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VOLUME XIII: Numbers 314-340 

July 1-December 30, 1945 



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0. S. SUPERINTENDENT Of DOCUMENTS 

SEP 241946 



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Publication 2592 



INDEX 
Volume XIII: Numbers 314-340, July 1-December 30, 1945 



AACC. See Anglo-American Caribbean Commission. 
Abdul Hall (Regent of Iraq), exchange of telegrams with 

President Truman on departure from U.S., 71. 
Abraham, Herbert J., reports on conference for establish- 
ment of UNESCO, 798, 896. 
Acapulco, Mexico, closing of U.S. Vice Consulate, 419. 
Acheson, Dean : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 
Approval of U.S.-Mexico water treaty by Mexican Sen- 
ate, 498. 
Argentine situation, 552. 
Death of Elie Garcia, 1023. 
Government-citizen cooperation in making foreign 

policy, 893. 
Inter-American conference for maintenance of peace 

and security, suggestion for postponement, 552. 
Iran, U.S. policy in, answer to charges of Ex-Ambassa- 
dor Hurley, 984. 
Italy, democratic, opportunity for rebuilding, 391. 
Labor and international affairs, 467. 
Public affairs, responsibilities of Assistant Secretary 

in charge of, 430. 
St. Lawrence seaway and power project, 529. 
UNRRA, U.S. participation in, 808. 
U.S.-Soviet friendship, problems of security and 
understanding in, 787. 
Appointment as Under Secretary of State: 
Confirmation by Senate, 502. 
Date of taldng oath of office, 310. 
Correspondence : 
Health organization, reply to Brazilian request for 

conference to establish, 639. 
Japanese Government, on atrocities, 352. 
Pan-American Coffee Bureau, on emergency controls 

on coffee, 527. 
Senator Wherry, on U.S. policy toward Japan, 479. 
Participant in radio broadcast, 181, 310. 
Achilles, Theodore C, designation in State Department, 

149. 
Act of Chapultepec, proposed inter-American conference 

to draw up treaty giving permanent form to, 370. 
Adana, Turkey, closing of U.S. Consulate, 72. 
Advisory Committee, Emergency, for Political Defense, 

90, 792. 
Agreements, international. See Treaties. 
Agriculture (see also Food and Agriculture Organization 
of the United Nations ; Inter-American Conference on 
Agriculture) : 
Austrian, U.S. directive regarding, 668. 
Collaboration with the Americas, article by Mr. Moore, 

409. 
German. U.S directive regarding, C02. 
Air Navigation, International Commission for, 294. 
Air services transit agreement, multilateral. See Civil 

aviation. 
Air transport agreement, multilateral. See Civil aviation. 
Air-transport services, bilateral agreement, U.S. with — 
Mexico, conversations on, 537, 628. 
Norway, text, 550. 
Portugal, conclusion, 941. 
Switzerland, conclusion and text, 198, 269. 
Ala, Hussein, credentials as Iranian Ambassador to U.S., 
900. 



Albania : 
Diplomatic relations with U.S., proposed establish- 
ment, 767. 
Mail service to, 942. 
UNRRA, agreement for relief of, 179. 
Alexanderson, George, return from China, 976. 
Algeciras, Act of, conference of parties to, proposed in 
Anglo-French agreement for reestablishtnent of inter- 
national administration of Tangier, 616. 
Alien enemies : 
Disposition of those deported from other American 

republics to U.S., 1061. 
Removal from U.S., proclamations by President Tru- 
man, 107, r 361. 
Alien Enemy Control Section, establishment and functions 

(D.O. 1352), 737. 
Alien Property Custodian, U.S. : 
Disposition of enemy property in Philippines, letter 

from President Truman directing, 690. 
Patents, German-owned, seizure of, discussed by Mr. 
Clayton, 24, 36. 
Aliens : 

Convention on status of, in American states, ratification 

by Peru, 100. 
Visa-control regulations : 
Article by Mr. Earnest, 495. 
Revision of wartime restrictions, 495. 
Alliance, pact of, Siam-Japan (1941), termination by 

Siam, 498. 
Allied Commission in Italy : 
Aide-memoire to Italian Government from President 

(Macmillan) on military armistice, 757. 
Export work of, 228. 
Allied Commission on Reparations (see also Reparation 
conference) : 
Appointment of Mr. Angell as U.S. representative, 688. 
Meeting in Moscow, statement by Mr. Pauley, 308. 
Proposals of Soviet Delegation on Council of Foreign 
Ministers, 566. 
Allied Control Commissions, Potsdam agreement favoring 

revision of procedures, 160. 
Allied Council for Austria: 

Reestablishment of freedom of the press, 612. 
U.S. directive regarding, 662. 
Allied Council for Japan {see also Control Council for 
Japan), establishment by Moscow meeting of Foreign 
Secretaries, 1029. 
Allied Military Government. See Austria; Germany; 

Japan. 
Allied Ministers of Education, part in establishment of 
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural 
Organization, 624. 
Allied Representatives : 

Agreement on certain additional requirements to be 

imposed on Germany, text, 515. 
Surrender of German forces to, orders of Supreme Com- 
mander, 192. 
Ambursen Engineering Corporation, investigation of activi- 
ties in Ecuador, 970. 
American Bar Association, Cincinnati, Ohio, address by 
Mr. Sandifer, 1010. 

1067 



1068 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



American Commission To Negotiate Peace at Paris, 1919, 
review of Foreign Relations volume by Mr. Perkins, 
405. 
American International Institute for the Protection of 

Childhood, 117. 
American Legion Fair, Caruthersville, Mo., address by 

President Truman, 557. 
American Merchant Marine Institute and Propeller Club 

of the U.S., remarks by Mr. Bunn, 637. 
American republics (see also Commissions; Conferences; 
Inter-American system; Pan American Union; Trea- 
ties; and the individual countries) : 
Alien enemies from, disposition by U.S., 1061. 
Axis-dominated business, cooperation in control of, 23. 
Axis economic penetration in, U.S. policy toward, state- 
ment by Mr. Clayton, 21. 
Coffee, emergency controls on, letter from Mr. Acheson 

to Pan-American Coffee Bureau, 527. 
Cultural leaders, exchange of, article by Mr. Colligan, 

366. 
Cultural leaders, visit to U.S., from : 

Argentina, 276; Bolivia, 415, 521; Brazil, 478, 975; 
Ecuador, 702 ; Guatemala, 132 ; Nicaragua, 466 ; 
Venezuela, 100, 490. 
Cultural relations in, article by Mr. Brickell, G96. 
Emergency Advisory Committee tor Political Defense, 

90, 792. 
Foreign-trade reconstruction, address by Mr. Braden, 

793. 
Good-neighbor policy, address by Mr. Braden. 327. 
Inter-American solidarity, note from Uruguayan For- 
eign Minister (Rodriguez Larreta) to other Ameri- 
can republics : 
Statement bv Secretary Byrnes, 892. 
Text, S64. 
Internal affairs, U.S. participation, disapproval, S97, 

970. 
Obligations of, toward the peace, address by Mr. Rocke- 
feller, 285. 
Pan American Book Exposition, 583. 
Post-war inter-American relations : 
Address by Mr. Briggs, 867. 
Article by Mr. Butler, 88. 
Mr. Riddle to visit_scientific centers in, 451. 
Mr. Steinberg to visit engineering schools in, 294. 
Amsterdam, Netherlands, opening of U.S. Consulate Gen- 
eral, 483. 
Anderson, Jack Z. (U.S. Congressman), exchange of let- 
ters with Secretary Byrnes on U.S. foreign policy in 
China, 933. 
Andrew, Warren, to carry on research in Uruguay, 339. 
Andrews, H. T, credentials as Minister of Union of South 

Africa to U.S., 206. 
Angell, James W., appointment as U.S. representative on 
Allied Commission on Reparations for Germany, 
688. 
Anglo-American area committees, 18. 

Anglo-American Caribbean Commission (see also Carib- 
bean Research Council) : 
Appointment of Mr. Bunche as U.S. Commissioner, 326. 
Increase of membership, 54, 1023. 
Publications: 
Report for 1944, 782. 
Tourist trade, 71. 
Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry : 

Composition and functions, statement by President Tru- 
man, 958. 
Dates of meeting, 9G7, 1055. 

Establishment, statement by President Truman, 790. 
Exchange of notes between Secretary Byrnes and Brit- 
ish Ambassador (Halifax), 959. 
Hearings to open in Washington, 1020. 
Members, listed, 958. 
Anglo-American financial and trade negotiations. See 
Financial and trade negotiations, U.S.-U.K. 



Anglo-American petroleum agreement, renegotiation, 385, 

481. 
Anglo-American unity in Argentina, address by Mr. 

Braden, 189. 
Angra do Heroismo, Azores, closing of office of U.S. Mari- 
time Delegate, 874. 
Antoine, Jacques C., credentials as Haitian Ambassador to 

U.S., 700. 
Argentina (see also American republics) : 
Addresses by Mr. Braden, 189, 325, 327. 
Aviation equipment, U.S., release to Argentine pur- 
chasers, 809. 
Conduct during wartime, address by Mr. Rockefeller, 

285. 
Cultural leader, visit to U.S., 276. 
Labor Conference, International, representative refused 

admission, 968. 
Labor unions in, friendly attitude toward U.S., state- 
ment by Mr. Grew, 177. 
Pan American Union, seat on Governing Board, 111. 
Statement by Mr. Acheson on situation in, 552. 
Trea'ies, agreements, etc. : 

Development of southeastern Bolivia, with Bolivia, 

199. 
Establishment of definitive boundary along Pilcomayo 

River, with Paraguay, ratification, 642. 
United Nations Charter, ratification, 487. 
Argentine-American Cultural Institute, address by Mr. 

Braden, 325. 
Armed forces, foreign, in Iran, U.S. proposal for with- 
drawal of: 
Proposal, text, 884. 
Reply of British, 946. 
Reply of U.S.S.R., 034. 
Armed forces, U.S. : 

Czechoslovakia, withdrawal from, 760. 
France, arrangements by French Government concern- 
ing, 282. 
Iran, withdrawal from, 884. 
Armistice, Finnish (1944), protocol to, U.K., Canada, and 

U.S.S.R. (1944), 789. 
Armistice, Italian, texts of documents relating to, 748. 
Armour, Norman, participant in radio broadcast, 1048. 
Armstrong, Elizabeth H, article on Canadian-U.S. co- 
operation, 674. 
Army. U.S., joint mission with UNRRA, visit to Europe, 

382. 
Army and Air Forces, German, orders by Supreme Com- 
mander for surrender of, 192. 
Army-Navy Liquidation Commissioner, office of, transfer 
of functions to State Department and abolishment : 
Departmental Order 1343, 703. 
Executive Order 9630, 492. 
Art, German, removal to U.S., 499. 
Arts and archives in Germany and Austria, U.S. directives 

regarding, 601, 668. 
Asylum, convention on (192S), ratification by Peru, 100. 
Atcheson, George, Jr. : 

Appointment as Acting Political Adviser to General 

MacArthur, 380. 
Criticism by Mr. Hurley of work in China, 882, 931. 
Designation in State Department, 132. 
Atomic energy : 

Commission for control of: 

Address by Secretary Byrnes. 783. 
Establishment proposed at Moscow meeting of For- 
eign Secretaries of U.S., U.K., and U.S.S.R., 1032. 
Declaration bv President of U.S. and Prime Ministers 

of U.K., and Canada, 781. 
Discussion at meeting of Foreign Secretaries in Mos- 
cow, proposed, 935, 954. 
International control of: 

Excerpts from President Truman's message to Con- 
gress, 514. 
Statement by President Truman in report on Potsdam 
conference, 212. 
Atrocities. See Japan. 



INDEX, JULY TO DECEMBER 1945 



1069 



Attestation of international educational character of 

materials, article by Miss Wright, 306. 
Attlee, Clement R. (Prime Minister of Great Britain) : 
Atomic energy, joint declaration with President Truman 

and Canadian Prime Minister King, 781. 
Combined Production and Resources and Combined Raw 
Materials Boards, termination, joint statement with 
Prime Minister King and President Truman, 975. 
Financial and trade negotiations, U.S.-U.K, conclusion, 

statement with President Truman, 905. 
Potsdam conference, participant, 153. 
Visit to U.S. to discuss atomic-energy problems, 714, 766, 
781. 
Attorney General, letter from President Truman recom- 
mending steps to carry out U.S. program of assistance 
to Philippines, 690. 
Australia : 

Far Eastern Advisory Commission, representative on, 

728. 
Far Eastern Commission, delegation to Japan, listed, 

1055. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Civil aviation, air services transit agreement (1944), 

signature and acceptance, 198, 584. 
United Nations Charter, ratification, 817. 
Austria : 

Allied Council: 

Reestnblishment of free press in, 612. 
U.S. directive regarding, 662. 
Control machinery and zones of occupation in, summary 

of agreements concerning, 221. 
Displaced persons in, Mr. Harrison's report on needs and 

conditions of, 456. 
Immigration quotas, proclamation by President Truman, 

465. 
Mail service to displaced persons in U.S. zone, 863. 
Military government, directive to Commander in Chief 

of U.S. forces of occupation regarding, 661. 
Opening of U.S. Mission at Vienna, 483. 
Potsdam declaration concerning, 158. 
Recognition of provisional government, 612. 
Supply arrangements for, discussion by Council of For- 
eign Ministers, 566. 
Travel to, by civilians, prohibited, 733. 
Aviation. See Civil aviation. 
Aviation equipment, U.S., release to Argentine purchasers, 

869. 
Avila Camacho, Manuel (President of Mexico), telegram 
to President Truman regarding exchange of ratifica- 
tions of water treaty and protocol with Mexico, 772. 
Awa Maru (ship) : 

Investigation of sinking, 85. 
Offer by U.S. of ship to replace, 249. 
Axis assets, control of, continuation of Proclaimed and 

Statutory Lists, 900. 
Axis countries. See Germany ; Japan ; Peace treaties. 
Axis criminality. See Prosecution of Axis Criminality. 
Axis-dominated business in American republics, report of 
investigating mission (1943), discussed by Mr. Clay- 
ton, 23. 
Azores : 
Closing of office of U.S. Maritime Delegate at Angra do 

Heroismo, 874. 
Opening of U.S. Consulates at Horta and Ponta Delgada, 
202. 

Baker, George P., designation in State Department, 417, 

452. 
Balkans (see also individual countries) , investigation of 

conditions in, appointment of Mark Ethridge as U.S. 

representative, 583. 
Ballantine, Joseph W., designation in State Department, 

502. 
Bank, International, for Reconstruction and Development. 

See Bretton Woods agreements. 



Bannerman, Robert L., designation in State Department, 

40. 
Barnes, Maynard B., U.S. Political Representative in Bul- 
garia, communication to Bulgarian Government re- 
garding free elections, 791. 
Barnet, John W., article on tin in Far East, 401. 
Barter agreements, Iraq with Lebanon, Palestine, and 

Syria, 584. 
Bases, U.S. naval and air, in Newfoundland, statement by 

Mr. Grew, 37. 
Basic libraries, international exchange program of State 

Department, 1009. 
Bastille Day, statement by President Truman, 83. 
Batavia, Java, opening of U.S. Consulate General, 741. 
Batt, William L., appointment as chairman of Inter-Agency 

Policy Committee on Rubber, 413. 
Begg, John, designation in State Department, 1063. 
Belgium : 
Agreements, etc. : 

Civil aviation, air services transit agreement (1944), 

acceptance, 198. 
Reestablishment of international regime in Tangier 
(final act of conference of experts on Tangier), 
adherence, 613. 
Civilian-supply needs, investigation by Rosenman mis- 
sion, 55. 
Financial and supply problems : 
Arrangements with U.S., 610. 
Discussions with U.S., 446. 
Independence Day, message from President Truman, 

128. 
Parcel-post service, restoration, 54. 
Rhine River, International Commission of, meeting, 957. 
Bellquist, Eric, designation in State Department, 1063. 
Benton, William : 

Addresses, statements, etc. 5 
Public Affairs, Assistant Secretary in charge of, re- 
sponsibilities, 430. 
UNESCO, 548. 

U.S. international information program, 589, 712, 1045. 
Confirmation as Assistant Secretary of State, 417. 
Letter to Mr. Porter, Federal Communications Commis- 
sion, releasing broadcasting frequencies, 689. 
Participant in radio broadcasts, 947, 987. 
Bergson, Abram, designation in State Department, 705. 
Berle, Adolf A., Jr., exchange of notes with Brazilian 
Foreign Minister on new Brazilian administration, 
870. 
Berlin, act of military surrender of Germany signed at, 

106. 
Berlin conference. See Potsdam conference. 
Bermuda, cancellation of wartime passport regulations, 

376. 
Bermuda conference. See Telecommunications. 
Bevin, Ernest : 

Foreign Secretaries, U.S., U.K., and U.S.S.R., meeting 

in Moscow, text of report, 1027. 
Tripartite Conference of Berlin, participant, 153. 
Biddle, Francis, appointment as U.S. member of Interna- 
tional Military Tribunal, 401. 
Bingham, Jonathan, designation in State Department, 814. 
Blacklist. See Blocked Nationals. 
Blocked Nationals, Proclaimed List : 
Continuation of, for control of Axis and pro-Axis firms 

and foreign assets, 900. 
Effectiveness, discussed by Mr. Clayton, 25, 29. 
Finnish names, deletion, 766. 
Revision IX : 

Cumulative Supplements 5, 7, 8 : 143, 701, 900. 
Non-cumulative Supplement 6: 417. 
Boal, Pierre de L., appointment as U.S. member of Emer- 
gency Advisory Committee for Political Defense, 792. 
Boardman, Francis, article on Middle East Supply Center, 

994. 
Boards. See Commissions. 



1070 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Bolivia (see also American republics) : 
Cultural leaders, visit to U.S., 415, 521. 
Development of southeastern Bolivia, agreement with 
Argentina, 199. 
Book Exposition, Pan American, 583. 
Booty. See Loot. 

Boundaries, international (see also Zones of Occupation) : 
Argentina-Paraguay, ratification of treaty establishing 

definitive boundary along Pilcomayo River, 642. 
Italian : 

Letter from Foreign Minister de Gasperi to Secretary 

Byrnes on peace treaty, 762. 
Views of Council of Foreign Ministers, 565. 
Poland, western boundary, agreement reached at Pots- 
dam conference, 159. 
Boykin, Samuel D., designation in State Department, 650. 
Braden, Spruille: 
Addresses : 

Argentina, 189, 325, 327. 

Foreign-trade reconstruction in the Americas, 793. 
Inter-American system, 093. 
Need for continued alertness, 658. 
U.S. obligation of leadership, 1016. 
Yale University, 1007. 
Appointment as Assistant Secretary of State, 291, 705, 

714. 
Appointment as member of Board of Foreign Service 
Personnel and Board of Examiners for the Foreign 
Service, 814. 
Brazil (see also American republics) : 
Cultural leaders, visit to U.S., 47S, 975. 
Health organization, request for conference to estab- 
lish, 639. 
New administration in : 

Exchange of notes between Brazilian Foreign Min- 
ister (Velloso) and U.S. Ambassador (Berle), 
870. 
U.S. Ambassador instructed to carry on normal rela- 
tions, 734. 
Presidential inauguration, U.S. Delegation to, 1061. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Commercial modus Vivendi, with Venezuela (1940), re- 
newal, 966. 
Shipping, continuance of control for United Nations 

purposes (1944), accession, 70. 
United Nations Charter, ratification, 487. 
Visiting professors from U.S., 83, 126. 
Bretton Woods agreements (1944) : 
International Monetary Fund : 
Discussed by Mr. Bunn, 637. 

Relation to proposed International Trade Organiza- 
tion, 923. 
Signing: 
Arrangements for, 934, 069, 1019. 
Ceremonies and list of signers, 1058. 
Statement by Secretary of the Treasury Vinson, 1059. 
Bretton Woods Conference, effectiveness of resolution VI 
respecting enemy assets and loot, discussed by Mr. 
Clayton, 26, 32. 
Brickell, Herschel : 
Article on cultural relations in South America, 696. 
Designation in State Department, 1063. 
Briggs, Ellis O. : 
Address on post-war inter American relations, 807. 
Designation in State Department, 705. 
British Chamber of Commerce in the Argentine Republic, 
Buenos Aires, Argentina, address by Mr. Braden, 189. 
British loan. See Financial and trade negotiations. 
British Statutory List. See Blocked Nationals, Proclaimed 

List. 
Brophy, Gerald B., appointment as U.S. representative on 

Interim Council of PICAO, 290. 
Brown, Courtney C, article on the Combined Boards, 17. 



Brown, Walter: 
Designation in State Department, 52. 
Resignation as Special Assistant to Secretary Byrnes, 
901. 
Brown, Winthrop G, designation in State Department, 229. 
Brunauer, Esther C., article on International Council of 

Scientific Unions, 371. 
Budget and Finance, Office of, establishment (D.O. 1359), 

976. 
Buehrig, Edward H., article on Security Council, 825. 
Bulgaria : 
Allied Control Commisison in, revision of procedures 

favored by Potsdam conference, 160. 
Entry of U.S. correspondents into, 283. 
Foreign Secretaries, U.S., U.K., U.S.S.R., advice to, 1031. 
National elections : 

Communication from U.S. Political Representative 

(Barnes), to Bulgarian Government, 791. 
Postponement, statement by Secretary Byrnes, 283. 
Peace treaty with Allies : 

Conclusion of, statement by Secretary Byrnes regard- 
ing U.S. views, 274. 
Council of Foreign Ministers, consideration of, 509, 

566. 
Procedure for preparation, agreement at Moscow 

meeting of Foreign Secretaries, 1027. 
Requested by Potsdam conference, 159. 
Bunche, Ralph J. : 
Appointment as U.S. Commissioner of Anglo-American 

Caribbean Commission, 326. 
Article on trusteeship and non-self-governing territories 
in the United Nations Charter, 1037. 
Bunn, Charles : 

Designation in State Department, 874. 
Remarks on financial arrangements favorable to Inter- 
national trade, 637. 
Burma, opening of U.S. Consulate General at Rangoon, 814. 
Burma theater, accommodations for civilian travel to, 942. 
Burnett. Philip M., article on international control of nar- 
cotics, 570. 
Burns, Norman, designation in State Department, 977. 
Burton, Robert R„ article on third inter-American radio- 
communications conference, 735. 
Businessmen, U.S., authorization to enter Philippines, 250. 
Butler, George H. : 
Article on inter-American relations after World War II, 

88. 
Designation in State Department, 814. 
Byrnes, James F. : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Appointment of Mr. Braden as Assistant Secretary of 

State, 291. 
Bulgaria, conclusion of peace treaty with, 274. 
Bulgaria, elections in, postponement, 283. 
China, U.S. foreign policy toward. 930. 
Council of Foreign Ministers, 507, 513. 
Criticism of Foreign Service and State Department 

by Mr. Hurley, 882, 930. 
Mr. Dunn to return from London, 699. 
Far Eastern Advisory Commission, 545, 728. 
Finland, diplomatic relations with, proposed renewal, 

283. 
Foreign Secretaries, U.S., U.K., U.S.S.R., meeting 

in Moscow, 954, 1027, 1033. 
Friendship treaty between U.S.S.R. and China, 333. 
Full-employment bill of 1945, 279. 
German reparation settlement and peacetime economy, 

964. 
Greek elections, observation of, appointment of Mr. 

Grady as President's representative, 611. 
Inter-American solidarity, Uruguayan note on, 892. 
Japan, surrender, signing of terms, 300. 
Lend-lease, 332. 
Montreux convention, U.S. principles for revision of, 

766. 
Neighboring nations in one world, 709. 



INDEX, JULY TO DECEMBER 1945 



1071 



Byrnes, James P.— Continued 
Addresses, statements, etc. — Continued 
Palestine, U.S. attitude toward, 623. 
Pearl Harbor investigation and Cordell Hull, 357, 161. 
Rumania, attitude of U.S. toward formation of new 

government in, 280. 
Soviet claim to Kurile Islands and Sakhalin, 370. 
Soviet declaration of war on Japan, 207. 
United Nations Charter, entry into force, 680. 
U.S. policy toward Spain, 284. 
U.S.-Thai relations, 261. 
Visit of Mr. Ethridge to Moscow, 767. 
Visit of President Rios of Chile to U.S., 569. 
World cooperation, 783. 
Announcement of resignation of Mr. Brown as Special 

Assistant, 901. 
Appointment and confirmation as Secretary of State, 15, 

45. 
Correspondence : 

Congressman Anderson, on U.S. foreign policy in 

China, 933. 
Anniversaries: 

Japanese attack on China (8th), message to Mr. 

Soong, 70. 
Tehran conference (2d), exchange of telegrams with 
Iranian Foreign Minister (Nadjm), 941. 
British Ambassador (Halifax), on Anglo-American 

Committee of Inquiry, 959. 
Chairman of Far Eastern Commission (McCoy), on 

visit to Japan, 898. 
Foreign Service, tribute to, 1015. 
Mr. Grew, on resignation as Under Secretary of State, 

271. 
Mr Holmes, on resignation as Assistant Secretary of 
State, 272. 

^ Italian Foreign Minister (de Gasperi), on Italian 
peace treaty, 765. 
Mr. MacLeish, on resignation as Assistant Secretary 

' of State, 273. 
Mexican Foreign Minister (Castille Najera), on water 

treaty and protocol with Mexico. 772. 
Petroleum Administrator for War (Ickes), on assign- 
ment of petroleum attaches abroad, 894. 
Polish Foreign Minister (Ryzymowski), on establish- 
ment of diplomatic relations, 48. 
Mr. Rockefeller, resignation as Assistant Secretary of 

State, 291. 
Mr. Service, on vindication in misuse of secret docu- 
ments, 295. 
Swiss Charge (Grassli), on surrender of Japan, 205, 

255. 
Whaling, international agreement for regulation of 
(1937), as amended, supplementary protocol 
amending, report to President Truman, 872. 
Yugoslavia, recognition of new regime, instructions 
to U.S. Ambassador, 1020. 
Election as chairman of Governing Board of Pan Ameri- 
can Union, 111. 
Financial and trade negotiations, with U.K.: 

Foreword to publication containing U.S. proposals for 

expansion of world trade and employment, 913. 
Remarks on conclusion of agreement, 910. 
Oath of office as Secretary of State, 45. 
Potsdam conference, participant, 153. 

Cadogan, Alexander, invitation to U.S. to send delegates 
to educational and cultural conference in London, 624. 
Canada: 
Atomic energy, joint declaration by Prime Ministers of 

U.K. and Canada and President of U.S., 781. 
Combined Boards, decision to maintain, 333. 
Cooperation with U.S. in war and peace, article by Miss 

Armstrong, 674. 
Customs procedures with U.S., plans to simplify, 1022. 
Far Eastern Advisory Commission, representative on, 
728. 



Canada — Continued 
Far Eastern Commission, delegation to Japan, listed, 

1055. 
Great Lakes fisheries conference, participation, with 

U.S., 452. 
Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Waterway project, 489, 528, 

715. 
Travel to and from U.S., regulations pertaining to, 149. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Armistice with Finland (1944), protocol to, with U.K. 

and U.S.S.R. (1944), 789. 
Extradition, with U.S. (1942) transmittal of protocol 

to U.S. Senate, 814. 
United Nations Charter, ratification, 817. 
Canton, China, opening of U.S. Consulate, 902. 
Cape Spartel Lighthouse Commission, International, 616. 
Carey, Jane Perry Clark, article on displaced populations 

in Japan, 530. 
Caribbean Commission. See Anglo-American Caribbean 

Commission. 
Caribbean Research Council, meeting of Forestry Sub- 
committee of Research Committee on Agriculture, 
Nutrition, Fisheries, and Forestry, 737. 
"Caribbean Tourist Trade— A Regional Approach", pub- 
lication of Anglo-American Caribbean Commission, 

Carnegie Endowment Conference, Washington, remarks 
by Mr. Acheson, 893. 

Carr, William G., appointment on secretariat of educa- 
tional and cultural conference, 686. 

f 1 T 1*1" p\ ^> ' 

German participation in, U.S. policy toward, statement 

by Mr. Clayton, 33. 
Restrictions to world trade and employment, U.b. pro- 
posals for release from, 916. 
Castillo NAjera, Francisco (Mexican Foreign Minister, 
former Ambassador to U.S.) : 
Remarks on meeting of diplomatic corps on defeat of 

Japan, 256. 
Telegram to Secretary Byrnes regarding exchange of 
ratifications of water treaty and protocol with 
Mexico, 772. 
Castro, Hector David, credentials as Salvadoran Am- 
bassador to U.S., 206. _ 
Central America. See American republics and the indi- 
vidual countries. 
Central Park, New York, N.Y., address by President Tru- 
man, 653. 
Central Services, Division of, functions (D.O. 1354), 740. 
Chapin, Selden, participant in radio broadcast, 1048. 
Charter of the United Nations : 

Action taken on, as of Nov. 16, 1945, 818. 
Approval by Senate, statements by Cordell Hull and Mr. 
Grew, 138. . , 

Secretary Byrnes, statement on signing of protocol or 

deposit of ratifications, 680. 
Covenant of League of Nations, comparison with, arti- 
cle by Mr. Eagleton, 263. 
Discussed by Secretary Stettinius in summary of report 

to President Truman, 78. 
Entry into force, 680. 
International Court of Justice, provisions relating to, 

article by Mr. Hackworth, 216. 
Printing and binding, 11. 
Protocol of deposit of ratifications, text, 679. 
Radio broadcast concerning, 181. 
Ratification, deposit of instruments, dates of, 10o7. 
Ratification and deposit of instrument of ratification 

Ratifications : Argentina, 487 : Australia, 817 ; Brazil, 
487- Canada, 817; Chile, 581; China, 513: Colombia, 
817- Costa Rica, 817; Cuba, 626; Czechoslovakia, 
626 : Denmark, 581; Dominican Republic, 360; 
Egypt, 679; El Salvador, 117, 487; France, 301; 
Greece 723 ; Guatemala, 941 ; Haiti, 581 ; Honduras, 



1072 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Char-tor of the United Nations — Continued 
Ratifications — Continued 

1019; India, 723; Iran, 626; Lebanon, t;20: Liberia, 
817; Luxembourg, 620 ; Mexico, 817; Netherlands. 
969; New Zealand, 440: Nicaragua. 57, 360; Nor- 
way, 941; Paraguav, 581; Peru, 723; Philippines, 
581; Poland, 679; Saudi Arabia, C26; Syria, 627; 
Turkey, 513 ; Union of South Africa, 817 ; U.S.S.R., 
679; U.K., 627; Uruguay, 1019; Yugoslavia, 626. 
Signatories, listed, 239. 
Signature at San Francisco conference: 
Order of delegations signing, 11. 
President Truman, address, 3. 
Secretary Stettinius, statements, 11, 14. 
Signature by Poland, 574, 627. 
Mr. Stettinius, statement on entry into force, 680. 
Transmittal to Senate, message of President Tru- 
man, 46. 
Trusteeship and non-self-governing territories in, arti- 
cle hy Mr. Bunche, 1037. 
Charts. See Maps and charts. 

Chiang Kai-shek, Generalissimo, message from President 
Truman on 34th anniversary of Republic of China, 
581. 
Chiefs of Staff Combined, 18. 
Child, Charles J. : 

Address on cultural cooperation with U.S.S.R., 815. 
Article on cultural cooperation at San Francisco con- 
ference, 139. 
Chile (sec also American republics) : 

Training of Chilean students in U.S., program of 

Chilean Development Corporation, 39. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Commercial, with U.S., conclusion, 188. 

Commercial modus Vivendi, with Venezuela (1941), 

renewal, 9C6. 
Military service, reciprocal, with U.S., 70. 
Shipping, continuance of control for United Nations 

purposes (1944), accession, 191. 
United Nations Charter, ratification, 581. 
Visit of President Rios to U.S., 568, 648. 
China (see also Far East) : 

Mr. Alexanderson, return from, 976. 
Anniversary (34th) of Republic: 
Message from President Truman to Generalissimo 

Chiang Kai-shek, 581. 
Statement by President Truman, 581. 
Appointment of Mr. Locke as President's Personal Rep- 
resentative to, 497. 
Council of Foreign Ministers. 1st meeting, participants 

listed, 392. 
Displaced persons in Japan, 531. 
Far Eastern Advisory Commission : 

Adjournment, motion for, presented by Chinese rep- 
resentative, 729. 
Representative on, 643, 728. 
Terms of reference, text, 561. 
Far Eastern Commission, delegation to Japan, listed, 

1055. 
Foreign civilians in Shanghai, departure aboard "La- 
vaca", 733. 
Foreign Secretaries, U.S., U.K., and U.S.S.R., discussion 

of situation in, 1031. 
Health organization, request for conference to establish, 

638. 
Japanese attack, 8th anniversary, messages from Presi- 
dent Truman and Secretary Byrnes, 70. 
Japanese surrender, U.S. assistance in effecting, 812. 
Postal regulations for mail to, 622. 

Potsdam proclamation defining terms for Japanese sur- 
render, text, 137. 
Mr. Reck, return from, 733. 
Repatriation of U.S. citizens from Shanghai, 585. 



China — Continued 

Mr. Soong, arrival in U.S., 262. 
Treaties : 

Extraterritorial rights, with Sweden, entry into force, 

197. 
Friendship, with Costa Rica (1944), exchange of rati- 
fications, 99. 
Friendship, with U.S.S.R., statement by Secretary 

Byrnes, 333. 
United Nations Charter, ratification, 513. 
UNCIO, remarks by Mr. Koo at conclusion of, 7. 
U.S. Ambassador (Hurley) : 
Resignation, 882. 
Return to, 585. 
U.S. Ambassador (Marshall), appointment, 883. 
U.S. consular offices, opening, announcement concerning, 

448. 
U.S. consular offices, opening: Canton, 902; Tsingtao, 
977; Hankow, 977; Hong Kong, 636; Shanghai, 450, 
774 ; Tientsin, 5S6, 1023. 
U.S. policy toward : 

Exchange of letters between Congressman Anderson 

and Secretary Byrnes, 933. 
Statement by Secretary Byrnes, 930. 
Statement by President Truman, 945. 
U.S. Foreign Service in, criticism by Mr. Hurley, com- 
ments by Secretary Byrnes, 882, 930. 
Churchill, Winston S., participant in Potsdam conference, 

153. 
Cienfuegos, Cuba, closing of U.S. Consulate, 295. 
CINA, 2Sth plenary session, 294. 
Citizens, U.S. See United States citizens. 
Civil Aeronautics Board, resignation of Mr. Warner, ex- 
change of letters with President Truman, 414. 
Civil Affairs Committee, Combined, 18, 127. 
Civil aviation {see also Provisional International Civil 
Aviation Organization) : 
CINA, 28th plenary session, 294. 

Resignation of Mr. Warner from Civil Aeronautics 
Board, exchange of letters with President Truman, 
414. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Action taken on documents signed at Chicago, status 

as of Nov. 23, 1945 : 873. 
Air services transit agreement (1944), action on : Aus- 
tralia, 198, 584; Belgium, 198; Greece, 584; Iraq, 
198 ; Luxembourg, 198 ; Paraguay, 198 ; Spain 584 ; 
Switzerland, 199; Syria, 199; Union of South 
Africa, 969. 
Air transport agreement (1944), action on: Nether- 
lands, 5S4; Paraguay, 198; Syria, 199. 
Air-transport services, bilateral agreements, U.S., 
with — 
Mexico, conversations on, 537, 628. 
Norway, text, 550. 
Portugal, conclusion, 941. 
Switzerland, conclusion, 19S. 
Switzerland, text, 269. 
Convention (1944), signature: Luxembourg, 198; Par- 
aguay, 198; Switzerland, 199. 
Interim agreement (1944), acceptance: Greece, 584; 
Luxembourg, 198 ; Paraguay, 198 ; Spain, 584 ; 
Sweden, 198; Switzerland, 199; Syria, 199; Union 
of South Africa, 969. 
Interim arrangements, with France, exchange of notes, 

1059. 
Sanitary convention for aerial navigation. See Sani- 
tary. 
Civil aviation international conference, status of docu- 
ments concluded at, as of Nov. 23, 1945: 873. 
Civilian internees. See Prisoners of war. 
Civilian travel in Europe, areas designated for, 142. 
Civilian-supply needs in Europe, Rosenman mission to 
survey, article by Mr. Merchant, 55. 



INDEX, JULY TO DECEMBER 1945 



1073 



Claims convention, with Mexico (1941) : 
Payment by Mexico of instalment due under, S71. 
Payment by Mexico of instalment due under exchange 
of notes implementing, concerning compensation for 
expropriation of petroleum properties (1043), 553. 
Clayton, William L. : 
Designation as U.S. member of UNRRA Council, by 

President Truman, 62. 
Designation in State Department, 585. 
Participant in radio broadcast, 629. 
Remarks : 

Financial and trade discussions, U.K.-U.S., U.S. objec- 
tives, 580. 
World trade and employment, U.S. proposals for ex- 
pansion, 912. 
Statements before Congress : 

Security against renewed German aggression, 21. 
UNRRA, U.S. participation in, 809. 
UNRRA appropriation estimate, 575. 
Wool market, effect on foreign economic relations, 837. 
World trade and employment, expansion, letter to Sec- 
retary Byrnes transmitting U.S. proposals, 914. 
Coal: 
European Coal Organization, article by Mr. Jackson, 879. 
U.S., for liberated areas of Europe, ISO. 
Coal Mining Committee of ILO, 969. 
Code of Federal Regulations: 
Removal of alien enemies, 107. 
Travel between U.S. and Canada, Newfoundland, or 

Labrador, 149. 
Visa regulations, wartime, 131. 
Codification of international law, address by Mr. Hack- 
worth, 1000. 
Coffee : 
Emergency controls on, letter from Mr. Acheson to Pan- 
American Coffee Bureau, 527. 
Inter-American agreement (1941), Executive Order 
9612 amending Executive Order 8902, 400. 
Cohen. Benjamin V. : 
Confirmation as Counselor of Department of State, 417. 
Designation in State Department, 52. 
Collado, Emilio G., designation in State Department, 705, 

1063. 
Collective action among American republics for reestab- 
lishment of essential rights, Larreta doctrine con- 
cerning, 864, 892. 
Colligan, Francis J., article on exchange of cultural 

leaders in Western Hemisphere, 366. 
Colombia (see also American republics) : 
Ambassador to U.S. (Sanz de Santamaria), credentials, 

417. 
United Nations Charter, ratification, 817. 
Visiting professor from U.S., 20. 
Combined Boards: 
Article by Mr. Brown, 17. 
Decision to maintain, 333. 

Termination of Production and Resources and Raw Ma- 
terials Boards. 975. 
Combined Chiefs of Staff, 18. 
Combined Civil Affairs Committee, 18, 127. 
Combined Displaced Persons Executive, 455, 464. 
Combined Food Board, 18, 333. 

Combined Production and Resources Board, 18, 323 975. 
Combined Raw Materials Board, 17, 333, 975. 
Combined Shipping Adjustment Board, 17. 
Combines. See Cartels. 
Commerce. See trade. 
Commerce, Department of : 

International commercial relations, cooperation with 

State Department regarding, 627. 
Representation of U.S. on Combined Raw Materials 
Board, 18. 
Commerce, internal, U.S. directives regarding, in — 
Austria, 668. 
Germany, 602. 



Commercial activities of the Foreign Service, advisory 

committee on, first meeting, 773. 
Commercial agreement with Chile, conclusion, 188. 
Commercial modi Vivendi, Venezuela and — 
Brazil (1940), renewal, 966. 
Chile (1941), renewal, 966. 
Commissions, committees, etc. (see also name of commis- 
sion; Preparatory Commission of the United Nations ; 

United Nations; United Nations organizations) : 
International : 

Advisory Committee, Emergency, for Political De- 
fense, 90, 792. 

Air Navigation (CINA), 294. 

Allied Commission in Italy, 228, 757. 

Allied Control Commissions in Rumania, Bulgaria, 
and Hungary, 160. 

Allied Council for Austria, 612, 662. 

Allied Council for Japan, 1029. 

Allied Ministers of Education, 624. 

American Commission To Negotiate Peace at Paris 
(1919), review of Foreign Relations volume, 405. 

Anglo-American Caribbean Commission, 54, 71, 326, 
737, 782, 1023. 

Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry, 790, 958, 967, 
1020, 1055. 

Cape Spartel Lighthouse Commission, 616. 

Caribbean Research Council, 737. 

Chief Prosecutors for the investigation and prosecu- 
tion of major war criminals, 301. 

Coal Organization, European, 879. 

Combined Boards, 17, 127, 333, 455, 464, 725, 975. 

Committee of Control of Tangier, 613. 

Control Council in Germany, 20. 154, 596, 725, 937. 

Council of Foreign Ministers, 153, 159, 209, 376, 392, 
507, 513, 564. 

Emergency Advisory Committee for Political De- 
fense, 90, 792. 

Emergency Economic Committee for Europe, 305, 724, 
882. 

European Advisory Commission, 154, 221. 

Far Eastern Advisory Commission, 545, 561, 580, 643, 
645, 689, 769, 898, 967. 

Far Eastern Commission, 1019, 1028, 1033, 1055. 

Foreign Petroleum Requirements Committee, 175. 

Inland Transport Committee of ILO, 968, 1018. 

Inter-American Commission of Women, 113, 114. 

Inter-American Defense Board, 90, 96. 

Inter-American Development Commission, 90. 

Inter-American Economic and Social Council, 386. 

Inter-American Financial and Economic Advisory 
Committee (see also under Inter-American Eco- 
nomic and Social Council), 90. 

Inter-American Juridical Committee, 90. 

Intergovernmental Committee on Refugees, 14, 53, 
128, 455, C07. 

Joint Commission, U.S.-Soviet, in Korea, 1030. 

Jurists, Committee of, 473. 

Labor Organization, International, 470, 768, 968, 969, 
1018. 

Military Tribunal, International, 222, 301, 404, 4S8, 
595, 850. 

Petroleum Commission, 173. 

Political Defense, Emergency Advisory Committee 
for, 90, 792. 

Provisional International Civil Aviation Organiza- 
tion, 108, 289, 290. 

Reparations, Allied Commission on, 308, 566, 688. 

Rhine River, International Commission of, 957, 1019. 

Rubber Study Group, second meeting, 769, 840. 

Scientific Unions, International Council of, 371, 967. 

UNRRA, 52, 62, 128, 142. 178. 215, 276, 318. 359, 38L 
382, 385, 396, 428, 459, 462, 464, 546, 575, 577, 578, 
628, 629, 725, 807. 



703207—46- 



1074 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Commissions, committees, etc — Continued 
National : 

Commercial activities of the Foreign Service, Ad- 
visory Committee on, 773. 

Inter-Agency Policy Committee on Rubber, 413. 

Interdepartmental Committee on Cultural and Scien- 
tific Cooperation, 377, 409, 447. 

State-War-Navy Coordinating Committee, 645, 661, 
745. 

Trade Promotion and Protection, Advisory Commit- 
tee for, 436. 
Commodities Division. See International Resources 

Division. 
Commodities-exchange agreement, U.S.S.R. and Hungary, 

698. 
Communications. See Telecommunications. 
Communications and Records, Division of, reestablish- 

ment (D.O. 1354), 740. 
Compulsory jurisdiction and the International Court of 

Justice, article by Mr. Preuss, 471. 
Conferences, congresses, etc., international (see also name 
of conference) : 

Agriculture, inter-American conferences on, 58, 61. 

Allied Ministers of Education, London, 165. 624, 798. 

Council of Foreign Ministers, 1st meeting, 376, 392, 
507, 513, 564. 

Crimea, 47. 

Discussions on draft constitution for educational and 
cultural organization, 548. 

Educational and cultural, 407, 548, 624. 686, 79S, 896. 

Financial and trade discussions, U.S.-U.K., 395, 512, 
580, 905. 

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United 
Nations, 1st conference, 323, 404, 522. 619. 686, 
726. 

Foreign Secretaries, U.S., U.K., and U.S.S.R., meeting 
in Moscow, 935, 954, 96S, 1018, 1027, 1033. 1055. 

Geodesy and geophysics, 967, 1018. 

Great Lakes fisheries conference, 452, 

Inter-Allied conference on international scientific or- 
ganizations (1918), 371. 

Inter-American conference for maintenance of peace 
and security, 376, 552. 

Inter-American conference on problems of war and 
peace, 26, 32, 93, 112. 

Inter-American congress of social service, 290. 

Inter-American radio communications conference, 
third, 292, 735. 

International conference of American states (192S), 
100. 

Labor Organization, International, 470, 768, 968, 969, 
1018. 

Maritime preparatory technical conference, 768, 969. 

Meeting of Forestry Subcommittee of Research Com- 
mittee on Agriculture, Nutrition, Fisheries, and 
Forestry of Caribbean Research Council, 737. 

Ministers for Foreign Affairs of the American Repub- 
lics, 23, 90. 

Opthalmology congress, second Pan American, S71. 

Paris peace conference (1919), 405. 

Petroleum agreement, U.S.-U.K., conversations on re- 
negotiation, 385, 481. 

Potsdam conference, 137, 153, 208. 

Preparatory Commission of the United Nations, 206, 
361, 417, 437, 487, 559, 562, 626, 680, 720, 769, 839, 
938, 968, 1019, 1055. 

Press conference, 4th inter-American, 797. 

Reparation, 309, 967, 1018, 1055. 

Rhine River, International Commission of, 1st meet- 
ing, 957, 1019. 

Rubber Study Group, 2d meeting, 769, 8-10. 

Tangier, conference of experts on, 380, 613. 



Conferences, congresses, etc., international — Continued 
Tehran, conference, 941. 

Telecommunications, U.S.-U.K., 649, 862, 971. 
Trade and employment, proposed, 912. 
Trade negotiations, proposed, 970. 
United Nations conference on international organiza- 
tion, 3, 77, 139, 334, 475, 1037. 
Whaling conference, 969. 
Congress, U.S. : 

Criticism of Foreign Service and State Department by 

Mr. Hurley, 882, 930. 
Criticism of Mr. Acheson's conduct of U.S. policy in 

Iran, 984. 
Full-employment bill of 1945, statement by Secretary 

Byrnes, 279. 
Great Lakes — St. Lawrence Waterway project : 
Article by Mr. Miller, 715. 
Exchange of telegrams between President Truman and 

Governor Dewey, 489. 
Message from President recommending approval, and 
statement by Mr. Acheson, 52S. 
House Appropriations Committee, Deficiency Subcom- 
mittee, statement by Mr. Clayton on UNRRA ap- 
propriation, 575. 
House Appropriations Committee, statement by Mr. Ben- 
ton on international information service, 503. 
House Foreign Affairs Committee: 

Statement by Mr. Benton on international information 

service, 589. 
Statements by Mr. Acheson and Mr. Clayton on U.S. 
participation in UNRRA, 808. 
Italy, U.S. policy toward new government, letter from 

Mr. Grew to Congressman Johnson, 87. 
Joint Committee on Investigation of Pearl Harbor At- 
tack, 773, 871. 
Legislation, listed, 41, 73, 101, 133, 150, 251, 295, 388, 418, 
502. 554, 586, 649, 702, 741, 774, 820, 874, 901, 977, 
1023, 1065. 
Messages from President : 

Atomic energy, international control of, 514. 
Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Waterway project, 528. 
Reconversion, 359. 

United Nations Charter, transmittal, 46. 
Universal military training, recommendations for, 659. 
UNRRA, U.S. participation in, 807. 
Pearl Harbor attack, investigation of, 773, 871. 
Publications. See Legislation, supra. 
Security against renewed German aggression, statement 
by Mr. Clayton before subcommittee of Senate Mili- 
tary Affairs Committee, 21. 
Senate Banking and Currency Committee, statement by 

Secretary Byrnes on full-employment bill, 279. 
Senate confirmation of nomination of Mr. McNutt as 

U.S. High Commissioner to Philippines, 393. 
Senate Foreign Relations Committee: 
Criticism of Foreign Service and State Department by 
Mr. Hurley, statement by Secretary Byrnes, 930. 
Criticism of Mr. Acheson's conduct of U.S. policy in 
Iran bv Mr. Hurley, testimony by Mr. Acheson, 
9S4. 
Senate Military Affairs Committee, subcommittee of, 
statement by Mr. Clayton on security against re- 
newed German aggression, 21. 
Senate Special Committee to Investigate Production, 
Transportation, and Marketing of Wool, statement 
by Mr. Clayton, 837. 
Survey of Foreign Service establishments by Congress- 
men, letters to Congressman Rabaut from Secretary 
Stettinius and Mr. Grew. 201. 
United Nations, U.S. representatives to, approval of 

appointment, 1019. 
United Nations Charter, Senate approval, 138. 



INDEX, JULY TO DECEMBER 1945 



1075 



Congress, U. S — Continued 
UNRRA: 

Appropriation, letter from President Truman and 
statement by Mr. Clayton before Deficiency Sub- 
committee of House Appropriations Committee, 
575. 
Transmittal of third and fourth quarterly reports by 

President Truman, 52, 577. 
U.S. participation: 

Message from President Truman, 807. 
Statements by Mr. Acheson and Mr. Clayton before 
House Foreign Affairs Committee, 808. 
U.S. foreign policy : 
China : 

Criticism by Mr. Hurley, 8S2, 930. 
Exchange of letters between Congressman Anderson 
and Secretary Byrnes, 933. 
Iran, criticism by Mr. Hurley of Mr. Acheson's con- 
duct of, 984. 
Poland, exchange of letters between Senator Vanden- 

berg and Mr. Grew, 109. 
Trends in, exchange of letters between Congressmen 
and Mr. Grew, 49. 
Wool market, effect on foreign economic relations, state- 
ment by Mr. Clayton before Senate Special Com- 
mittee to Investigate Production, Transportation, 
and Marketing of Wool, 837. 
Consular agents, convention on (1928), ratification by 

Peru, 100. 
Consular offices. See Foreign Service. 
Control Committee of Tangier : 

Administration of international zone, 613. 
U.S. representatives on, 613. 
Control Council for Germany : 

Appointment of Mr. Fahy as Director of Legal Division 
of U.S. Group, and of Mr. Madden and Mr. Phleger 
as advisers, 20. 
Directive to Commander in Chief of U.S. forces of occu- 
pation regarding military government of Germany, 
596. 
Statement by President Truman at raising of U.S. flag 

over U.S. Group headquarters in Berlin, 107. 
Supreme authority for political and economic principles 
governing treatment of Germany in initial control 
period, 154. 
Transfer of German populations, approval of plan, 937. 
Control Council for Japan (see also Allied Council for 
Japan), Soviet position regarding proposed establish- 
ment, comments by Secretary Byrnes, 692. 
Control machinery in Austria, agreement between U.K., 

U.S., U.S.S.R., and France, summary of text, 221. 
Control of Germany : 

Certain additional requirements to be imposed on Ger- 
many, agreement between U.S., U.S.S.R., France, and 
U.K., text, 515. 
Discussed by Council of Foreign Ministers, 566. 
Conventions. See Conferences ; Treaties. 
Cook, Richard F., designation in State Department, 740. 
Cooperation for peace, address by President Truman, 557. 
Cooperative education, agreement between U.S. and El 

Salvador, 100. 
Correspondents, U.S., entry into — - 
Bulgaria, 2S3. 
Hungary, 451. 
Poland, 283, 451. 
Costa Rica (see also American republics) : 
Treaties, agreements, etc.: 

Friendship, with China (1944), exchange of ratifica- 
tions, 99. 
Military mission, with U.S., signature, 975. 
United Nations Charter, ratification, 817. 
U.S. Vice Consulate at Puntarenas, closing, 814. 
Council of American Geographical Society, New York, N.Y., 
address by Mr. Braden, 1016. 



Council of Foreign Ministers : 
Establishment at Potsdam conference, 153, 209. 
First meeting : 

Advisers to accompany Secretary Byrnes, listed, 376. 
Austria, long-term supply arrangements for, discus- 
sion of, 566. 
Control of Germany, discussion by, 566. 
European inland waterways, discussion by, 566. 
Joint secretariat, communique regarding, 564. 
Opening session, 392. 
Participants, listed, 392. 
Peace treaties, preparation of, discussed, 565. 
Repatriation of French and Soviet nationals, discus- 
sion by, 566. 
Report on, address by Secretary Byrnes, 507. 
Restitution of Allied property stolen by Germans, dis- 
cussion, 566. 
Statement by Secretary Byrnes, 513. 
Peace treaties for Italy, Bulgaria, Finland, Hungary, 

and Rumania, preparation of, 159, 564, 565, 566. 
Report of President Truman on Potsdam conference, 209. 
Court of Justice, International. See International Court 

of Justice. 
Courts, German, U.S. directive regarding, 600. 
Covenant of League of Nations, comparison with Charter 

of United Nations, article by Mr. Eagleton, 263. 
Crane, Jacob, article on international cooperation in hous- 
ing, 447. 
Crane, Katharine Elizabeth, study of status of countries 

in relation to the war, August 12, 1945, 230. 
Credentials. See Diplomatic representatives in U.S. 
Crime. See War criminals. 

Crimea conference, decision concerning Polish question : 
Attitude of Polish Provisional Government of National 

Unity, 47. 
Exchange of letters between Mr. Grew and Senator Van- 
denberg regarding, 109. 
Criticism of Foreign Service and State Department by 

Mr. Hurley, 882. 
Crowley, Francis M., appointment to U.S. Delegation to 

educational and cultural conference, 6S6. 
Cuba (see also American republics) : 
United Nations Charter, ratification, 626. 
U.S. Consulate at Cienfuegos, closing, 295. 
Cultural cooperation (see also American republics; 
China ; Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organi- 
zation ; Educational and cultural conference ; Infor- 
mation service, international; Interdepartmental 
Committee on Cultural and Scientific Cooperation) : 
Article by Mr. Brickell on cultural relations in South 

America, 696. 
Basic libraries, sent to foreign educational institutions, 

1009. 
Exchange of cultural leaders, article by Mr. Colligan, 

366. 
Fellowship program with Panama, announced by State 

Department, 126. 
Pan American Book Exposition, 583. 
Return of Mr. Reck from China, 733. 
Soviet Union, address by Mr. Child, 815. 
Study abroad, removal of wartime objections, 701. 
Training of Chilean students in U.S. under program of 

Chilean Development Corporation, 39. 
Visitors to other American republics, 20, 83, 126, 294, 
339, 340, 451. 
Cultural Cooperation, Division of, role at San Francisco 

conference, described in article by Mr. Child, 139. 
Cunningham - de Courten agreement, 755. 
Currency, Philippine, reduction of required gold coverage, 

814. 
Currie, Lauchlin, negotiations with Switzerland regard- 
ing German assets, discussed by Mr. Clayton, 32. 
Custody of Japanese diplomatic and consular premises in 

U.S., transfer from Swiss Legation to U.S., 1022. 
Customs procedures, with Canada, plans to simplify, 1022. 



1076 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Customs treatment, most-favored-nation, agreement be- 
tween Venezuela and Haiti, 1S8. 
Czechoslovakia : 

German population in, orderly transfer of, provision of 

Potsdam agreement, 1G0. 
Independence, anniversary of, statement by President 

Truman, 609. 
United Nations Charter, ratification, 626. 
Welfare and whereabouts of U.S. nationals in, 140, 213. 
Withdrawal of U.S. forces from, 766. 

De Courten, Admiral R., statement on Italian armistice, 

757. 
De Gasperi, A. (Italian Foreign Minister), correspondence 

with Secretary Byrnes on Italian peace treaty, 762. 
De Gaulle, Gen. Charles : 
Cooperation between U.S. and France, joint statement 

with President Truman, 281. 
Visit to U.S., 262, 290. 
De los Monteros, Antonio Espinosa, credentials as Mexi- 
can Ambassador to U.S., 768. 
Declaration by United Nations (1942), signatories and 

adherents, listed, 238. 
Declaration respecting looted gold (1944), 26, 32. 
DeCourcy, William E., designation in State Department, 

585. 
Defense aid. See Lend-lease. 
Defense Board, Inter-American, 90, 96. 
Demilitarization, U.S. directives on : 
Austria, 664. 
Germany, 599. 
Denazification, U.S. directives on: 
Austria, C63, 667. 
Germany, 59S. 
Denmark : 

Civilian-supply needs, investigation by Rosenman mis- 
sion, 55. 
Independence, restoration of. message from President 

Truman to Christian X, 53. 
Parcel-post service, restoration, 54. 
Surrender of German armed forces in, text, 105. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Monetary, with U.K., summary of, 563. 

Shipping, continuance of control for United Nations 

purposes (1944), accession, 295, 450. 
United Nations Charter, ratification, 581. 
Welfare and whereabouts of U.S. nationals in, 149. 
Dennison, Capt. R. L., participant in radio broadcast, 538. 
Departmental issuances, establishment of new series, 

1062 n. 
Departmental orders: 

Alien Enemy Control Section, establishment and func- 
tions (D.O. 1352), 738. 
Budget and Finance, Office of, establishment (D 0. 1359), 

976. 
Central Services, Division of. functions (D.O. 1354), 740. 
Communications and Records, Division of, reestablish- 

ment (D.O. 1354), 740. 
Deputy on Financial Affairs in Office of Assistant Sec- 
retary for Economic Affairs, establishment (D.O. 
1344), 703. 
Extradition, transfer of functions in connection with, 
from Office of the Foreign Service to Legal Adviser 
(D.O. 1330), 132. 
Foreign Liquidation Commissioner, delegation of au- 
thority to (D.O. 1347). 704. 
Interim Foreign Economic and Liquidation Service, es- 
tablishment (D.O. 1343), 703. 
Interim International Information Service, establish- 
ment (D.O. 1337), 418. 
International Conferences, Division of, responsibilities 

(D.O. 1340), 553. 
International Information and Cultural Affairs, Office of, 

establishment (D.O. 1336), 387. 
International Information Division, authorization to at- 
test educational character of sound-recordings (D.O. 
1301-A), 100. 



Departmental orders — Continued 

International Resources Division, change in name from 

Commodities Division (D.O. 1355), 814. 
Investment and Economic Development, Division of, 
change in name from Division of Foreign Economic 
Development (D.O. 1357), 902. 
Office of Ecouomic Security Policy, establishment (D.O. 

1346), 703. 
Office of Foreign Liquidation, establishment (D.O. 1345), 

703. 
Research and intelligence: 

Interim service, establishment (D.O. 1350), 739. 
Special Assistant to Secretary in charge of, establish- 
ment and responsibilities (D.O. 1351), 739. 
Special Projects Division, change in name from Special 

War Problems Division (D.O. 1341), 585. 
Superseded by departmental issuances (D.O. 1360), 

1061 n. 
Transfer of additional war-shipping functions (D.O. 

1332), 229. 
U.S. Chief of Counsel for the prosecution of Axis Crimi- 
nality (Jackson), cooperation with (D.O. 1326), 40. 
Departmental regulations (see also Departmental orders) : 
Establishment of new series, 1061 n. 
Executive Committee on Economic Foreign Policy, func- 
tions and organization (D.R. 182.1), 1062. 
Foreign Liquidation Commissioner, authority of (D.R. 
139.1), 1061. 
Dewey, Thomas E. (Governor of New York), exchange of 
telegrams with President Truman on Great Lakes-St. 
Lawrence Seaway and Power Projects, 4S9. 
Dickey, John S., designation in State Department, 3S6. 
Diplomatic officer, transportation of ashes of, 941. 
Diplomatic relations with — 
Albania, proposed establishment, 707. 
Brazil, continuance, 870. 
Finland, renewal, 2S3, 339. 
Hungary, proposed establishment, 478. 
Polish Provisional Government of National Unitv, es- 
tablishment, 47, 110, 400. 
Rumania, necessary qualifications, 2S1. 
Spain, U.S. policy stated by President Roosevelt in letter 

to U.S. Ambassador Armour, 466. 
Yugoslavia, recognition of new regime, 1020. 
Diplomatic representatives in U.S. : 
Appointment of Hungarian Minister ( Szeged v-Maszak), 

734. 
Appointment of Charged d'Affaires ad interim of Poland 

(Zoltowski), 400. 
Credentials, 206, 417, 700, 70S. 861, 900, 1023. 
Meeting on defeat of Japan, 256. 
Displaced persons : 

Austria, directive to U.S. forces of occupation regarding, 

667. 
Europe, immigration to U.S., statement and directive 

by President Truman, 981. 
Far East, UNRRA mission to gather information on, 

628. 
Germany, UNRRA relief problems in. 464. 
Germany and liberated areas, report of Mr. Harrison 
on : 
Letter from President Truman to General Eisenhower 

transmitting, 455. 
Response of General Eisenhower to, 607. 
Statement by President Truman on, 790. 
Text, 456. 
Japan, article by Mrs. Carey, 530. 
Mail service to, 863. 
Mission to survey needs, 14. 
Potsdam agreement providing for orderly transfers of 

German populations, 160. 
Repatriation of, from Germany, operations of SHAEF 
and UNRRA, 127. 
Dobbel, Charles A., visiting professor to Venezuela. 340. 
Dominican Republic (see also American republics), 
ratification of United Nations Charter, 360. 



INDEX, JULY TO DECEMBER 1945 



1077 



Drumrigkt, Everett F., designation in State Department, 
650. 

Dunn, James C, return from London, statement by Secre- 
tary Byrnes, 699. 

Duties and rights of states in event of civil strife (192S), 
ratification by Peru, 100. 

Eagleton, Clyde, article comparing Covenant of League of 

Nations and Charter of United Nations, 263. 
Earnest. Edwin B., article on visa-control regulations, 495. 
ECO. See European Coal Organization. 
Economic and Social Council, Inter-American, 386. 
Economic and Social Council of the United Nations : 
Functions, described by Secretary Stettinius, 80. 
Problems relating to, discussed by Preparatory Com- 
mission, 684. 
Economic Foreign Policy, Executive Committee on, func- 
tions and organization (D.R. 1S2.1), 1062. 
Economic relations, agreement between U.S. and Italy, 

text, 936. 
Economic Security Policy, Office of, establishment (D.O. 

1346), 703. 
Economic-collaboration agreement, U.S.S.R. and Hungary, 

698. 
Economics (see also Bretton Woods ; Emergency Economic 
Committee for Europe ; Financial and trade negotia- 
tions ; Foreign Economic Administration ; Trade) : 
China, reconstruction of, appointment of Mr. Locke as 
President's Personal Representative to China, 497. 
Control methods, U.S. directives regarding, for — 
Austria, 668. 

Germany, 59S, 601, 603, 604. 
Emergency controls on coffee, letter from Mr. Aeheson 

to Pan-American Coffee Bureau, 527. 
European neutrals, U.S. policy toward, 777. 
Export-Import Bank of Washington, policy statement, 

441. 
Foreign investment, necessity for, address by Mr. Thorp, 

829. 
France's economic position, article by Mr. McVey, 523. 
Full-employment bill of 1945, statement by Secretary 
Byrnes before Senate Banking and Currency Com- 
mittee, 279. 
Future of international relations, address by Mr. Wil- 
cox, 833. 
German peacetime, statements by — 
Secretary Byrnes, 964. 
State Department, 960. 
Germany, principles to govern treatment of in initial 
control period, set down at Potsdam conference, 
156. 
Italy, importation of goods from, procedures, 228. 
Labor and international affairs, address by Mr. Ache- 
son, 467. 
Philippine currency, reduction of required gold cover- 
age, 814. 
Warfare, economic, cooperation in Western Hemisphere, 

statement by Mr. Clayton, 26. 
Wool market, effect on foreign economic relations, state- 
ment by Mr. Clayton, 837. 
Ecuador (see also American republics) : 

Ambursen Engineering Corporation, declared involved 

in plot to overthrow government, 970. 
Cultural leader, visit to U.S., 702. 
Military service, reciprocal agreement with U.S., 70. 
Eden, Anthony, participant in Potsdam conference, 153. 
Education : 

Allied Ministers of, 624. 

Cooperative, agreement between U.S. and El Salvador, 

100. 
Fellowship program. Panama-U.S., announced by State 

Department, 126. 
U.S. directives regarding, in — 
Austria, 666. 
Germany, 600. 



Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization of the 
United Nations : 
Conference for establishment, 624, 686, 79S, S96. 
Draft constitution : 

Discussions at the Department of State, 548. 
Interpretation, 165. 
Remarks by Mr. Benton, 548. 
Text, 16S. 
Preparatory Commission : 

Meeting of Executive Committee, 968. 
U.S. representatives, appointment, 1057. 
Radio interview with Mr. Kefauver, 407. 
Technical Subcommittee on Educational Reconstruc- 
tion, meeting of, 967. 
Educational and cultural conference : 
Date for convening, 624. 
Invitation, text, 624. 
Reports by Mr. Abraham, 70S, a96. 
Secretariat, appointment of Mr. Carr on, 686. 
U.S. Delegation, listed, 624, 686. 
Educational character of materials, attestation, article by 

Miss Wright, 396. 
Egypt, ratification of United Nations Charter, 679. 
Eisenhower, Gen. Dwight D. : 

Directive to, regarding military government of Ger- 
many, 596. 
Letter to Marshal Badoglio on occasion of signing 

Italian armistice, 754. 
Letters to President Truman : 

Participation by civil authorities in government of 

Germany, 711. 
Welfare of Jews in U.S. zone of Germany, 607. 
Orders relating to surrender of army, air, and naval 

forces under German control, 192. 
Prohibition of employment of Nazis in U.S. zone except 
as ordinary workers, 465. 
El Salvador (see also American republics) : 

Ambassador to U. S. (Castro), credentials, 206. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Cooperative education, with U.S., 100. 
United Nations Charter, ratification, 117, 487. 
Elections, free (see also Crimea conference) : 
Bulgaria : 

Communication from U. S. Political Representative 

(Barnes), 791. 
Postponement, statement by Secretary Byrnes, 283. 
Greece, observance by Allied missions: 

Appointment of Mr. Grady as President Truman's 

representative, 611. 
Arrangements for, 283, 429, 970. 
Representation .of U.S.. (Ex. Or. 9657), 792. 
Statement by Mr. Grady, 899. 
Emergency Advisory Committee for Political Defense, 90, 

792. 
Emergency Economic Committee for Europe. See Food 
and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 
Employees of former information-service agencies, plans 

to retain in State Department, 900. 
Employment, U.S. proposals concerning expansion, 912. 
Enemy aliens. See Alien enemies. 

Enemy fleets and merchant marines, employment and dis- 
position of: 
German, Allied decision and directive, 157, 192. 
Italian, memorandum of agreement on, text, 755. 
Enemy property, measures by United Nations to control, 

discussed by Mr. Clayton, 21, 26, 27, 28, 30, 33. 
Equal rights for women, resolutions of Mexico City con- 
ference concerning, article by Miss Parks, 112. 
Eriksson, Herman, credentials as Swedish Minister to 

U.S., 700. 
Ethridge, Mark : 

Appointment as U.S. representative for investigation of 

conditions in Balkans, 583. 
Return from Europe, 970. 
Visit to Moscow, statement by Secretary Byrnes, 767. 



1078 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Europe (see also individual countries) : 
Coal for liberated areas in, 180. 
Coal Organization, article by Mr. Jackson, 879. 
Displaced persons and refugees, immigration to U.S., 
statement and directive by President Truman, 9S1. 
Emergency Economic Committee for, 305, 724, 8S2. 
Inland waterways, discussed by Council of Foreign Min- 
isters, 566. 
Jews in, Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry con- 
cerning, 790, 1020. 
Neutral countries, U.S. economic policy toward, article 

by Mr. Lovitt, 777. , 
Relief policy for, radio broadcast on U.S. policy, 242. 
Return of Mr. Ethridge from, 970. 
Travel in, civilian, areas designated for, 142. 
Visit of joint U.S. Army-UNRRA mission, 382. 
European Advisory Commission : 

Control machinery and zones of occupation in Austria, 

agreements concerning, 221. 
Termination recommended, 154. 
European Central Inland Transport Organization, estab- 
lishment, 57. 
European Coal Organization : 
Article by Mr. Jackson, 879. 
Establishment, 57. 
European Economic Committee, establishment, 57. 
Examination for Foreign Service officers : 
Extension of dates for, 251. 
Qualifications, 38. 
Executive agreements. See Treaties. 
Executive orders : 

Appointment of member and alternate member for U.S. 
of International Military Tribunal established for 
trial and punishment of major war criminals of 
European Axis (Ex. Or. 9626), 488. 
Authority for preparation and prosecution of charges of 
war crimes against major leaders of Japan (Ex. Or. 
9660), 898. 
Elections in Greece, providing for representation of U.S. 

in observation of (Ex. Or. 9657), 792. 
Foreign trade agreements, regulations for public notice 
and presentation of views (Ex. Or. 9647 amending 
Ex. Or. 6750), 700. 
Inter-American coffee agreement (1941) (Ex. Or. 9612 

amending Ex. Or. 8902), 400. 
Providing for establishment of fishery conservation zones 

(Ex. Or. 9634), 487. 
Redistribution of foreign economic functions and func- 
tions with respect to surplus property in foreign 
areas (Ex. Or. 9630), 491. 
Reserving and placing certain resources of Continental 
Shelf under control and jurisdiction of Secretary of 
Interior (Ex. Or. 9633), 4S6. 
Termination of OSS and disposition of functions (Ex. 

Or. 9021), 449. 
Termination of OWI and disposition of its functions and 
of certain functions of OIAA to State Department 
(Ex. Or. 9608), 307. 
Termination of War Refugee Board (Ex. Or. 9614), 416. 
U.S. High Commissioner to Philippine Islands (Ex. Or. 
9616), 393. 
Export controls, relaxation of, announcement by FEA, 397. 
Export-Import Bank of Washington : 

Participation in U.S. program of assistance to Philip- 
pines, letter from President Truman, 692. 
Policy statement, 441. 
Exports. See Trade. 

Extradition, transfer of functions in connection with, from 
Office of the Foreign Service to Legal Adviser, (D.O. 
1330), 132. 
Extradition treaty, U.S. and Canada (1942), transmittal 

of protocol to U.S. Senate, 814. 
Extraterritorial rights, agreement between China and 
Sweden, entry into force, 197. 



Fahy, Charles, appointment as Director of Legal Division 

of U.S. Group Control Council in Germany, 20. 
FAO. See Food and Agriculture Organization of the 

United Nations. 
Far East (see also Far Eastern Commission ; Far Eastern 
Advisory Commission; and individual countries) : 
Displaced persons, UXRRA mission to gather informa- 
tion on, 628. 
Displaced persons in Japan, article by Mrs. Carey, 530. 
Liberated areas, U.S. Consulates to be opened in, 448. 
Post-war period in, address by Mr. Vincent, 644. 
SWNCC policy toward, discussed by Mr. Vincent, 645. 
Tin, article by Mr. Barnet, 401. 
Traveling accommodations, 582. 
Far Eastern Advisory Commission (see also Far Eastern 
Commission) : 
Adjournment, motion for, presented by Chinese repre- 
sentative at opening session, 729. 
Advisers to U.S. representative on, 728. 
Appointment of representatives, 580, 643, 6S9, 728. 
Committees, establishment, 967. 
Date of first meeting, 643. 

Establishment, statement by Secretary Byrnes, 545. 
Opening session, statement by Secretary Byrnes, 728. 
Policy toward Japan, outline transmitted to member gov- 
ernments, 967. 
Reconvening, 769. 
Superseded by Far Eastern Commission established at 

Moscow meeting of Foreign Secretaries, 1028. 
Temporary Secretary (Johnson), appointment, 728. 
Terms of reference, text, 561. 

Visit to Japan, letter from Secretary Byrnes to Maj. Gen. 
McCoy concerning, S98. 
Far Eastern Commission (see also Far Eastern Advisory 
Commission) : 
Delegations on, listed, 1019. 
Delegations to Japan, listed, 1055. 

Establishment by Moscow Conference of Foreign Secre- 
taries, 1028. 
Itinerary, 1020. 
Terms of reference, 1028. 
Farrar, Victor J., article on Foreign Relations volumes for 

1930, 118. 
FEA. See Foreign Economic Administration. 
Federal Communications Commission, letter from Mr. Ben- 
ton releasing broadcasting frequencies, 6S9. 
Fellowship program, Panama-U.S., announced by State De- 
partment, 126. 
Films, educational, conventions on, mentioned in article by 

Miss Wright, 396. 
Final acts. See Treaties, agreements, etc. 
Finance. See Bretton Woods ; Economics. 
Financial Affairs, Deputy on, in Office of Assistant Secre- 
tary for Economic Affairs (D.O. 1344), 703. 
Financial agreement, U.K. with — 
Iraq, summary, 220. 
U.S., text, 907. 
Financial and Economic Advisory Committee (see also 

Inter- American Economic and Social Council), 90. 
Financial and supply problems, arrangements between U.S. 

and Belgium, 610. 
Financial and trade negotiations, U.S. and — 
Belgium, 446. 
U.K.: 
Financial agreement, text, 907. 
Joint statements bv U.S. and U.K., 395, 512, 910. 
Participants, listed, 395, 906. 
Statements, remarks, etc. : 
Secretary Byrnes, 910. 
British Ambassador, Lord Halifax, 910. 
Cordell Hull, 906. 

President Truman and Prime Minister Attlee, 905. 
Secretary of Treasury Vinson, 909. 
U.S. objectives, 580. 



INDEX, JULY TO DECEMBER 1945 

Financial and trade negotiations, U. S.-U. K.— Continued 
U.S. proposals for expansion of trade and employment : 
Analysis of proposals, 914. 
Foreword by Secretary Byrnes, 913. 
Joint TJ.S.-U.K. statement, 912. 
Letter from Mr. Clayton to Secretary Byrnes, 914. 
Remarks by Mr. Clayton, 912. 
Text of proposals, 918. 
Financial arrangements favorable to international trade, 

remarks by Mr. Bunn, 637. 
Financial structure, U.S. directives regarding, in : 
Austria, 671. 
Germany, 604. 
Finland : _, . TT „ 

Irinistice (1944), protocol to, between Canada, U.K., 

and U.S.S.R. (1944), 789. 
Diplomatic relations with U.S., renewal, 283, 339. 
Minister to U.S. (Jutila), credentials, S61. 
Peace treaty with Allies : 

Council of Foreign Ministers, first meeting, discussion 

of, 509, 566. 
Procedure for preparation, agreement at Moscow meet- 
ing of Foreign Secretaries, 1027. 
Requested by Potsdam conference, 159. 
Proclaimed List of Blocked Nationals, deletion of Fin- 
nish names, 766. 
Pulp and paper industry, appointment of Mr. Jahn to 

study developments, 627. 
U.S. Minister (Hamilton), appointment, 483. 
Fisheries, Great Lakes conference, between U.S. and Can- 
ada, 452. 
Flack, Joseph, designation in State Department, 650. 
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations : 
Emergency Economic Committee for Europe, 305, 724, 

882. 
First session : 
Agricultural Committee panels, 686. 
Arrangements for, 404. 
Conference plans, 323. 
Final plenary session, 726. 
Invitation, text, 324. 
Message of President Truman, 619. 
Organization of commissions and committees, 620. 
Signing of FAO constitution, 619, 686. 
U.S. Delegation, listed, 522. 

U.S.S.R., position of, report by chairman (Pearson), 
726. 
Food and Agriculture Subcommittee of Emergency Eco- 
nomic Committee for Europe, 724. 
Food Board, Combined, 18, 333. 
Food-production agreement, U.S. and "Venezuela (1943), 

extension, 99. 
Forced Transfers of Property in Enemy-Controlled Terri- 
tory. See Enemy property. 
Foreign Economic Administration : 

Lend-lease, discontinuance directed by President Tru- 
man, 284. T , . * 
Procedures for importing goods from Italy, information 

released by, 228. 
Redistribution of functions (Ex. Or. 9630), 491. 
Relaxation of export controls, 397. 
Representation of U.S. on Combined Raw Materials 

Board, 18. 
Representation on Inter-Agency Policy Committee on 

Rubber, 413. 
Rosenman mission to report on civilian needs in north- 
west Europe, part in, 55. 
Safehaven Program, part in, discussed by Mr. Clay- 
ton, 27. 
Transfer of functions to Interim Foreign Economic and 
Liquidation Service of State Department (D.O. 
1343), 703. 
Foreign Economic Development, Division of. bee Invest- 
ment and Economic Development, Division of. 
Foreign Liquidation, Office of, establishment (D.O. 1345), 
703. 



W79 

Foreign Liquidation Commissioner, delegation of au- 
thority to : 
Departmental Order 1347 : 704. 
Departmental Regulation 139.1 : 1061. 
Foreign Ministers, Council of. See Council of Foreign 

Ministers. 
Foreign policy, U.S. : 
China : 

Exchange of letters between Secretary Byrnes and 

U.S. Congressman Anderson, 933. 
Statement by Secretary Byrnes, 930. 
Statement by President Truman, 945. 
Iran, testimony by Mr. Acheson answering Ex-Ambassa- 
dor Hurley's charges, 984. 
Foreign Policy Association, letter from President Truman 

on public opinion and foreign policy, 678. 
Foreign Policy Association Forum, address by Mr. Vincent, 

644. 
"Foreign Relations of the United States, 1930", publication 

of vols. II and III, 118, 124. 
"Foreign Relations of the United States, the Paris Peace 

Conference, 1919", publication of vol. XI, 405, 408. 
Foreign Secretaries, U.S., U.K., and U.S.S.R., meeting in 
Moscow : 
Agenda of discussions, 96S. 
Announcement of meeting, 935. 
Dates of meeting, 1018, 1055. 
Discussed by Secretary Byrnes, 954. 
Report by Secretary Byrnes, 1033. 
Report of meeting, text, 1027. 

Acting Political Adviser (Atcheson) to General Mac- 
Arthur, appointment, 380. 

Foreign Service, U.S. : 
Administration of, statement by Mr. Russell on assum- 
ing, 649. . „_ 
Ambassador Hurley, return to China, proposed, 5S5. 
Ambassadors : „„ _ 

Appointment: China (Marshall), 883; Panama 

(Hines), 419; Poland (Lane), 47. 
Resignation: China (Hurley). 8S2. 
Commercial Activities, Advisory Committee on, nrst 

meeting, 773. . 

Consular offices: Acapulco, Mexico, closing, 419: Adana, 
Turkey, closing, 72 ; Amsterdam, Netherlands, open- 
ing 4S3; Batavia, Java, opening, 741; Canton, 
China, opening, 902 ; Cienfuegos, Cuba, closing, 295 ; 
Hankow, China, opening, 977; Hong Kong, China, 
opening, 636; Horta, Azores, opening, 202; Isken- 
derun Turkey, closing, 20; Liberated areas of Far 
East, opening, 448; Patras, Greece, opening, 132; 
Ponta Delgada, Azores, opening. 202: Puntarenas, 
Costa Rica, closing, 814 ; Rangoon, Burma, opening, 
814- Rotterdam, Netherlands, opening, 3s8; Shang- 
hai' China, opening, 450, 774; Singapore, Straits 
Settlements, opening, 701: Tientsin, China, open- 
ing 586, 1023; Tsingtao, China, opening, 977. 
Criticism of, by Mr. Hurley, comments by Secretary 

Byrnes answering charges, 8S2, 930. 
Embassy and Consulate at Tehran, Iran, combined, 1023. 
Embassy at Warsaw, Poland, opening, 549. 
Examination, extension of dates for, 251. 
Future of, discussed in radio broadcast, 1048. 
Maritime Delegate, closing of office at Angra do Hero- 

ismo, Azores, 874. 
Ministers appointment: Finland (Hamilton), 483; Hun- 
gary (Schoenf eld), 1023; New Zealand (Warren), 
701. 
Mission at Vienna, Austria, opening, 483. 
Petroleum attaches, assignment abroad exchange of let- 
ters between Secretary Byrnes and Mr. Ickes, 8J4 
Recruitment of commissioned officers from veterans of 

present war, qualifications, 38. 
Mr. Service, vindication of, letters from Secretary Byrnes 
and Mr. Grew, 295. 



1080 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Foreign Service, U. S. — Continued 
Survey of establishments by congressional group, letters 
to Congressman Rabaut from Secretary Stettinius 
and Mr. Grew, 201. 
Trade promotion and protection, current methods, re- 
view by advisory committee on, 436. 
Tribute to, by President Truman and Secretary Byrnes, 
1015. 
Foreign trade agreements (see also Trade; Treaties), reg- 
ulations for public notice and presentation of views 
(Ex. Or. 9047 amending Ex. Or. 6750), 700. 
Forestry Subcommittee of Research Committee on Agri- 
culture, Nutrition, Fisheries, and Forestry of Carib- 
bean Research Council, meeting of, 737. 
Formosa : 

Displaced persons from, in Japan, 531. 
Travel to, by civilians, prohibited, 733. 
Forrestal, James, letter to President Truman approving 

name of World War II, 427. 
Foster, Andrew B., designation in State Department, 977. 
Fragoso, A. Boulitreau, (Charge d'Affaires of Brazil), 
letter to Mr. Acheson requesting conference for estab- 
lishment of international health organization, 639. 
France : 

Anglo-American Caribbean Commission, invitation to 

join, acceptance, 1023. 
Bastille Day, statement by President Truman, 83. 
Civilian-supply needs, investigation by Rosenman mis- 
sion, 55. 
Cooperation with U.S., joint statement by President Tru- 
man and General de Gaulle, 281. 
Council of Foreign Ministers. See Council of Foreign 

Ministers. 
Imports from U.S., restoration to private channels, 358. 
Far Eastern Advisory Commission. See Far Eastern 

Advisory Commission. 
Far Eastern Commission. See Far Eastern Commission. 
General de Gaulle, visit to U.S., 262, 290. 
Greek elections, plans to send observers, 429. 
Housing of Americans in Paris, arrangements for, 552. 
Nationals, repatriation from Soviet zone of Germany, 

discussed by Council of Foreign Ministers, 566. 
Occupation of Tangier Zone by Spain, conversations with 

U.K. and U.S. regarding, 48. 
Rhine River, International Commission of, meeting, 957. 
Rubber Study Group, 2d meeting, 769, 840. 
Ruhr and Rhineland, conversations with U.S. on, 862. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Certain additional requirements to be imposed on Ger- 
many, with U.S., U.K., and U.S.S.R., text, 515. 
Control machinery in Austria, with U.S., U.K., and 

U.S.S.R., summary of text, 221. 
Interim-aviation arrangements, with U.S., exchange of 

notes, 1059. 
International Military Tribunal, establishment, with 

U.S., U.K., and U.S.S.R., text, 222. 
Tangier, reestablishment of international administra- 
tion, with U.K., text, 616. 
United Nations Charter, ratification, 301. 
Zones of occupation in Austria, with U.S., U.K., and 
U.S.S.R., summary of text, 221. 
U.S. armed forces in, arrangements by French Govern- 
ment concerning, 282. 
U.S. property in, and French assets in U.S., release of, 

article by Mr. Simsarian, 687. 
U.S. relations with, article by Mr. McVey, 523. 
Zone of occupation in Germany, 276. 
Franklin D. Roosevelt (ship), commissioning, address by 

President Truman, 656. 
Frantz, Harry W., article on San Francisco conference, 

334. 
Freedom of the press : 
Austria, reestablishment by Allied Council, 612. 
Entrv of U.S. correspondents into: Bulgaria, 283; Hun- 
gary, 309, 451 ; Poland, 109, 283, 451 ; Rumania, 404. 



Friendship, treaty of, between China and — 

Costa Riea (1944), exchange of ratifications, 99. 
U.S.S.R. (1945), statement by Secretary Byrnes, 333. 
Frisian Islands, surrender of German armed forces in, 

text, 105. 
Full-employment bill of 1945, statement by Secretary 

Byrnes, 279. 
Fund, International Monetary. See Bretton Woods. 

Garcia, Elie, death, statements by President Truman and 

Mr. Acheson, 1023. 
Gaulle, Gen. Charles de: 
Cooperation between U.S. and France, joint statement 

with President Truman, 281. 
Visit to U.S., 262, 290. 
General Assembly of the United Nations: 

Functions, described by Secretary Stettinius, 80. 
Meeting of, proposed arrangements discussed by Pre- 
paratory Commission, 684. 
Report of Preparatory Commission, discussion of, 721. 
U.S. Delegation and staff, listed, 1056. 
U.S. representatives,, nomination by President Truman, 
1018. 
Geneva Prisoners of War Convention, Japanese failure 
to comply, State Department report on atrocities, 344. 
Geodesy and geophysics conference, meeting of executive 

committee, 967, 1018. 
Gerig, Benjamin, designation in State Department, 705. 
Germany (see also Control Council for Germany) : 
Art objects, removal to U.S., 499. 
Assets and loot, control discussed by Mr. Clayton, 21, 

30,32, 35. 
Cartels, international, U.S. policy toward German par- 
ticipation in, statement by Mr. Clayton, 33. 
Civil authorities, participation in government of, letter 
from General Eisenhowever to President Truman, 
711. 
Control of, by Allied Representatives : 

Agreement between U.K., U.S., U.S.S.R., and France 
on additional requirements to be imposed, text, 
515. 
Discussed by Council of Foreign Ministers, 566. 
Zones of occupation, 275, 276, 597. 
Displaced persons in : 

Repatriation, operations of SHAEF and UNRRA, 127. 
Report of Mr. Harrison : 

Letter from President Truman to General Eisen- 
hower transmitting report, 455. 
Text of report, 6. 
UNRRA relief problems, 464. 

Welfare and care of. letter from General Eisenhower 
to President Truman, 607. 
Economic aggression, U.S. policy regarding security 

against, statement by Mr. Clayton, 21. 
Immigration quotas, proclamation by President Tru- 
man, 465. 
Mail service to displaced persons in U.S. zone, 863. 
Military government, directive to Commander in Chief 

of U.S. forces of occupation, 596. 
Military-government policy, U.S., radio hroadcast. 310. 
Nazis, employment of in U.S. zone, prohibition of except 

as ordinary workers, 465. 
Occupation forces, U.S., relations with German people: 
Appointment of Mr. Price as President Truman's 

personal representative to survey, 333. 
Report of Mr. Price to the President, 885. 
Plant equipment in, availability to U.S., 861. 
Potsdam agreement concerning occupation of: 
Disposal of navy and merchant marine, 157. 
Political and economic principles to govern treatment 
in initial control period, 154. 
Raising of U.S. flag over U.S. Group headquarters in 

Berlin, statement by President Truman at, 107. 
Reparation settlement and peacetime economy: 
Statement by Secretary Byrnes, 964. 
Statement by State Department, 960. 



INDEX, JULY TO DECEMBER 1945 



1081 



Germany — Continued 
Reparations, Allied Commission on : 

Statement by Mr. Pauley on return from meeting in 

Moscow, 30S. 
U.S. representative (Angejl), appointment, 688. 
Reparations from, 157. 
Restitution of Allied property discussed by Council of 

Foreign Ministers, 566. 
Rhine River, International Commission of, meeting to 

reestablish navigation, 957. 
Surrender documents, May 4, 7, and 8, 1945, texts, 105, 106. 
Surrender of Army, Air, and Naval Forces, orders by 
Supreme Commander, Allied Expeditionary Force, 
regarding, 192. 
Technology and research, control by United Nations 

discussed by Mr. Clayton, 35. 
Transfer of populations into : 
Plan for, approved by Allied Control Council, 937. 
Provision for, in Potsdam agreement, 160. 
Travel to, by civilians, prohibited, 733. 
Treatment of, U.S. policy on, address by Mr. Riddle- 

berger, 841. 
U.S. nationals in, inquiries concerning, 899. 
Zones of occupation: 
French zone, 276. 
Map showing divisions, 275. 
U.S. directive regarding, 597. 
Gilpatric, Donald S., designation in State Department, 72. 
Gold Policy Declaration (1944), effectiveness in dealing 

with looted gold, discussed by Mr. Clayton, 26, 32. 
Good-neighbor policy, addresses by — 
Mr. Bradeu, 327. 
Secretary Byrnes, 709. 
Grady, Henry F. : 
Appointment as representative to observe Greek elec- 
tions, statement by Secretary Byrnes, 611. 
Statement on Greek elections, 899. 
Griissli, Max (Swiss Charge d'Affaires ad interim) : 
Assumption by Switzerland of representation of Japan- 
ese interests in U.S., exchange of notes with Mr. 
Grew, 125. 
Surrender of Japan, exchanges of notes with Secretary 
Byrnes, 205, 255. 
Great Britain. See United Kingdom. 
Great Lakes fisheries conference, between U.S. and Canada, 

452. 
Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Waterway project : 
Article by Mr. Miller, 715. 
Exchange of telegrams between President Truman and 

Governor Dewey, 489. 
Message from President Truman recommending ap- 
proval by Congress, and statement by Mr. Aeheson, 
528. 
Greece : 

Elections, observance by Allied missions : 
Appointment of Mr. Grady as President Truman's 

representative, 611. 
Arrangements for, 2S3, 429, 970. 
Representation of U.S. (Ex. Or. 9657), 792. 
Statement by Mr. Grady, 899. 
Foreign Minister (Sofianopoulos), conversation with 

President Truman, 69. 
Parcel-post service, restoration, 54. 
Trade with U.S., resumption, 440. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Civil-aviation agreements: air transit, interim (1944), 

584. 
United Nations Charter, ratification, 723. 
UNRRA mission in, progress, 385. 
U.S. Consulate at Patras, opening, 132. 
Grew, Joseph C. : 
Comments and statements: 

Argentine labor unions, friendly attitude toward U.S., 

177. 
Japanese peace offers, denial, 84. 
Leased naval and air bases in Newfoundland, 37. 



Comments and statements — Continued 
Repatriation program, 162. 
Resignation of Mr. Phillips as Special Assistant to 

Secretary of State, 16. 
Resignation of Mr. Taft, 143. 
Senate approval of United Nations Charter, 138. 
Sugar, shipments to Spain, 100. 
Correspondence : 

Congressmen, U.S., on trends in U.S. foreign policy, 49. 
Japanese Government, on atrocities, 349. 
Congressman Johnson, on U.S. policy toward new gov- 
ernment in Italy, 87. 
Congressman Rabaut, on survey of Foreign Service 

establishments, 201. 
Mr. Service, on vindication in misuse of secret docu- 
ments, 295. 
Swiss Charge (Griissli), on assumption by Switzer- 
land of representation of Japanese interests in 
U.S., 125. 
Senator Vandenberg, on U.S. policy regarding Poland, 
109. 
Participant in radio broadcast, 242. 
Resignation as Under Secretary of State, exchange of 
letters with President Truman and letter from Sec- 
retary Byrnes, 271. 
Gripsholm (ship) : 

Repairs, delay due to, 773. 

Repatriation of Italian, Greek, and U.S. nationals, 164. 
Repatriation of U.S. nationals and alien relatives, 585. 
Gromyko, A. A. (Soviet Ambassador to U. S.) : 
United Nations headquarters, location in U.S., statement 

on voting for, 563. 
UNCIO, remarks at final plenary session, 9. 
Guatemala (see also American republics) : 
Cultural leader, visit to U.S., 132. 

Labor Organization, International, readmission to mem- 
bership, 968. 
United Nations Charter, ratification, 941. 

Hackworth, Green H., article and address on International 

Court of Justice, 216, 1000. 
Haiti (see also American republics) : 

Ambassador to U.S. (Antoine), credentials, 700. 

Death of Elie Garcia, statements by President Truman 

and Mr. Aeheson, 1023. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Most-favored-nation customs treatment, with Vene- 
zuela, 188. 
United Nations Charter, ratification, 581. 
Halifax, Earl of (British Ambassador to U.S.) : 

Exchange of letters with Secretary Bvrnes on Anglo- 
American Committee of Inquiry, 959. 
Remarks on conclusion of U.S.-U.K. financial and trade 

negotiations, 910. 
UNTIO, remarks at final plenary session, 8. 
Hamilton, KingsleyW., designation in State Department, 72. 
Hamilton, Maxwell M., appointment as U.S. Minister to 

Finland, 483. 
Hankow, China, opening of U.S. Consulate General, 977. 
Hannevig claim, convention relating to, transmittal to U.S. 

Senate, 400. 
Harrison, Earl G. (U.S. Representative on Intergovern- 
mental Committee on Refugees) : 
Report on displaced persons in Germany and liberated 
areas : 
Letter from President Truman to General Eisenhower 

transmitting report, 455. 
Suggestion for immigration of European Jews into 
Palestine : 
Letter from President Truman to Prime Minister 

Attlee, 790. 
Statement by President Truman, 790. 
Text of report, 456. 
Survey on needs of displaced persons in Europe, 14. 



703207—46- 



1082 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Hawkins, Harry ('., U.S. representative on Emergency Eco- 
nomic Committee for Europe, 305. 
Headquarters of United Nations. See Preparatory Com- 
mission of the United Nations. 
Health in Germany, U.S. directive regarding, 602. 
Health organization, international: 

Meeting of U.S. public-health leaders to urge establish- 
ment, 040. 
Requests from China and Brazil on calling of confer- 
ence, 638. 
Heindel, Richard H. designation in State Department, 

977, 1063. 
Heligoland, surrender of German armed forces in. text, 105. 
Henderson, Loy, participant in radio broadcast, 947. 
Henry, R. Horton, designation in State Department, 417. 
Herald Tribune Forum, New York, N.Y., addresses by- 
Mr. Benton, 712. 
Secretary Byrnes, 709. 
Hilldring, Maj. Gen. John H., participant in radio broad- 
cast, 538. 
Hines. Frank T., appointment as U.S. Ambassador to 

Panama, 419. 
Hirohito, Emperor of Japan, authorizations to signatories 

of instrument of surrender, 362. 
Hodge, Walter H., visiting professor to Colombia, 20. 
Holland. See Netherlands. 

Holmes, Julius C, resignation as Assistant Secretary of 
State, exchange of letters with President Truman and 
letter from Secretary Byrnes, 272. 
Honduras, treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Military mission, with U.S., signature, 1060. 
United Nations Charter, ratification, 1019. 
Hong Kong, China, opening of U.S. Consulate General, 636. 
Hooker, John Stani, designation in State Department, 705. 
Horta, Azores, opening of U.S. Consulate, 202. 
House of Representatives, U.S. See Congress. 
Housing: 

International cooperation in, article by Mr. Crane, 447. 
U.S. citizens in Paris, arrangements for, 552. 
Hovde, Bryn J., designation in State Department, 585. 
Howe, Fisher, designation in State Department, 814. 
Hull, Cordell: 
Correspondence : 

Japanese Government, on atrocities, 344. 

Secretary of War (Stimson), on Japanese attack on 

Pearl Harbor, 302. 
Secretary Stettinius, on conclusion of San Francisco 
conference, 13. 
Nobel Peace Prize awarded to : 
Acceptance, 976. 

Exchange of messages with President of Nobel Com- 
mittee (J'ahn), 819. 
Letter from President Truman. 819. 
Statement on, 819. 
Pearl Harbor attack, connection .with, defense: 
Comments by Secretary Byrnes, 357, 732. 
Exchange of letters between Mr. Hull and Secretary 

of War (Stimson), 302. 
Publication of Mr. Hull's testimony before Congress, 
871. 
Statements : 
Financial and trade negotiations, U.S.-U.K., conclu- 
sion, 906. 
Japanese surrender terms, signing of, 301. 
UNCIO, conclusion of, 13. 

United Nations Charter, Senate approval of, 138. 
Hulten, Charles, designation in State Department, 1063. 
Hungary : 

Allied Control Commission in, revision of procedures 

favored by Potsdam conference, 160. 
Diplomatic relations with U.S., 478, 734, 1023. 
Entry of U.S. correspondents into, 309. 451. 
German population in, orderly transfer of, provision of 

Potsdam agreement, 160. 
Mail service to, 942. 



I (angary — Continued 
Minister to U.S. (Szegedy-Maszak), appointment, 734. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Commodities exchange, with U.S.S.R., negotiation of, 

698. 
Economic collaboration, with U.S.S.R., negotiation of, 

698. 
Peace treaty with Allies: 
Procedure for preparation, agreement at Moscow 

meeting of Foreign Secretaries, 1027. 
Requested by Potsdam conference, 159. 
U.S. Minister (Schoenfeld), appointment, 1023. 
Welfare and whereabouts of U.S. citizens in, 274. 
Hurley, Patrick J. : 

Charges against U.S. policy in Iran answered by Mr. 

Aeheson, 984. 
Criticism of U.S. Foreign Service in China, comments 
and statement by Secretary Byrnes answering 
charges, 882, 930. 
Resignation as U.S. Ambassador to China, 882. 
Return to China, proposed, 585. 
Hyde, Louis K., Jr., article on place of specialized inter- 
governmental agencies in United Nations, 955. 

Ibarra Garcia, Oscar (Argentine Ambassador), seat on 

Governing Board of Pan American Union, 111. 
Iceland, readmission to membership in International 

Labor Organization, 968. 
Ickes, Harold L., exchange of letters with Secretary 
Byrnes on assignment of petroleum attaches on global 
basis, 894. 
ILO. See Labor Organization, International. 
Immigration : 
Displaced persons and refugees in Europe, to U.S., 
statement and directive by President Truman, 981. 
Quotas for Austria and Germany, proclamation by Presi- 
dent Truman, 465. 
Visa-control regulations: 
Article by Mr. Earnest, 495. 
Revision of wartime restrictions, 495. 
India : 

Far Eastern Advisory Commission, appointment of 

representative, 728. 
Far Eastern Commission, delegation to Japan, listed, 

1055. 
Travel to, accommodations for, 942. 
United Nations Charter, ratification, 723. 
Industry, U.S. directives regarding, in — 
Austria, 668. 
Germany, 602. 
Information, International, and Cultural Affairs, Office of, 

387. 
Information, international, article by Miss Wright on 
attestation of international educational character of 
materials, 396. 
Information, International, Division of: authorization to 
attest educational character of sound recordings (D.O. 
1301-A), 100. 
Information policy, international, radio broadcast on. 947. 
Information Service, Interim International, 418, 1045. 
Information service, international : 
Address by Mr. Benton. 712. 
Plans for, summary by Mr. Benton of work of Interim 

International Information Service, 1045. 
Radio broadcast on, 947. 

Role in conduct of foreign relations, statements before 
Congress by Mr. Benton, 589. 
Information services, organization of. discussed by Pre- 
paratory Commission of the United Nations, 626. 
Inland Transport Committee of ILO: 
Meeting of, 1018. 

U.S. Delegation to, meeting of, P6S. 
Inland waterways, European, discussion by Council of 
Foreign Ministers, 566. 



INDEX, JULY TO DECEMBER 1945 



1083 



Institute of International Education : 
Cooperation with State Department and International 
Training Administration in training Chilean stu- 
dents in U.S., 39. 
Fellowship program, Panama-U.S., part in, 126. 
Insurance, social, U.S. directives regarding, in— 
Austria, 670. 
Germany, 602. 
Inter-Agency Policy Committee on Rubber, creation, and 

appointment or Mr. Battas chairman, 413. 
Inter-Allied Conference on International Scientific Or- 
ganizations (1918), 371. 
Inter-American Commission of Women, 113, 114. 
Inter-American Conference for Maintenance of Peace and 
Security : 
Date, invitations, and proposed agenda, 376. 
Postponement, statement by Mr. Acheson, 552. 
Inter-American Conference on Agriculture, Second, date 

and place of meeting, 61. 
Inter-American Conference on Agriculture, Third : 
Agenda, 58. 
Agricultural planning for peace and future prosperity, 

article by Mr. Willard and Mr. Nolan, 59. 
U.S. Delegation, list of members, 58. 
Inter-American Conference on Problems of War and Peace : 
Economic warfare, resolutions on, effectiveness dis- 
cussed bv Mr. Clayton, 26, 32. 
Equal rights for women as defined at, article by Miss 

Parks, 112. ,_ w 

Inter-American system, resolutions on, discussed by Mr. 
Butler, 93. 
Inter-American Congress of Social Service, U.S. Delega- 
tion, 290. 
Inter-American Defense Board, 90, 96. 
Inter-American Development Commission, 90. 
Inter-American Economic and Social Council, establish- 
ment approved by Pan American Union, 386. 
Inter-American Financial and Economic Advisory Com- 
mittee (see also Inter-American Economic and Social 
Council), 90. 
Inter-American Juridical Committee, 90. 
Inter-American Press Conference, Fourth, 797. 
Inter-American Radio Conference, Third : 

Article by Mr. Burton and Mr. MacQuivey, 735. 
Article bv Mr. Otterman, 292. 
U.S. Delegation, 293. 
Inter-American relations. See American republics. 
Inter-American solidarity, Uruguayan note to other Amer- 
• ican republics : 

Statement by Secretary Byrnes, 892. 
Text, 864. 
Inter-American system : 
Address by Mr. Braden, 693. 
Article by Mr. Butler, 89. 
Address by Secretary Byrnes, 709. 
Interdepartmental Committee on Cultural and Scientific 
Cooperation, articles by members : 
Mr. Crane, on international cooperation in housing, 447. 
Mr. Moore, on agricultural collaboration, 409. 
Intergovernmental Committee on Refugees : 
Appointment of Mr. Schwartz as temporary associate, 

53. 
Displaced persons, operations in Germany, 12S. 
U.S. representative (Harrison), survey of needs of dis- 
placed persons In Europe: 
Announcement of appointment, 14. 
Report on results of survey : 

Letter from President Truman to General Eisen- 
hower transmitting report, 455. 
Response of General Eisenhower to report, 607. 
Text of report, 456. 
Interim agreement on international civil aviation. See 

Civil aviation. 
Interim Foreign Economic and Liquidation Service, es- 
tablishment (D.O. 1343), 703. 



Interim International Information Service: 
Establishment (D.O. 1337), 418. 
Work of, summary by Mr. Benton, 1045. 
Interim Research and Intelligence Service, establishment 

(D.O. 1350), 739. 
Internal affairs of other American republics, disapproval 

of U.S. participation, 897, 970. 
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development. 

See Bretton Woods. 
International Conference of American States (6th), con- 
ventions of, ratification by Peru, 100. 
International Conferences, Division of, responsibilities 

(D.O. 1340), 553. 
International Council of Scientific Unions, article by Mrs. 

Brunauer, 371. 
International Court of Justice : 
Article by Mr. Hackworth, 216. 
Codification of international law in relation to, article 

by Mr. Hackworth, 1000. 
Functions, described by Secretary Stettinius, 81. 
Problem of compulsory jurisdiction, article by Mr. 
Preuss, 471. 
International Information and Cultural Affairs, Office of, 

establishment (D.O. 1336), 387. 
International Information Division, authorization to at- 
test educational character of sound-recordings (D.O. 
1301-A), 100. 
International information program. See Information 

service, international. 
International Information Service, Interim, 418, 1045. 
International Labor Organization. See Labor Organiza- 
tion, International. 
International law, codification, address by Mr. Hack- 
worth, 1000. 
International Military Tribunal : 
Appointment of U.S. members, 404, 488. 
Charter, text, 223. 

Chief of Counsel (U.S.) for Prosecution of Axis Crimi- 
nality (Jackson), 40, 227, 850. 
Establishment, agreement between U.S., U.K., U.S.S.R., 
and France: 
Signature, statement by Mr. Jackson, 227. 
Text, 222. 
German war criminals, trial of : 
Indictment, 595. 
List of defendants, 301. 
Opening address for U.S. by Mr. Jackson, 850. 
Staff of technical advisers, 4S8. 

State Department publication, "Trial of War Crimi- 
nals", 849. 
International Monetary Fund. See Bretton Woods. 
International Resources Division, change in name from 

Commodities Division (D.O. 1355), 814. 
International Training Administration, cooperation with 
State Department and Institute of International Edu- 
cation in training Chilean students in U.S., 39. 
International Zone of Tangier. See Tangier. 
Internment. See Prisoners of war and civilian internees. 
Inter-Union Institute for Labor and Democracy, Phila- 
delphia, Pa., address by Mr. Acheson, 467. 
Investment and Economic Development, Division of, 
change in name from Division of Foreign Economic 
Development (D.O. 1357), 902. 
Iran : 

Ambassador to U.S. (Hussein, Ala), credentials, 900. 
Foreign armed forces in, U.S. proposal for withdrawal : 
Proposal, text, 884. 
Reply of British, 946. 
Reply of U.S.S.R., 934. 
United Nations Charter, ratification, 626. 
U.S. Embassy and Consulate at Tehran combined, 1023. 
U.S. policy in, testimony by Mr. Acheson in answer to 
charges by Mr. Hurley, 984. 



1084 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Iraq : 
Agreements : 

Barter, with Lebanon, Palestine, and Syria, 5S4. 
Civil aviation, air services transit agreement (1044), 

accession, 19S. 
Financial, with U.K., 220. 
Lend-lease, with U.S., 202. 
Regent (Prince Abdul Ilah ) , exchange of telegrams with 
President Truman on departure from U.S., 71. 
IRIS. See Research and Intelligence, Interim Service. 
Irving, Wilbur C., designation in State Department, 132. 
Iskenderun, Turkey, closing of U.S. Consulate, 20. 
Istituto Nazionale per il Commercio Estero (Italian Gov- 
ernment export organization) to take over export work 
of Allied Commission, 228. 
Italy : 
Armistice, documents relating to: 
Additional conditions of armistice: 
Commentary on, 759. 
Text, 749. 
Aide-memoire to Italian Government from President 

of Allied Commission, 757. 
Cunningham - de Courten agreement, 755. 
Employment and disposition of fleet and mercantile 
marine : 
Amendment to agreement respecting, 756. 
Memorandum of agreement on, 755. 
Letter from General Eisenhower to Marshal Badogjio 

on occasion of signing of armistice, 754. 
Statement of Admiral De Courten, 757. 
Text of armistice, 748. 
Democracy in, opportunity for rebuilding, message of 

Mr. Acheson, 391. 
Importation of goods from, procedures, 22S. 
Labor Organization, International, readmission to mem- 
bership, 968. 
Mail service, expansion, 734. 
New government, U.S. policy toward, letter from Mr. 

Grew to Congressman Johnson, 87. 
Passport applications for travel to, 498. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Anglo-French agreement for reestablishment of inter- 
national regime of Tangier, invitation to accede, 
618. 
Economic relations, with U.S., text, 936. 
Peace treaty with Allies: 

Council of Foreign Ministers, 1st meeting, discussion 

of, 50S, 513, 564, 565. 
Exchange of correspondence between President Tru- 
man and President of Italian Council of Min- 
isters, Secretary Byrnes and Italian Minister 
concerning, 761. 
Procedure for preparation, agreement at Moscow 

meeting, of Foreign Secretaries, 1027. 
Requested by Potsdam conference, 159. 
UNRRA program in, statement by Mr. Keeny, 57S. 
Yugoslav-Italian frontier, views of Council of Foreign 
Ministers, 565. 

Jackson, Robert H. (U.S. Chief of Counsel for the Prose- 
cution of Axis Criminality) : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Opening address for U.S. before International Mili- 
tary Tribunal, 850. 
Signing of agreement between U.S., U.K., U.S.S.R., 
and France establishing International Military 
Tribunal, 227. 
State Department, cooperation with, 40. 
Jackson, Wayne G., article on European Coal Organization, 

879. 
Jahn, Edwin G., appointment to study developments in 

Scandinavian pulp and paper industry, 627. 
Jahn, Gunnar (President of Nobel Committee), exchange 
of messages with Cordell Hull on Nobel Peace Prize, 
819. 



Japan (see also Far East) : 

Allied Council (see also under Control Council), estab- 
lishment by Moscow meeting of Foreign Secretaries, 
1029. 
Atrocities : 

Prisoner-of-war and civilian camps, location in areas 

subject to bombardment, 176. 
State Department report, 343. 
Attack on China, eighth anniversary, messages from 
President Truman and Secretary Byrnes to Chinese 
officials, 70. 
"Awa Maru" : 

Sinking of, statement of U.S. investigation, 85. 
U.S. offer of ship to replace, 249. 
Control Council for (see also under Allied Council) : 
Soviet position regarding establishment, comments 
by Secretary Byrnes, 692. 
Declaration of war on, by U.S.S.R., statements by Presi- 
dent Truman and Secretary Byrnes, 207. 
Diplomatic and consular officers captured in Germany, 

detention by U.S., 54. 
Directive from General MacArthur to Imperial Govern- 
ment, 730, 874. 
Displaced populations in, article by Mrs. Carey, 530. 
Far Eastern Advisory Commission : 
Establishment, 545. 

Policy toward, outline transmitted to member govern- 
ments, 967. 
Visit to Japan, letter from Secretary Byrnes to Major 
General McCoy concerning, 898. 
Far Eastern Commission: 
Visit to Japan : 

Delegations, listed, 1055. 
Itinerary, 1020. 
Occupation : 

Authority of General MacArthur as Supreme Com- 
mander of Allied Powers, 480. 
Size of force, 427. 
U.S. policy, radio broadcast, 538. 
Pearl Harbor attack, investigation by U.S., 302, 357, 732, 

773, 871. 
Property in U.S. in possession of Swiss Legation, trans- 
fer of custody to U.S., 1022. 
Reparations mission : 

Announcement by President Truman, 729. 
Members, listed, 729. 
Representation of interests in U.S., assumption by Swit- 
zerland, and exchange of notes between Mr. Grew 
and Mr. Griissli, 125. 
Surrender: 
Acceptance of Potsdam proclamation : 

Exchanges of notes between Swiss Charged (Griissli) 

and Secretary Byrnes. 205, 255. 
Statement by President Truman, 255. 
Armed forces in China, U.S. assistance in effecting, 812. 
Armed forces in Korea, U.S. assistance in effecting, 

812. 
Developments in Netherlands Indies following, U.S. 

concern over, 1021. 
Directions for meeting in Manila, exchange of mes- 
sages between Supreme Commander for Allied 
Powers (MacArthur) and Japanese General 
Headquarters, 257. 
Documents : 

Credentials of Japanese signatories, 363. 
Imperial rescript, 302. 
Instrument of surrender, 364. 
Meeting of diplomatic corps, 256. 
Peace offers, denial by Mr. Grew, 84. 
Potsdam proclamation defining terms for, text, 137. 
Signing of surrender terms: 
Address by President Truman, 299. 
Statement bv Secretarv Byrnes, 300. 
Statement by Cordell Hull, 301. 
Statement by Mr. Stettinius, 300. 



INDEX, JULY TO DECEMBER 1945 



1085 



Japan — Continued 
Surrender — Continued 

Signing of surrender terms — Continued 
Terms, Far Eastern Commission to formulate 
policies concerning execution, 545. 
Termination by Siam of existing treaties and agree- 
ments, 498, 521. 
Travel to, by civilians, prohibited, 733. 
U.S. policy toward : 

Exchange of letters between Senator Wherry and Mr. 

Acheson, 479. 
Joint statement by State, War, and Navy Depart- 
ments, 423. 
War crimes, authority for preparation and prosecution 
of charges (Ex. Or. 9660), 898. 
Java, opening of U.S. Consulate General at Batavia, 741. 
"JCS 1067" (directive by Joint Chiefs of Staff on military 

government of Germany), 596. 
Jews in Europe, survey by Mr. Harrison on needs of : 
Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry, formed as result 

of, 790, 958, 1020. 
Reply of General Eisenhower to Mr. Harrison's report, 

607. 
Report of Mr. Harrison on results of survey, 455. 
"Jimmy Byrnes Homecoming Day", Charleston, S.C., ad- 
dress by Secretary Byrnes, 783. 
Johnson, Joseph E., designation in State Department, 502. 
Junior Bar Conference, Cincinnati, Ohio, address by Mr. 

Hackworth, 1000. 
Jurists, Committee of, 473. 
Justice, Department of, representation on Inter-Agency 

Policy Committee on Rubber, 413. 
Justice, International Court of. See International Court 

of Justice. 
Jutila, Kalle Teodor, credentials as Finnish Minister to 
U.S., 861. 

