royalty or not, the German 
Government acted promptly. The Prince had 
arrived at Cuxhaven on March 18 ; and on the fol- 
lowing day, March 19, the German Ambassador 
in Washington presented a memorandum to the 
Department of State requesting an international 
conference on wireless telegraphy with a view 
to establishing regulations for its control. 

The first International Radio Conference took 
place in Berlin in August 1903. The principles 
embodied in the final protocol of the Berlin con- 
ference have remained the basic law of interna- 
tional radio regulations, notably, the rules that 
coastal stations are obliged to exchange telegrams 
with ship stations without regard to the system 
employed; that distress calls have priority; that 
services must be organized in such a way as to 
avoid interference with other stations; and that 
military and naval services are exempt from the 
provisions of the regulations except with regard 
to distress calls and interference. The basic prin- 
ciples of rate regulations in this field of communi- 
cations were also adopted. 

The British Delegation undertook to submit the 
conclusions of the Berlin conference to the exami- 
nation of its Government, but declared that, in 
view of the situation of wireless telegraphy in the 
United Kingdom, the Delegation must "maintain 
a general reservation." 

The Italian Delegation substantially followed 
the lead of the British Delegation. 

The principles of the Berlin protocol were re- 
affirmed at a radio conference at Berlin in 1906 and 
a London conference in 1912. Fourteen nations, 
including the United States, signed the Berlin 
convention which was finally proclaimed and put 
into effect on May 25, 1912. Shortly before, the 
Titanic disaster had demonstrated to the world 
the mischief which could be accomplished by un- 
regulated wireless communications. 

Thus the visit of Prince Henry to the United 
States dramatized, if it did not hasten, the efforts 



to secure international cooperation in the control 
of radio communications. 

The first World War interrupted the process of 
regulating radio waves and it was not until 1927 
that an international radiotelegraph conference 
took place in Washington, at which time the na- 
tions of the world adopted the first table of allo- 
cations which has become the guide for all inter- 
national policing of the radio spectrum. 

Five years later, in 1932 in Madrid, there took 
place the fii-st Telecommunications Conference 
which placed, under one roof, radio, telephone, and 
telegraph and established a uniform convention to 
which the United States was willing to subscribe. 
As in former days, however, the United States 
abstained from becoming a party to the telegraph 
regulations on the ground that in this country 
telegraphy was largely carried on by private com- 
panies and the Government did not feel that it 
could become a party thereto. In Cairo, in 1938, 
at the last Telecomnninications Conference before 
the present war, the regulations annexed to the 
Madrid convention were amended without chang- 
ing the convention itself. These are the regu- 
lations which are in effect today. 

And now as to the future. 

The State Department has invited other in- 
terested Federal agencies, as well as private in- 
dustry, to join with it in studying what should be 
the position of the United States at forthcoming 
international conferences. The first one of these, 
the Third Inter-American Radio Conference, will 
take place in Rio de Janeiro in June 1945. 

Thereafter, we anticipate a world conference to 
continue the work of the Berlin, London, Washing- 
ton, Madrid, and Cairo conferences. As I view it, 
the main purpose of these international confer- 
ences is to make the very best use possible of avail- 
able radio frequencies. There is a constant race 
between science, which endeavors to extend the 
usable portion of the radio spectrum and to make 
more economic use of existing frequencies, and 
the ever-increasing demands for frequencies by 
the users. Until the close of World War I the use 
of radio was confined almost exclusively to com- 
munications with ships. Nowadays the number of 
radio services and the different kinds of radio sta- 
tions have tremendously increased. In 1939 there 
were in the United States 3,061 broadcasting sta- 
tions, including standard broadcast stations, tele- 
vision broadcast, international broadcast, and fac- 



JANUARY 28, 1945 

simile. There were at the same time 62,433 non- 
broadcast stations in the United States alone, di- 
vided between such services as amateurs (53,558 
stations), aviation (subdivided into four cate- 
gories), agriculture, police (municipal, state, et 
cetera), experimental, fixed public (point-to-point 
telegraph ) , public coastal, relay press, geophysical, 
and ship stations (3,736). 

The recommendations of the Federal Communi- 
cations Commission for post-war frequency allo- 
cation for radio services operating between 25,000 
and 30,000 megacycles liave opened up new vistas 
for radio, including frequency modulation, tele- 
vision, facsimile, "walkie-talkie", et cetera. The 
next international conference will thus be con- 
fronted with the tremendous problem of devising 
an adequate control of radio so that it will be of 
maximum benefit to all the users. 

I think it is particularly true that in the field 
of radio communications, control is essential; 
without it we would have chaos. On the other 
hand, we must not lose sight of the fact that science 
and private initiative have been responsible for 
the tremendous development of the industry and 
that the controls have been created merely to bring 
the maximum utility out of the results of private 
research and endeavor. 

I participated in the 1938 Cairo conference and 
I can testify to the splendid spirit of cooperation 
between American industry and the United States 
Government. This close collaboration between the 
Government and industry in the telecommunica- 
tion field has proved most beneficial to both and 
has established a pattern which might well be 
copied in other fields of endeavor. 

I feel confident, therefore, that with a continua - 
tion of this active cooperation, we will reach solu- 
tions -which will prove acceptable to all the users 
of the radio spectrum, although they may not ob- 
tain 100 percent of all their demands. 

For the past two years we have been working 
on plans of the post-war telecommunication world. 
Many of these, of course, are still in the blueprint 
stage. It is not possible for me at this time to go 
into detail as to what these plans consist of. I 
may say, however, that we have in mind a modern- 
ization of our existing international telecommuni- 
cation bodies, bringing them more in line with the 
necessities of present day radio, particularly in 
the field of radio interference and radio regulation. 
In this field, as in other fields, we must determine 



135 

whether we are prepared to surrender a certain 
modicum of sovereignty to insure a more efficient 
control of radio, for radio knows no national 
boundaries. This is particularly evident at in- 
ternational radio conferences where the differ- 
ent categories of users of the radio spectrum have 
a tendency to gravitate toward each other. Eng- 
lish and American broadcasters, for example, band 
togetiier against the British and American aero- 
nautical radio services and the latter seek allies 
among the maritime services against the amateurs. 
Eventually, solutions are reached and meanwhile 
national frontiers have been well-nigh forgotten. 

We also envisage the possibility of the formation 
of an inter-American telecommunication union 
which would accomplish for this hemisphere what 
has been done on a world basis by the International 
Telecommunication Union at Bern. 

We have other plans also for the saving of radio 
frequencies. We are considering means to assure 
radio services to certain points for twenty-four 
houi-s a day without interference from the mag- 
netic pole. In one case we have already accom- 
plished this by assuring a twenty-four-hour service 
between New York and Moscow through a relay 
operated by an American radio company station 
at Algiers. Our Government engineers are now 
studying the possibility of the so-called equatorial 
belt system, and at the same moment they are busy 
with the consideration of a plan which, in their 
estimation, would be even better than routing radio 
waves along the equator. 

As you know, the question of a possible merger 
of the American communications companies en- 
gaged in international communications is also 
under active consideration. Reasonable men may 
differ as to the advisability of including all or only 
some of the American companies in such a merger, 
but whatever solution may be reached, it will un- 
doubtedly result in a more efficient service and a 
definite saving of our all too precious frequencies. 

The Federal Communications Commission, the 
Interdepartmental Radio Advisory Committee — 
IRAC to initiates — together with the State De- 
partment's interdepartmental post-war commit- 
tees, will consider the new allocation plans to be 
submitted at the next international conference on 
behalf of the United States. Some time in the 
not too distant future we anticipate holding a con- 
ference with representatives of the British Com- 
(Continued on next page) 



136 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BVLLETW 



The Positive Approach to an Enduring Peace 



Address by HENRY S. VILLARD ' 



[Released to the press January 19] 

We have heard a good deal of late about the 
need after this terrible war to organize inter- 
national action in the political and military field, 
but rather less about the general principles which 
must govern the conduct of day-to-day human 
relations if future bloody strife is to be avoided. 
The shocking destruction of lives and property 
may have caused some of us to become preoccu- 
pied with the physical ways and means of stopping 
an aggressor in his tracks — by force if necessary. 
In our deep concern with the problem of world 
security we may be inclined to overlook the posi- 
tive approach to an enduring peace. 

It is obvious that the scientific weapons of mass 
murder today can develop staggering potentialities 
tomori'ow. Never again can mankind afford a 
global war if our civilization is to survive. The 
task of this generation is to make certain that no 
such catastrophe takes place and that the united 
effort of the human race in so far as possible is 
bent to constructive ends. 

RADIOCOMMUNICATIONS— Co?!<i»«e(i 1rom page 135 
monwealth of Nations looking toward a more 
efficient and more economical means of communica- 
tions between the English-speaking people of the 
world. 

I do not believe that the American public has 
ever been so conscious in its history of the impor- 
tance of communications and of the advisability of 
breaking down all barriers which prevent the easy, 
economical, and speedy flow of intelligence. Never 
before has there been a closer integration between 
government and industry to bring this about. 

Thus radio points the way to a new world, in 
which government and private enterprise, hand in 
hand, will work out solutions for the greater bene- 
fit of all mankind, where national boundaries will 
have as much or as little meaning as the bounda- 
ries between the several states of our Union and in 
which, by international cooperation, we will assure 
to the peoples of the world the free and untram- 
meled use of radio in all its varied applications. 

We have a fine record of endeavor behind us. I 
know we have a still finer record ahead of us. 



I don't suppose any audience could be more 
sincerely interested than you in the solution of 
international economic, social, and other humani- 
tarian problems, and in the promotion of respect 
for human rights and fundamental freedoms. Ef- 
fective international cooperation along these lines 
is a basic requirement for the maintenance of world 
peace and security; without such cooperation, 
progress toward the elimination of war is impos- 
sible. It was in full recognition of these important 
factors in human existence that the Proposals for 
a world organization advanced at Dumbarton Oaks 
included this positive function as a major purpose 
of the Organization. Specifically, the Proposals 
vest in the General Assembly, and in an Economic 
and Social Council under its authority, responsi- 
bility for promoting international cooperative 
activity in the economic and social fields. 

I can assure you that the Department of State 
is very much alive to the possibilities and implica- 
tions of this new Economic and Social Council 
which would have to do with the whole wide and 
inspiring realm of constructive international co- 
operation. The subject is, of course, complex — as 
complex as human nature itself. But to strive ef- 
fectively for harmonious relations between peo- 
ples, one must go to the roots of the manifold 
activities engaged in by society, with all the at- 
tendant difficulties brought about by differing 
points of view. I am going to try to tell you some- 
thing about the human and social problems that 
are currently engaging the Department's atten- 
tion ; but first, I should like to explain a little more 
fully the scope of the Dumbarton Oaks Proposals 
in terms of the Economic and Social Council. 

Picture to yourselves an active agencj' of the 
proposed general International Organization, com- 
posed of representatives of 18 member countries 
elected every 3 years by the General Assembly, 
dedicated to the advancement of human welfare 
and the solution of those multiple problems which 



' Delivered at a luncheon given by the American Mis- 
sion to Lepers on Jan. 22, 1945, at New York, N. Y. Mr. 
Villard is Thief of the Division of African Affairs, OflSce 
of Near Eastern and African Affairs, Department of 
State. 



JANUARY 28, 1945 



137 



relate to man's material and cultural well-being. 
Assisting this widely representative agency and 
under its direction would be a number of highly 
competent commissions, staffed by experts and re- 
search specialists in the various fields calling for 
international collaboration. Behind the formal 
words defining the purpose, functions, and pro- 
cedure of the agency lies an ideal to which every- 
one can contribute. If the objective of the Eco- 
nomic and Social Council and its advisory bodies 
is successfully carried out, it will I'esult in the 
fostering on a grand scale of a state of aflfairs con- 
ducive to human progress which, with the aid of 
the security machinery of the Organization, can 
be carried on without the interruption of wars or 
preparations for wars. 

Attempts have been made in the past, through 
commissions and committees of the League of Na- 
tions, to improve economic and social standards 
and to encourage among the nations the develop- 
ment of a sense of mutual responsibility and par- 
ticipation in meeting problems common to all. The 
International Labor Office, the Institute of Intel- 
lectual Cooperation, the International Institute of 
Agriculture, and the Bank for International Set- 
tlements were additional examples of the growing 
trend toward world-wide cooperative action. 
Wliile these bodies had their limitations, they have 
made useful contributions to the cause of interna- 
tional understanding. 

But realization of the immense importance in 
the modern world of promoting cooperative effort 
among all peoples led the planners at Dumbarton 
Oaks to go further and, in their blueprints, to pro- 
vide for bringing into relations with one over-all 
authority all the existing specialized international 
agencies dealing with such varied topics as eco- 
nomics, finance, agi'iculture, education, aviation, 
relief and rehabilitation, and the like. With 
proper coordination and assistance, such as would 
be afforded by the Economic and Social Council 
and its agencies or commissions, I think you will 
agree that the plan pi'esents an unlimited chal- 
lenge. If statesmen should devote their full ener- 
) ] gies to the opportunity, can there be any doubt 
' ' that a long step forward will have been taken 
toward the removal of those deplorable situations 
whicli so fi'equently result in international fric- 
tion and disputes ? 

The "Arrangements for International Economic 
and Social Cooperation", as envisaged in chap- 



ter IX of the Dumbarton Oaks Proposals, look 
directly to the creation of those conditions of 
stability and well-being which are necessary for 
peaceful and friendly relations among nations. To 
this end, the proposed International Organization 
is specifically enjoined to "facilitate solutions of 
international economic, social and other humani- 
tarian problems", and to "promote respect for 
human rights and fundamental freedoms". In 
carrying out its duties under this directive, it 
seems to me that the Economic and Social Council 
will have to deal with three problems in particular. 

As far as we here in America are concerned, I 
am sure that all of us earnestly believe that the 
close of this war must mark the inauguration of an 
era of greater civil liberty for free and peaceable 
men. The true progress of mankind is gauged 
by the advances in the realization of human rights 
which can enable the human personality to develop 
fully in a spirit of justice and tolerance. We here 
believe that the mind and spirit of men can best 
grow under a government devoted to protecting the 
liberties of its citizens and providing economic 
justice and security for all. It would seem further 
that the civil rights of mankind form an indi- 
visible body of rights, for all civil liberties are 
interdependent; one cannot go forward without 
the others. The rights of freedom of speech, of the 
press, of assembly, of religious worship, and of 
association are basic, inalienable, and inseparable. 
To these rights should be added the right of free 
access to information so that men can form wise 
judgments as a prelude to wise action. 

The constant goal of the American people has 
been the attainment of a society marked by greater 
individual liberty granted to all men regardless 
of race, creed, or economic status. The Bill of 
Rights in the American Constitution is a great 
landmark on the road to human liberty. It has 
been an inspiration to many freedom-loving men 
of many nations. While the attainment of civil 
liberty in each country is a struggle which the 
citizens of each country must wage for themselves, 
nevertheless we believe that it is possible and right 
for freedom-loving peoples to give help to those 
who aspire to freedom. 

In formulating any plans for the promotion of 
human rights, it is essential to realize the difficul- 
ties involved in the solution of this problem. In 
the first place, it will not be easy to arrive at a uni- 
versally satisfactory definition of "himian rights 



138 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



and fundamental freedoms". Those nations -with 
the Anglo-American system of jurisprudence have 
traditionally tended to emphasize civil rights such 
as freedom of speech and freedom from physical 
restraint, whereas other countries have been in- 
clined to emphasize social equality and economic 
rights. A much greater obstacle is presented by 
the traditional reluctance of states to assume inter- 
national obligations in this field, due to their fear 
of external interference in the internal affairs of 
sovereign states. 

These difficulties should not, however, preclude 
international efforts to promote respect for human 
rights and fundamental freedoms. To take a single 
illustration, the record of the International Labor 
Organization shows convincingly what can be 
achieved in a vital social field on the basis of volun- 
tary international cooperation. Moreover, the 
present war, more than any other war, has so out- 
raged and affronted the dignity of man that there 
has been aroused in the great masses of the people 
everywhere the urgent realization of the need for 
guaranties of the basic rights of man. These strong 
popular sentiments have found reflection in the 
statements of principle of the Atlantic Charter and 
of the United Nations Declaration, as well as in 
numerous public statements of various United 
Nations leaders. Efforts to implement the provi- 
sions of chapter IX of the Dumbarton Oaks Pro- 
posals with respect to human rights would un- 
doubtedly meet with wide-spread popular response 
throughout the world. These general provisions 
leave unanswered, of coiu-se, many important ques- 
tions, such as: Should there be some precise defi- 
nition of "human rights and fundamental free- 
doms"? Should there be an international bill of 
rights? Should there be established some special- 
ized international agency, possibly along the lines 
of the International Labor Organization, which 
might be charged with the preparation of studies 
and the formulation of recommendations and other 
appropriate responsibilities with regard to the pro- 
motion of human rights on a universal basis? 

One aspect of this matter which we have been 
actively studying in the Department is the question 
of religious liberty. A statement on religious lib- 
erty, adopted by the Federal Council of the 
Churches of Christ in America and the Foreign 
Missions Conference of North America, was pre- 
sented to the Secretary of State last spring and has 
since received the careful consideration of persons 



within the Department concerned with the post- 
war settlements. The United States has ever been 
in the forefront as a defender of religious lib- 
erty — meaning freedom of worship and of con- 
science — as shown by the numerous treaties be- 
tween this Government and foreign governments 
that contain provisions on the subject. Through- 
out its history the United States has extended dip- 
lomatic protection to its citizens in other countries 
who follow conscientiously their religion without 
offense to high standards of morality. You will 
recall that at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919 
President Wilson pressed for the inclusion of a 
general article in the Covenant of the League of 
Nations providing for religious liberty everywhere. 
While the proposed article was never adopted in 
the Covenant its influence was manifest in the ar- 
rangements which were drawn up for the mandates 
and the minorities treaties. 

If it were possible to obtain an international 
agreement on religious liberty following this war, 
the question might receive implementation — along 
with other civil liberties — through one of the com- 
missions to be established under the proposed 
Economic and Social Council of the International 
Organization. This would not preclude the possi- 
bility of inserting in appropriate international 
treaties or conventions provisions for the free exer- 
cise of religion and for freedom of conscience, sub- 
ject always to the maintenance of public order and 
security. A good example of such a guaranty is 
contained in the convention of St. Germain of 
1919 relating to the conventional Basin of the 
Congo in Africa, which the United States ratified 
on April 11, 1930.^ I can assure you that this Gov- 
ernment is certainly prepared in future instances 
to accept nothing less than the guaranties of reli- 
gious liberty already accorded. 

We have also been working in the Department 
on the question of whether it would be feasible 
to reach an agreement among the nations con- 
cerning the free interchange of news and of in- 
formation. It is becoming more and more ob- 
vious that an enlightened public opinion, based on 
full and free information, is indispensable to 
mutual respect and common understanding among 
the peoples of the earth. This differs from "free- 
dom of the press" as we understand it, though 
Americans subscribe to that principle too, pro- 



' Treaty Sei-i( 



JANUARY 28. 1945 

vided it does not mean license, obscenity, fraud, 
or slander. Moreover, this would have nothing 
to do with necessary censorship controls in time 
of war. World freedom of information we inter- 
pret as the right of all responsible persons and 
agencies engaged in gathering and disseminating 
information to the public of their own countries 
to discharge that duty in other countries where 
they may be stationed without restraint or hin- 
drance, and to have unimpeded access to all means 
of communications in doing so. Conversely, we 
also believe that each nation should permit the 
reception within territories under its control of 
information so gathered in other countries, in or- 
der that its people may be adequately informed. 
You will readily see that if these principles were 
to embrace all modern forms of information, in- 
cluding the press, the radio, and the motion pic- 
ture, a realistic foundation would be laid for peace 
through full knowledge and international under- 
standing. 

In exploring the principle of freedom of infor- 
mation, various questions arise. Should there be 
an attempt to incorporate the principle in the 
Charter of the general International Organiza- 
tion or to obtain recognition thereof by means of 
a separate international agreement? If the free 
interchange of information is to be associated with 
the first of the Four Freedoms, "freedom of speech 
and expression — everywhere in the world", might 
it not belong in the category of basic human rights 
and fundamental freedoms which could receive 
attention in one of the commissions under the Eco- 
nomic and Social Council? There is an example 
of international cooperation in this field in the 
United Nations Information Board, a remarkably 
successful experiment born of the war, which 
might be used as a model for a future expansion 
in the dissemination of information by means of 
up-to-date techniques in every part of the world. 

Perliaps the most easily understood and the 
closest to I'eality of all the media of information — 
and therefore the most suitable to convey a uni- 
versal message — is the motion picture film. No 
mere theory is involved in this statement if our 
experience in the Department of State is any 
guide. We are constantly in receipt of requests 
from foreign countries for motion pictures de- 
picting patterns of American life, activities of our 
vocational groups, and even such things as the 
physical characteristics of this country. There is 



139 

evidently a real hunger on the part of other peo- 
ples to know what we are like, and this has been 
accentuated by the war. Why should not the 
means of satisfying this natural desire of the peo- 
ple of one country to know about the people of 
another be projected on the international plane? 
Some agency of the International Organization 
might well render effective assistance in solving 
the practical problems involved in interpreting 
the peoples of the world to one another in order to 
achieve that reciprocal understanding which 
M-ould make wars less possible. 

A second pi'oblem which is likely to figure prom- 
inently in connection with the work of the future 
International Organization is that of dependent 
territories. It is now quite generally recognized 
that the several hundreds of millions of peoj^le 
who have not yet attained the privilege of self- 
government, and the resources of the territories 
they inhabit, are of prime concern to the interna- 
tional community. This concern finds expression 
not only in humanitarian terms but also in terms 
of regional and world security. States responsible 
for the administration of colonies and other pos- 
sessions in these modern times may reasonably be 
expected to recognize a firm obligation not only 
to the dependent peoples but to the world at large, 
for the welfai-e and development — political, eco- 
nomic, and social — of the people of their dependent 
territories. 

To assist in formulating policy on this vital sub- 
ject, in which Americans are taking an increased 
interest, a Division of Dependent Area Afi'airs 
has just been established in the Department of 
State. This new Division will have to do particu- 
larly with the activities of the proposed Interna- 
tional Organization as they affect the far-flung 
dependent areas of the world — an indication of 
the importance attached to this problem in the 
current studies for a durable peace. 

Of course, post-war international arrangements 
affecting the dependencies have not as yet taken 
clear shape. There are difficult problems out- 
standing, such as the ultimate disposition to be 
made of the mandates system as a legacy of the 
League of Nations, and of any non-self-governing 
territories which may be detached from enemy 
states in this war. 

The mandates system, established 25 years ago 
as part of the League of Nations, has been a unique 
experiment in international supervision over the 



140 

iiclministration of dependent territories. This 
sj^stem was devised to take care of certain colonies 
and territories which were detached from our 
enemies in the last war and which were, in the 
words of the League Covenant, "inhabited by peo- 
ples not j-et able to stand by themselves under the 
strenuous conditions of the modern world". To 
these territories, the Covenant said, "there should 
be applied the principle that the well-being and 
development of such peoples form a sacred trust 
of civilisation". The mandates system was widely 
heralded as a promising new departure in the 
colonial field, and has generally been regarded as 
one of the most interesting features of the League 
of Nations, although the experts disagree, as usual, 
over its merits and defects. One of the mandated 
territories, Iraq, has long since achieved self-gov- 
ernment; and we have recently recognized the 
independence of Lebanon and Syria. 

The United States after the last war concluded 
treaties with the states administering most of the 
mandates in the Near East and Africa and with 
Japan as mandatory power over the former Ger- 
man islands in the North Pacific. The United 
States as one of the Allied and Associated Powers 
in the last war has consistently maintained its 
rights and interests in the mandated territories. 
The mandates system, like the League of Nations 
as a whole, continues to exist, and no decision has 
yet been made concerning its future. This prob- 
lem was one of several which was not discussed 
at the Dumbarton Oaks Conversations, and still 
remains for consideration. 

The Anglo-American Caribbean Commission, in 
the nearly three years of its operation, has pro- 
vided a demonstration of a new device in inter- 
national arrangements affecting dependent terri- 
tories. This advisory commission, operating in a 
region in which dependent territories are an out- 
standing characteristic, has made an excellent start 
toward giving practical meaning to international 
cooperation for the primary benefit of the depend- 
ent peoples of the area. In its short period of 
existence the Commission has to its credit a nota- 
ble record of achievement as, for example, in de- 
veloping fisheries in the Caribbean, in making 
foodstuffs available, and in organizing a schooner 
pool for inter-island shipping. There has been 
a growing tendency to cite the AACC as an ex- 
ample for other possible post-war organizations in 
regions whose territories are largely dependent. 



DEPARTMEM OF STATE BULLETIN 

The twenty-sixth session of the International 
Labor Conference, which convened at Philadelphia 
lust spring, also took an important step in a new 
direction by adopting a "Recommendation Con- 
cerning Minimum Standards of Social Policy in 
Dependent Territories", aimed at insuring prog- 
ress in the welfare of native labor by inviting col- 
ony-holding states to accept well-defined minimum 
standards with respect to employment practices 
and living conditions. It may well be that tliis 
device of minimum standards of policy and con- 
duct -rtill merit wider application and could be em- 
l^loyed to the advantage of dependent peoples in 
the broad spheres of general political and eco- 
nomic development. 

A third problem which will concern the general 
International Organization is the promotion of 
cultural and educational cooperation. We are all 
aware of the appalling disintegration which has 
taken place in the cultural and educational life 
of the countries occupied by the enemy. Teachers, 
students, and men of science appear to have been 
singled out for special persecution and the wrecks 
of universities, schools, libraries, museums, and 
laboratories are scars that will take a long time 
to heal. Without the intellectual tools to which 
our civilization has become accustomed, economic 
and social disorganization is intensified and moral 
despair easily sets in. Such conditions inevitably 
tend toward internal disorder and external diffi- 
culties, bringing new threats to world stability 
and security. Because the well-being and peace of 
the American people may thus be directly affected, 
the Department of State believes that this Gov-' 
ernment should participate in an international 
program to help the war-torn countries of the 
United Nations to help themselves in repairing the 
moral, spiritual, and physical damage which has 
been done to their intellectual institutions. 

For this purpose the Department is now collab- 
orating with other members of the United Nations 
in forming, as soon as practicable, an international 
agency for educational and cultural reconstruc- 
tion. An emergency program for the period im- 
mediately following hostilities is only one of the 
important problems in this field which are receiv- 
ing active consideration at this moment. Of very 
great significance also is the long-range further- 
ance of educational and cultural relations among 
the nations. The Depai'tment's object is increas- 
ingly to encourage democratic international co- 



JANUARY 28, 1945 

operation in these matters, looking toward the pro- 
motion of free and friendly intellectual intercourse 
among the peoples and nations of the world in the 
interest of international peace and security. 

A beginning was made a few months ago by the 
Conference of Allied Ministers of Education in 
London to formulate plans for the restoration of 
educational and cultural life in the devastated 
countries. It is proposed to go on from this point 
and consider methods of supplying essential facili- 
ties and trained personnel. The significance of 
such a program, particularly to the hundreds of 
thousands of children whose training has been vio- 
lently interrupted, will, I am certain, be appre- 
ciated by all. 

