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Full text of "Department of State bulletin"

I 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 




Qontents 



ETIN 



OCTOBER 7, 1939 
Vol. I: No. I^ — Publication IjSg 




The American Eepublics: Page 

Consultative Meeting of Foreign Ministers of the 
American Republics: 

Final Act of the Meeting 321 

Radio Address by Under Secretary Welles .... 334 
Pan American League gold medal to the Secretary of 

State 338 

Message to the Foreign Minister of Honduras .... 338 
Conference on inter-American relations in the field of 

art 339 

Europe: 

Continuance of diplomatic relations with the Polish 

Government 342 

Neutrality of the United States: 

Warning to American merchant shipping 343 

Contributions for relief in belligerent coimtries . . . 343 

Travel on belligerent ships 345 

Reports on Americans in Warsaw 345 

Return of Americans from Europe 345 

Sinking of Norwegian ship 346 



'i'vuLHiTOFDOCUWEIVTS 

^<0T 27 1939 



Commercial Policy: 

Trade-agreement negotiations with Cliile: Page 

Statement by the Secretary of State 346 

Announcement of proposed negotiations .... 347 

Import duty on Cuban sugar 349 

Foreign Service of the United States: 

Personnel changes 350 

General: 

Death of Senator Logan 351 

Death of Cardinal Mundelein 351 

Publications 351 

Treaty Information: 

Arbitration and judicial settlement: 

General Act for the Pacific Settlement of Interna- 
tional Disputes 352 

Permanent Court of International Justice .... 352 
Armament reduction: 

London Naval Treaty of 1936 (Treaty Series No. 

919) 354 

Consultation: 

Final Act of the Meeting of the Foreign Ministers of 

the American Republics 354 

NationaUty: 

Convention with Finland Regulating Military Obli- 
gations in Certain Cases of Double Nationahty . 355 
Economic: 

Resolution on Economic Cooperation 355 

Commerce: 

Trade Agreement with Chile 355 

Agriculture: 

Convention with Great Britain for the Protection of 
Migratory Birds (Treaty Series No. 682) and Con- 
vention with Mexico for the Protection of Migra- 
tory Birds and Game Mammals (Treaty Series 
No. 912) 355 



The American Republics 



CONSULTATIVE MEETING OF FOREIGN MINISTERS OF THE AMERICAN 

REPUBLICS 



Final Act of the Meeting 



[Released to the press October 5] 

Text of the Final Act: 

The Governments of the American Kepub- 
lics, desirous of having their respective Foreign 
Ministers or their substitutes meet for the pur- 
pose of consultation under the agreements 
adopted at the Inter-American Conference for 
the Maintenance of Peace held at Buenos 
Aires in 1936, and the Eighth International 
Conference of American States, which met at 
Lima in 1938, appointed the delegations here- 
inafter listed in the order of precedence as de- 
termined by lot, who assembled in the City of 
Panama from September 23 to October 3, 1939, 
on invitation of the Government of the Kepub- 
lic of Panama. 

Mexico 

His Excellency General Eduardo Hay, Secre- 
tary of Foreign Affairs 

His Excellency Alfonso Rosenzweig Diaz 

Mr. Anselmo Mena 

Mr. Antonio Espinosa de los Monteros, Finan- 
cial Adviser 

Ecuador 

His Excellency Dr. Julio Tobar Donoso, Min- 
ister of Foreign Affairs 
His Excellency Di-. Antonio Quevedo 
His Excellency Dr. Eduardo Salazar 
His Excellency Miguel Angel de Ycaza 
His Excellency Victor Hugo Escala 
Mr. Luis Eduardo Laso, Financial Attache 
Mr. Cesar Espinosa, Secretary 



CXJBA 



His Excellency Dr. Miguel Angel Campa, Sec- 
retary of State 
His Excellency Amadeo Lopez Castro 
His Excellency Dr. Pedro Martinez Fraga 
His Excellency Dr. Emilio Nunez Portuondo 
Dr. Ramiro Guerra, Technical Adviser 
Dr. Gonzalo Guell, Secretary General 
Mr. A. Bolet y Tremoleda, Attache 
Mr. Leandro Garcia, Press Officer 
Mr. Francisco C. Bedrinana, Attache 
Mr. Valentin Riva Patterson, Attache 

CosTA Rica 

His Excellency Tobias Zuniga Montufar, Sec- 
retary of Foreign Affaii's 

His Excellency Enrique Fonseca Zuniga 

His Excellency Raul Gurdian 

His Excellency Modesto Martinez 

Hon. Alvaro Zuniga Quijano, Private Secre- 
tary to the Secretary of Foreign Affairs 



Peru 



Bo- 



nis Excellency Dr. Enrique Goytisolo 
lognesi, Minister of Foreign Affairs 

Mr. Fernando Fuchs, Financial Adviser 

Dr. Luis Alvarado, Legal Adviser 

Mr. Juan Chavez Dartnell, Commercial Ad- 
viser 

Miss Rosina Vega Castro, Secretary 

321 



322 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Paraguay 

His Excellency Dr. Justo Prieto, Minister of 

Foreign Affairs 
Mr. Juan Brin, Jr., Secretary 

Uettguay 

His Excellency Dr. Pedro Manini Rios, Rep- 
resentative of the Minister of Foreign 
Affairs 

His Excellency Dr. Hugo V. de Pena 

Dr. Jose A. Mora Otero, Adviser 

Honduras 

His Excellency Dr. Jesus Maria Rodriguez, Jr., 
Representative of the Secretary of Foreign 
Affairs 

Mr. Jose Augnsto Padilla, Secretary 

Chile 

His Excellency Manuel Bianchi, Representa- 
tive of the Minister of Foreign Affairs 
His Excellency Joseiin de la Maza, Delegate 
His Excellency Benjamin Cohen, Delegate 
His Excellency Cayetano Vigar, Delegate 
His Excellency Luis Malaquias Concha, Ad- 
viser 
Mr. Rodrigo Gonzalez, Adviser 
Mr. Javier Urrutia, Assistant Secretary 

Colombia 

His Excellency Dr. Luis Lopez de Mesa, Min- 
ister of Foreign Affairs 

His Excellency Dr. Esteban Jaramillo, Dele- 
gate 

His Excellency Alberto Bayon, Economic Ad- 
viser 

Dr. Guillermo Torres Garcia, Commercial 
Adviser 

Dr. Gayetano Betanour, Legal Adviser 

Mr. Daniel Jaramillo, Secretary 

Venezuela 

His Excellency Dr. Santiago Key Ayala, Rep- 
resentative of the Minister of Foreign 
Affairs 

His Excellency Dr. Mario Briceno Iragorry, 
Delegate 



Mr. Delfin E. Paez, Secretary 

Dr. Victor Manuel Rivas, Secretary 

Argentina 

His Excellency Dr. Leopoldo Melo, Represen- 
tative of the Minister of Foreign Affairs 
His Excellency Dr. Luis A. Podesta, Delegate 
Dr. Luis Mariano Zuberbuhler, Secretary 

General 
Dr. Mario Lassaga, Secretary 
Mr. Juan Carlos Goyeneche, Secretary 

Guatemala 

His Excellency Carlos Salazar, Secretary of 

Foreign Affairs 
His Excellency Alfonso Carrillo 

Panama 

His Excellency Dr. Narciso Garay, Secretary of 

Foreign Affairs and Communications 
His Excellency Dr. E. Fernandez Jaen, Finan- 
cial Adviser 
His Excellency Ernesto Mendez, Economic 

Adviser 
His Excellency Dr. Augnsto S. Boyd, Adviser 
His Excellency Belisario Porras, Jr., Adviser 
Dr. Eduardo Chiari, Legal Adviser 
Mr. Tomas H. Jacome, Economic Adviser 
Mr. Octavio A. Vallarino, Economic Adviser 
Mr. Pedro Moreno Correa, Secretary 

Nicaragua 

His Excellency Dr. Manuel Cordero Reyes, 

Minister of Foreign Affairs 
His Excellency Dr. Jose Jesus Sanchez, 

Delegate 
His Excellency Adolfo Altamirano Browne, 

Delegate 
Mr. Emilio Ortega, Secretary 

Dominican Republic 

His Excellency Jose Ramon Rodriguez, Rep- 
resentative of the Secretary of Foreign 
Affairs 

Mr. Nicolas Vega, Economic Adviser 

Brazil 

His Excellency Carlos Martins, Representative 
of the Minister of Foreign Affairs 



OCTODEU 



1039 



323 



His Excellency Miiniiel Cesar de Goes Monteiro, 

Deleijate 
Mr. Abelardo Bretanha Bueno do Prado, 

Adviser 
]\Ir. Jacome Baggi de Berenguer Cesar, Adviser 
Mr. Hugo Gouthier de Oliveira Gondim, Secre- 
tary 
Mr. Fernando Saboia de Medeiros, Secretary 
Mr. Gnilherme Correia Araujo, Attache 

Bolivia 

His Excellency Dr. Alberto Ostria Gutierrez, 

Minister of Foreign Affairs 
His Excellency Luis F. Guachalla 
Mr. Franklin Antezana, Financial Adviser 
Mr. Gustavo Medeiros Querejazu, Secretary 

United States of Amekica 

His Excellency Sumner Welles, Representative 
of the Secretary of State 

His Excellency Edwin C. Wilson, Adviser 

Dr. Herbert Feis, Adviser 

Dr. Warren Kelchner, Adviser and Secretary 
General 

Dr. Marjorie M. Wliiteman, Legal Adviser 

Mr. Sheldon Thomas, Press Officer 

Mr. Paul G. Daniels, Private Secretary to the 
Representative of the Secretary of State 

iliss Anna L. Clarkson, Assistant to the Repre- 
sentative of the Secretary of State 

Haiti 

His Excellency Leon Laleau, Secretary of For- 
eign Affairs and Public Works 
His Excellency Raiil Lizzaire, Adviser 
Mr. Max H. Dorsinville, Secretary 
Mr. Manuel J. Castillo 

El Salvador 

His Excellency Dr. Patrocinio Guzman Tri- 
gueros. Representative of the Minister of 
Foreign Affairs 

Mr. Jorge Argueta Cea, Secretary 

The President of the Republic of Panama, 
His Excellency Dr. Juan Demostenes Arose- 
mena, officially inaugurated the meeting at a 
plenary session held on September 23, 1939, at 



5 : 00 p. m., in the National Institute. The 
Secretary of Foreign AfTairs and Communica- 
tions of Panama, His Excellency Dr. Narciso 
Garay, acted as provisional president, and Mr. 
Jeptha B. Duncan acted as secretary general. 

His Excellency Dr. Narciso Garay was 
elected permanent president of the meeting at 
the plenary session held on September 25, 1939. 
The regulations of the meeting were approved 
at a preliminary session held on September 23, 
1939. 

In accordance with the regulations, a com- 
mittee on credentials was appointed composed 
of His Excellency Dr. Carlos Salazar (Guate- 
mala) as Chairman, His Excellency Dr. Al- 
berto Ostria Gutierrez (Bolivia) and His Ex- 
cellency Dr. Patrocinio Guzman Trigueros (El 
Salvador). 

A comniittee on coordination was also ap- 
jjointed comjDosed of His Excellency Dr. Man- 
uel Cesar de Goes Monteiro (Brazil), His Ex- 
cellency Dr. Julio Tobar Donoso (Ecuador), 
His Excellency Honorable Leon Laleau (Haiti) 
and the Honorable Sumner Welles (United 
States of America). 

The program of the meeting was approved 
by the Governing Board of the Pan American 
Union on September 12, 1939. 

As a result of the consultations, the meeting 
of Foreign Ministers of the American Repub- 
lics approved the following declarations and 
resolutions : 



Texts of Decrees and Regulations on 
Neutrality 

For the purpose of keeping each other fully 
informed regarding the measures of neutrality 
taken by the American Republics during the 
continuance of the existing European conflict, 

The Meeting of the Foreign Ministers of the 
American Republics 

Resolves: 

To recommend that the Governments of the 
American Republics transmit to the Pan Amer- 
ican Union the texts of all the decrees and 



324 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BUIXETIN 



regulations approved by each country relative 
to its neutrality in the present conflict in order 
that the Union may communicate copies of 
these documents to the various governments 
for their information. (Ap^jroved October 3, 
1939). 

II 

Tribute to the Liberator 

Whereas : 

The place of meeting of the First Pan- 
American Congress of 1826 is close to the 
monument erected to the glory of the Liberator, 
by the gratitude of the 21 Republics repre- 
sented at this Consultative Meeting ; and 

For reasons, the enumeration of which are 
superfluous, it is fitting that there be held a 
joint public manifestation of respect by this 
Meeting in memory of Simon Bolivar. 

The Meeting of the Foreign Ministers of the 
American Republics 

Resolves: 

To go in a body to the statue of the Libera- 
tor, immediately after the closing session of the 
Meeting, to deposit a floral wreath as an ex- 
pression of the sentiment of gratitude of the 
21 Republics of our Continent. Those attend- 
ing shall be invited afterwards to visit the Sala 
Capitular where the First Pan-American Con- 
gress, conceived by the Liberator, was held. 
(Approved, October 3, 1939). 

in 

Economic Cooperation 

The Meeting of the Foreign Ministers of 
the American Republics 

Resolves: 

1. In view of the present circumstances, to 
declare that today it is more desirable and 
necessary than ever to establish a close and 
sincere cooperation between the American Re- 
publics in order that they may protect their 
economic and financial structure, maintain their 



fiscal equilibrium, safeguard the stability of 
their cun-encies, promote and expand their in- 
dustries, intensify their agriculture and develop 
their commerce. 

2. To create an Inter- American Financial 
and Economic Advisory Committee consisting 
of twenty-one (21) experts in economic prob- 
lems, one for each of the American Republics, 
which shall be installed in Washington, D. C, 
not later than November 15, 1939, and which 
shall have the following functions: 

(a) To consider any problem of monetary 
relationships, foreign exchange management, 
or balance of international payment situation, 
which may be presented to it by the Govern- 
ment of any of the American Republics, and to 
offer to that Government whatever recom- 
mendations it deems desirable. 

(b) To study the most practical and satis- 
factory means of obtaining the stability of the 
monetary and coimnercial relationships be- 
tween the American Republics. 

(c) To provide, with the cooperation of the 
Pan American Union, the means for the inter- 
change of information between the Govern- 
ments of the American Republics with refer- 
ence to the matters mentioned in the two pre- 
ceding subparagraphs, as well as for the ex- 
change of production, foreign trade, financial 
and monetary statistics, custom legislation and 
other reports on inter- American commerce. 

(d) To study and propose to the Govern- 
ments the most effective measures for mutual 
cooperation to lessen or offset any dislocations 
which may arise in the trade of the American 
Republics and to maintain trade among 
themselves, and as far as possible, their trade 
with the reist of the world, which may be 
affected by the present war, on the basis of 
those liberal principles of international trade 
approved at the Seventh and Eighth Inter- 
national Conferences of American States and 
the Inter- American Conference for the Main- 
tenance of Peace. These principles shall be 
retained as the goal of their long-term com- 
mercial policies in order that the world shall 
not lack a basis of world-wide international 



OCTOBER 7, 19 39 



325 



trade in wliich all may participate after world 
order and peace may be restored. 

(e) To study the possibility of establishinjj; 
a custom truce, of reducing custom duties on 
the typical commodities which an American 
countrj' may offer in the market of another 
American counti-y, of abolishing or modify- 
ing import licenses on such commodities, as 
well as all the other obstacles which render 
difficult the interchange of products between 
the said countries, of adopting a uniform prin- 
ciple of equality of treatment, eliminating all 
discriminator}' measures, and of giving ample 
facilities to salesmen traveling from an Amer- 
ican country to another. 

(f) To study the necessity of creating an 
inter-American institution which may render 
feasible and insure permanent financial co- 
operation between the treasuries, the Central 
Banks and analogous institutions of the Amer- 
ican Republics, and propose the manner and 
conditions under which such an organization 
should be established and determine the mat- 
ters with which it should deal. 

(g) To study measures which tend to pro- 
mote the importation and consumption of 
products of the American Republics, especially 
through the promotion of lower prices and 
better transportation and credit facilities. 

(h) To study the usefulness and feasibility 
of organizing an Inter- American Commei'cial 
Institute to maintain the importers and ex- 
porters of the American Republics in contact 
with each other and to supply them with the 
necessary data for the promotion of inter- 
American trade. 

(i) To study the possibility of establishing 
new industries and negotiating commercial 
treaties, especially for the interchange of the 
raw materials of each counti-y. 

(j) To study the possibility that silver be 
also one of the mediums for international 
payments. 

The Inter-American Economic Advisory 
Committee shall communicate to the Govern- 
ments the results of the studies made in each 
case and shall recommend the measures which 
it considers should be taken. 



3. To reconmiend to the Governments of the 
American Republics: 

(a) To take measures in accordance with 
their own respective legislation, with a view 
to avoiding increases of rates or premiums to 
an extent not justified by the special expenses 
and risks incurred because of the present state 
of war, by shipping companies which maintain 
transjiortation services between the countries 
of the Continent, and marine insurance com- 
panies operating in their territories. 

(b) To promote the negotiation of bilateral 
or multilateral agreements for the organiza- 
tion and maintenance of regular and connected 
steamship services between the coimtries of the 
Continent in order to facilitate the direct traffic 
of passengers and cargoes. These agreements 
are to make special provisions for traveling 
salesmen and commercial samples. 

(c) To study the possibility of reducing to a 
minimum consular fees on manifests of vessels 
in the above-mentioned services, so as to make 
possible the shipment of reduced quantities of 
commodities which require rapid and special 
transportation. 

(d) To study the possibility, in accordance 
with their legislation, of reducing to a mini- 
mum port, sanitary and other formalities ap- 
plied to the traffic of merchandise between the 
American Republics. 

4. To recommend to the Governments that 
they do everything possible to abolish obstacles 
to the free inter- American movement of capital. 

5. To recommend to the Governments that, 
when deemed necessary, they negotiate agree- 
ments in accordance with the circumstances 
and legislation of each country, with a view to 
the establislunent of bases that would make 
feasible and secure the granting of inter- 
American credits which may serve to intensify 
the interchange of products as well as for the 
development of natural resources. 

6. To request the governments of the most 
industrialized countries of the Continent to do 
whatever is possible, within their legal facul- 
ties and circumstances, to prevent excessive and 
unjustified increases in the prices of manufac- 
tured articles destined for export. 



326 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULX,ETIN 



7. To recommend that tlie American Govern- 
ments promote the negotiation of arrangements, 
in accordance with tlieir legislation and within 
their possibilities, witli a view to obtaining 
ample facilities with regard to the treatment of 
re-embarkation of merchandise sold or acqnired 
by American conntries, detained at the present 
moment on board merchant vessels of countries 
at M-ar which are unable to transport it to its 
original destination. 

8. To recommend to the respective Govern- 
ments that they preserve in a reciprocal and 
generous form the legitimate j^rinciple of free- 
dom of communications and transit througli 
the ports and territories of the American na- 
tions, in accordance with the legislation and 
international agreements in force. 

9. To recommend that countries bordering 
on each other hold, among themselves, meet- 
ings of their Ministers of Foreign Affairs, or 
of their Ministei's of Finance, or of special 
plenipotentiaries, in the capital of one of them, 
in order to arrive at agreements for solving 
common problems of a financial, fiscal, or 
economic character, in conformity with the 
relevant general principles of commercial 
policy approved at recent inter-American 
Conferences. 

10. To make every effort in order to complete 
their respective sections of the Pan American 
Highway and to reconunend to the countries 
which have ratified the Buenos Aires Conven- 
tion that they designate as soon as possible one 
or more experts to expedite the fulfillment of 
the recommendations of the Third Pan Amer- 
ican Highway Congress. (Approved, October 
3, 1939). 

IV 

Joint Declaration of Continental Solidarity 

The Governments of the American Rejiul)- 
lics, represented at this first meeting of their 
Foreign Ministers, 

Firmly united by the democratic spirit which 
is the basis of their institutions. 

Desirous of strengthening on this occasion 
the solidarity which is the outgrowth of that 
spirit, and 

Desirous of preserving peace in the American 



Continent and of promoting its reestablishment 
throughout the world, 

Declare 

1. That they reaffirm the declaration of soli- 
darity among the nations of tliis Hemisphere, 
proclaimed at the Eighth International Con- 
ference of American States at Lima in 1938; 

2. That they will endeavor with all the ap- 
propriate spiritual and material means at their 
disposal to maintain and strengthen peace and 
harmony among the Republics of America, as 
an indispensable requirement to the effective 
fulfillment of the duty that devolves upon them 
in the world-wide historical development of 
civilization and culture ; 

3. That these principles are free from any 
selfish purpose of isolation, but are rather in- 
spired by a deep sense of universal cooperation, 
M'hich impels tliese nations to express the most 
fervent wishes for the cessation of the deplor- 
able state of war which today exists in some 
countries of Europe, to the grave danger of the 
most cherished spiritual, moral and economic 
interests of humanity, and for the reestablish- 
ment of peace throughout the world — a peace 
not based on violence, but on justice and law. 
(Annroved October 3, 1939). 

V 

General Declaration of Neutrality of the 

American Republics 
Whereas : 

As proclaimed in the Declaration of Lima, 
"The peoples of America have achieved spir- 
itual unity through the similarity of their re- 
publican institutions, their unshakable will for 
peace, their profound sentiment of humanity 
and tolerance, and through their absolute ad- 
herence to the principles of international law, 
of the equal sovereignty of States and of indi- 
vidual liberty without religious or racial 
l^rejudices"; 

This acknowledged spiritual unity presup- 
poses common and solidary attitudes with ref- 
erence to situations of force which, as in the 
case of the present European war, may threaten 
the security of the sovereign rights of the 
American Republics; 



OCTOBER 7, 1939 



327 



The attitude assumed by the American Re- 
publics has served to demonstrate that it is 
their unanimous intention not to become in- 
volved in the European conflict ; and 

It is desirable to state the standards of con- 
duct, which, in conformity with internationid 
law and their respective internal legislation, the 
American Republics propose to follow, in order 
to maintain their status as neutral states and 
fulfill their neutral duties, as well as require 
the recognition of the rights inherent in such 
a status, 

The Meeting of the Foreign Ministers of the 
American Republics 

Resolves 

1. To reaffirm the status of general neutrality 
of the American Republics, it being left to each 
one of them to regulate in their individual and 
sovereign capacities the manner in which they 
are to give it concrete application. 

2. To have their rights and status as neu- 
trals full}' respected and observed by all bel- 
ligerents and by all persons who may be act- 
ing for or on behalf of or in the interest of the 
belligerents. 

3. To declare that with regard to their sta- 
tus as neutrals, there exist certain standards 
recognized by the American Republics appli- 
cable in these circumstances and that in ac- 
cordance with them they: 

(a) Shall prevent their respective terres- 
trial, maritime and aerial territories from be- 
ing utilized as bases of belligerent operations. 

(b) Shall prevent, in accordance with their 
internal legislations, the inhabitants of their 
territories from engaging in activities capa- 
ble of affecting the neutral status of the Amer- 
ican Republics. 

(c) Shall prevent on their respective terri- 
tories the enlistment of persons to serve in the 
military, naval, or air forces of the belliger- 
ents; the retaining or inducing of persons to 
go beyond their respective shores for the pur- 
pose of taking part in belligerent operations; 
the setting on foot of any military, naval or 
aerial expedition in the interests of the bel- 
ligerents; the fitting out, arming, or augment- 

182905—39 2 



ing of the forces or armament of any ship or 
vessel to be employed in the service of one 
of the belligerents, to cruise or commit hos- 
tilities against another belligerent, or its na- 
tionals or property; the establishment by the 
belligerents or their agents of radio stations 
in the terrestrial or maritime territory of the 
American Republics, or the utilization of such 
stations to communicate with the governments 
or armed forces of the belligerents. 

(d) May determine, with regard to bellig- 
erent wai-ships, that not more than three at 
a time be admitted in their own ports or waters 
and in any case they shall not be allowed to 
remain for more than twenty-four hours. 
Vessels engaged exclusively in scientific, re- 
ligious or philanthropic missions may be ex- 
empted from this provision, as well as those 
which arrive in distress. 

(e) Shall require all belligerent vessels and 
aircraft seeking the hospitality of areas under 
tlieir jurisdiction and control to respect strictly 
their neutral status and to observe their 
respective laws and regulations and the rules 
of international law pertaining to the rights 
and duties of neutrals and belligerents; and 
in the event that difficulties ai-e experienced in 
enforcing the observance of and respect for 
their rights, the case, if so requested, shall 
thei-eupon become a subject of consultation 
between them. 

(f) Shall regard as a contravention of their 
neutrality any flight by the military aircraft 
of a belligerent state over their own territory. 
With respect to nonmilitary aircraft, they shall 
adopt the following measures: such aircraft 
shall fly only with the permission of the com- 
petent authority; all aircraft, regardless of na- 
tionality, shall follow routes determined by the 
said authorities; their commanders or pilots 
shall declare the place of departure, the stops 
to be made and their destination; they shall be 
allowed to use radiotelegraphy only to deter- 
mine their route and flying conditions, utilizing 
for this purpose the national language, with- 
out code, only the standard abbreviations being 
allowed ; the competent authorities may require 
aircraft to carry a co-pilot or a radio operator 



328 



DEPAKTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



for purposes of control. Belligerent military 
aircraft transported on board warships shall 
not leave these vessels while in the waters of 
the American Republics; belligerent military 
aircraft landing in the territory of an Aineri- 
can Republic shall be interned with their crews 
until the cessation of hostilities, except in cases 
in which the landing is made because of proven 
distress. There shall be exempted from the 
application of these rules cases in which there 
exist conventions to the contrary. 

(g) May submit belligerent merchant ves- 
sels, as well as their passengers, documents and 
cargo, to inspection in their own ports; the re- 
spective consular agent shall certify as to the 
ports of call and destination as well as to the 
fact that the voyage is undertaken solely for 
purposes of commercial interchange. They 
may also supply fuel to such vessels in amounts 
sufficient for the voyage to a port of supply and 
call in another American Republic, except in 
the case of a direct voyage to another continent, 
in which circumstance they may supply the 
necessary amount of fuel. Shoidd it be proven 
that these vessels have supplied belligerent war- 
ships with fuel, they shall be considered as 
auxiliary transports. 

(h) May concentrate and place a giiard on 
board belligerent merchant vessels which have 
sought asylum in their waters, and may intern 
those which have made false declarations as to 
their destinations, as well as those which have 
taken an unjustified or excessive time in their 
voyage, or have adopted the distinctive signs 
of warships. 

(i) Shall consider as lawful the transfer of 
the flag of a merchant vessel to that of any 
American Republic provided such transfer is 
made in good faith, without agreement for re- 
sale to the vendor, and that it takes place in 
the waters of an American Republic. 

(i) Shall not assimilate to warships bel- 
ligerent armed merchant vessels if they do not 
carry more than four six-inch guns mounted on 
the stern, and their lateral decks are not rein- 
forced, and if, in the judgment of the local 
authorities, there do not exist other circum- 
stances which reveal that the merchant vessels 



can be used for offensive purposes. They may 
require of the said vessels, in order to enter 
their ports, to deposit explosives and munitions 
in such places as the local authorities may 
detei-mine. 

(k) May exclude belligerent submarines 
from the waters adjacent to their territories or 
admit them under the condition that they con- 
form to the regulations which each country 
may prescribe. 

4. In the spirit of this declaration, the Gov- 
ernments of the American Republics shall 
maintain close contact with a view to making 
uniform so far as possible, the enforcement 
of their neutrality and to safeguarding it in 
defense of their fundamental rights. 

5. With a view to studying and formulating 
reconmaendations with respect to the problems 
of neutrality, in the light of experience and 
changing circumstances, there shall be estab- 
lished, for the duration of the European war, 
an Inter-American Neutrality Committee, com- 
posed of seven experts in international law, 
who shall be designated by the Governing 
Board of the Pan American Union before No- 
vember 1, 1939. The recommendations of the 
Committee shall be transmitted, through the 
Pan American Union, to the Governments of 
the American Republics. (Approved October 
3, 1939.) 

VI 

HUMANIZATION OF War 

Whereas: 

The American nations have unanimously 
condemned war as a means of settling inter- 
national controversies ; 

These states have adhered to non-American 
pacts and have signed agreements in the va- 
rious International Conferences of American 
States with a view to mitigatmg the unneces- 
sary horrors of war and prescribing the meth- 
ods by which they are occasioned; and 

The peoples of the American Republics 
have given traditional proof of their humani- 
tarian feelings, lending effective aid to the 
victims of war and disaster, 



329 



The Meeting: of the Foreign Ministers of 
the American Republics 

Resolves 

1. To make a fervent appeal to the European 
countries now in conflict to arrive at a settle- 
ment of their controversies through pacific 
means, on the essential basis of justice and law 
and not on the dictates of force; and that 
they abstain from: 

(a) The use of poisonous gases and other 
chemical methods of warfare which produce 
irreparable and permanent injuries; 

(b) Bombarding ojjen cities, objects and 
places without military value, whether from 
land, sea or air; 

(c) Emjiloying inflammable liquids; 

(d) Poisoning waters and disseminating 
bacteria ; 

(e) Emjjloying offensive weajDons which 
increase the suffering of the wounded; 

(f) Inii^osing unnecessarily rigorous meas- 
ures upon civilian populations; 

(g) Sinking merchant vessels without hav- 
ing first placed the passengers, crew and ship's 
papers in a place of safety. 

2. To condemn in all armed conflict the im- 
restricted application of measures causing un- 
necessary and inlauman suffering in injuring 
the enemy. 

3. To express the hope that the National 
Red Cross Societies in the American Repub- 
lics broaden the scope of their humanitarian 
work for the relief of the victims of the pres- 
ent European war, and that the Governments 
lend every faculty and support to their re- 
sjDective Red Cross Societies in carrying for- 
ward this work. (Approved October 3, 1939). 

VII 

Contraband or War 
Whereas: 

The Convention on Maritime Neutrality, 
signed at Habana on February 20, 1928, recites 
in the Preamble thereof that "international 
solidarity requires that the liberty of commerce 
should be always respected, avoiding as far as 



possible unnecessary burdens for the neutrals" ; 

Article 16 of the same Convention stipulates 
that "Credits that a neutral state may give to 
facilitate the sale or exportation of its food 
products and raw materials" are not included 
within the prohibition contained in that article 
against the granting of loans or the opening of 
credits to a belligerent by a neutral state during 
the duration of war; 

The American Republics cannot remain in- 
different to measures that restrict their normal 
commerce with belligerents in foodstuffs, cloth- 
ing and raw materials for peace-time industries ; 

Elemental humanitarian considerations impel 
the American Republics to deplore the depri- 
vation of civilian populations of the normal 
means of subsistence ; 

The American Republics, in accordance with 
a lofty conception of neutrality, consider un- 
justified the limitations which may be placed 
upon their legitimate commerce and trade with 
the neutral countries of other continents; and 

The American Republics consider that it is 
indispensable to avoid, in accordance with their 
domestic laws, the effects of measures within 
their respective territories and in detriment to 
their sovereignty, which the belligerent govern- 
ments may take to restrict the freedom of trade 
of their nationals in neutral countries, 

The Meeting of the Foreign Ministers of the 
American Republics 

Resolves: 

1. To register its opposition to the placing of 
foodstuffs and clothing intended for civilian 
populations, not destined directly or indirectly 
for the use of a belligerent government or its 
armed forces, on lists of contraband. 

2. To declare that they do not consider con- 
trary to neutrality the granting of credits to 
belligerents for the acquisition of merchandise 
mentioned in the foregoing paragraph, when- 
ever permitted by the domestic legislation of 
the neutral countries. 

3. That the Neutrality Committee, estab- 
lished by another agreement of this Meeting, 
shall undertake the immediate study of what- 



330 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



ever concerns the commercial situation of raw 
materials, minerals, plant or animal, produced 
by the American Republics, and shall recom- 
mend such individual or collective action that 
sliould be taken by the governments for the 
purpose of reducing the unfavorable effects on 
the free movement of these commodities, of 
contraband declarations and other economic 
measures of the belligerent countries. (Ap- 
proved October 3, 1939). 

VIII 

Coordination of Police and Judicial Meas- 
ures FOR THE Maintenance of Neutealitt 

Whereas : 

In order better to safeguard the neutrality 
of the American Republics to whatever extent 
it may be affected by unlawful activities under- 
taken by individuals, whether nationals or 
aliens, residing therein, with the purpose of 
benefiting any foreign belligerent State, it is 
desirable to coordinate the preventive or re- 
pressive action of the police and judicial au- 
thorities, especially with respect to the rapid 
and frequent interchange of information, as 
well as the surveillance, apprehension and cus- 
tody of suspected individuals; 

On February 29, 1920, there was signed in 
Buenos Aires an agreement between various 
American Republics, for the purpose of co- 
ordinating police activity, in so far as it relates, 
in a general way, to common crimes; and 

The procedure of extradition, complementing 
the objective in tlie judicial and repressive 
aspect, sliould be strengthened among the 
American Republics through adequate rules 
and by extending it to all of them. 

The Meeting of Foreign Ministers of the 
American Republics 

Resolves: 

1. That action be taken, as soon as possible, 
through an exchange of views between the For- 
eign Offices, or through an Inter-American 
conference, for the formulation between them- 
selves of coordinated rules and procedure of 
a useful, opportune and effective manner, that 



will facilitate the action of the police and judi- 
cial authorities of the respective countries in 
preventing or repressing unlawful activities 
that individuals, whether they be nationals or 
aliens, may attempt in favor of a foreign bel- 
ligerent State, 

2. That the necessary steps be taken for the 
ratification, as soon as possible, of the Conven- 
tion on Extradition signed at the Seventh In- 
ternational Conference of American States, 
held at Montevideo in 1933. (Approved Octo- 
ber 3, 1939). 

IX 

Maintenance of International AcTivrnES in 
Accordance With Christian Moralitt 

The Governments of the American Repub- 
lics, represented at the First Meeting of the 
Foreign Ministers of the American Republics 

Declare 

1. That they reaffirm their faith in the prin- 
ciples of Christian civilization, and their con- 
fidence that, in the light of these principles, the 
influence of international law will be strength- 
ened among nations; 

2. That they condemn attempts to place in- 
ternational relations and the conduct of war- 
fare outside the realm of morality; 

3. Tliat they reject all methods for the solu- 
tion of controversies between nations based on 
force, on the violation of treaties, or on their 
unilateral abrogation ; 

4. That they consider the violation of the 
neutrality or the invasion of weaker nations as 
an unjustifiable measure in the conduct and 
success of war; and 

5. That they undertake to protest against 
any warlike act which does not conform to 
international law and the dictates of justice. 
(Approved, October 3, 1939) 

X 

Recommendation to the International 
Conference of Jurists 

Whereas : 

The project of convention for the creation of 
an Association of American Nations, presented 



OCTOBER 7, 19 39 



331 



to the Eifrlith International Conference of 
American States by tlie Republic of Colombia 
and the Dominican Eepublic in accordance 
with the request of the Inter-American Confer- 
ence for the Maintenance of Peace, was referred 
for study to the International Conference of 
American Jurists, 

The Meeting of the Foreign Ministers of the 
American Republics 

Resolves 

To recommend to the International Confer- 
ence of American Jurists that, in studying the 
said project of Convention for the creation of 
an Association of American Nations, it take 
into consideration, in so far as possible, the 
declarations, resolutions and agreements of this 
Meeting of Consultation. (Approved October 
3, 1939) 

XI 

Protection of the Inter- American Ideal 

Against SuBA-ERsm: Ideologies 

Whereas: 

On more than one occasion the American 
Republics have affirmed their adherence to the 
democratic ideal which prevails in this Hem- 
isphere ; 

This ideal may be endangered by the action 
of foreign ideologies inspired in diametrically 
opposite principles ; and 

It is advisable, consequently, to protect the 
integrity of this ideal through the adoption of 
appropriate measures, 

The Meeting of the Foreign Ministers of the 
American Republics 

Resolves: 

To recommend to the Governments repre- 
sented therein, that they take the necessary 
measures to eradicate from the Americas the 
spread of doctrines that tend to place in jeop- 
ardy the common Inter-American democratic 
ideal. (Approved October 3, 1939.) 



XII 

Future Meeting of Foreign Ministers 

Whereas : 

On the Supposition that the war may con- 
tinue for a more or less extended period, and 
the state of emergency which now exists may, 
a year hence, have become accentuated or that 
there may exist an abnormal post-war situation 
which may require consideration. 

The Meeting of the Foreign Ministers of the 
American Republics 

Resolves: 

To suggest to the respective Governments the 
desirability of having their Ministers of For- 
eign Affairs meet in the city of Habana, capital 
of the Republic of Cuba, on October 1, 1940, 
without prejudice to an earlier meeting if this 
should be found necessary. (Approved Octo- 
ber 3, 1939.) 

XIII 

Organization of the Economic Advisory 
Committee 

The Meeting of the Foreign Ministers of the 
American Republics 

Resolves: 

To request the Governments of the American 
Republics to designate as soon as possible the 
experts who shall constitute the Inter- America]i 
Financial and Economic Advisory Committee, 
the organization of which shall be entrusted to 
the Pan American Union. (AjJisroved October 
3, 1939.) 

XIV 

Declaration of Panama 

The Governments of the American Repub- 
lics meeting at Panama, have solemnly ratified 
their neutral status in the conflict which is 
disrupting the peace of Europe, but the pres- 
ent war may lead to unexpected results which 
may affect the fundamental interests of Amer- 
ica and there can be no justification for the 
interests of the belligerents to prevail over 
the rights of neutrals causing disturbances and 
suffering to nations which by their neutrality 



332 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



in the conflict and their distance from the scene 
of events, should not be burdened with its fatal 
and painful consequences. 

During the World "War of 1914-1918 the 
Governments of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Co- 
lombia, Ecuador and Peru advanced, or sup- 
ported, individual proposals providing in prin- 
ciple a declaration by the American Republics 
that the belligerent nations must refrain from 
committing hostile acts within a reasonable 
distance from their shores. 

The nature of the present conflagration, in 
spite of its already lamentable proportions, 
would not justify any obstruction to inter- 
American communications which, engendered 
by important interests, call for adequate pro- 
tection. This fact requires the demarcation 
of a zone of security including all the normal 
maritime routes of communication and trade 
between the countries of America. 

To this end it is essential as a measure of 
necessity to adopt immediately provisions 
based on the above-mentioned precedents for 
the safeguarding of such interests, in order 
to avoid a repetition of the damages and suf- 
ferings sustained by the American nations and 
by their citizens in the war of 1914—1918. 

There is no doubt that the Governments of 
the American Republics must foresee those 
dangers and as a measure of self-protection 
insist that the waters to a reasonable distance 
from their coasts shall remain free from the 
commission of hostile acts or from the under- 
taking of belligerent activities by nations en- 
gaged in a war in which the said governments 
are not involved. 

For these reasons the Governments of the 
American Republics Resolve and Hereby 
Declake: 

1. As a measure of continental self-protec- 
tion, the American Republics, so long as they 
maintain their neutrality, are as of inherent 
right entitled to have those waters adjacent to 
the American continent, which they regard as 
of primary concern and direct utility in their 
relations, free from the commission of any 
hostile act by any non-American belligerent 



nation, whether such hostile act be attempted 
or made from land, sea or air. 

Such waters shall be defined as follows. All 
waters comprised within the limits set forth 
hereafter except the territorial waters of Can- 
ada and of the undisputed colonies and pos- 
sessions of European countries within these 
limits : 

Beginning at the terminus of the United 
States-Canada boundary in Passamaquoddy 
Bay, in44°46'36" north latitude, and66°54'll" 
west longitude; 

Thence due east along the parallel 44°46'36" 
to a point 60° west of Greenwich ; 

Thence due south to a point in 20° north 
latitude; 

Thence by a rhumb line to a point in 5° 
north latitude, 24° west longitude; 

Thence due south to a point in 20° south 
latitude ; 

Thence by a rhumb line to a point in 58° 
south latitude, 57° west longitude; 

Thence due west to a point in 80° west lon- 
gitude ; 

Thence by a rhumb line to a point on the 
equator in 97° west longitude; 

Thence by a rhumb line to a point in 15° 
north latitude, 120° west longitude; 

Thence by a rhumb line to a point in 
48°29'38" north latitude, 136° west longitude; 

Thence due east to the Pacific terminus of 
the United States-Canada boundary in the 
Strait of Juan de Fuca. 