Kan Nai-kuang (Chinese Minister of Ministerial Affairs), 

letter to Ambassador Hurley requesting conference for 

establishment of international health organization, 638. 

Kansas City Council on World Affairs, Kansas City, Mo., 

address by Mr. Riddleberger, 841. 
Keeny, Spurgeon M. (Chief, UNRRA Italian Mission), 

statement on UNRRA program in Italy, 578. 
Kefauver, Grayson N., radio interview on proposed Educa- 
tional and Cultural Organization of United Nations, 
407. 
Kelly, Edward W., designation in State Department, 149. 
King, W. L. Mackenzie (Prime Minister of Canada) : 
Atomic energy, joint declaration with President Tru- 
man and Prime Minister Attlee of U.K., 781. 
Combined Production and Resources and Combined Raw 
Materials Boards, termination, joint statement with 
President Truman and Prime Minister Attlee, 975. 
Klineberg, Otto, visiting professor to Brazil, 126. 
"Knock-for-Knock" agreement. See Marine transporta- 
tion and litigation agreement. 
Koenigsberg, city of, and adjacent area, transfer to 

U.S.S.R., proposal of Potsdam conference, 158. 
Koo, V. K. Wellington, remarks at final plenary session of 

San Francisco conference, 7. 
Korea : 

Displaced persons in Japan, 530. 
Independence : 
Joint commission, U.S. -Soviet, to assist in establish- 
ment of, created by Moscow meeting of Foreign 
Secretaries, 1030. 
Statement by President Truman, 435. 
Provisional democractic government, establishment by 

Moscow meeting of Foreign Secretaries, 1030. 
Return to, by Koreans abroad, 643. 
Travel to, by civilians, prohibited, 733. 
U.S. forces in, problems concerning, 812. 
Kuhn. Ferdinand, Jr., designation in State Department, 
417. 



Kurile Islands and Sakhalin, Soviet claim to, comments 

by Secretary Byrnes, 370. 
Kurth, Harry W., designation in State Department, 977. 

La Guardia, Fiorello H, U.S. representative at Presiden- 
tial inauguration in Brazil, 1061. 
Labor : 

Address by Mr. Acheson, 467. 
U.S. directives regarding, in — 
Austria, 670. 
Germany, 602. 
Labor Organization, International : 
Coal Mining Committee, 909. 
Governing Body, 97th session, 968. 
Inland Transport Committee, meeting, 968, 101S. 
League of Nations, separation from, 96S. 
Maritime Preparatory Technical Conference, meeting to 

prepare for Maritime Session of ILO, 768, 969. 
Membership, readmission of Guatemala, Iceland, and 

Italy, 968. 
Twenty-seventh session : 
Argentine representative refused admission, 968. 
U.S. Delegation, listed, 470, 968. 
Labor unions in Argentina, friendly attitude toward U.S., 

statement by Mr. Grew, 177. 
Labrador, travel between U.S. and, regulations pertaining 

to, 149. 
Lane, Arthur Bliss, appointment as U.S. Ambassador to 

Poland, 47. 
Lange, Oskar, credentials as Polish Ambassador to U.S., 

1023. 
Larreta doctrine. See Inter-American solidarity. 
Latin* America. See American republics and the indi- 
vidual countries. 
Lavaca (ship), departure from Shanghai, 733. 
League of Nations Covenant : 

Comparison with Charter of United Nations, article by 

Mr. Eagleton, 263. 
Provisions for international control of opium and nar- 
cotic drugs, article by Mr. Burnett, 570. 
Lebanon : 

Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Barter, with Iraq, 584. 
United Nations Charter, ratification, 626. 
U.S. relations with, remarks by Mr. Wadsworth, 940. 
Leddy, John M., designation in State Department, 229. 
Legal Adviser, transfer of functions to in connection with 

extradition (DO. 1330), 132. 
Legislation. See Congress, U.S. 
Lehman, Herbert H. : 

Addresses, statements, etc. : 
UNRRA : 

Third council session, 215. 
Review of operations in Europe, 178. 
Participant in State Department radio broadcast on 
UNRRA, 629. 
Lend-lease : 

Agreement with Iraq, 202. 
Discontinuance of operations: 
Announcement of, 284. 

Discussed in President Truman's message to Con- 
gress, 359. 
Report of operations (20th) : 
Letter of transmittal from President Truman to Con- 
gress, 332. 
Statement by Secretary Byrnes, 332. 
Lend-lease, reciprocal aid, surplus war property, and 
claims, settlement for, joint U.S. -U.K. statement, 910. 
Letters of credence. See Diplomatic representatives in 

U.S. 
Liberated areas («ee also UNRRA and the individual 
countries) : 
Civilian-supply needs : 

Address by Mr. Stillwell, 431. 
Rosenman mission to report on, 55. 



1086 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Liberated areas — Continued 
Displaced persons, Harrison mission to survey needs of, 

455, 607, 790. 
Europe, coal for, 180. 

Far East, U.S. Consulates to be opened in, 448. 
Parcel post, limited resumption, 54. 
Liberia, ratification of United Nations Charter, 817. 
Libraries, U.S., abroad: 
Address by Mr. Benton, 713. 

Basic libraries, international exchange program of 
State Department, 1009. 
Locke, Edwin A., Jr., appointment as President's Personal 

Representative to China, 497. 
Loftus, John A. : 

Article on petroleum in international relations, 173. 
Designation in State Department, 585. 
Lombardo Toledano, Vicente (Mexican labor leader), 

charge that U.S. firms aided political factions, 1022. 
Loot seized by the enemy : 

Measures to control, 20, 28, 29, 32. 

Restitution of Allied property, discussion by Council of 
Foreign Ministers, 566. 
Lord Lothian, transportation of ashes to Scotland, 941. 
Lovitt, John V., article on economic policy toward Euro- 
pean neutrals, 777. 
Luxembourg : 

Parcel-post service, restoration, 54. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Civil-aviation agreements : interim and air services 

transit (1944), 198. 
Civil-aviation convention (1944), acceptance, 198. 
Telecommunications, international convention (1932), 

approval of annexes (1938), 999. 
United Nations Charter, ratification, 626. 
Lynn, Frederick B., designation in State Department, 40. 

MacArthur, Gen. Douglas (Supreme Commander for Al- 
lied Powers) : 
Appointment of Mr. Atcheson as Acting Political Ad- 
viser to, 380. 
Authority as Supreme Commander of Allied Powers, 

480. 
Directions to Japanese officials for meeting in Manila, 

257. 
Directive to Imperial Japanese Government, 730, 874. 
MacCoy, W. Pierce, designation in State Department, 977. 
MacLeish, Archibald : 

Participant in radio broadcast, 181, 242. 
Resignation as Assistant Secretary of State, exchange 
of letters with President Truman and letter from 
Secretary Byrnes, 273. 
Macmahon, Arthur W., designation in State Department, 

3S6. 
Macmillan, Harold, aide-memoire to Italian Government 

on Italian military armistice, 757. 
MacQuivey, Donald R., article on third Inter-American 

Radlocommunications Conference, 735. 
Mary, j. Noel, designation in State Department, 1063. 
Madden, Joseph Warren, appointment as adviser in Legal 
Division of U.S. Group Control Council in Germany, 
20. 
Mails. See Postal service. 
Maps and charts : 

Germany, zones of occupation, 275. 

Middle East Supply Center, area of operations, 995. 

Status of civil-aviation documents concluded at Chicago, 

December 7, 1944, 873. 
Status of countries in relation to the war, August 12, 

1945, 230. 
UNCIO, organization, functions, and personnel of sec- 
retariat, 8. 
United Nations, organization of, 12. 
March, Frank A., designation in State Department, 132. 
Marine transportation and litigation, agreement between 
U.S. and Norway, signature, 71. 



.Marines, Netherlands, discontinuance of training in U.S., 

863. 
Maritime Authority, United: 
Establishment, 57. 
Termination, 965. 
Maritime Preparatory Technical Conference: 
Meeting of, 969. 
U.S. Delegation, 768. 
Marshall, Gen. George C, appointment as U.S. Ambassa- 
dor to China, 883. 
Martin, Edwin M., designation in State Department, 101, 

3S6, 705. 
Mazzini Society, National Convention, message of Mr. 

Acheson, 391. 
McCabe, Thomas B., designation in State Department, 705. 
McCarthy, Charles W., article on State-War-Navy Coor- 
dinating Committee, 745. 
McCarthy, Frank: 

Appointment as Assistant Secretary of State, confirma- 
tion by Senate, 502. 
Resignation as Assistant Secretary of State, 55S, 582. 
McCloy, John J. (Assistant Secretary of War), participant 

in radio broadcast, 310. 
McCormack, Alfred : 

Appointment as Special Assistant to Secretary of State, 

499, 585. 
Designation to be in charge of Interim Research and 

Intelligence Service, 705. 
Participant in radio broadcast, 9S7. 
McGill. Ralph, designation in State Department, 050. 
McNutt. Paul V., Senate confirmation of nomination as 

U.S. High Commissioner to Philippines, 393. 
McVev, Camden H, article on economic position of France, 

523. 
Merchant, Livingston T. : 
Article on Rosenman mission to survey civilian-supply 

needs in Europe, 55. 
Designation in State Department, 72. 
Merchant marine, U.S., resumption of normal operation, 

legislation recommended by President Truman, 360. 
Merchant shipping. See Shipping. 
Mexico (see also American republics) : 
Ambassador to U.S. (Castillo Najera), remarks on Jap- 
anese defeat, 256. 
Ambassador to U.S. (de los Monteros), credentials, 768. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Air-transport agreement, with U.S., discussions re- 
garding, 537, 628. 
Claims convention, with U.S. (1941) : 
Payment of instalment due under, 871. 
Payment of instalment due under exchange of notes 
implementing, concerning compensation for ex- 
propriation of petroleum properties (1943), 553. 
United Nations Charter, ratification, 817. 
Water treaty and protocol, with U.S. (1944) : 

Approval by Mexican Senate, statement by Mr. 

Acheson, 498. 
Entry into force, 770. 
Exchange of ratifications, 771. 
Proclamation by President Truman, 901. 
U.S. firms charged with aiding political factions, state- 
ment by Mexican Under Secretary for Foreign Af- 
fairs, 1022. 
U.S. Vice Consulate at Acapulco, closing, 419. 
Mexico City conference. See Inter-American Conference 

on Problems of War and Peace. 
Middle East supply arrangements, U.S., 727. 
Middle East Supply Center : 

Civilian requirements from war to peace, article by Mr. 

Boardman, 994. 
Dissolution : 

Joint statement by Governments of U.S. and U.K., 

493. 
Review of work, 493. 
Military government. See Austria; Germany; Japan. 



INDEX, JULY TO DECEMBER 1945 



1087 



Military training, universal, recommendations for, message 

of President Truman to Congress, 659. 
Military Tribunal, International. See International Mili- 
tary Tribunal. 
Military-mission agreement with — 
Costa Rica, signature, 975. 
Honduras, signature, 1060. 
Military-service agreements, reciprocal, with Chile, Ecua- 
dor, Peru, and Venezuela, 70. 
Miller. Edward G., Jr., article on St. Lawrence Waterway 

and world trade, 715. 
Millionth Map of Hispanic America, completion, address 
by Mr. Braden before American Geographical So- 
ciety, 1016. 
Ministers for Foreign Affairs of the American Republics: 
Contribution to inter-American system discussed by Mr. 

Butler, 90. 
Resolution, effectiveness of, in elimination of Axis-domi- 
nated companies, discussed by Mr. Clayton, 23. 
Minor, Harold B., designation in State Department, 977. 
Missions, U.S., military: 
Costa Rica, 975. 
Honduras, 1060. 
Modi, vivendi. See Commercial modi vivendi. 
Molotov, V. M., reply of U.S. proposal for withdrawal of 

troops from Iran, 934. 
Monetary agreement, U.K. and Denmark, summary of, 563. 
Monetary Fund, International. See Bretton Woods agree- 
ments. 
Montgomery, B. L., text of document of German surrender, 

signature, 105. 
Montreux convention, U.S. principles for revision of, 766. 
Moore, Ross E., article on technical agricultural collabora- 
tion with the Americas, 409. 
•Morocco, Tangier Zone of. See Tangier. 
Moscow conference of Foreign Secretaries. See Foreign 

Secretaries. 
Moseley, Harold W., article on State-War-Navy Coordinat- 
ing Committee, 745. 
Most-favored-nation customs treatment, agreement be- 
tween Venezuela and Haiti, 188. 
Munitions Assignment Board, 18. 
Mutual aid. See Lend-lease. 

Nadjm, Abolghassem (Iranian Foreign Minister), ex- 
change of telegrams with Secretary Byrnes on second 
anniversary of Tehran conference, 941. 

Narcotic drugs. See Opium. 

National Council for the Social Studies, Milwaukee, Wis., 
address by Mr. Wilcox, 833. 

National Council of American-Soviet Friendship, New 
York, N.Y., addresses before: 
Mr. Acheson, 787. 
Mr. Child, 815. 

National Foreign Trade Convention, New York, N.Y., ad- 
dress by Mr. Braden, 793. 

National Industrial Conference Board, New York, N.Y., ad- 
dress by Mr. Thorp, 829. 

Nationality. See Asylum ; Displaced persons ; Refugees , 
United States citizens. 

Natural resources in coastal areas and high seas, U.S. 
jurisdiction, texts of proclamations and Executive 
orders concerning, 484. 

Naval forces, German, orders by Supreme Commander for 
surrender of, 192. 

Navy and merchant marine, German, disposal of, Potsdam 
agreement concerning, 157. 

Navy Day, addresses by: 
Mr. Braden, 658. 
President Truman, 653, 656. 

Navy Day dinner, Washington, address by Mr. Braden, 658. 

Navy Department (see also State-War-Navy Coordinating 
Committee) : 
Inter-Agency Policy Committee on Rubber, representa- 
tion on, 413. 



Navy Department — Continued 

Japan, U.S. initial post-surrender policy for, joint state- 
ment with State and War Departments, 423. 
Navy Yard, N.Y., address by President Truman on com- 
missioning of U.S.S. "Franklin D. Roosevelt", 656. 
Nazis. See Denazification ; Germany. 
Nelson, Otto L., designation in State Department, 874. 
Netherlands: 

Anglo-American Caribbean Commission, invitation to 

join, acceptance, 1023. 
Civilian-supply needs, investigation by Rosenman mis- 
sion, 55. 
Far Eastern Advisory Commission, representative on, 

689, 728. 
Far Eastern Commission, delegation to Japan, listed, 

1055. 
Indies, developments following Japanese surrender, U.S. 

concern over, 1021. 
Marines, discontinuance of training in U.S., 863. 
Parcel-post service, restoration, 54. 
Rhine River, International Commission of, meeting, 957. 
Rubber Study Group, second meeting, 769, 840. 
Surrender of German armed forces in, text, 105. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Civil-aviation, air transport (1944), relinquishment 

of reservation, 584. 
Reestablishment of international regime of Tangier 
(final act of conference of experts on Tangier), 
adherence, 613. 
United Nations Charter, ratification, 969. 
U.S. Consulate at Rotterdam, opening, 388. 
U.S. Consulate General at Amsterdam, opening, 483. 
Netherlands Indies, U.S. concern over developments follow- 
ing Japanese surrender, 1021. 
Neutral governments (see also individual countries) : 
Economic policy toward, article by Mr. Lovitt, 777. 
German assets, flight abroad, discussed by Mr. Clayton, 

30, 32, 35. 
Measures to control German accounts and assets and 
information on Axis nationals requested by U.S., 32. 
Membership in United Nations, agreement on policy re- 
garding, reached at Potsdam conference, 159. 
New Zealand : 

Far Eastern Advisory Commission, representative on, 

643, 72S. 
Far Eastern Commission, delegation to Japan, listed, 

1055. 
United Nations Charter, ratification, 440. 
U.S. Minister (Warren), appointment, 701. 
Newfoundland : 

Agreement with U.S. on leased naval and air bases, 

statement by Mr. Grew, 37. 
Travel to and from U.S., regulations pertaining to, 149. 
News correspondents, of U.S., entry into: 

Bulgaria, 283; Hungary, 309, 451; Poland, 109, 283, 
451 ; Rumania, 404. 
Nicaragua (see also American republics) : 
Cultural leader, visit to U.S., 466. 
United Nations Charter, ratification, 57, 360. 
Nobel Peace Prize awarded to Cordell Hull, 819, 976. 
Nolan, Louis O, article on inter-American conference on 

agriculture, 59. 
Non-intervention in inter-American relations, discussion, 

864, 897, 970. 
Non-self-governing territories and trusteeship in United 

Nations Charter, article by Mr. Bunche, 1037. 
Norton, Garrison, designation in State Department, 814. 
Norway : 

Civilian-supply needs, investigation by Rosenman mis- 
sion, 55. 
Parcel-post service, restoration, 54. 
Pulp and paper industry, appointment of Mr. Jahn 
to study developments, 627. 



1088 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Norway — Continued 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Air transport services, bilateral, with U.S., text, 550. 
Claim on behalf of Christoffer Hannevig, convent ion 
relating to, with U.S. (1940), transmitted to U.S. 
Senate, 400. 
Marine transportation and litigation, with U.S., sig- 
nature, 71. 
United Nations Charter, ratification, 941. 
Welfare and whereabouts of U.S. nationals in, 149. 
Niirnburg trials. See International Military Tribunal. 

Occupation. See Austria ; Germany ; Japan ; Korea. 
Office instructions, establishment of new series, 1002 n. 
Office of Inter-American Affairs : 

Employees, retention by State Department, 9C0. 
Transfer of foreign information functions to State 
Department : 
Executive Order 9008 : 307. 
Statement by President Truman, 306. 
Office of Strategic Services, termination and disposition of 

functions (Ex. Or. 9621), 449. 
Office of War Information : 

Employees, retention by State Department, 900. 
Termination and transfer of international information 
functions to State Department: 
Executive Order 960S : 307. 
Statement by President Truman, 306. 
Ogilvie, John, designation in State Department, 1063. 
OIAA. See Office of Inter-American Affairs. 
Oil. See Petroleum. 

Ophthalmology congress, second pan American, 871. 
Opium : 

International bodies for narcotics control, article by Mr. 

Burnett, 570. 
Limitation of production, exchange of notes with — 
Turkey, 63. 
U.S.S.R., 129. 
Osobka-Morawski (Polish Prime Minister), exchange of 
messages with President Truman on establishment of 
diplomatic relations between U.S. and Polish Pro- 
visional Government of National Unity, 47. 
OSS. See Office of Strategic Services. 
Otterman, Harvey P.., article on third inter-American radio 

conference, 292. 
OWI. See Office of War Information. 

Pacific area, resumption of U.S. business operations in, 

699. 
Pact of alliance, Siam-.Tapan (1941), termination bv Siam, 

498. 
Palestine: 

Barter agreement with Iraq. 5S4. 

Immigration of Jews into, recommended by Mr. Harri- 
son in report on survey of displaced persons in 
Germany : 
Anglo-American Committee of Inquirv formed as re- 
sult of, 790, 958, 967, 1020, 1055. 
Statement by President Truman, 790. 
Text of report, 456. 
U.S. attitude toward : 

Letter from President Roosevelt to King of Saudi 

Arabia, 623. 
Statement by Secretary Byrnes, 623. 
Pan American Book Exposition, 583. 
Pan American ophthalmology congress, 2d, 871. 
Pan American Society of Massachusetts and Northern Now 
England, Boston, Mass., address by Mr. Rockefeller, 
285. 
Pan American Union (see also Inter-American system) : 
Argentina, seat on Governing Board, 111. 
Convention on (1928), ratification by Peru, 100. 
Election of Secretary Byrnes as chairman of Governing 

Board. 111. 
Inter-American Economic and Social Council, approval 
of establishment, 386. 



Pan American Union — Continued 
Visit of President Rfos of Chile, address by Secretary 
Byrnes at meeting of Governing Board, 569. 
Panama (see also American republics) : 
Ambassador to U.S. (Vallarino), credentials, 206. 
Fellowship program with U.S., 128. 
U.S. Ambassador (Hines), appointment, 419. 
Pannch, J. Anthony, designation in State Department, 705. 
Paper industry, Scandinavian, appointment of Mr. Jahn 

to study developments in, 627. 
"Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United 
States, 1930", publication of vols. II and III : 
Announcement, 124. 

Article by Mr. Farrar and Mr. Reid, 118. 
"Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United 
states, the Paris Peace Conference, 1919", vol. XI : 
Publication of, 408. 
Review by Mr. Perkins, 405. 
Paraguay (see also American republics), treaties, agree- 
ments, etc. : 
Civil-aviation agreements: interim, air services transit, 

and air transport (1944), acceptance, 198. 
Civil-aviation convention (1944), acceptance, 198. 
Establishment of definitive boundary along Pilcomayo 

River, with Argentina, ratification, (J42. 
United Nations Charter, ratification, 581. 
Paris, France, arrangements for housing of Americans in, 

552. 
Paris Peace Conference, 1919, review by Mr. Perkins of 

Foreign Relations volume on, 405. 
Parkman, Col. Henry, participant in radio broadcast, 310. 
Parks, Marion, article on inter-American conference on 

problems of war and peace, 112. 
Parri, Ferruccio (President, Italian Council of Ministers), 
correspondence with President Truman on Italian 
peace treaty, 761. 
Passports : 

Bermuda, cancellation of wartime regulations concern- 
ing, 376. 
Italy, travel in, acceptance of applications for, 49S. 
Western Hemisphere, travel in, not required for, 339. 
Patent rights : 

German-owned, seizure by United Nations, discussed by 

Mr. Clayton, 36. 
Interchange of, agreement with U.K. (1942), termina- 
tion, 5a5. 
Patras, Greece, opening of U.S. Consulate, 132. 
Pauley, Edwin W. : 
Appointment as Chief of Japanese reparations mission, 

729. 
Statement on return to U.S. from Moscow meeting of 
Allied Commission on Reparations, 308. 
PAW. See Petroleum Administration for War. 
Peace treaties, plans for preparation of, with : Bulgaria, 
159, 274, 509, 566. 1027; Finland. 159. 509. 566, 1027; 
Hungarv, 159, 509, 1027; Italy, 159, 508, 513, 564, 565, 
1027 : Rumania, 159, 509, 566. 1027. 
Pearl Harbor attack, investigation of: 

Criticism of foreign policy of Cord ell Hull : 
Comments by Secretary Byrnes, 357. 732. 
Exchange of letters between Mr. Hull (as Secretary 
of State) and Secretary of War (Stimson), 302. 
Testimony of Mr. Hull, publication of, 871. 
Issuance of reports by U.S. officials, statements by Pres- 
ident Truman. 302, 303. 
White House directive authorizing testimony of Gov- 
ernment officials, 773. 
Pearson, L. B. (chairman of FAO conference), report on 

Soviet position regarding FAO. 726. 
Pemiscot County American Legion Fair, Caruthersville, 

Mo., address by President Truman, 557. 
Penfield, James K., designation in State Department, 650. 
Perkins, E. R., review of Foreign Relations volume on 
U.S. Commission To Negotiate Peace at Paris (1919), 
405. 



INDEX, JULY TO DECEMBER 1945 



1089 



Permanent Court of International Justice, jurisdiction, 
compared with International Court of Justice, 472. 
Peru (see also American republics), treaties, agreements, 
etc. : 
Asylum (1928), ratification, 100. 
Consular agents (1928), ratification, 100. 
Duties and rights of states in event of civil strife 

(1928), ratification, 100. 
Military service, reciprocal, with U.S., conclusion, 70. 
Pan American Union convention (1928), ratification, 

100. 
Status of aliens in American states (192S), ratification, 

100. 
Treaties among American states (1928), ratification, 

100. 
United Nations Charter, ratification, 723. 
Petroleum : 
Attaches, assignment abroad, exchange of letters be- 
tween Secretary Byrnes and Mr. Iekes, S94. 
International relations, connection with, article by Mr. 

Lof tus, 173. 
Properties expropriated by Mexico, payment of compen- 
sation for, 553. 
U.S.-U.K. agreement (1944), conversations on renego- 
tiation, 383. 
U.S.-U.K. agreement (1945) : 
Text, 481. 

Transmittal to Senate, message of President Truman, 
737. 
Petroleum Administration for War, officers abroad, rec- 
ommendation for continued assignment under State 
Department, letter from Administrator (Ickes) to 
Secretary Byrnes, 894. 
Petroleum Commission, International, article by Mr. Lof- 

tus, 173. 
Petroleum Requirements Committee, Foreign, 175. 
Phelps, Dudley Mavnard, designation in State Department, 

705. 
Philippines : 

Anniversary (10th) of Commonwealth, statement by 

President Truman, 813. 
Authorization for U.S. businessmen to enter, 250. 
Currency, reduction of required gold coverage, 814. 
Far Eastern Advisory Commission, representatives on, 

643, 728. 
Far Eastern Commission, delegation to Japan, listed, 

1055. 
High Commissioner, U.S. : 

Duties and responsibilities (Ex. Or. 9616), 393. 
Letter from President Truman recommending investi- 
gation of agrarian unrest in Philippines, 690. 
Senate confirmation of nomination of Mr. McNutt, 393. 
Independence, statement by President Truman. 537. 
Repatriation of U.S. citizens from, obligations of U.S. 

Government, statement by Mr. Grew, 1C2. 
United Nations Charter, ratification, 581. 
U.S. assistance to : 

Recommendations by President Truman to Govern- 
ment departments and agencies, 690. 
Statement by President Truman, 690. 
Phillips, William, resignation as Special Assistant to Sec- 
retary of State, statement by Mr. Grew, 16. 
Phillips. William T., designation in State Department, 229. 
Phleger, Herman, appointment as adviser in Legal Divi- 
sion of U.S. Group Control Council in Germany, 20. 
PICAO. See Provisional International Civil Aviation Or- 
ganization. 
Pilcomayo River, establishment of definitive boundary be- 
tween Argentina and Paraguay along, 642. 
Plant equipment, German, availability to U.S., 861. 
Poland : 

Ambassador to U.S. (Lange), credentials, 1023. 
Charge d'Affaires ad interim in U.S., appointment of Mr. 

Zoltowski as, 400. 
Crimea conference decisions, acquiescence by Polish 
Prime Minister, 47. 



Poland — Continued 

Diplomatic relations with U.S., request for, 47, 110. 
German population in, orderly transfer of, provision of 

Potsdam agreement, 100. 
Polish Provisional Government of National Unity: 
Establishment of diplomatic relations with : 

Exchange of letters between Senator Vandenberg 

and Acting Secretary Grew, 109. 
Statement by President Truman and exchange of 
messages, 47. 
Potsdam agreement, definition of attitude toward, 158. 
Reparations from Germany, U.S.S.R. to settle claims, 

157. 
United Nations Charter : 
Ratification, 679. 
Signature, 574, 627. 
U.S. Ambassador (Lane), appointment, 47. 
U.S. correspondents, entry into, 2S3, 451. 
U.S. Embassy at Warsaw, opening, 549. 
U.S. policy regarding: 
Exchange of letters between Mr. Grew and Congress- 
men, 49. 
Exchange of letters between Senator Vandenberg and 
Mr. Grew, 109. 
Western boundary of, agreement reached at Potsdam 
conference, 159. 
Police, U.S. directives regarding, in — 
Austria, 665. 
Germany, 600. 
Polish Provisional Government of National Unity. See 

Poland. 
Political affairs of other American republics, internal, 

disapproval of U.S. participation, 897, 970. 
Political Defense, Emergency Advisory Committee for, 90, 

792. 
Political factions, Mexican, U.S. firms charged with aiding, 
statement by Mexican Under Secretary for Foreign 
Affairs, 1022. 
Political principles to govern treatment of Germany, set 

down at Potsdam conference, 154. 
Political prisoners, U.S. directives regarding, in — 
Austria, 665. 
Germany, 600. 
Ponta Delgada, Azores, opening of U.S. Consulate, 202. 
Portugal : 

Agreements, etc. : 

Air-transport services, with U.S., 941. 
Reestablishment of international regime of Tangier 
(final act of conference of experts on Tangier), 
adherence, 613. 
Attitude toward freezing German accounts and assets, 
discussed by Mr. Clayton, 33. 
Postal service: 

Albania, resumption, 942. 

Displaced persons in U.S. zones of Austria and Germany, 

initiation, S63. 
Hungary, resumption, 942. 
Italy, expansion, 734. 
Liberated areas, restoration, 54. 
Regulations for China, 622. 
Post-surrender policy for Japan (see also Far Eastern 

Advisory Commission), 423, 538, 729, 730, 874, 1029. 
Post-war period in Far East, address by Mr. Vincent, 644. 
Potsdam agreement : 

Alteration, recommended in report of Mr. Price to 
President Truman, and discussion by President 
Truman, 885. 
Text, 153. 
Potsdam conference (see also Potsdam proclamation) : 
Delegations, list of members, 160. 
Report on, by participants, 153. 

Report on, by President Truman on return from, 208. 
Return of State Department officials from, 211. 
Potsdam declaration. See Potsdam proclamation. 



1090 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Potsdam proclamation defining terms for Japanese sur- 
render : 
Japanese acceptance: 

Exchanges of notes between Swiss Charge (Grassli) 

and Secretary Byrnes, 205, 255. 
Statement by President Truman, 255. 
Text, 137. 
Potsdam protocol. See Potsdam agreement. 
Power, industrial, in Germany, U.S. directive regarding 

control methods, 604. 
Preparatory Commission of the United Nations: 
Appointment of Mr. Stettinius as U.S. Representative, 

206. 
Appointment of Mr. Stevenson as Deputy U.S. Repre- 
sentative, 361. 
Dates of meeting, 1055. 
Executive Committee, meeting of: 

Admission of new members to United Nations, dis- 
cussion concerning, 487. 
Committee reports, actions taken on, 6S2. 
Economic and Social Council, problems relating to, 

discussion of, 6S4. 
Facilities for the press, 417. 
Final meeting, 839. 
General Assembly, proposed arrangements for meeting 

of, 6S4. 
General Assembly, discussions of report on, 721. 
Headquarters of United Nations, selection of site: 
Discussion of, 562, 681, 722. 
Resolution on, 769. 
Information services, organization of, 626. 
Machinery for United Nations Organization, establish- 
ment by, 439. 
Secretariat of United Nations, discussion of, 721. 
Security Council, agreement on, 720. 
Specialized agencies, relation to, 680. 
Mr. Stettinius, proposals, remarks, and address, 437, 

559. 
Trusteeship Council, arrangements for, 626. 
First business meeting, 938. 
Headquarters, permanent, selection of site : 
Commission to select site, establishment, 1019. 
Discussion by Executive Committee, 562, 6S1, 722, 769. 
Discussion by full Commission, 939. 
Progress of, 968. 
Technical committees, 939. 
President of U.S. See Truman. 
Press, facilities for at meeting of Executive Committee of 

Preparatory Commission of the United Nations, 417. 
Press, freedom of. See Freedom. 

Press conference, fourth inter-American, formation of or- 
ganizing committee, 797. 
Preuss, Lawrence, article on International Court of Jus- 
tice, 47. 
Price, Byron : 

Appointment as President's personal representative to 

Germany, 333. 
Report to President Truman on relations between U.S. 
occupation forces and German people, 885. 
Prisoners of war, Japanese, detention in Bedford, Pa., of 

officials taken in Germany, 54. 
Prisoners of war and civilian internees (see also Displaced 
persons), Japanese treatment of: 
Location of camps in areas subject to bombardment, 176. 
State Department report on atrocities, 343. 
Proclaimed List of Certain Blocked Nationals. See 

Blocked Nationals. 
Proclamations : 

Alien enemies, removal from U.S., 361. 
Immigration quotas for Austria and Germany, 465. 
Policy of U.S. with respect to coastal fisheries in certain 

areas of the high seas, 486. 
Policy of U.S. with respect to natural resources of sub- 
soil and sea bed of Continental Shelf, 485. 
Production and Resources Board, Combined, 18, 333, 975. 



Property, enemy, control of: 

Discussed by Mr. Clayton, 21, 26, 27, 28, 30, 33. 
U.S. directives regarding, in — 
Austria, 673. 
Germany, 606. 
"Proposals for Expansion of World Trade and Employ- 
ment", State Department publication : 
Analysis of proposals, 914. 
Foreword by Secretary Byrnes, 913. 
Joint U.S.-U.K. statement, 912. 
Letter from Mr. Clayton to Secretary Byrnes, 914. 
Remarks by Mr. Clayton, 912. 
Text of proposals, 918. 
Prosecution of Axis Criminality, Chief of Counsel for 

(Jackson), 40, 227, 850. 
Provisional governments. See individual countries. 
Provisional International Civil Aviation Organization : 
Appointment of Mr. Bropby as U.S. representative on 

Interim Council, 290. 
Meeting of Interim Council, 108, 289. 
Public Affairs, Assistant Secretary in charge of, duties and 
responsibilities, statements by Mr. Acheson and Mr. 
Benton, 430. 
Public Liaison, Division of, work discussed by Mr. Acheson, 

893. 
Public opinion, letter from President Truman to General 

McCoy of Foreign Policy Association, 678. 
Public relations and control of public information, U.S. 
directives regarding, in — 
Austria, 666. 
Germany, 600. 
Publications : 

Agriculture in the Americas, 419. 
Anglo-American Caribbean Commission : 
Report for 1944, 782. 
Tourist trade, 71. 
Foreign Agriculture, 252, 483. 
Foreign Commerce Weekly, 42, 73, 150, 252, 282, 3S8, 522, 

702, 818, 832. 
Lists : 

Congress, U.S., 41, 73, 101, 133, 150, 251, 295, 3S8, 418, 

502, 554, 586, 649, 702, 741, 774, 820, 874, 901, 977, 

1023, 1065. 

State Department, 42, 133, 150, 202, 296, 340, 387, 419, 

500, 554, 586, 705, 741, 774, 875, 902, 966, 1024, 1064. 

Proclaimed List of Certain Blocked Nationals. See 

Blocked Nationals. 
State Department: 
Foreign Relations of the United States : 1930, vols. II 

and III, 118, 124. 
Foreign Relations of the United States: The Paris 

Peace Conference, 1919, vol. XI, 405, 408. 
Proposals for Expansion of World Trade and Employ- 
ment, text, 913. 
Trial of War Criminals, 849. 
Puerto Rico, Anglo-American Caribbean Commission, nom- 
ination of member, 54. 
Pulp and paper industries, Scandinavian, appointment of 

Mr. Jahn to study developments in, 627. 
Puntarenas, Costa Rica, closing of U.S. Vice Consulate, 
814. 

Radio. See Telecommunications. 
Radio broadcasts, State Department : 
Addresses : 

Secretary Byrnes, 507, 783, 1033. 
President Truman, 299. 
Educational and Cultural Organization of United Na- 
tions, proposed, interview with Mr. Kefauver, 407. 
Europe, U.S. relief policy for, 242. 
Foreign Service, future of, 104S. 
International information policy of U.S., 947. 
Japan, U. S. occupation policy for, 538. 
Military government policy, U.S., in Germany, 310. 
National intelligence program, 987. 
Science, role in foreign relations, 377. 



INDEX, JULY TO DECEMBER 1945 



1091 






Radio broadcasts, State Department — Continued 
United Nations Charter and U.S. foreign policy, 181. 
UNRRA, 629. 

Voice of America radio program, discussed by Mr. Ben- 
ton, 712, 950. 
Radio conference, third inter-American. See Inter-Ameri- 
can radio conference. 
Randolph, Edmund, portrait of, presentation to State De- 
partment, 324. 
Rangoon, Burma, opening of U.S. Consulate General, 814. 
Raw materials. See Combined Raw Materials Board; 

Strategic materials. 
Reciprocal aid (see also Lend-lease), lend-lease, surplus 
war property, and claims, settlement for, joint U.S.- 
U.K. statement, 910. 
Reck, Dickson, return from China, 733. 
Reconstruction and Development, International Bank for. 

See Bretton Woods agreements. 
Reconstruction Finance Corporation : 

Letter from President Truman directing U.S. Commer- 
cial Company to participate in program of assist- 
ance to Philippines, 692. 
Representation on Inter-Agency Policy Committee on 
Rubber, 413. 
Refugee (ship), repatriation of U.S. citizens from Shang- 
hai, 585. 
Refugees. See Displaced persons ; Intergovernmental 

Committee on Refugees. 
Regional arrangements. See Inter-American system. 
Regulations. See Visa regulations. 
Rehabilitation. See UNRRA. 
Reid, John Gilbert, article on Foreign Relations volumes 

for 1930, US. 
Relief (see also United States citizens; UNRRA) : 
Europe, U.S. policy for, 242. 
Fuel needs in war-torn countries, article by Mr. Jackson 

on European Coal Organization, 879. 
"Awa Mara", Japanese relief ship : 
Offer by U.S. of ship to replace, 249. 
Statement of U.S. investigation of sinking, 85. 
Relief and Rehabilitation Administration, United Nations. 

See UNRRA. 
Religion, Austria, U.S. directive regarding, 667. 
Reparation conference, meeting of, 309, 967, 1018, 1055. 
Reparations : 

Austrian, U.S. directive regarding, 670. 
German : 

Allied Commission, 308, 566, 6S8. 
Plant equipment, availability to U.S., S61. 
Potsdam agreement concerning, 157. 
Settlement : 

Statement by Secretary Byrnes, 964. 
Statement by State Department, 960. 
U.S. directive regarding, 604. 
Soviet claim to Kurile Islands and Sakhalin, statement 
by Secretary Byrnes, 370. 
Reparations mission, Japanese, announcement by Presi- 
dent Truman and list of members, 729. 
Repatriation (see also Displaced persons; "Gripsholm") : 
Nationals of France and U.S.S.R., discussed by Council 

of Foreign Ministers, 566. 
U.S. program, statement by Mr. Grew, 102. 
Representation of foreign interests by U.S. (as of July 28, 

1945), 144. 
Representation of Japanese interests in U.S., assumption 
of by Switzerland and exchange of notes between Mr. 
Grew and Mr. Grassli, 125. 
Research, German, control of, discussed by Mr. Clayton, 35. 
Research and intelligence: 

Interim service, establishment (DO. 1350), 739. 
Special Assistant to Secretary in charge of, establish- 
ment and responsibilities (D.O. 1351), 739. 
Research Council, International. See Scientific Unions, 

International Council of. 
Resistance movement in Thailand during the war, 338. 



Rheims, act of military surrender of Germany signed at, 

text, 106. 
Rhine River, International Commission of, meetings of, 

957, 1019. 
Rhineland, Franco-U.S. conversations on, 862. 
Richardson, Alvin F., article on State-War-Navy Coor- 
dinating Committee, 745. 
Richmond Junior Board of Trade, of Richmond, Va., 
presentation of portrait of Edmund Randolph to State 
Department, 324. 
Riddle, Oscar, visit to South America, 451. 
Riddleberger, James W., address on U.S. policy on treat- 
ment of Germany, 841. 
Rios, Juan Antonio (President of Chile), visit to U.S.: 
Address of welcome by Secretary Byrnes, 569. 
Program, 568. 

Statement by President Truman, 648. 
Rockefeller, Nelson A. : 
Address on obligations of American republics toward the 

peace, 285. 
Resignation as Assistant Secretary of State, exchange 
of letters with President Truman and letter from 
Secretary Byrnes, 291. 
Rodriguez Larreta, Alberto (Uruguayan Foreign Minis- 
ter), note to other American republics on inter-Amer- 
ican solidarity : 
Statement by Secretary Byrnes, 892. 
Text, 864. 
Roosevelt, Franklin D., correspondence: 

Ibn Saud (King of Saudi Arabia), on U.S. attitude 

toward Palestine, 623. 
U.S. Ambassador to Spain (Armour), on U.S. policy 
toward existing regime in Spain, 466. 
Rosenman, Samuel I., mission to examine civilian-supply 
needs of Allies in Europe, article by Mr. Merchant, 55. 
Ross, John C, designation in State Department, 132. 
Rossi, Carlo, visit in Brazil, 83. 

Rotterdam, Netherlands, opening of U.S. Consulate, 388. 
Rubber, Inter-Agency Policy Committee on, 413. 
Rubber Study Group, U.S., U.K., Netherlands, and France, 
second meeting: 
Report on, 840. 
Representatives, 769. 
Rubin, Seymour J., designation in State Department, 705. 
Ruhr, Franco-U.S. conversations on, 862. 
Rumania : 

Allied Control Commission in, revision of procedures 

favored bv Potsdam conference, 160. 
Attitude of U.S. toward formation of new government 

in, statement by Secretary Byrnes, 280. 
Entry of U.S. correspondents into, 404. 
Foreign Secretaries, U.S., U.K., and U.S.S.R., discussion 

of situation in, 1031. 
Peace treaty with Allies: 

Council of Foreign Ministers, discussion of, 509, 5bo. 
Procedure for preparation, agreement at Moscow meet- 
ing of Foreign Secretaries, 1027. 
Request by Potsdam conference, 159. 

Russell, Donald S. : „„ -«, 

Appointment as Assistant Secretary of State, 417, 558. 
Designation in State Department, 52, 705. 
Participant in radio broadcast, 1048. 
Statement on Foreign Service, 649. 
Russell, Francis H., designation in State Department, 554. 
Rutgers University, New Brunswick, N.J., address by Mr. 

Braden, 693. 
Rzymowski, Wincenty (Polish Minister for Foreign Af- 
fairs), arrival in U.S. to sign United Nations Charter, 
574. 

Safe-conduct. See "Awa Maru". 

Safehaven Program, effectiveness in elimination of Axis 
influence, discussed by Mr. Clayton, 27. 



1092 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



St. Lawrence Waterway project : 
Article by Mr. Miller, 715. 
Exchange of telegrams between President Truman and 

Governor Dewey, 489. 
Message from President Truman recommending approval 
by Congress, and statement by Mr. Acheson, 528. 
Sakhalin and Kurile Islands, Soviet claim to, comments 

by Secretary Byrnes, 370. 
San Francisco conference. See United Nations Conference 

on International Organization. 
San Marino, agreement for extension of relief, with 

UNRRA, 396. 
Sandifer, Durward V., address on progress of establish- 
ment of United Nations, 1010. 
Sanitary convention concerning maritime travel (1926), 
amendment (1944), application to British territories, 
470. 
Sanitary convention for aerial navigation (1933) amend- 
ment (1944), application to British territories, 470. 
Sanz de Santamaria, Carlos, credentials as Colombian Am- 
bassador to U.S., 417. 
Saudi Arabia, ratification of United Nations Charter, 626. 
SCAP. See MacArthur. 
Schleswig-Holstein, surrender of German armed forces 

in, text, 105. 
Schoenfeld, H. P. Arthur, appointment as U.S. Minister to 

Hungary, 1023. 
Schottland, Lt. Col. Charles I., Assistant Director in charge 

of rel ief services for UNRRA, Germany, 464. 
Sehurz, William, designation in State Department, 1063. 
Schwartz, Joseph J., appointment as temporary associate 

on Intergovernmental Committee on Refugees, 53. 
Science, role in foreign relations, radio broadcast, 377. 
Scientific cooperation. See Interdepartmental Committee 

on Cultural and Scientific Cooperation. 
Scientific Unions, International Council of: 
Article by Mrs. Brunauer, 371. 
Meeting of Executive Committee, 967. 
Scotland, transportation of ashes of Lord Lothian (former 
U.K. Ambassador to U.S.) by U.S. cruiser to Glasgow, 
941. 
Scott, Walter K., designation in State Department, 740. 
Secret documents, vindication of Mr. Service in misuse of, 

295. 
Secretariat of the United Nations, discussion of, in Pre- 
paratory Commission, 721. 
Secretary of State. See Byrnes, James F. ; Stettiuius, 

Edward R., Jr. 
Security against renewed German aggression, statement 

before Congress by Mr. Clayton, 21. 
Security Council of the United Nations: 
Agreement on, in meeting of Preparatory Commission, 

720. 
Article by Mr. Buehrig. 825. 
Functions, described by Secretary Stettinius, 80. 
U.S. representative, appointment, 1018. 
Senate, U.S. See Congress. 

Seni Pramoj, M. R. (Siamese Minister to U.S.). letter to 
Secretary Byrnes quoting proclamation by Regent of 
Thailand on end of Japanese war, 201. 
Service, John S. : 

Mr. Hurley's criticism of work of, comments and state- 
ment by Secretary Byrnes. 882, 931. 
Vindication of, letters from Secretary Byrnes and Mr. 
Grew, 295. 
SHAEF. See Supreme Headquarters, Allied Expedition- 
ary Force. 
Shanghai, China : 
Departure of civilians from, via "Lavaca", 733. 
Opening of U.S. Consulate General, 450, 774. 
Repatriation of U.S. citizens from, via "Refugee", 585. 
Shipping: 
Additional functions transferred to Shipping Division 

(D.O. 1332), 229. 
Combined Shipping Adjustment Board, 17. 



Shipping — Continued 

Relaxation of export controls, announcement by FEA. 

397. 
Treaties, agreements, etc.: 

Continuance of control for United Nations purposes 
(1944) : 
Accessions: Brazil. 70; Chile, 191: Denmark, 295, 

450; Sweden, 70; Yugoslavia, 965. 
Termination of United Maritime Authority estab- 
lished by, 965. 
Marine transportation and litigation, agreement be- 
tween U.S. and Norway, signature, 71. 
Sanitary convention covering maritime travel (1926), 
amendment (1944), application to British terri- 
tories, 470. 
Ships : 
Awa Maru, 85, 249. 
Franklin D. Roosevelt. 656. 
Gripsholm, 164, 5S5, 773. 
Lavaca, 733. 
Refugee, 585. 

Sale of, for private ownership, legislation recommended 
by President Truman, 360. 
Short-wave broadcasting. See Telecommunications. 
Siam (see also Thailand) : 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Agreement with U.K., conclusion of U.S.-U.K. conver- 
sations regarding, 1021. 
Termination of existing treaties with Japan, 49S, 521. 
Use of name, note from Thai Charge d'Affaires to Sec- 
retary Byrnes, 436. 
Simmes, Orlando A., designation in State Department, 132. 
Simsarian, James, article on release of French assets in 

U.S. and U.S. property in France, G87. 
Singapore, Straits Settlements, opening of U.S. Consulate 

General, 701. 
Snyder, John W. (Director of War Mobilization and Recon- 
version), creation of Inter-Agency Policy Committee 
on Rubber, and appointment of Mr. Batt as chairman, 
413. 
Social Service, Inter-American Congress, 290. 
Sofianopoulos, John (Greek Foreign Minister), conversa- 
tion with President Truman, 69. 
Soong, T. V., arrival in U.S., 262. 
South America. See American republics and the individual 

countries. 
Southeastern Bolivia, development of, agreement between 

Argentina and Bolivia, 199. 
Soviet Union. See Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. 
Spain (see also Tangier) : 
Attitude toward freezing German accounts and assets, 

discussed by Mr. Clayton, 33. 
Civil-aviation agreements: air transit, interim (1944), 

acceptance, 584. 
Potsdam agreement refusing membership in United Na- 
tions, 160. 
Shipments of sugar to, comments by Mr. Grew, 100. 
U.S. policy toward: 

Letter from President Roosevelt to U.S. Ambassador 

Armour, 466. 
Statement by Secretary Byrnes, 284. 
Special Projects Division, change in name from Special 

War Problems Division (D.O. 1341), 585. 
Special War Problems Division. See Special Projects 

Division. 
Stalin, Joseph V., participant in Potsdam conference, 153. 
Standard of living in Germany, U.S. directive regarding, 

602. 
Starr, Mark, appointment to U.S. Delegation to educational 

and cultural conference, 686. 
State Department (see also Departmental orders; Depart- 
mental regulations ; Executive orders ; Radio broad- 
casts) : 
Employees of former information-service agencies, plans 
to retain, 900. 



INDEX. JULY TO DECEMBER 1945 



1093 



State Department — Continued 
German reparation settlement and peacetime economy, 

statement on, 960. 
International commercial relations, cooperation with 

Department of Commerce concerning, 627. 
Japan, U.S. initial post-surrender policy for, joint state- 
ment with War and Navy Departments, 423. 
Japanese atrocities, report on, 343. 

Public Liaison, Division of, remarks by Mr. Acheson, 983. 
Publications. See Publications. 
Representation on Inter-Agency Policy Committee on 

Rubber, 413. 
Rosenman mission to report on civilian needs in north- 
west Europe, part in, 55. 
State-War-Navy Coordinating Committee, 645, 661, 745. 
State-War-Navy Coordinating Committee: 
Article by Mr. Moseley, Col. McCarthy and Commander 

Richardson, 745. 
Directive to Commander in Chief of U.S. forces of occu- 
pation regarding military government in Austria, 
prepared by, 661. 
Far Eastern policy of, discussed by Mr. Vincent, 645. 
Statistical studies: 

Status of countries in relation to the war, August 12, 

1945, study by Miss Crane, 230. 
Summary of tons of supplies and estimated value of 

UNRRA shipments to liberated areas, 320. 
UNRRA : 
Mission in Yugoslavia, progress, 384. 
Shipments to liberated areas, 546. 
Supplies contributed bv countries other than U.S., 
U.K., and Canada, 381. 
Statutory List (see also Blocked Nationals, Proclaimed 
List), continuation of, for control of Axis and pro- 
Axis firms and foreign assets, 900. 
Steinberg, S. S., visiting professor to American republics, 

294. 
Stettinius, Edward R., Jr. : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 

.Surrender of Japan, signing of terms, 300. 
United Nations: 
Charter, 11, 14, 680. 

Conference establishing, conclusion of, 6, 11, 14. 
Drug control, international, relation to, 574. 
Nomination as U.S. Representative to, 16. 
Preparatory Commission of, 437, 559. 
Appointment as U.S. Representative on Preparatory 
Commission of United Nations, letter from President 
Truman, 206. 
Appointment as U.S. representative to United Nations 

and to Security Council, 1018. 
Correspondence : 
Congressman Rabaut, on survey of Foreign Service 

establishments, 201. 
Japanese Government, on atrocities, 349, 351. 
Resignation as Secretary of State, letter from Presi- 
dent Truman, 15. 
UNCIO, summary of report to President Truman, 77. 
U.S. Representative to United Nations, 

Letter from President Truman nominating, and state- 
ment on acceptance, 15, 16. 
Senate confirmation, 1018. 
Stevenson, Adlai E., Appointment as Deputy U.S. Repre- 
sentative to Preparatory Commission of United Na- 
tions, 361. 
Stillwell, James A., address on supplies for liberated areas, 

431. 
Stimson, Henry L. : 
Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, exchange of letters 

with Cordell Hull, 302. 
World War II, name, letter to President Truman approv- 
ing, 427. 
Stone, William T. : 
Designation in State Department, 1063. 
Participant in radio broadcast, 947. 



Straits Settlements, opening of U.S. Consulate General at 

Singapore, 701. 
Strategic materials (see also Coal ; Combined Boards ; Pe- 
troleum ; Rubber ; Sugar ; Tin) , acquisition and reten- 
tion of stockpiles, legislation for, recommendation by 
President Truman, 360. 
Study abroad, removal of wartime objection, 701. 
Sugar, shipments to Spain, comments by Mr. Grew, 100. 
Supply problems (see also Combined Boards) : 
Austria, long-term supply arrangements discussed by 

Council of Foreign Ministers, 566. 
Belgium, arrangements with, 610. 
Liberated areas, address by Mr. Stillwell, 431. 
Middle East, U.S. arrangements, 727. 
Middle East Supply Center, dissolution of, 493. 
UNRRA shipments to liberated areas, 318, 546. 
Supreme Commander of Allied Powers (General Mac- 
Arthur), authority given to, 480. 
Supreme Headquarters, Allied Expeditionary Force (see 
also Combined Displaced Persons Executive), opera- 
tions of, regarding displaced persons in Germany, 127. 
Suro, Guillermo A., designation in State Department, 149. 
Surplus property, redistribution of functions in foreign 

areas (Ex. Or. 9630), 491. 
Surplus Property Administrator, letter from President 
Truman recommending transfer of surplus supplies to 
aid Philippines, 691. 
Surplus Property Board, representation on Inter-Agency 

Policy Committee on Rubber, 413. 
Surplus war property, lend-lease, reciprocal aid, and 
claims, settlement for, joint U.S-U.K. statement, 910. 
Surrender. See Germany; Japan. 
Sweden : 
Attitude toward freezing German accounts and assets, 

discussed by Mr. Clayton, 33. 
Minister to U.S. (Eriksson), credentials, 700. 
Pulp and paper industry, appointment of Mr. Jahn to 

study developments, 627. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Civil aviation, interim agreement (1944), acceptance, 

198. 
Extraterritorial rights, with China, entry into force, 

Reestablishment of international regime of Tangier 
(final act of conference of experts on Tangier), 
adherence, 613. 
Shipping, continuance of control for United Nations 
purposes (1944), accession, 70. 
Switzerland : 
Attitude toward freezing German accounts and assets, 

discussed by Mr. Clayton, 30, 32, 33. 
Japanese interests in U.S., assumption of representa- 
tion, and exchange of notes between Mr. Grew and 
Mr. Grassli, 125. 
Japanese propertv in U.S. in custody of Swiss Legation, 

transfer to U.S., 1022. 
Messages through Swiss Legation from U.S. to Japanese 

Government on atrocities, 344. 
Rhine River, International Commission of, meeting, 957. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Air-transport services, bilateral, with U.S. : 
Announcement, 198. 
Text, 269. 
Civil-aviation agreements: interim and air services 

transit (1944), acceptance, 199. 
Civil-aviation convention (1944), signature, 199. 
Watch imports by U.S., limitation, 942. 
SWNCC. See State-War-Navy Coordinating Committee. 
Syria : 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Barter, with Iraq, 584. 
Civil-aviation agreements (1944) : 

Air services transit, and air transport, signature 

with reservations, 199. 
Interim agreement, acceptance, 199. 



1094 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Syria — Continued 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

United Nations Charter, ratification, 627. 
U.S. relations with, remarks by Mr. Wadsworth, 940. 
Syro-Lebanese Club "Salaam", New York, N.Y., remarks 

by Mr. Wadsworth, 940. 
Szegedy-Maszak, Aladar de, appointment as Hungarian 
Minister to U.S., 734. 

Taft, Charles P., resignation, statement by Mr. Grew, 143. 
Tangier, conference of experts on : 
Announcement concerning, 48. 
Final act, with U.K.-French agreement, 613, 616. 
Representatives and proceedings, 380. 
Taylor, George, designation in State Department, 1063. 
Technological missions, joint U.K.-U.S., acquisition of 
German information for use in Japanese war, dis- 
cussed by Mr. Clayton, 36. 
Technology, German, control of, discussed by Mr. Clay- 
ton, 35. 
Tehran, Iran, combining of U.S. Embassy and Consulate, 

1023. 
Tehran conference, second anniversary, exchange of tele- 
grams between Iranian Foreign Minister (Nadjui) 
and Secretary Byrnes, 941. 
Tehran Declaration (1943), withdrawal of foreign troops 
in Iran, according to principles contained in, 884, 934, 
946. 
Telecommunications : 

Anglo-American conference at Bermuda : 
Agreement concluded at, 971. 
Invitation to U.S. from U.K., acceptance, 649. 
U.S. Delegation, listed, 862. 
German, control over, U.S. directive regarding, 604. 
Inter-American radio conference, third : 
Article by Mr. Burton and Mr. MacQuivey, 735. 
Article by Mr. Otterman, 292. 
U.S. Delegation, 293. 
Short-wave broadcasting frequencies, release of by State 

Department, 689. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Bermuda agreement, text, 971. 

International telecommunications convention (1932), 
approval by Luxembourg of annexes (1938), 999. 
Tenney, E. Paul, designation in State Department, 41. 
Thailand (see also Siam) : 
Relations with U.S.: 

Letter from Thai Minister (Seni Pramoj) to Secre- 
tary Byrnes, 261. 
Statement by Secretary Byrnes, 261. 
Resistance movement during the war, 338. 
Thompson, Elwood N., designation in State Department, 

650. 
Thomson, Charles A., designation in State Department, 

386. 
Thorp, Willard L. : 

Address on necessity for foreign investment, 829. 
Designation in State Department, 72. 
Participant in radio broadcast, 242. 
Tientsin, China, opening of U.S. Consulate General, 5S6, 

1023. 
Tin in Far East, article by Mr. Barnet, 401. 
Tracing bureau, central, operation by UNRRA for dis- 
placed persons in Germany, 464. 
Trade, international (see also Blocked Nationals; Cartels; 
Financial and trade negotiations ; Lend-lease) : 
Axis-dominated business in American republics, coopera- 
tion in control of, 23. 
Barriers, reduction of, negotiations proposed, 970. 
Control over, U.S. directives regarding, in — 
Austria, 670. 
Germany, 604. 
Export controls, relaxation of, 397. 

Exports, U.S., to France, restoration to private channels, 
358. 



Trade, international — Continued 

Financial arrangements favorable to, remarks by Mr. 

Bunn, 637. 
Foreign investment, necessity for, address by Mr. Thorp, 

829. 
Foreign trade agreements, regulations for public notice 

and presentation of views, 700. 
Greece, with U.S., resumption, 440. 
Italy, importation of goods from, procedures, 228. 
Merchant marine, U.S., resumption of normal opera- 
tion, legislation recommended by President Tru- 
man, 360. 
Reconstruction of, in American republics, address by Mr. 

Braden, 793. 
Relation to U.S. full employment, statement by Secre- 
tary Byrnes before Senate Banking and Currency 
Committee, 279. 
St. Lawrence Waterway, relation to, article by Mr. 

Miller, 715. 
Swiss-watch imports by U.S., limitation, 942. 
U.S. business operations in Pacific area, resumption, 699. 
Trade and payments agreement between Turkey and U.K., 

191. 
Trade Organization, International, U.S. proposals for es- 
tablishment, 918, 919, 929. 
Trade Promotion and Protection, Advisory Committee for, 

organization, 436. 
Transport and Communications Policy, Office of, 143. 
Transportation (see also Travel) : 

European inland waterways, discussed by Council of 

Foreign Ministers, 566. 
German, control over, U.S. directive regarding, 604. 
Travel : 

Areas opened for, 142, 733. 

Bermuda, passport regulations, cancellation, 376. 

Between U.S. and Canada, Newfoundland, or Labrador, 

regulations pertaining to, 149. 
Discontinuance by War Shipping Administration of cer- 
tification and issuance of priority for steamship 
travel, 415. 
Far East, accommodations in, 582. 
India-Burma theater, accommodations for, 942. 
Italy, acceptance of passport applications for, 498. 
Korea, return of Koreans to, 643. 
Visa-control regulations : 
Article by Mr. Earnest, 495. 
Revision of wartime restrictions, 495. 
Western Hemisphere: 
Curtailment of, 219. 
Relaxation of control, 339. 
Treasury Department : 

Memorandum and letter from President Truman to Sec- 
retary of Treasury recommending analysis of Phil- 
ippine currency, 691. 
Rosenman mission to report on civilian needs in north- 
west Europe, part in, 55. 
Safehaven Program, part in, discussed by Mr. Clayton, 

27. 
U.S. armed forces in France, arrangements by French 
Government concerning, joint statement with War 
Department and French Government, 282. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Articles of agreement of International Monetary Fund 

and articles of agreement of International Bank for 

Reconstruction and Development (1944), signing, 

934, 969, 1019, 1058. 

Asylum (1928), ratification by Peru, 100. 

Barter, Iraq with Lebanon, Palestine, and Syria, 584. 

Boundary along Pilcomayo River, Argentina-Paraguay, 

ratification, 642. 
Charter of the United Nations. See Charter of the 
United Nations. 



INDEX, JULY TO DECEMBER 1945 



1095 



Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 
Civil-aviation agreements (1944) : 
Action by : Australia, 198, 584 ; Belgium, 198 ; Greece, 
584 ; Iraq, 198 ; Luxembourg, 198 ; Netherlands, 
584; Paraguay, 198; Spain, 584; Sweden, 198; 
Switzerland, 199; Syria, 199; Union of South 
Africa, 969. 
Action taken, status as of Nov. 23, 1945 : 873. 
Civil-aviation agreements, bilateral: 
Air-transport, with — 

Mexico, conversations on, 537, 628. 
Norway, text, 550. 
Portugal, conclusion, 941. 
Switzerland, conclusion and text, 198, 269. 
Interim arrangements, with France, exchange of 
notes, 1059. 
Civil-aviation convention (1944), signature by: Luxem- 
bourg, 198 ; Paraguay, 198 ; Switzerland, 199. 
Claims convention, with Mexico (1941) : 

Payment by Mexico of instalment due under, 871. 
Payment by Mexico of instalment due under exchange 
of notes implementing, concerning compensation 
for expropriation of petroleum properties (1943), 
553. 
Commercial, with Chile, conclusion of, 188. 
Commercial modi vivendi, Venezuela and — 
Brazil (1940), renewal, 966. 
Chile (1941), renewal, 966. 
Commodities exchange, U.S.S.R. and Hungary, negotia- 
tion of, 698. 
Consular agents (1928), ratification by Peru, 100. 
Control machinery in Austria, between U.K., U.S., 

U.S.S.R., and France, summary of text, 221. 
Control of Germany, certain additional requirements to 
be imposed on Germany, U.K., U.S.S.R, France, and 
U.S., text, 515. 
Cooperative education, with El Salvador, conclusion of, 

100. 
Declaration by United Nations (1942), signatories and 

adherents, listed, 238. 
Development of southeastern Bolivia, between Argentina 

and Bolivia, summary of agreement, 199. 
Duties and rights of states in event of civil strife 

(1928), ratification by Peru, 100. 
Economic collaboration, U.S.S.R. and Hungary, negotia- 
tion of, 698. 
Economic relations, with Italy, text, 936. 
Extradition, with Canada (1942), transmittal of pro- 
tocol to U.S. Senate, 814. 
Extraterritorial rights, China and Sweden, entry into 

force, 197. 
Facilitating the international circulation of films of an 
educational character, Geneva convention on 
(1933), 396. 
Facilities for educational and publicity films, (1936), 

article by Miss Wright, 396. 
Far Eastern Advisory Commission, terms of reference, 

with China, U.K., and U.S.S.R., text, 561. 
Financial, U.K. and Iraq, summary of agreement, 220. 
Financial, with U.K., text and comments concerning, 

907. 
Financial and supply problems, arrangements with Bel- 
gium, joint statement by U.S. and Belgium, 610. 
Finnish armistice (1944), protocol to, U.K., Canada, and 

U.S.S.R. (1944), 789. 
Food production (1943), with Venezuela, extension, 99. 
Friendship, China and — 

Costa Rica (1944), exchange of ratifications, 99. 
U.S.S.R. (1945), statement by Secretary Byrnes, 333. 
Inter-American coffee agreement (1941), Executive 

Order 9612 amending Executive Order 8902, 400. 
International Military Tribunal, establishment for pros- 
ecution and punishment of major Axis war crimi- 
nals, with U.K., U.S.S.R., and France, text, 222. 
Italian armistice and related documents, text, 748. 
Japanese surrender documents, text, 362. 



Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

Leased naval and air bases in Newfoundland (1942), 
statement by Mr. Grew, 37. 

Lend-lease, with Iraq, signature, 202. 

Marine transportation and litigation, with Norway, sig- 
nature, 71. 

Military mission, with — 
Costa Rica, signature, 975. 
Honduras, signature, 1060. 

Military service, reciprocal, conclusion of, with Chile, 
Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela, 70. 

Monetary, U.K. and Denmark, summary of, 563. 

Montreux convention, U.S. principles for revision of, 766. 

Most-favored-nation customs treatment, Venezuela and 
Haiti, renewal, 188. 

Narcotics control, conventions for, article by Mr. Bur- 
nett, 570. 

Norwegian claim, convention relating to (1940), trans- 
mittal to Senate, 400. 

Pact of alliance, Siam-Japan (1941), termination by 
Siam, 498. 

Pan American Union convention (1928), ratification by 
Peru, 100. 

Patent rights, information, inventions, designs, or proc- 
esses, interchange of, with U.K. (1942), termina- 
tion, 585. 

Peace treaties. See Peace treaties. 

Petroleum agreement, with U.K. (1944), conversations 
on renegotiation, 385. 

Petroleum agreement, with U.K. (1945) : 
Text, 481. 
Transmittal to U.S. Senate, 737. 

Potsdam agreement, between U.S., U.K., and U.S.S.R., 
153, SS5. 

Relief to Albania, UNRRA-Albania, information con- 
cerning, telegraphed from Rome, 179. 

Relief to San Marino, UNRRA-San Marino, signature, 
396. 

Sanitary convention concerning maritime travel (1926) 
and sanitary convention for aerial navigation 
(1933), amendment (1944), application to British 
territories, 470. 

Shipping, continuance of control for United Nations 
purposes (1944) : 
Accessions : Brazil, 70; Chile, 191 ; Denmark, 295, 450; 

Sweden, 70; Yugoslavia, 965. 
Termination of United Maritime Authority estab- 
lished by, 965. 

Status of aliens in American states (1928), ratification 
by Peru, 100. 

Tangier, reestablishment of international administra- 
tion, U.K. and France, text, 616. ■ 

Tangier, reestablishment of international regime (final 
act of conference of experts on Tangier), text, 613. 

Tangier, Statute of (1923), 614. 

Telecommunications, international convention (1932), 
approval by Luxembourg of annexes (1938), 999. 

Telecommunications, with U.K., text, 971. 

Termination by Siam of existing treaties with Japan, 
498, 521. 

Trade and payments, Turkey and U.K., summary of, 
191. 

Treaties among American states, convention on (192S), 
ratification by Peru, 100. 

U.K.-Siam agreement, conclusion of U.S-U.K. conversa- 
tion's regarding, 1021. 

United Nations declarations (1943, 1944), effectiveness 
as economic measure against Axis inlluence, dis- 
cussed by Mr. Clayton, 26, 32. 

Water treaty and protocol, with Mexico (1944) : 

Approval by Mexican Senate, statement by Mr. Ache- 
son, 498. 
Entry into force, 770. 
Exchange of ratifications, 771. 
Proclamation by President Truman, 901. 



1096 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

Whaling, international agreement for regulation of 
(1937), as amended, supplementary protocol 
amending: 
Message of transmittal from President Truman to Sen- 
ate, 872. 
Report to President Truman from Secretary Byrnes, 
872. 
Zones of occupation in Austria, agreement between U.K., 
U.S., U.S.S.R., and France, summary of text, 221. 
Treaties among American states, convention on (1928), 

ratification by Peru, 100. 
"Trial of War Criminals", publication of State Depart- 
ment, 849. 
Tripartite Conference of Berlin. See Potsdam conference. 
Truman, Harry S. : 

Addresses, statements, etc. : 
Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry, 958. 
Anniversaries : 
Bastille Day, 83. 
Chinese Republic (34th), 581. 
Czechoslovak independence, 609. 
Philippine Commonwealth (10th), 813. 
Atomic energy, joint declaration with Prime Min- 
isters Attlee and King of U.K. and Canada, 781. 
Combined Production and Resources and Combined 
Raw Materials Boards, termination, joint state- 
ment with Prime Ministers of U.K. and Canada, 
975. 
Cooperation with France, joint statement with Gen- 
eral de Gaulle, 281. 
Death of Elie Garcia, 1023. 
Diplomatic representatives to U.S., meeting on defeat 

of Japan, 256. 
Displaced persons and refugees in Europe, immigra- 
tion to U.S., 981. 
Financial and trade negotiations with U.K., con- 
clusion, 905. 
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United 

Nations, 619. 
Japan, Soviet declaration of war on, 207. 
Japanese acceptance of Potsdam proclamation, 255. 
Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, issuance of reports 

on, 302, 303. 
Japanese surrender, signing of terms, 299. 
Jews in Europe, immigration into Palestine, 790. 
Korea, independence, 435. 
Philippines, independence, 537. 
Philippines, U.S. assistance to, 690. 
Polish Provisional Government of National Unity, 

establishment of diplomatic relations, 47. 
Report on Potsdam conference, 208. 
Surrender of Germany, at raising of U.S. flag in Ber- 
lin, 107. 
Termination of OWI and disposition of certain func- 
tions of OIAA, 306. 
UNCIO, final plenary session, 3. 
UNRRA, 428. 
U.S. foreign policy, restatement of in connection with 

Navy Day, 653. 
U.S. policy toward China, 945. 
Visit of President Rios of Chile to U.S., 648. 
World cooperation for peace, 557. 
Appointment of Mr. Locke as Personal Representative 

to China, 497. 
Correspondence : 

Abdul Hah, Regent of Iraq, on departure from U.S., 

71. 
Anniversaries : 

Belgian independence, 128. 

Chinese Republic (34th), message to Chiang Kai- 
shek, 581. 
Japanese attack on China (8th), message to Chiang 

Kai-shek, 70. 
National anniversary of U.S.S.R., letter to Presi- 
dent of Presidium (Kalinin), 768. 



Truman, Harry S. — Continued 
Correspondence — Continued 

Anniversaries — Continued 
Venezuelan independence, 54. 

Prime Minister Attlee, on immigration of Jews into 
Palestine, 790. 

President Avila Camacho of Mexico, regarding ex- 
change of ratifications of water treaty and 
protocol with Mexico, 772. 

Christian X of Denmark, on restoration of Danish 
independence, 53. 

Governor Dewey, on Great Lakes-St. Lawrence sea- 
way and power projects, 489. 

General Eisenhower, letter from President trans- 
mitting report of Mr. Harrison on displaced per- 
sons in Germany and liberated areas, 455. 

General Eisenhower, letter to President on welfare 
and care of Jews in U.S. zone in Germany, 607. 

Extradition treaty, with Canada (1942), transmittal 
of protocol to Senate, 814. 

Foreign Service, tribute to, 1015. 

Mr. Grew, on resignation as Under Secretary of State, 
271. 

Mr. Holmes, on resignation as Assistant Secretary of 
State, 272. 

House of Representatives, estimate for UNRRA ap- I 
propriation, 575. 

Cordell Hull, on Nobel Peace Prize of 1945, 819. 

Lend-lease, transmittal to Congress of 20th report 
of operations, 332. 

Mr. MacLeish, on resignation as Assistant Secretary 
of State, 273. 

Mr. McCarthy, on resignation as Assistant Secretary 
of State, 5S2. 

General McCoy, on public opinion and foreign policy, 
67S. 

Norwegian claim, convention relating to (1940), 
transmittal to Senate, 400. 

President Osmefia of Philippines, concerning reduction 
of required gold coverage of Philippine currency, 
814. 

OSS, termination and disposition of functions, letters 
to General Donovan and Secretary Byrnes, 450. 

President Parri of Italian Council of Ministers, on 
Italian peace treaty, 762. 

Petroleum agreement, U.S.-U.K, transmittal to Sen- 
ate, 737. 

Polish Prime Minister (Osobka-Morawski), on estab- 
lishment of diplomatic relations, 47. 

Mr. Price, on appointment as personal representative 
to Germany, 333. 

Report of Mr. Price on relations between U.S. occupa- 
tion forces and German people, transmittal to 
Secretaries of State, War, and Navy, 8S5. 

Mr. Rockefeller, resignation as Assistant Secretary of 
State, 291. 

Mr. Stettinius: 

Appointment as U.S. Representative on Preparatory 

Commission of United Nations, 206. 
Resignation as Secretary of State and nomination 
as U.S. Representative to United Nations, 15. 
United Nations, transmittal to Senate of nomination 
of U.S. representatives to General Assembly and 
Security Council, 1018. 
UNRRA, transmittal to Congress of third and fourth 

quarterly reports, 52, 577. 
UNRRA Director General (Lehman), on designation 

of Mr. Clayton as U.S. member of Council, 62. 
U.S. assistance to Philippines, recommendations to 
Government departments and agencies for carry- 
ing out U.S. program, 690. 
Mr. Warner, on resignation from Civil Aeronautics 

Board, 414. 
Whaling, international agreement for regulation of 
(1937), as amended, supplementary protocol 
amending, transmittal to Senate, 872. 



INDEX, JULY TO DECEMBER 1945 



1097 



Truman, Harry S. — Continued 

Directire authorizing testimony of Government officials, 

773. 
Directive on immigration to U.S. of displaced persons 

and refugees in Europe, 983. 
Executive orders. See Executive orders. 
Greek Foreign Minister ( Sofianopoulos) , conversation 

with, 60. 
Instrument of ratification of United Nations Charter, 

214. 
Japanese reparations missions, announcement of, 729. 
Koenigsberg, city of, and adjacent area, support of So- 
viet proposal at Potsdam conference concerning 
transfer to U.S.S.R., 158. 
Lend-lease, discontinuance, Foreign Economic Adminis- 
trator directed to notify participating governments, 
284. 
Messages to Congress : 
Atomic energy, international control of, 514. 
Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Waterway project, 528. 
Reconversion, 359. 

United Nations Charter, transmittal to Senate, 46. 
Universal military training, recotumendations for, 

659. 
UNRRA, U.S. participation in, 807. 
Potsdam conference, participant, 153. 
Proclamations: 
Alien enemies, removal from U.S., 107, 361. 
Immigration quotas for Austria and Germany, 465. 
U.S. jurisdiction over natural resources in coastal 
areas and the high seas, 484. 
San Francisco conference, arrival at, 5. 
U.S. foreign policy, 12 guiding principles as stated by, 

654. 
World War II, name, approved by, 428. 
Trusteeship and non-self-governing territories in United 

Nations Charter, article by Mr. Bunche, 1037. 
Trusteeship Council of the United Nations : 
Arrangements of Preparatory Commission, 626. 
Functions, described by Secretary Stettinius, 81. 
Trusteeships, territorial, proposal by U.S.S.R., at Potsdam 

conference, 160. 
Tsingtao, China, opening of U.S. Consulate, 977. 
Turkey : 

Treaties, agreements, etc.: 

Montreux convention, U.S. principles for revision of, 

766. 
Opium, limitation of production, exchange of notes 

with U.S., 63. 
Trade and payments, with U.K., 191. 
United Nations Charter, ratification, 513. 
U.S. Consulates, closing, at — 
Adana, 72. 
Iskenderun, 20. 
Turner, William T., designation in State Department, 705. 

UNCIO. See United Nations Conference on International 

Organization. 
Unconditional surrender. See Germany ; Japan. 
Under Secretary of State. See Acheson, Dean ; Grew, 

Joseph C. 
UNESCO. See Educational, Scientific and Cultural Or- 
ganization of the United Nations. 
Union of South Africa: 

Minister to U.S. (Andrews), credentials, 206. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Civil-aviation agreements (1944) : interim and air- 
transit, acceptance, 969. 
United Nations Charter, ratification, 817. 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics : 

Armed forces in Iran, U.S. proposal to withdraw and 

Soviet and British replies, 884, 934, 946. 
Control Council for Japan, position regarding establish- 
ment, comments by Secretary Byrnes, 692. 
Council of Foreign Ministers, first meeting, list of par- 
ticipants, 392. 



Union of Soviet Socialist Republics — Continued 

Cultural cooperation with, address by Mr. Child, 815. 
Declaration of war on Japan, statements by President 

Truman and Secretary Byrnes, 207. 
Far Eastern Commission, establishment, 1028. 
Foreign Secretaries, U.S., U.K., and U.S.S.R., meeting 

in Moscow, 935, 954, 1027, 1033, 1055. 
Koenigsberg, city of, and adjacent area, proposal at Pots- 
dam conference for transfer to U.S.S.R., 158. 
Kurile Islands and Sakhalin, claim to, comments by 

Secretary Byrnes, 370. 
National anniversary, letter from President Truman to 

President Kalinin, 76S. 
Opium, limitation of production, exchange of notes with 

U.S., 129. 
Position regarding Food and Agriculture Organization 
of United Nations, report of chairman of conference 
(Pearson), 726. 
Potsdam conference, list of delegates, 161. 
Reparations from Germany, Potsdam agreement regard- 
ing claims of, 157. 
Repatriation of nationals, discussed by Council of For- 
eign Ministers, 566. 
Security and understanding in U.S.-Soviet friendship, 

problem of, address by Mr. Acheson, 787. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Armistice with Finland (1944), protocol to, with Can- 
ada and U.K. (1944), 789. 
Commodities exchange, with Hungary, negotiation of, 

69S. 
Control machinery in Austria, with U.S., U.K., and 

France, summary of text, 221. 
Control of Germany, certain additional requirements 
to be imposed on Germany, with U.S., U.K., and 
France, text, 515. 
Economic collaboration, with Hungary, negotiation 

of, 698. 
Friendship, with China, statement by Secretary 

Byrnes, 333. 
International Military Tribunal, establishment, with 

U.S., U.K., and France, text, 222. 
Tangier, reestablishment of international regime 
(final act of conference of experts on Tangier) 
text, 613. 
United Nations Charter, ratification, 679. 
Zones of occupation in Austria, with U.S., U.K., and 
France, summary of text, 221. 
UNCIO, remarks by Mr. Gromyko, at conclusion of, 9. 
United Nations headquarters, vote for location in U.S., 

statement by Mr. Gromyko, 563. 
U.S. policy regarding, exchange of letters between Mr. 

Grew and U.S. Congressmen, 49. 
Visit of Mr. Ethridge to Moscow, statement by Secre- 
tary Byrnes, 767. 
Marshal Zhukov, postponement of visit to U.S., 612. 
United Kingdom: 
Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry, 958, 967, 790 

1020, 1055. 
Atomic energy, joint declaration, by President of U.S. 

and Prime Ministers of Canada and U.K., 781. 
Civilian-supply needs, investigation, by Rosenman mis- 
sion, 55. 
Combined Boards, decision to maintain, 333. 
Council of Foreign Ministers, 1st meeting, list of par- 
ticipants, 392. 
Far Eastern Advisory Commission, 561, 643, 728 769 

S98, 102S. 
Far Eastern Commission, 1020, 1028, 1055. 
Financial and trade negotiations, with U.S. : 

Conclusion of, including text of financial agreement 

and related documents, 905. 
Joint statements with U.S., 395, 512. 
U.S. objectives, 580. 
Foreign Secretaries of U.S., U.K., and U.S S R meet- 
ing in Moscow, 935, 954, 1027, 1033, 1055. 
Greek elections, plans to send observers, 429. 



1 098 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



United Kingdom — Continued 

Immigration of Jews into Palestine. See under Anglo- 
American Committee of Inquiry. 
Invitation to governments of United Nations to send 
delegates to educational and cultural conference 
in London, 624. 
Koenigsberg, city of, and adjacent area, support by 
Prime Minister (Attlee) of Soviet proposal at Pots- 
dam conference concerning transfer to U.S.S.R., 158. 
Middle East Supply Center, dissolution, joint state- 
ment with U.S., 493. 
Occupation of Tangier Zone by Spain, conversations 

with U.S. and France regarding, 48. 
Potsdam conference, list of delegates, 161. 
Potsdam proclamation defining terms for Japanese sur- 
render, text, 137. 
Reparations from Germany, Potsdam agreement re- 
garding claims of, 157. 
Rhine River, International Commission of, meeting, 957. 
Rubber Study Group, second meeting, 769, 840. 
Technological missions, joint, with U.S., acquisition of 
German information for use in Japanese war, dis- 
cussed by Mr. Clayton, 36. 
Telecommunications conference, with U.S., 649, 862, 971. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Armistice with Finland (1944), protocol to, with 

Canada and U.S.S.R. (1944), 789. 
Control machinery in Austria, agreement with U.S., 

U.S.S.R., and France, summary of text, 221. 
Control of Germany, certain additional requirements 
to be imposed on Germany, with U.S., U.S.S.R., 
and France, text, 515. 
Financial, with Iraq, 220. 

Financial, with U.S., text and comments, 907. 
International Military Tribunal, establishment, with 

U.S., U.S.S.R., and France, text, 222. 
Leased naval and air bases in Newfoundland (1942), 

statement by Mr. Grew, 37. 
Monetary, with Denmark, summary of, 563. 
Petroleum, with U.S. (1944), conversations on re- 
negotiation, 385. 
Petroleum, with U.S. (1945), 481, 737. 
Patent interchange, with U.S. (1942), termination, 

585. 
Sanitary convention (1944), 470. 
Sanitary convention for aerial navigation (1944), 

470. 
Siam agreement, conclusion of U.S.-U.K. conversa- 
tions regarding, 1021. 
Tangier, reestablishment of international administra- 
tion, with France, text, 616. 
Tangier, reestablishment of international regime 
(final act of conference of experts on Tangier), 
text, 613. 
Telecommunications, with U.S., text, 971. 
Trade and payments, with Turkey, 191. 
United Nations Charter, ratification, 627. 
Zones of occupation in Austria, with U.S., U.S.S.R., 
and France, summary of text, 221. 
Troops in Iran, U.S. proposal for withdrawal, British 

reply, 946. 
UNCIO, remarks by the Earl of Halifax, at close of, 8. 
Visit of Prime Minister Attlee to U.S. to discuss atomic- 
energy problem, 714, 766. 
United Maritime Authority: 
Establishment, 57. 
Termination, 965. 
United Nations < see also Charter of the United Nations ; 
Economic and Social Council; General Assembly; In- 
ternational Court of Justice; Preparatory Commis- 
sion ; Security Council ; Trusteeship Council ; United 
Nations organizations) : 
Addresses : 

Mr. Sandifer, 1010. 
Mr.- Stettinius, 559. 
Chart of organization, 12. 



United Nations — Continued 

Declaration (1942), signatories and adherents, listed, 

238. 
Declarations (1943, 1944), effectiveness as economic 

measure against Axis influence, 26, 32. 
Drug-control bodies, relation to, statement by Secretary 

Stettinius, 574. 
Headquarters, permanent, selection of site. See Pre- 
paratory Commission of the United Nations. 
Membership of states, agreement on policy regarding, 

reached at Potsdam conference, 159. 
Secretariat, 721. 
U.S. Representative (Stettinius) : 

Nomination by letter from President Truman and 

statement of acceptance, 15, 16. 
Senate confirmation, 1018. 
U.S. representatives to Organization and agencies, 
House and Senate approval of appointment, 1019. 
United Nations Conference on International Organization : 
Addresses, statements, etc., on conclusion of : 
Mr. Gromyko, 9. 
Earl of Halifax, 8. 
Cordell Hull, 13. 
Mr. Koo, 7. 

Secretary Stettinius, 6, 11, 14. 
President Truman, 3. 
Articles : 

Mr. Bunche, 1037. 
Mr. Child, 139. 

Mr. Frantz, 334. . 

Organization, functions, and personnel of secretariat, 

chart, 8. „ „ , 

Summary of report by Chairman of U.S. Delegation 

(Stettinius) to President Truman, 77. 
President Truman at final plenary session, 5. 
Work on International Court of Justice discussed by 
Mr. Preuss, 475. 
United Nations organizations: 

Atomic energy, commission for control of, Is-i, n«i. 
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, 165, 

407, 522, 548, 625, 686, 724, 798, 968, 1057. 
Food and Agriculture Organization, 323, 522, 619, 686, 

724. 
Health organization, proposed, 63S, 640. 
Place in United Nations, article by Mr. Hyde, 955. 
Trade Organization, proposed, 918, 919, 929. 
United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration. 
SeeUNRRA. m , . 

United States Chief of Counsel for Prosecution of Axis 

Criminality (Jackson), 40, 227, 850. 
United States citizens (see also Prisoners of war and ci- 
vilian internees) : 
Departure from Shanghai on "Lavaca , (33. 
Housing in Paris, arrangements for 552 
Inquiries concerning nationals in Czechoslovakia, 14», 

Denmark 149; Germany, 899; Norway, 149. 
Participation in internal affairs of other American re- 
publics, disapproval, S97. _ 
Repatriation of, from Shanghai, via "Refugee , 585. 
Repatriation of, obligation of U. S. Government in, state- 
ment by Mr. Grew, 162. 
Repatriation of, via "Gripsholm", 164, 5Sa, 773. 
Welfare and whereabouts in war areas or liberated 
areas, 213, 274. 
University of Kansas City, Kansas City, Mo., address by 

Mr. Riddkberger, S41. 
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa., address by 

Mr. Briggs, 867. 
University of the Litoral, Santa Fe, Argentina, address by 

Mr. Braden, 327. 
UN. See United Nations. 

UNRRA: _ ,, . ,- Q „ Q fi 

Agreements with Albania and San Marino, 1.9. 39b. 

Appropriation estimate: 

Letter from President Truman to Congress, 5i5. 



INDEX, JULY TO DECEMBER 1945 



1099 



UNRRA — Continued 
Appropriation estimate — Continued 

Statement by Mr. Clayton before Deficiency Subcom- 
mittee of House Appropriations Committee, 575. 
Conference of European food and agriculture statis- 
ticians in association with Interim Commission of 
Food and Agriculture Organization, 725. 
Council of, designation of Mr. Clayton as U.S. member, 

62. 
Council of, third session : 
Address by Mr. Lehman, 215. 
Recommendations of President Truman to Congress 

on results of, 359. 
Resolution passed by, 276. 
U.S. Delegation, listed, 142. 
Displaced persons : 

Contribution to relief of: 
Program in Germany, 464. 
Report of Mr. Harrison, 459, 462. 
Far East, mission to gather information on, 628. 
Operations in Germany, 128. 
Europe, operations in, review of, statement by Mr. 

Lehman, 178. 
Italy, program in, statement by Mr. Keeny, 578. 
Liberated areas, reports on shipments to, 318, 546. 
Missions, progress of, in — 
Greece, 385. 
Yugoslavia, 382. 
Quarterly reports (3d and 4th), transmittal to Congress 

by President Truman, 52, 577. 
Radio broadcast on, 629. 
Recommendations of President Truman in message to 

Congress, 359. 
Supplies contributed by countries other than U.S., U.K., 

and Canada, 381. 
President Truman, statement on relief program, 428. 
U.S. participation in : 

Message of President Truman to Congress, SOT. 
Statement by Mr. Acheson, 808. 
Statement by Mr. Clayton, 809. 
Visit of joint U.S. Army-UNRRA mission to Europe, 

382. 
War-surplus supplies for, resolution of third Council 
meeting, text, 276. 
Uruguay (see also American republics) : 

Inter-American solidarity, note from Foreign Minister 
(Larreta) to other American republics: 
Statement by Secretary Byrnes, 892. 
Text, 864. 
United Nations Charter, ratification, 1019. 
Visiting scientist from U.S., 339. 
U.S. Commercial Company, work in Italy, on behalf of 
Allied Commission, 228. 

Vallarino, J. J., credentials as Panamanian Ambassador 

to U.S., 206. 
Vandenberg, A. H. (U.S. Senator), exchange of letters 

with Mr. Grew on U.S. policy toward Poland, 109. 
Velloso, Pedro Leao (Brazilian Foreign Minister), ex- 
change of notes with U.S. Ambassador on new Bra- 
zilian administration, 870. 
Venezuela (see also American republics) : 
Agreements : 

Commercial modi vivendi, with Brazil (1940) and 

Chile (1941), renewal, 966. 
Food production, with U.S. (1943), extension, 99. 
Military service, reciprocal, with U.S., 70. 
Most-favored-nation customs treatment, with Haiti 
188. 
Anniversary of independence, message from President 

Truman, 54. 
Cultural leaders, visit to U.S., 100, 490. 
Recognition of Government by U.S., 734. 
Visiting professor from U.S., 340. 



Veterans' Administration, recommendations of President 
Truman for analysis of benefits payable to veterans in 
Philippines, 692. 
Vienna, Austria, opening of U.S. Mission, 483. 
Vincent, John Carter : 

Address on post-war period in Far East, 644. 
Designation in State Department, 452. 
Participant in radio broadcast, 538. 
Vinson, Fred M. (Secretary of the Treasury), addresses, 
statements, etc. : 
Bretton Woods agreements, signing, 1059. 
Financial and trade negotiations with U.K., 909. 
Visa Division, work of, 495. 
Visa regulations, wartime : 
Article by Mr. Earnest, 495. 
Revision of, 131, 495. 
Voice of America radio program, discussed by Mr. Benton, 
712. 

Wadsworth, George, remarks on friendship in U.S.-Levant 

relations, 940. 
Wailes, Edward T., designation in State Department, 149. 
War, declaration of. See Union of Soviet Socialist Re- 
publics. 
War, status of countries in relation to, August 12, 1945, 

study by Miss Crane, 230. 
War criminals (see also International Military Tribunal) : 
Japanese, authority for preparation and prosecution of 

charges (Ex. Or. 9660), 898. 
Potsdam declarations concerning, 155, 158. 
U.S. directives regarding, in — 
Austria, 664. 
Germany, 599. 
War Department (see also State- War-Navy Coordinating 
Committee) : 
Indictment against German war criminals as filed with 

International Military Tribunal. 595. 
Japan, U.S. initial post-surrender policy for, joint state- 
ment with State and Navy Departments, 423. 
Letter from President Truman to Secretary of War 
recommending aid in reorganization of Philippine 
Constabulary, 691. 
Memorandum from President Truman recommending 

analysis of Philippine currency, 691. 
Representation on Inter-Agency Policy Committee on 

Rubber, 413. 
Rosenman mission to report on civilian needs in north- 
west Europe, part in, 55. 
U.S. armed forces in France, arrangements by French 
Government concerning, joint statement with 
Treasury Department and French Government, 2S2. 
War Food Administration, representation on Combined 

Food Board, 18. 
War Mobilization and Reconversion, Director of (Snyder), 
announcement of creation of Inter-Agency Policy 
Committee on Rubber and appointment of Mr. Batt 
as chairman, 413. 
War Production Board, representation on Combined Raw 

Materials Board, 18. 
War Refugee Board, termination (Ex. Or. 9614), 416. 
War Shipping Administration, discontinuance of certifi- 
cation and issuance of priority for steamship travel, 
415. 
War Shipping Administrator, letter from President Tru- 
man requesting statement of shipping to Philippines, 
692. 
Ward, R. E., Jr., designation in State Department, 977. 
Warner, Edward, resignation from Civil Aeronautics 
Board, exchange of letters with President Truman, 
414. 
Warren, Avra M., appointment as U.S. Minister to New 

Zealand, 701. 
Warsaw, Poland, opening of U.S. Embassy, 549. 
Warsaw government. See Polish Provisional Govern- 
ment for National Unity. 



1100 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



War-shipping functions, transfer to Shipping Division, 

(D.O. 1332), 229. 
War-surplus supplies for UNRRA, text of resolution of 

third Council session, 276. 
Water treaty and protocol with Mexico (1944) : 

Approval by Mexican Senate, statement by Mr. Acheson, 

498. 
Entry into force, 770. 
Exchange of ratifications, 771. 
Proclamation by President Truman, 901. 
Welfare and whereabouts of U.S. nationals abroad. See 

United States citizens. 
Wendelin, Eric C, designation as Liaison Officer for State 
Department with U.S. Chief of Counsel for Prosecu- 
tion of Axis Criminality (D.O. 1326), 40. 
West Indies. See American republics; Anglo-American 
Caribbean Commission; and the individual countries. 
Western Hemisphere (see also American republics), 
travel in : 
Curtailment of, 219. 
Relaxation of control, 339. 
Whaling, international agreement for regulation of 
(1937), as amended, supplementary protocol amend- 
ing, transmittal to U.S. Senate, 872. 
Whaling conference, international, 969. 
Wherry, Kenneth S., exchange of letters with Mr. Acheson 

on U.S. policy toward Japan, 479. 
Whitney, John Hay, designation in State Department, 

650. 
Wilcox, Clair : , 

Address on future of international economic relations, 

833 
Designation in State Department, 40. 

Willard, Clarke L., article on Inter-American Conference 
on Agriculture, 59. 

Women's Bar Association of the District of Columbia, 
Washington, D.C., address by Mr. Stillwell, 431. 

Women's rights, resolutions of Mexico City conference 
concerning, article by Miss Parks, 112. 

Wool market, effect on foreign economic relations, state- 
ment by Mr. Clayton, 837. 



World War II: 

Designation of official name, 427. 

Status of countries in relation to, study by Miss Crane, 
230. 
Wright, Irene A., article on attestation of international 

educational character of materials, 396. 
Wright, James H., designation in State Department, 814. 
Wright, William D., designation in State Department, 132. 

Tale University, address by Mr. Braden, 1007. 
Yalta agreement and Yalta conference. See Crimea con- 
ference. 
Yingling, Raymund T., designation in State Department, 

41. 
Young, John P., designation in State Department, 705. 
Yugoslavia : 

Italian frontier, views of Council of Foreign Ministers, 

565. 
Recognition of new regime, instruction to U.S. Ambassa- 
dor from Secretary Byrnes, 1020. 
Treaties : 

Shipping, continuance of control for United Nations 

purposes (1944), accession, 965. 
United Nations Charter, ratification, 626. 
UNRRA mission in, progress, 382. 

Zhukov, G. (Soviet Marshal), postponement of visit to 

U.S., 612. 
Zoltowski, Janusz, appointment as Charge d'Affaires ad 

interim of Poland in U.S., 400. 
Zones of occupation : 
Austria : „ 

Agreement between U.K., U.S., U.S.S.R., and France, 

summary of text, 221. 
U.S. directive regarding, 662. 
Germany : 

French zone, 276. 
Map showing divisions, 275. 
U.S. directive regarding, 597. 
Zwemer, Raymund L. : 

Designation in State Department, 386. 
Participant In radio broadcast, 377. 



^ 



» S. G0VERM«EKT PRINTIPIS OFFICE: !»<• 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 




"^ 



J 



J 



H 






i 




VOL. XIII, NO. 314 



In this issue 



JULY 1, 1945 



^zrs.jA 3 a 



NOMINATION OF EDWARD R. STETTINIUS, JR., AS 
U. S. REPRESENTATIVE TO UNITED NATIONS, 
AND RESIGNATION AS SECRETARY OF STATE 

UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE 

Final Plenary Session: Address by President Truman 

SECURITY AGAINST RENEWED GERMAN AGGRESSION 

Statement by Assistant Secretary Clayton 

THE COMBINED BOARDS 
By Courtney C. Brown 



For complete contents 
see inside cover 



VV^NT ^ 




'4tes ° t 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

BU LLETIN 



Vol. XIII • No. 314. 




Poblicatioh 2352 



July 1, 1945 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Research and 
Publication, Office of Public Affairs, 
provides the public and interested 
agencies of the Government with 
information on developments in the 
field of foreign relations and on the 
work of the Department of State and 
the Foreign Service. The BULLETIN 
includes press releases on foreign 
policy issued by the White House and 
the Department, and statements and 
addresses made by the President and 
by the Secretary of State and other 
officers of the Department, as well as 
special articles on various phases of 
international affairs and the functions 
of the Department. Information con- 
cerning treaties and international 
agreements to which the United States 
is or may become a party and treaties 
of general international interest is 
included. 

Publications of the Department, 
cumulative lists of which are published 
at the end of each quarter, as well as 
legislative material in the field of inter- 
national relations, are listed currently. 

The BULLETIN, published with the 
approval of the Director of the Bureau 
of the Budget, is for sale by the Super- 
intendent of Documents, United States 
Government Printing Office, Washing- 
ton 25, D. C, to whom all purchase 
orders, with accompanying remittance, 
should be sent. The subscription price 
is $3.50 a year; a single copy is 10 
cents. 



JUL 28 iy45 

(^ontents 

Europe ■ Page 

Survey on Needs of Displaced Persons 14 

Appointment of Charles Fahy asJDirector of Legal Division 

on U.S. Control Council 20 

Security Against Renewed German Aggression. Statement 

by Assistant Secretary Clayton 21 

Far East 

Detention of Japanese Officials 37 

Cultural Cooperation 
Walter H. Hodge Accepts Visiting Professorship to Colombia . 20 

Training of Chilean Students in the United States: Program 

of the Chilean Development Corporation 39 

Economic Affairs 

The Combined Boards. By Courtney C. Brown 17 

The United Nations 

United Nations Conference on International Organization: 
Final Plenary Session: 

Address by President Truman 3 

Arrival of President Truman at San Francisco ... 5 
Remarks by the Chairman of the United States Dele- 
gation 6 

Remarks by the Acting Chairman of the Chinese 

Delegation 7 

Remarks by the Acting Chairman of the United King- 
dom Delegation 8 

Remarks by the Acting Chairman of the Soviet Dele- 
gation 9 

Ceremony on the Occasion of the Signing of the Charter 
of the United Nations: 
Remarks by the Chairman of the United States Dele- 
gation 11 

Order of Delegations in Signing the Charter 11 

Facts Concerning the Printing and Binding of the 

Charter 11 

Organization, Functions, and Personnel of Secre- 
tariat facing p. 8 

Telegram From Cordell Hull to Edward R. Stettinius, Jr. . 13 

Statement by Cordell Hull 13 

Statement by the Secretary of State 14 

Chart of Organization of United Nations 12 

Statement by Edward R. Stettinius, Jr., on Nomination 

as U.S. Representative 16 

Treaty Information 

Concerning 99-year Lease on Areas in Newfoundland. 

Statement by Acting Secretary Grew 37 

The Department 

Resignation of Edward R. Stettinius, Jr., as Secretary of 

State: Letter From the President to Mr. Stettinius . . 15 

Nomination of James F. Byrnes To Be Secretary of State To 

Be Sent to Senate 15 

Resignation of William Phillips. Statement by Acting 

Secretary Grew 16 

Cooperation With United States Chief of Counsel for the 

Prosecution of Axis Criminality 40 

Appointment of Officers 40 

The Foreign Service 

Consular Offices • • 20 

Arrangements for Recruitment of Commissioned Foreign 

Service Officers 28 

Publications 

The Congress 



United Nations Conference on 

International Organization 



FINAL PLENARY SESSION 1 
Address by President Truman 



[Released to the press by the White House June 26] 

Mr. Chairman and Delegates to the United 
Nations Conference on International Organi- 
zation : I deeply regret that the press of circum- 
stances when this Conference opened made it 
impossible for me to be here to greet you in person. 
I have asked for the privilege of coming today, to 
express on behalf of the people of the United 
States our thanks for what you have done here, 
and to wish you Godspeed on your journeys home. 

Somewhere in this broad country, every one of 
you can find some of our citizens who are sons and 
daughters, or descendants in some degree, of your 
own native land. All our people are glad and 
proud that this historic meeting and its accom- 
plishments have taken place in our country. And 
that includes the millions of loyal and patriotic 
Americans who stem from the countries not repre- 
sented at this Conference. 

We are grateful to you for coming. AVe hope 
you have enjoyed your stay, and that you will come 
again. 

You assembled in San Francisco nine weeks ago 
with the high hope and confidence of peace-loving 
people the world over. 

Their confidence in you has been justified. 

Their hope for your success has been fulfilled. 

The Charter of the United Nations which you 
have just signed is a solid structure upon which 
we can build a better world. History will honor 
you for it. Between the victory in Europe and 
the final victory in Japan, in this most destructive 
of all wars, you have won a victory against war 
itself. 

It was the hope of such a Charter that helped 
sustain the courage of stricken peoples through the 
darkest days of the war. For it is a declaration 
of great faith by the nations of the earth — faith 
that war is not inevitable, faith that peace can be 
maintained. 



If we had had this Charter a few years ago — 
and above all, the will to use it — millions now dead 
would be alive. If we should falter in the future 
in our will to use it, millions now living will surely 
die. 

It has already been said by many that this is only 
a first step to a lasting peace. That is true. The 
important thing is that all our thinking and all 
our actions be based on the realization that it is 
in fact only a first step. Let us all have it firmly 
in mind that we start today from a good beginning 
and, with our eye always on the final objective, let 
us march forward. 

The Constitution of my own country came from 
a Convention which — like this one — was made up 
of delegates with many different views. Like this 
Charter, our Constitution came from a free and 
sometimes bitter exchange of conflicting opinions. 
When it was adopted, no one regarded it as a per- 
fect document. But it grew and developed and 
expanded. And upon it there was built a bigger, 
a better, a more perfect union. 

This Charter, like our own Constitution, will be 
expanded and improved as time goes on. No one 
claims that it is now a final or a perfect instrument. 
It has not been poured into any fixed mold. 
Changing world conditions will require readjust- 
ments — but they will be the readjustments of peace 
and not of war. 

That we now have this Charter at all is a great 
wonder. It is also a cause for profound thanks- 
giving to Almighty God, who has brought us so 



1 During the Final Plenary Session, held on June 26, 1945, 
the 50 nations represented at the United Nations Confer- 
ence on International Organization signed the Charter of 
the United Nations, the text of which appears in the 
Bulletin of June 24, 1945, p. 1119. The Conference held 
its Opening Session on Apr. 25, 1945, and its First Plenary 
Session on Apr. 26, 1945 (Bulletin of Apr. 29, 1945, p. 
789). 

3 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



far in our search for peace through world organi- 
zation. 

There were many who doubted that agreement 
could ever be reached by these 50 countries differ- 
ing so much in race and religion, in language and 
culture. But these differences were all forgotten 
in one unshakable unity of determination— to find 
a way to end war. 

Out of all the arguments and disputes, and dif- 
ferent points of view, a way was found to agree. 
Here in the spotlight of full publicity, in the tradi- 
tion of liberty-loving people, opinions were ex- 
pressed openly and freely. The faith and the hope 
of 50 peaceful nations were laid before this world 
forum. Differences were overcome. This Charter 
was not the work of any single nation or group of 
nations, large or small. It was the result of a spirit 
of give-and-take, of tolerance for the views and 
interests of others. 

It was proof that nations, like men, can state 
their differences, can face them, and then can find 
common ground on which to stand. That is the 
essence of democracy ; that is the essence of keep- 
ing the peace in the future. By your agreement, 
the way was shown toward future agreement in 
the years to come. 

This Conference owes its success largely to the 
fact that you have kept your minds firmly on the 
main objective. You had the single job of writing 
a constitution— a charter for peace. And you 
stayed on that job. 

In spite of the many distractions which came to 
you in the form of daily problems and disputes 
about such matters as new boundaries, control of 
Germany, peace settlements, reparations, war 
criminals, the form of government of some of the 
European countries— in spite of all these, you con- 
tinued in the task of framing this document. 

Those problems and scores of others, which will 
arise, are all difficult, They are complicated. 
They are controversial and dangerous. 

But with united spirit we met and solved even 
more difficult problems during the war. And with 
the same spirit, if we keep to our principles and 
never forsake our objectives, the problems we now 
face and those to come will also be solved. 

We have tested the principle of cooperation in 
this war and have found that it works. Through 
the pooling of resources, through joint and com- 
bined military command, through constant staff 
meetings, we have shown what united strength can 
do in war. That united strength forced Germany 



to surrender. United strength will force Japan 
to surrender. 

The United Nations have also had experience, 
even while the fighting was still going on, in reach- 
ing economic agreements for times of peace. What 
was done on the subject of relief at Atlantic City, 
food at Hot Springs, finance at Bretton Woods, 
aviation at Chicago, was a fair test of what can 
be done by nations determined to live coopera- 
tively in a world where they cannot live peacefully 
any other way. 

What you have accomplished in San Francisco 
shows how well these lessons of military and eco- 
nomic cooperation have been learned. You have 
created a great instrument for peace and security 
and human progress in the world. 

The world must now use it ! 

If we fail to use it, we shall betray all those 
who have died in order that we might meet here 
in freedom and safety to create it. 

If we seek to use it selfishly— for the advantage j 
of any one nation or any small group of nations— 
we shall be equally guilty of that betrayal. 

The successful use of this instrument will re- 
quire the united will and firm determination of 
the free peoples who have created it. The job will 
tax the moral strength and fiber of us all. 

We all have to recognize — no matter how great 
our strength— that we must deny ourselves the 
license to do always as we please. No one nation, 
no regional group, can or should expect any spe- 
cial privilege which harms any other nation. If 
any nation would keep security for itself, it, must 
be ready and willing to share security with all. 
That is the price which each nation will have to 
pay for world peace, Unless we are all willing 
to pay that price, no organization for world peace 
can accomplish its purpose. 

And what a reasonable price that is ! 

Out of this conflict have come powerful military 
nations, now fully trained and equipped for war. 
But they have no right to dominate the world. It 
is rather the duty of these powerful nations to 
assume the responsibility for leadership toward a 
world of peace. That is why we have here re- 
solved that power and strength shall be used not 
to wage war, but to keep the world at peace, and 
free from the fear of war. 

By their own example the strong nations of the 
world should lead the way to international jus- 
tice. That principle of justice is the foundation 
stone of this Charter. That principle is the guid- 



JULY 1, J 945 



ing spirit by which it must be carried out — not by 
■words alone but by continued concrete acts of good- 
will. 

There is a time for making plans — and there is 
a time for action. The time for action is now! 
Let us, therefore, each in his own nation and ac- 
cording to its own way, seek immediate approval 
of this Charter — and make it a living thing. 

I shall send this Charter to the United States 
Senate at once. I am sure that the overwhelming 
sentiment of the people of my country and of their 
representatives in the Senate is in favor of imme- 
diate ratification. 

A just and lasting peace cannot be attained by 
diplomatic agreement alone, or by military coop- 
eration alone. Experience has shown how deeply 
the seeds of war are planted by economic rivalry 
and by social injustice. The Charter recognizes 
this fact for it has provided for economic and 
social cooperation as well. It has provided for this 
cooperation as part of the very heart of the entire 
compact. 

It has set up machinery of international coop- 
eration which men and nations of good-will can 
use to help correct economic and social causes for 
conflict. 

Artificial and uneconomic trade barriers should 
be removed — to the end that the standard of liv- 
ing of as many people as possible throughout the 
world may be raised. For Freedom from Want is 
one of the basic Four Freedoms toward which we 
all strive. The large and powerful nations of the 
world must assume leadership in this economic 
field as in all others. 

Under this document we have good reason to 
expect the framing of an international bill of 
rights, acceptable to all the nations involved. That 
bill of rights will be as much a part of interna- 
tional life as our own Bill of Rights is a part of 
our Constitution. The Charter is dedicated to the 
achievement and observance of human rights and 
fundamental freedoms. Unless we can attain those 
objectives for all men and women everywhere — 
without regard to race, language, or religion — we 
cannot have permanent peace and security. 

With this Charter the world can begin to look 
forward to the time when all worthy human beings 
may be permitted to live decently as free people. 

The world has learned again that nations, like 
individuals, must know the truth if they would 
be free — must read and hear the truth, learn and 
teach the truth. 



[Released to the press by the United Nations Confer- 
ence on International Organization June 21] 

The President of the United States ar- 
rived by airplane at Hamilton Field, San 
Francisco, Monday afternoon, June 25. 

The President was met by Edward E. 
Stettinius, Jr., Secretary of State and 
Chairman of the Delegation of the United 
States, the chairmen of the other delega- 
tions to the United Nations Conference on 
International Organization, the Governor 
of California, the Mayor of San Fran- 
cisco, and high-ranking Army and Navy 
officials. 

Following the rendition of the usual 
Presidential honors, the Presidential 
party and the reception committee formed 
a parade of approximately 75 automobiles 
and drove to the headquarters hotel of the 
United States Delegation. 



We must set up an effective agency for constant 
and thorough interchange of thought and ideas. 
For there lies the road to a better and more tol- 
erant understanding among nations and among 
peoples. 

All Fascism did not die with Mussolini. Hitler 
is finished — but the seeds spread by his disordered 
mind have firm root in too many fanatical brains. 
It is easier to remove tyrants and destroy concen- 
tration camps than it is to kill the ideas which 
gave them birth and strength. Victory on the 
battlefield was essential, but it was not enough. 
For a good peace, a lasting peace, the decent 
peoples of the earth must remain determined to 
strike down the evil spirit which has hung over 
the world for the last decade. 

The forces of reaction and tyranny all over the 
world will try to keep the United Nations from 
remaining united. Even while the military ma- 
chine of the Axis was being destroyed in Europe — 
even down to its very end — they still tried to 
divide us. 

They failed. But they will try again. 

They are trying even now. To divide and con- 
quer was — and still is — their plan. They still try 
to make one Ally suspect the other, hate the other, 
desert the other. 

But I know I speak for every one of you when 
I say that the United Nations will remain united. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



They will not be divided by propaganda either 
before the Japanese surrender — or after. 

This occasion shows again the continuity of 
history. 

By this Charter, you have given reality to the 
ideal of that great statesman of a generation ago — 
Woodrow Wilson. 

By this Charter, you have moved toward the 
goal for which that gallant leader in this second 
world struggle worked and fought and gave his 
life— Franklin D. Roosevelt. 

By this Charter, you have realized the objec- 
tives of many men of vision in your own countries 
who have devoted their lives to the cause of world 
organization for peace. 



Upon all of us, in all our countries, is now laid 
the duty of transforming into action these words 
which you have written. Upon our decisive action 
rests the hope of those who have fallen, those now 
living, those yet unborn — the hope for a world of 
free countries — with decent standards of living — 
which will work and cooperate in a friendly 
civilized community of nations. 

This new structure of peace is rising upon strong 
foundations. 

Let us not fail to grasp this supreme chance 
to establish a world-wide rule of reason — to 
create an enduring peace under the guidance of 
God. 



Remarks by the Chairman of the United States Delegation 



[Released to the press June 26] 

It is with a full heart that I address this final 
plenary session of the United Nations Conference 
on International Organization. 

Two months ago the delegates here assembled 
met for the first time. We came from many 
parts of the earth, across continents and oceans. 
We came as the representatives of 50 different 
nations. But we came here first of all as the 
representatives of humanity and as the bearers 
of a common mandate to write the Charter of a 
world organization to maintain peace for all na- 
tions and to promote the welfare of all men. 

Every nation represented here has had a part 
in the making of the Charter. Sentence by sen- 
tence, article by article, it has been hammered out 
around the Conference tables. We have spoken 
freely with each other. Often we have disagreed. 
When we disagreed we tried again, and then again, 
until we ended by reconciling the differences 
among us. 

This is the way of friendship and of peace. This 
is the only way that nations of free men can make 
a charter for peace, and the only way that they 
can live at peace with one another. 

The San Francisco conference has fulfilled its 
mandate. The Charter of a permanent United 
Nations has now been written. 

Today we meet together for the last time at 
this Conference. Tomorrow we shall separate 
and return home, each to his own country. But 
in this Charter we will carry to our Governments 
and to our peoples an identical message of purpose 



1 Edward R. Stettinius, Jr., Secretary of State. 



and an identical instrument for the fulfilment of 
that purpose. 

We shall bring this Charter to a world that is 
still racked by war and by war's aftermath. 

A few days ago I talked with some young Amer- 
icans just back from the battle-front. They lay 
wounded and in pain in the beds of an Army 
hospital. 

As I talked with them I thought of the many 
millions who have risked all and sacrificed future 
and life itself to give the world this chance. I 
thought of all those men and women and children 
of the nations represented in this meeting place 
today whom tyranny with bomb and bayonet, 
starvation, fire, and torture could kill but never 
conquer. And I thought of all the cities now in 
ruins and all the land laid waste. 

The terrible trial is not yet over. The fighting 
continues. The reconstruction has only just begun. 

This Charter is a compact born of suffering and 
of war. With it now rests our hope for good and 
lasting peace. 

The words upon its parchment chart the course 
by which a world in agony can be restored and 
peace maintained and human rights and freedoms 
can be advanced. It is a course which I believe 
to be within the will and the capacity of the nations 
at this period of world history to follow. 

To the Governments and peoples of the 50 na- 
tions whose representatives have labored here the 
Charter is now committed. May Almighty God, 
from this day on, and in the months and years 
to come, sustain us in the unalterable purpose that 
its promise be fulfilled. 