There are so many fields open to human endeavor 
which would contribute to the well-being and prog- 
ress of mankind that it is not easy to define the full 
scope of an international oi'ganization designed to 
further that aim. Take the fields of health, sani- 
tation, medicine, nutrition, or take the particular 
subject which engages your attention today — 
leprosy. Millions of human lives are constantly 
being wasted in the struggle against disease or ill 
health. A world-wide effort to eradicate some of 
the social evils with which we are beset would in- 
deed be worthy of united action. The feasibility 
of the nations working together has already been 
demonstrated in many ways by the various inter- 
national institutions which have existed in the past. 
Moreover, as the world grows smaller and a com- 
mon denominator of interests becomes more ap- 
parent, there may be a great strengthening of the 
forces which tend to draw men closer. Science, for 
example, often transcends national boundaries. 
So it has been with the arts and with religion. In 
the present century we may find similar trends in 
the case of labor and in the highly technical 
spheres of transportation and communications. 
When a true universality has been achieved in the 
principal pursuits of mankind, we shall see the 
dawn of that permanent peace so ardently desired 
by the great masses of people everywhere in the 
world. 

There is no reason why the permanent Interna- 
tional Organization which is expected to arise on 
the ashes of this war should not provide the great- 
est opportunity yet offered to man for a construc- 
tive and positive approach to a lasting peace. 
Much depends, of course, upon the imagination 
and daring of the men chosen by the different na- 
(Continued on page l^S) 



Deaths of the Soviet 
Ambassador to Mexico and 
Mrs. Oumansky 

Statement by ACTING SECRETARY GREW 

[Released to the press January 25] 

I have learned with deep regret of the untimely 
deaths of the Soviet Ambassador to Mexico, Mr. 
Constantine Oumansky, and Mrs. Oumansky. Mr. 
Oumansky served his country in Washington with 
great distinction for many years, first as Coun- 
selor of Embassy, and subsequently as Ambassa- 
dor. News of their deaths will come as a great 
shock to their many friends in this country. 

Applicability of Anti-Trust 
Laws to Agreements Between 
United States and Foreign 
Air Carriers 

The Attorney General in an opinion dated Oc- 
tober 31, 1944 ' stated that, except to the extent 
that Congress has specifically provided exemp- 
tions, agreements between United States air car- 
riers or between United States air carriers and 
foreign air carriers, designed to control or pre- 
vent competition in air transportation between 
the United States and foreign coimtries, are 
subject to the provisions of the anti-trust laws 
to the same degree as are similar agreements be- 
tween domestic air carriers. The opinion also 
stated that agreements between foreign air car- 
riers, involving no United States air carriers, are 
subject to the anti-trust laws of the United States 
if the agreements affect the foreign commerce of 
the United States. If a United States air carrier 
is a party to such an agreement the agreement may 
be exempted from the application of the anti-trust 
laws under section 414 of the Civil Aeronautics 
Act if it is approved by the Civil Aeronautics 
Board under section 412 of the act. The exemp- 
tion must be secured in the precise manner and 
method prescribed in the act by Congress. No 
procedure is provided for exempting agreements 
solely between foreign air carriers from the anti- 
trust laws. 



Opinions of the Attorneys General, vol. 40, op. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Legal Policy for Trade 

Address by CHARLES BUNN ' 



[Released to the press January 25] 

You hiive asked me to discuss the United States 
and the world economy. It is not necessary, in 
Baltimore, to take time to demonstrate that an 
active foreign trade in both directions is import- 
ant to prosperity in the United States, or that 
prosperity in the United States and abroad is nec- 
essary to an active foreign trade. It is perfectly 
obvious, in Baltimore, that the rates of employ- 
ment in many industries in the United States are 
dependent on the number and variety of cargoes 
moving outbound through your port : and that that 
in turn depends on the size of the effective demand 
for goods in foreign countries, and on the success 
of American industry and agriculture in meeting 
that demand. It is equally obvious that the 
weight of inbound cargoes is dependent on the 
rate of operations of the American industries 
that use them, and that that depends primarily on 
buying power in the United States. It is obvious, 
in short, that prosperity is indivisible, and that 
an active foreign commerce is an essential part 
of it. These things have been well known to you 
in Baltimore for a long time. In recent years they 
have become increasingly clear to intelligent men 
everywhere. It is for this reason, I suppose, that 
so many Americans in all parts of the country 
now desire to see a large increase in our foreign 
trade in both directions after victory. The prac- 
tical question now is how best to move toward 
that objective. 

We are agreed in the United States that the ac- 
tual conduct of business operations, including 
foreign trade, is the affair of private enterprise 
and management. The place of Government is 
to contribute what it can, by general rule, to mak- 
ing private operations possible on a basis that is 
both profitable to enterprise and beneficial to the 
public. 

Inside of the United States the Government for 
generations has followed four main policies in 
aid of active trade. One dates from the Constitu- 



' Delivered before the annual meeting of the Baltimore 
Association of Commerce, Baltimore, M(l., on Jan. 25, 1945. 
Mr. Bunn is Ailviser, Division of Commercial Policy, Office 
of Economic Affairs, Department of State. 



tion and is to the effect that states and cities may 
not build tariff walls against each other's prod- 
ucts. The second is expressed in the national cur- 
rency and banking legislation, which provides us 
with one currency, uniform throughout the coun- 
try. The two together are the necessary legal 
basis of large-scale production for the national 
market, and are therefore fundamental to our 
prosperity and our standard of living. 

The third policy relates to the financing not 
only of industry but of internal improvements of 
all kinds. It has two parts. The first part is an 
effort to give reasonable legal security to private 
investment and is expressed in the great body of 
law which we teach in law schools under the head 
of "Creditors' Rights" and so on. Anyone, like 
myself, who has lived in the Mississippi Valley 
or further west knows very well how nuich the 
early development of western industry and trans- 
I^ortation owes to the investment of private capital 
both from the eastern seaboard and from England. 
We know also that our great development out west 
lias made us a great market for many eastern prod- 
ucts. 

The other source of capital for the development 
of the United States has been the Public Treasury 
and the public lands. There is nothing new about 
this. It was Alexander Hamilton who said "that 
whatever concerns the general interests of learn- 
ing, of agriculture, of manufactures, or of com- 
merce are within the sphere of the national coun- 
cils, so far as regards an application of money". 
And it was President Lincoln who approved the 
first great land-grant in aid of the construction 
of a railroad to the Pacific. 

Private and public capital, then, for the develop- 
ment of agriculture, industry, and transportation 
are an essential part of the history of American 
development. The legal security of private capi- 
tal and the provision of public capital in some 
essential cases is the third major policy of govern- 
ment on which our prosperity depends. 

Tlie fourth great policy is that against monopoly 
and combinations in restraint of trade. It is ex- 
pressed in the Sherman Anti-Trust Act of 1890 
and in very similar laws in many states. By this 



JANUARY 28, 1945 



143 



legislation and its enforcement we endeavor to 
make sure that tlie great industries which the other 
policies make possible shall be competitive and, 
therefore, be efficient and conducive to the public 
interest. Few Americans doubt that this policy 
is just as essential to our welfare as the others. 
The result of the four policies together, plus our 
great resources and the many skills and talents 
of the American people, is the most efficient indus- 
try and the highest standard of living in the world. 

I have talked so long about the laws that we 
apply at home in order to suggest that possibly 
the policies which work well here may also be 
intelligent for international transactions. Obvi- 
ouslj' the situations are different in many ways. 
One of the great differences is that there is no 
legislative body for the world, and that objectives 
that are sought at home by act of Congress have 
to be sought in international affairs by the slow 
process of international negotiation and agree- 
ment. In that field other people's ideas are im- 
portant too, and we can not expect the world to 
adopt a carbon copy of our local laws. But our 
ideas are influential, and it is only common sense 
to use what influence we have in favor of the sort 
of thing that has worked so very well in the United 
States. As a matter of fact, that is substantially 
what the President has proposed in recent mes- 
sages, especiallj- in the message of January 6 on 
the state of the Union and that of January 9 on 
the budget. 

You will remember that the first item in our 
national program is free trade between the states. 
By analogy, in the message on the state of the 
Union, the President said this : 

"We support the greatest possible freedom of 
trade and commerce. 

"We Americans have always believed in free- 
dom of opportunity, and equality of opportunity 
remains one of the principal objectives of our na- 
tional life. What we believe in for individuals, 
we believe in also for nations. We are opposed 
to restrictions, whether by public act or private 
arrangement, which distort and impair commerce, 
transit, and trade. 

"We have house-cleaning of our own to do in this 

regard. But it is our hope, not only in the interest 

of our own prosperity but in the interest of the 

I prosperity of the world, that trade and commerce 

' BuiiBnN of Jan. 7, 1945, p. 22. 



and access to materials and markets may be freer 
after this war than ever before in the history of 
the world." - 

The instruments for this policy remain to be 
worked out. They M'ill obviously have to include 
both international agreement and domestic legis- 
lation. The international agreements will have 
to include many countries and will have to deal 
comprehensively not only with tariff rates but 
with quotas, prohibitions, licenses, preference sys- 
tems, government monopolies, and all the other 
subtle and numerous devices by which modern na- 
tions have learned how to restrict trade and di- 
vert it from its natural channels. On the domestic 
side it is clear that for as vigorous a policy as the 
President proposes the legislative instrument will 
have to be something more energetic than the exist- 
ing Trade Agreements Act. A major part of the 
tariff reductions authorized by that act have al- 
ready been made in agreements now in force, and 
a major part of our bargaining power under it is 
therefore already used up. This is especially true 
as to commodities of special interest to the coun- 
tries with whom we already have trade agreements, 
and especially as to commodities of interest to our 
two largest customers. Great Britain and Canada. 
Clearly, if the goal set by the President is to be 
approached, the renewal of the act will have to 
include a great increase in the authority to make 
reductions in our own tariff rates, and therefore 
in our bargaining power, toward other countries 
under it. 

The second part of our domestic program is a 
single and uniform currency. By international 
analogy we have the Bretton Woods proposal to 
create an International Monetary Fund. A main 
purpose of the Fund is to keep currency relation- 
ships — rates of exchange — reasonably stable. The 
President has recommended, in the budget mes- 
sage, "the enactment of legislation which would 
permit the United States to make its proportionate 
investment in the Fund". 

The third head of our home policy is reasonable 
security for private development capital and the 
provision of public capital in some essential cases. 
One international analogy is a program of com- 
mercial treaties — treaties of friendship, commerce, 
and navigation, as the phrase goes — for the pro- 
tection among other things of American commerce 
and investment. The second treaty which the 



144 



United States made, during the Revolution, was 
a treaty of that sort with France. Obviously this 
old program must be pushed with vigor once the 
war is over. It forms the necessary legal basis on 
which American enterprises can make direct in- 
vestments abroad with assurance against unfair 
treatment. It is, of course, quite clear that when 
we ask such assurances from others we must be 
prepared to furnish them ourselves. 

With perhaps more direct reference to financing, 
the President has recommended, in the budget 
message, that the United States accept the plan for 
the International Bank for Reconstruction and 
Development, also proposed at Bretton Woods; 
that we enlarge the lending powers of the existing 
Export-Import Bank ; and that we repeal legisla- 
tion forbidding private loans to countries in de- 
fault on their old debts to the United States. Those 
three measures, when enacted, will make it possi- 
ble for both private and public American capital 
to participate in sound foreign projects of indus- 
trial development, to the benefit both of this coun- 
try and of the countries where the money is in- 
vested. I assume that these proposals will be con- 
sidered by the Congress in the present session. 

The fourth head of our home policy, as you re- 
member, is the anti-trust laws. International 
agreement on the problems of cartels remain to be 
worked out. Our objective in any such negotia- 
tions has been clearly stated by the President, in 
the letter of instructions to the Secretary of State 
made public September 8 last. In that letter the 
President said : 

"The history of the use of the I. G. Farben trust 
by the Nazis reads like a detective story. The de- 
feat of the Nazi armies will have to be followed by 
the eradication of these weapons of economic war- 
fare. But more than the elimination of the politi- 
cal activities of German cartels will be required. 
Cartel practices which restrict the free flow of 
goods in foreign commerce will have to be curbed. 
With international trade involved this end can be 
achieved only through collaborative action by the 
United Nations."^ 

I hope you will agree that this is a well-inte- 
grated and intelligent program for prosperity. 
We shall not reach it in a day or in a month. But 
we are moving in the right direction. 



' BuLLErriN of Sept. 10, 1944, p. 254. 



DEPARTMEM OF STATE BULLETIN 

Financial Agreement With 
Haiti 

The text of the supplementary agreement be- 
tween the United States of America and the Re- 
ixiblic of Haiti, providing for amortization of the 
1922-23 bonds during the fiscal year 19i4-45. signed 
at Port-au-Prince November 9, 1914, is as follows : 

SCPPLEMENTARY ExECUTHE AGREEMENT BEnVEEX 

THE United States of America and the Re- 
public OF Haiti 

The provisions of Articles I and II of the Execu- 
tive Agreement of August 28, 1943, shall continue 
in effect from and after October 1st 1944, to and 
including September 30, 1945, except that 

(1) All the receipts of the Haitian Government 
shall be deposited without deduction at the Banque 
Nationale de la Republique d'Haiti, which bank 
shall make the payments provided for by the loan 
contracts of 1922 and 1923, in accordance with the 
procedure outlined in Article VI of the Executive 
Agi ment of September 13, 1941 ; 

(2) The Government of the Republic of Haiti 
agrees to pay a total of $700,000 United States 
Cu-rency during the period October 1, 1944, to 
September 30, 1945, inclusive, (including $400,000 
paid on October 2, 1944) on account of the amounts 
required to be paid under the loan contracts of 
October 6, 1922 and May 26, 1925, for the amortiza- 
tion of the loans of 1922 and 1923, the provisions 
of the paragraph designtited (2) of Article VI of 
the Executive Agreement of seiiteinber 13, 1941, 
and those of the subsequent paragraphs of the said 
Article notwithstanding. 

Provided, however, that $300,000 of the amount 
shall be paid only if the revenue situation and 
outlook of the Haitian Government at the end of 
the first half of the fiscal year ending September 
30, 1945, indicate that the receipts for the entire 
fiscal year will reach Gdes. 35,000,000, in which 
case the $300,000 shall be paid in monthly install- 
ments of $100,000 in May, June and July, 1945. 

Signed at Port-au-Prince, in duplicate, in the 
English and French languages, this 9th day of 
November nineteen hundred and forty-four. 
Orme Wilson 
Gerard Lescot 



JANUARY 28, 1945 



145 



Regional Aspects of the Dumbarton Oaks Proposals 



Address by DURWARD V. SANDIFER ' 



[Released to the press Jnnimry 27] 

I can think of no more appropriate group before 
which to discuss tiie Dumbarton Oaks Proposals 
for the establishment of an international organiza- 
tion for the maintenance of peace and security than 
the two organizations represented here. Both are 
dedicated to promoting the development of that 
international law and justice upon which any suc- 
cessful international organization must be 
founded. Both have made distinguished contri- 
butions in this field. Only through the constant 
and unflagging leadership of such organizations 
can the informed public opinion be developed 
which will make possible the organization of peace 
in the post-war world. 

The Dumbarton Oaks Proposals have been ex- 
haustively discussed and analyzed in practically 
all their aspects during the past four months. An- 
other formal speech about them, especially to you 
who have been so active in their study and discus- 
sion, seems almost superfluous. One aspect of the 
Proposals, however, has received less attention 
than one would have expected — their regional im- 
plications and particularly their provisions for the 
utilization of regional arrangements and organi- 
zations. With your permission I will disregard 
the subject announced for my remarks and com- 
ment briefly on this subject. 

In recent years there has been much discussion of 
the comparative merits of universal organization 
and regional organization for bringing about 
orderly and peaceful international life. It is not 
my intention to attempt to resolve that debate on 
its theoretical basis. I do not regard the two types 
of international organization as mutually exclu- 
sive. Both types can be useful. The question of 
where to rely on one type or the other is a practical 
one and should be so considered. This is the gi-eat 
value of the approach taken in the Dumbarton 
Oaks Proposals. 



' Delivered at a joint meeting of the Inter-American Bar 
Assooiation and the Section of International and Compara- 
tive Law of the American Bar Association, Washington, 
Jan. 27. 1915. Mr. Sandifer is Chief of the Division of 
International Organization Affairs, Office of Special Politi- 
cal Affairs, Department of State. 



The Proposals proceed from the assumption that 
a threat to or breach of the peace anywhere is a 
matter of concern to all states everywhere. There 
is a unity of peace in the closely knit life of the 
modern world which we can only disregard at 
our peril. The peoples of this counti'y and of most 
other countries have learned this at terrible cost 
through two world wars within a generation. 

This does not mean that all action must be on a 
universal basis, or that the obligations of states 
should be uniform in all cases. Just as disturb- 
ances may be local, so enforcement responsibilities 
must be measured by the needs of a particular 
case. Measures to improve economic and social 
conditions need not be applied equally everywhere, 
since the conditions requiring remedy and im- 
provement are not equally distributed around the 
globe. Still, some disturbances are not local or 
cannot readily be localized, and some social and 
economic problems have wide repercussions. The 
possibility of a universal approach is essential if 
the basis of orderly society is to be established and 
maintained. 

The Proposals therefore envisage an organiza- 
tion which would be world-wide both in member- 
ship and in scope. The organization would be 
open to all peace-loving states, the ultimate goal 
being to bring all states within that category so 
that membership would become truly universal. 
The basic guaranties and obligations of the organ- 
ization would extend to all states everywhere. 

Regional arrangements and agencies however 
are not ignored. Provisions with respect to them 
are set forth in the Proposals in the chapter on 
arrangements for the maintenance of international 
peace and security, including the prevention and 
suppression of aggression. 

Treatment of them at this point in the Proposals 
should not be taken to mean that the principles of 
regional relationship and utilization apply only 
with respect to security action. The principles 
are simply of particular and dramatic importance 
in this field. 

Four basic rules are stated with respect to re- 
gional arrangements and activities. In the first 
place nothing in the Charter of the Organization 



146 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



should preclude the existence of regional arrange- 
ments or agencies for dealmg with such matters 
relating to the maintenance of international peace 
and security as are appropriate for regional action, 
provided such arrangements or agencies and their 
activities are consistent with the purposes and 
principles of the Organization. 

Of paramount importance in all matters involv- 
ing regional arrangements and agencies is this 
proviso that their activities must be consistent with 
the purposes and principles of the general Organ- 
ization. Such a proviso is essential to the eifective 
development and functioning of the general secu- 
rity Organization. The conclusion of special se- 
curity arrangements or treaties is not thereby 
precluded. In fact general security may be 
strongly reenforced by such agreements if their 
aim is the attainment of peace and security through 
mutual action within the framework of the gen- 
eral International Organization. The proviso does 
mean, however, that regional arrangements or 
agencies must, if they are to continue, be brought 
into harmony in their activities and purposes with 
the purposes and principles of the general 
Organization. 

This first rule speaks of regional arrangements 
or agencies dealing with such matters relating to 
international peace and security as are appropri- 
ate for regional action. Wliile peace and security 
are used here in the specific sense of pacific settle- 
ment and enforcement action, subsequent provi- 
sions in chapter IX on economic and social coop- 
eration clearly cover the activities of regional 
specialized organizations as well as those that are 
general in scope. The authority of the General 
Assembly and of the Economic and Social Coun- 
cil is broad and flexible enough to cover both 
types of organization. Thus, though not so 
clearly defined, the principle of utilizing regional 
agencies where appropriate extends also into the 
field of economic and social cooperation. 

A second rule relating to regional arrangements 
is that the Council should encourage the settle- 
ment of local disputes through such regional ar- 
rangements or by such regional agencies, either 
on the initiative of the states concerned or by ref- 
erence from the Council. 

In the pacific-settlement procedure contem- 
plated under the Proposals, emphasis is put upon 
settlement by the parties through means of their 
own choice. The Security Council may call upon 



the parties to settle a dispute by such means, and 
it is directed to encourage settlement through 
regional arrangements or agencies. If such means 
fail, the case goes to the Security Council and the 
Council has authority to recommend further pro- 
cedures or methods of adjustment. There is every 
likelihood that under these provisions local and 
limited disputes would be handled largely through 
regional procechires of settlement where such pro- 
cedures existed. By this means the load of the 
Security Council in handling disputes would be 
lightened and more expeditious action achieved. 

Provision is made in the Proposals for the estab- 
lishment of an international court of justice as 
the principal judicial organ of the Organization. 
This way of stating the matter leaves open the pos- 
sibility of the establishment by agreement of other 
subsidiary or related courts. Or panels of the 
International Court might be established to han- 
dle special cases or cases regional in character. 
This further aspect of regional organization will 
be explored in drawing up the Statute of the Court. 

A third rule governing the relation of regional 
arrangements and the general Organization is that 
the Security Council should where appropriate 
utlize such arrangements or agencies for enforce- 
ment action under its authority, but no enforce- 
ment action should be taken under regional ar- 
rangements or by regional agencies without the 
authorization of the Security Council. Taken in 
conjunction with other provisions in the Pro- 
posals, ample latitude is thus given for the differ- 
entiation of responsibilities for enforcement ac- 
tion. It is provided that the action required to 
carry out the decision of the Security Council 
should be taken by all the members in cooperation 
or by some as the Council may determine. This 
would permit the Council to call upon particular 
states or groups of states, or to utilize an exist- 
ing regional organization or arrangement. The 
forces marshaled could be in proportion to the 
need. Also it is specifically provided that spe- 
cialized organizations and agencies may be used. 

There is a further possibility for making allow- 
ance for variations according to need in enforce- 
ment action through the agreements governing the 
numbers and types of forces and the nature of the 
facilities and assistance to be provided. Also rec- 
ognition is given to the regional application of 
enforcement in the provision for regional sub- 
committees of the Military Staff Committee. 



JANUARY 28, 1945 



147 



It is thus clear that ample provision is made for 
the taking of enforcement action on a special or 
regional basis. However, the proviso that no en- 
forcement action should be taken under regional 
arrangements or by regional agencies without 
authorization of the Security Council would per- 
mit the Security Council to prevent action being 
taken by such agencies on their own initiative. 
Tlius the flexibility is maintained which would 
assure action on a universal basis in case of need. 

A fourth rule states that the Security Council 
should at all times be kept fully informed of 
activities undertaken or in contemplation under 
regional arrangements or by regional agencies 
for the maintenance of international peace and 
security. This rule is intended to safeguard the 
maintenance of a working relationship between the 
general Organization and regional organization 
and agencies. It is essential that the general Or- 
ganization have full knowledge of the plans and 
activities of regional bodies, first in order to judge 
their consistency with the purposes and princi- 
ples of the Organization, and secondly to estimate 
the extent to which such bodies could be relied on 
in dealing with questions that arise. The obliga- 
tion on regional bodies to supply full information 
is central to the entire conception of the Proposals. 

The realistic recognition and allowance for the 
utilization of regional arrangements and pro- 
cedures in the Proposals is of the greatest im- 
portance to those of us from the American repub- 
lics. This country naturally regards the inter- 
American system built up through a period of 
over half a century as the first line of action for 
the maintenance of peace and security in this 
hemisphere. Our continued faith in its efficacy 
as an instrumentality of cooperation, and convic- 
tion that it must be maintained and developed, 
have been repeatedly affirmed. I am sure that the 
other American republics share this view. At the 
same time there is full recognition in this country 
of the need for our full participation in coopera- 
tion on a world-wide scale to assure peace and 
security by universal action where necessary. 

The Dumbarton Oaks Proposals offer every en- 
couragement to the further strengthening of the 
inter-American system. They contemplate ef- 
fective action for the maintenance of peace and 
security, and to that end they would place im- 
portant responsibilities upon regional arrange- 



ments and agencies. For that reason the further 
development of the inter- American system and the 
question of its relation to the general Organization 
IS a matter which will i-equire the most cai'eful 
and thorough consideration both before and after 
the United Nations conference. 

The resulting modifications and adjustments 
should prove mutually beneficial to the inter- 
American system and to the general Oi'ganization. 
A strengthened inter- American system would be a 
bulwark to the general Organization, and the Or- 
ganization by laying a general basis for peace 
and security would remove threats from without 
the hemisphere. 

Thus the Dumbarton Oaks Proposals provide 
the means for developing through both general and 
local action the political stability and economic 
and social well-being which must constitute the 
foundation for continuing peace. 

Telecommunications 

Veiu'zueJa 

The Government of Venezuela has ratified the 
Inter-American Agreement Concerning Eadio- 
connnunications (Santiago Revision 1940) signed 
at Santiago January 26, 1940, and the South 
American Radio Agreement signed at Santiago 
January 16, 1940, the Department has been in- 
formed by the American Ambassador to Venezuela 
in a despatch from Caracas dated January 3, 1945. 
The i-atifications were signed August 2, 1944 but 
became effective with respect to Venezuela from 
publication in the Gaceta Oficial, No. 21.586, De- 
cember 13, 1944. Copies of the Gaceta Oficial were 
transmitted to the Department with the above- 
mentioned despatch. The Ambassador reported 
that the instruments of ratification were deposited 
with the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Relations on 
December 1, 1944. 

The Inter-American Agreement Concerning 
Radiocommunications, to which the United States 
is a party, replaces, as regards relations between 
states which approve it, the Inter-American 
Arrangement Concerning Radiocommunications 
signed at Habana December 13, 1937. The South 
American Radio Agreement replaces the agree- 
ment concluded at Rio de Janeiro in 1937. 



148 

Letters of Credence 

The Ambassador of Canada, Mr. L. B. Pearson, 
presented his letters of credence to the President 
on January 22. The texts of the Ambassador's 
remarks and the President's reply will appear in 
the Bulletin of February 4. 



THE FOREIGN SERVICE ^ 



Confirmation 

On January 25, 1945 the Senate confirmed the 
nomination of Edwin C. Wilson as American Am- 
bassador to Turkey. 

Embassy at Rome 

The American Embassy at Rome was reestab- 
lished on January 8, 1945 and will function as a 
combined office. 

Mission at Helsinki 

A Special Mission was established at Helsinki, 
Finland, January 16, 1945. 



DEPARTMEyr OF STATE BVLLETW 
^ THE DEPARTMENT ^ 

Functions of the Special War Problems 
Division of the Office of Controls' 

1 Departmental Order 1301 of December 20, 
1944, section XVIII, paragraph 3(e), = concerning 
the responsibilities of the Special War Problems 
Division, Office of Controls, is hereby amended to 
read: "(e) Representation by this Govei'ument of 
the interests of foreign govenmients ;" 

2 This amendment is effective as of December 
20. 1914. 



Secretariat of the Executive Committee 
On Economic Foreign Policy' 

1 Transfer of the &ec^'etariat of the Executive 
Committee on Economic Foreign Policy. The 
Secretariat of the Executive Conunittee on Eco- 
nomic Foreign Policy, designated in Departmental 
Order 1280,^ is hereby transferred from the Office 
of Economic Affairs to the Office of the Assistant 
Secretary for Economic Affairs. 

2 Previous orders amended. Departmental Or- 
der 1280 of June 30, 1944 and Departmental Order 
1301 of December 20, 1914, par. XII, A, are ac- 
cordingly amended." 