2. The Governments of the American Repub- 
lics agree that they will endeavor, through joint 
representation to such belligerents as may now 
or in the future be engaged in hostilities, to 
secure the compliance by them with the pro- 
visions of this Declaration, without prejudice 
to the exercise of the individual rights of each 
State inherent in their sovereignty. 

3. The Governments of the American Re- 
publics further declare that whenever they con- 
sider it necessary they will consult together to 
determine upon the measures which they may 
individually or collectively undertake in order 
to secure the observance of the provisions of 
this Declaration. 



OCTOBER 7, 1939 



333 



4. The American Republics, during the exist- 
ence of a state of war in which they themselves 
are not involved, may undertake, whenever they 
may determine that the need therefor exists, to 
patrol, either individually or collectively, as 
may be agreed upon by common consent, and in 
so far as the means and resources of each may 
permit, the waters adjacent to their coasts 
within the area above defined. (Approved, 
October 3, 1939.) 

Declaration of the Brazilian Go^-ernment on 
Continental Waters 

The sovereignty of the American Continent 
is founded on the inviolate bases of consulta- 
tion, non-intervention, conciliation, arbitration, 
and above all, on the pacific sentiment of the 
American nations, who are enemies of war and 
friends of peace. 

We do not have and we will not have any- 
thing to fear from each other in America; on 
the contrary, we have in each other, on land, 
sea and air, the assurance of security for each 
and all of the nations of America. 

Continental security against overseas aggres- 
sion must be obtained on sounder bases. 

It is on the seas that surround us that lies 
the future fate of our sovereignties, because the 
protection of American soil will not be possible, 
as in the past, without the security of the sur- 
rounding seas. 

The sea outside territorial waters, only three 
miles from our coast, from our cities and even 
from our capitals, not only is not ours, but in it 
we are at the mercy of any action contrary to 
the free and peaceful expansion of our sover- 
eignty, of our continental relations and even of 
the maritime communications between ports of 
the same country. 

To the defense of the continental territorial 
integrity, we must add, therefore, as an in- 
separable part of an American political whole, 
the security of continental waters. 

Tlie Meeting at Panama must request and 
receive from all the belligerents engaged in the 
war, in which no American Republic is in- 
volved, the assurance that the countries in con- 
flict will abstain from any belligerent act or 



activity on the sea, within the limit of the 
waters adjacent to the American Continent con- 
sidered as being useful or of direct and primary 
interest to the American Republics. 

We expect the belligerent nations, and those 
which in the future may take part in the pres- 
ent war, to observe and respect this Declaration 
which will be made in Panama as a comple- 
ment of the Monroe Doctrine and of the Decla- 
rations of Buenos Aires and Lima. 

We believe that the principle of continental 
waters will not affect the sovereignty of other 
nations, but rather that it will protect the sov- 
ereignty of the American countries and will 
favor the peaceful relations of all nations. 

Our Continent, furthermore, has a right to 
reduce the effects of the war, by preventing its 
conflicts from being brought near our shores to 
perturb our tranquility, threatening to compro- 
mise or complicate our neutral status. 

Brazil does not make and never has made an 
issue of formulas and words, but the idea that 
it suggested with regard to continental waters 
will be defended by Brazil, because it considers 
the principle useful for its existence and that 
of the other Republics of America. 

These are the bases of the Brazilian vote and 
of the attitude of its delegates to the meeting 
of Panama. 

Declaration of the Argentine Delegation 

The Argentine Delegation declares that in 
waters adjacent to the South American Conti- 
nent, in that territorial extent of coasts which, 
in the zone defined as free from any hostile act, 
corresponds to the Argentine Republic, it does 
not recognize the existence of colonies or pos- 
sessions of European countries, and adds that 
it specifically reserves and maintains intact the 
legitimate titles and rights of the Argentine 
Republic to islands such as the Malvinas, as 
well as to any other Argentine territory located 
within or beyond the said zone. 

Declaration of the Minister of Foreign 
Affairs of Guatemala 

The declaration and reservation of His Ex- 
cellency, Dr. Melo, of Argentina, impels me to 



334 

present, on behalf of Guatemala, a like decla- 
ration and reservation, because the controversy 
of Guatemala with the British Empire is simi- 
lar and my silence might be interpreted as an 
abandonment of the legitimate rights now 
under discussion. 

XV 

Transmission of Declaration of Panama 

The Meeting of the Foreign Ministers of 
the American Republics 

ResoVoes 

To request the President of the Republic 
of Panama, His Excellency Dr. Juan Demos- 
tenes Arosemena, to transmit, in the name of 
all the Republics of America, the Declaration 
of Panama to the belligerent governments in- 
volved in the European war. (Approved 
October 3, 1939) . 

XVI 

Transfer of So%'ereigntt of Geographic Re- 
gions OF THE Americas Held by Non -Amer- 
ican States 

The Meeting of the Foreign Ministers of 
the American Republics 



department of state bthxetin 
Resolves 

1. That in case any geographic region of 
America subject to the jurisdiction of any non- 
American state should be obliged to change 
its sovereignty and there should result there- 
from a danger to the security of the American 
Continent, a consultative meeting such as the 
one now being held will be convoked with the 
urgency that the case may require. 

2. It is understood that this resolution shall 
not apply to a change of status resulting from 
the settlement of questions now pending be- 
tween non-American states and states of the 
Continent. (Approved October 3, 1939.) 

In witness whereof the following Ministers 
of Foreign Affairs or their Representatives 
sign the present Final Act, and hereunto affix 
their respective Seals. 

Done at Panama on the 3rd day of October 
1939, in the English, Spanish, Portuguese and 
French languages, the respective texts to be 
deposited in the archives of the Pan American 
Union. The Secretary General of the Meet- 
ing shall hand these texts to the Ministry of 
Foreign Affairs of Panama for transmittal to 
the Pan American Union. 



Radio Address by Under Secretary Welles ^ 



[Released to the press October 3] 

The Meeting of Foreign Ministers of the 
American Republics for Consultation held its 
first plenary session in Panama on September 
25. It has now, 8 days later, brought its work 
to a close. 

This meeting took place because the govern- 
ments of the American republics shared the 
belief that the outbreak of war in Europe 
brought into existence a state of affairs which 
might well menace the peace and security of 



' Delivered October 3, 1939, and broadcast over the 
network of the Columbia Broadcasting system. Mr. 
Welles is United States delegate to the meeting. 



the American Continent. They met together 
to consult concerning those peaceful, practical, 
cand effective measures which they might adopt 
to safeguard their national interests and the 
collective interests of the American republics. 
Specifically, their purposes were to strengthen 
and safeguard their position as neutrals, to 
lessen the dislocations produced on their eco- 
nomic systems by tlie European war, and, 
finally, to insure the maintenance of peace on 
the American Continent. 

Let us see how these purposes have been ful- 
filled. In the first place you might be inter- 
ested in hearing how this consultation meeting 



OCTOBER 7, 1939 



335 



was organized and how it functioned. As I 
have mentioned, the first plenary session took 
place on September 25. 

Prior to that, on September 23, there 
had been a formal inaugural session at 
which the delegates had the honor of receiving 
the President of Panama, His Excellency Dr. 
Arosemena, and of listening to an address of 
inspiring character which he delivered. 

The meeting was fortunate in having as it:s 
presiding officer the Minister of Foreign Affaii-s 
of Panama, His Excellency Dr. Narciso Garay. 
The tact, wisdom, and courtesy with which Dr. 
Garay presided over the deliberations contrib- 
uted to their ultimate success. 

At the outset of the regular business sessions 
three subcommittees were created : One on neu- 
trality, one on economic cooperation, and one 
on the maintenance of peace. The subcommit- 
tee on neutrality was presided over by the 
Minister of Foreign Affairs of Colombia, Dr. 
Lopez de Mesa. It drew up a "general decla- 
ration of neutrality of the American nations" 
which was unanimously adopted by the rep- 
resentatives of the 21 republics. This declara- 
tion starts from the premise that it is the unan- 
imous intention of the American republics not 
to become involved in the European conflict. 
It states the standards of conduct which, in 
accordance with international law and the do- 
mestic legislation of each country, the Ameri- 
can republics propose to follow in order to 
maintain their neutrality, to fulfill their obli- 
gations as neutrals, and to insure that their 
rights as neutrals are duly respected. To this 
end they agree, among other things, that they 
will prevent their respective territories — land, 
sea, or air — from being used as bases for bel- 
ligerent operations. They will prevent on their 
respective territories the enlistment of persons 
to serve in the armed forces of a belligerent, 
the setting on foot of military expeditions in 
the interest of a belligerent, or the fitting out 
and arming of vessels for belligerents. They 
will not permit the establishment by the bellig- 
erents or their agents of radio stations on the 
territory of the American republics. They will 
request all belligerent vessels and aircraft com- 

182905—39 3 



ing into areas under their jurisdiction to respect 
their neutral status and to observe their laws 
and regulations and the rules of international 
law concerning the rights and duties of neutrals 
and belligerents. In case any difficulties may 
arise in the effort to insure respect for their 
position as neutrals, they will, if they so desire, 
consult among themselves. 

The American republics, in this general dec- 
laration of neutrality, agree that they may, if 
they so desire, bring together and place in one 
port under guard the merchant vessels of a bel- 
ligerent which have sought refuge in their 
waters. They agree — and this is very impor- 
tant — to consider as lawful the transfer of tha 
flag of a merchant vessel to that of any Amer- 
ican republic, provided that such transfer is 
made in absolute good faith without provisions 
for eventual resale to the original owner and 
that the transfer takes place in the waters of 
an American republic. 

They also agree, and this again is very im- 
portant, that the American republics may ex- 
clude belligerent submarines from their ports. 

They further determine to maintain close 
contact in order to bring into uniformity, so 
far as possible, the measures they adopt for the 
enforcement of their neutral rights. Finally, 
the Governments agree to set up an inter- 
American neutrality committee composed of 
seven experts in international law for the pur- 
pose of studying and making recommendations 
regarding neutrality problems in the light of 
experience and changing conditions. The 
members of this committee are to be desig- 
nated before November 1 next. 

In the field of economic problems, great in- 
terest was manifested in the maintenance of 
adequate shipping facilities among the repub- 
lics of the New World. It was recalled that 
after the outbreak of the war in 1914 inter- 
American shipping communications were dis- 
rupted and curtailed. In connection with this 
problem, I was authorized by the United States 
Government to state at the beginning of the 
meeting that during tlie existing situation the 
regular transportation facilities of shipping 
lines between the United States and its Amer- 



336 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



ican neighbors now in operation will not only 
not be curtailed but will be strengthened and 
increased whenever such increase may be found 
to be desirable and feasible. 

The chairman of the subcommittee on eco- 
nomic cooperation was the representative of 
the Minister for Foreign Affairs of Brazil, His 
Excellency Dr. Martins, Brazilian Ambassador 
at Washington. It was the task of this body 
to undertake a study of the emergency and 
long-term problems of a financial and economic 
character confronting the American republics 
as a result of the war. They approached this 
problem from the viewpoint that it was more 
necessary than ever to establish the closest and 
sincerest cooperation between the American 
reijublics in order to protect their economic and 
financial structure, safeguard the stability of 
their currencies, jDromote and expand their 
industries, intensify their agriculture, and 
develop their commerce. 

Among the important resolutions reported 
by the subcommittee on economic coopera- 
tion — all of which were adopted unani- 
mously — was one for the creation of an inter- 
American financial and economic advisory 
committee. This body is to consist of 21 ex- 
perts in economic problems, one for each of the 
American republics, and it is to be installed in 
Washington, D. C, not later than November 
15, 1939. Among its functions will be the con- 
sideration of problems of monetary relation- 
ships, foreign-exchange management, or bal- 
ance of international payments situations 
which may be presented it by the government 
of any of the American republics, and the 
making of recommendations to that govern- 
ment. The advisory committee will study the 
most practical means of obtaining stability of 
the monetary and commercial relationships be- 
tween the American republics. 

It will be the task of the advisory committee 
to study and propose to the governments effec- 
tive measures for cooperation to lessen disloca- 
tions which may arise in the trade of the 
American republics. In this connection, it is 
interesting to observe that it was clear from the 



outset and was manifested throughout the dis- 
cussions that the American republics are not 
moved by any selfish desire to profit from the 
misfortunes of others. It was agreed that the 
advisory committee, in making its studies and 
proposals regarding the maintenance of trade 
among the American republics and, as far as 
possible, our trade with the rest of the world, 
would proceed on the basis of those liberal 
principles of international trade approved by 
earlier inter-American conferences. These 
principles are to be retained as the goal of 
their long-tei'm commercial policies, in order 
that the world shall not lack a basis of world- 
wide international trade in which all may 
participate after world order and peace may 
be restored. 

Among the preoccupations u^Dpermost in the 
minds of the representatives at the Panama 
Meeting, was the prevention of loss of life of 
nationals of the American republics and the 
destruction of their legitimate commercial in- 
terests through the carrying on of belligerent 
activities in waters in proximity to the shores 
of the American Continent. Here was a war 
that had its origin thousands of miles from 
the American coasts. Yet early in the course 
of hostilities belligerent war vessels began to 
appear in waters close to the American coasts, 
and it became only too apparent that Ameri- 
can lives and commercial intercourse would be 
seriously endangered if belligerent activities 
were to be carried out in the areas of custom- 
ary inter-American sea routes. 

The dangers of this situation and the pos- 
sible ways and means for circumscribing them, 
so far as that might be possible, constituted the 
main problem with which the subcoinmittee on 
the maintenance of peace was called upon to 
deal. This subcommittee was presided over by 
His Excellency, Dr. Prieto, Minister of For- 
eign Affairs of Paraguay. 

In considering an approach to this problem 
it was recalled that at the time of the World 
War of 1914-18, the governments of several 
American republics: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, 
Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru had all advanced 



OCTOBER 



1939 



337 



oi" supported proposals which provided in prin- 
ciple that the American republics should de- 
clare that the belligerent nations must refrain 
from committing hostile acts within a reason- 
able distance of their shores. Starting from 
this conception and in the firm conviction that 
the governments of the American republics 
were entitled, as a measure of self-pi'otection, 
to insist that the waters within a reasonable 
distance from their coasts should remain free 
from the commission therein of hostile acts or 
from the undertaking of belligerent activities 
by nations engaged in a war in which they 
themselves were not involved, the subcommittee 
elaborated an important declaration, which re- 
ceived the unanimous approval of the Panama 
meeting. 

This declaration is to be known as the Dec- 
laration of Panama. It states that, as a 
measure of continental self-protection, the 
American republics, so long as they maintain 
their neutrality, are as of inherent right en- 
titled to have those waters adjacent to the 
American Continent which they consider as of 
primary and direct utility, free from the com- 
mission of any hostile act by any non-Ameri- 
can belligerent nation, whether such hostile act 
be undertaken from the land, sea, or air. The 
Declaration defines these waters, which cover 
the area of customary inter-American sea 
routes. The territorial waters of Canada and 
of the colonies and possessions of European 
countries are excluded. 

The Declaration states that the governments 
of the American republics agree that they will 
endeavor, through joint representations to the 
belligerents, to secure compliance with these 
provisions. In order to carry out this proce- 
dure the representatives of the American re- 
publics requested the President of the Republic 
of Panama to act in their behalf in approach- 
ing the belligerent powers, and the President 
of Panama consented to undertake this task. 
The Declaration further sets out that the gov- 



ei'nments of the American republics, whenever 
they consider it necessary, will consult together 
to determine upon the measures which they 
may individually or collectively undertake in 
order to secure the observance of the provisions 
of the Declaration. Finally, the Declaration 
states that the American republics, during the 
existence of a state of war in which they them- 
selves are not involved, will undertake, when- 
ever they may determine that the need exists, 
to patrol, either individually or collectively, as 
may be agreed by common consent, the waters 
adjacent to their coasts within the area defined. 

I believe that, when the time comes to look 
back in historical perspective, the Declaration 
of Panama may be considered to have been an 
event of unusual importance. If we are able 
through our joint representations to persuade 
the belligerents to comply with its provisions, 
the Declaration will have made a far-reaching 
contribution towards the attainment of the 
goal which we so fervently desire to attain, 
namely, that our 21 American republics shall 
remain free from the horrors of war. 

That the Foreign Ministers of the American 
republics were able, in but little more than a 
week, to reach unanimous agreement upon 
subjects of such outstanding significance as 
were dealt with at this meeting was due in 
large part to the extraordinary atmosphere of 
friendliness, cooperation, and courteous consid- 
eration which marked each and every aspect 
of the deliberations. I only wish that you who 
are listening to my words tonight could have 
experienced with me this sense of fundamental 
unity which was manifested in Panama. It 
was inspiring. 

It is a heartening thought that, faced with 
the uncertainties of the future, we of the 
American republics find oureelves firmly 
united, with full confidence each in the others, 
drawing strength from our devotion to the 
principles of freedom and democratic govern- 
ment and to the ideals of our Christian faith. 



338 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



PAN AMERICAN LEAGUE GOLD MEDAL TO THE SECRETARY OF STATE 



[Released to the press October 6] 

The Secretary of State was presented on 
October 6 with the Pan American League Gold 
Medal by Mrs. Clark Stearns, the President of 
the League. 

Three years ago, the Pan American League 
instituted a triennial award to be given once 
during that period for the greatest contribu- 
tion of a personal kind to the cause of pan- 
Americanism. 

Mrs. Stearns was accompanied by Mrs. J. D. 
Young, Director of the National Student 
League, and Mrs. George Roberts, Secretary of 
the Pan American League. 

The citation accompanying the medal reads 
as follows: 

'■'•To His Excellency The Secretary of State 
The Honorable Cordell Hull: The Pan Amer- 
ican League has the honor to present to Your 
Excellency its medal of special merit, awarded 
once in three years for the most constructive 
accomplishment in the field of Pan American 
friendship and unity. This award carries with 
it enrollment upon the scroll of the Pan Amer- 
ican League Order of Adventurers in Friend- 
ship, the purpose of which is to mobilize the 
proved spirit of achievement for further re- 
search in the field of progress to observe and 
study diplomatic, political, social, and other 
trends which militate against inter-American 
confidence, respect, and unity, and to recom- 
mend ways and means of minimizing, offset- 
ting or correcting them. 

"Your name will be inscribed upon the 
roster of this Order under the classification of 
Adventurer of Exceptional Merit in Friend- 
ship. 

^'■Citation 

"For the greatest service of his time to the 
cause of unity in the Western Hemisphere, and 
thereby to an improved world today. 

"For making real a new conception of eco- 
nomic practice which removes international 



injustices and leads to a more equalized pros- 
perity. 

"For introducing a new ideal of statesman- 
ship of the highest merit and for adhering to 
a diplomacy of truth. 

"For upholding spiritual values in govern- 
ment and consistent adherence to the highest 
ideals. 

"The Pan Ameeican League, 
By 

Mrs. Clark Stearns, 

President International 
Mrs. Cleland Davis, 

Vice-President International 
Mrs. John Dunraven Young, 

Vice-President aJt Large 
Mrs. George Roberts, 

Secretary International 

"Washington, D. C, 
October 6, 1939:' 

-♦■ -f -f 

MESSAGE TO THE FOREIGN MINISTER 
OF HONDURAS 

[Released to the press October 3 J 

The following telegram has been addressed 
by the Secretary of State to the Minister of 
Foreign Relations of Honduras: 

"October 2, 1939. 
"His Excellency Salvador Aguirre, 

Minister of Foreign Relations of Honduras, 
Care of the Consulate General of 
Honduras, 

New Orleans, La. 

"Upon your departure from this country I 
wish to express the sincere hope that your stay 
in New Orleans has greatly benefited your 
health. In this hope I know that I express the 
sentiments of your many friends in the United 
States. I send you my personal regards and 
best wishes for a pleasant voj-age. 

Cordell Hull" 



OCTOBER 7, 1939 



339 



CONFERENCE ON INTER- AMERICAN RELATIONS IN THE FIELD OF ART 



[Released to the press October 6] 

The Conference on Inter-American Rela- 
tions in the Field of Art will be held on Octo- 
ber 11 and 12 in room 474 (old library) of the 
Department of State. Following is the text of 
the program for the Conference: 

Wednesday, October 11 

10:00 a. m. — Morning session: Dr. Ben M. 
Cherrington, Chief, Division of Cultural 
Relations, presiding 
Address: Cultured Relations and Govet-n- 
ment — The Honorable George S. Messer- 
smith, Assistant Secretary of State 
Discussion: The Resources for Inter- Ameri- 
can Exchange in the Field of Art 

1. What Can the Other American Repub- 

lics Best Contribute to the United 
States? 
(In the fields of prehistoric art, colonial 
architecture, folk art, the new painting, 
the new architecture, etc.) 
Mrs. Concha Romero James, Chief, Divi- 
sion of Intellectual Cooperation, Pan 
American Union 

2. What Can the United States Best Con- 

tribute to the Other American Repub- 
lics? 
(In the fields of decorative and machine 
art, art in engineering, art and mass 
production, folk art, Indian art, archi- 
tecture, museum organization and edu- 
cational methods, the new painting, etc. ) 
Holger Cahill, Director, Federal Arts 
Project, Works Projects Administration 
(with the assistance of Rene d'Harnon- 
court and other representatives of si^ecial- 
ized fields of interest) 

2: 30 p. m. — Afternoon session: The Honorable 
Robert Woods Bliss, presiding (tentative) 
Discussion: Exhibits — Permanent and Trav- 
eling 
Discussion leader : Roland J. McKinney, Di- 
rector, Los Angeles Museum of Art 



Suggested topics: 
What is the most practicable type of ex- 
hibit of Latin American art to hold in 
the United States at the present time ? 

1. Pan American, or one country or 
artist at a time? 

2. Covering what fields? 

Wliat types of exhibitions of United 
States art would be most welcome at the 
present time in the other American re- 
publics ? 

How is exhibit material to be selected? 

Where can exhibits best be held and to 
what extent can they be routed to va- 
rious points? 

How are exhibits to be sponsored and 
financed ? 

TiTDBSDAT, October 12 

10:00 a. in. — Morning session: Edward Bruce, 

Chief, Section of Fine Arts, Federal 

Buildings Administration, presiding 
Discussion : Opportunities for Student and 

Professor Exch-arige 
Discussion leader: Dr. Walter W. S. Cook, 
Director, Institute of Fine Arts, New 
York University 
Suggested topics: 

What resources are available for the inter- 
American exchange of fellowships and 
scholarships in the field of art? How 
else may exchanges be promoted? 

What are the opportunities for the ex- 
change of professors? 

What opportunities for development will 
United States students find in the other 
American republics? 

How can students from the other Ameri- 
can republics get the most out of a 
period of study in the United States? 

Wliat particularly are the opportunities in 
commercial art, graphic arts, costume 
design, stagecraft, etc.? 



340 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Discussion: The Role of Motion Pictures as 
a Medium of Art Exchange 

2:30 p. m. — Afternoon session: 

Discussion, based on the report of the Find- 
ings Committee, and directed toward the 
formulation of specific projects 

A list of the people who have to date ac- 
cepted the Secretary's invitation to the Con- 
ference appears below: 

California 

Roland J. McKinney, Director, Los Angeles Museum 
of Art 

Walter Hell, Director, San Francisco Museum of 
Art 

Phillip Toutz, Golden Gate International Exposi- 
tion, San Francisco 

Colorado 
Mitchell A. Wilder, Curator, Taylor Museum of the 
Colorado Springs Fine Art Center 

Connecticut 

Everett Victor Meeks, Dean, School of the Fine 

Arts, Yale University, New Haven 
Theodore Sizer, Assistant Director and Curator of 

Paintings, Gallery of Fine Arts, Yale University, 

New Haven 
Sheldon W. Cheney, Upper Stepney 
George Kubler, School of Fine Arts, Yale University, 

Nev? Haven 

District of Columbia 

Charles G. Abbot, Secretary, Smithsonian Institu- 
tion 

Alfred L. Barrovs's, Executive Secretary, National 
Research Council 

Robert Woods Bliss, President, American Federa- 
tion of Arts 

Edward Bruce, Chief, Section of Fine Arts, Public 
Buildings Administration 

Holger Cahill, Director, Federal Arts Project, 
Work Projects Administration 

Laurence Vail Coleman, Director, American Associ- 
ation of Museums 

Ren6 d'Harnoncourt, Executive Secretary, Arts and 
Crafts, Office of Indian Affairs, Department of 
the Interior 

David Finley, Director, National Gallery of Art 

Miss Alice Graeme, Art Editor, the Washington 
Post 

L. B. Holland, Chief, Division of Fine Arts, Library 
of Congress 

Mrs. Mildred Holzhauer, Director of Exhibitions, 
Federal Arts Project, Work Projects Administra- 
tion 



L. B. Houff, Jr., American Federation of Arts 

Mrs. Concha Romero James, Chief, Division of 
Intellectual Cooperation, Pan American Union 

Harry A. McBride, Administrator, National Gallery 
of Art 

Miss Lela Mechlin, Art Editor, the Washington 
Evening Star 

John C. Merriam, National Committee on Interna- 
tional Intellectual Cooperation, National Educa- 
tion Association 

C. Powell Minnegerode, Corcoran Art Gallery 

Thomas C. Parker, Deputy Director, WPA Art Pro- 
gram, Work Projects Administration 

Duncan Phillips, Director, Phillips Gallery 

Edward B. Rowan, Assistant Chief, Section of Fine 
Arts, Public Buildings Administration 

Robert C. Smith, Hispanic Foundation, Library of 
Congress 

Forbes Watson, Special Assistant, Section of Fine 
Arts, Public Buildings Administration 

Frederick Allen Whiting, Jr., Editor, American 
Magazine of Art 

Illinois 

Mr. and Mrs. George Lusk, Evanston 

Maryland 

Eleanor Patterson Spencer, Head of the Department 

of Fine Arts, Goucher College, Baltimore 
Marquis Childs, Somerset 

Massachusetts 

Charles H. Sawyer, Curator, Addison Gallery of 

American Art, Phillips Academy, Andover 
Mrs. Anne Holliday Webb, Division of Museum 

Extension, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston 
Paul J. Sachs, William Hayes Fogg Art Museum, 

Harvard University, Cambridge 
Francis Henry Taylor, Director, Worcester Art 

Museum 

Michigan 
W. E. Valentiner, Detroit Institute of Art 

New Jersey 

C. R. Morey, Head, Department of Art and Archae- 
ology, Princeton University, Princeton 

New York 
Rockwell Kent, Ausable Forks 
Mrs. William Lloyd Garrison, 3d, Children's 

Museum, Brooklyn 
Herbert J. Spinden, Curator, The Brooklyn Museum 
George Biddle, Croton-on-Hudson 
John E. Abbott, Executive Vice President, New York 

Museum of Modern Art, New York City 
J. J. Augustin, New York City 
Alfred H. Barr, Director, Museum of Modern Art, 

New York City 
Cornelius N. Bliss, New York City 
Jean Chariot, Art Students League, New York City 



341 



Walter S. Cook. Institute of Fine Arts, New York 
University, New York City 

Royal Cortissoz, New York Herald Tribune 

Stuart Davis, National Chairman, American Artists 
Congress, Inc., New York City 

Camilo Egas, Director, Art Department, New School 
of Social Research, New York City 

Miss Frances Grant, New York City 

Miss Malvina Hoffman, New York City 

Edward A. Jewell, New York Times, New York City 

Henry W. Kent, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New 
York City 

Frederick Keppel, Carnegie Corporation, New York 
City 

Alfred A. Knopf, New York City 

Miss Irene Lewisohn, President, Museum of Cos- 
tume Art, New York City 

Miss Florence Levy, Art Education Council, New 
York City 

John McAndrews, Curator, Division of Architecture 
and Industrial Art, Museum of Modern Art, New 
York City 

Mrs. Audrey McMahon, Director, Federal Art Proj- 
ect, New York Work Projects Administration, 
New York City 

Henry Allen Moe, Guggenheim Memorial Founda- 
tion, New York City 

Bernard Myers, Institute of Fine Arts, New York 
University, New York City 



Mrs. Frances Flynn Paine, Director of Hospitality, 
Latin-American DivLsion, World's Fair Hospital- 
ity Committee, New York City 

Miss Ruth Reeves, Art Center, New York City 

David H. Stevens, Rockefeller Foundation, New 
York City 

George C. Vaillant, American Museum of Natural 
History, New York City 

North Carolina 

Miss Louise Hall, Department of Fine Arts, Duke 
University, Durham 

Ohio 
Clarence Ward, the Dudley Peter Allen Memorial 

Art Museum, Oberliu College, Oberlin 
Mr. and Mrs. Steward Leonard, Zauesville Institute 

of Art 

Pennsylvania 

Horace F. Jayne, Director, Museum of Art, Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 

Henri Marceau, Assistant Director, Pliiladelphia 
Museum of Fine Arts 

Homer Saint-Gaudens, Director, Department of 
Fine Arts, Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh 

Texas 

Richard Foster Howard, Director, Dallas Museum 
of Fine Arts. 



Europe 



CONTINUANCE OF DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS WITH THE POLISH 

GOVERNMENT 



[Released to the press October 2] 

Following is a statement by the Secretary of 
State : 

"More than 20 years ago the United States 
recognized and has since maintained diplo- 
matic relations with the Polish Government. 
Poland is now the victim of force used as an 
instrument of national policy. Its territory has 
been taken over and its Government has had 
to seek refuge abroad. Mere seizure oi terri- 
tory, however, does not extinguish the legal 
existence of a government. The United States 
therefore continues to regard the Governnent 
of Poland as in existence, in accordance with 
the provisions of the Constitution of Poland, 
and continues to recognize Count Jerzy Potocki 
as its Ambassador in Washington. For the 
present at least Mr. Biddle^ will remain near 
the Government to which he has been ac- 
credited." 

[Released to the press October 21 

Following are the text of a note from the 
Polish Ambassador to the Secretary of State, 
and Secretary Hull's reply: 

"September 30, 1939. 
"The Honorable 
CoRDELL Hull, 

Secretary of State. 
"Sir: 

"I have the honor, upon instructions of my 
Government, to inform the Government of the 
United States that the President of the Repub- 
lic of Poland, Professor Ignacy Moscicki, has 
announced his resignation on September 30, 
1939. 

"In consequence and by virtue of the Consti- 
tutional Law of the Republic of Poland of 



'American Ambassador to Poland. 
342 



April 23, 1935, Mr. Wladyslaw Raczkiewicz, 
former President of the Senate, designated as 
successor by the decree of the President of the 
Republic of September 17, 1939, given at Kuty, 
Poland and duly promulgated in the "Monitor 
Polski" No. 214-217 published in Paris on 
September 29, 1939, has assumed the high func- 
tions of the President of the Republic of 
Poland. 

"By virtue of Article 19 of the Polish Con- 
stitutional Law Mr. Wladyslaw Raczkiewicz 
took the oath of office in the presence of the 
Polish Ambassador in Paris, Mr. Juliusz 
Lukasiewicz, of the Commander-in-Chief of 
the Polish Army in France, General Wladyslaw 
Sikorski, of the Undersecretary of State in the 
Ministry of Finance, Colonel Adam Koc, of 
the Chief of the Polish Military Mission at the 
General Headquarters of the French Army, 
General Stanislaw Burhardt-Bukacki, and of 
the Chief of the Chancellery of the President, 
Mr. Stanislaw Lepkowski. 

"This act took place at the Polish Embassy 
in Paris on September 30, 1939. 

"Accept [etc.] Jebzt Potocki" 

"October 2, 1939. 

"His Excellency 

Count Jerzy Potocki, 

Amlassador of Poland. 

"Excellency : 

"I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt 
of your note of Sqotember 30, 1939 in which you 
state that you have been instructed by your 
Government to inform the Government of the 
United States that iie President of Poland, 
Professor Ignacy Moscicki, announced his res- 
ignation on September 30, 1939, and that Mr. 



OCTOBER 7, 19 39 



343 



WladysLiw Raczkiewicz, former President of 
the Senate, who had been designated as succes- 
sor by the decree of the President of the Repub- 
lic of September 17, 1939 given at Kuty, 
Poland, has assumed the high functions of the 
President of the Republic of Poland. Notice 
has been taken of the statement in your note 



that Mr. Wladyslaw Raczkiewicz took the oath 
of office in the Polish Embassy in Paris on Sep- 
tember 30, 1939. 

"Your courtesy in conveying this information 
to the Government of the United States is 
appreciated. 

"Accept [etc.] Cordell Hull" 



■f -f -f + ■♦■ -f -f 



NEUTRALITY OF THE UNITED STATES 

Warning to American Merchant Shipping 



[Released to the press October 4] 

Following is a statement by the Secretary of 
State : 

"Information reaching the Government of 
the United States indicates the probability that 
there may be intensification of warfare on mer- 
chant shipping in Atlantic and Baltic waters 
adjacent to European belligerent shores. 

"The Government of the United States does 
not recognize the legality of unrestricted inter- 



ference with American ships and commerce. 
Nevertheless, under the special circumstances at 
present, it is believed advisable to warn all 
American merchant ships, except American 
passenger ships which do not carry cargoes to 
belligerents and are engaged in bringing home 
Americans from European countries, of the 
special danger incurred in entering such 
waters." 



Contributions for Relief in Belligerent Countries 



[Released to the press October 4] 

The Secretary of State promulgates the 
rules and regulations set forth below as addi- 
tions to the rules and regulations under the 
provisions of section 3 (a) of the joint reso- 
lution of Congress approved May 1, 1937, in 
regard to the solicitation and collection of 
funds for use in France; Germany; Poland; 
and the United Kingdom, India, Australia, 
Canada, New Zealand, and the Union of South 
Africa, which he promulgated on September 
5, 9, and 11, 1939: 

(11) No registration will be accepted until 
satisfactory evidence is presented to the Secre- 
tary of State that the applicant for registra- 
tion has organized an active and responsible 
governing body which will serve without com- 
pensation, and which will exercise a satisfac- 



tory administrative control, and that the funds 
collected by the registrant will be handled by 
a competent and trustworthy treasurer. 

(12) No registration will be accepted if the 
means proposed to be used to solicit or collect 
contributions include the employment of solic- 
itors on commission or any other commission 
method of raising money ; the use of the "remit 
or return" method of raising money by the 
sale of merchandise or tickets; the giving of 
entertainments for money-raising purposes if 
the estimated costs of such entertainments, 
including compensation, exceed 30 percent of 
the gross proceeds, or any other wasteful or 
unethical method of soliciting contributions. 

(13) No registration will be accepted until 
the Secretary of State has been informed in 
writing by a responsible officer of the appli- 



344 



DEPAKTMENT OF STATE RTT T.T.TJ-. TTTJ 



cant for registration that he has read these 
regulations. 

(14) The Secretary will exercise the right 
reserved under regulation (7) to revoke any 
registration upon receipt of evidence which 
leads hina to believe that the registrant has 
failed to maintain such a governing body 
as that described under regulation (11), has 
failed to employ such a treasurer as that de- 
scribed under regulation (11), has employed 
any of the methods for soliciting contributions 
set forth under regulation (12), has employed 
unethical methods of publicity, or has failed 
to attain a reasonable degree of efficiency in 
the conduct of operations. 

(15) The sworn statement to be submitted 
by registrants in accordance with regulation 
(6) shall be supplemented by such further in- 
formation as the Secretary of State may deem 
necessary. 

CoRDELL Hull 
Secretary of State 

[Released to the press October 2] 

The following persons and organizations 
have registered with the Secretary of State 
since September 27, 1939 (the names of 81 reg- 
istrants were published on and before that 
date) luider the rules and regulations govern- 
ing the solicitation and collection of contribu- 
tions to be used for medical aid and assistance 
or for the supplying of food and clothing to 
relieve human suffering in the countries now 
at war, promulgated pursuant to the provisions 
of section 3 (a) of the Neutrality Act of May 1, 
1937, as made effective by the President's proc- 
lamations of September 5, 8, and 10, 1939 (the 
names in parentheses represent the countries 
to which contributions are being sent) : 

82. California State Committee for Polish Re- 
lief, care of Mr. Merian C. Cooper, 10202 
Washington Boulevard, Culver City, Calif. 
(Poland) 

83. Polish Relief Fund Committee of Milwau- 
kee, 2871-A South Seventh Street, Milwau- 
kee, Wis. (Poland) 

84. Ruth Stanley de Luze (Baroness de Luze), 
"Luthany," Pleasantville Road, Briarcliff 
Manor, N. Y. (France) 



85. Polish Relief Committee of Gardner, Mass., 
Gardner Trust Building, 32 Pleasant Street, 
Gardner, Mass. (Poland) 

86. Board of National Missions of the Presby- 
terian Church in the United States of Amer- 
ica, 156 Fifth Avenue, New York, N. Y. 
(Great Britain, France, and Germany) 

87. American Committee for Christian German 
Refugees, 287 Fourth Avenue, New York, 
N. Y. (Germany and France) 

88. Nowiny Publishing Apostolate, Inc., 1226 
W. Mitchell Street, Milwaukee, Wis. 
(Poland) 

89. Polish Relief Fund of Irvington, N. J., 415 
Sixteenth Avenue, Irvington, N. J. (Poland) 

90. St. Stephens Polish Relief Fund of Perth 
Amboy, N. J., 490 State Street, Perth Amboy, 
N. J. (Poland) 

91. Polish Army Veterans Association of 
America, Inc., 56 St. Marks Place, New York, 
N. Y. (Poland) 

92. Holy Cross Relief Fund Association of 
New Britain, Conn., Holy Cross Rectory, 
Biruta Street, New Britain, Conn. (Poland) 

93. United Polish Societies of Hartford, Conn., 
Polish National Home, 100 Governor Street, 
Hartford, Conn. (Poland) 

94. American Field Service, care of W. W. 
Aldrich, Chase National Bank, 52 Cedar 
Street, New York, N. Y. (France) 

95. Polish National Alliance of the United 
States of North America, 1514-20 West Di- 
vision Street, Chicago, 111. (Poland) 

96. Rev. John Wieloch, 5 Church Street, 
Millers Fall, Mass. (Poland) 

97. Orrin S. Good, 1410 Old National Bank 
Building, Spokane, Wash. (Great Britain) 

98. United Polish Societies of Bristol, Conn., 
462 North Main Street, Bristol, Conn. 
(Poland) 

99. Russian Refugee Children's Welfare Soci- 
ety, Inc., 51 East 121st Street, New York, 
N. Y. (Germany, France, and Poland) 

100. The American Jewish Joint Distribution 
Committee, Inc., 100 East Forty-second 
Street, New York, N. Y. (France, Poland, 
Germany, and the United Kingdom) 



OCTOBER 7, 19 39 

Travel on Belligerent Ships 

[Released to the press October 2] 

Following is a statement by the Secretary of 
State : 

"On September 5, 1939, I issued regulations 
regarding travel by American citizens on ves- 
sels of belligerent countries, in accordance with 
provisions of the joint resolution of Congress 
approved May 1, 1937. 

"I stated that travel on vessels of France, 
Germany, Poland, or the United Kingdom, In- 
dia, Australia, and New Zealand (vessels of 
the Union of South Africa were added by regu- 
lation of September 9 and those of Canada on 
September 11) in the North Atlantic Ocean, 
east of 30 degrees west and north of 30 degi-ees 
north or on or over other waters adjacent to 
Europe or over the continent of Europe or ad- 
jacent islands would not be permitted except 
when specifically authorized by the Secretary 
of State in each case. 

"The joint resolution contains a proviso ex- 
cepting, for a period of 90 days, from the pro- 
hibition on travel by American citizens on a 
vessel of a belligerent state citizens returning 
from a foreign state to the United States. 