JULY 1, 1945 



Remarks by the Acting Chairman of the Chinese Delegation 



[Released to the press by the United Nations Conference on 
International Organization June 25, 1945] 

The United Nations Conference on Interna- 
tional Organization has concluded its vitally im- 
portant mission of writing a Charter. This 
instrument will, I believe, prove itself to be an 
epoch-making document and will rank in its con- 
tribution to international justice and peace with 
the Magna Carta and the Constitution of the 
United States in their contribution to j^olitical 
liberty and representative government. As we 
look back upon the eight weeks we have spent on 
this stupendous task, we cannot fail to recall with 
even greater appreciation the fullness of the dis- 
cussion, the earnestness in the debates, the hard 
work of the technical committees, and the spirit 
of conciliation, all of which factors have helped 
to make the Charter an instrument of high ideal 
and practical wisdom. None of the delegations 
may find all that they wished to see embodied in 
it, but they will agree, I am sure, that it contains 
the essential features for the building of a world 
organization to promote international justice, 
peace, and prosperity. Without the valuable con- 
tribution, however, of all the participating dele- 
gations, we could not have achieved this splendid 
result. 

The idea of establishing at the earliest prac- 
ticable date a general international organization, 
based on the principle of the sovereign equality 
of all peace-loving states, and open to membership 
by all such states, large and small, for the main- 
tenance of international peace and security, was 
first conceived by that preeminent leader, Franklin 
Delano Roosevelt, the late President of the United 
States, and the veteran statesman, Cordell Hull, 
when he was Secretary of State. It was conse- 
crated in the four-power declaration of Moscow 
and implemented by a set of concrete Proposals 
at Dumbarton Oaks. These Proposals have now 
been further elaborated and improved at San 
Francisco. 

Mere mention of the fact that 29 amendments 
were jointly submitted to the Conference by the 
four sponsoring powers and literally hundreds of 
other amendments by the other participating dele- 
gations gives an indication of the common desire 



and determination to complete and perfect the 
Dumbarton Oaks plan of a permanent Charter. 
We are glad to see in the completed instrument 
today many new features. Provisions have been 
added which emphasize that the adjustment or 
settlement of international disputes should be in 
conformity with the principles of justice and inter- 
national law; which aim to promote and encour- 
age respect for human rights and for fundamental 
freedoms for all without distinction as to race, 
language, religion, or sex ; which expressly recog- 
nize the inherent right of individual and collec- 
tive self-defense in the event of an armed attack; 
which stress the importance of cooperation in the 
solution of international economic, social, cultural, 
and other humanitarian problems ; which empower 
the Economic and Social Council to set up com- 
missions in these diverse fields of activity in order 
to achieve positive results; and which, lastly but 
far from being of the least importance, provide a 
comprehensive and liberal system of international 
trusteeship, stipulating independence and self- 
government among its fundamental objectives. 
These are only illustrations but they are sufficient, 
I hope, to show the broad scope, the high prin- 
ciples, and the noble purposes of the new Charter. 

The constitution of the Organization of the 
United Nations is now written and signed, and 
will in due course be ratified by the governments 
represented at this Conference. It remains for us 
to continue to foster mutual trust and friendly 
collaboration in order to make this, the greatest 
of international experiments, a great success in 
fact. 

We of the Chinese Delegation came to San Fran- 
cisco to cooperate, and we have been glad to find 
cooperation the happy keynote of the whole Con- 
ference. We are confident that, with faith in the 
future and with the same spirit of cooperation as 
has guided us in our deliberations here in the 
Golden City, lasting peace and continued pros- 
perity will be within the gift of the new Organi- 
zation to the whole world. This is not an Utopian 
dream. We believe it to be a legitimate aspiration, 
a reasonable hope, and indeed, when fully realized, 



1 V. K. Wellington Koo, Chinese Ambassador to Great 
Britain. 



8 

it will be a just reward for our exertions in the 
arduous common struggle which has cost us all, 
and will cost us more still, untold sacrifice of life, 
blood, and treasure. The genius of man has de- 
vised the plan and completed the instrument, and 
we fervently hope that the spirit of cooperation 
will always guide its operation in order to achieve 
its lofty aims. 

We have stayed two months here in San Fran- 
cisco. The excellent arrangements made by the 
Government of the United States have made our 
sojourn here both pleasant and fruitful. As the 
representatives of one of the sponsoring powers, 
we of the Chinese Delegation feel especially grate- 
ful to the host Nation. We wish also to express 
our deep appreciation of the hospitalities of the 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

city and people of San Francisco. But I cannot 
conclude my remarks without acknowledging also 
the splendid and most valuable work of the Honor- 
able Edward R. Stettinius, Jr., Secretary of State 
and Chairman of the American Delegation, who, in 
his various high capacities in the Conference and 
with the assistance of an efficient secretariat, has 
made a unique contribution to the success of the 
Conference. To him as also to his able and dis- 
tinguished colleagues on his Delegation, we owe an 
immense debt of gratitude, and to them all we wish 
to extend our thanks and our admiration. I sin- 
cerely believe that these sentiments are not ours 
alone but are fully shared by the other delegations 
to the Conference. 



Remarks by the Acting Chairman of the 
United Kingdom Delegation ' 



The United Kingdom is proud to have shared 
with our Allies and friends in all that has led to 
this gathering of nations. And it is fitting that 
we should have met in a great American city. For 
it was a President of the United States who 
brought a project of peace before the world in 
1918. To another President we largely owe our 
very name, our victory, and our present purpose. 
Finally, on this historic day in the world's long 
search for peace, his successor comes to set his own 
stamp of approval and support upon our labours. 

Our work now stands for the world to judge, 
and I am confident that neither Mr. Cordell Hull, 
in whose vision this design took shape, nor Mr. 
Stettinius, whose courage and character have 
served it well, need fear the verdict. For the 
Charter is a notable advance, both on all that has 
gone before and on the plan of the Sponsor Powers, 
from which it grew. I do not doubt that in this 
result the future will acknowledge the part of all 
nations, and not the least, I hope, that of the dif- 
ferent members of the British Commonwealth. 
We cannot indeed claim that our work is perfect 
or that we have created an unbreakable guarantee 
of peace. For ours is no enchanted palace to 
"spring into sight at once", by magic touch or hid- 
den power. But we have, I am convinced, forged 
an instrument by which, if men are serious in 



Lord Halifax, British Ambassador to the United States. 



wanting peace and are ready to make sacrifices 
for it, they may find means to win it. 

Here in San Francisco we have seen but the be- 
ginnings of a long and challenging endeavour. 
And there is a sense in which what we have done 
here is less important than what we have learnt 
here. We have learnt to know one another better ; 
to argue with patience ; to differ with respect; and 
at all times to pay honour to sincerity. That the 
thought of many men of many nations should thus 
have met in a large constructive task will have a 
value beyond price during the coming years, as 
stone by stone we carry on what we have here be- 
gun. Time alone can show whether the house that 
we have tried to build rests upon shifting sand, or, 
as I firmly hope, upon solid rock, to stand as shield 
and shelter against every storm. 

Long years ago in Europe men set themselves 
to raise a cathedral of God's glory. "Let us", they 
said, "build a church so great that those who come 
after us will think us mad to have attempted it." 
So they said, and wrought, and, after many years, 
achieved ; and the great cathedral at Seville is their 
monument. 

Let us also, mindful alike of the world's need 
and of our own weakness, pray that, under God's 
guidance, what we have done here in these last 
weeks will be found worthy of the faith that gave 
it birth and of the human suffering that has been 
its price. 








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DEPARTMENT OF STATE B 




JULY 1, 1945 



Remarks by the Acting Chairman of the Soviet Delegation ' 



[Released to the press by the United Nations Conference on 
International Organization June 25] 

Today we sum up the results of the historic Con- 
ference of the United Nations, gathered to work 
out the Charter of the Organization on the main- 
tenance of peace and security. The foundation 
of this international Organization was laid down 
'even at the time when the war was raging in 
Europe, when the enemy, though having suffered 
a serious defeat, resisted furiously. These founda- 
tions, as it is known, were laid at the Moscow con- 
ference of the ministers for foreign affairs of the 
United States of America, Great Britain, and the 
Soviet Union, at the Dumbarton Oaks conference, 
and at the historic Crimea conference. 

The peace-loving nations who suffered countless 
sacrifices in this war naturally rest their hopes on 
the establishment, by collective efforts, of an inter- 
national instrument which could prevent the repe- 
tition of a new tragedy for humanity. In accord- 
ance with the decisions adopted at the Dumbarton 
Oaks conference, Marshal Stalin said: "To win 
the war against Germany means to carry out a 
great historical deed. But to win the war still does 
not mean the insurance of lasting peace and secu- 
rity for the people in the future. The task is not 
only to win the war but also to make impossible 
the occurrence of a new aggression and a new war, 
if not forever, then at least for a long period of 
time." 

When asked whether there is some means for 
preventing German aggression, to nip it in the 
bud if war breaks out, and keep it from developing 
into a big war. Marshal Stalin gave the following 
answer : "To achieve this, there is only one means 
besides the complete disarmament of the aggressor 
nations: to establish a special organization for 
defense of peace and insurance of security, from 
among the representatives of the peace-loving na- 
tions ; to place at the disposal of the steering body 
of this Organization the maximum quantity of 
armed forces sufficient for the suppression of ag- 
gression; and to convince this Organization, in 
case of necessity, to send without any delay these 
armed forces for the prevention and liquidation 
of aggression, for the punishment of those guilty 
of aggression." 

At the same time Marshal Stalin pointed out that 
the actions of that Organization would be suffi- 
ciently effective if the great powers who carried 

653935 — 45 2 



the main burden of the war against Hitlerite Ger- 
many would continue to act in the spirit of una- 
nimity and accord. These actions will not be effec- 
tive if a breach of this indispensable condition 
occurs. 

Such are the principles by which the Soviet 
Government has been guided while taking an active 
part in the establishment of the international 
security Organization and by which the Soviet 
Delegation has been guided in the course of the 
work of this Conference. 

Naturally, at this final session a question arises 
as to the results of this Conference and whether 
it has fulfilled its task. The Charter of the Or- 
ganization, which is the result of ceaseless work 
of delegations participating in the Conference, 
affords solid ground to consider the work of the 
Conference a success. 

The Charter of the United Nations provides for 
the establishment of the Security Council possess- 
ing powers and means necessary for prevention or 
suppression of aggression. The Security Council, 
exercising its functions and powers for the main- 
tenance of peace, will act on behalf of all mem- 
bers of the United Nations. States members of the 
United Nations, as the Charter provides, agree to 
accept and carry out the decisions of the Security 
Council. These provisions of the Charter alone 
emphasize the efficient character of the interna- 
tional machine for the maintenance of the peace 
which we are establishing. 

The Charter provides that the body of the Se- 
curity Council will include five great powers as 
permanent members : the Soviet Union, the United 
States of America, Great Britain, France, and 
China. The decision of the Conference to give 
permanent seats in the Council to five great powers 
is recognition of the obvious fact that the Security 
Council can possess sufficient means and forces 
necessary for the maintenance of peace only if it 
permanently includes those countries which have 
sufficient resources in men and material necessary 
for the successful and effective fulfilment of its 
duties. 

The whole world is aware of the role of these 
powers in their fight together against aggression 



1 A. A. Gromyko, Soviet Ambassador to the United 
States. 



10 

in the course of the second World War, and the 
role played by each of them. 

In the European war which has just ended the 
Allied powers demonstrated their ability to carry 
out the task of annihilating the strongest and most 
cunning enemy in history. Without cooperation 
between them it would be impossible to carry out 
so successfully the task of defeating Hitlerite Ger- 
many. Without such cooperation, it would be 
impossible in the future to carry out the task of 
preserving peace. 

The Conference devoted much of its time to the 
question of working out the part of the Charter 
dealing w T ith the establishment of the second im- 
portant organ of the Organization — the General 
Assembly — and defining its functions and powers. 
These functions and powers, as defined by the 
Charter, give the Assembly great opportunities 
to make an important contribution to the cause 
of the maintenance, of peace and security. Be- 
sides, within the sphere of functions and powers 
of the General Assembly there are a great number 
of questions on economic, social, political, and cul- 
tural cooperation and other questions within the 
scope of the Charter and within the scope of func- 
tions and powers of the organs provided for by this 
Charter: the Economic and Social Council, the 
council on territorial trusteeship, and other organs. 

Thus, for each member of the international Or- 
ganization, for all states, great and small, there 
are great opportunities for making contributions 
to the common cause of the maintenance of peace 
and strengthening cooperation between the United 
Nations in the interest of the well-being and pros- 
perity of all peoples. 

Of course in the course of the work of the Con- 
ference there were some difficulties and differences 
of views between separate delegations on these or 
other questions. However, one should be surprised 
not at the existence of these difficulties and not at 
the existence of different viewpoints between sep- 
arate delegations on these or other questions, but 
at the fact that, as a result of the work of the Con- 
ference, all the main difficulties were overcome, 
and we succeeded in fulfilling successfully the 
tasks before the Conference. We prepared a docu- 
ment which should become the basis for the actions 
of the international Organization — its constitu- 
tion. Naturally, the very best and most perfect 
Charter in itself is not yet a guaranty that its 
provisions will be carried out and insure the pres- 
ervation of peace. In order to achieve this im- 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

portant and noble task it is also necessary, in 
addition to the existing Charter, to have the unity 
and coordination of actions of members of the 
international Organization, and first of all the 
unity and coordination of action between the most 
powerful military powers of the world. It is also 
necessary that all members of the international 
Organization should try to settle all disputes by 
peaceful means in the spirit of cooperation and 
good-will. 

The Delegation of the Soviet Union in the course 
of the work of the Conference aimed at the crea- 
tion of a Charter of the international Organiza- 
tion which could guarantee the effective fulfilment 
of the tasks confronting the Organization. 

I am glad to emphasize that the Soviet Delega- 
tion in its work found understanding and support 
on the part of many other delegations participat- 
ing in this Conference. It could not be otherwise. 
The peoples of the countries represented at this 
Conference pursue a common objective — to pre- 
vent the repetition of a new war. 

The provisions of the Charter, which have been 
worked out, cover a great number of questions and 
problems defining the future activity of the Organ- 
ization as a whole and its separate organs. In this 
connection it is necessary to point out specially 
the significance of those provisions of the Charter 
which refer to peaceful settlement of disputes and 
conflicts. The participants in the Conference paid 
great attention to this field of their work. Under 
the Charter, members of the international Organi- 
zation obligate themselves to achieve peaceful set- 
tlements of the disputes. Let us hope that this aim 
will be fully realized. 

In conclusion I wish to express confidence that 
this Conference of the United Nations will go 
down in the history of humanity as one of the 
most significant events and that our efforts will be 
beneficial for all peace-loving peoples of the world, 
who endured so many hardships and sufferings as 
a result of the conflagration set by Hitlerite 
Germany. 

I take this occasion to thank the Government 
of the United States on behalf of the Soviet Dele- 
gation for the hospitality shown to us, participants 
in the Conference, and especially to thank Mr. 
Truman, President of the United States, whom we 
have the pleasure of seeing today at this historic 
final session of the United Nations Conference. 

Now I also wish to thank Mr. Stettinius for his 
work and efforts directed towards the successful 
completion of the work of this Conference. 



JULY 1, 1945 



11 



CEREMONY ON THE OCCASION OF THE SIGNING OF THE CHARTER 

OF THE UNITED NATIONS 



Remarks by the Chairman of the 
United States Delegation 1 

[Released to the press by the United Nations Conference on 
International Organization June 26] 

We are all aware of the historic significance of 
this occasion. The Charter is completed. But this 
is not the end. It is only the beginning. The great 
task lies before us. It is our solemn and sacred 
duty to see to it that the United Nations comes 
into being and fulfills its promise. With faith in 
our cause, good-will in our hearts, and determina- 
tion to work unceasingly toward this end, I am 
fully confident that, with God's help, we shall 
roach our goal. 

Order of Delegations in Signing 
Charter 

[Released to the press by the United Nations Conference on 
International Organization June 25] 

It is planned that the 50 delegations at the Con- 
ference will sign the Charter in the order given in 
the list below. The list also indicates the number 
of delegates who will sign for each nation. 

Number 
of delegates 

Order Delegation signing 

1 China 8 

2 Union f Soviet Socialist Republics 7 

3 United Kingdom 2 

4 France 1 

5 Argentina 4 

6 Australia 2 

7 Belgium ..." 1 

8 Bolivia 4 

9 Brazil 5 

10 Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic . . 5 

11 Canada 2 

12 Chile 10 

13 Colombia 5 

14 Costa Rica 3 

15 Cuba 2 

16 Czechoslovakia 1 

17 Denmark 3 

18 Dominican Republic 5 

19 Ecuador 3 

20 Egypt 2 

21 El Salvador ... 2 

22 Ethiopia 3 

23 Greece 1 

24 Haiti 2 

25 Honduras 3 



Number 
of delegates 
Order Delegation signing 

26 India 2 

27 Iran 1 

28 Iraq 2 

29 Lebanon 4 

30 Liberia 5 

31 Luxembourg 1 

32 Mexico 3 

33 Netherlands 1 

34 New Zealand 2 

35 Nicaragua 2 

36 Norway 1 

37 Panama 1 

38 Paraguay 2 

39 Peru 3 

40 Philippine Commonwealth 2 

41 Saudi Arabia 1 

42 Syria 3 

43 Turkey 3 

44 Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic .... 6 

45 Union of South Africa 1 

46 Uruguay 6 

47 Venezuela 4 

48 Yugoslavia 1 

49 Guatemala 3 

50 United States 7 

Total 153 

Facts Concerning Printing and 
Binding of the Charter 

[Released to the press by the United Nations Conference on 
International Organization June 23] 

The type for the English text of the Charter 
is being set by A. C. Gollans and Son of San 
Francibco; the Chinese text is being set at the 
offices of "Young China" in San Francisco; the 
Russian text is being set by the Monitor Publishing 
Company of San Francisco; the French and 
Spanish texts are being set by the University of 
California Press in Berkeley. 

The printing of the English, Chinese, and Rus- 
sian texts is being done by the Independent Press 
Room in San Francisco. The University of Cali- 
fornia Press is printing the French and Spanish 
texts. 

After the printing is finished, the texts will be 
gathered at the University of California Press, 
where the Charter will be assembled and bound. 



1 Edward R. Stettinius. Jr. 



12 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



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ECONOMIC 



JULY 1, 1945 

TELEGRAM FROM CORDELL HULL TO EDWARD R. STETTINIUS, JR. 



[Released to the press June 26] 

Bethesda, Maryland 

June 26, 191fi 
I offer you my warmest and heartiest congratu- 
lations on the successful conclusion of the San 
Francisco conference and the adoption of the 
charter of the United Nations. 
I want to pay personal tribute to you and to the 



other members of the United States Delegation 
for the skill, patience and ability with which you 
not only represented our nation in this momentous 
gathering but gave it leadership toward the reali- 
zation of humanity's greatest ideal— the achieve- 
ment of peace, justice, and progress. 

I am today issuing a public statement, a copy 
of which is appended. 

Cordell Hull 



STATEMENT BY CORDELL HULL 



[Released to the press June 26] 

The San Francisco conference will live in his- 
tory as one of the great milestones in man's upward 
climb toward a truly civilized existence. The 
Charter of the United Nations adopted there pro- 
vides an essential framework within which the 
peace-loving nations of the world can work to- 
gether, more effectively than ever before, toward 
banishing war and toward providing wider oppor- 
tunities and greater facilities for human progress. 

That Charter draws together and brings to a 
focus the basic moral and political ideals which 
must underlie a workable system of organized rela- 
tions among nations. Through such a system alone 
can mankind hope in the world of today to achieve 
peace and security, justice and fair-dealing, cul- 
tural and material advancement. It builds on the 
experience of ages, as well as on the realities of the 
modern world forged in the ordeal of two World 
Wars. 

The delegations of the 50 nations represented at 
San Francisco have labored there in the spirit in 
which they have been fighting the latest and cost- 
liest war for human freedom. The Charter which 
they have produced stems from the great docu- 
ments that, in the darkest hours of the war, served 
for humanity as beacon lights of hope and deter- 
mination—the Atlantic Charter, the Declaration 
by United Nations, the Moscow Four-Nation Dec- 
laration, the Tehran Declaration, the Dumbarton 

'Mr. Hull is Senior Adviser to the United States 
Delegation. 

2 For texts of these documents, see Toward the Peace— 
Documents (Department of State Publication 2298). 



Oaks Proposals, the decisions of the Crimea Con- 
ference. 2 

The magnificent success of the San Francisco 
conference attests to the unshakeable resolve of the 
United Nations to work together in peace — as they 
have worked together in war — to preserve the 
ideals for which they have been and are making 
such tremendous sacrifices, to make the realization 
of these ideals a living monument to those who have 
given their lives that these ideals may endure. 

We now have, at long last, a Charter of a world 
organization capable of fulfilling the hopes of man- 
kind. It is a human rather than a perfect instru- 
ment. It has within it ample flexibility for growth 
and development, for dynamic adaptation to 
changing conditions. ' 

The Charter will work, and grow, and improve, 
if our Nation and all nations devoted to peace 
maintain the spirit in which they have created it 
and remain eternally vigilant in support and de- 
fense of the great ideals on which it is founded. 

There are many difficulties and complexities 
ahead of us. We must still bring the present war 
to a victorious conclusion. We must heal the 
wounds of the war and repair its ravages. We 
need build toward new horizons of enduring peace 
and of an increasing measure of social and eco- 
nomic well-being. In the performance of these 
vast tasks, our chances of success have been im- 
measurably strengthened because 50 nations— dif- 
ferent in race, language, historic background, and 
attitude toward life — have found common ground 
at San Francisco and have agreed on a Charter 
for the United Nations. 



14 

The Charter now goes to the peoples and legis- 
latures of the world for ratification. 

Out of long experience — out of what I see 
ahead — I appeal with all my heart to our Nation 
and to all United Nations to ratify the Charter and 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

to bring into existence, as soon as possible, the 
international Organization for which it provides. 
Upon the success of that Organization depend the 
fulfilment of humanity's highest aspirations and 
the very survival of our civilization. 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY OF STATE 1 



[Released to the press June 27] 

We have completed the United Nations Charter. 
We have just begun to make a United Nations 
peace. The next step is ratification of the Charter 
by the United States and a sufficient number of 
other countries to bring the world Organization 
into being and set it to work. That cannot come 
too soon if we are to realize the hope which the San 
Francisco Charter has given to the world. 

The four members of Congress on the American 
Delegation have already made an inestimable con- 
tribution to the Charter by the leading part they 
played at San Francisco. Now it is the turn of 
the whole Senate to give force and effect to this 
work. I hope that the United States, after due 
consideration by the Senate, may be among the 
first, if not the first, to ratify the Charter. That 



would be fitting to the place of leadership our 
country holds in war and peace. 

In Washington the war against Japan may seem 
far away. At San Francisco it is never possible to 
forget the magnitude of that struggle which must 
still be won. 

Every day we were at work as delegates in San 
Francisco upon the Charter, American warships, 
transports, and planes carrying fighting men left 
the Golden Gate for the battle-fronts. And every 
day, by other planes and ships, the wounded came 
back from Okinawa. There was and is no pause 
for the men who fight and die. There can be no 
pause for us at home. The tasks of peace that lie 
ahead of us are urgent. The stakes could not be 
higher. Let us get on with all we have to do — to 
make victory and peace secure. 



Survey on Needs of Displaced Persons 



[Released to the press June 28] 

The Department of State announced on June 28 
that Earl G. Harrison, former Commissioner of 
Immigration and now representative of the United 
States Government on the Intergovernmental 
Committee on Refugees, has left for Europe on an 
important mission to inquire into the needs of the 
stateless and nonrepatriable refugees among the 
displaced persons in the liberated countries of 
western Europe and the Allied zones of occupation 
in Germany. 2 Mr. Harrison is to ascertain the 
extent to which the needs of these persons are now 
being met by the military authorities, govern- 
ments of residence, international relief bodies, and 
private refugee agencies. 

The military authorities have already repatri- 
ated from Germany over 2,000,000 United Nations 
displaced persons whose return presented no ob- 



stacle based on nationality status. There remain, 
however, still unestimated numbers of displaced 
persons whose repatriation will be delayed or 
eventually prove to be impossible. Included in this 
latter group are many Jewish survivors of Nazi 
persecutions. Their care during the period in 
which they are awaiting a solution of their diffi- 
culties is a matter of interest and concern to agen- 
cies of the Federal Government and to many 
private agencies interested in problems of refugees. 
The President has expressed interest in Mr. 
Harrison's mission and requested Mr. Harrison to 
report to him upon the completion of the inves- 
tigation. 



1 Made on his arrival in Washington from San Francisco 
after the close of the Conference. 

2 Bulletin of Mar. IS, 1945, p. 452. 



JULY 1, 1945 



15 



Resignation of Edward R. Stettinius, Jr. 
as Secretary of State 

LETTER FROM THE PRESIDENT TO MR. STETTINIUS 



[Released to the press by the White House June 27] 

Independence, Missouri 

Jwne 27th, 1945 
Dear Ed : 

On the day after the death of President Roose- 
velt, you submitted to me your resignation as 
Secretary of State. I asked you to continue at 
your post and to carry out the vitally important 
assignment for which you were then completing 
the last preparations— to act as chairman of the 
United States delegation at the United Nations 
Conference. 

You accepted that responsibility. It was a very 
grave responsibility. Upon the success of the San 
Francisco Conference depended, first of all, the 
hope that from this war the United Nations could 
build a lasting peace. 

The San Francisco Conference has now fulfilled 
its purpose. The Charter of a permanent United 
Nations has been written. You have every reason 
to be proud of your part in this achievement from 
the beginning. 

At the request of Mr. Hull after the Moscow 
Conference in 1943 you, as Under Secretary of 
State, organized and 
directed the prepara- 
tion, for Dumbarton 
Oaks. 

You were the repre- 
sentative of the United 
States and acted as the 
chairman of the Dum- 
barton Oaks Confer- 
ence, where the Propos- 
als were written that 
became the basis of the 
Charter. You were at 
President Roosevelt's 
right hand at Yalta, 



Nomination of James F. Byrnes 

To Be Secretary of State 

To Be Sent to Senate 

Charles G. Ross, Secretary to the Presi- 
dent, made the following statement in 
Kansas City, Missouri, at 5 o'clock, 
E.W.T., on June 30, 1945: "The Presi- 
dent on Monday will send to the Senate 
the nomination of James F. Byrnes to be 
Secretary of State." 



where further decisions on the world organization 
were made and agreement to hold the United 
Nations Conference was reached. 

All the preparations for the San Francisco Con- 
ference were under your direction. During its de- 
liberations you served not only as chairman of the 
United States delegation but as President of the 
Conference, charged with the conduct of its busi- 
ness. The task of guiding the work of this Con- 
ference of fifty different nations toward unanimous 
agreement upon the Charter was a difficult one. 
You accomplished it with skill, unfaltering cour- 
age, and success. 

But the task of fulfilling the promise of the San 
Francisco Conference has only just begun. The 
Charter must be ratified and the United Nations 
organization brought into being and put to work. 
It is necessary to the future of America and the 
world that the words of this Charter be built into 
the solid structure of peace for which the world is 
waiting and praying. 

I can think of no better way to express the con- 
fidence of the United States in the future of The 
United Nations than to choose as the American 

representative in that 
task a man who has 
held with distinction 
the highest appointive 
office in the Govern- 
ment and has been more 
closely associated with 
the creation of the 
Charter than any 
other. 

I have asked you if 
you would accept nom- 
ination as The Repre- 
sentative of the United 
States to The United 



16 

Nations, when the or- 
ganization is e s t a b- 
lished. As such you 
would be the United 
States member of the 
Security Council and 
chairman of the United 
States delegation in the 
General Assembly. You 
have told me that you 
would accept this great 
responsibility. 

I therefore now ac- 
cept your resignation as 
Secretary of State. 

I intend to submit the 
United Nations Char- 
ter to the Senate on 
Monday and to ask for 
its prompt ratification. 
You have told me that 
you feel it is of the ut- 
most importance for 
you, as Chairman of the 
United States delega- 
tion, to be immediately 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



United Nations Organization 

STATEMENT BY 

EDWARD R. STETTINIUS, JR., 

ON NOMINATION AS 

U. S. REPRESENTATIVE 

[Released to the press June 27] 

"I am deeply grateful to the President 
for his generous appraisal of what I have 
done. As Chief Executive of our country 
he has guided our course with a sure hand 
and his leadership was essential to the 
success of the San Francisco conference. 

"The President has accepted my resig- 
nation as Secretary of State and asked me 
to accept nomination as the Representa- 
tive of the United States to the United 
Nations when the Organization comes into 
being. I have accepted. I shall continue 
to give everything that is within me to- 
ward fulfilling in action the promise of 
lasting peace which is now embodied in 
the United Nations Charter." 



available to the Senate for whatever assistance 
and information it needs in connection with its 
consideration of the Charter. 

I wanted you to come with me to the meeting 
with Marshal Stalin and Prime Minister Churchill 



which will take place 
next month. But, since 
I shall be away during 
the Congressional hear- 
ings, I have reluctantly 
agreed to your sugges- 
tion that you remain in 
Washington while I am 
away. In that capacity 
you will represent me 
before the Senate in all 
matters relating to the 
Charter. 

I also ask you to su- 
pervise, as the personal 
representative of the 
President, the work of 
the United States mem- 
bers of the Preparatory 
Commission pending 
ratification of the Char- 
ter and your nomination 
as The Representative 
of the United States to 
the United Nations. 
I am confident that 
you will continue to fulfill with honor to yourself 
and with benefit to America and the cause of peace 
the high-trust which your country reposes in you. 
Very sincerely yours, 

Harry S. Truman 



Resignation of William Phillips 



Statement by ACTING SECRETARY GREW 

[Released to the press June 29] 

Mr. William Phillips' resignation as Special 
Assistant to the Secretary of State became effective 
yesterday. During the absence of Assistant Sec- 
retary of State Dunn at the San Francisco con- 
ference, Mr. Phillips, at considerable personal 
sacrifice, returned from retirement to carry the 
heavy responsibilities of the Department's work 
in the European, Near Eastern, and Far Eastern 
fields, and I am especially grateful to him for his 



very helpful cooperation. He and I have had 40 
years of close friendship in the public service, both 
at home and abroad. I have never known a more 
able or devoted servant of our country's foreign 
affairs. In the course of his distinguished career, 
which I believe is unique in the history of Amer- 
ican foreign relations, he has served three times 
as Assistant Secretary of State, twice as Under 
Secretary of State, and as Minister, Ambassador, 
and Personal Representative of the President to 
six foreign countries. 



JULY 1, 19-15 



17 



The Combined Boards 



By 
COURTNEY C. BROWN 1 



In January 1942 the United Nations were faced 
with serious supply problems. The Axis powers 
had succeeded in capturing important sources of 
some of our most essential raw materials. The 
operations on land and sea had diverted many nor- 
mal trade routes and completely stopped others. 
Requirements for many materials had increased 
far beyond their peacetime levels. It was impera- 
tive that steps be taken to encourage production, 
facilitate the procurement, and conserve the use 
of supplies from sources that remained available to 
the United Nations. 

The situation was particularly critical for a 
country such as the United Kingdom, which de- 
pends upon imports for a predominant part of 
its needs. It was therefore more than a financial 
matter. Without careful control of procurement 
by the United Nations, scarce exchange would be 
rapidly dissipated. But more important, without 
careful controls supplies of the materials them- 
selves would be dissipated in diversion to uses in 
which they would make less than a full contribu- 
tion to the needs of the war. 

Faced with this situation, the late President 
Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill, with the 
assistance of responsible supply officers of their 
Governments, devised the administrative machin- 
ery of the Combined Boards. 2 

The inauguration of the several Boards reflects 
the order in which urgent supply problems ap- 
peared. In the early days of the war our principal 
concern was with the loss of rubber, tin, and cer- 
tain other non-ferrous metals, coai - se fibers for 
naval use, and other miscellaneous raw materials. 
These materials had been obtained in large quan- 
tities from the Philippines and the Netherlands 
Indies in the pre-war period. The Combined Raw 
Materials Board was one of the first of the several 
Boards to begin operations. 

Extended transportation routes, loss of mer- 
chant shipping, and the great demands on trans- 
portation to move military supplies and personnel 
to bases in Africa, India, the United Kingdom, and 

f,=;?.!135— 45 3 



the southwest Pacific were factors which meant 
that every ton of shipping should be used in the 
most effective manner. Both the United States 
and the United Kingdom had their own govern- 
mental machinery to adjust their import and ex- 
port shipping programs; but maximum efficiency 
in the use of the ships available to the United Na- 
tions could not be realized without a central body 
that would look upon the combined fleets as a 
pool and would recommend transfers from one 
service to the other as the need might arise. The 
Combined Shipping Adjustment Board accord- 
ingly was inaugurated at the same time as the or- 
ganization of the Combined Raw Materials Board. 
The early activities of the Axis did not seriously 
jeopardize the major sources of food on which the 
United Nations had relied in pre-war years. 
There had been a succession of good crops in such 
important producing areas as the United States, 
Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. With the 
progress of the Germans through Europe, the 
Danubian basin and the dairy and hog-producing 
areas of northwestern Europe were closed off. Op- 
eration of the North Sea fisheries was seriously 
impaired. Also, the rice of Indochina, Thailand, 
and Burma was shut out by the Japanese, and the 
fats and oils of the Philippines and the Nether- 
lands Indies were cut off. Sugar from Java and 
the Philippines was lost. By and large the food 
position was not a serious one, except in the United 
Kingdom, and even there the problem was more 
one of shipping than of supply. However, in June 
1942 it was felt necessary to organize a combined 
board to deal with the food position when the much 
greater demands which related to the prosecution 
of a world-wide war began to impinge upon what 
would have normally been regarded as an abun- 
dant supply. 3 



1 Mr. Brown was formerly adviser in the Office of Inter- 
national Trade Policy, Department of State. 

2 Bulletin of Jan. 31, 1942, p. 87. 

a Bulletin of June 13, 1942, p. 535. 



18 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



The Combined Production and Resources Board 
began at the same time to combine the production 
programs of the United States and the United 
Kingdom into a single integrated program and to 
assure the continuous adjustment of the combined 
program to meet changing military requirements. 
The Board was instructed to keep the Combined 
Chiefs of Staff and the Combined Munitions As- 
signment Board informed concerning the current 
availability and future possibilities of production, 
and in turn was to be informed concerning mili- 
tary requirements by those agencies. Canada ac- 
cepted invitations to join the Combined Produc- 
tion and Resources Board in November 1942 4 and 
the Combined Food Board in October 1943. 5 

The term Combined Boards, as used in Govern- 
ment circles today, usually refers to these four 
civilian agencies: The Combined Raw Materials 
Board, the Combined Shipping Adjustment 
Board, the Combined Food Board, and the Com- 
bined Production and Resources Board. Other 
combined organizations such as the Munitions 
Assignment Board and the Anglo- American Area 
Committees and the various combined activities of 
the military, such as the Combined Chiefs of Staff 
and the Combined Civil Affairs Committee, are 
usually not included under the term. Close coor- 
dination of the activities of the Combined Boards 
has been maintained with other combined groups, 
both informally and through joint standing com- 
mittees. With modifications, the activities of the 
Combined Raw Materials Board and the Combined 
Food Board are characteristic of the allocation 
activities of the groups that operate in the other 
fields of shipping, fabricated products, and muni- 
tions. This brief description of the beginning of 
the Boards emphasizes their basic nature and pur- 
pose. They were established to adjust difficult 
supply problems resulting from the conduct of a 
world-wide war. 

It is interesting that the Boards as such have 
no staffs. The personnel is supplied by the assign- 
ment of officers of operating agencies of the par- 
ticipating governments who may spend all or part 
of their time on the work of the Boards. This 
arrangement has served to increase the effective- 
ness of recommendations made by the Boards. 
Since no authority is assumed for operating re- 
sponsibility or for the implementation of recom- 



' Bulletin of Jan. 16, 1943, p. 68. 
5 Bulletin of Oct. 30, 1943, p. 292. 



mendations, participation by personnel of operat- 
ing agencies in the formulation of such recom- 
mendations lends additional assurance that they 
will be carried out. Authority for action is en- 
tirely in the national agencies of the member 
governments. 

The organizational structures of the several 
Boards differ one from another, but again the 
Combined Raw Materials Board and the Com- 
bined Food Board are fairly representative. 
First, there is the Board itself, which consists of 
one representative of each of the participating 
countries. The United States side of the Com- 
bined Raw Materials Board is made up of officials 
employed by the War Production Board. A vice 
chairman of the War Production Board represents 
this country as the Board member. 

An important unit of the Combined Raw Ma- 
terials Board is its Advisory Operating Commit- 
tee, composed of representatives of all the British 
and American Government departments con- 
cerned with the Board's work. Representatives of 
the Department of State, the Department of Com- 
merce, the Foreign Economic Administration, and 
the War Production Board participate with their 
British counterparts in the discussions of this 
Committee. After a statistical review by the 
combined staffs recommendations that are formu- 
lated are presented to the Operating Committee 
before being transmitted to the Board members 
for confirmation. It is seldom possible to work 
out a recommendation involving an international 
commodity without affecting the interests of third 
countries. Informal discussion with such third 
countries may precede the submittal of a proposal 
to the Operating Committee. Consideration has 
been given to more formal discussion with non- 
participating countries. 

The Combined Food Board operates with a 
slightly more elaborate organization. The War 
Food Administrator represents the United States 
as the Board member. In place of a single ad- 
visory operating committee, a number of interna- 
national commodity subcommittees develop pro- 
grams which are submitted to the Executive Offi- 
cers of the Board prior to final approval by the 
members themselves. On the United States side, 
these commodity subcommittees include a spokes- 
man from the War Food Administration who 
works out his preliminary position with repre- 
sentatives from the Department of State, the 



JULY 1, 1945 



19 



Foreign Economic Administration, and f requently 
the military. 

In a number of cases, countries whose interests 
are significantly affected by the recommendations 
of the Combined Food Board have accepted invita- 
tions to designate representatives to participate in 
the work of these commodity subcommittees. In 
some cases, from four to as many as seven or eight 
countries now send designated officers to the dis- 
cussions. It is the function of these committees to 
review periodically all data on production, con- 
sumption requirements, and exportable surpluses 
of the Allied and neutral nations. 

The problems arising out of restricted participa- 
tion in the Combined Raw Materials Board and 
the Combined Food Board are recognized. The 
advantages of quick decision with smaller num- 
bers have weighed heavily in the decision to limit 
the participation in an activity that has been estab- 
lished essentially for the business of effectively 
prosecuting a war. Moreover, there is substantial 
agreement that the Boards in their present form 
do not lend themselves readily to the solution of 
post-war international trade and that in many 
respects they are inconsistent with longer term 
liberal trade policy. Presumably the Boards will 
gradually wither away as the supply problems 
that gave rise to them diminish in intensity. It 
does not appear desirable therefore to undertake 
at this time an elaboration of the Boards' organiza- 
tion by the addition of representatives of many 
countries. 

The staffs of the Boards have looked upon the 
supplies of specific items available to the United 
Nations as a pool and have worked out recom- 
mendations for the distribution of the total quan- 
tity in ways that would best serve the war interest 
and, at the same time, would be as equitable as 
possible. This allocation process involves a care- 
ful study of world supplies on the one hand and 
requirements on the other, always keeping in mind 
transportation possibilities. The study of supplies 
that will be available must necessarily include a 
discussion of quantities already on hand, so-called 
"stockpiles", as well as production prospects. The 
study of requirements includes the consideration 
of both levels of consumption or use and the nature 
of the use in terms of its contribution to the war 
effort. 

When the necessary data have been gathered, a 
recommendation is made dividing up the total 



among the several claimant countries. These allo- 
cations may take the form of assignment of spe- 
cific quantities from particular sources to each 
consuming country, or they may merely indicate 
the sources from which each country is to procure 
its needs without specifying quantities. Fre- 
quently the recommendations go further to provide 
for the procurement of identified supplies by a 
designated country for its own account and for 
the account of other receiving countries. The 
corollary to this provision is that other countries 
participating in the recommendations agree to stay 
out of that particular market. 

The allocation of supplies and the arrangement 
of procurement is by far the most important ac- 
tivity of the Combined Raw Materials Board and 
the Combined Food Board. The assignment of a 
market in which to buy exclusively sometimes car- 
ries with it a responsibility that the operating 
agencies of the procuring country do whatever 
they can to maximize production. Recommenda- 
tions have also been made from time to time to 
conserve supplies by reducing the levels of con- 
sumption or substituting alternative materials in 
specific uses. Finally, the Boards have undertaken 
many general studies of a statistical nature which, 
if the situation requires, are kept up to date as a 
means of anticipating the development of a short- 
supply situation and, if possible, of preventing its 
occurrence. 

The Boards' recommendations can be made ef- 
fective only by the application of import and ex- 
port controls or by the assignment of transporta- 
tion. An arrangement that provides for a specific 
amount of a commodity to be delivered from a 
given country to another country can be realized 
on the positive side only if steps are taken to 
arrange its procurement and transportation and 
on the negative side only if others are induced to 
withdraw from procuring and transporting. This 
arrangement has meant that the allocation recom- 
mendations must be closely geared into the assign- 
ment of shipping voyages by the shipping au- 
thorities of the participating countries in conform- 
ity with recommendations of the Combined Ship- 
ping Adjustment Board. 

The whole operation is complex, but it has 
worked remarkably well in rationalizing the pro- 
duction, procurement, and distribution of short- 
supply items in the interest of the war. In es- 
sence it has achieved an administration of interna- 



20 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



tional trade in those commodities selected by the 
Boards for attention which have been in short 
supply but which at the same time are essential for 
the prosecution of the war and for the mainte- 
nance of essential civilian economies. Occasion- 
ally, allocation recommendations have been made 
to prevent a wasteful use of shipping space in 
transporting commodities that were not seriously 
short. The framework of the operations and the 
pattern of the recommendations have been geared 
to the problems of scarcity. 

Many world commodities are still critically 
short relative to basic needs. In those cases where 
a condition of critical wartime scarcity has given 
waj' to one of more comfortable supplies, the 
Boards have withdrawn their administrative 
recommendations and returned the trade to a nor- 
mal basis. It is important that such action be 
taken, else the allocation to receiving countries of 
scarce supplies, in substance, would become the 
allocation to producing countries of markets in 
which to sell surplus supplies. The Boards are 
recognized as instruments of war policy, and the 
incompatibility of the nature of their operations 
with post-war liberal trade objectives is an ac- 
cepted part of the thinking of United States Gov- 
ernment officials responsible for their adminis- 
tration. 

In a series of discussions last January with 
representatives of Canada and the United King- 
dom, reconsideration was given to the future of 
the Combined Boards. 1 These discussions re- 
sulted in the drafting of agreed terms of reference 
for their future conduct. The Boards as such will 
continue for the duration of the war with Japan. 
In the administration of their work, however, 
carefully formulated criteria have been agreed 
upon to assure their withdrawal from administra- 
tive direction of international trade in specific 
commodities or products as the supply situation 
permits. It is hoped that in this way there can be 
a gradual liquidation of the Boards' activities and 
an orderly transition from the controlled trade of 
the war period to a condition in which inter- 
national merchants may again be free to trade in 
world commodities and products in ways that will 
be as little encumbered as possible. 



1 Bulletin of Jan. 28, 1945, p. 119. 

2 Bulletin of May 13, 1945, p. 900. See also Bulletin 
of June 10, 1945, p. 1051. 



Appointment of Charles Fahy 
as Director of Legal Division 
on U. S. Control Council 

[Released to the press by the White House June 26] 

Solicitor General Charles Fahy has been selected 
by General Eisenhower, with the approval of the 
President, as director of the Legal Division of the 
United States Group Control Council in Ger- 
many. 2 Mr. Fahy will take up his new assignment 
as soon as possible, on leave as Solicitor General. 
Accompanying him as principal advisers will be 
Joseph Warren Madden of the United States 
Court of Claims and Herman Phleger, San Fran- 
cisco attorney, and a staff now in process of selec- 
tion. 



Walter H. Hodge Accepts 
Visiting Professorship 
to Colombia 

[Released to the press June 30] 

Walter H. Hodge, professor of plant geography 
and economic botany in Massachusetts State Col- 
lege at Amherst, has accepted a one-year visiting 
professorship of botany at the Agricultural School 
of the University of Medellin, Colombia. Profes- 
sor Hodge, whose classes will include courses in 
general botany, general biology, plant classifica- 
tion, and plant physiology, will report for duty 
at Medellin on July 1. He has just completed an 
assignment of two and one-half years' duration 
in Peru, where he was engaged in cinchona pro- 
curement for the FEA. 

Professor Hodge has spent some time in the 
Caribbean area and is preparing a work on The 
Flora of the Lesser Antilles, of which the section 
on Dominica has been published. 



THE FOREIGN SERVICE 



Consular Offices 

The American Consulate at Iskenderun, Turkey, 
was closed to the public on June 24, 1945. 



JULY 1, 1945 



21 



Security Against Renewed German Aggression 

Statement by ASSISTANT SECRETARY CLAYTON 1 



[Released to the press June 25] 

In all questions affecting the treatment of Ger- 
many, the Department of State has one paramount 
objective — security against a renewed German 
aggression. And security can be assured only so 
long as there is agreement with our Allies on the 
basic principles of the treatment of Germany. 

We have reached that agreement as far as the 
basic objectives of the occupation of Germany are 
concerned. The late President Koosevelt, Prime 
Minister Churchill, and Premier Stalin jointly 
announced in the communique from Yalta : 

"We have agreed on common policies and 
plans for enforcing the unconditional surrender 
terms which we shall impose together on Nazi 
German} 7 . . . 

"It is our inflexible purpose to destroy German 
militarism and Nazism and to ensure that Germany 
will never again be able to disturb the peace of the 
world. We are determined to disarm and dis- 
band all German armed forces; break up for all 
time the German General Staff that has repeatedly 
contrived the resurgence of German militarism; 
remove or destroy all German military equipment; 
eliminate or control all German industry that could 
be used for military production ; bring all war 
criminals to just and swift punishment and exact 
reparation in kind for the destruction wrought 
by the Germans; wipe out the Nazi Party, Nazi 
laws, organizations and institutions, remove all 
Nazi and militarist influences from public office 
and from the cultural and economic life of the 
German people; and take in harmony such other 
measures in Germany as may be necessary to the 
future peace and safety of the world." 2 

The task of destroying the economic basis of 
German aggression is one that requires vigorous, 
simultaneous action along a number of lines. I 
am very glad to discuss this morning those three 
aspects of this problem on which your committee 
has asked me to report. These are : ( 1 ) the serious 



1 Made before the Subcommittee on War Mobilization 
of the Senate Committee on Military Affairs on June 25, 
1945. 

2 Bulletin of Feb. 18, 19-45, p. 214. 



problem of Axis economic penetration in Latin 
America; (2) the problem of tracking down and 
frustrating German efforts to hide abroad a stake 
for another gamble of aggression; and (3) the 
question of the treatment of German cartels, com- 
bines, and technology. 

I. Axis Replacement and Proclaimed-List Program 
in Latin America 

The unity in the Western Hemisphere which has 
been achieved by the American republics over the 
course of the past years has been not less remark- 
able than important. When the suspicion and mis- 
trust with which the United States was regarded 
in the other republics not many years ago is re- 
called, it seems all the more remarkable that sev- 
eral of the other republics declared war on Japan 
after the treacherous attack on Pearl Harbor even 
before the United States did. It is a tribute to 
the wisdom of the good-neighbor policy and the 
strength of our friendly relations with the repub- 
lics to the south that cooperation and mutual inter- 
est in the defense of the hemisphere should have 
marked all of the difficult years since Nazi aggres- 
sion was first loosed on the world. 

The importance of the other American republics 
to the defense of the United States of America 
can hardly be overemphasized. No testimony of 
mine is necessary to show the extent to which the 
United States has profited in obtaining bases and 
support in other of the American republics, or 
how much we might have been imperiled by enemy 
radio stations operating in countries from which 
it would have been extremely easy to follow the 
movements of our merchant ships, particularly in 
those crucial days when submarine warfare was at 
its most successful peak. 

The problem of Axis penetration in the Amer- 
ican republics was, both in 1939 and in 1941, a very 
serious one. In the United States, although we 
had our Bund, our Fritz Kuhns, and our similar 
rabble, our economic system was not under the 
domination of such persons, nor was it likely to 
be gravely shaken by the elimination of these per- 
sons from our business economy. Some of the 
companies which have been vested by the Alien 



22 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Property Custodian as German-dominated or 
-controlled are highly important in the American 
industrial picture, but they are not dominant con- 
cerns. Nor did our richly developed industrial 
system feel the problem of replacing undesirable 
personnel, however highly qualified for technical 
positions they may have been. 

In the other American republics, or at least in 
many of them, the problem was quite different. In 
the field of drugs and pharmaceuticals, for ex- 
ample, the Bayer, Merck, and Sobering companies 
enjoyed a virtual monopoly. I. G. Farben sub- 
sidiaries had a firm hold on the dye and chemical 
market. German enterprises such as Tubos Man- 
nesmann, Ferrostaal, A.E.G., and Siemens- 
Schuckert played a dominant role in the construc- 
tion, electrical, and engineering field. Shipping 
companies and, in some areas, German airlines 
were well entrenched. In addition, other strong 
pro-German firms were engaged in miscellaneous 
types of business, some of which were partly or 
wholly owned from Germany and some of which 
were wholly owned by persons of German origin 
who had acquired citizenship in one of the Amer- 
ican republics. The Staudt companies, which were 
large dealers in wool, are typical examples of this 
type of enterprise. 

In all of these cases, German capital represented 
a large proportion of the total business investment, 
and in many cases there were no competitive indus- 
tries which were capable of serving the essential 
requirements of the local economy. The economic 
importance of German industry to the other 
American republics and the difficulties of eliminat- 
ing and replacing that industry were, therefore, 
apparent. 

The selection and designation of important 
enemy firms to be eliminated also presented serious 
political problems, particularly in those countries 
which had strong opposition parties in the legis- 
lature. In some cases the other American republics 
had taken steps short of war against the Axis such 
as the severance of all commercial and political 
intercourse with Axis territory. Others had de- 
clared a state of belligerency. In the countries 
which took steps short of war, the constitutional 
authority of the administration to proceed with 
an elimination program was open to serious ques- 
tion. In many cases the worst of the Axis firms 
were incorporated under local law and well able 
to claim the protection of the courts. In some cases 
it was claimed that the beneficial ownership was 



not German, which made it necessary laboriously 
to trace ownership through a maze of dummies 
and holding companies. Furthermore, many of 
the other American republics, perhaps to an even 
greater relative degree than the United States, 
have large numbers of citizens of German descent. 
In most cases these persons were loyal to the coun- 
try of their domicile, just as most of those who 
live here are loyal Americans ; but in each country 
there were, particularly under the impetus of Nazi 
successes, certain numbers of these persons who 
were willing to believe the pompous rantings of 
Hitler and his aides and who were trying to lead 
the countries in which they lived to the objectives 
envisaged by the Nazis. 

The Department of State throughout this period 
has had to take full account of the many factors 
which make the eradication of Axis influence in 
the American republics a difficult and arduous job. 
In the first place, it was necessary to avoid put- 
ting the United States in the position of the whip- 
cracking "colossus of the North". More has been 
achieved by means of cooperation and an honest 
attempt to understand the problem of the other 
fellow than could have been achieved by dictation ; 
and our long-range objective of sound and good 
neighborly relations has not been imperiled. In 
the second place, we have had to understand prob- 
lems which do not appear to be very important 
when one is thousands of miles away but which 
are seen to be very serious when one is on the scene. 
We have had to bear in mind that large bodies of 
Latin American citizens of German descent were 
present in many of the other American republics 
and that these persons, although perhaps loyal 
citizens, tended to regard as less dangerous than 
did we or did the local government the activities 
of German business houses and of Germans who 
had been resident for many years in the country. 

Realizing also the difficulties of eliminating im- 
portant business enterprises in economies which 
did not possess substitute enterprises, we have tried 
to work with the local governments in building up 
substitute enterprises. We have tried also to make 
sure that these successor enterprises remain in the 
hands of local nationals. We have been careful to 
avoid actions which would afford the slightest 
justification for an accusation that the United 
States used economic warfare controls in order to 
further the economic interests of its nationals. 

Another problem which we had to contend with 
in the early clays of the war was the difficulty of 



JULY 1, 1945 



23 



obtaining proof of Axis ownership, and of the 
extent of the inimical activities of these Axis 
spearheads, sufficient to support proceedings for 
their nationalization in a court of law. Our own 
ability to produce such evidence was limited since 
we did not then have access to the records of these 
firms in Germany nor were we able to seize the 
books and records of the firms in the other Amer- 
ican republics. The cooperation of the other 
American republics and of our Allies was invalu- 
able in making possible a mutual interchange of 
information concerning inimical activities in the 
hemisphere. The local police were able, on num- 
erous occasions, to uncover evidence in spite of the 
elaborate security precautions which the Nazis had 
taken. 

I should like to cite an illustration of this kind 
of cooperation. An agency of the Government 
of Uruguay seized the books and records of the 
Banco Aleman. The findings of that agency are 
summarized in English in a report which is con- 
tained in Exhibit 1. The extent of the partici- 
pation of these spearhead firms in the Nazi plan, 
the value of their contribution to that plan, and 
the insidious nature of their operations are clearly 
shown in this summary. Doubtless the full story 
will be forthcoming from an inspection of the 
records in Germany. 

Through the cooperation of our British Allies, 
we obtained access to a large cache of mail from 
the Bayer subsidiary in Argentina to I. G. Farben- 
industrie, Leverkusen, Germany, which was inter- 
cepted in 1943 at Gibraltar. Of particular interest 
are two letters from the Argentine subsidiary 
which summarize the position of the important 
Bayer companies as of mid-1943. English trans- 
lations of the text of these two letters are avail- 
able in Exhibit 2. 

Another example of the cooperation between 
this Government and the other American republics 
is the work of the small mission which visited one 
of the Latin American republics in the fall of 
1943. This mission, aiding those officers of the 
Embassy who had already been working on this 
problem, presented a set of objectives to the local 
government — a sort of statement of principles. 
After this was subscribed to by the local govern- 
ment, the members of the mission, together with 
officers of the Embassy, sat down at the conference 
table with officials of that government interested 
in the control of enemy business enterprises and 
in production and distribution in the country. In 



the mission were officers of the Department of 
State, of the Office of Alien Property Custodian, 
and independent experts who had been retained 
for the purpose by the Custodian. The result of 
this work over a period of a few weeks was a 
comprehensive report which went into the business 
of each of the important Axis companies in the 
country, indicated the manner in which those com- 
panies might be replaced without loss to the local 
economy, and mentioned those American com- 
panies which could make available either supplies 
or technical assistance in working out the replace-, 
ment of the Axis concerns. 

The basis for cooperation in the elimination 
of Axis-dominated companies was laid in the Rio 
de Janeiro conference in January 1942. Resolu- 
tion V of that Conference, recalling the declara- 
tion of the previous Conference in July 1940, that 
an attack by a non-American state on one of the 
American republics would be considered as an 
attack on all of them, recommends the elimination 
of all commercial and financial intercourse be- 
tween the Western Hemisphere and the Axis. The 
resolution contemplated the elimination of "all 
other financial and commercial activities prejudi- 
cial to the welfare and security of the American 
republics". At the Conference held in Washing- 
ton in June and July of 1942, these matters were 
elaborated, and it was recommended that the busi- 
nesses of any persons_who were acting against the 
political and economic independence or security 
of the American republics "shall be the object of 
forced transfer or total liquidation". Under cer- 
tain circumstances, these companies may be the 
"object of blocking, occupation, or intervention". 
I offer copies of the resolutions of both these Con- 
ferences as Exhibits 3 and 4. 

The adoption of these recommendations was not 
empty phrase-making. The resolutions were fol- 
lowed by action in almost all of the other Amer- 
ican republics. Some of the legislation which was 
drafted in these other republics was based upon 
United States legislation in the field or was drafted 
with the assistance of United States experts. The 
legislation adopted in most countries was ex- 
tremely effective and thorough-going. I am sub- 
mitting for purposes of illustration, as Exhibits 
5 and 6, copies of legislation enacted in Mexico and 
in Brazil, which, I believe, compare favorably with 
that of the United States. 

Our missions in Latin America have, of course, 
worked energetically and zealously in following 



24 

the progress made under this legislation, in dis- 
cussing individual cases with the commissions, and 
■working out with them particular methods of 
eliminating spearhead companies. In general, 
the policy has been to liquidate those spearhead 
firms whose disappearance would not injuriously 
affect the local economy. Whenever the enter- 
prise was essential to the local economy, the pro- 
cedure has usually been either to vest the business 
with all its assets in much the same way that the 
Alien Property Custodian has moved against 
enemy property in this country, or to force the 
undesirable owner to sell to satisfactory pur- 
chasers. In many cases, of course, only some of 
the partners or stockholders were undesirable ; and 
in these cases only the undesirable interest has been 
eliminated— either by a partial vesting of the 
assets of the firm or by a forced sale of the unde- 
sirable interest to a satisfactory purchaser. In 
all of these cases, the practice has been to block the 
payments accruing to the former owners. 

This Government has also rendered such services 
as the issuance of a booklet giving medical equiva- 
lents for German products which were in common 
use in particular countries. Since German medic- 
inals occupied a very important place in many of 
these countries, the issuance of such a booklet 
made simpler the problems of local doctors who 
were eager to cooperate by prescribing products 
manufactured by American or local concerns, but 
who were so accustomed to the German product 
that they often did not know whether an equiva- 
lent existed or was sold in the particular country. 
A very good idea of what our goal has been and 
what has been actually accomplished can be gained 
from a list of the enterprises in the other American 
republics which are regarded as spearhead in 
character and the progress which has been made 
toward their total and permanent elimination. 
Such a list, compiled on a country-to-country basis, 
has been offered as Exhibit 7. 

An examination of this document will, I believe, 
support the conclusion that encouraging results 
have been realized in the job of eliminating Axis 
spearhead firms in Latin America. We naturally 
expect to continue to press for the elimination of 
such firms in those countries where the task is not 
already substantially accomplished. 

The Department of State has, of course, given 
much thought to the possibility that some of these 
Axis spearheads will survive the program which 
I have described, and to the related possibility 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

that some of the former German owners may find 
ways to regain their control over enterprises from 
which they have been ousted. Steps have been 
taken to guard against these possibilities by the 
addition of paragraphs in the various national 
laws on the subject to the effect that the assets in 
question may be transferred only to a national of 
the country concerned; or to the effect that such 
assets may not be transferred to German nationals. 
Assurances have been received from various Amer- 
ican republics that the return of these properties 
to their former owners will not be allowed, and 
that the replacement program will continue un- 
abated. Moreover, the Department of State has 
followed, on a case-by-case basis, the transfer of 
all Axis spearheads, as well as other Proclaimed 
List 1 properties, to make sure that the transfer 
was bona fide in each case, No man can look too 
far in the future. It seems a safe prediction, how- 
ever, to say that German economic and political 
penetration in this hemisphere has, for the most 
part, been dealt a blow from which it will probably 
not recover; and that the prospects are reasonably 
bright for the substantial elimination of Axis 
spearhead firms even in the areas where they still 
survive. 

The fact that the United Nations are now in 
possession of the head offices of these Axis con- 
cerns in Germany would, moreover, seem to put 
it within their power to take over any Axis firms 
that should remain untouched by the nationaliza- 
tion program. This is an approach which is now 
being considered in relation to the whole question 
of reparations and war claims. The present co- 
operative program of the other American republics 
to discover and block German and Japanese assets 
in this hemisphere— a matter which I shall discuss 
in some detail at a later point— strengthens the 
probability of further action and is a logical con- 
sequence of the replacement program which I have 
described. 

At this point, I want to say a few words about 
one of the weapons of economic warfare which 
has been wielded by the United States and which 
has been a most effective supplement in accom- 
plishing the elimination of Axis influence in the 



1 The Proclaimed List of Certain Blocked Nationals, 
issued periodically by the Secretary of State acting in con- 
junction with the Secretary of the Treasury, the Attorney 
General, the Secretary of Commerce, the Administrator of 
the Foreign Economic Administration, and the Director of 
the Office of Inter-American Affairs. 



JULY 1, 1945 



25 



Americas. This instrument, which has been used 
in consultation with the Governments of Great 
Britain and Canada, is the Proclaimed List. The 
List is designed to specify publicly those persons 
whom this Government considers to be undesirable 
and whom it, therefore, prescribes from commu- 
nication or dealing with United States nationals 
under the Trading With the Enemy Act. The List 
contains the names of all kinds of persons- — in- 
dividuals whose political views publicly expressed 
are antagonistic to the Allied war effort as well as 
Axis branch companies. In the main, however, the 
List has been used as an instrument to designate 
those persons with whom trade was undesirable or 
prohibited. As a trading weapon, it has been 
much more effective than it would have been had 
it been used chiefly to designate persons who, for 
one reason or another, were undesirable, or persons 
who, however undesirable, carried on no business. 

It should be understood, however, that the List 
is not a perfect weapon. Where local cooperation 
was not forthcoming, the List was much less effec- 
tive than in those places where there was good 
local cooperation. If the citizens of a community 
insist on trading with a particular person even if 
he is on the Proclaimed List, the efforts of the 
United States to prevent him from getting goods 
from Allied sources and to deny him other com- 
mercial facilities do not have the maximum effect. 

The chief problem in maintaining an effective 
Proclaimed List has been that of preventing goods 
from reaching the hands of Proclaimed List na- 
tionals through dummies. If a listed individual 
or concern attempts to order goods from the 
United States, he cannot receive them because all 
shipments of goods abroad are screened against 
the Proclaimed List. The Proclaimed List na- 
tional therefore tries and tries again to order 
goods through dummies or cloaks. These dum- 
mies may be minor employees or insignificant in- 
dividuals whose listing would cause them no real 
concern ; consignees are sometimes fictitious people, 
people who have long been dead, et cetera. Pur- 
chase of goods in the local market is another way 
of obtaining goods. These local purchases may, in 
the case of indigenous products, be made from the 
original producer ; in the case of imported goods, 
purchases are made through cloaks so that often 
legitimate importers of United States goods in- 
nocently make sales which benefit Proclaimed List 
nationals. 

The Department and the other agencies charged 



with the administration of the Proclaimed List 
have, in cooperation with the governments operat- 
ing similar lists, made determined efforts to pre- 
vent any goods from reaching Proclaimed List 
nationals with the aim of depleting stocks and 
ultimately forcing liquidation or bankruptcy. The 
size of the task is illustrated by charts, offered as 
Exhibit 8, showing the total number of persons and 
firms on the List in this hemisphere and in each 
country in this hemisphere. For purposes of com- 
parison, a similar chart of the listings in this 
hemisphere in the last war is offered as Exhibit 9, 
although I believe this chart does not reflect the 
size of the List in the last few weeks of that war. 
In addition to approximately 8,000 names on the 
List for this hemisphere, there are more than 5,000 
names on the List for the European neutrals. 

Because of our controls over shipping and sup- 
ply, and because of the alert work of our missions 
in the field, I am glad to say that the Proclaimed 
List has been far more effective in this war than 
in the last and that, as a result of its operations, 
hundreds of firms have been reorganized so as to 
eliminate undesirable elements or have been forced 
to shut down. Only a small fraction of goods 
from this country ever reached Proclaimed List 
hands and, in the Western Hemisphere at least, 
the task of acquiring goods locally was made so 
difficult and expensive as to be generally prohibi- 
tive. The fear of inclusion in the List also has a 
strong deterrent effect on many whose cupidity 
might otherwise have led them into the enemy 
camp. 

It has been necessary to keep in mind the de- 
sirability of using the List only in so far as local 
controls were not effective to do the job. It has 
often been pointed out to us by our neighbors in 
the other American republics that we do not main- 
tain a Proclaimed List in Great Britain or in 
Canada or in many other Allied nations. 

Our reply has been that the List is not main- 
tained in those countries where local controls are 
so effective as to make the List unnecessary; and 
as a corollary we have undertaken in public state- 
ments to withdraw the List first and most rapidly 
from those countries which cooperate with us in 
the elimination of Axis spearhead concerns. We 
have said in effect that if a country completely 
eliminated Axis influence in a firm like Bayer or 
Anilinas, we would be able to take off the Pro- 
claimed List for that country not only the name 
of that reorganized company but also the names 



26 

of a large number of people who had been listed 
for the offense of cloaking for the previous Axis 
company. In other words, we have said to the 
other American republics that if their controls 
were effective, in the same manner that Great 
Britain's are effective, we would then be prepared 
to withdraw the List from those countries. 

Withdrawal in this manner does not imply in 
any way a whitewashing of all the persons taken 
from the List. It does not mean that a particular 
German national who has been on the List for two 
or three years has suddenly changed his stripes. 
It only means that we are carrying out the promise 
which necessarily had to be made to the other 
American republics that we would gradually with- 
draw the List from those countries which imposed 
effective local controls, and that we would then 
expect the local government to deal with the local 
undesirables. 

I want to be extremely explicit about this point, 
lest it be mistakenly construed as an indication of 
softness or weakness in our economic policies. The 
policy stated in May and in September 1944 (and 
I attach as Exhibit 10 copies of these statements) 
is neither soft nor weak. 1 It is based on realistic 
and hard-headed recognition of the fact that local 
controls are much more effective than those im- 
posed from a distance of thousands of miles. It is 
based on realization that the List is not liked by 
the other American republics and that, if we were 
proposing to continue the List without regard to 
local controls, they would have ample justification 
for complaining against our policy. It is based 
on the knowledge that our willingness to discuss 
the conditions under which we would be willing 
to withdraw the Proclaimed List, and to turn the 
situation over to local controls, accelerates the im- 
plementation of these local controls and the elimi- 
nation of the dangerous Axis spearheads. Pur- 
suant to this policy, the List in such countries as 
Mexico and Chile has been quite drastically cut 
in recent months. It may be cut again in the 
months to follow. All that these cuts mean is that 
local controls are considered effective, at least 
under conditions presently existing, and that we 
are carrying out our long-standing commitment to 
withdraw the List first from those countries which 
had imposed effective local controls. The others 
which have not imposed effective local controls may 
expect continuation of the List for some time to 
come. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

Finally, I should like to point out that our 
so-called economic warfare objectives in the West- 
ern Hemisphere tend to change with changing war 
conditions. We no longer have to worry about 
blockade, about the dangerous Axis companies re- 
ceiving supplies from Germany, or even, since we 
can handle the problem from Germany, about the 
reestablishment of trade relationships between the 
Western Hemisphere and Germany. What we do 
have to worry about are those persons who may 
be hiding Nazi loot or flight capital, and about the 
control of German investments in all of the re- 
publics. We are attacking these problems co- 
operatively with the other American republics just 
as we have cooperated in our economic warfare 
measures. The Mexico City Conference on Prob- 
lems of War and Peace adopted a resolution in 
this connection which I should like to introduce 
as Exhibit 11. 

The resolution, which was sponsored by Mexico, 
refers to documents which have been issued by some 
or all of the United Nations and adopts and re- 
affirms the principles and objectives of these docu- 
ments. The documents in question are the decla- 
ration with respect to Axis acts of dispossession 
issued on January 5, 1943, the Gold Policy Decla- 
ration of February 22, 1944, and resolution VI of 
the Bretton Woods conference. The resolution 
resolves that the American republics will main- 
tain existing measures in force so far as applicable 
and will take further measures to attain the objec- 
tives of these declarations and resolutions includ- 
ing specific further measures along lines stated 
in the resolution. I should like to quote two para- 
graphs from the Mexico City resolution XIX 
which I believe to be as good a statement of the 
problem as I have seen : 

"There are reasons to believe that Germany and 
Japan will again attempt, in spite of their certain 
defeat, to conceal their property and property 
which they have unjustly obtained and which they 
have placed in other countries in order to finance, 
during the postwar period, activities of every 
sort inimical to the security and safety of the 
Western Hemisphere and of the world in general ; 
"The peace and welfare of the postwar world 
must be based on justice and an organization that 
assures justice, and that, therefore, all necessary 
steps must be taken in a manner consistent with 



1 Buli-etin of May 6, 1944, p. 409, and Oct. 1, 1944, p. 340. 



JULY 1, 1945 



27 



the laws and practices of each country to facilitate 
the location and restitution of property unjustly 
taken from the peoples of occupied countries, and 
the uncovering and treatment of hidden property, 
directly or indirectly originating in Germany or 
Japan or which is owned or controlled by Germany 
or Japan or by individuals and entities within 
such countries, all for the purpose of making it 
impossible again for Germany and Japan to be able 
to provoke and make war." 1 

II. The Safehaven Program 

The Department of State has abundant evidence 
that the Nazis, in anticipation of military defeat, 
made careful plans to carry on in foreign countries 
a wide range of activities necessary to support an 
eventual resurgence of German power. For this 
purpose plans were made, and carried out in part, 
to transfer abroad sufficient funds and specially 
trained personnel to carry on pan-German activ- 
ities, even while the Allied Armies were in occupa- 
tion of Germany. 

These instrumentalities through which the Ger- 
mans planned to rebuild their military, economic, 
and political strength in foreign countries were 
principally the following: (1) the large foreign 
industrial concerns owned or controlled by such 
firms such as I. G. Farben, Siemens, Bosch, and 
Telefunken; (2) scientific research laboratories 
located in foreign countries for the development 
of new weapons and new industrial processes im- 
portant to war; (3) subsidized colleges, technical 
schools, high schools, and elementary schools to 
spread pan-German doctrines ; (4) German-owned 
or -controlled newspapers, magazines, and radio 
stations to spread anti-democratic propaganda and 
to create disunity among the peace-loving nations 
of the world. 2 

The nature, scope, and complexity of this pro- 
gram for the recreation of German military 
might has required during recent months, and will 
require for some time in the future, a carefully 
organized effort on the part of the United Nations 
to eliminate this German threat to international 
security. Although my remarks today will be al- 
most wholly confined to the economic aspects of the 
problem, I want to assure you that this Govern- 
ment, in conjunction with other United Nations, 



1 Inter-American Conference on Problems of War and 
Peace (Congress and Conference Series 47, Pan Ameri- 
can Union, 1945), p. 47. 

2 Bulletin of Apr. 1, 1945, p. 537. 



is actively engaged in an integrated external secu- 
rity program aimed at frustrating the German 
plan. 

The success of German efforts to carry on in 
foreign countries activities inimical to the United 
Nations must depend on their ability to mobilize 
funds to support the execution of their plans. 
Consequently, they have made strenuous efforts to 
move abroad assets of all kinds, which can be con- 
verted into funds for the financing of hostile 
activities. 

Our Safehaven Program is a combined effort of 
the Department of State, the Treasury Depart- 
ment, and the Foreign Economic Administration 
to forestall German attempts to hide assets out- 
side of Germany, particularly in the European 
neutral countries. I should like to describe in 
some detail the policies which we are putting into 
practice in the implementation of this program. 

The Safehaven Program has the same general 
objective as the Replacement Program which I 
have already discussed. The object of both is to 
deny to Germany the economic bases of future 
aggression. 

Operationally, both programs draw upon the 
vast amounts of information compiled by the De- 
partment of State during the war years, especially 
in its files developed for the administration of the 
Proclaimed List and related controls. A master 
index, containing approximately 500,000 names of 
individuals and concerns abroad, affords a ready 
reference for investigation of the relation of old 
cases to new transactions, and provides the focal 
points for the maintenance of vigilance over the 
scattered scraps of information which regularly 
come to our attention. 

The Replacement and Safehaven Programs are 
both based upon the common knowledge that totali- 
tarian Germany was able to marshal the ostensible 
private interests of German nationals abroad for 
the purpose of waging economic war. The Re- 
placement Program was an earlier phase. Be- 
cause of the cooperation of the other American 
republics, it was possible through the Replace- 
ment Program to combat German economic power 
in most American countries at a relatively early 
date after we entered the war. Moreover, the 
Western Hemisphere was isolated from German- 
occupied European areas by communications, 
blockade, and financial controls. Essentially, 
therefore, the problem in the other American re- 
publics has been one of reducing and eliminating 



28 

the pre-war economic potential of totalitarian 
Germany. 

In neutral Europe the problem was to prevent 
growth as well. During the war, the Germans 
were able to siphon wealth out of Germany and 
occupied areas to neutral countries, because geo- 
graphic contiguity greatly lessened the effect of 
controls of the sort that I have enumerated above. 
Germans passed from enemy Europe to the neu- 
tral countries completely free of Allied control 
over movement. Communications were open. It 
was not practicable until recently to turn the block- 
ade against the importation into a neutral country 
of goods and other wealth from Germany. The 
presence in the neutral countries of German dip- 
lomatic missions, all swelled to abnormal propor- 
tions, was a tremendous additional advantage to 
Germany in furthering its objective of hiding a 
stake for another gamble. 

Another difference between the Keplacement and 
Safehaven Programs is that the former was vol- 
untary, based upon the freely given commitments 
of the Western Hemisphere nations. The neutrals, 
however, resisted our requests for adequate local 
controls over German schemes, until our economic 
bargaining power and the obvious decline of Ger- 
many's military strength convinced them that an- 
other course was desirable. 

The Safehaven Program concerns itself with 
denying to Germany, in the interests of justice 
and future security, the economic power arising 
from (a) the organized looting of occupied coun- 
tries, (6) the flight of German capital in anticipa- 
tion of defeat, and (c) the German capital invest- 
ment already located abroad when the war began. 
Our chief efforts in this connection are directed 
against areas which have not cooperated in the 
extirpation of pre-war, and the prevention of war- 
time, Axis economic penetration. In the Western 
Hemisphere, Safehaven is of primary importance 
only where the Keplacement Program has lagged 
or where there is reason to believe that blockade 
controls have been evaded with some frequency. 

Perhaps it would be helpful at this point to 
illustrate the ways in which Germany sought to 
build up and safeguard its foreign holdings of 
the types of property mentioned above. To demon- 
strate the possibilities inherent in intercorporate 
manipulation of German interests, I need only refer 
to the I. G. Farben empire, which the committee 
has previously studied. The extent to which hold- 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

ing companies within a single country can be mis- 
used to evade controls and hide true ownership is 
known to all of us from certain pages of the finan- 
cial history of this country; we can, therefore, 
appreciate the possibilities when incorporations 
in several nations are employed. German enter- 
prises frequently masked the true extent of Ger- 
man control in a particular country through the 
incorporation of holding companies in other coun- 
tries, through the use of cloaks to hold German 
stock interests, and even by abandoning formal 
voting control but retaining a firm grip on the 
local industry through domination of technical 
processes used in manufacture. 

The Germans have been aided in their attempts 
to mask the German interests in corporations char- 
tered in neutral countries by the European pre- 
ference for bearer shares and the restrictive re- 
quirements of certain European tax systems, which 
have made it customary for majority foreign in- 
terests in domestic corporations to be understated 
as minorities. 

The potentialities of bearer shares are readily 
seen if it is recalled that such shares are negotiable 
by delivery and that it is exceedingly difficult to 
trace the chain of title to a particular bearer share. 
Thus, it was possible for the Germans to loot se- 
curities in bearer form in occupied territory and 
turn them over to an agent, who would then appear 
in a neutral country, posing as a valiant national 
of the occupied country, and proceed to exercise 
voting control of the local subsidiary, to the covert 
advantage of the Third Reich. Obviously, the 
bearer share seriously complicates the problem of 
achieving restitution of looted securities. 

The importance of national taxation laws in re- 
lation to the concealment of true control is illus- 
trated by the case of Spain. Since 1921 Spain's 
tax laws have made it expedient for foreign capital 
to show no more than a 25-percent interest in do- 
mestic corporations, since the tax on foreign cor- 
porations was prohibitive. As a consequence, 
techniques were evolved long before the war for 
concealing the true facts of ownership, and the 
Germans made full use of such devices. 

During and after the war, these schemes became 
expedient for Safehaven reasons as well. More- 
over, business customs and practices in the inter- 
ests of ordinary commercial secrecy have been used 
to advantage by the Germans. 

All this is not to say that the laws of the various 
neutral states have designedly favored German 



JULY 1, 1945 



29 



schemes. Rather, the Germans have been clever 
enough to take advantage in this instance, as they 
have in so many others, of the liberality of foreign 
laws and practices. The Germans have also taken 
advantage on occasion of administrative ineffi- 
ciency, non-feasance, and corruption. The extent 
to which this can be said in every neutral country 
to have been the fault of private individuals alone 
is problematical. 

The Germans systematically looted all manner 
of valuable property, not only to satisfy the aes- 
thetic sensibilities of such celebrated collectors as 
Goering but to acquire wealth cheaply for con- 
cealment abroad. Looting reached its nadir when 
gold was picked from the teeth of gas-chamber 
victims. A more subtle form of looting was out- 
right "purchase" with occupation currency from 
fearful vendors. 

The Nazis during their occupation of Belgium, 
the Netherlands, and France, confiscated or looted 
by various devices in contravention of the Hague 
Regulations of 1907, paintings and objects of art 
worth considerable sums. It is estimated that the 
value of such objects looted in Holland alone 
reaches approximately 200 million guilders or 
$136,000,000. The total value of works of art con- 
fiscated or acquired by fictitious purchase in paper 
marks by the Nazis is estimated at more than a 
billion and a half dollars. 

Among the German "buyers" or recipients of 
these works of art have been Goering, Hitler, 
Goebbels, and Von Ribbentrop. The methods of 
acquisition included forced purchases with "occu- 
pation guilders", or with German marks pumped 
into the circulation of the occupied country. Some 
paintings were seized as Jewish property. Three 
of the agents engaged in acquiring works of art 
for Goering and the others were Alois Miedel in 
the Netherlands, Dr. Hans Wendland in France, 
and Andreas Hofer, the Berlin art dealer. 

The Department of State has been active in 
liaison with the Roberts Commission, OSS, FEA, 
and the British Ministry of Economic Warfare in 
discovering, identifying, and listing these looted 
art objects with a view to aiding in their restitu- 
tion to their rightful owners in accordance with 
the Hague Regulations. Looted art objects, be- 
cause of the ease with which they can be concealed 
and smuggled, constitute one means by which the 
Nazis could transmit property abroad to be con- 
verted into cash for use in armament research and 
development, espionage, or propaganda. 



The case of Alois Miedel furnishes an example 
of the successful discovery, identification, and im- 
mobilization of a valuable shipment of looted art. 
After the German occupation of Holland in May 
1940, Miedel went to that country and acquired 
by the methods described above, on behalf of 
Goering and the others, a number of art collec- 
tions, including the Goudstikker collection of 
Amsterdam. On July 24, 1944 three cases of paint- 
ings from France were deposited in the name of 
Alois Miedel in the free port of Bilbao, Spain, by 
the German firm of Baquera Kusche & Martin, a 
firm which was on the British Statutory List and 
the United States Proclaimed List for trading with 
the enemy. Ramon Talasac (also on the Pro- 
claimed List) was the agent of B K & M in deposit- 
ing the cases at Bilbao. 

Confidential sources identified the shipment as, 
including paintings from the Goudstikker collec- 
tion confiscated by Miedel in 1940. It was reported 
that Miedel was engaged in smuggling looted 
works of art from France into Spain and endeavor- 
ing to dispose of them in Spain. As the result of 
confidential information transmitted to the Em- 
bassies at London and Madrid, Miedel was placed 
on both the British Statutory List and the United 
States Proclaimed List for Spain. It was reported 
that in November or December 1944 the Spanish 
police issued an order for Miedel's arrest. Miedel 
had been arrested by Maquis on the French side of 
the border, but escaped back to Spain and dis-. 
appeared. 

In March 1945, the American Embassy in 
Madrid secured from the Spanish Foreign Office 
permission for a representative of the Embassy 
and for the Dutch Minister to inspect the paint- 
ings deposited at Bilbao. The American repre- 
sentative photographed the pictures. Of the 22' 
paintings, 10 were identified as belonging to the 
Goudstikker collection, one to the Van Oalst col- 
lection, and one to the Valkenburg collection. 
Among the artists represented were Corot, David, 
and Van Dyck. 

The Dutch Minister was of the opinion that he 
would be able to repossess the paintings on the 
basis of the evidence thus secured. 

The problem becomes more complex when the 
looting action rests upon the ostensible author- 
ity of a puppet government in enemy-occupied 
or -dominated territory, and when neutral na- 
tionals acquire an interest in the property under 
color of being bona fide purchasers for value. 



30 

The following is a classic example: Under the 
Vichy equivalent of the Nuremburg anti-Jewish 
laws, certain furs belonging to Simon Freres, 
Paris, were seized and sold at public auction to 
a collaborationist, one Radenac. These furs then 
appeared at the free port of Barcelona, Spain. By 
this time Radenac had acquired a prominent Span- 
ish coadventurer. As soon as the case came to the 
attention of the American Embassy at Madrid, the 
Embassy invoked the Inter-Allied Declaration 
against Acts of Dispossession, which I shall dis- 
cuss later, by calling the matter to the attention 
of the Spanish Government. Radenac was called 
into the American Consulate General at Barcelona 
to explain. His explanations were unconvincing, 
and he was blacklisted by the British and our- 
selves. The word was spread around that a sim- 
ilar fate awaited those who might buy the looted 
furs from him. Moreover, the effect of the Inter- 
Allied Declaration was to make it clear to poten- 
tial purchasers that the United Nations would not 
recognize the validity of a title through Radenac. 
The French Mission was kept fully informed ; and 
as France regained her diplomatic powers, she was 
able to take over the case herself vis-a-vis the 
Spanish and press for rectification of rights. The 
case is now before the courts in Spain, with the 
French claimant adequately represented by coun- 
sel. For the period of over 12 months between 
the arrival of the goods in Spain and this pro- 
ceeding, dissipation was prevented by the efforts 
of the American missions in Spain and their Brit- 
ish and French colleagues. 

Having mentioned some of the schemes by which 
German external assets were cloaked and looted 
property turned to German economic advantage, 
I should like to discuss the third phase of Safe- 
haven, the detection and control of German flight 
capital. It is not possible yet to state at exactly 
what time an official policy of hiding assets abroad 
was embraced by the Reich. Certainly such a 
policy was not generally adopted until after the 
flush of earlier blitz victories had well worn off. 

Since the flight of Axis capital is the most recent 
and covert phase of German efforts to achieve 
Safehaven, you will understand that a great many 
cases are presently under active investigation, both 
in Germany and elsewhere, and that I must exer- 
cise care in mentioning names or localities. I 
should like, however, to illustrate some of the 
devices or techniques used to foster the flight of 
German economic power to neutral countries. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

1. In some countries, such as Switzerland, a bank 
account may be kept by number rather than by 
name, and heavy penalties face the banker who 
violates the secrecy rule and discloses the identity 
of the owner of the account. Shifts from one 
numbered account to another within a single 
country can be confusing enough, to say nothing 
of movements between two countries where such 
systems exist, especially in view of the fact that 
the persons who are listed as the owners of the 
numbered accounts may themselves be only cloaks 
for others. In our recent negotiations with 
Switzerland, we pressed for the lifting of the bank 
secrecy law. The Swiss decree, however, did not 
go beyond authorizing Swiss officials to conduct 
investigations regarding the identity of the own- 
ers of numbered accounts. Whether this change 
will yield beneficial results is yet to be seen. 

2. Germans have also achieved foreign haven 
for flight capital by preventing the normal repa- 
triation of German foreign earnings. German 
corporations have either not declared dividends 
or have not sought to convert them into marks. 
For example, the Deutsche Bank and Deutsche 
Orient Bank (Dresden Bank) branches located in 
Istanbul, Turkey, followed the policy of accumu- 
lating in Turkey rather than transmitting to their 
parent company in Germany their annual profits 
during their last eight years of operation. 

3. Another device for achieving the same result 
was that of building up credits for Germans in 
neutral countries by deferring the payment for 
German exports. We have reports that Germans 
have dumped goods in neutral countries, granting 
very liberal credit terms. Lest this be too obvious, 
a two-price system was sometimes used, whereby 
lower fictitious prices would be paid through the 
clearing at the time of importation and sale, while 
the difference between the simulated price and the 
real price would remain a post-war credit in favor 
of the German shipper. Checking these reports 
indicates that the latter variation was sometimes 
used for heavy industrial exports of great value. 
There is little to show that Germany was able to 
dump consumers' goods in foreign markets in vol- 
ume during the war. Germany did, however, 
strive to maintain the prestige and morale of her 
export organization, with the result, for example, 
that German radio and photography shops in 
neutral countries were well-stocked, in comparison 
with the bare shelves of American outlets. 

4. During the war years German investment in 



JULY 1, 1945 



31 



neutral countries showed itself particularly dis- 
posed to enter concerns in which there was a sub- 
stantial increment of neutral capital. It seems 
fairly obvious that one reason for this was the 
expectation that in case of German disaster the 
neutral governments would be more reluctant to 
take measures against such concerns than against 
those in which neutral interests were less involved. 

5. German liquid balances in neutral countries, 
particularly the earnings of Germans located in 
those countries, were frequently invested in in- 
come-producing real estate. This, again, is symp- 
tomatic, for neutral reluctance to interfere with 
existing titles to land at the instance of foreign 
states is based on inferences from the concept of 
sovereignty itself. Moreover, land cannot easily 
be frozen in a blocked account. 

6. Finally, a very simple evasive tactic, time- 
tested by the last war, rests upon the short memory 
of man and his soon tiring of controlling Germany 
and Germans. The scheme was simply to dispose 
of property by a written instrument, absolute on 
its face, but delivered on a secret, oral understand- 
ing that it would become void in five years or so. 
Our reports indicate that the Germans as a general 
rule thought that five years was allowing enough 
time for this purpose. 

Flight of capital is not of treasure alone; the 
brains and skills of men are also the subjects of 
German efforts to save potential strength for an- 
other war. This is especially true of German 
scientific and managerial personnel. We need 
only recall the flight of German technicians to sur- 
rounding areas after the first "World War to appre- 
ciate the existence of a similar clanger today. The 
problem is complicated by the fact that many 
German technicians have assumed, with fraudulent 
intent, citizenship in other countries. Moreover, 
there may be greater neutral reluctance to permit 
the extradition or repatriation of Germans not 
regarded as war criminals than to recognize Allied 
competence with respect to German assets abroad. 

I should like to cite a few cases which illustrate 
these dangers. In a certain neutral country, the 
German electrical company, Telefunken, bought a 
plant in the summer of 1943. The plant was im- 
mediately modernized and enlarged. It now has 
complete facilities for testing the most intricate 
short-wave radio equipment, and magnificently 
equipped laboratories for research in the ultra 
short-wave and tone-frequency field. As late as 
April of this year negotiations were in progress 



for the importation of skilled German technicians 
to work in this plant. 

In another neutral country, the government was 
eager to encourage the growth of manufacturing 
in the national economy. A semi-official German 
organization presented a proposal to the govern- 
ment of this neutral country for the equipment 
and establishment of a technical-school system. 
A representative of an Allied government has seen 
the five-volume dossier containing the German 
offers. The Germans proposed to supply a very 
large quantity of machinery and equipment for 
purposes of production, research, and teaching. 
In addition, they proposed to construct a fully 
equipped plant for the production of machine 
tools. 

The acceptance of this offer by the neutral gov- 
ernment would have necessitated the employment 
of a large number of German teachers and techni- 
cians. The offer certainly did not arise out of 
simple commercial motives, for the Germans were 
willing to guarantee delivery within three months 
at the very time when German war industry was 
losing the battle of production. It seems clear 
that the plan was intended to establish a nucleus 
of German personnel and equipment beyond the 
reach of the Allies. 

Aircraft repair establishments in the same neu- 
tral country ordered certain specialized machines 
from German suppliers in 1941. They were un- 
able to obtain delivery until late in 1943, at which 
time they received, not the amount of equipment 
that thej T ordered, but five times as much. Much 
of this machinery, adaptable to the large-scale 
manufacture of aircraft, rests today in this neutral 
country, still uncrated. 

Germans in foreign countries, who have now 
been cut off from their connections with German 
industry, may be expected to try to turn to United 
Nations trade as a means of preserving their posi- 
tion. They did this after the last war, and they 
have had some experience along these lines in this 
war. 

In one neutral country, Germans actually man- 
aged to derive large profits from the popularity 
and strong drawing power of American motion 
pictures. Their scheme was ingenious, and too 
long for recital here. They dealt with the un- 
suspecting American producers through a series 
of cloaks, and managed to get control of the ex- 
hibition rights of American films. The arrange- 
ment was broken up by a vigilant American 



32 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



diplomatic mission, which used its control over the 
importation and distribution of American raw- 
film stock to forestall the dubbing and copying of 
films whose exhibition rights were German-held. 

The United Nations have been alive to the dan- 
gers of German Safehaven efforts throughout the 
war. It has been necessary, however, to adjust 
precautionary steps to particular stages of the war. 
The earliest economic security measures designed 
to extirpate. Axis influence were those taken in the 
other American republics pursuant to the Replace- 
ment Program which I have already discussed. 
The next was the United Nations Declaration of 
January 5, 1943, a copy of which is herewith sub- 
mitted for the record as Exhibit 12. 1 This decla- 
ration made it quite clear that the United Nations 
would not recognize the validity of property 
transfers in enemy-occupied Europe based upon 
Axis acts of spoliation. 

The declaration was given wide publicity and 
was presented by the American missions abroad in 
a formal diplomatic manner to the various gov- 
ernments not then members of the United Na- 
tions. Others of the United Nations made parallel 
diplomatic presentations. The American em- 
bassies and legations throughout the world have 
been instructed, moreover, to invoke this declara- 
tion in bringing to the attention of each foreign 
government the fact that certain property located 
within its area is asserted to be loot. In this way, 
it has been possible to forestall defenses based 
upon the doctrine of innocent purchaser for value. 
This policy was further implemented by vigorous 
blacklisting action. Individuals and concerns con- 
templating the purchase of looted property were 
warned that the consequences of their act would 
be certain inclusion in the American Proclaimed 
List and the British Statutory List. 

Later, on February 22, 1944, the United States 
sponsored a specialized declaration, a copy of 
which I offer for the record as Exhibit 13, relat- 
ing to looted gold. Studies by the Foreign Eco- 
nomic Administration indicated that by the time 
of that declaration Germany had more than ex- 
hausted all of her gold on hand when she entered 
the war, with the result that any gold thereafter 
purchased by the neutral countries from Ger- 
many would be presumed to be looted gold and 
hence within the non-recognition principle of the 
earlier United Nations Declaration. The gold dec- 



laration was given publicity and diplomatic pres- 
entation similar to that of the January 5, 1943 
declaration. 

The next step was the inclusion in the Brett on 
Woods agreement of resolution VI. a copy of which 
is offered as Exhibit 14. 2 This resolution broad- 
ened the scope of the earlier declarations to in- 
clude enemy flight capital as well as looted prop- 
erty, thus illustrating a new danger that was 
beginning to arise as German defeat became more 
certain. This resolution has been given wide pub- 
licity and urged upon the United Nations for 
adoption as the general principle for dealing with 
flight capital and looted property. 

Resolution XIX of the Mexico City Conference 
on Problems of War and Peace, which I have pre- 
viously discussed, pledged the combined efforts of 
freedom-loving Western Hemisphere nations to 
forestall Axis concealment of assets abroad. 

As the Safehaven problem grew more acute with 
time, and as the German position deteriorated, it 
was possible to bring additional pressure to bear 
on the neutral countries to recognize the expres- 
sions of basic policy which I have outlined above. 
For some time prior to Mr. Lauchlin Currie's mis- 
sion to Switzerland, representatives of the State 
Department, the Treasury Department, and the 
Foreign Economic Administration had been study- 
ing proposals for linking up Safehaven objectives 
with Anglo-American supply-purchase negotia- 
tions with the European neutrals. It was decided 
as a matter of basic policy that attainment of 
Safehaven objectives should be sought in such 
negotiations. 

I should like to introduce for the information 
of the committee as Exhibit 15 a model note ad- 
dressed to a neutral country regarding these objec- 
tives. In general, the neutral governments were 
called upon to subscribe to the principles of the 
declarations and resolutions mentioned heretofore 
and were requested to take the following imple- 
menting measures: (1) to freeze all German as- 
sets; (2) to investigate transactions since 1939 
between persons subject to the laws of the partic- 
ular country and persons in Axis or Axis- 
controlled territory; (3) to make the results of 
these investigations available to the United States 
Government ; (4) to conduct a census to determine 



1 Bulletin of Jan. 9, 1943, p. 21. 



- United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference, 
Final Act and Related Documents (Department of State 
Publication 2187, Conference Series 55). 



JULY 1, 1945 



33 



the extent of German ownership of assets located 
in the neutral country: and (5) to provide the 
United States with full information regarding 
persons of Axis nationality who entered the neu- 
tral country since 1939 and who are still there. 1 

The Swiss negotiations resulted in the enactment 
of a federal law in Switzerland providing for the 
blocking of German accounts and the initiation by 
the Swiss of a census of German property in that 
country. A copy of the Swiss decree is offered 
herewith as Exhibit 16. The collapse of Germany 
speeded the enactment of control legislation in 
Spain and Portugal. 

The Spanish laws are herewith introduced as 
Exhibit 17. The Spanish decree of May 5, 1945 
adhered to the principles of Bretton Woods resolu- 
tion VI and provided for a general freezing control 
over the assets in Spain of subjects of Axis or 
Axis-dominated countries and gave broad discre- 
tion to the Minister of Foreign Affairs with respect 
to the implementation of the policy thus expressed. 
The Minister of Foreign Affairs, acting under this 
delegation of authorit}', has required corporations 
domiciled in Spain to report the capital therein 
owned by all nationals of Axis or Axis-dominated 
countries. A licensing system is provided for, and 
without a license all payments of dividends, debts, 
et cetera, to the nationals of Germany or territory 
formerly dominated by Germany are forbidden. 
The Portuguese decree is similar in tenor, but its 
operative effect is confined to the nationals of Ger- 
many, unlike the Spanish law, which affects all 
Axis nationals or the nationals of any country 
which the Germans had occupied during the war. 
Negotiations with the Swedish Government are 
proceeding relatively satisfactorily, according to 
our Legation at Stockholm. Sweden had sus- 
pended commercial and financial transactions with 
Germany prior to the latter's capitulation. 

With German assets now frozen in the Euro- 
pean neutral countries and Allied investigating 
teams scouring Germany for evidence of the Ger- 
man side of Safehaven transactions, it is expected 
that rapid and substantial progress will be made 
in isolating Germans from the economic power 
they have sought to maintain through illegal 
movements in neutral countries. A great deal, 
however, remains to be done. The Department 
of State is determined to press forward, in con- 
junction with the other executive agencies operat- 



1 Bulletin of Oct. 8, 1944, p. 383. 



ing in this field, in order that economic security 
objectives may be attained and German property 
outside of Germany subjected to just claims 
against it. 

It is the objective of the United States, regard- 
ing property looted from territories occupied by 
the Germans, to lend every assistance to the coun- 
try from which the property was taken in order 
to obtain return of the property for adjudication 
of present rights to it. German capital abroad, 
whether flight capital or traditional German for- 
eign investment, must bear its full share of Ger- 
man responsibility for this war. I am not in a 
position to make any additional statement regard- 
ing the ultimate disposition of German external 
.assets until after discussions with our Allies re- 
garding fundamental reparations and German con- 
trol policies have been completed. In the interim 
period, one of the most important tasks in which 
the Department of State is collaborating with the 
other civilian agencies is the study of evidence 
available in Germany regarding German eco- 
nomic penetration into the neutral countries and 
the Western Hemisphere. 

During this period also, the Foreign Service 
abroad, the Department of State, and other in- 
terested agencies in Washington will continue their 
efforts to obtain information outside of Germany 
regardine the nature and extent of German hold- 
ings, to press for neutral controls which will im- 
mobilize German interests without prejudicing 
their ultimate disposition, and to formulate and 
study the principles which should govern the final 
settlement, to the end of assuring that Germany 
may never again be able to mobilize external assets 
for aggressive purposes. 

III. Cartels, Combines, and Technology 

I should like to turn now to the question of Ger- 
man participation in international cartels. The 
development of an effective policy on this question 
requires parallel action with respect to German 
domestic cartels and combines, international com- 
bines in which German nationals have an interest, 
and the treatment of German technological 
information. 

Our policy toward German participation in in- 
ternational cartels is governed by two considera- 
tions. The first follows from our general opposi- 
tion to cartels as devices for the regulation of 
world trade, while the second follows from our 



34 

knowledge of the special uses to which Germany 
has put the international cartel system. 

Studies undertaken by the State Department and 
other Government agencies have shown that the so- 
called "normal" operation of cartel arrangements 
has had undesirable and dangerous economic con- 
sequences. Private agreements of a restrictive 
character which fix prices, allocate markets, de- 
termine the conditions of technological inter- 
change, and establish production quotas have 
operated to curtail the availability of goods and 
services to the consumer, to enhance prices, and 
to curtail employment and purchasing power. We 
hope to achieve the concurrence of other govern- 
ments in an agreement prohibiting participation 
of commercial enterprises in contracts and com- 
binations which restrain international trade, re- 
strict access to international markets, or foster 
monopolistic control in international trade. 

Testimony previously presented to this com- 
mittee and to other congressional committees has 
shown that the pre-war cartel system was used by 
Germany as an instrument of political and eco- 
nomic aggression. In our view the disarmament 
of Germany and the promotion of effective meas- 
ures to prevent future military aggression by Ger- 
many requires that German participation in inter- 
national cartels be promptly and effectively ter- 
minated, and that any future attempts to establish 
such relationships be prevented. 

To put this policy into effect, we are proposing 
immediate action along several lines. 

First, we propose to terminate German partici- 
pation in all cartel contracts which fall within 
the following classes : 

(a) Agreements between two or more sellers 
or between two or more buyers which provide for, 
or have the effect of, fixing prices or terms of sale, 
dividing or allocating markets or fields, assigning 
quotas or controlling production, capacity, sales, 
purchases, exports, or imports; 

(b) Agreements between a buyer and one or 
more sellers or between a seller and one or more 
buyers which go beyond simple purchase and sale 
transactions or agency agreements and which ac- 
complish any of the foregoing results; 

(c) Agreements pertaining to patents which go 
beyond simple grants of exclusive or non-exclusive 
rights and which accomplish any of the foregoing 
results; and 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

(d) Any other agreements, without limitation, 
which come within the scope of certain German 
laws which provided the legal framework for 
cartels. 

Secondly, in order that we may have a com- 
plete inventory of all international cartel agree- 
ments to which German nationals were parties, 
we are planning to require the registration of all 
international cartel agreements in effect in Ger- 
many at any time and for any period after Jan- 
uary 1, 1933. A comprehensive collection of in- 
ternational cartel agreements should prove of im- 
mense value to us in revealing the location and 
magnitude of Germany's foreign assets and in 
disclosing in greater detail the extent of German 
economic penetration in foreign countries. 

Thirdly, our proposal to terminate German par- 
ticipation in international cartels and similar or- 
ganizations would be of little value if we did not 
take adequate steps to prevent the resumption of 
such relationships. Accordingly, not only do we 
intend to declare such resumption of cartel rela- 
tionships to be illegal, but we also intend to press 
for the establishment of a system of policing all 
business communications between Germany and 
other countries. Under, the proposed arrange- 
ments, all international business communications 
would come, under military government sur- 
veillance, and all persons who are permitted to 
enter Germany during the occupation period, no 
matter what their official or semi-official status, 
would be required to submit all private business 
communications through official channels. 

The failure to adopt such precautions would 
not only jeopardize the success of our security 
policy, but would also enable German firms to 
effect concealed transfers of foreign property to 
cartel partners or affiliated interests abroad in 
order to frustrate seizure. 

It is a common observation that one country's 
domination of an international cartel is facilitated 
when all of the producers within that country act 
in unison. Such united action may be, and usually 
is, a consequence of the rigid cartelization of the 
domestic economy, or of the ownership by com- 
bines of all or predominant parts of the production 
facilities of major industries. 

Consequently, the internal unification of the 
German economy will always entail the threat the 
German economic strength may be wielded as a 
weapon of coorcive power in international mar- 



JULY 1, 1945 



35 



kets. Moreover, the concentration of business 
control in Germany would preserve the great eco- 
nomic and political power which rests in the hands 
of those same industrialists who financed Hitler 
and supported him until it became clear that he 
had lost his great gamble. 

These considerations have led us to the conclu- 
sion that German domestic cartels, and other re- 
lated German associations which have the charac- 
ter of cartels, such as Economic Groups, should be 
dissolved by the military government authorities. 

It is recognized that German cartels and Eco- 
nomic Groups have, to an increasing extent under 
the Nazi regime, been used as semi-autonomous 
public organs to aid in the administration of gov- 
ernment procurement, allocation, price stabiliza- 
tion, and standardization and rationalization 
programs in the field of production. However, in 
so far as these functions must be performed during 
the occupation period, it is our view that they 
should be performed, not by cartels, but by public 
administrative authorities, under the close super- 
vision of military government. 

As I have already suggested, Germany's position 
in international cartels, and the organization of 
her domestic economy through cartels and cartel- 
like organizations, is closely related to the ex- 
istence within Germany of large business aggre- 
gates such as combines, communities of interest, 
and trusts. It would be unrealistic for us to ad- 
vance a policy calling for a prohibition on German 
participation in international cartels, and dissolu- 
tion of German domestic cartels, unless we were 
also prepared to deal with these other forms of 
business centralization. This problem is receiving 
our serious attention, to the end that decisive ac- 
tion may be taken to eliminate the dangers of 
German corporate combination. 

Certain additional actions, which will be taken 
without primary reference to the policy I am now 
advancing, will have the direct effect of disestab- 
lishing German industrial control aggregations. 
To the extent that Germany is deprived of certain 
parts of her territory, the international distribu- 
tion of industrial units will be changed ; disarma- 
ment and the prohibition on production of war 
materials will cause the elimination of many facili- 
ties which now form the main assets of certain 
combines; Allied administration of certain strate- 
gic industries such as coal, iron, electrical power, 
and transportation may deprive a number of com- 



bines of control over their main economic assets 
and thereby contribute to their dissolution. There 
will, however, be a considerable field in which we 
must take affirmative action in cooperation with 
other governments in order that the control which 
the larger industrial aggregates have exercised 
over the German economy shall be broken. 

Although this aspect of the problem has been 
inadequately publicized, it has seemed to many of 
us that Germany's successful penetration of for- 
eign economic systems has been achieved through 
the control of international corporate combines as 
often as through participation in international 
cartels. It is our view that continued German 
participation in such combines involves the same 
dangers to future security as does German par- 
ticipation in international cartels, and we take the 
view that equally firm defensive action is necessary 
in this field. 

The first steps toward the dissolution of German 
international combines have already been taken. 
The various nations at war with Germany have 
vested or reduced to their control German interests 
in properties within their jurisdiction. Further- 
more, we have reason to anticipate that properties 
in which German nationals have an interest and 
which are located in countries not at war with 
Germany will be claimed by the appropriate 
Allied powers either in the name of the Allied 
Control Council or the Allied Reparations Com- 
mission. Thus, the financial and corporate inter- 
ests of German nationals located outside of Ger- 
many either have been seized or will be subject to 
seizure. 

I should like now to turn to certain questions 
related to German technological information and 
scientific research. If we are prepared to acknowl- 
edge that German research and scientific develop- 
ment have been important in the past, we must 
also be prepared to draw the obvious conclusion 
that the exclusive possession or control of certain 
kinds of advanced technology by German nationals 
involves a possible danger to our security and 
provides German nationals with important assets 
which in the past have induced other parties to 
join them in international cartel arrangements. 

Our intentions with respect to German research 
and scientific information may be summarized as 
follows : 

1. We intend to secure the full disclosure of all 
existing German technology and invention for the 
benefit of the United Nations. 



36 

2. Through seizure by the Governments of the 
United Nations of German-owned patent rights 
on inventions developed before and during the war, 
we shall be able to withhold from German na- 
tionals the usual technological assets which have 
proved to be the main inducements for other par- 
ties to join the Germans in international cartel 
arrangements. 

3. We intend to allow organized research and 
invention in Germany during the period of mili- 
tary occupation only when we are fully satisfied 
that such research will not contribute to Germany's 
future war potential. 

German technology developed prior to the war 
and disclosed in one manner or another in coun- 
tries outside of Germany has already been subject 
to extensive action by the various United Nations. 
This Government and other governments with 
which Germany has been at war have reduced to 
their control inventions and designs both patented 
and unpatented which were owned and controlled 
by German nationals at the time of the outbreak 
of war. 

The United States Alien Property Custodian has 
taken over all United States patents formerly 
owned and controlled by enemy nationals and 
has, in accordance with his general policy, extended 
non-exclusive royalty-free licenses on many such 
patents to any United States party making appli- 
cation. Although the ultimate disposition of 
these enemy inventions is a matter to be determined 
by the Congress of the United States, it is probable 
that no steps will be taken by either the legislative 
or executive branch of this Government which 
would have the effect of returning such rights to 
the former German owners. These matters will 
undoubtedly be discussed in detail in the statement 
which will be submitted to this committee by the 
Alien Property Custodian. 

As to the ultimate disposition of enemy- 
controlled assets now under the control of the other 
United Nations, it is believed that the general 
attitude of these governments will be to prevent 
such assets from again coming within the control 
of German nationals. When this Government 
through the Congress has made explicit its policy 
with respect to the disposition of enemy techno- 
logical information, it is our view that it would 
be desirable to insure through diplomatic action 
the maximum degree of coordination between our 
policies and those of the other governments. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

We may presume that the bulk of German in- 
ventions made before the war was disclosed in 
one manner or another in all the United Nations 
countries. We are aware, however, that the prose- 
cution of the present war has caused an immense 
acceleration in industrial and scientific research 
in Germany and that the normal channels which 
made German technology available to us have been 
closed during the war. It is our view that we 
and the United Nations generally have an equi- 
table claim against all German inventions made 
during the war, since the main reason for such 
research and subsequent development was to over- 
throw by military force the Government of the 
United States and its Allies. We have therefore 
taken certain steps to assure that important Ger- 
man scientific advance made during the war shall 
be known to us and put to such use as we deem 
desirable. 

At the present time this Government in con- 
junction with the Government of the United King- 
dom has despatched to Germany a group of indus- 
trial experts whose task it is to acquire all tech- 
nological information available in Germany which 
could be used in the prosecution of the war against 
Japan. Although these groups will be primarily 
concerned in acquiring those instruments, appa- 
ratus, and processes which are usually defined as 
war materiel, it is well known that the extent and 
scope of modern war is such that almost all tech- 
nological inventions are relevant to its successful 
prosecution. We may, therefore, anticipate that 
the joint U. K.-U. S. technological missions will 
inspect, make inventories of, and acquire most of 
the important technological inventions made by 
our enemy during the war, and such other inven- 
tions as have not been disclosed in the United 
States and elsewhere through the issuance of pat- 
ents to German nationals. We have already begun 
to receive information from our missions in Ger- 
many which indicates that scientific information 
of considerable value is being obtained. 

Under existing arrangements a joint U.K.-U.S. 
group undertakes to acquire information at the 
request of various governmental agencies in the 
two countries. When the information is dissemi- 
nated to the agencies involved, the responsibility 
of the acquiring group ceases. The policy to be 
pursued in disclosing and distributing the acquired 
information to civilian parties and organizations 



JULY 1, 1945 



37 



remains the responsibility of the government 
agencies who receive the information. 

Naturally, a considerable portion of the ac- 
quired enemy technology has been assigned secret 
status by the U.K.-U.S. military authorities, since 
it is in the interest of the two governments that 
certain classes of information should not be di- 
rectly or indirectly disclosed to our remaining 
enemy. 

I may report, however, that various Government 
agencies concerned with the problems relating to 
enemy technology have been meeting on an in- 
formal basis to study the general policy which 
should govern the dissemination and disclosure of 
this information in the United States, the prob- 
lems which might be encountered in such disclo- 
sures, and the question of agreements on these 
matters with other United Nations. 

The tentative policies which have been adopted 
by the interested government agencies relating to 
the disclosure of enemy technological information 
to the public are as follows : 

1. Technological information acquired in enemy 
territories by our military forces or other agencies 
may legitimately be used not only in the further- 
ance of our war effort against Japan, but also 
for post-war civilian purposes. 

2. The security classifications which are neces- 
sary for reasons I have indicated should be aban- 
doned from case to case as soon as it is assured 
that the disclosure of such information would 
not benefit our remaining enemy. 

3. Subject to such limitations as may be re- 
quired in the interest of security, all technological 
information collected in enemy countries or re- 
ceived as a result of exchanges with other Allied 
powers should be promptly and publicly dissemi- 
nated within the United States. Furthermore, 
information which for security reasons may be 
temporarily withheld from public dissemination 
should be promptly disclosed when the security 
consideration ceases to apply. 

The foregoing discussion summarizes our views 
of the problems raised by German cartels, com- 
bines, and technology, and indicates in broad 
terms the action we are taking and which we pro- 
pose to take. We are, I believe, alive to the im- 



portance of these questions as they affect our na- 
tional defense, and the protective measures to 
which we are committed have an important place 
in our broader program to checkmate German 
plans for a rebirth of German economic and mili- 
tary power. 

Concerning 99-Year Lease on 
Areas in Newfoundland 

Statement by ACTING SECRETARY GREW 

[Released to the press June 29] 

Statements have appeared in the press to the 
effect that when the United States exchanged 50 
over-age destroyers for 99-year leases on certain 
British territory on which United States military 
and naval bases were to be established, this Gov- 
ernment failed to obtain such a lease covering 
areas in Newfoundland on which expensive instal- 
lations have been constructed, including an im- 
portant military airfield. 

The facts of the matter are as follows : 

A 99-year lease on the lands originally acquired 
in Newfoundland for United States military and 
naval bases was signed June 14, 1941. A supple- 
mentary 99-year lease covering additional areas 
was signed July 14, 1942. The site of the above- 
mentioned airfield was included in these leases. 
The original lease of the areas in Newfoundland 
was negotiated at the same time as the leases cov- 
ering the other 99-year bases. 

The lease for the establishment of the bases in 
Newfoundland was not granted in exchange for 
the 50 over-age destroyers. In the exchange of 
notes between the British Ambassador and the 
Secretary of State dated September 2, 1940, which 
formed the basis for the negotiations leading to 
the establishment of the United States leased mili- 
tary and naval bases on British territory, the Am- 
bassador stated that the grant of the lease of the 
areas in Newfoundland (as well as in Bermuda) 
would be given "freely and without consideration". 

The above-mentioned exchange of notes, to- 
gether with the form leases covering all of the 
areas originally acquired, including those in New- 
foundland, is printed in Executive Agreement 
Series 235, issued in 1942. 



38 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Arrangements for Recruitment of Commissioned Foreign 

Service Officers 



[Released to the press June 29] 

The Department of State announced on June 29 
that it is about to undertake the recruiting of 400 
commissioned Foreign Service officers from among 
as great a number as possible of men and women 
of the armed services and veterans of the present 
war. Arrangements have been made with the 
Army and Navy, including the Marine Corps, 
Coast Guard, and Naval R. O. T. C, for examina- 
tions to be given at suitable locations to qualified 
applicants. Those persons in active service who 
pass the examination and receive appointments 
will be given discharges, except in cases of over- 
ruling military necessity. 

This recruitment is being undertaken because of 
the greatly expanded American responsibility in 
international relations in the post-war period. 
Although operating under heavy pressure during 
the war, the Foreign Service recognized the vital 
need for the best American youth to go into mili- 
tary service and discontinued recruiting after 
Pearl Harbor. It is now, therefore, seriously 
understaffed. 