WIXKBH— Continued from page 1-',1 
tions to woi'k together in the cause of economic 
stability and social advancement. Much depends 
upon their skills and techniques, and on their 
ability to work in harmony with representatives 
of other nations — even with divergent viewpoints. 
But if they are conscious of the true aspirations of 
the masses and are backed by the popular will, if 
the fullest advantage is taken of the chance for 
constructive social accomplishment, I personally 
'have no doubt that the forthcoming new attempt 
of man to create an organization not only capable 
of maintaining the peace but of advancing human 
welfare will mark a greater advance and give more 
cause for hope than any similar effort in the 
experience of the world. 



Appointment of Officers 

Edward S. Mason as Deputy to the Assistant 
Secretary for Economic Affairs, effective January 
22, 1945. 

William L. Clayton as Chairman and Edward 
S. Mason as Vice Chairman of the Executive Com- 
mittee on Economic Foreign Policy, effective 
January 25, 1945. 



' Departmental Order 1304 dated Jan. 10, 1915; eftictire 
Doc. 20, 1044. 

' Bulletin Supplement of Dec. 17, 1944, p. 807. 

' Departmental Order 1305, dated Jan. 22, 1945 ; effective 
Jan. 22, 1945. 

* Bulletin of Sept. 3, 1944, p. 247. 

'Bulletin Supplement of Dec. 17, 1944, p. 785. 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



.0 U L 



ETIN 



VOL. XH, NO. 293 



FEBRUARY 4, 1945 



In this issue 



SOME ASPECTS OF OUR REUATIONS WITH FRANCE 
Address by Acting Secretary Grew 

ALIENS IN GERMANY, 1939 

By Clarence B. Oddl and Robert H. Billigmeier 



^©NT o^ 



• * 




* • 



'ates o^ 



(J. 9: s'jrcnirT. 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

BU LLETIN 

Vol. XII • No. 203 ." "b^^b' • Publicatiob 2259 

February 4, 1945 



The Department of State BVLLETIIS, 
a tceekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Research and 
Publication, Office of Public Affairs, 
provides the public and interested 
agencies of the Government with 
information on developments in the 
field of foreign relations and on the 
icork of the Department of State and 
the Foreign Service. The BVLLETIIS 
includes press releases on foreign 
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addresses made by the President and 
by the Secretary of State and other 
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of the Department. Information con- 
cerning treaties and international 
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is or may become a party and treaties 
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included. 

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cumulative lists of which are published 
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Contents 



C .\N'.\DA Page 

Presentation of Letters of Credence by the Ambassador of 

Canada 174 

Europe 

Some Aspects of Our Relations With France. Address by 

Acting Secretary Grew 151 

Proposed United Government of Yugoslavia. Statement 

by Acting Secretary Grew 153 

Inquiries on American Citizens in the Vicinity of Athens . IGO 
Aliens in Germany, 1939. By Clarence B. Odell and Robert 

H. Billigmeier 164 

Economic Affairs 

Mexican-American Commission for Economic Cooperation: 
Exchange of Letters Between President Avila Comacho 

and President Roosevelt 155 

Text of Final Report of the Commission 157 

The Rubber Study Group: Discussion and Appraisal of the 

Future Rubber Situation 161 

Post-War Matters 

Punishment of War Criminals. Statement by Acting Sec- 
retary Grew 154 

Treaty Information 
Civil Aviation: 

Civil Air-Transport Matters: Announcement by United 

States and Canadian Representatives 160 

Aviation Agreements 169 

Air-Transport Services: 

Agreement Between the United States and Iceland . . 170 
Agreement Between the United States and Ireland . . 172 
Disposition of American Defense Facilities in Canada: 
Exchange of Notes Between the Canadian Ambassador 

and the Secretary of State 162 

Convention on the Inter- American University 175 

The Department 

Reorganization of the Economic Offices 175 

Appointment of Officers 176 

The Foreign Service 

Assignment of Ellis O. Briggs to the American Embassy at 

Chungking. Statement by Acting Secretary Grew. . . 169 



Some Aspects of Our Relations With France 



Address by ACTI^G 

[Released to the press February 2] 

Too often the problems with which the Depart- 
ment of State is faced in its conduct of the foreign 
ailairs of this country are considered as strictly 
State Department problems. Actually, they are 
the problems of the American people; and it is 
the duty of the Department of State, as we see it, 
to put those problems before the country as fully 
and as promptly as it can. It is the Department's 
conviction that the people of the United States 
are entitled to know what they face in their rela- 
tions with other countries — what is the back- 
ground and what are the details which eventually 
crystallize into what becomes known as "policy". 

One of the principal problems with which our 
country is now faced is the problem of getting 
vital supplies to civilian populations in liberated 
areas still involved in war. This problem exists 
in all liberated countries, but I should like to 
speak of it tonight as it presents itself in our 
relations with one of our oldest and most trusted 
friends — France. 

The impulses of our minds and hearts are 
simple enough. We and our Allies desire to aid 
the French in all possible ways to relieve their 
present suffering in order that they may fight and 
produce for victory in this war. But there the 
simplicity stops, and we have to start weighing 
priorities and other obstacles. 

On the one hand we have in France a nation 
which has undergone four years of Nazi occupa- 
tion, four years of physical, mental, and moral 
anguish, four years of organized plunder of 
every conceivable description. The sufferings of 
France are today spoken of almost too glibly by 
some returning travelei-s. Those sufferings have 
been, and are, too real to be glossed over with 
cliches or overshadowed by the memory of a 
black-market meal in a Paris restaurant. The 
French people are cold; and they are all the 
colder because many of them are hungry. Some 
of their machinery has been destroyed, and they 
lack the raw materials to start their industries 
going again. Millions of their men, businessmen 
and laborers alike, are either in prison camps or 
have been carried off to Germany to forced labor. 



SECRETARY GREW 

It is as complete a vicious circle as one can im- 
agine. France as a nation is literally stuck at 
dead center and will require a boost from us in 
order to start rolling again. And we want to 
give her that boost with all our hearts. 

On the other hand we have a France at war 
and in war. France, from the military point of 
view, is the supply area behind the principal bat- 
tle line of the major Anglo-American effort to de- 
stroy the Nazi enemy. That this supply area is 
the same France to which I have just referred, 
lived in by the same people, is one of the great 
tragedies of this war. 

Before France can cease to be a supply area be- 
hind a major line of battle, the battle must be 
won. And until the war is won, men, munitions, 
machines, and supplies must continue to flow, not 
to France, but through it, to support the fighting 
on beyond. 

Now one of the major decisions of the Allies 
in connection with the western European military 
operation was that the Allied military, unlike the 
German military, would be completely self-suffi- 
cient, and that the produce of France would not 
be requisitioned by the Allied armies. I need not 
go into any astronomical statistics to have you 
appreciate what that decision meant in terms of 
shipping tonnage, and internal-transport tonnage, 
and transport which may have been used for 
civilian-supply purposes. But the decision was 
worth it. 

The amazement and gratitude of the French 
over the fact that gigantic armies could land in 
France, deploy over their country, and in a rela- 
tively short period drive the Germans from vir- 
tually all of France, without living off' the land, 
was the comj^lete justification for the decision. 

However, some of that French gratitude turned 
to dismay when the inevitable things that go 
wrong in war began to go wrong in France. Of 
those things which went wrong, three were major. 

First was the condition of internal transport 
in France. Between German demolition, sabo- 



' Delivered before the Foreign Policy Association at 
Philadelphia, Pa., on Feb. 2, 1945. 



151 



152 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



tage by French resistance in aid of the Allied 
armies, and Allied bombings, there wasn't much 
left in the way of bridges, canal locks, marshaling 
yards, important rail centers, or rolling stock. 
In locomotives alone, France dropped from ap- 
proximately 15,000 locomotives in 1939 to under 
1,000 at the time of the landings in Normandy. 
Those automobile trucks which had been left by 
the Germans — all of them operating on wood 
gas — were in a shocking state. 

Next was what we can call the "port" situa- 
tion. Between German demolition and German 
tenacity we did not obtain useful ports in suffi- 
cient quantity soon enough. Even today certain 
French ports are still in enemy hands, and the 
facilities of ports which have been liberated were 
thoroughly wrecked, with their channels sown 
with mines undetectable by normal means and 
requiring slow and hazardous work by deep-sea 
divers who incredibly find these mines by sight 
and touch. This shortage of ports did two things : 
First, it made the round trip by ship to France 
longer than had been expected, thereby reducing 
delivered tons per ship. Second, and most im- 
portant, it greatly lengthened the anticipated 
truck haul, thereby cutting down the Army trans- 
port tonnage available for emergencies. You can 
visualize for yourselves the difference in your 
trucking problem to supply a military unit in 
Luxembourg if, instead of having Antwerp as 
your port of supply, you have to go to Cher- 
bourg to get your sui^plies. Your demand re- 
mains constant; your trucks remain constant; 
your mileage is almost trebled. 

The last difficulty, but by no means the least, 
is the weather. France has had and is having one 
of the worst winters of its history. The rivers 
reached flood stage in December. Not since the 
famous floods in 1908 has the Seine risen so high. 
That meant that all river traffic, which had been 
painfully organized to supplement the inadequate 
rail traffic, was immobilized for weeks, since 
neither the tugs nor the barges could pass under 
the bridges. In January France had an unprece- 
dented snowfall. In Paris approximately 12 
inches of snow fell — something absolutely unheard 
of — followed by just enough thaw to make just 
enough ice when it froze to render road traffic 
throughout France almost impossible. 

I have not listed the following as a major point, 
but I feel that I should be guilty of an historical 
oversight if I did not mention the fairly recent 



(ierman Ardennes olTensive and Alsace offensive, 
which did not lessen the Allied supply and trans- 
port problem. 

Thus we find that France's own internal physi- 
cal situation, plus the hazards of war, plus certain 
acts of God, combined to create an acute French 
supply problem, which will be corrected as fast 
as it is humanly and logistically possible to do so. 
But meanwhile the problem exists, and we should 
recognize it and recognize its impact upon 
Franco-Allied and Franco-American relations. 
It is a painful labor to balance the needs of the 
civilian population of France, or of any other 
liberated area, against the needs of a battle line 
flung around the world. But until the supply of 
shipping is adequate — which means until the war 
is won — that painful labor must be faced. 

That is the black side, and I have not attempted 
to lighten it. There is also a brighter side, and 
I ask that you accept it as unequivocally as I 
have tried to depict the dark side. The fact is 
that we have shared what we could with the 
French from tlie beginning, and we will continue 
to share with tiiem. 

French ports are being reconstructed and 
French means of transportation are being im- 
proved. I referred to French locomotives as be- 
ing under 1,000 on D-Day. They now number 
several thousand. This reconstruction and these 
repairs, though undertaken for military reasons, 
accrue directly to the benefit of the French people. 

For the French Army: Eight full divisions of 
French troops and approximately 300 supporting 
and service units have been equipped bj' the 
United States with material valued, through De- 
cember 31, 19i4, at $700,000,000. Recently the 
equipping of eight more divisions of French 
troops was agreed upon, and substantial numbers 
of Army planes have already been delivered. 

For the French Navy: The battleship Riche- 
lieu, several cruisers, submarines, and more than 
20 other French war vessels have been overhauled 
and modernized in United States Navy yards. 
Three heavy and seven light cruisers are now 
operating in the Mediterranean, all with American 
equipment, and well over 100 other warships have 
been turned over by the United States. 

For France herself : A substantial program for 
French industry, using American and French raw 
materials, with the military effort as the initial 
beneficiary, but M'ith obvious advantages to the 



FEBRUARY 4, 1945 



153 



civilian economy, is now about to start.' Tlie 
Army has initiated procurement of one billion 
dollars -worth of military supplies, to be jjroduced 
in France during 1945. Kaw materials will be 
shipped to France in vessels allotted for this pur- 
pose. Let me name a few of the diversified arti- 
cles already contracted for: 2,600,000 uniforms 
for American soldiers; 200,000,000 board-feet of 
lumber; $10,000,000 worth of X-ray film; up to 
200,000 heavy-duty tires. These orders, a per- 
centage of which will be released for French use, 
will create employment in France and, by starting 
France oil dead economic center, will inevitably 
aid in the restoration of her economy. 

Even in the almost insoluble problem of ship- 
ping, considerable aid has already been given. 
Merchant-vessel space has been assigned to carry 
civilian cargo to France; a total of 26 precious 
ships, having an aggregate capacity of approxi- 
mately 182,000 tons, are scheduled to sail during 
the first quarter of this year. 

Moi-eover, the War Shipping Administration 
has turned back to the French Government for 
manning by French crews some French ships 
formerly operated by it. An undetermined num- 
ber of Liberty Ships will be manned by expe- 
rienced French crews and operated as part of the 
United Nations shipping pool under the French 
flag. 

Various agencies of our Government are now 
processing additional French programs of non- 
military purchases. These will be held for avail- 
able shipping. 

Besides these French-procured supplies, provi- 
sion has been made for a continuing program of 
shipment of civilian supplies by the military. By 
December 1944 a total of 175,000 tons of civilian 
supplies had been shipped by the United States 
Army to soutliern France and northwest Europe. 
A total of 17 ships carrying approximately 119,000 
tons are scheduled for February arrivals in the 
same areas. Substantial portions of these cargoes 
will be made available for civilian uses in France. 

The French, with their characteristic courage 
and clarity of mind, know that the larger needs of 
France cannot be met until Nazi Germany has 
been defeated. The French should not be and are 
not ashamed to voice their needs. We should not 
be and are not ashamed to state our capability. 
We both know that the fighting war comes first. 

It was General Eisenhower who said that the 
French forces of the interior had been worth 15 



Allied divisions in the liberation of France. To- 
day French troops are fighting beside American 
troops on the western front. Today French civil- 
ians all over France are suffering but are confident 
of victory — for victory when it comes will be a 
victory of our Allied ai'ms, in which all our fight- 
ing men will have shared, and a victory of suffer- 
ing in which the French will have more than 
shared. May our will for peace and security, and 
may our plans for the rehabilitation of those who 
have suffered, be equal to the victory we will have 
achieved and the task that lies before us. 



Proposed United Government 
Of Yugoslavia 

Statement by ACTING SECRETARY GREW 

[Released to the press February 1] 

As I said in my statement on January 23, this 
Government has approved of the main objective 
of the Tito-Subasic agreement, namely, that the 
Government-in-exile and the elements within 
Yugoslavia should work together to establish a 
unified administration.^ Ambassador Patterson, 
while not iDarticifjating in the negotiations, has of 
course conveyed to all parties concerned the de- 
sire of this Government for a prompt and amica- 
ble settlement of the Yugoslav problem. 

We understand that if a final accord is reached 
along these lines the proposed united Government 
of Yugoslavia would be set up for the transitional 
period, and that after the liberation of the whole 
territory national elections would be held in 
which the Yugoslav people would have an oppor- 
tunity freely to express their will. 

If the proposed united Government of Yugo- 
slavia can be so organized as to be representative 
of the Yugoslav people, such an aiTangement 
would be in accord with the general principles of 
this Government which found expression in the 
President's recent message to Congress. 

For the implementation of this agreement it 
would be necessary for the Government to be 
established at Belgrade. Naturally the diplo- 
matic missions of friendly governments would 
also be reestablished tliere. 



' Bulletin of Jan. 21, 1945, p. 90. 

- Acting Secretary Grew's statement referred to in this 
release was made at his press and radio news conference 
on Jan. 23. 



154 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Punishment of War Criminals 



Statement by ACTING SECRETARY GREW 

[Released to the press February 1] 

The Department of State welcomes the public 
discussion of the punishment of war criminals. 
This discussion has made clear the determination 
of our people that the guilty shall be punished. 
The Department of State and the Government 
share that inexorable determination. The final 
decision as to the procedures in the punishment 
of those guilty of war crimes will be made in con- 
sultation with the United Nations, 15 of which are 
now represented on the War Crimes Commission 
in London. 

Certain broad positions have already been taken, 
however, by the Allied Governments principally 
engaged in the fighting of the war. The declara- 
tion issued at Moscow on November 1, 1943 stated 
that German officers and men who had been re- 
sponsible for, or had taken a consenting part in, 
the unspeakable crimes and atrocities perpetrated 
by Nazi Germans in this war "will be sent back 
to the countries in which their abominable deeds 
were done in order that they may be judged and 
punished according to the laws of these liberated 
countries and of the free governments which will 
be created therein". It was further stated in this 
same document that the above declaration was 
"without prejudice to the case of the major crimi- 
nals, whose offences have no particular geograph- 
ical localisation and who will be punished by the 
joint decision of the Governments of the Allies".^ 

The broad position taken by our own Govern- 
ment in this matter has been clearly indicated by 
the President on numerous occasions. 

On July 17, 1942 the President wrote to Dr. 
Stephen S. Wise : 

"... Citizens, regardless of religious alle- 
giance, will share in the sorrow of our Jewish 
fellow-citizens over the savagery of the Nazis 
against their helpless victims. The Nazis will not 
succeed in exterminating their victims any more 
than they will succeed in enslaving mankind. The 
American people not only sympathize with all 
victims of Nazi crimes but will hold the perpe- 



' BuiXETTN of Nov. 6, 1943, p. 311. 
' Bulletin of Aug. 22, 1942, p. 710. 
' Bulletin of Oct. 10, 1942, p. 797. 



trators of these crimes to strict accountability in 
a day of reckoning which will surely come". 
On August 21, 1942 the President declared : 

"The United Nations are going to win this war. 
When victory has been achieved, it is the purpose 
of the Government of the United States, as I 
know it is the purpose of each of the United Na- 
tions, to make appropriate use of the information 
and evidence in respect to these barbaric crimes 
of the invaders, in Europe and in Asia. It seems 
only fair that they should have this warning that 
the time will come when they shall have to stand 
in courts of law in the very countries which they 
are now oppressing and answer for their acts".^ 

On October 7, 1942, referring to the statement 
of August 21, the President said: 

"I now declare it to be the intention of this Gov- 
ernment that the successftil close of the war shall 
include provision for the surrender to the United 
Nations of war criminals. 

"With a view to establishing responsibility of 
the guilty individuals through the collection and 
assessment of all available evidence, this Govern- 
ment is prepared to cooperate with the British and 
other Governments in establishing a United 
Nations Commission for the Investigation of War 
Crimes. 

". . . It is not the intention of this Govern- 
ment or of the Governments associated with us to 
resort to mass reprisals. It is our intention that 
just and sure punishment shall be meted out to the 
ringleaders responsible for the organized murder 
of thousands of innocent persons and the commis- 
.sion of atrocities which have violated every tenet 
of the Christian faith." ' 

On March 24, 1944, the President declared : 

"In one of the blackest crimes of all history — 
begun by the Nazis in the day of peace and mul- 
tiplied by them a hundred times in time of war — 
the wholesale systematic murder of the Jews of 
Europe goes on unabated every hour. As a result 
of the events of the last few days, hundreds of 
thousands of Jews, who while living under per- 
secution have at least found a haven from death 
in Hungary and the Balkans, are now threatened 
with annihilation as Hitler's forces descend more 
heavily upon these lands. That these innocent 



FEBRUARY 4, 1945 



155 



])eople, who have already survived a decade of 
Hitler's fury, should perish on the very eve of 
triumph over the barbarism which their persecu- 
tion symbolizes, would be a major tragedy. 

"It is therefore fitting that we should again pro- 
chiim our determination that none who participate 
in these acts of savagery shall go unpunished. 
The United Nations have made it clear that they 
will pursue the guilty and deliver them up in order 
that Justice be done. That warning applies not 
only to the leaders but also to their functionaries 
and subordinates in Germany and in the satellite 
countries. All who knowingly take part in the 
deportation of Jews to their death in Poland, or 
Norwegians and French to their death in Ger- 
many, are equally guilty with the executioner. 
All who share the guilt shall share the punish- 



Over the past months officers of the Department 
of State, in consultation with other Departments, 
have worked out proposals for the realization of 
the objectives stated by the President. Pending the 
outcome of current discussions with our Allies on 
this subject, these proposals cannot be published. 
I wish, however, to state categorically that these 
proposals are as forthright and far-reaching as 
the objectives announced by the President which 
they are intended to implement. They provide 
for the punishment of German leaders and their 
associates for their responsibility for the whole 
broad criminal enterprise devised and executed 
with ruthless disregard of the very foundation of 
law and morality, including offenses wherever com- 
mitted against the rules of war and against minor- 
ity elements, Jewish and other groups, and in- 
dividuals. 



Mexican-American Commission 

for Economic Cooperation 



EXCHANGE OF LETTERS BETWEEN 



PRESIDENT AVILA CAMACHO AND PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT 



[Released to the press January 29] 

Mexico, D.F., 
Jamiary 20, 19^5. 
Mt Dear Mk. President : 

The Mexican-American Commission for Eco- 
nomic Cooperation has placed in my hands, as it 
has also placed in those of Your Excellency, a 
Eeport whicli it submits on the result of its efforts 
from its formation in September 1943 to the pres- 
ent, supplemented by appropriate documentation 
and enclosures. 

At the same time, the delegates of the Mexican 
Government who form a part of the Commission 
have given me a detailed account of the results of 
their activities and of the frank, friendly and effi- 
cient collaboration rendered in the fulfilhnent of 
their duties by their American colleagues and by 
other officials of the United States Government 
with whom they were in constant contact. 

The modifications made necessary by the course 
of the war in the system established by the Gov- 
ernment of Your Excellency to control emergency 
economic relations, prompted the recommendation 
that the work of the Commission be discontinued 



"sine die", which recommendation was deemed 
timely by both Governments. 

Therefore, it is with pleasure that I express to 
Your Excellency my sincere satisfaction with the 
achievements of the Mexican-American Conunis- 
sion which was able, to the fullest extent possible 
under the critical conditions caused by war, to 
translate into practical results the recommenda- 
tions formulated by the previous commission. 

The Mexican-American Commission for Eco- 
nomic Cooperation leaves in our hands a program 
of greater scope, the fulfillment of which has 
scarcely begun and which should be carried out in 
the years to come in accordance with the new 
methods of exportation which the Government of 
the United States has established in its adminis- 
trative organization looking toward the return of 
international trade to normal channels. It is my 
hope that the execution of this program will be 
characterized by the same spirit of frank coopera- 
tion which made possible the creation of the 
Mexican-American Commission for Economic Co- 



' Bulletin of Mar. 25, 1944, p. 277, 



156 

operation and the satisfactory performance of its 
duties in the midst of abnormal conditions. 

I take pleasure in expressing to you my convic- 
tion that every effort of our Governments to aug- 
ment their mutual assistance, will be of inestimable 
value in further strengthening the cordial relations 
of our people and a valuable contribution towards 
the construction of new foundations of peace and 
justice which we hope it will be possible to estab- 
lish in the world. 

I renew, Your Excellency, the assurances of my 
consideration and sincere friendship. 

Manuel Avila Camacho 



January 20, 1945. 
Mt Dear Mr. President : 

I am pleased to learn of the successful com- 
pletion of the work of the Mexican-American 
Commission for Economic Cooperation, which 
has so constructively carried out within the past 
sixteen months the recommendations of its simi- 
larly named predecessor Commission. It appears 
to me that both of these Commissions have ful- 
filled the aims which we expressed in our conver- 
sations in Monterrey and Corpus Christi in 1943 
when we agreed to appoint the first Commission 
to study and make recommendations for the 
maintenance and intensification of economic co- 
operation between the Government of Mexico and 
the Government of the United States. 

We of the United Nations are today still en- 
gaged in the greatest and, in so far as its im- 
plications are concerned, the most significant war 
in history, towards the victorious conclusion of 
which our manpower and natural resources, our 
industrial production, our wealth are dedicated, 
so that our armed forces may effectively and 
speedily end the world-wide suffering and devas- 
tation. Through such efforts and sacrifices we 
of the Americas have been spared much of the 
destruction and misery of total war which have 
devastatingly affected many other countries. 

I have long noted the very extensive contribu- 
tions of Mexico to the war effort of the United 
Nations. Throughout the war Mexico has main- 
tained a continuous flow of strategic materials to 
the United States. Furthermore, the thousands 
of Mexican workers who have come to the United 
States have performed essential services and have 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

done much towards alleviating the critical man- 
power shortage in agriculture and railroad trans- 
portation. 

In spite of the demands of war upon all the 
resources of the United States, it is a source of 
satisfaction to my Government that it has been 
able to carry out its pledge under the resolution 
of the Third Consultative Meeting of Foreign 
Ministers held at Rio de Janeiro in 1942 for the 
Maintenance of the Internal Economies of the 
American Nations. Although in 1943 and 1944 
the industry of the United States, through con- 
version and expansion, was primarily engaged in 
the production of war materials, it was neverthe- 
less possible to make available and supply to 
Mexico for its consumption needs and the mainte- 
nance of its economy more products in those years 
than during any similar period of time in the 
trade between the two countries. I am also 
gratified to know that in 1944, a year of tremen- 
dous demands upon the industry and economy of 
the United States, my country was able to meet 
the requirements of Mexico for materials and 
equipment for the maintenance and development 
of its economy in amounts greater than it had 
received from all world sources in any year pre- 
ceding the war. 

The fulfillment of immediate and long-range 
plans for the improvement of transportation, the 
extension of electric power, irrigation and other 
public works, the sound expansion and diversifi- 
cation of industrial plant capacity, and the sup- 
plying of the necessary equipment required 
therefor, gave added momentum to the increas- 
ing purchasing power of the Mexican people and 
the sound expansion of trade between our two 
countries. 

The Mexican-American Commission for Eco- 
nomic Cooperation has played an important role, 
not only in assisting in obtaining materials and 
equipment for Mexico's economic development, 
but also in focusing attention on the significance 
of this development, its problems, and its require- 
ments for still greater expansion when peace 
comes. 

The American members of the Commission in- 
form me that their relations with their Mexican 
colleagues have been characterized by a spirit of 
full collaboration and deep understanding. In 
the same spirit of mutual collaboration which 
characterized our conversations at Monterrey and 



FEBRUARY 4, 1945 



157 



Corpus Christi nearly two yeai's ago, I believe that 
the Mexican-American Commission for Economic 
Cooperation has successfully carried forward its 
work of furthering economic collaboration be- 
tween our two countries and I approve its recom- 
mendation that it now adjourn "sine die". 

It is my conviction that the basis of sound col- 
laboration between our two countries in the eco- 
nomic field which has been so fruitfully begun 



through the work of this Commission, now ter- 
minating its task, may be widened in the years to 
come to the mutual benefit of both countries and 
peoples. 

I renew to Your Excellency the assurances of 
my highest consideration and warmest friend- 
ship. 