"While under international law American 
citizens have a perfect right to travel on bel- 
ligerent vessels, and while under our statute 
they may travel on such vessels en route from 
a foreigii country to tlie United States for an 
additional period of 60 days from October 5, 
I regard such travel as dangerous considering 
the character of the warfare that is now in 
progress. 

"I, therefore, call upon all American citi- 
zens, in their own interest and in the interest 
of their Government, to refrain from exercising 
the right which they have in this respect. This 
Government has gone to considerable trouble 
and expense to make available to American 
citizens in belligerent countries American ves- 
sels for their reti rn to the United States, and 
fortunately most of them who have desired to 
return have been accommodated. It is there- 
fore to be hoped that those who may still be in 
foreign countries and who desire to return to 



345 

the United States will travel on American ves- 
sels or other neutral vessels and thus avoid 
the danger inherent in traveling on vessels of 
belligerent countries within the areas specified 
above." 

+ -f -f 

REPORTS ON AMERICANS IN WARSAW 

[Released to the press October 6] 

The American Charge in Berlin, Mr. Alex- 
ander C. Kirk, has reported that he has re- 
ceived the following telegi-am through German 
Army channels from Vice Consul Thaddeus H. 
Chylinski in Warsaw: 

"To the American Consulate General Berlin. 
Fifty American citizens in Warsaw uninjured. 
Rakov, passport No. 412207, injured. Medical 
attention has been provided. Confirmation in 
writing through German troops. Chylinski, 
American Embassy, Warsaw." 

The exact date of Vice Consul Chylinski's 
telegram is not clear, but it was probably writ- 
ten on October 3. 

The Mr. Rakov to which it refers is prob- 
ably Mr. Harry Rakow of Brooklyn, N. Y. 

The American Charge in Berlin reported to 
the Department of State October 5 that he had 
just been informed by an official of the Foreign 
Office that Vice Consul Chylinski at Warsaw is 
in good health ; that the Embassy Chancery is 
intact, although bombs fell into the courtyard 
and garden, but that the Ambassador's resi- 
dence and the Consulate General are destroyed. 

4 > 4 

RETURN OF AMERICANS FROM 
EUROPE 

[Released to the press October 2] 

The Department has been reliably informed 
that 9,089 passengers arrived in New York 
from Europe for the week which ended Septem- 
ber 22, 1939. This number is almost identical 
with the 9,086 reported for all United States 
Atlantic ports for the week ended September 
15. For the week ended September 7 estimates 
indicate that approximately 12,250 passengers 



346 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



arrived at all United States Atlantic ports, and 
for the wet'k ended September 1 the number 
reported was 10,500, which included 1,200 who 
arrived in Canada from Europe. More de- 
tailed figures on the number of passengers re- 
ported to have arrived from Euroi^e follow : 



Week ended 


Place of arrival 


Number 
of pas- 
sengers 

reported 


Total 


Sept. 1 


United States Atlantic ports 


9,300 
1,200 
9,900 
2,350 
9.086 
• 9, 089 
9,000 
1,800 


}l0, 500 


Sept. 7 


United States Atlantic ports 


}l2, 250 


Sept. 15 

Sept. 22. 

Sept. 29 


United States Atlantic ports _. 


9,086 
9,089 


Estimate 


9,000 


Sept. 30 




1,800 










51, 725 









• Includes 71 passengers who arrived by Trans-Atlantic Clipper. 



No information is available for Canadian 
ports for the last 3 weeks under review. 

-f -f -f 

SINKING OF NORWEGIAN SHIP 

[Released to the press October 4] 

The following telegram was received Octo- 
ber 4 from Consul General Kenneth S. Patton 
at Singapore, Straits Settlements: 

"Norwegian ship Hoegh Transporter ex San 
Francisco sunk by a mine Singapore Harbor 
last night. Sherman Plimpton of Seattle and 
Ray Edmonds both safe, former uninjured, 
latter fractured ribs not serious, requests noti- 
fication his father Edmonds 3710 Euclid Ave- 
nue, Dallas, Texas." 



Commercial Policy 



TRADE-AGREEMENT NEGOTIATIONS WITH CHILE 

statement by the Secretary of State 



[Released to the press October 2] 

Public notice is being issued today of inten- 
tion to negotiate a reciprocal trade agreement 
with Chile. It is a source of great satisfac- 
tion, and particularly appropriate, that an an- 
nouncement of negotiations with another 
American republic comes at this time when 
representatives of the nations of this hemis- 
phere are gathered at Panama to discuss prob- 
lems of mutual interest in this critical period. 

One of those problems concerns the finding 
of means for closer inter-American economic 
cooperation, the need for which has become 
even greater in recent weeks. The further de- 
velopment of trade between the American re- 
publics on the basis of liberal trade principles 



may well provide a means by which such prin- 
ciples may be restored and extended in other 
areas when the present crisis has passed. 

Trade between the United States and Chile 
occupies an important position in our commer- 
cial relations with the countries of America. 
Likewise, the investments of our citizens in 
productive enterprises in that country have for 
many years been of great importance. It is 
hoped that the negotiation of a trade agree- 
ment with Chile will aid in strengthening all 
forms of economic collaboration between the 
two countries in the cordial atmosphere which 
so happily characterizes relations between 
them today. 



OCTOBER 7, 1939 



347 



Announcement of Proposed Negotiations 



[Released to the press October 2] 

The Secretary of State issued today formal 
notice of intention to negotiate a trade agree- 
ment with the Government of Chile. 

The Committee for Reciprocity Information 
issued simultaneously today a notice setting 
the dates for the submission to it of informa- 
tion and views in writing and of applications 
to appear at public hearings to be held by the 
Committee and fixing the time and place for 
the opening of the hearings. Suggestions with 
regard to the form and content of presenta- 
tions addressed to the Committee for Eeci- 
procity Information are included in a state- 
ment released by that Committee on December 
13, 1937. 

It is the general policy of the United States 
in negotiating trade agreements with foreign 
countries to consider concessions only on prod- 
ucts of which the other country is the chief or 
an important source of our imports. The an- 
nexed list includes all the products of which 
Chile is the chief or an important source of 
supply. Representations which interested per- 
sons may wish to make to the Committee for 
Reciprocity Information need not be confined 
to the articles appearing on this list but may 
cover any articles of actual or potential inter- 
est in the import or export trade of the United 
States with Chile. However, only the articles 
contained in the list issued today or in any 
supplementary list issued later will come under 
consideration for the possible granting of con- 
cessions by the Govermnent of the United 
States. 

The inclusion of any product in this list does 
not mean that a concession with respect to it 
will necessarily be granted. The concessions to 
be granted are not decided upon until after 
interested parties in the United States have 
been given full opportunity to present infor- 
mation and views in writing and orally. Fur- 
thermore, in view of the geographical position 
of Chile, where agricultural production and 
marketing seasons differ from those in the 



United States, particular consideration will be 
given in the case of agricultural products ap- 
pearing in the attached list, to the possibility 
of seasonal limitations on any concessions 
wliich may be made on such products. In the 
case of some products included in this list it 
may be that no concession will be made ; it may 
be that the existing import duty will merely be 
bound, without reduction ; it may be that only 
a part of a given tariff classification, as set 
forth in the list, will be affected by the agree- 
ment; or it may be that a concession, if made, 
will be limited as to the quantity of the prod- 
uct to which the concession is applicable. 

United States trade with Chile declined 
drastically between 1929 and 1932. Since then 
it has increased, but remains well below the 
1929 level. 



Year 


U. S. imports 

from Chile » 

(thousands of 

dollars) 


U. S. exports 

to Chile ' 

(thousands of 

dollars) 


1929 


102, 025 
12, 278 
11,603 
21,620 
24, 728 
26, 140 
43, 636 
28,592 


65, 776 


1932 . . . 


3,568 


1933 


5,321 


1934 


12,030 


1935 


14, 948 


1936 


15, 739 


1937. .. ... 


23,997 


1938... __ 


24,603 







» General imports 1929-33; imports for consumption 1934-38. 
6 Including reexports. 

An interesting feature of our trade in agri- 
cultural products with Chile is the seasonal 
importation of fresh fruits and vegetables. In 
fact, with respect to imports, the chief purpose 
which might be served by the proposed agi'ee- 
ment would be to make it easier for our con- 
sumers, the poor as well as the rich, to obtain 
supplies of fresh fruits and vegetables the year 
round. 

A compilation showing the principal prod- 
ucts involved in the trade between the United 
States and Chile during the years 1936 to 1938 
has been prepared by the Bureau of Foreign 
and Domestic Conunerce of the Department of 
Commerce and may be obtained, upon request. 



348 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BUIXETIN 



from the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic 
Commerce in Washington or from any district 
or cooperative office. 

department of state 

Public Notice 

Trade Agreement Negotiations With Chile 

Pursuant to section 4 of an act of Congress 
approved June 12, 1934, entitled "An Act to 
Amend the Tariff Act of 1930", as extended by 
Public Kosolution No. 10, approved March 1, 
1937, and to Executive Order No. 6750, of June 
27, 1934, I hereby give notice of intention to 
negotiate a trade agreement with the Govern- 
ment of Chile. 

All presentations of information and views 
in writing and applications for supplemental 
oral presentation of views with respect to the 
negotiation of such agreement shoidd be sub- 
mitted to the Conmiittee for Reciprocity In- 
formation in accordance with the announce- 
ment of this date issued by that Committee 
concerning the\ manner and dates for the sub- 
mission of briefs and applications, and the 
time set for public hearings. 

CoRDELL Hull 

Secretary of State 

Washington, D. C, Octoler 2, 1939. 

committee for reciprociit information 

Public Notice 

Trade Agreement Negotiations With Chile 

Closing date for submission of briefs, Novem- 
ber 11, 1939 
Closing date for application to be heard, No- 
vember 11, 1939 
Public hearings open, November 27, 1939 

The Committee for Reciprocity Information 
hereby gives notice that all information and 
views in writing, and all applications for sup- 
plemental oral presentation of views, in regard 
to the negotiation of a trade agreement with 
the Government of Chile, notice of intention to 
negotiate which has been issued by the Secre- 



tary of State on this date, shall be submitted 
to the Committee for Reciprocity Information 
not later than 12 o'clock noon, November 11, 
1939. Such communications should be ad- 
dressed to "Chairman, Committee for Reci- 
procity Information, Old Land Office Build- 
ing, Eighth and E Streets, NW., Washington, 
D. C." 

A public hearing will be held beginning at 
10 a. m. on November 27, 1939, before the 
Committee for Reciprocity Information in the 
hearing room of the Tariff Conunission in the 
Old Land Office Building, where supplemental 
oral statements will be heard. 

Six copies of written statements, either type- 
written or printed, shall be submitted, of which 
one copy shall be sworn to. Appearance at 
hearings before the Committee may be made 
only by those persons who have filed written 
statements and who have within the time pre- 
scribed made written application for a hearing, 
and statements made at such hearings shall be 
under oath. 

By direction of the Committee for Reci- 
procity Information this 2nd day of October 
1939. 

John P. Gregg 

Secretary 

Washington, D. C, Octoler 2, 1939. 

List of Products on Which the United 
States Will Consider Granting Conces- 
sions to Chile 

Note : The rates of duty or tax indicated are 
those now applicable to products of Chile. 

For the purpose of facilitating identification 
of the articles listed, reference is made in the 
list to the paragraph numbers of the tariff 
schedules in the Tariff Act of 1930, and to the 
appropriate section of the Internal Revenue 
Code. The descriptive phraseology is, how- 
ever, in some cases limited to a narrower field 
than that covered by the numbered tariff para- 
graph. In such cases only the articles covered 
by the descriptive phraseology of the list will 
come under consideration for the granting of 
concessions. 



OCTOBER 7, 1939 



349 



In the event that articles which are at pres- 
ent regarded as classifiable under the descrip- 
tions included in the list are excluded there- 
from by judicial decision or otherwise prior to 
the conclusion of the agreement, the list will 
nevertheless be considered as including such 
articles. 



United States 
Tariff Act of 

1930 
Paragraph 



52.. 
735- 
742. 



746. 
748. 



749. 
752. 



765. 



767.. 
769.. 
770.. 
770.- 
16U. 



len.. 

1658- . 



1681. 



1686.. 
1685.. 



Description of article 



Spermaceti wax. 

Apricots, frreen, ripe, or in brine 

Grapes in built, crates, barrels, or 
other packages. 



Peaches (including: nectarines), 
green, ripe, or in brine. 

Plums, prunes, and prunelles, green, 
ripe, or in brine. 

Pears, green, ripe, or in brine 

Melons (except watermelons) in 
their natural state, or in brine, 
pickled, dried, de^^iccated, evap- 
orated, or otherwise prepared 
or preserved, and not specially 
provided for. 

Beans, not specially provided for, 
dried. 

Lentils 

Chickpeas or garbanzos, dried 

Onions 

Garlic 

Argols, tartar, and wine lees, crude 
or partly refined, containing less 
than 90 per centum of potassium 
bitartrate. 

Calcium tartrate, crude 

Copper ore; regulus of, and black or 
coarse copper, and cement cop- 
per: old copper, fit only for re- 
manufacture, copper scale, clip- 
pings from new copper, and 
copper in plates, bars, ingots, or 
pigs, not manufactured or speci- 
ally provided for. 

Drugs which are natural and un- 
compounded and not edible, 
and not specially provided for, 
and are in a crude state, not 
advanced in value or condition 
by shredding, grinding, chip- 
ping, crushing, or any other 
process or treatment whatever 
beyond that essential to the 
proper packing of the drugs and 
the prevention of decay or de- 
terioration pending manufac- 
ture, and not containing alcohol: 
Soap bark or quillaya -.. 

Furs and fur skins, not specially 
provided for, undressed: 

sheep and lamb 

Nutria 

Guano 

Substances consisting chiefly of so- 
dium nitrate and potassium ni- 
trate, used chiefly lor fertilizers, 
or chiefly as an ingredient in the 
manufacture of fertilizers. 



Present rate of 
duty 



iVit per lb.» 

H* per lb. 

in, per cu. ft. of 
such bulk or 
the capacity of 
the packages, 
according as 
imported.'' 

H^ per lb. 

H0 per lb. 

Yit per lb. 
35% ad val. 



3^ per lb. 

yi^ per lb. 
Vy^t per lb. 
2W per lb. 
\Vii per lb. 
Free. 



Free. 

Free (subject to 
import tax of 
M per lb. of 
copper content 
under sec. 3425, 
Int. Rev. Code; 
see below.) 



Free. 



Free." 
Free. 
Free. 
Free. 



« This rate was reduced from .IHi* I)er lb. to iVii per lb. pursuant to the 
trade agreement with the United Kingdom, effective Jan. 1, 1939. 

' Rate on hothouse grapes bound against increase pursuant to the 
trade agreement with Belgium, effective May 1, 1935. 

« Duty-free status bound against change pursuant to the trade agree- 
ment with the United Kincdom. effective Jan. 1. 1939. 

** Free status of sulphur in any form bound against change pursuant 
to the trade agreement with the United Kingdom, effective Jan. 1, 1939. 



United States 

Tariff Act of 

l»:)0 

Paragraph 


Description of article 


Present rate of 
duty 






Free. 


1700 


Iron ore, including manganiferous 

iron ore. 
Sheep and lamb skins, raw 


Free. 


1765 


Free. 


1706 


Sodium nitrate, crude or refined 

Sodium sulphate, crude, or crude 

salt cake. 
Sulphur in any form, and sulphur 
ore, such as pyrites or sulphide 
of Iron in its natural state, and 
spent oxide of iron, containing 
more than 25 per centum of sul- 
phur. 


Free. 


1766 


Free. 


1777 


Free.'' 






Internal 

Revenue Code 

Section 


Description of article 


Present rate of 
import tai 


3425 


Copper-bearing ores and concen- 
trates and articles provided for 
in paragraph 316, 380, 381, 387, 
1620, 1634, 1657, 1658, or 1659 of 
the Tariff Act of 1930. 
Provided, That no tax under I. R. 
C, sec. 3425 shall be imposed on 
copper in any of the foregoing 
which is lost in metallurgical 
processes. 
Provided further, That ores or con- 
centrates usable as a flux or sul- 
phur reagent in copper smelting 
and/or converting and having a 
copper content of not more than 
15 per centum, when imported 
for fluxing purposes, shall be ad- 
mitted free of said tax in an ag- 
gregate amount of not to exceed 
in any one year 15,000 tons of 
copper content. 

All articles dutiable under the Tar- 
iff Act of 1930, not provided for 
heretofore in this item, in which 
copper (including copper in al- 
loys) is the component material 
of chief value. 

All articles dutiable under the Tariff 
Act of 1930, not provided for 
heretofore in this item, contain- 
ing 4 per centum or more of 
copper by weight. 


it per lb. on the 




copper con- 
tained therein. 

3(! per lb. 

3% ad val. or Hi 
per lb., which- 
ever is the low- 
er. 



'^■¥--*- 



IMPORT DUTY ON CUBAN SUGAR 

[Released te the press October 2] 

In response to press inquiries regarding 
reports that a reduction was about to be made 
in the import duty on Cuban sugar, it was said 
at the Department of State that there are no 
present plans for such action at this time. 
Asked whether those who might be interested 
in this question would have an opportunity to 
make their views known before such action was 



350 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



decided, it was pointed out for the benefit of 
any so interested that the Committee for Eeci- 
procity Information is always prepared to re- 
ceive views orally or in written form on any 
such questions at any time and to see that they 
are given all possible attention. If, therefore, 
any persons interested in this matter may feel 
that the trade-agreements organization is not 
fully informed as to their views on the matter 
in the existing situation, or have any further 



views they may wish to submit as to action 
whicli they feel ought or ought not to be taken, 
and therefore wish to supplement the informa- 
tion and views presented in briefs and oral 
hearings to the Committee for Reciprocity In- 
formation last January, they are invited to 
address themselves to that Committee, with the 
assurance that any expression of views thus 
submitted will receive every appropriate con- 
sideration. 



Foreign Service of the United States 



PERSONNEL CHANGES 



[Released to tbe press October 7] 

Changes in the Foreign Service since Septerw- 
her 30: 

The assignment of William P. Cochran, Jr., 
of Wayne, Pa., as second secretary of embassy 
and consul at Moscow, Union of Soviet Social- 
ist Republics, has been canceled. 

Thomas C. Wasson, of Newark, N. J., consul 
at Lagos, Nigeria, West Africa, has been as- 
signed as consul at Vigo, Spain. 

John S. Littell, of Miami, Fla., now assigned 
to the Department of State, has been assigned 
as consul at Habana, Cuba. 

The assigimient of Charles A. Bay, of St. 
Paul, Minn., as second secretary of legation 
and consul at Tegucigalpa, Honduras, has been 
canceled. Mr. Bay is now on leave of absence 
in the United States and will be given another 
assignment at a later date. 

C. Burke Elbrick, of Louisville, Ky., third 
secretary of embassy at Warsaw, Poland, has 
been designated third secretary of legation and 
vice consul at Bucharest, Rumania. 

Andrew B. Foster, of Haverford, Pa., third 
secretary of legation and vice consul at Athens, 
Greece, has been assigned for duty in the De- 
partment of State. 



William K. Ailshie, of Coeur d'Alene, Idaho, 
vice consul at Nassau, Bahamas, has been as- 
signed as vice consul at Mexico City, Mexico. 

Albert R. Goodman, of Peekskill, N. Y., vice 
consul at Seville, Spain, has been designated 
third secretary of legation and vice consul at 
Bangkok, Thailand. Mr. Goodman will seive 
in dual capacity. 

S. Roger Tyler, Jr., of Huntington, W. Va., 
vice consul at Mexico City, Mexico, has been 
designated third secretary of legation and vice 
consul at San Jose, Costa Rica. Mr. Tyler will 
serve in dual capacity. 

The assigimient of Woodruff Wallner, of 
New York City, N. Y., as vice consul at Saigon, 
French Indochina, has been canceled. In lieu 
thereof, Mr. Wallner has been assigned as vice 
consul at Paris, France. 

Howard H. Tewksbury, of Hingham, Mass., 
Foreign Service officer, designated as commer- 
cial attache at Guatemala, Guatemala, has been 
designated conmaercial attache at Quito, 
Ecuador. 

William E. Dunn, of Sulphur Springs, Tex., 
Foreign Service officer, designated as commer- 
cial attache at Buenos Aires, Argentina, has 



OCTOBEK 7, 193 9 



351 



been designattnl coniinerciiil attache at Guate- 
mala, Guatemala. 

Thomas L. Huches. of Murray, Ky., Foreifjn 
Service officer, assigned to the Department of 
State and detailed to the Department of Com- 
merce, has been designated commercial attaclie 
at Buenos Aires, Argentina. 



General 



DEATH OF SENATOR LOGAN 



[Released to tho press October 3] 

The Secretary of State 
telegram of condolence: 



sent 



the following 



"OcToBEU 3, 1939. 
"Mrs. M. M. Logan, 

Fourteenth /Street, 

Bowling Green, Ky. 
"It is with deep sorrow that I have learned 
of the passing of your distinguished husband, 
who was my loyal friend of long standing. 
His private and official life was characterized 
by sincerity, conscientiousness and high pur- 
pose. A sound thinker, a prodigious worker, 
he always had the courage of his convictions 
and ranked among the leaders in the Senate in 
ability and service. Mrs. Hull and I extend to 
you and to the family our lieartfelt sympathy 
in your irreparable loss. 

CoRDELL Hull" 



DEATH OF CARDINAL MUNDELEIN 

1 Released to the press October 2] 

The Secretary of State sent the following 
telegram of condolence on tlie death of Cardi- 
nal Mundelein: 

"OCTFOBER 2, 1939. 
"Tiie Most Reverend Bernard J. Sheil, 
7J0 North Wabash Avenue, 
Chicago, III. 
"The news of the passing of Cardinal Mun- 
delein has filled me with the deepest sorrow. I 
was privileged to enjoy his friendship over a 
long j^eriod of years. He was a distinguished 
churchman with an outstanding record of 
achievement. A great American of unusual 
ability and capacity, he was ever ready cheer- 
fully to give the utmost of his splendid talents 
to the public service. 

CoRDELL Hull" 



Publications 



Other Government Agencies 



Executive Powers Under National Emergency : Letter 
from the Attorney General transmitting with reference 
to Senate Resolution No. 185, information as to ex- 
traordinary powers available to the President during 
a national emergency or state of war. S. Doc. No. 
133, 76th Cong., 2d sess. 13 pp. 50. 



Treaty Information 



Compiled by the Treaty Division 



ARBITRATION AND JUDICIAL 
SETTLEMENT 

General Act for the Pacific Settlement of 
International Disputes 

Australia 

There is quoted below the text of a telegram 
received by the Secretary General of the 
League of Nations on September 8, 1939, re- 
garding the accession of Australia to the Gen- 
eral Act for the Pacific Settlement of Interna- 
tional Disputes, signed at Geneva on September 
26, 1928: 

"Canberra, September 7th, 1939. 

"His Majesty's Government in the Common- 
wealth of Australia has found it necessary to 
consider problem in existing circumstances of 
its accession to General Act for Pacific Settle- 
ment of International Disputes. 

"Taking into account considerations referred 
to in my telegram of even date concerning 
Optional Clause of Statute of Permanent 
Court of International Justice which apply 
with equal force in case of General Act His 
Majesty's Government in Commonwealth of 
Australia now notifies you that it will not re- 
gard its accession to General Act as covering 
or relating to any dispute arising out of events 
occurring during present crisis. Please inform 
all States parties to General Act. 

Prime Minister 

Commomoealth of Australia" 

According to information received from the 
League of Nations the following countries are 
parties to the General Act: Belgiiun, United 
Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ire- 
land, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Ireland, 
India. Denmark, Estonia, Ethiopia, Finland, 

352 



France, Greece, Italy, Latvia, Luxemburg, 
Norway, Peru, Spain, Switzerland, and Turkey. 

Permanent Court of International Justice 

There are printed below the texts of com- 
munications addressed to the Secretary General 
of the League of Nations relating to the ac- 
ceptance of Australia, France, and Great 
Britain of the Optional Clause (article 36) of 
the Statute of the Permanent Court of Inter- 
national Justice: 

"Canberra, Se/ptember 7th, 1939. 

"His Majesty's Government in the Common- 
wealth of Australia has found it necessary to 
consider problem in existing circumstances of 
its acceptance of optional clause of statute of 
Permanent Court of International Justice and 
in this connection has perused a letter which is 
being addressed to you on behalf of His 
Majesty's Government in United Kingdom. 

"Considerations mentioned in that letter ap- 
ply equally to position of His Majesty's Gov- 
ernment in Commonwealth of Australia and 
for similar reasons His Majesty's Government 
in Commonwealth of Australia now notifies 
you that it will not regard its acceptance of 
optional clause as covering any disputes aris- 
ing out of events occurring during present 
crisis. Please communicate this notification to 
Governments of all States which have accepted 
Optional Clause and to Registrar of Perma- 
nent Court of International Justice. 

Prime Minister 
Commonwealth of Australia" 

The circular letter from the League of Na- 
tions dated September 13, 1939, transmitting 
the above telegram states that it was received 
by the Secretariat on September 8, 1939. 



OCTOBER 7, 19 39 



353 



[Translation] 

90 '"French Eepublic, 

Paris, September 10th, 1939. 

"Monsieur le Secretaire General, 

"I have the honor to inform you that the 
Government of the French Eepublic has found 
it necessary to consider the situation in which 
it is placed, in the present circumstances, by 
its accession to Article 36 of the Statute of the 
Permanent Court of International Justice. Its 
acceptance, ■n-liich was renewed by a declara- 
tion dated April 7, 1936, is in force for a period 
of five years as from August 25, 1936. 

"The conditions under which the French 
Government accepted the above-mentioned 
clause have now fundamentally changed. In 
particular, since the system for the settlement 
of international disputes established by the 
Covenant of the League of Nations has ceased 
to be regarded as uniformly and compulsorily 
binding upon all Members of the League of 
Nations, the question of belligerent and neutral 
rights appears in an entirely new light. 

"The French Government therefore consid- 
ers, like the United Kingdom Government, of 
whose views you have been separately in- 
formed, that its acceptance of Article 30 of tliii 
Statute of the Permanent Court of Interna- 
tional Justice cannot henceforward be opera- 
tive in regard to disputes relating to events 
occurring during the course of the present war. 

"I should be grateful if you would bring the 
present communication to the knowledge of all 
the States which have accepted the Optional 
Clause, and of the Registrar of the Perma- 
nent Court of International Justice. 

"I have [etc.] Alexis Leger" 

The circular letter from the League of Na- 
tions dated September 13, 1939, transmitting 
the above communication states that it was re- 
ceived by the Secretariat on September 11, 
1939. 

"Foreign Office, S. W. 1 

7th September 1939. 
"Sir: 

"I am directed by Viscount Halifax to in- 
form you that His Majesty's Government in 



the United Kingdom of Great Britain and 
Northern Ireland have found it necessary to 
consider the position, in existing circum- 
stances, of their acceptance of the Optional 
Clause of the Statute of the Permanent Court 
of International Justice. Their acceptance of 
the Clause was for ten years from the date of 
ratification, which took place on the 5th Feb- 
ruary, 1930. 

"2. The conditions under which His Maj- 
esty's Government gave their signature to the 
Optional Clause were described in a memoran- 
dum issued at the time, Miscellaneous No. 
12.1929, a copy of which is enclosed for con- 
venience of reference.* Paragraphs 15-22 of 
that memorandum state the considerations 
which then satisfied His Majesty's Government 
that they could accept the Optional Clause 
without making a reservation (which they 
would have been fully entitled to make) as to 
disputes arising out of events occurring during 
a war in which they might be engaged. Those 
considerations were, in brief, that by the build- 
ing up of a new international system based on 
the Covenant of the League of Nations and 
the Pact of Paris a fundamental change had 
been brought about in regard to the whole 
question of belligerent and neutral rights. In 
the only circumstances in which it was contem- 
plated that His Majesty's Government could be 
involved in war, the other Members of the 
League, so far from being in the position of 
neutrals with a right to trade with our enemy, 
would be bound under Article 16 of the Cove- 
nant to sever all relations with him. The effect 
of this at the time of His Majesty's Govern- 
ment's signature was that conditions which 
might produce a justiciable dispute between 
the United Kingdom as a belligerent and an- 
other Member of the League as a neutral would 
not exist, since the other Members of the 
League would either fulfil their obligations 
under Article 10 of the Covenant, or, if they 
did not, would have no gi-ound on which to 
protest against the measures which His Maj- 
esty's Government might take to prevent action 



♦This memorandum has uot yet reached the Secre- 
tariat. [Footnote in the original.] 



354 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



on their part which was inconsistent with tliose 
obligations. 

"3. It lias, however, now become evident that 
many of tlie Members of the League no longer 
consider themselves bound to take action of any 
kind under the Covenant against an aggressor 
State. At the League Assembly of September 
1938 note was taken of this expression of opin- 
ion, and it became clear that sanctions against 
an aggressor under the terms of the Covenant 
could not be regarded as obligatory. There 
remained only a general understanding that 
members should consult one another in the 
event of aggression against another member 
and that such aggression could not be treated 
with indifference. 

"4. In the present crisis it has not proved 
possible to give any practical effect even to so 
limited an understanding as that just described. 
No action has been taken under Articles 16 or 
IT of the Covenant, or even imder Article 11, 
and in advance of hostilities a number of 
States Members of the League have announced 
their intention of maintaining strict neutrality 
as between the two belligerents. His Majesty's 
Government are not making a complaint about 
this state of affairs though they fully reserve 
their rights as a Member of the League. But 
the position today shows clearly that the Cove- 
nant has, in the present instance, completely 
broken down in practice, that the whole ma- 
chinery for the preservation of ])eace has col- 
lapsed, and that the conditions in which His 
Majesty's Government accepted the Optional 
Clause no longer exist. This situation, so fun- 
damentally changed from that which existed at 
the time of their signature of the Optional 
Clause, was mentioned as a possibility in para- 
graph 22 of the memorandum of 1929, and it 
was there stated that His Majesty's Govern- 
ment could not conceive that in the general col- 
lapse of the whole machinery for the preser- 
vation of peace, the one thing left standing 
should be the Optional Clause and the commit- 
ments of the signatories thereunder. 

"5. I am, therefore, directed to notify you 
that His Majesty's Government, believing 
themselves to be firmly defending the princi- 



ples on which the Covenant was made will not 
regard their acceptance of the Optional Clause 
as covering disputes arising out of events oc- 
curring during the present hostilities. 

"6. I am to request that this notification may 
be communicated to the Governments of all 
States which have accepted the Optional 
Clause, and to the Registrar of the Permanent 
Court of International Justice. 

"I am [etc.] Alexander Cadogan" 

The circular letter from the League of Na- 
tions dated September 13, 1939, transmitting 
the above communication states that it was re- 
ceived by the Secretariat on September 11, 
1939. 

ARMAMENT REDUCTION 

London Naval Treaty of 1936 (Treaty Series 
No. 919) 

United States 

On October 2, 1939, the Secretary of State 
instructed the American Ambassadors to 
France, Great Britain, and Italy, and the 
American Minister to Canada to inform the 
Governments to which they are accredited that 
in view of the suspension of the obligations of 
the London Naval Treaty of 1936 by several 
parties to the treaty and in accordance with 
article 24 of the treaty the Government of the 
United States suspends so far as it is concerned 
all the obligations of the treaty. 

The British Government was requested to 
transmit the notice to the Governments of Aus- 
tralia, New Zealand, and India. 

CONSULTATION 

Final Act of the Meeting of the Foreign 
Ministers of the American Republics 

The text of the Final Act of the Meeting of 
the Foreign Ministers of the American Re- 
publics for Consultation under the inter- Amer- 
ican agreements adopted at the Inter-American 
Conference for the Maintenance of Peace held 
at Buenos Aires in 1936 (see Trraty Inform a- 



OCTOBER 7, 19 39 



355 



tJoiK bulletin No. 88, January 1937. pages 8 and 
25) unci the Eighth International Conference 
of American States held at Lima in 1938 (see 
Treatij Infonnation. bulletin No. 112. Jaiuiary 
1939, pages 2— i), appears in this Bullet 'm in 
the section "The American Kepublics." 

NATIONALITY 

Convention With Finland Regulating Mili- 
tary Obligations in Certain Cases of 
Double Nationality 

The American jMinister to Finland informed 
the Secretary of State by a telegram dated 
October 3, 1939, that he had on that day ex- 
changed ratifications of the Convention ■with 
Finland Regulating Military Obligations in 
Certain Cases of Double Nationality which 
was signed on January 27, 1939. The conven- 
tion was ratified by the United States on Au- 
gust 14, 1939, and by Finland on September 
29, 1939. 

The convention entered into efi'ect upon the 
exchange of ratifications and will remain in 
force for a term of 10 years. If neither party 
to the convention has given notice of its inten- 
tion of terminating it 6 months before the 
expiration of the 10-year period it will remain 
in force after the aforesaid period and until 6 
months from such time as either party shall 
have notified to the other an intention of 
terminating it. 

ECONOMIC 

Resolution on Economic Cooperation 

The text of the Resolution on Economic Co- 
operation approved at the jilenary session of 



the Meeting of the Foreign Ministers of the 
American Republics at Panama on September 
30, 1939, appears in this Bulletin in the section 
"The American Republics" as one of the reso- 
lutions included in the Final Act of the Meet- 
ing. 

COMMERCE 

Trade Agreement With Chile 

A notice of intention to negotiate a recipro- 
cal trade agreement with Chile appears in this 
Bulletin in the section "Commercial Policy." 

AGRICULTURE 

Convention With Great Britain for the Pro- 
tection of Migratory Birds (Treaty Series 
No. 682) and Convention With Mexico for 
the Protection of Migratory Birds and 
Game Mammals (Treaty Series No. 912) 

On September 28, 1939, the President issued 
Proclamation No. 2367, amending regulation 4 
of the regulations approved by Proclamation 
No. 2345 ^ of August 11, 1939, relating to mi- 
gratory birds as included in the terms of the 
convention between the United States and 
Great Britain for the protection of migratory 
birds, concluded August 16, 1916, and the con- 
vention between the United States and the 
United Mexican States for the protection of 
migratory birds and game mammals, concluded 
February 7, 1936. 

Proclamation No. 2367 is printed in the Fed- 
eral Register of October 3, 1939 (vol. 4, No. 
190), pages 4107-4108. 



" See Federal Rcgintcr, Vol. 4, 
pp. 3621-3627. 



No. 157, Aug. IG, V^?,9 



U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE i 1939 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C. — Price 10 cents ----- Subscription price, $2.7.'5 a year 

PUBLISHED WEEKLY WITH THE APPROVAL OF THE DIKBOTOE OF THE BUEEAn OF THE BUDGET 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 




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Qontents 



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OCTOBER 14, 1939 
Vol. I: No. 16 — Publication ijgi 




The American Republics: Page 
Consultative Meeting of Foreign Ministers of the 
Anierican Republics: Statement by Under Secre- 
tary Welles 359 

Conference on Inter-American Relations in the Field 
of Art: 
Cultural Relations and Government: Address by 

Assistant Secretary Berle 361 

Proceedings of the Conference ' . . . . 364 

Tenth anniversary of Pan American-Grace Airways 

service to Argentina 367 

The People's Mandate for Peace: Remarks by Assist- 
ant Secretary Berle 368 

Europe: 

Relations between Soviet Russia and Finland: Expres- 
sion by the United States of hope for peace. . . . 369 
Commendation of Vice Consul William R. Morton for 

services in Poland 369 

Return of Americans from Europe 370 

Presentation of letters of credence by the Minister of 

Switzerland 370 

Convention with Finland Regulating Exemption from 
Military Obligations 371 

\PveT\ 



'I, ".. riiPtPlflTINijENT OF DOCUMcNlj 

OCT 27 1939 



Commercial Policy: Page 

New Problems in Our Commercial and Financial 
Relations With Other Nations: Address by the 

Secretary of State 371 

Relation of Imports to Exports: Address by Assistant 

Secretary Grady 376 

General: 

Panama Canal: Navigation of foreign aircraft in the 

Canal Zone 379 

Foreign Service: 

The Assistance Rendered by Government in the Pro- 
motion and Protection of American Foreign Trade: 
Address by Assistant Secretary Messersmith .... 380 

Personnel changes 389 

Treaty Information: 
Organization: 

Protocol for the Amendment of the Preamble, of 
Articles 1,4, and 5, and of the Annex to the Cove- 
nant of the League of Nations 389 

Nationality: 

Convention with Finland Regulating Military Obli- 
gations in Certain Cases of Double Nationality 

(Treaty Series No. 953) 389 

Labor: 

Conventions of the International Labor Conference : 390 
Postal: 

Universal Postal Convention of 1934 390 

Publications 391 



CONSULTATIVE MEETING OF FOREIGN MINISTERS OF THE 

AMERICAN REPUBLICS 

Statement by Under Secretary Welles ' 



[Released to the press October 11] 

The meeting in Panama of the Foreign Min- 
isters of the American Republics was notable 
above all else because it demonstrated in a mo- 
ment of grave world emergency the genuine 
and strong understanding and solidarity which 
exist between the American republics. It re- 
vealed how closely we have come together in 
policy and in purpose. 

The meeting was noteworthy, secondly, be- 
cause it gave practical proof of the efficiency 
of the machinery set up by the inter- American 
agreements of Buenos Aires and of Lima which 
provided for rapid consultation between all of 
the American governments in the event that 
there existed any emergency which involved a 
potential menace to the peace of the Western 
Hemisphere. 

Thirdly, the meeting was of outstanding 
importance because of the nature of the agree- 
ments there reached. 

In my opinion the most significant of these 
agreements are the following : 

First, the Resolution on Economic Coopera- 
tion which establishes an Inter-American Fi- 
nancial and Economic Advisory Committee, 
composed of experts designated by each Ameri- 
can republic, which will be installed in Wash- 
ington not later than November 15 next. This 
committee will undertake to determine and to 



' Delivered in New York City upon his return from 
Panama as United States delegate to the Meeting, Oc- 
tober 11, 1939. 

184795—39 1 



recommend to the several American govern- 
ments the measures which may, in view of the 
situation created by the war in Europe, best 
protect inter-American commercial and finan- 
cial relations against the immediate difficul- 
ties arising out of the war and increase and 
strengthen them permanently on lines of mutual 
benefit. These are tasks to be carried out week 
by week, month by month, through agreements 
and arrangements that will develop from new 
conditions and from continuing consideration. 

Second, the Joint Declaration of Continental 
Solidarity. 

Third, the General Declaration of Neu- 
trality of the American Republics in which 
the latter, in their individual and sovereign 
capacities, reaffirm their general neutrality 
and set forth standards of conduct to be fol- 
lowed in their status as neutral powers. The 
importance of this declaration of neutrality 
can hardly be over-emphasized. It represents 
the agreement of 21 sovereign countries upon 
a series of neuti'ajity measures which they 
may severally enforce, in accordance with the 
established principles of international law, 
through their respective internal legislation. 
Tliis declaration will prove to be of the utmost 
l)iactical value in preserving the peace and 
neutrality of the American nations. It rep- 
resents, in my judgment, a wise, fair basis for 
the policy of each of us. The standards so 
set forth can of course always be supplemented 
or amended as new developments may arise 

359 



360 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BUXliETIN 



and as a consequence of the recommendations 
of the Committee of Experts constituted by 
the same declaration and which committee will 
continue in session throughout the duration 
of the ijresent war. 

Fourth and finally, the Declaration of 
Panama. 

The Declaration of Panama is based upon 
two simple principles. First, the assertion of 
the 21 American nations that, so long as they 
maintain their neutrality, a war in Europe in 
which they are not involved should not jeop- 
ardize their right to self-protection nor inter- 
fere with or destroy normal relations between 
the American republics; and, second, that con- 
sequently the belligerent activities undertaken 
by the European powers participating in such 
war should not take place within those waters 
adjacent to the American Continent which 
embrace normal inter-American maritime com- 
munications. General respect for these prin- 
ciples will mean that the lives and the vital 
interests of the nationals of the American re- 
publics will be to a great extent insured, and 
the preservation of peace in the Western Hem- 
isphere will be materially safeguarded. 