The end of the war in Europe and the increased 
tempo of the war in the Pacific have stimulated 
young men and women who have been in the armed 
services to start making plans for their future 
personal careers. As a natural result of their war 
experience, which has taken many of them abroad 
and taught them the importance of foreign rela- 
tions and America's place in world affairs, there 
is more interest by young men and women than 
ever before in international affairs. This interest 
is being shown by the flood of inquiries being 
received from veterans and men and women in 
the Army and Navy concerning the Foreign Serv- 
ice as a career. The Department of State realizes 
that the American people expect and deserve the 
best possible Foreign Service, and that the most 
suitable talent to draw from is among the men and 
women who have fought to win the war, and there- 
fore have a vital and personal interest in building 
a lasting peace. 

The Department of State is now distributing 
circulars and application blanks through the 
armed services to military units selected by the 
War and Navy Departments. It is also distribut- 
ing them to veterans through the Civil Service 



Commission, the Veterans Administration, and 
colleges and universities throughout the United 
States. 

Applicants must be between 21 and 30 years of 
age, and have been American citizens for at least 
15 years. If they are married, the wife must be 
an American citizen. Enlisted and commissioned 
personnel are equally eligible. They must have 
served with the armed forces for at least one year 
as of January 1, 1945, or have been honorably sepa- 
rated from the service. 

Applicants must have received an A.B. or equiva- 
lent college degree, except that if the applicant's 
education was interrupted by military service, he 
must have completed approximately three fourths 
of his undergraduate college course. Applicants 
must also have a reading knowledge of either 
French, German, or Spanish. 

The Foreign Service of the United States is 
under the direction of the Secretary of State, and 
is charged with the conduct abroad of the foreign 
relations of the United States. Its officers func- 
tion as counselors of Embassy or Legation, diplo- 
matic secretaries, consuls general, consuls, and vice 
consuls. Officers in the top grades are eligible 
for appointment by the President as Ambassadors 
or Ministers, and about two thirds of these rank- 
ing representatives now serving the United States 
in foreign capitals have been appointed from the 
Foreign Service. In normal times, there are For- 
eign Service officers stationed in more than 250 
key cities all over the world. 

The Foreign Service officer is a representative 
abroad of the United States Government and the 
American people; he interprets, for the informa- 
tion and guidance of his Government, the official 
acts and the public opinion of the country in which 
he is stationed; he endeavors at all times to pro- 
mote good-will and common understanding, to 
eliminate causes of international friction, and to 
safeguard constantly the long-range interests of 
the United States and the American people. 

The Foreign Service also offers opportunities 
for specialization in many diversified fields. The 
Foreign Service serves not only the Department 
of State but all other Government agencies whose 
interests extend to or are affected by world de- 



JULY 1, 1945 



39 



velopments. The Foreign Service officer must be 
able to observe, analyze, evaluate, and report upon 
political, economic, financial, industrial, labor, so- 
cial, and cultural conditions and trends of signifi- 
cance to the United States. He may be called upon 
to negotiate treaties or other international agree- 
ments. An important part of his work is the pro- 
motion of the foreign trade of the United States. 

Other duties include assistance to American 
shipping and seamen, issuance of passports to 
American citizens and visas to foreign visitors, 
performance of notarial services, certifying of 
customs invoices, and custody of the estates of 
Americans who die abroad. 

The Foreign Service is organized on a demo- 
cratic, non-political, career basis, with advance- 
ment for merit and security of tenure except for 
disability or failure in the performance of duties. 

Newly appointed Foreign Service officers nor- 
mally serve in an unclassified grade for approxi- 
mately two years, during which time they are 
given a brief training course in the Department of 
State and a probationary assignment abroad. Pay 
generally starts at the minimum base salary of 
$2,800 per year, although older appointees with 
special experience may receive up to $3,400. Sal- 
aries of officers while abroad are supplemented by 
rent, cost of living, and representation allowances 
which vary according to the living costs at the 
post, the rank of the officer and size of his family, 
and prevailing exchange rates. 

After conclusion of the probationary period, 
promotions determined by merit may be made at 
any time through eight classified grades up to a 
salary of $10,000. 

An officer usually serves for two to five years 
at a post and periodically may be assigned to duty 
at the Department of State or other Government 
agency in Washington with which his work in the 
field may have close relation. 

Retirement is prescribed at the age of 65, but 
may be authorized at an earlier age after 30 years' 
service, or for disability or other reasons. A fund, 
which is contributed to by the officer and the Gov- 
ernment, provides annuities on retirement. An 
optional plan also provides annuities for widows 
at slightly reduced rates. 

Persons in the armed services desiring to make 
application will be able to obtain the necessary 
application blanks from their commanding offi- 
cers. Veterans can obtain the blanks from offices 
of the Civil Service Commission, from the Vet- 



erans Administration, or from colleges and uni- 
versities throughout the United States. 

Applicants found by the Department of State 
to be qualified will be given an opportunity to take 
the examinations at locations to be designated by 
the military services. The first examination is a 
written one, and those who pass it with a grade of 
70 percent or higher, will be eligible for a subse- 
quent oral examination. To receive appointment, 
the average for both written and oral examinations 
must be 80 percent or higher. 

Training of Chilean Students 
in the United States 

PROGRAM OF THE CHILEAN DEVELOPMENT 
CORPORATION 

[Released to the press June 27] 

A program proposed by the Corporacion de 
Fomento de la Production of Chile under which 
a number of Chileans would be brought to the 
United States for university study and for prac- 
tical training is now being carried out in coopera- 
tion with the Department of State, the Institute 
of International Education, and the International 
Training Administration. 

One group of men will be placed in industrial 
organizations by the International Training Ad- 
ministration and will receive practical training 
in fields which will be of most value to the Cor- 
poracion upon their return to Chile. Thus far six 
men in this group have been chosen, with a possi- 
bility of eight more also being accepted provided 
suitable placement can be made. The names of 
the six trainees, with the fields in which they will 
receive training, are as follows : 

Name Field 

Homero Anastassiou fruit- and vegetable-canning in- 
dustry 

Juan Biermann smelting and refining, especially 

of lead and zinc 

Juan Henriquez electric furnaces 

Alejandro Lazo manufacture of agricultural ma- 

chinery 

Marcos Majia blast furnaces 

Jose Pefia steel rolling 

The other group of students is being placed by 
the Institute of International Education in aca- 
demic institutions in the United States, and tui- 
tion fellowships have been awarded to these stu- 
dents by the institutions which they will attend. 
The students who have been selected thus far for 



40 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



the university group, together with their fields of 
study and the institutions they will attend, are: 

Name Field Institution 
Arturo Carvajal industrial and agri- Utah State Agri- 
cultural organiza- cultural College 
tion 
Stelio Cembrano inorganic chemical University of II- 

industry linois 

Victor Encina metallurgy Pennsylvania 

State College 

Carlos Morel organic chemical in- University of II- 

dustry linois 

Ren£ Munoz commerce Ohio State Uni- 
versity 

Gregorio Waiss- metallurgy and sid- Lehigh Univer- 

bluth erurgy sity 

This project is being financed in part by the 
Corporation de Fomento, which is paying round- 
trip travel for both groups of students as well as 
some other expenses, and in part by the Depart- 
ment, which has awarded supplementary mainte- 
nance grants to those in the university group. 
Both groups will be in the United States for 12 
months, and provision has been made for an orien- 
tation period to precede the actual period of study 
or practical training. 



THE DEPARTMENT jjjF 

Cooperation with United States Chief 

of Counsel for the Prosecution 

of Axis Criminality 1 

1 In accordance with Executive Order 9547 of May 2, 
1045, Mr. Justice Jackson, United States Chief of Counsel 
for the Prosecution of Axis Criminality, has requested 
that the facilities of the Department of State be made 
available to assist in the preparation and proof of charges 
of European Axis criminality which will be the subject 
of the prosecution on which he is now engaged. 

2 The following paragraph from the Report of the 
United States Chief of Counsel to the President, made 
public on May 7, 1045, indicates the tremendous scope of 
this undertaking: 

"Our case against the major defendants is concerned 
with the Nazi master plan, not witli individual barbarities 
and perversions which occurred Independently of any cen- 
tral plan. The groundwork of our case must be factually 
authentic and constitute a well-documented history of 
what we are convinced was a grand, concerted pattern to 



1 Departmental Order 1326, dated and effective June 22, 
1045. 



incite and commit the aggressions and barbarities which 
have shocked the world. We must not forget that when 
the Nazi plans were boldly proclaimed they were so ex- 
travagant that the world refused to take them seriously. 
Unless we write the record of this movement with clarity 
and precision, we cannot blame the future if in days of 
peace it finds incredible the accusatory generalities uttered 
during the war. We must establish incredible events by 
credible evidence." 

3 The Department of State has assured the United 
States Chief of Counsel it enthusiastically supports his 
work and will extend the fullest measure of cooperation 
to him. To this end the appropriate Offices and Divisions 
of the Department will extend every facility and will 
make every effort to procure, assemble and make available 
all pertinent material in the files of the Department sup- 
porting the charges which the United States Chief of 
Counsel proposes to bring against the European Axis 
leaders and their principal agents and accessories. The 
appropriate Offices, Divisions and individual officers of the 
Department will also be expected to submit suggestions 
and advice in the assembling of all available material and 
the preparation of the case. Individual officers who, by 
reason of their experience in Germany or for any other 
reason are qualified to give background advice and assist- 
ance in the preparation of this case, will be requested to 
consult with members of the Staff of the United States 
Chief of Counsel. 

4 Mr. Eric C. Wendelin, Foreign Service Officer, is 
hereby assigned to the Office of the Assistant Secretary in 
charge of administration and is appointed, effective June 
13, 1945, Liaison Officer for the Department of State with 
the United States Chief of Counsel for the Prosecution of 
Axis Criminality. He will serve as the channel of com- 
munication between the United States Chief of Counsel 
and his staff and the appropriate Offices and Divisions of 
the Department, and will supervise and coordinate the 
work of the various Offices and Divisions in cooperation 
with the United States Chief of Counsel. All Offices and 
Divisions of the Department are instructed to give Mr. 
Wendelin full cooperation and assistance. 

5 Mr. Wendelin will be responsible directly to the As- 
sistant Secretary in charge of administration. His office 
will be in Room 161, Department of State Building. His 
office symbol will be A-H/W. 

Joseph C. Grew 
Acting Secretary of State 
June 22, 19J,5 



Appointment of Officers 

Clair Wilcox as Director of the Office of Inter- 
national Trade Policy, effective July 1, 1945. 

Frederick B. Lyon as Acting Director and 
Robert L. Bannerman as Special Assistant in the 
Office of Controls, effective June 20, 1945. 



JULY 1, 1945 



4J 



Raymund T. Tingling of the Office of the Legal 
Adviser to replace Green H. Hackworth as Vice 
Chairman of the Committee on Occupational 
Deferments, effective May 28, 1945. 

E. Paul Tenney, Chief of the Division of For- 
eign Service Personnel, to replace Laurence C. 
Frank on the Committee on Occupational Defer- 
ments, effective June 12, 1945. 



HI THE CONGRESS =■ 



Investigations of the National War Effort. Report, 
Committee on Military Affairs, House of Representatives, 
Seventy-ninth Congress, first session, pursuant to H. Res. 
20, a resolution authorizing the Committee on Military 
Affairs to study the progress of the national war effort. 



H. Rept. 728, 79th Cong, ii, 19 pp. [Department of State, 
pp. 3-6.] 

Estimate of Appropriation for Defense Aid for the Fis- 
cal Year 1946. Communication from the President of -the 
United States transmitting estimate of appropriation for 
defense aid for the fiscal year 1946, exclusive of aid au- 
thorized to be transferred by the War and Navy Depart- 
ments and the Maritime Commission as follows : Defense 
Aid— $1,975,000,000. H. Doc. 224, 79th Cong. 17 pp. 

Foreign Trade Agreements. S. Rept. 356, 79th Cong., to 
accompany H. R. 3240. 1 p. [Favorable report.] 

Membership of the United States in the Food and Agri- 
culture Organization of the United Nations. S. Rept. 357, 
79th Cong., to accompany H. J. Res. 145. 22 pp. [De- 
partment of State, pp. 18-21.] 

Granting Permission for Certain Employees of the 
Civil Aeronautics Administration To Accept British Em- 
pire Medals Tendered by the Government of Canada in the 
Name of His Britannic Majesty King George VI. S. Rept. 
361, 79th Cong., to accompany S.J.Res. 51. 2 pp. [Favor- 
able report] 



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42 



DEPARTMENT T)F STATE BULLETIN 



The Philippine Islands. Remarks of Hon. Millard E. 
Tydings, a Senator from the State of Maryland, in the 
Senate of the United States, June 7, 1945, relative to con- 
ditions in the Philippines caused by the war, and recom- 
mendations for relief and rehabilitation. S.Doc. 53, 79th 
Cong. 17 pp. 

Exportation of Certain Commodities. H.Rept. 744, 79th 
Cong., to accompany H.R. 2944. 3 pp. 

Amending the Joint Resolution Entitled "Joint Reso- 
lution To Enable the United States To Become an Adher- 
ing Member of the Inter-American Statistical Institute." 
S.Rept. 367, 79th Cong., to accompany H.R. 688. 3 pp. 
[Favorable report.] 

Question of the Presidential Succession. Message from 
the President of the United States transmitting request for 
legislation dealing with the question of the Presidential 
succession. H. Doc. 246, 79th Cong. 2 pp. 

National War Agencies Appropriation Bill, 1946. S. 
Rept. 3S0, 79th Cong., to accompany H.R. 33G8. 6 pp. 

National War Agencies Appropriation Bill for 1946: 
Hearings before a subcommittee of the Committee on Ap- 
propriations, United States Senate, Seventy-ninth Con- 
gress, first session, on H.R. 3368, an act making appropri- 
ations for war agencies for the fiscal year ending June 30, 
1946, and for other purposes, ii, 242 pp. 

To Create the Ail-American Flag Line, Inc. : Hearings 
before the Subcommittee on Aviation, Committee on Cortf- 
merce, United States Senate, Seventy-ninth Congress, first 
session, on S. 326, a bill to create the AU-American Flag 
Line, Incorporated, and to assure the United States world 
leadership in the field of air transportation. March 19, 
22, 26, 27, April 2, 3, 5, 6, 9, 10, May 2 and 4, 1945. iii, 
540 pp. [Department of State, pp. 6-8, 189-206.] 

Amending the Nationality Act of 1940 To Preserve the 
Nationality of Citizens Residing Abroad. H.Rept. 780, 
79th Cong., to accompany H.R. 3466. 3 pp. [Favorable 
report.] 

Second Deficiency Appropriation Bill, 1945. H.Rept. 785, 
79th Cong., to accompany H.R. 3579. 36 pp. [Department 
of State pp. 15-16, 33-34.] 

Question of the Presidential Succession. H.Rept. 829, 
79th Cong., to accompany H.R. 3587. 5 pp. [Favorable 
report.] 

Foreign Claims Act Made Applicable to the Philippine 
Islands. S.Rept. 408, 79th Cong., to accompany S. 936. 6 pp. 
[Favorable report.] 

Second Deficiency Appropriation Bill for 1945. Hear- 
ings Before the Subcommittee of the Committee on Appro- 
priations, House of Representatives, Seventy-ninth Con- 
gress, first session, on the Second Deficiency Appropriation 
Bill for 1945. ii, 914 pp. [Department of State, pp. 
511-69.] 

Conventions with Great Britain and Northern Ireland 
Respecting Income and Estate Taxes. Hearing Before a 



Subcommittee of the Committee on Foreign Relations, 
United States Senate, Seventy-ninth Congress, first session, 
on Executive D, 79th Congress, 1st Session, A convention 
between the United States of America and the United 
Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, for the 
avoidance of double taxation and the prevention of fiscal 
evasion with respect to taxes on income, signed at Wash- 
ington on April 16, 1945 and Executive E, 79th Congress, 
1st Session, a convention between the United States of 
America and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and 
Northern Ireland, for the avoidance of double taxation 
and the prevention of fiscal evasion with respect to taxes 
on the estates of deceased persons, signed at Washington 
on April 16, 1945. May 23 and June 13, 1945. iii, 82 pp. 



PUBLICATIONS 



Department of State 

Biographic Register of the Department of State, Septem- 
ber 1, 1944. Publication 2326. ii, 268 pp. 50tf. 

Mutual Aid: Agreements Between the United States of 
America and France, Including : Agreement Relating to 
Principles Applying to Mutual Aid in the Prosecution of the 
War Against Aggression and Agreement Relating to Sup- 
plies and Services — Signed at Washington February 28, 
1945 ; effective February 28, 1945 ; Agreement Relating to 
Principles Applying to the Provision of Aid to the Armed 
Forces of the United States — Effected by exchange of notes 
signed at Washington February 2S, 1945; effective from 
June 6, 1944 ; and Accompanying Memorandum and Ex- 
changes of Letters — Signed at Washington February 2S, 
1945. Executive Agreement Series 455. Publication 2338. 
21 pp. 10tf. 

The Proclaimed List of Certain Blocked Nationals. 
Cumulative Supplement No. 4, June 22, 1945, to Revision 
IX of February 28, 1945. Publication 2347. 94 pp. Free. 

Foreign Commerce Weekly 

The article listed below will be found in the June 30 
issue of the Department of Commerce publication entitled 
Foreign Commerce Weekly, copies of which may be obtained 
from the Superintendent of Documents, Government Print- 
ing Office, for 10 cents each : 

"Brazil in 1944" by Nestor C. Ortiz, junior economic 
analyst, American Embassy, Rio de Janeiro. 

"Cuba's Tobacco Industry Hung Up Records in 1944", 
by Paul G. Minneman, agricultural attache, American 
Embassy, Habana. 



U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: l»45 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 




*\s 



-I A 



J 



H 






i 




VOL. XIII, NO. 315 



JULY 8, 1945 



In this issue 



APPOINTMENT OF JAMES F. BYRNES AS SECRETARY OF STATE 

MESSAGE OF THE PRESIDENT TRANSMITTING THE CHARTER OF 
THE UNITED NATIONS TO THE SENATE 

ESTABLISHMENT OF DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS WITH THE POLISH 
PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT OF NATIONAL UNITY 

THE ROSENMAN MISSION 
By Livingston T. Merchant 

AGRICULTURAL PLANNING FOR PEACE AND FUTURE PROSPERITY 

LIMITATION OF THE PRODUCTION OF OPIUM 

Exchange of Notes Between the Governments of the 
United States and Turkey 



For complete contents 
see inside cover 



*a eNT o^ 




■v . ".Ullv 



AUG 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

BULLETIN 




Vol.XIII'No.315' SCSJOf * •PoBLlcilion 2358 

July 8, 1945 



Contents 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Research and 
Publication, Office of Public Affairs, 
provides the public and interested 
agencies of the Government with 
information on developments in the 
field of foreign relations and on the 
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includes press releases on foreign 
policy issued by the White House and 
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by the Secretary of State and other 
officers of the Department, as well as 
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international affairs and the functions 
of the Department. Information con- 
cerning treaties and international 
agreements to which the United States 
is or may become a party and treaties 
of general international interest is 
included. 

Publications of the Department, 
cumulative lists of which are published 
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Africa , . D Page 

Conversations Between British, French, and American Rep- 
resentatives Regarding International Zone of Tangier . . 48 

American Republics 

Anniversary of Venezuelan Independence. Message From 

President Truman to President Medina 54 

Third Inter- American Conference on Agriculture: 

Announcement of Agenda and United States Delegation . 58 

Agricultural Planning for Peace and Future Prosperity . 59 

The Caribbean 

Increase of Membership of the Anglo-American Caribbean 

Commission 54 

Europe 

Establishment of Diplomatic Relations With the Polish Pro- 
visional Government of National Unity: 

Statement by the President 47 

Exchange of Messages Between the Polish Prime Minister 

find the President . * 

Message From the Secretary of State to the Polish Minis- 
ter for Foreign Affairs 48 

Joseph J. Schwartz Appointed as Temporary Associate on 

Intergovernmental Committee on Refugees ..... 06 

Restoration of Independence to Denmark. Message From 

President Truman to King Christian X 53 

Restoration of Parcel-Post Service to Liberated Areas ... 54 

Far East . . 

Detention of Japanese Officials ■ • • • • • 54 

Eighth Anniversary of the Japanese Attack on China: 
Message From President Truman to President of the 

Chinese National Government • 70 

Message From the Secretary of State to the President of 

the Chinese Executive Yuan 70 

Near East t 

Limitation of the Production of Opium. Exchange of JSotes 

Between the Governments of the United States and 

Turkey .• • ■ ■ • • 63 

Conversation Between the Greek Foreign Minister and the 

President. Statement by the President o9 

Departure of the Regent of Iraq. Exchange of Telegrams 

Between the Regent and President Truman 71 

Economic Affairs 

Operations of UNRRA. Third Quarterly Report .... 52 

The Rosenman Mission. By Livingston T. Merchant . . 55 

Assistant Secretary Clayton Designated as United States 
Council Member of UNRRA. Letter From President 
Truman to Director General Lehman 62 

General _ _ 
Discussion of Trends in American Foreign Policy. Ex- 
change of Letters Between Members of Congress and 
Acting Secretary Grew 49 

Treaty Information „ ., , „ ^. ... 

Transmittal of the Charter of the United Nations to the 

Senate. Message of the President 4b 

Nicaragua Ratines the Charter ■••■•••• 2/, 

Military Service. Chile, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela .... <U 

Merchant-Shipping Agreement, Brazil, Sweden £J 

Marine Transportation and Litigation. Norway »* 

The Department 

Appointment of James F. Byrnes as Secretary of State: 

Remarks on Occasion of Taking Oath of Office |a 

Confirmation ■ • • • • • ■ 

Appointment of Special Assistants to the Secretary ot 

State b * 

Appointment of Officers i6 

The Foreign Service _„ 

Consular Offices 

73 

Publications • ■ • • ■ ••;•.•• • -, 

Publication by Anglo-American Caribbean C ommission . . <i 

The Congress 



Appointment of James F. Byrnes as 
Secretary of State 



REMARKS ON OCCASION OF TAKING OATH OF OFFICE 



[Released to the press July 3] 

I enter upon my duties as Secretary of State, 
deeply conscious of the great and grave responsi- 
bilities of that office. 

It is the function of the State Department to 
advise the President in the formulation of foreign 
policy and to carry out the foreign policy of the 
United States as determined by the President and 
the Congress. It follows that a change in the Sec- 
retaryship of State at this time involves no change 
in the basic principles of our foreign policy, in 
the prosecution of the war and in the struggle for 
enduring peace, which have been charted by the 
late President Roosevelt and reaffirmed by Presi- 
dent Truman. 

In advising President Truman on foreign policy, 
I shall seek the constant help and guidance of 
the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations and 
the House Committee on Foreign Affairs. My 
friend, Cordell Hull, with whom I have served in 
the Congress and in the Executive branch of the 
Government and who has done so much to shape 
our foreign policy during the critical war years, 
has promised to give me the benefit of his wise 
counsel. I am glad also that I will be in a posi- 
tion to advise with my immediate predecessor, Mr. 
Stettinius, particularly on the tremendously im- 
portant tasks relating to the Organization of the 
United Nations as a permanent institution to main- 
tain peace. 

As I am leaving within a short time to accom- 
pany President Truman at his forthcoming con- 
ference with Premier Stalin and Prime Minister 
Churchill, I am asking all of those in the Depart- 
ment at home or abroad to remain at their posts 
and to carry on as usual. I have asked the Direc- 
tor of the Budget to make an investigation of the 
structure of the Department. Until I receive that 
report and have an opportunity to study it and 



make such personal inquiry as I deem advisable, 
no change in personnel will be made. 

The making of enduring peace will depend on 
something more than skilled diplomacy, something 
more than paper treaties, something more even 
than the best charter the wisest statesmen can 
draft. Important as is diplomacy, important as 
are the peace settlements and the basic Charter of 
world peace, these cannot succeed unless backed 
by the will of the peoples of different lands not 
only to have peace but to live together as good 
neighbors. 

Centuries ago devout men thought that they had 
to fight with one another to preserve their different 
religious beliefs. But we have learned through 
long and bitter experience that the only way to 
protect our religious beliefs is to respect and rec- 
ognize the right of others to their religious beliefs. 

Today there can be no doubt that the peoples 
of this war-ravaged earth want to live in a free 
and peaceful world. But the supreme task of 
statesmanship the world over is to help them to 
understand that they can have peace and freedom 
only if they tolerate and respect the rights of 
others to opinions, feelings, and ways of life which 
they do not and cannot share. 



CONFIRMATION 

Mr. Byrnes, confirmed as Secretary of 
State by the Senate on July 2, 1945, took 
the oath of office on the morning of July 3. 
He was sworn in by Chief Justice Richard 
S. Whaley of the Court of Claims at a 
ceremony held in the Rose Garden of the 
White House. 



4S 



46 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Transmittal of the Charter of the United Nations 

to the Senate 

Message of THE PRESIDENT 1 



[Released to the press by the White House July 2] 

Mr. President and Members of the Senate of 
the United States: It is good of you to let me 
come back among you. You know, I am sure, how 
much that means to one who served so recently in 
this Chamber with you. 

I have just brought down from the White 
House and have delivered to your presiding officer 
the Charter of the United Nations. It was signed 
in San Francisco on June 26, 1945 — six days ago— 
by the representatives of 50 nations. The Statute 
of the International Court of Justice is annexed 
to the Charter. 

\, I am appearing to ask for the ratification of the 
Charter, and the Statute annexed thereto, in ac- 
cordance with the Constitution. 

The Charter which I bring you has been written 
in the name of "We the peoples of the United 
Nations". Those peoples — stretching all over the 
face of the earth— will watch our action here with 
great concern and high hope. For they look to 
this body of elected representatives of the people 
of the United States to take the lead in approving 
the Charter and Statute and pointing the way for 
the rest of the world. 

This Charter and the principles on which it is 
based are not new to the United States Senate or 
to the House of Representatives. 

Over a year and a half ago the Senate, after 
thorough debate, adopted the Connally resolution, 
which contained the essence of this Charter. It 
called for "a general international organization, 
based on the principle of the sovereign equality of 
all peace-loving states, and open to membership 
by all such states, large and small, for the main- 
tenance of international peace and security''. 
What I am now presenting to the Senate carries 
out completely this expression of national and in- 
ternational necessity. 

Shortly before, that, the House of Representa- 
tives passed the Fulbright resolution, also favor- 
ing the creation of international machinery with 
participation by the United States. 



1 Remarks made by the President at 1 : 03 p.m. E.W.T. 
on July 2, 1945. 



You and the House of Representatives thus had 
a hand in shaping the Dumbarton Oaks Propos- 
als, upon which the Charter has been based. 

No international document has been drawn in a 
greater glare of publicity than this one. It has 
been the subject of public comment for months. 
This wide-spread discussion has created the im- 
pression in some quarters that there were many 
points of disagreement among the United Na- 
tions in drafting this Charter. Naturally, much 
more public attention was given to the items of 
disagreement than to the items of agreement. The 
fact is that there were comparatively few points 
upon which there was not accord from the very 
beginning. Disagreement was reduced to a mini- 
mum — and related more to methods than to prin- 
ciple. 

Whatever differences there were, were finally 
settled. They were settled by the traditional 
democratic method of free exchange of opinions 
and points of view. 

I shall not attempt here to go into the various 
provisions of the Charter. They have been so 
thoroughly discussed that I am sure you are all 
familiar with them. They will be so thoroughly 
discussed on this floor that you and the people of 
the Nation will all have a complete expression of 
views. 

In your deliberations, I hope you will consider 
not only the words of the Charter but also the 
spirit which gives it meaning and life. 

The objectives of the Charter are clear. 

It seeks to prevent future wars. 

It seeks to settle international disputes by peace- 
ful means and in conformity with principles of 
justice. 

It seeks to promote world-wide progress and 
better standards of living. 

It seeks to achieve universal respect for, and ob- 
servance of, human rights and fundamental free- 
doms for all men and women — without distinction 
as to race, language or religion. 

It seeks to remove the economic and social causes 
of international conflict and unrest. 



JULY 8, 1945 

It is the product of many hands and many in- 
fluences. It comes from the reality of experience 
in a world where one generation has failed twice 
to keep the peace. The lessons of that experience 
have been written into the document. 

The choice before the Senate is now clear. The 
choice is not between this Charter and something 
else. It is between this Charter and no Charter 
at all. 

Improvements will come in the future as the 
United Nations gain experience with the machin- 



47 

ery and methods which they have set up. For 
this is not a static treaty. It can be improved — 
and, as the years go by, it will be— just as our own 
Constitution has been improved. 

This Charter points down the only road to en- 
during peace. There is no other. Let us not 
hesitate to join hands with the peace-loving peo- 
ples of the earth and start down that road— with 
firm resolve that we can and will reach our goal. 

I urge ratification. I urge prompt ratification. 



Establishment of Diplomatic Relations With the 
Polish Provisional Government of National Unity 



STATEMENT BY THE PRESIDENT 



[Released to the press by the White House July 5] 

It is with great satisfaction that I announce that 
effective today as of 7 p. m., Eastern War Time, the 
Government of the United States has established 
diplomatic relations with the newly formed Polish 
Provisional Government of National Unity now 
established at "Warsaw. The establishment of this 
Government is an important and positive step in 
fulfilling the decisions regarding Poland reached 
at Yalta and signed on February 11, 1945. 

The new Polish Provisional Government of 



National Unity has informed me in a written com- 
munication that it has recognized in their entirety 
the decisions of the Crimea Conference on the 
Polish question. The new Government has there- 
by confirmed its intention to carry out the provi- 
sions of the Crimea decision with respect to the 
holding of elections. 

Mr. Arthur Bliss Lane, whom I have chosen as 
United States Ambassador to Poland, will proceed 
to Warsaw as soon as possible, accompanied by his 
staff. 



EXCHANGE OF MESSAGES BETWEEN THE POLISH PRIME MINISTER AND THE PRESIDENT 



[Released to the press by the White House July 5] 

Following is the message from the Prime Min- 
ister of Poland to President Truman requesting 
the establishment of diplomatic relations with the 
new Polish Provisional Government of National 

Unity : 

His Excellency, Mr. Truman, President of the 
United States of America. 
I have the honor to notify you that as a result of 
the understanding reached in Moscow between 
Representatives of the Warsaw Provisional Gov- 
ernment and Polish democratic leaders invited 
from Poland and from abroad under the auspices 
of the Commission of three set up at the Crimea 
Conference the Polish Provisional Government of 
National Unity was formed on the 28th of June, 



1945, in accordance with article 45 of the constitu- 
tion of the Polish Eepublic of 1921. 

The Provisional Government of National Unity 
has recognized in their entirety the decisions of the 
Crimea Conference on the Polish question. 

At the same time I have the honor in the name 
of the Provisional Government of National Unity 
to approach the Government of the United States 
of America with a request for the establishment 
of diplomatic relations between our nations and 
for the exchange of representatives with the rank 
of Ambassador. 

Please accept the assurance of my highest 
consideration. 

Osobka-Morawski, Prime Minister 



48 

The text of the President's message to the Prime 
Minister follows : 

I am gratified to learn from your message to 
me transmitted through your Ambassador at Mos- 
cow that the Polish Provisional Government of 
National Unity was established on June 28, 1945 
in conformity with the Crimea decision. I am 
pleased to note that Your Excellency's Govern- 
ment has recognized in their entirety the decisions 
of the Crimea Conference on the Polish question 
thereby confirming the intention of Your Excel- 
lency's Government to proceed with the holding 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

of elections in Poland in conformity with the pro- 
visions of the Crimea decisions. The Government 
of the United States of America therefore on the 
basis of its assurances given at the Crimea Con- 
ference hereby establishes diplomatic relations 
with the Polish Provisional Government of Na- 
tional Unity. I have chosen as Ambassador Ex- 
traordinary and Plenipotentiary to Poland Mr. 
Arthur Bliss Lane, whom I have instructed to pro- 
ceed to Warsaw as soon as possible. 

Accept, Excellency, the assurances of my highest 
consideration. 

Harry S. Truman 



MESSAGE FROM THE SECRETARY OF STATE TO THE POLISH MINISTER FOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS 



[Released to the press July 5] 

Following is the text of a message sent by the 
Secretary of State, the Honorable James F. Byrnes, 
to His Excellency Wincenty Ryzymowski, Minis- 
ter for Foreign Affairs of Poland, Warsaw, Po- 
land : 

July 5, 1945. 

I desire to express to Your Excellency my deep 



personal gratification at the establishment of dip- 
lomatic relations between our two countries. I 
trust that these relations may forever remain cor- 
dial and friendly, and that our nations will con- 
tinue to cooperate for their mutual benefit and for 
the establishment and preservation of an enduring 
peace. 



Conversations Between British, French, and American 
Representatives Regarding International Zone of Tangier 



[Released to the press July 2] 

On June 14, 1940 Spanish military forces, by 
unilateral decision of the Spanish Government, 
occupied the International Zone of Tangier and 
notified the Statutory powers that this action had 
been taken as a result of Spain's desire to preserve 
the neutrality of the Zone during the war in which 
the other major interested powers — Great Britain, 
France, and Italy — were then engaged. The 
United States had not become a party to the inter- 
national regime then governing Tangier, but, in 
view of its special position in Morocco deriving 
from a series of treaties to which it is a party, the 
American Government made it clear to the Span- 
ish Government that it reserved all rights under 
those treaties during the provisional occupation 
by Spain. 

In view of the fact that the European war has 
been terminated there no longer appears to be any 
justification for the continued occupation by the 
Spanish of the International Zone. Accordingly, 



on the invitation of the British and French Gov- 
ernments, an informal meeting has been arranged 
between American representatives and representa- 
tives of those two Governments for the purpose of 
discussing action to be taken in connection with 
the future disposition of the Zone. Henry S. Vil- 
lard, Chief of the Division of African Affairs of 
the Department of State, J. Rives Childs, until 
recently American Charge d'Affaires at Tangier, 
and Ernest J. Dempster of the American Legation 
at Tangier are representing the United States 
Government in these conversations, which will 
take place immediately in Paris. 

The Spanish Government has already indicated 
its desire to regularize the situation in Tangier and 
has indicated that it is disposed to enter into nego- 
tiations with the United States, Great Britain, and 
France to that end. It is expected that the con- 
clusions reached by the three powers participating 
in the present conversations will be communicated 
to the Spanish Government at an early date. 



JULY 8, 1945 



49 



Discussion of Trends in American Foreign Policy 

EXCHANGE OF LETTERS BETWEEN MEMBERS OF CONGRESS AND ACTING SECRETARY GREW 



May 31, 1945 
Honorable Edward R. Stettinius, Jr. 

Secretary of State 
Washington 25, D. C. 
Dear Mr. Secretary : 

We have noted with growing apprehension re- 
ports of responsible journalists that the United 
States has begun to lose the position which Presi- 
dent Roosevelt struggled to win and maintain for 
our country, as an independent mediator among 
the great powers, friendly to all and a partisan 
of none. 

Although we see unmistakable outlines of a 
world security organization emerging from the 
San Francisco discussions, we are gravely dis- 
turbed by certain recent developments and reports 
of competent observers which raise the question of 
whether certain modifications are being made in 
the foreign policy chartered by our late President, 
Franklin Roosevelt. 

It is not the exact structure of an international 
organization which can prevent future wars, but 
the maintenance of understanding and coopera- 
tion among all the United Nations, and particu- 
larly between the United States and its great allies, 
the Soviet Union, Britain, France, and China. 

We are alarmed, for instance, by the statement 
of Walter Lippmann that on the Polish question 
our "departure from Roosevelt's position as a 
mediator has had the most unfortunate conse- 
quences." 

"The real issue," he said, "has been between 
London and Moscow, and it would be very un- 
fortunate indeed if the United States sacrificed its 
great influence as the mediator, which President 
Roosevelt struggled to maintain even in his last 
days. It is not the real interest of Britain, or of 
Poland, or of Europe, and certainly not of the 
United States, that we should be drawn into this 
issue as partisans. 

"We have been at San Francisco. 

"It is of special importance that we preserve our 
more detached role in the Anglo-Soviet difficulties, 
remembering that while they are for the moment 
focussed on Poland they extend in a wide arc 
through the Balkans to the Middle East to Persia." 



Mr. Lippmann might well have included in the 
area in which we must maintain our role of friendly 
mediators among all powers the great continent of 
Asia, where the nature of our relations with China 
and the Soviet Union will determine the length 
of the war against Japan. 

Mr. Lippmann's considered judgment is force- 
fully reinforced in the May 18 Herald Tnowne 
editorial which we attach. It says, in part : 

"In the matter of Poland, and therefore, pre- 
sumably, in the matter of European questions in 
general, Mr. Roosevelt did not conceive it to be 
the function of the United States to act as an 
appendage of either Russia or Great Britain, but 
as a disinterested third power which could mediate 
in and mollify whatever differences might develop 
between our two great allies . . . 

"This far-sighted policy has not been followed 
since Mr. Roosevelt's death. 

"At San Francisco we allowed ourselves to be- 
come involved in the Polish matter in exactly that 
sort of Anglo-American 'front' against Russia 
which Mr. Roosevelt had consistently striven to 
avoid; and compounded the mistake by also get- 
ting involved in what appeared to be a Western 
Hemisphere 'front' directed both against Russia 
and against the idea of an effective general se- 
curity organization. 

"That this second error was not intentional is 
shown by the rather frantic subsequent efforts to 
undo it. 

"The fact remains that both developments 
tended to disqualify this country for the greatest 
service which it could now perform in world af- 
fairs — that of acting as the genuinely independent 
balance wheel in the mutual inter-organization of 
the three greatest powers . . ." 

Certain that just this role had been established 
for America and confident in the unity of the big 
powers, Mr. Roosevelt reported to Congress, fol- 
lowing the Crimean Conference, 

"It was Hitler's hope and the German war lords' 
hope that we would not agree — that some slight 
crack might appear in the solid wall of Allied 
unity, a crack that would give him and his fellow 



50 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



gangsters one last hope of escaping their just 
doom. That is the objective for which his pro- 
paganda machine has been working for months. 
"But Hitler failed." 

In view of President Roosevelt's clear confi- 
dence in the strength of Allied unity and the de- 
velopment recently of serious differences obvious 
to everyone, we believe that our State Department 
should officially answer the questions raised by 
such responsible writers as those we have quoted. 
Accordingly, we are asking the following ques- 
tions: 

1. Has there been any departure by the United 
Slates from its position, achieved by President 
Roosevelt, as a "disinterested third power which 
could mediate in and mollify whatever differences 
might develop between our two great allies?" 

2. Has our policy on the Polish question and on 
other Eastern European questions changed since 
President Roosevelt's death? Has it become an 
"appendage" to British foreign policy? 

3. Has the United States, through some tacit 
understanding or through day to day working 
relations, become, d-2 facto, part of an Anglo- 
American "front" against the Soviet Union? 

4. Have old anti-Soviet prejudices, clung to by 
a group within the State Department despite unity 
achieved among the Big Three at the Crimean 
Conference, caused a shift since Roosevelt's death 
from American friendliness toward our Russian 
ally? 

5. What do you think has caused responsible 
editorial criticism of the type we have quoted to 
be made at this time? 

Respectfully, 

John M. Coffee; Hugh De Lacy; 
Vito Marcantonio; William J. 
Green, Jr. ; Ellis E. Patterson : 
A. J. Sabath ; Samuel Dickstein ; 
Cleveland M. Bailet; Luther 
Patrick ; Emanuel Celler ; Sam- 
uel A. Weiss ; E. H. Hedrick 

June 30. 1945 
Mi Dear Mr. Coffee : 

I found most helpful the exchange of views on 
the general trend of our foreign policy which I 
had with you and your colleagues in my office on 
May 31. Following your visit, I discussed with 
other officials of the Department the various ques- 
tions raised in your letter of May 31, and the fol- 



lowing material has been prepared in response to 
the five questions j'ou raised. 

Question 1: "Has there been any departure by 
the United States from its position, achieved by 
President Roosevelt, as a 'Disinterested third 
] lower which could mediate in and mollify what- 
ever differences might develop between our two 
great allies?' " 

President Roosevelt pursued a firm foreign 
policy whereby the United States participated as 
an active force in all foreign questions involving 
American interests or policy. In carrying out this 
policy of protecting vital American interests. Pres- 
ident Roosevelt used his influence and that of the 
United States as mediator in those questions 
which, although not directly affecting our inter- 
ests, might disturb international harmony if al- 
lowed to remain unsolved. This policy of active 
participation in the solution of all international 
questions concerning the United States is being 
continued by President Truman and the Depart- 
ment of State is diligent in its efforts to execute 
this policy. Mr. Stettinius in his Report on the 
San Francisco Conference has further emphasized 
that the interests of the United States extend to 
the whole world and that "We must maintain 
those interests in our relations with the other great 
powers and we must mediate between them when 
their interests conflict among themselves." 

Question 2: "Has our policy on the Polish ques- 
tion and on other Eastern European questions 
changed since President Roosevelt's death?" 

American policy in respect to the Polish and 
general eastern European questions has not 
changed since the death of President Roosevelt. 
It continues to be as it was under President Roose- 
velt, based on the decisions of the Crimea Con- 
ference, as well as on his program for the attain- 
ment by all peoples of the Four Freedoms. All 
our efforts are exerted toward the earliest possible 
implementation of these aims along the lines 
planned and foreseen by President Roosevelt. 
With specific reference to Poland, both President 
Roosevelt and President Truman have gone on 
record that the United States Government stands 
unequivocally for a strong, free, and independent 
Polish State. 

In pursuance of these policies, and as positive 
evidence of his desire to activate them, President 
Truman in May sent Mr. Harry Hopkins as his 



JULY 8, 1945 



51 



personal representative to Moscow to discuss with 
Marshal Stalin the points of difference outstand- 
ing between this Government and the Soviet Gov- 
ernment. As a result of this friendly overture of 
the President, an agreement was achieved in com- 
plete harmony to reconvene the commission 
authorized by the Crimea decisions in an endeavor 
to bring about an early and equitable solution of 
the Polish problem and the establishment of a new 
Polish Provisional Government of National Unity 
in accordance with the Crimea decisions. A har- 
monious settlement was also reached on other 
important questions outstanding between the two 
Governments. There is no question of our policy 
having become an "appendage" of British Foreign 
policy in eastern Europe or elsewhere. The Brit- 
ish Government was an equal participant in the 
Crimea Conference and as such is bound by the 
decisions of that Conference. Despite rumors to 
the contrary, it may be stated that the British 
people and Government, guided in general by the 
same basic democratic principles, have interpreted 
and have sought to put into effect the decisions of 
the Crimea Conference in much the same manner 
as this Government has been striving to do. 

Qu-estion 3: "Has the United States, through 
some tacit understanding or through day-to-day 
working relations, become, de facto, part of an 
Anglo-American 'front' against the Soviet 

Union?" 

It can be stated unequivocally that the United 
States Government has no tacit understanding 
or day-to-day working arrangement through which 
it has become "de facto" or otherwise a part of 
an Anglo-American or any other front against 
the Soviet Union. Conversely, there is no truth 
in the assertions made by some that we are "play- 
ing into the hands of the Soviet Union" to the 
detriment of the British Empire or any other na- 
tion. The United States Government freely con- 
sults with all governments of the United Nations, 
including those of Great Britain and the Soviet 
Union. 

I am sure you are fully aware, however, that 
in the conduct of foreign relations differences arise 
in points of view based on different outlooks and 
different basic interests. The leading role we have 
taken in the creation of the World Security Or- 
ganization in San Francisco is conclusive proof 
of our friendly attitude to all freedom loving na- 
tions. It is regrettable that when these differences 

654497 — 45 2 



arise, one group of opinion or another often en- 
deavors to build these differences into fundamental 
issues which are difficult to solve even in an at- 
mosphere of patience and mutual understanding. 

Question 4-' "Have old anti-Soviet prejudices, 
clung to by a group within the State Department 
despite unity achieved among the Big Three at the 
Crimea Conference, caused a shift since Roose- 
velt's death from American friendliness toward 
our Russian ally?" 

Such reports have no foundation in fact. Impu- 
tations of this kind may provoke misunderstand- 
ings which can be harmful to the basic interests 
of the United States and which can handicap 
us in our dealings with foreign governments. It 
has been inferred that there is a small group in 
the State Department who, regardless of the vital 
interests of our country, are able to influence the 
shaping of the policy of this Government on the 
basis of their supposed prejudices against the 
Soviet Union. The policies of this Government 
are not determined by any single group. They are 
based upon decisions reached after consultation 
with all competent officials and after weighing all 
the relevant facts. They are designed to carry out 
the will of the American people and to protect the 
United States in all instances. In regard to the 
officers charged primarily with the conduct of 
Soviet- American relations, I may add that they 
have assisted in preparing the fundamental under- 
takings which were finally agreed upon at the 
Moscow, Tehran, and Yalta Conferences. Several 
of them, in fact, have taken part in the actual 
conferences. 

I can assure you, therefore, that since President 
Roosevelt's death there has been no shift in the 
American policy of friendliness toward the Soviet 
Union. As I have already pointed out, it is com- 
mon knowledge that differences of opinion have at 
times arisen between the United States and the 
Soviet Union of the nature inevitably arising in 
the relations between any two friendly states. 
These were foreseen by President Roosevelt him- 
self when he stated in his message to Congress on 
January 6, 1945 that : 

"The nearer we come to vanquishing our enemies 
the more we inevitably become conscious of differ- 
ences among the victors. 

"We must not let those differences divide us and 
blind us to our more important common and con- 



52 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



tinuing interests in winning the war and building 
the peace. 

"International cooperation on which enduring 
peace must be based is not a one-way street." 

Question 5: "What do you think has caused re- 
sponsible editorial criticism of the type we have 
quoted to be made at this time?" 

As long as there is freedom of the press in the 
United States there will be editorial criticism 
because there is practically never unanimity of 
opinion on any important subject. I would con- 
vey to you most earnestly, however, my own con- 
viction that editorial comment characterizing 
President Roosevelt as playing primarily a medi- 
ator role in European areas is doing an injustice 
to our late President, since he pursued in those 
areas a policy looking towards the concrete attain- 
ment of the objectives for which we fought, rather 
than a policy of the disinterested mediator. 

I wish to thank you again for calling since I am 
convinced that it is only by frank discussions of 
this kind that we can coordinate our efforts to the 
fullest extent to protect the fundamental interests 
of our country and bring its full influence to bear 
in order to achieve the principles for which we all 
stand and which we have not hesitated to defend 
when it was clear that it was our duty to do so. 

Please bring the contents of this letter to the 
attention of your colleagues who called with you 
at my office and signed the letter under discussion. 
Sincerely yours, 

Joseph C. Grew 
The Honorable Acting Secretary 

John M. Coffee, 

Hawse of Representatives. 



APPOINTMENT OF SPECIAL 

ASSISTANTS TO THE SECRE- 
TARY OF STATE 

[Released to the press July 5] 

The Secretary of State announced on 
July 5 that Benjamin V. Cohen, Donald 
S. Russell, and Walter Brown have joined 
his staff each with a temporary assign- 
ment of Special Assistant to the Secretary 
of State. 



Operations of UNRRA 

THIRD QUARTERLY REPORT 

To the Congress of the United States of 
America : I am transmitting herewith the 3rd 
quarterly report on United States participation in 
the work of UNRRA and on expenditures and 
operations under the Act of March 28, 1944. 

On May 8, 1945, the long, dark years of Nazi 
tyranny ended and the liberation of millions of 
Europeans became a reality. The victory in Eu- 
rope marks the close of a militaristic and bar- 
barous era that enslaved most of the Continent 
and threatened free nations throughout the world. 

Millions of the liberated peoples are emaciated, 
hungry, and sick and they are without means of 
livelihood. Other millions who were ruthlessly 
commandeered into the Wehrmacht or forced into 
labor battalions to work on military projects and 
in Nazi war factories and farms have been freed 
by United Nations forces only to find themselves 
destitute, far from home and country, and without 
food and shelter. 

Even before V-E Day, and under the most ad- 
verse conditions of supply and shipping shortages 
during the final offensives against Germany, 
UNRRA had begun to deliver supplies. 
UNRRA's year of planning and preparation was 
paying dividends in the form of mounting sup- 
plies and personnel services for the liberated areas, 
and assistance to our own military authorities in 
the care and repatriation of the millions of dis- 
placed persons. 

UNRRA's shipments are now going forward in 
an increasing volume to Greece, Poland, Yugo- 
slavia, Czechoslovakia and other nations to relieve 
the victims of war who have no other source of 
assistance. With the redeployment of allied troops 
in Europe to other theaters of operation and the 
resulting decrease in European military demands 
for supplies and shipping, it is now possible for 
UNRRA to begin to accelerate the flow of needed 
supplies to the liberated countries. What has been 
accomplished is only the beginning. This coming 
winter will be the period of greatest need. The 
people will require food until their farms can be 
restored and their food production increased. 
Clothing and medical supplies will be urgently 
required. In addition, limited quantities of agri- 
cultural, industrial and transportation equipment 
will be necessary to enable the liberated peoples 



JULY 8, 1945 



53 



to utilize more effectively the resources at their 
disposal and to assist them in commencing the 
immense task of repairing the destruction and 
devastation of the war and to produce for them- 
selves. The United States as a member of 
UNRRA is determined to do its part in furnishing 
the ships and supplies required to meet these criti- 
cal needs. 

The period covered by this report pi-eceded the 
victorious thrust of the allied armies and the com- 
plete defeat of Germany. Today, with hostilities 
at an end, UNRRA is moving to meet the task for 
which it has been preparing and putting its plans 
into operation. UNRRA can now accomplish the 
purpose for which it was established. The degree 
of that accomplishment will be a measure of the 
extent to which we keep faith with those who 
fought and died in order to bring freedom and 
relief from suffering to the liberated peoples and 
a secure peace to the world. 

Harry S. Truman 
The White House, 

June 29, 19^5. 



Restoration of Independence 
to Denmark 

MESSAGE FROM PRESIDENT TRUMAN 
TO KING CHRISTIAN X 

[Released to the press July 3] 

July 2, 1945 
The symbol of amity between Denmark and the 
United States exemplified by the annual Fourth 
of July ceremonies in the Rebild National Park 
has always been deeply cherished by the American 
people. This is particularly true this year which 
marks not only the 169th Anniversary of the In- 
dependence of the United States but also the resto- 
ration of independence to Denmark. 

The close friendship between the peoples of 
Denmark and the United States has been even 
further strengthened by the gallant struggle for 
freedom carried on by the Danish resistance move- 
ment. Its heroic efforts were followed with the 
greatest sympathy and admiration by the Ameri- 
can people and won for Denmark her place in the 
United Nations Conference on International Or- 
ganization whose deliberations have recently been 
so successfully concluded. 



On this day of mutual rejoicing may I therefore 
express to your Majesty and to the people of Den- 
mark my best wishes and those of the people of 
the United States for the continued prosperity and 
well-being of the Danish State. 

Joseph J. Schwartz Appointed 
as Temporary Associate on 
Intergovernmental Committee 
on Refugees 

[Released to the press July 7] 

The Department of State announced on July 
7 that Joseph J. Schwartz, European Chairman of 
the American Jewish Joint Distribution Com- 
mittee, has been lent temporarily by that organ- 
ization to accompany, as an associate, Earl G. 
Harrison, United States representative on the In- 
tergovernmental Committee on Refugees, on his 
mission of inquiry to Europe concerning the needs 
of stateless and non-repatriable refugees among 
the displaced persons in the liberated countries of 
western Europe and the Allied zones of occupa- 
tion in Germany. Dr. Schwartz left for London 
July 8. The mission has been directed to ascer- 
tain the extent to which the needs of the non- 
repatriables, who include many Jewish sur- 
vivors of Nazi persecutions, are now being met 
by the military authorities governments of resi- 
dence, international relief bodies, and private 
refugee agencies. 

Close to three million United Nations displaced 
persons have already been repatriated by the mili- 
tary authorities from Germany. The return of 
these persons presented no obstacle based on na- 
tionality status. The number of those whose 
repatriation will be delayed or eventually proved 
to be impossible is still unknown. The problem 
of their care during the period in which they are 
awaiting a solution of their difficulties is a matter 
of lively interest and concern to agencies of the 
Federal Government and to the many private 
agencies interested in refugees. 

President Truman has expressed approval of 
Mr. Harrison's mission and requested that a re- 
port be submitted to him upon Mr. Harrison's 
return. 



54 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Restoration of Parcel-Post 
Service to Liberated Areas 

[Released to the press July 5] 

The Department of State announced July 5 the 
resumption of limited parcel-post service to ad- 
ditional liberated countries of Europe. 

Parcel-post service to Greece was reestablished 
on June 30. Parcels may not exceed 11 pounds in 
weight, 18 inches in length or 42 inches in length 
and girth combined. Only one parcel may be 
sent every two weeks by the same sender to the 
same addressee. 

Service to Belgium, Denmark, Luxembourg, the 
Netherlands, and Norway was resumed on July 2. 
The restrictions as to weight and size are the same 
as those for Greece. However, one parcel may 
be sent each week from the same sender to the 
same addressee in any of these countries. 

The contents of parcels are limited to non- 
perishable items which are not prohibited in the 
parcel-post mails to the country of destination and 
must also conform to the licensing requirements 
of the Foreign Economic Administration. 



Anniversary of Venezuelan 
Independence 

MESSAGE FROM PRESIDENT TRUMAN 
TO PRESIDENT MEDINA 

[Released to the press July 5] 

The President has sent the following message 
to His Excellency General Isaias Medina A., 
President of the United States of Venezuela, Cara- 
cas, Venezuela, on the occasion of the Venezuelan 
anniversary of independence: 

July 5, 1915. 

It gives me great pleasure on this national anni- 
versary of the independence of the United States 
of Venezuela to convey to you and to the people 
of Venezuela the congratulations of the people of 
the United States. 

I take this opportunity also to extend my sincere 
good wishes on Your Excellency's birthday, which 
will be celebrated tomorrow, and to wish you 
health and happiness in the years to come. 

Harry S. Truman 



Detention of Japanese Officials 

[Released to the press June 25] 

The Department of State has made arrange- 
ments with the owners of the Bedford Springs 
Hotel, Bedford, Pennsylvania, for the accommo- 
dation on the hotel premises of a group of 132 
Japanese diplomatic and consular officers and 
dependents who were captured in Germany. The 
detention of this group is expected to last until 
arrangements for their exchange can be worked 
out with the Japanese Government and with our 
Allies in the war against Japan, since naturally 
our Allies in the war against Japan have a com- 
mon interest in any Japanese officials captured in 
Germany. 

The first members of the Japanese group should 
arrive in the United States early in July. 



Increase of Membership of the 
Anglo-American Caribbean 
Commission 

[Released to the press by the White House June 29 as a joint 
communique by the Governments of the United States and the 
United Kingdom] 

For the purpose of associating the peoples of 
the Caribbean area more closely with the work 
of the Anglo-American Caribbean Commission 
and of including in its membership representatives 
of those peoples, it has been agreed by the Gov- 
ernments of the United States and the United 
Kingdom to increase the membership of the Com- 
mission from three to four members of each side. 

This decision modifies the joint communique 
issued in Washington and London on March 9, 
1942, when the Anglo-American Caribbean Com- 
mission was created. 1 

The additional member of the United States 
section of the Commission will be nominated from 
Puerto Rico and will be appointed by the Presi- 
dent. 

The cochairmen of the Commission now are 
Charles W. Taussig for the United States and Sir 
John Macpherson for the United Kingdom. 



1 Bulletin of Mar 14, 1942, p. 229. 



JULY 8, 1945 



55 



The Rosenman Mission 

By 
LIVINGSTON T. MERCHANT 1 



On January 20, 1945 the late President Roose- 
velt asked the Special Counsel to the Presi- 
dent, Judge Samuel I. Rosenman, to proceed to the 
United Kingdom, France, Belgium, and the Neth- 
erlands as the President's Personal Representa- 
tive, with the rank of Minister, for the purpose 
of examining and reporting on the immediate 
civilian-supply needs of our Allies in northwest 
Europe. Judge Rosenman was further requested 
to. survey the longer term assistance which might 
be required from the United States for the repair 
of the destruction wrought by the war. The scope 
of the inquiry was later expanded to include, under 
similar terms of reference, Denmark and Norway. 

Judge Rosenman promptly requested the Secre- 
tary of State, the Secretary of the Treasury, the 
Secretary of War, and the Foreign Economic Ad- 
ministrator to attach to him one or more repre- 
sentatives of their Departments to accompany him 
on his Mission and to assist in the preparation of 
his report. 

The individuals selected were Colonel James C. 
Davis of the War Department, Livingston T. Mer- 
chant and Dudley M. Phelps of the Department 
of State, William H. Taylor of the Treasury De- 
partment, and Charles S. Denby and Daggett H. 
Howard of the Foreign Economic Administration. 
There were also attached to the Mission at various 
times Rupert Emerson and Paul F. White of the 
Foreign Economic Administration, Walter N. 
Thayer of the Mission for Economic Affairs in 
London, and Lieutenant Colonel Charles E. 
Foehl, Jr., of Supreme Headquarters, Allied Ex- 
peditionary Force. 

After an intensive preliminary study of the 
material bearing on the problem and available in 
Washington, Judge Rosenman and most of his 
staff left by air for London on February 9, 1945. 
The members of his Mission who did not accom- 
pany him joined the group in London within a few 
days. 

For a little over a month the Mission made its 
headquarters in the American Embassy in London, 
in offices provided by the Mission for Economic 
Affairs ; and there it undertook an exhaustive in- 
quiry into the problems under study. This prep- 



aration took the form not merely of the examina- 
tion of documents, but also the scheduling of a 
prolonged series of meetings with the officers of 
the Mission for Economic Affairs and of the Em- 
bassy and, in addition, with those British officials 
concerned with these matters in the War Office, 
the Foreign Office, the Ministry of Food, the Min- 
istry of Supply, the Ministry of Production, and 
the Treasury. 

During nearly all of this period, Judge Rosen- 
man himself was absent, having been requested by 
the President to meet him in the Mediterranean 
Area and accompany him on his return to Wash- 
ington from the Yalta conference. When he re- 
joined his Mission on March 5, it was decided to 
depart for the Continent after ten more days in 
London, devoting that period to individual con- 
ferences for Judge Rosenman with the members of 
the War Cabinet directly concerned with liberated- 
areas problems, with the cabinet officers of the 
Netherlands and the Norwegian Governments, as 
well as with our diplomatic missions to those two 
countries. 

On March 14 the Mission flew to Paris from Lon- 
don and began its investigation on the Continent. 

The next two weeks were spent in France with 
headquarters in the American Embassy at Paris. 
A steady succession of conferences was arranged 
with our Ambassador, Jefferson Caffery, and the 
members of his staff, the French cabinet members 
concerned with one or another phase of the prob- 
lem, and the ranking officers of General Eisen- 
hower's headquarters concerned with civilian 
supply. 

In addition the principal Atlantic ports were 
visited as one of several field examinations of the 
physical factors affecting the supply and flow of 
civilian goods. 

From France the Mission, in two and at times 
in three different groups, proceeded to Luxem- 
bourg, to Germany west of the Rhine, to the Neth- 
erlands, and to Belgium. 

1 Mr. Merchant is Special Assistant to the Assistant 
Secretary in charge of economic affairs, Department of 
State. 



56 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



In Brussels substantially the same pattern of 
investigation applied as had been developed in 
Paris. Antwerp, the major port in Belgium, was 
inspected in detail. On April 2 Judge Rosenman 
and his Mission left Brussels by air for London 
where the succeeding two weeks were devoted to 
the drafting of the report itself. Most of the 
Mission left for Washington on April 16, preceded, 
however, by Judge Rosenman, who had departed 
three days earlier in order to attend President 
Roosevelt's funeral. The task of the final editing 
and assembling of the report involved another 
week's work in Washington. On April 30 Judge 
Rosenman formally presented the report of his 
Mission to President Truman. 

The report itself, comprising a sixteen-page let- 
ter to the President, summarizes the problem and 
sets forth a series of major recommendations. On 
May 1, the White House released to the press a 
condensation of that report. 1 Certain deletions 
were made in the public version because of security 
reasons, since Judge Rosenman's report was classi- 
fied "secret." 

The letter-report was itself supported by 27 sub- 
sections of tabs dealing with various aspects of 
the problems under study. There was, for ex- 
ample, a separate section on each of the countries, 
the position of which President Roosevelt had 
asked Judge Rosenman to examine. There were 
also sections on individual topics such as coal, food, 
internal transportation, the government machinery 
established by the United Kingdom and the United 
States to deal with liberated-areas supply prob- 
lems. The entire report ran to nearly 350 type- 
written pages, and the bibliography showed that 
well over 100 separate reports, documents, and 
records of interviews had been taken into account 
in its preparation. 

On May 21 President Truman took a major step 
to implement the central recommendation of the 
report by dispatching the following letter to 
Messrs. Crowley, Krug, Marvin Jones, and Ickes : 

"Judge Rosenman's report of which you have a 
copy has pointed out the extremely serious eco- 
nomic situation in the liberated countries of North- 
west Europe. The report confirms in strong terms 
the need for action on the part of this Government. 

"In brief the report points out the following : 



1 Bulletin of May 0, 1945, p. 860. 



" ( 1 ) A dangerously low level of nutrition exists 
generally in these liberated countries except in the 
rural, food raising areas. The production of coal 
is not meeting even minimum requirements. The 
means of internal transportation by rail, canal and 
highway have suffered substantially from looting 
and destruction. What are left have been largely 
devoted to Allied military use. Ports have suf- 
fered extensive damage from bombing and demoli- 
tion. Manufacturing has been paralyzed by 
destruction or damage, lack of raw materials and 
inadequate plant maintenance. 

"(2) The needs of the liberated countries of 
Northwest Europe are grave — not only from a hu- 
manitarian point of view, but also because they 
necessarily involve many internal and interna- 
tional political considerations. To a great extent 
the future permanent peace of Europe depends 
upon the restoration of the economy of these lib- 
erated countries, including a reasonable standard 
of living and employment. United States econ- 
omy, too, will be deeply affected unless these areas 
again resume their place in the international ex- 
change of goods and services. A chaotic and hun- 
gry Europe is not fertile ground in which stable, 
democratic and friendly governments can be 
reared. 

"(3) Just as the United States has been the 
largest producer of the United Nations in war- 
time, so will it naturally be looked to as the princi- 
pal source of civilian supplies for these countries. 

"It is the established policy of this Government 
to accept this responsibility as far as it is possible 
to do so. 

"As a matter of national policy, therefore, I re- 
quest your agency to grant the priority necessary 
to meet the minimum civilian requirements of 
those of our Allies who have been ravaged by the 
enemy to the fullest extent that the successful 
prosecution of military operations and the main- 
tenance of our essential domestic economy permit." 

Another major recommendation contained in 
the report dealt with the confusion and com- 
plexity of the allocating machinery in Washington 
so far as it concerned the provision of supplies for 
the liberated areas. The President has acted on 
this recommendation by requesting the Office of 
War Mobilization and Reconversion to have a 
study made of the conflicting jurisdictions of agen- 
cies, both national and combined, dealing with 



JULY 8, 1945 



57 



allocation and procurement of civilian supplies 
for liberated areas in Europe. The Bureau of the 
Budget has been designated to conduct this survey 
and to make appropriate recommendations. 

Another one of the recommendations contained 
in Judge Rosenman's report on which encouraging 
progress has been made relates to the establish- 
ment of certain intergovernmental organizations 
dealing with one or another aspect of European 
economic life. 

The organizations specified were the European 
Economic Committee, the European Central In- 
land Transportation Organization, the European 
Coal Organization, and the United Maritime 
Authority. The report urged that the Depart- 
ment of State continue its efforts to secure their 
early establishment on a basis acceptable to the 
countries most directly concerned. All of these 
organizations are now in being, although the first 
three are operating on a limited basis; all of the 
governments invited to join have not yet accepted. 

In connection with Judge Rosenman's recom- 
mendation that the Allied military authorities 
should divest themselves at the earliest feasible 
time of their responsibility for bringing civilian 
supplies into areas of original operation, the com- 
bined American and British military authorities 
concerned with this problem have been devoting 
their energies to arranging for the transfer of this 
responsibility to the civilian agencies and the na- 
tional governments concerned. Mechanically the 
problem is a difficult one if the transition is to be 
achieved without risk of interruption to the flow 
of supplies to the liberated countries. Marked 
progress, however, has been made and official an- 
nouncements of the dates of such termination for 
civilian supplies can be expected shortly. 

Action has already been taken by the officials 
of the Government directly concerned on many 
others of the approximately 100 major and minor 
recommendations contained in the Rosenman re- 
port. Those not acted on are now under examina- 
tion or in the process of giving rise to executive 
action. 

Apart from the form of the report, the techniques 
employed in its preparation and the subsequent 
action flowing from its recommendations, there is 
a useful lesson to be drawn from the fashion in 
which the Mission was assembled and from the 
important but concealed results which may be ex- 
pected to accrue later as an extra dividend. 



The Mission was unusual, though not unique, in 
that it was composed of a personal representative 
of the President, accompanied by representatives 
of four Government departments all possessing a 
substantial but far from identic interest in the 
problems under study. A unified group, however, 
developed that benefited rather than suffered 
from internal divergences of views and experi- 
ences. Although many an issue touched by 
the report produced hours of discussion and widely 
separated views, every issue of substance in the 
final analysis was resolved with almost monotonous 
unanimity. To the officials of the foreign govern- 
ments with which the Mission dealt, it must have 
been refreshing to find a group representing the 
United States Government as a whole dealing with 
a technical problem which in Washington con- 
cerns not one but a number of departments. 

The extra dividend to which I referred earlier 
is the result which we may expect to find in the 
day-to-day dealings in Washington between the 
departments represented on the Mission and con- 
cerned with the solution of the problems which 
the Mission considered. The Mission as such 
proved an excellent technique for drawing to- 
gether the diverse interests of various agencies 
and focusing them on one problem of mutual 
concern. 

There have been other missions recently which 
have had the basic characteristic of being drawn 
from several departments : the Culbertson Mission 
to French North Africa and the Middle East last 
year is a case in point. The increased use of the 
device of a combined mission when several de- 
partments are parties at interest in a problem re- 
quiring examination on the ground can be extended 
to the profit of the entire Government. 



Nicaragua Ratines Charter 

The American Ambassador at Managua has in- 
formed the Acting Secretary of State by telegram 
that Nicaragua ratified the Charter of the United 
Nations on July 6, 1945. The Charter was passed 
unanimously by the Nicaraguan Chamber of 
Deputies and the Senate and approved and signed 
by the President of Nicaragua on that date. 

The Charter was signed at San Francisco on 
June 26, 1945. 



58 



Third Inter- American 



ANNOUNCEMENT OF AGENDA AND UNITED STATES DELEGATION 



[Released to the press July 5] 

The Secretary of State announced on July 5 
the composition of the Delegation of the United 
States to the Third Inter- American Conference on 
Agriculture scheduled to convene at Caracas, 
Venezuela, on July 24, 1945. 

This series of periodic inter-American confer- 
ences has as its objective the promotion of agri- 
cultural cooperation between the American re- 
publics and the improvement of the standards of 
living of the farmer and farm worker. The first 
conference was held at Washington, D. C, in Sep- 
tember 1930; the second at Mexico City in July 
1942. The agenda of the third conference in- 
cludes the following principal topics : 

Money and Agriculture Foodstuffs and Raw Ma- 
Present Agricultural Pro- terials 
duction and its Adjust- Agricultural Migrations in 
ments to the Post-War the Post-War Years 
Period Agricultural Statistics 
Markets and Transporta- 
tion 

The composition of the Delegation of the 
United States to the Caracas meeting, as approved 
by the President, is as follows: 

Delegates: 

John B. Hutson, Under Secretary of Agriculture; 
Chairman of the Delegation 

Leslie A. Wheeler, Director of Foreign Agricultural 
Relations, Department of Agriculture ; Vice Chair- 
man of the Delegation 

Hugh II. Bennett, Chief of the Soil Conservation Serv- 
ice, Department of Agriculture 

Chauncey S. BoucnER, Chancellor of the University 
of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 

Homer L. Brinkley, President, National Council of 
Farmer Cooperatives, Washington, D. C. 

Philip V. Cardon, Administrator of Agricultural Re- 
search, Department of Agriculture 

Albert S. Goss, Master, National Grange, Washington, 
D. C. 

Homer J. Henney, Dean of Agriculture and Director of 
the Agricultural Experiment Station, Colorado State 
College of Agriculture, Boulder, Colorado 

Edwin J. Kyle, American Ambassador to Guatemala 

Edward A. O'Neal, President, American Farm Bureau 
Federation, Chicago, Illinois 

James G. Patton, President, National Farmers Union, 
Denver, Colorado 



Howard R. Tolley, Chief of the Bureau of Agricultural 
Economics, Department of Agriculture 

Milburn L. Wilson. Director of Extension Work, De- 
partment of Agriculture 
Advisers: 

Richard Bradfield, New York State College of Agricul- 
ture, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 

William C. Brister, Director, Food Supply Division, 
Office of Inter-American Affairs 

John C. A. Cady, Agricultural Attache, United States 
Embassy, Bogota, Colombia 

Edward G. Cale, Acting Associate Chief, Commodities 
Division, Department of State 

James H. Kempton, Agricultural Adviser, United States 
Embassy, Caracas, Venezuela 

Paul L. Koenig, Chief, Division of Agricultural Statis- 
tics, Bureau of Agricultural Economics, Department 
of Agriculture 

Edward I. Kotok, Assistant Chief of the Forest Service, 
Department of Agriculture 

Hugh C. McPhee, Assistant Chief, Bureau of Animal 
Industry, Department of Agriculture 

Ross E. Moore, Chief of the Technical Collaboration 
Branch of the Office of Foreign Agricultural Rela- 
tions, Department of Agriculture 

Norman T. Ness, Assistant Director, Division of Mone- 
tary Research, Department of the Treasury 

Herbert W. Parisius, Director, Office of Food Programs, 
Foreign Economic Administration 

H. Gerald Smith, Assistant Chief, Division of Commer- 
cial Policy, Department of State 

Hazel K. Steebeling, Chief of the Bureau of Human 
Nutrition and Home Economics, Department of 
Agriculture 

Arthur T. Upson. Director of the Tropical Forestry Unit 
of the Forest Service, headquarters at Rio Piedras, 
Puerto Rico, Department of Agriculture 

Nathan L. Whetten, Rural Sociologist, United States 
Embassy, Mexico D.F., Mexico 
Secretaries: 

Carl Breuer, Second Secretary, United States Embassy, 
Caracas, Venezuela 

John J. Haggerty, in Charge, Central and South Ameri- 
can Section, Regional Investigations Branch, Western 
Hemisphere Division, Office of Foreign Agricultural 
Relations, Department of Agriculture 

Clarke L. WrLLARD, Assistant Chief, Division of Interna- 
tional Conferences, Department of State 
Assistant to the Chairman: 

Philip Leonard Green. Office of Foreign Agricultural 
Relations, Department of Agriculture 
Administrative Assistant: 

Frances E. Pringle, Division of International Confer- 
ences, Department of State 



59 



ference on Agriculture 



AGRICULTURAL PLANNING FOR PEACE AND FUTURE PROSPERITY 



Solution of the numerous pressing post-war 
farm problems of the Americas will command 
attention of farm leaders, scientists, administra- 
tors, and governing officials of the Western Hem- 
isphere at the Third Inter-American Conference 
on Agriculture in Caracas, Venezuela, July 24. 

The Caracas gathering will be a "working" 
meeting. Many of the questions the delegates will 
consider have been discussed at the two previous 
inter-American conferences, but assurance of 
United Nations victory in the world struggle 
against oppression has emphasized the need for 
the early settlement of those questions. Hence, 
the sessions beginning July 2-1 will attempt to 
translate certain basic and commonly recognized 
principles into a positive program. 

Farmers of the Americas will be looking to their 
leaders to provide them, through this Conference, 
with "guideposts on the road to reconversion" of 
hemispheric agriculture from a wartime to a 
peacetime basis. 

The Conference's opening date appropriately 
falls on the birthday of Simon Bolivar, South 
America's great liberator, who was born in Cara- 
cas 162 years ago. 

Conference Agenda 

The Conference agenda, developed in advance 
by the Organizing Committee in Venezuela and by 
the Pan American Union, will include discussion 
of six major topics by groups operating as sepa- 
rate round-table committees. The recommenda- 
tions of each group will be presented for review 
and adoption at the Conference's closing session. 

These major topics, chosen because of their vital 
interest to all Western Hemisphere farmers, will 
be: 

I. Agricultural Credit 

The first section of the Conference agenda will 
be devoted to the possibility of expanding present 
agricultural credit facilities to meet farmers' 
needs. Present credit facilities and programs will 
be examined thoroughly by a working group, and 
special attention given to the potential significance 



The Third Inter-American Conference on Agri- 
culture, as its name indicates, is one of a series 
of periodic inter-American meetings. The first 
conference was held at Washington, D.C., from 
September 8 to 20, 1930. It was one of a group 
held at that time to consider problems of agri- 
culture, forestry, and animal industry, and had 
been called by the United States Government in 
accordance with a resolution adopted by the 
Sixth International Conference of American 
States, at Habana, February 1928. The attend- 
ance included about 54 delegates, representing 
the 21 American republics, and approximately 
169 consulting delegates from the member states 
and other countries, including agriculturists, 
manufacturers, educators, and Government offi- 
cials, as well as leaders in commerce, transpor- 
tation, banking, and other lines of business. A 
resolution approved by the Conference in Wash- 
ington provided for the convening of the second 
meeting at Mexico City. 



of the International Bank for Reconstruction and 
Development, proposed at the Bretton Woods Con- 
ference, for assisting in agricultural advancement 
in the Americas through reconstruction and de- 
velopment loans. 

II. Post-War Crop Adjustments 

A survey will be made of the present status and 
future prospects for the production, utilization, 
and distribution of major crops such as wheat, 
coffee, cotton, sugar, and rice — all important to 
world trade — and the strategic crops for essential 
war use, such as rubber, cinchona (quinine), and 
the insecticide plants, production of which has 
been stimulated in the Western Hemisphere dur- 
ing the war years. 



1 The material for this article was prepared in collabo- 
ration with Mr. Clarke L. Willard, Assistant Chief of the 
Division of International Conferences, Office of Depart- 
mental Administration, Department of State, and Dr. 
Louis C. Nolan of the Office of Foreign Agricultural Rela- 
tions, Department of Agriculture. 



60 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Some of the foregoing crops, in world-supply 
surplus before the war, have been subjects of inter- 
national agreements designed to stabilize the mar- 
ket. These existing international agreements will 
be reviewed, particularly to establish any general 
principles or practices which have been developed 
as a result of experience, and which would provide 
useful guidance in the continuance of these agree- 
ments or the application of this type of measure 
to other commodities. It will be recalled that the 
Inter-American Conference on Problems of War 
and Peace in Mexico City, February 21-March 8, 
1945, went on record as favoring international 
commodity agreements and specifying that such 
agreements should take into account expansion of 
consumption in the interest of consumers and 
producers in a broadening world economy. 

III. Foodstuffs and Raw Materials 

Provision of a better diet and higher standard 
of living for the people of the Americas and the 
world through an abundance of foodstuffs and raw 
materials created by increased efficiency of agri- 
cultural production will be an important Confer- 
ence subject. 

Measures for bringing about such increased 
efficiency to be discussed include improvement 
of plant and animal breeding stock, greater use of 
fertilizers, farm mechanization, better control of 
insect pests and diseases, soil conservation and 



Resolution LX, adopted at Mexico City July 
16, 1942, recommended "That the Governing 
Board of the Pan American Union, after making 
studies and consultations which they deem 
advisable, determine the place, program, and 
date, within the next five years, for the meeting 
of the Third Inter-American Conference on 
Agriculture." 

A special subcommittee of the Governing 
Board of the Pan American Union, composed of 
the members from Uruguay, Costa Rica, and 
Colombia, in consultation with the Government 
of Venezuela, recommended that the meeting 
convene at its capital in 1945. The Venezuelan 
Government thereafter extended an invitation 
for the meeting to convene at Caracas on July 
24, 1945. 



management, and application of other phases of 
scientific farming. 

Establishment of organizations to coordinate 
and promote the production of farm crops will be 
considered, with especial attention to ways of in- 
creasing consumption of farm products, and the 
possibility of utilizing surpluses to raise dietary 
standards. 

The manner in which the various inter-Ameri- 
can farm groups can cooperate with international 
organizations such as the world Food and Agri- 
culture Organization, which has been invited to 
send representatives to the Caracas meeting, will 
be discussed in concluding this section of the 
program. 

IV. Markets and Transportation 

The many new possibilities for marketing farm 
products evolving from wartime developments in 
handling, processing, and transporting foods and 
other agricultural commodities have been assigned 
for group discussion. 

Heightening interest in this study topic is the 
realization that quick freezing of foods, shipment 
of boned meat, and packaging that withstands 
heat, changes, and moisture have made possible the 
movement of meat, fresh fruits, and other perish- 
ables over greater distances and in less time and 
at lower cost than ever before. Air transporta- 
tion of perishable food, machinery, and raw ma- 
terials over impassable jungles and mountain 
ranges also is opening great marketing possi- 
bilities. 

The importance of modern marketing services, 
including adoption of uniform grades and stand- 
ards for agricultural products, inspection, and 
market news, will be stressed, and consideration 
given to a general program for increasing hemi- 
spheric food supplies through adequate storage 
and warehousing, and the processing and pre- 
serving of farm commodities. 

V. Migration and Colonization 

Since certain American republics would wel- 
come immigration to settle large areas of partially 
developed forest and farm land, the Conference 
will study the probable volume of such population 
movements after the war and attempt to formulate 
basic principles for their guidance. Special em- 



JULY 8, 1945 



61 



phasis will be placed on the need for adequate in- 
formation concerning soils, climate, crop adapta- 
bility, and related factors influencing the success 
of agricultural colonization plans. 

VI. Agricultural Statistics 

Since wartime conditions have drastically 
changed the supply situation for certain commodi- 
ties, in some cases almost over night, many Ameri- 
can countries have realized the need for improved 
methods of compiling crop reports and agricul- 
tural statistics. It is recognized that no nation 
can plan agricultural production goals and pro- 
grams without accurate information on acreage 
and yields, livestock numbers by types and ages, 
and similar essential data. The increase of farm 
production in the United States has been cited as 
an example of the value of accurate crop and live- 
stock estimates. The Conference will therefore 
give this subject full consideration. 

Third Conference Will Be Different 

The Third Inter-American Conference will be 
different from the first, at the Pan American Union 
in Washington in September 1930, and the second, 
in Mexico City in July 1942; but those earlier 
meetings, by showing that agricultural representa- 
tives of the Western Hemisphere nations could as- 
semble and talk over their agricultural problems 
to their collective advantage, established definitely 
the principle of hemispheric cooperation that will 
prevail at Caracas. 

Whereas the first Inter- American Conference on 
Agriculture convened in the gloomy atmosphere of 
world depression to plan a defensive fight against 
sagging markets and price-wrecking surpluses, and 
the second, in Mexico City, was held when the 
overshadowing problem was the production of 
food and other critical raw materials to defeat the 
Axis, the third assembly, opening July 24, will be 
concerned primarily with agricultural planning 
for peace and future prosperity. 

The problems of peace and the future are for- 
midable, but their solution will present a cheerful 
challenge that will be met with optimism and con- 
fidence. 

During the Mexico City conference three inter- 
American agricultural agreements were signed by 
the United States Secretary of Agriculture, 



At the invitation of the Mexican Government, 
the Second Inter-American Conference on Agri- 
culture met at Mexico City from July 6 to 16, 
1942, attended by 97 delegates from the 21 
American republics, 84 consulting delegates, and 
24 observers and other representatives. 



Claude R. Wickard. Two, with Nicaragua, pro- 
vided for purchase of that country's surplus cot- 
ton by the United States, and for cooperative es- 
tablishment of an agricultural experiment station 
near Recreo, Nicaragua. An agreement with 
Mexico provided for establishment of five Mexi- 
can demonstration plantations for growth of 
Hevea rubber and was a major step in the De- 
partment of Agriculture's program for develop- 
ment of rubber production in Latin America. 

There have been other practical results of the 
Mexico City conference. In line with resolutions 
adopted at that meeting, certain specific objec- 
tives have been achieved. These have included 
improvements in tropical cattle, a cooperative sur- 
vey of Chile's forest resources, support for com- 
modity-agreement programs, increased cultiva- 
tion of rubber-bearing plants which proved highly 
valuable to the United Nations after Japanese 
conquest eliminated most natural rubber sources, 
and development of new sources for medicinal and 
insecticide plants. 

Conference Arrangements Are Being Completed 

An Organizing Committee, headed by Dr. Angel 
Biaggini, Venezuelan Minister of Agriculture, is 
completing arrangements for the Conference. 

It is expected that the Conference will be at- 
tended by representatives of all the American 
republics and that some of the delegations will be 
headed by the ministers of agriculture. 

Meetings will be held at the Liceo Andres Bello, 
a recently completed educational building in Car- 
acas. In addition to the formal Conference dis- 
cussions, delegates will attend a reception by the 
President of Venezuela, visit the Instituto de 
Malariologia, take a side trip to Maracay, and, 
as a closing function, attend a reception by the 
Minister of Foreign Affairs and the Minister of 
Agriculture. 



62 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Conference Handbook Prepared by the 
Pan American Union 

The Pan American Union in collaboration with 
the Venezuelan Organizing Committee and the 
United States Department of Agriculture is pre- 
paring a handbook containing technical back- 
ground information of interest to the participants 
in the Conference. The Conference handbook con- 
sists of six parts totaling approximately 1,000 
pages and will be available to all members of the 
delegations in English and Spanish. 

The Secretary of Agriculture and the War Food 
Administrator formed a departmental committee 
to be responsible for planning and carrying out 
preparatory work of the Department of Agricul- 
ture for the Caracas conference. 

Mr. Jose L. Colom, Chief, Division of Agricul- 
tural Cooperation, Pan American Union, re- 
quested the assistance of the Department of Agri- 
culture in the preparation of basic documentation 



for the Conference. The Departmental Commit- 
tee agreed to prepare background factual infor- 
mation bearing upon the respective sections of the 
agenda for presentation to the Pan American 
Union. 

The Organizing Committte is assembling motion 
pictures, issuing releases, collecting exhibit mate- 
rial, and arranging for special library facilities for 
use of delegates. 

The Conference participants, agricultural lead- 
ers from all American countries, will find Vene- 
zuela interesting. It is basically a farming coun- 
try, and agriculture, including livestock, represents 
40 percent of the national wealth. 

The richest farm land of Venezuela is in the 
mountain valleys of the northern highlands, par- 
ticularly around Caracas. Coffee and cacao are 
the chief export crops, and corn, beans, manioc, 
sugar, plantains, bananas, wheat, and rice provide 
the major foods. 



Assistant Secretary Clayton Designated as United 
States Council Member of UNRRA 

LETTER FROM PRESIDENT TRUMAN TO DIRECTOR GENERAL LEHMAN 



[Released to the press July 7] 

The Department of State announced July 7 that 
William L. Clayton, Assistant Secretary, has 
been designated by President Truman as the 
United States member of the UNRRA Council. 
The President sent the following letter to the Di- 
rector General of UNRRA, confirming the 
appointment : 

My Dear Governor Lehman : 

Mr. Dean G. Acheson, Assistant Secretary of 
State, has asked to be relieved of his present re- 
sponsibilities as the United States Council mem- 
ber of UNRRA because of the pressure of other 
duties in his present capacity as the Department 
of State's liaison with the Congress. Being aware 
of the high esteem in which Mr. Acheson is held 
by your Administration, and the other members 
of the Council, and of his familiarity with so many 



of the problems which UNRRA has faced, I have 
been very reluctant to replace Mr. Acheson. 

I am now persuaded that this is necessary both 
because of Mr. Acheson's preoccupation with ur- 
gent matters in the field of his new duties and 
also, because in the forthcoming meeting of the 
Council and the expanded UNRRA operations in 
Europe Mr. Clayton, Assistant Secretary of State 
in charge of economic affairs, as this Govern- 
ment's representative on the Council, will be in 
a position most effectively to lend the support of 
this Government. I am therefore designating Mr. 
William L. Clayton as the United States Council 
member, effective immediately. Mr. Clayton will 
attend the Third Council Meeting in London and 
will be prepared to participate in deliberations 
prior to that meeting. 
Sincerely yours, 

Harry S. Truman 



JULY 8, 1945 



63 



Limitation of the Production of Opium 

EXCHANGE OF NOTES BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENTS OF THE UNITED STATES AND TURKEY 



The American Embassy at Ankara sent the fol- 
lowing note, dated September 22, 1944, to the Min- 
istry of Foreign Affairs of the Turkish Govern- 
ment : 

Embassy of the 
No. 1068 United States of America 

The Embassy of the United States of America 
presents its compliments to the Ministry of For- 
eign Affairs and has the honor to transmit here- 
with a copy and a translation of Public Law 400, 
Seventy-eighth Congress of the United States of 
America, approved July 1, 1944, requesting the 
President to urge upon the Governments of those 
countries where the cultivation of the poppy plant 
exists the necessity of immediately limiting the 
production of opium to the amount required for 
strictly medicinal and scientific purposes. 

As the Ministry is, of course, aware, the Gov- 
ernments of the United Kingdom and the Nether- 
lands, after pursuing for many years a policy of 
gradual suppression of the use of smoking opium, 
announced on November 10, 1943 their decisions to 
prohibit the use of smoking opium in their Far 
Eastern territories when those territories are 
freed from Japanese occupation and not to re- 
establish their opium monopolies. Copies of those 
announcements, together with the statements 
made by spokesmen of the United States and 
Chinese Governments on November 10 and 24, 
1943, respectively, commenting on those announce- 
ments, are attached hereto for convenience of ref- 
erence. Following the surrender of Japan, the 
United States Government, in cooperation with 
other interested governments, will do everything 
possible to prevent Japan and the Japanese from 
spreading the use of narcotics for the satisfaction 
of addiction. 

After the war, as a result of the decisions of the 
British and Netherland Governments and the un- 
compromising attitude of the Chinese and United 
States Governments, there will be no legitimate 
market for smoking opium in a vast Far Eastern 
area. Those countries which have in the past pro- 
duced and exported opium for use in the manu- 
facture of smoking opium will be obliged in the 
future to limit their exports to the demands of 



the world market for opium for medical and 
scientific requirements. 

The United States Government concurs in the 
opinion of the British Government, as stated in 
its announcement of November 10, 1943, in re- 
gard to the prohibition of smoking opium in the 
Far East that "The success of the enforcement of 
prohibition will depend on the steps taken to limit 
and control the production of opium in other 
countries". In this connection the total require- 
ments of the world for raw opium for the years 
1933 to 1938, as computed from League of Nations 
documents O. C. 1781 (1), August 27, 1940 and 
O. C. 1758, April 15, 1939 are reproduced below : 





For manufac- 








tured narcotic 


For prepared 


Total 




drugs 


opium 


Kilograms 


1933 


227, 494 


297, 325 


524, 819 


1934 


245, 201 


348, 503 


593, 704 


1935 


255, 808 


326, 047 


581, 855 


1936 


323, 114 


345, 949 


668,063 


1937 


343, 841 


390, 148 


733, 989 


1938 


312, 832 


374, 248 


687, 080 



During the period immediately after the war, it 
is estimated that the world market for opium for 
medicinal purposes will require about 400,000 kilo- 
grams of opium, whereas world production of raw 
opium for the year 1944 has been estimated by 
experts of the United States Government, in the 
absence of exact figures, as amounting to about 
2,400,000 kilograms. There is also estimated pro- 
duction in Central Europe of morphine direct 
from poppy straw totaling about 8,500 kilograms. 

The United States Government believes that it 
is necessary to limit and control the cultivation of 
the opium poppy in order to suppress drug addic- 
tion and the illicit traffic, and is prepared to co- 
operate with all nations in efforts to solve the 
problem. It hopes that Turkey and all opium- 
producing countries will be willing to participate 
in a conference which is expected to be held after 
the war for the purpose of drafting a suitable 
poppy limitation convention, preparations for 
which were undertaken several years ago by the 
Opium Advisory Committee. 

In the hope of expediting and promoting agree- 
ment, the United States Government suggests that 
the proposed convention should contain pro- 
visions: 



64 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



1. Stating in clear language that its objectives 
are (a) to suppress the abuse of narcotic drugs 
and (b) to supplement the Hague Opium Con- 
vention of 1912. 

2. Restricting the cultivation of opium poppies 
for the production of raw opium to the countries 
which have been producing opium in quantity for 
many years and restricting the number of coun- 
tries which may export opium to not more than 
five of the largest producers. 

3. Restricting the cultivation of opium poppies 
for the direct extraction of morphine to present 
or lower levels, and prohibiting the exportation of 
any of the extracted morphine. 

4. Establishing a control body consisting of 
not more than seven members, who shall have 
adequate powers to enforce compliance with their 
decisions. 

5. Requiring all countries and territories to sub- 
mit estimates of their requirements for raw opium 
annually to the Control Body. 

6. Specifying that each opium producing-ex- 
porting country be allotted by the Control Body 
an annual production and export quota. 

7. Requiring all importing countries and ter- 
ritories to buy in a given year the quantities of 
opium estimated as needed for that year. 

8. Assuring the producer a fair return. 

9. Requiring the standardization of opium by 
all producers. 

10. Requiring the licensing and complete con- 
trol of all cultivators by the national authorities 
with the submission annually of accurate statis- 
tics covering the area cultivated and the quantity 
of opium produced. 

11. Incorporating a system of complete and ab- 
solute government control over the distribution 
of opium and any products of the poppy contain- 
ing morphine, and over stocks. 

12. Stipulating that the parties to the proposed 
convention which are not parties to the Geneva 
Drug Convention of 1925 agree to apply Chapter 
V of the latter convention, which sets up a system 
of import permits and export authorizations for 
the control of the international trade in opium and 
other dangerous drugs. 

13. Prohibiting a producing country which be- 
comes a party to the convention from supplying, 
directly or indirectly, consuming countries which 
have not become parties to the convention, and 
prohibiting consuming countries which become 
parties to the convention from buying from pro- 



ducing countries which have not become parties 
to the convention. 

14. Stipulating that opium coming from States 
which are not parties to the convention shall not 
be allowed to pass through the territory of parties 
to the convention. 

15. Calling for the prohibition of the manufac- 
ture, importation, exportation, and use of smok- 
ing opium, and the closing of opium monopolies. 

16. Stipulating that a consuming country, 
either in the event of a demonstrated discrimina- 
tion against a consuming country in the matter 
of supply, or in the event of an emergency arising 
which interferes with or closes the existing source 
of supply of the said consuming country, may 
become a producing country, but only with the 
consent of the Control Body. 

17. Insuring the absolute and complete inde- 
pendence of the Control Body. 

18. Establishing a businesslike and specific ar- 
rangement whereby the parties to the convention 
accept responsibility for and agree to pay each 
their fair share of the cost of implementation 
through machinery set up by the convention. 

The Ministry will doubtless concur that only an 
international agreement limiting the production 
of raw opium and restricting the production of 
poppy straw for the direct extraction of morphine 
can protect the international market for raw 
opium against the competition which would result 
were poppy straw to be produced not only in the 
countries where it is now being produced but in 
many other countries also. One of the aims of 
United States policy is to have poppy straw pro- 
duction frozen at present or lower levels. This 
objective will be strongly supported at the con- 
templated poppy limitation conference. 

An international poppy limitation convention 
could also possibly furnish protection to the trade 
in raw opium against the new synthetic drug 
isonipecaine (also known as dolantin and deme- 
rol). This drug was originally manufactured by 
the Bayer firm in Germany from coal tar. It is a 
satisfactory therapeutic substitute for morphine, 
as its analgesic properties are almost identical 
with those of morphine. Isonipecaine, under vari- 
ous trade names, is now being manufactured in 
many countries for medicinal purposes. It may 
replace morphine to a considerable extent, thus 
diminishing the demand for opium for medicinal 
use. 



JULY 8, 1945 



65 



Pending the entering into effect of an interna- 
tional poppy limitation convention, the United 
States Government suggests that it would be help- 
ful if the Government of Turkey would give imme- 
diate consideration to the advisability of announc- 
ing at the earliest possible moment that it will 
hereafter prohibit the production and export of 
opium for other than strictly medicinal and scien- 
tific purposes, and will take effective measures to 
prevent illicit production of opium in its terri- 
tories and illicit traffic in opium from its terri- 
tories. 

The Government of the United States is now 
making this same suggestion to each opium-pro- 
ducing country with which it has friendly rela- 
tions. It believes that the adoption of such a 
policy by each of those countries would go far to 
ensure the success of the prohibition of the use of 
prepared opium in the Far East and to safeguard 
all countries against the possibility of an era of 
increased drug addiction similar to that which 
followed the first World War. 

It would be appreciated if the Ministry would 
inform the Embassy at an early date whether the 
Turkish Government is prepared to make the sug- 
gested announcement concerning the limitation of 
the production of opium to medicinal and scientific 
requirements. It would also be appreciated if the 
Ministry would communicate to the Embassy for 
transmission to the Government of the United 
States such observations as- it may care to submit 
in regard to the provisions which the United 
States Government has suggested be incorporated 
in the proposed poppy limitation convention. 

L. A. S. 1 

Ankara, September %2, 1944 

Translation of a note, dated May 14, 1945, from 
the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Turkish 
Government, replying to the note of the American 
Embassy, follows: 

Ministry of Foreign Affairs 

Ankara 
10150/116 

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs has the honor 
to acknowledge receipt of the Embassy of the 
United States of America's note dated September 
22, 1944, concerning the promulgation of Public 
Law No. 400, of the Seventy-eighth Congress of 



'Laurence A. Steinhardt, U.S. Ambassador to Turkey, 
1942-44. 



the United States, and the propositions of the 
American Government, with regard to the limita- 
tion of the world production of opium to the quan- 
tity necessary for purely medical and scientific 
purposes. 

Having submitted the aforementioned note and 
the texts enclosed thereto to the study of the in- 
terested authorities, this Ministry has the honor 
of making known to the honorable Embassy, with 
regard to the suggestions formulated by the Gov- 
ernment of the United States, the observations 
and suggestions which follow : 

It is with keen interest that the Turkish Gov- 
ernment has examined this recent initiative of the 
Federal Government, having as its purpose the 
prevention, by measures reducing the production 
on an international scale, of the harmful usage of 
opium, and thus realizing the aim which had not 
been attained, either in 1925 by the Second Con- 
vention of Geneva or by the Conference which met 
in Bangkok in 1933. The determination expressed 
by the Government of the United States of doing, 
at the close of hostilities in the Far East, all that 
which is in its power to prevent Japan and the 
Japanese from propagating the use of narcotics in 
that region, as well as the decision of the Govern- 
ments of the United Kingdom and the Nether- 
lands to prohibit the use of making [smok- 
ing] opium in their territories in the Far East 
when the Japanese occupation of these territories 
will have come to an end, are also happy auspices 
which make one hope that this time a successful 
conclusion will be given to a definitive and uni- 
versal ruling. 

With regard to the attitude of Turkey toward 
this question, this Ministry can only reaffirm the 
unreserved good will which has been shown in the 
preceding sentences of the Government of the Re- 
public, which, considering the eminent importance 
of the humanitarian aspect of the problem of the 
consumption of opium and with full knowledge of 
the responsibility derived therefrom for the pro- 
ducing countries, has pledged itself, since 1932, to 
adhere to every international convention ad hoc, 
which has collaborated with entire good faith in 
the work of the Advisory Committee of the League 
of Nations, and which has not hesitated before im- 
portant sacrifices of economic order and social 
difficulties arising from the limitation of the cul- 
ture of the opium poppy in Turkey, in the sole 
purpose of contributing to this beneficial action. 



66 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



In Turkey, the opium trade like that of other 
narcotics is centralized in the hands of a state 
monopoly. The entire opium production is bought 
by the Office of Land Products, a state institu- 
tion, which makes up its stocks and, should the 
occasion arise, effects the exportation of it through 
the intermediary of the state monopoly and by 
means of an importation license delivered by the 
proper authority of the consignee country. 

May it be recalled that following effective leg- 
islative measures taken by the Government in 
application of the Geneva Convention and the 
coming into effect of regulations concerning the 
Office of the Land Products, the production of 
raw opium in Turkey, which is calculated for the 
years 1029-1933 at an annual average of 394,000 
kg. (document O. C. Confid. 11/18 (3) of the 
League of Nations dated May 15, 1939), decreased 
during the years 1934-1937 to an average of 280.- 
782 kg., which corresponds to a decrease of 28.73 
per cent, and this decrease attained, for the period 
1938-1944, a proportion of 38.63 per cent, that is, 
an annual average production of 215,142 kg. 

The Government of the United States of Amer- 
ica can then be assured that the Turkish Govern- 
ment is entirely disposed to participate in the 
conference planned after the war, and that it will 
consent to every limitation of production which 
may be contemplated under equal conditions for 
all producers. 

The suggestions which the Government of the 
United States, in the hope of accelerating and of 
promoting the conclusion of an agreement, has 
indeed wished to make with regard to stipulations 
which the new Convention should contain, have 
been the object of a careful examination on the 
part of the competent authorities, and the Min- 
istry desires, hereunder, to inform the honorable 
Embassy of some reflections of the interested serv- 
ices in connection with the different points con- 
templated : 

ad 1. Considering that the purpose of the new 
Convention should be defined as being the sup- 
pression of the vicious use of narcotics, it would be 
advisable to modify article 2 of the project dated 
June 9, 1939, elaborated by the Advisory Com- 
mittee at Geneva (document O. C. Conf. 50/2 of 
the League of Nations) which contemplates the 
production of raw opium for 

1 - medical and scientific purposes as well as 
medicines meeting these requirements, 



2 - smoking opium whose consumption is fore- 

seen in article 31 of the same project, and 

3 - opium to be used for any sort of consump- 

tion admitted through the legislation of the 
country in which it should be utilized. 

In the opinion of the Turkish Government, 
paragraphs 2 and 3 may be suppressed; they are 
in accord with article 31 of the project, aiming to 
eliminate the consumption of smoking opium, pro- 
ceeding through progressive reductions. 

ad 2. According to the publications of the 
League of Nations referring to the year 1937 — 
the latest date distributed by the League of Na- 
tions — the classification of the different producers 
of opium is the following, in order of quantities 
produced : 

1 - China 1,063,295 kg 

2 - Iran 521, 715 " 

3 - Turkey 269,656 " 

4 - Indian States 250, 984 " 

5 - URSS [U.S.S.R.] 85, 280 " 

6 - Yugoslavia 53, 000 " 

7 - Territories in India of 

the British Empire 47, 381 " 

8 - Korea 28, 847 " 

9 - Japan 21, 771 " 
10 - Bulgaria 6, 175 " 

The limitation of the culture of the poppy to 
not more than five countries being proposed, it 
would be necessary to consider that in the event 
that the Conference should adhere to the point 
of view of the American Government, of the coun- 
tries enumerated above those counting from Yugo- 
slavia should suppress the culture of the poppy. 
The interested authorities who have recalled the 
figures above-mentioned only as a demonstrative 
claim realize perfectly that in case of the general 
acceptance of the formula specified by the Govern- 
ment of the United States, it would be necessary 
to take as a basis, for the necessary elimination 
of the producers, data broader than the produc- 
tion figures of a single year; it would be advisable, 
for example, to consider the average of a suitable 
period, the curve of the production in the different 
countries and the general or particular causes 
which were able to influence the noted movements 
in the culture of the poppy, as well as the differ- 
ent categories and qualities of the plant, cultivated 
in the countries in question. 

ad 3. The thesis supported by the Turkish 
Delegation and approved by Yugoslavia from the 



JULY 8, 19-15 



67 



first session of the Advisory Opium Committee in 
1939, and in the course of the deliberations bearing 
on the project of the Convention whose elabora- 
tion was judged necessary in order to extend and 
complete the provisions of the Conventions of the 
Hague (1912) and of Geneva (1925) demanded 
the pure and simple prohibition of the culture of 
the poppy destined for the direct extraction of 
morphine. As it was already demonstrated from 
these deliberations, it is in no way acceptable, nor 
just or equitable, that a decrease in the production 
of the poppy which has been obtained only 
through sacrifices consented to by the producing 
countries in the aim of serving a humanitarian 
ideal be turned to account by other countries in 
order to be compensated, even in part, by new 
methods of production which should come to be 
sanctioned. The proposition to maintain at the 
present level the direct production of morphine 
would endanger the legitimate interests of the ex- 
porting countries, since it is easy to foresee that 
the direct method, employed especially in Hun- 
gary, Poland and in URSS, will have made great 
progress in the course of the last years. 

ad 4. With regard to the proposition of forming 
a control commission composed of not more than 
seven members furnished with sufficient power to 
have its decisions executed, one needs only to re- 
vert to the petition formulated in 1939 aiming at 
the equitable representation within the committee 
of the producing countries who, under the circum- 
stances, are interested in the first place, and to 
hope that this commission will be invested with 
such powers as it has need of to fulfill its task un- 
der the desired conditions. 

ad 5. No observation. 

ad 6. Considering that the harvesting depends, 
as for every agricultural product, on atmospheric 
conditions during the periods of sowing and cut- 
ting and that it is, from this fact, impossible to fix 
in advance exactly the quantity to obtain, the ques- 
tion of the settlement for adjustment of stocks, of 
the state and of the private stock in the exporting 
countries as well as in the importing countries, a 
measure recommended in 1939, should be the object 
of a careful study. 

ad 7. No observation. 

ad 8. The Turkish Government pays particular 
attention to the question of seeing assured for the 
cultivator an equitable gain which rewards his 
efforts. The Turkish Delegation at Geneva had, 
in 1939, insisted that a careful and attentive study 



of this question be undertaken, and the Advisory 
Committee had decided to charge the Secretariat 
General to collaborate therein with the experts of 
the producing countries. 

ad 9. As a matter of fact it would be desirable to 
demand of all producers the standardization of 
their products. For Turkey it is an accomplished 
fact. 

ad 10. The proposition concerning a permit for 
the cultivator as well as the control to which he 
would be subjected and that concerning the exact 
annual statistics bearing on the surface cultivated 
and the quantity of opium produced are indeed 
justified. However, one must foresee that in the 
application of the control of the production one 
will run into certain difficulties, resulting from the 
fact that it is practically impossible to control or 
to verify the exact quantity of opium harvested on 
a definite ground. This quantity can, in effect, 
vary according to the atmospheric conditions, the 
rainfall in the cutting period, the moisture of the 
earth and other factors which are uncontrollable. 
Finally, there is the question of the expenses 
caused by the control organization. A system of 
limited control could be found, if in the prices 
fixed for the buying of opium the buyers would 
consent to include a certain margin for this organ- 
ization, to add to the equitable gain provided for 
the cultivator. 

ad 11. The importation and the distribution of 
the narcotics extracted from opium are submitted, 
in Turkey, to a system of the state monopoly; 
thus the consumption and the employment of these 
drugs are, according to the regulations of a spe- 
cial law, controlled by the services of the Ministry 
of Hygiene and of Social Assistance. 

ad 12. The Turkish Government approves the 
proposition leading to the submission of the in- 
ternational trade of opium and other dangerous 
narcotics to a system of permits for importation 
and exportation ; this system has been applied in 
Turkey since the putting into effect of the law on 
the State Monopoly. 

ad 13. The question presents two different as- 
pects : 

a) Prohibiting a country which becomes a party 
to the Convention of furnishing to consumer 
countries which have not adhered to it, and 

b) Prohibiting consumer countries from buying 
from a producing country which has not ad- 
hered to the Convention. 



68 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



In the first eventuality there is ground to ques- 
tion if the pronounced prohibition would not have 
as a result the furnishing to producers who have 
remained outside the convention an additional 
premium resulting from the fact that they would 
be without competition. The second eventuality, 
on the other hand, constitutes in the eyes of the 
Government of the Republic one of the essential 
points for the convention to conclude, which de- 
serves the greatest attention. 

ad 14. No observation. 

ad 15. Prohibiting the manufacture, the im- 
portation, the exportation and the use of smoking 
opium, as well as the closing of the smoking opium 
monopolies accords entirely with the views of 
the Turkish authorities. This Ministry must, 
however, point out that some categories of raw 
opium are used for medical and scientific pur- 
poses, as well as for smoking opium. Such is 
the case for the finest qualities of Turkish opium 
which lend themselves equally to both sorts of 
use. 

ad 16. The Turkish Government would not 
know how to concur in the suggestion that a con- 
sumer country, in the eventuality that, for one 
cause or another, it could not obtain from the ex- 
porting country which had been designated to 
supply it the required quantity of opium, would 
be authorized itself to become a producer. By 
far the most simple solution in such cases would be 
that of dividing the supplying of the country in 
question among the other producing countries. 

ad 17. The absolute and complete independence 
of the Control Commission is, in fact, very desir- 
able; it is a question, at this juncture, of searching 
for the proper means to assure this independence. 

ad 18. It seems that, to arrive at an accurate 
arrangement concerning the division among the 
contracting parties of the expenses of execution, 
as well as for the functioning of an effective con- 
trol of the culture and production, the prices 
agreed to by the purchasers for the products, 
which will be furnished to them, will be of great 
importance. 

The Government of the Eepublic would suggest, 
moreover, the introduction of the following points 
in the agenda of the proposed Conference : 

1. The preparation of statistics indicating the 
opium harvests of producing countries for the 
period between 1925 and 1932, inclusive, and the 
relation of these harvests to the world production. 



2. The preparation of statistics indicating the 
exports effected by the different producing coun- 
tries for this same period as well as the relation 
of these figures to those of world exportation. 

3. Research, on the part of the consignee coun- 
tries, into the purposes and the quantities of the 
exports. 

4. The preparation, for the importing countries, 
of statistics showing the quantities imported in 
this same period, and the purposes to which they 
were destined (consumption for the manufacture 
of narcotics or of medicines, consumption for 
smoking or for food) with an indication of the 
respective figures. 

5. Research into the relationship between in- 
creases and decreases of production and of con- 
sumption, as well as on the causes of these move- 
ments. 

6. Organization, on the basis of the data thus 
obtained, of a just distribution of the portions of 
production and exportation due each of the pro- 
ducing states, so as to insure the suppression of 
all competition among the interested parties. 

7. Coordination of the purchase price of opium 
of the producing countries with the current price 
of drugs which are made from it. 

,8. Compensation for losses undergone by the 
peasants due to the limitation of regions author- 
ized to continue the cultivation of the poppy by a 
premium levied on the purchase price, serving to 
pay to the interested parties annual indemnities. 

9. The arrival at a suitable formula to balance 
the interests of the states signatory to the Geneva 
Convention which, in application of the provisions 
relating to it, diminished their production, and of 
the states, not being in this position, which con- 
tinued to produce without any restriction, per- 
mitted the use of opium in their territory and 
exported narcotics in the international market. 

10. Adoption of decisions to safeguard the 
legitimate rights, at least until the putting into 
effect of a new Convention, the non-recognition of 
positions recently acquired, among others of the 
quality of producers in those countries which have 
not been producing for long, and the immediate 
prohibition of the straw method. 

In conclusion, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs 
wishes to stress the following points which it con- 
siders to be of prime importance for the Turkish 
representation at the Conference which is to be 
held: 



JULY 8, 1945 



69 



a) It is absolutely indispensable to proclaim the 
prohibition of the straw method (which consists 
of extracting the morphine directly from the 
poppy), and of all production in countries which, 
by practicing this method, acquired the status of 
producers after the conclusion of the Geneva 
Convention (1925). 

b) There is an urgent necessity, seeing the com- 
petition which the synthetic drug, isonipecaine 
(known also under the names of dolantin and 
demerol), makes and will be able to make in the 
future on a still more vast scale to raw opium, to 
assure the limitation, if not the complete prohibi- 
tion, of these drugs. 

c) The purpose desired by the limitation of the 
production being the struggle against the harmful 
use of opium and of its derivatives, the Confer- 
ence will have to distinguish between the produc- 
tion of smoking opium and that of the poppy 
which, in certain regions of Turkey, is cultivated 
as a plant serving for the extraction of oil, which 
constitutes there, as a result of special conditions 
making impossible the breeding of cattle or the 
production of all other substitutes, an essential 
and indispensable element for nourishment and 
whose grains constitute one of the export mate- 
rials of the country. 

In bringing the above to the knowledge of the 
Embassy of the United States of America and in 
asking it to kindly inform its Government, this 
Ministry takes this opportunity to renew the assur- 
ance of its high consideration. 

Ankara, May 14, 19^5 

Conversation Between the 
Greek Foreign Minister 
and the President 

STATEMENT BY THE PRESIDENT 

[Released to the press by the White House July 5] 

The President today had the opportunity of a 
friendly conversation with Mr. Sofianopoulos, 
Foreign Minister of Greece, who arrived yester- 
day in Washington after the conclusion of the 
San Francisco conference, where he beaded the 
Greek Delegation. The President expressed ap- 
preciation to Mr. Sofianopoulos for his excellent 



work in San Francisco as chairman of one of the 
most important Conference committees. 

Mr. Sofianopoulos discussed with the President 
the United Nations Charter, and the President 
was pleased with Mr. Sofianopoulos' expression of 
confidence that the friendly atmosphere and the 
resulting success of the Conference enabled 
Greece, as one of the smaller nations, to look for- 
ward to a period of international understanding 
and security within the framework of a united 
family of nations. 

The President remarked with satisfaction upon 
the recent official notification to Tokyo by the 
Greek Government that Greece has considered it- 
self in a state of war with Japan since its sever- 
ance of diplomatic relations on December 8, 1941, 1 
and welcomed this further evidence that the 
Greek people, who played such a brave role in re- 
sisting Axis aggression on their own soil, are 
stanchly lined up with the Allies in their determi- 
nation to see through to a victorious close the war 
against Japan. The President assured Mr. 
Sofianopoulos that the American people would 
never forget the heroic attitude of the Greek 
people or the great sacrifices made by Greece in 
the common interest. 

In discussing the urgent problems of rehabilita- 
tion and reconstruction facing Greece at this time, 
the President expressed to Mr. Sofianopoulos the 
sincere interest of this Government in seeing 
normal economic conditions reestablished in 
Greece as soon as possible. In this connection the 
President assured Mr. Sofianopoulos of this Gov- 
ernment's desire not only to facilitate the relief 
and rehabilitation program of UNRRA in Greece, 
but also to assist in every feasible way in Greek 
reconstruction. 

Mr. Sofianopoulos expressed to the President 
the heart-felt gratitude of the Greek nation for the 
sympathy constantly manifested by the American 
Government and people during the dark years of 
occupation, and his appreciation for the new 
words of encouragement and hope which the Pres- 
ident gave him for the Greek people. 



1 In a note of June 30, 1945 to the Department of State 
the Greek Ambassador stated that the Greek Govern- 
ment has proclaimed that a state of war exists with 
Japan as of December 8, 1941, and he stated that the 
Japanese Government was so notified through the 
Swedish Embassy at Tokyo. 



70 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Eighth Anniversary of the 
Japanese Attack on China 

MESSAGE FROM PRESIDENT TRUMAN TO 
THE PRESIDENT OF THE CHINESE 
NATIONAL GOVERNMENT' 

[Released to the press July G] 

On this day [July 7] marking the eighth anni- 
versary of your country's heroic stand against the 
Japanese aggressor, I desire, on behalf of the 
people of the United States, to reaffirm to the 
Chinese people our deep friendship and our ad- 
miration of the valiant struggle which China has 
waged in the cause of freedom and justice through 
these long years of untold suffering and sacrifice. 

In expressing these sentiments, we are happy 
that the clouds which in previous years have dark- 
ened this anniversary for the gallant Chinese 
people are at last lifting. The Nazi aggressor has 
been utterly defeated and the full Meight of Allied 
might is gathering momentum to be hurled against 
the Japanese. The task of crushing Japanese 
militarism is in its final phase, and in the task of 
building an enduring peace, the first step has been 
successfully accomplished at San Francisco. 