Very sincerely yours, 

Franklin D. Roosevelt 



TEXT OF FINAL REPORT OF THE COMMISSION' 



[Released to the press January 29] 

Members 

Primo Villa Michel, Chairman 
Nelson A. Rockefeller, Vice Chairman 
Evaristo Aralza 
Thomas H. Lockett 
Wayne C. Taylor 
Salvador Ugarte 

Executive Officers 

Ai'mnndo C. Amador, Secretary General 

Gustavo A. Rohen y Galvez, Secretary of Mexican Section 

A. Willing Patterson, Secretary of American Section 

(resigned November 1944) 
William E. Clayton, Secr-etary of American Section 
Dudley B. Bonsai, Executive Secretary of Washington 

Office 
William F. Machold, Special Representative 

Technical Advisees 
Mexican Se-ction American Section 

Federico Bach Evert L. Stancliff 

Mario Javier Hoyo Horace H. Braun 

Gouzalo Robles C. Norman Frees 

Josue Saenz Albert K. Pappano 

SUBOOMMITTEE ON INDDSTEIAI, DEVELOPMENT 

Mexican Section American Section 

Gustavo P. Serrano, Chair- Harry E. Beyster, Chairman 

man William S. Vaughan 

OswiUdo Gurria UrgeU Evert L. StanclifE 

Mario Javier Hoyo Horace H. Braun (Alter- 
Hector Martinez D'Meza nate) 

Jose Antonio Rivera 

Assistant Assistant 

Fernando Zamora Manuel A. Tavarez 

Subcommittee on Agbicultube 
Mexican Section American Section 

Alfonso Gonzales Gallardo, Lester D. Mallory, Chair- 
Chairman man 

Mario Javier Hoyo C. Norman Frees 

Fernando Romera Quintana Theodore H. Mayer 
J. Stanton Robbins 

629720—45 2 



SUBCOMMnTEE ON AVIATION 

Mexican Section American Section 

General Alberto Sanlinas Major General Julian L. 
Carranza, Chairman Schley, Chaiiman 

(resigned, June 1944) Thomas D. Park 
General Alfredo Lczama 

Alvarez, Chairman 
Juan GulUermo Villasana 

SuBcoMMTmra; on Highway Tkanspoetation 
Mexican Section American Section 

Bernardo Chavez V., Chair- Major General Julian L. 

man Schley, Chairman 

Jesus Hernandez Llergo Fisher G. Dorsey 
Antonio Vargas McDonald 

Subcommittee on Toueism 
Mexican Section American Section 

Alejandro Buelna, Ch/iir- 3. Stanton Robbins, Chair- 
man man 
Lucas de Palacio 

This report covers the activities of the Mexican- 
American Commission for Economic Cooperation, 
hereinafter referred to as "The Commission", from 
its organization in September 1943 to January 
1945. 

The Commission was created by the joint action 
of the Governments of Mexico and the United 
States. The Mexican members who were ap- 
pointed by President Manuel Avila Camacho are : 

Primo Villa Michel 

Evaristo Araiza 

Salvador Ugarte 
The American members who were appointed by 
President Franklin D. Koosevelt are : 

Nelson A. Rockefeller 

Wayne C. Taylor 

Thomas H. Lockett 



' The final report was submitted and accepted on Jan. 
29, 1945 at the final meeting of the Commission in Mexico 
City. 



158 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



At its first meeting, the Commission designated 
Mr. Villa Michel as its Chairman, and Mr. Rocke- 
feller as its Vice Chairman. 

The Commission was formed for the purpose 
of carrying forward to the maximum degree 
within the period of the war emergency, the rec- 
ommendations made in July 1943 ^ by the previ- 
ous Mexican-American Commission for Economic 
Cooperation, hereinafter referred to as the "Pre- 
vious Commission", which was set up following 
the meetings in April 1943 of the two Presidents 
at Monterrey and Corpus Christi to consider and 
make recommendations with regard to the most 
pressing economic problems calling for the imme- 
diate joint action of the two countries. The Com- 
mission, with the approval of the two Presidents, 
assumed the name of its predecessor Commission. 

The Previous Commission had found that Mex- 
ico's economy had become unbalanced by reason of 
wartime conditions. On the one hand, Mexico 
was exporting a maximum amount of critical and 
strategic materials to the United States for the 
common war eilort. On the other hand, because 
of the conversion of industry in the United States 
to war production and the cutting off of former 
overseas sources of supply, Mexico was unable to 
obtain sufficient imports to adequately maintain 
its national economy and at the same time to con- 
tinue the flow of war materials to the United 
Nations. 

The Commission determined that the economic 
development of Mexico along sound lines, with 
such amounts of material anil equipment from the 
United States as could be made available without 
interfering with the war effort and the essential 
needs of other friendly countries, would do much 
to meet Mexico's wartime economic problems, as 
well as those to be faced in the immediate postwar 
period. 

The Commission therefore, after convoking 
sponsors of prospective public and private proj- 
ects and after a thorough consultation with them 
concerning Mexico's immediate needs for economic 
development, prepared its so-called Minimum 1944 
Program. This program included the important 



' Buu-i^nN of July 17, 1943, ] 
' Not here reproduced. 



projects submitted by the interested parties, and 
consisted of twenty projects with an over-all total 
cost of approximately 24,000,000 Dollars (120,- 
000,000 Pesos). Smaller projects submitted, with 
an over-all total cost of approximately 9,000,000 
Dollars (45,000,000 Pesos), were turned over to 
the Mexican Comite Coordinador de las Im- 
portaciones for its recommendations. 

Practically all of the materials and equipment 
required for the projects in the Minimum 1944 
Program have been licensed, and arrangements 
have been concluded to the end that they will be 
made available. Most projects are already under 
construction. 

To consider Mexico's long-term capital goods 
requirements, the Commission appointed a joint 
Subcommittee on Industrial Development in April 
1944. This Subcommittee, after a study of the 
applications and proposals made by the interested 
parties, submitted to the Commission in June of 
1944, a comprehensive report of Mexico's pro- 
grams in the power and irrigation fields, and 
substantial information as to other phases of its 
needs for future economic development. The 
Subcommittee estimated that according to projects 
and suggestions considered, Mexico will need in 
the areas studied a minimum of capital equipment 
from abroad valued at approximately 94,000,000 
Dollars (470,000,000 Pesos) through 1947, and 
43,000,000 Dollars (215,000,000 Pesos) in 1948 and 
the immediate subsequent years for projects of 
major significance to its economic development 
which have an estimated total over-all cost of 
383,000,000 Dollars (1,915,000,000 Pesos) as more 
fully set forth in the four attached charts.^ 

The report of the Subcommittee on Industrial 
Development has been considered by the Commis- 
sion and accepted and made available to the two 
Governments, the Commission urging them to ful- 
fill the recommendations contained in the report. 
The Commission believes that this report will be 
of great value to the two Governments in such 
further joint economic activities as they may de- 
termine to be necessary, or desirable, in the years 
to come. Moreover, this report points the way 
to the realization of major portions of Mexico's 
development program. 



FEBRUARY 4, 1945 



159 



The Commission has approved a total of fifty- 
eight development projects of wliich twenty were 
the total of major projects submitted for the 
Minimum 1944 Program, thirty-one were included 
in the Long Range Report of the Subcommittee 
on Industrial Development, and seven were im- 
portant miscellaneous projects. The gi-eater part 
of the required equipment for these projects is 
now either in Mexico or in the process of being 
manufactured for delivery. Its purchase is being 
financed entirely by private enterprise, preponder- 
antly Mexican, or, in the case of public works, such 
as electric power, irrigation and drainage, by the 
Mexican Government. 

The Conmiission has conferred with business- 
men of both countries regarding the formulation 
and development of sound projects with the par- 
ticipation of both Mexican and United States 
capital when appropriate, and has rendered every 
possible assistance to the sponsors of such projects. 
However, the primary assistance which this Com- 
mission has been able to render, after previous 
study and industrial planning, has been in the ob- 
taining of priorities and export licenses to the end 
that materials required for these projects have 
been made available as promptly as possible, con- 
sistent with the war effort, and the needs of other 
friendly countries. 

Following the previous Commission's recom- 
mendations, the Conmaission has also reviewed 
the general requirements (i. e. requirements not 
related to specific projects) of Mexico for commo- 
dities in shoi't supply and has urged revisions in 
allocations from the U. S., on the basis of changed 
conditions in Mexico, or on the basis of data 
heretofore not available. This additional infor- 
mation on Mexico's requirements has been most 
useful to the war agencies and, in view of such 
information, certain allocations have been in- 
creased or established for additional products. 

To carry out its functions with regard to imme- 
diate problems in broad fields of economic devel- 
opment. Subcommittees of the Commission, in ad- 
dition to that on Industrial Development already 
referred to, made studies and recommendations in 
the following fields: agriculture, aviation, high- 
way transportation, and tourism. Briefly sum- 



marized, these Subcommittees carried out their 
objectives in the following manner. 

Agricultw-e. Largely through the efforts of 
this Subcommittee, a program was drawn up un- 
der which the Banco Nacional de Credito Ejidal, 
S.A. placed orders in the United States for ap- 
proximately 3,200,000 Dollars (16,000,000 Pesos) 
of agricultural machinery and repair parts, nearly 
all of which have been shipped to Mexico. The 
work of this Subcommittee brought out the need 
of resolving many technical agricultural problems 
affecting the two countries, and to this end, a sepa- 
rate Mexican-United States Agricultural Com- 
mission was appointed by President Avila Cama- 
cho and President Roosevelt, and began its activi- 
ties in June of 1944. 

Aviation. The Subcommittee on Aviation has 
achieved its objectives in a two-fold manner. 
Throughout the jieriod of its activities in Mexico, 
much useful advice and counsel was given to the 
Mexican airlines on operation, maintenance and 
equipment problems particularly diiScult of solu- 
tion considering the wartime scarcity of repair 
parts and equipment. In addition, through the 
efforts of the Subcommittee, twenty-one used 
planes were located and obtained in the United 
States for service on Mexican commercial air- 
lines. 

Highway Transportation. As in the case of the 
Subcommittee on Aviation, the Subcommittee on 
Highway Transportation provided much helpful 
guidance and made recommendations to the ap- 
propriate agencies of the Mexican Government 
towards the solution of truck transportation prob- 
lems and the further development of sound high- 
way transportation policies. 

Tounsm. The labors of the Subcommittee on 
Tourism were naturally pointed towards the 
postwar growth of the tourist industry, since the 
promotion of travel for pleasure on wartime con- 
gested facilities is neither feasible nor desirable. 
Considerable useful information was compiled 
which was made available to both Governments 
together with recommendations designed to en- 
courage and facilitate tourist travel after the 
war. It is estimated by the Subcommittee that 
the tourist industry, which was already of major 



160 

significance before the war, will approach an an- 
nual volume of business of around 50,000,000 Dol- 
lars (250,000,000 Pesos). 

It is the policy of the Government of the 
United States to return to normal conditions, 
eliminating wartime controls, as rapidly as the 
war situation will permit. Many such controls 
have already been eliminated. The allocation of 
materials and equipment is now governed much 
less by the assignment of priority ratings and the 
issuance of export licenses than in the past, and 
eventually these controls will disappear alto- 
gether. Export licenses are being issued for ma- 
terials for projects whenever such action does not 
cause interference with the war effort. There- 
fore, the Commission believes that it has com- 
pleted the wartime function for which it was 
created and it respectfully submits to the Govern- 
ment of the United Mexican States and the Gov- 
ernment of the United States of America that it 
adjourn "sine die". The Commission believes that 
it has carried out the recommendations of the 
Previous Commission to the maximum extent pos- 
sible during the present emergency and considers 
that its work lias contributed substantially to the 
economic development of Mexico and has consti- 
tuted an achievement in the light of difficult war- 
time conditions. The Commission hopes that its 
work may contribute much towards the gro^vth of 
Mexico's economic structure and that it may pave 
the way towards further development, thereby 
bettering the purchasing power of the Mexican 
people and their general standard of living, and 
stimulating mutually advantageous commercial 
relations between Mexico and the United States. 

The Commission has received throughout, the 
generous and understanding collaboration of both 
Governments. The Commission further hopes 
that the completion of its work will constitute 
another forward step in the practical application 
of the Good Neighbor Policy. 

Mexico, D.F. 

January, 10^5. 



•Released to the press on Jan. 26, 1945 by the United 
States and Canadian representatives. 
' Bulletin of Jan. 21, 1945, p. 110. 



Inquiries on American Citizens 
In the Vicinity of Athens 

[Released to the press February 3] 

The Department of State announces that the 
American Embassy at Athens is prepared to ascer- 
tain the welfare and whereabouts of individual 
American nationals residing in the vicinity of 
Athens. Inquiries and messages from persons in 
the United States concerning American nationals 
in Athens and its environs should be forwarded 
to the Department of State. However, messages 
for communication to Americans in that area can 
be accepted for transmission to the Embassy only 
in cases where the sender has been unsuccessful in 
attempting to use normal mail channels. 

For the time being this service does not in- 
clude inquiries and messages sent in behalf of 
aliens or persons not residing in the Athens area. 



Civil Air-Transport Matters 

ANNOUNCEMENT BY UNITED STATES AND 
CANADIAN REPRESENTATIVES^ 

Representatives of the United States and Can- 
ada made the following announcement on Janu- 
ary 26 upon the conclusion of discussions in New 
York on civil air transport:' 

1. The Canadian representatives stated that 
Canada had decided to adhere to the Interna- 
tional Air Services Transit Agreement (Two 
Freedoms Agreement. ) 

2. A draft of a bilateral aviation agreement in 
the general form recommended by the Chicago 
aviation conference was agreed upon and wiU be 
submitted to the two Govermnents for their con- 
sideration. Under this draft existing routes 
between the United States and Canada are 
continued and additional routes are allocated with 
the object of assuring equitable distribution of 
routes between carriers of the two countries. 
Amiouncement of these routes will be made upon 
completion of the exchange of notes incorporating 
the draft agreement. Provision is also made for 
the establishment of further routes as the public 
convenience and necessity of the two countries 
may require. 



The Rubber Study Group 

DISCUSSION AND APPRAISAL OF THE FUTURE RUBBER SITUATION 



[Released to the press January 29] 

On September 21, 1944 it was announced that 
an informal Rubber Study Group had been estab- 
lished, composed of representatives of the Gov- 
ernments of the Nethei'lands, the United 
Kingdom, and the United States.^ The purpose 
of the Group was to discuss common problems 
arising from the jDroduction, manufacture, and 
use of rubber, crude, synthetic, and reclaimed. 

As announced on January 17, 1945 a meeting 
of the Group was scheduled in Washington for 
the week of January 22-27 inclusive.^ B. F. 
Haley, Director, Office of Economic Affairs, De- 
partment of State, presided over the meeting. 
The Netherlands Delegation was led by P. H. 
Westermann, Head of the Economics Section, 
Netherlands Ministry for the Colonies, and the 
United Kingdom Delegation by O. S. Franks, 
Second Secretary, Ministry of Supply. At the 
first meeting of the Group, extensive studies 
about various aspects of the future rubber situa- 
tion were presented on behalf of the representa- 
tives of the participating Governments. The 
main business of the meetings was a discussion 
and appraisal of these studies. 

Eepresentatives emphasized the very great un- 
certainties which surround any estimates of 
future capacity both to produce and to consume 
the various types of natural, synthetic, and re- 
claimed rubber. In particular, the time at which 
the Far Eastern rubber-growing areas will be 
liberated and the condition of these areas at the 
time of liberation are both unknown. There is 
also some uncertainty about the rate at which 
labor will become available in some areas. 

Broadly, however, the Group reached the con- 
clusion that actual production, if required, of the 
natural-rubber areas of the world could rise in 
three to four years after liberation of the Far 
Eastern territories to an annual figure in the 
neighborhood of li/o million tons of rubber. As 
regards synthetic rubber, while the position in 
the United States can be predicted with some 
accuracy, the state of the plants in Europe at the 
end of the war with Germany is very conjectural, 



but the Group arrived at a figure of world pro- 
ductive capacity of synthetic rubber of approxi- 
mately lYs million tons annually. 

As against this, it is considered that the amount 
of rubber processed and consumed is not likely to 
reach more than 1% million tons annually of all 
types of natural and synthetic rubber. This will 
be true even though there at present exists a large 
banked-up demand all over the world for both 
rubber itself and rubber goods, since this accumu- 
lated demand can be met only gradtially. The 
Group considers that even the realization of this 
estimate depends on the maintenance of a high 
level of economic activity in the major consuming 
countries of the world. They point out, however, 
that this consumption estimate rests on the assump- 
tion that thei-e will be no sudden large develop- 
ment of existing or of new uses of rubber. 

It appears, therefore, that a marked disequilib- 
rium between the productive capacity of the world 
and the demands for consumption could develop 
in the course of a few years after the liberation of 
the Far East. Over a longer period, however, the 
Group is hopeful that the very marked upward 
trend in the world consumption of rubber, which 
was a feature of the years from 1914 to 1941, will 
continue and that an expanding world economy 
will lead to great increases in the per-capifa con- 
sumption of rubber in many countries where the 
present figures are low. It is further expected 
that the past rapid development of new uses for 
rubber will continue and may well be accelerated 
by the advances scientists have made in developing 
new physical and chemical characteristics in rub- 
ber and rubber-like materials. 

The Group also considered the probable trend 
of production costs but reached the conclusion that 
any definite estimates would be purely speculative, 
in the case of natural rubber because of the uncer- 
tainties about conditions in Japanese-occupied 
territories, and in the case of synthetic rubber be- 
cause of the fact that large-scale synthetic pro- 
duction in the United States has only recently 
developed. 

' Bulletin of Sept. 24, 1&44, p. 328. 
" Bulletin of Jan. 21, 1945, p. 108. 



162 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



The Group paid a warm tribute to tlie immense 
achievements of the American synthetic industry 
during the war but noted that supplies of natural 
rubber were likely to remain short for some time. 
An account was given of the broad lines of the 
plans being made by the governments concerned, 
and by the plantation industries, for the rehabili- 
tation of the natural-rubber-growing areas after 
liberation. 

At the time of the announcement of the forma- 
tion of the Group, it was stated that arrangements 



would be made to keep other interested govern- 
ments informed of the progress of studies and 
discussions, and steps are being taken to place a 
full report of this first meeting at the disposal of 
such governments. 

It was agreed by all representatives that the 
meeting had been of value and it was decided to 
keep the rubber situation under continuous review. 
No date was fixed for the next meeting, as it was 
felt that this must to some extent te determined 
by future developments. 



Disposition of American Defense Facilities in Canada' 

EXCHANGE OF NOTES BETWEEN THE CANADIAN AMBASSADOR AND THE SECRETARY OF STATE 



[Released to the press February 1] 



Sir: 



November 22, 1944. 



Under instructions from my Government, I 
have the honour to refer to recent discussions with 
respect to the post-war disposition of defence 
projects, installations and facilities built or pro- 
vided in Canada by the Government of the United 
States. This matter was the subject of a recom- 
mendation of the Canada - United States Per- 
manent Joint Board on Defence, adopted on Jan- 
uary 13, 1943, and subsequently embodied in an 
Exchange of Notes dated January 27, 1943. 

After further study, and in the light of ex- 
perience in connection with specific agreements 
already reached, it appeared desirable to the 
Board to amend its earlier recommendation and 
to make the revised recommendation applicable 
to all projects, disposition of which remains un- 
settled. Accordingly, on September 7, 1944, the 
Board adopted the following recommendation : 

"The Permanent Joint Board on Defence rec- 
ommends that the following formula be applied 
to the disposition of all defence facilities con- 
structed or provided in Canada by the United 
States (and mutatis mutandis to any defence fa- 
cilities constructed or provided in the United 
States by Canada) which have not already been 
dealt with. 

'■'•rmmovahles 

"A-The Govermnent of the United States shall, 
within three months from the date of the approval 



of this Recommendation, supply the Government 
of Canada with a list of immovables (hereinafter 
referred to as facilities) which it desires to make 
subject to the provisions of this Recommen- 
dation. 

"B-In the case of each of the facilities included 
in the list referred to in A, the Canadian Govern- 
ment and the United States Government will each 
appoint one qualified appraiser whose joint duty 
it will be to appraise such facility in order to de- 
termine the fair market value thereof at the time 
and place of appraisal. If the two appraisers can- 
not agree on the fair market value, they will select 
a third appraiser to determine this value. The 
amount set by the appraisers shall be paid to the 
United States Government by the Government of 
Canada, 

"provided that the foregoing paragraphs A and 
B shall not apply to any facilities heretofore 
specifically provided for; 

"C-Any existing facility not included in the 
United States list shall, within one year after the 
cessation of hostilities, be relinquished, without 
cost, to the Crown either in the right of Canada 
or in the right of the Province in which the same 
or any part thereof lies, as may be appropriate 
under Canadian law. 



' On Jan. 31 tlie War Department issued a press release 
on the agreement reached between the Canadian and 
United States Governments relating to the disposition of 
American defense facilities in Canada, disposition of 
which had not previously been settled. 



FEBRUARY 4, 1945 



163 



^'■Movables 

"A-The Government of the United States shall 
remove from Canada all those items which it 
desires. 

"B-The Government of Canada shall arrange 
through the appropriate governmental agencies 
for the purchase from the United States of such 
remaining items as it desires to obtain for its own 
use or disposition. 

"C-All other movables shall be transferred to a 
designated agency of the Canadian Government 
and shall be sold or disposed of by such agency, 
the proceeds to be paid to the Government of the 
United States, 
''provided thai, in connection with the items re- 
ferred to in paragraph C, the United States 
Government shall be represented by an officer 
designated by it for that purpose, who shall 
have an equal voice in the setting of prices, the 
allocation of priorities, the assessment of 
legitimate sales costs and other details of the 
sale or other disposal of the items concerned ; 
"and provided further that any such items re- 
maining unsold at the end of two years from 
the time they are transferred to the Canadian 
agency concerned shall either be declared of 
no value and the account closed or, at the op- 
tion of the United States, shall be removed 
from Canada by the United States author- 
ities." 

I have been directed to inform you that this 
recommendation has been approved by the Gov- 
ernment of Canada, subject to the following pro- 
viso: 

"That, as there are certain facilities whose dis- 
posal would entail expenses such as custody and de- 
molition, any expense of such a character would be 
taken into consideration in the final accounting." 
and to propose that, if the foregoing is acceptable 
to the Government of the United States, this note 
and your reply thereto shall be regarded as plac- 
ing on record the understanding arrived at be- 
tween the two Governments concerning this matter. 

Accept [etc.] 

L. B. Pearson 
For the Ambassador 
The Honourable Cordell Hull, 

Secretary of State of the United States, 
Washington, D.C. 



December 20, 1944. 
Excellency : 

I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of 
your note no. 399, November 22, 1944, referring 
to recent discussions on the disposition of defense 
projects, installations and facilities built or 
provided in Canada by the Government of the 
United States and informing me of the approval 
by the Canadian Government of the 33rd Rec- 
ommendation of tlie Permanent Joint Board on 
Defense, United States and Canada, on this sub- 
ject. The 33rd Recommendation amends and 
supersedes the 28th Recommendation of the Board 
which was embodied in the exchange of notes of 
January 27, 1943. 

The United States Government has been 
pleased to observe that, pursuant to the 28th Rec- 
ommendation specific agreements have already 
been reached covering the disposition of the ma- 
jor defense projects constructed by the United 
States in Canada. It is considered that the cur- 
rent Recommendation of the Board is suitable 
for application to all projects, disposition of 
which remains unsettled and I am glad, therefore, 
to inform you that the Government of the United 
States approved the 33rd Recommendation on 
November 11, 1944. 

It is noted that the Canadian Government's 
approval is subject to the following proviso : 

"That, as there are certain facilities whose dis- 
posal would entail expenses such as custody and 
demolition, any expense of such a character would 
be taken into consideration in the final account- 
ing." 

In accepting the Canadian Government's pro- 
viso to the 33rd Reccommendation, I believe it 
useful to mention that it is understood by this 
Government from an explanatory memorandum 
kindly furnished by the Canadian authorities that 
expenses of custody and demolition will be taken 
into account by the appraisers and will through 
their findings be reflected in the final accounting. 

In conclusion I may state that the United 
States Government accepts the proposal that your 
note under reference and this reply shall be re- 
garded as placing on record the understanding 
arrived at between the two Governments on this 
matter. 

Accept [etc.] Edward R. Stettinius, Jr. 



164 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Aliens in Germany, 1939 

By CLARENCE B. ODELL and ROBERT H. BILLIGMEIER ' 



CENSUS DATA available on the national origin, 
numbers, and distribution of aliens in Grer- 
many in 1939 have important implications for 
those interested in the present displacement of 
population in Germany.^ In addition to being of 
historical interest, the data represent a point of 
departure in the study of wartime movements of 
people in Germany and serve as a background 
for the present-day situation and the future prob- 
lem of repatriation. 

Between 1933 and 1939 large numbers of for- 
eign workers were attracted to Germany by the 
possibilities of employment attending the huge 
rearmament program. Internal migration and 
the influx of alien labor were related to changes 
occurring in the economic structure of the Reich. 
Germany needed labor to complete its prepara- 
tions for war, and a large part of the required 
labor supply was drawn from foreign sources. 

With the outbreak of the war the movement of 
foreign workers into Germany was accelerated. 
In order to meet the requirements of German in- 
dustry and agriculture vast numbers of prisoners 
of war, political prisoners, and forced alien la- 
borers conscripted from areas occupied by the 
German Army were added to this influx. 

In Germany, as in other countries, the problem 
of displaced peoples and their repatriation is ex- 
ceedingly complex. It is not easy to reduce the 
wide-spread movements of people into an intelli- 
gible pattern. There is little adequate informa- 
tion relating to the nature of the migration of 
peoples into Germany since 1939. Only frag- 
mentary data are available on the types of dis- 
placed groups, their geographical distribution 
within the Reich, the country of origin of the 
displaced peoples, their age and sex distribution, 
and other descriptive material. The value of the 

1 Mr. Odell is head of the Population Section and Mr. 
Billlgmeier i.s Population Analyst. Both are in the Divi- 
sion of Geography and Cartography, Ofhce of Pulilic 
Affairs, Department of State. 

'These notes and tables are based In part upon the 
text and statistics contained in "Die Ausliinder im 
Deutschen Reich— Vorlaufiges Ergebnls der Vollcszahlung 
vora 17. Mai, 19.39", Wirtschaft und Statistik, June 1, 
1940. 



1939 census of aliens, therefore, lies in the fact 
that it affords a reliable background of data for 
the study of movements of people occurring since 
the outbreak of the war. 

Number of Aliens 
According to the preliminary returns of the 
German census of May 17, 1939, there were 939,386 
aliens in Germanj' comprising 1.18 percent of the 
total population. Tins figure rejjresents a con- 
siderable increase over the number of aliens resi- 
dent in the Reich in 1933. Despite the increases 
in territory after 1933, there were fewer aliens 
in Germany in 1939 than in 1925. The largest 
number of aliens and the highest proportion of 
aliens to the total population were recorded in the 
years before World War I. The last census be- 
fore the first World War, held in 1910, listed 
1,259,873 aliens, a number which constituted 1.94 
percent of the total population of Germany. Even 

Number of Aliens in Germany Since 1871 



Area and year 


Number 


Percent of total 
population 


Area of Germany before 
World War I: 

1871 

1S75 


206, 755 
290, 799 
276, 057 
372, 792 
433, 254 
486, 190 

1, 028, 560 


0.50 
0.68 


1880 


0. 61 


1885 


0.80 
0.88 


1895 

1900 


0.93 
1. 38 


1905 


1.70 


1910 

Area after World War I 
(without Saarland) : 
1910 


1, 259, 873 
*1, 129,951 


1.94 
1.95 


1925 

1933 

Area of the Reich at time 
of 1939 census (with- 
out Memelland): 

1933 


957, 096 
756, 760 

**672, 000 
939, 386 


1.53 
1. 16 

0.88 


1939 


1. 18 







•Adjusted to post - World War I area. 