As stipulated in the second article of the 
Declaration of Panama, the goverimaents of 
the American republics will endeavor, through 
joint rejaresentations, to secure the acquiescence 
of the belligerents in these princij^les. It is 
obvious that many highly complicated and 
technical questions will present themselves 
which will have to be fully considered and de- 
termined in the course of the discussions with 
the belligerents. It is equally clear that these 
discussions may continue over a considerable 
period of time. 

Beyond this agreement for joint representa- 
tions the Declaration i^rovides solely that the 



American governments will, whenever they 
consider it necessary, consult together to de- 
termine upon measures which they may in- 
dividually or collectively undertake in order 
to secure the observance of the provisions of 
the Declaration. 

It will be noted that the provisions contained 
in the fourth article of the Declaration, which 
provides that the American republics, in the 
circumstances set forth, may patrol "either in- 
dividually or collectively, as may be agreed 
upon by common consent" the waters adja- 
cent to their coasts within the area defined in 
the Declaration, provide for nothing more 
than the kind of patrol which the Govern- 
ment of the United States and several other 
American governments have already under- 
taken. The purpose of the patrol proposed is 
to enable the governments of the American 
nations to obtain the fullest information pos- 
sible with regard to what is going on within 
the restricted area. It must be apparent that 
in times such as these it is of the utmost im- 
jiortance in the interest of the preservation of 
the neutrality of this hemisphere that each 
American nation have the fullest possible ad- 
vice as to the activities undertaken within the 
waters near its coasts. 

The agreements I have cited above consti- 
tute in my opinion the more important of 
those reached, although I believe that every 
one of the agreements arrived at in Panama 
is of the highest significance and of the great- 
est value in promoting the best interests of the 
republics of the New World. Every agree- 
ment arrived at in Panama represents the con- 
sidered will of every American goveriunent, 
and every American government rendered its 
individual contribution to the agreements 
there adopted. 



OCTOBER 14, 1939 361 

CONFERENCE ON ENTER-AMERICAN RELATIONS IN THE FIELD OF ART 

Cultural Relations and Government 

Address hy Assistant Secretary Berle ^ 



[Released to the press October 11] 

Let me extend to you the welcome of the 
Department of State on the occasion of this 
Conference on Inter-American Relations in the 
Field of Art. Let me also offer my thanks for 
your courtesy in coming, and for the help 
which I know you will give us all. 

Particularly in times of stress, it is easy 
to lose sight of the fact that the chief end of 
government is to permit men to realize the 
best of their possibilities, economically, artis- 
tically, and spiritually. Yet this fundamental 
objective is as true in carrying on international 
affairs as in the field of domestic government. 
To the extent that we can liberate the human 
mind and achieve the great contributions to 
civilization, we have succeeded in our ultimate 
task. 

Certain it is that however distinctive art 
may be, it is enriched by that process of cross- 
fertilization made possible when the artistic 
achievements of many nations ai'e appreciated 
and known by their neighbors. Among the 
American republics there are represented many 
of the greatest artistic traditions of the Old 
World, augmented by contributions from the 
New. It is well that we seek greater under- 
standing among the inter- American group for 
the particular and outstanding contributions 
of each member of the group. 

This conference offers an opportunity to the 
Department of State, through its Division of 
Cultural Relations, to outline its own program, 
to exchange views regarding intellectual co- 



"^ Address delivered on October 11, 1939, opening the 
Conference on Inter-American Relations in tlie Field 
of Art, held under the auspices of the Department 
of State, Oct. 11-12, 1939. 



operation in the field of art, and to ascertain 
more clearly the vistas which are open to in- 
ternational relations by this, a newer and I 
think most significant area of endeavor. 

The decision to establish a Division of Cul- 
tural Relations in the Department of State was 
the result of the most careful thought. It repre- 
sents a considerable departure from the tra- 
ditional practice of government. Artistic and 
intellectual activities in this country have been 
traditionally the province of the private or- 
ganizations and institutions, and so far as the 
United States is concerned, this is the wisest 
plan, which no one even thinks of disturbing. 
Yet, in the process of international exchange of 
ideas, an agency of government which may 
assist and in some measure coordinate en- 
deavors can be of great value. To meet this 
need, the Division of Cultural Relations was 
created on July 28, 1938. Its design was to 
offer cooperation of the Government, through 
its official agencies, though within the limita- 
tions which obviously are imposed in the of- 
ficial handling of international affairs. It is 
the view of the Department that in this 
country the initiative for cultural exchange 
properly resides with private agencies. Ac- 
cordingly, the major function of the Division 
is to make the good offices of the Government 
available to such private enterprises. 

With this thought, an invitation has been ex- 
tended to you to meet today to discuss a number 
of problems relating to our cultural relations 
with the other American republics in the im- 
portant field of art. Perhaps we do not here 
appeal to patriotism. The advantages in- 
volved in the increase of artistic interchange 
are so plain that such an appeal is unnecessary. 



A&Z 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



The principal advantage, indeed, is the 
profit and joy wliich will come from an in- 
crease in the knowledge of all of our countries 
of the artistic work of our neighbors. Our 
own artistic culture is relatively unknown in 
the other republics of this hemisphere. With 
very few exceptions a similar observation may 
be made with reference to the knowledge in 
the United States of the rich and varied ar- 
tistic expression of the peoples of Spanish and 
Portuguese America. You, of course, as 
professionals in this field, are keenly aware of 
the artistic treasures of the other American 
nations, but our people as a whole have had 
slight opportunity to make such an acquaint- 
ance. Certainly we owe it to our own citizens 
to increase their opportimity to learn the 
strength, the beauty, and the grace of the art 
of the rest of tlie Americas; and in practice 
this means making possible the free flow of 
artistic ideas, of information, of exhibitions, 
and reproductions between the American na- 
tions. By opening new channels of exchange, 
we shall increase the mutual appreciation for 
each other's civilization. 

You will naturally be interested in ascertain- 
ing what the Government can do on behalf of 
such cultural interchange. The Division of 
Cultural Relations may be described briefly as 
essentially a clearing house, whose purpose is 
to cooperate in every practicable and appro- 
priate way without limiting, trespassing on, or 
attempting to enter the legitimate field that cor- 
responds to the private agencies. There are a 
number of very definite things which can be 
done. 

There is, first of all, a need for coordination 
of the programs of organizations already 
working in this field. In a country as com- 
plex as our own, a great deal of overlapping 
results from the genuine desire to stimulate 
cultural relations. The Department is inter- 
ested in every legitimate activity of this kind 
and is ready to aid to the limit of its capacity. 
The conferences held this autumn should 
bring together leaders in the various fields, 
whose ideas may guide us and to whom we 



may save duplication of effort. We are hope- 
ful that the Division of Cultural Relations 
may become an agency to which private or- 
ganizations interested in international artistic 
exchange will turn for the type of aid which 
tlie Government can most helpfully extend. 

The man}' private agencies in this country 
sometimes find difficulty in their contacts with 
the governments of the other American re- 
publics or with organizations in those coun- 
tries whicli may be directly or indirectly de- 
pendent upon tlie Government. Here we may 
be of assistance. 

Generally spelaking, governments in these 
republics are more actively engaged in cul- 
tural activities than is our own Federal 
Government. Most of the universities, col- 
leges, and training schools are under a Minis- 
try of Public Instruction. The same is true of 
museums, academies, and conservatories. Es- 
tablishment of relations with these organiza- 
tions requires that contact be made through 
the governments concerned. In this the De- 
partment is in a position to perform a con- 
siderable service to the private interests of 
the United States. Through our diplomatic 
missions and consuhites abroad, we are in 
constant touch witli the activities of these 
countries; and all our representatives are 
eager to further American interests in cultural 
fields. The Department frequently instructs 
our missions to extend appropriate courtesies 
and facilities to outstanding American citizens 
visiting these countries for scholarly, artistic, 
or scientific purposes. By this means both 
private citizens and representatives of insti- 
tutious find that they have at their disposal 
information and contacts of great assistance. 

As I have emphasized the part that the 
Department can jjlay in aiding private initia- 
tive in its relationship to other governments, 
you will perhaps be interested to learn of a 
specific case in which this cooperation was 
worked out. 

Last December a small committee represent- 
ing some 30 publishing houses of this coun- 
try called at the Department to request our 



OCTOBER 14, 1939 



363 



cooperation in arranging for three book ex- 
hibitions in South America. The Department 
expressed the deepest interest in this venture 
and offered its facilities to overcome some of 
tlie obvious difficulties in transporting large 
collections to the three South American capi- 
tals. Tlie publishers made available three col- 
lections of over 2^00 volumes each for dis- 
play and donation to Argentina, Uruguay, and 
Brazil. The initiative in this case came from 
private sources. The publishers suggested 
their willingness to donate the books, cover the 
transportation costs, and send a representative 
to accompany the three expositions. Through 
the American diplomatic missions in each of 
the three capitals the most detailed arrange- 
ments were made for the local exhibition. The 
cooperation of the foreign governments was 
secured, the unobstructed entry of the books 
assured, representative committees formed, and 
publicity worked out. Tlie widest possible 
reception was attained through the approach 
to the appropriate departments of each of the 
countries concerned. The reports received 
from the press, journals, and intellectual and 
official circles reflect the enthusiasm which 
these exhibitions aroused. At Buenos Aires 
over 1,000 persons a day viewed the exhibit. 
A lecture series was held to inform those at- 
tending of the trends in contemporary Ameri- 
can thought and writmg. In Rio de Janeiro, 
the popular interest was sufficient to warrant 
an extension of the exhibition at the conclusion 
of the 2-week period for which it was origi- 
nally announced. The press in this case was 
most flattering in pointing out the significance 
of this gesture as a means of diffusing a knowl- 
edge of the intellectual achievement of the 
United States. 

These indirect forms of cooperation consti- 
tute the principal service which the Department 
of State can offer. But in the exchange of art 
students and professors the Department may 
make an even more specific contribution. In the 
field of scholarships and professorships, the 
Government has been given the responsibility 



of carrying out the Convention for the Promo- 
tion of Inter-American Cultural Eelations 
signed at Buenos Aires in 1936. This conven- 
tion provides for the annual exchange of two 
graduate students and one professor between 
the United States and each of the nine comitries 
which have ratified to date. This Government 
is prepared to fulfill this obligation, as an ap- 
propriation of $75,000 has been granted by 
Congress. This is the first time that the United 
States Government has offered an inducement 
of this kind for educational interchange. We 
are hopeful that the very best type of advanced 
student and j^rofessor in the various fields of 
activity will be attracted. 

No restrictions have been placed on the field 
of work in which the student or professor may 
engage. It is to be hoped that these fellowships 
will attract outstanding people in art. I am 
sure that it would be a most significant oppor- 
tunity to naake available to the other American 
republics the services of outstanding American 
artists and art students, capable of diffusing an 
accurate knowledge of the artistic culture of this 
country. In like manner we shall profit im- 
mensely from the presence in our art centers and 
institutions of painters, sculptors, architects, 
and others from whom our own artistic world 
has already learned so much. 

The Department is deeply appreciative of the 
sacrifice which your presence here today repre- 
sents. I realize that you have taken time from 
your many occupations to come to Washington 
to discuss among yourselves and with the officers 
of the Department the challenging problems in 
the field of art as a vehicle of international cul- 
tural understanding. I am sure this meeting 
will be fruitful in results. I hope that it is the 
forerunner of many such conferences from 
which a cooperative effort may be made effective 
in promoting more intimate relations with the 
other American republics. So perhaps we may 
make of this conference a symbol of our faith 
that the interests of peace tra)iscend those of 
war; and that at long last government must 
come to the artist, the poet, the philosopher, to 
find its ultimate values. 



364 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Proceedings of the Conference 



[Released to the press October 11] 

In a brief message of welcome to distin- 
guished leaders in the field of art attending the 
Conference on Inter-American Relations in 
the Field of Art, Secretary Hull today pledged 
that the Department of State would redouble 
its efforts in facilitating the activities of those 
concerned with strengthening the friendship 
between the peoples of the Western Hemi- 
sphere through cultural interchange. 

The Secretary expressed his appreciation 
for the interest shown in the Conference by 
the large number in attendance. He empha- 
sized the significance of art in bringing about 
greater understanding between the people of 
the United States and those of the other 
American republics. Pointing out that the 
relations between this country and its neigh- 
bors to the south were never more friendly 
than at present, the Secretary stated that the 
contribution which could be made through 
cultural channels to an even greater degree 
of friendship was immeasurable. "Yours," 
Mr. Hull declared, "is the opportunity for vast 
and far-reaching service to our people and to 
our neighbors. I am confident," he continued, 
"that from these discussions will evolve 
methods of bringing our peoples more closely 
together." 

Agreeing that the future of contemporary 
art is in the Western Hemisphere, museum 
directors, artists, and art critics attending the 
Conferenice on Inter-American Relations in 
the Field of Art agreed to facilitate in every 
way the exchange of exhibitions between 
the United States and the Latin-American 
countries. 

Museum directors explained details of sev- 
eral forthcoming exhibitions of Latin-Ameri- 
can art. Among these will be one to be held 
next March at the Museum of Modern Art 
in New York. Mr. John E. Abbott, Execu- 
tive Vice President of the Museum, told the 
Conference that the exhibit would include a 
comprehensive range of Pre-Columbian, Colo- 
nial, Modern, and Popular Art from Mexico. 



Roland J. McKinney, Director of the Los 
Angeles Museum of Art, told the Conference 
of the pan-American exhibit which is being 
assembled for exhibition sometime next year. 
This will include art from all the other Ameri- 
can republics. 

Those attending the Conference also dis- 
cussed the type of exhibit to be sent to Latin- 
American countries from the United States. 
Francis Henry Taylor, Director of the Wor- 
cester (Mass.) Art Museum, told the Confer- 
ence that what South American countries 
wanted to see was industrial and folk art 
related to the cultural history of the United 
States. It would be a mistake, he said, to 
bring the products of the American ivory 
tower to the other American republics at this 
time. 

Rene d'Harnoncourt, Executive Secretary, 
Arts and Crafts Board, Office of Indian Af- 
fairs, Department of the Interior, was also in 
agreement with this point of view, stressing 
the importance of art which was representa- 
tive of the human scene. "There is a great in- 
terest in Latin America in the art of the 
American Indian," d'Harnoncourt said, urg- 
ing that an exhibit of American Indian art be 
assembled for Latin America. 

Miss Ruth Reeves, textile designer and 
fonner head of the Work Projects Administra- 
tion Index of American Design, stressed the 
importance of bringing Latin-American ex- 
hibitions to trade unions and other workers 
groups in this country. She said also that 
manufacturers were intensely interested in de- 
signs from Latin America. 

L. B. Houff, Jr., of the American Federa- 
tion of Arts, promised the full cooperation 
of the Federation in arranging the exchange 
of exhibits. 

The Honorable Robert Woods Bliss, who 
was to preside at the afternoon session, was 
unable to be present because of illness. Mr. 
William Milliken, Director of the Cleveland 
Museum, presided in his place. 



OCTOBER 14, 1939 



365 



Among the distinguished speakers wlio 
talked briefly tliis afternoon was Malvina 
Hoffman, American sculptress and world 
traveler. 

[Released to tlie press October 11] 

Speakers at the Conference on Inter- Ameri- 
can Kelations in the Field of Art today pointed 
out that the art of Latin America has been al- 
most entirely ignored in the United States, and 
that if there is to be a real cultural understand- 
ing of the countries to the south of us, there 
must be a great increase in traveling exhibi- 
tions, exchange professorships, and similar 
means of study and appreciation. 

Following Mr. Berle's address of welcome, in 
which he stressed the contribution the Confer- 
ence would make in the establisliment of effec- 
tive cultural interchange, two speakers were 
heard on the subject of the importance of more 
complete representation of Latin-American art 
of every period in this country. Mrs. Concha 
Romero James, of the Pan American Union, 
described the extraordinary and far-reaching 
effect the revolutionary art of Mexico has had 
on all of the other American republics. She 
stressed that the visual art of the great Mexican 
painters of the present period has been a source 
of enlightenment and understanding to the mass 
of the people. Mrs. James was followed by Dr. 
W. R. Valentiner, Director of the Detroit In- 
stitute of Arts. 

Dr. Frans Bloom, of Tulane University, 
where there is one of the most important col- 
lections of pre-colonial art from Latin America, 
spoke of the importance of traveling exhibitions 
which would reach not only museums but also 
public schools, clubs, and workers' organiza- 
tions. This was stressed, too, by Mr. Rene 
d'Harnoncourt, Executive Secretary, Arts and 
Crafts Board, Office of Indian Affairs, Depart- 
ment of the Interior, who pointed out particu- 
larly that the whole field of post-colonial art 
of Latin America is almost entirely ignored in 
the United States. There can be no under- 
standing of Latin America, Mr. d'Harnoncourt 
said, unless some effort is made to appreciate 
this very important phase of Latin-American 
culture. 

184795—39 2 



[Released to the press October 12] 

Speakers at the third session of the Confer- 
ence on Inter-American Relations in the Field 
of Art today discussed opportunities for stu- 
dent, professor, and artist exchanges existing 
between the 21 American republics. 

Edward W. Bruce, Chief of the Section of 
Fine Arts, Public Buildings Administration, 
presided. He pointed out that with so many 
important European museums closed, oppor- 
tunities for closer inter- American cultural re- 
lations are practically unlimited. He then in- 
troduced Dr. Walter W. S. Cook, Director of 
the Institute of Fine Arts, New York Univer- 
sity, who led the discussion. 

Mr. Richard Pattee, of the Division of Cul- 
tural Relations, Department of State, outlined 
the provisions of the Convention for the Pro- 
motion of Inter-American Cultural Relations, 
approved at Buenos Aires in December 1936, 
pointing out that the Department was working 
in collaboration with the Office of Education of 
the Federal Security Agency and with the Ad- 
visory Committee to the Division, which in- 
cludes pei'sons of long experience in the 
exchange field. Mr. Pattee brought to the at- 
tention of the Conference the fact that $75,000 
has been appropriated by Congress for the 
carrying out of this exchange program and that 
panels of students and lists of available pro- 
fessors are now being drawn up for presenta- 
tion to the ratifying countries. 

Representatives of American college and 
university art departments taking part in the 
discussion expressed the hope that in the total 
group of students or teachers and professors 
who will be sent to each of the ratifying re- 
publics, artists, art historians, and research 
workers should have ample representation. 

Prof. Paul J. Sachs, of the Fogg Museum, 
Harvard University, suggested that funds that 
might be available for transportation of old 
masters from American collections to Latin 
America might more profitably be applied to 
sending fellows in the art field. 

The next speaker. Prof. Charles R. Morey, of 
Princeton University, pointed out that the 
leading universities in the United States had 



366 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



developed comprehensive facilities for the sys- 
tematic study of the history of art. Most of 
these departments of fine arts have been 
strengthened in recent years by additions of 
European scholars, he said. Professor Morey 
exjjressed the opinion that facilities for studies 
in this field are the most significant contribu- 
tion which can be offered in the United States 
to students coming from the other American 
republics. 

Professor Morey pointed out that owing to 
the present contingencies in Europe, American 
students and scholars are turning to the re- 
sources available in the Western Hemisphere. 
It was pointed out that European students are 
coming to the Americas in increasing numbers. 

Referring to the previous discussion of ex- 
change exhibitions, Clarence Ward, professor 
at Oberlin College, suggested that exhibitions 
might be of secondary importance to the gain- 
ing of first-hand knowledge by exchange stu- 
dents and professors. The cultural scope of 
the visiting artist would be expanded if he 
were not too limited by specific tasks, he said. 

Among the other distinguished speakers 
who took part in the discussion were Dean 
Everett V. Meeks, School of Fine Arts, Yale 
University; Paul Manship, President of the 
National Sculpture Society; Theodore Sizer, 
Assistant Director and Curator of Paintings, 
Yale University; Laurence Schmeckebier, 
Chairman, Fine Arts Department, University 
of Minnesota; and Mortimer Borne, Chairman 
of the Committee for the Interchange of 
Artists between the Americas. 

[Released to the press October 12] 

At its final session, the Conference on Inter- 
American Relations in the Field of Art today 
considered the specific recommendations pre- 
sented by its Findings Connnittee. These in- 
cluded the formation of a Continuation 
Committee which will digest and analyze the 
stenographic report of the proceedings for 
transmission to the members of the Conference. 

The committee was impressed, it was stated, 
with the wealth of ideas and suggestions which 
had been offered during the discussions of the 



Conference. It recognized, however, that in- 
sufficient time was available before the end of 
the Conference to give to the proposals and 
projects advanced by various speakers the 
careful consideration so clearly merited. It 
was also believed that these proposals and 
projects should be studied not only by mem- 
bers of the Findings Committee but by the 
entire membership of the Conference. 

It was indicated that suggestions on co- 
operation in th€ whole ait field should be 
presented to the Continuation Committee. The 
Continuation Committee will also act in col- 
laboration with similar art groups in the other 
Americas. The Honorable Robert Woods 
Bliss, former Ambassador to the Argentine 
Republic, was named Chairman of the Con- 
tinuation Committee. 

Mr. Bliss was instructed to name to the 
Continuation Committee representatives of 
artists organizations, museum i-epresentatives, 
educators, architects, representatives of indus- 
trial arts, motion pictures, still photography, 
radio, and representatives of general art or- 
ganizations. The committee will function in 
consultation with the Division of Cultural Re- 
lations in the Department of State. Members 
of the Conference will be drawn upon in the 
future to assist in mapping specific projects in 
this field. 

Bringing the Conference to a close, Mr. 
Charles A. Thomson, Assistant Chief of the 
Division of Cultural Relations thanked the 
membership of the Conference in behalf of 
the Secretary of State for the interest and in- 
structive contribution they had made to the 
M-hole program of more effective cultural in- 
terchange among the American countries. He 
pointed out that such interchange would mean 
most if it were developed on the broadest pos- 
sible basis between people and people and not 
merely between governments. 

Mr. Thomson indicated that it was the hope 
of the Department that it might act as a clear- 
ing house of information and an agency to 
facilitate in every appropriate way projects 
growing out of private initiative. 



OCTOBER 14, 19 3 9 367 

TENTH ANNIVERSARY OF PAN AMERICAN-GRACE AIRWAYS SERVICE 

TO ARGENTINA 



(Released to the press October 12] 

In commemoration of the tenth anniversary 
(October 12) of the establishment by Pan 
American-Grace Airways (Panagra) of direct 
airmail and transport service between the 
United States and Argentina, the President 
addressed a personal letter of greeting to Pres- 
ident Ortiz of Argentina. This letter, borne 
by air in approximately one-half the time re- 
quired when the service was established 10 
years ago, was delivered to President Ortiz by 
the Honorable Norman Armour, American 
Ambassador to Argentina, on October 9. 
Ambassador Armour was accompanied by the 
president of the Pan American Argentina, the 
Argentine representatives of the Pan Amer- 
ican-Grace Airways, and by a Panagra pilot. 

In his letter the President referred to the 
amazing development of civil aviation during 
the past 10 years, pointing to the fact that it 
now takes only half the time to fly to Buenos 
Aires compared with 10 years ago and stated 
that he anticipated that the future would bring 
still further advancements in the speed, capac- 
ity, and general reliability of civil aircraft. 
The President expressed his keen personal sat- 
isfaction that this service is rendered possible 
and is being constantly improved by the con- 
tinuing cooperation between citizens of Argen- 
tina and the United States. 

Airmail between the United States and Ar- 
gentina has increased nearly 1,600 percent 
since the service was first started by Pan Amer- 
ican-Grace Airways. At its initiation less 
than 80 pounds of mail per month were car- 
ried, while today approximately 1,350 pounds 
a month are transported by the west-coast 
service of Pan American-Grace and over Pan 
American Airways' east-coast route, extended 
to Buenos Aires in November 1931. 

The text of Pi-esident Roosevelt's letter to 
President Ortiz follows: 



"October 6, 1939. 
"Mt Dear Mr. President : 

"It is a sincere pleasure for me on this tenth 
anniversary of the establishment of direct air 
service between Argentina and the United 
States to send to Your Excellency by air mail 
a cordial message of greetings and good wishes. 

"Few of the boldest visionaries of 1929 could 
have foretold the amazing developments that 
the immediately ensuing years were to witness 
in civil aviation. The pioneer craft which 
carried the mails to Buenos Aires a decade ago 
have been replaced by great multi-motored 
planes which today, following the same route, 
cover the distance in five days, or half the orig- 
inal time. Considering this progress, I antici- 
pate that the future will bring still further 
advancements in the speed, capacity and gen- 
eral reliability of civil aircraft. 

"The important role that reliable air serv- 
ices play in the relations between peoples has 
been clearly demonstrated by the achievements 
of the past decade. I am confident that the 
rapid intercourse made possible by direct air 
service to Argentina has already made a sub- 
stantial contribution to a better understanding 
and friendship between the two nations, and 
it is a source of keen personal satisfaction to 
me to know that this service is rendered pos- 
sible, and is being constantly improved, by the 
continuing effective cooperation between citi- 
zens of Argentina and the United States." 

[Released to the press October 12] 

The Department of State made public Octo- 
ber 12 the text of a letter addressed by Presi- 
dent Roosevelt to President Ortiz of Argentina 
in commemoration of the tenth anniversary on 
October 12 of the establishment by Pan Amer- 
ican-Grace Airways (Panagra) of direct air- 
mail and transport service between the United 
States and Argentina. The following is the 
text in translation of the reply addressed to 



368 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



President Eoosevelt by President Ortiz, which 
is being forwarded from Buenos Aires to 
Washington by airmail : 

"OCTOBEK 11, 1939. 
"My Dear Mr. President: 

"I take pleasure in acknowledging the receipt 
of the letter addressed to me by Your Excel- 
lency on the occasion of the tenth anniversary 
of the direct air service between the United 
States and Argentina. 

"On such a hap^jy occasion, it is a great sat- 
isfaction for me to pay homage to the marvel- 
ous progress achieved by the civil aviation of 
the United States which, in bringing our two 
countries closer together, has made possible the 
contact of their peoples and the exchange of 
their mutual interests and culture. 



"The results obtained thus far make it pos- 
sible to foresee further progress in aerial com- 
munications between the two nations, and it 
makes me happy to think that this shall be for 
the good of peace and labor which constitute 
our common ideal. 

"Tlie easy and rapid contact assured by the 
line between the United States and Argentina, 
and the constant progress in which such a valu- 
able means of communication develops and im- 
proves through the exemplary eifort of North 
American industry, will doubtless serve to 
strengthen the close and cordial friendship of 
the two republics and the earnest collaboration 
of their govermnents in the field of continental 
solidarity. 

"I remain [etc.] R. M. Ortiz." 



-f ■♦■ -f + > ^ + 
THE PEOPLE'S MANDATE FOR PEACE 

Remarks by Assistant Secretary Berle ^ 



[Released to thp press October 12] 

It gives me very great pleasure to greet the 
women from our sister American republics 
who are here as a part of the People's Man- 
date for Peace. At long last we are learning 
that peace depends on mutual understanding 
far more than on the arrangement of states- 
men. These women who have come from their 
own countries in South America, in Central 
America, and in the Indies can teach us a 
great deal; and their journey here serves to 
increase that knowledge which all of the 
American family of nations must have of each 
other if our great western experiment is to 
succeed. 

As all of you know, the great western con- 
tribution in international afPairs has been the 
idea of the "cooperative peace." I am happy 
to remember this evening that it was the con- 
ception of a great Latin-American statesman, 
Simon Bolivar. In the western world we hojie 



^ Deliveied over the Natioual Broadcasting Co., 
October 12, 1939. 



to create and maintain lasting peace, not by 
universal empire or by balance of power, but 
rather by the free association of free nations, 
equal in the presence of each other and in the 
presence of civilization, yet so firmly bound by 
ties of friendship and understanding that all 
disputes can be settled by reason and justice 
instead of arms. 

Underlying the conception of the "coopera- 
tive peace" is the idea that national and inter- 
national affairs have for their object the fos- 
tering of the best of civilization : Art, com- 
merce, better living conditions, improvement 
of culture. This is merely an expression of 
the desire of every individual the world over. 
The People's Mandate and the women who are 
here tonight have dedicated their efforts to- 
ward this end. As they travel through 
America, I am sure you will all be swift to 
welcome them; and I know that in doing so 
you will make friendships which will be 
fiuitful through many coming years. 



Europe 

RELATIONS BETWEEN SOVIET RUSSIA AND FINLAND 
Expression by the United States of Hope for Peace 



[Released to tbc press October 12] 



The Government of the United States has 
expressed to the Government of the Union of 
Soviet Socialist Republics its earnest hope 
that nothing may occur that would be calcu- 



lated to affect injuriously the peaceful relations 
between Soviet Russia and Finland. 

This is a unilateral and entirely independent 
action of the United States Goverimient. 



-f + + ^ -f -f 4- 



COMMENDATION OF VICE CONSUL WILLIAM R. MORTON FOR SERVICES 

IN POLAND 



[Released to the press October 11] 

The Secretary of State on October 9, 1939, in- 
structed the American Legation at Buchai'est, 
Rumania, to convey to Vice Consul William R. 
Morton the following commendation : 

"You are commended for the loyal and coura- 
geous manner in w'hich you have carried out 
your duties in difficult and dangerous circum- 
stances. The resourcefulness and initiative 
which you have displayed in assisting Ameri- 
can citizens to points of safety and the excellent 
judgment which you have shown in overcom- 
ing the difficulties which you have encountered 
are in accordance with the highest traditions of 
the Service." 

Vice Consul Morton, after proceeding from 
Warsaw early in September to southeastern 
Poland, remained there to assist American citi- 
zens to places of safety and to check on the 
welfare and whereabouts of other American 
citizens in the region. He established an office 
in Zaleszczyki from which point he reported to 
the Department on September 19 that he as- 
sisted American refugees into Rumania. 

On September 22, the Department of State 
informed the Embassy at Moscow that, accord- 



ing to press reports, Mr. Morton was being de- 
tained by Soviet military forces at Zaleszczyki, 
where he was assisting in the evacuation of 
American citizens across the Polish-Rumanian 
frontier, and that Soviet armed forces had oc- 
cupied the town and, in spite of Mr. Morton's 
repeated request to be permitted to enter Ru- 
mania, continued to detain him. The Embassy 
was instructed to impress upon the Soviet au- 
thorities the urgency of the matter and request 
that they inform the Embassy without delay 
regarding the welfare of Mr. Morton and the 
nature of the action which they were taking or 
had taken regarding him. The matter was 
taken up by Ambassador Steinhardt with the 
Soviet Foreign Office, following which the Vice 
Chief of Staff of the Army stated that in- 
structions would immediately be issued to the 
Soviet commander at Zaleszczyki to release Mr. 
Morton and permit him to travel in Soviet ter- 
ritory. The Vice Chief of Staff advised the 
Foreign Office that the Polish frontier was abso- 
lutely closed by the Rumanians and that in con- 
sequence it would probably be preferable for 
Mr. Morton to proceed to Moscow. 

On September 23, the Foreign Office at 
Moscow advised Ambassador Steinhardt that 

369 



370 



DEPARTBIENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



the Soviet military authorities at the Polish- 
Rumanian frontier had been requested to 
assist Mr. Morten to enter Rumania. On Sep- 
tember 25 the Foreign Office in Moscow re- 
ported to Ambassador Steinhardt that Vice 
Consul Morton was at Kamenetspodolsk and 
that he would be permitted to pass into Ru- 
mania at whatever Rumanian frontier point 
Rumanian authorities would grant entry. 

On September 27, Ambassador Steinhardt 
reported that Mr. Morton was then in Kiev. 
Mr. Morton had said on the telephone that 
he was in good health. He stated that he had 
been accompanied by his Polish secretary, Al- 
bert Dzieduszycki, with whom he had traveled 
f lom Zaleszczyki in a Ford automobile. 

On October 3, Mr. Morton informed the 
Embassy at Moscow by telephone that he 
hoped to be able to arrange to leave Kiev on 
October 4 by automobile for Tiraspol, at which 
point he would cross the frontier into 
Rumania. 

On October 5, Mr. ]\forton informed the Em- 
bassy at Moscow that he was to leave Kiev 
that evening for Tiraspol by train. 

On October 8, the American Legation at 
Bucharest reported that Vice Consul Morton 
and Mr. Dzieduszycki had an-ived at Bucha- 
rest that morning. 

> ■♦- > 

RETURN OF AMERICANS FROM 
EUROPE 

[Released to the press October 12] 

From sources that the Department consid- 
ers reliable it learns that 6.182 passengers ar- 
rived in New York from Euroj^e for the week 
ended October 6, 1939. For the week ended 
September 29, 1939, 6,149 passengers arrived at 
the same port. These numbers compare with 
an average of about 9,000 for each of the 2 
preceding Aveeks and approximately 10,000* 
and 12,000 for all Atlantic ports for the weeks 
ended September 1 and 7 respectively. These 
figures show a distinct falling off in the num- 

* Includes Canadian ports. 



ber of American citizens returning home and, 
therefore, would seem to indicate that the great 
majoritj' of Amei-ican citizens in Europe who 
required transportation have been taken 
care of. 

The S. S. Acculia left Cobh October 11 with 
only 520 passengers, although she has a maxi- 
mum capacity of 860. 

The St. John will sail from England the 
fourteenth and is now waiting in hopes of ob- 
taining a full booking. 

These facts coixfirm the Department's infor- 
mation that each American citizen in bellig- 
erent countries desiring to come back has had 
an opportunity to return to the United States. 

PRESENTATION OF LETTERS OF 
CREDENCE BY THE MINISTER OF 
SWITZERLAND 

[Released to the press October 10] 

Translation of remarks of the newly appointed 
Minister of Switzerland, Mr. Karl Brugg- 
mann, upon the occasion of the presentation of 
his letter's of credence: 

Mr. PREsroENT: 

In delivering to Your Excellency the letters 
whereby the Federal Council accredits me as 
Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipo- 
tentiary to the United States of America, I 
have the honor to express to you, in the name 
of the Swiss Government, the most sincere 
good wishes for your personal well-being and 
for the prosperity of your great country. 

I am happy to be charged with the task of 
enlarging the relations of Switzerland with 
tlie United States and of rendering ever closer 
and firmer the bonds of friendship which hap- 
pily exist between the two Republics, and I 
wish to assure you, Mr. President, that I shall 
devote all my efforts to these ends. The sym- 
pathy which the United States has always 
manifested toward my country and the under- 
standing which the latter has always found 
here, of its special problems, constitute a pre- 
cious promise for the future. 



OCTOBER 14, 1939 



371 



This sympathy and this understanding en- 
courage me to hope for the indispensable 
support of Your Excellency and the kind 
cooperation of the Government of the United 
States in the accomplishment of my mission. 

President RooseveWs Reply to Mr. Karl 
Bruggmwvn: 

Mr. Minister: 

I am happy to accept from your hands the 
letters by which the Federal Council accredits 
you as Envoy Extraordinary and Minister 
Plenipotentiary of the Swiss Confederation to 
the United States. 

I accept also the letters of recall of Mr. Marc 
Peter, your distinguished predecessor, who 
during a residence of over 19 years in Wash- 
ington has contributed much to the long tradi- 
tion of confidence and esteem that has always 
characterized the relations between our two 
Republics. 

We in the United States are deeply con- 
scious of the steadfast courage with which the 
Swiss people have defended the democratic 



institutions and ideals that are common to both 
our peoples, and you may be assured that I 
fully sliare your aspiration to make even 
stronger the bonds of friendship that unite us. 
It gives me great pleasure to welcome you to 
Washington and I hope that you will have a 
pleasant sojourn here. 

I shall be grateful if you will convey to 
President Etter and the Swiss Federal Council 
my personal greetings and the sincere best 
wishes of the American people for the con- 
tinued prosperity and well-being of the people 
of Switzerland. 

-f -f -f 

CONVENTION WITH FINLAND REGU- 
LATING EXEMPTION FROM MILI- 
TARY OBLIGATIONS 

An announcement to the press regarding the 
proclamation by the President of the Conven- 
tion between the United States and Finland 
Regulating Exemption from Military Obliga- 
tions, appears in this Bulletin in the section 
"Treaty Information." 



Commercial Policy 



NEW PROBLEMS IN OUR COMMERCIAL AND FINANCIAL RELATIONS 

WITH OTHER NATIONS 

Address by the Secretary of State * 



[Released to the press October 11] 

Less than a year ago, when I had the pleas- 
ure of addressing the last National Foreign 
Trade Convention, the minds of all of us were 
preoccupied with the ominous increase of ten- 
sion among nations in several parts of the 
earth, which was fast darkening the world 
horizon. We were all acutely conscious of the 
imperative need of doing everything possible 



"Delivered at the Twenty-sixth National Foreign 
Trade Convention, New York City, October 10, 1939. 



to decrease international tension and to 
strengthen the forces of peace. 

Unfortunately, these efforts failed. For 
nearly 6 weeks now, the red flames of war have 
been raging in the heart of the European Con- 
tinent. No one can tell how much of what 
mankind holds most precious will be destroyed 
before the conflagration subsides nor what rem- 
nants of foundations upon which to rebuild 
civilization and progress will remain. 



372 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



In this new sitiiiition, our first and most 
sacred task is to keep our country secure and 
at peace. Toward (he accomplishment of that 
task, our Government is devoting every ounce 
of energy and vigilance. We are happy that 
the other' American rejjublics are equally deter- 
mined, together with us, to ward off war from 
the shores of the Western Hemisphere. 

It is my firm belief that we will succeed in 
this endeavor and that our nations will not be 
engulfed in the catastrophe of war. Yet, even 
though we remain at peace, we cannot escape 
the far-reaching consequences of a widespread 
major war. 

Within the lifetime of most of us, a great 
war was fought. Its fearful effects and reper- 
cussions are indelibly impressed upon our mem- 
ories. Its disastrous aftermath is still before 
us in sharp relief. 

We have witnessed the stupendous difficulties 
involved in restoring the order of peace out of 
the chaos of war and the price which mankind 
must pay for failure to give proper direction to 
efforts of reconstruction after a period of pro- 
tracted hostilities. Tlie most striking feature 
of the 2 decades which elapsed between the 
outbreak of the present war in Europe and the 
termination of the last was the widespread and 
appalling disregard of those fundamentals in 
the relations among nations upon which alone 
the work of reconstruction could successfully be 
carried out. 

In no phase of lile was this failure to recog- 
nize fundamental conditions and requirements 
more pronounced than in the field of interna- 
tional economic relations. Only through vig- 
orous and healthy trade was it possible for the 
nations of the world to utilize to the utmost the 
natural resources of our globe and the unceas- 
ing progress of modern science and technology 
for the purjjose of making good the destmction 
wrought by the war and of laying the founda- 
tions for the future advancement of the human 
race. Instead, by entering upon the road of 
narrow nationalism, by building up a con- 
stantly extending network of trade restrictions, 
by forcing trade away from the channels of 
natural advantage, the nations of the world not 



only failed to correct the profound maladjust- 
ments bequeathed by the war but created new 
and even more profound dislocations. 

These maladjustments and dislocations were 
in large measure responsible for the unprece- 
dented economic crisis which struck the world 
with the impact of a hurricane at the end of the 
1920's. And even then, instead of reversing the 
direction of their policies, most nations merely 
intensified their suicidal movement toward nar- 
row economic nationalism. 

The inevitable consequence was that world 
production was held back, purchasing power 
within and among nations was impaired, and 
the human race was forced to subsist on a level 
of material welfare far below that which was 
practicable and feasible on the basis of an intel- 
ligent organization of international economic 
relations. Narrow economic nationalism con- 
tributed greatly, in recent years, to a weakening 
of social stability within nations and to a grow- 
ing deterioration of morality in international 
relations. Out of these conditions sprang the 
roots of the present armed conflict. 