With respect and affection, we salute the 
Chinese nation — our long-tested friend, our 
comrade in battle, and our valued associate in the 
great work that lies ahead. 

Harry S. Truman 



MESSAGE FROM THE SECRETARY OF STATE 
TO THE PRESIDENT OF THE 
CHINESE EXECUTIVE YUAN 2 

[Released to the press July G] 

Today [July 7] it is eight full years since your 
country made its momentous decision to resist 
Japanese aggression. On this occasion it is a 
privilege for me to join with other Americans in 
doing honor to the unconquerable spirit that has 
inspired the Chinese people to carry on so bravely 
despite long trials and grievous sacrifices. 



1 Chiang Kai-shek. 
J T. V. Soong. 



The rapid progress of the present Allied drives 
against the Japanese and the solid achievements of 
the San Francisco Conference give ground for 
high hopes that, through our continuing deter- 
mined and concerted efforts, we may not only ac- 
complish the relatively early defeat of the last of 
the Axis aggressors, but also provide effective 
assurance that such aggressors cannot rise again 
to scourge mankind. 

James F. Byrnes 



Military Service 

Chile, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela 

Military-service agreements have been concluded 
recently between the United States Government 
and the Governments of four Latin American co- 
belligerents, Chile, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela, 
regarding the application of the Selective Train- 
ing and Service Act of 1940, as amended, to 
nationals of those countries residing in the United 
States. Each of the agreements provides that 
nationals of the signatory country who have not 
declared their intention of becoming American 
citizens may elect to serve in the forces of their 
own country, in lieu of service in the armed forces 
of the United States, at any time prior to their 
induction into the armed forces of this country, or, 
if already serving in the armed forces of the 
United States, such nationals may elect to transfer 
to the armed forces of their own country. Each 
agreement provides that reciprocal treatment 
will be granted to American citizens residing in 
the territory of the other contracting Government. 

Each of the four agreements was effected by an 
exchange of notes at Washington. The agree- 
ment with Chile is effective June 11, 1945, with 
Ecuador April 5, with Peru June 12, and witli 
Venezuela May 11. 



Merchant-Shipping Agreement 

Brazil, Sueden 

The Governments of Brazil and Sweden have 
acceded to the Agreement on Principles Having 
Reference to the Continuance of Co-ordinated 
Control of Merchant Shipping signed at London 
August 5, 1944. The accession of Brazil is effec- 
tive June 1, 1945 and of Sweden June 8, 1945. 



JULY 8, 1945 



71 



Departure of the Regent of Iraq 

EXCHANGE OF TELEGRAMS BETWEEN THE 
REGENT AND PRESIDENT TRUMAN 



[Released to the press July 3] 

President Truman 
White House 



June 27, 1945 



On leaving the United States at the end of an 
unforgettable visit I send to you and to the people 
of this great country my most cordial good wishes 
and my most appreciative thanks for the lavish 
hospitality which I have enjoyed and for the very 
great kindness and cordiality which everywhere 
has greeted me. It has been my privilege to tour 
many states and to meet representatives of many 
sections of your national life. I have been greatly 
impressed by everything I have seen: The mag- 
nitude of America's war effort, her limitless re- 
sources and the immensity of her industrial eco- 
nomic and educational development. I am happy 
in the belief that this visit lias intensified appre- 
ciation of our common ideals and it is my very 
sincere hope that the bonds of friendship with 
which we are so happily united at the present time 
will grow ever stronger and closer with the pas- 
sage of time. 

Abdul Ilah 



Marine Transportation and 
Litigation 

Norway 

An agreement between the United States and 
Norway regarding certain problems of marine 
transportation and litigation ("Knock-for- 
Knock" agreement) was effected by an exchange 
of notes between the Acting Secretary of State and 
the Norwegian Ambassador signed at Washing- 
ton May 29, 1945. Each contracting Government 
agrees not to make any claim for damages or sal- 
vage services either directly against the other con- 
tracting Government or in any case where such 
other Government represents that such claim if 
made would ultimately be borne by that Govern- 
ment. The agreement applies to all claims arising 
before the effective date of the agreement but re- 
maining unsettled at such date or which may arise 
during the currency of the agreement. The agree- 
ment provides that it shall remain in force until 
the expiration of one month from the date upon 
which either of the contracting Governments shall 
give written notice of their intention to terminate 
it. 

Similar agreements are in force between the 
United States and Australia 1 and the United 
States and the United Kingdom. 2 



July 2, 1945 
His Royal Highness 
Prince Abdul Ilah 
Regent of Iraq 

Please accept my thanks for the cordial message 
which Your Highness has so kindly sent to me and 
to the people of this country upon your departure 
for Iraq. 

I have enjoyed the opportunity of meeting you 
personally and cordially reciprocate both your 
good wishes and the hope you express for the con- 
tinuing growth of the friendly relations between 
our two countries. 

Harry S. Truman 



1 Bulletin of Apr. 8, 1945, p. 621. 

2 Executive Agreement Series 282 and Bulletin of Jan. 
9. 1943, p. 28. 



Publication by Anglo-American 
Caribbean Commission 

[Released to the press by the Anglo-American Caribbean Commis- 
sion June 25] 

The Anglo-American Caribbean Commission 
on June 25 issued a publication entitled, "The 
Caribbean Tourist Trade — A Regional Ap- 
proach." 

In approaching the subject the Commission was 
aware that in most of the Caribbean territories 
there was a realization of the possibilities of tour- 
ism and that plans were being made for develop- 
ment after the war. The Commission believed 
that the activities and plans in the individual ter- 
ritories could be supplemented by an examina- 
tion of the case for regional collaboration on tour- 



72 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



ism and by the preparation of studies covering 
certain aspects of the subject which would have 
general applicability to the entire area. 

The publication presents information and 
analysis which, particularly in view of the neces- 
sity for coordinating the development of trans- 
portation and recreational facilities, indicates the 
advisability of systematic regional cooperation 
for the expansion of tourism in the Caribbean 
area, with each territory, of course, being free to 
promote and develop its own particular attrac- 
tions. 



"= THE FOREIGN SERVICE W= 



Consular Offices 

The American Consulate at Adana, Turkey, was 
closed on July 4, 1945. 



THE DEPARTMENT ^f 

Appointment of Officers 

In the Office of the Assistant Secretary in charge 
of economic affairs, the following designations have 
been made: 

Kingsley W. Hamilton as Assistant to the As- 
sistant Secretary, effective June 27, 1945; 

Livingston T. Merchant as Special Assistant to 
the Assistant Secretary to succeed John E. Or- 
chard, effective July 9, 1945 ; 

Willard L. Thorp as Deputy to the Assistant 
Secretary to succeed Edward S. Mason, effective 
July 5, 1945. Mr. Thorp will also succeed Mr. 
Mason as Vice Chairman of the Executive Com- 
mittee on Economic Foreign Policy. 

Donald S. Gilpatric as Chief of the War Areas 
Economic Division, effective July 9, 1945. 



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PUBLICATIONS 



Foreign Commerce Weekly 

The article listed below will be found in the July 7 issue 
of the Department of Commerce publication entitled 
Foreign Commerce Weekly, copies of which may be ob- 
tained from the Superintendent of Documents, Govern- 
ment Printing Office, for 10 cents each : 

"Tobacco in Jamaica", by Frederick L. Royt, Vice Con- 
sul at Kingston. 



= THE CONGRESS 



Relief of Settlers on the International Strip at Nogales, 
Ariz. H. Rept. 793, 79th Cong., to accompany S. 69. 32 
pp. [Favorable report.] 

Merchant Ship Sales Act of 1945. H. Rept. &31, 79th 
Cong., to accompany H. R. 3603. 15 pp. [Favorable 
report. ] 

Authorizing the Admission Into the United States of 
Persons of Races Indigenous to India, To Make Them 
Racially Eligible for Naturalization. H. Rept. 854, 79th 
Cong., to accompany H. R. 3517. 8 pp. [Favorable 
report.] 

Amend the Act Providing for the Disposal of Certain 
Records of the United States Government. S. Rept. 447, 
79th Cong., to accompany H. R. 44. 3 pp. [Favorable 
report. ] 

The Charter of the United Nations. Remarks of Hon. 
Arthur H. Vandenberg, A Senator from the State of 



Michigan, in the Senate of the United States, June 29, 
1945, relative to the Charter of the United Nations for the 
maintenance of international peace and security. S. Doc. 
59, 79th Cong, ii, 12 pp. 

To Repeal the Johnson Act : Hearing Before the Com- 
mittee on Finance, United States Senate, Seventy-ninth 
Congress, first session, on S. 636, a bill to repeal the act 
entitled "An Act To Prohibit Financial Transactions With 
any Foreign Government in Default on Its Obligations to 
the United States", approved April 13, 1934. May 17, 24, 
and June 7, 1945. iii, 60 pp. [Department of State pp. 
6, 15-32.] 

1945 Extension of Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act : 
Hearings Before the Committee on Ways and Means, 
House of Representatives, Seventy-ninth Congress, first 
session, on H.R. 2652 superseded by H. R. 3240, a bill to 
extend the authority of the President under section 350 
of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended, and for other pur- 
poses. Volume 1 [revised]. April 18, 19, 20, 21, 23, 24, 
25, 26, 27, 28, 30, May 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, and 
14, 1945. Indexed, vii, 1528 pp. [Department of State 
pp. 5-42S.] 

Post-War Disposition of Merchant Vessels : Hearings Be- 
fore the Committee on the Merchant Marine and Fisheries, 
House of Representatives, Seventy-ninth Congress, first 
session, on H.R. 1425, a bill to provide for the sale of 
certain government-owned merchant vessels and for other 
purposes. Part 2, April 19, May 2, 3, and 23, 1945. iii, 
234 pp. 

Universal Military Training : Hearings Before the Select 
Committee on Postwar Military Policy, House of Repre- 
sentatives, Seventy-ninth Congress, first session, pursuant 
to H. Res. 465, a resolution to establish a select committee 
on postwar military policy. Part 1, June 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 
11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, and 19, 1945. vii, 614 pp. [Depart- 
ment of State pp. 1-5.] 



U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING 0FFICE:I94S 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 





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VOL. XIII, NO. 316 



JULY 15, 1945 



In this issue 



SUMMARY OF REPORT ON RESULTS OF SAN FRANCISCO CONFERENCE 



INTER-AMERICAN RELATIONS AFTER WORLD WAR II 
By George H. Butler 



For complete contents 
see inside cover 



^ NT O*, 



* * 




AtES °^ 



U . s. SUPS vTCvnFNT Of OOCUkUUS 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

BULLETIN 



Vol. XIII. No. 316. 




, Poblicatioh 2360 



July 15, 1945 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Research and 
Publication, Office of Public Affairs, 
provides the public and interested 
agencies of the Government with 
information on developments in the 
field of foreign relations and on the 
work of the Department of State and 
the Foreign Service. The BULLETIN 
includes press releases on foreign 
policy issued by the White House and 
the Department, and statements and 
addresses made by the President and 
by the Secretary of State and other 
officers of the Department, as well as 
special articles on various phases of 
international affairs and the functions 
of the Department. Information con- 
cerning treaties and international 
agreements to which the United States 
is or may become a party and treaties 
of general international interest is 
included. 

Publications of the Department, 
cumulative lists of which are published 
at the end of each quarter, as well as 
legislative material in the field of inter- 
national relations, are listed currently. 

The BULLETIN, published with the 
approval of the Director of the Bureau 
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ontents 



American Republics 

Inter-American Relations After World War II. 
By George H. Butler 

Europe 

Bastille Day — Symbol of Freedom. Statement by 
the President 

Policy Toward New Government in Italy. Letter 
From Acting Secretary Grew to Acting Chair- 
man Johnson 



Page 



88 



S3 



87 



Far East 

Concerning Japanese Peace Offers. Statement by 

Acting Secretary Grew 84 

Sinking of the' AwaMaru" 85 

Cultural Cooperation 

Philologist To Visit in Brazil 83 

Visit of Venezuelan Dentist 100 

Economic Affairs 

Sugar Shipments to Spain 100 

The United Nations 

Summary of Report on Results of San Francisco 

Conference 77 

Treaty Information 

Food-Production Agreement. Venezuela .... 99 

Exchange of Ratifications of Treaty of Friendship. 

China — Costa Rica 99 

Inter-American Conventions. Peru 100 

Cooperative Education. El Salvador 100 

The Department 

International Information Division 100 

Appointment of Officers 101 

The Congress 101 



Summary of Report on 

Results of San Francisco Conference 



[Released to the press by the White House July 9] 

San Francisco, California 

June 26, 1945 

to the president of the united states 

Sir: 

The United Nations Conference on Interna- 
tional Organization met in San Francisco on the 
25th day of April, 1945. At that time the war in 
Europe had lasted for more than five years; the 
war in the Pacific for more than three; the war in 
China for almost eight. Casualties of a million 
men, dead, wounded, captured, and missing had 
been suffered by the United States alone. The 
total military casualties of the nations which had 
fought the European war were estimated at some 
fourteen millions dead and forty-five millions 
wounded or captured without count of the civilian 
dead and maimed and missing — a multitude of 
men, women, and children greater than the whole 
number of inhabitants of many populous coun- 
tries. The destruction among them all of houses 
and the furniture of houses, of factories, schools, 
shops, cities, churches, libraries, works of art, 
monuments of the past, reached inexpressible 
values. Of the destruction of other and less tangi- 
ble, things, it is not possible to speak in terms of 
cost — families scattered by the war, minds and 
spirits broken, work interrupted, years lost from 
the lives of a generation. 

Thirty years before the San Francisco Con- 
ference was called, many of the nations repre- 
sented there had fought another war of which the 
cost in destruction had been less only than that 
of the present conflict. Total military casualties 
in the war of 1914-1918 were estimated at thirty- 
seven million men. Counting enemy dead with 
the dead among the Allies, and civilian losses with 
military losses, over thirteen million human be- 
ings, together with a great part of the work they 
had accomplished and the possessions they owned, 
had been destroyed. Many of the nations repre- 
sented at San Francisco had fought the second war 



still weakened by the wounds they suffered in the 
first. Many had lost the best of two succeeding 
generations of young men. 

It was to prevent a third recurrence of this great 
disaster that the Conference of the United Nations 
was called in San Francisco according to the plans 
which Mr. Cordell Hull as Secretary of State had 
nurtured to fruition. The Conference had one 
purpose and one purpose only : to draft the char- 
ter of an international organization through which 
the nations of the world might work together in 
their common hope for peace. It was not a new 
or an untried endeavor. Again and again in the 
course of history men who have suffered war have 
tried to make an end of war. Twenty-six years 
before the San Francisco Conference met, the Con- 
ference of Paris, under the inspired and coura- 
geous leadership of Woodrow Wilson, wrote the 
Covenant of a League of Nations which many be- 
lieved would serve to keep the peace. That labor 
did not gain the wide support it needed to succeed. 

But the Conference at San Francisco, though it 
was called upon to undertake a task which no pre- 
vious international conference or meeting had ac- 
complished, met nevertheless with high hope for 
the work it had to do. It did not expect — cer- 
tainly no member of the American Delegation ex- 
pected — that a final and definitive solution of the 
problem of war would be evolved. Members of 
the Conference realized, from the first day, that 
an evil which had killed some forty million human 
beings, armed and unarmed, within the period of 
thirty years, and which, before that, had ravaged 
the world again and again, from the beginning of 
history, would not be eradicated by the mere act 
of writing a charter, however well designed. 

1 This letter from Edward R. Stettinius, Jr., to Presi- 
dent Truman appears in Charter of the United Nations: 
Report to the President on the Results of the San Fran- 
cisco Conference by the Chairman of the United States 
Delegation, the Secretary of State (Department of 
State publication 2349, Conference Series 71), pp. 9-19. 
The letter is printed separately as Department of State 
publication 2355, Conference Series 72. 

77 



78 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Nevertheless, the Conference at San Francisco 
had behind it the demonstrated capacity of its 
members to work together to a degree rarely if 
ever before attained by sovereign nations. Not 
only in the prosecution of a war fought on four 
continents and the waters and islands of every 
ocean under conditions of the greatest danger 
and difficulty, but in the preparation for the termi- 
nation of the war and, more particularly, in the 
preparation for the organization of the post-war 
world to keep the peace, the principal Allies had 
established a working and workable collaboration 
without precedent in the history of warfare. At 
Moscow in 1943, the United States, the United 
Kingdom and the Soviet Union and China had 
made a pledge which still endures, to continue their 
united action "for the organization and mainte- 
nance of peace and security". At Dumbarton 
Oaks, these four Allies had reached agreement 
upon proposals for a world security organization, 
and later at Yalta, the United States, the United 
Kingdom and the Soviet Union had further ex- 
tended the area of their common understanding to 
which China gave her full adherence. These pro- 
posals, immediately published for the criticisms 
and comments of the people of all the United 
Nations, became the basis of the work at San 
Francisco. 

Furthermore, there was reason, in the nature of 
the San Francisco Conference itself, to hope that 



Charter of the United Nations Together With 
the Statute of the International Court of Justice. 
Signed at the United Nations Conference on 
International Organization, San Francisco, Cali- 
fornia, June 26, 1945. Department of State pub- 
lication 2353, Conference Series 74. 62 pp. 
Free. 

This pamphlet includes the texts of the Char- 
ter and of the Statute of the International Court 
of Justice, and a chart of the Organization of the 
United Nations. 

Interim Arrangements Concluded by the Gov- 
ernments Represented at the United Nations 
Conference on International Organization, San 
Francisco, California, June 26, 1945, Department 
of State publication 2357, Conference Series 75. 
4 pp. Free. 

Copies of these publications may be obtained 
by writing the Department of State, Division of 
Research and Publication, Washington 25, D.C. 



more could be accomplished there than had been 
possible at earlier meetings. The Conference 
called at San Francisco was not a peace-time con- 
ference summoned to debate the theory of inter- 
national cooperation, or a post-war conference 
convened to agree upon a treaty. It was a war- 
time conference. Every nation represented at San 
Francisco was in a state of war when the Confer- 
ence began. Many were engaged throughout the 
weeks of its deliberation in bitter and costly fight- 
ing. Not only the peoples of the United Nations 
but the more than sixty million men and women 
enlisted still in the armed forces of those nations 
regarded the Conference, and had a right to regard 
it, as a meeting of their representatives engaged 
upon a labor of immediate importance and concern 
to them. It was a peoples' conference and a sol- 
diers' conference in the sense that it met under the 
eyes of the soldiers who fought this war and the 
peoples who endured it, as no previous conference 
to deal with peace and war had ever met. It was a 
conference, ajso, which met in a world which knew 
of its own knowledge that another war would be 
fought, if there were another war, with weapons 
capable of reaching every part of the earth — that 
similar weapons had indeed been brought to the 
point of use in the present conflict. 

These facts exerted a compelling influence not 
only on the work of the Conference but on the 
Charter it evolved. It was the common and equal 
determination of all those who participated in its 
labors that the Conference must reach agreement : 
that a charter must be written. The possibility of 
failure was never at any time admitted. It was 
the determination of the delegates, also, that the 
Charter which the Conference produced should be 
a charter which would attempt to meet and to sat- 
isfy the concern and the anxiety of those who had 
suffered war and who knew at first hand the reali- 
ties of violence. It would be a charter which would 
combine, with a declaration of united purpose to 
preserve the peace, a realistic and suitable machin- 
ery to give that purpose practical effect. 

The Charter drafted by the Conference at San 
Francisco is such a charter. Its outstanding char- 
acteristic and the key to its construction is its dual 
quality as declaration and as constitution. As 
declaration it constitutes a binding agreement by 
the signatory nations to work together for peace- 
ful ends and to adhere to certain standards of 
international morality. As constitution it creates 
four overall instruments by which these ends may 



JULY 15, 1945 

be achieved in practice and these standards actu- 
ally maintained. The first function of the Charter 
is moral and idealistic: the second realistic and 
practical. Men and women who have lived 
through war are not ashamed, as other genera- 
tions sometimes are, to declare the depth and the 
idealism of their attachment to the cause of peace. 
But neither are they ashamed to recognize the 
realities of force and power which war has forced 
them to see and to endure. 

As declaration the Charter commits the United 
Nations to the maintenance of "international peace 
and security", to the development of "friendly rela- 
tions among nations based on respect for the prin- 
ciple of equal rights and self-determination of 
peoples", and to the achievement of "international 
cooperation in solving international problems", 
together with the promotion and encouragement 
of "respect for human rights and for fundamental 
freedoms for all". More precisely, the United 
Nations agree to promote "higher standards of liv- 
ing, full employment, and conditions of economic 
and social progress and development ; solutions of 
international economic, social, health, and related 
problems; and international cultural and educa- 
tional cooperation ; and universal respect for, and 
observance of, human rights and fundamental free- 
doms for all without distinction as to race, sex, 
language, or religion". 

Further, in its capacity as declaration, the Char- 
ter states the principles which its Members accept 
as binding. "Sovereign equality" of the member 
states is declared to be the foundation of their asso- 
ciation with each other. Fulfillment in good faith 
of the obligations of the member states is pledged 
"in order to ensure to all of them the rights and 
benefits resulting from membership" in the Organ- 
ization. Members are to "settle their international 
disputes by peaceful means" and in such manner as 
not to endanger international peace and security, 
and justice. Members are to "refrain in their 
international relations from the threat or use of 
force against the territorial integrity or political 
independence of any state, or in any other manner 
inconsistent with the Purposes of the United 
Nations". At the same time Members bind them- 
selves to give the Organization "every assistance 
in any action it takes" in accordance with the 
Charter, and to "refrain from giving assistance to 
any state against which the United Nations is 
taking preventive or enforcement action". 



79 



The United Nations Charter as Declaration 
and as Constitution: A Letter to the President 
From Edward R. Stettinius, Jr., Chairman of the 
United States Delegation to the United Nations 
Conference at San Francisco. San Francisco, 
California, June 26, 1945. Department of State 
publication 2355, Conference Series 72. 16 pp. 
Free. 

In his letter to the President Mr. Stettinius 
describes the duties and functions of the Secu- 
rity Council, the General Assembly, the Eco- 
nomic and Social Council, and the Court as the 
four "principal tools through which, and by 
which, the general aims and purposes of the 
Charter would be carried out". 

Addressing President Truman, Mr. Stettinius 
has written : 

"Upon the belief that the Charter as Consti- 
tution will furnish effective means for the reali- 
zation of the purposes fixed by the Charter as 
Declaration ; and upon the belief that the Char- 
ter as Declaration will set noble and enduring 
goals for the work of the Charter as Constitu- 
tion, I base my firm conviction that the adoption 
of the Charter is in the best interests of the 
United States and of the world. . . . every 
word, every sentence, every paragraph of the 
Charter's text was examined and reconsidered by 
the representatives of fifty nations and much of 
it reworked. For the first time in the history 
of the world, the world's peoples directly, and 
through their governments, collaborated in the 
drafting of an international constitution. What 
has resulted is a human document . . . [which] 
offers the world an instrument by which a real 
beginning may be made upon the work of peace." 

Copies of this publication may be obtained by 
writing the Department of State, Division of 
Research and Publication, Washington 25, D.C. 



Finally, the Charter as declaration binds those 
of its Members having responsibilities for admin- 
istration of territories whose peoples have not yet 
attained the full measure of self-government, to 
recognize the principle "that the interests of the 
inhabitants of these territories are paramount" 
and to "accept as a sacred trust" the obligation to 
promote their well-being to the utmost. 

These declarations of purposes and principles 
are notable in themselves. They state, without 
condition or qualification, a first and overriding 
purpose "to maintain international peace and se- 
curity". International peace and security are the 
essential conditions of the world increasingly free 
from fear and free from want which President 



80 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Roosevelt conceived as the great goal and final ob- 
jective of the United Nations in this war and for 
the realization of which he and Cordell Hull 
worked unceasingly through twelve of the most de- 
cisive years of history. 

But neither these declarations, nor those others 
which assert the intention of the United Nations 
to bring about the economic and social conditions 
essential to an enduring peace, or to promote re- 
spect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. 
would suffice, in and of themselves, to meet the evil 
of war and the fear of war which the Conference 
at San Francisco was called to consider. What 
was needed, as the Charter itself declares, was 
machinery to give effect to the purpose to maintain 
the peace — "effective collective measures for the 
prevention and removal of threats to the peace". 
What was needed, if the United Nations were 
really determined to have peace, was the means to 
peace — "to bring about by peaceful means . . . 
adjustment or settlement of international dis- 
putes". 

These means the Charter in its capacity as con- 
stitution undertakes to establish. It creates, in 
addition to its Secretariat and the Trusteeship 
Council with its specialized but vital functions, 
four principal overall instruments to arm its pur- 
poses and to accomplish its ends: an enforcement 
agency ; a forum for discussion and debate ; a social 
and economic institute through which the learn- 
ing and the knowledge of the world may be brought 
to bear upon its common problems; an interna- 
tional court in which justiciable cases may be 
heard. The first is called the Security Council; 
the second, the General Assembly; the third, the 
Economic and Social Council; the fourth, the 
International Court of Justice. Their functions 
are the functions appropriate to their names. 

It will be the duty of the Security Council, 
supported by the pledged participation, and 
backed by military contingents to be made avail- 
able by the member states, to use its great prestige 
to bring about by peaceful means the adjustment 
or the settlement of international disputes. 
Should these means fail, it is its duty, as it has 
the power, to take whatever measures are neces- 
sary, including measures of force, to suppress 
acts of aggression or other breaches of the peace. 
It will be the duty of the Security Council, in 
other words, to make good the commitment of 
the United Nations to maintain international 
peace and security, turning that lofty purpose 



into practice. To that end the Council will be 
given the use and the support of diplomatic, eco- 
nomic and military tools and weapons in the con- 
trol of the United Nations. 

It will be the responsibility of the General 
Assembly to discuss, debate, reveal, expose, lay 
open — to perform, that is to say, the healthful 
and ventilating functions of a free deliberative 
body, without the right or duty to enact or leg- 
islate. The General Assembly may take up any 
matter within the scope of the Charter or relat- 
ing to the powers and functions of any organs 
provided in the Charter. It may discuss the 
maintenance of peace and security and make rec- 
ommendations on that subject to the Security . 
Council calling its attention to situations likely 
to endanger peace. It may initiate studies and 
make recommendations for the purpose of pro- 
moting international cooperation in the mainte- 
nance of peace and security. It is charged with 
the duty of assisting in the realization of human 
rights and fundamental freedoms and encourag- 
ing the development and codification of interna- 
tional law. It may debate any situation, regard- 
less of origin, which it thinks likely to impair the 
general welfare, and recommend measures for its 
peaceful adjustment. It may receive and con- 
sider reports from the various organs of the United 
Nations, including the Security Council. 

Stated in terms of the purposes and principles 
of the Charter, in other words, it is the function 
of the General Assembly, with its free discussion 
and its equal votes, to realize in fact the "sovereign 
equality" of the member states to which the United 
Nations are committed and to develop in practice 
the "friendly relations among nations based on 
respect for the principle of equal rights and self- 
determination of peoples" which the chapter on 
Purposes names as its second objective. Further- 
more, it is the function of the Assembly to realize 
in its own deliberations the "international co- 
operation in the solution of international prob- 
lems" which the Charter recites as one of its 
principal aims, and to employ the weapon of its 
public debates, and the prestige of its recommen- 
dations, to promote and encourage "respect for 
human rights and for fundamental freedoms". 
The relation of the Economic and Social Council 
to the stated purposes of the United Nations is 
similarly direct and functional. The attainment 
of the ends which the United Nations lists among 
its Purposes in economic, social, health and other 



JULY 15, 1945 



81 



related fields, requires expert knowledge and care- 
ful study and the development of collaborative 
programs of action. The instrument devised by 
the Charter to that end is a Council in the eco- 
nomic and social field acting under the general re- 
sponsibility of the Assembly and consisting of rep- 
resentatives of eighteen states. 

The Economic and Social Council is empowered 
to make and initiate studies in its field, to frame 
reports and to make recommendations on its own 
initiative not only to the General Assembly, but to 
the Members of the Organization and to the spe- 
cialized agencies in the fields of economics, health, 
culture, labor, trade, finance, human rights, and 
the like, which will be associated with the United 
Nations under the Council's coordination. Fur- 
thermore, the Council is authorized to call interna- 
tional conferences "on matters falling within its 
competence"; to prepare, for submission to the 
General Assembly, "draft conventions" in this 
field; "to perform services at the request of Mem- 
bers of the United Nations and at the request of 
specialized agencies"; and to obtain reports from 
the member states and from the specialized agen- 
cies on steps taken to give effect to its recom- 
mendations and those of the General Assembly. 
In a field of interest which concerns the peoples of 
the world as directly as the field of social and cul- 
tural and economic improvement, the power to 
study, report and recommend — the power to call 
conferences, prepare draft conventions and require 
reports of progress — is a power which can be 
counted on to go a long way toward translating 
humanitarian aspirations into human gains. 

The role of the International Court of Justice in 
the realization of the objectives of the Charter is 
obvious from the general nature of the Court. The 
purposes of the Charter include the adjustment 
or settlement of international disputes "in con- 
formity with the principles of justice and inter- 
national law". The International Court of Justice 
is the instrument of the United Nations to effect 
this purpose in the case of justiciable disputes 
referred to the Court by the parties. Where dis- 
putes are referred to the Court, or where member 
states accept the compulsory jurisdiction of the 
Court in certain categories of cases, its decisions 
are, of course, binding upon the parties. More- 
over, under the Charter, all members of the United 
Nations undertake to comply with the decisions of 
the Court. Where a party to a case decided by the 



Court fails to comply with its decision, the matter 
may be brought to the attention of the Security 
Council for appropriate action. 

These four overall instruments of international 
action constitute the principal means by which the 
Charter proposes to translate the world's hope for 
peace and security into the beginning of a world 
practice of peace and security. There are other 
instruments, adapted to other and more special 
ends. There is the Trusteeship Council, which will 
have the heavy responsibility of attaining in non- 



Charter of the United Nations: Report to the 
President on the Results of the San Francisco 
Conference by the Chairman of the United States 
Delegation, the Secretary of State, June 26, 1945. 
Department of State publication -2349, Confer- 
ence Series 71. 266 pp. 45tf. 

Mr. Stetlinius reports on the Charter of the 
United Nations, section by section: preamble; 
purposes and principles of the Organization; 
membership ; organs — the General Assembly, the 
Security Council, the International Court of Jus- 
tiee, and the Secretariat. Related topics are the 
pacific settlement of disputes; actions with 
respect to the peace, breaches of the peace, and 
acts of aggression ; regional arrangements ; 
international economic and social cooperation 
through the Economic and Social Council; 
dependent territories and arrangements for 
trusteeship; and the miscellaneous provisions, 
as well as the transitional security arrange- 
ments, amendments, ratification and signature, 
and the Preparatory Commission of the United 
Nations. These topics are discussed and inter- 
preted in comparison with the framework of the 
Dumbarton Oaks Proposals and against the pro- 
visions of the League of Nations Covenant. The 
historic growth of the United Nations is reflected 
in the mention of international gatherings — from 
the Hague Conferences to Yalta and Mexico City. 

The participation of the United States as a 
sponsoring power and a member nation is 
stressed in the Report, which is 156 pages long. 
Five appendices include parallel texts of the 
Charter and the Dumbarton Oaks Proposals with 
a key to comparison ; texts of the Statute of the 
International Court of Justice; the Interim 
Arrangements Concluded by the Governments 
Represented at the United Nations Conference 
on International Organization; List of Delega- 
tions and the United States Delegates; and 
chart of the Organization of the United Nations. 
Copies of this publication may be obtained 
from the Superintendent of Documents, Govern- 
ment Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C. 



82 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



strategic areas the objectives of the trusteeship 
system established by the Charter. There is the 
Secretariat which, as an international civil service 
responsible to the Organization alone, will consti- 
tute its staff. The Security Council, the General 
Assembly, the Economic and Social Council and 
the Court are, however, the principal tools through 
which, and by which, the general aims and pur- 
poses of the Charter would be carried out. 

They are instruments admittedly of limited 
powers. The jurisdiction of the Court is not com- 
pulsory unless accepted as such by member states. 
The Assembly cannot legislate but merely discuss 
and recommend. The Security Council is obliged, 
when force is used, to act through military con- 
tingents supplied by the member states. Meas- 
ured against the magnitude of the task to which 
the United Nations have committed themselves and 
considered in the light of the long history of pre- 
vious failures in this undertaking, such limited 
instruments may seem inadequate to the labor to 
be done. They have, nevertheless, characteristics 
which justify a greater hope for their success than 
the extent of the powers delegated to them would 
imply. They have behind them the history of 
humanity's long effort to suppress, in other areas 
of life, disorder and anarchy and the rule of vio- 
lence. These four instruments are, in effect, the 
four principal agencies through which mankind 
has achieved the establishment of order and secu- 
rity as between individuals and families and 
communities. 

On the frontiers of democratic society — not least 
upon the American frontiers — the instruments of 
order have always been, in one form or another, 
an agency to enforce respect for law with moral 
and physical power to prevent and to suppress 
breaches of the peace ; a court in which the differ- 
ences and disagreements of the citizens could be 
heard and tried ; and a meeting place where the 
moral sense of the community could be expressed 
and its judgments formed, whether as declarations 
of law or as declarations of opinion. To these 
three fundamental and essential instruments of 
order, time and the necessities of advancing civili- 
zation have added a fourth institution through 
which technical knowledge and accumulated expe- 
rience can be brought to bear upon the social and 
economic problems of society — problems with 
which learning and science and experience can 
effectively deal. 



These four fundamental instruments — the en- 
forcement officer, the Court, the public meeting, 
and the center of science and of knowledge — are 
instruments to which free men are accustomed. 
They are instruments in the use of which self- 
governing men have become adept over many gen- 
erations. They are instruments the efficacy of 
which has been demonstrated by the whole history 
of human civilization. Their establishment in the 
international world, though accompanied by limi- 
tations upon their scope, will not alter their quality 
nor diminish their prestige. To transplant vines 
and trees from familiar to unfamiliar environ- 
ments, is necessarily to cut them back and prune 
them. To transplant social organisms from the 
world of individual and group relations to the 
world of international relations, is necessarily also 
to limit them and cut them back. Nevertheless, 
instruments of proven social value taken over from 
the domestic to the international world carry with 
them qualities of vigor and of fruitfulness which 
the limitations placed upon them by their new con- 
dition cannot kill. They have behind them an 
historical momentum and a demonstrated useful- 
ness which mean far more, in terms of ultimate 
effectiveness, than the precise legal terms by which 
they are established in their new environment. 

Moreover, if the work of cutting back is done 
realistically, the chances of survival are increased. 
The four social instruments taken over by the 
United Nations have been adapted to the condi- 
tions of the actual world of international rela- 
tionship with a realistic appreciation of the limit- 
ing factors to be faced. The Security Council is 
not the enforcement agency of a world state, since 
world opinion will not accept the surrender of sov- 
ereignty which the establishment of a world state 
would demand. The Security Council, therefore, 
depends upon the sovereign member states for the 
weapons both of persuasion and of force through 
which it will attempt to keep the peace. But its 
dependence upon the member states is realistically 
adapted to the situation of the member states. 
The Council is to use the power of the member 
states in accordance with the realities of the dis- 
tribution of power. The voting procedure of the 
Security Council is expressive of the actualities of 
the possession and the exercise of power in the 
modern world. The five principal military pow- 
ers of our time are made permanent members of 
the Council. Furthermore, in order that their 



JULY 15, 1945 

possession of power and their use of power may 
be made to serve the purpose of peace, it is pro- 
vided that they shall exercise their power only 
in agreement with each other and not in disagree- 
ment. 

A similarly realistic acceptance of the facts of 
the actual world limits the General Assembly to 
discussion and deliberation without the power to 
legislate, since the power to legislate would neces- 
sarily encroach upon the sovereign independence 
of the member states. So too the Economic and 
Social Council has no power or right to interfere 
with the domestic affairs of the states composing 
the United Nations. And for the same reason the 
jurisdiction of the Court is limited. These adap- 
tations to the realities of the existing situation in 
the contemporary world do not decrease, but on 
the contrary increase, the likelihood that the in- 
struments borrowed by the Charter of the United 
Nations from the history of the ancient struggle 
for peace and order among individual men will 
serve their purpose in the newer struggle for peace 
and order among nations. 

Upon the belief that the Charter as Constitu- 
tion will furnish effective means for the realiza- 
tion of the purposes fixed by the Charter as Decla- 
ration; and upon the belief that the Charter as 
Declaration will set noble and enduring goals for 
the work of the Charter as Constitution, I base my 
firm conviction that the adoption of the Charter is 
in the best interests of the United States and of 
the world. 

If we are earnestly determined, as I believe we 
are, that the innumerable dead of two great holo- 
causts shall not have died in vain, we must act in 
concert with the other nations of the world to 
bring about the peace for which these dead gave 
up their lives. The Charter of the United Na- 
tions is the product of such concerted action. Its 
purpose is the maintenance of peace. It offers 
means for the achievement of that purpose. If 
the means are inadequate to the task they must 
perform, time will reveal their inadequacy as time 
will provide, also, the opportunity to amend them. 
The proposals of the Sponsoring Powers on which 
the Charter is based were published to the world 
six months before the Conference to consider them 
convened. In these six months the opinion of the 
world was brought to bear upon their elements. 
Subsequently, at the Conference itself, every word, 
every sentence, every paragraph of the Charter's 

656056 — 45 2 



83 

text was examined and reconsidered by the repre- 
sentatives of fifty nations and much of it reworked. 
For the first time in the history of the world, the 
world's peoples directly, and through their gov- 
ernments, collaborated in the drafting of an inter- 
national constitution. What has resulted is a hu- 
man document with human imperfections but with 
human hopes and human victory as well. But 
whatever its present imperfections, the Charter of 
the United Nations, as it was written by the Con- 
ference of San Francisco, offers the world an in- 
strument by which a real beginning may be made 
upon the work of peace. I most respectfully sub- 
mit that neither we nor any other people can or 
should refuse participation in the common task. 
Edward R. Stettinius, Jr. 

Bastille Day — 
Symbol of Freedom 

Statement by THE PRESIDENT 

[Released to the press by the White House July 14] 

In Bastille Day the people of France have giveif 
the world an undying symbol of freedom. 
Throughout the long history of our friendship 
with France the people of the United States have 
shared the principles for which it stands. Never 
have those principles had a greater significance 
than in this year of the final overthrow of one of 
the darkest tyrannies that have ever tried to 
enslave mankind. 

Philologist To Visit in Brazil 

[Released to the press July 11] 

Dr. Carlo Rossi, professor at the University of 
San Francisco, and author of the recently pub- 
lished work, Portuguese: the Language of Brazil, 
will carry on specialized philological studies in 
Brazil for the next 10 months. The research proj- 
ect is sponsored by the Department of State. It is 
Dr. Rossi's second visit to Brazil, where he gave a 
series of lectures at six universities in 1943. His 
present tour of travel and observation will take 
him to all sections of the country. 

Dr. Rossi's new book, published in May of the 
current year, is a basic text for a two-year course 
in Portuguese, with vocabulary based on the lan- 
guage as spoken in Brazil. 



84 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Concerning Japanese Peace Offers 

Statement by ACTING SECRETARY GREW 



[Released to the press July 10] 

The situation today is exactly the same as it was 
on June 29 when I made my last statement on this 
subject. 1 We have received no peace offer from the 
Japanese Government, either through official or 
unofficial channels. Conversations relating to 
peace have been reported to the Department from 
various parts of the world, but in no case has an 
approach been made to this Government, directly 
or indirectly, by a person who could establish his 
authority to speak for the Japanese Government, 
and in no case has an offer of surrender been made. 
In no case has this Government been presented 
with a statement purporting to define the basis 
upon which the Japanese Government would be 
prepared to conclude peace. 

The alleged "peace feelers" have invariably been 
inquiries as to our position. On one occasion, 
"leading Japanese industrialists" were reported as 
wanting to know the best possible conditions the 
Allies would advance for a compromise peace. 
On another occasion, the representative in Tokyo 
of a neutral government reported that he had 
been told by a private Japanese individual that the 
Japanese could not accept unconditional sur- 
render because it would mean loss of face. On 
still another occasion a member of the staff of the 
Japanese mission to a neutral country intimated to 
an American citizen through a German newspa- 
perman that real American interests in the Far 
East should lead the United States to abandon un- 
conditional surrender and propose terms for a 
negotiated peace. 

.Finally, an unidentified person approached an 
American mission in a neutral country, claiming 
that he had been authorized (by whom was not in- 
dicated) to approach the government of the neu- 
tral country with a view to persuading the Allies to 
drop unconditional surrender and to propose terms. 

1 The statement referred to in this release was issued 
on June 29, 1045 by Acting Secretary Grew for the corre- 
spondents in \}eu of his press and radio news conference. 
On that date Mr. Grew said that this Government had 
received no peace offers from tiie Japanese Government 
either through official or unofficial channels. 

'Bulletin of Oct. 29, 1944, p. 495. 



It should be borne in mind in this connection 
that the Japanese, like the Germans before them, 
rely principally upon the hope that they may be 
able to divide the Allies and to produce division 
of opinion within the Allied countries. To that 
end, it would be to their interest, as they see their 
interest, to initiate a public discussion of the terms 
to be applied to Japan. This they have already 
attempted to do on several occasions through Ra- 
dio Tokyo. 

Furthermore, it should be remembered that 
"peace feelers" are familiar weapons of psycho- 
logical warfare and will be used as such by the 
Japanese, particularly now that their military 
position is deteriorating and the condition of their 
civilian population becomes more critical. I 
pointed out in a speech on Navy Day a year ago^ 
on October 27, 1944, that efforts would undoubtedly 
be made by the Japanese to sow dissatisfaction 
between the Allies and even among our own people. 
In that speech I said : 

'T wish to take this important occasion to re- 
peat, with all possible force, the warning which I 
have continually tried, all over the country, to drill 
home into the consciousness of our people, namely, 
that we must not, under any circumstances, accept 
a compromise peace with Japan, no matter how 
alluring such a peace may be or how desirous we 
may become of ending this terrible conflict, An 
enticing peace offer may come from Japan at any 
time. The facts of the situation are beginning to 
seep into the consciousness of the Japanese people. 
Some of them — perhaps only a few at the present 
time, but the number will grow steadily — know be- 
yond peradventure that they are going to be de- 
feated. . . Before the complete ruin of Japan, 
these men are almost certain to make an attempt to 
save something from the wreckage. . . They 
would probably offer to withdraw their troops 
from the occupied areas and return those areas to 
their former status. They might even offer to give 
up their control of their puppet state in Man- 
churia. All this they might offer to do if only we 
would agree to leave their homeland free of fur- 
ther attack. . . . 



JULY 15, 1945 

"Should that moment come, America, the United 
Nations, would be put to a most severe test. The 
temptation to call it a day might be stronger than 
we can now visualize. That, my friends, would be 
the moment to fear, not for ourselves but for our 
sons and grandsons, lest they should have to fight 
this dreadful war over again in the next genera- 
tion. For assuredly, if we should allow ourselves 
to relax before carrying to completion our present 
determination to render the Japanese impotent 
ever again to threaten world peace, that would be 
the fate of our descendants. That cancerous 
growth of Japanese militarism would follow the 
example of the German war-machine after 1918 — 
perpetuate itself and prepare Japan again for 
some future Armageddon. I have no fears as to 
the nature of our decision, so long as our people 
fully understand the dangers of a premature and 
compromise peace, but Jet us be warned in time." 

The nature of the purported "peace feelers" 
must be clear to everyone. They are the usual 
moves in the conduct of psychological warfare by 
a defeated enemy. No thinking American, re- 
calling Pearl Harbor, Wake, Manila, Japanese 
ruthless aggression elsewhere, will give them 
credence. 



85 

Japanese militarism must and will be crushed. 
The policy of this Government has been, is, and 
will continue to be unconditional surrender. Un- 
conditional surrender does not mean, as the Presi- 
dent pointed out in his message of June 1, 1945, the 
destruction or enslavement of the Japanese peo- 
ple. 1 The President stated this very specifically 
on May 8, when he said in answer to the question 
"Just what does the unconditional surrender of the 
armed forces mean for the Japanese people?": 

"It means the end of the war. 

"It means the termination of the influence of the 
military leaders who have brought Japan to the 
present brink of disaster. 

"It means provision for the return of soldiers 
and sailors to their families, their farms, their 
jobs. 

"It means not prolonging the present agony and 
suffering of the Japanese in the vain hope of 
victory." 2 

The policy of this Government has been, is, and 
will continue to be unconditional surrender as de- 
fined by the President in these statements. That 
is the best comment I can make upon peace feelers 
and rumors of peace feelers of whatever origin. 



Sinking of the w Awa Maru" 



[Released to the presB July 14] 

The Government of the United States has now 
completed its investigation of the circumstances 
surrounding the sinking by an American subma- 
rine of the Japanese vessel, Awa Maru, while re- 
turning, under safe-conduct, from a voyage to 
Hong Kong, Singapore, and other ports to carry 
supplies for Allied prisoners of war and civilian 
internees in Japanese custody. 

The investigation discloses that the Awa Maru 
was substantially complying with all conditions of 
the safe-conduct agreement. In the circumstances 
the burden of making positive identification was 
placed upon the United States submarine. The 
investigation reveals that the United States was 
responsible for the sinking of the Awa Maru. 
The Government of the United States has ac- 
knowledged responsibility to the Japanese Gov- 
ernment through the Swiss Government in a tele- 
gram dated June 29, 1945, and suggested that, in 



view of the complex nature of the question of in- 
demnity demanded by the Japanese, this matter 
be deferred until the end of the war. 

On April 11, 1945, the Department of State an- 
nounced that it had been informed by the Navy 
Department that the Japanese vessel, Awa Marti, 
traveling under Allied safe-conduct had been sunk 
by submarine action. 3 

On May 29, 1945, the Department released the 
text of a Japanese protest dated April 26 as well 
as the text of this Government's reply dated May 
18. 4 In this reply, this Government notified the 
Japanese Government that an investigation was 
then in progress to assemble all the relevant in- 
formation on the sinking and notified the Japa- 
nese Government that the United States Govern- 



1 Bulletin of June 3, 1945, p. 1006. 
s Bulletin of May 13, 1945, p. 886. 
8 Bulletin of Apr. 15, 1945, p. 692. 
« Bulletin of June 3, 1945, p. 1033. 



86 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



ment could not accept, prior to the judicial deter- 
mination of the question of responsibility, the 
charge of the Japanese Government that responsi- 
bility for the disaster lay with the United States 
Government. 

On May 16, 1945 (received May 30), the Japa- 
nese Government formally demanded that the 
United States Government apologize to the Japa- 
nese Government for the sinking; punish those 
responsible; and indemnify the Japanese Govern- 
ment for the loss incurred. 

The text of the Japanese statement dated May 
16, 1945, transmitted through the Swiss Govern- 
ment, is as follows : 

"With reference to the protest which the Japa- 
nese Government lodged with the United States 
Government through the Swiss Government under 
the date of the 2Gth of April against attacking and 
sinking of the Awa Marti, the Japanese Govern- 
ment while reserving all rights not hereby exer- 
cised to take any necessary action to cope with 
this violation of a solemn undertaking, make the 
following demands and request the United States 
Government to inform the Japanese Government 
without delay whether they are prepared promptly 
to comply with the same. Namely (one) that the 
United States Government apologize to the Japa- 
nese Government; (two) that the United States 
Government punish persons responsible and in- 
form the Japanese Government thereof; (three) 
that the United States Government pay indemni- 
ties for the loss of lives of the crew and the pas- 
sengers for the injury done to the survivors and 
for the loss of the vessel and of the goods which 
were on board. 

"The Japanese Government by their note of 12th 
April addressed to Swiss Minister in Tokyo re- 
quested the United States Government to inform 
them fully of the circumstances in which the Awa 
Maru was attacked and sunk and to take adequate 
measures for the repatriation of the survivors at 
the earliest possible date. The Japanese Govern- 
ment request an early reply." 

The text of this Government's communication 
of June 29 follows : 

"The Japanese Government's further communi- 
cation dated May 16 concerning the sinking of 
the Awa Maru has been received by the United 
States Government, which makes the following 
responses to the points raised therein : 



" ( 1 ) The United States Government, in its com- 
munications forwarded through the Swiss Govern- 
ment dated April 10 and May 18, 1945, has al- 
ready officially expressed its deep regret that this 
incident has occurred and that there was such a 
heavy loss of life in connection therewith. 

"The official investigation into this disaster has 
now been concluded. It has been established that 
at the time the ship was sunk she was proceeding 
at night in a fog. There is, however, evidence 
that she was showing the prescribed lights. It 
appears that the ship was about eight miles off the 
course previously announced and was about 32 
miles ahead of her predicted position. However, 
the difference between the ship's predicted posi- 
tion and the scene of the disaster is not considered 
unreasonable. The Commanding Officer of the 
submarine did not see the Awa Mary, prior to or 
after she had been torpedoed, the attack having 
been made by means other than visual, which fact 
of itself disproves the charge that the attack was 
willful and deliberate. However, since it ap- 
pears that the Awa Maru was complying substan- 
tially with the conditions of the safe-conduct 
agreement, the burden of establishing identity was 
that of the commander of the American submarine 
and in view of his failure to do so, the United 
States Government acknowledges responsibility 
for the sinking of the vessel. 

"(2) Disciplinary action is being taken with 
respect to the commander of the American sub- 
marine concerned. 

"(3) Because of the complex nature of the ques- 
tion of indemnity, this aspect* of the matter can- 
not be resolved satisfactorily during the period of 
hostilities. It is suggested, therefore, that the 
matter of indemnity be deferred until the termi- 
nation of hostilities. The Japanese Government 
may be assured that the United States Govern- 
ment will be prepared at that time to discuss all 
phases of the question of indemnity and will ap- 
proach the question with an attitude of complete 
fairness and without regard to the political situa- 
tion then existing. 

"The survivor of the sinking, who is now being 
cared for by American authorities, will be repa- 
triated to Japan as soon as arrangements are per- 
fected for further exchanges of nationals between 
Japan and the Allies." 

In taking this action the United States Govern- 
ment not only took into consideration the facts as 



JULY 15, 1945 



87 



determined by the investigation but was also 
guided by the very real necessity of doing every- 
thing in its power to insure that future shipments 
of food, clothing, and medical supplies to Allied 
prisoners of war and civilian internees in Japa- 
nese custody would be facilitated by the Japanese 
Government. 

Ever since the outbreak of the war in the Pa- 
cific, the Government of the United States with 
the other interested governments has made every 
effort to maintain a flow of essential relief sup- 
plies to Allied individuals in Japanese custody to 
supplement the inadequate supplies being fur- 
nished them. During 1942 and 1943 in connection 
with the exchange operations some relief supplies 
were sent in. 

In 1944 there were no exchanges. However, the 
United States Government, deeply conscious of its 
responsibility to these unfortunate individuals, 
actively continued negotiations through the Swiss 
Government with a view to working out mutually 
satisfactory arrangements for the delivery by the 
Japanese of further relief supplies. These nego- 
tiations finally resulted in an arrangement where- 
by, through the cooperation of the Soviet authori- 
ties, such supplies were picked up at Nakhodka by 
a Japanese vessel. This vessel traveled under safe- 
conduct granted by this Government on behalf of 
itself and the other Allied governments. A por- 
tion of the shipment was distributed to American 
and other Allied prisoners of war and civilian 
internees in Japan. Subsequently the Japanese 
asked for and received safe-conduct for two ves- 
sels, one to proceed to Shanghai to carry a portion 
of the remainder of the supplies for prisoners of 
war in that area and the other to proceed to the 
southern areas (Hong Kong, Singapore, et cetera) 
for a similar purpose. The vessel despatched to 
Shanghai completed its voyage. The other vessel, 
the Awa Maru, after carrying supplies for distri- 
bution to the southern areas, was sunk on its return 
trip to Japan. 

The United States Government in accepting the 
responsibility for the sinking of the Awa Maru 
hopes that the Japanese Government will be will- 
ing to accept further shipments of relief supplies 
for distribution to Allied nationals detained by 
the Japanese. 



1 H. Rept. 881. Mr. Johnson is Acting Chairman of the 
Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Repre- 
sentatives. 

2 Bulletin of June 3, 1045, p. 1006. 

656056—45 3 



Policy Toward New 
Government in Italy 

LETTER FROM ACTING SECRETARY GREW 
TO ACTING CHAIRMAN JOHNSON 1 

Department of State, 
Washington, June 23, 191)6. 

My Dear Mb. Johnson : I refer to your letter of 
May 25, 1945, requesting the Department's com- 
ments on the joint resolutions introduced by Mr. 
Marcantonio, House Joint Resolution 204 and 
House Joint Resolution 205, which was acknowl- 
edged in my letter of May 31, 1945. 

House Joint Resolution 205 requests the Presi- 
dent to use his good offices to the end that the 
United Nations recognize 'Italy as a full and equal 
ally. Inasmuch as this Government has no alli- 
ances outside of its ties with the United Nations, 
to recognize Italy as a "full and equal ally" could 
only mean permitting her to become one of the 
United Nations. This step, however, is covered by 
House Joint Resolution 204 requesting the Presi- 
dent to use his good offices "to the end that the 
United Nations invite Italy to be a signatory to 
the United Nations agreement of January 1942." 

This Government's policy has been to encourage 
the new democratic Italy to regain full member- 
ship in the international community. Much prog- 
ress has already been made, as witnessed by our 
present formal diplomatic relations with that 
country, and it is hoped that further progress will 
be made, especially now that all Italy has been 
liberated. You may be interested in the statement 
I made to the press concerning our Italian policy 
on May 31, a copy of which is attached for your 
convenience. 2 I believe that the spirit of the reso- 
lutions in question is in keeping with the spirit of 
our policy as expressed in that statement. 

The Department has been informed by the Bu- 
reau of the Budget that there is no objection to 
the submission of this report. 
Sincerely yours, 

Joseph C. Grew, 
Acting Secretary. 

The Honorable Luther A. Johnson, 

House of Representatives. 



88 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Inter-American Relations After World War II 



By 



GEORGE H. BUTLER 



This article has grown out of a series of per- 
sonal notes and exchanges of correspondence 
with officers in the Department in connection with 
political reporting. An effort is made to project 
the observations made in the article against the 
developments of the Inter- American Conference on 
Problems of War and Peace, held at Mexico City 
during February and March of this year, and of 
the United Nations Conference on International 
Organization, which has just been concluded at 
San Francisco. However, since there has not been 
time for a thorough analysis of the work of the 
two Conferences, the proper perspective naturally 
is lacking. 

The personal notes are based primarily upon 17 
years of Foreign Service experience in the inter- 
American field — an experience that exerts an in- 
fluence toward inductive reasoning and pragma- 
tism. It is impossible to give credit where credit 
is due for part of the material and conclusions 
set forth. The most stimulating single factor in 
the writing has been the series of conversations 
and discussions through the years with Latin 
American friends, with colleagues in our own and 
in other foreign services, and with those citizens 
of our country who take a real interest in the com- 
munity of nations of the Western Hemisphere. 

The opinions expressed are personal ones and do 
not necessarily reflect Department of State policy. 

I 

A world convulsion of the magnitude of the pres- 
ent one is a turning-point in civilization. All peo- 
ples, regardless of the degree of their participa- 
tion in the struggle, are vitally affected. Impor- 
tant political, social, and economic changes will 
necessarily follow as a result of universal war. 
The conflict has some characteristics of a world 
revolution as well as of a battle among nations. 
Even under the impact of these tremendous forces, 
there may not be a complete change in the systems 

1 Mr. Butler is Chief of the Division of River Plate Af- 
fairs, Office of American Republic Affairs, Department of 
State. 



and conditions which have prevailed in varying 
forms during the present century. The mighty 
tide of evolution usually persists against even the 
most violent currents of revolution. What we 
may expect are a thorough restudy of many basic 
problems and a pronounced reorientation of policy 
relating to some of them. 

The relation between world and regional inter- 
national organizations is one of these basic prob- 
lems. Both a world system and regional systems 
have a place in international organizations. The 
inter- American system as it exists today has been 
developed over a period of more than half a cen- 
tury. It offers valuable experience, and it serves 
as a guide in the task of organizing the interna- 
tional community for peace and security. 

The American republics deserve great credit for 
the progress they have made toward finding the 
means whereby peoples may live together in 
friendly cooperation and whereby the inevitable 
conflict of interests may be reconciled without re- 
course to force. Much remains to be done. It 
would be fatal to adopt a complacent attitude or 
to assume that permanent and satisfactory solu- 
tions have been found for all basic problems. 
Measures already adopted must be improved ; ad- 
ditional means to achieve the objective must be 
constantly searched for; and an open mind 
about making changes — especially fundamental 
changes — to meet new conditions must be retained. 

The problems confronting regional and those 
confronting world organizations are the same. 
They fall into three principal categories, although 
there are no sharp lines of division : political mat- 
ters — those which relate to the science and art of 
government, to the organization, regulation, and 
administration of a state, in both its internal and 
external affairs, and those which pertain to the 
conduct of all branches of government ; social ques- 
tions — those which concern the natural under- 
standing and intercourse of individuals whose lives 
are distinctly shaped with reference to one 
another or to the individual in his group relations; 
and economic problems — those that are dealt with 



JULY 15, 1945 



89 



through the science that investigates conditions 
and laws affecting the production, distribution, 
and consumption of wealth, or the material means 
of satisfying human desires. 

Political problems are of vital and pressing 
importance. Peace and security must be main- 
tained — by the use of all the means at the disposal 
of international organizations. Limitation on 
national sovereignty will have to be accepted by all 
nations in equal degree. Drastic reduction of 
armaments should be made as rapidly as possible, 
and all offensive armament except that at the dis- 
posal of a world security organization should even- 
tually be eliminated. Real understanding among 
peoples must be achieved. Freedom of informa- 
tion based on factual and complete reporting of 
events is essential. Civil liberties and human free- 
dom must be made realities throughout the world. 

Social problems, which occupy a middle ground 
between political and economic problems, involve 
such questions as employment for all who are able 
and willing to work, the conditions and wages of 
labor, land reform programs, public health and 
sanitation, education, the growth of middle 
classes, and the possible mass migrations of peoples 
in many parts of the world. 

In the economic field there are such major prob- 
lems as (1) the means to assure multilateral trade 
on a universal scale and as free as possible from 
artificial restrictions; (2) orderly processes for 
the supply and distribution of many commodities ; 
(3) access to raw materials on equal terms for all 
countries according to their needs; (4) stabiliza- 
tion of currencies and the means to acquire foreign 
exchange for trade purposes and for international 
financial settlements; (5) settlement of intergov- 
ernmental debts; and (6) hi vestment of foreign 
capital. 

Almost all of these many problems were con- 
sidered at the Mexico City and San Francisco con- 
ferences. Legislation before the Congress of the 
United States is directly concerned with some of 
them. International relations today must be 
worked out in all of their political, social, and eco- 
nomic aspects. Recent decades have witnessed a 
disproportionate emphasis upon economic prob- 
lems. Now we must face frankly and courageously 
the more important political and social ques- 
tions. The tragic experiences of this war - have 
taught us again the old lesson that man does not 
live by bread alone. Food, shelter, and reproduc- 



tion are essentials of existence; but life, as a con- 
cept of civilization, is much more than mere exist- 
ence 

A sustained effort should be made after this war 
to eliminate governments of the totalitarian type, 
especially the Fascist military dictatorships. 
That task must be undertaken if peace and security 
are to be achieved and if disarmament is to become 
possible. At the same time there must be a re- 
newed and permanent effort to protect civil liber- 
ties and the general welfare which were betrayed 
during the sterile decades from 1919 to 1939. The 
peoples of the world must address themselves to 
these tasks through their regional and universal 
organizations. 

II 

The inter-american system is well adapted and 
is sufficiently developed to cope with the common 
problems of the nations of the Western Hemi- 
sphere. It should function as an integral part of 
the world Organization, but Mexico City and San 
Francisco have clearly demonstrated the strong 
desire of the American republics to improve fur- 
ther their system and to utilize it to the fullest ex- 
tent possible. While the world Organization will 
have responsibility and authority to maintain 
peace and security, the American republics feel 
competent to run their own neighborhood affairs. 
If a situation that threatens world peace or se- 
curity develops, the Security Council, of course, 
would have to meet its responsibility by taking 
such action as it might deem necessary. 

There are two sides to the question of the undue 
authority of the big powers in the world Organiza- 
tion. The text of the Charter of the United Na- 
tions states that: "The Organization is based on 
the principle of the sovereign equality of all its 
Members." 2 Also, the preamble starts with the 
words: "We the peoples of the United Nations". 
The principle of sovereign equality should be a 
familiar issue to the people of the United States, 
since it has run through our national history since 
the days of the Constitutional Convention. Sov- 
ereign equality, yes ; but also the greatest good for 
the greatest number. The peoples of the United 
States, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, 
the United Kingdom, China, and continental 
France account for about 45 percent of the total 
population of the world and occupy about 28 per- 
cent of the land area of the world. If the terri- 



' BuiiiniN of June 24, 1945, p. 1119. 



90 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



tories and possessions of the United States, the 
dominions and other parts of the British Empire, 
and the French Colonial Empire are added, the 
population represented is a substantial majority 
of the total population of the world, occupying 
more than a half of the land area of the world. 
From the point of view of majority rule, the five 
big powers have a strong case. This point ,was 
one of the principal issues at the San Francisco 
conference, and it has a direct bearing on the 
problem of working out the relation between world 
and regional organizations. 

The procedure of consultation among the gov- 
ernments of the American republics whenever a 
situation requires study and action is valuable. 
The setting up of such bodies as the Emergency 
Advisory Committee for Political Defense, the 
Inter-American Juridical Committee, the Finan- 
cial and Economic Advisory Committee, the Inter- 
American Development Commission, and the 
Inter-American Defense Board marked decided 
progress in administrative efficiency. Some of 
these organizations were established to meet the 
war situation. Others were in existence before the 
war. The Pan American Union is the central per- 
manent organization of the inter-American sys- 
tem. Changes and improvements to meet new con- 
ditions always are essential in any system. One 
of the principal resolutions of the Mexico City 
conference provides for the "Keorganization, Con- 
solidation and Strengthening of the Inter- Ameri- 
can System". 3 

One interesting experiment in hemispheric co- 
operation is illustrated by the Emergency Advis- 
ory Committee for Political Defense which has its 
seat at Montevideo. 4 The Committee was estab- 
lished pursuant to a resolution adopted at the 
consultative meeting of Ministers of Foreign Af- 
fairs of the American Republics held at Rio de 
Janeiro in January 1942. The Governing Board 
of the Pan American Union was requested to des- 
ignate a committee of seven members. Although 
the individual members are appointed by their 
respective governments, they represent and act in 
the interest of all the 21 American republics. This 
procedure could be expanded and adopted for 

3 For an article on the inter-American system by Dana 
G. Munro, see Bulletin of Apr. 1, 1945, p. 525; see also 
"The Inter-Ameriean System and a World Organization", 
address by Assistant Secretary Rockefeller, Bulletin of 
Apr. 15, 1945, p. 675. 

'Bulletin of Jan. 7, 1945, p. 3. 



other operations. A number of small committees 
might be appointed to deal with special problems. 
They would act for all 21 nations. Each of the 
American republics would have representation 
on one or more such committees, although the 
membership might not exceed an average of more 
than six or seven. Such representation would in- 
crease the effectiveness of preparatorj' work for 
the periodic conferences of American states. The 
principal task of these conferences should be to 
pass upon carefully prepared projects. Limited 
time and the general atmosphere at a large inter- 
national conference make detailed study and good 
drafting most difficult. 

The periodic American conferences, the con- 
sultative meetings of Ministers of Foreign Affairs, 
the committees and commissions in which all of 
the republics are represented, and the suggested 
group of small special committees would provide 
a satisfactory mechanism for handling regional 
affairs. As a parallel with Government in the 
United States, the inter-American organization 
might operate in the field corresponding to that 
of State governments; functions similar to those 
of the Federal Government might be performed by 
the world Organization of which the American 
republics are members. 

International law, arbitration and conciliation, 
and treaty relations are matters of universal appli- 
cation. It seems unwise for an American system 
to diverge from general international practice in 
these and similar respects. Solutions for such 
problems as those relating to security, disarma- 
ment, international air routes, access to raw mate- 
rials, foreign exchange, and international trade 
must be on a universal basis. It has proved 
impossible to deal with these problems on a 
national or regional basis. 

The experience of the war has demonstrated 
that a firm foundation exists for inter- American 
solidarity. In spite of differences in national 
origins, languages, and cultures, a common 
American point of view prevails. Certain funda- 
mental principles regarding the standards which 
should govern the international community have 
been accepted. It has been demonstrated that the 
American republics will act jointly to resist 
aggression against any of them by a non-American 
power; that they will combat activities designed 
to alter or destroy the freely adopted institutions 
and principles of the American peoples. Practi- 
cally all of the American peoples are opposed to 



JULY IS, 1945 



91 



the spread in this hemisphere of the Axis type of 
totalitarian system. At the same time, the West- 
ern Hemisphere cannot live in isolation; it must 
cooperate with the rest of the world in all fields of 
human endeavor: no continental rivalries must 
develop that would bring the disastrous conse- 
quences resulting from extreme nationalism and 
conflict between states. The Western Hemisphere 
can well afford to seek conciliation of conflicting 
interests on a basis of give and take. 

Ill 

When the American republics face the task of 
post-war organization, a number of major deci- 
sions will be necessary. One of these will concern 
the question of whether the principle of unanimity 
or the principle of majority rule is to govern inter- 
American relations. It seems both unnecessary 
and Utopian to strive for unanimity — even among 
the American republics — on all important prob- 
lems. Pronounced differences of opinion regard- 
ing fundamental political and economic questions 
are natural and inevitable. Let us acknowledge 
that fact, and then formulate a program that aims 
at assuring the greatest good for the greatest 
number. The advantages of the inter-American 
system should be enjoyed only by those countries 
which contribute to its success. There should be 
fair protection of minority interests, but the exist- 
ence of such a minority does not mean that the 
inter-American system is a failure. It merely 
proves that the system follows a normal pattern 
in human affairs. A broad common meeting- 
ground exists for the nations of the Western Hem- 
isphere. Unanimous action will be possible in 
many cases; when it is not possible, however, the 
rule of the majority, especially of a well-informed 
and overwhelming majority, is fair and practi- 
cable. Democracy itself would cease to function 
if the principle of unanimity were applied to the 
processes of democracy. 

The records of inter- American relations abound 
in resolutions and declarations passed by unani- 
mous vote. These have a real value. They con- 
stitute a moral force in international relations, but 
they do not serve to meet the vital needs of inter- 
national organization. What is the record with 
respect to treaties and conventions whose terms 
impose concrete obligations on the signatories? 

The major inter- American treaties and conven- 
tions dealing with the prevention of conflicts, the 



XXVI 

CRIMES OP AGGRESSION AGAINST THE 
AMERICAN REPUBLICS 

Whereas : 

American solidarity has developed to a degree 
where there exists a complete sense of conti- 
nental responsibility for the defense of the juridi- 
cal rights that are an integral part of the con- 
sciousness of the peoples of the Americas; 

The territorial integrity or inviolability, the 
sovereignty or independence of any of the mem- 
bers of the American community should be re- 
garded as juridical rights of the highest order, 
and in the event that such rights are jeopardized 
the American States should, in their individual 
decisions regarding foreign and domestic matters, 
adopt a common political conduct and follow a 
uniform juridical procedure, in order that they 
may cooperate with the country that is the vic- 
tim of aggression, as the Governments of Uruguay 
and Chile have done through legislation enacted 
on November 19, 1942, and December 31, 1942, 
respectively ; 

The preservation of the peace of the Continent 
is inseparable from the territorial integrity and 
independence of each of the States members of 
the American community, 

The Inter-American Conference on Problems of 
War and Peace 

Resolves : 

To recommend that the Governments of the 
American Republics classify as crimes in their 
domestic criminal law, any acts, whether in- 
dividual or collective, that favor a non-American 
State at war against an American State that 
is the victim of aggression. 

(Approved at the plenary session of 
March 7, 1945) 



rights and duties of states, the maintenance of 
peace, non-intervention, the prevention of contro- 
versies, conciliation, and arbitration have been 
ratified by from 14 to 19 of the 21 republics. Only 
one major convention, the Pan American Sanitary 
Convention, has been ratified by all of the repub- 
lics. Over 100 inter-American treaties and con- 
ventions have been signed since 1890. Argentina, 
which holds the record for failure to ratify, has 
ratified among the principal agreements only the 
Anti-War Treaty of 1933 and the Pan American 
Sanitary Convention. Other treaties ratified by 
Argentina include several postal conventions : one 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



on international law, one on the status of natural- 
ized citizens, two on radiocommunications, and 
one on European colonies and possessions in the 
Americas ; but they do not include any of the major 
peace treaties referred to, except the Anti-War 
Treaty. Ratifications by other republics range up- 
ward from the Argentine low, but they prove con- 
clusively that nothing like unanimity has been 
achieved in the basic issues of inter- American re- 
lations during half a century of experience. Why 
not face that fact openly and thus strengthen 
rather than weaken the inter-American system? 

The problem of minorities is an old one, both 
in national and in international affairs. Emphasis 
usually is placed naturally upon the protection of 
minority interests. A majority has no moral justi- 
fication for riding rough-shod over the rights of 
a minority. To safeguard the materially weak 
from unprincipled action by the materially power- 
ful is essential; however, there is a tyranny of 
weakness as well as a tyranny of strength. If a 
powerful nation is in the right in a conflict with 
a weak nation, justice demands that the issue be 
met on the basis of the merits of the case and not 
on the basis of the relative strength of the two 
parties. Children in spite of being weak and help- 
less as compared with adults are not permitted be- 
cause of that fact to play with fire before they 
start a conflagration nor are they permitted wan- 
tonly to destroy property or to abuse weaker play- 
mates. The time has come to give more careful 
attention to the rights of majorities. If the world 
is to succeed in organizing itself on the democratic 
principle of the greatest good for the greatest 
number, minorities, in the very nature of things, 
must make more concessions than majorities. 

To secure ratification by every one of the Amer- 
ican republics of all of the principal inter- Ameri- 
can treaties and conventions would probably be 
impossible. It would be undesirable to attempt 
to force a nation against its will to sign a treaty 
which it regarded as unjust or harmful. An over- 
whelming majority of ratifying nations, however, 
certainly is justified in exerting every proper in- 
fluence to persuade a minority to act in general 
accord with the majority decision. Some conces- 
sions always will be made, but when it is essential 
for one side or the other to give way then it is the 
minority which should change its position. 

Under the inter-American system a procedure 
could be developed to provide for majority action 



to maintain peace and security. Such action 
would be based on the accepted procedure of con- 
sultation. A clause designed to help solve the 
problem might be included in all important inter- 
American treaties and conventions. Such a 
clause would provide that when a treaty or con- 
vention has been ratified by two-thirds of the 
American republics, which two-thirds also rep- 
resent 40 percent or more of the total population 
of the 21 countries, then any action by a non-sig- 
natory American nation which constitutes a threat 
to peace and security and which is contrary to the 
terms of the treaty shall give rise to consultation 
among the signatory governments for the purpose 
of considering action to meet the situation. 

The "two-thirds-40 percent" formula will be 
objected to as giving an undue influence to the 
United States. Here, again, a balance must be 
sought between sovereign equality and the will of 
the majority. The population of the United 
States exceeds the combined populations of the 
other 20 American republics. If a simple two- 
thirds rule were adopted, the 14 republics with the 
smallest populations could outvote the remaining 
7. That is, about 12 percent of the total popula- 
tion of the American republics could exert a 
greater influence than the remaining 88 percent. 
There is no justice in that. The best solution 
seems to be to establish a dual system based on the 
number of countries and on their population. 
Under the suggested "two-thirds-40 percent'' 
formula, two-thirds of the most populous Ameri- 
can republics, exclusive of the United States, could 
meet the 40-percent requirement. The United 
States would not have an exclusive veto power in 
inter- American affairs. 

Two other extremely important and controver- 
sial questions which must be decided are those 
relating to national sovereignty and to the inter- 
vention by some states in the internal or external 
affairs of other states. National interests are obvi- 
ously the first consideration of any country. Bit- 
ter and costly experience has proved, however, 
that the national interests of any people are im- 
possible of attainment unless they are adjusted to 
the equally valid national interests of other 
peoples. Unless all are willing to make conces- 
sions, there is no alternative except the rule of the 
strongest. The final settlement after a war almost 
invariably involves some concessions by both sides, 
regardless of who wins on the battlefield. We 






JULY 15, 1945 



93 



eventually must learn to make the concessions in 
the first instance and thus avoid the wars. One 
universal concession must be a voluntary limita- 
tion upon absolute sovereignty. 

Limitation of sovereignty does not affect the 
important question of equal sovereignty. The 
limitations must be the same for large and small 
nations, for strong and weak alike. Once certain 
limitations on sovereignty are voluntarily ac- 
cepted by the great majority of peoples, it will be 
justifiable to insist that all nations observe those 
limitations. Even before the war emergency im- 
posed limitations, some voluntary curtailment of 
national sovereignty had been made. The field of 
public health furnishes an example. If a given 
country fails to establish and maintain conditions 
and standards which afford adequate safeguards 
to public health in other countries, the interna- 
tional community takes a hand. The action is 
negative rather than positive, but it is effective. 
The offending country suffers serious disadvan- 
tages in its communications and contacts with the 
outside world until conditions are remedied. A 
similar procedure could be developed with respect 
to political, social, and economic affairs. Political, 
social, and economic ills are even more serious 
threats to humanity than are physical diseases. 
Their remedy involves a voluntary limitation 
upon absolute national sovereignty. With equal 
sovereignty as a basis, any minority, as a matter 
of self-preservation, will have to accept a stand- 
ard of sovereignty considered fair by the majority. 

The economic field furnishes striking evidence 
of the necessity to accept some limitation upon 
sovereignty. A blind following of purely national 
interests by most countries during the two decades 
from 1919 to 1939 resulted in the collapse of inter- 
national trade, chaos in international finance, wide- 
spread unemployment, world crisis, and disastrous 
consequences for all national economies. Every 
nation wants and needs markets, foreign or do- 
mestic, for its products, whether these are raw 
materials or manufactures. This end cannot be 
achieved by arbitrary individual action. Adjust- 
ments of each national economy to the broader 
needs of world economy are essential in order that 
all peoples may enjoy a decent standard of living. 
A similar argument is even stronger in dealing 
with political problems. 

There is implicit in several of the resolutions 
adopted at the Mexico City conference an accept- 



ance of some limitation of national sovereignty in 
the interest of international welfare. Among these 
resolutions may be cited resolution VIII on Re- 
ciprocal Assistance and American Solidarity, XI, 
Declaration of Mexico, XX and XXI regarding 
economic controls and economic adjustment, 
XXVI on Crimes of Aggression Against the 
American Republics, XXVII on Free Access to 
Information, XXX on Establishment of a General 
International Organization, XXXIV regarding 
Abolition of the Recognition of De Facto Govern- 
ments, XXXVIII entitled Defense and Preserva- 
tion of Democracy in America, XL on the Inter- 
national Protection of the Essential Rights of 
Man, XLI on Racial Discrimination, LI entitled 
Economic Charter of the Americas, and LVIII, 
which is a Declaration of Social Principles of 
America. 5 Chapter I, Purposes and Principles, 
of the text of the Charter of the United Nations 
also makes clear beyond any question of doubt that 
individual nations must give up a part of their 
freedom of action in order to comply with joint 
obligations toward the international community. 
Equal but limited sovereignty is closely related 
to the question of the intervention by some states 
in the internal or external affairs of other states. 
The American republics have adopted the policy 
of non-intervention as one of the cardinal points 
in their international relations. The theory is 
excellent, but it is based upon the ideal that every 
state is going to act always in such a manner that 
the welfare of the. American community of na- 
tions will not suffer thereby. Unfortunately, the 
theory is at variance with history and experience. 
If we study the history of international relations 
we must admit that there always has been inter- 
vention by some states in the internal or external 
affairs of other states. Furthermore, there seems 
to be slight ground for the hope that such inter- 
vention can or will be eliminated in the near fu- 
ture, even in the inter-American field, where there 
is less excuse for it than in most other parts of the 

5 For text of resolutions see Inter- American Conference 
on Problems of War and Peace (Pan American Union, 
1045; Congress and Conference Series No. 47). 

For article on economic aspects of the Mexico City con- 
ference by H. Gerald Smith, see Bulletin of Apr. 8, 1945, 
p. 624; for a discussion of the recommendations dealing 
with social questions, see article by Marion Parks, Bul- 
letin of Apr. 22, 1945, p. 732 ; and for an interpretation 
of the resolutions dealing with the elimination of Axis 
influence in this hemisphere, see article by Thomas C. 
Mann, Bulletin of May 20, 1945, p. 924. 



94 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



world. A different approach to the problem would 
protect the progress that has been made toward its 
solution in the Western Hemisphere. There 
should be absolutely no unilateral intervention by 
any state in the internal or external affairs of the 
American republics. Neither should there be a 
failure to acknowledge the fact that intervention 
at times may be essential to the general welfare. 
The problem, then, involves guiding that neces- 
sary intervention into constructive and justifi- 
able channels; bringing it about through multilat- 
eral action on the democratic principle of major- 
ity rule; and eliminating unilateral intervention 
(aggression) by armed force — especially armed 
force exercised by the strong against the weak. 
The first concrete step to provide for multi- 
lateral intervention to meet threats or acts of 
aggression was taken with the adoption of resolu- 
tion VIII, the Act of Chapultepec, at the Mexico 
City conference. Every attack of a state against 
the integrity or the inviolability of the territory, 
or against the sovereignty or political independ- 
ence of an American state, shall be considered as 
an act of aggression against other states which sign 
the Act of Chapultepec. It is stated that invasion 
by armed forces of one state into the territory of 
another trespassing boundaries established by 
treaty and demarcated in accordance therewith 
shall constitute an act of aggression. It is further 
provided that in case acts of aggression occur or 
there may be reasons to believe that an aggression 



XXXIV 

ABOLITION OF THE RECOGNITION OF DE 
FACTO GOVERNMENTS 

The Inter-Aruerican Conference on Problems of 
War and Peace 

Resolves : 

That the Inter-American Juridical Committee 
study the project presented by the Delegation of 
Ecuador entitled "Draft Convention on Abolition 
of the Recognition of De Facto Governments," 
and render an opinion on the subject to the Gov- 
ernments of the American Republics, through the 
Pan American Union, for consideration at the 
Ninth International Conference of American 
States. 

(Approved at the plenary session of 
March 7, 1945) 



is being prepared by any other state against the 
integrity and inviolability of the territory, or 
against the sovereignty or political independence 
of an American state, the states signatory to this 
act will consult among themselves in order to 
agree upon the measures it may be advisable to 
take. Sanctions ranging from the recall of chiefs 
of diplomatic missions to the use of armed force 
to prevent or repel aggression are provided for in 
the act. The Act of Chapultepec is effective only 
during the present war; however, a provision is 
made by which the respective governments shall 
take the necessary steps to perfect the instrument 
in order that it shall be in force at all times. 
Secretary of State Stettinius, with the approval of 
the President, announced that the United States 
would join with the other American republics in a 
conference to be held later this year for the pur- 
pose of negotiating a treaty that would establish 
on a permanent basis the principles of the Act of 
Chapultepec. 

The essence of the security provisions of the 
Charter of the United Nations is multilateral 
action, by armed force if necessary, to maintain 
world peace. 

The right of a nation to establish whatever type 
of government it desires must carry with it the 
corresponding obligation to accept the conse- 
quences of its action. One of the consequences may 
be absolute incompatibility with the kind of gov- 
ernment and institutions preferred by the great 
majority of other nations. It is against all the 
teachings of history to assume that the influence 
of a given type of government can be restricted 
to purely internal affairs. The effect is bound to 
be felt in relations with other countries. If, as has 
happened all too frequently in the past, there is 
political or economic aggression against other 
states — various economic and trade controls, im- 
proper or subversive political activities in foreign 
countries, the threat of aggression, or direct 
attack — then the majority has a right and a duty 
to defend itself. Any other course is dangerously 
like the fatal and discredited policy of appease- 
ment. 

It is inconceivable that the great majority of 
the American peoples will permit the establish- 
ment in the Western Hemisphere of systems and 
practices that have wrought such havoc in the 
world. The doctrine of racial superiority, the 
theory of government by a dictatorial and ag- 
gressive minority which ignores individual rights 



JULY 15, 1945 



95 



and dignity and subordinates all else to a mythical 
"state", the formation of antagonistic blocs of 
nations, the balance-of-power system, vicious com- 
petition in armaments, the rule of force rather 
than law — these are things that we should combat 
with all our energy. We cannot afford to handi- 
cap ourselves in the fight by an undue emphasis 
upon national sovereignty and non-intervention. 
There can be no just cause for objection if the same 
standards of conduct are insisted upon for all 
countries, large and small, and if the objective 
always is that of the general welfare of the inter- 
national community. The democracies of the 
world surely must have learned by now that if an 
issue is a choice between their system and the to- 
talitarian system, they must be prepared to fight. 
Democratic countries also must make it clear to 
totalitarian governments everywhere that they 
intend to intervene by means of preventive meas- 
ures in order that the latter will not be able to 
plunge the world into another maelstrom of war. 

The solution to these problems in the Western 
Hemisphere has the great advantage of the prog- 
ress already made by the American republics in 
working out their relations on a peaceful and co- 
operative basis. A difficult complication is that 
of a great disparity in political and economic 
power between the United States and any of the 
other American republics. That fact should be 
brought out into the open and faced honestly. 
Professor Frank Tannenbaum comments upon it 
clearly and intelligently in his article "An Ameri- 
can Commonwealth of Nations", published in the 
July 1944 issue of Foreign Affairs. He points out 
that the democratic influence of the United States 
in Latin America is essentially revolutionary; that 
by our very presence and size whatever we do or 
say — even if we do or say nothing — has the effect 
of intervention. That places an especially heavy 
responsibility upon us. We must be honest with 
ourselves and honest with the other American re- 
publics. We have as much right as other coun- 
tries, large or small, to consider our own national 
interests to the same extent that they consider 
theirs. But we should be conscientious in setting 
an example by considering world welfare as well 
as our own national interests. 

The United States should not be deterred from 
exerting its great influence in favor of democracy 
and a decent organization of the world commu- 
nity just because the old cry of "Yankee imperial- 
ism" is raised. Our acts should and must refute 



that charge, a charge that often is made in good 
faith but which also is exploited to the full by 
anti-democratic elements. The policies and meas- 
ures advocated by the United States in inter- 
American affairs should be judged on their merits. 
It is both unfair and undemocratic to oppose them 
merely because they happen to be advanced by the 
most powerful member of the American nations. 
Our full weight should be thrown behind the 
movement to achieve real democracy, real political 
and economic security, real respect for human and 
individual dignity, real freedom of thought, speech 
and worship for all peoples. If we do not lead in 
the fight for these principles, who will? 

Ten of the American republics occupy South 
America; three are island countries; Mexico, the 
five Central American states, and Panama bring 
the number to 20. The United States, with more 
than half of the total population of the 21 re- 
publics, is the 21st. Those who fear the undue in- 
fluence of the United States in inter-American 
affairs, justly or unjustly, often claim that the 
Central American countries, Panama, and the 
island republics cannot afford, because of economic 
dependence, to go counter to the course pursued 
by the United States. Such a claim is, at most, 
only partially true. Even on this basis, the United 
States and the group of countries mentioned make 
a total of only 10, a minority of the 21. Mexico 
and the 10 South American nations remain. It 
was suggested in a previous paragraph in connec- 
tion with inter-American treaties that action 
might be based upon a two-thirds majority repre- 
senting also at least 40 percent of the total popula- 
tion of the 21 republics. That would mean that 
any action advocated by the United States and by 
the 9 countries said to follow its lead also would 
have to be approved by 4 of the remaining 11 
countries. Such a safeguard against undue influ- 
ence of the United States should be an adequate 
one. 

IV 

One of the best wats to combat post-war let- 
down, cynicism, and despair will be to inspire the 
same unity and cooperation in winning the peace 
that is contributing so much to victory in the war. 
The American republics are in a particularly fa- 
vorable situation to make a major contribution. 
They have suffered much less than other parts 
of the world. They are not faced by the terrific 
drain for reconstruction that will burden Europe 



96 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



and Asia. They have a long and successful record 
of international cooperation. The choices for the 
world are few. There must be an international 
organization that can and will assure peace and 
security. Otherwise there will be a world dictator- 
ship of some kind, or international anarchy. The 
future depends in no small degree upon how wisely 
and how strongly the Western Hemisphere exerts 
its influence in world affairs. The most we may 
hope for as the 7-esult of intelligent, vigorous, and 
generous effort is that our successes will outweigh 
our failures. That would be a great accomplish- 
ment. Success will be measured in terms of cen- 
turies, not in terms of years. This generation, or 
any generation, must be content to make a positive 
contribution to the progress and evolution of the 
human race and civilization. We must answer to 
our consciences, to future generations, and to our 
God if we fail to make that contribution. 

Maintenance of peace is the most important im- 
mediate problem. It is the major task of the new 
world Organization, and it has been one of the 
principal considerations in the inter-American 
system during many years. Security of all na- 
tions against aggression and relief from the 
crushing and unproductive expenditures for arma- 
ment are essentials. The American republics, 
which took a furthpr step in agreeing upon the 
Act of Chapultepec at the Mexico City confer- 
ence, can contribute the benefit of their experience. 
There have been wars and the use of armed force 
among the American nations. Their peace system 
has not been entirely successful, but it has been 
more effective than in most of the other parts of 
the world. The elaborate and complicated nature 
of the inter-American peace structure detracts 
from its usefulness. This fact is recognized in 
resolution XXXIX of the Mexico City conference, 
which, in referring to the inter-American peace 
system, observes that "simplification of the mech- 
anism of codification is not only desirable but 
necessary". The resolution provides for the im- 
mediate preparation of a draft instrument which 
will coordinate the various continental instruments 
for the prevention and pacific solution of con- 
troversies. 

The will to peace and the determination to settle 
international differences without recourse to force 
are what really count. Practically all of the 
American republics are on record in favor of these 
principles. The question of hemisphere defense 



will have to be studied by the American republics 
until the world security Organization is function- 
ing. The next step probably will be the negotiation 
of the inter-American treaty to place the pro- 
visions of the Act of Chapultepec on a permanent 
basis. However, the American republics do not 
face a serious situation in providing for defense 
against possible attack from a neighboring coun- 
try — not if their inter-American declarations and 
commitments have been made in good faith. 

Hemisphere defense could well be dealt with 
in the first instance by the Inter-American De- 
fense Board, which was created during the war. 
Resolution IX of the Mexico City conference in- 
cludes the Inter-American Defense Board among 
a group of organs that shall continue to carry on 
their functions until the Ninth International Con- 
ference of American States takes further action 
with respect to these organs. The Defense Board 
could prepare technical plans and recommenda- 
tions regarding the relative strengths of the land, 
naval, and air forces of the 21 republics and re- 
garding the joint action of those forces for hemi- 
sphere defense. Agreement will not be easy. 
There will have to be a real acceptance of the prin- 
ciple, implicit in inter-American treaties and 
declarations, that armaments in the Western Hemi- 
sphere are no* intended for use against an Ameri- 
can nation. Success in reaching an agreement 
would make possible a general reduction in arma- 
ments and would lie an inspiring example and 
valuable contribution to the related world 
problem. 

The American republics also can do much to 
promote understanding and friendship among the 
peoples of the world, which is even more impor- 
tant than cooperation among governments. Gov- 
ernment action has no permanent value unless it 
is supported by public opinion. The experience 
of the Americas in a great variety of cooperative 
enterprises should be helpful in working out the 
post-war international Organization. 

Economic problems can be given only brief men- 
tion in an article of limited scope. Economic 
problems are not, however, of minor importance. 
They require the best ability that we can devote 
to them, a spirit of tolerance, and a genuine effort 
to place the welfare of the majority above the pre- 
tensions of powerful special interests. Sharp lines 
cannot be drawn between problems in the political, 
social, and economic fields. They are so inter- 
related that they must be treated simultaneously 



JULY 15, 1945 



97 



XXXVIII 

DEFENSE AND PRESERVATION OF DEMOC- 
RACY IN AMERICA 

The Inter-American Conference on Problems of 
War and Peace 

Resolves : 

That the Inter-American Juridical Committee 
study the project presented by the Delegation of 
Guatemala entitled "Defense and Preservation of 
Democracy in America Against the Possible Es- 
tablishment of Anti-Democratic Regimes in the 
Continent," and that it render an opinion thereon 
for submission to the Governments of the Ameri- 
can Republics, through the Pan American Union, 
for consideration at the Ninth International Con- 
ference of American States. 

(Approved at the plenary session of 
March 7, 191,5) 



and as parts of the whole pattern of our civili- 
zation. 

Many of the principal resolutions adopted at 
the Mexico City conference reflect the preoccupa- 
tion of the American republics with economic 
questions. An Inter- American Economic Con- 
ference is to be held in Washington during No- 
vember of this year in order to give further study 
to the situation. The United States should extend 
all possible assistance to the other American re- 
publics in the work of establishing all of our na- 
tional economies on a sound basis. This partici- 
pation should not suggest, careless extravagance or 
a Santa Clans role for the United States. The peo- 
ples of the Americas do not want that. They are 
proud and they have ability and are industrious. 
They need, above all, facilities which will enable 
them to help themselves. They need access to 
world markets on equal terms with other coun- 
tries; the investment of foreign capital on fair 
terms to assist in the sound development of na- 
tional resources ; technical aid and advice. It is to 
the advantage of the industry, agriculture, and ex- 
port trade of the United States to encourage sound 
industrialization in the other American republics. 
Increased industrialization and higher standards 
of living in any country make that country a 
better market for imported products. 

The other American republics must do their 
share to put their economic houses in order. Hon- 



est and efficient management of fiscal affairs is a 
task for which each government must be responsi- 
ble. Any attempt to return to the pre-war system 
of restraints and controls and national self-suf- 
ficiency would spell disaster. Capital from the 
United States should not be made available for 
projects which are economically unsound or which 
would require permanent or unduly large protec- 
tion by means of tariffs or other government sub- 
sidies. Investment of foreign and local capital 
in cooperative enterprises would tend to assure 
fair and equal treatment for both foreign and na- 
tional interests. The policy of the United States 
with respect to investments in the other American 
republics might be marked by constructive con- 
servatism and by an effort to strengthen broad 
national economies rather than powerful special 
interests. These measures, together with economic 
and trade policies on the part of the United States 
designed to help other countries sell enough to pay 
for their essential imports, should go far toward 
laying sound economic foundations. 



There are three aspects of international rela- 
tions : that of content, involving the principles 
upon which peoples and governments base their 
relations, with the objective sought, with the es- 
sential reconciliation of the interests and desires 
of one people with those of other peoples; that of 
form, involving the methods by which it is sought 
to present and to make effective the content of in- 
ternational relations; and that of timing, involv- 
ing the decisions about the most favorable oppor- 
tunity to bring a given proposal before the 
community of nations or to the attention of one 
or more of them, about the relative emphasis to be 
placed upon diverse problems during any given 
period, and about the amount of influence which 
shall be brought to bear in the effort to obtain 
favorable action. 

Broad principles, general objectives, and the 
necessary compromises with respect to conflicting 
interests are, of course, the heart of international 
relations. Form and timing do exert an important 
influence on events. The wrong way of doing a 
right thing may lead to delay, to a serious weak- 
ening in effect, or even to postponement of the 
desired result. Faulty timing will create similar 
difficulties and will prejudice immediate success 
or a full measure of progress. It is the heart of 



98 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



this problem, however, upon which we must con- 
centrate above aU else and at all times. 

Many influences will tend to divert attention 
and energy from these central and vital problems. 
When the war ends, hundreds of millions of men 
and women will need respite from their frightful 
ordeal. They should have it. They will not be 
ready immediately to take up the fight for the 
general welfare of the human race which must 
be waged against powerful minority and selfish 
interests. They naturally will have a first desire 
for peacetime and permanent employment, for the 
food and clothing and shelter which they have 
done without, for comfort and leisure and recrea- 
tion, for all of the happier parts of life which 
were swept away in the flood of barbaric savagery 
turned loose upon the world by the self-appointed 
"superior" races in their mad quest for world dom- 
ination. Those of us who have been spared the 
nightmare that descended upon the majority of 
the human race therefore must assume the respon- 
sibility for starting the work of reconstruction 
and for carrying it on until the majority is re- 
stored to physical, mental, and spiritual health and 
again can be rallied to assist in the general effort. 

Passions and bitterness will be deep after the 
war. It cannot be otherwise. If these natural 
feelings are not dealt with on a basis of under- 
standing, sympathy, and intelligence, this gener- 
ation may not be able to start repairing the tre- 
mendous damage which civilization has undergone 
and to begin the laying of sounder foundations 
for the future. It will not be easy to administer 
the just and severe punishment which must fall 
upon those who are guilty of the horrible crimes 
of recent years against humanity and, at the same 
time, to avoid the excesses which outraged peoples 
quite naturally will want to commit against their 
former criminal assailants. In spite of a desire, 
which has substantial justification, to close one's 
eyes and to allow such excesses to run their course, 
it will be to the advantage of the international 
community to visit upon the guilty the full weight 
of justice and penalty rather than the unspeakable 
atrocities which they perpetrated and for which 
full measure of retribution must be made. 

Strong minority groups are ready to take every 
advantage of circumstances in order to advance 
their own selfish interests at the expense of the 
general welfare. They will not want to have effort 
directed toward basic problems and the remedies 



for fundamental ills in our body politic. They 
will urge a "realistic" approach to world reorgan- 
ization, but it is not realism that they want. They 
want more of the anodyne of the "good old days", 
of the false assumption that men and women desire 
only a return to the safe and simple and familiar 
things of life. Our hope lies in the new future, 
not in the old past. The safe and simple and 
familiar things of life have been crippled or de- 
stroyed during the past decade. There can be no 
return to something that has ceased to exist. We 
must reconstruct and at the same time adopt much 
better and stronger methods to protect what we 
rebuild. The new edifice" will differ in design 
from the old, even though the same materials and 
the same site are used. There will be a realloca- 
tion of quarters in this new edifice of the human 
race. The minority groups are concerned pri- 
marily with handsome and comfortable quarters 
for themselves rather than with sound construc- 
tion and adequate accommodations for all. 

The period between the two world wars was 
marked by a dangerous weakening of the structure 
of the international community, which almost re- 
sulted in complete collapse. The great democra- 
cies failed to assume responsibility for resolutely 
facing the political problems that lead to wars. 
Isolationism and exaggerated nationalism brought 
civilization close to destruction. Xow we must 
give constant and intelligent attention to the basic 
problems. Economic and financial questions are 
important, but their solution will not assure world 
peace. Much more is necessary. Economic and 
financial considerations, business as usual, cer- 
tainly do not account for China's heroic fight 
against Japanese aggression during 8 years, nor 
for the desperate resistance of the European 
undergrounds in occupied countries, nor for our 
own determination that the only answer to Ger- 
many and Japan must be unconditional surrender. 

Powerful forces still exist such as the desire for 
freedom, even when freedom may mean fewer ma- 
terial advantages; for the individual liberties of 
thought and speech and religion; for self-govern- 
ment, even if that means slower material progress 
and less efficient government than that exercised 
from outside ; and for the opportunity for human 
beings to develop as individuals rather than to 
exist as robots who are regimented and controlled 
by a minority group setting itself up as the "state". 



JULY 15, 1945 



99 



We have ideals and principles and institutions — 
a way of life — in the United States that mean 
much more than our prosperity and high standard 
of living. We are prone to take these things for 
granted until they are threatened, as they have 
been since this war began. Then we realize how 
deeply rooted they are in our lives and in our 
hearts. Our blessings in natural resources and 
wealth are great, but they mean little unless we 
utilize them to safeguard the far greater blessings 
of the liberties for which we have planned and 
worked and died. We should not forget these 
things when we take part in world reorganization. 
We can make a contribution far more valuable 
than money and arms. The United States should 
bring to the work of international relations an 
insistence upon morality as opposed to expediency, 
a steadfast devotion to principles instead of eva- 
sive opportunism, a determination to support the 
democratic thesis of the greatest good for the ma- 
jority against the pressure of special interests, and 
an acceptance of joint responsibility to seek fair 
and practicable solutions for basic problems rather 
than temporary palliatives. Only so can we ap- 
proach the better world we hope for. A great 
leader promised his people only blood, sweat, toil, 
and tears. That challenge was met. The neces- 
sity to give of our blood may lighten the burden 
before long but the decent organization of the 
world will call for toil with sweat and tears during 
our time and long after. 

The human race is spread over the face of the 
earth, living under widely differing geographic 
and climatic conditions. Suppose that we all 
were to attempt to travel from our places of abode 
to a fixed destination. Some of us live near the 
great arteries of transportation. We could travel 
by sea, by air, by rail, by highway. Others are 
isolated in difficult country. These people might 
have to cut paths through jungles to reach a high- 
way, travel by small boat or by mule or on foot. 
Some would have ample means for the journey 
and could travel comfortably ; others would suffer 
many privations. The distances to the destina- 
tion would vary between the widest extremes. An 
analogy might be drawn in the case of the goal 
we seek in the evolution of our civilization. Let 
us say that it is a Utopian goal — a condition of 
spiritual, mental, and physical well-being for every 
member of the human race. There would be the 



same differences in situation facing various races, 
nations, and groups in this hypothetical journey. 
Distances would range from long to astronomical 
figures; facilities would vary from practically 
nothing to some fairly effective ones ; obstacles in 
the way would not be too serious in some cases, 
but they would be almost insurmountable in others. 
The important things are to set the proper course, 
to move toward the goal, and to help the other fel- 
low get there. Attractive by-paths will offer easier 
travel, but they could lead to a dead-end or over 
a precipice. It may be necessary to turn back at 
times in order to advance by another route, but 
the general direction must not be lost. Those who 
have the easier journey are obligated to help the 
less fortunate. It may only be necessaiy to aid 
them to reach a better road from an isolated posi- 
tion, or to help chart the course for those who do 
not know the way; but in some cases it will be 
essential to cut the first paths, to give a lift to those 
who are unable to travel under their own power. 
A fine dream, perhaps, but what remains of the 
history of the human race if dreams are ignored ? 

Food-Production Agreement 

Venezuela 

The American Embassy at Caracas transmitted 
to the Department with a despatch dated May 16, 
1945 the texts of notes exchanged at Caracas May 
14, 1945 extending for one year, with certain modi- 
fications, the food-production agreement between 
the United States and Venezuela which was signed 
May 14, 1943 1 and extended May 13, 1944. 2 

Exchange of Ratifications 
of Treaty of Friendship 

China -Costa Rica 

The American Ambassador at San Jose, in a 
communication dated June 15, 1945, informed the 
Acting Secretary of State of the exchange of rati- 
fications at San Jose on that date of the treaty 
of friendship between Costa Rica and China which 
was signed May 5, 1944. 3 

1 Bulletin of June 5, 1943, p. 501 ; Executive Agreement 
Series 333. 

2 Bulletin of Nov. 26, 1944, p. 642. 

' Bulletin of Aug. 27, 1944, p. 229. 



100 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Sugar Shipments to Spain 

On July 11, 1945, in lieu of his press and radio 
news conference, Acting Secretary Grew com- 
mented on the reports concerning shipments of 
sugar to Spain by the United States. Mr. Grew 
stated that no sugar was being shipped from the 
United States to Spain, but that in accordance 
with a joint British-American supply agreement 
Spain was to receive 30,000 tons of sugar during 
the first half of 1945, adding that this sugar is 
being supplied from British sources in the Carib- 
bean and is being transported on Spanish ships. 
The Acting Secretary disclosed that Spain in re- 
turn had agreed not to enter the world sugar 
market for any other sugar. Mr. Grew said that 
he understood that this quantity of sugar was not 
only below Spanish requirements but was also 40 
percent less than Spain received under similar ar- 
rangements in the second six months of last year. 



Inter-American Conventions 

Peru 

The Director General of the Pan American 
Union has informed the Secretary of State by a 
note dated June 27, 1945 that the Ambassador of 
Peru deposited with the Pan American Union on 
June 21 the instruments of ratification by the Gov- 
ernment of Peru of the conventions regarding 
Status of Aliens, Asylum, Consular Agents, Pan 
American Union, Treaties, and Eights and Duties 
of States in the Event of Civil Strife, which were 
signed at the Sixth International Conference of 
American States held in Habana in 1928. The in- 
strument of ratification of the Convention on the 
Status of Aliens is dated April 25, 1945 and the 
other instruments of ratification are dated April 
9, 1945. 



Visit of Venezuelan Dentist 

[Released to the press July 10] 

Dr. Foci6n Febres Cordero, professor of dental 
pathology in the Central University of Venezuela 
at Caracas, will visit a number of colleges of den- 
tistry in the United States during the next four 
months. Dr. Febres Cordero, who is a guest of 



the Department of State, is making a special study 
of the organization and functioning of dental 
schools in this country and of teaching methods 
along the line of his own specialty, dental path- 
ology. He is the author of a plan recently put into 
effect for the reorganization of the School of Den- 
tistry of the University at Caracas, on whose fac- 
ulty he has served for the past eight years. His 
itinerary will include schools at Washington, New 
York, Boston, Chicago, and Ann Arbor. 



Cooperative Education 

El Salvador 

The American Embassy at San Salvador trans- 
mitted to the Department, with a despatch dated 
June 18, the texts of an exchange of notes signed 
June 9, 1945 at San Salvador by the American Am- 
bassador and the Salvadoran Minister for For- 
eign Affairs in which the Governments of the 
United States and El Salvador agreed upon a co- 
operative education program. The agreement pro- 
vides that each Government will contribute $80,000, 
the contribution of the United States to be made 
through the Inter- American Educational Founda- 
tion, Inc., an agency of the Office of Inter- Amer- 
ican Affairs. The agreement, which became effec- 
tive on the date of signing, will remain in force 
for three years. 



S THE DEPARTMENT 



International Information Division ' 

Purpose. This order is issued to authorize the Inter- 
national Information Division of the Office of Public Af- 
fairs to attest the educational character of sound-record- 
ings. 

1 Amendment to Departmental Order 1801. Depart- 
mental Order 1301 of December 20, 1944, section XV, para- 
graph 4 (i), is hereby amended to read "The official 
attestation of the international educational character of 
documentary films and sound-recordings". 

2 Effective date. This order shall be effective as of 
the date of issue. 

Joseph C. Gbew 
Acting Secretary of State 



1 Departmental Order 1301 -A, dated and effective July 
11, 1945. 



JULY 15, 1945 



101 



Appointment of Officers 

Edwin M. Martin as Adviser on Far East Eco- 
nomic Affairs in the office of the Assistant Secre- 
tary in charge of economic affairs, effective May 7, 
1945. 



^ THE CONGRESS 



Foreign Claims Act Made Applicable to the Philippine 
Islands. H. Rept. 859, 79th Cong., to accompany H. R. 
3111. 7 pp. [Favorable report.] 

Our American Government. What Is It? How Does It 
Function? 279 Questions and Answers, a comprehensive 
story of the history and functions of our American Gov- 
ernment interestingly and accurately portrayed. Ques- 
tions and Answers Relative to our American Government. 
H. Doc. 228, 79th Cong, ii, 62 pp. 

Investigation of the National Defense Program. Addi- 
tional Report of the Special Committee Investigating the 
National Defense Program, pursuant to S. Res. 71 (77th 
Congress ; S. Res. 6, 78th Congress, and S. Res. 55, 79th 
Congress), Resolutions authorizing and directing an in- 
vestigation of the national defense program. Investiga- 
tions Overseas. S. Rept. 110, Part 2, 79th Cong, iii, 
35 pp. 

Participation of the United States in the International 
Monetary Fund and the International Bank for Recon- 
struction and Development. Report From the Committee 
on Banking and Currency to accompany H.R. 3314, an 
act to provide for the participation of the United States 
in the International Monetary Fund and the International 
Bank for Reconstruction and Development. S. Rept. 452, 
79th Cong, ii, 30 pp. 

The Charter of the United Nations. Remarks of Hon. 
Tom Connally, Senator from the State of Texas, In the 
Senate of the United States, June 28, 1945, relative to the 
Charter of the United Nations for the maintenance of 
international peace and security. S. Doc. 58, 79th Cong. 
11, 12 pp. 

Key to the Year of Decisions of Cases in the United 
States Supreme Court, the Opinions of the Attorneys Gen- 
eral and Other Legal Reports. Devised and arranged 
by I. J. Lowe, Member of the Legal Staff, United States 
Department of Agriculture. S. Doc. 73, 79th Cong, iii, 
16 pp. 

Second Deficiency Appropriation Bill for 1945: Hearings 
Before the Subcommittee of the Committee on Appropria- 
tions, United States Senate, Seventy-ninth Congress, first 
session, on H. R. 3579, an act making appropriations to 
supply deficiencies in certain appropriations for the fiscal 
year ending June 30, 1945, and for prior fiscal years, to 
provide supplemental appropriations for the fiscal years 



ending June 30, 1945, and June 30, 1946, to provide appro- 
priations for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1946, and for 
other purposes. 11, 137 pp. [Department of State, pp. 
59-68.] 

An Act To amend the joint resolutions of January 27, 
1942, entitled "Joint resolution to enable the United States 
to become an adhering member of the Inter-American 
Statistical Institute." Approved July 2, 1945. H. R. 688, 
Public Law 111, 79th Cong. 1 p. 

An Act To extend the authority of the President under 
section 350 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended, and for 
other purposes. Approved July 5, 1945. H. R. 3240, Pub- 
lic Law 130, 79th Cong. 1 p. 

An Act To amend the Act entitled "An Act to provide 
for the disposal of certain records of the United States 
Government." Approved July 6, 1945. H. R. 44. Public 
Law 133, 79th Cong. 1 p. 

To reimburse certain naval personnel and former naval 
personnel for personal property lost or damaged as a re- 
sult of a fire in the bachelor officers' quarters known as 
Macqueripe Annex, located at the United States naval 
operating base, Trinidad, British West Indies, on June 11, 
1944. Approved July 6, 1945. H. R. 2685, Private Law 
142, 79th Cong. 1 p. 



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VOL. XIII, NO. 317 



JULY 22, 1945 



/zi £/us issue 



INSTRUMENTS OF SURRENDER OF GERMAN ARMED FORCES 

ADDRESS BY THE PRESIDENT AT FLAG-RAISING CEREMONY IN 
BERLIN 

POLICY TOWARD POLISH PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT OF NATIONAL 
UNITY 

FROM CHINA TO VENEZUELA IN AMERICAN FOREIGN RELATIONS 
FOR THE YEAR 1930 

THAT WOMEN MAY SHARE 
By Marion Parks 

LIMITATION OF THE PRODUCTION OF OPIUM: EXCHANGE OF 
NOTES BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENTS OF THE UNITED 
STATES AND THE UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 



For complete contents 
see inside cover 



^lENT Q*. 




^TES °* 



* 



AUG ..-1945 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

BULLETIN 




July 22, 1945 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Research and 
Publication, Office of Public Affairs, 
provides the public and interested 
agencies of the Government with 
information on developments in the 
field of foreign relations and on the 
work of the Department of State and 
the Foreign Service. The BULLETIN 
includes press releases on foreign 
policy issued by the W hite House and 
the Department, and statements and 
addresses made by the President and 
by the Secretary of State and other 
officers of the Department, as well as 
special articles on various phases of 
international affairs and the functions 
of the Department. Information con- 
cerning treaties and international 
agreements to which the United States 
is or may become a party and treaties 
of general international interest is 
included. 

Publications of the Department, 
cumulativelistsofwhicharepublished 
at the end of each quarter, as tcell as 
legislative material in the field of inter- 
national relations, are listed currently. 

The BULLETIN, published with the 
approval of the Director of the Bureau 
of the Budget, is for sale by the Super- 
intendent of Documents, United States 
Government Printing Office, Wash- 
ington 25, D. C, to whom all pur- 
chase orders, with accompanying 
remittance, should be sent. The sub- 
scription price is $3.50 a year; a single 
copy is 10 cents. 







ontents 



American Republics p age 

Election of Secretary of State as Chairman of Governing 

Board of Pan American Union Ill 

Seating of Argentine Ambassador on Governing Board of 

Pan American Union Ill 

That Women May Share. By Marion Parks 112 

Europe 

Instrument of Surrender of all German armed forces in 
Holland, in northwest Germany including all islands, and 
in Denmark 105 

Acts of Military Surrender signed at Rheims and Berlin. . 106 
". . . in the Name of the People of the United States". 

Address by the President 107 

Policy Toward Polish Provisional Government of National 
Unity: Exchange of Letters Between Senator Vanden- 

berg and Acting Secretary Grew 109 

Displaced Persons in Germany: Present Operations. . . . 127 
Belgian Independence Day. Message From the President. 128 
Limitation of the Production of Opium: Exchange of Notes 
Between the Governments of the United States and the 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 129 

Far East 

Representation by Swiss Government of Japanese Interests 
in United States: Acceptance of Request From Swiss 
Legation 125 

Cultural Cooperation 

Psychologist Accepts Visiting Professorship to Brazil . . . 126 
Visit of Guatemalan Health Official 132 

General _ 

Removal of Alien Enemies 107 

New Wartime Visa Regulations 131 

Post-War Matters 

Meeting of Interim Council of the Provisional International 

Civil Aviation Organization 108 

Treaty Information 

El Salvador Ratines Charter 117 

Panama-United States Fellowship Program 126 

The Department 

Appointment of Officers 132 

Transfer of Functions in Connection With Extradition . . 132 

The Foreign Service 

Consular Offices 132 

Publications 

From China to Venezuela in American Foreign Relations for 
the Year 1930. Reviewed by Victor J. Farrar and John 

Gilbert Reid 118 

Publication of "Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of 

the United States, 1930", Volumes II and III ... . 124 

Department of State 133 

The Congress 133 



Instrument of Surrender 

of 

All German armed forces in HOLLAND, in 

northwest Germany including all islands, 

and in DENMARK. 

1. The German Command agrees to the surrender of all German armed forces 
in HOLLAND, in northwest GERMANY including the FRISIAN IS- 
LANDS and HELIGOLAND and all other islands, in SCHLESWIG- 
H0LSTEIN, and in DENMARK, to the C.-in-C. 21 Army Group. This 
to include all naval ships in these areas. These forces to lay down their 
arms and to surrender unconditionally. 

2. All hostilities on land, on sea, or in the air by German forces in the above 
areas to cease at 0800 hrs. British Double Summer Time on Saturday 5 
May 1945. 

3. The German command to carry out at once, and without argument or com- 
ment, all further orders that will be issued by the Allied Powers on any 
subject. 

4. Disobedience of orders, or failure to comply with them, will be regarded as 
a breach of these surrender terms and will be dealt with by the Allied Powers 
in accordance with the accepted laws and usages of war. 

5. This instrument of surrender is independent of, without prejudice to, and 
will be superseded by any general instrument of surrender imposed by or 
on behalf of the Allied Powers and applicable to Germany and the German 
armed forces as a whole. 

6. This instrument of surrender is written in English and in German. The 
English version is the authentic text. 

7. The decision of the Allied Powers will be final if any doubt or dispute arises 
as to the meaning or interpretation of the surrender terms. 

Friedebukg. 
B. L. Montgomery Kinsel. 

Field-Marshal G. Wagner. 