••For Germany the census of June 16, 1933 was used ; for Saar- 
land, .Tune 25, 1935 ; for Austria, Mar. 22, 1934 ; for tlie Sudeten- 
land, Dec. 1, 1930. 



if the pre - World War I German area is consid- 
ered in terms of the territory of the Weimar Re- 
public, there were only 1,129,951 aliens, compris- 
ing 1.95 percent of the total population. 
Status of Alien Groups 

In 1939 almost three-fourths of the 939,386 
aliens were of known national origin. The re- 
mainder of the aliens were either persons whose 
nationality had been undetermined or questioned, 
or were considered stateless, that is, without legal 
citizenship in any country. 

Status of Aliens in Gekmant, 1939 





Number 


Percent 




939, 386 
681, 224 

134, 583 
123, 579 


100.0 


Aliens of known origin 

Persons whose citizenship is un- 


72.5 
14.3 


Stateless 


13 2 







Undetermined citizenship 

The alterations of national boundaries which 
the Reich had experienced before the 1939 census 
and the dislocations that attended the seizures of 
territory had important consequences in the enu- 
mei-ation of aliens. In 1933 there were 1,727 
persons whose citizenship status was undetermined 
in contrast to the far larger number of 134,583 
in 1939. In 1939 there were a large number of 
persons in the recently annexed Sudetenland who 
were confused as to their citizenship at the time 
of enumeration. This confusion is manifest in 
the large number of persons living in the Sude- 
tenland whose nationality is listed in the census as 
undetermined {unermittelt oder ungekldrt). Of 
the total 134,583 aliens of undetermined citizen- 
ship in Germany, 125,153 were found in the newly 
incorporated Sudetenland. Almost 90 percent 
of the aliens in the Sudetenland were uncertain 
of their citizenship. In the 1939 census reports 
no aliens in the Sudetenland were listed as citi- 
zens of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, 
whereas Czechs living in other parts of the Reich 
were listed as Protectorate citizens. 

Decrees were issued later which served to clarify 
the matter of citizenship for most of the Czechs 
who were recorded as having undetermined citi- 



165 



zenship. Czechs who were not established resi- 
dents of the Sudeten area, and who were also 
eligible for citizenship in the Protectorate of Bo- 
hemia and Moravia under the decree of January 
11, 1940, were allowed to acquire Protectorate 
citizenship. The same confusion did not exist as 
far as the Slovaks were concerned. The Slovaks 
in the Sudetenland were described as aliens of 
Slovak citizenship. Over half of the known 
aliens enumerated in the Sudeten area were 
Slovaks. 

At the time of the census there were a large 
number of persons in the Sudetenland who were 
eligible for German citizenship but who were 
either imaware of that fact or did not want to 
avail themselves of that right. It is probable, 
therefore, that the number of aliens in Germany 
(including Sudetenland) at the time of the census 
was consequently somewhat less than the 939,386 
enumerated in the census. 

Of the aliens of undetermined citizenship in 
Germany, a relatively small number of Jews, 
only 984, were listed. This number represented 
only 0.7 percent of the total group.^ Another 
group, 16,000 persons, or 11.8 percent, were listed 
as alien members of the German Volkstum. The 
great majority were aliens of foreign culture, 
freTnde V olkszugehorige. 

Stateless Aliens 

There were 123,579 aliens in Germany listed as 
stateless in 1939. Four fifths of the stateless 
aliens, 97,047 of them, were described as German 
V olkszugehorige, that is, culturally German. Ac- 
cording to the quoted article in Wirtschaft und 
Statistik, a large proportion of the stateless are 
membei's of German minorities who have been de- 
prived of their former citizenship for "political 
reasons" by the countries from which they emi- 
grated. Another large number of stateless 
Germans included those immigrants who had 
lived in Germany for decades and had become 
assimilated. Nevertheless, they lost their former 
citizenship without acquiring German citizen- 
ship. Stateless Jews numbered 15,946 represent- 
ing 12.9 percent of all stateless persons in the 
Reich. 



The article in Wirtschaft und Statistik defines Jews 
as those persons with 3 or 4 fully Jewish (volljiidischen) 
grandparents. 



166 



DEPARTMENT Of STATE BULLETIN 





I 



I I I 



5 S S S 



U UIS 



/ ilJi^ 



Hznia— '-v-?--;"" fy^- ■■■■" ■■■ I 

■^ \ w-" 







i! °i A 



FEBRUARY 4, 1945 



167 



Approximately two thirds of the stateless aliens 
in 1939 lived in Prussia. East Prussia had by 
far the largest proportion of stateless persons 
among its alien population. Numerically, how- 
ever, the largest group was in Berlin; the second 
largest in East Prussia; and the third largest 
group in Vienna. 

Alien German "Volkszugehorige" 

Among the aliens in the Third Eeich 476,000 
persons, comprising 50.7 percent of all aliens, 
belong to a group which the census tables call 
the German Volkstimi, or German Volkszuge- 
horige. 

CoNornoN of Citizenship in Relation to German 
"Volkszugehorige" 



Number and Percentage of German "Volkszuge- 
horige" IN Alien Contingents from Selected 
Countries 



All aliens 

Aliens of known nation 
ality 

Stateless 

Persons whose citizen- 
ship is undetermined 



681, 224 
123, 579 



134, 583 



German '''olkszugehSrige 



Number Percent 



476, 376 



363, 409 
97, 047 



53.3 

78.5 



Among the aliens of known nationality more 
than half belong to the German Volkstum. Many 
of these "culturally German" aliens came from 
Danzig, whose population is almost entirely Ger- 
man-speakdng, and from countries having sub- 
stantial Grerman minorities. 

In some alien groups the "culturally Gei-man" 
element constitutes more than half the national 
contingent. By far the largest number of these 
aliens emigi-ated from Poland. Danzig supplied 
the second largest contingent, which was, however, 
less than half as large as that of Poland. Danzig's 
alien group was almost totally "German." 

Of the larger national alien groups in Germany 
the proportion of "cultural Germans" was lowest 
in the total Italian group among which they repre- 
sented approximately 25 percent. Other alien 
groups were 60 percent or more "culturally Ger- 
man." The proportions were lower in the alien 
groups from Ireland, Bulgaria, and Turkey, coun- 
tries in which no large German minorities exist. 





Sit^l 


German Vollumge- 
hdrige 




Number 


Percent 


Free State of Danzig . . . 

Latvia 

France 


41, 000 
2,123 

l!213 
39, 901 
6,177 
4,355 
2,262 
139, 441 
53, 618 


40, 780 

1,685 

4,806 

854 

27, 972 
4,326 
2,974 
1,475 

90, 614 

33, 229 


99.5 
79.4 
72.1 
70.4 


Switzerland 

United States of America . 


70. 1 
70.0 
68.3 


Luxembourg 

Poland . 


65. 2 
65 


Yugoslavia 


62.0 



Sex Ratios 

The migration of foreign peoples into Germany 
has been sex selective. Among the aliens residing 
in the Eeich at the time of the census in May 1939, 
there was a considerable excess of males. The sex 
distribution of the alien group offers a significant 
contrast to that of the citizen population of the 
Reich. Among the aliens there were 123 males 
per 100 females while females predominated in 
the total German population with a recorded ratio 
of 94 males per 100 females. 

The proportions of males and females among 
alien contingents from the different countries 
varied widely. The greatest disparity in the rela- 
tive proportions of the two sexes existed among the 
Italian aliens. Among the members of that group 
there were 234 males per 100 females. The next 
highest ratio existed among the aliens from Bo- 
hemia and Moravia. Of the vai'ious important 
national groups in Germany, the French immi- 
grants alone were predominantly female. 

In the far larger alien population now in the 
Reich, the disparity of the sexes is doubtlessly far 
greater than it was in 1939. In the first 2>lace, a 
large part of the alien population in Germany to- 
day is composed of prisoners of war, political 
prisoners, and conscripted labor from occupied 
countries — these aliens are, of course, predominant- 
ly male. Secondly, because of the nature of the 
work opportunities in German war industries and 
agriculture it is probable that the excess of males 
over females even among voluntary immigrants 



168 

from neutral and satellite nations is considerably 
greater than that recorded among the aliens in the 
enumeration of 1939. 

Sex Ratios for Selected Alien Groups in 
Germany, 1939 



Country of origin 



All aliens .... 

Italy 

Bohemia and Mora 
Slovakia .... 
Yugoslavia . . . 
Hungary .... 

Danzig 

Netherlands . . . 

Poland 

Switzerland . . . 
France 



86, 234 
49, 350 
53, 618 

38, 611 
41, 000 
84, 543 

139, 441 

39, 901 
6,669 



123. 1 

234.4 
159. 1 
133.2 
125.0 
124.3 
122. 1 
121. 4 
112.3 
105. 1 
81.7 



Country of Origin and Distribution of Aliens 

Among the various national groups the Poles 
had the greatcht representation. There were 139,- 
000 aliens from Poland or 14.8 percent of all aliens 
in the Reich; next to the Poles, the Italians were 
the largest contingent, followed by the alien 
groups from the Protectorate of Bohemia and 
Moravia, and the Netherlands. The number of 
Poles in Germany decreased significantly between 
1933 and 1939 ; the movement of Italian aliens into 
Germany, however, greatly increased between the 
two censuses. 

The majority of the aliens in Germany came 
from states sharing common frontiers with Ger- 
many. Approximately 641,000 aliens, or more 
than two thirds of all foreigners in the Reich, 
came from adjacent states. Only 11,500 persons 
from non-European states resided in Germany and 
of these more than half were citizens of the United 
States. 

The distribution of nationality groups within 
the Reich was determined to a large extent by the 
position of bordering states — thus four fifths of 
all Netherlands nationals were in the Rhein- 
provinz and Westfalen. Of the Polish nationals, 

'Including Duisburg, Oberhausen, Krefeld-Uerdlgen, 
DUsseldorf, Mtinehen-Gladbach, MUlheim, Koln, Solingen, 
Remscheid, Wuppertal, Hagen, Dortmund, Gelsenklrchen, 
Miinster, Bochum, Essen, Bonn. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

more than half (51.8 percent) were in Ostpreus- 
sen, Brandenburg, Pommern, Schlesien, and Ber- 
lin. Similarly 39.7 percent of the Yugoslav 
nationals lived in Steiermark, Karnten, Wien, and 
Niederdonau. 

Alien Jews 

There were 39,375 alien Jews enumerated in 
1939, a number representing 4.2 percent of the 
total alien population. Significantly the Jews in 
the alien population are proportionately 11 times 
more numerous than among the citizen population 
of the Reich. 

The alien Jews have immigrated to Germany 
principally from eastern Europe. Four fifths of 
the 22,445 Jews of known national origin came 
from Poland, Hungary, and Riunania. From 
Poland came 15,128 Jews comprising 10.8 percent 
of the total aliens from that country ; 1,098 Jews 
were fi'om Rumania representing 19.2 percent of 
the aliens from that country; 1,745 were Hun- 
garian Jews, 4.5 percent of the total number of 
Hungarian aliens. A numerically unimportant 
group of Jewish aliens were Lithuanian citizens, 
but the group comprised 10.1 percent of aU 
Lithuanian aliens. 



Ali 



in German Cities 



Of the 939,386 aliens in Gennany, 276,922 or a 
little less than a third (29.5 percent) lived in the 
61 German cities, each having a total population 
of 100,000 or over. No data are available on the 
number of aliens in the smaller urban centers of 
Germany, so that it is impossible to compute for 
all of Germany the proportion of aliens that were 
urban or rural. 

Almost half of the aliens living in the large cities 
of Germany (47.7 percent of them) were included 
in the populations of the 3 cities with over a million 
inhabitants, namely, Berlin, Vienna, and Ham- 
burg. Cities near the international boundaries of 
Upper Silesia, Austria, and the border cities of 
Aachen and Duisburg had the largest proportions 
of aliens in their populations. In addition, slight- 
ly over 20 percent of the aliens lived in the 17 cities 
of the Ruhr.* 

In no city did the proportion of aliens reach as 
much as 5 percent of the total population. The 
city with the highest proportion of aliens was 
Beuthen with 4.59 percent; Vienna was next with 



FEBRUARY 4. 1945 

the largest proportion of the 3 major cities, 3.11 
] percent. Other cities followed: Graz, third with 
j 2.92 percent ; Hindenburg, 2.84 percent ; Duisburg, 

2.66 percent; Aachen, 2.13 percent; and Linz, 2.02 
1 percent. 
! Conclusion 

1 The foreign population in Germany is not com- 

posed entirely of forced alien labor, prisoners of 
war, and political prisoners conscripted in oc- 
cupied nations. Since the beginning of its indus- 
trial development, Germany has attracted large 
numbers of immigrants from other European 
states. Before the outbreak of the first World 
War there were more than a million and a quarter 
aliens in Germany. The movement of aliens into 
the Reich decreased somewhat after the war until 
the development of Germany's economic and mili- 
tary program, which resulted in an acceleration 
of immigration, a condition that continued up 
through the present war years. 

Almost a million aliens were living in the 
Reich in 1939 according to the census taken in 
May of that year. Since that time large groups 
of aliens have been added through various means. 
In addition to the aliens brought to Germany by 
force and conscription, volunteer workers mi- 
grated to Germany after the outbreak of the 
war from neutral, occupied, and satellite nations. 
Germany drew volunteer and forced labor from 
foreign labor reserves to meet the requirements of 
its wartime agriculture and industry. An im- 
portant part of the alien population in the Reich 
migrated because of the economic opportunities 
which existed there for foreign laborers. 

Whether Germany will continue to attract large 
numbers of aliens and whether it will retain a 
large proportion of the voluntary immigrants 
now resident there is largely dependent on how 
Germany is reconstructed economically and so- 
cially after the war. It cannot be assumed that 
all aliens in Germany will necessarily desire to 
return to the coimtries of their origin. Future 
movements of aliens in and out of the Reich will 
depend upon conditions in Germany and in the 
rest of Europe. Such conditions are closely re- 
lated to the whole problem of post-war resettle- 
ment of displaced population in Europe. 



169 

Aviation Agreements 

Giiafeinala 

On January 30 the Guatemalan Ambassador 
signed on behalf of his Government the Conven- 
tion on International Civil Aviation, the Interim 
Agreement on International Civil Aviation, the 
International Air Services Transit Agreement, 
and the International Air Transport Agreement. 
Tlie convention and the three agreements were 
all concluded at the International Civil Aviation 
Conference at Chicago December 7, 1944. 

Norway 

The Norwegian Ambassador on January 30 
signed the Convention on International Civil 
Aviation, the Interim Agreement on International 
Civil Aviation, and the International Air Serv- 
ices Transit Agreement concluded at Chicago De- 
cember 7, 1944. In a note dated January 30 the 
Ambassador advised the Secretary of State that 
he had been authorized by the Norwegian Gov- 
ernment by Royal Decree of January 26 to sign 
for Norway the convention and to sign and accept 
the interim agreement and the transit agreement. 



Assignment of Ellis 0. Briggs 
To the American Embassy 
At Chungking 

Statement by ACTING SECRETARY GREW 

[Released to the press February 1] 

In recognition of the vital importance of our 
relations with China, and of the active interest 
of the American public in China, the Depart- 
ment is taking steps to strengthen its official rep- 
resentation in Chungking. To this end it is as- 
signing Ellis O. Briggs to the Embassy to coordi- 
nate, under the direction of Ambassador Hurley, 
the various activities of official American organ- 
izations in Chungking, and to assist the Ambassa- 
dor in the general administration of the Embassy. 
Mr. Briggs will depart for China within a few 
weeks. 



no 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Air-Transport Services 

AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND ICELAND 



[Rcloased to the press January 30] 

A recijjrocal air-transport agreement between 
this country and Iceland was signed at Eeykjavik 
on January 27, 1945. The agreement was con- 
chided through notes exchanged between the 
American Minister to Iceland, the Honorable 
Louis G. Dreyfus, Jr., and the Icelandic Prime 
Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs, the 
Honorable Olafur Thors. 

The new arrangement, which becomes effective 
on February 1, provides that United States air- 
lines may obtain rights of transit and non-trafiic 
stop, as well as the right to pick up and discharge 
international traffic at Iceland's important Kef- 
lavik airport, on a route from the United States 
"to Iceland and points beyond". 

The agreement is substantially similar to those 
which this Government concluded with Denmark 
and Sweden under date of December 16, 1944.' 

The text of the agreement follows : 

AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES OF 
AMERICA AND ICELAND RELATING TO AIR 
TRANSPORT SERVICES 

Having in mind the resolution signed under 
date of December 7, 1944, at the International 
Civil Aviation Conference in Chicago, Illinois, for 
the adoption of a standard form of agreement for 
provisional air routes and services, and the desir- 
ability of mutually stimulating and promoting the 
sound economic development of air transportation 
between the United States and Iceland, the two 
Governments parties to this arrangement agree 
that the establishment and development of air 
transport services between their respective terri- 
tories shall be governed by the following pro- 
visions : 

Article 1 

The contracting parties grunt the rights speci- 
fied in the Annex hereto necessary for establishing 
tlie international civil air routes and services 
therein described, whether such services be in- 



' Bulletin of Dec. 17, 1944, p. 757. 



augurated immediately or at a later date at the 
o^Jtion of the contracting party to whom the rights 
are granted. 

Article 2 

(a) Each of the air services so described shall 
be placed in operation as soon as the contracting 
party to whom the rights have been granted by 
Article 1 to designate an airline or airlines for the 
route concerned has authorized an airline for such 
route, and the contracting party granting the 
rights shall, subject to Article 6 hereof, be bound 
to give the ajii^ropriate operating permission to 
the airline or airlines concerned; provided that 
the airlines so designated may be required to 
qualify before the competent aeronautical authori- 
ties of the contracting party granting the rights 
under the laws and regulations normally applied 
by these authorities before being permitted to en- 
gage in the operations contemplated by this agree- 
ment; and provided that in areas of hostilities or 
of military occuj^ation, or in areas affected 
thereby, such inauguration shall be subject to 
the approval of the competent military authori- 
ties. 

(b) It is understood that either contracting 
party granted commercial rights imder this agree- 
ment should exercise them at the earliest practi- 
cable date except in the case of temporary in- 
ability to do so. 

Article S 

In order to prevent discriminatorj' practices 
and to assure equality of treatment, both con- 
tracting parties agree that: 

(a) Each of the contracting parties may im- 
pose or permit to be imposed just and reasonable 
charges for the use of public airports and other 
facilities xmder its conti'ol. Each of the con- 
tracting parties agrees, however, that these 
charges shall not be higher than would be paid 
for the use of such airports and facilities by its 
national aircraft engaged in similar international 
services. 

(b) Fuel, lubricating oils and spare parts in- 
troduced into the territory of one contracting 



FEBRUARY 4. 1945 

party by the other contracting party or its na- 
tionals, and intended solely for use by aircraft 
of such other contracting party shall be accorded 
national and niost-favored-nation treatment with 
respect to the imposition of customs duties, in- 
spection fees or other national duties or charges 
by the contracting party whose territory is 
entered. 

(c) The fuel, lubricating oils, spare parts, regu- 
lar equipment and aircraft stores retained on 
board civil aircraft of the airlines of one con- 
tracting party authorized to operate the routes 
and services described in the Annex shall, upon 
arriving in or leaving the territory of the other 
contracting party, be exempt from customs, in- 
spection fees or similar duties or charges, even 
though such supplies be used or consumed by such 
aircraft on flights in that territory. 

Article 4- 

Certificates of airworthiness, certificates of com- 
petency and licenses issued or rendered valid by 
one contracting party shall be recognized as valid 
by the other contracting party for the i^urpose of 
operating the routes and services described in the 
'Annex. Each contracting party reserves the 
right, however, to refuse to recognize, for the 
purpose of flight above its own territory, certifi- 
cates of competency and licenses granted to its 
own nationals by another State. 

Article 6 

(a) The laws and regulations of one contract- 
ing party relating to the admission to or depar- 
ture from its territory of aircraft engaged in in- 
ternational air navigation, or to the operation 
and navigation of such aircraft while within its 
territory, shall be applied to the aircraft of the 
other contracting party, and shall be complied 
with by such aircraft upon entering or departing 
from or while within the territory of the first 
party. 

(b) The laws and regulations of one contract- 
ing party as to the admission to or departure 
from its territory of passengers, crew, or cargo 
of aircraft, such as regulations relating to entry, 
clearance, immigration, passports, customs, and 
quarantine shall be complied with by or on be- 
half of such passengers, crew or cargo of the 
other contracting party upon entrance into or de- 



171 

parture from, or while within the territory of the 
first party. 

Article 6 

Each contracting party reserves the right to 
withhold or revoke a certificate or permit to an 
airline of the other party in any case where it is 
not satisfied that substantial ownership and ef- 
fective control are vested in nationals of either 
party to this agi-eement, or in case of failure of 
an airline to comply with the laws of the State 
over which it operates as described in Article 5 
hereof, or to perform its obligations under this 
agreement. 

Article 7 • 

This agreement and all contracts connected 
therewith shall be registered with the Provisional 
International Civil Aviation Organization. 

Article 8 

Either contracting party may terminate the 
rights for services granted by it under this agree- 
ment by giving one year's notice to the other con- 
tracting party. 

Article 9 

In the event either of the contracting parties 
considers it desirable to modify the routes or con- 
ditions set forth in the attached Annex, it may 
request consultation between the competent 
authorities of both contracting parties, such con- 
sultation to begin within a period of sixty days 
from the date of the request. When these 
authorities mutually agree on new or revised 
conditions affecting the Annex, their recommen- 
dations on the matter will come into effect after 
they have been confirmed by an excliange of 
diplomatic notes. 

Annex to Air Transport Agreement Between 
THE UNrrED States of America and Iceland 

A. Airlines of the United States authorized 
under the present agreement are accorded rights 
of transit and non-traffic stop in the territory of 
Iceland, as well as the right to pick up and dis- 
charge international traffic in passengers, cargo 
and mail at Keflavik or other suitable airport, on 
the following route: 

The United States to Iceland and points be- 
yond, via intermediate points ; in both directions. 



172 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



B. Airlines of Iceland authorized under the 
present agreement are accorded rights of traffic 
and non-traflic stop in the territory of the United 
States, as well as the right to pick up and dis- 
charge international traffic in passengers, cargo 



and mail at Xew York or Chicago, on the follow- 
ing route : 

Iceland to New York or Chicago, via interme- 
diate points; in both directions. 



AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND IRELAND 



[Released to the press February 3] 

The Department of State announces the con- 
clusion of an air-transport agreement with Ire- 
land, which was concluded by an exchange of 
notes dated February 3, 1945 between Assistant 
Secretary of State William L. Clayton and the 
Minister of Ireland, the Honorable Robert Bren- 
nan. The Irish agreement closely follows that 
which was concluded with Iceland under date of 
January 27. This agreement becomes effective 
February 15. 

The annex to the agreement provides that 
authorized American airlines will obtain rights of 
transit and non-traffic stop in Irish territory, as 
well as the right of commercial entry for interna- 
tional traffic at Shannon airport, on routes from 
this counti-y "to Ireland and countries beyond". 

In addition to the agreements with Ireland and 
Iceland, the State Department also concluded sim- 
ilar agreements with Denmark and Sweden last 
December 16 and with Spain on December 2.' 

The text of the agreement follows : 

AGREEIIENT BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES OF 
AJIERICA AND IRELAND RELATING TO AIR 
TRANSPORT SERVICES 

Having in mind the resolution recommending 
a standard form of agreement for provisional air 
routes and services, included in the Final Act of 
the International Civil Aviation Conference 
signed at Chicago on December 7, 1914, and the 
desirability of mutually stimulating and promot- 
ing the sound economic development of air trans- 
portation between the United States and Ireland, 
the two Governments parties to this agreement 
agree that the further development of air trans- 
port services between their respective territories 
shall be governed by the following provisions : 

Article 1 

The contracting parties grant the rights speci- 
fied in the Annex hereto necessary for establishing 



the international civil air routes and services 
therein described, whether such sei'vices be in- 
augurated immediately or at a later date at the 
option of the contracting party to whom the rights 
are granted. 

Article 2 

(a) Each of the air services so described shaU 
be placed in operation as soon as the contracting 
party to whom the rights have been granted by 
Article 1 to designate an airline or airlines for the 
route concerned has authorized an airline for such 
route, and the contracting party granting the 
rights shall, subject to Article 6 hereof, be bound 
to give the appropriate operating permission to the 
airline or airlines concerned; provided that the 
airline so designated may be required to qualify 
before the competent aeronautical authorities of- 
the contracting party granting the rights under 
the laws and regulations normally applied by 
these authorities before being permitted to engage 
in the operations contemplated by this agreement ; 
and provided that in areas of hostilities or of mili- 
tary occupation, or in areas affected thereby, such 
inauguration shall be subject to the approval of 
the competent military authorities. 

(b) It is understood that either contracting 
party granted commercial rights under this agree- 
ment should exercise them at the earliest prac- 
ticable date except in the case of temporary in- 
ability to do so. 

Articl-e 3 

In order to prevent discriminatory practices and 
to assure equality of treatment, both contracting 
parties agree that : 

(a) Each of the contracting parties may impose 
or permit to be imposed just and reasonable 
charges for the use of public airports and other 
facilities under its control. Each of the contract- 
ing parties agrees, however, that these charges shall 
not be higher than would be paid for the use of 

' BuixrriN of Dec. 3, 1944, p. 674. 



FEBRUARY 4, 1945 

such airports and facilities by its national aircraft 
engaged in similar international services. 

(b) Fuel, lubricating oils and spare parts intro- 
duced into the territory of one contracting party 
by the other contracting party or its nationals, and 
intended solely for use by aircraft of such other 
contracting party shall be accorded national and 
most-favored-nation treatment with respect to the 
imposition of customs duties, inspection fees or 
other national duties or charges by the contracting 
party whose territory is entered. 

(c) The fuel, lubricating oils, spare parts, regu- 
lar equipment and aircraft stores retained on board 
civil aircraft of the airlines of one contracting 
party authorized to operate the routes and services 
described in the Annex shall, upon arriving in or 
leaving the territory of the other contracting party, 
be exempt from customs, inspection fees or similar 
duties or charges, even though such supplies be 
used or consumed by such aircraft on flights in that 
territory. 

Article 4- 

Certificates of airworthiness, certificates of com- 
petency and licenses issued or rendered valid by 
one contracting party shall be recognized as valid 
by the other contracting party for the purpose of 
operating the routes and services described in the 
Annex. Each contracting party reserves the right, 
however, to refuse to recognize, for the purpose of 
flight above its own territory, certificates of com- 
petency and licenses granted to its own nationals 
by another State. 

Article 5 

(a) The laws and regulations of one contract- 
ing party relating to the admission to or departure 
from its territory of aircraft engaged in inter- 
national air navigation, or to the operation and 
navigation of such aircraft while within its terri- 
tory, shall be applied to the aircraft of the other 
contracting party, and shall be complied with by 
such aircraft upon entering or departing from or 
while within the territory of the first party. 

(b) The laws and regulations of one contract- 
ing party as to the admission to or departure 
from its territory' of passengers, crew, or cargo 
of aircraft, such as regulations relating to entry, 
clearance, immigration, passports, customs, and 
quarantine shall be complied with by or on behalf 
of such passengers, crew or cargo of the other 



J75 

contracting party upon entrance into or depar- 
ture from, or while within the territory of the 
first party. 