As we now enter upon a new period of wide- 
spread war, to be followed, sooner or later, by 
a new period of reconstruction, we should con- 
stantly keep before us the lessons of the sad 
experience of the past quarter of a century. 
In the economic field, two sets of problems 
confront us today. The first involves the con- 
duct of our commercial and general economic 
relations with other nations during the war 
itself. The second relates to the task of prep- 
aration for the reconstruction effort after the 
termination of hostilities. 

In dealing with the first of these two sets 
of problems, it is necessary to distinguish be- 
tween three areas: The belligerent nations; 
the neutral nations outside the Western Hemi- 
sphere; and the American nations. In each 
case, there are certain consequences which we 
have no choice but to accept and certain con- 
siderations which should guide our policy and 
action. 

Our trade and general economic relations 
with the belligerents must, of necessity, be gov- 
erned by two primary factors: The vital re- 



OCTOBER 14, 1939 



373 



quirements of our position as a neutral and the 
exigencies of the war situation. The first of 
these factors imposes upon us, as our wisest 
and safest course, nonparticipation in the con- 
flict and an impartial attitude toward tlie two 
groups of antagonists. Sucli a course of true 
neutrality leaves us entirely free to trade in 
all commodities with both sides — within such 
limitations as may be legitimately introduced 
by the belligerents under the rules of war and 
within the further limitations of whatever 
measures we may wisely choose to adopt for 
the purpose of eliminating or reducing the risk 
of danger to our nationals, goods, and ships. 
The second factor has already caused — and will 
cause increasingly in the future — substantial 
changes in the direction and composition of 
our trade with the nations at war. 

From the very outset of the present war, the 
belligerents have begun to subject their foreign 
trade to rigorous government controls, which 
have already far surpassed in comprehensive- 
ness and thoroughness the regulations put into 
force during the earlier period of the last war. 
The drastic restriction by the belligerents of 
imports unessential to the prosecution of hos- 
tilities and their concentration on imports 
needed for war will place before our exporting 
mdusti'ies serious problems of adjustment. 
Whether the net result of these factors will 
be an increase or a decrease of our total exports 
to Europe, no one can tell at this moment. 
WTiatever the result, it will be determined by 
conditions over which we have little or no 
control. 

Additional limitations on our export trade 
will, no doubt, arise if we decide to adopt, as a 
prudent national policy, a course of action 
under which our ships will be kept out of the 
zones of danger; under which no loans for 
belligerent governments will be permitted ; and 
under which no commodities purchased by the 
belligerents will be permitted to be exported 
before title to them shall have been transferred 
to the foreign buyers. Here the decision is 
within our power. We can, if we so wish, 
abstain from these self-imposed restrictions; 
but if we do so, it must be with a clear realiza- 

184795 — 39 3 



tion that we shall thus expose ourselves to the 
risk of dangerous incidents which will increase 
the possibility of our being drawn into the 
European conflict. The executive branch of 
the Government is convinced that such incon- 
veniences or losses as may result from this 
voluntary curtailment of our freedom of action 
in trade relations constitute, from the view- 
point of the national interest, a worth-while 
sacrifice for the enhanced security of our 
Nation and for the greater certainty of our 
remaining at peace. 

On the side of imports which we normally 
receive from what are now belligerent nations, 
the war will also impose upon us a certain 
amount of difficulty, resulting from war-time 
controls of trade. In this respect, our Govern- 
ment is i^repared to do its utmost to remove or 
reduce unnecessary hardships for our business 
interests, whether growing out of measures of 
policing trade or out of undue price exactions. 

As regards our trade with other neutral na- 
tions outside the Western Hemisphere, our 
endeavor will be to maintain it as nearly as 
possible on a normal basis. Here our greatest 
difficulties will arise out of various measures of 
control adopted by the belligerents as they 
affect certain neutral countries of Europe. 
And here again, it will be our policy to steer 
a balanced course between the greatest prac- 
ticable protection of our commercial interests 
and the avoidance of imprudent risks. 

In the Western Hemisphere, we are bound to 
our sister republics by close ties of inter- 
American friendship and solidarity. Not only 
are we all partners in the vital enterprise of 
keeping our 21 nations secure, but we share 
equally in a common determination to place 
our economic interrelations upon the soundest 
possible basis of mutual benefit. 

The other 20 American republics are con- 
fronted, in varying degrees, with much the 
same problems of adjustment to the war in 
Europe as those with which our country is 
faced. In order to enable all of us, by con- 
certed and cooperative action, to cushion, as 
much as possible, the impact of the extraordi- 
nary conditions imposed upon us by the Eu- 



374 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



ropean war, our nations took an important 
step at the Panama conference toward creat- 
ing the necessary machinery for this purpose. 
The Inter- American Financial and Economic 
Advisory Committee, which is to begin its 
functioning in Washington within a few weeks, 
is designed to furnish a means of discussion 
and action with respect to problems of trade, 
finance, and other phases of economic relations 
and activity which joress for solution within 
and among our nations. The first meeting of 
representatives of the national treasuries, 
scheduled to meet in Guatemala next month 
in pursuance of an important decision adopted 
by the Lima Conference of last year, is another 
step in the same direction. 

Some of the American countries face diffi- 
culties arising out of loss of European markets 
for some of their staple exports. Some are 
confronted with inability to receive normal 
imports from accustomed sources of supply. 
Some are face to face with financial or mone- 
tary problems of a pressing emergency char- 
acter. We shall all benefit in proportion as 
our nations succeed, by cooperative effort, in 
easing or solving these problems and difficul- 
ties. 

So far I have dealt with questions of gov- 
ernment jiolicy and action. That, of course, 
is only a part of the story. It is true, that 
under conditions of increased government con- 
trol of trade and of economic life in general, 
which are characteristic of war-time periods, 
the significance of government action increases 
in proportion. But even so, in a country such 
as ours, private enterprise, represented by 
groups like the one here assembled, continues 
to be the mainspring of economic activity. In 
the difficult days which lie ahead, just as in 
more normal times, your initiative, your 
energy, your ingenuity, your understanding 
of the broad problems comprising the national 
interest, and your willingness to act on that 
understanding will be among the decisive fac- 
tors in determining the degree to which we 
shall be able to maintain our national well- 
being in a world harassed by war. 



So much for our immediate problems. We 
all know how difficult and how pressing they 
are. But in our search for their most effective 
solutions, let us not forget for one moment 
those broader and more far-reaching objectives 
which we must keep constantly before us, if 
the human race is not again to doom itself, all 
too soon, to reaping a whirlwind of its own 
sowing. 

Wars come to an end, and with their ending 
begins the even more difficult work of recon- 
struction. If the sad story of the last 2 
decades is not to repeat itself at the conclusion 
of the present war, there must be kept alive 
somewhere in the world a clear understanding 
of the failures of the recent past and of the 
dangers for the future if these failures are 
re-enacted. 

I have already indicated that one of the 
most disastrous sliortcomings of the period 
following the World War was the nature of 
the commercial policies pursued by the nations 
of the world. Fortunately, side by side with 
the forces which were pushing nations in the 
direction of increasing trade restriction and 
trade diversion, there were also operative in 
the world forces wliich were working in the 
opposite direction. 

During the past 5 years, our country has 
taken a position of leadership in an effort to 
promote the material well-being of our Nation 
and of every nation through the establishment 
and strengthening of sound and healthy inter- 
national economic relations. By inaugurating 
and vigorously implementing our reciprocal- 
trade-agreements program, we have sought to 
bring about an abandonment, throughout the 
world, of trade policies which had resulted in 
excessive restriction of commerce, in an arti- 
ficial diversion of trade, and thus in acute 
economic distress. We have sought to place 
our commerce with the rest of the world upon 
a basis of reasonable regulation and nondis- 
criminatory treatment, in order to give busi- 
ness enterprise the greatest possible scope for 
profitable operation in foreign trade — to the 
advantage of business and to the benefit of the 
Nation as a whole. 



OCTOBER 14, 193 9 



375 



Today, as a result of the war in Europe, 
some of the tendencies in the methods of trade 
regulation which we and other nations have 
sought to combat in recent years have become 
greatly intensified. That is an inescapable 
consequence of the war situation. But it does 
not mean that these disruptive tendencies must 
necessarily become permanently established in 
international commercial relations after the 
end of the war. 

To believe that this would be likely to hap- 
pen would be to abandon oui-selves to hasty 
counsels of despair. The experience of the 
period immediately following the last war and, 
even more, the experience of recent years have 
demonstrated the destructive nature of such 
practices as embargoes, quotas, exchange con- 
trols, unreasonably high tariffs, and various 
other means of regimenting and forcing trade. 
These practices may have their place in time 
of war, when the central objective is the cre- 
ation of the instrumentalities of armed force 
at no matter what sacrifice of human welfare. 
There is no place for them in time of peace, 
when the desired objective is the promotion of 
the well-being of individuals and of nations, 
for which a healthy functioning and expan- 
sion of international commerce is an indis- 
pensable prerequisite. 

If, after the termination of this war, com- 
mercial policies characteristic of extreme eco- 
nomic nationalism should become dominant, 
then mankind would enter upon an indefinite 
period of alternating economic conflicts and 
armed warfare — until the best attainments of 
civilization and progress will have been de- 
stroyed. I cannot believe that this is the fate 
in store' for the world. I, for one, hold fast 
to the conviction that, however grave have been 
the errors of the recent decades, however much 
suffering and destruction may lie ahead in the 
immediate future, there is, in all nations, suffi- 
cient strength of will and sufficient clarity of 
vision to enable mankind to profit by the costly 
lessons of the past and to build upon a sounder 
foundation than heretofore. 

There is much that our country can do to- 
ward that end. We must retain unimpaired 
our firm belief that only through enduring 



peace, based on international law and morality 
and founded upon sound international eco- 
nomic relations, can the human race continue 
to advance. We must cooperate to the greatest 
possible extent with our sister republics of the 
Americas and with all other nations to keep 
this conviction alive and to maintain the basic 
principles of international good faith, world 
order under law, and constructive economic 
effort. 

In the economic field, the guiding lines of the 
policies which we should pursue are clear. 
Nothing that has happened has weakened in 
any way the validity of the basic ideas which 
have underlain our commercial policy in re- 
cent years. The type of international economic 
relations which we have sought to establish 
through our reciprocal trade agreements has 
been amply proven by experience to be the 
only effective means of enabling the process of 
international trade to perform fully its func- 
tion as a powerful instrument for the promo- 
tion of economic welfare and for the strength- 
ening of the foundations of enduring peace. 

For the immediate future, we must continue 
our efforts to maintain and expand our trade 
program, within such temporary limitations as 
may be dictated by the exigencies of war-time 
conditions. We are, in fact, engaged today in 
important trade-agreement negotiations not- 
ably with the American nations. We shall 
neglect no opportunity, wherever it may pre- 
sent itself, to expand the area of our negotia- 
tions. We must not be diverted from this 
essential purpose by the acts or utterances of 
those who, intentionally or unintentionally, 
seek to mislead the public mind into the belief 
that our efforts have been rendered powerless 
by the unhappy circmnstances of today. 

Wlien the war is over, we must stand ready 
to redouble our efforts in the direction of eco- 
nomic progress. As the process of post-war 
reconstruction begins, the task of restoring in- 
ternational trade relations on a sound basis will 
be even more difficult than it has been hereto- 
fore. But it will be even more imperatively 
necessary if, after the setbacks and prostrations 
of recent decades, mankind is to resimie its up- 
ward climb. 



376 



DEPABTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

RELATION OF IMPORTS TO EXPORTS 

Address by Assistant Secretary Grady ° 



[Released to tbe press October 10] 

Just 10 years ago, at the sixteenth National 
loreign Trade Convention in Baltimore, I 
spoke on the subject of imports, pointing out 
their importance in our foreign trade. This 
was just a short time before the passage of 
the Hawley-Smoot Tariff Act, which resulted 
in the loss of a large part of our foreign trade. 
I am unable to resist now the temptation to 
recall my words of warning of 10 years ago. 
I pointed out then that if we through high 
tariffs restricted our import trade, we would 
inevitably likewise restrict our exports. I 
said: 

"Imports are the measure of our exports, 
and if we seriously curtail our imports we will 
as surely curtail our exports." 

Three years later, our total trade, including 
both exports and imports, had shrunk in value 
to less than one-third of its former amount. 
It is true that the precipitous downward turn 
in business in the fall of 1929 preceded the 
Tariff Act of 1930. But it is clear now that 
the heavy loss of our foreign trade which fol- 
lowed and the severity and long duration of 
the depression were in no small part due to 
the restrictions imposed on imports at a time 
when the debtor countries, the largest pur- 
chasers of our exports, were especially in need 
of means for balancing their international ac- 
counts. 

I also predicted that "when the large export 
industries come to realize the burden which 
high protectionism is placing on them, Ameri- 
can public opinion on import restrictions may 
be fundamentally changed." 

I pointed out in that connection the adverse 
effect of high tariffs on various branches of 
economic activity in this country and observed 
that such tariffs were resulting in demands by 



' Delivered before the Importers group session of 
the Twenty-sixth National Foreign Trade Convention, 
New York City, October 10, 1939, and broadcast over 
station WMCA. 



agriculture for relief through McNary-Hau- 
gen legislation, by shipping for increased 
subsidies, and by mining for some sort of fed- 
eral aid. 

What I said 10 years ago has unhappily been 
borne out by developments since that time. 
I did not say then and I do not say now that 
reasonable tariff protection is not desirable or 
defensible, but I did say then and I repeat 
now that man}' of our economic ills can be 
traced directly to the excesses of protection- 
ism. Excess protectionism is imposed upon the 
country by interests whose efforts to obtain 
special privileges, in their disregard for the 
general economic well-being, threaten the very 
foundations of our democracy. 

There was never a time in the histoi-y of this 
country when we needed so much to understand 
and to work for the national interest as distinct 
from special interests. Our economic develop- 
ment and the preservation of our political lib- 
erties rest upon a widespread appreciation of 
what furthers the national interest and upon 
popular insistence that it receive always first 
and paramount consideration. Special inter- 
est groups cannot be allowed to dictate to gov- 
ernment, whether their objectives be to secure 
handouts or privileges. 

An appreciation of the importance of im- 
ports, visible and invisible, in our foreign-trade 
picture involves an understanding of national 
bookkeeping. Our debits and credits with the 
outside world must balance. Putting the mat- 
ter in another way, foreign countries can buy 
our products only to the extent that they can 
acquire dollars to pay for them, and dollars for 
use in international purchases are acquired, as 
in the case of domestic purchases, through the 
sale in this country of products (including gold 
and silver) and services or by borrowing. Loans 
of course merely postpone for a time the ulti- 
mate necessity for payment in the form of com- 
modities or services. 



OCTOBER 14, 1939 



377 



A clear, statistical picture of our economic 
and financial relations with the outside world 
during: the course of each year is presented by 
the United States Department of Commerce in 
an annual publication under the title of "The 
Balance of International Payments of the 
United States." 

This publication sets forth the items which 
result in net credits for us abroad and the 
items which result in net debits. The credit 
items cover those transactions which supply us 
with foreign exchange or, in other words, with 
money or means of payment in countries out- 
side our borders; the debit items cover those 
transactions which supply foreign countries 
with dollars or means of payment in this coun- 
try. For example, the export of merchandise 
results in a credit ; the import of merchandise 
constitutes a debit ; our net position in respect 
of these items is usually on the credit side, 
whereas, in respect of travel expenditures, our 
net position is on the debit side of the balance 
sheet ; that is, the total amount of money spent 
by Americans in travel abroad is greater than 
the amount spent by foreigners traveling in 
this country. 

I have here statistics on our balance of inter- 
national payments for 1938. The items involved 
have been grouped as follows under two head- 
ings, net credits and net debits. 



Balance of International Payments of the United 
States, 1938 

(In millions of dollars) 



Balance of International Payments of the United 

States, i93S— Continued 

(In millions of dollars) 



Item 


Net 
credits 


Trade and service items: 
Merchandise _._ _ 


1,133 




47 


Interest and dividends _ _ . 


333 




1 


Miscellaneous services _ . 


131 


Capital items: 
Long-term capital movements 


23 
295 


Paper currency movements (net) 

Other transactions and residual 


15 
508 






Total net credits.. 


2,486 






Item 


Net 
debits 


Trade and service items: 
Freight and shipping 


42 


Travel expenditures. 


357 


Personal remittances 


116 



Item 



Trade and service items— Continued. 

Institutional contributions 

Onvernmcnt transactions 

Gold and silver: 

Net gold imports 

Silver imports _ 

Capital items- 
Miscellaneous capital items (net).. 

Total net debits 



Net 
credits 



40 
65 



1,640 
224 



2,486 



Our net credit on merchandise account in 
1938 was $1,333,000,000, and net gold imports 
were $1,640,000,000. These are the two out- 
standing net items in the account. This sug- 
gests therefore that our excess of exports over 
imports is being paid for in the last analysis in 
gold. We have acquired since 1914 a supply of 
gold in excess of $16,000,000,000, which is more 
than one-half the total monetary gold stocks of 
the world. This gold is being redeposited in 
the earth for safekeeping at Fort Knox, 
Kentucky. 

I do not suppose that anyone is prepared to 
argue that this is good national policy even 
from the point of view of our foreign trade. 
It must be clear that unless our credits abroad 
are balanced by other means than gold ship- 
ments the prospect of healthy expansion in our 
export trade is negligible. For a time in the 
1920's large foreign loans were offsetting debit 
items in our account with the world ; and these 
loans, together with expenditures in travel 
abroad and immigrant remittances, other debit 
items, enabled us to enjoy a large export trade. 
At present, however, tourist expenditures and 
immigrant remittances are diminishing; and 
new loans to foreign countries are not being 
made, at least m any significant amount. 

We can, I suppose, continue for a while to 
absorb the new gold production of the world 
and bury it back in the ground and hope that 
it will not prove a bombshell to explode in a 
frenzy of inflationary activity, but I don't think 
this is a very sensible way of getting our money 
for our exports, and it does not provide a 
prospect for healthy expansion of our trade. 

Belligerent countries may mobilize their 
American securities for sale here and use the 



378 

resulting credits for their purchases here ; their 
war credits thus mobilized may provide a size- 
able debit item in our balance of payments for 
the time being, but this would be related to an 
emergency situation; its amount would be 
limited by the securities and like assets avail- 
able for this use; it would not provide any real 
solution to the essential problem of finding 
sound debit items to balance the credit items 
on our international accounts. 

This is the fundamental problem we meet in 
seeking ways to maintain our export trade on 
a sound and permanent basis and to allow it a 
healthy growth in the future. It must be clear 
that the solution of this problem rests upon 
the extent to which we are prepared to admit 
imports of merchandise. 

But here we meet the crux of the difficulty — 
the pressure of various sorts that is constantly 
being exerted to impose new restrictions on 
imports. In many cases those bringing such 
pressure presume, apparently, that American 
producers can reserve the entire domestic mar- 
ket for themselves and continue to enjoy export 
markets as well. When difficulties are encoun- 
tered in the maintenance of export sales, a 
solution is sought in proposals for export sub- 
sidies. Such proposals — not to mention many 
other obj factions to them — fail to offer any solu- 
tion to the fundamental problem of making 
available t > foreign countries American dollars 
with which to purchase American products. 
The only sound approach to the problem is 
from the point of view of our international 
balance of payments. 

This is the approach on which the trade- 
agreements program is based. This program 
duly recognizes the importance of imports to 
the maintenance and expansion of our export 
markets 'Uid seeks to build up our foreign trade 
on a reciprocal basis. 

Some ();;position to the program is to be ex- 
pected. An appreciation of the significance 
of foreign trade to the national economic well- 
being requires an understanding of economic 
problems as well as the ability to identify in- 
dividual economic welfare with the economic 
welfare of the country as a whole, and this 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

requires some breadth of vision. It is dis- 
couraging, however, to observe that consider- 
able opposition comes from certain domestic 
producers whose competition from imports is 
insignificant and whose prosperity is to a high 
degree dependent on the prosperity of the Na- 
tion as a whole. It is especially disheartening 
to observe certain industries which have a far 
greater real interest in the maintenance and 
development of export trade than in the restric- 
tion of import trade and which profess to 
favor the trade-agreements program, lend their 
support nevertheless to proposed legislation 
which, if passed, would have the effect of seri- 
ously impairing the program. 

During the last session of Congress, follow- 
ing the completion of trade agreements in 
which concessions were obtained for one of our 
important export industries, the industry bene- 
fiting therefrom, or at least important sections 
of it, urged the enactment of certain "Buy 
American" legislation, which, if passed, woidd, 
in the opinion of experts, have seriously in- 
jured important sections of our trade. At the 
same time the same industry was sponsoring 
legislation to provide it with export bounties 
in the form of lower steamship rates. 

One could expect that an industry of na- 
tional scope, particularly one which is directly 
interested in export markets, would take a na- 
tional point of view in its attitude toward the 
effoits being made to restore and expand our 
foreign trade. But when this point of view is 
suggested, the reply is made that the industry 
does not intend to be "sacrificed." 

It is difficult to understand how a major na- 
tional industry can profess so narrow and un- 
enlightened an attitude. Even if its own ex- 
port markets were less important to it, such an 
industry of national scope might be expected 
to realize that its welfare rests directly upon 
the national welfare and to take a national 
point of view on national policies such as our 
foreign trade policies. How can it be con- 
sidered that it is asking "sacrifices" of any 
such industries to follow a policy for the bene- 
fit of the country as a whole. It might be ex- 
pected that such industries would possess the 



OCTOBER 14, 1939 



379 



vision to see that the pursuit of such a policy 
would be in their own interest. 

If our foreiirn trade is to be preserved in the 
interest of the national economy as a whole, all 
sections of that economy must take an active 
interest in our foreign-trade policy and not 
regard it, as has been so much the case in the 
past, as the concern principally of groups seek- 
ing special privilege, who, pursuing their pur- 
I^oses with short-sighted vision, would bring 
economic destruction to all. If it is our com- 



mon desire to increase the employment of labor, 
to find markets for our agricultural surpluses, 
and to increase the sound and profitable op- 
portunities of industry and shipping, we must 
look upon our tariff rates as affecting not only 
tlie interests directly involved but also all 
economic classes of our country. Tariffs are 
the means through which this counti-y imple- 
ments its commercial policy, and commercial 
policy, like every other national policy, is of 
vital interest to all of us. 



General 



PANAMA CANAL: 



NAVIGATION OF FOREIGN AIRCRAFT EN THE CANAL 
ZONE 



[Released to the press October 10] 

Applications for authorization for foreign 
aircraft to be navigated into, within, or 
through the Canal Zone Military Airspace Kes- 
ervation ^ shall in each case be transmitted 
through the diplomatic mission of the country 
whose nationality the aircraft possesses to the 
Secretary of State for appropriate disposition. 
Such applications must contain the following 
data: 

(a) The name, nationality, and address of the 

owner and of the pilot of the aircraft. 

(b) The make, model, and type of aircraft and 

information as to the registration 
thereof 

(c) The registration marks displayed on the 

aircraft 

(d) The names and nationalities of all persons 

aboard the aircraft, including passen- 
gers and crew 

(e) The itinerary of the flight 

(f ) The purpose of the flight 

(g) The expected time of arrival and duration 

of the stop within the Canal Zone, and 



' The entire Canal Zone was made a Military Air- 
space Reservation by Executive Order No. 8251, of 
September 12, 1939, which was printed in the Federal 
Register, Vol. 4, No. 177, September 14, 1939, pp. 
3899-3901. 



(h) A statement as to firearms and cameras, if 
any, to be carried. 

Note : In case any persons on board the air- 
craft, including passengers and crew, are in 
any way connected, either directly or in- 
directly, with the civil, military, or naval serv- 
ices of any foreign nation, in addition to 
designating such persons by name and nation- 
ality, the application shall contain a state- 
ment showing their connection with such 
service. 

Foreign aircraft for wliich authorization 
may be granted to fly into, within, or through 
the Canal Zone Military Airspace Keserva- 
tion shall nevertheless not be so flown unless 
the following conditions are complied with for 
each flight of such aircraft : 

(a) The term "flight" as used herein shall 
signify one or a number of aii'craft under the 
command of or in responsible charge of a sin- 
gle person. 

(b) Not over 12 aircraft shall be included 
in one flight. 

(c) Prior to departure from the last point 
of landing before reaching the Canal Zone, the 
commander or the person in responsible charge 
of the flight shall notify the Governor of the 
Panama Canal, preferably by radio, of the 



380 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



probable tiiiif of arrival niul the cruising alti- 
tude and speed. 

(d) The fliglit shall approach the Canal 
Zone following commercial air lanes to a ren- 
dezvous point, outside of the Canal Zone, 
designated by the Governor of the Panama 
Canal. 

(e) On approaching the Canal Zone, the 
flight shall be met at the rendezvous by an 
official escort of aircraft from the Canal Zone 
and shall be escorted from the rendezvous point 
via a route prescribed by the escorting aircraft 
to a landing area in the Canal Zone. All such 
aircraft entering the Canal Zone Military Air- 
space Reservation shall land in the Canal Zone 
at the landing area designated by the Governor 
of the Panama Canal, and no aircraft shall 
pass through the said airspace reservation 
without so landing therein. 

(f) Immediately after landing in the Canal 
Zone, the commander or the person in respon- 
sible charge of the flight shall report to the 
Aeronautical Inspector of the Panama Canal 



for instructions, and shall observe the instruc- 
tions received. 

(g) A similar procedure with escort shall 
be required in leaving the Canal Zone. 

(h) Witliout the authorization of the Gov- 
ernor of the Panama Canal, no arms, ammuni- 
tion, or explosives, except small arms, shall be 
carried aboard such aircraft. 

(i) All such aircraft shall have all cameras 
carried therein sealed before taking off from 
the last point of landing prior to arrival at 
the Canal Zone Military Airspace Reservation, 
and all such cameras must remain under seal 
while within the said reservation. 

(j) Flights by aircraft within the Canal 
Zone Military Airspace Reservation will be 
subject to such detailed regulations as may 
be enforced by the Governor of the Panama 
Canal, and while within the said airspace res- 
ervation all aircraft shall be navigated in 
conformitj' with instructions or authorization 
of the Governor. 



Foreign Service of the United States 



THE ASSIsi 



^«TANCE RENDERED BY GOVERNMENT IN THE PROMOTION 
AND PROTECTION OF AMERICAN FOREIGN TRADE 

Address by Assistant Secretary Messersmith * 



[Released to ihr press October 11] 

The assistance rendered by Government in 
the promotion and protection of American for- 
eign trade is a part of the general program of 
our Government for the iiromotion and pro- 
tection of the interests of our citizens at home 
and abroad — a fundamental p u r p o s e of 
government. 

While practically every department and 
agency now included in the organization of our 



' Delivered at the closing session of the Twenty- 
sixth National Foreign Trade Convention, New York 
City, Octol)er 11, 1939. 



Government has some part to play in the pro- 
motion and protection of our domestic and 
foreign trade, it is the Departments of State, 
Commerce, and Agriculture which are pri- 
marily interested in the promotion of our for- 
eign trade— which, gentlemen, is the field of 
your particular interest. As the first of these 
Departments to be organized under the Con- 
stitution, the Department of State has con- 
tinuously, since the beginnings of our 
Government, played an important role in the 
promotion and protecticm of our foreign trade. 
Already before the adoption of the Constitu- 



OCTOBER 14, 1939 



381 



tion we had sent out a number of consuls to 
important seaports in Europe and elsewhere, 
whose primary function was to look after the 
interests of American shipping, which already 
in those days had reached respectable pro- 
]iortions. We began to send out, with Frank- 
lin and Adams, ministers to represent us before 
foreign governments and to negotiate treaties 
for the protection and advancement of our 
trade. Although for a little over a century 
after this beginning our diplomatic and con- 
sular representatives were drawn very largely 
from jKflitical life, they had as a primary func- 
tion, which they performed under the circum- 
stances extraordinarily well, that of making 
reports on commercial and industrial and finan- 
cial as well as on other aspects of the life at 
their posts of residence. This information was 
given only limited analysis and dissemination 
in tliis country, and we were so busy develop- 
ing our 0W21 internal resources and building up 
various aspects of our national life that we had 
very little interest in foreign markets except 
for the disposal of a surplus of this or that 
product. Our foreign trade did not play a 
vital part in our national economy. 

With the beginnings of the present century 
our interest in foreign markets became more 
intense as we had greater surpluses, principally 
agricultural, of which to dispose. Then came 
the rapid industrial development, which cre- 
ated surpluses in a new field — that of manu- 
factured products. As an illustration of the 
change that has taken place in the character of 
our export trade since the beginning of the 
present century it is only necessary to point 
out that during the years 1896-1900 the average 
of agricultural exports from the United States 
comprised 66.2 percent of our total exports. 
This projJortion of agricultural exports over 
the years has undergone a steady decrease un- 
til in 1936 they accounted for only 29.3 percent 
of our export trade. On the other hand, our 
exports of nonagricultural products, which in 
the years 1896 to 1900 averaged 33.8 percent of 
our total export trade, rose in 1936 to 70.7 per- 
cent of our total exports. 



Our interest in foreign trade was first di- 
rected to the furtherance of our agricultural 
exports abroad, and the establishment of the 
Department of Agriculture in 1862 resulted in 
constructive studies in this field being made. 
In 1888 an act of Congress was passed requiring 
the submission by the consular officers of the 
United States of monthly reports for the use of 
the Department of Agriculture relative to the 
character, condition, and yields of agricultural 
crops abroad. This information was dissem- 
inated by the Secretary of Agriculture in the 
monthly crop reports of his Department. 

The increasing importance of our industrial 
establishment at the beginning of the present 
century led to the creation of a department of 
the Government which had, among other func- 
tions, that of fostering our export trade in 
manufactured goods. This agency of the 
Government was created by the act of February 
14, 1903, establishing the Department of Com- 
merce and Labor. In 1912 the Bureau of 
Foreign and Domestic Commerce was created. 
In the field of foreign trade it is the specific 
responsibility of these Departments, that is, of 
Agriculture and Commerce, to keep informed 
of developments in trade and agriculture in 
other countries so that they may in turn inform 
our people where they may find favorable 
markets for our surplus products. It is their 
specific responsibility to maintain contact with 
producing interests in this country, to digest 
and disseminate information on foreign market 
conditions to interested circles in this covmtry, 
and to collaborate in a program for the pro- 
motion of our domestic trade and of our 
exports. 

The setting up of the Departments of Com- 
merce and of Agriculture within our Govern- 
ment did not in any way lessen the functions 
of the Department of State in the promotion 
and in the protection of our foreign trade. The 
protection of our foreign trade and of the in- 
terests of our citizens abroad has always been 
a primary function vested solely in the Depart- 
ment of State under the Constitution and our 
statutes. It is a fmiction which could not be 



382 

exercised by any other department of Govern- 
ment because it must be exercised by that de- 
partment which is charged with the responsibil- 
ity for the conduct of our relations with other 
states and with the formulation of policy. The 
protection of our foreign trade, therefore, and 
of our shipping and of our nationals, which 
involved the negotiation of treaties and agree- 
ments with other governments, remained a 
primary function of the Department of State 
and of its agents abroad. In 1914 the Depart- 
ment of Commerce was authorized by statute 
to collect, through commercial attaches abroad, 
information on industrial and commercial con- 
ditions to supplement that which the diplomatic 
and consular agents of the Department of State 
had been furnishing for over a century. In 
1930 the Department of Agriculture was au- 
thorized by statute to assign a certain number 
of agricultural attaches to our diplomatic mis- 
sions abroad whose duty it would be to provide 
information on agricultural conditions to sup- 
plement that which had been and was being 
furnished by our diplomatic and consular of- 
ficers. This service of Connnerce abroad was 
expanded quite rapidly ; that of the Department 
of Agriculture was kept within very reasonable 
limits. As was entirely natural, there devel- 
oped a tendency to increase the number of com- 
mercial attaches and trade commissioners at 
posts where our officers were already stationed 
and charged with the duty of furnishing the 
same material for the information of our Gov- 
ernment and people. This development took 
place during a period when our interest in 
foreign trade was growing, under pressure of 
increasing production at home. It took place 
during a period of relatively free exchange of 
goods, when trade barriers, with the exception 
of tariffs, were at a minimum and when there 
was practically no control on foreign exchange 
and international payments. 

In the desire of Government to aid business 
our Federal representation abroad was some- 
what overdeveloped and overexpanded. In the 
very nature of things the Department of State 
had to maintain its diplomatic and consular 
establishments in foreign capitals and strategic 



DEPAKTMENT OF STATE BXJUJETIN 

commercial centers. They were charged with 
functions in the conduct of our foreign relations 
and in the protection of our trade and nationals 
which could not be delegated to another depart- 
ment. These establisloments, therefore, had to 
be maintained. Increasingly the agents of other 
departments of Government were being sent to 
the foreign field and functioning in the same 
posts where organizations of the Department 
of State had already long been in existence. 
The result was inevitably an overlapping of 
fields, a duplication of effort, a complicated ap- 
proach to foreign governments, an embarrass- 
ment to foreign businessmen who received re- 
quests from agents of different departments of 
the Government for identical information, and 
a dissipation rather than a concentration of 
effort in behalf of our trade and nationals. 

I have made no mention of the increasing 
cost which this unnecessarily complicated or- 
ganization involved and that it was an organi- 
zation in Government which business would not 
tolerate for itself. 

Under the second Reorganization Plan sub- 
mitted by the President to the Congress in the 
closing days of the last session it was proposed 
that the Foreign Services of the Departments 
of Commerce and of Agriculture should be 
merged with the Foreign Service of the De- 
partment of State and that the Department of 
State should be responsible, through its For- 
eign Service, for the work abroad. The fun- 
damental purpose was, through the unification 
of the Services, to give Government and busi- 
ness a more effective instrument and organiza- 
tion in the foreign field. Although there were 
those even in informed business circles who 
viewed this change with some concern, it was 
recognized that the organization which the 
Government did have in the field was not in 
accord with good business practice and that in 
view of the conditions which Government and 
business had to meet in every part of the world 
it was necessary that the foreign arms should 
be strengthened tlirough this unified approach. 
The protection of trade had become a major 
function of Government. Trade-promotion 
efforts remained important but they no longer 



383 



liad the same effectiveness as in the decade 
preceding. 

The chano;ini; character of the relatioiishi]) 
between states and the introduction of new 
factors therein, and the changes within certain 
states in their economic, social, and political 
structure, have introduced new problems 
v.liicli liave to be considered by Government 
and the private trader. While it is just as 
important todaj' as it has been previously for 
our Government and for our business interests 
and for our farmers to be kept currently in- 
formed concerning developments in foreign 
markets, these reports in themselves no longer 
serve the purpose they once did. It is no 
longer only a question whether a pinxhaser, let 
us say, in France wishes to buy a certain 
[product from us, or whether a seller here is 
jirepared to ship that product to the customer 
in France. It is a question also whether the 
regulations of the French Government will 
permit this transaction to take place. It is no 
longer only tariff barriers which goods have 
to surmount, but it is the even more difficult 
barriers of trade restrictions, clearing agree- 
ments, quotas, and the like. It is no longer 
tlie simple problem whether A in New York 
can reach an agreement to sell B in Paris, but 
whether by agreements between the two coun- 
tries a certain quantity of goods can pass over 
the barriers which have been erected. This in- 
volves the negotiation of agreements and trea- 
ties and of arrangements between governments 
wliicli can be carried on only by the Depart- 
ment of State and its diplomatic and consular 
officers abroad. The individual trader finds 
himself utteily helpless without the assistance 
of Govenmient. The whole field, therefore, 
in which Government can operate for the pro- 
tection and assistance of American trade has 
undergone fundamental changes, and the part 
which Government has to play in the assist- 
ance given to business and agriculture has 
become necessarily very much greater. The 
machinery which served us for this purpose in 
the foreign field, and to a degree at home, had 
necessarily to be adapted to meet these new 
conditions, and it was to meet these that the 



consolidation of the Foreign Services of our 
Government was planned. This, the trade- 
agreements program, and similar measures 
have been a part of that very earnest effort 
which Government has made to meet the new 
{problems arising in our international relation- 
ships so that the interests of our trade and 
commerce may be adequately protected. 

I will endeavor verj' briefly to set forth the 
organization and the machinery which Gov- 
ernment has provided for the promotion and 
protection of our foreign trade under the set- 
up which is in operation today. The Depart- 
ment of State in Washington, and through its 
Foreign Service, is primarily responsible for 
the protection of oiu' interests abroad and for 
the negotiation of agreements and treaties in 
the protection and furtherance of those in- 
terests. In carrying out this work it is aided 
by its Foreign Service, which is composed of 
some 800 career officers stationed at some 314 
establishments in capitals and strategic trad- 
ing centers throughout the world. The 
Foreign Service, in addition to its many other 
duties, is charged with the sole responsibility 
of gathering all the information required by 
other agencies of our Government in the fields 
of commercial and agricultural markets. 

On the other hand, the Department of Com- 
merce remains primarily charged with the 
function in this country of promoting the in- 
ternal and foreign trade, and this part of the 
work of that Department is centered in the 
Bureau of Foreigu and Domestic Commerce, 
which is admirably organized into a series of 
commodity and technical divisions. In order 
to keep in touch with domestic markets and 
trade, the Bureau has district officers through- 
out the country, and in those important com- 
mercial centei-s in the country in which it has 
no district office it has close cooperative ar- 
rangements with Chambers of Commerce. 
The Department of Coimnerce, through the 
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, is 
charged with the responsibility of analyzing 
and disseminating information on domestic 
and foreign markets. 

The Department of Agriculture, through the 



384 



DEPAETMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Office of Foreign Agricultural Kelations, is 
clicarged with the function of maintaining di- 
rect liaison between the Government and the 
agricultural interests of the country and with 
the analysis and dissemination in the United 
States of information gathered abroad by the 
Foreign Service relating to foreign agricul- 
tural markets. It has agents in various parts 
of tlie country and cooperative arrangements 
with agricultural organizations. 

Tlie delimitation, therefore, is one which is 
simple and businesslike. It is the Depai'tment 
of State, as the agency of Government respon- 
sible for the conduct of our foreign relations, 
which is solely responsible for the woi'k abroad 
and the Departments of Commerce and Agri- 
culture which are solely responsible for the 
analysis and dissemination in this country of 
information received from abroad. 

As of July 1, 1939, the separate Foreign 
Services of Commerce and Agriculture ceased 
to exist and were consolidated into the Foreign 
Service of the Department of State. The of- 
ficers of the Foreign Services of Commerce 
and Agriculture have been incorporated into 
the Foreign Service of the Department of 
State and hold commissions as Foreign Service 
officers. This consolidation involves the dis- 
appearance abroad of tlie separate establish- 
ments which Conunerce and Agriculture have 
maintained in foreign capitals and in some 
commercial centers and the physical incorpo- 
ration and assimilation of their activities in 
the mission or in the consulate. I believe this 
should be hailed by business as; a constructive 
step by Government. Up until 1924 the diplo- 
matic and consular branches of our Govern- 
ment were entirely separate, and we maintained 
separate diplomatic and consular establish- 
ments in all capitals. Under the so-called 
Rogers Act of 1924 the diplomatic and consular 
services of the Department of State were united 
into one Foreign Service, and a program of 
physical consolidation of our consular and dip- 
lomatic establishments in capitals has been 
carried out. This step, which at the time was 
viewed with some concern by many interested 
in our foreign relations, has proved to be one 



of the most constructive steps undertaken by 
our Government in its endeavors to improve 
the machinery for the conduct of our foreign 
relations in the interest of our citizens. The 
consolidation of the Foreign Services of Com- 
merce and of Agriculture into the Foreign 
Service of tlie Department of State and the 
consolidation and assimilation of the separate 
establishments of Commerce and Agriculture 
in certain capitals and other cities under Re- 
organization Plan No. 2 is therefore only a 
further steji in that program of effective organ- 
ization of the instrumentalities of Government 
abroad on which we have been making con- 
stant progress. 