4 May 1945 Poleck 

1830 hrs. Frtedel 

[Note: The texts of the above and the follow- 
ing two documents conform to the originals.] 



105 



106 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 
Only this text in English is authoritative 



ACT OF MILITARY SURRENDER 



1. We the undersigned, acting by authority of 
the German High Command, hereby surrender 
unconditionally to the Supreme Commander, Al- 
lied Expeditionary Force and simultaneously to 
the Soviet High Command all forces on land, sea, 
and in the air who are at this date under German 
control. 

2. The German High Command will at once is- 
sue orders to all German military, naval and air 
authorities and to all forces under German con- 
trol to cease active operations at 2301 hours Cen- 
tral European time on 8 May and to remain in 
the positions occupied at that time. No ship, 
vessel, or aircraft is to be scuttled, or any damage 
done to their hull, machinery or equipment. 

3. The German High Command will at once 
issue to the appropriate commanders, and ensure 
the carrying out of any further orders issued by 
the Supreme Commander, Allied Expeditionary 
Force and by the Soviet High Command. 

4. This act of military surrender is without 
prejudice to, and will be superseded by any gen- 
eral instrument of surrender imposed by, or on 



behalf of the United Nations and applicable to 
GERMANY and the German armed forces as a 
whole. 

5. In the event of the German High Command 
or any of the forces under their control failing 
to act in accordance with this Act of Surrender, 
the Supreme Commander, Allied Expeditionary 
Force and the Soviet High Command will take 
such punitive or other action as they deem ap- 
propriate. 

Signed at Rheinis at 0241 on the 7th day of May, 1945. 
France 

On behalf of the German High Command. 
Jodl 

in the presence of: 



On behalf of the Supreme 
Commander, Allied Ex- 
peditionary Force. 
W. B. Smith 

F Sevez 

Major General, French Army 
(Witness) 



On behalf of the Soviet 
High Command. 
Souslopaeov. 



ACT OF MILITARY SURRENDER 



1. We the undersigned, acting by authority of 
the German High Command, hereby surrender 
unconditionally to the Supreme Commander, 
Allied Expeditionary Force and simultaneously 
to the Supreme High Command of the Red Army 
all forces on land, at sea, and in the air who are 
at this date under German control. 

2. The German High Command will at once 
issue orders to all German military, naval and 
air authorities and to all forces under German 
control to cease active operations at 2301 hours 
Central European time on 8th May 1945, to remain 
in the positions occupied at that time and to 
disarm completely, handing over their weapons 
and equipment to the local allied commanders or 
officers designated by Representatives of the Allied 
Supreme Commands. No ship, vessel, or aircraft 
is to be scuttled, or any damage done to their hull, 
machinery or equipment, and also to machines of 
all kinds, armament, apparatus, and all the tech- 
nical means of prosecution of war in general. 



3. The German High Command will at once 
issue to the appropriate commanders, and ensure 
the carrying out of any further orders issued by 
the Supreme Commander, Allied Expeditionary 
Force and by the Supreme High Command of 
the Red Army. 

4. This act of military surrender is without 
prejudice to, and will be superseded by any gen- 
eral instrument of surrender imposed by, or on 
behalf of the United Nations and applicable to 
GERMANY and the German armed forces as a 
whole. 

5. In the event of the German High Command 
or any of the forces under their control failing 
to act in accordance with this Act of Surrender, 
the Supreme Commander, Allied Expeditionary 
Force and the Supreme High Command of the 
Red Army will take such punitive or other action 
as they deem appropriate. 

6. This Act is drawn up in the English, 



JULY 22, 1945 



107 



Russian and German languages. The English 
and Russian are the only authentic texts. 

Signed at Berlin on the 8. day of May, 1945 

Feiedeburq Keitel Sttjmpf 
On behalf of the German High Command 



IN THE PRESENCE OF : 

On behalf of the On behalf of the 

Supreme Commander Supreme High Command 

Allied Expeditionary Force of the Red Army 
A W Teddeb G Zhukov 

At the signing also were present as witnesses : 

F. de Lattre-Tassigny Carl Spaatz 

General Commanding in Chief General, Commanding 
First French Army United States Stra- 

tegic Air Forces 



"... in the Name of the People 
of the United States" 

Informal Remarks by THE PRESIDENT " 

General Eisenhower, Officers and Men : This 
is an historic occasion. We have conclusively 
proven that a free people can successfully look 
after the affairs of the world. 

We are here today to raise the flag of victory 
over the capital of our greatest adversary. In 
doing that we must remember that in raising that 
flag we are raising it in the name of the people 
of the United States, who are looking forward to 
a better world, a peaceful world, a world in which 
all the people will have an opportunity to enjoy 
the good tilings of life, and not just a few at the 
top. 

Let us not forget that we are fighting for peace 
and for the welfare of mankind. We are not fight- 
ing for conquest. There is not one piece of terri- 
tory or one thing of a monetary nature that we 
want out of this war. 

We want peace and prosperity for the world as 
a whole. We want to see the time come when we 
can do the things in peace that we have been able 
to do in war. 

If we can put this tremendous machine of ours, 
which has made this victory possible, to work for 
peace, we can look forward to the greatest age in 
the history of mankind. That is what we propose 
to do. 



Removal of Alien Enemies 2 

[Released to the press by the White House July 17] 

Whereas section 4067 of the Revised Statutes of 
the United States (50 U.S.C. 21) provides: 

"Whenever there is a declared war between the 
United States and any foreign nation or govern- 
ment, or any invasion or predatory incursion is 
perpetrated, attempted, or threatened against the 
territory of the United States by any foreign na- 
tion or government, and the President makes pub- 
lic proclamation of the event, all natives, citizens, 
denizens, or subjects of the hostile nation or gov- 
ernment, being of the age of fourteen years and 
upward, who shall be within the United States 
and not actually naturalized, shall be liable to be 
apprehended, restrained, secured, and re- 
moved as alien enemies. The President 
is authorized, in any such event, by his 
proclamation thereof, or other public act, 
to direct the conduct to be observed, on 
the part of the United States, toward the 
aliens who become so liable; the manner 
and degree of the restraint to which they 
shall be subject and in what cases, and 
upon what security their residence shall 
be permitted, and to provide for the re- 
moval of those who, not being permitted 
to reside within the United States, refuse 
or neglect to depart therefrom; and to 
establish any other regulations which are 
found necessary in the premises and for 
the public safety;" 

Whereas sections 4068, 4069, and 4070 
of the Revised Statutes of the United 
States (50 U.S.C. 22, 23, 24) make further 
provision relative to alien enemies ; 

Whereas the Congress by joint resolu- 
tions approved by the President on Decem- 
ber 8 and 11, 1941, and June 5, 1942, de- 
clared the existence of a state of war be- 
tween the United States and the Govern- 
ments of Japan, Germany, Italy, Bul- 
garia, Hungary, and Rumania ; 



1 Delivered at the raising of the Stars and 
Stripes over the United States Group Council 
Headquarters, Berlin, July 20, 1945. The Presi- 
dent, accompanied by the Secretary of State, 
left the United States on July 7, 1945 for Pots- 
dam, Germany, to meet with Premier Stalin and 
Prime Minister Churchill. 
2 Proclamation 2655 (10 Federal Register 8947). 



108 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Whereas by Proclamation No. 2525 of Decem- 
ber 7, 1941, Proclamations Nos. 2526 and 2527 of 
December 8, 1941, Proclamation No. 2533 of De- 
cember 29, 1941, Proclamation No. 2537 of Janu- 
ary 14, 1942, and Proclamation No. 2563 of July 17, 
1942, the President prescribed and proclaimed cer- 
tain regulations governing the conduct of alien 
enemies; and 

Whereas I find it necessary in the interest of 
national defense and public safety to prescribe 
regulations additional and supplemental to such 
regulations : 

Now, therefore, I, Harry S. Truman, Presi- 
dent of the United States of America, acting under 
and by virtue of the authority vested in me by the 
Constitution of the United States and the afore- 
said sections of the Revised Statutes of the United 
States, do hereby prescribe and proclaim the fol- 
lowing regulations, additional and supplemental 
to those prescribed by the aforesaid proclamations : 

All alien enemies now or hereafter interned 
within the continental limits of the United States 
pursuant to the aforesaid proclamations of the 



President of the United States who shall be deemed 
by the Attorney General to be dangerous to the 
public peace and safety of the United States be- 
cause they have adhered to the aforesaid enemy 
governments or to the principles of government 
thereof shall be subject upon the order of the At- 
torney General to removal from the United States 
and may be required to depart therefrom in ac- 
cordance with such regulations as he may pre- 
scribe. 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my 
hand and caused the seal of the United States to 
be affixed. 
Done at the City of Washington this 14th day 
of July in the year of our Lord nineteen 
[seal] hundred and forty-five and of the Inde- 
pendence of the United States of America 
the one hundred and seventieth. 



By the President: 

James F. Byrnes, 

Secretary of State. 



Harry S. Truman 



Meeting of the Interim Council of the 
Provisional International Civil Aviation Organization 



[Released to the press July 20] 

Representatives of 20 nations comprising the In- 
terim Council of the Provisional International 
Civil Aviation Organization (PICAO) will meet 
in Montreal, Canada, beginning August 15, 1945. 
The PICAO was provided for by the Interim 
Agreement on International Civil Aviation, which 
was concluded at the 1944 Chicago air conference 
and which came into force on June 6, 1945. The 
organization will be of a technical and advisory 
nature but will not be empowered to regulate the 
economic phases of international air transport. 
Mr. Edward Warner, Vice Chairman of the Civil 
Aeronautics Board, will be United States Repre- 
sentative on the Interim Council. 

The text of the Chicago International Civil Air 
Convention and the Interim Agreement, together 
with the Final Act of the Chicago conference, the 
International Air Services Transit Agreement, 
and the International Air Transport Agreement, 
have been made available to the public in Depart- 
ment of State publication 2282, which may be 



purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, 
Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C., 
for 45 cents. 

Another publication of the Department en- 
titled Blueprint for World Civil Aviation (publi- 
cation 2348) gathers under one cover authorita- 
tive appraisals of the Chicago air conference, 
originally printed as magazine articles, by four 
recognized authorities in the field of international 
civil aviation who were members of the American 
Delegation. The authors of the four articles are 
Adolf A. Berle, Jr., formerly Assistant Secretary 
of State and now United States Ambassador to 
Brazil ; Stokeley W. Morgan, Chief of the Avia- 
tion Division, Office of Transport and Communi- 
cations Policy of the Department of State; Wil- 
liam A. M. Burden, Assistant Secretary of Com- 
merce for Air; and Edward Warner, Vice Chair- 
man of the Civil Aeronautics Board. This 34- 
page pamphlet may also be purchased from the 
Superintendent of Documents, for 15 cents. 



JULY 22, 1945 



109 



Policy Toward Polish Provisional Government 

of National Unity 

EXCHANGE OF LETTERS BETWEEN SENATOR VANDENBERG AND ACTING SECRETARY GREW 



United States Senate 

Committee on Finance 

July 9, 191,5. 
Honorable Joseph C. Grew, 

Undersecretary of State, 
Washington, D.C. 
My Dear Mr. Secretary: 

In the absence of the Secretary, I take the lib- 
erty of addressing this inquiry to you. 

It is clear that the settlement of the Polish ques- 
tion thus far made is inadequate and unconvincing 
to millions of our citizens among whom I may say 
that I am numbered. There still seems to be no 
clear assurance that the Polish people will them- 
selves have the final opportunity of untrammeled 
self-determination under this new Provisional 
Government which is imposed upon them by Brit- 
ain, Russia and the United States, within Polish 
boundaries similarly dictated by these external 
powers. 

I wish to inquire whether our responsibility, 
under the Yalta Agreement, is presumed to have 
been discharged by the creation of this new Pro- 
visional Government or whether the three-power 
obligation continues until the promised "free elec- 
tions" have actually occurred? If the obligation 
continues, as would seem to be our own unavoid- 
able share of this responsibility, I wish to ask the 
following questions : 

(1) When the new Provisional Government 
begins to operate, will the United States be per- 
mitted to send full diplomatic and consular rep- 
resentatives into Poland? 

(2) Will the American. Press be permitted to 
send its uncensored correspondents into Poland? 

(3) Will the United States participate, on an 
equality with the other powers, under their Yalta 
obligation, in a general supervision of these "free 
elections" to make certain they are "free" in fact 
as well as name ? 

I am sure you will agree that we cannot be guilty 
of default in any of these directions ; and that the 
greatest measure of realistic self-determination 
for the Polish people, including the members of 
the Polish Army which has played such an heroic 



part in our victory over the Axis, is the only 
course consistent with the Atlantic Charter, the 
Moscow Declaration, the Yalta Agreement, and 
the San Francisco Charter. I respectfully urge 
that the full weight of our American influence 
should be exerted in behalf of final determinations 
which will clearly serve the ends of justice in 
behalf of Poland, not only for the sake of Poland 
but also for the sake of all the Great Powers con- 
cerned (and our unity) and for the sake of the 
international peace and security which we are 
unitedly seeking to stabilize. 

I shall welcome any information you can give 
me upon this subject in response to my questions. 

With sentiments of great respect and with warm 
personal regards, I beg to remain 
Cordially and faithfully, 

A H Vandenberg 

July 17, 1945. 
My Dear Senator Vandenberg : 

I have received your letter of July 9, 1945 in 
which you raise several questions concerning the 
new Polish Provisional Government of National 
Unity, recently established in Warsaw, and the 
United States Government's policy toward that 
Government. For greater convenience to you, I 
have considered individually, in the order of their 
appearance in your letter, your several statements 
and questions : 

1. "There still seems to be no clear assurance 
that the Polish people will themselves have the 
final opportunity of untrammeled self-determina- 
tion under this new Provisional Government which 
is imposed upon them by Britain, Russia and the 
United States, within Polish boundaries similarly 
dictated by these external powers." 

Since the rival Polish groups in Poland and in 
London were unable to settle their differences, it 
was decided at Yalta to set up a Commission, com- 
posed of Mr. Molotov, People's Commissar for 
Foreign Affairs of the U.S.S.R., Sir Archibald 
Clark-Kerr, British Ambassador to the U.S.S.R., 
and Mr. W. Averell Harriman, American Ambas- 



110 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



sador to the U.S.S.R., which would be empowered 
to bring these groups together in order that mem- 
bers of the Polish provisional government then 
functioning in Warsaw and other Polish demo- 
cratic leaders from within Poland and from abroad 
could consult with a view to the reorganization of 
the provisional government on a broader demo- 
cratic basis, and the formation of a new Polish 
Provisional Government of National Unity with 
which the Governments of the United States, the 
United Kingdom and the Soviet Union could es- 
tablish diplomatic relations. Arrangements were 
finally made to bring the three groups of Poles 
together and they met in Moscow between June 
17 and June 21 to discuss the composition of the 
new government. On June 21 the leaders in- 
formed the Commission established by the Crimea 
Conference that complete accord had been reached 
by them regarding the formation of a new Polish 
Provisional Government of National Unity. 
After studying the report submitted by the Polish 
leaders, the three Commissioners concluded that 
the Polish groups represented had set up a gov- 
ernment in conformity with the Crimea decisions. 
The Commission's decision was accepted by the 
Governments of the United States, the United 
Kingdom and the Soviet Union. 

Thus, since this Government was set up by the 
Poles themselves, the new Government was not 
imposed upon the Polish people by the United 
States, Great Britain and the Soviet Union. 

2. "I wish to inquire whether our responsibility, 
under the Yalta Agreement, is presumed to have 
been discharged by the creation of this new Provi- 
sional Government or whether the three-power ob- 
ligation continues until the promised 'free elec- 
tions' have actually occurred?" 

The formation of the new Polish Provisional 
Government of National Unity constituted a posi- 
tive step in the fulfillment of the Crimea decisions. 
The decisions will be further implemented when 
the new Government carries out its pledge to hold 
free and unfettered elections as soon as possible on 
the basis of universal suffrage and the secret ballot. 
In this connection the Crimea decisions also pro- 
vide that the Ambassadors in Poland of the three 
powers shall keep their respective Governments 
informed about the situation in Poland. It is 
clear, therefore, that the creation of the new Gov- 



ernment does not alone discharge us from the 
responsibilities we assumed at Yalta. 

3. "When the new Provisional Government be- 
gins to operate, will the United States be permitted 
to send full diplomatic and consular representa- 
tives into Poland?" 

Mr. Osubka-Morawski, Prime Minister of the 
new Polish Provisional Government of National 
Unity, in his message to President Truman re- 
questing the establishment of diplomatic relations 
with his Government stated : 

"I have the honor in the name of the Provisional 
Government of National Unity to approach the 
Government of the United States of America with 
a request for the establishment of diplomatic rela- 
tions between our nations and for the exchange 
of representatives with the rank of Ambassador." 

On the basis of the assurances given by the 
United States at the Crimea Conference, President 
Truman established diplomatic relations with the 
new Government and informed the Prime Min- 
ister that he had chosen as Ambassador Extraor- 
dinary and Plenipotentiary to Poland the Honor- 
able Arthur Bliss Lane. Ambassador Lane and 
initial members of his staff are making arrange- 
ments to proceed to Warsaw as soon as possible 
and, thus in accordance with the Crimea deci- 
sions, the Ambassador will be in a position to 
keep this Government "informed about the situa- 
tion in Poland". 

4. "Will the American Press be permitted to 
send its uncensored correspondents into Poland?" 

In the discussions relative to the recognition 
of the new Polish Provisional Government of 
National Unity, the United States Government 
made it clear that it expected American corre- 
spondents to be permitted to enter Poland in order 
that the American public may be informed of the 
situation in that area. You may be assured that 
the United States Government will use its full 
influence to attain this desired end. 

In addition to these conversations regarding 
the entry of American correspondents into Poland, 
the Department of State has for some time been 
pressing the Soviet authorities for authorization 
for American correspondents to enter eastern and 
southeastern Europe in order to be in a position 
to report accurately to the American public on 



JULY 22, 1945 

developments there. The Department will con- 
tinue its efforts to obtain permission for American 
correspondents to operate freely in all areas. 

5. "AVill the United States participate, on an 
equality with the other powers, under their Yalta 
obligation, in a general supervision of these 'free 
elections' to make certain they are 'free' in fact 
as well as name?" 

President Truman in his message to the Polish 
Prime Minister stated that "I am pleased to note 
that Your Excellency's Government has recog- 
nized in their entirety the decisions of the Crimea 
Conference on the Polish question, thereby con- 
firming the intention of Your Excellency's Gov- 
ernment to proceed with the holding of elections 
in Poland in conformity with the provisions of 
the Crimea decisions." This undertaking with 
regard to the holding of free and unfettered elec- 
tions was one of the vital points considered in 
connection with the establishment of diplomatic 
relations between this Government and the new 
Polish Provisional Government of National Unity. 

As indicated above, the American Ambassador 
and his staff will make reports on the situation in 
Poland and on the basis of these reports this Gov- 
ernment will give consideration to the question of 
whether supervision of elections would be advisa- 
ble. If it is decided to supervise the elections, 
the United States Government will, of course, in- 
sist upon its right to participate on an equal basis 
with the other powers. 

In conclusion, I wish to point out that American 
policy with regard to Poland continues to be based 
on the decisions of the Crimea Conference. Both 
President Roosevelt and President Truman have 
gone on record that the United States Government 
stands unequivocally for a strong, free and inde- 
pendent Polish state. 

I welcome this opportunity to exchange views 
with you, since I believe it is of vital importance 
that the members of the Congress be afforded a 
clear understanding of questions relating to our 
foreign relations and policy. Under such con- 
ditions the State Department can best carry out 
the foreign policy of the United States as deter- 
mined by the President and the Congress. 
Sincerely yours, 

Joseph C. Grew, 
Acting Secretary. 



Ill 

Election of Secretary of State as 
Chairman of Governing Board 
Of Pan American Union 

[Released to the press by the Pan American Union July 16] 

The Governing Board of the Pan American 
Union, at a special session, on July 16 elected 
Secretary of State Byrnes Chairman of the Board, 
to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of 
former Secretary Stettinius. On motion of the 
Ambassador of Argentina, Oscar Ibarra Garcia, 
the Board also decided to extend to Mr. Stettinius 
an expression of appreciation for his admirable 
services to the nations of Latin America, especially 
on the occasion of the recent San Francisco 
conference. 



Seating of Argentine Ambas- 
sador on Governing Board of 
Pan American Union 

[Released to the press by the Pan American Union July 16] 

The Argentine Ambassador attended for the 
first time on July 16 a meeting of the Governing 
Board of the Pan American Union, and on behalf 
of the members was greeted by the Acting Chair- 
man, the Ambassador of Brazil, Carlos Martins. 
The Brazilian Ambassador recalled the coopera- 
tion which the Pan American Union had always 
received from the representatives of Argentina 
on the Governing Board and expressed confi- 
dence that such cooperation would be continued. 

Ambassador Ibarra Garcia expressed his satis- 
faction at becoming a member of the Board, and 
his appreciation of the spirit of solidarity demon- 
strated by the other American republics at the 
San Francisco conference. He declared that he 
was complying with instructions of his Govern- 
ment on assuming his seat on the Governing Board 
of the Pan American Union "without mental reser- 
vations of any character and reaffirming the firm 
determination of the Argentine Republic to collab- 
orate with the Pan American organization at a 
time when the interests of humanity and of civili- 
zation require that the union of the American 
republics be a reality." 



659663 — 15- 



112 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



That Women May Share 



By MARION PARKS ' 



At san francisco the framers of the new world 
II Organization have rested their case before 
international conscience. The Charter they have 
completed provides for a structure whereby the 
world can be reconstituted on bases which stress 
the dignity, rights, and liberties of the individual 
citizen. At the Inter-American Conference on 
Problems of War and Peace held at Mexico City 
February 21 to March 8, 1945, these concepts were 
more positively defined than at previous inter- 
American meetings. Those expressions of social 
and economic principles incorporated in the Final 
Act were precursors in this hemisphere of much 
which has just been underwritten on a world scale 
at San Francisco. 2 The American republics have 
been moving over a period of many years toward 
acceptance of this point of view. Analysis of 
inter-American conferences held during the past 
half-century reveals a logical sequence of action 
leading toward the establishment of the ideal of 
social justice as a cardinal objective of interna- 
tional relations. 

The world will remain far short of attaining 
justice and liberty for all, however, so long as half 
the world's adult population remains, because of 
sex discrimination, under legal and practical re- 
straints preventing the full exercise of civil and 
political rights. Removal of the age-old accumu- 
lation of legal obstacles and traditional hindrances 
which prevent women, in varying degree in vari- 
ous countries, from enjoying the rights and from 
sharing the tasks of citizenship on an equal foot- 
ing with men is one of the fundamental require- 
ments for preparing a clean slate on which to 
write the new justice of the earth. 

With specific reference to women, the delegates 
of the American republics at Mexico City sub- 
scribed to the declaration that "Democratic postu- 
lates contain absolute equality of rights and duties 

1 Miss Parks is an Administrative Assistant in the Amer- 
ican Embassy at Madrid. 

2 The texts of the resolutions and recommendations dis- 
cussed in this article may be found in Inter-American 
Conference on Problems of War and Peace, Mexico City, 
February-March 19^5 (Pan American Union, Washing- 
ton, 1945). 



for individuals without distinction as to sex." In 
the concept that women, "as experience has dem- 
onstrated, especially during the present war, are 
a factor of prime importance for the moral ele- 
vation and material progress of all nations", the 
Conference recommended that the American re- 
publics appoint women in their future delegations 
to international conferences, including the one at 
San Francisco. In addition, the Mexico City con- 
ference adopted recommendations and resolutions 
pertaining to the rights and protection of women 
as citizens, in the home, and as workers and indi- 
vidual members of society. In corollary refer- 
ences the Conference dealt with questions relating 
to children and the family. 

These pronouncements and recommendations to 
the American governments can be of great benefit 
in improving the position of women with regard 
to the enjoyment and protection of civil and po- 
litical rights, since women are still subject to a 
wide range of inequalities by the archaic terms of 
civil and political legislation in many of the Amer- 
ican republics and among the 48 States of the 
American Union. These inequities, curiously 
enough, pertain for the most part to married 
rather than to single women and thus are detri- 
mental to the status of woman in her primary role 
as wife, mother, and homemaker. They occur in 
laws regarding citizenship, property ownership 
and management, the making of contracts, and the 
guardianship of children, and they are of extreme 
importance in their bearing on family relation- 
ships. 

Political Rights of Women of the Americas 

Women today have political rights in eight of 
the American republics in addition to the United 
States, namely, Ecuador, Brazil, Uruguay, Cuba, 
El Salvador, the Dominican Republic, Guatemala, 
and Panama. The constitutions of some of the 
other American nations expressly forbid the ex- 
ercise of suffrage by women. Specific prohibi- 
tions against women's participation in govern- 
ment or certain professions remain on the books 
in various countries. 






JULY 22, 1945 



113 



Great and steady progress is being made by 
women in the professions, however, even in the 
American republics where they do not enjoy 
political rights, although conditions have accel- 
erated their advancement both in the professions 
and in industry. In the sphere of government, 
Cuba was the first country of the Western Hemi- 
sphere to have a woman in its Cabinet, and it 
continues to maintain a larger number of women 
in its consular service than any other Latin Amer- 
ican country. Panama was the first of the Amer- 
ican republics to appoint a woman consul general. 
Various American governments have appointed 
women to diplomatic posts, Mexico having been 
the first to name a woman as a minister pleni- 
potentiary. Feminine representatives have been 
elected to the Congresses of Uruguay, Brazil, and 
the Dominican Republic, as well as to that of the 
United States. 

During the past quarter century women in the 
Americas have begun to assume political rights. 
The period coincides, of course, with the interval 
since World War I, with its train of revolutionary 
influences upon the lives of women throughout the 
world. Immeasurably greater stimuli are flowing 
from the concentration of social, political, eco- 
nomic, and military forces involved in World War 
II, with incalculable consequences in the future 
for women's position in society, industry, business, 
and government. 

Thus the propositions pertaining to labor and 
social-welfare matters which were endorsed by 
the Mexico City conference may become of ex- 
traordinary future importance. Women will also 
have a deep interest and a major responsibility 
in making effective the resolutions of the Con- 
ference which pertained to public health, educa- 
tion, and moral and social rehabilitation, through 
which the destructive consequences of the war 
may be transmuted into the building of a more 
just world. 

The First Voting Delegates 

At Mexico City, for the first time at any inter- 
American conference, a woman was accredited 
as a voting delegate. The distinction of taking 
this step, which in terms of history was a giant 
stride, belongs to the Dominican Republic, with 
Seiiorita Minerva Bernardino discharging the 
honor with credit to herself and to her country. 
Miss Bernardino represents the Dominican Re- 



public on the Inter-American Commission of 
Women, of which she currently is chairman. 
Women likewise were included among the official 
delegations or as advisers to the delegations of 
several American republics at Mexico City, in- 
cluding those of Mexico, the United States, and, 
practically although not technically, Brazil. 

The initial draft for the resolution adopted 
by the Conference regarding an inter-American 
Charter for Women and Children was presented 
to the Committee on Social Problems by Senora 
Amalia C. de Castillo Ledon, member of the Mex- 
ican Delegation and vice chairman of the Inter- 
American Commission of Women. Under the 
leadership of Brazil's able feminist and former 
Congress woman, Senhora Bertha Lutz, Brazilian 
women met the delegates of their Government in 
Rio de Janeiro to prepare resolutions which were 
transmitted to the Conference. These resolutions 
referred to the contributions of Latin American 
women to the war effort and to the demonstration 
they have made during the war period of their 
capacity as wage-earners, producers, and construc- 
tive citizens. By action of the Committee on 
Social Problems at Mexico City, they were trans- 
mitted to the Inter-American Commission of 
Women for study. 

International Interest in Equal Rights 
Only two decades ago was the question of equal 
rights for women first elevated to the status of an 
international question among the Americas. This 
action was taken through the initiative of the Re- 
public of Guatemala at the Fifth International 
Conference of American States held at Santiago, 
Chile, in 1923. 1 Highly important propositions 
regarding the position of women in this hemi- 

1 For reports on international conferences of American 
states mentioned in this article see the following publica- 
tions : Report of the Delegates of the United States of 
America to the Fifth International Conference of Ameri- 
can States Held at Santiago, Chile, March 25 to May 3, 
1923, With Appendices (Washington, 1924) ; Report of 
the Delegates of the United States of America to the 
Sixth International Conference of American States Held 
at Habana, Cuba, January 16 to February 20, 192S, With 
Appendices (Washington, 1928) ; Report of the Delegates 
of the United States of America to the Seventh Interna- 
tional Conference of American States, Montevideo, Uru- 
guay, December 3-26, 1933 (Department of State publica- 
tion 666) ; Report of the Delegation of the United States 
of America to the Eighth International Conference of 
American States, Lima, Peru, December 9-27, 193S (De- 
partment of State publication 1624). 



114 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



sphere were enunciated at that time, and the Con- 
ference pledged itself to consider ways and means 
by which women of America might be admitted 
on terms of equality to the same legal and political 
rights enjoyed by the men of their respective 
countries. 

The propositions adopted by the Fifth Con- 
ference covered the essential elements of the prob- 
lem and provided a substantial and comprehensive 
platform on which all subsequent discussion and 
study could be based. The following recommenda- 
tions were made: (1) that the agenda for future 
conferences include study of means of abolishing 
the constitutional and legal incapacities of women 
in order to prepare for their admission to political 
and civil rights equal to those of men ; (2) that the 
American governments promote the moral, intel- 
lectual, and physical education of women; (3) 
that the American governments revise their civil 
legislation so far as it is inconsonant with the pres- 
ent cultural condition of American women; and 
(4) that the American republics prepare a memoir 
on the position of women in this continent which 
would serve as a basis of further investigation by 
the next conference. The Fifth Conference also 
recommended that women be included in the dele- 
gations and participate in the work of future con- 
ferences. A new era was beginning. But history 
marches slowly; 22 years later the first woman 
delegate was named to attend an inter-American 
meeting, the one at Mexico City this year. 

The Inter -American Commission of Women 

Nevertheless, the recommendations of the Fifth 
Conference were kept alive and received considera- 
tion at the Sixth Conference, held in Habana in 
1928. At that meeting the Inter-American Com- 
mission of Women was constituted, and women of 
this hemisphere were for the first time officially 
entrusted with a juridical mission. The commis- 
sion indeed was formed for the purpose of assem- 
bling juridical information and other data which 
would enable the Seventh Inter-American Con- 
ference to take up the proposition of civil and po- 
litical equality for women. The first chairman 
was Doris Stevens of the United States, initiator 
of the movement. Representatives of six other 
American republics were appointed by the Pan 
American Union to serve with her in forming the 
original Commission, the membership of which 
was subsequently increased by the Commission it- 
self until every republic was represented. 



The United States Government treated the 
Inter-American Commission of Women as an 
autonomous educational institution, and in 1930 
Cuba invited the Commission to hold its first con- 
ference in Habana in connection with the observ- 
ance of the two-hundredth anniversary of the 
founding of the University of Habana. 

Three years later, in 1933, the report of the 
Commission was presented to the Seventh Inter- 
national Conference of American States at Monte- 
video. The report was accepted by the Confer- 
ence with recognition of its unique character, its 
accuracy, and its completeness. But at that point 
the Commission had to fight for existence against 
the recommendation of some of the national dele- 
gations, including that of the United States, that 
the Commission had terminated the work for 
which it was established and that it should cease 
to exist, while the question of equal civil and po- 
litical rights for women should be relegated to the 
consideration of the states severally, as an in- 
ternal rather than an international matter. By 
majority vote of the delegations, however, this 
recommendation was rejected. The Commission 
was continued, and since that time it has worked 
unceasingly, although under limitations, to im- 
prove the condition of women in the Americas. 
At the Eighth Conference, Lima, 1938, the posi- 
tion of the Commission was made more secure 
with a resolution that it should be given official 
status and that it should be made an integral part 
of the inter- American organization in an advisory 
capacity. It is today the only women's organiza- 
tion of continental scope in America with official 
status. 

Since the creation of the Commission, political 
rights have been granted to women by the follow- 
ing American countries: Ecuador (1929), Brazil 
(1932), Uruguay (1932), Cuba (1934), El Salva- 
dor (1939), the Dominican Eepublic (1942), 
Guatemala (1944), and Panama (1945). The 
right to vote in municipal elections has been 
granted to women by Peru (1933), Chile (1934), 
and Argentina (in some provinces) and Vene- 
zuela (1944), as well as by some states of Mexico. 
The right of citizenship was given by Colombia 
in 1945. 

The Mexico City conference was called outside 
the Pan American Union as a special meeting of 
the American republics engaged in the war. It 
therefore does not take a place in the numbered 
succession of international conferences of the 



JULY 22, 1945 



115 



American states. However, increased activities 
of women as a result of the war made it inevitable 
that the Mexico City conference should carry fur- 
ther than did previous conferences the interna- 
tional consideration of women's status. 

There was incorporated in the Mexico City reso- 
lutions one that provided for the reorganization, 
consolidation, and strengthening of the inter- 
American system and that stated that it was the 
desire of the Conference that consideration should 
be given the Inter-American Commission of 
Women in view of its 16 years of eminent service 
to the cause of America and humanity. It was 
recommended that the Commission be included 
among the organizations forming the Pan Ameri- 
can Union, "with the same prerogatives and posi- 
tion that have been accorded to other inter-Ameri- 
can institutions of a permanent or emergency 
character that have functioned within or without 
the Pan American Union". 

The Conference also took cognizance of the fact 
that the Commission's work has been carried on 
under difficulties and recommended that hence- 
forth economic support be given the Commission 
through the allocation of an annual quota from 
each of the American republics. It was also 
recommended that the American governments 
modify their legislative systems so as to abolish 
unjust discriminations by reason of sex, holding 
that the existence of such discriminations in any 
country retards the prosperity and intellectual, 
social, and political development of all nations of 
the continent. 

Charter for Women and Children 

The recommendation of the Mexico City confer- 
ence on a Charter for Women and Children 
as incorporated in the Final Act is a substan- 
tial and praiseworthy document. It stresses 
that the aims of the American republics for 
lasting peace and social justice can be achieved 
only through respect for the rights and ful- 
filment of the obligations of all citizens and 
through the moral and spiritual preparation 
of every citizen for life based on the princi- 
ples of freedom, personal integrity, social justice, 
and effective social collaboration based on domestic 
law and international standards. The recommen- 
dation holds that the family is the primary social 
institution for the formation in childhood of the 
future citizen in accordance with the foregoing 
principles, and it emphasizes the responsibility of 



the mother within the institution of the home. But 
it recognizes also that, in addition to the role of 
wife, mother, and homemaker, women frequently 
must be responsible for self-support and often must 
provide the financial maintenance of the home and 
that they have successfully discharged responsibili- 
ties as producers and wage-earners, in business, in 
the professions, and in government. 

The preamble to the recommendation recognizes 
that through participation in civic responsibilities 
women help to form the social environment and 
create the conditions of community life necessary 
for the welfare of the home and of the child. It 
recognizes the contribution made during the pres- 
ent war by women of the Americas serving in the 
armed forces and as doctors and nurses and in other 
technical and professional callings; it also recog- 
nizes their contributions to industry, agriculture, 
and commerce, as they are working by the side of 
men in every aspect of the war effort and the 
maintenance of the civilian economy, a demonstra- 
tion which "has proved beyond question their ca- 
pacity to meet all the responsibilities of citizenship 
and of professional and vocational life". 

In the light of these considerations, the Confer- 
ence held that the role of woman "in the discharge 
of her general responsibilities as a citizen of her 
community, her country, and the world, can be 
fulfilled only if all obstacles to her participation in 
industry, scientific work, the professions, govern- 
ment, and international activities are removed," 
and only if she is given full opportunity for edu- 
cation. The Mexico City conference, therefore, 
recommended : (1) that the countries of this hemi- 
sphere which have not yet approved the agree- 
ments, declarations, and recommendations regard- 
ing women, children, and the family which have 
been adopted in previous inter-American meetings 
ratify and/or put them into effect as soon as pos- 
sible; (2) that every country make a study of the 
professional and vocational opportunities and the 
problems of women in the post-war period; (3) 
that sections devoted to the problems of women and 
children be established in every national depart- 
ment of health, social welfare, and labor, with 
qualified women acting as directors or cooperating 
fully in their administration; and (4) that "there 
be entrusted to the Inter- American Commission of 
Women, in cooperation with the American Inter- 
national Institute for the Protection of Childhood, 
the International Labor Organization, and other 
international organizations interested in the sub- 



116 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



ject, an extensive study of all aspects of family 
life and of the problems of women and children, as 
well as the opportunities, services, and protection 
required for their own welfare and the future of 
the human race." The conclusions and recom- 
mendations of this study, including a draft Charter 
for Women and Children, are to be submitted to an 
international conference of American states or to a 
meeting of American Ministers of Foreign Affairs. 

Social Resolutions and Labor Legislation 

The working women of the Americas will be 
vitally affected by the Mexico City resolutions on 
social principles and the recommendations made 
by the Conference to the American governments 
with regard to improvement of the material con- 
ditions of working classes, for integrated social- 
security programs, for measures to procure indus- 
trial safety, adequate compensation, and fair and 
humane labor conditions, and particularly regard- 
ing post-war employment problems. Most women 
work because of economic necessity. As tempo- 
rary war workers they have taken jobs left open 
by lack of men, but they have been moved to do 
so not alone by patriotism or the opportunity for 
gain, but in numberless cases so as to support 
themselves or their families. Many such women 
for the same reason will remain in industry after 
the war. They will have to maintain families 
deprived by the war of male wage-earners or will 
have to share the burden with returning husbands 
who have been partially or totally disabled. Many 
women in the Americas will have no prospect of 
marriage because of the removal of men from 
home communities, and most of these women will 
demand jobs because they will have to be self-sup- 
porting. Modern economy scarcely permits the 
average family to enjoy the time-honored luxury 
of maintaining a maiden aunt, while a few self- 
respecting modern women, even in the most tradi- 
tional countries, willingly accept the career. 

Labor legislation affecting women in the other 
American republics is in general fairly complete. 
There is no labor legislation discriminatory against 
women in the United States, but some statutes of 
other American republics have that character. 
This excludes prohibitory laws of a protective 
nature, such as those forbidding the employment 
of women underground as miners and in other 
dangerous occupations. The prime unsolved 
problem of labor legislation with respect to women 
today in the Latin American countries is that of 



wages. In a number of American nations the 
tendency persists to establish a lower minimum 
wage for women than for men doing equivalent 
work. Justice and equity demand that the wage 
be established in accordance with the job, regard- 
less of whether a man or a woman performs it. 
Legislation to this end, however, together with 
will and machinery for effective enforcement, is 
still lacking in many parts of the continent, not 
excepting some regions in the United States. The 
Mexico City recommendations ask the respective 
American governments to take steps for the cor- 
rection of those conditions. 

It was recommended in the Declaration of 
Social Principles that the American republics 
adopt as a matter of international public interest 
social legislation protecting the working popu- 
lation, and specific reference was made to the need 
for legislation on the work of women and of 
minors, for the protection of maternity and for 
organization of hospital and maternity services 
for benefit of the workers and their families. 

Although the position of women with regard 
to labor, civil, and political legislation in the 
United States is more satisfactory than in most 
of the other American republics, those countries 
generally speaking have gone further in the adop- 
tion of maternity-benefit laws than has the United 
States. The Latin American delegates at Mexico 
City were particularly interested also in empha- 
sizing the importance of the family as they worked 
out the terms of resolutions on social matters which 
became part of the record of the Conference. 

Protection of the Family 

The Conference incorporated in its Declaration 
of Social Principles of America the postulate that 
the family as a social unit is a fundamental in- 
stitution, placing upon the government of states 
the necessity of adopting measures to assure family 
moral stability, economic improvement of the fam- 
ily, and its social welfare. 

Again the Conference referred to the family in 
its declaration on social questions. It held that 
the welfare of the family as the greatest molding 
force in the mind and character of youth must be 
a primary objective of national and international 
policy, along with social justice, good labor 
standards and relations, and the welfare of 
the individual citizen. The Conference recom- 
mended that the forthcoming Inter-American 
Technical Economic Conference give special at- 



JULY 22, 1945 



117 



tention, among other questions of a social char- 
acter, to the problems of adjustment from war to 
peace as they affect family life as well as individ- 
ual welfare, to housing in relation to family life, 
and to development of services for children and 
youth. It was recommended that all the Ameri- 
can republics adhere and give full support to the 
American International Institute for the Protec- 
tion of Childhood. 

The latter institution has given study to the 
problem of providing homes and care for the 
millions of children, many completely orphaned, 
whose lives have been disrupted by the war. Act- 
ing on a resolution introduced by Sefiora Castillo 
Ledon of Mexico, the Conference recommended 
that the Institute give special attention, in cooper- 
ation with the Pan American Union and other 
international organizations, to the way in which 
the American republics can help in providing care 
and opportunities for European children left with- 
out homes and in dire circumstances. 

The Peaceful Orientation of Coming Citizens 

Two subjects which received special considera- 
tion at Mexico City fall within the scope of 
women's more traditional interests. These are 
education and health. The Conference particu- 
larly stressed the humanitarian obligation and in- 
ternational necessity of assuring decent living 
conditions, adequate food supply, and health pro- 
tection as essential elements for a peaceful world. 
It likewise referred in two strong resolutions to 
the superlative importance of the education of 
children for the responsibilities of citizenship and 
of the orientation of minds toward international 
understanding, cooperation, and peace. The Con- 
ference adopted as its twenty-ninth resolution a 
recommendation for the revision of official text- 
books by the American republics so as to delete 
anything supporting racial or totalitarian theo- 
ries or anything which might tend to jeopardize 
the inter-American system and so as to base the 
teaching in the schools of the Americas on the 
democratic principles of peace, justice, and equal- 
ity between states and individuals upon which the 
inter- American system is founded. 

The Conference also incorporated in its Final 
Act a declaration on the Peaceful Orientation of 
the American Peoples, stating that future meas- 
ures designed to safeguard peace cannot be fully 
effective unless they "respond to a spiritual need 



of the nations that consciously and voluntarily 
cooperate in their application". The Conference 
held that it must be one of the essential activities 
of the period of world reconstruction to dissemi- 
nate the ideals of peace to suppress factors con- 
tributing to the spread of hatred among nations. 
It was recommended that the American states 
promote this object through the primary schools 
of the nations, mentioning the contents of the 
Mexico City declaration on peaceful orientation in 
their relevant educational programs and joining 
in procuring wide dissemination of the text ef 
the declaration, not only in countries of this hemi- 
sphere but among other nations as well. Addi- 
tionally, the resolution provides that the Pan 
American Union shall study the possibility of 
creating an agency for peaceful orientation and 
of recommending the establishment of national 
commissions for peaceful orientation to comple- 
ment the activities of the projected world body. 

The intimate connection of women with pri- 
mary teaching and public instruction throughout 
all the countries of this hemisphere will place a 
profound responsibility upon them in the inter- 
pretation of these unprecedented and far-reaching 
international recommendations. 

Certainly the task of reconstructing the world 
physically and morally after the colossal destruc- 
tion of the war and the task of rearing new gen- 
erations oriented in mind and spirit toward the 
ideals of peace and democracy will call for the 
most earnest efforts and for many of the peculiar 
talents of women. Justice, equity, experience, 
common sense, and the world's dire needs all sup- 
port the case for removing the barriers to the exer- 
cise of full civil and political rights by the women 
of all nations. The Mexico City resolutions ap- 
pear to have carried the Americas, at least, a long 
step forward toward that goal. 

El Salvador Ratifies 
Charter 

The American Ambassador at San Salvador 
has informed the Acting Secretary of State by a 
telegram of July 11 that El Salvador has ratified 
the Charter of the United Nations. The Charter 
was passed unanimously by the Salvadoran Na- 
tional Assembly and promulgated by the President 
of El Salvador on July 10, 1945. 



118 

Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States, 1930, vols. II and III (publication nos. 
2319, 2330). Washington, Government Printing Office, 1945, xciii, 797 pp.; xr, 904 pp. $2.25 each. 
[For review of vol. I, see Bulletin of Mar. 4, 1945, p. 330.] 



From China to Venezuela in American 



THE FOREIGN RELATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES 
during the 1930 period are traced in two addi- 
tional volumes of diplomatic correspondence be- 
tween the United States and other governments 
with the release of Papers Relating to the Foreign 
Relations of the United States, 1930, volumes II 
and III. 1 The following account reviews the mate- 
rial as presented in those two volumes. 

The significance of 1930 as the end of the first 
decade following the Paris Peace Conference of 
1919 may be found in the record of American 
relations with the recent Axis partners — Germany 
and Japan. In 1930 no disturbing element in- 
truded: relations were normal; but already there 
were signs of the coming "fateful decade" of 
1931-41 in the Nazi emergence in Germany. 

Europe — Germany 

As a potential threat in the middle of Europe, 
the increasing strength of the Nazi Party under 
Adolf Hitler was evident. In a series of inter- 
pretive reports the American Embassy at Berlin 
made that fact clear in the period after September 
15. Commenting on the German Reichstag elec- 
tion of mid-September, the American Charge 
d'Affaires, George A. Gordon, declared the result 
to be undoubtedly "another overpowering example 
of Germany's lack of political education and wis- 
dom and a body-blow to the republican form of 
government" (111,79). 

In the national election, out of an electorate of 
43,000,000, a total vote of 35,000,000 was cast : The 
Nazis polled nearly 6,500,000 of these, winning 
second place in the Reichstag (107 seats to 143 
for the Social Democrats) ; next came the Catholic 
Center and Bavarian People's Party with over 
5,000,000 votes ; the communists tallied 4,600,000 ; 
and Hugenberg Nationalists' votes totaled 
2,500,000 (III, 76). Hugenberg's block was to 
join Hitler's in January 1933, to form their first 

1 Vol. I was released on Mar. 11 of this year and included 
documents relating to Argentina, Austria, Bolivia, Brazil, 
Bulgaria, Canada, and Chile, 



government of the Third Reich. But the size of 
the Hitler showing was a surprise at the time, even 
to the Nazis themselves (HI, 77). 

Mr. Gordon telegraphed the Department as 
early as September 15 that the "enormous gains" 
made by the two extremist parties, Nazis and 
Communists, indicated a prevailing "disgust and 
recklessness" among the German voters with ex- 
isting conditions and the democratic party sys- 
tem (III, 76). The unfortunate part of the 
matter was that by this protest vote the Germans 
were increasing the difficulties of their republican 
Government and impairing foreign confidence in 
German stability, whether financial or political 
(III, 78). Nevertheless, as Mr. Gordon pointed 
out, a "body-blow is not necessarily a knock-out 
blow," although some 13,000,000 German voters 
had expressed their hostility to the Weimar Re- 
public (111,79). 

With reference to the current interest in the 
responsibility of German industrialists for the 
Nazi movement, Mr. Gordon noted the "very sub- 
stantial financial support" given Hitler by "cer- 
tain large industrial interests" and assumed that 
this "secret support" from a portion of Germany's 
heavy industry not only was due to opposition to 
the Social Democrats and Communists but also 
probably had a "restraining" influence upon the 
Nazi extremists (HI, 84). 

Soon after the election, Hitler gave testimony 
at a treason trial at Leipzig and, replying to a 
query regarding how he proposed to get rid of 
vexatious treaties, declared: "Of course, only 
through diplomatic negotiations, and, if it cannot 
be accomplished in any other way, by complete 
circumvention of these treaties by legal, and if 
needs be, by illegal means" (III, 87). 

In November's local elections the Nazis made 
further gains, "far exceeding" those of the Com- 
munists, while other parties lost ground. Par- 
ticularly interesting were the Nazi gains in the 
Danzig Diet, in which they also won second place. 
All these tests, according to Ambassador Sackett 



119 



Foreign Relations for the Year 1930 



Reviewed by VICTOR J. FARRAR and JOHN GILBERT REID : 



at Berlin on December 3, constituted "an impres- 
sive warning" of what might happen if another 
general election became unavoidable in the near 
future (111,91). 

Meanwhile, in the course of the year's diplo- 
matic relations between the United States and 
Germany, the latter on November 20 presented its 
views to Secretary Stimson on the subject of dis- 
armament and the Kellogg-Briand pact, signed at 
Paris on August 27, 1928. 3 In a statement Am- 
bassador von Prittwitz emphasized that "The 
German Government's policy does not aim at in- 
creasing Germany's armament but at equality 
through disarmament" (III, 95). He concluded 
his verbal communication by referring to exten- 
sion of the Pact of Paris in the direction of "con- 
sultation" and said that his Government, "one 
of the original signatories of the Pact, would 
gladly cooperate and assume that it would be given 
the opportunity to express their views" (III, 96). 

The German Ambassador explained that his 
Government was prepared "to take any step that 
would avoid war and promote international jus- 
tice", and he felt that such an implementation of 
the treaty to renounce war was desirable. Secre- 
tary Stimson remarked that international public 
opinion was the sole sanction allowed the Kellogg 
pact, although to clarify such opinion in an "ob- 
scure case" there might well be added a provision 
for "impartial investigation and report without 
any decision". Such a suggestion had been made 
by Mr. Stimson in July 1929 during the first stages 
of the Sino-Soviet dispute over the Chinese East- 
ern Railway in North Manchuria, 4 but the idea 
had not been "pushed" at that time (III, 92-3). 

In discussing the matter, the Secretary of State 
further pointed out that consultation should "not 
involve by implication any promise of military as- 
sistance or even pressure of any other kind than 
public opinion." The United States could not sup- 
port any such consultative clause. The Ambas- 
sador agreed with this response (HI, 93). 



Far East — Japan 

The almost placid relations with Japan were 
indicated in an exchange of views between Japa- 
nese Ambassador Debuchi and Secretary of State 
Stimson and Assistant Secretary of State Castle. 
On October 30, as Mr. Stimson records, the Jap- 
anese Ambassador told him "that when he came 
here there were two subjects which he was anx- 
ious to help settle. One was the Naval Treaty [I, 
1 et seq; text, 107-25] — the other was the immigra- 
tion question. 5 The Naval Treaty had been set- 
tled and that left only the immigration question." 
Mr. Stimson, replying, said he was as anxious as 
Debuchi "that the sore spot created by the immi- 
gration question should be dissolved and that in- 
tercourse between his country and mine should be 
free from any irritation upon the subject" (HI, 
315). 

In speaking to Mr. Castle on November 4, Mr. 
Debuchi added a third matter of mutual interest, 
"misunderstandings over China", and remarked 
"that there seemed no longer to be any Chinese 
question between the two Governments. Japan's 
attitude toward China was practically identical 
with that of the United States." Regarding the 
immigration question, Mr. Debuchi said he wanted 
his talk with Mr. Castle to be "entirely unofficial 
and secret, that he should not telegraph his Gov- 
ernment anything about it, but would write a per- 
sonal letter to Baron Shidehara", the Japanese 
Foreign Minister. After discussing the problem 
"from all angles", Mr. Debuchi "said it seemed to 
him that all the psychological elements were pres- 
ent to make a change in the law 6 successful at the 



' Mr. Farrar and Mr. Reid are officers in the Foreign 
Relations Section, Division of Research and Publication, 
Office of Public Affairs, Department of State. 

3 Foreign Relations, 1928, vol. I, p. 153. References to 
1030 vols. I, II, and III are retained in the text. 

'Foreign Relations, 1929, vol. II, pp. 186-435, especially 
p. 242. 

*IMd., 1924, vol. II, pp. 333 et seq. 

6 Approved May 26, 1924 (43 Stat. 153). 



120 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



present time and that if it could not be effected 
in the next session of Congress he would feel there 
was little hope." Mr. Castle "told him that he 
should not have this feeling because the next, or 
short session of Congress, which might well be 
very turbulent, was not a good time to get through 
legislation. I pointed out that obviously nothing 
must be done until we were sure of a favorable re- 
sult since a reaffirmation of the exclusion would be 
worse than the original law" (III, 316). 

On November 28 the Ambassador again spoke to 
Mr. Castle and suggested that it was "an excellent 
opportunity at this time to put Japan on the 
quota". Further conversation, however, led Mr. 
Debuchi to recognize the wisdom of avoiding "a 
reaffirmation of the exclusion clause", namely, Sec- 
tion 13(c), by bringing the matter up prematurely 
in Congress (111,317). 

In December, on the other hand, the continuing 
rivalry between Japanese and Chinese rail inter- 
ests in Manchuria clearly foreshadowed a possible 
clash there within the measurable future. This 
clash was to be precipitated on September 18, 1931, 
by Japanese military action at Mukden, 7 following 
an increasing series of incidents susceptible to 
negotiation if a peaceful solution had been desired. 
However, before the close of 1930 the Department 
already was receiving reports from the Far East 
on the lack of cooperation between Japanese and 
Chinese railway interests in Manchuria. 

On December 15 the American Ambassador at 
Tokyo, W. Cameron Forbes, reported that the Jap- 
anese Foreign Office was endeavoring to effect a 
solution of the rail question through negotiation. 
The Japanese press suspected the Chinese Nation- 
alist Government of planning the elimination of 
Japanese interests in Manchuria by one means or 
another (II, 303-4, 308). An officer of the Tokyo 
Foreign Office informed a member of the Ameri- 
can Embassy that the Chinese were expected to 
accept certain "generous proposals" of the South 
Manchuria Railway, Japan's principal investment 
in South Manchuria. But he was anxious to dis- 
cover whether by chance any American or other 
foreign funds might be back of Chinese railway 
projects in that region (II, 305). The Japanese, 
Mr. Tani explained, would not tolerate a serious 
assault by the Chinese upon the Japanese railway 

''Foreign Relations, Japan, 1931-1941, vol. I, pp. 1 
et seq. 
' Ibid., pp. 729 et seq. 



interests in Manchuria, which were regarded as 
"a matter of life and death to the Japanese people" 
(11,306). 

Far East — China 

Events in china during 1930 seem today very dis- 
tant, a far cry from the undeclared war of 1937 
and the Pacific war of 1941. Fifteen years ago 
the Chinese scene was full of rumors of civil strife 
and of actual "civil wars", including the setting-up 
of rival governments (II, 1-80). Among the well- 
known political names of 1930 were Chiang Kai- 
shek, Yen Hsi-shan, Feng Yu-hsiang, Wang 
Ching-wei, and Chang Hsueh-liang; there were 
also the Kwangsi and Kwangtung generals and 
the so-called "Reds". The biggest diplomatic issue 
between China and the "treaty Powers" was extra- 
territoriality. Even the exchange rate in May 
1930 (II, 16) sounds prehistoric in 1945, while in 
1930 Chiang's troops were receiving advice from 
German military advisers and American aviators 
(11,18-19,23-5). 

Wang Ching-wei, whom the Japanese later 
called "President of the National Government of 
the Republic of China" and who died not long ago, 
was civilian head of the "independent" govern- 
ment set up at Peking in 1930 ; Yen and Feng were 
his military backers. Chang remained neutral at 
Mukden until September, when he swept down 
once more south of the Great Wall to occupy 
Peking, the ancient imperial capital. The Yen- 
Feng- Wang regime evaporated; Chang and 
Chiang restored Chinese territory to the allegiance 
of the National Government at Nanking. The 
next year, while still at Peiping, Chang was to lose 
his Manchurian domain to Japan. 

During the period of the Peking regime, the 
integrity of China's customs and salt-revenue ad- 
ministrations was threatened when new men were 
appointed in place of men installed by the Nan- 
king government. Among the foreign powers in- 
terested in this development was Japan, which 
was concerned lest the customs administration be 
undermined (II, 247-48, 251-52). After 1931 in 
Manchuria the Japanese were to proceed along 
lines reminiscent of those in North China during 
1930. 8 

Among incidents involving jurisdiction over 
American nationals in China was the Chinese Gov- 
ernment's request in 1929 for the deportation of 
Hallett Abend, Far Eastern correspondent of the 



JULY 22, 1945 



121 



New York Times. 9 In 1930 after Mr. Abend's 
return to Shanghai from a brief home leave, Chi- 
nese Foreign Minister C. T. Wang again brought 
up the Abend case in a conversation with Ameri- 
can Minister Nelson T. Johnson (II, 564). Dr. 
Wang referred to published reports that Mr. 
Abend had stated in Shanghai his impression that 
many American businessmen at home were in favor 
of "intervention in China". This statement, Dr. 
Wang felt, made Mr. Abend's return to China "a 
direct challenge to the Chinese". In reply to a 
request for removal from China of the offending 
correspondent, Mr. Johnson explained that he 
knew "cf no way whereby either I or the Govern- 
ment at home could legally cause the deportation 
of Mr. Abend from China as deportation was not 
a process recognized under our law". Dr. Wang 
understood this situation and remarked that 
"China would have quickly shown Mr. Abend the 
door" if extraterritoriality had already been 
abolished. 

Latin America 

The main cuerents of our Latin American for- 
eign relations for 1930 fall into three categories: 

(1) problems arising from current revolutions; 

(2) problems arising from commitments made in 
the past to countries passing through revolutions, 
i. e., Haiti and Nicaragua; and (3) good offices in 
conciliating disputes. 

(1 ) Problems arising from current revolutions 

Widespread unemployment brought instability 
and unrest to many countries of Latin America. 
In 1930, according to documents in the volumes, 
there were six revolutions : in Argentina, Bolivia, 
Brazil, Dominican Republic, Guatemala, and 
Peru. Space does not permit a review of all the 
problems arising from those revolutions. One 
problem, common to all, however, was that of 
recognition. A statement of policy was made by 
Secretary Stimson on September 17, 1930. 

In reaching the conclusion to accord recogni- 
tion to the Governments of Argentina, Bolivia, 
and Peru Mr. Stimson stated that he was satisfied 
that these provisional governments were de facto 
in control of their respective countries, that there 
was no active resistance to their rule, and that they 
intended to fulfil their international obligations 
and in due course would hold elections to regular- 
ize their status. He stated further that this action 
in recognizing those Governments did not repre- 



sent any new policy or change of policy toward the 
nations of South America or the rest of the world, 
but that the United States was following the reg- 
ular rules of international law and the regular 
policy which had characterized this country ever 
since Mr. Jefferson in the administration of Pres- 
ident Washington announced it. 

He added, however, that with certain countries 
there were differences made by treaty either with 
the United States or among themselves. As an 
example of the latter, the five Central American 
republics in 1923 agreed among themselves by 
treaty not to recognize any government which 
came into office by a coup d'etat or revolution. 
And he stated that while the United States was not 
a party to the treaty we were in accord with it and 
agreed we would follow the same policy with re- 
spect to the five Central American republics 
(I, 387-88). For that reason, the United States 
did not recognize the revolutionary regime in 
Guatemala (III, 183). 

(2) Problems arising from previous commitments 

Haiti. By the treaty of September 16, 19157° 
at a time when Haiti was in a state of near chaos 
following revolutions, the United States had 
agreed to assist the Government "to remedy the 
present condition of its revenues and finances, to 
maintain the tranquility of the Republic, to carry 
out plans for the economic development and pros- 
perity of the Republic and its people". By virtue 
of that treaty and subsequent agreements there 
was inaugurated in Haiti by Americans a num- 
ber of services such as Service Technique, Travaux 
Publics, Garde d'Haiti, Service d'Hygiene, and 
Service Financier. 11 These services were known as 
"treaty services" and were headed by Americans 
known as "treaty officials". The treaty officials 
would train and would promote Haitians in these 
services to the end that when the treaty should 
have expired the Americans could be replaced by 
Haitians. 

Despite the fact that Haiti under this arrange- 
ment had made great progress, there was pro- 
nounced opposition to American occupation and 
guidance. On October 31, 1929, students at the 
agricultural college at Damien, which was under 
the Service Technique, went on strike. 12 Advan- 



• Ibid., 1929, vol. II, pp. 760 et seq. 
" IUd., 1916, pp. 328 et seq. 
a Ibid., 1929, vol. Ill, p. 167. 
12 Ibid., p. 207. 



122 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



tage was taken of the situation to foment dis- 
turbances against the Haitian administration, and 
it was feared that the Haitian employees of the 
other services under American treaty officials 
might become involved. In the situation, the 
President of the United States in messages dated 
December 3 and 7 13 requested Congress to author- 
ize the immediate sending of a commission for the 
study and review of conditions in the Republic. 
This was done. On February 4, 1930, the Presi- 
dent set forth the purposes and powers of the 
Commission : 

"The primary question which is to be investigated 
is when and how we are to withdraw from Haiti. 
The second question is what we shall do in the 
meantime. . . . 

"As I have stated before, I have no desire for 
representation of the American Government 
abroad through our military forces" (III, 217). 

The Commission arrived at Port-au-Prince on 
February 28, 1930, left Haiti on March 16, and 
made its report on March 26. It recommended 
among other things "That the President declare 
that the United States will approve a policy, the 
details of which all the United States officials in 
Haiti are directed to assist in working out, pro- 
viding for an increasingly rapid Haitianization of 
the services, with the object of having Haitians 
experienced in every department of the Govern- 
ment ready to take over full responsibility at the 
expiration of the existing treaty" (III, 217, 
236-37). 

This recommendation became the key to subse- 
quent policy. 

The Commission also found the political situa- 
tion critical. The legislative chambers had been 
dissolved in 1918 and the country was ruled by a 
President and Council of State. The members of 
the Council of State were appointed by the Presi- 
dent, and the Council of State elected the Presi- 
dent. The Council of State functioned as the leg- 
islative power. Representatives of various "patri- 
otic leagues" in Haiti stated that they would not 
accept any election of President by the Council of 
State. 

The Commission thereupon in concurrence with 
the American High Commissioner evolved a plan 
for the restoration of representative government : 
The plan was for President Borno to secure the 



13 Ibid., 1929, vol. I, p. v, and vol. Ill, p. 207. 
"Ibid., 1927, vol. Ill, pp. 323, 324. 



election of a compromise candidate by the Council 
of State; the new President would agree to call 
the election of representatives to the two chambers 
of the legislature and present his resignation ; the 
two chambers sitting as a national assembly would 
then elect the permanent President. This was 
done. Two other important recommendations 
which the Commission made were that the office 
of High Commissioner be abolished and a non- 
military minister be appointed to take over the 
duties of that office as well as those of diplomatic 
representative, and that the new minister be 
charged with the duty of carrying out the early 
Haitianization of the services ( III, 237 ) . Just be- 
fore he went out of office President Borno wrote, 
"Despite all biased utterances the Intervention of 
the United States has been beneficial to Haiti: — 
History will so record" (III, 251). 

The foregoing account of measures looking to- 
ward the liquidation of the treaty of September 
6, 1915 is set forth in volume III of Foreign Re- 
lations, 1930, as follows: 

"The President's Commission for the Study and 
Review of Conditions in the Republic of Haiti"; 
"Assumption by the Minister in Haiti of Func- 
tions Previously Exercised by the American High 
Commissioner"; and "Negotiations Between the 
United States and Haiti for the Haitianization of 
the Treaty Services". 

Nicaragua. A somewhat similar situation had 
developed in Nicaragua. In 1927 that country was 
facing ruin following civil war. In the interest 
of peace President Coolidge sent Henry L. Stim- 
son to Nicaragua as his personal representative. 
Stimson reported that the solution of the problem 
would be a supervision of elections by Americans, 
for the Government regularly in power could and 
did control the result of elections, and that the 
greatest inducement that could be offered to Lib- 
eral leaders to agree to an early peace would be 
the knowledge that the United States should 
supervise the elections of 1928, exercising sufficient 
police powers for that purpose. Both the Govern- 
ment and Liberal leaders had indicated to him that 
they would gladly request such police power. 14 

On May 4 and 11, at Tipitapa, Mr. Stimson 
conferred with General Moncada, the leader of the 
revolutionary forces. The result was the so-called 
"Tipitapa agreement", which provided among 
other things for American supervision of the elec- 
tion of 1928 and the establishment of a non- 



JULY 22, 1945 



123 



partisan constabulary trained by American officers 
which should have the duty of securing a fair 
election. The United States agreed to leave a 
sufficient force of Marines until after the election 
to support the constabulary and" insure peace. 15 
After the Government of President Diaz had ac- 
cepted this arrangement, the most important pro- 
visions were incorporated in a letter handed to 
General Moncada by Mr. Stimson on May 11. The 
provisions of the agreement were carried out. Just 
before the election the presidential candidates of 
both parties agreed that the victorious candidate, 
whoever he might be, would ask the United States 
to supervise the congressional election of 1930 and 
the presidential election of 1932 in order to assure 
peace in Nicaragua during the approaching four 
years. It was in consequence of this agreement 
that the United States supervised the congressional 
election of 1930. 

Unforeseen, however, was the defection of San- 
dino, one of Moncada's generals, who broke his 
promise to turn in his arms. 16 He turned bandit 
and proceeded to launch attacks upon the north- 
ern provinces. Since these attacks could not be 
wholly repelled by the Guardia, the Nicaraguan 
Government was obliged to request aid from the 
American Marines. Thus the United States be- 
came further committed in Nicaragua. 

Two stories in the volumes of Foreign Relations, 
1930, relate to the status of these commitments: 
"Assistance by the United States in the Super- 
vision of Elections in Nicaragua" and "Proposals 
for Amending the Agreement Establishing the 
Guardia Nacional de Nicaragua and for Reducing 
Expenses". 

In 1930 the liquidation of these commitments 
became the concern of the United States. 

The situation had changed: Mr. Stimson had 
become Secretary Stimson and General Moncada, 
President Moncada. In 1929 and 1930 the Nica- 
raguan authorities proceeded to make certain 
amendments to the Guardia agreement, some of 
which threatened not only to impair its efficiency 
but also to detract from its non-partisan char- 
acter. In one of his letters to President Moncada 
setting forth the unwisdom of some of the amend- 
ments as well as other actions against the Guardia, 
on November 24 Secretary Stimson wrote : 

"At this point, I feel bound to remind you that 
the time is rapidly approaching when it will be 
necessary for the United States Government to 



withdraw its Marine forces and officers from 
Nicaragua. The presence of those forces have al- 
ways necessarily created an abnormal situation 
and one which can not be permanent. They have 
remained there at the request of both parties of 
your country solely because of the sincere desire 
of my Government to assist you temporarily in 
the solution of these crucial and fundamental 
problems. I can not see how they can remain later 
than to assist you in carrying out the elections of 
November, 1932. This country will then have 
helped Nicaragua for five years to police its ter- 
ritory and to keep banditry in check. Public opin- 
ion in this country will hardly support a further 
continuance of that situation. The result of these 
controlling factors necessarily indicates that the 
problem of these Northern Provinces must be 
solved by that date" (III, 686). 

(3 ) Good offices in conciliating disputes 

Actions by the United States in conciliating 
disputes will be found in volume I of the 1930 
papers, under the headings of "Chaco Dispute Be- 
tween Bolivia and Paraguay"; and "Boundary 
disputes: Guatemala and Honduras" and "Hon- 
duras and Nicaragua". 

Treaties and Agreements 

NUMEROUS NEGOTIATIONS WERE CONDUCTED during 

1930 in regard to treaties and agreements between 
the United States and foreign governments. The 
following treaties were concluded: On arbitra- 
tion with China, Greece, Iceland, Latvia, and the 
Netherlands; on conciliation with Greece and 
Latvia; on dual nationality and military service 
with Norway; on extradition with Germany; on 
prohibition of liquor smuggling with Poland; on 
United States rights in Iraq with Great Britain 
and Iraq; and on the boundary between British 
Borneo and the Philippines with Great Britain. 
Negotiations for treaties were carried on in differ- 
ent stages of development with Great Britain, 
Australia, and New Zealand respecting property 
rights; with China respecting relinquishment of 
extraterritorial rights; with France respecting 
double taxation; with Turkey respecting estab- 
lishment and sojourn; with Great Britain respect- 
ing revision of the Muscat treaty of 1833 concern- 
ing Zanzibar; and with Mexico respecting the 
boundary of the Rio Grande. 

11 Ibid., p. 345. 
M Ibid., p. 344. 



124 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Agreements were signed respecting the Shanghai 
courts with China and certain other powers; on 
regulating commercial relations provisionally with 
Egypt and Rumania; on war indebtedness with 
Germany; on double income tax with Spain; on 
arbitration of certain claims with Sweden; and 
on ship-measurement certificates with Poland. 
Negotiations proceeded for agreements on claims 
with Mexico and Spanish Morocco ; on Haitianiza- 
tion of the treaty services with Haiti ; on the na- 
tional guard and on a railway survey with Nicar- 
agua; and on naturalization with Finland. 

Volumes II and HI for 1930 contain 1,650 pages 
of text, consisting of 1,668 separate documents in 
112 chapters of subject-matter. These pages carry 
United States foreign relations by countries alpha- 
betically from China to Venezuela. If subdivided 
regionally, the material might be summarized as 
follows : American republics : 473 documents in 25 



chapters of 454 pages; Europe: 185 documents in 
31 chapters of 274 pages ; Far East : 724 documents 
in 33 chapters of 652 pages; and Near East (with 
Africa and India) : 296 documents in 23 chapters 
of 270 pages. 

By countries space in these two volumes is not 
evenly distributed. For example, China takes 640 
pages; Liberia, 133 pages; Mexico, 125 pages; 
Haiti, 83 pages; Nicaragua, 75 pages; France, 70 
pages ; and Germany, 58 pages. On the other hand, 
Japan and Italy take only 3 pages each. However, 
many chapters, such as those devoted to China, are 
international in scope and cover relations with 
other powers than China and the United States. 
Therefore, it is necessary to consult the indexes 
and the lists of papers rather than merely the 
tables of contents in order to locate material con- 
cerning the various countries. 



Publication of 'Tapers Relating to the Foreign Relations 
of the United States, 1930", Volumes II and III 



[Released to the press July 22] 

The Department of State released on July 22 
volumes II and III of the 1930 set of diplomatic 
papers covering American relations with other 
States, entitled Papers Relating to the Foreign 
Relations of the United States, 1930. Volume I of 
the set was released last March 11. 

The earlier volume of the current set contained 
documents pertaining to general subjects, such as 
international conferences in which the United 
States participated, including the London Naval 
Conference, as well as the correspondence with 
Argentina, Austria, Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria, 
Canada, and Chile. These volumes cover the re- 
lations of the United States with the remaining 
countries of the world. 

During 1930 American relations with other 
states were cordial and little marred by tension 
or controversy. This was true despite the fact 
that the year was marked by turbulence in many 
countries. The darkening clouds of the depres- 
sion continued to gather; unrest and turmoil char- 
acterized the internal economic and political life 
in many sections of the globe. Six revolutions 
occurred in Latin America; instability, accom- 
panied by internecine warfare, characterized 
China. These developments and conditions are 
reflected in both the large number of documents 



included and the detailed reports contained there- 
in. The number of documents dealing with the 
other American republics constitutes approxi- 
mately 30 percent of those included in the two 
volumes. The correspondence with China and 
with other powers — such as Great Britain, 
France, and Japan — concerning China comprises 
the largest single group of documents in the 
volume. 

The relations of the United States with the 
countries that later came to constitute the Axis 
required relatively little space, but the documents 
covering developments in Germany are both de- 
tailed and important. These documents record 
the rise in importance of the Nazi Party to its 
position as the second largest party in the Reichs- 
tag and the beginning of its march to power. 

Volumes II and III present a picture of a period 
that may be characterized as a "lull before the 
storm". The conditions and the forces which later 
gave rise to devastating upheavals in foreign coun- 
tries' are clearly set forth in the diplomatic reports 
from the field collected in these volumes. 

Copies of volume II (xciii, 797 pp.) and volume 
III (xc, 904 pp.) may be purchased from the Super- 
intendent of Documents for $2.25 each. Copies of 
volume I (lxxv, 564 pp.) may be purchased from 
the Superintendent of Documents for $1.75 each. 



JULY 22, 1945 



125 



Representation by Swiss Government of Japanese 

Interests in United States 



ACCEPTANCE OF REQUEST 
FROM SWISS LEGATION 

[Released to the press July 23] 

111 response to an inquiry from the Swiss Lega- 
tion whether this Government would be agreeable 
to the assumption by the Swiss Government of the 
representation of Japanese interests in the United 
States, except Hawaii, the Department of State has 
informed the Swiss Legation that the United States 
Government has no objection to such an assump- 
tion of the protection of Japanese interests by the 
Swiss Government. The Swedish Government pro- 
tects Japanese interests in the Territory of Hawaii. 
Since late March 1945 when the Spanish Govern- 
ment relinquished the protection of Japanese in- 
terests in the continental United States, 1 the 
Japanese Government has been without neutral 
representation in the United States. As distinct 
from the interruption of the representation of 
Japanese interests in the United States, the Swiss 
Government has continued to represent American 
interests in Japan and Japanese-occupied terri- 
tory, as it has since the beginning of the war. 

The Japanese Government has placed many re- 
strictions upon the activities of Swiss officials rep- 
resenting our interests in the areas under its control 
and in some cases has even refused to permit Swiss 
and other neutral representatives to visit prisoner- 
of-war and civilian-internee camps in the Far East 
where Americans were held. 

The Swiss Legation at Washington told the De- 
partment of State that the Swiss Government 
would not agree to represent Japanese interests in 
the United States until it had received from the 
Japanese Government agreement in principle to 
permit Swiss representatives to visit all camp9 
where American nationals are held in Japan and 
areas now occupied by the Japanese armed forces. 
These conditions were presented to the Japanese, 
and the Japanese War Ministry told the Swiss 
Government that it agreed in principle to permit 
the Swiss Minister in Japan to visit prisoner- 
of-war camps in Japan and Japanese-occupied 
territories. 



When these camps have been visited this Govern- 
ment will be able to obtain from the Swiss Govern- 
ment more complete reports of the conditions under 
which Americans are held by the Japanese. It is 
hoped that Japanese treatment of American na- 
tionals will thereby be improved. For these rea- 
sons the United States Government is glad to have 
the Swiss Government assume the protection of 
Japanese interests in the United States. 

The United States Government in accordance 
with its treaty obligations and international com- 
mitments permits representatives of the protecting 
powers to visit all camps where enemy nationals 
are held. 



EXCHANGE OF COMMUNICATIONS RETWEEN 
SWISS LEGATION AND DEPARTMENT 
OF STATE 



[Released to the press July 23] 



Sir: 



July 17, 1945 



I have the honor to inform you that the Jap- 
anese Government has asked the Swiss Federal 
Council to take charge of the Japanese interests 
in the United States (with the exception of Ha- 
waii) for the duration of the war. Subject to 
American consent, the Swiss Government has de- 
clared its willingness to assume this responsibility. 
I should be very much obliged, therefore, if you 
would be good enough to advise me whether the 
American Government is prepared to give the con- 
sent sought by my Government. 
Accept [etc.] 

Grassli 
Charge d : Affaires of Switzerland 
ad interim 
The Honorable 
Joseph C. Grew 

Acting Secretary of State 
Washington, D. G. 



1 Bulletin of Apr. 8, 1945, p. 649. 



126 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



July 21, 1945 
Sir: 

I acknowledge the receipt of your note dated 
July 17, 1945 stating that the Japanese Govern- 
ment has asked the Swiss Federal Council to take 
charge of Japanese interests in the United States, 
with the exception of Hawaii, for the duration of 
the war. It is noted that subject to the assent of 
the United States Government, the Swiss Gov- 
ernment has declared its willingness to assume 
this responsibility. 

The Government of the United States is agree- 
able to the representation by the Swiss Govern- 
ment of Japanese interests in the United States 
with the exception of the Territory of Hawaii 
where the Swedish Government will continue to 
represent those interests. 

Accept [etc.] 

Joseph C. Grew 
Acting Secretary of State 
Mr. Max Grassli, 

Charge (V Aft aires ad interim 
of Switzerland 

Psychologist Accepts Visiting 
Professorship to Brazil 

[Released to the press July 17] 

Otto Klineberg, professor of psychology at Co- 
lumbia University in New York, has accepted a 
visiting professorship at the University of Sao 
Paulo, Brazil, where he will help found a depart- 
ment of psychology. His special field is social 
psychology, and he has done extensive research 
on racial differences, the effect of environment on 
intelligence and personality, and the relations be- 
tween culture and psychology. At Sao Paulo he 
will give general lectures and conduct seminars 
while laying the groundwork for the new univer- 
sity department. He is taking with him a com- 
pact but comprehensive library of psychological 
w r orks, especially rich in reprints and other ma- 
terial difficult to obtain through the usual chan- 
nels. 

Dr. Klineberg has recently returned from a 
three months' mission in England, France, and 
Germany for the War Department. Among his 
published books are Social Psychology and Race 
Differences. In 1944 he contributed to and edited 



a volume entitled Charactei'istics of the American 
Negro. 

Panama - United States 
Fellowship Program 

[Released to the press July 16] 

The Department of State announced on July 
16 that a Panama-United States fellowship pro- 
gram involving 15 fellowships for study in the 
United States by Panamanian citizens will be un- 
dertaken as the result of discussions between the 
Government of Panama and the Government of 
the United States. 

The 15 candidates for these fellowships will pur- 
sue work in fields of study decided upon by the 
Panamanian Government, the preferred fields 
being social work, food chemistry, city planning, 
refrigeration, radio television, veterinary medi- 
cine, organization of boys' and girls' vocational 
schools, civil service, and social security. 

Under the terms of the agreement the Govern- 
ment of Panama will pay the travel expenses of 
the 15 students from their place of residence to 
the place of study in the United States and re- 
turn, and maintenance expenses for 5 of these stu- 
dents for 12 months. The United States Govern- 
ment has agreed to pay the maintenance expenses 
of the remaining 10 students for 12 months, and 
tuition for an orientation period not to exceed 2 
months for all 15 students. The Institute of In- 
ternational Education, a private organization 
with headquarters in New York City, will en- 
deavor to obtain a fellowship for each candidate 
at appropriate institutions of higher learning and 
to supervise the candidates while in the United 
States. 

The candidates will be chosen by a Panama- 
United States Fellowship and Scholarship Se- 
lection Committee appointed by agreement be- 
tween the two Governments. Upon the arrival 
of the recipients of the 15 fellowships in the 
United States, they will be given an orientation 
course in the language and customs of the United 
States. 

Announcement of the program is being made 
simultaneously in Panama and the United States, 
and it is expected that the successful candidates 
will arrive in the United States on or about Jan- 
uary 1, 1946, beginning their academic study fol- 
lowing approximately one month of orientation. 



JULY 22, 1945 



127 



Displaced Persons in Germany: Present Operations 1 



[Released to the press by the War Department July 5] 

The gigantic task of locating, registering, hous- 
ing, feeding, and finally repatriating displaced 
persons is being rapidly cleared away in the Allied 
zone in Germany, and present prospects are that 
the problem will be substantially reduced within 
the next two months, it was announced on July 5. 

The announcement was made by the Honorable 
John J. McCloy, Assistant Secretary of War and 
chairman of the Combined Civil Affairs Commit- 
tee, Anglo-American Group, charged by the Com- 
bined Chiefs of Staff with the military responsi- 
bility of handling civilian problems contingent 
with and occurring in the wake of battle. 

The problem of displaced persons — including 
prisoners of war in Germany, political and racial 
prisoners, and slave laborers — was one of the most 
complicated and urgent matters facing the Allies 
when they overran Germany and the Wehrmacht 
collapsed. Millions of persons of every nationality 
and every walk of life glutted the roads. Con- 
centration camps were filled with helpless people. 
Many were starved and sick. All had but one 
goal — to get home. 

The Allies uncovered almost 5,800,000 displaced 
persons. As of July 2, 3,260,000 of these had been 
repatriated to their home countries. Another 
2,530,000 were being cared for in Allied displaced- 
persons camps awaiting repatriation or clarifica- 
tion of their nationality status, and another small 
group was estimated to be living outside displaced- 
persons camps. 

All reports indicate steady improvement in the 
handling of displaced persons, and SHAEF has 
estimated that the entire problem may resolve it- 
self by September 1 into caring for the residual of 
non-repatriables and stateless persons. 

As of June 22, the number of persons repatriated, 
by nationalities, included: French — 1,243,600, of 
whom 142,693 were returned to France by air ; Rus- 
sian— 1,393,902 ; Belgians— 247,790, of whom 11,826 
were repatriated by air ; Dutch — 195,000 ; Italian — 



1 See Bulletin of June 3, 1&45, p. 1014. 

2 The plan for the transfer through the Allied lines of 
former prisoners of war and displaced persons liberated 
by the Red Army and the Allied forces was signed May 
22 by representatives of SHAEF and the Soviet High 
Command, effective May 23, implementing the Crimea 
agreement signed Feb. 11 at Yalta. 



136,043; Czechoslovak— 33,488; Yugoslav— 2,051 ; 
Luxemburgers — 6,000. 

Of the 2,530,000 displaced persons still not re- 
patriated, by far the largest group is Russian. The 
reason for this is that there was no feasible method 
of repatriating Russians until the German defeat 
and the Russians and Allies linked their fronts. 
Ratification on May 22 of the Leipzig agreement, 2 
through which the Allied military authorities 
agreed on a repatriation policy, is resulting in fast 
repatriation of Russians. Under this plan, a sys- 
tem of delivering displaced persons through Army 
lines at agreed reception-delivery points, ten on 
each side of the present USSR-SHAEF line, was 
set up. The effect of the agreement is illustrated 
by these figures. As of May 26, about 160,000 Rus- 
sians had been turned over by the 21st and 12th 
Army Groups. By June 17, that figure had gone 
to 1,287,530. 

Persons of French nationality comprised one of 
the largest displaced groups in Germany. The suc- 
cess of the displaced-persons program is illustrated 
by the fact that, of 1,249,282 French uncovered in 
the SHAEF zone within Germany, only about 
40,552 remained to be repatriated as of June 18. 

Behind these figures of the uncovering of 5,790,- 
000 displaced persons and the repatriating of 
3,260,000 as of mid-June lies a story full of drama. 

Vast, ragged, hungry armies of people roamed 
the German countryside, and the Allies had to 
bring order out of chaos — channel the movement 
of the people ; control public safety ; provide medi- 
cines, food, temporary housing, clothing; delouse 
the people in order to prevent louse-borne dis- 
eases; determine nationality status of displaced 
persons and initiate processes that would start 
them on their way home. There were also the 
matters of welfare and recreation, and in setting 
up displaced-persons camps the Allies took these 
two factors into consideration by providing proper 
sanitation facilities, the best available domestic 
conveniences, sports, recreation. 

In German concentration camps were found 
starved, mentally numbed people in whom little 
life was left. Some had gone without food for 
so long that they would have died had they been 
allowed to eat normally. Facilities for intrave- 
nous feeding had to be supplied immediately. As 



128 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



an example of emergency steps taken in behalf of 
these people, a nutrition consultant and 143 Bel- 
gian medical students were rushed with top prior- 
ity to the camp at Belsen to feed intravenously 
persons in stages of advanced malnutrition. Sim- 
ilar emergency steps were taken throughout the 
SHAEF area." 

Following are examples of special steps taken 
in the Allied zone to provide care and comfort for 
displaced persons: 

Special displaced-persons hospitals were set up 
where those who were ill got the best medical care, 
food, and facilities available. 

Mobile film units were circulated to displaced- 
persons camps so that the former prisoners of the 
Germans, who had been denied many of the bare 
necessities of life, let alone any relaxation, could 
be entertained with the latest available American 
and British motion pictures. 

Special dusting apparatus was flown in to de- 
louse displaced persons and prevent the spread 
of disease, including the dreaded typhus. 

German medical supplies a'nd German food 
stocks, both from civilian sources and captured 
enemy stocks, were earmarked for the alleviation 
of displaced-persons feeding problems. 

Special truck convoys and trains were set up 
to bring Bed Cross relief supplies, stockpiled in 
Switzerland, to Allied prisoners of war and dis- 
placed persons in Germany. 

Displaced persons have received highly pref- 
erential treatment in Germany. Army groups 
were instructed to raise living conditions of dis- 
placed persons to a standard as high as resources 
allow without consideration of any adverse effect 
on living conditions of the German people. A 
SHAEF directive ordered that Germans would 
be moved out of their homes and into former 
German concentration camps to provide shelter for 
displaced persons in German houses if such action 
were necessary. 

By the end of summer, the United Nations Be- 
lief and Behabilitation Administration, acting in 
behalf of and under agreement with military au- 
thorities, will have assumed virtually the entire 
manpower burden of handling displaced persons. 
The shift already has begun with UNBBA person- 
nel now functioning in some 200 displaced-persons 
camps, 80 of them operated exclusively by 
UNBBA representatives. UNBBA is beginning 
to work its way into the problem by taking over 
on a camp-by-camp basis, and key personnel are 



sitting alongside army officers so they can be ab- 
sorbed in the present administrative set-up. 

As of June 22, 280 UNBBA teams and 14 volun- 
tary-agency teams were deployed throughout the 
Allied zone in Germany, and about 4,729 persons, 
mostly Europeans, had been recruited by UNBBA 
for displaced-persons work. 

The displaced-persons problem soon will have 
reduced itself largely to a matter of caring for 
stateless persons, non-repatriables, and unaccom- 
panied children, many born in concentration 
cau^s. These present an extremely difficult prob- 
lem since they represent the "hard core" of dis- 
placed persons. 

UNBBA eventually will hand the problem over 
to the Intergovernmental Committee on Befugees, 
which will have the task of finding places for state- 
less and non-repatriable persons — those people 
whom the Nazis and the war turned into men with- 
out countries. This problem must be worked out 
at intergovernmental levels and hence is beyond 
the province of either UNBBA or military au- 
thorities. These stateless persons, who comprise 
a comparatively small percentage of the displaced 
persons in Europe, must wait in camps until de- 
cisions are reached concerning their status and 
disposition. 

General Eisenhower, at a press conference in 
Washington on June 18, said that the displaced- 
persons problem which faced the Allies when they 
overran Germany was "terrible". After review- 
ing how the problem was met, the Supreme Allied 
Commander said : 

"It was a terrible job to get the organization 
set up to take those people out. When you talk 
about persons in that number, their feeding and 
their housing for the night at way-stations, and 
so on, you have got a real task. The personnel 
in charge of Displaced Persons have done it beau- 
tifully, and the process of getting them out has 
been working most efficiently." 

Belgian Independence Day 

[Released to the press July 21] 

The President sent the following message on 
July 21 to Prince Charles, Begent of Belgium : 

"I am happy to convey to you and to the Belgian 
people on this anniversary of Belgian Independ- 
ence Day, the congratulations and best wishes of 
the people of the United States." 



JULY 22, 1945 



129 



Limitation of the Production of Opium 

EXCHANGE OF NOTES BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENTS OF THE UNITED STATES AND 
THE UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 



The American Embassy at Moscow sent the fol- 
lowing note dated September 18, 1944 to the Peo- 
ple's Commissariat for Foreign Affairs of the 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics : 

Embassy of the 
United States of America 
No. 426 Moscow, September 18, 1944 

The Embassy of the United States of America 
presents its compliments to the People's Commis- 
sariat for Foreign Affairs of the Union of Soviet 
Socialist Republics and has the honor to transmit 
to the Government of the Union of Soviet So- 
cialist Republics a copy of Public Law 400, Sev- 
enty-eighth Congress of the United States of 
America, approved on July 1, 1944, in regard to 
the limitation of the production of opium to me- 
dicinal and scientific requirements. 

The United States Government, of course, is 
aware that the Soviet Government has always 
exercised strict control over the production of the 
opium poppy and has permitted opium to be pro- 
duced for medicinal and scientific purposes only. 
It is desired, however, at this time to draw the 
attention of the Soviet Government to changes 
in the world narcotics situation which have re- 
cently taken place, and to express the hope that 
the Soviet Government will cooperate with the 
other nations of the world in the solution of the 
opium problem. 

As the Soviet Government is aware, a number 
of measures have become effective during the last 
twenty years to combat the abuse of narcotic 
drugs. Among these may be mentioned the com- 
ing into force of the Narcotics Limitation Con- 
vention of 1931, the prohibition at the end of 
1935 of the exportation of opium from India to 
the Far East and the enactment by the Chinese 
Government in 1941 of laws prohibiting the culti- 
vation of the opium poppy, the smoking of opium 
and all traffic in opium and narcotics except for 
medicinal purposes. 

The Governments of the United Kingdom and 
the Netherlands, after pursuing for many years 
a policy of gradual suppression of the use of smok- 



ing opium, announced on November 10, 1943 their 
decisions to prohibit the use of smoking opium 
in their Far Eastern territories when those terri- 
tories are freed from Japanese occupation and not 
to reestablish their opium monopolies. Copies of 
these announcements, together with the state- 
ments made by spokesmen of the United States 
and Chinese Governments on November 10 and 
24, 1943, respectively, commenting on those an- 
nouncements, are attached hereto for convenience 
of reference. 1 Following the surrender of Japan, 
the United States Government, in cooperation with 
other interested governments, will do everything 
possible to prevent Japan and the Japanese from 
spreading the use of narcotics for the satisfac- 
tion of addiction. 

After the war, as a result of the decisions of 
the British and Netherland Governments and the 
uncompromising attitude of the Chinese and 
United States Governments, there will be no legiti- 
mate market for smoking opium in a vast Far 
Eastern area. Consequently, in future, exports 
of opium will have to be limited to the demands 
of the world market for opium for medical and 
scientific requirements. 

The United States Government concurs in the 
opinion of the British Government, as stated in 
its announcement of November 10, 1943, in regard 
to the prohibition of smoking opium in the Far 
East that "the success of the enforcement of pro- 
hibition will depend on the steps taken to limit 
and control the production of opium in other coun- 
tries." In this connection the total requirements 
of the world for raw opium for the years 1933 to 
1938, as computed from League of Nations docu- 
ments O.C. 1781 (1), August 27, 1940 and O.C. 
1758, April 15, 1939 are reproduced below : 





For manufactured 
tiarcotic drugs 


For prepared Total 
opium Kilograms 


1933 


227. 4!!4 


297, 325 524, 819 


1934 


245, 201 


348, 503 593, 704 


1935 


255, 808 


326, 047 581, 855 


1936 


323, 114 


345, 949 668, 063 


1937 


343, 841 


390, 148 733, 989 


1938 


312, 832 


374, 248 687, 0S0 


' Not printed. 





130 

During the period immediately after the war, 
it is estimated that the world market for opium 
for medicinal purposes will require about 400,000 
kilograms of opium, whereas world production of 
raw opium for the year 1944 has been estimated 
by experts of this Government, in the absence of 
exact figures, as amounting to about 2,400.000 
kilograms. There is also production in Central 
Europe of morphine direct from poppy straw 
totaling about 8,500 kilograms. 

The United States Government believes that 
it is necessary to limit and control the cultivation 
of the opium poppy in order to suppress drug 
addiction and the illicit traffic, and is prepared 
to cooperate with all nations in efforts to solve the 
problem. It hopes that the Union of Soviet So- 
cialist Republics and all opium producing coun- 
tries will be willing to participate in a conference 
which is expected to be held after the war for the 
purpose of drafting a suitable poppy limitation 
convention. 

In the hope of expediting and promoting agree- 
ment, the United States Government suggests that 
the proposed convention should contain provi- 
sions : 

[Here follow the eighteen provisions as printed 
in the Bulletin of July 8, 1945, p. 64.] 

It is realized that it will be fruitless to convene 
a poppy limitation conference unless Iran is will- 
ing to participate therein. The Government of the 
United States is presenting to the Iranian Foreign 
Office at Tehran a memorandum strongly urging 
the Iranian Government to limit the production of 
opium to medicinal and scientific requirements and 
to cooperate in the work of drafting a poppy limi- 
tation convention. That memorandum is along the 
lines of the copy which is attached hereto. 1 If the 
Soviet Government could see its way clear to make 
appropriate representations to the Iranian Govern- 
ment, it is believed that the Iranian Government 
might give favorable consideration to the proposed 
program. This suggestion is also being made to 
the British Government. The Soviet Government, 
without doubt, has a great interest in the narcotics 
situation in Iran owing to the presence in Iran of 
thousands of Soviet troops. 

Pending the entering into effect of an interna- 
tional poppy limitation convention, the United 
States Government suggests that it would be help- 
ful if the Soviet Government would give consider- 
ation to the advisability of making an announce- 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

ment that its policy continues to be to prohibit the 
production and export of opium for other than 
strictly medicinal and scientific purposes, and that 
it will continue to take effective measures to prevent 
illicit production of opium in its territories and 
illicit traffic in opium from its territories. 

The Government of the United States is now 
making a similar suggestion to each opium-produc- 
ing country with which it has friendly relations. 
It believes that the adoption of such a policy by 
each of those countries would go far to ensure the 
success of the prohibition of the use of prepared 
opium in the Far East and to safeguard all coun- 
tries against the possibility of an era of increased 
drug addiction similar to that which followed the 
first World "War. It may also be pointed out that 
if most of the opium-producing countries were to 
make sacrifices for the common good by limiting 
production to an authorized proportion of the total 
quantity of opium required by the world for medi- 
cal and scientific purposes, and one country were 
to continue to produce and use large quantities of 
opium annually for its own non-medical purposes, 
such a reservoir would inevitably be drawn upon by 
illicit traffickers for their supplies. 

It would be appreciated if the Soviet Govern- 
ment would inform the Government of the United 
States at an early date whether it is prepared to 
make the suggested announcement concerning the 
limitation of the production of opium to medicinal 
and scientific requirements. It would also be ap- 
preciated if the Soviet Government would com- 
municate to the United States Government its ob- 
servations in regard to the provisions which the 
United States Government has suggested be incor- 
porated in the proposed poppy limitation conven- 
tion. 

Translation of a note dated November 2, 1944 
from the People's Commissariat for Foreign Af- 
fairs of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, 
replying to the note of the American Embassy, 
follows : 

People's Commissariat 
for Foreign Affairs 
No. 74. 
Acknowledging receipt of note no. 426 from 
the Embassy of the United States of America the 
People's Commissariat for Foreign Affairs of the 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics has the honor 



1 Not printed. 



1ULY 22, 1945 

to state that the Soviet Government values the 
efforts of the American Government directed to- 
ward the uprooting of the illegal traffic in opium 
and that opium has been produced and used only 
for medicinal and scientific purposes. 

The question of the intended post-war confer- 
ence and regarding the conditions which might 
be included in a convention for restricting the 
cultivation of the poppy in case it was decided 
to sign such a convention is at present being 
studied by the competent Soviet authorities. 

With reference to the declaration of the Soviet 
Government concerning the restriction of opium 
production to the quantity which is dispensable 
for the satisfaction of medicinal and scientific 
needs the existence of a state monopoly both in 
the field of production and in the field of dis- 
tribution renders the publication of such a decla- 
ration superfluous. 

Moscow, November #, 1944- 

New Wartime Visa 
Regulations 

[Released to the press July 21] 

The Acting Secretary of State has prescribed, 
with the concurrence of the Attorney General, 
revised regulations which are published in the 
Federal Register of July 21, 1945 governing the 
issuance of visas to aliens seeking to enter the 
United States in time of war. 

The revised regulations supersede the previous 
wartime regulations issued on November 19, 1941 
under the proclamation issued by the President 
on November 14, 1941 in pursuance of the au- 
thority contained in the act of Congress approved 
May 22, 1918, as amended by the Act of June 21, 
1941, and are to be applied and enforced by Amer- 
ican diplomatic and consular officers abroad in 
addition to the general peacetime Foreign Serv- 
ice regulations governing the issuance of visas 
to aliens seeking to enter the United States. 

The principal features of the revised wartime 
regulations include a discontinuance of the "BC" 
sponsorship form procedure and abolition of the 
interdepartmental visa committees and the Board 
of Appeals in visa cases. The Department of 
State therefore will not accept sponsorship docu- 
ments and will not initiate action in visa cases 
hereafter. An alien seeking a permit to enter the 
United States (visa) must first apply to the Amer- 



131 

ican diplomatic or consular office which is author- 
ized to accept applications for visas in the district 
of the alien's foreign residence. Persons in the 
United States desirous of presenting evidence in 
support of visa applications should forward such 
evidence to the alien concerned for presentation 
to the consular officer. 

American diplomatic and consular officers are 
authorized hereafter, as they were before the war, 
to act upon their own initiative on visa applica- 
tions, and under the responsibility placed upon 
them by the general immigration laws enacted by 
Congress. Diplomatic and consular officers are 
authorized to request advisory opinions from the 
Secretary of State in certain classes of cases as 
provided in the revised regulations, and the 
Department of State will formulate such opin- 
ions only upon receipt of a specific request from 
a diplomatic or consular officer abroad who has 
found the applicant concerned to be eligible to 
receive a visa in all respects except for the specific 
question which may be involved in the case. 

The revised regulations contain excluding pro- 
visions relating to approximately the same war- 
time excludable classes, except that a new excluded 
category of aliens has been added in accordance 
with the resolution adopted at the Mexico City 
conference which relates to war criminals. The 
new excluding provision reads as follows : 

"Any alien found to be, or charged with being, a 
war criminal by the appropriate authorities of 
the United States or one of its cobelligerents, or 
an alien who has been guilty of, or who has ad- 
vocated or acquiesced in activities or conduct con- 
trary to civilization and human decency on behalf 
of the Axis countries during the present World 
War." 

In addition to the American diplomatic and 
consular offices in the Western Hemisphere and 
in the neutral and Allied countries of Europe, 
Africa, and Asia, which were issuing immigration 
visas on June 30, 1945, the following American 
diplomatic and consular offices, some of which are 
in the areas above mentioned, have been author- 
ized to act upon immigration-visa applications as 
soon as it may be administratively feasible for 
them to do so : 

Austria Vienna 

Belgium Antwerp 

Bulgaria Sofia 

Czechoslovakia Praha 

Denmark Copenhagen 



132 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Finland Helsinki 

Fiance Paris, Bordeaux, Marseille 

Great Britain Liverpool 

Greece Athens 

Hungary Budapest 

Italy Naples, Genoa, Palermo 

Netherlands Amsterdam, Rotterdam 

Norway Oslo 

Poland Warsaw 

Rumania Bucharest 

Yugoslavia Belgrade 



Visit of Guatemalan 
Health Official 

[Released to the press July 21] 

Julio Koberto Herrera, Director General of Pub- 
lic Health of the Republic of Guatemala, is visiting 
regional and national public-health services in the 
District of Columbia as the first stage of an itin- 
erary including similar centers in New England, 
New York, Pennsylvania, and Maryland. Dr. 
Herrera, who studied on a Rockefeller Foundation 
fellowship at the Johns Hopkins University in 
1937, where he received the degree of Master in 
Public Health from the School of Hygiene, has 
been in the public-health service of his country 
for the past 14 years. 

In connection with his work at Johns Hopkins, 
Dr. Herrera spent a summer at the Station for 
Malarial Research at Tallahassee, Florida. He 
has done considerable work in parasitology and 
malariology. 

Dr. Herrera is a member of the international 
Society of Tropical Medicine and of the Geo- 
graphical and Historical Society of Guatemala. 
His published works include Infant Mortality, 
Malaria, Typhus Exanthem-atous, Immunity in 
Malaria, Colonial Hospitals. He represented the 
Republic of Guatemala at the Eighth American 
Scientific Congress at Washington. 



^= THE FOREIGN SERVICE {^ 

Consular Offices 

The American Consulate at Patras, Greece, was 
opened to the public on July 12, 1945. 



HI THE DEPARTMENT BF 



1 Departmental Order 1330, dated and effective July 14, 
1945. 



Appointment of Officers 

John C. Ross as Deputy Director of the Office 
of Special Political Affairs, effective July 16, 1945. 

George Atcheson, Jr., as Special Assistant to 
the Director of the Office of Far Eastern Affairs, 
effective July 5, 1945. 

Frank A. March as Acting Director and Wilbur 
C. Irving as Acting Executive Officer of the Office 
of Departmental Administration, effective July 
17, 1915. 

William D. Wright as Acting Chief of the Divi- 
sion of Central Services and Orlando A. Simmes 
as Acting Chief of the Division of Management 
Planning, both appointments effective July 17, 
1945. 

Transfer of Functions in Connection 
With Extradition ' 

Purpose. This order consolidates in the Legal 
Adviser (Le) all responsibility for action, substan- 
tive and administrative, on behalf of the Depart- 
ment of State in connection with extradition. 

1 Functions transferred. The responsibility 
for all administrative matters in connection with 
extradition is hereby transferred from the Office 
of the Foreign Service (OFS) to the Legal Ad- 
viser. This includes, but is not limited to : 

(a) The preparation of presidential warrants 
appointing agents to receive surrender of fugitives 
from the justice of the United States ; 

(b) The preparation of warrants authorizing 
the Great Seal of the United States to be attached 
to the agents' warrants ; 

(c) The preparation of warrants of surrender 
of fugitives from the justice of foreign countries; 

(d) The preparation of certificates of requisi- 
tion by foreign countries. 

2 Responsibility for the drafting of necessary 
correspondence. Final responsibility for the 
drafting of the necessary correspondence in con- 
nection with extradition shall rest with the Legal 
Adviser. 

3 Orders amended. Departmental Order 1314 
of April 7, 1945, section 5 (b) (10), and any other 
order in conflict herewith, is accordingly amended. 

Joseph C. Grew 
Acting Secretary of State 



JULY 22, 1945 



133 



PUBLICATIONS 



= = THE CONGRESS 



Charter of the United Nations. Report to the Presi- 
dent on the Results of the San Francisco Conference by 
the Chairman of the United States Delegation, the Secre- 
tary of State, June 26, 1945. Conference Series 71. Pub- 
lication 2349. 266 pp. 45tf. 

The United Nations Charter as Declaration and as Con- 
stitution. A Letter to the President From Edward R. 
Stettinius, Jr., Chairman of the United States Delega- 
tion to the United Nations Conference at San Francisco, 
San Francisco, California, June 26, 1945. Conference 
Series 72. Publication 2355. 14 pp. Free. 

Charter of the United Nations Together With the Stat- 
ute of the International Court of Justice. Signed at the 
United Nations Conference on International Organiza- 
tion, San Francisco, California, June 26, 1945. Confer- 
ence Series 74. Publication 2353. 62 pp. Free. 

Blueprint for World Civil Aviation. The Chicago In- 
ternational Civil Aviation Conferenue of 1944 as Viewed 
by Four Members of the United States Delegation in Re- 
cent Magazine Articles. Conference Series 70. Publica- 
tion 234S. 40 pp. 15<(. 



Requesting the President To Use His Good Offices to 
the End That the United Nations Invite Italy To Be a 
Signatory to the United Nations Agreement. H. Rept. 881, 
79th Cong., to accompany H. J. Res. 204. 2 pp. [Favorable 
report.] 

Increasing the Lending Authority of the Export-Import 
Bank of Washington. H. Rept. 911, 79th Cong., to ac- 
company H.R. 3771. 8 pp. [Favorable report.] 

Authorizing the Committee on Foreign Affairs To Con- 
duct Thorough Studies and Investigations of All Matters 
Coming Within the Jurisdiction of Such Committee. H. 
Rept. 920, 79th Cong., to accompany H. Res. 315. 1 p. 

Amending the Act Entitled "An Act To Establish a Na- 
tional Archives of the United States Government". H. 
Rept. 925, 79th Cong., to accompany H.R. 3243. 4 pp. 
[Favorable report.] 

Participation of the United States in the International 
Monetary Fund and the International Bank for Recon- 
struction and Development. Minority Views From the 
Committee on Banking and Currency to accompany H.R. 
3314, an Act to provide for the participation of the United 



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States in the International Monetary Fund and the Inter- 
national Bank for Reconstruction and Development. S. 
Kept. 452, Part 2, 79th Cong. 19 pp. 

Official Papers of the Territories. S. Rept. 456, 79th 
Cong., to accompany H.R. 2522. 3 pp. [Favorable re- 
port.] 

Post-War Imports and Domestic Production of Major 
Commodities. Letters From the Chairman of the United 
States Tariff Commission Transmitting a Report of the 
United States Tariff Commission in Response to Senate 
Resolution No. 341 (78th Congress). S. Doc. 38, 79th 
Cong, xiii, 1321 pp. 

Public Policy in Postwar Aviation. Report on Public 
Policy in Postwar Aviation by Halford G. Davis, Former 
Director of Economic Development, Aeronautical Cham- 
ber of Commerce. S. Doc. 56, 79th Cong, vi, 56 pp. 

An Act Making appropriations to supply deficiencies in 
certain appropriations for the fiscal year ending June 30, 
1945, and for prior fiscal years, to provide supplemental 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

appropriations for the fiscal years ending June 30, 1945, 
and June 30, 1946, to provide appropriations for the fiscal 
year ending June 30, 1946, and for other purposes. Ap- 
proved July 5, 1945. H.R. 3579, Public Law 132, 79th Cong. 
25 pp. [Department of State, pp. 18-19.] 

Elimination of German Resources for War: Hearings 
Before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Alilitary Af- 
fairs, United States Senate, Seventy-ninth Congress, first 
session, pursuant to S. Res. 107 (78th Congress) and S. 
Res. 146 (79th Congress) Authorizing a Study of War 
Mobilization Problems. Part 1. Testimony of Hon. Ber- 
nard M. Baruch, before the full Military Affairs Com- 
mittee, June 22, 1945. iii, 28 pp. 

1945 Extension of the Reciprocal Trade Agreements 
Act : Hearings Before the Committee on Finance, United 
States Senate, Seventy-ninth Congress, first session, on 
H.R. 3240, an act to extend the authority of the President 
under section 350 of the tariff act of 1930, as amended, 
and for other purposes. [Revised.] May 30, 31, June 1, 4, 
and 5, 1945. vi, 628 pp. [Department of State, pp. 4—16.] 



S. GOVERNMENT TRINTINS OFT.CE' 1945 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



BU 



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VOL. XIII, NO. 318 



JULY 29, 1945 



In this issue 



SENATE APPROVAL OF CHARTER OF THE UNITED NATION. S 

CULTURAL COOPERATION IN SAN FRANCISCO 
By Charles Child 

REPRESENTATION BY THE UNITED STATES OF FOREIGN INTERESTS AS 
OF JULY 28, 1945 



For complete contents 
see inside cover 



r ^ NT o^ 



* * 




THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



BULLETIN 



Vol. XIII. No. 318. 



Publication 2367 



July 29, 1945 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Research and 
Publication, Office of Public Affairs, 
provides the public and interested 
agencies of the Government with 
information on developments in the 
field of foreign relations and on the 
tcork of the Department of State and 
the Foreign Service. The BULLET IIS 
includes press releases on foreign 
policy issued by the If'hite House and 
the Department, and statements and 
addresses made by the President and 
by the Secretary of State and other 
officers of the Department, as icell as 
special articles on various phases of 
international affairs and the functions 
of the Department. Information con- 
cerning treaties and international 
agreements to which the United States 
is or may become a party and treaties 
of general international interest is 
included. 

Publications of the Department, 
cumulative lists of which are published 
at the end of each quarter, as well as 
legislative material in the field of inter- 
national relations, are listed currently. 

The BULLETIN, published with the 
approval of the Director of the Bureau 
of the Budget, is for sale by the Super- 
intendent of Documents, United States 
Government Printing Office, Washing- 
ton 25, D. C, to whom all purchase 
orders, with accompanying remittance, 
should be sent. The subscription price 
is $3.50 a year; a single copy is 10 
cents. 



ItJTOt&ElW OF DOCUMtNlS 

MJG £4 1945 



C 



ontents 



Europe 

Areas Designated for Civilian Travel in Europe .... 

Welfare of American Nationals in Denmark, Norway, and 

Czechoslovakia 149 



Page 
142 



Ear East 

Proclamation Defining Terms for Japanese Surrender 



137 



Cultural Cooperation 

Cultural Cooperation in San Francisco. By Charles 

Child 139 

Economic Affairs 

Third Council Session of UNRRA: United States Delega- 
tion 142 

The Proclaimed List 143 

General 

Travel Between the United States and Canada, Newfound- 
land, or Labrador 149 

Treaty Information 

Senate Approval of Charter of the United Nations: 

Statement by Cordell Hull 138 

Statement by Acting Secretary Grew 138 

The Department 

Resignation of Charles P. Taft. Statement by Acting Secre- 
tary Grew 143 

Appointment of Officers 149 

The Foreign Service 

Representation by the United States of Foreign Interests as 
of July 28, 1945: 

Arrangement According to Countries Represented . . . 144 

Arrangement According to United States Diplomatic and 

Consular Offices 145 

Publications 150 

The Congress 150 



Proclamation Defining Terms 
For Japanese Surrender 



[Released to the press by the Office of War Information July 26] 

( i ) We— the President of the United States, the 
President of the National Government of the Re- 
public of China, and the Prime Minister of Great 
Britain, representing the hundreds of millions of 
our countrymen, have conferred and agree that 
Japan shall be given an opportunity to end this 
war. 

(2) The prodigious land, sea and air forces of 
the United States, the British Empire and of 
China, many times reinforced by their armies and 
air fleets from the west, are poised to strike the 
final blows upon Japan. This military power is 
sustained and inspired by the determination of all 
the Allied Nations to prosecute the war against 
Japan until she ceases to resist. 

(3) The result of the futile and senseless Ger- 
man resistance to the might of the aroused free 
peoples of the world stands forth in awful clarity 
as an example to the people of Japan. The might 
that now converges on Japan is immeasurably 
greater than that which, when applied to the re- 
sisting Nazis, necessarily laid waste to the lands, 
the industry and the method of life of the whole 
German people. The full application of our mili- 
tary power, backed by our resolve, will mean the 
inevitable and complete destruction of the Jap- 
anese armed forces and just as inevitably the utter 
devastation of the Japanese homeland. 

(4) The time has come for Japan to decide 
whether she will continue to be controlled by those 
self-willed militaristic advisers whose unintelli- 
gent calculations have brought the Empire of 



Japan to the threshold of annihilation, or whether 
she will follow the path of reason. 

(5) Following are our terms. We will not de- 
viate from them. There are no alternatives. We 
shall brook no delay. 

(6) There must be eliminated for all time the 
authority and influence of those who have deceived 
and misled the people of Japan into embarking on 
world conquest, for we insist that a new order of 
peace, security and justice will be impossible until 
irresponsible militarism is driven from the world. 

(7) Until such a new order is established and 
until there is convincing proof that Japan's war- 
making power is destroyed, points in Japanese ter- 
ritory to be designated by the Allies shall be occu- 
pied to secure the achievement of the basic objec- 
tives we are here setting forth. 

(8) The terms of the Cairo Declaration shall be 
carried out and Japanese sovereignty shall be lim- 
ited to the islands of Honshu, Hokkaido, Kyushu, 
Shikoku and such minor islands as we determine. 

(9) The Japanese military forces, after being 
completely disarmed, shall be permitted to return 
to their homes with the opportunity to lead peace- 
ful and productive lives. 

(10) We do not intend that the Japanese shall 
be enslaved as a race or destroyed as a nation, but 

1 This proclamation issued on July 26, 1945, by the heads 
of governments of the United States, United Kingdom, and 
China was signed by the President of the United States and 
the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom at Potsdam and 
concurred in by the President of the National Government 
of China, who communicated with President Truman by 
despatch. 



737 



138 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



stern justice shall be meted out to all war criminals, 
including those who have visited cruelties upon our 
prisoners. The Japanese Government shall remove 
all obstacles to the revival and strengthening of 
democratic tendencies among the Japanese people. 
Freedom of speech, of religion, and of thought, 
as well as respect for the fundamental human 
rights shall be established. 

(11) Japan shall be permitted to maintain such 
industries as will sustain her economy and permit 
the exaction of just reparations in kind, but not 
those which would enable her to re-arm for war. 
To this end, access to, as distinguished from con- 
trol of, raw materials shall be permitted. Even- 



tual Japanese participation in world trade rela- 
tions shall be permitted. 