Article 6 

Each contracting party reserves the right to 
withhold or revoke a certificate or permit to an 
airline of the other party in any case where it 
is not satisfied that substantial ownership and 
effective control are vested in nationals of either 
party to this agreement, or in case of failure of 
an airline to comply with the laws of the State 
over which it operates as described in Article 
5 hereof, or to perform its obligations under this 
agreement. 

Article 7 

This agreement and all contracts connected 
therewith shall be registered with the Provisional 
International Civil Aviation Organization. 

Article 8 

Operating rights granted previously by either 
of the contracting parties shall continue in force 
according to their terms. 

Article 9 

This agreement or any of the rights for air 
transport services granted thereunder may, with- 
out prejudice to Article 8 above, be terminated by 
either contracting party upon giving one year's 
notice to the other contracting party. 

Article 10 

Except as may be modified by the present 
agreement, the air navigation arrangement be- 
tween the two contracting parties signed Sep- 
tember 29, 1937, and November 4, 1937, shall 
continue in force until superseded by a multi- 
lateral aviation convention to which Ireland and 
the United States become contracting parties. 

Article 11 

In the event either of the contracting parties 
considers it desirable to modify the routes or con- 
ditions set forth in the attached Annex, it may 
request consultation between the competent au- 
thorities of both contracting parties, such consul- 
tation to begin within a period of sixty days from 
the date of the request. In case the aforemen- 
tioned authorities mutually agree on new or re- 



174 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



vised conditions affecting tlie Annex, their recom- 
mendations on the matter will come into effect 
after they have been confirmed by an exchange 
of diplomatic notes. 

Anxex to Aib Transport Agreement Between 
THE United States of America and Ireland 

A. Airlines of the United States authorized 
under the present agreement are accorded in the 
territory of Ireland rights of transit, non-traffic 
stop, and commercial entry for international 
traffic at Shannon airport (Foynes and Rine- 
anna), on the following routes: 

The United States to Ireland and countries 
beyond, via intermediate points; in both direc- 
tions. It is agreed that in view of the long trans- 
oceanic flight necessary on the above routes, and 
considering the still limited development of aero- 



nautical science, all eastbound aircraft on routes 
covered in this Annex shall stop at Shannon air- 
port as first European port of call and all west- 
bound aircraft on the same routes shall stop at 
Shannon airport. 

B. Airlines of Ireland authorized under the 
present agreement are accorded in the territory 
of the United States rights of transit, non-traffic 
stop and commercial entry for international 
traffic at specific airports in connection with such 
route or routes as may be determined at a later 
date. I 

C. Aircraft of either contracting party avail- ' 
ing itself of the non-traffic stops granted by this 
agreement may be required by the other contract- 
ing party to offer reasonable commercial services 

in passengers, cargo and mail, both outward and 
inward. 



Presentation of Letters of Credence by the Ambassador of Canada 



[Released to the press January 22] 

The remarks of the newly appointed Ambas- 
sador of Canada, Mr. L. B. Pearson, upon the 
occasion of the presentation of his letters of cre- 
dence, January 22, 1945, follow : 
Mr. President: I have the honor to present to 
you, Mr. President, the letter by which my Sov- 
ereign has been pleased to accredit me as his Am- 
bassador for Canada in the United States of Amer- 
ica, as well as his letter terminating the mission of 
my distinguished predecessor, Mr. Leighton 
McCarthy, whose retirement has been necessitated 
by compelling personal reasons. 

In beginning my mission as Ambassador, I am 
fortified by the confident hope and belief that the 
warm neighborly relations between our two coun- 
ti'ies, which have been deepened and strengthened 
by the common successes and sacrifices of the war 
which we wage together, will continue and develop 
in the years to come. 

To contribute to this high purpose I pledge my 
best endeavors. In the work that lies ahead of me, 
I am encouraged, Mr. President, by the knowledge 
that I can count on your friendly encouragement 
and support. 

I am encouraged also by the fact that I have 
already lived long enough in the United States of 
America to have made many friends and received 
much kindness. During this time, I have ac- 



quired an increasing admiration for the vigor 
and vitality of this great land, a great respect for 
its achievements and a sincere affection for its 
warm-hearted and generous people. No Canadian, 
Mr. President, feels himself a stranger within the 
hospitable borders of your country. 

I assume the responsibilities of my post at a 
time when the-victory of our arms has become sui'e, 
if we do not relax our efforts of body and mind 
and spirit. With victory assured, however, there 
emerge into bold relief many and difficult prob- 
lems of organizing peace and post-war prosperity. 
These will tax our understanding, our imagination, 
and our power of cooperation as much as ever the 
problems of war have done. I feel certain that 
the United States and Canada, in seeking their 
solution, can work together with all other na- 
tions of good-will, to the end that this time victory 
in war will mean a peace worthy of the men who 
have fought for it with selfless devotion. 

The President's reply to the remarks of Mr. 
Pearson follows: 

Mr. Ambassador: It is with particular pleasure 
that I accept the letters by which your Sovereign 
has accredited you as Canada's new Ambassador 
to the United States. You are assured of a warm 
welcome, first because you represent Canada but 
also because you have already won a place in our 
affections. 5Iy old friend Leighton McCarthy, 



FEBRUARY 4, 1945 



whose judgment I greatly respect, has told me 
how pleased he was that you were chosen to be 
his successor. My regret at his departure is, 
therefore, tempered by the knowledge that his 
high office has fallen to the one he considered best 
qualified to assume it. I need hardly add that 
you may count on the fullest support from me and 
from this Government. 

I greatly appreciate your kind words about my 
countrymen. Canada is held in ever high regard 
here. We in this country know that Canadians 
play the game and that they are strong people 
to have on our team. Their batting average 
throughout the war has been right up at the top 
where we Americans would expect it to be. 

Canada and the United States are peculiarly 
fortunate in their relations one with another. 
This happy state of affairs is, however, not the 
result of chance, good luck, or even of the many 
things we have in common. It is instead the re- 
sult of forbearance, of a desire to get on together, 
a determination to find the constructive rather 
than the destructive solution of our problems. In 
the process we developed an understanding of the 
other fellow's viewpoint. As your distinguished 
predecessor said not long ago, we Americans and 
Canadians believe in each other and, where mu- 
tual confidence exists, any problem, however diffi- 
cult, can be solved with credit and satisfaction to 
both parties. Our record over many years is the 
best and happiest proof of this. 

I hope that the Canadian-American record will 
be noted the world over. You, who have con- 
tributed so greatly to the new international or- 
ganizations already in action, will by your 
example bring this record into greater prominence. 
Just as the drive for victory and a world of peace 
and order proceeds resolutely on both sides of our 
border, so must it be with the United Nations as a 
whole. As you suggest, this is a moment for 
supi-eme effort on the part of all of us. It is a 
moment to close ranks and to go forward in mutual 
confidence and trust. Nothing less will be worthy 
of the sacrifices of our fighting men. I have faith 
that we will rise to this great moment and that, 
in line with the spirit of the relations between our 
two countries, we will realize our aspirations for a 



' Departmental Order 1306, dated and effective Jan. 26, 
1945. 



world order in which all peace-loving nations will 
find a full and rewarding place. 



Convention on the Inter- 
American University 

Venesiiela 

The Director General of the Pan American 
Union informed the Secretary of State in a letter 
dated January 17, 1945 that the Ambassador of 
Venezuela had on January 11, 1945 deposited with 
the Pan American Union his Government's instru- 
ment of ratification of the Convention on the Inter- 
American University. The convention was signed 
at the First Conference of Ministers and Directors 
of Education of the American Republics held in 
Panama from September 27 to October 4, 1943. 

The instrument of ratification by the Govern- 
ment of Venezuela is dated November 6, 1944. 



^ THE DEPARTMENT ^ 



Reorganization of the Economic Offices' 

Purpose. The purpose of this order is to an- 
nounce the first steps in the reorganization of the 
economic work under the Assistant Secretary for 
economic affairs, to establish three permanent Of- 
fices, and to describe the status of the present 
economic divisions in those Offices pending fur- 
ther realigimient. 

1 Background. The reorganization of the De- 
partment on January 15, 1944 (Departmental Or- 
der 1218) created an Office of Economic Affairs 
and an Office of Wartime Economic Affairs. The 
time has arrived when it is a^jpropriate to merge 
the work of these two Offices, in view of the grow- 
ing interrelation of wartime economic problems 
with problems of the peace settlement and the 
post-war period. The Office of Transportation 
and Communications was established by Depart- 
mental Order 1218, and was transferred by De- 
partmental Order 1301 of December 20, 1944, to 
the Assistant Secretary for economic affairs. 



176 

2 AhoUtion of the Offce of Economic Affairn 
and the Office of Wartime Economic Affairs and 
Creation of Txoo New Offices. The Office of the 
Director of Economic Affairs and the Office of 
the Director of Wartime Economic Affairs are 
hereby abolished, and the functions, personnel and 
records of these Offices transferred to the follow- 
ing two new Offices. There are hereby estab- 
lished under the Assistant Secretary for economic 
affairs the Office of Commercial Policy and the 
Office of Financial and Development Policy. 
These Offices shall be under the direction of the 
Deputy to the Assistant Secretary for economic 
affairs. The Office of Transportation and Com- 
munications shall continue under the direction 
of the Assistant Secretary for economic affairs. 

3 Respomibility of the Office of Commercial 
Policy, (a) The Office of Commercial Policy 
shall be responsible for initiation, formulation, 
and coordination of policy and action by the De- 
partment of State for international economic, 
trade and commercial affairs. 

(b) Temporarily, the following divisions shall 
report to the Director of the Office of Commer- 
cial Policy : 

(1) War Areas Economic Division : 

(2) War Supply and Resources Division (ex- 

cept the Surplus War Property Section) ; 

(3) Commodities Division ; 

(4) Petroleum Division ; 

(5) Division of Commei-cial Policy ; 

(6) Division of International Labor, Social, 
and Health Affairs. 

(c) The Adviser on Refugees and Displaced 
Persons is temporarily assigned to the office of 
the Director of the Office of Commercial Policy. 

4 Responsibility of the Office of Financial and 
Development Policy, (a) The Office of Finan- 
cial and Development Policy shall be responsible 
for initiation, formulation, and coordination of 
I)olicy and action by the Department of State for 
international financial and economic development 
affairs, and related emergency property and fi- 
nancial controls; 

(b) Temporarily, the following divisions shall 
report to the Director of the Office of Financial 
and Development Policy : 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

(1) Division of Financial and Monetary Af- 
fairs (including the functions of the Sur- 
plus War Property Section of the War Sup- 
ply and Resources Division) ; 

(2) World Trade Intelligence Division. 

Joseph C. Grew 
Acting Secretary of State 

Appointment of Officers^ 

Office or the Assistant Secretary for 
Economic Affairs 

Edward S. Mason to continue as Deputy to the 
Assistant Secretary for Economic Affairs. 

Charles P. Taft as Special Assistant, and John 
E. Orchard to continue as Special Assistant to 
the Assistant Secretary for Economic Affairs. 

Emile Despres as Adviser on German Economic 
Affairs in the Office of the Assistant Secretary 
for Economic Affairs. 

Office of Commeecial Policy (OCP) 

Bernard F. Haley as Director, and Leroy D. 
Stinebower as Deputy Director, of the Office of 
Commercial Policy. 

Livingston T. Merchant to continue as Chief 
of the War Areas Economic Division, Courtney 
C. Brown as Chief of the War Supply and Re- 
sources Division, Edward G. Cale as Acting Chief 
of the Commodities Division, Charles F. Dar- 
lington as Chief of the Petroleum Division, Wil- 
liam A. Fowler as Chief of the Division of Com- 
mercial Policy, and Otis F. Mulliken as Chief of 
the Division of International Labor, Social, and 
Health Affairs. 

Office of Financial and Development Policy 
(OFD) 

Emilio G. Collado as Director of the Office of 
Financial and Development Policy, and tempo- 
rarily, as Acting Chief of the Division of Finan- 
cial and Monetary Affairs, and Covey T. Oliver 
as Acting Chief of the Division of World Trade 
Intelligence. 



Designations effective Jan. 26, 1945. 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



BU 



H 



Tir^ 



\ OL. Xll, AO. 294 



FEBRUARY 11, 1945 



In this issue 



OUR RESPONSIBILITIES FOR VICTORY AND PEACE 

Address by Assistant Secretary Holmes 

MAPPING SOME OF THE EFFECTS OF SCIENCE AND TECH- 
NOLOGY ON HUMAN RELATIONS 
By S. W. Boggs 

ATTITUDES OF NEUTRAL GOVERNMENTS REGARDING 
ASYLUM TO WAR CRIMINALS 



THE INTER- AMERICAN JURIDICAL COMMITTEE: RESUME OF 
ITS ORGANIZATION AND ITS ACTIVITIES 
By Charles G. Fenwick 



For complete contents 
see inside cover 



.Vi«^NT O*. 




* * 



-vtes o^ 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

BULLETIN 



Vol. XII • No. 294 jJ^pL' Pob<-ic4Tioh 2267 



February 11, 1945 



U.S.SUrERlKlOr.:«T0FD0Cl>MENT8 . 

M^i^^' Contents 



The DejiarUnent of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication compiled antl 
edited in the Division of Research and 
Publication, Office of Public Affairs, 
]>rovides the public and interested 
U'ficncics of the Government with 
information on developments in the 
field of foreign relations and on the 
work of the Department of State and 
the Foreign Service. The BULLETIN 
includes press releases on foreign 
policy issued by the White House and 
the Department, and statements and 
iidilrcsses made by the President and 
hy the Secretary of State and other 
officers of the Department, as well as 
special articles on various phases of 
international affairs and thefunctions 
of the Department. Information con- 
cerning treaties and international 
agreements to which the United States 
is or may become a party and treaties 
of general international interest is 
included. 

Publications of the Department, 
cumulative lists of tvhichare published 
at the end of each quarter, as well as 
legislative material in thefteld of inter- 
national relations, are listed currently. 

The BULLETIN, published uilh the 
approval of tlie Director of the Bureau 
of the Budget, is for sale by the Super- 
intendent of Documents,UnitedStates 
Government Printing Office, Wash- 
ington 25, D. C., to whom all pur- 
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scription price is $3.50 a year; a single 
copy is 10 cents. 



.\merican Republics 

Inter-American Conference on Problems of War and Peace: 
American Delegation 

Tlie Inter- .American Juridical Committee: R^sumfi of Its 
Organization and Its Activities. By Charles G. Fen- 
wick 

Europe 

Statement by Acting Secretary Grew on Italian Surrender 
Terms 

Ashes of Late Soviet Diplomat To Be Transported to Mos- 
cow 

F.\R E.\ST 

Welfare of Liberated Internees in tlie Philippines 

Relief Sup))lies for Allied Nationals Interned in the Far 

East 

.Jaiian'.s Proixisal for Reciprocal Visits to Internee Camps . 
Liberal ion uf Manila: 

Message From President Roosevelt to President Os- 

mena 

Statement by Acting Secretary Grew 

Cultural Cooperation 

Appointment of J. G. Bradshaw as Visiting Profe.ssor to 

Colombia 

Parasitologist To Visit Mexico 

Mathematician Accepts Visiting Professorship to Brazil . . 
Geologist Accepts Visiting Professorship to Costa Rica . . 

Eco.\OMic Affairs 

Proposed Extension of the Lend-Lease Act. Statement by 

Assistant Secretary Acheson 

The Proclaimed List 

General 

Mapping Some of the Effects of Science and Technology on 

Human Relations. By S. \V. Boggs 

Attitudes of Neutral Governments Regarding Asylum to 

War Criminals 

Exchange of American and German Nationals 

Post-War Matters 

Our Responsibilities for Victory and Peace. Address by 
Assistant Secretary Holmes 

Letter on Foreign Policy From the New Members of the 
Senate to the President. Statement by Acting Secre- 
tary Grew 

Treaty Information 

Proposed Leiid-Loasp and Reciprocal-.\id Agreements 

With Fninrr 

Ex|)l()ratoi\ ( \iii\ ii-ations on Double-Taxation Conven- 
tions \\ii h i he I'nitcd Kingdom 

Civil Aviation: 

Accept anco nf .Vviation .\nrcements 

Internaliiinal .\ir Services Transit Agreement 

Dimlilc-Taxalinn ('(invention With Canada: Exchange of 

Instrunienl.of Ital iticat inn ' 

Cooperat ive KiiM.er lii\i'-iii;ations 

Anglo-Etliiopiaii Amv, nieni 

The Department 

.\])pointmcnt of OfBccrs 

The Foreion Service 

Regulations, Orders, ai\d Instructions Relating to the 

Foreign Service 

Confiruiations 

Publications 

The Congress 



Our Responsibilities for Victory and Peace 

Address by ASSISTANT SECRETARY HOLMES' 



[Released to the press February 5] 

AVe are still in the midst of fighting this mighty 
war against evil and vicious enemies. The Army, 
Xavy, and Air Forces, fighting side by side with 
our Allies, are beating those enemies on the land 
and sea and in the air, but the road to complete 
victory is still ahead of us, long and tough and 
bloody, and many a battle must still he fought 
and won. 

When I was asked to transfer from the Army 
and take up my present post in the State De- 
partment, I felt as any other American soldier 
would feel in similar circumstances. I was a 
charter member of the Eisenhower team, and it 
was quite a wrench to leave it and take oif my 
uniform before the job was done. However, it 
was strongly impressed upon me that my new 
duties were not a return to civilian life in the strict 
sense, but rather a change of wartime assignment. 
This was convincing because I know that victory 
in this war will give us nothing in the long run 
except loss and bloodshed and heartbreak unless 
this country is prepared to assume its full re- 
sponsibility to stop war in the future — to plan and 
work unremittingly that there may be permanent 
peace and security in the world. 

That is a large order. But this time we do not 
dare fail. The price of victory will be enormous; 
I have seen part of it paid in the hills of Tunisia, 
on the beaches of Sicily and Italy, and among the 
hedgerows of France. And I can assure you that 
it is with the greatest humility that I have ac- 
cepted my new responsibilities with the Depart- 
ment of State and taken my place with the group 
of men whom the President and Secretary of 
State have chosen to administer the foreign rela- 
tions of the nation. Our greatest task is to see 
to it that the huge price for victory will not be 
wasted. Let us examine that task which is the 
responsibility of all of us. 

There was a time when our security was guaran- 
teed by what we fondly called our two-ocean 
boundary. That security is now gone forever. 



Oceans have ceased to exist as barriers. Aviation, 
robot bombs, all the implements of modern war- 
fare have eliminated mere space as a factor of 
security. And let me say here that whatever we 
may think about robot bombs it isn't good sense 
to be complacent about them. You can take it 
from me that they are extremely unpleasant in- 
struments. 

We haven't had to take such things here on our 
home ground — yet. We don't have to dread the 
sound of bombers flying over our cities. We 
haven't had to fight the terrific fires caused by 
incendiaries or flatten ourselves on the ground to 
escai>e, if we can, the blast of a V-2. Our roads 
aren't pock-marked by shell holes or our build- 
ings masses of rubble. Our women and children 
haven't been driven from their blasted homes, cold 
and hungry. 

But if any truth on earth is self-evident, it is 
that we won't be spared, if we allow it to happen 
again. Maj'be we have not been consciously aware 
of the part we have played in the last war and in 
this war. Both times the United States has en- 
tered the battle and turned the tide of the fight- 
ing. But don't forget, too, that both times we 
have had time to prepare, while our Allies held 
the enemy in check, often with insufficient man- 
power and materiel but with stout courage and 
resolution. The forces of aggression know what 
we can do, now. If they are left with the power 
to plan future wars, those plans will start with 
one thought : Knock out America first ! 

Our performance in this war has given us some- 
thing new that we must recognize as important in 
terms of our future. The world has found out 
that the United States is now a great military 
power as well as a great ivdusfrial power. That 
is something we have never sought. We have 
always been a people dedicated to the principles 
of democracy and human welfare, and this 



red hefore tlie Chamlipr of Comuiei-ce at Topekw 
Feb. 5, 1945. 



180 

development into a military power has been liter- 
ally thrust upon us through the necessity to pro- 
tect ourselves. But we are now a military power. 
I saw the realization of this in the wonder and 
gratitude in the faces of thousands of the people 
of Paris a couple of days after the city's libera- 
tion when two American divisions, straight from 
one battle, rolled down the Champs filysees, four 
vehicles abreast, and on through Paris to another 
fight. 

We must be prepared to use the fact of pur real 
and potential military might along with every 
other means of strength at our disposal in ful- 
filling our responsibility for taking the lead in 
organizing for security and peace after this fight 
is over. There is nothing for us or for the world 
to fear in this. As someone has said: "The 
weapons for war must remain in the hands of those 
who hate war". We allow our policemen to carry 
guns, but we deny this right to hoodlums. The 
hoodlum nations of the world must not be allowed 
to carry guns. 

The Department of State's greatly expanded — 
and still inadequate — staff must work long hours 
at top speed to meet the many and difficult tasks 
that confront our country in its foreign relations. 
One of the gravest of those tasks and one of the De- 
partment's greatest responsibilities is to plan now 
and to work now for the setting up of effective 
machinery of international cooperation for peace 
and security. 

That task involves agreed action by us and by 
our Allies in this war for seeing to it that our 
enemies — Germany and Japan — never again as- 
semble sufficient strength for another assault on 
human freedom. In October 1943 we took the 
first step toward that end. At the Moscow con- 
ference, at which our country was so ably repre- 
sented by Secretary Hull, Great Britain and the 
Soviet Union and the United States pledged them- 
selves to join together to enforce the surrender 
terms imposed upon Germany. Since then the 
three Governments have worked diligently to- 
gether in the formulation of the necessary plans 
for such joint action. These plans are ready to be 
put into effect at a moment's notice. Later on, 
other agreements may be necessary among us to 
make effective, for as long as may be necessary, the 
pledge contained in the Moscow declaration. 
Similar arrangements will be made with respect to 
Japan by the nations at war with Japan. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

All this is essential but clearly it is not enough. 
There will be, in the future, other dangers to peace 
and security, equally grave, perhaps even more 
grave. To meet all such dangers, the signatories 
of the Moscow declaration also pledged themselves 
to take the lead in the creation of a general inter- 
national organization for the maintenance of peace 
and security. And last fall they took the first, 
immensely important step toward carrying out 
that pledge, when the representatives of the 
United States, Great Britain, Soviet Russia, and 
China fonnulated what has become known as the 
Dumbarton Oaks Proposals. 

These Proposals outline the main features of a 
world security organization which, it is hoped, will 
eventually bo established by all peace-loving na- 
tions, large and small. It is not anticipated that, 
at the outset, the world organization will concern 
itself with the control of the enemy states. It is 
specifically proposed that this latter problem re- 
main — for the time being, at any rate — the respon- 
sibility of the victorious Allies. The central pur- 
pose of the general organization is to create con- 
ditions and arrangements for the removal and sup- 
pression of threats to the peace, from whatever 
source they may arise. The carrying out of this 
purpose is absolutely indispensable if peace and 
security are to become a reality for our Nation and 
for all nations desirous of peace. 

The control of the enemy states may at some 
later time pass to the international organization. 

A great many documents explaining the Dum- 
barton Oaks Proposals have been sent out from 
Washington and through interested private or- 
ganizations in response to requests from people 
all over the United States. Departmental officers 
have met with groups of citizens to explain the 
Dumbarton Oaks plan, to answer questions, and 
to listen to expressions of public opinion. 

Wide-spread study and discussion of the Pro- 
posals is of the utmost importance and the Depart- 
ment will continue to do everything possible to 
encoui-age this study and discussion. No for- 
eign policy and no international planning in 
which we expect to take part can be of any conse- 
quence if it is not based squarely on the will of the 
people. Our foreign policy must be an expression 
of your conviction of what our dealings with other 
nations should be. In turn the State Department 
intends to give you as much information as possi- 
ble, information in the form of factual material 



FEBRUARY 11, 1945 



181 



on important foreign-affairs matters, so that your 
convictions may be founded on a knowledge of the 
facts. 

I am not going to discuss the Dumbarton Oaks 
Proposals in detail this evening. You are all, I am 
sure, familiar with their main features. We be- 
lieve — and we earnestly hope that our people and 
the peoples of other nations will agree — that these 
Proposals provide flexible and effective machinery 
for stopping aggression at its source and for 
achieving the basic goal of international coopera- 
tion—that human welfare be placed above selfish 
gain. Machinery of that sort is essential. But 
what is even more essential is firm resolution on 
the part of the peace-lovmg nations to use that 
machinery and to make international cooperation 
a reality rather than mere words. 

As I look at the problem, one fact stands out — 
the former so-called "realists" and "visionaries" 
have swapped positions with one another. Today 
those who recognize the necessity for security 
through international agreement backed by force 
are the grimmest realists. 

I say this as a soldier whose recent experiences 
would have made him a realist if he hadn't al- 
ready been one by reason of his birth in Kansas. 
I have heard a lot of talk that our soldiers will 
come back to us confirmed isolationists. Well, the 
majority of them will come back isolationist in 
one sense only. They will want above all things 
to be able to live peacefully in their own country, 
to work, to make their homes, to raise their fam- 
ilies in an atmosphere safe from the fear of war. 
They will have fought for that and will insist that 
the terrific cost of victory be not in vain. They 
will have seen too much of death and destruction 
and human suffering to let it happen again. But 
now they are busy with the job of fighting this 
war and undergoing perils and hardships which 
are difficult to realize if one hasn't seen them first- 
hand. Until these men come home they are ex- 
pecting us to take the first steps to see to it that 
history will not repeat itself; to see to it that 
neither they nor their sons will be committed to 
the battle lines again. 

The agreement reached at Dumbarton Oaks, 
important as it was. will need to be followed by 
other important steps. There will be in the near 
future a conference of all the United Nations. At 
that conference we can expect to have formulated 
a detailed charter, drawn up with due considera- 
tion for the views of all nations represented, large 



and small. And even with eventual ratification 
of this charter and entrance of our country and 
other nations into the international organization, 
the work will not have been completed. Events 
as they happen, trial and error and trial again, les- 
sons gained by working together — all will bring 
about additions and revisions which will make 
the machinery more stable and more workable. 

Under the dii-ection of the President, the De- 
partment of State, with the cooperation of the 
War and Navy Departments and the Joint Chiefs 
of Staff, has been and will continue to be largely 
responsible for the negotiations with other coun- 
tries in this all-important field. But remember 
that the President, and the State Department, and 
the Army and the Navy are only instruments of 
1/0U7' Government. Unless you take the trouble to 
understand the world security organization, and 
believe in it and support it, the participation of 
our country in the organization will be meaning- 
less, the organization will collapse, and we shall 
be faced with the third world war. 

In the 84 years that Kansas has been a member 
of the Union, she has been renowned for moving 
consistently forward, never backward. Kansas 
was the child of struggle. We Kansans have be- 
lieved in many causes and many ideals, and we 
have never been afraid to fight for them. The 
men of Kansas, many men of Kansas, are fulfilling 
that heritage on the battlefields of France, of 
Italy, and of the Pacific. Let them find that we 
too are fulfilling that heritage when they come 
home to us. 

Letter on Foreign Policy 
From the New Members of 
The Senate to the President 

Statement by ACTING SECRETARY GREW 

[Released to the press February 5] 

The letter of January 25, 1945 addressed to the 
President by newly elected membei'S of the House 
of Representatives is indeed gratifying.^ It is 
most helpful to have this new manifestation of 
the conviction of the people of the United States 
that this country must not only play its full part 
in building an effective international peace and 
security organization but must exercise leadership 
to that end. 