Although the Foreign Services of Commerce 
and of Agriculture have therefore ceased to 
exist since July 1, 1939, and the former officers 
of these Departments in the foreign field are 
now officers of the Department of State, the 
actual incorporation of the separate offices of 
these Departments abroad is being carried on 
slowly and with care. There will have to be 
a certain period of transition. It is, of course, 
most important that the services to Govern- 
ment and to business sliould not suffer any in- 
terruption and the flow of reports needed by 
Government and business should continue, even 
in a war-torn world, and steps toward this end 
have already been taken in appropriate instruc- 
tions to the Foreign Service establishments 
concerned. 

This Government is, therefore, planning to 
set up in every capital a reporting unit as a 
part of its mission, which will be devoted to 
commercial, industrial, financial, and agricul- 
tural reijorting. Wliile this unit will be under 
the direct control and supervision of the am- 
bassador or minister, just as are the other divi- 
sions or sections of the establishment of our 
Government in the capital, a Foreign Service 
officer of appropriate qualifications and rank 
will be designated as the officer in responsible 
charge of the reporting section. In view of the 
specialized experience of the commercial at- 
taches in reporting on commercial and indus- 
trial problems and in meeting the needs of the 
Department of Commerce, it is the intention 



OCTOBER 14, 1939 



385 



of the Department of State to designate as the 
Foreign Service officer in charge of these re- 
porting units officers who have heretofore been 
commercial attaches in the service of the De- 
jjartment of Commerce. At those diplomatic 
missions to which an agricultural attache is 
assigned it will be the policy of the Department 
of State to entrust the supervision of the agri- 
cultural reporting to officers who have for- 
merly served as attaches for the Department of 
Agriculture. To this section will be assigned 
those officers of the staff who have shown spe- 
cial competence in reporting lines. Tlie report- 
ing section in the capital will be charged not 
only with the reporting from the mission but 
with the supervision and coordination of the 
reporting of the consular establishments in 
other cities iii the country. In order that these 
reporting sections may be set up in the most 
effective manner possible we have asked the 
chief of mission at every post, with the col- 
laboration of the appropriate officers of his 
staff, to furnish us a report on the organization 
of his establishment as a whole and the pro- 
posed organization of the reporting section. 
These reports are now coming in, and it is our 
hope that within the course of several months 
more these organizations will be completed, 
and the amalgamation of the establishments in 
the field, as well as the amalgamation of the 
Services themselves, will be completed. As one 
who has been a servant of our Government in 
the field of the conduct of our foreign relations 
for a quarter of a century and as one who, as 
many of you here know, is very deeply inter- 
ested in the protection and promotion of our 
foreign trade, I can give j'ou the assurance that 
this program is being carried through on wise 
and on sound lines, and I have every confidence 
that when you make your next trip abroad and 
visit our establisliments in capitals and in other 
strategic commercial centers you will find that 
the organization there existing for your 
service has been greatly strengthened and 
improved. 

The Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Com- 
merce in the Department of Commerce and 
the Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations in 



the Department of Agriculture remain pri- 
marily responsible in this country for the 
liaison between Government and business and 
agriculture. These Departments in this coun- 
try will remain primarily responsible for the 
direction of the commercial and agricultural 
reporting activities of the Foreign Service of- 
ficers of the Department of State. It is these 
Departments which will prepare the instruc- 
tions on which the reporting activities of the 
officers of State abroad are based and the in- 
structions which these Departments will for- 
ward through the Department of State to its 
officers abroad will be based on the needs of 
our business and agricultural interests as de- 
termined by them. Through the consolidation 
of the Foreign Services and the establishment 
of these reporting units in our establishments 
abroad the facilities available to the Depart- 
ments of Commerce and Agriculture in the 
foreign field and to our business and agricul- 
tural interests have been greatly strengthened. 
It may, I believe, be unhesitatingly stated that 
as a result of the consolidation in the Services 
and establishments abroad these Departments 
will be in a better position not only to have the 
information which is needed by Government 
but also that needed by the interests which the 
Government serves. 

As the Departments of Commerce and Agri- 
culture will remain primarily responsible for 
the analysis and dissemination of information 
on foreign markets and conditions in this coun- 
try, reports on commercial, industrial, finan- 
cial, and agricultural conditions abroad 
prepared by the Foreign Service establish- 
ments and officers of the Department of State 
will be forwarded to the Departments of Com- 
merce and Agriculture for analysis and dis- 
tribution. The actual work done in the field 
in the way of reports, world trade directory 
reports, trade opportunities, et cetera, will be 
augmented and the quality improved. Jfon- 
confidential reports will be transmitted from 
the foreign establishments of State directly to 
the Departments of Commerce and Agricul- 
ture. Information of a confidential character 
which cannot be given publicity will be fur- 



386 

nished to !he appropriate departments for such 
guarded use as the puhlic interest permits. 

Inquirit s therefore concerning conditions in 
foreign markets for the sale of American indus- 
trial products should as heretofore be directed 
to the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Com- 
merce of the Department of Commerce. In 
like manner inquiries concerning the standing 
of foreign firms and requests for lists of for- 
eign buyers should also be directed as hereto- 
fore to the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic 
Commerce. Similarly the inquiries concern- 
ing foreign conditions affecting agricultural 
commodities and markets should initially be 
directed to the Office of Foreign Agricultural 
Kelations of the Department of Agriculture. 
It is the belief of the Department of State that 
many inquiries can readily be answered by 
these Departments from information already 
submitted by the Foreign Service establish- 
ments abroad. In the event that the Depart- 
ments of Agriculture and Commerce are unable 
to answer adequately the inquiries, appropri- 
ate instructions will be issued through the De- 
partment of State for reports from its 
Foreign Service establishments in the country 
or countries concerned. 

You will be interested, I am sure, to know 
that the Departments of Commerce and of 
Agriculture are now engaged in the prepara- 
tion of revised and up-to-date reporting 
schedules which will serve as the guide to the 
establishments of the Department of State in 
the field. There has been a tendency in the 
past to prescribe general reporting schedules 
applicable to all posts without sufficient regard 
to whether certain reports from certain posts 
have any value either to Government or to 
business. In order to increase the effective- 
ness of the reporting that is on a scheduled 
and regular basis the appropriate departments 
are now engaged in a careful study of every 
diplomatic and consular post so that instead 
of general instructions specific reporting sched- 
ules may be set up for every post in the Serv- 
ice. There is every reason to believe that 
through this very praiseworthy initiative the 
volume, as well as the quality, of the called-for 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BTILLETIN 

reporting from the field offices will be im- 
proved. The commodity divisions in the De- 
partment of Commerce and the Office of 
Foreign Agricultural Kelations of the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture will be in a position, 
through their publications and through the 
service which they give, to increase their use- 
fulness to business and to agriculture. 

To improve the practical character of the 
reporting that will be performed for the De- 
partments of Agriculture and Commerce by 
our Foreign Service establishments, a system 
is being elaborated in the Departments of 
Agriculture and Commerce of providing the 
Department of State with current comments 
from the commodity and technical divisions of 
those Departments based upon their experience 
and contacts with American business and agri- 
cultural interests as to the sufficiency of the 
reporting work being performed as well as con- 
crete suggestions for the improvement of re- 
ports in order that they may meet in the most 
adequate fashion the needs of our business and 
agricultural interests. 

It should be emphasized that through the 
changes effecti\'e under Reorganization Plan 
No. 2 there is mei-ely a delimitation of func- 
tions and no change in functions. The De- 
partment of State has become responsible for 
the work in the foreign field and the Depart- 
ments of Commerce and Agriculture are re- 
sponsible for the analysis and dissemination of 
information in this country. 

In order to strengthen the liaison between the 
Department of State and the Departments of 
Commerce and Agriculture it is provided under 
Reorganization Plan No. 2 that an officer of 
the Departments of Commerce and of Agricul- 
ture shall be stationed in the Department of 
State. In accordance with this provision, a for- 
mer agricultural attache and an officer of Com- 
merce who has seen service in the field have been 
designated for this impoi'tant function. They 
have been given a room in the Department of 
State in the Commercial Office, where they 
maintain close contact with the various division 
chiefs in the Department of State and have ac- 
cess to all the material coming into the Depart- 



OCTOBEK 14, 19 39 



387 



nient wliicli conkl be of direct interest to the 
Depiirtinents of Coiiiiiierce and Agriculture and 
to the respective interests which they serve. In 
this way and through the establishment of this 
liaison it will. I believe, be possible to make 
available to Commerce and Agi-iculture an even 
greater amoiuit of material from the foreign 
field than before, and it is hoped with even 
greater expedition. The quality of the men who 
have been chosen for this liaison function 
speaks well for the intention of the Departments 
concerned. 

While the Department of State is solely re- 
sponsible for the collection of the information 
in the field and serves as the agent abroad for 
tlie Departments of Commerce and Agricul- 
ture, and while the State Department remains 
solelj^ responsible for the administration of its 
Foreign Service, it has been deemed advisable 
to provide, in Keorganization Plan No. 2, that 
a ranking officer of the Departments of Com- 
merce and of Agriculture should sit on the 
Board of Foreign Service Personnel of the De- 
partment of State, as well as on the Board of 
Examiners and on the School Board. It is the 
Board of Foreign Service Personnel which ad- 
vises the President and the Secretary on the 
making of appointments and assignments to 
the various posts in the Foreign Service. It is 
therefore arranged that whenever any assign- 
ment shall be made of a commercial or an agri- 
cultural attache the designated officer of Com- 
merce and of Agriculture shall sit on the Board 
of Foreign Service Personnel in order to assure 
that the Board may have the advice, counsel, 
and cooperation of the appi-opriate Department 
in the making of assignments in which they 
are directly interested. 

As hereafter admission to tlie single Foreign 
Service of the Department of State is under the 
statute controlling in this respect, it has been 
deemed advisable that an officer of Commerce 
and of Agriculture should sit on the Board of 
Examinei-s of the Foreign Service whenever 
candidates are considered for admission. This 
will insure that in receiving new men into the 
Service the requirements of Commerce and of 
Agriculture will be appropriately considered. 



The Department of State conducts a school 
within the Department, known as the Foreign 
Service Officers' Training School. A ranking 
officer of Commerce and of Agriculture will 
sit as a member of the School Board. The 
existence of this school and its nature are only 
too little known to our business people. It is 
sufficient to say here that after a candidate for 
the Foi'eign Service has been admitted to the 
Service and has served a probationary period 
in the field he is brought back to the Depart- 
ment for attendance at the Foreign Service 
Officers" Training School. To this school are 
brought appropriate officers of practically 
every interested department and agency of our 
Government as instructors. The young men 
who have passed the gauntlet of the written 
and the oral and the physical examination and 
who have served from a year to 18 months in 
one of our establishments abroad are then 
subjected to close scrutiny in the school, where 
they come under the eye not only of officers of 
the Department of State but of these other 
agencies of our Government. It is only after 
tliey have jjassed through the school that they 
have completed their probationary period and 
are admitted as full-fledged Foreign Service 
officers. I think you will agree that there are 
few businesses and few professions in which 
the neopliytes are obliged to pass such careful 
tests. Our business and agricultural interests 
in this country have no need to fear that the 
men who are being brought into the Foreign 
Service do not have the necessary qualifica- 
tions to serve as representatives of our in- 
terests abroad. 

Moreover, in addition to this preliminary 
training, because the demands upon our officers 
are becoming so complex and in some respects 
so technical, the Department of State is pur- 
suing the training of Foreign Service officers 
to an advanced degree. It is therefore con- 
templated that Foreign Service officers shall be 
assigned to the Departments of Commerce and 
of Agriculture for periods of from 6 months to 
a year or more, just as it has been the practice 
heretofore to assign them to the Department 
of State. It is further planned that Foreign 



388 



DEPAET5IENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Service officers may, when it is deemed de- 
sirable, be assigned to the district offices or 
cooperative offices of Commerce and of Agri- 
culture throughout the country, so that they 
may become thoroughly familiar vrith condi- 
tions throughout the country as a whole. You 
are undoubtedly familiar with the fact that 
it has been the practice of the Department of 
State for some years, with the approval of 
the Congress, to send selected officers to some 
of the important graduate schools in the 
country, such as those at Harvard, Princeton, 
Chicago, et cetera, for postgraduate work. 
These young men undergo an extensive period 
of training in economic and financial studies 
and are then prepared to take up special work 
at posts where this field is of primary impor- 
tance. It is an application of the same prin- 
ciple which the Department of State has fol- 
lowed for many years in training officers in the 
Oriental and Near Eastern languages. We in- 
tend further to carry on this training by send- 
ing some of our Foreign Service officers with 
special capacities into some of our large bank- 
ing institutions in order that they may get the 
technical and detailed knowledge of certain 
banking and exchange procedure which is so 
essential in their work at certain posts. 

It is the intention of the Department of State 
to intensify the use in this country of Foreign 
Service officers on leave for trade details. A 
Foreign Service officer who returns to this coun- 
try on his triennial leave naturally wishes to 
have an opportunity to see his family and 
friends. This is right and proper. It is, how- 
ever, important that he should take this op- 
portunity also of becoming more familiar with 
the life of his own country and of renewing 
contacts in business and other circles. The de- 
tailed knowledge which he has gained of 
conditions at his post should be made available 



to the business and agricultural interests in this 
country. It is, therefore, our intention to see 
that Foreign Service officers shall increasingly 
be made available through the Departments of 
Commerce and Agriculture to trade and other 
organizations desiring to have them appear 
before them. 

It may be safely and conservatively said that 
there has never been a time in our history when 
there has been a greater need for intelligent, 
active, and well-considered protection of our 
foreign trade or for prompt and accurate in- 
formation adequately interpreted to the end 
that the interests of the American Government 
and its people may be properly safeguarded. 
It should give you confidence that these prob- 
lems confronting Government, business, and 
agriculture have been given careful thought in 
the responsible Departments in Washington. I 
have endeavored to give you a factual account 
of what Government is attempting to do. It is 
a very inadequate picture because it is obviously 
impossible within the limits of your patience to 
go into any detail. May I voice the confidence 
that the efforts of the Bureau of Foreign and 
Domestic Commerce of the Department of 
Commerce and of the Office of Foreign Agri- 
cultural Eelations of the Department of Agri- 
culture, implemented by the efforts of the 
Department of State and its Foreign Service — 
all combined in harmonious and efficient ac- 
tivity — will not only satisfy your needs and 
expectations in present emergency conditions 
but will provide a solid foundation upon which 
to build in the future. I can assure you that 
the Department of State, as are the other De- 
partments, is alive to its grave responsibilities 
in the maintenance, protection, and improve- 
ment of the position of the United States in 
international trade and that it will earnestly 
and unswervingly strive to that end. 



OCTOBER 14, 1939 



389 



PERSONNEL CHANGES 



[Keleased to the press October 14] 

Changes in the Foreign Service of the United 
States since October 7: 

North Winship, of Macon, Ga., counselor of 
embassy at Warsaw, Poland, lias been desig- 
nated counselor of legation at Pretoria, Union 
of South Africa. 

Kenneth J. Yearns, of Washington, D. C, 
consul at Tientsin, China, has been assigned as 
consul at Swatow, China. 

Albert H. Cousins, Jr., of Oregon, consul at 
Buenos Aires, Argentina, has been designated 
second secretary of legation and consul at 
Tegucigalpa, Honduras. Mr. Cousins will 
serve in dual capacity. 

Glen W. Bruner, of Sterling, Colo., language 



officer at Tokyo, Japan, has been assigned as 
vice consul at Kobe, Japan. 

William E. Yuni, of Hoquiam, Wash., vice 
consul at Kobe, Japan, has been assigned as 
vice consul at Tientsin, China. 

Clifford C. Taylor, of Virginia, Foreign 
Service officer, designated as agricultural at- 
tache at London, England, has been designated 
agricultural attache at Ottawa, Canada. 

Paul G. Minneman, of Ohio, Foreign Serv- 
ice officer, designated as assistant agricultural 
attache has been assigned to the Department 
of State and detailed to the Department of 
Agriculture. 

Ben Zweig, of Illinois, vice consul at Tegu- 
cigalpa, Honduras, has been appointed vice 
consul at San Jose, Costa Rica. 



Treaty Information 



Compiled by the Treaty Division 



ORGANIZATION 

Protocol for the Amendment of the Pre- 
amble, of Articles 1, 4, and 5, and of the 
Annex to the Covenant of the League of 
Nations 

Bulgaria 

According to a circular letter from the 
League of Nations dated September 15, 1939, 
the ratification by Bulgaria of the Protocol 
for the Amendment of the Preamble, of 
Articles 1, 4, and 5, and of the Annex to the 
Covenant of the League of Nations, which was 
opened for signature at Geneva on September 
30, 1938, was deposited with the Secretariat 
on September 1, 1939. 



NATIONALITY 

Convention With Finland Regulating Mili- 
tary Obligations in Certain Cases of 
Double Nationality (Treaty Series No. 
953) 

On October 7, 1939, the President proclaimed 
the Convention with Finland Regulating Mili- 
tary Obligations in Certain Cases of Double 
Nationality, which was signed on January 27, 
1939, ratified by the United States on August 
14, 1939, and by Finland on September 29, 1939, 
and which entered into effect on October 3, 
1939, the date of the exchange of ratifications. 

The convention provides that a person pos- 
sessing the nationality of both the United States 



390 

and Finland, who habitually resides in one of 
the countries and who is in fact most closely 
connected with that country shall be exempt 
from all military obligations in the other 
country. 

The convention with Finland is one of the 
series of treaties and conventions concluded 
pursuant to a joint resolution of Congress ap- 
proved by the President May 28, 1928 (Kelly 
resolution), by which the President was re- 
quested to negotiate treaties with foreign coun- 
tries, providing that persons born in the United 
States of foreign parentage and naturalized 
American citizens should not be held liable for 
military service or any other act of allegiance 
during a stay in the foreign country. In ac- 
cordance ^vith this resolution treaties or conven- 
tions also have been concluded and brought into 
force with 6 other countries as follows : Albania, 
signed in 1932 ; Czechoslovakia, signed ill 1928 ; 
Lithuania, signed in 1937; Norway, signed in 
1930 ; Sweden, signed in 1932 ; and Switzerland, 
signed in 1937. 

Prior to the approval of the Kelly resolution, 
bilateral naturalization treaties or conventions 
were concluded between the United States and 
a number of other countries. Such instruments 
are now in force between the United States and 
the following countries : Belgium, 1868 ; Brazil, 
1908; Bulgaria, 1923; Costa Kica, 1911; Den- 
mark, 1872; Great Britain, 1870; Haiti, 1902 
and 1903; Honduras, 1908; Nicaragua, 1908 
and 1911 ; Norway, 1869 ; Peru, 1907 ; Portugal, 
1908; El Salvador, 1908; Sweden, 1869; and 
Uruguay, 1908. 

A multilateral agreement to which the United 
States is a party, having the same purpose as 
the treaties and conventions concluded pur- 
suant to the Kelly resolution, is the protocol re- 
lating to military obligations in certain cases 
of double nationality, signed at The Hague on 
April 12, 1930. This protocol is in force among 
Australia, including the territories of Papua 
and Norfolk Island and the mandated terri- 
tories of New Guinea and Nauru, Belgium, 
Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, Great Britain and 
Northern Ireland and all parts of the British 
Empire which are not separate members of the 



DEPABTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

League of Nations, India, the Netherlands, in- 
cluding Netherlands Indies, Surinam, and 
Curasao, El Salvador, Sweden, the United 
States of America, and the L^nion of South 
Africa. 

POSTAL 

Universal Postal Convention of 1934 

Bulgaria 

The Egyptian -Minister at Washington in- 
formed the Secretary of State by a note dated 
September 30, 1939, that the Bulgarian Govern- 
ment had deposited on August 10, 1939, with 
the Egyptian Ministry for Foreign Affairs its 
ratification of the Universal Postal Conven- 
tion, together with the following acts, signed 
at Cairo on March 20, 1934: 

Universal Postal Convention and Annexes 
Arrangement Concerning Letters and Parcels 

of Declared Value, and Annexes 
Arrangement Concerning Parcel Post, and 

Annexes 
Arrangement Concerning Postal Money Orders, 

and Annexes 
Arrangement Concerning Subscriptions to 

Newspapers and Periodicals, and Annex. 

LABOR 

Conventions of the International Labor 
Conference 

Iraq 

According to a despatch from the American 
Minister to Iraq, dated September 6, 1939, the 
Iraqi Government Gazette No. 36, of Septem- 
ber 3, 1939, publishes a law ratifying the Con- 
vention (No. 42) Concerning Workmen's 
Compensation for Occupational Diseases (re- 
vised 1934) adopted by the International Labor 
Conference at its eighteenth session (Geneva, 
June 4-23, 1934). 

Netherlands 

According to a circular letter from the 
League of Nations dated September 15, 1939, 
the ratification by the Netherlands of the Con- 



OCTOBER 14, 1939 

vention Concerning Workmen's Compensation 
for Occupational Diseases (revised 1934) 
adopted by the International Labor Office at 
its eighteenth session (Geneva, June 4r-23, 
1934), was registered with the Secretariat on 
September 1, 1939. 

In consequence of the ratification of the 
above-named convention the Netherlands Gov- 
ermnent gave notice at the same time that it 
desires to denounce the Convention Concern- 
ing Workmen's Compensation for Occupational 
Diseases, adopted by the International Labor 
Conference at its seventh session in 1925. This 



391 

denunciation was registered with the Secre- 
tariat on September 1, 1939. 



Publications 



Department of State 

Military Mission : Agreement between the United 
States of America and Nicaragua. — Signed May 22, 
3939; effective May 22. 1939. Executive Agreement 
Series No. 156. Publication 1379. 6 pp. 50. 

Diplomatic List, October 1939. Publication 1385. ii, 
!S3 pp. Subscription, $1 a year ; single copy, 100. 



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Qontents 



OCTOBER 28, 1939 
Vol. I: No. 18 — Publication I jgd 




Europe: rage 
German capture of the American steamer City oj Flint . 429 
Detention by belligerents of American vessels for exami- 
nation of papers or cargoes 433 

Meeting of the Intergovernmental Committee on Politi- 
cal Refugees 434 

Sinkmg of the Athenia 434 

Contributions for relief in belligerent countries .... 435 
Traffic in Arms, Tin-Plate Scrap, etc.: 

Monthly statistics 436 

Publications 447 

Treaty Information: 
Organization: 

Protocol for the Amendment of the Preamble, of 
Articles 1,4, and 5, and of the Annex to the Cove- 
nant of the League of Nations 448 

Health: 

Convention Modifying the International Sanitary 

Convention of June 21, 1926 448 

Opium and Other Dangerous Drugs: 

Convention for Limituig the Manufacture and Regu- 
lating the Distribution of Narcotic Drugs (Treaty 

Series No. 863) 448 

Agriculture: 

Convention for the Standardization of the Methods 

of Keepmg and Operating Cattle Herdbooks . . . 450 
Navigation: 

International Convention for the Unification of Cer- 
tain Rules Relating to Bills of Ladmg for the 
Carriage of Goods by Sea (Treaty Series No. 931). 450 



U, S, SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS 

NOV 27 1939 



GERMAN CAPTURE OF THE AMERICAN STEAMER "CITY OF FLINT' 



[Released to the press October 25] 

Ambassador Laurence A. Steinhardt, at 
Moscow, reported to the Department at 11 
p. m., October 25 (Moscow time), that the For- 
eign Office at Moscow had assured him that the 
American officers and crew of the City of Flint 
were safe on board that vessel at Murmansk. 

Ambassador Steinhardt reported at 3 a. m., 
October 26, that a Tass despatcli from Mur- 
mansk issued at 1 : 30 a. m. stated that the Ger- 
man prize crew which brought the City of 
Flint to Murmansk had been released from 
internment in view of the fact that the vessel 
put into Murmansk by reason of damage to her 
machinery. The despatch continues that the 
vessel is remaining at Murmansk pending def- 
inite establislmient of the nature of her cargo. 

Ambassador Steinhardt immediately tele- 
phoned an official of the Foreign Office and 
was informed that it was that official's under- 
standing that the German prize crew had been 
released from mternment but had not been put 
back on board the City of Flint. 

[Released to the press October 26] 

The American Charge at Berlin, Mr. Alex- 
ander C. Kirk, has reported to the Department 
that he received on October 26 a memorandum 
from the German Foreign Office with reference 
to his informal inquiry in the matter of the 
American steamer City of Flint and its crew. 

The Foreign Office stated that according to 
information available, the City of Flint was 
captured by a German warship because of car- 
riage of contraband and that a jDrize crew 
placed on board brought the steamer to the 



harbor of Murmansk because of sea damage 
{havarie). The Foreign Office stated that no 
news had reached it that any member of the 
American crew has suffered injury. 

In transmitting the memorandum, an official 
of the Foreign Office said that efforts were be- 
ing made to obtain prompt further informa- 
tion. He asserted that the Foreign Office had 
no details as to "damage" which necessitated 
the ship's being taken to Murmansk, but said 
in response to inquiry that the term havarie 
would cover the case of a ship lacking charts 
with which to navigate the waters through 
which she had to proceed. 

[Released to the press October 27] 

Ambassador Steinhardt on the night of Oc- 
tober 26 fully discussed the status of the City 
of Flint with the Foreign Office at Moscow 
along the lines of the instructions he had re- 
ceived from the Department. At 11 : 30 p. m. 
the Soviet radio announced that after exam- 
ination of her cargo, the naval authorities "have 
decided to release the City of Flint on condi- 
tion that she leave the port of Murmansk imme- 
diately." 

The Tass despatch as published in the Rus- 
sian morning newspapers which only appeared 
at noon, read: 

"The order, the maritime authorities at Mur- 
mansk concerning the liberation of the steam- 
shi23 City of Flint. Murmansk, Tass, Octo- 
ber 26. 

"After the verification of the composition of 
the cargo on the steamship {Jity of Flint the 
maritime authorities at Murmansk have issued 

429 



430 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



an order to free the vessel with the obligation 
to leave the port immediately." 

Reporting this text at noon October 27 (Mos- 
cow time), Ambassador Steinhardt stated that 
he is continuing to nse every means in an en- 
deavor to obtain further details, particularly as 
to which crew is to take the vessel out. He 
was still endeavoring to get another appoint- 
ment at the Foreign Office. 

Ambassador Steinhardt reported on the 
morning of October 27 that he was continuing 
his efforts to establish telephonic communica- 
tion with the captain or a member of the 
American crew of the City of Flint. He had 
been promised telephone communication at 8 
o'clock the morning of October 27 but al- 
though temporary communication with the 
Murmansk operator was established, the Am- 
bassador was unable to make the desired con- 
tact. As cal's for Murmansk are only accepted 
for certain hours during the day, Ambassador 
Steinhardt expected to make the next attempt 
at 1 : 30 p. m., October 27. 

Ambassador Steinhardt is still endeavoring 
to obtain permission for an airplane and pilot 
to take Charles E. Bohlen ^ to Murmansk if the 
crew is still there. 

[Released to the press October 27] 

Ambassador Laurence A. Steinhardt re- 
ported on October 27 that up to 3 p. m. (Mos- 
cow time), he had succeeded twice in getting 
througli to the port of Murmansk by telephone 
but that he had failed to establish contact with 
the captain of the City of Flint despite assur- 
ances that arrangements had been made in ad- 
vance for his presence at the agreed time. 

Ambassador Steinhardt also reported that he 
now has an appointment with the Under Ssc- 
retary for Foreign Affairs at 5 : 30 (Moscow 
time), the afternoon of October 27. 

[Released to the press October 27] 

Ambassador Laurence A. Steinhardt re- 
ported to the Department on the night of Octo- 
ber 27 from Moscow as follows: 



' Consul and second secretary of American Embassy 
at Moscow. 



"I have just seen Assistant Commissar of 
Foreign Affairs Potemkin and have vigorously 
reiterated my indignation at the lack of co- 
operation by the Soviet Government in with- 
holding information from me while issuing 
communiques with respect to the City of Flint 
througli the medium of the Tass agency. He 
replied that Tass was an official agency of the 
Soviet Government and that it was the custom 
of his Government to make annoimcements 
through it. I told him that this was no excuse 
for his failure to keep me informed particu- 
larly in view of my repeated requests for in- 
formation on behalf of my Government which 
had been the purpose of my daily visits to 
him. After a lengthy discussion I formally 
demanded that the vessel and cargo be turned 
over to the American crew and be authorized 
to depart. He thereupon made the following 
statement : 

"The City of Flint had come into the port 
of Murmansk in charge of a German prize 
crew without any previous knowledge on the 
part of the Soviet Goveinment and through 
no act on its part. The reason ascribed by 
the prize crew for the entry was damaged ma- 
chinery making the ship unseaworthy. Wlien 
the Soviet authorities at Murmansk judged 
that the vessel was again fit to put to sea, and 
being desirous of preserving its neutrality, the 
Soviet Government had ordered the vessel to 
leave the port of Murmansk immediately under 
the same conditions as those of her entry, 
namely, with both the German and American 
crews on board and her cargo intact. He added 
that the order would be enforced immediately 
and that the Soviet Government felt that its 
decision was not only in accordance with the 
well-recognized principles of international law 
and consonant with the obligations of a iieu- 
ti'al but it was also the correct position to take 
as between the conflicting claims of the United 
States and Germany to possession of the vessel 
and her cargo and that by this he meant 'to 
send her out in the same status as she had 
entered one of the ports.' 

"He said that his government did not con- 
sider that it had the right to turn the vessel 



OCTOBER 28, 1939 



431 



and her carco over to the American crew unless 
the German prize crew refused to take her out, 
as in the opinion of liis government to do so 
would be an unneutral act. In reply to a ques- 
tion he stated that the decision of the Soviet 
Government to permit the German prize crew 
to take the vessel to sea was final. 

"I then asked him who had verified the al- 
leged damage to the machinery, to which he 
replied that he had no information on this 
subject, but assumed this had been done by the 
authorities at Murmansk. 

"I again inquired concerning the welfare of 
the American crew and he said that it was his 
understanding that they had been on board the 
ship all of the time and were well. 

"I then referred to my diiRculties in making 
contact with the captain or members of the 
crew, reciting my repeated attempts to get into 
communication with them by telegram and tele- 
phone, as well as my inabilitj' to obtain a plane 
today. He disclaimed any responsibility for 
these difficulties, passing over the subject lightly 
by pointing out that the crew being on board 
the ship in the roadstead, in conjunction with 
the average delays in long distance telephone 
communication had probably brought about 
this 'unfortunate result.' 

"I am again endeavoring to complete a tele- 
phone connection with the captain of the City 
of Flint at midnight." 

[Released to tlie press October 28] 

Ambassador Laurence A. Steinhardt re- 
ported to the Department on October 28 that 
he was again unable to speak on the telephone 
to the captain of the S. S. City of Flint at mid- 
night (Moscow time), as he had hoped to do. 

Ambassador Steinhardt reported that he had 
again been given to understand that the crew 
was well and that no illness was reported. 

[Released to the press October 28] 

The American Charge at Berlin, Mr. Alex- 
ander C. Kirk, reported to the Department of 
State that in reply to an inquiry at the Min- 
istry of Marine on the afternoon of October 
28, he was told that the American crew was 
on board the City of Flint at Murmansk. 



Following a further inquiry late the same 
afternoon at the Foreign Office, !Mr. Kirk was 
informed that according to the latest reports, 
the vessel and crew were still at Murmansk. 
It was also said that if following the comple- 
tion of repairs the ship were taken to another 
])ort, the American crew would presumably be 
kept on board to operate the vessel. 

Mr. Kirk also reported that according to in- 
formation he had received from tlie American 
Consul General at Hamburg, the Prize Com- 
missioner has received no news whatever of the 
vessel. 

[Released to the press October 28] 

The City of Flint was captured by a German 
cruiser at an estimated distance of some 1,250 
miles from New York, with a mixed cargo 
destined for British ports. The date of cap- 
tui-e is understood to have been October 9. 

The City of Flint was taken into the harbor 
of Tromso on October 21, with a German crew 
and flying the German flag. After remaining 
2 hours to take water, it was ordered by the 
Norwegian Government to depart, which it 
did. 

The City of Flint was taken into the harbor 
of Murmansk on the evening of October 23. 

On October 25 the American Charge cabled 
from Berlin that the Foreign Office at its press 
conference said that the City of Flint was cap- 
tured by a German vessel and contraband was 
found on board, destined for England. The 
Foreign Office then added that it was found, 
however, that the ship was unsea worthy in that 
it did not have navigation charts adequate for 
bringing the ship into a German port. 

When the vessel entered the harbor of Mur- 
mansk, according to an announcement pre- 
sumably from the Soviet Government through 
the Tass news agency, "the naval forces at the 
port of Murmansk have temporarily held the 
vessel and interned the German crew." 

On October 25 the American Charge at Ber- 
lin cabled that the German Foreign Office, re- 
ferring to the seizure of the City of Flint, said 
that "the German authorities were communicat- 
ing with the Soviet authorities in the matter." 



432 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BUULETIN 



On the same day (October 25) the Tass 
agency reported that "the German crew of the 
cargo steamer City of Flint has been released 
from internment by the maritime authorities 
of Murmansk in view of the fact, as has been 
established, that the vessel was brought into 
port for repair of her machinery. The vessel 
is meanwhile remaining in Murmansk for veri- 
fication of the exact composition of her cargo." 

On October 26 the American Charge cabled 
from Berlin quoting a memorandum received 
that morning from the Foreign Office relative 
to the City of Flint and its crew, which among 
other things stated that "a prize crew placed 
on board (the City of Flint) has brought the 
steamer to the harbor of Murmansk because of 
sea damage." When transmitting the memo- 
randum an official of the Foreign Office stated 
informally to the Charge that the Foreign Of- 
fice had no details as to the damage which 
necessitated taking the ship to Murmansk, but 
he maintained, in response to an inquiry, that 
the term "damage" would cover the case of a 
ship lacking charts with which to navigate the 
waters through which she had to proceed. 

For some reason as yet unexplained the Ger- 
man crew was interned in spite of the fact 
that according to the German authorities they 
were without charts and had put into Mur- 
mansk because they could not proceed to a 
German port without charts. Later they were 
released seemingly under a plea that their 
entry into Murmansk was required for neces- 
sary repairs to defective machinery. 

A prize crew may take a captured ship into 
a neutral port without internment only in case 
of stress of weather, want of fuel and provi- 
sions, or necessity of repairs. In all other 
cases, the neutral is obligated to intern the 
prize crew and restore the vessel to her former 
crew. 

The conclusion from the foregoing facts and 
circumstances indicates that when the City of 
Flint entered the harbor at Murmansk, any 
plea relating to the chart requirements if ad- 
vanced must have been ignored since the Ger- 
man crew was interned. A second and en- 



tirely different reason for entering Murmansk, 
namely, defective machinery which called for 
immediate repairs, was not advanced until 
later. A subsequent cable from the American 
Cliarge at Berlin, also dated October 26, quoted 
a statement of the Foreign Office at its noon 
press conference to the effect that the fact 
that the Kussians have freed the German crew 
indicates that the Soviet authorities have con- 
firmed the view of the prize crew that the City 
of Flint was unseaworthy and it was therefore 
permissible to take the sliip into a neutral 
harbor. 

Testimony of the American crew as to the 
full facts pertaining to the taking of the City 
of Flint into Murmansk is not yet available. 

It seems manifest that even if it is assumed 
that the German crew was proceeding legally 
prior to the entry of the City of Flint into the 
harbor of Murmansk, the known facts and cir- 
cumstances support the contention of the 
American Government that the German crew 
did not at the time of entry offer any reason- 
able or justifiable grounds such as are pre- 
scribed by international law for taking the 
vessel into this port, and that therefore it was 
the clear duty of the Soviet Government to 
turn the City of Flint over to the American 
crew. This has been the major contention of 
the American Government. 

In view of the foregoing facts and circum- 
stances, each person can judge for himself the 
question as to how much light is shed on this 
entire transaction by the action of the Soviet 
Government in withholding adequate coopera- 
tion with the American Government with re- 
spect to assembling and disclosing to the 
American Embassy in Moscow the essential 
facts pertaining to the landing, the where- 
abouts, and welfare of the American crew ; by 
the fact that it was fii-st alleged by the Ger- 
man authorities that the need for charts was 
the ground for bringing the vessel into port; 
and by the fact that later this ground seems 
to have been abandoned and a new ground or 
theory relating to defective machinery was 
set up. 



OCTOBER 2 8, 19 39 



433 



DETENTION BY BELLIGERENTS OF AMERICAN VESSELS FOR EXAMINA- 
TION OF PAPERS OR CARGOES 



[Reloased to the press October 26] 

Following is a tabulation showing the Amer- 
ican vessels which have been reported to the 
Department of State as having been detained 
by belligerents since September 1, 1939, for 
examination of papers or cargo. 

It was explained at the Department of State 
that injury to American vessels destined to 
European ports has not resulted in the main 
from their diversion from the high seas to 
belligerent ports. As a general practice, for 



reasons of their own, these vessels ordinarily 
put into belligei-ent ports en route to their 
destinations, and the principal difficulty thus 
far has arisen in connection with delay in- 
volved in the examination of the vessels and 
their cargoes before being permitted to proceed 
on their voyages. Although all cases of de- 
tention may not have been reported to the De- 
partment, the statement is as nearly complete 
as is possible to arrange it. 



American Vessels Reported to Department to Have Been Detained by Belligerents 
Since September 1, 1939, for Examination of Papers or Cargo 



Name of vessel 



Owner or operator 



Cargo 



Detained 



Released 



Saccarappa.. 

Shickshinny. 
Sundance 



Black Osprey. 
Santa Paula.. 

Executive 



Ethan Allen . . . 

Patrick Henry 

Oakman 

Cranfnrd 

Nasliaba 

West Hobomac 
City of .loliet.. 

Syros 

Hybcrt 

Lehigh 

Warrior 



South Atlantic S. S. Co. 

South Atlantic S. S. Co. 
South Atlantic S. S. Co. 



Black Diamond Line. 
Grace Line 



American Export Line. 



Lvkes Bros. S. S. Co. 



Lykes 
Lykcs 
Lykes 
Lykes 
Lykes 
Lykes 
Lykes 
Lykes 



Bros. S. 
Bros. S. 
Bros. S. 
Bros. S. 
Bros. S. 
Bros. S. 
Bros. S. 
Bros. S. 



S. Co. 
S. Co. 
S. Co. 
S. Co. 
S. Co. 
S. Co. 
S. Co_ 
S. Co. 



Phosphate 
— Cotton. 



Phosphate 
—Cotton. 

Rofin and 
g e n e r al 
cargo. 



U. S. Maritime Commission. 
Waterman S. S. Corp 



Arrived September 3. Cargo seized 
September 8 by British authorities. 



Detained September 16, Glasgow, 

by British authorities. 
Detained Ootnbrr 11, London, to 

date, British authorities. 

Vessel picked up September 5 by 
British naval vessel. 

When 30 miles from Curagao ordered 
to stop, delaved 20 minutes, un- 
identified British cruiser, believed 
to be Esset. 

Detained Casablanca, Morocco, Sep- 
tember 27 on orders from Paris, 
because of nature of cargo. 



British authorities, September 20 

British authorities, October 10 

British authorities, October 13 to date 

British authnritieN, October 17 

French authorities, October 14 

French authorities, October 18 

French authorities, September 14 

French authorities, September 22 

Detained September 10 about 2 
hours by German submarine. 
Examined papers and warned not 
to use radio for 24 hours. 

British authorities, September ."5 

British, September 7, cargo phos- 
phate requisitioned. 



Ship released 
promptly. 

Cargo un- 
loaded. 

September 
18. 



September 
13. 



September 
29 on con- 
dition ves- 
sel pro- 
ceed to 
Bi zerte, 
Tunisi.a. 

September 
30. 

October 22 



Octolur 21 
Of-tober 25 
October 25 
October 5 
October 10 



September 7 



434 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



American Vessels Reported to Department to Have Been Detained by Belligerents Since 
September 1, 1939, for Examination of Papers or Cargo — Continued 



Name of vessel 



Owner or operator 



Cargo 



Detained 



Released 



Wacosta- 



Black Eagle- - 
Exochorda 



City of Flint.. 