(12) The occupying forces of the Allies shall 
be withdrawn from Japan as soon as these objec- 
tives have been accomplished and there has been 
established in accordance with the freely expressed 
will of the Japanese people a peacefully inclined 
and responsible government. 

(13) We call upon the government of Japan to 
proclaim now the unconditional surrender of all 
Japanese armed forces, and to provide proper and 
adequate assurances of their good faith in such ac- 
tion. The alternative for Japan is prompt and 
utter destruction. 



Senate Approval of Charter of the 
United Nations 



Statement by CORDELL HULL 

[Released to the press July 28] 

By its overwhelming approval of the United 
Nations Charter, the Senate has given the world 
a striking demonstration of the determination of 
our people that this country shall meet fully its 
share of responsibility in the maintenance of fu- 
ture peace and secu- 



rity and in the ad- 
vancement of the well- 
being of mankind. 
The Senate is to be 
commended for the 
high plane of its de- 
bate on the Charter 
and for the fine spirit 
of non-partisanship manifested throughout. 

May this resounding vote of the Senate be fol- 
lowed by speedy approval of the Charter by the 
other United Nations and its early entrance into 
force to carry out the noble purposes for which 
it was conceived. 



Statement by ACTING SECRETARY GREW 

[Released to the press July 28] 

The passage of the United Nations Charter by 
the Senate today is a memorable event in the his- 
tory of the United States and the world. By their 
action, the members of the Senate have taken a 
most important step toward establishing security 

and peace throughout 



The United States Senate on July 28, 
1945 at 5 : 14 p. m. approved the Charter 
of the United Nations by a vote of 89 to 2. 



1 The draft texts of the Charter of the United Nations, 
the Statute of the International Court of Justice, and 
the Interim Arrangements, as printed in the Bulletin of 
June 24, 1945, pp. 1119-43, have been compared with the 
signed original texts and are found to be accurate and 
complete. 



the world. 

Millions of m e n, 
women, and children 
have died because na- 
tions took to the naked 
sword instead of the 
conference table to set- 
tle their differences. 
The United Nations Charter, approved by such 
an overwhelming majority, represents the labor 
of citizens of 50 nations, united in their desire for 
a peaceful world. The Charter itself is the founda- 
tion and cornerstone on which the international 
Organization to keep the peace will be built. This 
Organization can survive only through the faith 
and labor of the citizens of all these nations. 

I congratulate the members of the Senate for 
their work today. I know their action will stand 
out for all time as a shining milestone on the road 
to peace. 



JVLY 29, 1945 



139 



Cultural Cooperation 
In San Francisco 



BY CHARLES CHILD 1 



s 



EVERAL REPRESENT ATIVES 01 

the Division of Cultural 
Cooperation of the De- 
partment of State were 
assigned to the United 
Nations Conference to help delegates and other 
accredited persons in acquiring an adequate pic- 
ture of the United States through these visits in 
the San Francisco area. During and after the 
Conference, our distinguished visitors were helped 
to meet people in San Francisco and other parts 
of the United States who could give them in- 
formation and assistance in their peacetime prob- 
lems. Such contacts once established are ex- 
pected to continue and to strengthen the work 
of increasing a sense of understanding between 
nations. 

Conference delegates and foreign newsmen who 
wished to see the sights of America and pick up 
useful information were eager to spend the brief 
leisure moments in the midst of their Conference 
labors in visiting public-health institutions, re- 
search laboratories, shipyards, air stations, schools, 
and police courts. 

In the preliminary meetings with San Fran- 
cisco citizens representing the fields of art, music, 
education, drama, religion, business, the profes- 
sions, and the universities, the Cultural Activities 
Office explained the long-range objectives of the 
Department and asked assistance in forming com- 
mittees for the purpose of putting on a series of 
civic events and group entertainments and in giv- 
ing aid and hospitality to Conference visitors as 
well as in setting up some form of informational 
assistance and shopping service. 

A civic-events committee was established which 
arranged for public meetings, religious observ- 
ances, symphony concerts, opera and theater per- 
formances, and motion-picture programs, school 



programs, library tours, art exhibitions, and 
sports events. 

An entertainment committee took charge of re- 
ceptions, club events, out-of-town events, and in 
general all matters concerning private entertain- 
ment of groups of delegates or representatives of 
the press. 

A hospitality committee, in collaboration with 
the State Department, set up information booths 
to assist Conference visitors in matters of in- 
formation concerning the life of San Francisco. 
Eventually 15 information booths were established 
in Conference hotels and in the Veterans Memo- 
rial Building where the commission meetings were 
held. This committee also took charge of ar- 
ranging invitations to private homes and sub- 
sidiary information on housing; it organized a 
shopping service. 

A decoration committee arranged for store 
displays and outdoor decorations. 

A committee for press-radio aid handled mat- 
ters relating to hospitality, general information, 
and activities for the foreign press and radio 
groups attending the Conference. 

A transportation committee assisted in sight- 
seeing, organized tours, and special trips to points 
of interest, and a budget and finance committee 
raised money from private sources for the ad- 
ministration of the committees. 

These committees, acting as a team, constituted 
the United Nations Conference Committee under 
the general chairmanship of the Honorable Roger 
D. Lapham, Mayor of San Francisco, with a top 
executive committee headed by the Honorable 
Henry F. Grady, former Assistant Secretary of 
State, This Committee, with the Cultural Ac- 



1 Mr. Child is adviser on art and music in the Division 
of Cultural Cooperation, Office of Public Affairs, Depart- 
ment of State. 



140 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



tivities Office acting in an advisory capacity, put 
on a vigorous program of cultural activities which 
included splendid art exhibitions in three local 
museums, concerts by the San Francisco symphony 
orchestra with prominent conductors, garden tours, 
home entertainment, and many club events, notable 
among which was a picnic at the famed Bohemian 
Grove. It set up many trips to redwood groves, 
agricultural areas, shipyards, laboratories, and 
war industries in the San Francisco Bay area. The 
Committee worked with the motion-picture in- 
dustry to make available to delegates top-flight 
motion-picture entertainment in the principal 
theaters, notably the United Nations Theater, in 
which the motion-picture industry released for 
Conference guests an outstanding series of films. 
It was also instrumental in helping many organiza- 
tions in the Bay area prepare booklets, pamphlets, 
maps, statistical surveys, and other literature, 
some of which were put on the special Conference 
trains for use of the delegates and the press on 
their way to California. The Retail Drygoods As- 
sociation and the Retail Merchants Association, 
working with the Committee and the State De- 
partment, cooperated in producing throughout the 
period of the Conference special store displays 
oriented in two general directions : toward giving 
a picture of American life and toward displaying 
that which illustrated our appreciation of foreign 
cultures. Representative citizens of San Fran- 
cisco, through the Committee, collaborated mag- 
nificently with the State Department and showed 
great initiative and imagination in working out 
for delegates and members of the press a full and 
interesting picture of American cultural life. 

As the Conference progressed the Cultural Ac- 
tivities Office issued a series of bulletins on oppor- 
tunities which were available to delegates and the 
press for visits to institutions in the San Francisco 
Bay area. The Office personnel were available for 
consultation and assistance in connection with 
these visits and with trips to other centers through- 
out the United States for those who wished to spend 
some time in this country after the close of the 
regular sessions. 

Typical of hundreds of services performed by 
the Cultural Activities Office were visits for mem- 
bers of the Chinese Delegation to low-cost hous- 
ing projects in the San Francisco area and a broad- 
cast interview over the Columbia system on the 
music of Venezuela with a distinguished member 



of the Delegation, Mr. Jose Antonio Calcano, 
prominent composer and musician. 

Fikry Bey Abaza, press delegate of the Egyptian 
Delegation, visited local police courts and district 
courts in San Francisco. General Alfred Ne- 
mours, president of the Senate in Haiti, in connec- 
tion with his interest in the educational system of 
the United States, asked for documents covering 
all phases of education in this country. Through 
the Cultural Activities Office, the Office of Educa- 
tion sent a wide selection of documentary material 
to General Nemours. 

Mr. Marcio de Mello Franco Alves, of the Brazil- 
ian Delegation, was given assistance in contacting 
officials of the Bureau of Public Roads in San 
Francisco. It is interesting to note that many of 
the distinguished visitors to the Conference, like 
Mr. Alves, had obtained degrees from universities 
in this country and had come back to the Confer- 
ence as leaders in their own governments. 

Great interest was shown by many of the dele- 
gates and advisers in the work of American uni- 
versities. Literally hundreds of trips to the uni- 
versities around San Francisco were arranged 
through the Cultural Activities Office. Typical 
of these was a trip to the University of California 
made by Dr. Ali Akbar Siassi, president of Teh- 
ran University, and Dr. Lotfali Suratgar, profes- 
sor of English literature there — both members of 
the Iranian Delegation. These men had special 
interviews with Dean Freeman of the School of 
Education, with Walter Brown, acting dean of 
the School of Public Health, with Noel Keyes, 
professor of education, and with Frank N. Rus- 
sell of the political-science department. Visits to 
the University library and the psychology labora- 
tory were also made. 

Longer trips were undertaken by many of the 
delegates and members of the press to such sites 
as that of Boulder Dam and to Los Angeles and 
Hollywood. 

People with wide-ranging interests have been 
served by the Cultural Activities Office : 

Dr. Parekunnel J. Thomas, economic adviser 
to the Indian Delegation, in the course of his stay 
in San Francisco visited the economics department 
of the University of California, the Federal Re- 
serve Bank of San Francisco, the stock market, 
agricultural areas, the Farm Credit Administra- 
tion, the Kaiser shipyards, orchards and irrigation 
projects, low-cost housing projects, and the Marin 



JULY 29, 1945 

shipyards. As a result of these visits, Dr. Thomas 
intends to spend a month after the Conference 
in Washington studying banking and finance, 
foreign trade between the United States and India, 
federal regulation of stock-exchange activities, 
and related subjects. 

A paper factory and a tannery, the largest west 
of the Mississippi River, were suggested by the 
Cultural Activities Office for Mr. Ato Menasse 
Lemma, Director General of the Ministry of Fi- 
nance of Ethiopia, who wished to study American 
solutions for problems posed by the tanning and 
papermaking industries. 

Many of the delegates, like Dr. Thomas, bring 
with them broad interests in such fields as public 
health, agriculture, and stock-raising, and they 
plan, with the assistance of the Cultural Activ- 
ities Office, to stay in the United States after the 
Conference in order to observe methods used in 
this country. 

General Juan B. Ayala of the Paraguayan Dele- 
gation, Paraguayan Ambassador to Brazil, is 
such a man. He plans to remain in the United 
States for at least a month out of "a profound con- 
viction that Paraguay must cement its bonds with 
the United States for the future", and he desires 
to secure as full a knowledge as possible of this 
country within the time available. The Cultural 
Activities Office has planned a program for him 
which will include visits to industrial plants such 
as the Ford Motor Company in Detroit, the stock- 
yards in Chicago, public-health works, and agri- 
culture and stock-raising organizations. He will 
also visit small installations in the field of con- 
sumption industries that utilize leather and other 
stock products. While in San Francisco General 
Ayala visited the agricultural school at Davis, 
California, and made visits to irrigation and pub- 
lic-health projects in the area. 

The Cultural Activities Office arranged meetings 
and dinners on many occasions at which a round- 
table discussion took place on a selected subject. 
Typical of these was a dinner arranged for various 
members of foreign delegations concerned with 
public-health matters, at which they were given 
the opportunity to meet local doctors and public- 
health administrators in the San Francisco area. 
Representatives from Brazil, Nicaragua, Iran, 
France, and Venezuela were present at one such 
meeting, together with representatives of the 
United States Public Health Service and the Cali- 



141 

fornia State Department of Health, and with pro- 
fessors of public health and preventive medicine. 
The exchange of experiences and views at these 
meetings has been helpful to various members of 
foreign delegations as well as to their American 
counterparts. 

His Excellency Ibrahim Bey Abdel Hadi, Min- 
ister of Public Health and a member of the Egyp- 
tian Delegation, visited public-health centers to 
observe organization of United States public- 
health programs, which included sanitary inspec- 
tion services, local child-health clinics, and public- 
nursing services. As a result of these visits Dr. 
Ahmed M. Kamal, Director General, Department 
of Preventive Medicine, Ministry of Health, flew 
from Egypt especially to study organization, ad- 
ministration, and operation of public-health serv- 
ices in the United States. He will remain for some 
time to observe state and local public-health ad- 
ministration in various regions of the United 
States, particularly those having comparable 
health problems. 

Certain experiences of Conference visitors have 
had results of a surprising nature. When Sena- 
tor Isabel P. de Vidal, of Uruguay, for example, 
made a trip with the Superintendent of Schools of 
San Francisco to the Grant Primary School, she 
attended a presentation by seventh-grade students 
of a forum on Latin America. This program was 
of particular interest since Senator de Vidal has 
been a teacher and professor for many years. The 
children spoke on the 20 countries ; their talks were 
accompanied by slides which they had prepared 
themselves. Sehora de Vidal was so impressed that 
she forthwith made a short-wave broadcast to 
South America on her visit. 

Certain members of the French Delegation 
asked the Cultural Activities Office for assistance 
in planning visits to academic and cultural insti- 
tutions of the United States en route to the east 
coast. Their particular interests were in the fields 
of administrative management, labor legislation, 
social security, standards of living, and govern- 
ment administration of the national economy dur- 
ing the war period. These men were put in touch 
with organizations in the Chicago area and in New 
York, as well as in Washington. 

The Cultural Activities Office, by giving assist- 
ance of this kind, looks forward to continued in- 
terest and contact beyond the immediate period of 
the Conference. First-hand knowledge of the 



142 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



United States and its institutions acquired by our 
visitors and the greatly increased familiarity con- 
cerning these distinguished guests and their prob- 
lems which has been acquired by so many Ameri- 
cans will aid immensely in the long-range work of 
waging peace and in carrying out the provisions in 
the proposals made by the Chinese at the Confer- 
ence and accepted by the five powers "to promote 
educational and other forms of cultural coopera- 
tion" among nations. 

Third Council Session of 
UNRRA 

UNITED STATES DELEGATION 

[Released to the press July 28] 

The Department of State announced on July 28 
the composition of the Delegation of the United 
States to the Third Council Session of the United 
Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration 
to be held at London beginning August 7, 1945. 

The First Council Session was held in Atlantic 
City in November and December of 1943 and the 
Second Session was held in Montreal in September 
1944. 

The composition of the Delegation, as approved 
by the President, is as follows : 

U. S. Member and Chairman, of Delegation: 

William L. Clayton, Assistant Secretary of State 
Alternates: 

John G. Winant, American Ambassador to 
London 

Rupert Emerson, Director, Liberated Areas 
Branch, Foreign Economic Administration 
Advisers: 

Miss Ruth G. Amende, Special Assistant to Am- 
bassador Winant 

William L. Batt, Vice Chairman of War Pro- 
duction Board, U.S. Member of Combined 
Raw Materials Board 

Eric Biddle, Head of the Bureau of the Budget 
Mission to London 

E. G. Collado, Director, Office of Financial and 
Development Policy, Department of State 

Harold Glasser, Assistant Director, Division of 
Monetary Research, Department of the 
Treasury 

Christian A. Herter, member of House Com- 
mittee To Investigate Food Shortages 



William Bruce Lockling, Adviser on Displaced 
Persons to the U.S. Political Adviser on 
German Affairs, Hoechst, Germany 

Marshall MacDuffie, Director of European 
Branch, Foreign Economic Administration 

Francis Mclntyre, Chief of the Program Co- 
ordination Staff, Foreign Economic Admin- 
istration 

Stephen Pace, Chairman of House Committee 
To Investigate Food Shortages 

Herbert W. Parisius, Director, Office of Food 
Programs, Foreign Economic Administra- 
tion 

E. F. Penrose, Special Assistant to Ambassador 
Winant 

S. S. Sheppard, Assistant Chief, Division of 
Administrative Management, Bureau of the 
Budget 

Albert Viton, Agricultural Economist, Depart- 
ment of Agriculture 

George L. Warren, Adviser on Refugees and Dis- 
placed Persons, Department of State 

Ogden White, United States Executive Officer, 
Combined Production and Resources 
Board 

Mrs. Ellen Woodward, Member of the Social 
Security Board 

Adviser and Executive Secretary: 

Donald S. Gilpatric, Chief, War Areas Eco- 
nomic Division; Adviser to UNRRA for 
the Department of State 

Areas Designated for Civilian 
Travel in Europe 

[Released to the press July 28] 

The Joint Chiefs of Staff with the concurrence 
of the Acting Secretary of State have removed, ef- 
fective July 23, 1945, all countries in Europe ex- 
cept Germany, Austria, and Italy from the list of 
areas of active military operations into or through 
which civilians may not travel without receiving 
the approval of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. How- 
ever, it is emphasized that the present program for 
the redeployment of the armed forces of the 
United States has strained all available facilities 
for transportation. It is not anticipated that the 
situation will improve before the termination of 
the war with Japan. In the circumstances any 
American citizen who proceeds to Europe at this 



JULY 29, 1945 



143 



time should understand that he may be unable to 
arrange for transportation for his return to the 
United States for a considerable period. 

The Department has been advised by its repre- 
sentatives in the various countries of Europe that 
there is a great shortage of food and living accom- 
modations, and lack of internal transportation fa- 
cilities. Last winter there was a great shortage of 
coal in liberated areas, and it is not believed that 
this situation will be materially improved during 
the coming winter. The Department considers 
that these facts should be made clear to any per- 
son who desires to proceed to any part of Europe. 

The Department will in consequence accept more 
freely the applications of American citizens for 
passports for any of the countries of Europe ex- 
cept Germany, Austria, and Italy. In general 
passports will, however, not be issued for Euro- 
pean countries now removed from the list of vari- 
ous active military operations unless the appli- 
cants submit with their applications appropriate 
evidence that their presence in any such country 
would serve directly or indirectly the national 
interests of the United States or of the particular 
European country concerned by the resumption 
of economic or other activities disrupted by the 
war or would materially aid in meeting the essen- 
tial requirements for civilian consumption and 
reconstruction in such country. 

Resignation of Charles P. Taft 

Statement by ACTING SECRETARY GREW 

[Released to the press July 26] 

It is with deep regret that I announce the resig- 
nation of Mr. Charles P. Taft, Director of the 
Office of Transport and Communications Policy in 
the Department of State. Mr. Taft's resignation 
is to take effect September 15, 1945. 

In a letter to Mr. Clayton dated June 25, 1945, 
Mr. Taft said that: ''The wartime operations of 
the Department in the economic field during 1944, 
for which I was in part responsible, and for which 
I set up most of the organization, have now been 
substantially merged into an organization for han- 
dling the long-term problems." In this same let- 
ter Mr. Taft stated that he was resigning to 
undertake what he believes to be a great oppor- 
tunity for service in his home community. 

Mr. Taft is continuing as a member of the Presi- 
dent's War Relief Control Board and the joint 

660605 — 15 2 



Army and Navy Committee on Education and 
Recreation. 

I wish to take this opportunity to express the 
great appreciation of the Department to Mr. Taft 
for the outstanding work he has done while with 
the Department in various phases of economic ac- 
tivity. We are particularly grateful for the 
prominent part he played in successfully achiev- 
ing the extension of the Reciprocal Trade Agree- 
ments Act, which is among the many other valu- 
able services he has rendered. We are especially 
sorry to have him leave us, and he has our very 
best wishes for the successful continuance of his 
public-spirited service, whatever the nature of that 
service may be. 

The Proclaimed List 

[Released to the press July 29] 

The Acting Secretary of State, acting in con- 
junction with the Acting Secretary of the Treas- 
ury, the Attorney General, the Secretary of 
Commerce, the Deputy Administrator of the 
Foreign Economic Administration, and the Direc- 
tor of the Office of Inter-American Affairs, has 
issued Cumulative Supplement No. 5 to Revision 
IX of the Proclaimed List of Certain Blocked 
Nationals. 

Cumulative Supplement No. 5 to Revision IX 
supersedes Cumulative Supplement No. 4 dated 
June 22, 1945. 

Part I of Cumulative Supplement No. 5 con- 
tains 45 additional listings in the other American 
republics and 462 deletions; Part II contains 4 
additional listings outside the American repub- 
lics and 13 deletions. 

The names of a considerable number of persons 
and enterprises in Chile and Peru have been de- 
leted in the current supplement. These deletions 
are possible because of the effective action taken 
by the Chilean and Peruvian Governments to 
eliminate Axis enterprises and because the laws 
of these countries are deemed adequate to control 
deleted persons whose activities still require super- 
vision. With some exceptions, the deletions in 
these countries do not indicate that continued 
control by the Chilean and Peruvian Governments 
is unnecessary ; on the contrary it means that the 
laws of these two countries are deemed to be ade- 
quate to control the activities and assets of unde- 
sirable persons whose names have been deleted. 



144 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Representation by the United States of 
Foreign Interests as of July 28, 1945 



ARRANGEMENT ACCORDING TO 
COUNTRIES REPRESENTED 

Representation 

Of Australian interests in — 

French Guiana 

Martinique and Guadeloupe 
Of Belgian interests in — 

French Guiana 

Martinique and Guadeloupe 
Of Brazilian interests in — 

International zone of Tangier 
Of British interests in — 

French Guiana 

Martinique and Guadeloupe 
Of Canadian interests in — 

French Guiana 

Martinique and Guadeloupe 
Of Chilean interests in — 

Hungary 

Rumania 

Yugoslavia 
Of Costa Rican interests in — 

Sweden (consular services not performed in 
connection with such representation since 
Costa Rica maintains consular offices in 
Sweden) 
Of Cuban interests in — 

International zone of Tangier 
Of Haitian interests in — 

Algeria 

Belgium 

France 

Great Britain 

Greece 

Hungary 

Italy 

Ireland 

Luxembourg 

Zone of French protectorate, Morocco 

Portugal 

Spain 

Sweden 

Tunisia 

Yugoslavia 



Of New Zealand interests in — 

French Guiana 

Martinique and Guadeloupe 
Of Nicaraguan interests in — 

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 
Of South African interests in — 

French Guiana 
Of Swiss interests at — 

Nassau, Bahamas 

Hamilton, Bermuda 

Barbados, British West Indies 
Of Yugoslav interests in — 

Aden, Arabia 

French Guiana 

Martinique and Guadeloupe 

Performance of Consular Services 
For Cuba at — 

Algiers, Algeria 

Tehran, Iran 

Baghdad, Iraq 

Monrovia, Liberia 

Wellington, New Zealand 

(At ports where there are no Cuban con- 
sular officers, American consular officers 
may issue clearance papers to masters of 
ships at their specific request) 
For Dominican Republic at — 

Alexandria, Egypt 
For Haiti at — 

Kingston, Jamaica (consular district of) 

Bucharest, Rumania 

Ankara, Turkey (ad hoc) 

Adana, Turkey (ad hoc) 

Istanbul, Turkey (ad hoc) 

Iskenderun, Turkey (ad hoc) 

Izmir, Turkey (ad hoc) 
For Panama, at — 

Algiers, Algeria 

Belize, British Honduras 

Colombo, Ceylon 

Alexandria, Egypt 

Port Said, Egypt 

Suez, Egypt 

Bombay, India 



JULY 29, 1945 



145 



Calcutta, India 

Karachi, India 

Tehran, Iran 

Belfast, Northern Ireland 

Jerusalem, Palestine 

Istanbul, Turkey 

Johannesburg, Union of South Africa 

Extension of Good Offices 
For China in — 
Colombia 
Ecuador 
Haiti 
Rumania 
For Colombia at — 
Istanbul, Turkey 

(occasional services for Colombian na- 
tionals when requested by Colombian 
Government through Department) 
For Costa Rica in — 



Belgium 

Spain 

Portugal 
For Guatemala in — 

Belgium (ad hoc) 
For Haiti at — 

Camagiiey, Cuba 
For Honduras in — 

Belgium (ad hoc) 

Hungary (ad hoc) 
For Iceland at — 

Algiers, Algeria 
Chungking, China 
Tehran, Iran 



occasional services when re- 
quested by Costa Rican Govern- 
ment through Department 



occasional services for 
Icelandic nationals 
when requested by Ice- 
1 a n d i c Government 
through Department 



For Liberia at — 

Beirut, Lebanon 

(occasional services for Liberian na- 
tionals when requested by Liberian 
Government through Department) 
For the Netherlands at — 

Cartagena, Colombia (issuance of bills of 
health to ships proceeding to certain 
Netherlands ports) 
For Switzerland at — 

Tahiti, Society Islands (occasional services 
for Swiss nationals when requested by 
Swiss Legation, Washington, through De- 
partment) 



Kabul, Afghanistan (Swiss nationals may, 
if they so desire, apply to American Le- 
gation, Kabul, for protection) 
For Venezuela at — 

Georgetown, British Guiana 
(during temporary emergency) 

Hungary (ad hoc) 

Channel of Communication With Swiss Gov- 
ernment in Connection With Repre- 
sentation by Switzerland of the Inter- 
ests in Enemy Territory of — 

Costa Rica 

El Salvador 

Guatemala 

Honduras 

Nicaragua 

Paraguay (for Hungary) 

ARRANGEMENT ACCORDING TO 

UNITED STATES DIPLOMATIC 

AND CONSULAR OFFICES 

Afghanistan 
Kabul (legation) 

Good offices for Switzerland (Swiss nationals 
may, if they so desire, apply to American 
Legation, Kabul, for protection) 

Belgium 

Brussels (embassy) 

Representation of Haitian interests 
Informal good offices for Costa Rica (ad hoc) 
Informal good offices for Guatemala (ad hoc) 
Informal good offices for Honduras (ad hoc) 

Antwerp (consulate general) 

Representation of Haitian interests 

China 

Chungking (embassy) 

Good offices for Iceland (occasional services 
for Icelandic nationals when requested by 
Icelandic Government through Depart- 
ment) 

Colombia 
Bogota (embassy) 

Good offices for China 
Barranquilla (consulate) 

Good offices for China 
Bucaramanga (consulate) 

Good offices for China 

Buenaventura (vice consulate) 

Good offices for China 



146 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Cali (consulate) 

Good offices for China 
Cartagena (consulate) 

Good offices for China 

Good offices for the Netherlands (issuance of 
bills of health to ships proceeding to cer- 
tain Netherlands ports') 
Medellin (consulate) 

Good offices for China 

Ecuador 
Quito (embassy) 

Good offices for China 
Guayaquil (consulate general) 

Good offices for China 

Cuba 

Camagiiey (consulate) 
Good offices for Haiti 

Egypt 
Alexandria (consulate) 

Consular services for Dominican Republic 

Consular services for Panama 
Port Said (consulate) 

Consular services for Panama 
Suez (consulate) 

Consular services for Panama 

France 
Paris (embassy) 

Representation of Haitian interests 
Cherbourg (consulate) 

Representation of Haitian interests 
Marseille (consulate) 

Representation of Haitian interests 
Nice (consulate) 

Representation of Haitian interests 
Bordeaux (consulate) 

Representation of Haitian interests 
Le Havre (consulate) 

Representation of Haitian interests 

French Possessions 

Algiers (consulate general) 

Representation of Haitian interests 

Consular services for Cuba 

Consular services for Panama 

Good offices for Iceland (occasional services 
for Icelandic nationals when requested by 
Icelandic Government through Depart- 
ment) 



Cayenne, French Guiana (consulate) 

Representation of Australian interests 
Representation of Belgian interests 
Representation of British interests 
Representation of Canadian interests 
Representation of New Zealand interests 
Representation of South African interests 
Representation of Yugoslav interests 

Martinique, French West Indies (consulate) 
Representation of Australian interests 
Representation of Belgian interests 
Representation of British interests 
Representation of Canadian interests 
Representation of New Zealand interests 
Representation of Yugoslav interests 

Tahiti, Society Islands (consulate) 

Good offices for Switzerland (occasional serv- 
ices for Swiss nationals when requested by 
Swiss Legation, Washington, through De- 
partment ) 

Oran, Algeria (consulate) 

Representation of Haitian interests 

French Protectorate 

Tunis (consulate) 

Representation of Haitian interests 

Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and India 

London (embassy) 

Representation of Haitian interests 
Belfast, Northern Ireland (consulate general) 

Representation of Haitian interests 

Consular services for Panama 
Birmingham (consulate) 

Representation of Haitian interests 
Bradford (consulate) 

Representation of Haitian interests 
Bristol (consulate) 

Representation of Haitian interests 
Cardiff (consulate) 

Representation of Haitian interests 
Edinburgh (consulate) 

Representation of Haitian interests 
Glasgow (consulate) 

Representation of Haitian interests 
Hull (consulate) 

Representation of Haitian interests 
Liverpool (consulate) 

Representation of Haitian interests 
Manchester (consulate) 

Representation of Haitian interests 



JULY 29, 1945 



147 



Newcastle-on-Tyne (consulate) 

Representation of Haitian interests 

Plymouth (consulate) 

Representation of Haitian interests 

Southampton (consulate) 

Representation of Haitian interests 

India 

Bombay (consulate) 

Consular services for Panama 
Calcutta (consulate general) 

Consular services for Panama 
Karachi (consulate) 

Consular services for Panama 

Other Asia 
Aden, Arabia (consulate) 

Representation of Yugoslav interests 
Colombo, Ceylon (consulate) 

Consular services for Panama 

Other America 
Barbados, British West Indies (consulate) 

Representation of Swiss interests 
Belize, British Honduras (consulate) 

Consular services for Panama 
Hamilton, Bermuda (consulate general) 

Rep resent ation of Swiss interests 
Georgetown, British Guiana (consulate) 

Good offices for Venezuela (during temporary 
emergency) 
Kingston, Jamaica, British West Indies (con- 
sulate) 

Consular services for Haiti 
Nassau, New Providence, Bahamas (consulate) 

Representation of Swiss interests 

Greece 
Athens (embassy) 

Representation of Haitian interests 
Salonika (consulate) 

Representation of Haitian interests 

Haiti 
Port-au-Prince (embassy) 
Good offices for China 

Hungary 

Budapest (mission) 

Representation of Chilean interests 
Representation of Haitian interests 
Informal good offices for Honduras (ad hoc) 
Informal good offices for Venezuela (ad hoc) 



Iran 

Tehran (legation) 

Consular services for Cuba 

Consular services for Panama 

Good offices for Iceland (occasional services 
for Icelandic nationals when requested by 
Icelandic Government through Depart- 
ment) 

Iraq 

Baghdad (legation) 

Consular services for Cuba 

Ireland 
Dublin (legation) 

Representation of Haitian interests 
Cork (consulate) 

Representation of Haitian interests 
Foynes (consulate) 

Representation of Haitian interests 

Italt 

Rome (embassy and consulate) 

Representation of Haitian interests 
Naples (consulate general) 

Representation of Haitian interests 
Palermo (consulate) 

Representation of Haitian interests 
Florence (consulate) 

Representation of Haitian interests 

Lebanon 
Beirut, (legation) 

Occasional good offices for Liberia 

Liberia 
Monrovia (legation) 

Consular services for Cuba 

Luxembourg 
Luxembourg (legation) 

Representation of Haitian interests 

Morocco 
Tangier (legation) 

Representation of Brazilian interests 

Representation of Cuban interests 
Casablanca (consulate) 

Representation of Haitian interests 
Rabat (consulate) 

Representation of Haitian interests 

New Zealand 
Wellington (legation) 

Consular services for Cuba 



148 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Palestine 

Jerusalem (consulate general) 

Consular services for Panama 

Portugal 

Lisbon (embassy) 

Representation of Haitian interests (occa- 
sional services when requested by Costa 
Rican Government through Department) 
Funchal, Madeira (consulate) 

Representation of Haitian interests (occa- 
sional services when requested by Costa 
Rican Government through Department ) 
Oporto (consulate) 

Representation of Haitian interests (occa- 
sional services when requested by Costa 
Rican Government through Department) 

Portuguese Possessions 

Beira, Mozambique, Africa (consulate) 
Representation of Haitian interests 

Louren<;o Marques, Mozambique, Africa (consu- 
late general) 

Representation of Haitian interests 

Luanda, Angola, Africa (consulate) 
Representation of Haitian interests 

Rumania 

Bucharest (mission) 

Representation of Chilean interests 
(occasional consular services for Haiti) 
Good offices for China 

Spain 
Madrid (embassy) 

Representation of Haitian interests (occa- 
sional services when requested by Costa 
Rican Government through Department) 
Barcelona (consulate general) 

Representation of Haitian interests (occa- 
sional services when requested by Costa 
Rican Government through Department) 
Bilbao (consulate) 

Representation of Haitian interests (occa- 
sional services when requested by Costa 
Rican Government through Department) 
Malaga (consulate) 

Representation of Haitian interests (occa- 
sional services when requested by Costa 
Rican Government through Department) 



San Sebastian (consulate) 

Representation of Haitian interests (occa- 
sional services when requested by Costa 
Rican Government through Department) 
Seville (consulate) 

Representation of Haitian interests (occa- 
sional services when requested by Costa 
Rican Government through Department) 
Valencia (consulate) 

Representation of Haitian interests (occa- 
sional services when requested by Costa 
Rican Government through Department) 
Vigo (consulate) 

Representation of Haitian interests (occa- 
sional services when requested by Costa 
Rican Government through Department) 

Spanish Possessions 
Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (con- 
sulate) 

Representation of Haitian interests (occa- 
sional services when requested by Costa 
Rican Government through Department) 
Tenerife, Canary Islands (consulate) 

Representation of Haitian interests (occa- 
sional services when requested by Costa 
Rican Government through Department) 

Sweden 
Stockholm (legation) 

Representation of Haitian interests 
Representation of Costa Rican interests (con- 
sular services not performed in connection 
with such representation since Costa Rica 
maintains consular offices in Sweden) 
Goteborg (consulate) 

Representation of Haitian interests 
Malmo (consulate) 

Representation of Haitian interests 

Switzerland 
Bern (legation) 

Channel of communication with Swiss Gov- 
ernment in connection with representa- 
tion by Switzerland of the interests in 
enemy territory of — 
Costa Rica 
El Salvador 
Guatemala 
Honduras 
Nicaragua 
Paraguay (Hungary only) 



JULY 29, 1945 



149 



Turkey 

Ankara (embassy) 

Consular services for Haiti (ad hoc) 
Istanbul (consulate general) 

Good offices for Colombia (occasional serv- 
ices in behalf of Colombian nationals when 
requested by Colombian Government 
through Department) 
Consular services for Haiti (ad hoc) 
Consular services for Panama 
Iskenderun (consulate) 

Consular services for Haiti (ad hoc) 
Izmir (consulate) 

Consular services for Haiti (ad hoc) 

Union of South Africa 

Johannesburg (consulate general) 
Consular services for Panama 

Union of Soviet Socialist Kepublics 

Moscow (embassy) 

Representation of Nicaraguan interests 
Vladivostok (consulate general) 

Representation of Nicaraguan interests 



Welfare of American Nationals 
in Denmark, Norway, and 
Czechoslovakia ' 

The Department of State announces that the 
American Legation at Copenhagen and the Amer- 
ican Embassies at Oslo and Praha are prepared to 
furnish information concerning the welfare and 
whereabouts of individual American nationals in 
Denmark, Norway, and Czechoslovakia. Persons 
in the United States who wish information con- 
cerning friends and relatives who are American na- 
tionals in those countries may communicate with 
the Department of State, which will forward their 
inquiries to the Legation and Embassies through 
official channels. In cases where persons in the 
United States have been unsuccessful in establish- 
ing contact through postal channels, and in the 
case of Czechoslovakia, pending the restoration of 
facilities for postal communications between the 
United States and Czechoslovakia, the Department 
will also accept brief personal messages for trans- 
mission through official channels to Americans re- 
siding in Denmark, Norway, and Czechoslovakia. 



For the time being this service does not include 
inquiries about or messages sent to persons in Den- 
mark, Norway, and Czechoslovakia who do not 
possess American nationality. 

Travel Between the United 
States and Canada, Newfound- 
land, or Labrador 

Pursuant to statutory authority, Acting Secre- 
tary of State Grew on July 25, 1945 issued the 
following regulations pertaining to travel between 
the United States and Canada, Newfoundland, or 
Labrador. These regulations are codified in the 
Code of Federal Regulations under Title 22, Chap- 
ter 1, Part 58, "Control of Persons Entering and 
Leaving the United States Pursuant to the Act of 
May 22, 1918, as Amended". 2 

"§ 58.3 Exceptions to regulations in §§ 58.1- 
58.2. * * * 

(b) When traveling between points in the con- 
tinental United States and points in Canada or 
Newfoundland, including Labrador, or any island 
adjacent thereto : Provided, That this exception 
shall not be applicable to any such person when 
traveling to or arriving from a place outside the 
continental United States via Canada or New- 
foundland, or Labrador, or any island adjacent 
thereto for which a valid passport is required un- 
der these rules and regulations ; or" 



~= THE DEPARTMENT = r 

Appointment of Officers 

Theodore C. Achilles as Special Assistant to the 
Director of the Office of European Affairs, ef- 
fective July 2, 1945. 

Edward T. Wailes as Chief of the Division of 
British Commonwealth Affairs, effective July 2, 
1945. 

Guillermo A. Suro as Chief of the Central 
Translating Division, effective May 1, 1945. 

Edward W. Kelly as Executive Officer of the 
Office of International Trade Policy, effective June 
16, 1945. 



1 Information obtained from press releases of July 26, 
1945 numbered 563, 564, and 565. 
2 10 Federal Register 9383. 



250 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



PUBLICATIONS 



Department of State 

Rubber Production : Agreement Between the United 
States of America and Venezuela — Effected by exchange 
of notes signed at Caracas October 13, 1942 and exchanges 
of notes of October 11, 1943 and October 13, 1944 extend- 
ing the agreement and of September 27, 1944 amending 
the agreement. Executive Agreement Series 446. Publi- 
cation 2342. 20 pp. 10«(. 

Cooperative Education : Agreement Between the United 
States of America and Honduras— Effected by exchange 
of notes signed at Tegucigalpa March 29 and April 12, 

1944. Executive Agreement Series 447. Publication 2339. 
7 pp. 5tf. 

Inter-American Highway Between Chorrera and Rio 
Hato: Agreement Between the United States of America 
and Panama— Effected by exchange of notes signed at 
Washington March 23, 1940. Executive Agreement Series 
449. Publication 2341. 8 pp. H- 

Interim Arrangements Concluded by the Governments 
Represented at the United Nations Conference on Inter- 
national Organization, San Francisco, California, June 26, 

1945. Conference Series 75. Publication 2357. 4 pp. 
Free. 

Diplomatic List, July 1945. Publication 2356. ii, 133 pp. 
Subscription, $2 a year ; single copy 20<i. 

Foreign Commerce Weekly 

The articles listed below will be found in the July 28 
issue of the Department of Commerce publication entitled 
Foreign Commerce Weekly, copies of which may be ob- 
tained from the Superintendent of Documents, Govern- 
ment Printing Office, for 10 cents each : 

"Spain's Electronic Needs", by Robert M. Brandin, third 
secretary, vice consul, American Embassy, Madrid. 

"Mexico in 1944", by Lew B. Clark, senior economic 
analyst, American Embassy, Mexico, D.P. 



M THE CONGRESS W= 



Requiring the Recording of Agreements Relating to 
Patents. H. Rept. 932, 79th Cong., to accompany H.R. 
3756. 2 pp. [Favorable report] 

Providing for the Public Registering of Patents Avail- 
able for Licensing. H. Rept. 933, 79th Cong., to accom- 
pany H.R. 3757. 1 p. [Favorable report.] 

Increasing the Lending Authority of the Export-Import 
Bank of Washington. S. Rept. 490, 79th Cong., to accom- 
pany H. R. 3771. 7 pp. [Favorable report.] 



Pan-American Day. Proceedings held in the House of 
Representatives in commemoration of Pan-American Day. 
April 24, 1945. H. Doc. 245, 79th Cong, ii, 31 pp. 

Third Report to Congress on United States Participa- 
tion in Operations of UNRRA. Message from the Presi- 
dent of the United States transmitting the Third Quar- 
terly Report on United States Participation in Operations 
of UNRRA. H. Doc. 251, 79th Cong. 45 pp. 

An Act Making appropriations for war agencies for 
the fiscal year ending June 30, 1946, and for other pur- 
poses. Approved July 17, 1945. [H.R. 3368.] Public Law 
156, 79th Cong. 16 pp. 

1945 Extension of Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act: 
Hearings before the Committee on Ways and Means, 
House of Representatives, Seventy-ninth Congress, first 
session, on H.R. 2652 superseded by H.R. 3240, a bill to 
extend the authority of the President under section 350 of 
the tariff act of 1930, as amended, and for other pur- 
poses. Volume 2 [revised], May 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 
and 14, 1945. Indexed, ix, 1475 pp. [Department of 
State, indexed references on pp. 2990-91.] 



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VOL. XIII, NO. 319 



AUGUST 5, 1945 



In this issue 



REPORT ON THE TRIPARTITE CONFERENCE AT BERLIN 

ANGLO-AMERICAN MILITARY COOPERATION AGAINST JAPAN 

Joint Announcement by President Truman and Prime Minister Attlee 

THE REPATRIATION PROGRAM 
Statement by Acting Secretary Grew 

DRAFT CONSTITUTION FOR AN EDUCATIONAL AND CULTURAL 
ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS 

^PETROLEUM IN INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 

. .'* By John A. Loftus 

THE UNITED NATIONS CHARTER AND OUR FOREIGN POLICY 
Radio broadcast by Assistant Secretaries Acheson and MacLeish 

SURRENDER ORDERS RELATING TO GERMAN ARMY, AIR, AND 
NAVAL FORCES 



For complete contents 
see inside cover 



^lENT 0<fti 




■^TES °^ 



it 



Urfi..." 



j or uvn^""-" . 



SEP 14 194* 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

BULLETIN 



Vol. XIII -No.319* 

e 




•Publication 2369 



August 5, 1945 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Research and 
Publication, Office of Public Affairs, 
provides the public and interested 
agencies of the Government uith 
infor motion on developments in the 
field of foreign relations and on the 
uork of the Department of State and 
the Foreign Service. The BULLETIN 
includes press releases on foreign 
policy issued by the White House and 
the Department, and statements and 
addresses made by the President and 
by the Secretary of State and other 
officers of the Department, as uell as 
special articles on various phases of 
international affairs and thefunctions 
of the Department. Information con- 
cerning treaties and international 
agreements touhich the United States 
is or may become a party and treaties 
of general international interest is 
included. 

Publications of the Department, 
cumulative lists of uhicharepublished 
at the end of each quarter, as uell as 
legislative material in the field of inter- 
national relations, are listed currently. 

The BULLETIN, published uith the 
approval of tlie Director of the Bureau 
of the Budget, is for sale by the Super- 
intendent of Documents, United Slates 
Government Printing Office, Wash- 
ington 25, D. C., to uhom all pur- 
chase orders, uith accompanying 
remittance, should be sent. The sub- 
scription price is $3.50 a year; a single 
copy is 10 cents. 



Contents 

American Republics Page 

Friendly Attitude of Argentine Labor Unions Toward 

United States. Statement by Acting Secretary Grew. 177 
Anglo-American Unity in Argentina. Address by Spruille 

Braden 189 

Europe 

Review of UNRRA Operations in Europe. Statement by 

Herbert H. Lehman 178 

American Coal for the Liberated Areas of Europe .... ISO 

Orders by the Supreme Commander, Allied Expeditionary 
Force Relating to Army and Air Forces Under German 
frr f Control 192 

Special Orders by the Supreme Commander, Allied Expedi- 
tionary Force to the German High Command Relating 
to Naval Forces 192 

Far East 

Japanese Practice of Locating Prisoner-of-War and Civilian 

Camps in Areas Subject to Bombardment 176 

Economic Affairs 

Petroleum in International Relations. By John A. Loftus. 173 

General 

The Repatriation Program. Statement by Acting Secretary 

Grew 162 

Repatriation of American Citizens on the "Gripsholm" . . 164 
The United Nations Charter and Our Foreign Policy ... 181 

The United Nations 

Draft Constitution for an Educational and Cultural Organ- 
ization of the United Nations: 

Interpretation of Draft Constitution 165 

Text of Draft Constitution 168 

Treaty Information 

Tripartite Conference at Berlin 153 

Agreement Between UNRRA and Albania 179 

Commercial Agreement With Chile 188 

Most-Favored-Nation Treatment. Venezuela - Haiti . . 188 

Merchant Shipping. Chile 191 

Trade and Payments Agreement. Turkey - United King- 
dom 191 

Extraterritorial Rights. China - Sweden 197 

Agreement Between United States and Switzerland Relat- 
ing to Air-Transport Services 198 

Aviation Agreements. Paraguay, Australia, Belgium, Iraq, 

Luxembourg, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria 198 

Development of Southeastern Bolivia. Argentina - Bolivia . 199 
Agreement Between the Governments of the United States 

and Iraq on the Principles Applying to Aid for Defense . 202 

The Foreign Service 

Congressional Group to Survey Foreign Service Establish- 
ments r • 201 

Consular Offices 202 

Publications 202 



Tripartite Conference at Berlin 



[Released to the press by the White House August 2] 



REPORT ON THE TRIPARTITE CONFERENCE OF 
BERLIN 

On July 17, 1945, the President of the United 
States of America, Harry S. Truman, the Chair- 
man of the Council of People's Commissars of the 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, Generalis- 
simo J. V. Stalin, and the Prime Minister of Great 
Britain, Winston S. Churchill, together with Mr. 
Clement R. Attlee, met in the Tripartite Confer- 
ence of Berlin. They were accompanied by the 
foreign secretaries of the three governments, Mr. 
James F. Byrnes, Mr. V. M. Molotov, and Mr. 
Anthony Eden, the Chiefs of Staff, and other ad- 
visers. 

There were nine meetings between July seven- 
teenth and July twenty-fifth. The conference was 
then interrupted for two days while the results of 
the British general election were being declared. 

On July twenty-eighth Mr. Attlee returned to 
the conference as Prime Minister, accompanied by 
the new Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, 
Mr. Ernest Bevin. Four days of further discus- 
sion then took place. During the course of the 
conference there were regular meetings of the 
heads of the three governments accompanied by 
the foreign secretaries, and also of the foreign sec- 
retaries alone. Committees appointed by the for- 
eign secretaries for preliminary consideration of 
questions before the conference also met daily. 

The meetings of the conference were held at the 
Cecilienhof near Potsdam. The conference ended 
on August 2, 1945. 

Important decisions and agreements were 
reached. Views were exchanged on a number of 
other questions and consideration of these matters 
will be continued by the council of foreign min- 
isters established by the conference. 

President Truman, Generalissimo Stalin and 
Prime Minister Attlee leave this conference, which 
has strengthened the ties between the three govern- 



ments and extended the scope of their collaboration 
and understanding, with renewed confidence that 
their governments and peoples, together with the 
other United Nations, will ensure the creation of a 
just and enduring peace. 

II 

ESTABLISHMENT OF A COUNCIL OF FOREIGN 
MINISTERS 

The conference reached an agreement for the 
establishment of a Council of Foreign Ministers 
representing the five principal powers to continue 
the necessary preparatory work for the peace set- 
tlements and to take up other matters which from 
time to time may be referred to the Council by 
agreement of the governments participating in the 
Council. 

The text of the agreement for the establishment 
of the Council of Foreign Ministers is as follows : 

1. There shall be established a Council composed 
of the foreign ministers of the United Kingdom, 
the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, China, 
France and the United States. 

2.(i) The Council shall normally meet in Lon- 
don, which shall be the permanent seat of the joint 
secretariat which the Council will form. Each of 
the foreign ministers will be accompanied by a 
high-ranking deputy, duly authorized to carry on 
the work of the Council in the absence of his for- 
eign minister, and by a small staff of technical ad- 
visers. 

(ii) The first meeting of the Council shall be 
held in London not later than September 1, 1945. 
Meetings may be held by common agreement in 
other capitals as may be agreed from time to time. 

3. (i) As its immediate important task, the Coun- 
cil shall be authorized to draw up, with a view to 
their submission to the United Nations, treaties 
of peace with Italy, Rumania, Bulgaria, Hungary 
and Finland, and to propose settlements of terri- 
torial questions outstanding on the termination of 
the war in Europe. The Council shall be utilized 
for the preparation of a peace settlement for Ger- 



153 



154 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



many to be accepted by the government of Ger- 
many when a government adequate for the purpose 
is established. 

(ii) For the discharge of each of these tasks the 
Council will be composed of the members repre- 
senting those states which were signatory to the 
terms of surrender imposed upon the enemy state 
concerned. For the purpose of the peace settle- 
ment for Italy, France shall be regarded as a sig- 
natory to the terms (if surrender for Italy. Other 
members will be invited to participate when mat- 
ters directly concerning them are under discussion. 

(iii) Other matters may from time to time be 
referred to the Council by agreement between the 
member governments. 

4. (i) Whenever the Council is considering a 
question of direct interest to a state not repre- 
sented thereon, such state should be invited to 
send representatives to participate in the discus- 
sion and study of that question. 

(ii) The Council may adapt its procedure to 
the particular problem under consideration. In 
some cases it may hold its own preliminary dis- 
cussions prior to the participation of other inter- 
ested states. In other cases, the Council may con- 
voke a formal conference of the state chiefly inter- 
ested in seeking a solution of the particular prob- 
lem. 

In accordance with the decision of the conference 
the three governments have each addressed an 
identical invitation to the governments of China 
and France to adopt this text and to join in estab- 
lishing the Council. 

The establishment of the Council of Foreign 
Ministers for the specific purposes named in the 
text will be without prejudice to the agreement of 
the Crimea Conference that there should be peri- 
odic consultation among the foreign secretaries of 
the United States, the Union of Soviet Socialist 
Republics and the United Kingdom. 

The conference also considered the position of 
the European Advisory Commission in the light of 
the agreement to establish the Council of Foreign 
Ministers. It was noted with satisfaction that the 
Commission had ably discharged its principal 
tasks by the recommendations that it had fur- 
nished for the terms of Germany's unconditional 
surrender, for the zones of occupation in Germany 
and Austria, and for the inter- Allied control ma- 
chinery in those countries. It was felt that 
further work of a detailed character for the coordi- 
nation of allied policy for the control of Germany 



and Austria would in future fall within the com- 
petence of the Allied Control Council at Berlin 
and the Allied Commission at Vienna. Accord- 
ingly, it was agreed to recommend that the 
European Advisory Commission be dissolved. 

Ill 

GERMANY 

The Allied Armies are in occupation of the whole 
of Germany and the German people have begun to 
atone for the terrible crimes committed under the 
leadership of those whom in the hour of their 
success, they openly approved and blindly obeyed. 

Agreement has been reached at this conference 
on the political and economic principles of a co- 
ordinated Allied policy toward defeated Germany 
during the period of Allied control. 

The purpose of this agreement is to carry out 
the Crimea Declaration on Germany. German 
militarism and Nazism will be extirpated and the 
Allies will take in agreement together, now and in 
the future, the other measures necessary to assure 
that Germany never again will threaten her neigh- 
bors or the peace of the world. 

It is not the intention of the Allies to destroy or 
enslave the German people. It is the intention of 
the Allies that the German people be given the 
opportunity to prepare for the eventual recon- 
struction of their life on a democratic and peaceful 
basis. If their own efforts are steadily directed to 
-this end, it will be possible for them in due course 
to take their place among the free and peaceful 
peoples of the world. 

The text of the agreement is as follows : 

The Political and Economic Principles to Govern 
the Treatment of Germany in the Initial Control 
Period. 

A. Political Principles. 

1. In accordance with the agreement on con- 
trol machinery in Germany, supreme authority 
in Germany is exercised on instructions from their 
respective governments, by the Commanders-in- 
Chief of the armed forces of the United States of 
America, the United Kingdom, the Union of So- 
viet Socialist Republics, and the French Republic, 
each in his own zone of occupation, and also 
jointly, in matters affecting Germany as a whole, 
in their capacity as members of the Control Coun- 
cil. 

2. So far as is practicable, there shall be uni- 
formity of treatment of the German population 
throughout Germany. 



AUGUST 5, 1945 



155 



3. The purposes of the occupation of Germany 
by which the Control Council shall be guided are : 

(i) The complete disarmament and demilitari- 
zation of Germany and the elimination or control 
of all German industry that could be used for mili- 
tary production. To these ends : 

(a) All German land, naval and air forces, the 
S.S., S.A., S.D., and Gestapo, with all their organi- 
zations, staffs and institutions, including the Gen- 
eral Staff, the Officers' Corps, Reserve Corps, mili- 
tary schools, war veterans' organizations and all 
other military and quasi-military organizations, 
together with all clubs and associations which 
serve to keep alive the military tradition in Ger- 
many, shall be completely and finally abolished in 
such manner as permanently to prevent the revival 
or reorganization of German militarism and 
Nazism. 

(b) All arms, ammunition and implements of 
war and all specialized facilities for their produc- 
tion shall be held at the disposal of the Allies or 
destroyed. The maintenance and production of 
all aircraft and all arms, ammunition and imple- 
ments of war shall be prevented. 

(ii) To convince the German people that they 
have suffered a total military defeat and that they 
cannot escape responsibility for what they have 
brought upon themselves, since their own ruthless 
warfare and the fanatical Nazi resistance have de- 
stroyed German economy and made chaos and suf- 
fering inevitable. 

(iii) To destroy the National Socialist Party 
and its affiliated and supervised organizations, to 
dissolve all Nazi institutions, to ensure that they 
are not revived in any form, and to prevent all 
Nazi and militarist activity or propaganda. 

(iv) To prepare for the eventual reconstruc- 
tion of German political life on a democratic basis 
and for eventual peaceful cooperation in interna- 
tional life by Germany. 

4. All Nazi laws which provided the basis of the 
Hitler regime or established discrimination on 
grounds of race, creed, or political opinion shall 
be abolished. No such discriminations, whether 
legal, administrative or otherwise, shall be 
tolerated. 

5. War criminals and those who have partici- 
pated in planning or carrying out Nazi enterprises 
involving or resulting in atrocities or war crimes 
shall be arrested and brought to judgment. Nazi 
leaders, influential Nazi supporters and high of- 
ficials of Nazi organizations and institutions and 



any other persons dangerous to the occupation or 
its objectives shall be arrested and interned. 

6. All members of the Nazi party who have been 
more than nominal participants in its activities 
and all other persons hostile to allied purposes 
shall be removed from public and semi-public of- 
fice, and from positions of responsibility in im- 
portant private undertakings. Such persons shall 
be replaced by persons who, by their political and 
moral qualities, are deemed capable of assisting 
in developing genuine democratic institutions in 
Germany. 

7. German education shall be so controlled as 
completely to eliminate Nazi and militarist doc- 
trines and to make possible the successful develop- 
ment of democratic ideas. 

8. The judicial system will be reorganized in 
accordance with the principles of democracy, of 
justice under law, and of equal rights for all citi- 
zens without distinction of race, nationality or 
religion. 

9. The administration of affairs in Germany 
should be directed towards the decentralization 
of the political structure and the development of 
local responsibility. To this end : 

(i) Local self-government shall be restored 
throughout Germany on democratic principles and 
in particular through elective councils as rapidly 
as is consistent with military security and the pur- 
poses of military occupation; 

(ii) All democratic political parties with rights 
of assembly and of public discussion shall be al- 
lowed and encouraged throughout Germany; 

(iii) Representative and elective principles 
shall be introduced into regional, provincial and 
state (land) administration as rapidly as may 
be justified by the successful application of these 
principles in local self-government; 

(iv) For the time being no central German gov- 
ernment shall be established. Notwithstanding 
this, however, certain essential central German 
administrative departments, headed by state sec- 
retaries, shall be established, particularly in the 
fields of finance, transport, communications, for- 
eign trade and industry. Such departments will 
act under the direction of the Control Council. 

10. Subject to the necessity for maintaining 
military security, freedom of speech, press and 
religion shall be permitted, and religious insti- 
tutions shall be respected. Subject likewise to the 
maintenance of military security, the formation 
of free trade unions shall be permitted. 



156 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



B. Economic Principles. 

11. In order to eliminate Germany's war po- 
tential, the production of arms, ammunition and 
implements of war as well as all types of aircraft 
and sea-going ships shall be prohibited and pre- 
vented. Production of metals, chemicals, ma- 
chinery and other items that are directly neces- 
sary to a war economy shall be rigidly controlled 
and restricted to Germany's approved post-war 
peacetime needs to meet the objectives stated in 
paragraph 15. Productive capacity not needed for 
permitted production shall be removed in accord- 
ance with the reparations plan recommended by 
the Allied Commission on reparations and ap- 
proved by the governments concerned or if not re- 
moved shall be destroyed. 

12. At the earliest practicable date, the Ger- 
man economy shall be decentralized for the pur- 
pose of eliminating the present excessive concen- 
tration of economic power as exemplified in par- 
ticular by cartels, syndicates, trusts and other 
monopolistic arrangements. 

13. In organizing the German economy, pri- 
mary emphasis shall be given to the development 
of agriculture and peaceful domestic industries. 

14. During the period of occupation Germany 
shall be treated as a single economic unit. To this 
end common policies shall be established in re- 
gard to : 

(a) Mining and industrial production and allo- 
cations; 

(b) Agriculture, forestry and fishing; 

(c) Wages, prices and rationing; 

(d) Import and export programs for Germany 
as a whole ; 

(e) Currency and banking, central taxation and 
customs ; 

(f) Reparation and removal of industrial war 
potential; 

(g) Transportation and communications. 

In applying these policies account shall be 
taken, where appropriate, of varying local con- 
ditions. 

15. Allied controls shall be imposed upon the 
German economy but only to the extent necessary : 

(a) To carry out programs of industrial dis- 
armament and demilitarization, of reparations, 
and of approved exports and imports. 

(b) To assure the production and maintenance 
of goods and services required to meet the needs of 



the occupying forces and displaced persons in Ger- 
many and essential to maintain in Germany aver- 
age living standards not exceeding the average of 
the standards of living of European countries. 
(European countries means all European countries 
excluding the United Kingdom and the Union of 
Soviet Socialist Republics.) 

(c) To ensure in the manner determined by the 
Control Council the equitable distribution of es- 
sential commodities between the several zones so 
as to produce a balanced economy throughout Ger- 
many and reduce the need for imports. 

(d) To control German industry and all eco- 
nomic and financial international transactions, in- 
cluding exports and imports, with the aim of pre- 
venting Germany from developing a war potential 
and of achieving the other objectives named herein. 

(e) To control all German public or private 
scientific bodies, research and experimental insti- 
tutions, laboratories, et cetera, connected with eco- 
nomic activities. 

16. In the imposition and maintenance of eco- 
nomic controls established by the Control Council, 
German administrative machinery shall be created 
and the German authorities shall be required to the 
fullest extent practicable to proclaim and assume 
administration of such controls. Thus it should 
be brought home to the German people that the 
responsibility for the administration of such con- 
trols and any breakdown in these controls will rest 
with themselves. Any German controls which 
may run counter to the objectives of occupation 
will be prohibited. 

17. Measures shall be promptly taken : 

(a) To effect essential repair of transport ; 

(b) To enlarge coal production; 

(c) To maximize agricultural output; and 

(d) To effect emergency repair of housing and 
essential utilities. 

18. Appropriate steps shall be taken by the Con- 
trol Council to exercise control and the power of 
disposition over German-owned external assets not 
already under the control of United Nations which 
have taken part in the war against Germany. 

19. Payment of reparations should leave enough 
resources to enable the German people to subsist 
without external assistance. In working out the 
economic balance of Germany the necessary means 
must be provided to pay for imports approved by 
the Control Council in Germany. The proceeds of 
exports from current production and stocks shall 



AUGUST 5, 1945 



157 



be available in the first place for payment for such 
imports. 

The above clause will not apply to the equipment 
and products referred to in paragraphs 4(A) and 
4(B) of the Reparations Agreement. 

IV 

REPARATIONS FROM GERMANY 

In accordance with the Crimea decision that 
Germany be compelled to compensate to the great- 
est possible extent for the loss and suffering that 
she has caused to the United Nations and for 
which the German people cannot escape respon- 
sibility, the following agreement on reparations 
was reached : 

1. Reparation claims of the U.S.S.R. shall be 
met by removals from the zone of Germany occu- 
pied by the U.S.S.R. and from appropriate Ger- 
man external assets. 

2. The U.S.S.R. undertakes to settle the repara- 
tion claims of Poland from its own share of 
reparations. 

3. The reparation claims of the United States, 
the United Kingdom and other countries entitled 
to reparations shall be met from the western zones 
and from appropriate German external assets. 

4. In addition to the reparations to be taken by 
the U.S.S.R. from its own zone of occupation, the 
U.S.S.R. shall receive additionally from the west- 
ern zones: 

(A) 15 per cent of such usable and complete in- 
dustrial capital equipment, in the first place from 
the metallurgical, chemical and machine manufac- 
turing industries, as is unnecessary for the Ger- 
man peace economy and should be removed from 
the western zones of Germany, in exchange for 
an equivalent value of food, coal, potash, zinc, 
timber, clay products, petroleum products, and 
such other commodities as may be agreed upon. 

(B) 10 per cent of such industrial capital equip- 
ment as is unnecessary for the German peace econ- 
omy and should be removed from the western 
zones, to be transferred to the Soviet Government 
on reparations account without payment or ex- 
change of any kind in return. 

Removals of equipment as provided in (A) and 
(B) above shall be made simultaneously. 

5. The amount of equipment to be removed from 
the western zones on account of reparations must 



be determined within six months from now at the 
latest. 

6. Removals of industrial capital equipment 
shall begin as soon as possible and shall be com- 
pleted within two years from the determination 
specified in paragraph 5. The delivery of prod- 
ucts covered by 4(A) above shall begin as soon 
as possible and shall be made by the U.S.S.R. in 
agreed installments within five years of the date 
hereof. The determination of the amount and 
character of the industrial capital equipment un- 
necessary for the German peace economy and 
therefore available for reparations shall be made 
by the control council under policies fixed by the 
Allied Commission on Reparations, with the par- 
ticipation of France, subject to the final approval 
of the zone commander in the zone from which 
the equipment is to be removed. 

7. Prior to the fixing of the total amoimt of 
equipment subject to removal, advance deliveries 
shall be made in respect of such equipment as 
will be determined to be eligible for delivery in 
accordance with the procedure set forth in the 
last, sentence of paragraph 6. 

8. The Soviet Government renounces all claims 
in respect of reparations to shares of German en- 
terprises which are located in the western zones 
of occupation in Germany as well as to German 
foreign assets in all countries except those speci- 
fied in paragraph 9 below. 

9. The Governments of the United Kingdom 
and the United States of America renounce their 
claims in respect of reparations to shares of Ger- 
man enterprises which are located in the eastern 
zone of occupation in Germany, as well as to Ger- 
man foreign assets in Bulgaria, Finland, Hungary, 
Rumania and Eastern Austria. 

10. The Soviet Government makes no claims to 
gold captured by the Allied troops in Germany. 



DISPOSAL OF THE GERMAN NAVY AND MERCHANT 
MARINE 

The conference agreed in principle upon ar- 
rangements for the use and disposal of the sur- 
rendered German fleet and merchant ships. It 
was decided that the three governments would 
appoint experts to work out together detailed plans 
to give effect to the agreed principles. A further 
joint statement will be published simultaneously 
by the three governments in due course. 



158 



VI 



CITY OF KOENIGSBERG AND THE ADJACENT 
AREA 

The conference examined a proposal by the So- 
viet Government that pending the final determi- 
nation of territorial questions at the peace settle- 
ment the section of the western frontier of the 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics which is ad- 
jacent to the Baltic Sea should pass from a point 
on the eastern shore of the Bay of Danzig to the 
east, north of Braunsberg-Goldap, to the meeting 
point of the frontiers of Lithuania, the Polish Re- 
public and East Prussia. 

The conference has agreed in principle to the 
proposal of the Soviet Government concerning 
the ultimate transfer to the Soviet Union of the 
City of Koenigsberg and the area adjacent to it 
as described above subject to expert examination 
of the actual frontier. 

The President of the United States and the 
British Prime Minister have declared that they 
will support the proposal of the conference at the 
forthcoming peace settlement. 

VII 

WAR CRIMINALS 

The three governments have taken note of the 
discussions which have been proceeding in recent 
weeks in London between British, United States, 
Soviet and French representatives with a view to 
reaching agreement on the methods of trial of 
those major war criminals whose crimes under the 
Moscow Declaration of October 1943 have no par- 
ticular geographical localization. The three gov- 
ernments reaffirm their intention to bring those 
criminals to swift and sure justice. They hope 
that the negotiations in London will result in 
speed}' agreement being reached for this purpose, 
and they regard it as a matter of great importance 
that the trial of those major criminals should be- 
gin at the earliest possible date. The first list of 
defendants will be published before September 
first. 

VIII 

AUSTRIA 

The conference examined a proposal by the So- 
viet Government on the extension of the authority 
of the Austrian Provisional Government to all of 
Austria. 

The three governments agreed that they were 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

prepared to examine this question after the entry 
of the British and American forces into the City 
of Vienna. 

IX 

POLAND 

The conference considered questions relating to 
the Polish Provisional Government and the west- 
ern boundary of Poland. 

On the Polish Provisional Government of Na- 
tional Unity they defined their attitude in the fol- 
lowing statement : 

A — We have taken note with pleasure of the 
agreement reached among representative Poles 
from Poland and abroad which has made possible 
the formation, in accordance with the decisions 
reached at the Crimea Conference, of a Polish 
Provisional Government of National Unity rec- 
ognized by the three powers. The establishment 
by the British and United States Governments of 
diplomatic relations with the Polish Provisional 
Government has resulted in the withdrawal of 
their recognition from the former Polish Gov- 
ernment in London, which no longer exists. 

The British and United States Governments 
have taken measures to protect the interest of the 
Polish Provisional Government as the recognized 
government of the Polish State in the property 
belonging to the Polish State located in their terri- 
tories and under their control, whatever the form 
of this property may be. They have further taken 
measures to prevent alienation to third parties of 
such property. All proper facilities will be given 
to the Polish Provisional Government for the exer- 
cise of the ordinary legal remedies for the recovery 
of any property belonging to the Polish State 
which may have been wrongfully alienated. 

The three powers are anxious to assist the Polish 
Provisional Government in facilitating the return 
to Poland as soon as practicable of all Poles abroad 
who wish to go, including members of the Polish 
armed forces and the Merchant Marine. They 
expect that those Poles who return home shall be 
accorded personal and property rights on the same 
basis as all Polish citizens. 

The three powers note that the Polish Pro- 
visional Government in accordance with the de- 
cisions of the Crimea "Conference has agreed to the 
holding of free and unfettered elections as soon 
as possible on the basis of universal suffrage and 
secret ballot in which all democratic and anti- 



AUGUST 5, 1945 



159 



Nazi parties shall have the right to take part and 
to put forward candidates, and that representa- 
tives of the Allied press shall enjoy full freedom to 
report to the world upon developments in Poland 
before and during the elections. 

B — The following agreement was teached on 
the western frontier of Poland : 

In conformity with the agreement on Poland 
reached at the Crimea Conference the three heads 
of government have sought the opinion of the 
Polish Provisional Government of National Unity 
in regard to the accession of territory in the north 
and west which Poland should receive. The 
President of the National Council of Poland and 
members of the Polish Provisional Government 
of National Unity have been received at the con- 
ference and have fully presented their views. The 
three heads of government reaffirm their opinion 
that the final delimitation of the western frontier 
of Poland should await the peace settlement. 

The three heads of government agree that, 
pending the final determination of Poland's west- 
ern frontier, the former German territories east 
of a line running from the Baltic Sea immediately 
west of Swinemunde, and thence along the Oder 
River to the confluence of the western Neisse River 
and along the western Neisse to the Czechoslovak 
frontier, including that portion of East Prussia 
not placed under the administration of the Union 
of Soviet Socialist Republics in accordance with 
the understanding reached at this conference and 
including the area of the former free City of 
Danzig, shall be under the administration of the 
Polish State and for such purposes should not be 
considered as part of the Soviet zone of occupa- 
tion in Germany. 



X 



CONCLUSION OF PEACE TREATIES AND ADMIS- 
SION TO THE UNITED NATIONS ORGANIZATION. 

The conference agreed upon the following state- 
ment of common policy for establishing, as soon 
as possible, the conditions of lasting peace after 
victory in Europe: 

The three governments consider it desirable that 
the present anomalous position of Italy, Bulgaria, 
Finland, Hungary and Rumania should be termi- 
nated by the conclusion of peace treaties. They 
trust that the other interested Allied governments 
will share these views. 

661247 — 45 2 



For their part the three governments have in- 
cluded the preparation of a peace treaty for Italy 
as the first among the immediate important tasks 
to be undertaken by the new Council of Foreign 
Ministers. Italy was the first of the Axis powers 
to break with Germany, to whose defeat she has 
made a material contribution, and has now joined 
with the Allies in the struggle against Japan. 
Italy has freed herself from the Fascist regime 
and is making good progress towards the reestab- 
lishment of a democratic government and institu- 
tions. The conclusion of such a peace treaty with 
a recognized and democratic Italian government 
will make it possible for the three governments to 
fulfill their desire to support an application from 
Italy for membership of the United Nations. 

The three governments have also charged the 
Council of Foreign Ministers with the task of pre- 
paring peace treaties for Bulgaria, Finland, Hun- 
gary and Rumania. The conclusion of peace 
treaties with recognized democratic governments 
in these states will also enable the three govern- 
ments to support applications from them for mem- 
bership of the United Nations. The three gov- 
ernments agree to examine each separately in the 
near future, in the light of the conditions then 
prevailing, the establishment of diplomatic re- 
lations with Finland, Rumania, Bulgaria, and 
Hungary to the extent possible prior to the con- 
clusion of peace treaties with those countries. 

The three governments have no doubt that in 
view of the changed conditions resulting from the 
termination of the war in Europe, representatives 
of the Allied press will enjoy full freedom to report 
to the world upon developments in Rumania, Bul- 
garia, Hungary and Finland. 

As regards the admission of other states into 
the United Nations Organization, Article 4 of the 
Charter of the United Nations declares that : 

"1. Membership in the United Nations is open to 
all other peace-loving states who accept the obli- 
gations contained in the present Charter and, in 
the judgment of the Organization, are able and 
willing to carry out these obligations ; 

"2. The admission of any such state to member- 
ship in the United Nations will be effected by a 
decision of the General Assembly upon the recom- 
mendation of the Security Council." 

The three governments, so far as they are con- 
cerned, will support applications for membership 
from those states which have remained neutral dur- 



760 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



ing the war and which fulfill the qualifications set 
out above. 

The three governments feel bound however to 
make it clear that they for their part would not 
favor any application for membership put for- 
ward by the present Spanish Government, which, 
having been founded with the support of the Axis 
powers, does not, in view of its origins, its nature, 
its record and its close association with the aggres- 
sor states, possess the qualifications necessary to 
justify such membership. 

XI 

TERRITORIAL TRUSTEESHIPS 

The conference examined a proposal by the 
Soviet Government concerning trusteeship terri- 
tories as defined in the decision of the Crimea Con- 
ference and in the Charter of the United Nations 
Organization. 

After an exchange of views on this question it 
was decided that the disposition of any former 
Italian territories was one to be decided in con- 
nection with the preparation of a peace treaty for 
Italy and that the question of Italian territory 
would be considered by the September Council of 
Ministers of Foreign Affairs. 

XII 

REVISED ALLIED CONTROL COMMISSION PRO; 
CEDURE IN RUMANIA, BULGARIA, AND HUN- 
GARY 

The three governments took note that the Soviet 
representatives on the Allied Control Commissions 
in Rumania, Bulgaria and Hungary, have com- 
municated to their United Kingdom and United 
States colleagues proposals for improving the work 
of the Control Commission, now that hostilities in 
Europe have ceased. 

The three governments agreed that the revision 
of the procedures of the Allied Control Commis- 
sions in these countries would now be undertaken, 
taking into account the interests and responsibil- 
ities of the three governments which together pre- 
sented the terms of armistice to the respective 
countries, and accepting as a basis the agreed 
proposals. 

XIII 

ORDERLY TRANSFERS OF GERMAN POPULATIONS 

The conference reached the following agreement 
on the removal of Germans from Poland, Czecho- 
slovakia and Hungary : 



The three governments having considered the 
question in all its aspects, recognize that the trans- 
fer to Germany of German populations, or ele- 
ments thereof, remaining in Poland, Czechoslo- 
vakia and Hungary, will have to be undertaken. 
They agree that any transfers that take place 
should be effected in an orderly and humane man- 
ner. 

Since the influx of a large number of Germans 
into Germany would increase the burden already 
resting on the occupying authorities, they consider 
that the Allied Control Council in Germany should 
in the first instance examine the problem with 
special regard to the question of the equitable dis- 
tribution of these Germans among the several 
zones of occupation. They are accordingly in- 
structing their respective representatives on the 
Control Council to report to their governments as 
soon as possible the extent to which such persons 
have already entered Germany from Poland, 
Czechoslovakia and Hungary, and to submit an 
estimate of the time and rate at which further 
transfers could be carried out, having regard to 
the present situation in Germany. 

The Czechoslovak Government, the Polish Pro- 
visional Government and the Control Council in 
Hungary are at the same time being informed of 
the above, and are being requested meanwhile to 
suspend further expulsions pending the examina- 
tion by the governments concerned of the report 
from their representatives on the Control Council. 

XIV 

MILITARY TALKS 

During the conference there were meetings be- 
tween the Chiefs of Staff of the three governments 
on military matters of common interest. 
Approved : 

J. V. Stalin 
Harry S. Truman 
C. R. Attlee. 

LIST OF DELEGATIONS 
FOR THE UNITED STATES 

The President, Harry S. Truman 

The Secretary of State, James F. Byrnes 

Fleet Admiral William D. Leahy, U.S.N., Chief of Staff 

to the President 
Joseph E. Davie.3, Special Ambassador 
Edwin Pauley, Special Ambassador 
Ambassador Robert D. Murphy, Political Adviser to the 

Commander-in-Chief, United States Zone in Germany 



AUGUST 5, 1945 



161 



W. Averell Harriman, Ambassador to the U.S.S.R. 
General of the Army, Geohge C. Marshall, Chief of Staff, 

United States Army 
Fleet Admiral Ernest J. King, U.S.N., Chief of Naval 

Operations and Commander in Chief, U.S. Fleet 
General of the Army, H. H. Arnold, U.S. Army Air Forces 
General Brehon S. Somervell, Commanding General, 

Army Service Forces 
Vice Admiral Emory S. Land, War Shipping Administra- 
tor 
William L. Clayton, Assistant Secretary of State 
James C. Dunn, Assistant Secretary of State 
Ben Cohen, Special Assistant to the Secretary of State 
H. Freeman Matthews, Director of European Affairs, De- 
partment of State 
Charles E. Bohlen, Assistant to the Secretary, (together 
with political, military and technical advisers). 

FOR THE UNITED KINGDOM 

The Prime Minister, Mr. Winston S. Churchill, M. P. ; 
Mr. C R. Attlee, M. P. 

The Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, 

Mr. Anthony Eden, M. P. 
Mr. Ernest Bevin, M. P. 

Lord Leathers, Minister of War Transport 

Sir Alexander Cadogan, Permanent Under Secretary of 
State for Foreign Affairs 

Sir Archibald Clark Kerr, H.M. Ambassador at Moscow 

Sir Walter Monckton, Head of the United Kingdom 
Delegation to Moscow Reparations Commission 

Sir William Strang, Political Adviser to the Commander- 
in-Chief, British Zone in Germany 

Sir Edward Bridges, Secretary of the Cabinet 

Field Marshal Sir Alan Brooke, Chief of the Imperial 
General Staff 

Marshal of the Royal Air Force, Sir Charles Portal, 
Chief of the Air Staff 

Admiral of the Fleet, Sir Andrew Cunningham, First Sea 
Lord 

General Sir Hastings Ismay, Chief of Staff to the Min- 
ister of Defence 



Field Marshal Sir Harold Alexander, Supreme Allied 

Commander, Mediterranean Theatre 
Field Marshal Sir Henry Maitland Wilson, Head of the 

British Joint Staff Mission at Washington 
and other advisers. 

FOR THE SOVIET UNION 

The Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars, 
J. V. Stalin 

People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs, V. M. Molotov 

Fleet Admiral N. G. Kuznetsov, People's Commissar, the 
Naval Fleet of the U.S.S.R. 

A. I. Antonov, Chief of Staff of the Red Army 

A. Ya Vyshinski, Deputy People's Commissar for Foreign 
Affairs 

S. I. Kavtaradze, Assistant People's Commissar for For- 
eign Affairs 

I. M. Maisky, Assistant People's Commissar for Foreign 
Affairs 

Admiral S. G. Kucherov, Chief of Staff of the Naval 
Fleet 

F. T. Gusev, Ambassador of the Soviet Union in Great 
Britain 

A. A. Gromyko, Ambassador of the Soviet Union in the 
United States of America 

K. V. Novikov, Member of the Collegium of the Commis- 
sariat for Foreign Affairs, Director of the Second 
European Division 

S. K. Tsarapkin, Member of the Collegium of the Com- 
missariat for Foreign Affairs, Director of the United 
States Division 

S. P. Kozyrev, Director of the First European Division 
of the Commissariat for Foreign Affairs 

A. A. Lavrishchev, Director of the Division of Balkan 
Countries, Commissariat for Foreign Affairs 

A. A. Sobolev, Chief of the Political Section of the Soviet 
Military Administration in Germany 

I. Z. Saburov, Assistant to the Chief of the Soviet Mili- 
tary Administration in Germany 

A. A. Golunsky, Expert consultant of the Commissariat 
for Foreign Affairs 

and also political, military, and technical assistants. 



162 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



The Repatriation Program 

Statement by ACTING SECRETARY GREW 



[Released to the press August 5] 

Under the repatriation program a committee 
consisting of representatives of the State and 
Navy Departments and of the Maritime Commis- 
sion was formed in August of 1939. Arrange- 
ments were made with the United States shipping 
companies to speed the turn-around of their ves- 
sels and in some cases to reduce the number of ports 
of call, thus making more voyages available for 
the evacuation of United States nationals. The 
use of certain well-equipped fast freight ships to 
carry passengers was also authorized, and, as re- 
quired, emergency consular certificates were issued 
permitting United States vessels to carry passen- 
gers in excess of their regular licensed capacity, 
within certain limitations imposed by consider- 
ations of safety. 

In addition to this, certain special vessels were 
sent to Europe chartered and operated by Amer- 
ican shipping companies who were guaranteed 
against loss by the Department of State. These 
measures resulted in some 56,000 individuals' reach- 
ing United States shores. This includes aliens 
as well as United States nationals but does not 
include persons who came to the United States by 
way of Canadian ports. 

Similar measures were taken for the repatriation 
operations in the Far East, resulting in the return 
to the United States of some 5,000 individuals. 

Exchange operations under the direct auspices 
of the Department of State resulted in the return 
from enemy countries in Europe of 2,124 United 
States citizens and 776 nationals of other coun- 
tries, mainly from South America and Canada. 
Through similar exchange operations, 2,574 United 
States nationals and 482 nationals of other United 
Nations, again mainly South American and Cana- 
dian nationals, were repatriated from the Far 
East. 

Since V-E Day the Department has initiated a 
program of repatriation from the Near East and 
India involving some 1,500 individuals — 1,000 
United States citizens and the rest other United 
Nations nationals. 



Since the liberation of the Philippines the Army 
and Navy have repatriated 6,974 United Nations 
nationals, of whom the greatest percentage are 
United States citizens. 

It has been a concept of the policy of the United 
States Government that it is not an obligation of 
the Government to repatriate at public expense 
United States nationals who may have become 
stranded or destitute in foreign countries. Simi- 
larly it has not in the past been considered an obli- 
gation of the Government to defray from Govern- 
ment funds the cost of the return to the continental 
United States of needy American nationals re- 
siding in overseas possessions or territories under 
the sovereignty of the United States. However, 
the Government has customarily endeavored to 
facilitate the return of its nationals from places 
where danger threatens, and with this policy in 
view, and in order to make it more effective, the 
Department of State in the years preceding the war 
instructed diplomatic missions and consular estab- 
lishments of the United States in foreign countries 
to take appropriate steps for the protection and, if 
necessary, the evacuation and repatriation of 
United States nationals in threatened areas. Offi- 
cial warnings were repeatedly issued to Americans 
concerning the risks involved in remaining in dan- 
ger zones, and special transportation facilities were 
made available to assist those willing to heed their 
Government's advice to return to the United States. 
Many American nationals heeded these warnings 
and did return to the United States. Many others, 
for personal reasons or reasons beyond their con- 
trol, did not return and as a result of the war fell 
into enemy hands. 

It should be noted here, however, that American 
residents in the Philippine Islands, a territory 
under United States sovereignty, were not publicly 
warned to leave before the Japanese attack on 
Pearl Harbor. In view of the steps taken by the 
War and Navy Departments to evacuate from the 
Philippines all of their non-essential personnel, in- 
cluding families of officers and enlisted men, the 
United States nationals who remained in the 



AUGUST 5, 1945 



163 



Philippine Islands were presumably aware of the 
clanger that threatened. However, they could not 
with due regard to the national interest be advised 
to leave for the mainland. Therefore, those 
United States nationals who fell into the hands of 
the Japanese in the Philippines may well believe 
that, not having been apprized of the imminent 
danger, they are entitled to more consideration 
than United States nationals who remained in for- 
eign countries in the Far East or in Europe despite 
repeated advice from their Government and its 
officials to return to the United States while com- 
mercial transportation facilities were available. 

Since 1939 Congress has annually appropriated 
funds to be used for the protection of American 
citizens in foreign countries whenever the Presi- 
dent shall find that a state of emergency exists en- 
dangering the lives of American citizens in such 
countries. 

The appropriations acts for the fiscal years 1940, 
1941, and 1942 contain the following language: 

"Emergencies arising in the Diplomatic and Con- 
sular Service. 
". . . whenever the President shall find that 
a state of emergency exists endangering the lives 
of American citizens in any foreign country, he 
may make available for expenditure for the pro- 
tection of such citizens, by transfer to this appro- 
priation, not to exceed $500,000 from the various 
appropriations contained herein under the heading 
'Foreign Intercourse'; and reimbursements by 
American citizens to whom relief has been extended 
shall be credited to any appropriation from which 
funds have been transferred for the purposes 
hereof, except that reimbursements so credited to 
any appropriation shall not exceed the amount 
transferred therefrom." 

The appropriation acts for the fiscal years June 
30, 1943, June 30, 1944, and June 30, 1945 contain 
the following language : 

"Emergencies arising in the Diplomatic and Con- 
sular Service: 
"To enable the President to meet unforeseen 
emergencies arising in the Diplomatic and Con- 
sular Service . . . $1,500,000, of which not to 
exceed $25,000 shall, in the discretion of the Presi- 
dent, be available for personal services in the Dis- 
trict of Columbia ; and of which (without in any 
way restricting the use of other moneys herein ap- 
propriated) $500,000 shall be available for the pro- 
tection of American citizens in any foreign country 



whenever the President shall find that a state of 
emergency exists endangering the lives of such 
citizens ; and reimbursements by American citizens 
to whom relief has been extended hereunder shall 
be credited to this appropriation." 

The language of these Acts makes it clear that 
funds so appropriated and so used should be, when- 
ever possible, reimbursed to the Government and 
should not become a permanent charge upon the 
American taxpayer. This interpretation of the 
appropriation acts is also borne out by the detailed 
discussions each year in the hearings before the 
Appropriations Subcommittee. The members of 
this subcommittee made it very clear to the State 
Department representatives appearing before 
them that they expected these funds to be repaid 
by the individuals to whom assistance was given 
whenever it was possible. 

In 1939 when the Department commenced its 
repatriation program from Europe and Asia, re- 
patriates were told that they would have to pay 
for their transportation and would also have to 
repay the Government for any other sums ad- 
vanced to them. Those persons repatriated who 
were able to pay for their passage did so; the 
others signed promissory notes representing the 
cost of their passage and any moneys advanced 
them for subsistence and other purposes. Never 
at any time has the State Department put pressure 
on any signer of a promissory note to repay the 
United States Government if he were unable to do 
so. Among the thousands of persons repatriated 
from Europe and Asia beginning in 1939, there has 
been a very small percent of complaints against 
this policy of requiring repatriates to pay for their 
own passage. 

Late in 1944, some two months before our actual 
landing in the Philippines, the State Department 
initiated discussions with the War Department re- 
garding the repatriation of American and United 
Nations nationals held by the Japanese, in the 
Philippines. The War Department then stated 
that it was in general agreement with the objectives 
described by the State Department but that before 
the War Department's general views could be 
formulated it would be necessary to have General 
MacArthur's comments. 

At the same time, the State Department submit- 
ted, to the Bureau of the Budget a statement of 
the financial policy under which the Congress had 
authorized the Department to effect the previous 
repatriations, both from Europe and the Far East. 



164 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



In this statement the suggestion was made that 
American citizens from Wake and Guam as well as 
from the Philippine Islands might be given pref- 
erential treatment in relation to those from other 
areas: (a) because it is obvious that for political 
reasons they could not be warned officially to re- 
turn to the United States, as were citizens in 
Europe and Asia; (b) because these citizens in the 
Philippine Islands, Wake, and Guam, not having 
official warning to depart and having been captured 
on American soil, were entitled to protection and 
assistance. 

The Bureau of the Budget responded on Febru- 
ary 5, 1945 that any deviation from the previous 
method of repatriation, by which repatriates were 
required to sign promissory notes for the actual 
costs of passage and other moneys advanced, was 
contrary to the financial program. 

In these circumstances, it was obvious that the 
Department had not the money, the authority, or 
the priorities for shipping space necessary to meet 
the problem of free repatriation from the Philip- 
pines. This seemed also to be the opinion of the 
Congress, as on February 5 Senator Pepper intro- 
duced S.J. Res. 24, not as yet enacted, intended to 
provide such money and authority, in the same 
sense as S.J. Res. 154, which was not enacted by 
the Seventy-eighth Congress. 

The American Consulate General was reopened 
in the Philippines on March 24, and since that time 
substantial services by a limited staff have been 
rendered there both to American citizens and 
to United Nations nationals. 

On this side, both passport and visa require- 
ments were waived for the entry of repatriates to 
the United States, and General MacArthur was 
informed through War Department channels that 
State Department funds were available to him for 
the relief of liberated Americans, subject only to 
the congressional limitations enumerated above. 
Agreements were reached with foreign govern- 
ments for guaranties of their own nationals in 
terms of transportation to the United States, sub- 
sistence while here, and passage onward. By team- 
work with the American Red Cross, the Bureau of 
Public Assistance of the Social Security Board, 
and the United States Public Health Service, ar- 
rangements were made for the proper reception 
of repatriates upon their arrival, financial assist- 
ance was made available when needed, and hos- 



pitalization and medical care were given those who 
required it. 

The first repatriates were placed on board Army 
and Navy transports in Manila under the usual 
repatriation program — that is, after having signed 
promissory notes for their passage. Upon the 
recommendation of General MacArthur, the War 
Department decided that Americans returning to 
the United States should do so without cost to 
themselves, and naturally the State Department 
agreed to this, provided the funds could be found. 

No charges, in the form of either cash or prom- 
issory notes, are taken from the individuals who 
are being returned from the Philippines. A rec- 
ord of such passage is established, and the cost of 
repatriating American citizens from the Philip- 
pines has been borne out of War Department funds. 
As soon as this policy was decided upon, the prom- 
issory note9 signed by the first repatriates were 
cancelled, and all American nationals repatriated 
from the Philippines have returned to the United 
States without cost to themselves. 

The fine cooperation displayed by the War De- 
partment is a great tribute to the teamwork which 
has always existed between these two agencies of 
the Government. 

Should the Congress enact S.J. Res. 24 grant- 
ing the State Department authority to repatriate 
United States citizens at Government expense, 
naturally the State Department will immediately 
follow the regulations set down by Congress. 

Repatriation of American 
Citizens on the "Gripsholm" 

[Released to the press July 30] 

The Department of State announced that the re- 
lief ship M. S. Gripsholm would arrive at Pier F, 
Jersey City, New Jersey, on August 2, 1945. The 
Gripsholm was en route to the United States carry- 
ing 1,132 repatriates from India and 364 American 
citizens with their close alien family members from 
Greece. 

It was originally planned that the Gripsholm 
would leave New York August 7 to carry priority 
passengers, internees, and alien deportees to Italy, 
Greece, and Egypt. The vessel will require repairs 
however, and its sailing has been deferred until 
August 24. 



AUGUST 5, 1945 



165 



Draft Constitution for an Educational and 
Cultural Organization of the United Nations 

INTERPRETATION OF DRAFT CONSTITUTION 



[Released to the press August 1] 

On May 3, 19-14 the Secretary of State announced 
the return to the United States of the American 
Delegation to the Conference of Allied Ministers 
of Education in London. One of the main tasks 
which the American Delegation undertook at the 
Conference was to collaborate with the Allied Min- 
isters in drafting a tentative plan for an agency 
for educational and cultural reconstruction, es- 
sentially an emergency operation. 

Since that time the Department has worked con- 
stantly on this matter. After the conclusion of 
the Dumbarton Oaks Conversations and after dis- 
cussion with the other interested countries, it was 
decided to enlarge the original scope of this inter- 
national Organization and put it on a permanent 
United Nations basis rather than on an emer- 
gency basis. During the past winter the Depart- 
ment and its advisers from the educational, cul- 
tural, and scientific world worked out a tentative 
draft proposal for such an international organiza- 
tion. This draft was informal in nature and in 
no sense represented the official views of this Gov- 
ernment. Copies of this informal draft were dis- 
tributed to the Governments of Great Britain, 
France, China, and the Union of Soviet Socialist 
Republics. In addition, these informal proposals 
were also presented to the Conference of Allied 
Ministers of Education in London. 

On the basis of this informal draft, proposals 
have now been drawn up by the Conference of 
Allied Ministers of Education with a view to 
forming an educational and cultural organiza- 
tion of the United Nations. It is planned to have 
this Organization work with the Economic and 
Social Council as set up under the United Na- 
tions Charter. 

The British Government has announced that 
it will call a United Nations conference to meet 
in London on November 1, 1945 to prepare the 
constitution for this international Organization, 
which will then be submitted to the various mem- 
bers of the United Nations for ratification in ac- 
cordance with their respective constitutional 
processes. 

In order that there may be wide-spread discus- 



sion of the aims of this Organization, the United 
States Government and the Conference of Allied 
Ministers of Education are now making public 
the draft proposals for the constitution of the 
Organization as prepared by the Conference of 
Allied Ministers of Education in London. 

Following is a condensed interpretation of the 
proposals. 

Purpose and Functions of the Organization 

The representatives of the United Nations, in 
signing the Charter developed at San Francisco, 
gave endorsement to the idea of international co- 
operation in the educational and cultural field in 
order to create conditions favorable for the main- 
tenance of peace and for the advancement of human 
welfare. These two broad purposes are central in 
the proposals presented in the draft constitution 
for the Educational and Cultural Organization of 
the United Nations. In the statement of general 
purposes in article I, emphasis is placed on the 
development and maintenance of mutual under- 
standing and appreciation of the life and culture 
of the peoples of the world, on international co- 
operation in extending and in making available to 
all peoples the world's full body of knowledge and 
culture, and in assuring its contribution to the 
economic and political stability and the general 
well-being of the peoples of the world. 

The program of the Organization is more defi- 
nitely indicated by the principal functions which 
are presented in article II. The draft constitution 
indicates six types of activities which the Organi- 
zation would be authorized to carry on. It could 
facilitate consultation among educational and 
cultural leaders by special meetings and confer- 
ences and through the regular activities of the 
Organization. It could assist in the free flow of 
ideas and information among the peoples of the 
world, giving attention to the different avenues 
of communication. Of particular importance in 
this connection would be the exchange of informa- 
tion on major educational and cultural develop- 
ments. It could foster the growth of educational 
and cultural programs which support peace and 
security ; develop and make available educational 



766 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



and cultural plans and materials; and conduct and 
encourage research and studies on educational and 
cultural problems. It could also assist countries 
that need and request help in developing their 
educational and cultural activities. 

The draft constitution gives a broad interpre- 
tation to cultural and educational activities. The 
sciences, the humanities, and the arts are included 
under the term culture, and all types and all levels 
of education are included. It will be noted too 
that the statement of purposes and functions 
emphasizes cooperation among the representatives 
of the different countries and the voluntary utili- 
zation of the findings and recommendations grow- 
ing out of the deliberations of the Organization and 
the giving of assistance to countries only when 
they request help. 

General Plan of the Organization 

The general plan of the Organization provides 
for the membership of states, with each having not 
more than five delegates, a Conference composed 
of the delegates of member states with supreme 
legislative power, an Executive Board of 15 elected 
by the Conference from its membership, and a 
Secretariat, headed by a Director-General. 

The Organization would be financed by contri- 
butions of member states. The budget and the 
financial responsibility of members would be de- 
termined by the Conference. In addition, gifts 
and bequests might be accepted by the Conference. 

The draft constitution provides for equality of 
states in representation and participation in the 
Organization without regard to size of country, 
except that the financial responsibility shall be 
adjusted to the capacity to pay. Each member 
state would have one vote in the Conference, and 
election to the Executive Board shall be without 
restriction, except that no country shall have more 
than one member on the Board and due regard 
shall be given to geographic distribution and to 
the inclusion of persons with varied experience 
in educational and cultural fields. 

Participation by the Educational and Cultural 
Groups of Member States 

Three conceptions of the appropriate position 
of the non-governmental educational and cultural 
interests of member states were considered in pre- 
paring the draft constitution. It was not clear 
which was most desirable, and, in view of the im- 
portance of the issues which are involved, the 
various alternatives have been included in the 



draft constitution for consideration at the Novem- 
ber conference. 

The differences in viewpoint expressed them- 
selves most sharply with regard to the procedure 
for the selection of the national delegations to the 
Conference of the Organization and their composi- 
tion. It was suggested that the delegations should 
be representative both of the government and of 
the principal educational and cultural groups of 
the country and that this balanced assignment of 
representation and authority should be insured by 
appropriate provision in the constitution. It was 
suggested that each state form a national com- 
mission on educational and cultural cooperation 
broadly representative of the government and the 
principal groups devoted to and interested in edu- 
cational and cultural matters (article VIII, alter- 
native a), that the national delegation be selected 
by the government in agreement with this com- 
mission (article V, alternative a), and that the 
commission be advisory to the national delegation 
and to the government on matters relating to the 
Organization. It was suggested that in some 
countries there already exist representative bodies 
which might function in the manner indicated 
for the national commission, and make the ap- 
pointment of a special commission unnecessary: 
hence, the provision for a national cooperating 
body or bodies (article VIII, alternative b). 

A modification of the foregoing requirement 
that the governments select the full delegation in 
agreement with the national commission or the 
national cooperating body or bodies was suggested, 
with the government selecting two delegates on 
its own account and three in agreement with the 
national commission, or the national group or 
groups. This procedure is roughly similar to that 
followed in the International Labor Organization 
with its provision that two of the delegates shall 
be selected without restriction by the governments 
and that two shall be selected in agreement with 
the most representative employers' and workers' 
organizations. This plan accepts the principle of 
balanced participation but leaves the government 
full freedom in the choice of two delegates. These 
(wo delegates may or may not be governmental 
officials. 

Another plan proposed was that the govern- 
ments should be given full responsibility and 
authority for the choice of delegates, and be obli- 
gated only to consult with the educational and cul- 
tural groups, either more formally with a certain 
designated national cooperating body or bodies 



AUGUST 5, 1945 



167 



(article V, alternative c) or less formally with 
existing educational groups (article V, alternative 
d). Proponents of this procedure indicated that 
some governments may not desire to be limited in 
their freedom of choice of the delegates to an inter- 
national body, and that it may be difficult to secure 
a clear, valid expression of the will of the various 
educational and cultural groups within the coun- 
try. One participant in the preparatory dis- 
cussions did not believe that governments should 
be obligated even to consult with educational and 
cultural bodies but that there should be consulta- 
tion "if convenient to the government concerned" 
(article V, alternative e). 

Relation to the United Nations 

In harmony with the provisions of the Charter 
drawn up at San Francisco, the draft constitution 
provides that the Educational and Cultural Or- 
ganization shall be brought into relationship with 
the United Nations as one of the specialized or- 
ganizations associated with the Economic and 
Social Council, this relationship to be defined in 
an agreement approved by the appropriate organs 
of both bodies. This relationship has already been 
specified in certain respects in the United Nations 
Charter. The Charter indicates that the General 
Assembly shall approve the financial and budget- 
ary arrangements which are established with 
specialized organizations and the United Nations 
and shall examine the budgets of specialized 
agencies with a view to making recommendations 
to the agencies concerned. The Economic and 
Social Council is empowered, subject to the ap- 
proval of the General Assembly, to define the terms 
on which the agencies concerned shall be brought 
into relationship with the United Nations, and to 
coordinate the activities of the specialized agencies 
through consultation with and recommendations 
to such agencies and through recommendations to 
the General Assembly and to members of the 
United Nations. The Economic and Social Coun- 
cil is empowered to make arrangements with 
special agencies to obtain reports on the steps taken 
to give effect to its own recommendations and to 
recommendations made by the General Assembly 
on matters falling within its competence. It is 
also authorized to make arrangements for repre- 
sentatives of the specialized agencies to partici- 
pate, without vote, in its deliberations and in those 
of the commissions established by it and for its 
representatives to participate in deliberations of 
the specialized agencies. 

661247 — 45 3 



Relation to Other Specialized International Organ- 
izations 

The draft constitution provides for the cooper- 
ation of the Organization with other specialized 
international organizations, both public and pri- 
vate, whose interests and activities are related to 
and in harmony with its purposes. Definite agree- 
ments may be made with such organizations by the 
Executive Board, with the approval of the Confer- 
ence, defining the distribution of responsibilities 
and methods of cooperation. Provision is made 
for the maintenance of joint committees to facili- 
tate effective cooperation. The Economic and 
Social Council, as provided for in the United Na- 
tions Charter, will exercise a coordinating function 
for the specialized organizations with govern- 
mental participation, making recommendations to 
the specialized organizations concerning the 
proper allocation of functions and activities. 

Certain of the existing international organiza- 
tions in the educational and cultural field may de- 
sire to have their program and resources taken 
over by the Educational and Cultural Organiza- 
tion of the United Nations. Whenever the Con- 
ference and the competent authorities of such 
organization, whose purposes are similar, deem it 
desirable to effect transfer of the resources and 
functions of the latter to this Organization, the 
Executive Board, subject to the approval of the 
Conference, may enter into mutually acceptable 
arrangements for this purpose. 

No control of the private or non-governmental 
international educational and cultural agencies is 
suggested in the draft constitution. Specific pro- 
vision, however, is made for cooperation when the 
authorities of all agencies concerned consider such 
cooperation to be mutually advantageous and de- 
sirable. 

It would be in harmony with the spirit of the 
draft constitution to state that it would be the 
intent of the Educational and Cultural Organiza- 
tion of the United Nations to assist and supple- 
ment non-governmental international organiza- 
tions and not to control or absorb them. 

Steps in the Establishment of the Organization 

At the November conference of representatives 
of the United Nations, the draft constitution will 
serve as a working paper somewhat as the Dum- 
barton Oaks Proposals served in the San Fran- 
cisco discussions but without the formal authority 
given the Dumbarton Oaks Proposals by the offi- 
cials of the sponsoring governments. The instru- 



168 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



merit will come into effect when 20 of the govern- 
ments of the United Nations shall have filed official 
notice of their acceptance of it and adherence to 
the Organization. 

It is contemplated that an Interim Educational 
and Cultural Commission will be established at the 
November conference to do essential preliminary 



work prior to the acceptance of the constitution 
by 20 nations. This Commission would call the 
first meeting of the Conference and prepare the 
agenda and make the preliminary analyses and 
plans required for effective consideration and ac- 
tion by the Conference at its first meeting and for 
the beginning of the operation of the Organization. 



TEXT OF DRAFT CONSTITUTION 



The High Contracting Parties 

Determined that all possible steps shall be taken 
to further the attainment of international security 
and peace and to advance the welfare of the peoples 
of the world; 

Recognising that co-operation in education and 
the furtherance of cultural interchange in the arts, 
the humanities and the sciences will promote the 
freedom, the dignity and the well-being of all and 
therefore assist in the attainment of understand- 
ing, confidence, security and peace among the 
peoples of the world ; 

Dedicated to the proposition that the free and 
unrestricted education of the peoples of the world, 
and the free and unrestricted exchange among 
them of ideas and knowledge are essential to the 
advancement of human welfare and to the pres- 
ervation of security and peace ; 

Hereby establish the Educational and Cultural 
Organisation of the United Nations and agree to 
support its broad purposes and functions as ex- 
pressed in this constitution through their partici- 
pation in the activities of this international agency 
and through their respective national educational 
and cultural programmes. 

ARTICLE I 
Purposes 

The purposes of the Educational and Cultural 
Organisation of the United Nations shall be : 

(1) To develop and maintain mutual under- 
standing and appreciation of the life and culture, 
the arts, the humanities and the sciences of the 
peoples of the world, as a basis for effective inter- 
national organisation and world peace. 

(2) To co-operate in extending and in making 
available to all peoples for the service of common 
human needs the world's full body of knowledge 
and culture, and in assuring its contribution to the 



economic stability, political security, and general 
well-being of the peoples of the world. 

ARTICLE n 
Principal Functions 
To achieve these purposes the Organisation 
shall: 

(1) Facilitate consultation among leaders in the 
educational and cultural life of all peace-loving 
countries. 

(2) Assist the free flow of ideas and informa- 
tion among the peoples of the world through 
schools, universities and other educational and re- 
search institutions, libraries, publications and the 
press, the radio and the motion picture, interna- 
tional conferences and the exchange of students, 
teachers and all other representatives of educa- 
tional and cultural life, with special attention to 
the exchange of information on major educational 
and cultural developments, including advances in 
scientific knowledge. 

(3) Foster the growth, within each country and 
in its relations with other countries, of educational 
and cultural programmes which give support to 
international peace and security. 

(4) Develop and make available educational 
and cultural plans and materials for such con- 
sideration and use as each country may deem ap- 
propriate. 

(5) Conduct and encourage research and 
studies on educational and cultural problems re- 
lated to the maintenance of peace and the advance- 
ment of human welfare. 

(6) Assist countries that need and request help 
in developing their educational and cultural 
activities. 

ARTICLE in 
Membership 

1. Members of the United Nations shall auto- 
matically be granted the right of membership. 



AUGUST 5, 1945 



169 



Other nations may be admitted by the Conference, 
acting by a two-thirds vote, upon recommendation 
of the Executive Board. 

2. Any member may withdraw from the Or- 
ganisation after two year's notice of intention to 
do so, provided that its financial obligations shall 
have been fulfilled at the time of withdrawal. 

3. Each member undertakes, subject to the re- 
quirements of its constitutional procedure, to con- 
tribute to the organisation promptly its share of 
the expenses. The right of a member to vote in 
the Conference and the eligibility of its nationals 
to be elected to the Executive Board shall be auto- 
matically suspended for any member that fails 
for two successive years to meet its financial obli- 
gations to this Organisation, with the proviso that 
the Conference may in exceptional circumstances 
waive such suspension. 

4. Members of the Organisation which are sus- 
pended from the exercise of the rights and priv- 
ileges of membership in the United Nations shall 
automatically be suspended from the rights and 
privileges of this Organisation. 

ARTICLE IV 
Organs 
1. The Organisation shall include a Conference, 
an Executive Board, and a Secretariat. 

ARTICLE V 

The Conference 
A. Composition. 
Alternative a. 

The Conference shall consist of the representa- 
tives of the members of the Organisation. The 
Government of each member state shall appoint 
not more than five representatives, who shall be 
selected in agreement with the National Co-operat- 
ing Body or Bodies (or National Commission). 

Alternative b. 

The Conference shall consist of the representa- 
tives of the members of the Organisation. The 
Government of each member state shall designate 
not more than five delegates. Three out of a five- 
member delegation shall be selected in agreement 
with the National Co-operating Body or Bodies 
(or National Commission). When a state does 
not appoint the full delegation of five, one dele- 
gate only shall be appointed independently by the 
Government, except that, when there is only one 
delegate that delegate shall be selected in agree- 
ment with the National Co-operating Body or 
Bodies (or National Commission). 



Alternative c. 

The Conference shall consist of the representa- 
tives of the members of the Organisation. The 
Government of each member state shall appoint 
not more than five delegates who shall be selected 
after consultation with the National Co-operat- 
ing Body or Bodies (or National Commission). 

Alternative d. 

The Conference shall consist of the representa- 
tives of the members of the Organisation. The 
Government of each member state shall appoint 
not more than five delegates who shall be selected 
after consultation with educational and cultural 
bodies. 
Alternative e. 

The Conference consists of the representatives 
of the members of the Organisation. The Gov- 
ernment of each member state shall appoint not 
more than five delegates who will be selected, if 
convenient to the government concerned, after 
consultation with educational and cultural bodies.* 

B. Functions and Powers. 

1. The Conference shall determine the general 
policies and the programme of the Organisation. 

2. The Conference is empowered to make recom- 
mendations to the members. The Conference may 
by a two-thirds majority adopt for submission to 
the members with a view to their acceptance by the 
appropriate constitutional procedure, agreements 
on educational and cultural programmes, designed 
to accomplish the purposes of the Organisation. 

3. The Conference shall advise the United Na- 
tions on the Educational and Cultural aspects of 
matters of concern to the latter in accordance with 
terms and procedure agreed upon between the ap- 
propriate authorities of the two organisations. 

4. The Conference shall receive and consider 
reports submitted periodically by the members 
on educational and cultural developments within 
their respective territories and on the effect given 
to the recommendations of the Organisation. 

5. The Conference shall elect the members of the 
Executive Board. It shall admit new members to 
the Organisation and elect the Director-General on 
the recommendation of the Executive Board. 

6. The Conference shall approve the budget of 
the Organisation and the allocation of financial 
responsibility to the members. 

7. Gifts and bequests may be accepted by the 



*The adoption of this alternative would involve the 
modification of Article VIII in the sense of making this 
Article entirely optional. 



no 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Conference and utilised under its direction pro- 
vided the conditions of the gift or bequest are con- 
sistent with the purposes and policies of the organi- 
sation. 

C. Voting. 

Each Member State shall have one vote in the 
Conference. Decisions shall be made by a simple 
majority of those present and voting, except where 
otherwise specified in this instrument. 

D. Procedure. 

1. The Conference shall meet annually in regu- 
lar session; it may meet in extraordinary session 
on the call of the Executive Board. The ses- 
sions shall be held from time to time within the 
territories of different members. 

2. The Conference shall set up such commit- 
tees and other subordinate bodies as may be neces- 
sary for the performance of its functions. 

3. The Conference shall elect its own officers and 
adopt its own rules of procedure. 

ARTICLE VI 
The Executive Board 

A. Composition 

The Executive Board shall consist of fifteen 
persons elected by the Conference from among 
the delegates. In electing the members of the 
Executive Board, the Conference shall have re- 
gard to the desirability of including persons with 
varied experience in education, in the arts, the 
humanities and the sciences, bearing in mind geo- 
graphical distribution. Not more than one dele- 
gate from any member state shall serve on the 
Board at any one time. The members of the 
Board shall serve for a term of three years and 
shall not be immediately eligible for re-election. 
At the first election, five persons shall be elected 
for a three-year term, five for two years, and five 
for one year. Thereafter, five persons shall be 
elected each year. Members elected to the Ex- 
ecutive Board for a partial term shall be eligible 
for re-election. 

B. Functions and Powers. 

1. The Executive Board shall be responsible 
within the competence of the Organisation for giv- 
ing effect to the programme for the Organisation 
adopted by the Conference. 

2. The Executive Board shall supervise the ad- 
ministration of the Organisation and prepare the 
agenda for the meetings of the Conference. 



3. The Executive Board shall recommend to the 
Conference the admission of new members to the 
Organisation. 

4. It shall be empowered to make appointments 
to fill vacancies in its membership, which appoint- 
ments shall terminate at the next meeting of the 
Conference, when an election shall be held for the 
unexpired term. 

5. The members of the Executive Board shall 
exercise the powers delegated to them by the Con- 
ference on behalf of the whole Conference and not 
as representatives of their respective governments. 

C. Procedure. 

The Executive Board shall elect its own officers 
and subject to any decisions of the Conference, 
determine its own rules of procedure. 

ARTICLE VII 

The Secretariat 

1. The Secretariat shall consist of a Director- 
General and such staff as may be required. 

2. The Director-General shall be nominated by 
the Executive Board and elected by the Confer- 
ence under such conditions of tenure and compen- 
sation as the Conference may approve. He shall 
be the chief administrative officer of the Organ- 
isation, immediately responsible to the Executive 
Board, and the staff shall be responsible to him. 
He, or a deputy designated by him, shall partici- 
pate, without the right to vote, in all meetings of 
the Conference, the Board, and all committees of 
the Organisation. He shall formulate proposals 
for appropriate action by the Conference and the 
Board. 

3. The Director-General shall appoint the staff 
of the Secretariat under regulations adopted by the 
Executive Board which shall provide for the ap- 
proval by the Board of appointments in the higher 
administrative grades. Subject to the require- 
ments of efficiency and technical competence, the 
staff shall be recruited on as wide a geographical 
basis as possible. 

4. In the performance of their duties, the Di- 
rector-General and the staff shall be responsible 
only to the Organisation. Their responsibilities 
shall be exclusively international in character, and 
they shall not seek or receive instructions in regard 
to the discharge thereof from any authority ex- 
ternal to the Organisation. The members under- 
take to respect fully the international character of 
the responsibilities of the Secretariat and not to 



AUGUST 5, 1945 



171 



seek to influence any of their nationals in the dis- 
charge of such responsibilities. 

5. The Conference shall make provision for the 
determination by an administrative tribunal of 
disputes relating to the conditions and terms of ap- 
pointment of members of the stall. 

ARTICLE VIII 
Alternative titles: — 

(1) National Commissions. 

(2) National Co-operating Bodies. 

A. Composition. 
Alternative a. 

Each member of the Organisation shall estab- 
lish a National Commission on educational and 
cultural co-operation, broadly representative of the 
Government and the principal groups devoted to 
and interested in educational and cultural matters. 
Delegates to the Conference shall, during their 
period of service be included in the National Com- 
mission. Each member state shall be free to adapt 
the size and scope of the National Commission to 
its own special conditions. 
Alternative b. 

Within each member state, the Government shall 
appoint or recognise a National Co-operating Body 
or Bodies, representatives of its principal educa- 
tional and cultural groups, to be associated with 
the Government in the activities of the Organisa- 
tion. 
Alternative c. 

Each member state shall make such arrange- 
ments as suit its particular conditions, either by 
the formation of a National Commission or other- 
wise, for the purpose of associating bodies of edu- 
cational and cultural opinion with the work of the 
Organisation. 

B. Functions and Powers. 

1. National Co-operating Bodies (or National 
Commissions) shall act in an advisory capacity to 
the National Delegation to the Conference and to 
the Government in matters relating to the Organ- 
isation. 

Alternative a. 

2. The National Delegation to the Conference 
shall be appointed by the Government in agree- 
ment with the National Co-operating Body or 
Bodies (or National Commission). 
Alternative b. 

Certain members of the National Delegation to 
the Conference shall be appointed by the Govern- 



ment in agreement with the National Co-operating 
Body or Bodies (or National Commission). 
Alternative c. 

The National Delegation to the Conference shall 
be appointed by the Government after consultation 
with the National Co-operating Body or Bodies 
(or National Commission). 
Alternative d. 

The National Delegation to the Conference shall 
be appointed after consultation with bodies of 
educational and cultural opinion. 