' BtJiiETiN of Jan. 28, 1945, p. 121. 



182 DEPAF 

Statement by Acting Secretary Grew 
On Italian Surrender Terms' 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



[Released to the press February 

As I have stated before, the Department of State 
is not in a position to make public the text of the 
surrender terms because of overriding military 
considerations.'- For your guidance I might refer 
you to an interview which Prime Minister Bonomi 
gave to the Italian press February 5, in which 
he stated that the armistice follows the formula 
of unconditional surrender and thus "confers upon 
the Allies full powers over tlie internal, financial, 
economic and military life of the nation with the 
aim of placing at their command all of our re- 
maining resources for the prosecution of the war. 
But in these admittedly stern conditions, there is 
no reference to the future status of Italy's fron- 
tiers or to the 'disposition of colonies; moreover, 
there is no reference to Italy's position in the 



world wiien peace is made. In other words, the 
armistice refers to the present rather than to the 
future." 

I may say that the surrender instrument does 
not contain anj- provisions with respect to future 
settlements. Furthermore, in view of the co- 
belligerency of Italy it has not been necessary to 
apply the terms as originally drawn up. Italy's 
economy is being devoted to the prosecution of the 
war in the same sense as is that of the other coun- 
tries fighting Germany. In line with the state- 
ment of President Roosevelt and Prime Minister 
Churchill on September 26, 1944,^ the Allies are 
assisting Italy in every way practicable consistent 
with the i^rosecution of the war and the needs of 
the liberated Allied countries to meet her present 
difficult situation. 



Welfare of Liberated Internees in the Philippines 



IKcleiised to the press February 7] 

The War Department and the Department of 
State liave had under consideration since Novem- 
ber r.)44 plans for providing with the utmost dis- 
patch whatever relief is essential for United Na- 
tions citizens liberated from enemy custody in the 
Philippine Islands and for the prompt repatria- 
tion of all those desiring it. 

General MacArtliur has informed the War De- 
partment within the past week that he has taken 
all appropriate measures to provide for the welfare 
of all United Nations citizens and that those relief 
measures will be continued throughout the period 
(if military administrati(m by the Civil Affairs 
authorities of the Army. According to General 
MacArthur, present arrangements for the care of 
liberated internees provide immediately shelter, 
clothing, food, and medical attention for those in 



Made on Feb. 8, 194.5 with reference to a press report 
poncei-ning .Tlleged territorial dispositions contained in 
the Italian surrender terms. 

'The statement referred to in this release was made 
hy Acting Secretary Grew to the correspondents at his 
press and radio news conference on Feb. 1, 1945. 

' Bulletin of Oct. 1, 1M4, p. 338. 



need of it. Such internees will be cared for in 
special camps provided by the Army pending 
their repatriation under the auspices of the theater 
commander. 

General MacArthur has further informed the 
War Department that as soon as the military situ- 
ation in the Islands permits and the Army is able 
to release shipping space for that purpose arrange- 
ments will be made for the repatriation of those 
wishing to leave the Islands. In the meantime 
preparations are under way to enable next of kin 
in the United States to communicate with their 
relatives in the Philippines through facilities to be 
provided by the War Department, pending the re- 
establishment of regular postal and telegraph 
facilities. 

It is anticipated that the names of liberated in- 
ternees will become available in the near future 
through appropriate War Department channels. 

At present the responsibilities before mentioned 
are primarily those of the military authorities. 
As soon as civil officials again can function, the 
Department of State will reopen the American 
Consulate at Manila. 



FEBRUARY U, 1945 



183 



Mapping Some of the Effects 
Of Science and Technology on Human Relations 



THE EAKTH lias changed but little 
since Man appeared, but the geog- §_ ^'_ 
raphy of human relationships has been 
transformed in a few decades. Because science 
knows no frontiers, scientists perhaps tend to 
overlook the remarkably uneven geographic dis- 
tribution of the effects of their work. 

The popular picture of a rapidly shrinking 
globe, based on the reduction of time required in 
circumnavigating the earth, is inaccurate and un- 
fortunate. The world has not shrunk as if two 
thousand million microscojDic ants had been ban- 
ished from a pumpkin to live on a cherry. For 
the individual and for all types of corporate 
society, the range of activity and experience and 
the resources at the command of the individual and 
society have expanded astronomically. But the 
effects are distributed very unequally over the 
earth's surface; the geographic distribution is 
shifting rapidly and will apparently continue to 
undergo great changes. The present picture there- 
fore gives no adequate concept of what the future 
will be like. It is as if the outlines of continents 
were picture frames within which appeared ever- 
changing motion pictures, like montage effects in 
the cinema newsreels. 

Little has been done by geographers and others 
to map these phenomena. Any maps that might 
be devised to portray them would be as definitely 
dated as the constantly changing political maps of 
the world. A chronological series of such maps, 
however, would constitute a slow-motion study 
and, perhaps, would reveal or clarify important 
historical trends. Intelligent men instead of 
struggling vainly against the tide of history— now 
more like a cataclysmic tidal wave — might adapt 
themselves to making use of its power. 

It would not be necei-sai-y to go back much 
farther than 1790 or 1800 for perspective. Tool 
steel and machine tools, which date from about 
1770, began to make j^ossible the utilization of 
scientific discoveries. The period is likewise sig- 
nificant because of the birth in the Americas of an 
infant republic and tlie spread in Europe of the 



Br ideas of the French Revolution; while in 

BOGGS ' t'hina that period coincides with about the 
maximum extent of the Manchu empire. 
Maps are advantageous for the presentation of 
data of this character because they show graphi- 
cally the location and extent of change, and they 
can not evade areas and subject-matter as dex- 
terously as text can. Maps, however, require an 
accompanying text to reveal significant points 
which might otherwise be noted by very few map- 
users. For most of these maps colors and atlas- 
quality reproduction on fine paper, like those used 
for the best physical and political maps, are re- 
quired. The accompanying cartograms ^ in black 
and white merely suggest a few of the possibilities 
discussed below. 

I 

In 1700 the distribution of available energy was 
practically uniform over the land surface of the 
globe, since man depended chiefly upon his own 
muscles, domestic animals, or slaves. But the 
multiplication of physical energy utilized by man- 
kind, which is basic to all technological develop- 
ment, has resulted in an extremely uneven distri- 
bution of power utilized today. A lump of coal 
weighing about one pound now performs about as 
much woik as a hard-working man in an eight- 
hour day; and one miner can mine several tons 
of coal a day. The present diversity in levels of 
living is largely due to differences in the quanti- 
ties of energy consumed per capita for productive 
purposes. The map (fig. 1) reflects the situation 
in 1937. The changes within the last quarter cen- 
tury have been great, and they may be as great or 
even greater in the next 25 years. 



Tliis article is based on a paper Mr. Boggs read l)efore 
the American Association for the Advancement of Science 
at Cleveland. Ohio. Sir. Boggs is Chief of the Division of 
Geography and Cartography, Office of Public Affairs, De- 
partment of State. 

^ Clo.ssy reproduction prints of the illustrations are 
available from the Division of Research and Publication, 
Department of State, upon request, if desired for plate- 
making. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 




Fig. 1. Energy Consumed Per Capita for Productive Purposes 



1937 



Technological changes resulting in economical 
mass production and revolutionary developments 
in transportation and communication have pro- 
duced two significant and closely related results: 
(1) Man's relation to his local environment has 
been radically altered; and (2) human relations 
have been transformed on a global scale. Men 
can go farther, bring more back home, utilize more 
raw materials, and do much more with what they 
get than even the scientifically minded and far- 
seeing Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson 
could imagine. 

II 

Available transportation maps usually show 
only the principal facilities. Little attempt has 
hitherto been made to show the significant differ- 
ences in cost per ton-mile of freight movement. 
On a map centered at St. Louis, Missouri, (fig. 
2) as of the year 1804, equal-cost distances by 
different means of transport present a very sim- 
ple pattern — with long fingers following the riv- 
ers, six or seven times longer downstream than 
upstream, and extremely slender because of the 
high cost of land transport in terms of human and 
animal effort. 

The relative efficiency of land and sea trans- 
port prior to 1800 is illustrated by the fact that 



coal had been mined in Wales since Elizabethan 
times only where the sea actually cut into the coal 
field. Cardiff, only six miles from the nearest coal 
fields by land, imported coal from Tenby and other 
ports to the west. An official customs report in 
1775 stated that no coal was exported from Cardiff, 
"nor ever can be, its distance from the water ren- 
dering it too expensive for any such sale". Such 
are the hazards of prophecy in a world of chang- 
ing technology. Indeed, as a supplement to navi- 
gable rivers, canals provided the only cheap in- 
land transport, when they could be dug by the 
simple means then available. 

On the map centered on St. Louis today the con- 
trast with 1804 reveals great expansion in all 
directions, notably where railroads and motor 
roads rival the more efficient river transport. 
River rates, however, have been artificially raised 
to a certain percentage of railroad rates, so that 
the down-river distance for a given cost is now 
less than it was nearly a century and a half ago. 

Figure 3 is a eartogram intended to give a vis- 
ual impression of the comparative efficiency of the 
principal means of transport. A steamship will 
usually carry a ton of freight eight or ten times 
as far as a railroad, for a given sum of money, 
and from one hundred to several thousand times 
as far as human porters or pack animals. The 



FEBRUARY U, 1945 

bars in the diagram indicate in a general way how 
far a ton of bulk freight, such as wheat, can be 
transported for a sum approximately equal to the 
daily wage of a human porter in regions which 
lack raihoads and motor roads. The maps in dif- 
ferent scales are so proportioned in size, very 
roughly to be sure, that equal distances on all maps 
represent equal cost in terms of human effort. The 
map scales are therefore the reciprocals of the 
mean value of the bars in the diagram. 

This cartogram in black and white is incidental 
to the preparation of a world map in color, not 
yet published, which constitutes an attempt to 
show the approximate cost per ton-mile for freight 
movement in all parts of the world today. Such 
a map brings out tlie areas in which surface trans- 
port is possible only on men's backs or heads, or on 
pack ammals, or by means of animals pulling 
carts on rough roads. Here the cost factor of prim- 



185 



itive transport is represented graphically in the 
legend by a very steep slope, and one may imagine 
porters or pack animals toiling up these symbolic 
but very real slopes until they become exhausted. 
People in these regions are walled in by high trans- 
port costs. Eailroads, with a cost factor a mile 
like the gradual upward slope of a smooth coastal 
plain, cut through the areas of high primitive costs 
like a great river which has incised its channel 
through a mountain range in past geologic ages. 
Such equal-cost distance maps may be called 
"isotimal", from the Greek word isoiimos meaning 
"equal cost or effort." In compiling a map of this 
type one would like to get back of the complicated 
rate structures of railroads, motor-truck carriers, 
and river and ocean shipping and measure cost in 
units of human effort. The march of physical 
progress could be recorded largely in a chronologi- 
cal series of such maps. 




Fig. 2. Equal-Cost Distances From St. Louis, Mo., 1804 and 1944 



186 



This access to distance, due to cutting the cost 
with mechanized transport, largely accounts for 
contrasts such as that portrayed by the world maps 
of wheat production and commerce for 1800 and 
today. In 1800 the farmer who raised wheat did 
not (h-eam of selling his product more than a few 
miles from home, where he could haul it by team 
and wagon or could send it a little farther by river 
or sea. The human use of the grasslands has 
been revolutionized by the railroads, the breeding 
of new wheat strains, the invention of roller mill- 
ing and other machinery, and the opening of Euro- 
pean markets since the industrial revolution. Con- 
sequently, wheat grown in four continents today 
competes in a fifth. Comparison of a map showing 
the areas in which wheat was both produced and 
consumed in 1800 with a similar map for today 
reveals the intimate relations between the railroad 
net and the areas in which wheat growing has 
been greatly extended in nature's grasslands. 

Maps of many new types may be prepared to de- 
pict the geographic distribution of the effects of 
science and technology upon human relations.^ 
Among them might be maps showing the follow- 
ing: 

a) For a given place and several dates, the per- 
centage of goods used in that place or region 
which came from distances of 10, 100, 1,000, 5,000, 
or 10,000 miles, thus providing some measure of 
expanding interrelationships. 

b) For any product for which there is now a 
world market, the historical geography of pro- 
duction and distribution. 

c) Decreases in cost of production per unit of 
output, by region and date. 

d) Travel speeds, by regions, for various dates. 

e) Communication costs and volumes of com- 
munications, by region and date. 



' Maps of the world presenting data very objectivel.v and 
impartially are most needed. To the people of this or any 
other country they would afford assistance in understand- 
ing the viewpoints of peoples whose historical backgrounds 
and environments differ greatly. It may be remarked that 
one of the most notable atlases in recent years is the Great. 
Soviet World Atlas, projected in three volumes, the first of 
which, published in 1937, was devoted chiefly to world maps 
of great variety. Presumably an even greater contribution 
to world understanding could be made if such a map series 
included more maps specifically designed to show when, 
where, and how great have been some of the changes in 
human relationships between regions during the last cen- 
tury or more. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

f) Geography of aviation development — fac- 
tors conditioning the establishment and operation 
of air services. 

g) Cultural relationships between different re- 
gions. 

h) Levels of living based on various yardsticks. 

i) Social results of medical science. 

j) The principal bases of prestige in various 
countries or regions, upon which concepts of suc- 
cess and leadership depend, some of them having 
been modified in recent decades by the develop- 
ment of certain industries. 

One of the principal generalizations of geogra- 
phy is that there is very uneven, one may almost 
say very lop-sided, distribution of the earth's re- 
sources, land and sea, climatic zones, produc- 
tive soils, population, and otlier factors. The 
influences of these inequalities of geographic dis- 
tribution are very different from what they were 
15 decades ago — even 5 decades ago. Some may 
naively imagine that the effects of this uneven dis- 
tribution have been practically obliterated. On 
the contrary, they have simply been given new 
values, and some of them are more significant than 
ever. Just as the geographical factors have by no 
means been eliminated in war — in these days of 
mechanized warfare and of airplanes — so their 
influence in peace is constantly changing and is as 
yet inadequately appreciated. In terms of past 
experience it is as though we were living at the 
same time on several worlds whose differences in 
size were of almost astronomic proportions. 

However great may be future changes in world 
maps showing the distribution of population, 
transportation, and communication facilities, ex- 
ploitation of minerals, and the like, the pattern 
appears to be already well developed. The ab- 
stract pattern of relationship possibilities, more- 
over, is not likely to change so much as it has 
already changed within the la.st century. In at 
least one direction the ultimate has already been 
attained. Communication is instantaneous, with 
the speed of light, and may reach all points of the 
globe at once ; it is being extended through televi- 
sion and the use of many electronic devices. In 
the days of both Nebuchadnezzar and Napoleon 
the fastest travel was at the rate of a fraction of 
one percent of the velocity of sound, whereas today 
it rapidly approaches the speed of sound, but pre- 
sumably it can never attain a speed many times 
that of sound. The efficiency of the railroad might 



FEBRUARY U, 1945 

[A| COMPARATIVE TRANSPORT DISTANCES AT EQUAL COST 



187 



?Msm^^mxi 



MOTOR TRUCK 



PRIMITIVE TRANSPORT I 



The bars represent approximate average distances (m statute miles} over which one ton of built 
freight, such as wheat, can be transported tor a sum equal to the daily wage of a porter In regions 
which still lack railroads and motor roads. 



IBI COMPARATIVE SIZES OF THE WORLD IN RELATION TO EQUAL TRANSPORT COST 




^f.l.emapsaresopropor.ioned.n.i.etha..hesamelihear.n,er,al.re.mj>spah/ : 
( appro'imalely equal Iransport-cosI on all of the maps. Thus the cost of transporting goods by sea | 

completely around the earth at the equator is roughly equivalent to the cost by primitive transport 
I {porters or pack animals) for a distance of only about 100 miles. [ 



AIRPLANE 




V%^ 


' pf 




K N 




■ Y 




Fig. 3. Transport by Different Means at Equal Cost 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



conceivably be doubled or quadrupled, but pre- 
sumably no method of land transport can be de- 
vised which will reduce the cost to a level of that 
of the most efficient ocean freighter. One factory 
machine may now perform the labor of 10,000 
human beings working by hand, but even if a new 
machine is invented which will produce as much 
as one hundred machines do now, the order of 
change will be less than that which has already 
occurred. The wizardry of chemistry already 
unites rare materials from the ends of the earth 
so that men who produce tungsten in Kiangsi 
Province, China, are closer as economic neighbors 
in normal times to Pittsburgh, the Ruhr, and the 
British Midlands than to communities in China 
one hundred miles distant. 

Scientists will doubtless produce marvels far 
beyond our present conceptions. Their insatiable 
curiosity is now penetrating fields of invisible and 
astonishing forces; they operate without fear and 
in a spirit of humility before fact which enables 
them to discard outworn hypotheses and to learn 
new ways very rapidly. The changes to come in 
many regions hitherto referred to as "backward" 
may greatly exceed those already manifest in areas 
in which changes have been greatest in recent dec- 
ades. The maps of human activities and relations 
will doubtless pass through rapid metamorphoses 
in the near future. 

Flat maps cannot effectively reveal relationships 
of air travel and transport and of radio. While 
many types of aviation and telecommunication 
maps should be made, special globes and acces- 
sories are almost essential. 

Man has a fondness for circulating, which ac- 
counts for some of his problems of relationships. 
Circulation is the rule in nature, of the air itself, 
of the sea, of many birds, and of some animals. 
Man's new facility of movement enables him to 
circulate with freedom equal to nature's in its 
freest moods. 

People everywhere, even in remote places, are 
thereby being stimulated through contacts by 
radio, the press, the airplane, the marketplace. 
Human friction and heat may thus be generated. 
But to try to build a sort of wall to exclude con- 
tact, instead of to become adapted to it, is futile — 
a crustacean psychosis in an avian age. 

The amazing discoveries of scientists and the 
resourcefulness of engineers and technologists af- 



t Bm-LETiN of Jan. 7, 1945, p. 32. 



ford assurance that men's needs on the physical 
level can be met. The most difficult and important 
problems for the future which have stemmed from 
scientists' laboratories are the problems of human 
relationships, which have been multiplied almost 
beyond conception. Institutions with adequate re- 
sources, young men and women whose understand- 
ing of the world in the last few yeiirs has been 
broadened and deepened, may, by using geogra- 
phers' techniques in the cartographic interpreta- 
tion of spatial relations, provide us with maps that 
will carry us a long way toward a sound under- 
standing of the world in which we now live. 



Relief Supplies 

For Allied Nationals i 

Interned in the Far East 

[Released to the press February 7] 

On January 1 the Department announced that 
a proposal was submitted by the Japanese Govern- 
ment under which those portions of a recent ship- 
ment of relief supplies sent to Japan via a Soviet 
port allocated for distribution to Allied nationals 
held in camps outside Japan might be delivered 
in Japanese ships under safe-conduct carrying 
these supplies as part of their cargo.' 

The first shipment under this arrangement was 
made in the Japanese ship Hosi Mai'u, which was 
scheduled to unload relief supplies at Shanghai 
and Tsingtao and return to Japan on January 
30. While no official information in this regard 
has been received, it is assumed that this vessel 
has completed its mission. 

The Japanese Government recently submitted to 
this Government through neutral channels a pro- 
posal to transport under a similar arrangement 
that portion of these supplies allocated to camps 
in the southei-n areas. This Government, acting 
for itself and its Allied governments, has commu- 
nicated to the Japanese Government Allied agree- 
ment to the requested safe-conduct for the Jap- 
nnese ship to be used in this operation. Accord- 
ing to the terms of the safe-conduct the Japanese 
ship, the Awa Mam, will depart fi'om a Japanese 
port on February 17 and will unload relief sup- 
plies at Formosa, Hong Kong, Saigon, Singapore, 
Surabaya, Batavia, and Muntok, returning to 
Japan early in April. 



FEBRUARY 11, 1945 



189 



Proposed Extension of the Lend-Lease Act 



Statement by ASSISTANT 

[Released to the press February 8] 

Mk. Chairman: 

During the four years since the passage of the 
Lend-Lease Act, our mutual-aid programs with 
our Allies have become the underpinning of our 
joint war effort. Since those trying days in the 
spring of 1941, when it appeared that our enemies 
might succeed in their bid for the domination of 
the world, we have achieved a miracle in war sup- 
plies. We have managed to do this because the 
Congress has been willing to authorize the pooling 
of the products of our enormous facilities in the 
common war effort and because our Allies have 
also been willing to pool their resources for the 
winning of the war. Twice the Congress of the 
United States has extended the Lend-Lease Act 
for an additional year. Last year, at the time 
the question of the extension was before this com- 
mittee, Congressman Eaton referred to these an- 
nual discussions as educational. Your committee 
should know how the act is being administered 
and what is being accomplished under it. 

At the moment, the military situation appears 
to be favorable to our cause in nearly all areas of 
the world, and yet we must avoid wishful thinking 
and rosy predictions as to the course of military 
events. That can only lead us to error. 

In planning for the war, we must assume that 
it will go on indefinitely, both in Europe and in 
the Far East, because it is unthinkable that we 
should permit any slackening of our war effort in 
any quarter until all of our enemies have been 
utterly defeated. It is impossible to say today 
that only so many thousand tanks or guns or ships 
are necessary to achieve the result we desire. De- 
cisions as to what quantities of supplies shall be 
furnished and to what areas they shall go require 
continuing attention to the daily developments 
of the war and the relative needs of the forces 
of the United Nations everywhere. 

Therefore, I cannot believe that it would be 
less than disastrous if at this stage of the war 
the Congress should indicate that it had any but 
the most unified determination to proceed with 
the programs of mutual aid as long as the re- 
sistance of Germany and Japan make them nec- 
essary. Any other implication would weaken 



SECRETARY ACHESON' 

our own position and have a fatal effect upon the 
energy and will which the United Nations are 
throwing into the struggle for victory. To in- 
terfere with lend-lease aid would not be merely 
to terminate aid to others; it would be a tragic 
blow to our own war effort, for all of the aid 
which is given under the Lend-Lease Act is given 
because it has been determined that such aid in 
the hands of our Allies will best serve in the 
defense of the United States and the prosecution 
of the war. 

When this committee acts to extend the Lend- 
Lease Act, it declares it to be the policy of this 
Government that we intend to continue an instru- 
ment which has proved to be so successful in a 
joint venture, and, when the House of Representa- 
tives and the Senate approve the extension, it is a 
declaration to the world, not only that our own war 
effort will not slacken, but that we intend to see 
that the war effort of our Allies will not be lessened 
because of a lack of supplies which we could fill. 

I am sure it is unnecessary for me to remind 
this committee how carefully its action will be 
watched by all of the nations of the world. I am 
confident that it realizes the enormous importance 
to the United States of expressing its firm convic- 
tion that lend-lease must be continued just as long 
as it is required in the war. 

Secretary Stettinius has called lend-lease a 
weapon for victory. He and all other witnesses 
before you have repeatedly stated that articles and 
services are and may only be provided under the 
Lend-Lease Act when to do so is in the interests 
of our national defense. That supreme interest 
at this moment is to win the war. 

As we look about us at the progress of the war 
in Europe and in the Far East, we have every rea- 
son to feel pride in our Allies and gratitude for 
their enormously effective part in the war. We 
have all shared our problems, our hoi^es, our sub- 
stance, and the burden of the battle. We must 
continue to do so; and we must continue to main- 
tain faith and confidence in nations of good-will 
both to defeat our enemies and to secure a just 
peace. 

' Made on Feb. 8, 1945 before the Committee on Foreign 
Affairs of the House of Representatives. 



190 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Attitudes of Neutral Governments 
Regarding Asylum to War Criminals 



I 



Argentina 

On September 5, 1944 the Charge d'Affaires of 
the Argentine Embassy in Washington issued the 
f ollowhig statement to the press : 

"In Tiew of versions which have appeared in 
the press to the eflFect that Argentina might be- 
come a refuge for Nazi leaders after the war, the 
Minister, charge d'affaires of Argentina, Senor 
Rodolfo Garcia Arias, stated: 'If the fact that 
Argentina has no communication or relations 
with the Axis powers were not suflBcient in itself 
to disprove those versions, I wish to add I have 
express instructions from the Argentine Govern- 
ment to state that such versions or suppositions 
are totally unfounded.' " 

The Argentine Ambassador to Great Britain 
on September 26, 1944 delivered to the British 
Foreign Office a note in which it was stated that 
in no case would persons accused of war crimes 
be granted refuge in Argentina, nor would they 
be permitted to set up deposits of capital in the 
country or acquire any kind of property. 

Ireland 

The Irish Legation in Washington made public 
on November 15, 1944 the view of the Irish Gov- 
ernment.'' The Irish Government stated that it 
felt that the Government of the United States 
would understand that it could furnish no assur- 
ances which would prevent its exercising the right 
to afford asylum, which it noted was not in ques- 
tion, if national interest or honor or chai'ity or 
justice demanded. It pointed out that the request 
of the Government of the United States was not 
covered by any comprehensive international code 
and that there was no generally recognized pro- 
cedure or tribunal for judicial decision in individ- 
ual cases. It was stated, however, that since the 
beginning of the present war the Irish Govern- 
ment had uniformly refused admission to all 
foreigners whose presence would conflict with its 
neutrality policy or would be harmful to the in- 
terests of the people of Ireland or would conflict 

1 Bulletin of Nov. 19, 1944, p. 591. 



with their desire to avoid harming the interests 
of friendly governments, and that such foreigners 
who landed were deported as soon as possible to 
their state of origin. There was no intention, it 
was said, of changing this practice. 

Portugal 

On October 11, 1944 it was stated in the British 
House of Commons that the Portuguese Govern- 
ment had informed the British Government that 
it would not, by granting asylum in its territory, 
permit war criminals to escape the decisions of 
national or international tribunals competent to 
try them. 

Spain 

On September 3. 1944 the Spanish Ambassador 
in Washington made a press statement to the effect 
that "no one has ever contemplated providing a 
hiding place in Spain for enemies of the Allied 
countries''. Spain would abide by international 
law, but the term war criminal must be defined 
before rules can be applied. 

Sicfden 

The position of the Swedish Government was 
formally announced on September 5, 1944 in a pub- 
lic statement by the Minister of the Interior to the 
effect that it must not be concluded that Sweden 
would be open to persons whose deeds have pro- 
voked the conscience of the civilized world or who 
have been traitors to their own country. He added 
that it might be assumed that Sweden would close 
her frontiers to "political" refugees and that if 
any succeeded in getting through the barriers they 
would be returned to tlieir own country. 

Switzerland 

The position of the Swiss Government was 
stated in the Swiss Parliament on November 15, 
1944, as follows : 

"In accordance with a long series of precedents 
which are to the honor of Switzerland, Federal 
Council intends to exercise unquestioned right of 
sovereign state to give asylum to fugitives whom it 
considers worthy thereof. It does not, however, 



FEBRUARY U, 1945 

feel disposed — even in cases involving risk of 
death — to authorize without examination refuge 
on Swiss territory to all those who may request it 
as the number of fugitives therein has already 
reached disturbing proportions. It is obvious in 
particular that asylum could not be granted either 
to persons who have displayed an unfriendly atti- 
tude towards Switzerland or who have committed 
acts contrary to the laws of war or whose past gives 
evidence of conceptions incompatible with funda- 
mental traditions of law and humanity." 