Waterman S. S. Corp. 



Black Diamond Line... 
American Export Line. 



U. S. Maritime Commission- 



Detained September 9 for 3 hours by 
German submarine. Papers ex- 
amined, holds searched. 

British authorities. Details not 
known. 

French authorities at Marseille. Re- 
moved two seamen (German na- 
tionality) September 6. 

Details unknown 



MEETING OF THE INTERGOVERN- 
MENTAL COMMITTEE ON POLITICAL 
REFUGEES 

[Released to the press October 26] 

The officers of the Intergovernmental Com- 
mittee on Political Refugees, at their fourth 
meeting at Washington, on October 26, 1939, 
recognized that there was an urgent need for 
further openings for the permanent settlement 
of refugees included within the present man- 
date of the committee, and further recognized 
that, as the President of the United States of 
America pointed out in his inspiring statement 
of October 17, the problem of involuntary mi- 
gration might be greatly increased. They con- 
sidered it necessary that survey should continue 
of all possible openings for the permanent set- 
tlement of involuntai-y migrants in various 
parts of the world, special regard being paid to 
the scope for the development of natural re- 
sources by engineering, irrigation, and similar 
schemes. While such surveys would have ref- 
erence to the existing mandate of the Inter- 
governmental Committee, tlie meeting observed 
that the collection of material of this character 
would be of general value in contributing to- 
ward the solution of the refugee problem in 
its wider aspects and would be of particular 



value to tlie committee should it at any future 
time wish to increase the categories of invol- 
untary migrants within its mandate. 

The meeting considered that the results of all 
surveys made either under the aegis of the Co- 
ordinating Foundation or by private organiza- 
tions should be communicated to the Director 
and, at his discretion, to the participating 
governments. 

■*■•*■■*■ 
SINKING OF THE "ATHENIA" 

[Released to the press October 24] 

The Secretary of State has received the fol- 
lowing note from the Canadian Minister: 

"October 24, 1939. 
"Sir: 

"In view of recent reports appearing in the 
newspapers concerning the ill-fated Athenia, 
I am instructed to inform you that formal 
assurance has been received by the Canadian 
Government from the Donaldson Atlantic 
Line that the Athenia carried no guns, ammu- 
nition, or munitions of war, either as cargo or 
as stores. 

"I have [etc.] Loring C. Chkistie" 



OCTOBER 28, 1939 



435 



CONTRIBUTIONS FOR RELIEF IN 
BELLIGERENT COUNTRIES 

[Released to the press October 28] 

The following persons and organizations 
have registered with the Secretary of State 
since October 14, 1939 (the names of 128 reg- 
istrants were published on and before that 
date) under the rules and regulations govern- 
ing the solicitation and collection of contribu- 
tions to be used for medical aid and assistance 
or for the supplying of food and clothing to 
relieve human suffering in the countries now 
at war, promulgated pursuant to the provisions 
of section 3 (a) of the Neutrality Act of May 
1, 1937, as made effective by the President's 
proclamations of September 5, 8, and 10, 1939 
(the names in parentheses represent the coun- 
tries to which contributions are being sent) : 

129. United Polish Roman Catholic Parish So- 
cieties of Greenpoint, Brooklyn, N. Y., St. 
Stanislaus Kostka Roman Catholic Church, 
607 Humboldt Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. (Po- 
land) 

130. East Chicago Citizens' Committee for Pol- 
ish War Sufferers and Refugees, 4902 In- 
dianapolis Boulevard, East Chicago, Ind. 
(Poland) 

131. Citizens Coimnittee for Relief of War Suf- 
ferers in Poland, 1505 Cass Avenue, St. 
Louis, Mo. (Poland) 

132. United Polish Central Council of Connec- 
ticut, 471 Park Avenue, Bridgeport, Conn. 
(Poland) 

133. French Committee for Relief in France, 
12245 Abington Avenue, Detroit, Mich. 
(France) 

134. Tolstoy Foundation for Russian Welfare 
and Culture, Room 54, 289 Fourth Avenue, 
New York, N. Y. (France and Poland) 

135. Polish Relief Association, Town of North 
Hempstead, 120 Jericho Turnpike, Mineola, 
L. L, N. Y. (Poland) 

136. American Society for British Medical and 
Hospital Aid, Inc., 46 Cedar Street, New 
York, N. Y. (Great Britain and France) 

187753 — 39 2 



137. United American Polish Organizations, 
South River, N. J., 219 Turnpike, South 
River, N. J. (Poland) 

138. United Polish Organizations of Salem, 
Mass., 121 Derby Street, Salem, Mass. 
(Poland) 

139. British War Relief Association of North- 
ern California, 316-322 Shell Building, San 
Francisco, Calif. (Great Britain and France) 

140. Polish Relief Fund of Palmer, Mass., 20 
Oak Street, Three Rivers, Mass. (Poland) 

141. Polish White Cross Club of West Utica, 
1416 Martin Street, Utica, N. Y. (Poland) 

142. Fund for the Relief of Scientists, Men of 
Letters, and Artists of Moscow, in care of 
Eitingon Schild Co., Inc., 224 West Thir- 
tieth Street, New York, N. Y. (France and 
England ) 

143. St. Michael's Roman Catholic Parish, 75 
Derby Avenue, Derby, Conn. (Poland) 

144. The Polish Relief Committee, 11 East 
Lexington Street, Baltimore, Md. (Poland) 

145. The Maryland Committor^ for the Relief 
of Poland's War Victims, 11 East Lexington 
Street, Baltimore, Md. (Poland) 

146. Pulaski League of Queens County, Inc., 
108-11 Sutphin Boulevard, Jamaica, Queens 
Co., N. Y. (Poland) 

147. Relief Committee of United Polish So- 
cieties, 142 Cabot Street, Chicopee, Mass. 
(Poland) 

148. United Polish Societies of Los Angeles, 
4200 Avalon Boulevard, Los Angeles, Calif. 
(Poland) 

149. Committee Representing Polish Organi- 
zations and Polish People in Perry, N. Y., 18 
Elm Street, Perry, N. Y. (Poland) 

150. The Friends of Israel Refugee Relief 
Committee, Inc., 710 Withei-spoon Building, 
Philadelphia, Pa. (Canada, France, and 
England) 

151. Nowe-Dworer Ladies Benevolent Associa- 
tion, Inc., 40 East Seventh Street, New York, 
N. Y. (Poland) 



Traffic in Arms, Tin-Plate Scrap, etc. 



MONTHLY STATISTICS 



[Released to the press October 24] 

Note: The figures appearing In the cumulative col- 
umns of the tables relating to arms or tin-plate scrap 
licensed for export are not final or definitive since 
licenses may be amended or revoked before being 
used. These figures are, however, accurate as of the 
date of the pres.s release in which they appear. 

The statistics of actual exports in these releases are 
hf-lieved to he substantially complete. It is possible, 
however, that some shipments are not included. If 
this proves to be the fnct, statistics in regard to .such 
shipments will be included in the cumulative figures 
in later releases. 

Note: A special table in regard to export licenses 
revoked as a result of the imposition of embargoes by 
the President's proclamations of September 5, 8, and 
10 is set forth after the table relating' to arms ex- 
ported. The statistics in this table are believed to be 
substantially complete. It is possible, however, that 
some export licenses which were rendered invalid by 
the imposition of the embargoes have not as yet been 
returned to the Department for formal revocation. If 
this proves to be the fact, statistics in regard to such 
licenses will be included In a similar special table to 
be issued in November. 



Arms Export Licenses Issued 

The table printed below indicates the char- 
acter, value, and countries of destination of the 
arms, ammunition, and implements of war li- 
censed for export by the Secretary of State 
during the year 1939 up to and including the 
month of September. 





Category 


Value 


Country of destination 


September 
1939 


9 months 
ending Sep- 
tember 30, 
1039 




I 
IV 


(4) 
(1) 




$25. 000. 00 


Albania 




300. 79 




I 
V 


(4) 
(0 
(2) 




69.00 




$1, 600. 00 


6,000,00 
883.00 








Total 




1, 600. 00 


6.942.00 





Category 


Value 


Country of destination 


September 
1639 


months 
ending Sep- 
tember 30, 
1939 


Argentina 


I (4) 
(5) 

III (1) 
(2) 

IV (1) 
(2) 

V (1) 
(2) 
(3) 

VI (1) 

VII (2) 


$30.00 


$598. 00 




500. 00 






276, 000. 00 




1,507.28 
1, 765. 45 
3, 165. 00 


2, 707. 28 

2, 86!. 95 

10. 191. 00 

1.16. 750. 00 




660. 00 
2, OOO. 00 


88. 277. 50 
10.752.00 
6, 310. 00 






39, 196. 22 








Total 




9,127.73 


693. 143. 95 










I (1) 

(4) 

IV (1) 

(?) 

V (1) 
(2) 
(3) 




3.9.56.14 






4, 5.54 48 






1, 131 44 






497. 39 






24. 293. 00 






1.466 20 






3. 450 00 








Total 






39,361.65 










Bahamas 


V (2) 




40.00 










I (4) 

IV (1) 
(2) 

V (!) 
(2) 




2 00 






111 38 






87.00 






1, 610. no 






30.00 








Total 






1,840 38 












V (1) 
(2) 




1,219.00 






30.00 








Total 






1.279.00 












I (1) 
(2) 
(4) 

IV (!) 
(2) 

V (2) 
(3) 




65.";. 21 




48,135.65 


66.896.65 
935.85 




18.00 


97.48 
20 28 






6. 250, 00 






86, 400. 00 








Total 




48,163.0.'i 


150.256.47 








Bermuda 


IV (1) 
(2) 

V (3) 




69.13 






17.46 






9.600.00 








Total 






9, 686. 68 










Bolivia 


I (1) 
(4) 

IV (1) 
(2) 

V 0) 
(2) 
(3) 

VII (!) 




574,00 




387.00 


899.00 
487. 39 






650. 80 






9,100.00 




2,000.00 


8. 972. 20 
66,600.00 






988.66 








Total 




2. 387. 00 


77,172.05 








Brazil 


I (1) 

(2) 

(4) 

HI (1) 

IV (1) 

(2) 




202,00 






86. 038. 00 




2,900.00 


3,822.00 
274, 000. 00 






3, 241. 66 




9,449.66 


25,180.00 



436 



OCTOBER 28, 19 39 



437 





Category 


Value 


Country of destination 


Septomber 
1939 


9 months 
ending Sep- 
tember 30, 
1939 


Brazil— Continued. 


V (1) 
(2) 
(3) 


$5,197,00 


$416,244.00 
160. 300. 72 




4,000.00 


170, 393. 00 


Total - 




21,646.00 


1,139,421.27 




I (4) 

IV (1) 

V (2) 
(3) 

VII (2) 




20.00 






108. 38 




250,00 


250. 00 
4, 500. 00 






4, 200. 00 












250. 00 


9. 078. 38 










IV (1) 

(2) 

VII (2) 




129.20 






75.00 






193. 80 














398. 00 












I (1) 

(2) 

V (2) 

(3) 




26.43 






28.00 






50.00 






TOO. 00 








Total - 






804. 43 


British Solomon Islands 


I (2) 
(4) 




175. 00 




10.00 








Total.— - 






18.';. 00 




IV (1) 
(2) 




23.00 






2.30 














25.30 












I (1) 
(4) 

IV (1) 
(2) 




622. 10 






199.00 






1, 520. 35 






128.46 








Total 






2, 369. 91 




I (1) 
(21 
(4) 
(5) 

III (1) 

IV (1) 
(2) 

V (1) 
(2) 
(3) 

VII (1) 
(2) 


380. 48 
110.00 
60,20 


24,200.91 




592. no 

16,9,59.26 

6on.oo 






649, ono. on 




846. 78 


6,480.14 
1.021.3.'; 




2, .500. on 

5, 822. 00 
10, 87«. 00 
13, 37.i. 00 

7, 299. 98 


802 nSR. 18 
41. 899. 87 

in,5. 734. 42 
63, .569. 96 

1.52, 829. 12 


Total 




41,270.44 


1. 82.5, 823. 21 










IV (1) 




86,88 








Chile 


I (1) 
(4) 

IV (1) 
(2) 

V (1) 
VII (2) 




6n.oo 






27.00 




266.00 


13, 499. 40 
617.00 






1,5, ,500.00 




49. 200. 00 


61,0.55.00 


Total 




49,466.00 


90. 7,58. 40 








China 


I (1) 
(2) 
(3) 
(4) 

III (1) 

IV (1) 
(2) 

V (1) 
(2) 
(3) 

VII (2) 




1. 344. no 






135, 407. 95 






1,490.00 






9, 278. 00 






26, n42. 00 






),SS6,0n 




4, 195. 25 


4, 371. .50 
2.59. 907. 00 






217. 842. 92 






95,197.00 






49.88 








Total 




4,195.25 


752. 816, 25 





Category 


Value 


Country of destination 


September 
1939 


9 months 
ending Sep- 
tember 30, 
1939 




I (I) 
(4) 

IV (1) 
(21 

V (1) 
(2) 
(3) 

VII (1) 
(2) 




$179. 70 






170. 66 




$127. 50 

239. 00 

103, 700. 00 


4,401.15 

2, 265. 10 

61!, 060. 00 

30, 140. ,50 






12(1, 050. 00 






1, 085. 15 






840.00 








Total - 




104, 066. 50 


776. 192. 16 


Costa Rica 


I (4) 

IV (1) 
(2) 

V (1) 
(2) 
(3) 

VII (1) 
(2) 




13.00 




2,610.65 






484. 00 




2.5i."o6' 

2, 160. 64 


19,000.00 

6, 279. 54 

26,932.35 

867. 60 






1,631.93 








Total 




2,411.04 


67, 722 07 








I (1) 
(4) 

III (1) 

IV (1) 
(2) 

V (2) 
VII (1) 

(2) 




57.00 




39.00 


,50, 626. 60 
57. 800. 00 






6, 850. 19 




2, 671. 00 
1,300.00 


10, 800, 00 

2. 396. 30 

3, 446. 34 






U 00 








Total 




4,010.00 


132, 053. 43 




I (4) 

IV (11 
(2) 

V (2) 
(3) 




25. 10 






39.00 






49 14 




127.00 
376. 00 


187.00 
9, 226. 00 


Total 




503. 00 


9, ,526. 24 










V (31 




12.SO0.00 








I (3) 
(4) 

V (1; 
(2) 
(3) 




2, 750 00 






310 00 






11, 130 52 






876 00 






6, 275 00 








Total 






20,371.52 




I (I) 
(21 
(4) 

IV (1) 
(2) 

V (2) 
(31 

VII (1) 




35.00 






ion. 75 






48 00 




138. 00 
4.00 


4, 095. 00 
201.00 
2.50, 00 






11,100 00 






1.714.40 








Total -. , .. 




142 00 


17, 607. 15 








Ecuador 


I (4) 
(5) 

IV (I) 
(2) 

V (2) 


32.00 


92.00 
128. 00 






67.00 
149.00 




30.00 


30.00 


Total ... _ ._ 




62.00 


466 00 








Egypt - ... 


I (1) 
(2) 
(4) 
(5) 

IV (1) 
(2) 


666.00 

3,10.5.00 


30.00 




000, 00 

3, 105. on 

618. CO 






172. 84 






5.30 








Total 




3. 705. 00 


4,431. 14 








Kl Salvador 


I (•. 

IV (1 
(2 

V (2 
(3 


77.00 


331, no 




4,205 ,58 




1, 674. 00 


1. 835 00 
1, ,501 00 




, 




850. CO 



438 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BOTXETIN 





Category 


Value 


Country of destination 


September 
1939 


9 months 
ending Sep- 
tember 30, 
1939 


El Salvador— Continued, 


VII 


(2) 


$1,300.00 


$4,120.00 


Total 


3.111.00 


12, 850. 68 









Federated Malay States 


I 
IV 


(4) 

(I) 

(2) 




14.00 




77.78 






15.10 








Total 






106.88 












I 

IV 
V 


0) 

(4) 

(1) 

(2) 

(I) 

<2) 

(3) 


325. 50 
26G.30 
20.00 


10, 655. 55 




7,423.04 
80.00 
96.67 






16. 400. 00 






124,100.00 






311,000.00 








Total - . 




fiOl. 80 


469, 754. 26 










I 
III 

IV 
V 

VI 


(1) 
(4) 
(I) 
(2) 
(2) 
(1) 
(2) 
(3) 
(I) 




151.94 






331. 50 






11,749,266.00 
660. 00 










118 00 






375, 962- 00 






602,067.14 






1, 947, 616. 00 






2. 200. 00 














14, 678, 375. 68 












I 


(1) 
(4) 




32.50 






5.92 








38. 42 










French Equatorial Africa 


I 


(1) 
(4) 




34.00 




30.00 








Total 






64.00 












I 

IV 


(n 

(4) 
(1) 
(2) 




67.50 






78.31 






4,131.00 






1, 154. 76 








Total 






5, 431. ,67 












I 

V 


(4) 
(2) 




33.83 






90.00 








Total 






123. 83 












I 

IV 

V 


(1) 
(4) 
(I) 
(2) 
(2) 




69.05 






6,53. 46 






1,134.62 






287. 42 






12. .800. 00 








Total -- 






14, 944, ,"i5 












I 
III 

IV 

V 

VII 


(1) 
(2) 
(3) 
(4) 
(1) 
(1) 
(2) 
(1) 
(2) 
(3) 
(2) 




428.85 






1,000 00 






31, 100. 00 






29, 649. 37 






4, 723, 9.sn. 00 
937. 78 
438. 66 






431, 134. 25 






211,867.42 






470. 652. 50 






62.97S.00 


Total 






5. 954. 136. 72 












I 

V 


(6) 
(2) 
(3) 




124. 400. 00 






3. 500. 00 






2. 206. 00 








Total 






130. 100 00 










Guatemala - 


I 

IV 


ri) 
f4) 
(1) 
(2) 


13?. no 
37 on 

141 55 
68.00 


13S. -X) 




1,8?7 00 
163. S.l 
84.00 





Category 


Value 


Country of destination 


September 
1939 


9 months 

ending Sep- 

tembor 30, 

1939 


Guatemala— Continued. 


V 
VII 


(2) 
(3) 

(2) 


$25.00 


$8.5.00 
7, 56'; 00 




2,966 66 


93,00 
8. 447. 50 


Total -- 




3. 357. 55 


18. 469. 05 








Haiti 


I 

IV 

VII 


(1) 

(4) 

(1) 

(2) 
(!) 
(2) 


11,687.60 


11.6<7. ,50 




36. 652. 50 






2,391 95 






717.11 






61.52 






332. ,50 








Total 




11,687.50 


51,843.08 










I 

IV 
V 

vn 


(4) 
(!) 
(2) 
(1) 
(2) 
(3) 
(2) 


387.00 


963. 38 




441.00 




442. 00 


2, 977 60 
250, 000 00 






.^1 no 




,5,000.00 


5, 000 00 
975.00 








Total 




.5,829.00 


260, 407. 98 








Hong Kong 


I 

IV 
V 

vn 


(I) 
(4) 
(1) 
(2) 
(2) 
(2) 




933 00 






686 66 






25.211.32 






3, 215 92 






40.00 






1.011.50 


Total . 






31.098.30 










Iceland.- . 


I 

V 


(1) 
(4) 
(3) 




43 40 






5.00 






3, 670. 00 








Total.... 






3. 718 40 










India.. 


I 

IV 
V 

VI 


(1) 
(4) 
(1) 
(2) 
CD 
(2) 
(3) 
(2) 




2, 048. 95 






6. 673. 29 






3, 140. S6 






59,64 






19. 100, 00 






1.905.00 






2. ."^OO. 00 






334. 00 








Total 






35. 761. 74 










Iraq... 


IV 
V 


(1) 
(2) 
(1) 
(21 


94.37 
25.86 


1, 028. 27 




188. 10 
40, 000. 00 






100.00 








Total 




120.22 


41,316.37 


Ireland.. 


I 

V 


(3) 
(4) 
(1) 
(2) 
(3) 




26, 500. 00 




19.34 


19.34 
210, 000, 00 






4, 379. 00 






29, 266. 00 








Total 




19.34 


270, 164. 34 








Italy 


V 


(2) 
(3) 




9. 600. 00 






13. 900. 00 








Total 






23, 400. 00 












I 

IV 


(4) 
(1) 
(2) 




62.44 






2, 680. 97 






450. 67 








Total 






3. 194. 08 












V 


(1) 
(2) 




757, 000. 00 






100. 00 








Total. 






757, 100. 00 












I 


(1) 
(4) 




1,057.80 






396. 36 



OCTOBER 2 8, 19 3 9 



439 





Category 


Value 


Country of destination 


September 
1939 


9 months 

ending .Sop- 

tember 30, 

1939 


Kenya — Continued. 


IV 
V 


(1) 

(2) 

(1) 




$173. 20 




124.36 






2, 300. 00 








Total 






4, 050. 71 


Leeward Islands 


VII 


(2) 




494.00 


Liberia 


I 


(2) 
(4) 


$4,000.00 


4, 000. 00 




il.OI 








Total 




4,000.00 


4.011.01 




I 
IV 


(1) 
(2) 
(4) 
(1) 
(2) 




667. 75 






800.00 






97.00 






1,312.00 






2. 592. 00 


Total 






5, 368. 75 




I 


(1) 
(4) 




86. 43 






86.66 








Total 






18.3.09 




I 

III 

IV 

V 
VII 


(1) 
(?) 
(4) 
(1) 
(1) 
(2) 
(1) 
(2) 
(3) 
(1) 
(2) 


^=3=^=^=^ 


759. 44 






304, 000. 00 






39,018.00 






995, 600. 00 






36. 180. 61 






16,492.00 




70,000.00 

104. 00 

12, 750. 00 


515.013 00 

319.042. 05 

890. 130. 00 

10. 098. 75 




10,110.00 


42, 766. 21 






92, 964. 00 


3,169.099.96 










I 

V 


(1) 
(4) 
(2) 
(3) 




30.40 






111.67 






1,000.00 






20,610.00 








Total 






21, 752. 07 










Netherland.'' 


I 
III 

IV 
V 

VII 


(2) 
(1) 
(2) 
CD 
(1) 
(2) 
(3) 
(2) 




17.50 






1,071,540.00 






20,341.80 







45.00 






2,609,018.60 




22, 571. 67 


395. 166. 69 
1,071,452.00 






40, 051. 48 








Total 




22,571.67 


5, 207, 632. 87 








Netherlands Indies. 


I 
III 

IV 
V 

VII 


(1) 
(2) 
(4) 
(S) 
(1) 
C2) 
(1) 
(2) 
(1) 
(2) 
«) 
(1) 


382.92 


448. 17 




45, 645. 00 




561. 43 


917.91 
4, 000. 00 






805, 362. 00 






21.026.80 






39, 662. 30 




225. 22 


419.04 
142,478.00 




468,88 
6, 232. 00 


130. 105. 18 

324, 442. 00 

10.00 








Total 




7, 870. 45 


1,514,516.40 








New Caledonia 


I 

V 


(1) 
(4) 
(3) 




547. 15 






695. 13 






14, 000. 00 








Total 






15, 242. 28 












I 

IV 
V 


(1) 
(4) 

(2) 
(2) 
(3) 




593. 04 






448. 47 






166. 53 






3, 000. 00 






14. son. CO 








Total.- 






18,708.04 





Category 


Value 


Country of destination 


September 
1939 


9 months 
ending Sep- 
tember 30, 
1939 


New Guinea, Territory of 


I (1) 
(4) 

IV (2) 

V (2) 
(3) 




$17. 00 
67.56 
54 00 












18 199 on 






101,500.00 






Total 






119,837 56 










New Hebrides 


I (4) 




116. 10 




I (1) 
(4) 

IV (2) 

V (2) 
(3) 

VII (1) 
(2) 




353 66 












82.68 
14,640.00 
19,300.00 
6,000.00 
4, 104. 07 






















Total 






44,782 29 












I (2) 
(4) 

III 0) 

IV (1) 
(2) 

V (2) 
VII (2) 




1, 600 00 






1 345 00 






20, 906, 00 
427 00 
















52 50 




$3.00 


885.00 


Total 




3.00 


27, 275. 20 






Nigeria 


I (4) 




41.00 




IV (1) 

(2) 

VII (I) 




48.00 






3 57 






5 76 








Total 






57.33 




I (1) 
(2) 
(4) 

IV (1) 
(2) 

V (2) 
(3) 

VII (2) 


18.32 

55.00 

300.00 


393. 72 




55.00 

557. 14 

30 00 
















18, 780. 00 
3,300.00 


22, 630. 00 
5, 825. 00 


Total... 




22, 453. 32 


32, 133. 76 








Palestine 


V (1) 
(2) 
(3) 




3, 052 00 






60 00 






450 00 








Total 






3, 562. 00 










Panama __ . 


IV (1) 
(2) 

V (1) 
(2) 
(3) 

VII (1) 
(2) 


195. 50 


251.88 




465 00 






6, 541. 13 






800 OO 






1, 7.14 39 




800.00 


2, 609. 20 
800.00 








Total.- 




995.50 


12,221.60 










IV (1) 

(2) 




8.00 




820. 00 


820.00 


Total 




820. 00 


828.00 








Peru 


I (1) 
(2) 

III (1) 
(2) 

IV (1) 
(2) 

V (1) 
(2) 
(3) 

VII (1) 
(2) 




45.00 






26, ,100. 00 






955. 36 






16,000.00 






256. 260. 00 






10, 038. 00 




95.00 
61.00 


24.1. 00 

412.00 

37, 100. 00 




3,630.00 


40. 084. 39 
29, 927. 52 






1.10. 00 




668.00 


28,688.00 


Total 




4, 244. 00 


446, 405. 27 



440 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



I 





Category 


Value 


Country of destination 


September 
1939 


9 months 
ending Sep- 
tember 30, 
1939 




I 


(4) 




$7.47 










I 

IV 

V 


(1) 

(4) 

(1) 

(2) 

(1) 

(2) 




118.70 






44.48 






1.0.56..^.'; 






111.39 






420, 000. 00 






50.00 








Total 






421.381.12 












I 

IV 

V 


(4) 
(1) 
(2) 
(1) 
(2) 
(3) 




10.00 






317.00 






f)S. 42 






8. 097. 00 






9. 175. 00 






475 00 








Total 






18. 142. 42 












I 

V 


(5) 
(2) 
(3) 




1, 265. nno. 00 






3.9.50.00 






26. 100. 00 








Total 






1, 29S, 0.50. 00 












I 

IV 
V 


(11 
(4) 
0) 
(21 
(I) 




fiOfl. 92 






303. 95 






201.75 






11.00 






1. 900. 00 








Total 






3. 026. 62 










Straits Settlements 


I 

IV 


(I) 
(4) 
0) 
(2) 




39.00 






116.37 






229. .50 






34.76 








Total 






419.63 












I 

V 


(1) 
(41 
(I) 
(2) 
(3) 




71.25 




$121.00 


1.248.74 
6. 520. no 






142, 905, 84 




3. fi?n. no 


19.915.00 


Total - 




?. (!51. 00 


169. 660. S3 








Switzerland. 


I 

IV 
V 


(1) 
(1) 
0) 
(2) 
(3) 




62 90 






616. 75 






237. 967 50 




240. no 


22, Sin. 84 
20. 2n0, 00 








Total 




240, 00 


281. 6.57.99 








Syria - . 


IV 


(2) 




19.00 








Thailand _ 


I 

IV 
V 


(I) 
(4) 
(1) 
(2) 
(2) 
(3) 




23. 58 






12. 18 




1, 108. 18 


20,848.01 
41.83 






32. 347. 61 






271. 960. OO 








Total 




1. ins. IS 


325. 233. 21 








Trinidad 


I 

IV 
V 


(4) 
(I) 
(2) 
(2) 
(3) 




1.08 






82.50 






37.00 






1.055.50 






8. .500. 00 








Total — 






9. 676. 08 










Turkev . . 


I 

IV 

V 
VI 


(5) 
(1) 
(2) 
(2) 
(3) 
(1) 




11.700.00 






15, 672. 34 






1. 205. 25 






434, 777. 17 






116.026.00 






8. 100. 00 








Total 






687, 479. 76 





Category 


Value 


Country of destination 


September 
1939 


9 months 
ending Sep- 
tember 30, 
1939 




IV 


(1) 

(21 




$18.70 






.80 








Total 






19.50 










Union of South Africa 


I 

IV 

V 

VII 


(1) 
(41 
(11 
(21 
(11 
(21 
(31 
(21 




1, 086. 68 






1, 737. 33 






3,010.46 






347. 24 






69, 663. 00 






10. 635. 07 






3, 765. 00 




$11,760,00 


11,760.00 


Total 




11,760 00 


92, 001. 78 










V 


(11 
(21 
(31 




702, 900. 00 


publics. 


8, 690. 00 


70. 614. 23 
140, 408. 00 








Total 




8. 690, 00 


919. 922. 23 








Crucuay 


I 


(41 




13.00 










1 

IV 
V 

VII 


(11 
(21 
(41 
(11 
(21 
(11 
(21 
(31 
(11 
(21 




40.00 






165. 00 






98.00 




20.92 


20, 471. 34 
1. 270. 05 






82, 370, 00 




2,725.00 


16.130,26 
123, 686. 50 






6, 88,5. 61 




7, .350. 00 


13. 650, 00 


Total 




10, 096. 92 


263, 672. 76 










V 


(11 
(21 
(3) 




03. 000. no 






38. 727. 00 






2, 000. 00 








Total 






103. 727 00 






608, 989. 66 


43,6.59,8*1.03 









During the month of September, 232 arms 
export licenses were issued, making a total of 
3,444 such licenses issued during the current 
year. 

Arms Exported 

The table printed below indicates the char- 
acter, value, and countries of destination of the 
arms, ammunition, and implements of war ex- 
ported during the year 1939 up to and includ- 
ing the month of September under export 
licenses issued by the Secretary of State : 





Category 


Value 


Country of destination 


September 
1939 


9 months 
ending Sep- 
tember 30, 
1939 


Albania 


IV (1) 




$360.79 








Angola 


I (4) 




69.00 



OCTOBER 2 8, 19 3 9 



441 





Category 


Val 


ue 


Country of destination 


September 
1939 


9 months 
ending Sep- 
tember 30, 
1939 


Angola— Continued. 


V 


(1) 

(2) 


$1,600.00 


$7,427.00 
,'>45.00 


Total 




1,500.00 


8.031.00 










I 

III 
IV 
V 

VI 
VII 


(4) 
(5) 
(1) 
(2) 
(1) 
(2) 
CD 
(2) 
(3) 
(1) 
(2) 


30.00 


668,00 




340. 00 






657, 168. 00 




2,707.00 


2.707.00 
1.096.50 






7, 026, 00 






155,276.00 




53, 978. 00 
2,000.00 


103, 669. 20 
10. 762. 00 
6, 310 00 






23.277.00 


Total 




68,715.00 


968, 189. 70 


Australia - - 


I 

IV 
V 


(1) 
(4) 
(1) 
(2) 
(1) 
(2) 
(3) 


369. 15 
261. 50 


4,001.94 




4, 553. 76 
998.19 




2.72 


497. 39 
17. 296. 00 






157. 244. 95 






3,450.00 








Total 




633.37 


188,042.23 










V 


(2) 




40.00 










I 

IV 
V 


(■t) 
(!) 
C2) 
(1) 
(2) 




2.00 




*\ 


111.38 






87.00 






1,610 00 






30.00 








Total 







1, 840. 38 


Belgian Congo 


V 


(1) 
(2) 




1, 249. 00 






30.00 








Total 






1.279,00 










Belgium - 


I 
rv 

V 


(1) 
(2) 
(4) 
0) 
C2) 
CD 
C2) 
(3) 




655 21 




47,008.00 
60 05 
18.00 


55, 769. 00 

938, 35 

ID. 02 

35.11 






114. 800.00 






5. 61S, 00 






SO, 400. CO 








Total 




47. 092 05 


264. 227. 20 


Bermuda _.— . 


IV 
V 


CD 
(■2) 
C3) 




09.13 






17.45 






9.600.00 








Total -- 






9, 1180. 68 










Bolivia 


I 

IV 
V 

VI 


CD 
(2) 
CD 
CD 
(2) 
CD 
C2) 
C3) 
CD 




674. 00 






7,000.00 




78.00 


938.00 
487. 39 






5,=iO. 80 






9,100.00 






3.772 20 






47, 200. 00 






922. 16 








Total 




78.00 


70,544,65 


Brazil - 


I 
in 

IV 
V 


CD 
C2) 
C4) 
(1) 
CD 
C2) 
CD 
(2) 
C3) 




202. 00 






86. 0.^8. 00 






1,491.00 






668, 2-10. 00 




I, 289. 37 
3,902.00 
10, 472. 00 
12.381.00 
6.000.00 


6, 653. 46 
21,583.00 

527. 994. 00 
90. 469. 33 

116,896.00 


Total 




34,047.37 


1,519, .'566. 79 








British Quiana . 


I 

IV 


C4) 
(1) 




20.00 






108. 38 





Category 


Value 


Country of destination 


September 
1939 


9 months 
ending Sep- 
tember 30, 
1939 


British Ouiana— Continued. 


V C2) 

C3) 

VII (2) 


$2.10. 00 
2, 000. 00 


$3.W.00 
4, 500. 00 
4, 200. 00 








Total 




2, 260. 00 


9, 078. 38 




IV CD 

C2) 

VII C2) 




129. 20 






75 00 






302.60 








Total -- 






606. 80 




I CD 

C2) 

V C3) 




26.43 






28.00 






750.00 








Total 






804.43 


British Solomon Islands 


I (2) 
C4) 




175.00 




10.00 








Total 






185.00 




IV CD 

C2) 




23.00 






2.30 








Total 






25.30 




I CD 
C4) 

IV CD 
(2) 




667. 10 






203 00 






1, 520. 35 






128,46 








Total 






2.418 91 


("Canada 


I CD 
f21 
C4) 
C5) 

in CD 

IV CM 
C2) 

V (1) 
(21 
CI) 

VII (1) 
C2) 


2, 323 73 
174.00 
743. 09 


21,7.15.89 




.'•:'.)2.00 

16.7.30,92 

600. 00 




36. 600. 00 

6.-6. 96 

22, 55 

2, 500, 00 

6, 749 00 

16.889.00 

4I.21i..';0 

60. 233. 20 


550,020 00. 

6. 478. 74 

1.019. 13 

878. 755. 14 

44. 304 08 

92,177.29 

90. 660, 77 

210.129.42 


Total 




174.163,03 


1,919.203 38 










IV (1) 




80.88 








ChUo 


I CD 
(4) 

IV (D 
(2) 

V (D 
(2) 

VII (2) 




60 00 






116 00 




266.00 


13. 125 45 
730 00 




3,000.00 


4,600 00 
3.'i.00 






11.855 00 








Total 




3.260.00 


30,s;i.45 


China 


I (2) 
(3) 
C4> 

III CD 

IV (1) 
(2) 

V (!) 
(2) 
(3) 

VII {2) 




13.^ 408. 00 






1, 1'.IO 00 






8, 735. 00 






26,042.00 






1, 7TO. 00 






n.5.00 






895, 200, 00 






ll,'.f.47.00 






08, 900 00 






49.88 








Total 






1,263.3.56.88 


Colombia 


I CD 
(-1) 

IV CD 
(2) 

V (1) 
C2) 
(3) 

VII (1) 
(2) 




281.70 




23.23 


211..';6 
4,358.65 






3,890.10 




60, 800 00 
2.545.00 
11,103.00 


201,436.00 

40. 087. 60 

131,323.00 

02.6.00 






840.00 








Total 




1 74,631.23 


473,663.51 



442 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BITLLETIN 





Category 


Value 


Country of destination 


September 
1939 


9 months 
ending Sep- 
tember 30, 
1939 




I (4) 

IV (1) 
(2) 

V (1) 
(2) 
(3) 

VII (I) 
(2) 




$13.00 






2. 510. 65 






484. 00 




$7, .';80 00 

614.00 

5, 538. 00 


41, 580. 00 

6, 383. 00 

32, 575. OO 

728.00 






1,605.93 








Total 




13,732.00 


84, 879. 58 




I (1) 
(4) 

IV (1) 
(2) 

V (2) 
VII (1) 

(2) 




57.00 






60.608.00 




273.00 

497. 00 

1,000.00 

100.00 


7, 002. 35 
8,722.00 
1,000.00 
3, 368. 82 
11. OO 








Total 




1,870.00 


70, 769. 17 










I (4) 

IV (2) 

V (2) 
(3) 




25.10 






49.14 




127.00 
37fl. 00 


187.00 
9, 226. 00 


Total... .- 




503. 00 


9,487.24 










V (1) 
(3) 




11 5. .500. 00 






12,800.00 








Total 






128,300.00 












I (2) 

V [?1 
(2) 
(3) 




2,750.00 






340.00 






11,211.48 







3, 266. on 






5, 500. 00 








Total 






23, 067. 48 












I (1) 
(2) 
(4) 

IV (1) 
(2) 

V (2) 
(3) 

vn (1) 




35.00 






100.75 






19,548.00 




138. 00 
4.00 


4, 000. no 

264 00 

2.-i0. no 






ii,ino.oo 






1,714.40 








Total 




142.00 


37,012.15 


Ecuador . 


I (4) 
(5) 

IV (I) 
(2) 

V (2) 




60.00 






128.00 






34.00 






245. 00 




26.00 


26.00 


Total . . 




26.00 


493.00 








Egypt .... 


I 0) 
(5) 

IV (1) 
(2) 

V (1) 




30.00 






51S.00 




14.88 


192. 39 
6.40 






1,600.00 








Total 




14.88 


2, 346. 79 








El Salvador 


I (4) 

IV (11 
(21 

V (2) 
(31 

VII (2) 




139.00 






4, 324. 63 






IRI.On 






1, .504.00 






850.00 






2,760.00 








Total 






9. 738. 63 












V (2) 
VII (1) 




44, IRO. 00 






2.07 








Total 






44,182.07 










Federated Malay States 


I (4) 

IV (1) 

(2) 




14 00 






69 08 






66.10 








Total 






139. IS 





Category 


Value 


Country of destination 


September 
1939 


9 months 
ending Sep- 
tember 30, 
1939 




I 

IV 
V 


(1) 

(4) 

(1) 

(2) 

(1) 

(2) 
(3) 




$8, 617. 05 




$125.83 
20.00 


7,041.95 
SO. 00 
96 67 






14,650.00 






22, 1 .50. 00 






111,900.00 








Total .. 




1 5.83 


164.334.67 










I 

III 

IV 
V 


(1) 

(4) 

(1) 

(2) 
(21 
(I) 
(?) 
(3) 




151.94 






339. 00 




4,392,766.00 


17, 642, 697. 00 
660. 00 






118 00 






379 062.00 




36,667.00 


720,301.14 
2,405 531 00 








Total — 




4,429,323.00 


21,148.860.08 










I 


(1) 
(4) 




32.50 






5.92 








Total . . 




38.42 










French Equatorial Africa 


I 


(1) 
(4) 




34 00 




32.00 








Total 






66.00 










French Indochina 


I 

IV 


(1) 
(4) 
(1) 
(2) 




67. .50 






78.31 






4. 131. on 






1, 159.26 








Total 






.5, 436. 07 










French West Africa 


I 

V 


(4) 
(2) 


33.83 


33.83 




95.00 








Total 




33.83 


128.83 










I 

IV 
V 


(1) 
(41 
(I) 
(2) 
(2) 
(31 




123. 70 






793. 70 






1,160.12 






287,42 






13,300.00 






7. 000. 00 








Total 






22, 664. 94 












I 
III 

IV 
V 

VII 


(1) 
(2) 
(31 
(4) 
(1) 
(') 
(2) 
(1) 
(2) 
(3) 
(2) 




1,53.85 






1, 000. no 






34, 585. nn 






62.617.32 




1,422,800.00 


24, 417, 393. 00 
965. 28 






4.'il..56 






492. 464. 00 






613.948.08 






640, 223. 50 






277. 843. 00 








Total 




1,422, son. 00 


26, 550. 644. 68 








Greece - - - 


V 


(2) 
(3) 




3. son. no 






2. 2f;n. 00 








Total 






5. 700. 00 












I 

IV 

V 
VII 


(41 
(11 
(2) 
(21 
(31 
(11 
(2) 




1,850. no 




19. .55 
56.00 
42.00 


47.55 

84.00 

192. 00 

7, 565. 00 






9.1. 00 




1, 200. nn 


5, 788. 00 


Total - ._ . 