3. The National Co-operating Bodies (or Na- 
tional Commissions) shall consider recommenda- 
tions and reports made by the Educational and 
Cultural Organisation of the United Nations and 
take such steps as are suitable and desirable to fur- 
ther the general objectives of the Organisation. 

ARTICLE IX 
Reports by Members 

1. Each member shall report periodically to the 
Organisation, in a manner to be determined by the 
Conference, on activities and developments related 
to the functions of the Organisation and on the 
action taken on the recommendations by the Con- 
ference. 

2. Each member shall upon publication com- 
municate to the Organisation laws, regulations, 
official reports and statistics concerning its educa- 
tional and cultural institutions and organisations. 

ARTICLE X 

Juridical Status of the Organisation and its 
Personnel 

1. The Organisation shall possess international 
personality and legal capacity. The members of 
the Organisation shall accord to the Organisation 
the privileges, immunities, exemptions and facili- 
ties which they accord to each other including in 
particular (a) immunity from every form of legal 
process; (b) exemption from taxation and customs 
duties; and (c) inviolability of premises occupied 
by, and of the archives and communications of, the 
Organisation. 

2. The members of the Organisation shall accord 
diplomatic privileges and immunities to persons 
appointed by other members as their representa- 
tives in or to the Organisation, and to the higher 
officials of the Organisation not being their own 
nationals. They shall accord to all officials and 
employees of the Organisation (a) immunity from 
suit and legal process relating to acts performed by 
them in their official capacity; (b) exemption 



172 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



from taxation of their official salaries and emolu- 
ments; and, in general (c) such privileges, exemp- 
tions and facilities as they accord under similar 
circumstances to officials and employees of foreign 
governments. 

ARTICLE XI 

Amendments 

1. Proposals for amendments to this instru- 
ment shall require the approval of the Conference 
by a two-thirds majority, and amendments shall 
take effect on ratification by two-thirds of the mem- 
ber states. The draft texts of proposed amend- 
ments shall be communicated by the Director-Gen- 
eral to the members at least six months in advance 
of their consideration by the Conference. 

2. The Conference shall have power to adopt 
by a two-thirds majority rules prescribing the 
times within which proposed amendments must 
be accepted in order to become effective and other 
rules of procedure to carry out the provisions of 
this Article. 

ARTICLE Xn 
Interpretation 

1. The English and French texts of the Consti- 
tution shall be regarded as authoritative. 

2. Any question or dispute concerning the in- 
terpretation of this instrument shall be referred 
for determination to the international court of 
justice or to an arbitral tribunal as the Conference 
may determine. 

ARTICLE XIII 
Relations with the United Nations 

1. The Organisation shall be brought in rela- 
tionship with the United Nations, this relation- 
ship to be defined by an agreement approved by 
the appropriate organs of both bodies. 

2. Notwithstanding the provisions of Article 
XI, such agreement may, if approved by the 
Conference by a two-thirds majority, involve modi- 
fication of the provisions of this Constitution, pro- 
vided that no such agreement shall modify the 
purposes and limitations of the Organisation. 

ARTICLE XIV 

Relations with Other Specialised International 
Organisations 

1. The Organisation may co-operate with other 
specialised international organisations, both pub- 
lic and private, whose interests and activities are 
related to and in harmony with its purposes. 

2. The Executive Board, with the approval of 
the Conference, may enter into agreements with 



the competent authorities of such organisations 
defining the distribution of responsibilities and 
methods of co-operating, and maintain such joint 
committees with them as may be necessary to as- 
sure effective co-operation. 

3. Whenever the Conference of this Organisa- 
tion and the competent authorities of any other 
organisation whose purposes are similar deem it 
desirable to effect transfer of the resources and 
functions of the latter to this Organisation, the 
Executive Board, subject to the approval of the 
Conference, may enter into mutually acceptable 
arrangements for this purpose. 

ARTICLE XV 
Establishment of the Organisation 
This instrument shall come into force when 
twenty of the Governments of the United Nations 
shall have filed with the Interim Educational and 
Cultural Commission of the United Nations (to 
be set up in accordance with the Transitory Pro- 
visions) official notice of their acceptance of it and 
adherence to the Organisation. Thereupon the 
Chairman of the Interim Commission shall cause 
to be convened the first meeting of the Conference 
of the Organisation, which shall proceed with the 
election of the Executive Board and the Director- 
General and shall make whatever other arrange- 
ments which may be necessary to put the Organi- 
sation into operation. 

Transitory Provisions 

1. Pending the approval of the Constitution by 
twenty nations and the calling of the first meeting 
of the Conference, the persons designated in An- 
nex 1 of this Constitution shall serve as members 
of the Interim Educational and Cultural Commis- 
sion of the United Nations. This commission shall 
call the first meeting of the Conference and pre- 
pare the Agenda and preliminary analyses required 
for effective action by the Conference. 

This Interim Commission shall be assisted by 
an international Secretariat and financed by the 
participating Governments in a manner to be de- 
termined at the Constituent Conference. 

2. The following exceptional arrangements shall 
apply in respect of the financial year in which this 
Constitution conies into force: the budget shall be 
the provisional budget set forth in Annex 2 of this 
Constitution, and the amount to be contributed 
by member states shall be in the proportion set 
forth in Annex 3 of this Constitution. 

Note — Annexes 1, 2, and 3 will be drawn up at the Con- 
stituent Conference. 



AUGUST 5, 1945 



173 



Petroleum 

In International Relations 



By JOHN A. LOFTUS 1 



r 



"nspection of the Papers Re- 
lating to the Foreign Rela- 
tions of the United States 
for the period subsequent to 
about 1910 and a review of diplomatic history of 
the past 35 years will show that petroleum has 
historically played a larger part in the external 
relations of the United States than any other com- 
modity. To mention only outstanding instances, 
there were: the international tension that devel- 
oped over the disposition of petroleum rights in 
Iraq in the early twenties; the controversy be- 
tween this Government and the Government of 
the Netherlands over the granting of exploration 
and exploitation privileges in the Netherlands East 
Indies; the obtaining of the concessions in the 
Bahrein Islands, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia; the 
several diplomatic crises that arose in connection 
with the Barco concession in Colombia ; the Mexi- 
can and Bolivian expropriations; and the indus- 
trial ramifications resultant from the close relation 
between petroleum refining technology and im- 
portant segments of the chemicals industry (par- 
ticularly those alliances with the I. G. Farben- 
industrie). 

There is no reason to think that the importance 
of petroleum in international relations and the 
probability of international problems arising over 
matters related to production and sale of oil will 
be less in the future than they have been in the 
past. Rather it seems probable that at least for 
the first half dozen years after the war the prob- 
lems will be greater and more difficult than at any 
time in the past. 

This unique and outstanding importance of pe- 
troleum in international relations derives in part 
from the strategic character of the commodity ; in 
part from the peculiar accident of circumstances 



that, outside of the United States and the Union 
of Soviet Socialist Republics, oil is found most 
abundantly in industrially undeveloped areas and 
is therefore subject to exploitation by foreign capi- 
tal; in part from the fact that for technical and 
other reasons the oil industry is organized into very 
large units with far-flung and complex operations ; 
in part from the absolute importance of oil as a 
commodity in terms of the gross value of annual 
production ; and in part from the extremely high 
relative importance of oil in the foreign trade of 
certain nations. These considerations are em- 
phasized in order that the detailed background of 
the Department's operational responsibilities with 
respect to oil will be understood in its proper per- 
spective and with a realization of the magnitude of 
those responsibilities over all. 

The functions of the Department of State with 
respect to oil break down into short-term wartime 
functions and longer-range continuing functions. 
This general break-down, however, applies to each 
of the functional categories into which the Depart- 
ment's oil responsibilities can be divided. Fur- 
thermore, the distinction between short-term and 
long-term problems is necessarily thin. . It is 
therefore preferable to analyze the responsibilities 
by functional categories. 

In the first place, there is the wide range of 
problems comprehended under the term "general 
petroleum policy". These problems include the 
desirable and the appropriate pattern of inter- 
national agreements with respect to petroleum; 
the provision of analytical studies and other docu- 
mentation to the American members of the pro- 
posed International Petroleum Commission or 
such other international agencies as may be 

1 Mr. Loftus is Special Assistant to the Director of the 
Office of International Trade Policy, Department of State. 



174 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



operative in the field of petroleum; the general 
responsibility of coordinating the views of United 
States agencies concerned with petroleum exploita- 
tion and trade in order to provide consolidated 
recommendations to the American members of the 
Commission or other such body; the economic, 
legal, political, and diplomatic aspects of the dis- 
position of various petroleum installations which 
have been constructed abroad for war purposes, 
full or partial title to which is vested in the United 
States Government; and the analysis and appro- 
priate support of claims for compensation filed by 
United States nationals in connection with prop- 
erty taken for the satisfaction of reparations rights 
or as war booty. 

The importance of the problems listed above is 
high (a) because the Anglo-American Petroleum 
Agreement and the International Petroleum Com- 
mission proposed to be established thereunder con- 
stitute at the present time the only mechanism 
other than normal diplomatic interchange whereby 
the basic objectives of United States petroleum 
policy can be brought at least partially to realiza- 
tion, and (b) because the earliest and most signifi- 
cant test of this country's ability to understand 
and work with the U.S.S.R. in commercial matters 
will revolve very largely around the outcome of 
the general question of utilization of petroleum 
and petroleum-producing properties of countries 
in eastern Europe for reparations purposes and 
for United Nations needs. 

Another broad range of problems includes those 
connected with the supply and distribution of 
petroleum. Under this heading there are imme- 
diate short-term arrangements for the provision- 
ing on an equitable basis of petroleum supplies for 
civilian consumption in the face of a serious global 
shortage of tanker capacity and refinery capacity, 
as well as an absolute shortage of certain specific 
products. This involves in operating practice the 
following responsibilities: 

(a) To insure that an adequate mechanism is 
established for the allocation of petroleum supplies 
since the burden of blame for inequitable or in- 
efficient operations will fall, not upon supplying or 
licensing agencies, but upon the Department of 
State ; 

(b) To secure the initial assent of other govern- 
ments to the provisions of that supply arrangement 
which is best calculated to accomplish the results 
intended ; 



(c) To participate actively in the deliberations 
of the committees through which the allocating 
function is exercised; 

(d) To carry on the diplomatic correspondence 
arising out of the operations of the supply arrange- 
ment and to convey the necessary instructions to 
the various missions abroad; and 

(e) To entertain the complaints and requests of 
the various countries receiving supplies and to 
appraise the merits of petitions for additional sup- 
plies which either are conveyed through diplomatic 
channels or are based upon political and broad 
economic considerations extraneous to the ordinary 
working criteria of the allocating committees. 

Distribution problems from the longer-run point 
of view involve a very large number of difficult 
issues, such as the terms and conditions upon which 
American companies are allowed to participate in 
the refining and distribution of petroleum in 
France and other countries which have an internal 
system of refining and distribution quotas and in 
which a government-owned company participates 
in the commercial operations of the oil industry ; 
the nature of the settlement whereby the expro- 
priated properties and rights of American na- 
tionals in Italy will be either returned or compen- 
sated (and in the event of return the conditions 
under which American companies will participate 
in the petroleum business in Italy) ; and the vari- 
ous proposals under discussion which contemplate 
the establishment of state monopolies for the dis- 
tribution of petroleum in various countries, and 
the effect of such proposals upon legitimate prop- 
erty rights of American nationals. 

The importance of these longer-run distribution 
problems is particularly great in view of the wide- 
spread trend toward complete or partial nationali- 
zation of the petroleum industry or any of its 
branches in various countries. "While recognizing 
t he sovereign right of any country to assume own- 
ership (upon payment of prompt and adequate 
compensation) of the petroleum industry or any 
of its branches, this Government must neverthe- 
less recognize and proclaim that international com- 
merce, predicated upon free trade and private en- 
terprise (which is the conceptual core of United 
States economic foreign policy), is, in the long 
run, incompatible with an extensive spread of state 
ownership and operation of commercial properties. 

There are certain transitory, but important, re- 
sponsibilities of the Department in connection with 



AUGUST 5, 1945 



175 



the allocation of oil-field and refinery equipment 
for foreign operations of the petroleum industry. 
These responsibilities are discharged through de- 
partmental participation in the work of the For- 
eign Petroleum Requirements Committee and 
through detailed analysis by the officer who is a 
member of this Committee of various projects com- 
ing before it, and through consultation on his part 
with interested political divisions of the Depart- 
ment of State. It is to be anticipated, however, 
that as soon as supply availability permits, export 
controls over oil-field and refinery equipment will 
be removed and the operations of the Committee 
will terminate. 

Another major category of problems concerns 
the support given by the Department on behalf of 
the United States Government to American na- 
tionals seeking to obtain or to retain rights to en- 
gage in petroleum development, transportation, 
and processing abroad. This is the traditional 
function of the Department with respect to pe- 
troleum. It has continued to be significant, though 
of temporarily diminished importance, during the 
war period. A9 normal economic conditions re- 
turn this function will come to be of very great 
importance. Recently significant exploration con- 
cession rights have been obtained by American com- 
panies, with the assistance of the Department, in 
Ethiopia and Paraguay. In Iran the negotiations 
which were apparently near to culmination last fall 
have been temporarily suspended for political 
reasons. In China there are great possibilities for 
the post-war period. Large, potentially produc- 
tive area9 in Colombia are yet to be concessioned 
out to private enterprise; and in Brazil, where 
there may be very great potentialities of petroleum 
production, no concessions at all have yet been 
granted. In both Colombia and Brazil there is a 
fair probability of basic legislation being enacted 
which would permit the obtaining of concessions 
by private companies on a mutually satisfactory 
basis. The foregoing cases involve areas where 
concession rights are being sought. There are 
other critical situations where concession rights are 
in jeopardy and where the Department's vigilant 
attention is required. Furthermore, there are other 
areas where after the war there is a genuine pos- 
sibility of securing an amelioration of the unfav- 
orable discriminatory conditions under which 
American nationals were able to obtain rights be- 
fore the war. 



The importance of the Department's activities 
in support of American interests seeking petro- 
leum concessions derives from the statistical posi- 
tion of the United States in petroleum. If, as 
seems on balance highly probable, we are to find 
our production potential falling progressively 
further below our consumption requirements, it 
is important that sources of oil supplies in coun- 
tries with which we have commercial relations be 
expanded to the maximum extent and it is prefer- 
able that a substantial volume of such additional 
sources of supply be under the proprietary con- 
trol of American nationals. The former propo- 
sition needs no demonstration. The desirability 
of control by American nationals over petroleum 
properties abroad is based on two considerations: 
(a) that the talent of the American oil industry 
for discovery and development is historically dem- 
onstrated so that results are likely to be better ac- 
cording to the extent to which American private. 
interests participate, and (b) that other things 
being equal, oil controlled by United States na- 
tionals is likely to be a little more accessible to 
the United States for commercial uses in times 
of peace and for strategic purposes in times of war. 

In connection with all of the responsibilities de- 
scribed above, and in furtherance of the State De- 
partment's activities with respect thereto, a pro- 
gram has been initiated but is still in its very 
early stages for the assignment of petroleum at- 
taches to critical posts abroad. The task of co- 
ordinating the activities and collating the reports 
of these attaches is in itself a substantial under- 
taking. 

Finally, and as a necessary foundation for the 
discharge of the other responsibilities described 
above, it is necessary for the Department of State 
to have the most complete and orderly knowledge 
obtainable of the intricate organization of the 
world petroleum industry and of the forces and 
pressures in other countries shaping and determin- 
ing the petroleum policies of those countries. Al- 
though there is not required the initiation of ex- 
haustive and detailed original research within the 
Department, nevertheless responsibilities as in- 
tricate and technical as those which have been 
described cannot be discharged in an intellectual 
vacuum and the kind of "research" contemplated 
is not, and probably could not be, performed by 
other agencies for the Department of State. 



661247 — 45- 






176 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Japanese Practice of Locating Prisoner-of-War and 
Civilian Camps in Areas Subject to Bombardment 



[Released to the press August 1] 

The persistent and methodical practice of the 
Japanese Government in locating prisoner-of-war 
and civilian internment camps in areas subject to 
aerial bombardment has long been a matter of 
grave concern to the United States Government. 
The location of prisoners where they might be ex- 
posed to the fire of the combat zone or their use to 
give protection to certain points or certain regions 
are violations of articles 7 and 9 of the Geneva 
Prisoners of War Convention which the Japanese 
Government, although not a party to the conven- 
tion, agreed to apply to prisoners of war and 
civilian internees in its custody. 

Cognizant of the dangers to which American 
prisoners of war and civilian internees were ex- 
posed when the camps in which they were held 
were situated in areas subject to bombardment, 
the United States Government in September 1944 
protested to the Japanese Government against its 
j^ractice of locating camps in the vicinity of known 
military objectives, subject to bombardment. 
With subsequent reports received by this Govern- 
ment indicating that more and more camps were 
being placed in bombardment areas the Depart- 
ment's protests through the protecting power, the 
Swiss Government, became increasingly frequent. 
The replies received from the Japanese Govern- 
ment to these protests have been evasive. 

In March 1945 the United States Government 
informed the Japanese Government that it was 
forced to draw the conclusion from the continued 
practice of the Japanese Government in locating 
prisoner-of-war camps in close proximity to docks, 
warehouses, war factories, railroad yards, and 
other military objectives, that the Japanese Gov- 
ernment was carrying out a deliberate policy of 
attempting to render certain points or areas im- 
mune from bombardment by the presence of pris- 
oners of war in such areas. The United States 
Government pointed out to the Japanese Govern- 
ment its obligations under articles 7 and 9 of the 
Geneva Prisoners of War Convention and in- 
formed the Japanese Government that this Gov- 



ernment considered that the Japanese Govern- 
ment had obligated itself under these provisions 
of the convention to remove American nationals 
from camps in areas subject to bombardment to 
areas of safety. 

In May 1945 following reports that certain 
prisoner-of-war camps in Japan proper were lo- 
cated in bombardment areas the Swiss Legation 
at Tokyo was requested to demand the immediate 
removal of these camps to zones of safety if the 
camps concerned had not already been moved to 
other areas. At the same time, additional de- 
mands were made that the Japanese Government 
furnish a report regarding the transfers of camps 
and the new locations. The United States Govern- 
ment warned the Japanese Government that its 
failure to remove these camps from danger zones 
would meet with the most serious consequences. 

Later in May when it was reported to this Gov- 
ernment that civilian internees held at the Co- 
lumbia Country Club and Yu Yuen Road Civil- 
ian Assembly Centers at Shanghai had been trans- 
ferred to the Yangtzepoo industrial area of 
Shanghai and that plans were under considera- 
tion to transfer other civilian internees at 
Shanghai elsewhere, the United States Govern- 
ment reiterated the position which it had pre- 
viously taken that it held the Japanese Govern- 
ment responsible for safeguarding the lives of the 
civilian internees in its custody and warned that 
no Japanese individual would escape account- 
ability for any responsibility he might bear for 
the exposing of civilian internees to danger 
through attempts to render certain points or areas 
immune from bombardment by their presence. 

Also late in May 1945 the Department, when 
apprised of the transfer of the Kiangwan Prisoner 
of War Camp at Shanghai to Fengtai, requested 
solemn assurances by the Japanese Government 
that the camp to which these prisoners were re- 
moved was outside the danger zone. 

Lale in June 1945 the United States Govern- 
ment again strongly protested against the ac- 



AUGUST 5, 1945 



177 



tion of the Japanese Government in locating 
prisoners of war in areas in close proximity to 
docks, railroad yards, and other military objec- 
tives and their employment on work having a 
direct relation with operations of the war. The 
United States Government again warned the 
Japanese Government that it would hold the Japa- 
nese Government responsible for any failure on 
its part to protect the lives and health of Ameri- 
can nationals in Japanese custody. 

In the face of these protests the United States 
Government has learned from Tokyo broadcasts 
since July 26, 1945, which were monitored by the 
Federal Communications Commission, that a war- 
prisoners camp in the city of Kawasaki, which is 
southeast of Tokyo, was hit during the course of 
aerial bombardment of the Kawasaki area on July 
26 and that some casualties, mostly American, re- 
sulted. No official confirmation of the casualties 
mentioned in this Japanese broadcast has yet been 
received from the protecting power or through the 
International Red Cross Committee. The De- 



partment of State has requested the verification 
of this report and the names of any individuals 
involved. As soon as such information is received 
the military authorities will promptly inform the 
next of kin. 

The State Department has promptly informed 
the War Department of the locations of all 
prisoner-of-war camps and civilian internment 
camps whenever the Department has been notified 
of any changes by either the protecting power 
or the International Red Cross. In many cases, 
however, the transfer of persons from one camp 
to another has been so sudden and the Japanese 
Government has been so dilatory in reporting such 
transfers that internment and prisoner-of-war 
camps may be moved to a target area before such 
transfers have been reported to this Government. 

The United States military authorities carefully 
brief American fliers on the locations of all camps 
known to them to minimize to the greatest possible 
extent the danger to which Allied nationals in 
Japanese custody are exposed. 



Friendly Attitude of Argentine 
Labor Unions Toward United States 



Statement by ACTING SECRETARY GREW 

[Released to the press August 2] 

The Department has received a report from the 
American Embassy at Buenos Aires regarding a 
call made on Ambassador Braden yesterday by rep- 
resentatives of Argentine labor unions. These 
labor leaders called at their own request in order 
to express their disapproval of the recent campaign 
of defamation directed at the Ambassador in Ar- 
gentina. They assured Ambassador Braden that 
all independent labor unions and the vast majority 
of the Argentine people are in complete sympathy 
with the Government and people of the United 
States and with the Ambassador personally, and 
stated that Argentine workers are proud that the 
North American people is a people of the American 
continent. 

The delegate of the Confederation of Latin 
American Workers stated that these views repre- 
sent the opinion of all Latin American workers. 

Ambassador Braden was expressly authorized 
and requested by the labor representatives who 
called upon him to make their declarations public. 



The Department naturally is deeply gratified 
by the friendly statements made by these Argen- 
tine labor leaders about the American people and 
Government. Friendly and understanding rela- 
tions between the peoples of Argentina and the 
United States are prime objectives of our Gov- 
ernment. 

A list of the Argentine labor unions whose rep- 
resentatives visited Ambassador Braden follows : 
Federacion Obrera Nacional de la Construction 
Sindicato Obrero de la Construccion de la Capital 

Federal 
Federacion Grafica Bonaerense 
Federacion Argentina de Tr aba j adores de la 

Imprenta 
Union Obrera Local de la Capital Federal 
Union Obrera de Curtidores 
Sindicato de Obreros Pintores 
Sindicato Obrero de la Industria Metaliirgica 
Sindicato Obrero de la Alimentation 
Union Obrera Textil 

Sindicato Obrero de la Industria del Vestido 
Sindicato de Choferes de Camiones y Anexos 



178 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Review of UNRRA Operations in Europe 



Statement by HERBERT H. LEHMAN ' 



[Released to the press by UNRRA August 3] 

The reason for my present visit to London is the 
forthcoming Third Session of the UNRRA Coun- 
cil which will open at the London County Hall on 
8 August. 

En route to London I spent several weeks in 
Italy, Greece, and Yugoslavia and conferred there 
with the governments of these countries and with 
the UNRRA missions established there. The con- 
ditions prevailing in these countries, which are 
paralleled in almost every other European country, 
are extremely serious. I should, therefore, like to 
give you my impressions on the conditions in these 
countries as they bear directly on the business of 
the next Council session. 

As to the work of relief in the countries which I 
visited, I was encouraged by the evidence of effi- 
cient performance by the UNRRA missions and of 
the aid which had been given the devastated econ- 
omies of those nations by the imported supplies and 
by the relief services provided by the United Na- 
tions through this organization. The work pro- 
ceeds with greater dispatch and more wide-spread 
effect than seems possible on first seeing the very 
difficult conditions under which it is carried on. 
For this I have the authority not only of my own 
observations but of the highest officials in the coun- 
tries receiving aid, who were unanimous in praise 
and thanks for the assistance sent by the United 
Nations. I should report also that the members 
of our missions were unanimous in stating that the 
governments of the countries receiving assistance 
are exerting every effort to carry on distribution 
speedily and equitably and that they are succeeding 
to an extraordinary degree, but the inescapable fact 
remains: Only if the uninvaded United Nations 
send to the liberated countries of Europe a continu- 
ing and expanding flow of supplies through the 
months ahead, especially the winter, is there any 
chance that they will escape the most severe priva- 
tions. Not food alone — that is but one of the most 
elemental necessities. There is scarcely an impor- 
tant need — food, clothing, shelter, soap — for many 



1 Made at a press conference in London on Aug. 3, 1945. 
Mr. Lehman is Director General of UNRRA. 



millions of people which is adequately satisfied on 
even the lowest standards. Lack of raw material, 
the destruction of industrial equipment, and in 
many cases the loss of the skilled labor necessary 
are all very serious handicaps to the efforts which 
the peoples of the liberated countries are making 
to meet their own needs. Because of this desperate 
situation I am convinced that for the next few 
months their hope must be the arrival of supplies 
from overseas — supplies designed first to tide them 
over the desperate months ahead and then to enable 
them to restart their own production of the neces- 
sities of life. 

Generalizations are inadequate to convey the 
acuteness of the needs. To be more specific let me 
describe some instances of present suffering which 
will be multiplied many times when the winter 
comes. In Yugoslavia there are many villages to 
which it is not possible, because of lack of trans- 
port, to get food or medical supplies although both 
are urgently needed — so urgently needed that 
people are now seriously short of food, eking out 
the tiny stocks they have by a ration more severe 
than anything endured during the war. In Greece 
the victims of chronic malnutrition, especially the 
children, are still dying despite all that has been 
done to improve their plight. In Italy it is im- 
possible to satisfy the needs of all those who are 
indigent and incapable of buying what they need. 
Over the whole continent it is now certain that the 
harvest will not cover the lowest subsistence needs 
of the total population — even if a smoothly work- 
ing transportation system existed. In fact, as is 
known, the transport system over the whole of 
Europe is in a disastrous state: There is little 
hope that what is produced on the continent will be 
rapidly and efficiently distributed. The food situa- 
tion is indeed tragic; but the same black prospect 
confronts the liberated countries in many other 
respects. The need for coal is urgent. But there 
is in sight production enough to meet the conti- 
nental needs for coal. Nor is it possible to hope for 
any increase in coal production from the European 
industry in its present neglected and undermanned 
condition. Yet coal is the basis of a very large 



AUGUST 5, 1945 



179 



sector of the European economy : It is essential if 
life is to be supported during the long winter 
months. Even in this vital respect Europe cannot 
meet its own needs. 1 

There is, therefoi-e, no doubt in my mind that 
the economic conditions confronting Europe dur- 
ing the coming winter will be such as to strain the 
political and economic structure of the continent so 
seriously that the consequences may do incalcu- 
lable harm to all our hopes for a permanent and 
peaceful settlement in European affairs. This is, 
I believe, the most serious single problem facing the 
United Nations today. AA r e may undo by our fail- 
ure to aid these countries now all that has been 
achieved by our united efforts. 

Needless to say, the liberated countries them- 
selves have a most important responsibility. They 
must insure that local supplies are used to the ut- 
most and for the maximum benefit of their people. 
They must make the fullest use of the equipment 
and supplies provided them by UNRRA. They 
must also take every possible measure to restore 



their own production of foodstuffs and other sup- 
plies. Throughout my visit I was impressed by 
the efforts that all the governments are making to 
achieve these objects. On all sides I was told of 
the real progress that has been made, and I have 
seen a great deal of evidence of the work that has 
been done to restore industries, transportation, 
housing, and to reestablish more normal living 
conditions. I would repeat my conclusion : It is 
that, however great their own efforts may be, the 
people of the war-devastated countries will have 
tremendous difficulty in the coming winter without 
increased assistance from the outside. UNRRA 
will continue to make the utmost effort to get those 
supplies and get them quickly. But the success of 
our efforts is dependent upon the willingness and 
understanding of the governments and people of 
the principal supplying countries. I repeat that I 
believe this to be the most serious single problem 
facing the United Nations today, and this is the 
main issue confronting the forthcoming UNRRA 
meeting which convenes on Tuesday next. 



Agreement Between UNRRA and Albania 



[Released to the press by DNRRA August 3] 

The following information on the conclusion of 
the agreement between UNRRA and the Demo- 
cratic Government of Albania was issued to press 
correspondents in Rome, August 2, 1945, and 
cabled to UNRRA headquarters in AVashington : 

"Agreement for sending relief to Albania was 
signed today in the capital, Tirana, between Colo- 
nel-General Enver Hoxha, Prime Minister of the 
Democratic Government of Albania, and Colonel 
D. R. Oakley-Hill, Chief of the UNRRA Albania 
Mission who was second in command of Albanian 
gendarmerie until 193S and himself organized the 
guerrilla band in the early stages of Albanian 
resistance. Signing was witnessed by Governor 
Cochran, UNRRA's principal liaison officer for the 
Mediterranean theater. 

"The agreement provides that UNRRA shall 
furnish Albania with supplies of food, textiles, 
engineering equipment, medical and agricultural 
requii-ements, without asking for payment in for- 
eign exchange. Supplies will be turned over to 



Albanian authorities who will be responsible for 
their distribution. It is agreed these supplies will 
be distributed according to need, without discrimi- 
nation, and that the UNRRA mission will have the 
right to see that this is done. Those who can afford 
it will pay for supplies, and any money realized 
will be used for further relief and rehabilitation 
inside the country, including payment of UNRRA 
expenses. 

"Albanians fought Italians and Germans from 
April 1939 until 1944 when Partisans drove the 
last Germans from the country. During those five 
and one-half years entire villages were destroyed, 
herds reduced to a tenth, agriculture neglected, and 
a large part of the people reached the verge of 
starvation. Albanian authorities have already 
shown remarkable energy in their own work of 
reconstruction and rebuilding bridges, repairing 
roads, building houses, but transport, food, and 



1 For article on civilian-supply problems in Europe by 
James A. Stillwell, see Bulletin of May 20, 1945, p. 917. 



180 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



medical supplies are all urgently needed. The 
Allies were willing to supply these, but the ar- 
rangement that in all liberated countries initial 
relief supplies should be brought in by Anglo- 
American military authorities was not at first 
acceptable by Albanian authorities. 

"It was not until 11 April of this year that an 
agreement was finally made between Military 
Liaison and Albanians and relief supplies began 
to enter Albania. At this stage UNRRA was only 
in the picture as Military Liaison's agent and 



assistant and for the first month there were only 
two UNRRA people in the country. 

"Military Liaison, whose period of operation in 
the country ended 30 June, has supplied Albania 
with approximately 9,500 tons of supplies and 33-4 
vehicles. UNRRA, which begins operations about 
the middle of August, plans during the first month 
to ship 10,000 tons — the limit of port capacity — 
nearly 75 percent consisting of flour and grain as 
the most important requirement, and will continue 
with a similar program for the future." 



American Coal for the Liberated Areas of Europe 



The question of supplying coal from the United 
States to the liberated areas of Europe has re- 
cently had the consideration of the highest author- 
ities of this Government. The need for supplying 
coal to the liberated areas in order to alleviate 
suffering and thus prevent civil disturbance this 
winter is urgent. 

In recent public statements to the press and 
on the radio, Mr. Harold L. Ickes, Secretary of 
the Interior and Solid Fuels Administrator for 
War, said that he had come to the conclusion 
that the United States should begin immediately 
to ship approximately 0,000,000 tons of American 
coal for civilian use in the devastated liberated 
areas of Europe. 

The coal shipments described by Mr. Ickes have 
already begun but the continuation of the supply, 
according to the Solid Fuels Administration for 
War, is contingent upon the Army's acceding to 
Mr. Ickes' request that 30,000 coal miners, now in 
the Army, be furloughed immediately to work in 
the mines. The men should be in the mines not 
later than October 1945. If coal miners are fur- 
loughed to augment the depleted manpower, suf- 
ficient additional coal production can be obtained 
to enable the shipment of 6,000,000 tons of Ameri- 
can coal to Europe and at the same time permit 
industrial and domestic coal consumers in the 
United States to continue to operate at the pres- 
ent level of coal consumption. At the present time 
there is a shortage of 37,000,000 tons of coal in 
the United States, which would increase to 43,000,- 
000 if the 6,000,000 tons were shipped abroad with- 



out additional stocks becoming available. Failure 
to obtain the 30,000 miners from the Army will 
seriously interfere with plans to afford coal relief 
to Europe and will curtail industrial-plant pro- 
duction in the United States. 

In view of the circumstances described by Mr. 
Ickes in his public statements, the Army authori- 
ties have signified their willingness to discuss the 
matter of furloughing coal miners with the ap- 
propriate officials of the interested government 
agencies, according to a statement made on July 
21 by a War Department representative before 
the Senate Special Committee To Investigate the 
National Defense Program. Heretofore, accord- 
ing to testimony of officials of Solid Fuels Admin- 
istration for War before the Senate Special Com- 
mittee, Army authorities have not felt it necessary 
to release coal miners. This matter must be settled 
at once if the essential coal relief for Europe is to 
be provided this winter. 

One other limiting factor is shipping. Many 
vessels would be required to carry 6,000,000 tons 
of coal during the period from August to Decem- 
ber 1945. The acquisition of sufficient ship ton- 
nage is governed by the exigencies of war, espe- 
cially the redeployment and supply program in 
the Pacific. However, if a considerable portion 
of the proposed 6,000,000 tons can be delivered to 
Europe before December 1945, this will assist 
materially in giving relief until indigenous coal 
supplies are of sufficient quantity to take care of 
the extremely restricted requirements of liberated 
Europe. 



AUGUST 5, 1945 



181 



The United Nations Charter 



PARTICIPANTS 

Dean Acheson 

Assistant Secretary of State 
Archibald MacLeish 

Assistant Secretary of State 



[Released lo the press August 4] 

Announcer: Here are headlines from Wash- 
ington: 

Assistant Secretaries of State MacLeish and 

Acheson Say Foreign Legislation Passed by this 
Session of Congress Completes a Virtual 
Revolution in our Foreign Policy. 
Assistant Secretary Acheson Says Senate Debate 

on the United Nations Charter Cleared up Con- 
troversial Questions on Military Agreements 
and Functions of United States Delegate. 
Assistant Secretary MacLeish Says Maintaining 

Our Unity With the World May Be More Diffi- 
cult Than Writing the Charter. 
This is the twenty-fifth in a series of programs 
featuring authoritative statements on "Our For- 
eign Policy" by responsible officers of Govern- 
ment departments, members of Congress, and offi- 
cials of international agencies. These programs 
are broadcast to the people of America by NBC's 
University of the Air, and to our service men and 
women in all parts of the world through the facil- 
ities of the Armed Forces Radio Service. 

This time we return to the Department of State 
for a new limited series of broadcasts on subjects 
of current interest. We welcome back to our 
microphone Assistant Secretary of State Ar- 
chibald MacLeish, who will again be chairman of 
the State Department series. On this first pro- 
gram Mr. MacLeish and Assistant Secretary Dean 
Acheson will discuss the ratification of the United 
Nations Charter, and how this fits into the total 
context of "Our Foreign Policy." 

MacLeish: This is Archibald MacLeish. A 
week ago, almost to the hour, the United States 
Senate approved the United Nations Charter. But 
the impressive thing was not the approval. Every- 
one had expected that. The impressive thing 
was the vote, which was 89 for and 2 against. 



and Our Foreign Policy 1 

Twenty-five years before that vote, the Senate 
of the United States had refused to approve a 
treaty which would have put the United States 
in a League of Nations dedicated to the preven- 
tion of war by international cooperation. And 
25 years is a short time in the history of a nation. 
Or even in the life of a man. 

But even that fact — even the fact that the Char- 
ter was approved with only two votes against it 
25 years after the League of Nations was re- 
jected — is only part of the impressive story. This 
same Senate — this same Congress — not only ap- 
proved the Charter of the United Nations but 
also approved a number of other measures which, 
taken together, constitute an entirely new declara- 
tion of American foreign policy — and a declara- 
tion which, compared with the situation 25 years 
ago, is revolutionary in a very literal sense. 

Dean Acheson, who is Assistant Secretary of 
State in charge of congressional relations, has, 
of course, followed this thing from start to finish. 
I am going to ask him to give us a sort of a box 
score on the various bills and treaties. It is my 
memory, Mr. Acheson, that the first of these great 
acts of legislation was the Reciprocal Trade Agree- 
ments Act. What was the vote on that? 

Acheson: There was one very close vote on 
that issue. The main division came over an 
amendment to remove the heart of the bill — the 
provision granting the President authority to 
make new reductions of 50 percent in specific 
tariff schedules. That amendment was defeated, 
but only by a vote of 197 to 174. After that, the 
reciprocal trade bill itself passed the House of 
Representatives by a vote of 239 to 153 — approxi- 
mately a 3 to 2 majority. The Senate divided 54 
to 21 on the final vote. 

MacLeish : Then there was the vote on the Bret- 
ton Woods monetary agreements. That was over- 
whelmingly favorable. 



1 This program was the first of a new limited series of 
State Department broadcasts arranged by the National 
Broadcasting Company's University of the Air and broad- 
cast over the NBC network. 



182 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Acheson : Yes, the House of Representatives 
approved Bretton Woods by a vote of 345 to 18. 

MacLeish : But weren't there two votes in the 
Senate on that issue ? 

Acheson : Not exactly on the issue. There was 
a move to postpone Bretton Woods until Novem- 
ber 15. That was defeated 52 to 31. But the 
monetary agreements were approved 61 to 16 in 
the final vote. 

MacLeish: A companion piece to Bretton 
Woods was the United Nations Food and Agri- 
culture Organization. The question before the 
Senate there was whether or not we would act 
cooperatively with other nations to attempt to 
solve the fundamental and now critical problem 
of how to feed the peoples of the world. What 
was the score on that one, Mr. Acheson ? 

Acheson : Our membership in the Food and 
Agriculture Organization was approved by a vote 
of 291 to 25 in the House. The Senate voted 56 to 
12 in favor of taking the question up immediately. 
Once that was decided, the organization was ap- 
proved by voice vote without opposition. The 
same thing happened on the bill to increase the 
lending power of the Export-Import Bank. The 
Senate approved that unanimously, by voice vote. 

MacLeish : And all this was capped by the 
tremendous vote for the United Nations Char- 
ter— 89 to 2. 

Acheson: Or 93 to 3, according to a complete 
count, including those Senators who were not 
present for the actual vote. 

MacLeish : It is a very impressive score, and 
one of which the country can be proud. 

Acheson : The record is impressive. The pas- 
sage of these various measures was an act of high 
statesmanship on the part of Congress. 

MacLeish : I will agree to that. And I think 
the whole country will agree to it too. The Con- 
gress — which rarely gets credit for the work it 
does — will get credit for the record of this session 
not only in the newspapers now but in the history 
books afterwards. But what I am trying to get 
at is not the question of the credit. What I am 
trying to get at is the question of the underlying 
explanation of the revolution in our foreign 
policy which these measures have brought about. 
Would you look for that explanation in the con- 
gressional debates, or would you look deeper? 

Acheson : Well, I think I'd look first to the 
congressional debates. This Congress is perhaps 
the most internationally minded we have ever had. 



It has provided a more complete program of in- 
ternational cooperation than any group of legis- 
lators has ever achieved in so short a time. 

MacLeish : And to add all these measures up, 
the Congress has given us a new declaration of 
our foreign policy which says we propose as a 
nation to work out the most difficult problems 
facing us and facing the world by a program of 
cooperation with other nations. 

Acheson : That expresses it very well. 

MacLeish : But that new declaration comes 25 
years after a rejection of this whole point of view. 
'Why? 

Acheson : I think you have given the answer 
in putting your question. I think the answer is 
those 25 years. You have to remember, too, that 
the congressional debate on these various meas- 
ures — the congressional debate on the Charter, for 
example — was not the only debate going forward 
in this country on the issues involved. The people 
had been debating the specific issues involved in 
the Charter for almost a year — ever since the Dum- 
barton Oaks Proposals were made public last 
October. And that public debate was far from 
being superficial or casual. By the time the Char- 
ter reached the Senate, the country was broadly 
informed about the questions in issue and had 
pretty well made up its mind. Isn't that true, Mr. 
MacLeish ? 

MacLeish : It is absolutely right, Mr. Acheson. 
According to a recent Gallup poll, the public stood 
about 20 to 1 in favor of the Charter. That means 
that if you had taken a popular vote you would 
have had about 40 million in favor of ratifying 
the Charter and only about 2 million against it. 
But polls merely give you an impression more or 
less exact of the present position of public opin- 
ion. The really interesting question here is how 
public opinion reached that particular position. 
You say the answer is to be found in the 25 years 
of history between the vote on the League and 
the vote on the Charter. 

Acheson : I think that is pretty obvious. All 
you have to do is to look at those 25 years. They 
add up to the most terrible quarter of a century 
of which history has any record. In that genera- 
tion some 40 million human beings, some armed, 
some unarmed, were destroyed by two world wars. 
And those 40 million human beings were not all 
that war, economic disaster, and social and political 
incompetence destroyed. 

MacLeish : The former Secretary of State, Mr. 



AUGUST 5, 1945 



183 



Stettinius, summed up the losses of the present war 
in a letter he wrote the President at the end of the 
San Francisco conference, reporting on the work 
of the Conference and transmitting the Charter. 
I'd like to read a few sentences from the opening 
paragraph : 

''The total military casualties of the nations 
which had fought the European war were esti- 
mated at some fourteen millions dead and forty- 
five millions wounded or captured without count 
of the civilian dead and maimed and missing — a 
multitude of men, women, and children greater 
than the whole number of inhabitants of many 
populous countries. The destruction among them 
all of houses and the furniture of houses, of fac- 
tories, schools, shops, cities, churches, libraries, 
works of art, monuments of the past, reached in- 
expressible values. Of the destruction of other 
and less tangible things, it is not possible to speak 
in terms of cost — families scattered by the war, 
minds and spirits broken, work interrupted, years 
lost from the lives of a generation." 

Acheson : It is that last imponderable loss which 
limy perhaps be greatest in the long view of his- 
tory. The world was deprived during that quarter 
century of the best and most creative years of two 
generations of young men. 

MacLeish : I shouldn't be surprised if some his- 
torian found a name for those 25 years — a name 
which wouldn't be too complimentary to those of us 
who lived our adult years in that time. It was 
certainly the Epoch of Irresponsibility, if there 
ever were such an epoch. Moreover, it wasn't only 
men's lives and men's years and their cities and 
their goods we lost. We lost also a lot of very 
valuable things, moral and intellectual and spir- 
itual, which no statistician will ever add up and 
which no reparations commission can ever replace. 

Acheson : Well, of course, the full sum of things 
lost can't be added up even for the material destruc- 
tion. Take this country alone. In addition to 
our casualties, which are now well over a million, 
we have some 12 million men moved out of civilian 
life into the armed forces ahd other millions of men 
and women moved out of their own productive 
work into the manufacture of materials of destruc- 
tion — materials of warfare. The dislocation of 
education and economic life which all this produces 
must represent a fantastic cost, even to the statis- 
ticians, let alone these other values which, as you 
say, the statisticians can't compute. 



MacLeish : You won't have any difficulty con- 
vincing me, and I don't suppose you will have much 
difficulty convincing anyone else, that that quarter 
century was a pretty convincing schoolmaster. 
If the world can't learn from two world wars and 
a world depression, plus all sorts and kinds of 
world sicknesses, intellectual, moral, and other, 
then the world can't be taught by anything. I 
think we have to assume that the lesson has gone 
home. The question is, when did it begin to go 
home ? When did we begin to learn it ? 

Acheson : Well, we could have begun to learn in 
the invasion of Manchuria in 1931. 

MacLeish : That may be right, but certainly we 
didn't learn. Most of us in this country, and most 
of our contemporaries in other countries, attached 
very little importance to Manchuria and were de- 
lighted that the whole thing passed off, as they 
thought, with the visit of a League Commission and 
the failure of the League to face up to the issue. 

Acheson : I suppose the same thing is true of 
subsequent links in the chain — Mussolini in 
Ethiopia, and the Nazi-Fascist attack on the 
Spanish Republic. 

MacLeish : I agree — though there were a con- 
siderable number of men and women who were 
beginning to learn the lesson time was teaching 
them in Ethiopia. And there were a lot more at the 
time of the Spanish Civil War. I don't think the 
writers of the chronicles of the period have realized 
until recently how strongly American opinion is 
and was opposed to Franco and to the role played 
in Spain by Hitler and Mussolini. 

Acheson : Nevertheless, we passed the Neutral- 
ity Act in 1935 which prevented us from selling 
arms to the Spanish Republic. 

MacLeish : But the Act was never popular, and 
it is now almost universally condemned. How- 
ever, if we can't stick a pin in the record at the 
time of the Spanish Civil War and say that we 
began to learn the lesson at that time, what date 
can we fix on ? 

Acheson : I don't believe you can put it much 
before the outbreak of the present war. Certainly 
the depression hadn't taught us anything. We had 
watched one country after another going under, 
until they were finally over their heads, but neither 
we nor any other nation attempted to solve that 
problem by common action. Instead, most of the 
peoples of the world turned to measures of eco- 
nomic nationalism which simply aggravated the 



184 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



evil and did a great deal, incidentally, to bring on 
the present war. 

MacLeish : When you say that we began to learn 
our lesson at the outbreak of the present war, you 
refer, I take it, to the outbreak of the war in 
Europe and not to Pearl Harbor. 

Acheson : Yes. I would say that when the Nazis 
overran western Europe and threatened England 
we began to realize that what President Roosevelt 
was telling us was quite literally true and that the 
world was face to face with evils which could not 
be averted by the individual action of isolated na- 
tions. That lesson was pretty well driven home as 
we watched nation after nation topple over on 
the European continent. 

MacLeish : What action on our part would seem 
to you to express our understanding of the realities 
of the world— our awakening from the long dream 
of irresponsibility? 

Acheson : The big landmark, in my opinion, was 
the destroyer-base deal in 1940 — the trade of 50 
over-age destroyers to the British for the right to 
establish military bases in British territories in 
this hemisphere. 

MacLeish : What about the passage of the lend- 
lease legislation the next year? It was the next 
year, wasn't it? 

Acheson : Yes, March 1941. 

MacLeish : The adoption of that legislation 
certainly proved something about our attitude 
toward the world. You couldn't remain isolation- 
ist and operate as the arsenal of democracy. 

Acheson : I agree. But neither the destroyer- 
base agreement nor the lend-lease legislation com- 
pares, I suppose, with the final fact of the war 
itself. The fact that we had to fight this war at 
all was unarguable proof that our former policies 
had been failures. 

MacLeish : In any case, the Congress which 
passed the measures we are talking about had be- 
hind it the conviction which that quarter century 
supplied. No one who could hear their voices was 
going to vote against the American dead of two 
great wars. That may explain the tremendous dif- 
ference between the debate on the Charter last 
week and the debate on the League 25 years ago. 

Last time the issues got all balled up, by the in- 
clusion of all sorts of irrelevant questions. You 
remember how former Senator Jim Watson de- 
scribed a dinner with Senator Henry Cabot Lodge 

'As I Knew Them. Memoirs of James E. Watson 
(Bobbs-Merrill, Iudianapolis, 1930.) 



at which he — Watson — said, "Senator, . . . 
I don't see how we are ever going to defeat this 
proposition. It appears to me that 80 percent of 
the people are for it." And, according to Mr. 
Watson, Senator Lodge answered, "Ah, my dear 
James, I do not propose to try to beat it by direct 
frontal attack, but by the indirect method of res- 
ervations." 1 That sort of thing didn't happen this 
time. There was no serious attempt to obscure the 
issues. Or was there? 

Acheson: No. The issue w 7 as clear this time. 
During the hearings before the Committee on For- 
eign Relations, for example, the discussion was on 
the adoption of the Charter, not on side issues. 

MacLeish : And hardly a single responsible or- 
ganization sent representatives to the hearings to 
oppose the Charter. Of course there were certain 
individuals and organizations who appeared 
against it, but the organizations which testified for 
it spoke for a total membership of about 50 million 
people. 

Acheson : Yes, and actually some 40 of these 
national organizations participated actively in the 
San Francisco conference as consultants to the 
United States Delegation. 

MacLeish : Would you say the very one-sided 
vote in the Committee and in the Senate meant 
that there were no controversial points encountered 
during the consideration of the Charter? 

Acheson: Yes, Mr. MacLeish, that i9 true in 
general. There was hardly a provision in the 
Charter which caused any serious opposition. But 
there was one point on which there was consid- 
erable discussion, both in the Committee and on 
the floor of the Senate. 

MacLeish : You're referring, of course, to the 
question of the interpretation of the famous 
article 43. 

Acheson : Exactly. That's the article by which 
the members of the United Nations undertake to 
make available to the Security Council, on its call 
and in accordance with special agreements to be 
negotiated later, armed forces and facilities nec- 
essary for maintaining international peace and 
security. The agreements which are to be entered 
into between the members and the Security Coun- 
cil will specify the numbers and types of forces 
to be contributed, the places in which they will be 
stationed, and so forth. The Charter provides 
that these agreements will be ratified by each mem- 
ber nation in accordance with its constitutional 
processes. 



AUGUST 5, 1945 



185 



MacLeish : Then suppose you explain what all 
the discussion was about in the Senate. 

Acheson : The question was whether this article 
by itself imposes upon the member nations an 
obligation to supply forces to the Security Coun- 
cil — or whether another treaty would have to be 
negotiated to create such an obligation. 

MacLeish : That would have left our position 
on this important question open to some doubt, 
would it not, Dean? 

Acheson : That's right, Archie. But fortu- 
nately that interpretation did not prevail. One of 
the most impressive aspects of the debate in the 
Senate was the practical unanimity with which 
Senators of both parties stated positively that the 
time to decide this question was now. The debate 
made it clear that the ratification of the Charter 
imposes upon the United States the absolute ob- 
ligation to make armed forces and facilities avail- 
able to the Security Council in order to help main- 
tain peace and security. 

MacLeish : Under that interpretation then, 
since the obligation is established now, the later 
military agreements will be concerned solely with 
working out the details of this obligation. 

Acheson: Yes. And these agreements would 
hot be considered as treaties so far as this country 
is concerned. Before the conclusion of the debate, 
President Truman sent a communication to the 
Senate in which he stated his intention, when any 
such agreements are negotiated, to ask the Con- 
gress to approve them by appropriate legislation. 
This means legislation to be passed by a majority 
of both Houses of Congress, under the constitu- 
tional power of Congress to raise and support 
armies and make rules for the regulation of our 
armed forces. 

MacLeish : Does this question have any bearing 
upon that other widely discussed question of the 
power of the American Delegate on the Security 
Council — that is, whether he will be empowered to 
supply contingents of United States forces to take 
part in enforcement action by the Security Coun- 
cil? 

Acheson. : Yes. It was brought out during the 
same debate that the ratification of this Charter, 
with article 43 in it, vests in the President the 
power and obligation to execute the provisions of 
the Charter. Therefore if the Security Council 
should decide to take enforcement action, the 
President will have the power and the obligation 
to call up such United States forces as we shall 



have made available under the Charter and the 
military agreements. This necessarily flows from 
the ratification of the Charter. Any restrictions 
upon the power of the President to call upon these 
forces . . . 

MacLeish : You mean for example a require- 
ment that he secure congressional approval each 
time the forces are called out? 

Acheson: Exactly. Any such requirement 
would be inconsistent with our obligations under 
the Charter. I believe the Senate debate produced 
a clear understanding of both of these questions. 

MacLeish : The strategy that was used to block 
our approval of the League Covenant in 1919 and 
1920 — the strategy described by Senator Lodge — 
then, had little chance of succeeding this time — if 
it is tried. 

Acheson: President Roosevelt and Secretary 
Hull decided long ago that the events of 1919 and 
1920 would not be repeated. Two years of careful 
planning went into our proposals at Dumbarton 
Oaks. During this whole period leading members 
of the Senate and House, from both political par- 
ties, participated fully in the preparations. And 
of course four of our seven delegates at San Fran- 
cisco were members of Congress — and they did a 
magnificent job. The Conference out there was 
held in a blaze of publicity, so that there could be 
no charge of secret agreements this time. When 
the issues finally came to a vote, Senators Connally 
and Vandenberg, who played an important part 
in drawing up the Charter, were its most effective 
spokesmen. 

MacLeish : And it was not handicapped by be- 
ing tied up to a controversial peace treaty, as was 
the League of Nations Covenant. 

Acheson: But let's not forget that there is a 
whole series of decisions yet to be made before we 
will be able to participate fully in an effectively 
functioning United Nations Organization. First 
we must complete the formal task of organizing, 
including the selection of our delegates and the 
setting up of the various councils and commis- 
sions. Then we will have to negotiate the military 
agreements. And while a trusteeship system has 
been created by the Charter, the determination of 
the exact areas to be placed under trusteeship has 
been left for later agreement. 

MacLeish : And won't each nation also have to 
decide for itself on the extent to which it will sub- 
mit its international disputes to the new Interna- 
tional Court of Justice? 



186 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Aciieson : Yes, and the necessary funds for the 
costs of the Organization will have to be supplied. 
And in the case of some countries, including our 
own, legislation will be necessary to extend privi- 
leges and immunities to the Organization and its 
officials. 

MacLeisii : In other words, there are difficult 
steps still to take. But I think it is important to 
point out that the steps already taken haven't 
been easy, however one-sided the vote on the Char- 
ter may look. No decision is easy which has cost 
a people what this one has cost us — what it has 
cost us to learn that, in the modern world, the 
policy of irresponsibility is the policy of disaster 
and death. People who say that the Charter can't 
amount to much because there was so little con- 
troversy about it forget that the decision to take 
this step had been long in making. Of course, 
there are always people who are really opposed 
to a program of international cooperation but 
aren't willing to come out and say so. As Tom 
Stokes said the other day, they "console them- 
selves'' with the argument that the Charter doesn't 
mean much anyway. Then there are always the 
perfectionists who think the Charter doesn't go 
far enough in the direction of world government. 
They are sincere, but they forget that world action 
requires world agreement and that world agree- 
ment is very difficult to come by. San Francisco 
went considerably farther than we had a right to 
believe it would. But what none of these people 
realize is the fact that the legislation we are talk- 
ing about — the measures passed by Congress in 
the last few months — it seems to me constitute a 
virtual revolution in our foreign policy. 

Acheson : I agree. Our whole foreign policy 
has been reoriented, reimplemented. It's not sim- 
ply the Charter, but the whole pattern of cooper- 
ation that has emerged — Bretton Woods, the re- 
ciprocal-trade act, and the others — that will really 
make it possible to deal with some of the causes 
of wars and depressions. 

MacLeish : I don't think most people realize 
quite how far-reaching that legislative program 
is. I'd like to see you put the various parts to- 
gether, Dean, and show how they make sense — 
show what the pattern is. Let's start with the 
Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act. 

Aciieson : When that bill came to a vote, it 
was apparent that the principle of lowering the 
tariff by negotiation and concessions from both 
sides was well established and generally approved. 



MacLeisii : It is approved by a 7-to-l majority 
of the general public, according to one opinion 
poll. 

Acheson : The real issue was not extension of 
the trade agreements already entered into — that 
was universally approved — but the proposal to 
give the President power to make an additional 
50 percent cut in those tariff schedules which had 
already been lowered. AVe felt that was necessary 
this year, to give us the authority, the bargaining 
power, that was needed to get further concessions 
from other nations, in the interests of increased 
world trade. Fortunately, that authority was in- 
cluded in the act. 

MacLeisii : And hand in hand with that was 
the approval of the Bretton AVoods agreement, 
aimed at stabilizing trade relations after the war. 

Aciieson : They do go together. If Bretton 
AVoods had not been approved along with the 
United Nations Charter, we would have been off 
to a very bad start in our post-war international 
relations. You can't have healthy world com- 
merce unless you have stable currencies through- 
out the world, and an efficient mechanism for 
exchanging money, especially during a period of 
reconstruction such as the world is entering now. 

MacLeisii : As I see it, the money we are put- 
ting up on the Bretton AA T oods deal is not a gift 
but an investment. The loans made or guaran- 
teed by the Bank will be carefully selected and 
strict limits will be placed on the use of the Fund 
to protect our interests there. 

Aciieson: And the Bretton AA T oods Bank and 
Fund are absolutely necessary, if we're even to 
begin to plug the trade gap that will result when 
lend-lease is stopped at the end of the war. Under 
lend-lease the United States has become the great- 
est exporter in world history— $38,972,000,000 
worth of goods up to last April. AA 7 e must do 
everything we can to build up normal peacetime 
trade to take the place of a part of these lend- 
lease exports. AA r e also need a lot of imports. 
AAVve been digging too deeply into our own re- 
sources these past few years. And we can't pro- 
duce efficiently without imported materials. Why, 
one of our greatest industries — automobiles — im- 
ports more than 300 commodities, in order to keep 
quality up and prices down. If it tried to do 
without these commodities, the automobiles we 
would buy would be almost as heavy as a truck 
and last about as long as a kiddy-car. 

MacLeisii : But now, what about the enlarge- 



AUGUST 5, 1945 



187 



ment of the Export-Import Bank? Where does 
that fit into the picture? 

Acheson: The bill to increase the Export-Im- 
port Bank's lending authority from 700 million 
dollars to 3 billion, 500 million, is another move 
to help the war-torn countries get back on their 
feet and to assist in the development of other 
countries. The ultimate aim, of course, is to stim- 
ulate world trade. Through our Export-Import 
Bank we can lend money on our own, quite apart 
from the International Bank. "We have been 
helping to finance trade through this same bank 
for a long time, with very good results. Congress 
voted to expand the Export-Import Bank because 
it will help the devastated countries during the 
crucial period between the end of lend-lease and 
the establishment of the International Bank and 
Fund some 18 months from now. And we'll be 
lending our money, not giving it away. 

MacLeisii: And finally, there's our member- 
ship in the United Nations Food and Agriculture 
Organization, which was proposed at the Hot 
Springs conference last year. This is a long-range 
proposition, for pooling the knowledge and tech- 
nical resources of the United Nations to help raise 
living standards everywhere and to make famine 
a thing of the past. If that can be accomplished, 
one of the causes of international friction will 
be removed and the whole world will be more 
peaceful and more prosperous. 

Acheson : There is no certainty that the meas- 
ures taken so far will bring about peace and eco- 
nomic security among the United Nations. But 
taken together, they will implement the Charter 
and make its operation easier. They will provide 
the tools for building an orderly post-war world, 
if we of the United States and the United Nations 
have the intelligence to use them. Our approval 
of the Charter, and of Bretton Woods, and Food 
and Agriculture as well, gave notice that we are 
100 percent behind the new framework for eco- 
nomic cooperation. 

MacLeish: Of course all of these — the Inter- 
national Bank, the Monetary Fund, and the Food 
and Agriculture Organization — will come under 
the Economic and Social Council of the United 
Nations. That Council will provide the means of 
pulling the specialized agencies together — coor- 
dinating them, so they won't get in each other's 
way. And additional agencies will be set up under 
the Economic and Social Council, as time goes on. 
On November 1, for example, a United Nations 



Conference on Education will convene in London. 
The United States will be represented there, and 
a charter for a United Nations office of education 
and culture will be adopted. This new Organiza- 
tion will act as a clearing house for educational 
information. Eventually it will take its place 
along with other international organizations under 
the Economic and Social Council. 

Acheson: We'll see whether a group of teach- 
ers, Archie — 

MacLeish: And scientists and writers and ar- 
tists as well — 

Acheson : We'll see whether they can draw up a 
charter as quickly as the government officials who 
wrote the United Nations Charter in San Fran- 
cisco. And while we're on the subject, I might add 
that a United Nations trade conference is tenta- 
tively scheduled for the first of next year. At that 
conference we may be able to gain wider interna- 
tional acceptance for our reciprocal trade agree- 
ments policy, and world-wide agreement to lower 
trade barriers of all types. 

MacLeish : Such a United Nations trade organ- 
ization would also come under the Economic and 
Social Council. It all comes back to the United 
Nations Charter. That will be the framework for 
the whole system of cooperation. The Charter is 
fundamental. We hope that other nations will fol- 
low our lead, and the United Nations will become 
a going concern in the near future. How long 
would you say it will take, Dean? 

Acheson: It shouldn't take more than a few 
months, Archie, in my opinion. Of course, all five 
major powers and a majority of the others — 28 in 
all — must ratify the Charter. Four have already 
done so, and many others are preparing to act. 
The new Labor administration in Great Britain 
has stated that the Charter will be the first order 
of business for the new Parliament, when it meets. 
Things are moving along. 

MacLeish: The important thing to realize is 
that our ratification of the Charter is only the 
beginning of a new era of cooperation with other 
nations — a good beginning, one offering great hope 
for the future, but still only the initial step along 
the new path we are taking. The United Nations 
Organization will succeed only if the people of 
this country and other countries are determined to 
make it work, determined to build on it and im- 
prove it. No treaty or charter, by itself, can stop 
wars and bring about an orderly world. Only the 
will to cooperate can do that. 



188 

Acheson : And we won't find cooperation easy. 
It's hard enough for members of a family to get 
along together, or partners in a business, or neigh- 
bors in a small town. It will be far more difficult 
for 50 nations, speaking different languages and 
having different interests, to work together in the 
United Nations. Nations are just as difficult as 
people — in fact, more so. We think some of our 
Allies are a bit difficult at times. AVe can be diffi- 
cult ourselves, from their point of view. But we 
all know now that we've got to get along together, 
or there will be very little hope for the peace of the 
world. 

MacLeish : I think that San Francisco showed 
the almost universal realization of that fact. We'll 
have to work hard at maintaining our new-found 
unity with the world, and implementing it, in the 
period ahead. That may be more difficult, as Dean 
Acheson has pointed out, than writing the Charter 
itself. But the people of America have the will, 
and the faith in humanity, that are needed to see 
this thing through — all the way. 

Announcer : Thank you, Mr. MacLeish and Mr. 
Acheson, for a most revealing picture of the new 
framework of our foreign policy. You have been 
listening to the first of a new series of State De- 
partment broadcasts on the problems of building 
the peace. This introductory broadcast featured 
Assistant Secretary of State Dean Acheson and 
Assistant Secretary Archibald MacLeish, in a 
discussion of the United Nations Charter and our 
foreign policy. The discussion was adapted for 
radio by Selden Menefee. . . . This was the 
twenty-fifth of a series of broadcasts on "Our 
Foreign Policy", presented as a public service by 
the NBC University of the Air. 

Printed copies of this broadcast are available at 
10 cents each, in coin. If you would like to receive 
copies of 13 of these broadcasts, send $1 to cover 
the cost of printing and mailing. Special rates are 
available for large orders. Address your order to 
the NBC University of the Air, Radio City, New 
York W, New York. NBC also invites your ques- 
tions and comments. 

Next week Assistant Secretary of State Mac- 
Leish will discuss aspects of "Our Foreign Policy" 
with other State Department officials. We hope 
that you will be with us during the coming weeks 
for these new State Department programs. 

This is Kennedy Ludlam speaking. This pro- 
gram came to you from Washington, D. C. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

Commercial Agreement 
With Chile 

[Released to the press August 2] 

The Governments of the United States and Chile 
concluded on July 30, 1945 by means of an exchange 
of notes a provisional commercial agreement 
whereby the Chilean Government granted to the 
commerce of the United States, without compen- 
sation, reductions in the Chilean import duties on 
certain commodities, the reductions to continue in 
force for a period of one year unless the agreement 
is superseded within that time by a more compre- 
hensive commercial agreement. The agreement 
may also be terminated by either Government upon 
giving 30 days' notice. 

The Government of Chile announced that its 
decision to make these unilateral duty concessions 
was taken in the interest of the expansion and 
liberalization of trade in accordance with the eco- 
nomic objectives of the Atlantic Charter and of the 
recent Inter-American Conference on Problems of 
War and Peace at Mexico City. 

Both Governments took advantage of the oc- 
casion to express a willingness to undertake nego- 
tiations for the conclusion of a treaty of friendship, 
commerce, and navigation. 

The exchange of notes took place in Santiago 
between the American Ambassador and the Acting 
Minister of Foreign Affairs of Chile. The new 
agreement does not affect the provisional com- 
mercial agreement between the United States and 
Chile which has been in force since February 1, 
1938. 

Most-Favored-Nation 
Treatment 

Venezuela-Haiti 

The American Embassy at Caracas informed 
the Department, in a despatch dated July 17, 1945, 
that the Government of Venezuela had renewed 
the extension to Haiti for one year of most- 
favored-nation customs treatment with respect to 
imports from Haiti. The renewal was made effec- 
tive by a communication from the Acting Minister 
for Foreign Affairs of Venezuela to the Charge 
d'Affaires of Haiti, the text of the communication 
being published in the Gaceta Of, rial of Venezuela 
of July 16, 1945. 



AUGUST 5, 1945 



189 



Anglo-American Unity in Argentina 



Address by SPRUILLE BRADEN 



TODAY I AM HAPPY INDEED to follow in the Steps 
of my distinguished predecessor and friend, 
Mr. Norman Armour, and thus to find myself in 
this splendid company. Especially proud am I 
to be the guest of the British Chamber of Com- 
merce in the Argentine Republic, an organization 
with a long record of fellowship, cooperation, and 
of signal service to its members, to the ideals of the 
truly great nation that is theirs and to this hospi- 
table country in which it has its being. 

You, Mr. Chairman, have greatly eased the way 
for me because the timeliness and cogency of your 
remarks make it unnecessary for me to search for 
a topic on which to speak. I have only to en- 
dorse — as I most whole-heartedly do — and expand 
somewhat on what you have said. 

It is profoundly satisfying to have you under- 
score the intimate and cordial collaboration and 
friendship which link the British and American 
communities who reside in this great Republic of 
Argentina. That such a close relationship should 
exist is entirely fitting and in keeping with the 
underlying sentiment of our two peoples and 
therefore with the basic policies of the British and 
American Governments. 

In the face of this Anglo-American unity every 
"insidious and mendacious" attempt to obstruct 
our concerted efforts, to create jealousies, or to 
drive a wedge between us has failed and always 
will fail. 

Those "foolish and unthinking people" who 
make these vain attempts commit the egregious 
blunder of ignoring or forgetting the facts. 

They ignore the facts of history; they forget 
that the United States is a great and independ- 
ent nation because Englishmen in the colonies so 
willed it and Englishmen in England recognized 
the logic and rightness of our ambitions. They 
forget that when the independence of the United 
States of America was won we Americans fought 
not so much to gain new liberties as to recover 
those which had already been enjoyed but which 
had been proscribed or restricted. There had 
been, through the colonial assemblies, a consider- 



able measure of self-rule, so that the urge for 
separation from the mother country reached a 
crisis only when it was sought at long range to 
impair certain of our liberties, to tax without 
representation, and to limit our freedom of trade. 
There was strong support for our cause in the 
homeland, where thinking men recognized that 
the treatment accorded us simultaneously jeopar- 
dized their own liberties. Chatham, Burke, and 
other great leaders in Parliament energetically 
defended us and our claims, and Washington's 
victories contributed towards the elimination of 
personal government and to the spreading of the 
democratic system throughout England and the 
other colonies. 

Those presumptuous "wedge drivers" forget 
that you and we — the British and the Americans — 
form two great national systems founded on the 
proposition that the democratic way of life is the 
only onei compatible with the ideal of human 
freedom and justice. The experiences of both 
our peoples have demonstrated the soundness of 
that proposition. Also, we have proved that 
within our democratic framework the free and 
constant quest of universal spiritual and material 
well-being is possible. Indeed, not only is it 
possible ; it is a natural concomitant of our demo- 
cratic processes. 

The concept of democracy, which had its true 
birth in seventeenth-century England, spread to 
all the world through the founding of the United 
States, the French Revolution, and the hard-won 
independence of all the American republics. So 
now there are two great international systems — ■ 
the British Commonwealth of Nations and the 21 
American republics — which hold that the ethical 
concept of the state, of the body politic, is that 
government must emanate from and serve the sov- 
ereign will of the people. The state is a consciously 
chosen physical and moral expression of that popu- 
lar will. We are not even sure where government 



1 Delivered before the British Chamber of Commerce in 
the Argentine Republic, Buenos Aires, June 19, 1945. Mr. 
Braden is American Ambassador to Argentina. 



190 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



leaves off and people begin. The self-interests of 
the one are the self-interests of the other. 

Thus by the evolutionary development of demo- 
cratic ideals and processes the peoples of Argen- 
tina. Great Britain and the Dominions, and the 
United States now stand as one, with their Allies, 
dedicated to the defense of those principles. More- 
over, we know full well that the imperative need 
for continuing that defense in full vigor has not 
ended with the unconditional surrender of Ger- 
many nor will it end with that of Japan. On the 
contrary, as Sir William has so wisely warned us, 
the Nazis and their sympathizers have not dis- 
appeared. Underground and even in the open, 
when they dare, they will be more active than ever 
before. We must be constantly alert to expose 
and destroy the propaganda of canards and lies, 
spread here and elsewhere — everywhere — by our 
common enemies, by their agents, by their mis- 
guided disciples, and by the victims of their evil 
preachments. All of them have been and still are 
our common enemies; all of them have been and 
still are enemies of civilization and of human de- 
cency. So long as any of them remain, anywhere 
in the world, with the possibility of continuing 
their vile campaigns, or of renewing them, just so 
long must we wage the fight to stamp them out. 
We have got to be unremitting. We have got to be 
ruthless where necessary. They must be put out 
of action. Their treachery and craze for power 
must be eradicated. Their brutalized followers 
have to be reeducated where possible and otherwise 
rendered harmless. Theirs is a disease that can- 
not be treated by half-way measures. There will 
always be the danger of its breaking out again in 
all-consuming epidemic waves, so long as a focal 
point of infection, or even a single live germ cell, 
is allowed to exist. 

The present war had its real beginning in 1918, 
at the end of what was supposed to be the war to 
end all wars. Then, and in the years following, 
we mistakenly trusted and attributed good inten- 
tions to a people whose national mind, already 
predisposed, was increasingly sickened through ar- 
rogance and hallucinations and became incapable 
of distinguishing between good and bad. 

We made the mistake of being lenient — but only 
because we wanted to be humanitarian, and so we 
can be forgiven for that. But never could we be 
forgiven were we to make the same kind of mistake 
again. 

Here there is much to be done in cooperation with 



the Argentine people and authorities. I can speak 
frankly because Argentina is our Ally and be- 
cause she, together with the other 20 republics at 
Chapultepec, has, amongst many joint obligations, 
solemnly agreed that the war criminals shall be 
tried and sentenced; that centers of Axis sub- 
versive influence throughout the hemisphere shall 
be eradicated ; and that enemy properties, invest- 
ments, and other holdings (beginning with those 
stolen from their victims) shall be sought out, im- 
mobilized, and controlled. To extirpate this loath- 
some growth we must tear it out by the roots. 
To do so thoroughly will require the unrelaxing co- 
operation of all the Allied governments and 
peoples. We must cut sharply and deeply with the 
firmness and speed of the skilled surgeon. 

Due to circumstances with which we are all well 
acquainted, Great Britain and the United States 
are the two nations best equipped to offer Argen- 
tina the most effective assistance in this task of 
stamping out the nefarious activities of our com- 
mon enemies. By giving our all-out collabora- 
tion we shall not only be fulfilling our joint com- 
mitments but we shall also be contributing to the 
glorious future of this great country in its tradi- 
tion of democracy and human freedom. 

The Axis propagandists, of course, endeavor to 
spread rumors that to eradicate their fifth col- 
umnists and to wrest from them the control of 
their enterprises is too complicated a job and that 
it will impair Argentine economy. 

What drivel ! Such allegations are not even 
worth the breath I have used to utter them. We 
are all jointly and severally obligated to purge 
every phase of the national life of every American 
republic of all Axis influence and participation, in 
business or otherwise, irrespective of how difficult 
or costly the undertaking may be. But as a matter 
of fact it will be neither difficult nor costly. The 
elimination and control of Axis firms and individ- 
uals elsewhere has been accomplished easily and 
speedily. In each case the country involved has 
protected both itself and its neighbors. Virtue 
has not only been its own reward but has also 
brought material benefits. 

To be specific, some of the Nazi and Japanese 
firms here clearly are of no importance whatever 
to Argentine national economy. They often were 
established for other than commercial reasons — 
reasons so obvious as to call for no comment. Such 
firms are sources of danger, nothing less. They 
should rapidly be eliminated and then forgotten. 



AUGUST 5, 1945 



191 



There are, however, many enemy firms with 
established industries that must be continued as 
units of Argentine production. But they are in 
treacherous hands so long as they are in enemy 
hands. In such hands they are an intolerable 
source of danger. 

Luckily, the solution is simple. The Axis firms 
in question can easily be converted into Argentine 
enterprises. Argentina would get rid of the ene- 
mies within her own and this hemisphere's gates, 
and she would simultaneously take a long step 
toward building up her national industry. 

I see no reason for delay. In view of what the 
Germans and Japanese have proved to be, in view 
of their deeds so repugnant to all decent men and 
women, and in view of the fact that their presence 
here is a constant menace to a country now at war 
with them as it is also to the American continent 
and to the rest of the civilized world, the Argen- 
tinizing of their industrial establishments would 
be an act of justice and equity. 

Argentina possesses the financial, technical, and 
practical ability to take over those industries and 
to make full profitable use of their productive ca- 
pacity. They would then be industries entirely 
owned and run by Argentines for Argentines. It 
would benefit not only this country's industry, 
trade, and commerce but also indirectly those 
of all other civilized nations. Should any in- 
stance arise when assistance may be required 
temporarily in taking over these Axis industries 
or businesses, my Government would gladly en- 
deavor to help a democratic Argentina, but 
always on the strict understanding that, in 
keeping with the good-neighbor policy, they shall 
become exclusively Argentine at the earliest 
possible moment. We do not seek or expect, nor 
will we accept, any ownership or permanent par- 
ticipation in those enterprises. They must remain 
Argentine. 

Gentlemen, your distinguished chairman with 
clarity, vision, and conciseness has touched on 
other important topics. I am heartily in accord 
with his views, but I shall reserve my expressions 
of conformity for some other occasion when we 
may be together, and may I add that I hope there 
will be many opportunities for us to forgather. 
I am fully "aware of the good fellowship and 
close collaboration which prevail between the 
American and British communities here". It is 
my earnest desire to cooperate with all of you, in 
every way possible, within the pattern of fellow- 



ship and collaboration, to the end that we may 
fortify and expand that constructive and kindly 
relationship in all directions. 

For the honor the British Chamber of Com- 
merce and each of you have done me, please ac- 
cept my sincere and abiding thanks. 

Trade and Payments 
Agreement 

Turkey-United Kingdom 

The American Minister at Ankara transmitted 
to the Secretary of State, with a despatch dated 
July 2, 1945, the text of the Trade and Payments 
Agreement between the United Kingdom and Tur- 
key which was signed at London May 4, with 
Protocol. This new agreement, which has been 
published as British Command Paper 6632; ab- 
rogates the Anglo-Turkish Trade and Payments 
Agreement of February 3, 1940, as extended; it 
came into force May 21, 1945, to remain in force 
until April 30, 1946 and for periods of one year 
thereafter unless three months' notice of termina- 
tion is given by either party. 

The new agreement modifies the earlier agree- 
ment principally on two points. It excludes the 
"gold clauses" which required that Great Britain 
make payment to Turkey in gold in connection with 
certain purchases from Turkey and on certain 
balances to Turkish credit in the United Kingdom. 
Article 4 of the new agreement provides that the 
Bank of England, acting for the United Kingdom, 
will endeavor to arrange for Turkey to use her 
sterling balances in London for current payments 
to residents of other countries outside the sterling 
area, as opportunity offers. 

The agreement provides for a review of its terms 
and for appropriate amendments, in the event that 
either country becomes a party to an international 
monetary agreement. 

The agreement does not contain any provision 
for inclusion of Turkey in the sterling bloc. 

Merchant Shipping 

Chile 

The Government of Chile has acceded to the 
Agreement on Principles Having Reference to the 
Continuance of Coordinated Control of Merchant 
Shipping, which was signed at London August 5, 
1944. The accession of Chile was accepted and 
became effective July 27, 1945. 



192 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Orders by the Supreme Commander, Allied Expeditionary Force 
Relating to Army and Air Forces Under German Control 



1. Local commanders of Army and Air Forces 
under German control on the Western Front, m 
NORWAY and in the CHANNEL ISLANDS 
will hold themselves in readiness to receive de- 
tailed orders for the surrender of their forces 
from the Supreme Commander's subordinate com- 
manders opposite their front. 

2. In the case of NORWAY the Supreme Com- 
mander's representatives will be the General Offi- 
cer Commanding-in-Chief, Scottish Command and 
Air Officer Commanding 13 Group RAF. 



3. In the case of the CHANNEL ISLANDS 

the Supreme Commander's representatives will be 
the General Officer Commanding-in-Chief, South- 
ern Command and Air Officer Commanding 10 
Group RAF. 

Signed Walter B Smith 
For the Supreme Commander, AEF. 
Dated 0241 7th May, 1945. 
Rheims, France 



Special Orders by the Supreme Commander, Allied Expeditionary 
Force to the German High Command Relating to Naval Forces 



For the purpose of these orders the term 
"Allied Representatives" shall be deemed 
to include the Supreme Commander, Al- 
lied Expeditionary Force, and any subor- 
dinate commander, staff officer or agent 
acting pursuant to his orders. 

SPECIAL ORDERS BY THE SUPREME COMMANDER, 
ALLIED EXPEDITIONARY FORCE TO THE GER- 
MAN HIGH COMMAND RELATING TO NAVAL 
FORCES 

Part I General 

Definition of Naval Forces 

1. For the purpose of these orders all forma- 
tions, units and personnel of the German Navy to- 
gether with the Marine Kusten Polizei shall be 
referred to as the German Naval Forces. 

2. Members of the Marine Kusten Polizei will 
immediately be placed under the command of the 
appropriate German Naval Commanders who will 
be responsible for their disarmament and disci- 
pline, as well as for their maintenance and supply 
where applicable, to the same extent and degree as 
for units of the German Navy. 



German Naval Representatives and information 
required immediately 
3. The German High Command will despatch 
within 48 hours after the surrender becomes ef- 
fective, a responsible Flag Officer to the Allied 
Naval Commander, Expeditionary Force at his 
Headquarters. This Flag Officer will furnish the 
Allied Naval Commander, Expeditionary Force, 
with :- 

a. Corrected copies of charts showing all 
minefields in Western European waters, including 
the BALTIC as far as LUBECK (inclusive) 
which have been laid by German and German- 
controlled vessels or aircraft, positions of all 
wrecks, booms and other underwater obstructions 
in this area, details of the German convoy routes 
and searched channels and of all buoys, lights and 
other navigational aids in this area. The appro- 
priate navigational publications are also required. 

b. Details of the exact location of all depart- 
ments and branches of the German Admiralty 
(OKM). 

c. All available information concerning the 
numbers and types of German minesweepers and 
sperrbrechers in German controlled Dutch ports 



AUGUST 5, 1945 



193 



and German NORTH SEA ports that can be ob- 
tained without delaying his departure. This Ger- 
man Flag Officer is to be accompanied by a Com- 
munications Officer who is familiar with the 
German Naval W/T organization and who is to 
bring with him the current naval communication 
Orders, including allocation of frequencies, list of 
W/T and R/T call signs in force, and a list of all 
codes and cyphers in use, and intended to be 
brought into use. 

d. Location of all surface warships down to 
and including "Elbing" class Torpedo Boats, and 
of all submarines and 'E' Boats. 

4. The German High Command will also des- 
patch within 48 hours after the surrender becomes 
effective a responsible officer, not below the rank of 
Captain, by coastal craft to report to the Admiral 
Commanding at DOVER for onward routing to 
Commander-in-Chief, THE NORE, with:- 

a. Corrected copies of charts showing all 
minefields in the NORTH SEA SOUTH of 
54°30' NORTH and EAST of 1°30' EAST laid by 
German and German-controlled vessels or air- 
craft, positions of all wrecks, booms and all other 
underwater obstructions; details of all German 
Convoy routes and searched channels in this area, 
and of all buoys, lights and other navigational aids 
which are under German control. Appropriate 
navigational publications are also required. 

b. All available information concerning the 
numbers and types of German minesweepers and 
sperrbrechers in German controlled Dutch ports 
and German NORTH SEA ports that can be ob- 
tained without delaying his departure. 

5. Another responsible German Naval Officer, 
with similar information is to be despatched by 
unescorted aircraft painted white to MANSTON 
Aerodrome position 51°20' NORTH, 01°20' 
EAST for onward routing to Commander-in- 
Chief, THE NORE. 

6. The German High Command will issue in- 
structions to certain German naval commands as 
indicated below :- 

a. The Naval Commander-in-Chief, NORTH 
SEA will despatch by coastal craft within 48 hours 
after the surrender becomes effective a responsible 
officer, not below the rank of Captain, to the Ad- 
miral Commanding at DOVER for onward rout- 
ing to Commander-in-Chief, THE NORE, with :- 

(1) details of minesweeping operations carried 
out in the German convoy route between the 



HOOK OF HOLLAND and HAMBURG and 

in approaches to harbours between these two 
ports during the previous 60 days ; 

(2) numbers and positions of all British mines 
swept during these operations ; 

(3) details of all controlled minefields in this 
area and information whether they have been 
rendered ineffective ; 

(4) details of all other mining and types of 
mines employed in the harbours and harbour 
approaches of CUXHAVEN, EMDEN, TER- 
SCHELLING, TEXEL, IJMUIDEN, AM- 
STERDAM, SCHEVENINGEN, HOOK OF 
HOLLAND and ROTTERDAM; 

(5) berthing facilities in the harbours enumer- 
ated in paragraph 6a. (4) above and the num- 
bers of auxiliary minesweepers which can be 
accommodated ; 

(6) a list of all W/T and R/T call signs in use 
by the German Navy. 

Any of the above information which cannot be 
obtained without delaying the departure of this 
officer will be forwarded subsequently as soon as 
it is available. 

b. The Naval Commander-in-Chief, NORTH 
SEA, will also despatch as soon as possible by 
coastal craft to DOVER thirteen German Naval 
Officers who must be familiar with the German 
swept channels between the HOOK OF HOL- 
LAND and CUXHAVEN. These officers will 
bring with them all the charts and books required 
for navigation in this area and will be accompa- 
nied by pilots (and interpreters if necessary). 

c. The Naval Commander-in-Chief, NOR- 
WAY, will despatch by sea within 48 hours after 
the surrender becomes effective, a responsible offi- 
cer, not below the rank of Captain to the Com- 
mander-in-Chief, ROSYTH, with corrected copies 
of charts showing all German minefields in the 
NORTH SEA, NORTH of 56° NORTH, all 
wrecks, booms and other underwater obstructions, 
details of German convoy routes and searched 
channels in this area, of the approach channels 
to the principal Norwegian ports and of all buoys, 
lights and other navigational aids in this area. 
This officer will also bring with him the disposi- 
tion of all 'U' Boats and details of all orders af- 
fecting their future movements. He will be accom- 
panied by six German Naval Officers with pilots 
(and interpreters if necessary) who are familiar 
with the coastal swept channels between OSLO 
and TROMSO. These officers will bring with 



194 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



them all the charts and books required for naviga- 
tion in Norwegian waters, and a list of all W/T 
and R/T call signs in use by the German Navy. 

d. The Naval Commander-in-Chief, NOR- 
WAY, will despatch a duplicate party to the above 
with similar information by air in unescorted air- 
craft painted white to DREM Airfield 56' 02' 
NORTH 02°48' WEST. 

e. The Naval Commander-in-Chief, NOR- 
WAY, will report by W/T to the Commander-in- 
Chief, ROSYTH, within 48 hours after the sur- 
render becomes effective, the following informa- 
tion :- 

( 1 ) Berthing facilities at OSLO, CHRISTIAN- 
SAND, STAVANGER, BERGEN, TROND- 
HEIM, NARVIK and TROMSO. 

(2) The approximate quantities of furnace oil 
fuel, diesel oil fuel and coal at all the principal 
Norwegian ports between OSLO and TROMSO. 

7. The German Admiral SKAGGERAK will 
despatch by sea within 48 hours after the surrender 
becomes effective, a responsible officer not below the 
rank of Captain, to the Commander-in-Chief, 
ROSYTH, with corrected copies of charts show- 
ing all German minefields, wrecks, booms and other 
underwater obstructions, details of German con- 
voy routes and searched channels, buoys, lights 
and other navigational aids in the SKAGGERAK, 
KATTEGAT, THE BELTS AND SOUND, 
KIEL BAY and BALTIC WATERS WEST of 
14° EAST. This officer will also bring with him 
the disposition of all 'U' boats in the above area 
and details of all orders affecting their future 
movements. He will be accompanied by three Ger- 
man Naval officers with pilots (and interpreters if 
necessary) who are familiar with the coastal swept 
channels, and channels in Swedish territorial 
waters, in the waters referred to above. These 
officers will bring with them all the charts and 
books required for navigation in these waters, 
and a list of all W/T and R/T call signs in use by 
the German Navy. 

The German Admiral SKAGGERAK will des- 
patch a duplicate party to that specified above, 
with similar information, by air in unescorted air- 
craft painted white to DREM Airfield 56°02' 
NORTH 02°48' WEST. 

8. The German Naval Officers who will be des- 
patched to DOVER and ROSYTH by sea will pro- 
ceed to positions in latitude 51°19' NORTH longi- 
tude 1°43' EAST and latitude 56°47' NORTH 



longitude 1°13' WEST respectively, where they 
will be met by British warships and escorted to 
their destination. The ships or craft in which they 
travel are to fly a large white flag at the masthead 
by day and are to illuminate these white flags by 
night. These ships are to broadcast their positions 
hourly by W/T on 500 ks. (600 Metres) whilst on 
passage. 

Information required within fourteen days 

9. The German High Command will furnish the 
following information to the Allied Naval Com- 
mander, Expeditionary Force, at by 
within fourteen days of cessation of 
hostilities. 

a. Locations of all warships, auxiliaries and 
armed coastal craft operating under the orders of 
the German Naval Command stating particulars of 
the operational unit to which they are attached, 
giving approximate totals of all naval personnel 
embarked in each vessel, (including naval flak and 
merchant ship flak). 

b. A statement of the organizations of all 
naval shore Commands, giving location of all naval 
establishments, including establishments for ex- 
periment and research, names of all Commanding 
Officers and Principal Staff Officers of the rank of 
Commander and above, and approximate totals of 
the personnel located in each establishment. 

c. A statement of the strength and location of 
all naval land forces including naval infantry, 
naval flak, merchant ship flak and naval personnel 
manning naval coast artillery and full particulars 
of all Coastal and port defenses giving nature and 
locations. 

d. Lists of stocks of furnace oil fuel, diesel oil 
fuel, petrol and coal of 500 tons and more at, or 
in the vicinity of, all ports between IJMUIDEN 
and HAMBURG inclusive. 

e. A statement of location of the principal 
naval armament depots with approximate overall 
stocks of each major item held. 

f. The following communications information :- 

(1) location and details concerning all V/S, 
W/T (including D/F) and radar stations in 
use by, and under construction for the German 
Navy, these details to include types and capabili- 
ties of all equipment fitted. 

(2) details of the current naval W/T organi- 
zation, lists of W/T and R/T call signs in force, 
and allocation of all frequencies for communica- 
tion and radar purposes. 



AUGUST 5, 1945 



195 



(3) location and details of all naval communi- 
cations (including Infra-Red) and naval radar 
training and research establishments. 

g. Full details of all German minefields in 
the NORTH SEA, SKAGGERAK, KATTE- 
GAT, BELTS and SOUND. 

h. Full details of the German naval mine- 
sweeping organization including the communica- 
tions organization. 

j. Full details of the communications (in- 
cluding Infra-Red) and radar equipment fitted 
in all German minesweepers and sperrbreehers. 

k. Technical details of all types of minesweep- 
ing gear in use by the German Navy. 

1. Details of all mining and types of mines 
employed and of berthing facilities available for 
ships of 150 feet in length and 16 feet draught at :- 

BREMERHAVEN 
WILHELMSHAVEN 
SCHIERMONNIKOOG 
DELFZIJL 

10. The German High Command will also fur- 
nish the Allied Naval Commander, Expeditionary 
Force, with two copies of all coding and cyphering 
systems which have been, are being, or were to be 
used by the German Navy with the necessary in- 
structions for their use and the dates between 
which they have been, or were to have been used. 

Part II — Control and Disarmament 
Orders to warships, auxiliaries, merchant ships 
and other craft 

11. The German High Command will forthwith 
direct all German and German-controlled war- 
ships, auxiliaries, merchant ships and other craft 
to comply with the following instructions :- 

a. All warships, auxiliaries, merchant ships 
and other craft in harbour are to remain in har- 
bour pending further directions from the Allied 
Representatives. 

b. All warships, auxiliaries, merchant ships and 
other craft at sea are to report their positions in 
plain language immediately to the nearest British, 
US or Soviet Coast Wireless Telegraphy station 
on 500 kc/s (600 metres), and are to proceed to 
the nearest German or Allied port or such ports 
as the Allied Representatives may direct, and re- 
main there pending further directions from the 
Allied Representatives. At night they are to show 
lights and to display searchlights with beams held 
vertically. 



c. All warships and merchant ships whether 
in port or at sea will immediately train all weapons 
fore and aft. All torpedo tubes will be unloaded 
and breech blocks will be removed from all guns. 

d. All warships and merchant ships in Ger- 
man or German-controlled harbours will imme- 
diately land and store in safety all ammunition, 
warheads and other explosives. They will land 
all portable weapons but, pending further instruc- 
tions, warships will retain on board the fixed arma- 
ment. Fire control and all other equipment will 
be maintained on board intact and fully efficient. 

e. All minesweeping vessels are to carry out 
the measures of disarmament prescribed in c. and d. 
above, (except that they will, however, retain on 
board such portable weapons and explosives as are 
required for minesweeping purposes) and are to be 
prepared immediately for minesweeping service 
under the direction of the Allied Representatives. 
They will complete with fuel where necessary. 

f . All German salvage vessels are to carry out 
the measures of disarmament prescribed in c. and d. 
above (except that they will retain on board such 
explosives as are required for salvage purposes.) 
These vessels, together with all salvage equipment 
and personnel, are to be prepared for immediate 
salvage operations under the direction o.f the Allied 
Representatives, completing with fuel where neces- 
sary for this purpose. 

g. The movement of transport on the inland 
waterways of GERMANY may continue, subject 
to orders from the Allied Representatives. No 
vessels moving on inland waterways will proceed to 
neutral waters. 

Submarines 

12. The German High Command will transmit 
by W/T on appropriate frequencies the two mes- 
sages in Annexures 'A' and 'B', which contain in- 
structions to submarines at sea. 

Naval aircraft 

13. The German High Command will forthwith 
direct that:- 

a. German naval aircraft are not to leave the 
ground or water or ship pending directions from 
the Allied Representatives; 

b. naval aircraft in the air are to return im- 
mediately to their bases. 

Neutral shipping 

14. The German High Command will forthwith 
direct that all neutral merchant ships in German 



196 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



and German-controlled ports are to be detained 
pending further directions from the Allied 
Eepresentatives. 

Orders relating to sabotage, scuttling, safety 
measures, pilotage and personnel 
15. The German High Command will forthwith 
issue categorical directions that :- 

a. No ship, vessel or aircraft of any descrip- 
tion is to be scuttled, or any damage done to their 
hull, machinery or equipment. 

b. all harbour works and port facilities of 
whatever nature, including telecommunications 
and radar stations, are to be preserved and kept 
free from destruction or damage pending further 
directions from the Allied Representatives, and all 
necessary steps taken and all necessary orders 
issued to prohibit any act of scuttling, sabotage, 
or other wilful damage. 

c. all boom defenses at all ports and harbours 
are to be opened and kept open at all times ; where 
possible, they are to be removed. 

d. all controlled minefields at all ports and 
harbours are to be disconnected and rendered 
ineffective. 

e. all demolition charges in all ports and har- 
bour works are to be removed or rendered ineffec- 
tive and their presence indicated. 

f . the existing wartime system of navigational 
lighting is to be maintained, except that all dimmed 
lights are to be shown at full brilliancy, and lights 
only shown by special arrangement are to be ex- 
hibited continuously. 

In particular :- 

( 1 ) HELIGOLAND Light is to be burnt at full 
brilliancy. 

(2) The buoyage of the coastal convoy route 
from the HOOK OF HOLLAND to HAM- 
BURG is to be commenced, mid-channel buoys 
being laid six miles apart. 

(3) Two ships are to be anchored as mark ves- 
sels in the following positions :- 

54°20' N, 5°00' E. 
54°20' N, 6°30' E. 

These ships are to fly a large black flag at the mast- 
head by day and by night are to flash a searchlight 
vertically every 30 seconds. 

g. All pilotage services are to continue to op- 
erate and all pilots are to be held at their normal 
stations ready for service and equipped with 
charts. 



h. German Naval and other personnel con- 
cerned in the operation of ports and administra- 
tive services in ports are to remain at their stations 
and to continue to carry out their normal duties. 

Personnel 

16. The German High Command will forthwith 
direct that except as may be required for the pur- 
pose of giving effect to the above special orders :- 

a. all personnel in German warships, auxilia- 
ries, merchant ships and other craft, are to remain 
on board their ships pending further directions 
from the Allied Representatives. 

b. all Naval- personnel ashore are to remain in 
their establishments. 

17. The German High Command will be respon- 
sible for the immediate and total disarmament of 
all naval personnel on shore. The orders issued 
to the German High Command in respect of the 
disarmament and war material of land forces will 
apply also to naval personnel on shore. 

Signed H M Burrough 
For the Supreme Commander, AEF. 

Dated 0241 7th May 1945 



Rheims, France 



Annextjre 'A' 



SURRENDER OF GERMAN 'IT BOAT FLEET 

To all 'Z7' Boats at sea: 

Carry out the following instructions forthwith 
which have been given by the Allied Representa- 
tives 

(A) Surface immediately and remain surfaced. 

(B) Report immediately in P/L your position in 
latitude and longitude and number of your 'U' Boat 
to nearest British, US, Canadian or Soviet coast 
W/T station on 500 kc/s (600 metres) and to call 
sign GZZ 10 on one of the following high frequen- 
cies : 16845-12685 or 5970 kc/s. 

(C) Fly a large black or blue flag by day. 

(D) Burn navigation lights by night. 

(E) Jettison all ammunition, remove breach- 
blocks from guns and render torpedoes safe by 
removing pistols. All mines are to be rendered 
safe. 

(F) Make all signals in P/L. 

(G) Follow strictly the instructions for proceed- 
ing to Allied ports from your present area given 
in immediately following message. 

(H) Observe strictly the orders of Allied Repre- 
sentatives to refrain from scuttling or in any way 
damaging your 'U' Boat. 



AUGUST 5, 1945 



197 



2. These instructions will be repeated at two-hour 
intervals until further notice. 

Annexuke 'B' 

To all 'Z7' Boats at sea. Observe strictly the in- 
structions already given to remain fully surfaced. 
Report your position course and speed every 8 
hours. Obey any instruction that may be given you 
by any Allied authority. 

The following are the areas and routes for 'U' 
Boats surrendering: 

(1) Area 'A'. 

a. Bound on West by meridian 026 degs West 
and South by parallel 043 degs North in Barents 
Sea by meridian 020 degs East in Baltic Ap- 
proaches by line joining The Naze and Hantsholm 
but excludes Irish Sea between 051 degs thirty 
mins and 055 degs 00 mins North and English 
Channel between line of Lands End Scilly Islands 
Ushant and line of Dover-Calais. 

b. Join one of following routes at nearest point 
and proceed along it to Loch Eriboll (058 degs 
33 minutes North 004 degs 37 mins West) 

Blue route : All positions North and West unless 
otherwise indicated 

049 degs 00 mins 009 degs 00 mins 053 degs 00 mins 
012 degs 00 mins 058 degs 00 mins 011 degs 00 mins 
059 degs 00 mins 005 degs 30 mins thence to Loch 

Eriboll. 

Bed route : 053 degs 45 mins North 003 degs 00 
mins East 

059 degs 45 mins 001 degs 00 mins 059 degs 45 mins 
003 degs 00 mins thence to Loch Eriboll. 

c. Arrive at Loch Eriboll between sunrise and 
3 hours before sunset. 

(2) Area'B' 

a. The Irish Sea between parallel of 051 degs 
30 mins and 055 degs 00 mins North. 

b. Proceed Beaumaris (053 degs 19 mins North 
003 degs 58 mins West) to arrive between sunrise 
and 3 hours before sunset. 

(3) Area'C 

a. The English Channel between line of Lands 
End-Scilly Isles-Ushant and line of Dover-Calais. 

b. 'U' Boats in area 'C are to join one of fol- 
lowing routes at nearest point : Green route : po- 
sition 'A' 049 degs 10 mins North 005 degs 40 mins 
West position 'B' 050 degs 00 mins North 003 degs 
00 mins West thence escorted to Weymouth. 
Orange route : position 'X' 050 degs 30 mins North 



000 degs 50 mins East position 'Y' 050 degs 10 
mins North 001 degs 50 mins West thence escorted 
to Weymouth. 

c. Arrive at either 'B' or 'Y' between sunrise and 
3 hours before sunset. 

(4) Area'D' 

a. Bound on West by lines joining The Naze 
and Hantsholm and on East by lines joining Lu- 
beck and Trelleborg. 

b. Proceed to Kiel. 

(5) Area'E' 

a. Mediterranean Approaches bound on North 
by 043 degs North on South by 026 degs North and 
on West by 026 degs West. 

b. Proceed to a rendezvous in position 'A' 036 
degs 00 mins North 011 degs 00 mins West and 
await escort reporting expected time of arrival in 
plain language to Admiral Gibraltar on 500 kc/s. 

c. Arrive in position 'A' between sunrise and 
noon G.M.T. 

(6) Area 'F' 

a. The North and South Atlantic West of 026 
degs West. 

b. Proceed to nearest of one of following points 
arriving between sunrise and 3 hours before sun- 
set : W 043 degs 30 mins North 070 degs 00 mins 
West approach from a point 15 miles due East X 
038 degs 20 mins North 074 degs 25 mins West ap- 
proach from a point 15 miles due East Y 047 degs 
18 mins North 052 degs 30 mins West approach 
from point 047 degs 18 mins North 051 degs 30 
mins West on a course 270 degs Z 043 degs 31 mins 
North 065 degs 05 mins West approach from point 
042 degs 59 mins North 064 degs 28 mins West on 
a course 320 degs. 

Extraterritorial Rights 

China- Sweden 

The American Ambassador at Chungking in- 
formed the Department, in a telegram dated July 
21, that the Sino-Swedish treaty for the relin- 
quishment of extraterritorial rights which was 
signed in Chungking on April 5, 1945 entered into 
force as of July 20, 1945. 

Article 8 of the treaty provides that it shall 
come into force on the day on which the two Gov- 
ernments shall have notified each other that the 
ratifications have been effected, and that the in- 
struments of ratification shall thereafter be ex- 
changed at Chungking as soon as possible. 



198 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Agreement Between United States and Switzerland Relating to 

Air-Transport Services 



[Released to the press August 6] 

The Department of State announced the con- 
clusion of a bilateral air-transport agreement be- 
tween the United States and Switzerland, which 
became effective on August 3, 1945 by an exchange 
of notes in Bern. 

The annex to the agreement provides that au- 
thorized American airlines shall obtain rights of 
transit and non-traffic stop in Swiss territory, as 
well as the right of commercial entry for interna- 
tional traffic at Geneva or another suitable airport. 
The proposed U.S. air route serving Switzerland 
is one of several recently announced by the Civil 



Aeronautics Board, and extends from the United 
States to the Middle East via Ireland, France, 
Switzerland, Italy, Greece, Egypt, and points in 
the Near East. Reciprocal rights are granted for 
a Swiss airline to operate over the North Atlantic 
to New York. 

The agreement with Switzerland, which incor- 
porates the so-called "five freedoms", follows the 
standard form drawn up at the Chicago aviation 
conference and is similar to bilateral agreements 
recently concluded with Sweden, Denmark, Spain, 
Iceland, and Ireland. 1 



Aviation Agreements 



[Released to the ijress July 31] 

Paraguay 

The Ambassador of Paraguay signed the In- 
terim Agreement on International Civil Aviation, 
the Convention on International Civil Aviation, 
the International Air Services Transit Agreement, 
and the International Air Transport Agreement 
on July 27. The Ambassador informed the Acting 
Secretary of State by a note dated and received 
on that day that the signatures affixed on behalf of 
his Government to the interim, transit, and trans- 
port agreements constitute an acceptance of those 
agreements by the Paraguayan Government and 
an obligation binding upon it. 

Other countries which have taken action recently 
on the civil-aviation documents concluded Decem- 
ber 7, 1944 are Australia, Belgium, Iraq, Luxem- 
bourg, Sweden, Switzerland, and Syria. This 
action, not previously announced, is as follows : 

Australia 

The Minister of Australia signed the transit 
agreement on July 4. 

Belgium 

The Belgian Ambassador transmitted to the 
Acting Secretary of State with a note dated July 
18 a declaration signed by the Viscount du Pare 



on July 17 stating that the signature affixed by 
him on behalf of Belgium to the transit agree- 
ment constitutes an acceptance of that agreement 
by the Government of Belgium and an obligation 
binding upon it. 

Iraq 

The Minister of Iraq informed the Acting Sec- 
retary of State on June 14 that the Council of 
Ministers agreed to the accession of Iraq to the 
transit agreement. 

Luxembourg 

The Minister of Luxembourg signed the interim 
agreement, the convention, and the transit agree- 
ment on July 9. The Minister stated in a note 
dated and received on that day that his signature 
constitutes an acceptance of the interim agreement 
by the Government of Luxembourg. 

Sweden 

The Charge d'xVffaires ad interim of Sweden 
informed the Secretary of State by a note dated 
July 6, and received July 9, that the signature 
affixed on behalf of Sweden to the interim agree- 



1 Bulletin of Dec. 3, 1944, p. 674 ; Dec. 17, 1944, p. 757 ; 
Feb. 4, 1045, p. 170. 



AUGUST 5, 1945 



199 



ment constitutes an acceptance given on June 29 
of the agreement by the Swedish Government and 
an obligation binding upon it. 

Switzerland 

The Minister of Switzerland signed the conven- 
tion and transit agreement on July 6. In a note 
dated and received on that day the Minister stated 
that the signatures affixed on behalf of the Gov- 
ernment of Switzerland to the interim and transit 
agreements constitute an acceptance of those 
agreements by the Government of Switzerland and 
a binding obligation upon it. 

Syria 

Xoureddeen Kahale, Chairman of the Syrian 
Delegation to the Chicago conference, signed the 
transit and transport agreements on July 6 with 
the following reservation on the transport agree- 
ment : "In accordance with Art. IV, section 1 of 
this agreement, Syria accepts only the first four 
privileges in Art. I. section 1". 

The Minister of Syria informed the Secretary of 
State by a note dated and received July 6 that the 
signature affixed on behalf of the Government of 
Syria to the interim agreement constitutes an 
acceptance by the Syrian Government of that 
agreement and an obligation binding \ipon it. 

In accordance with the third paragraph of 
article XVII, the interim agreement came into 
force June 6, 1945. The agreement further pro- 
vides that "Thereafter it will become binding as 
to each other State indicating its acceptance to 
the Government of the United States on the date 
of the receipt of the acceptance by that Govern- 
ment." 



Development of 
Southeastern Bolivia 

Argentina-Bolivia 

The American Embassy at La Paz transmitted 
to the Department, with a despatch dated June 
19, the text of an agreement between the Govern- 
ments of Argentina and Bolivia which was ef- 
fected by an exchange of notes signed at Buenos 
Aires on June 2, 19-15. The agreement provides 
for railroad, highway, and oil-pipeline construc- 
tion, and for the development of southern Bo- 
livian oilfields. The agreement refers to the Rail- 
road and Petroleum Treaty of February 10, 1941, 



and the supplementary exchange of notes of Feb- 
ruary 6, 1942 and to the Highway Convention of 
February 6, 1942, and is intended to explain more 
fully certain clauses and to amplify certain pro- 
visions of the 1941 and 1942 treaties. 

The nine points in the agreement are sum- 
marized as follows : 

1. The Argentine Government will advance to 
the Government of Bolivia in the manner fore- 
seen in the Railroad Treaty of February 10, 1941, 
funds needed to construct the railroad from Villa 
Montes to Santa Cruz. The maximum under this 
clause will be 40,000,000 Argentine pesos. 

These funds will be made available at the rate 
of 10,000,000 Argentine pesos a year. Both Gov- 
ernments will take steps to see that the railroad 
will be completed within four years. 

2. The Comision Mixta Ferroviaria Argentino- 
Boliviana will be charged with making a technical 
study of the Tarabuco-Boyuibe branch line and 
will present its report to both Governments. Once 
the report is completed, the construction of the 
railroad will be agreed upon. Funds required for 
this study, up to 500,000 Argentine pesos, will be 
taken from the money made available by the Ar- 
gentine Government for the construction of the 
Yacuiba - Santa Cruz railway. 

3. Construction of the Villa Montes - Santa 
Cruz railway will be executed in the same maimer 
specified for the Yacuiba - Villa Montes section 
as stipulated in the treaty of February 10, 1941. 
The Mixed Commission can also, when both Gov- 
ernments consider it convenient, undertake the 
construction under its own management. 

The same procedure will be followed as regards 
the Tarabuco-Boyuibe branch. 

4. Both Governments agree to extend the Oran- 
Tarija highway (stipulated in Article II of the 
agreement of February 6, 1942) to Potosi. 

Likewise, the financial stipulations of the Feb- 
ruary 6, 1942 agreement will be modified as fol- 
lows: 

The construction of said highway to Potosi will 
be agreed upon in a separate protocol once the 
Mixed Commission, created in Article I of the 
February 6 agreement, has concluded studies of 
the section presently under construction and has 
reported details of the route, highway character- 
istics, and amounts required for the construction. 

5. The Argentine Government will increase to 
15,000,000 Argentine pesos the loan of 2,000,000 



200 



DEPARTMENT VF STATE BULLETIN 



pesos agreed upon in Article VI of the railway 
treaty of February 10, 1941. Said sum will be 
delivered in the following manner: Within the 
first year, 2,000,000 pesos ; in the second year, 6,000,- 
000 pesos; and in the third year, 7,000,000 pesos, 
counting from the date of the present agreement. 
These quotas must be applied against the payment 
of purchase invoices issued by Yacimientos Petroli- 
feros Fiscales Bolivianos and for services utilized 
to increase petroleum production south of the 
Parapet! River, especially the deposits of Nan- 
corainza, Camatindi, Agua Salada, Macueta, Ber- 
mejo, Camiri and Sanandita, and in accordance 
with Article VI of the February 10, 1941 agree- 
ment and with the plans which will be prepared 
by Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales Bolivianos 
in conjunction with Yacimientos Petroliferos Fis- 
cales Argentinos. 

6. The Government of the Argentine undertakes 
to construct a pipeline from Macueta to Toban- 
tirenda at Pocitos, or to any other point on Argen- 
tine railroads between Embarcacion and Pocitos. 

Transport tariffs to be applied for the transport 
of Bolivian petroleum over this pipeline will be 
the same as those which are in force for Argentine 
petroleum originating in the same zone. 

7. Amortization and annual interest rates for the 
sums invested by the Argentine Republic will be 
respectively a minimum of 5% and 3% as stipu- 
lated in Article VIII of the treaty of February 
10, 1941 ; that is, in crude petroleum, fuel oil, Ar- 
gentine pesos, American dollars, or other money 
of world-wide circulation, with the following 
clarifications : 

a. Amortization and interest on the sums in- 
vested in each section of the Yacuiba - Santa Cruz 
railway ; that is, Yacuiba - Villa Montes and Villa 
Montes - Santa Cruz will be paid from the date of 
inauguration of service of each section. 

However, in case service over the Villa Montes - 
Santa Cruz section is not effected within the four 
years foreseen in No. 1 above, the corresponding 
amortization and interest will commence as of 
the 2nd of June, 1950. 

b. Amortization and interest on sums invested 
in the Potosi highway will be paid from the date 
of inauguration of traffic over the Oran-Tarija sec- 
tion. 

c. Amortization and interest on the amounts 
invested in the Tarabuco - Boyuibe railway will be 



stipulated in the agreement which will be entered 
into. 

d. With regard to the loan of 15,000,000 Ar- 
gentine pesos for increasing petroleum production 
in Bolivia, the Bolivian Government undertakes 
the obligation to deliver at the border against its 
obligations and until the total retirement of the 
amount advanced 15% of the petroleum produc- 
tion obtained from the Nancorainza, Camatindi, 
Agua Salada, Macueta, Bermejo, Sanandita and 
Camiri deposits and any other deposits south of 
the Parapeti River, beginning twelve months from 
the date on which the Government of the Argentine 
has delivered the first quota of 2,000,000 Argen- 
tine pesos. 

8. Revenue from the sale of crude petroleum 
and fuel oil from the oil zone traversed by the 
Yacuiba - Santa Cruz and Sucre railroad will serve 
as a guaranty of the sums advanced by the Ar- 
gentine Government as well as interest charges. As 
a secondary guaranty, the net profits from the op- 
eration of the Yacuiba - Santa Cruz railway are 
pledged by Bolivia. 

9. The price of crude petroleum delivered by 
Bolivia to the Argentine in accordance with the 
present agreement will be the average f .o.b. prices 
of a product of equal density in the international 
markets of Texas Gulf Coast, Caribe and Peru. 
For each of these markets there will be taken annu- 
ally the average of the twelve quotations of the 
first business day of each month. The average of 
these three figures will be the price for Bolivian 
petroleum placed at frontier delivery points ap- 
plicable to the corresponding year. If there should 
be no quotation in any of the markets mentioned, 
the average of the remaining will be taken. 

Delivery of petroleum during one year will be 
temporarily valued at the price which resulted for 
the immediately previous year, with indicated ad- 
justments being made subsequently. 

The price of fuel oil will be fixed in the same 
manner as the price for crude petroleum. 

In case the exportable petroleum production of 
Bolivia should reach a figure which in the opinion 
of both Governments justifies the adoption of 
transport media more economical than the rail- 
road, the procedure stipulated in Article VI of 
the Argentine-Bolivian agreement of November 
19, 1937, will be adopted. 



AUGUST 5, 1945 



201 



Congressional Group to Survey Foreign Service Establishments 



[Released to the press July SI] 

Congressman Louis C. Rabaut, of Michigan, 
Chairman of the Subcommittee on Appropriations 
for the Department of State of the House of Rep- 
resentatives, and five of his colleagues on the 
subcommittee are sailing for Europe on August 
7 to conduct a survey of Foreign Service establish- 
ments of the Department of State in that area. 
The other members of the committee making the 
trip are : John H. Kerr, North Carolina ; Thomas 
J. O'Brien, Illinois; Butler B. Hare, South Caro- 
lina; Robert F. Jones, Ohio; Dean M. Gillespie, 
Colorado. They will be accompanied by Gerald 
A. Drew, Foreign Service officer, and Albert 
Schneider, an employee of Congress. The party 
plans to sail from New York on the Queen Mary. 

The text of a letter dated March 13 from the 
Secretary of State to Congressman Rabaut, in 
which the possibility of undertaking this survey 
trip was first suggested, as well as the text of an 
identic letter dated July 26 which was addressed 
to each member of the subcommittee, follows : 

March 13, 1945. 
Mx Dear Mr. Rabaut : 

The declaration of Yalta will have a profound 
effect upon the role of the United States in world 
affairs. It calls for collaboration by this Govern- 
ment on an unpreceden