Japan's Proposal for Reciprocal 
Visits to Internee Camps 

[Released to the press February 8] 

From the outbreak of hostilities the Japanese 
Government consistently refused, despite the con- 
tinued representations of the United States Gov- 
ernment, to authorize visits by representatives of 
the protecting power or the International Red 
Cross Committee to prisoner-of-war and civilian 
internment camps where American nationals were 
held in the Philippine Islands and in other occu- 
pied territories. The Japanese Government au- 
thorized visits to camps in Japan, Fomiosa, 
China, and Manchuria, but the permissions which 
the Japanese Government has actually granted 
to the representatives of the protecting power and 
the International Red Cross Committee have been 
sporadic and arbitrary. The United States Gov- 
ernment has also learned that there are numerous 
camps in Japan pi-oper whose locations have never 
been reported and which the representatives of the 
protecting power and the International Red Cross 
Committee have never been able to visit. The 
United States Government has faithfully abided 
by its commitments under the Geneva Prisoners 
of War Convention and has accorded the repre- 
sentatives of the International Red Cross Com- 
mittee and the protecting powers in charge of 
Japanese interests complete authorization to visit 
regularly the camps in the continental United 
States and Hawaii and to report on the conditions 
under which Japanese nationals are held in cus- 
tody by the United States. 

Last summer the Japanese Government ex- 
pressed an interest in its nationals held in custody 
on New Caledonia. In August the Spanish Em- 
bassy also transmitted a request from the Japa- 



191 

nese Government for a report on the conditions 
under which Japanese nationals are held on Sai- 
pan and the treatment accorded to them. The 
United States Government informed the Japanese 
Government that, immediately upon receipt of 
advice that the Japanese Government had under- 
taken to fulfil its commitments with respect to 
authorizing visits to all camps in the Philippine 
Islands and in other Japanese-occupied territories, 
the Government of the United States would make 
arrangements for accredited representatives to 
inspect the camps and to report on the conditions 
under which Japanese nationals are held on Sai- 
pan, the Marshall Islands, and New Caledonia. 

The Japanese offer announced on the February 
2 radio broadcast from Japan refers to a counter- 
l^roposal made by the Japanese Govermiient in 
response to this proposal of the United States 
Government. The Japanese Government in- 
formed the United States Government that it was 
prepared, as a first step, to authorize representa- 
tives of the International Red Cross Committee 
to visit the Santo Tomiis civilian internment camp 
at Manila, the prisoner-of-war hospital in Thai- 
land, and the prisoner-of-war camp at Singapore. 
This proposal of the Japanese Government is con- 
tingent on the state of military operations and on 
the United States Government's offering complete 
reciprocity for visits to all places where Japanese 
nationals are held, in particular with respect to 
Saipan, New Caledonia, Guam, and Tinian. 

The limited nature of the offer made by Japan 
so far as the United States is concerned is evident. 
The Japanese Government has not offered com- 
plete reciprocity for camp visits to all places where 
American nationals are held in custody by Japan. 
The Japanese Government is prepared to author- 
ize visits only by representatives of the Interna- 
tional Red Cross Committee and not by represent- 
atives of the protecting power. It did not offer 
to permit visits to prisoner-of-war camps in the 
Philippine Islands but only offered to authorize 
visits to the Santo Tomas civilian camp. It did 
not authorize visits to the other civilian camps in 
the Philippine Islands. In view of the fact that 
the American nationals held at Santo Tomas have 
now been liberated by American forces it is obvious 
that the Japanese Government's offer to permit 
visits to the Santo Tomas camp no longer has any 
value. With regard to the camps in Thailand, the 
Japanese Government has failed to authorize 



192 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



visits to the prisoner-of-war camps but has re- 
stricted its authorization to visits to the prisoner- 
of-war hospital. The Japanese Government has 
authorized visits to the prisoner-of-war camp at 
Singapore, but so far as is known there ai"e no 
American prisoners of war at Singapore. There 
are, however, at Singapore hirge numbers of 
British prisoners of war. American civilians are 



interned at Singapore, but the Japanese Govern- 
ment has not offered to authorize visits to the 
civilian internment camps. 

The proposal of the Japanese Government is 
receiving careful consideration by the United 
States Government, and a reply will be forwarded 
shortly to the Swiss Government for transmission 
to Japan. 



I 



Inter-American Conference on Problems of War and Peace 



AMERICAN DELEGATION 



[Released to the press February 10] 

On January 13, 1945 the Department of State 
made an announcement regarding the convening 
at Mexico City of the Inter- American Conference 
on Problems of War and Peace and the designa- 
tion of Edward K. Stettinius, Jr., Secretary of 
State, as this Government's Delegate and Nelson 
A. Rockefeller, Assistant Secretary of State, as the 
Alternate Delegate.^ 

The Conference is now scheduled to open on 
February 21, 1945. 

The Department of State on February 10 an- 
nounced the personnel of the United States repre- 
sentation which will accompany the Delegate and 
the Alternate Delegate. The list includes repre- 
sentatives of Congress, labor, management, and 
agriculture, as well as technical specialists from 
Govenmient agencies concerned with inter- Amer- 
ican affairs. The broadly representative char- 
acter of the Delegation reflects the importance 
attached by this country to the Mexico City con- 
ference and to the wide variety of war and peace 
problems which may come before it for con- 
sideration. 

The list follows : 
Delegate 

Edward R. Stettinius, Jr., Secretary of State 
Alternate Delegate 

Nelson A. Rocliefeller, Assistant Secretary of State 
Special Congressirmal Adviseis 

Tom Connally, United States Senate, Chairman, Com- 
mittee on Foreign Relations 

Warren R. Austin, United States Senate, Member, Com- 
mittee on Foreign Relations 

Sol Bloom, House of Representatives, Chairman, Com- 
mittee on Foreign Affairs 



BuLurriN of Jan. 14, 1945, p. 61. 



Luther John.son, House of Representatives, Member, 
Committee on Foreign Affairs, Alternate for Mr. 
r.loora 

Edith Nourse Rogers, House of Representatives, Member, 
Committee on Foreign Affairs 
Advisers 

Samuel W. Anderson, Program Vice Chairman, War 
Production Board 

Adolf A. Berle, Jr., American Ambassador, Rio de 
Janeiro 

William L. Clayton, Assistant Secretary of State 

Oscar Cox, Deputy Administrator, Foreign Economic 
Administration 

Maj. Gen. George C. Dunham, United States Army, 
President, Institute of Inter-American Affairs, Of- 
fice of the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs 

Lt. Gen. Stanley D. Embick, United States Army 

Green H. Hackworth, Legal Adviser, Department of 
State 

Albert S. Goss, Master, National Grange, Washington, 
D. C. 

Francis A. Jamieson, Assistant Coordinator, Press and 
Publications Department, OflSce of the Coordinator of 
luter-American Affairs 

Eric A. Johnston, President, Chamber of Commerce of 
the United States 

Katharine F. Lenroot, Chief, Children's Bureau, De- 
partment of Labor 

Julius G. Luhrsen, Executive Secretary, Railway Labor 
Executives Association, Washington, D.C. 

David McDonald, Secretary-Treasurer, United Steel 
Workers, Congress of Industrial Organizations, 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 

George Meany, Secretary-Treasurer, American Federa- 
tion of Labor, Washington, D.C. 

George S. Messersmith, American Ambassador, Mexico, 
D.F. 

Edward A. O'Neal, President, American Farm Bureau 
Federation, Chicago, 111. 

Leo PasToLsky, Special Assistant for International Or- 
ganization and Security Affairs, Department of State 

James G. Patton, President, National Farmers Union, 
Denver, Colo. 



FEBRUARY U, 1945 



193 



Warren Lee Pierson, President and General Counsel, 

Export-Import Bank of Washington 
Wayne C. Taylor, Acting Secretary of Commerce 
Rear Admiral Harold C. Train, United States Navy 
Avra M. Warren, Director, Office of American Eepiiblic 

Affairs, Department of State 
Leslie A. Wheeler, Director. Office of Foreign Agricul- 
tural Relations, Department of Agriculture 
Harry D. White, Assistant Secretary of the Treasury 
Vice Admiral Russell Willson, United States Navy 



Special Assistants to the Delegate 

Robert J. Lynch, Special Assistant to the Secretary of 

State 
G. Hayden Raynor, Special Assistant to the Secretary 
of State 

Special Assistants to the Alternate Delegate 

Dudley B. Bonsai, Special Assistant to the Assistant 
Secretary for American Republic Affairs, Depart- 
ment of State 
John C. McClintock, Special Assistant to the Assistant 
Secretary for American Republic Affairs, Department 
of State 

Chief Technical Officer 
John B. LockvFOod, Deputy Director, Office of American 
Republic Affairs, Department of State 

Chief Press Relations Officer 
Michael J. McDermott, Special Assistant to the Secre- 
tary of State 

Secretary General 

Warren Kelchner, Chief, Division of International Con- 
ferences, Department of State 

Liberation of Manila 

MESSAGE FROM PRESIDEMT ROOSEVELT 
TO PRESIDENT OSMENA 

[Released to the press by the White House February 4] 

The American people rejoice with me in the 
liberation of your Capital. 

After long years of planning, our hearts have 
quickened at the magnificent strides toward free- 
dom that have been made in the last months — at 
Leyte, Mindoro, Lingayen Gulf, and now Manila. 

We are proud of the mighty blows struck by 
General MacArthur, our sailors, soldiers, and air- 
men ; and in their comradeship-in-arms with your 
loyal and valiant people, who in the darkest days 
have not ceased to fight for their independence. 
You may be sure that this pride will strengthen 
our determination to drive the Jap invader from 
your Islands. 



AVe will join you in that effort — with our armed 
forces, as rapidly and fully as our efforts against 
our enemies and our responsibilities to other lib- 
erated peoples permit. With God's help we will 
complete the fulfilment of the pledge we renewed 
when our men returned to Leyte. 

Let the Japanese and other enemies of peaceful 
nations take warning from these great events in 
your country; their world of treachery, aggres- 
sion, and enslavement cannot survive in the strug- 
gle against our world of freedom and peace. 

STATEMENT BY ACTING SECRETARY GREW 

[Released to the press February 5] 

The liberation of Manila and the freeing of the 
residents of that area from Japanese bondage 
brings great joy to the American people as it must 
also to the jjeople of the Philippines. The libera- 
tion of the Philippines has been an objective to- 
ward which this Government has been ceaselessly 
working since early 1942. It gives us all intense 
satisfaction that the objective has already been 
attained in large part. That the remainder of the 
enemy-occupied areas in the Philippines are cer- 
tain to be soon liberated no one will doubt. In the 
meantime let us express our thanks to General 
MacArthur and the officers and men of the forces 
under his command for the courageous and effec- 
tive manner in which the Philippine operations 
have been conducted. The fortitude, courage, and 
loyalty of the Filipino people in their sufferings 
and deprivation imposed uj^on them by the enemy 
have won the admiration of every American and 
t)f freedom-loving people everywhere. 

Proposed Lend-Lease 
And Reciprocal-Aid 
Agreements With France 

[Released to the press February 8] 

Proposed lend-lease and reciprocal-aid agree- 
ments were handed on February 8 to Jean Mon- 
net. Special Envoy of the Provisional Govern- 
ment of France on lend-lease and shipping nego- 
tiations. M. Monnet is taking the documents to 
Paris for consideration by the French Government 
with a view to early conclusion of the arrange- 
ments. A full statement will be issued at the con- 
clusion of the negotiations. 



194 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



The Inter-American Juridical Committee 

Resume of Its Organization and Its Activities 



By CHARLES G. FENWICK > 



FOLLOWING the entrance of the United States into 
the war it was clear that the existing Inter- 
American Neutrality Committee, created at the 
Meeting of Foreign Ministers at Panama in 1939, 
must be reorganized to meet the new conditions. 
Projects to that effect were presented by a num- 
ber of the delegations to the Meeting of Foreign 
Ministers at Rio de Janeiro in January 1942. The 
Rio meeting thereupon adopted a resolution 
(XXVI) providing that the Neutrality Commit- 
tee then existing should continue to function in 
its present form under the name of the Inter- 
American Juridical Committee. This made the 
Juridical Committee the legal successor of the 
Neutrality Committee, subject to the regulations 
governing the Neutrality Committee except so 
far as these might be modified by the provisions 
of later resolutions. 

The Juridical Committee consists of .seven mem- 
bers, designated respectively by Argentina, Brazil, 
Chile, Costa Rica, Mexico, Venezuela, and the 
United States. A provision of the Rio resolution 
requires that the members of the Committee must 
have no other duties than those pertaining to the 
Committee, so that members of the foreign service 
of a country are excluded if they are on active 
duty. On the other hand, the Committee is au- 
thorized to invite American jurists to take part in 
its deliberations upon special juridical matters, 
and it may also have recourse to the aid of tech- 
nical experts when the occasion calls for their 



The functions assigned to the Juridical Com- 
mittee by the Rio Meeting of Foreign Ministers 
may be conveniently classified under four heads: 
(1) juridical problems arising out of the present 
war; (2) post-war problems ; (3) the development 
and coordination of the work of the codification 
of international law; and (4) the coordination of 
the resolutions of consultative meetings of For- 
eign Ministers. In view of the wide diversity of 



' Dr. Fenwick is the member appointed by the United 
States on the Inter-American Juridical Committee. 



the problems thus assigned to the Committee and 
of the limited technical staff put at its disposition, 
the Committee has found it necessary to give its 
attention to problems which appeared to be more 
urgent and to subordinate research work to issues 
of more immediate practical importance. 

A special resolution of tlie Rio meeting referred 
to the Committee a project of the Bolivian Dele- 
gation calling for an "Affirmation of the tradi- 
tional theory of law in the presence of a deliberate 
repudiation of international justice and morality". 
The resolution was obviously directed against the 
false doctrines of the Axis powers and violations 
of international law accompanying the Nazi phi- 
losophy. Acting upon the resolution, the Juridical 
Committee drafted a statement under the title, 
"Reaffirmation of Fundamental Principles of In- 
ternational Law". The statement was submitted 
to the American governments through the Pan 
American Union on June 2, 19-12. A number of 
governments indicated their willingness to sign 
the reaffirmation in the form presented ; other gov- 
ernments suggested modifications. But the Gov- 
ernment of Venezuela asked for changes in the 
text of the document, and these changes not being 
acceptable to other governments the reaffirmation 
was referred back to the Committee to be re- 
drafted in accordance with the changes proposed. 
The revised draft has been resubmitted to the 
American governments. 

The Committee next proceeded to draft its Pre- 
liminary Recommendation on Post-War Prob- 
lems. Part I of the recommendation deals with 
"Factors which contributed to the break-down of 
international law and order". It presents a survey 
of the limitations of international law before 1920, 
the defects of international organization after 
1920, and the political, economic, and social fac- 
tors responsible for the break-down of law and 
order in 1914 and in 1939. Part II of the recom- 
mendation, entitled "Conclusions", is drafted in 
the form of a series of principles which the Com- 
mittee believed should constitute the basis of a 



FEBRUARY U, 1945 



195 



stable international system. The completed docu- 
ment was forwarded to the Pan American Union 
on September 4, 1942, to be submitted by the Union 
to the American governments for such use as they 
might desire to make of it. No action was called 
for ; but the Committee requested observations and 
comments in order that it might be guided in mak- 
ing the more specific reconmiendations which it 
was called upon to make 
by the Rio resolution on 
post-war problems. 

The function as- 
signed to the Juridical 
Committee, "To develop 
and coordinate the work 
of codifying interna- 
tional law", is a broad 
one, calling not only for 
the determination of 
what might be said to be 
the existing rule of law 
but for a decision as to 
desirable modifications 
of the I'ule for the fu- 
ture. The Committee 
decided to confine its 
activities in the field of 
codification to recom- 
mendations in respect to 
the coordination of the 
work of existing agencies of codification, indicat- 
ing the lines along which codification might pro- 
ceed without actually entering upon the codifica- 
tion of particular topics of international law. The 
Committee has prepared a report and resolution 
on this subject which will shortly be forwarded 
to the Pan American Union. 

A separate resolution of the Rio Meeting of For- 
eign Ministers called upon the Juridical Commit- 
tee to study and report upon the coordination of 
the resolutions, declarations, and other acts of 
previous meetings of Foreign Ministers. The 
Committee interpreted the word coordination as 
calling not merely for a logical classification of 
the various resolutions but for a critical examina- 
tion of each separate resolution from the point 
of view of its relation to other resolutions of the 
same or of other meetings. In the course of its 
studies in this connection the Committee found it 
desirable to extend the work of coordination into 



Inter- American Juridical 
Committee 

Chairman 

Francisco Campos 

Members* 

Luis Podestft Costa 
Francisco Campos 
F^lix Nieto del Rio 
Manuel Jimenez 
Antonio Gomez Robledo 
Ctiarles G. Fenwick 
Carlos Eduardo Stolk 

*The members of tlie Committee, although 
appointed by the Governments of Argentina, 
Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Mexico, United States 
of America, and Venezuela respectively, repre- 
sent and act in the name of the 21 American 
republics. 



the field of the resolutions of inter- American con- 
ferences, where there is much duplication and 
much obsolete material ; but in view of the magni- 
tude of this task the first recommendation of the 
Committee will be confined to the resolutions of 
consultative meetings. 

By special request of the Governing Board of 
the Pan American Union, under date of May 7, 
1943, the Juridical 
Connnittee undertook 
the study of the existing 
inter-American peace 
agreements with the 
object of consolidating 
them into a single 
agreement. As a result 
of its studies in this con- 
nection the Committee 
drafted two separate 
treaties, a draft treaty 
for the coordination of 
inter-American peace 
agreements, which 
brings together the ex- 
isting treaties with- 
out alteration of their 
terms, and an alterna- 
tive treaty containing 
the modifications which 
the Committee believed 



it desirable to introduce into the existing peace 
machinery. The two drafts and accompanying 
report were submitted to the Pan American Union 
on June 15, 1944. 

On June 17 the Committee forwarded to the 
Pan American Union a Recommendation for the 
Immediate Establislmient of a Preliminary In- 
ternational Organization. The recommendation 
had for its primary purpose the extension of the 
circle of the United Nations so as to include, un- 
der the title Associated American States, those 
American states which, although not belligerents, 
had broken relations with the Axis powers and 
were fulfilling their pledges of continental soli- 
darity. Its secondary purpose was to give an 
opportunity to the American states to take part 
in discussions with respect to the general inter- 
national organization to be established after the 
war. To this end the recommendation proposed 
the immediate creation of a general assembly in 
which each member of the United Nations and of 



1% 

the Associated American States would be entitled 
to representation. An executive committee of the 
assembly, consisting at first of the powers bearing 
the main burden of the war and later of other 
states selected by the general assembly, would be 
entrusted with the formulation of the policies and 
measures to be submitted to the assembly in mat- 
ters relating to international reconstruction and 
reorganization. A general secretariat would act 
as a central administrative agency coordinating 
the work of the existing agencies of the United 
Nations and of agencies to be created in the future. 

Upon receipt of the Dumbarton Oaks Propo- 
sals relating to the establislunent of an interna- 
tional organization for the maintenance of peace 
and security, the Juridical Committee immedi- 
ately undertook a careful study of the docmnent 
with the object of making constructive sugges- 
tions in the light of inter-American traditions 
and experience. On December 8, 1944 the Com- 
mittee approved a report entitled "The Dumbar- 
ton Oaks Proposals: Preliminary Comments and 
Kecommendations". The report keeps strictly 
within the framework of the Proposals, seeking 
to clarify obscure points and to suggest supple- 
mentary provisions. It is described as "prelimi- 
nary" because the Committee felt that it might be 
necessary to make additional comments and obser- 
vations in the light of the individual replies of the 
separate American governments to the Proposals. 

Looking at the activities of the Juridical Com- 
mittee as a whole, perhaps the most important 
problem before the Committee is the coordination 
of inter-American and international relations. 
For two generations since the first inter- American 
conference at Washington in 1889, inter- Ajnerican 
law has developed more or less independently of 
general international law. Within recent years 
inter-American institutions have grown more nu- 
merous and more highly organized. The time has 
now come to consider what modifications of inter- 
American organization and law will be neces- 
sary and desirable in consequence of the establisli- 
ment of the international organization contem- 
plated by the United Nations. At the same time 
the Juridical Committee is giving close attention 
to the reorganization of the inter-American sys- 
tem itself, witli the object of improving the ma- 
chinery of conferences and consultative meetings 
and promoting the efficiency of the existing ad- 
ministrative agencies. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

Exchange of American 
And German Nationals 

[Released to the press February 5] 

In the recent exchange of nationals between the 
United States and Germany, there were received ^ '. 
in Switzerland from Germany 826 civilians in- 
cluding American nationals and their immediate | 
relatives, nationals of the other American repub- I 
lies, and other persons claiming nationality of the | 
countries of the Western Hemisphere. Four of j 
the civilians exchanged died following arrival in » 
Switzerland and others were too ill to travel on- i 
ward from Switzerland. In addition to the per- 
sons delivered in Switzerland 34 Cuban nationals 
who had already been delivered by the Germans ' 
into Spain under a previous agreement are now 
released for travel to their native country. 

Not all of the civilians released in the exchange 
can be accommodated on the M. S. GripshoJm be- 
cause of the large number of seriously sick and 
wounded American and Canadian prisoners of 
war who are being given priority for accommoda- 
tion on the vessel. The list of civilians received 
in Switzerland has been made public. A list show- 
ing which of the civilians will travel on the M. S. 
Gripshohn will be announced at a later date. 

Plans are being made to provide transportation 
for the other civilians who in the meantime are 
being given appropriate care. 

The Proclaimed List 

[Released to the press February 11] 

The Acting Secretary of State, acting in con- 
junction with the Acting Secretary of the Treas- 
ury, the Attorney General, the Acting Secretary 
of Commerce, the Administrator of the Foreign 
Economic Administration, and the Deputy Coor- 
dinator of Inter-American Affairs, issued on Feb- 
ruary 10 Cumulative Supplement No. 6 to Revision 
VIII of the Proclaimed List of Certain Blocked 
Nationals, promulgated September 13. 1944. 

Cumulative Supplement No. 6 to Revision VIII 
supersedes Cumulative Supplement No. 5 dated 
January 12, 1945. 

Part I of Cumulative Supplement No. 6 contains 
28 additional listings in the other American re- 
publics and 92 deletions; Part II contains 44 addi- 
tional listings outside the American republics and 
41 deletions. 



FEBRUARY 1.1, 1945 

Exploratory Conversations on 
Double-Taxation Conventions 
With the United Kingdom 

[Released to the press February 8] 

Informal and exploratory conversations which 
have been in progress from time to time during 
the past year between representatives of the Gov- 
ernment of the United States and representatives 
of the British Government in regard to the possi- 
ble bases for the negotiation of conventions for 
the avoidance of double taxation have ended. Two 
draft conventions have been prepared in the course 
of the conversations, one relating to income taxes 
and the other relating to estate taxes. These draft 
conventions are being submitted by the representa- 
tives to their respective Govermnents for further 
consideration with a view to definitive negotia- 
tions. 

The conversations were divided into three 
phases, the first of which took place in London, as 
announced by the Department on August 21, 1914.' 
The second phase of the conversations took place 
in Washington in November and December 1944 
and was announced by the Department on Decem- 
ber 5, 1944.= The final or drafting phase of the 
conversations al;^o took place in Washington. 

The following persons participated in the recent 
conversations in Washington: 

For the United States: Mr. Eldon P. King, 
Special Deputy Commissioner of Internal Reve- 
nue; Mr. Roy Blough, Treasury Department; Mr. 
Frederick Livesey, OiEce of Financial and Devel- 
opment Policy, Department of State ; Mr. Herbert 
P. Fales, Second Secretary and Vice Consul, 
American Embassy, London; Mr. William V. 
Whittington, Assistant Chief of the Treaty Sec- 
tion, Division of Research and Publication, De- 
partment of State; and Mr. P. J. Mitchell, Mr. 
Adelburt Christy, and Mr. Earl Ruth, Bureau of 
Internal Revenue. 

For the United Kingdom : Sir Cornelius Gregg, 
Mr. S. P. Chambers, and Mr. J. R. Willis, British 
Board of Inland Revenue; and Mr. M. E. Bath- 
urst. First Secretary of the British Embassy. Sir 
Cornelius and Mr. Chambers returned to London 
in December, at the conclusion of the second phase 
of the conversations. 



BxTLLETiiT of Aug. 27, 1944, p. 208. 
' Bulletin of Dec. 10, 1944, p. 732. 



Appointment of J. G. Bradshaw 
As Visiting Professor to 
Colombia 

[Released to the press January 30] 

J. G. Bradshaw, one of the group of professors 
and technical experts who have received travel 
grants from the Department of State for service 
in other American republics, will leave on Jan- 
uary 31, 1945 for Bogota, Colombia, where he 
has accepted the post of adviser to the director 
and visiting professor in the School of Business 
and Commerce of the Gimnasio Moderno. Mr. 
Bradshaw has done graduate work in the School 
of Business Administration of Harvard Univer- 
sity and has had wide experience in the fields of 
both foreign trade and teaching since his gradua- 
tion from the University of Washington. The 
School of Business and Commerce of the Gim- 
nasio Moderno was established in the Colombian 
capital three years ago as a model institution of 
modern commercial methods and administration. 
It employs the case-method plan of teaching, 
which is used in only three other schools of busi- 
ness, at Harvard, Stanford, and Northwestern 
Universities. 

Sixteen travel grants have been given by the 
Department of State to professors or technical 
experts under a program of cultural and scientific 
interchange between this country and the other 
American republics during the present fiscal year. 
This program, financed jointly by the Depart- 
ment and the receiving educational institutions, 
is achninistered by the Division of Cultural Coop- 
eration of the Department of State. 



Parasitologist To Visit Mexico 

[Released to the press February 6] 

Dr. Clay G. Huff, professor of parasitology at 
the University of Chicago, has accepted an invi- 
tation from the Institute of Public Health and 
Tropical Diseases of Mexico City to visit that in- 
stitution as guest investigator from March 1 to 
April 15, 1945. Dr. Huff's trip will be under 
auspices of the Department of State. 

Dr. Huff was born in Indiana and received his 
academic training at Southwestern College 
(Kansas), Johns Hopkins University, and Har- 
vard. He is a member of the American Society of 



198 

Parasitologists, the American Society of Tropical 
Medicine, and the American Society of Natural- 
ists, and is vice president of the National Malaria 
Society. His published works include A Manual 
of Medical Pamaitology and, in collaboration with 
Heftier, Root, and Augustine, Parasitology. 

Dr. Huff's research has been largely in the field 
of malaria with special investigation of mosquito 
transmissions and life cycles. He has devoted 
considerable attention recently to malaria in liz- 
ards and tlie development of malarial sporozoites 
in the vertebrate host. His visit to Mexico will 
enlarge his opiDoi'tunity for investigation along 
tliese lines. 



International Air Services 
Transit Agreement 

[Released to the press February 10] 

Canada 

His Excellency L. B. Pearson, Ambassador of 
Canada, on February 10 signed the International 
Air Services Transit Agreement (Two Freedoms) 
for Canada.' 

The Canadian Ambassador informed the Sec- 
retary of State in a note dated February 10 that 
the signature affixed on behalf of the Canadian 
Government to the International Air Services 
Tran