1,317.55 


15.619.55 








Haiti 


I 

IV 
VII 


(4) 
(I) 
(2) 
(1) 
(2) 




36, 052. 50 






2, 380 75 






728, 11 






3n.76 






334. 54 








Total... 







40,128.66 



OCTOBER 28, 193 9 



443 





Category 


Value 


Country of destinaliou 


September 
1939 


9 months 
ending Sep- 
tember 30, 
1939 




I C4) 

IV CD 
C?) 

V CD 
C2) 

VII C2) 




$576.38 






441.00 






2, 535. 60 




$50,000.00 


50, OLO. 00 
51.00 




309. 00 


959. 00 


Total 




60, 309. 00 


54,502.98 




I CD 
C4) 

IV CD 
C2) 

V C2) 
VII C2) 




818. 40 






651,68 






22, 608. 78 






3,215.92 






40.00 






1.037.86 








Total - 






28, 375. 64 




I CD 

C4) 

V C3) 




43.40 






5.00 






3, 670. 00 








Total 







3,718.40 




1 




India 


I CD 
C4) 

IV CD 
C2) 

V CD 
C2) 
C3) 

VI C2) 


491.00 
1, 807. 19 

495- 60 

9.31 

3,600.00 


2.0'.i6.sn 

6,684.29 

3, DO. 86 

59. 64 

16,780.00 

1, 905. 00 






2. r.oo. 00 






334. 00 








Total- 




B, 403. 13 


33, 430. 39 




IV CD 
C2) 

V CD 

C2) 




975. 08 






162. 85 






40,000.00 






100. GO 








Total.-.- 






41, 237. 93 




I C3) 
C4) 

V CD 
C2) 
C3) 




26, 600. 00 






4,958.00 






21G, 000. 00 






4,300.00 






29, 293. 00 








Total 


-.1 - 


275.056.00 








Italv 


V C2) 
C3) 




26,740.00 






13. 900. 00 








Total 






40, 640. GO 












I 14) 

IV CI) 

C2) 




62.44 






2,656.97 






453. 67 














3. 173. 08 


Japan - -- 


IV CD 

V CD 
C2) 




6, 3S0. 00 






32,000.00 




100.00 


235, 210. 00 


Total 




100. GO 


273. 590. 00 










I CD 
C4) 

IV CD 
C2) 

V CD 


103. 35 


1. 057. 80 




395.35 






173. 20 






124. 36 






2, 300. 00 








Total 




103. ?6 


4,050.71 










VII C2) 




864. GO 








Liberia 


I CD 
C4) 




30.80 




7.80 


18.83 


Total 




7.80 49.63 










I CD 
C2) 
C4) 




567. 75 






3, 676. 00 






613. 00 





Category 


Value 


Country of destination 


September 
1939 


9 months 
ending Sep- 
tember 30, 
1939 


Macau— Continued. 


IV C2) 




$1 276 GO 






Total - 






6. 032. 75 




I CD 
C4) 




216.00 






123 66 








Total-..- 






339. 66 




I CD 
C2) 
C3) 
C4) 

III CD 

IV CD 
C2) 

V CD 
C2) 
C3) 

VII CD 
C2) 




765. 94 






175 00 






76. 000. 00 






9, 330 00 






935, 600. 00 




$90. 00 


18. 273. 89 
16, 660 00 




70,000.00 
1. 2.54. 00 
10, 750. GO 

950. on 

9. 807. 00 


378. 800. 00 

325. 985. 00 

882. 096. 00 

13, 609. 50 

32, 973. 08 






92,851.00 


2. 690. 168. 41 










I C4) 




9.00 










I CD 
C4) 

V C2) 
C3) 




30,40 






111.67 






1 000 00 






20 610 00 








Total 







21, 7.52. 07 












I C2) 

III CD 
C2) 

IV CD 

V CD 
C2) 
C3) 

VII C2) 




17.50 






121 622 00 






449 00 






45.00 






604. 029. on 






298. 690. 67 






620, .'^60. 00 




1,380.00 


62,779.00 


Total 




1, 380. 00 


1,698,092.17 








Nptherlands Indies 


I CD 
C2) 
C4) 
C6) 

III CD 
C2) 

IV CD 
C2) 

V CD 
C2) 
C3) 

VII CD 




66. 25 






45, 645. 00 




23.00 


356. 48 
496, 550. 00 






4,971, 143.00 






21,026.80 






39 662. 30 






314.82 




64,739.00 
1,180.00 


142,478.00 
70. 820. 10 
176, 335. 00 






10.00 








Total 




65, 942. 00 


5, 963, 406. 76 










I CD 

C4) 

V C3) 


251.80 


699. 25 




851. 37 






14, 000. 00 








Total 




251.80 


15, 550. 62 










I CD 
C4) 

IV C2) 

V C2) 
C3) 




612. 87 






448. 47 






168. 53 






2. 740. 00 






14, 500. 00 








Total 






18. 459. 87 


New Guinea, Territory of 


I CD 
C4) 

IV C2) 

V C2) 
C3) 


'"" 47.'o6 

19.00 


17.00 

91.56 

82.00 

18. 199. 00 




59, 500. 00 


102,000.00 


Total 




59, 566. 00 


120, 389. 66 




I C4) 




116. 10 










- I CD 

C4) 

IV (2) 




466. 61 






692. 43 






106. 68 



444 




Total 
Portugal 



DEPABTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Country of destination 



Portugal— Continued. 



Total-. 
Knmanla.— 



Total 

Southern Rhodesia - 



Total 

Straits Settlements- 



Total. 
Sweden 



Total- 
Switzerland-. 



Total- 
Syria -- 

Thailand- .. 



Total. 
Trinidad-.. 



Total. 
Turkey 



Value 



Category 



(1) 
(2) 
(3) 



September 
1939 



9 months 
ending Sep- 
tember 30, 
1939 



$9 13.^ no 
6.2S0 no 
2S. 4".^. 00 



IV 
V 



(4) 
CD 

(1) 



I 

IV 



44.217.00 



835, noil, OO 

3, 970 no 

26. 190 00 
8«6. 160. 00 



(1) 
(4) 
0) 
(2) 



(1) 
(4) 
(1) 
(2) 
(3) 



$18.70 



18 70 



609 92 

277. 95 

40.00 

1,flOO 00 



2, 827. 87 



39.00 
IK. 37 
229,50 

34.78 



419.63 



32. .'lO 
711.37 



11,000.00 



11.743 87 



I 

IV 

V 



11) 
(1) 
(1) 
(2) 
(3) 



IV (2) 



(1) 
(4) 
(11 
(2) 
(2) 
(3) 



71 25 
1. 292 14 
2.ni)0 00 
85.924 44 
IB. SM 00 



106.672.83 



(4) 
(1) 
(2) 
(2) 
(3) 



1, 307. 70 



62 90 

631 76 

245. 69' 00 

13, 5M. 00 

20, 200 00 



2S0, 138, 65 



19.00 



1.307.70 



Total 

Turks and Caicos Islands.. 



Total. 



IV 
V 



23.68 
12 18 

20.801 43 

41.83 

65, 167. 61 

271,900.00 



358, 009. 63 



1.08 

79. .50 

37,00 

1.051.50 

10,000.00 



IV 



Union o( South Africa I 



Total.. 



(1) 
(4) 
(1) 
(21 

V (1) 
(2) 
(3) 

VII (2) 



11,169.08 



170. 34 

5,26 

170, 190. 00 

25.00 



170, 390. 69 



18.70 
.80 



19.50 



62.86 
96. (8 
68.00 
24.00 



'11,760.00 



12,001.34 



1, 168. 03 
1,812.76 

2, 354 36 
368, 24 

63, 178. 00 

10, 553, 57 

3, 765. 00 

11. 760. 00 



94,959.96 



OCTOBER 28, 1939 



445 



1 


Category 


Value 


Country of destination 


September 
1939 


9 months 
ending Sep- 
tember 30, 
1939 


Union of Soviet Socialist Re- 
publics. 


V 


(1) 

(2) 
(3) 




$845. 966, 00 




05. 706. 78 




146. 408. 00 








Total - 







1,0.58,079.78 




I 
V 


(4) 
(2) 




13.00 






160. 00 








Total 






173.00 












I 

IV 

V 

VII 


(I) 
(2) 
(4) 
(1) 
(2) 
0) 
(2) 
(3) 
(I) 
(2) 




40,00 






4i.no 






67 00 






20. 428. 32 






1. 286, 76 




$60,500.00 

698. 60 

11,950 00 

364. 80 


76, 722, 00 

19. 665. 60 

141,086.50 

6.109.77 

6. 060. 00 


Total - 




73,513.30 


271,496,84 








Windward Islands . 


IV 


0) 




48.00 










V 


(1) 
(2) 
(3) 


6,"868"6d' 


182.0W.n0 




24. 327, 00 
1 . 906, 00 








Total- , . 




5. SOS. 00 


208. 269. 00 








Grand total 




6. 677, 752. 34 


71, .'503,219 14 









Aems Export Licenses Revoked as a Result 
OF THE Issuance of the President's Embargo 
Proclamations of September 5, 8, and 10 

In accordance with the provisions of the 
Neutrality Act, all outstanding and valid li- 
censes authorizing the exportation of arms, 
ammunition, and implements of war to coun- 
tries named in the President's embargo procla- 
mations of September 5, 8, and 10 became null 
and void as of those dates. Such licenses were 
recalled by the Department for formal revoca- 
tion. The table pi'inted below indicates by cate- 
gory and subdivision thereof and by country of 
destination, the value of the arms, ammunition, 
and implements of war, the exportation of 
which had been authorized by such licenses : 



Country of destination 


Category 


Value 


Australia . _ 


I (1) 
(4) 

III (1) 

IV (2) 

V fl) 
(2) 
(3) 


$676 90 




936. 68 

4,651,190.00 

14.66 

6, 100. CO 

934. 30 

418.848.00 


Total 




6,078,700.64 



Country of destination 


Category 


Value 


British Honduras 


IV 


(2) 


$27. 83 








I 
IV 


(4) 
(1) 


29.00 




20.76 


Total - 




49.76 


Canada 


I 

IV 
V 

VII 


(1) 
(4) 
(1) 
(2) 
(I) 
(2) 
(3) 
fl) 
(2) 


8, 680. 62 




620. 64 
894. 42 
190. 99 

4. 100. no 

27. SSI. 46 
85. 659, 50 

6. 090, no 

186.095.21 


Total 




.. 319,621.73 








Pftdftratpd Malav States 


IV 


(1) 


18.70 








I 
III 

IV 
V 

VI 


(2) 
(4) 
(1) 
(2) 
(2) 
(1) 
(2) 
(3) 
(1) 


210.000.00 




118.39 

39, 8V6, 294 00 

39, 208, 70 

56.95 

91, 0(10. 00 

3. 037. 048. 77 

1.5,111, 2h7. 00 

2, 200. 00 


Total - 




68,418, 113.81 










I 


(1) 
(4) 


10.86 




7.80 






18.66 










I 

IV 


(4) 
(2) 


46 00 




.1.00 






49,00 










I 
III 

IV 
V 

VII 


(5) 
(1) 
(2) 
(2) 
(1) 
(2) 
(3) 
(2) 


430. 00 




12, 275, 7,52, 00 

1, 970 00 

47,30 

230, 000, 00 

1, 2'J(). 576 00 

952,510.00 

195. 802. 22 


Total - 




14. 877, 086. 62 










I 

IV 


(4) 
(2) 


315 00 




275, 00 


Total 




690 00 










IV 


(1) 


31.00 






India . _. _ 


I 

IV 

V 


(1) 
(i) 
(1) 
(1) 
(2) 


137 80 




316 60 

392, 70 

180, 000. 00 

7,900.00 


Total - 


18,8,747.00 








Kenya , -_.-_-- 


I 

I 
I 


(4) 
(4) 
(4) 


72.00 




151.03 




130. 00 








V 

vn 


(2) 
(2) 


191.00 




6, 397. 52 


Total _ 




6, 688. 62 








New Guinea, Territory of. 


V 
V 
V 


(2) 
(3) 
(2) 


9,901,00 


Palestine 


400.00 


Poland 


125. 00 








I 

IV 


(4) 
(2) 


26,00 




11.00 


Total _ - 




37.00 








Trinidad _ 


V 


(2) 


2, 000. 00 



446 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Country of destination 


Category 


Value 




I 

IV 

V 


(1) 
(4) 
(1) 
(2) 
(1) 
(2) 


$170. 00 




126. 25 

19.00 

7.00 

5,450.00 

1,296.00 


Total 




7, 066. 25 












78,908,525.33 











Abms Import Licenses Issued 

The table printed below indicates the char- 
acter, value, and countries of origin of tKe 
arms, ammunition, and implements of war 
licensed for import by the Sacretary of State 
during the month of September 1939 : 



Country of origin 


Category 


Value 


Total 




I (1) 
IV (2) 
I (1) 
IV (1) 

IV (1) 

V (2) 
V (2) 

(3) 

I (3) 

«) 


$10. 00 

5.00 

35.00 

67.00 

10.00 

293.00 

5.000.00 

16. 000. 00 

60. 00 

990.50 


} $15. 00 
35.00 






67.00 


Great Britain 


} 303.00 
} 21,000.00 
} 1,050.50 




Sweden 




Total 






22, 470. 50 











During the month of Saptember, 7 arms im- 
port licenses were issued, making a total of 133 
such licenses issued during the current year. 

Categories of Arms, Ammunition, and Imple- 
ments OF War 

The categories of arms, ammunition, and im- 
p]ements of war in the appropriate column of 
the tables printed above are the categories into 
v.hich those articles were divided in the Presi- 
dent's proclamation of May 1, 1937, enumerat- 
ing the articles which would be considered as 
arms, ammunition, and implements of war for 
the purpose.s of section 5 of the joint resolution 
of May 1, 1937 [see pages 74-76 of the Bulle- 
tin of July 22, 1939 (Vol. I, No. 4)]. 

Special Statistics in Regard to Arms Exports 
TO Cuba 

In compliance with Article II of the conven- 
tion between the United States and Cuba to 



suppress smuggling, signed at Habana, March 
11, 1926, which reads in part as follows : 

"The High Contracting Parties agree that 
clearance of shipments of merchandise by 
water, air, or land, from any of the ports of 
either country to a port of entry of the other 
country, shall be denied when such shipment 
comprises articles the importation of which is 
prohibited or restricted in the country to which 
such sliipment is destined, unless in this last 
case there has been a compliance with the requi- 
sites demanded by the laws of both countries." 

and in compliance with the laws of Cuba which 
restrict the importation of arms, ammunition, 
and implements of war of all kinds bj' requir- 
ing an import permit for each shipment, export 
licenses for shipments of arms, ammunition, 
and implements of war to Cuba are required 
for the articles enumerated below in addition 
to the articles enumerated in the President's 
proclamation of May 1, 1937: 

(1) Arms and small arms using ammunition 
of caliber .22 or less, other than those classed as 
toys. 

(2) Spare parts of ai-ms and .small arms of 
all kinds and calibers, other than those classed 
as toys, and of guns and machine guns. 

(3) Ammunition for the arms and small 
arms under (1) above. 

(4) Sabers, swords, and military machetes 
with cross-guard hilts. 

(5) Explosives as follows: explosive pow- 
dei'S of all kinds for all purposes; nitrocellu- 
lose having a nitrogen content of 12 percent 
or less; diphenylamine; dynamite of all kinds; 
nitroglycerine; alkaline nitrates (ammonium, 
potassium, and sodium nitrate); nitric acid; 
nitrobenzene (essence or oil of mirbane) ; sul- 
phur; sulphuric acid; chlorate of potash; and 

(6) Tear gas (C.HaCOCH.Cl) and other 
similar nontoxic gases and apparatus designed 
for the storage or projection of such gases. 

The table printed below indicates, in respect 
to licenses authorizing the exportation to Cuba 
of the articles and commodities listed in the 
preceding paragi'aph issued by the Secretary of 
State during September 1939, the number of 
licenses and the value of the articles and com- 
modities described in the licenses: 



OCTOBER 28, 193 9 



447 



Number of licenses 


Section 


Value 


Total 


35 


(1) 
(2) 

(3) 
(5) 


$1,110.00 

71.76 

9, 940. 00 

14.838.84 






■ $25,960.60 



The table printed below indicates the value 
of the articles and commodities listed above 
exported to Cuba during September 1939 under 
licenses issued bj' the Secretary of State : 



Section 



(1) 
(2) 
(3) 
(6) 



Value 



$1, 038. 00 

40.00 

9, 004. 00 

17, 960. 83 



Total 



$28, 042. 83 



Tin-Plate Scrap 

The table printed below indicates the num- 
ber of licenses issued during the year 1939, up 
to and including the month of September, au- 
thorizing the export of tin-plate scrap under 
the provisions of the act approved February 
15, 1936, together with the number of tons au- 
thorized to be exported and the value thereof: 





September 1939 


9 months ending Sep- 
tember 30, 1939 


Country of destina- 
tion 


Quantity 

in long 

tons 


Total 
value 


Quantity 

in long 

tons 


Total 
value 




650 


$12, 273. 75 


9, 503 


$177 950. 52 







During the month of September, 9 tin-plate 
scrap licenses were issued, making a total of 
151 such licenses issued during the current 
year. 

Helium 

No licenses authorizing the exportation of 
helium gas under the provisions of the act ap- 
pi'oved on September 1, 1937, and the regula- 
tions issued pursuant thereto, were applied for 
or issued during the month of September 1939. 



In compliance with the pertinent provisions 
of law, all outstanding and valid licenses au- 
thorizing the exportation of helium gas to 
countries named in the President's embargo 
proclamations of September 5, 8, and 10 were 
revoked upon the issuance of those proclama- 
tions. The table printed below indicates the 
countries of destination and the value of the 
helium gas, the exportation of which had been 
authorized by such licenses: 



Country of destination 


Quantity 

in cubic 

feet 


Value 


Canada 


0. 6648 
.211S 
.0353 
.0706 






36.00 
3.70 
12.00 


Total 




156 70 


New Zealand- 


1.05473 








Grand total 













Publications 



Department of State 

Regulation of Whaling: Protocol Between the United 
States of America and Other Powers Amending the 
International Agreement for the Regulation of Whal- 
ing, .signed in London June ,S, 1937 (Treaty Series No. 
933), with Certitleate of Extension and Final Act of 
the Conference. — Protocol signed at London June 24, 
I'JSS; proclaimed April 8, 1939. Treaty Series No. 944. 
14 pp., map. 100. 

Publications of the Department of State (a list cumu- 
lative from October 1, 1929). October 1, 1939. Publi- 
cation 1387. 34 pp. Free. 



Treaty Information 



Compiled by the Treaty Division 



ORGANIZATION 

Protocol for the Amendment of the Pream- 
ble, of Articles 1, 4, and 5, and of the 
Annex to the Covenant of the League of 
Nations 

Australia — Thailand 

According to information received from the 
League of Nations the Protocol for the Amend- 
ment of the Preamble, of Articles 1, 4, and 5, 
and of the Annex to the Covenant of the 
League of Nations, which was opened for sig- 
nature at Geneva on September 30, 1938, was 
signed by Australia on June 24, 1939, and by 
Thailand (Siam) on May 10, 1939. 

HEALTH 

Convention Modifying the International 
Sanitary Convention of June 21, 1926 

Greece 

The American Minister to Greece trans- 
mitted to the Secretary of State with a des- 
patch dated September 20, 1939, a copy of the 
Official Gazette, volume 1, No. 319, August 9, 
1939, which publishes the ratification by Greece 
of the Convention Modifying the International 
Sanitary Convention of June 21, 1926, signed 
at Paris on October 31, 1938. 

According to the information of the Depart- 
ment the following countries have deposited 
with the French Government their instruments 
of ratification or adherence to the convention : 
Afghanistan, Belgium, Egypt, France, Great 
Britain, Italy, and the Union of South Africa, 
The convention entered into force on July 24, 
1939, the date of the proces-verbal recording 
the deposit of instruments of ratification by 
four states represented on the Sanitary, Mari- 
time, and Quarantine Board of Egypt, namely, 
Egypt, France, Great Britain, and Italy. 

448 



OPIUM AND OTHER DANGEROUS 
DRUGS 

Convention for Limiting the Manufacture 
and Regulating the Distribution of Nar- 
cotic Drugs (Treaty Series No. 863) 

The Department of State has received from 
the Secretary of the Permanent Central Opium 
Board at Geneva the letter quoted below, which 
indicates that, notwithstanding the conditions 
prevailing in Europe at the present time, inter- 
national control of narcotic drugs by the two 
international boards which operate under the 
Narcotics Limitation Convention of 1931 has 
been functioning and will continue to function 
regularly, news which will be regarded as dis- 
tinctly reassuring by all interested in suppress- 
ing the abuse of narcotic drugs. 

These two boards, the Permanent Central 
Opium Board and the Drug Supervisory Body, 
are both independent organizations and are 
each composed of members who have been 
chosen for their personal qualifications and 
who do not represent governments. The chair- 
man of the Permanent Central Opium Board 
is Sir Atul Chatterjee of India, and the vice 
chairman is Mr. Herbert L. May of Pittsburgh 
and New York, an American. The chairman 
of the Drug Supervisory Body is Sii' Malcolm 
Delevingne of London. 

The function of the Permanent Central 
Opium Board is to supervise and report upon 
the movements of opium, coca leaves, and other 
narcotic drugs throughout the world and to 
sound the alarm whenever excessive accumu- 
lations of these drugs are found to exist in 
any country. The Drug Sui^ei'visory Body 
passes upon the annual estimates of govern- 
ments for medical and scientific needs for dan- 
gerous drugs and determines what quantities 



OCTOBER 2 8, 1939 

each country may be allowed to manufacture, 
import, and export. 

It is upon the operations of these two boards, 
supplementing and coordinating the efforts of 
individual nations, that the entire fabric of in- 
ternational drug control ultimately rests, and 
the American Government regards it of the 
highest importance, not only to the United 
States but also to the entire world, that they 
should be enabled to function adequately, effec- 
tively, and without interruption and should 
enjoy the cooperation of all nations. The 
American Government has regularly and thor- 
oughly cooperated with these two boards since 
their establishment and expects to do so in 
future as in the past. 

The text of the letter referred to is as fol- 
lows: 

"Permanent Central Opium Board, 

Geneva, September 29, 1939. 
"Sir: 

"I am directed by the President of the Per- 
manent Central Opium Board to transmit to 
you the following note from the Board. 

"1) The Permanent Central Opium Board 
has decided that, under existing Conventions, 
its activities must be carried on during a period 
of war; that the principle of their continued 
existence must be maintained ; and that the seat 
of the Board and of its Secretariat should con- 
tinue to be at Geneva so long as circumstances 
permit. 

"2) The international control limiting the 
manufacture and regulating the distribution of 
narcotic drugs was started after the war of 
1914, because, during that war and imme- 
diately after it, drug addiction had become 
such a serious menace that almost every Gov- 
ernment in the world contributed to institut- 
ing and effectively applying the international 
control of the traffic. It is evident that the 
same problem remains and will assume, during 
war and also when hostilities cease, an even 
more serious form; and that the need for the 
control of the traffic is greater than ever be- 
fore. During the last ten years a world-wide 
mechanism has been set up and is successfully 



449 

working, with centres in all national adminis- 
trations and its official international centre at 
Geneva. At that centre, the Permanent Cen- 
tral Opium Board, an independent nonpolitical 
organ, receives from all Governments the in- 
formation essential to the continuance of the 
control. The contractual basis of the work 
under the Opium Conventions of 1925 and 1931 
remains solid. 

"3) Moreover, the Board has formed the 
opinion that it is, and will continue to be of 
commanding interest to all Governments that 
the work which has been done for ten years 
should not now be disrupted. If it is to be 
pursued effectively, the machinery by which 
it is carried out and the statistical and other 
i3iformation on which it is based should be 
maintained and should also be instantly avail- 
able at the end of hostilities. 

"4) Therefore, the Board has the honour to 
request your Government to continue to send 
to the Board at Geneva the statistics and esti- 
mates which it has sent in the past as com- 
pletely and as regularly as circumstances per- 
mit. 

"I have [etc.] 

E. Felkin, 

Secretary of the Permanent 

Central Opium Board'''' 

The text of the reply of the Secretary of 
State reads as follows: 

"The Secretary of State of the United States 
of America acknowledges with appreciation 
the receipt of communication no. 12A.39076.- 
2131, dated September 29, 1939, from the Per- 
manent Central Opium Board, in regard to 
the continued functioning of the Board during 
the present critical period. 

"The Government of the United States has 
regularly and thoroughly cooperated with the 
Permanent Central Opium Board and with its 
associate organ, the Drug Supervisory Body, 
since their establishment and expects to do so 
in future as in the past as long as their inde- 
pendence is maintained. 

"It is the opinion of this Government that 
it is upon the operations of these two boards, 



450 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



supplementing and coordinating the efforts of 
individual nations, that the entire fabric of 
international drug control ultimately and prin- 
cipally rests. This Government, in consonance 
with that view, regards it as of the highest im- 
portance, not only to the United States but 
also to the whole world, that the Permanent 
Central Opium Board and the Drug Supervis- 
ory Body should be enabled to function ade- 
quately, effectively and without interruption 
and that they should enjoy the cooperation of 
alj nations." 

In furtherance of international cooperation 
iu the control of narcotic drugs, the Treasury 
Department is taking steps to insure, without 
depleting supplies of raw material to meet the 
needs of the United States, adequate assistance 
from American manufacturers in meeting the 
needs of the other American countries for 
treatment of their sick and injured during the 
continuance of the present disruption of the 
usual movement in the narcotic drug trade. 

AGRICULTURE 

Convention for the Standardization of the 
Methods of Keeping and Operating Cattle 
Herdbooks .„,.,;.= 

Brazil — Latvia 

By a note dated October 18, 1939, the Italian 
Ambassador at Washington informed the Sec- 
retary of State that instruments of ratification 
of the Convention for the Standardization of 
the Methods of Keeping and Operating Cattle 
Herdbooks, signed at Rome on October 14, 
1936, were deposited by Brazil on October 31, 
1938, and by Latvia on Saptember 26, 1939. 

According to information received from the 
Italian Government, the convention has been 



ratified by the following countries: Brazil, 
Czechoslovakia, France, Germany, Italy, and 
Latvia. 

NAVIGATION 

International Convention for the Unification 
of Certain Rules Relating to Bills of Lad- 
ing for the Carriage of Goods by Sea 
(Treaty Series No. 931) 

Germany 

The American Embassy at Brussels has re- 
ported that the Moniteur Beige (No. 239) of 
August 27, 1939, published a notice that the 
instrument of ratification by Germany of the 
Convention for the Unification of Certain 
Rules Relating to Bills of Lading for the Car- 
riage of Goods by Sea, signed at Brussels on 
August 25, 1924, was deposited with the Bel- 
gian Government on July 5, 1939. According 
to the terms of article 11 of the convention this 
ratification will become effective on January 5, 
1940. 

Upon depositing the instrument of ratifica- 
tion the German Ambassador at Brussels made 
the following reservations, which are quoted 
below in translation: 

"In accordance with the possibility antici- 
pated in paragraph 2 of the protocol of signa- 
ture, the German Reich sliall put the conven- 
tion into effect by application of the law re- 
garding the modification of the provisions of 
the commercial Code dealing with the law gov- 
erning ship loading, of August 10, 1937, which 
has already been published in the bulletin of 
laws of the Reich for 1937, Part I, page 891. 

"In conformitj' with paragraph 3, No. 2. of 
the protocol of signature, the German Reich 
reserves the right to issue special regulations 
for German coastwise trade." 



U. S, GOVERNMENT PRINTINS OFFICE: 1939 



For .sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Washington. D. C. — Price 10 cents - - - Subscription price, $2.75 a year 

PUBLISHED WEEKLY WITH THE APPBOVAL OP THE DIRECTOH OP THE BCBEAU OF THE BGDOET 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 




J 



LETIN 



NOVEMBER 4, 1939 
Vol. I: No. ig — Publication 1 400 




Qonfents 

EuHOPE : 

Pag« 

Neutrality Act of 1939 — proclamations and statements : 

Statement by the Secretary' of State 453 

Proclamation of existence of a state of war between 

the countries involved 453 

Proclamation defining combat areas 454 

Statement by the President regarding combat areas . 455 
Proclamation regarding the use of ports or territorial 
waters of the United States by submarines of for- 
eign belligerent states 456 

Kelease to American crew of the steamship City of 

Flint 457 

Annexation by the German Eeich of portion of territory 

of the Polish Republic 458 

Endorsement by the Soviet Union of President Roose- 
velt's appeal for peace to Germany and Italy in April 

1939 459 

Execution by the German Military of an American 

citizen 459 

Sinking of the Athenia 460 

Turkey : National anniversary 460 

Detention by belligerents of American vessels for exam- 
ination of papers or cargoes 461 

Expression of gratitude by Finland to the United States . 462 

[Over'i 



U. S, SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS 

NOV 27 1939 



The American Republics : Page 

Interpretation of tlie Declaration of Panama -t(J3 

Conference on Inter- American Relations in the Field 

of Education 464 

The Fak East : 

Ambassador Grew's conversation on November 4 with 

the Japanese Foreign Minister 465 

Commercial Policy: 

Trade-agreements program: Excliange of correspond- 
ence between Assistant Secretary Grady and Governor 

Vanderbilt of Ehode Island 4G6 

Publications 469 

International Conferences, Commissions, etc. : 

Eighth American Scientific Congress 470 

Inter-American Committee of Experts on Nature Pro- 
tection and Wildlife Preservation 471 

Foreign Service of the United States : 

Personnel changes 472 

Treaty Information : 
Judicial settlement: 

Permanent Court of International Justice 473 

Restriction of war: 

Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of 
the Wounded and the Sick of Armies in the Field 

(Treaty Series No. 847) 474 

Convention Relating to the Treatment of Piisoners 

of War (Treaty Series No. 846) 474 

Health : 

Convention Modifying the International Sanitary 

Convention of June 21, 1926 475 

Publications : 

Convention on Interchange of Publications 476 



Europe 



NEUTRALITY ACT OF 1939— PROCLAMATIONS AND STATEMENTS 

Statement by the Secretary of State 



[Released to the press November 4] 

I am naturally gratified ■with the basic 
changes made in the so-called neutrality legis- 
lation. Throughout this year the executive 
department has urged the prompt enactment of 
these basic changes and, prior to the outbreak 
of the war, plead with all nations to preserve 
peace and refrain from war. 



I desire to repeat with emphasis what I have 
consistently said heretofore to the effect that 
our first and most sacred task is to keep our 
counti'y secure and at peace and that it is my 
firm belief that we shall succeed in this en- 
deavor. I am satisfied that the new act will 
greatly assist in this undertaking. 



Proclamation of Existence of a State of War Between the Countries Involved 



[Released to the press November 4] 

Proclamation of a State of War Between 
Germany and France; Poland; and the 
United Kingdom, India, Australia, Canada, 
New Zealand and the Union of South 
Africa 

BY THE president OF THE UNITED STATES OF 
AMERICA 

A Proclamation 

Whereas section 1 of the joint resolution of 
Congress approved November 4, 1939, provides 
in part as follows : 

"That whenever the President, or the Con- 
gress by concurrent resolution, shall find that 
there exists a state of war between foreign 
states, and that it is necessary to promote the 
security or preserve the peace of the United 
States or to protect the lives of citizens of the 
United States, the President shall issue a proc- 
lamation naming the states involved; and he 

189734—39 1 



shall, from time to tune, by proclamation, 
name other states as and when they may become 
involved in the war." 

And whereas it is further provided by sec- 
tion 13 of the said joint resolution that 

"The President may, from time to time, pro- 
mulgate such rules and regulations, not incon- 
sistent with law as may be necessary and 
proper to carry out any of the provisions of 
this joint resolution; and he may exercise any 
power or authority conferred on him by this 
joint resolution through such officer or officers, 
or agency or agencies, as he shall direct." 

Now, THEREFORE, I, FrANKLIN D. EoOSEVELT, 

President of the United States of America, 
acting under and by virtue of the authority 
conferred on me by the said joint resolution, 
do hereby proclaim that a state of war un- 
happily exists between Germany and France; 
Poland ; and the United Kingdom, India, Aus- 

453 



454 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



tralia, Canada, New Zealand and the Union of 
South Africa, and that it is necessary to pro- 
mote the security and preserve the peace of 
the United States and to protect the lives of 
citizens of the United States. 

And I do hereby enjoin upon all officers of 
the United States, charged with the execution 
of the laws thereof, the utmost diligence in 
preventing violations of the said joint reso- 
lution and in bringing to trial and punishment 
any offenders against the same. 

And I do hereby delegate to the Secretary of 
State the power to exercise any jiower or au- 
thority conferred on me by the said joint reso- 
lution, as made effective by this my proclama- 
tion issued thereunder, which is not specifically 
delegated by Executive order to some other 
officer or agency of this Government, and the 
power to promulgate such rules and regulations 
not inconsistent with law as may be necessary 
and proper to carry out any of its provisions. 



And I do hereby revoke my proclamations 
nos. 2349, 2354 and 2360 issued on September 
5, 8, and 10, 1939, respectively, in regard to 
the export of arms, ammunition, and imple- 
ments of war to France; Germany; Poland; 
and the United Kingdom, India, Australia, 
and New Zealand; to the Union of South 
Africa; and to Canada. 

In witness whekeof, I have hereunto set my 
hand and caused the Seal of the United States 
of America to be affixed. 
Done at the city of Washington this fourth 
day of November, in the year of our 
[seal] Lord nmeteen hundred and thirty- 
nine, and of the Independence of 
the United States of America the one himdred 
and sixty-fourth, at 12.04 p. m. 

Franklin D. Roosevelt 
By the President: 
CoRDELL Hull 

Secretar'y of State. 



Proclamation Defining Combat Areas 



[Released to the press November 4] 

Definition of Combat Areas 

BT THE president OF THE UNITED STATES OF 
AMERICA 

A ProclamMtion 

Whereas section 3 of the joint resolution of 
Congress approved November 4, 1939, provides 
as follows: 

"(a) Whenever the President shall have is- 
sued a proclamation under the authority of 
section 1 (a), and he shall thereafter find that 
the protection of citizens of the United States 
so requires, he shall, by proclamation, define 
combat areas, and thereafter it shall be unlaw- 
ful, except under such rules and regulations 
as may be prescribed, for any citizen of the 
United States or any American vessel to pro- 
ceed into or through any such combat area. 
The combat areas so defined may be made to 
apply to surface vessels or aircraft, or both. 

"(b) In case of the violation of any of the 
provisions of this section by any American 



vessel, or any owner or officer thereof, such 
vessel, owner, or officer shall be fined not more 
than $50,000 or imprisoned for not more than 
five years, or both. Should the owner of such 
vessel be a corporation, organization, or as- 
sociation, each officer or director participating 
in the violation shall be liable to the penalty 
hereinabove prescribed. In case of the viola- 
tion of this section by any citizen traveling as 
a passenger, such passenger may be fined not 
more than $10,000 or imprisoned for not more 
than two years, or both. 

"(c) The President may from time to time 
modify or extend any proclamation issued 
under the authority of this section, and when 
the conditions which shall have caused him to 
issue any such proclamation shall have ceased 
to exist he shall revoke such proclamation and 
the provisions of this section shall thereupon 
cease to apply, except as to offenses committed 
prior to such revocation." 

And whereas it is further provided by sec- 
tion 13 of the said joint resolution that 



NOVEMBER 4, 19 39 



455 



"The President may, from time to time, 
promulgate such rules and regulations, not in- 
consistent with law as may be necessary and 
proper to carry out any of the provisions of this 
joint resolution ; and he may exercise any power 
or authority conferred on him by this joint 
resolution through such officer or officers, or 
agency or agencies, as he shall direct." 

Now, THEREFORE, I, FrANKLIN D. KoOSEVELT, 

President of the United States of America, 
acting under and bj' virtue of the authority con- 
ferred on me by the said joint resolution, do 
hereby find that the protection of citizens of 
the United States requires that there be defined 
a combat area through or into which it shall be 
unlawful, except under such rules and regula- 
tions as may be prescribed, for any citizen of 
the United States or any American vessel, 
whether a surface vessel or an aircraft, to pro- 
ceed. 

And I do hereby define such combat area as 
follows : 

All the navigable waters within the limits set 
forth hereafter. 

Beginning at the intersection of the North 
Coast of Spain with the meridian of 2° 45' 
longitude west of Greenwich; 

Thence due north to a point in 43° 54' north 
latitude ; 

Thence by rhumb line to a point in 45° 00' 
north latitude ; 20° 00' west longitude ; 

Thence due north to 58° 00' north latitude ; 

Thence by a rhumb line to latitude 62° north, 
longitude 2° east; 

Thence by rhumb line to latitude 60° north, 
longitude 5° east; 



Thence due east to the mainland of Norway ; 

Thence along the coastline of Norway, 
Sweden, the Bfdtic Sea and dependent waters 
thereof, Germany, Denmark, the Netherlands, 
Belgium, France and Spain to the point of 
beginning. 

And I do hereby enjoin upon all officers of 
the United States, charged with the execution 
of the laws thereof, the utmost diligence in pre- 
venting violations of the said joint resolution 
and in bringing to trial and punishment any 
offenders against the same. 

And I do hereby delegate to the Secretary 
of State the power to exercise any power or 
authority conferred on me by the said joint 
resolution as made effective by this my procla- 
mation issued thereunder, which is not specifi- 
cally delegated by Executive order to some 
other officer or agency of this Government, and 
the power to promulgate such rules and regula- 
tions not inconsistent with law as may be nec- 
essary and proper to carry out any of its 
provisions. 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my 
hand and caused the Seal of the United States 
of America to be affixed. 

Done at the city of Washington this fourth 
day of November, in the year of our 

[seal] Lord nineteen hundred and thirty- 
nine, and of the Independence of the 
United States of America the one hundred and 
sixty-fourth, at 3 p.m. 

Franklin D. Roosevelt 

By the President : 
CoRDELL Hull 

Secretary of State. 



Statement by the President Regarding Combat Areas 



[Released to the press November 4] 

The revised neutrality law has been signed 
and has gone into effect today ; and I have also, 
under it, issued a proclamation defining 
a combat area, described in latitude and 
longitude. 

In plain English, the chief result is this: 
From now on, no American ships may go to 



belligerent ports, British, French, and Ger- 
man, in Europe or Africa as far south as the 
Canary Islands. This is laid down in the law, 
and there is no discretion in the matter. 

By proclaiming a combat area I have set 
out the area in which the actual operations of 
the war appear to make navigation of Ameri- 
can ships dangerous. This combat area takes 



456 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



in the whole Bay of Biscay, except waters on 
the north coast of Spain so close to the Spanish 
coast as to make clanger of attack vnilikely. 
It also takes in all the waters around Great 
Britain, Ireland and the adjacent islands in- 
cluding the English Channel. It takes in the 
whole North Sea, running up the Norwegian 
coast to a point south of Bergen. It takes in 
all of the Baltic Sea and its dependent waters. 
In substance, therefore, American ships can- 
not now proceed to any ports in France, Great 
Britain, or Germany. This is by statute. By 
proclamation they cannot proceed to any ports 
in Ireland, nor to any port in Norway south 
of Bergen; nor to any ports in Sweden, Den- 
mark, Netherlands, or Belgium, nor to Baltic 
ports. All neutral ports in the Mediterranean 
and Black Seas are open; likewise all ports, 
belligerent or neutral, in the Pacific and Indian 
Oceans and dependent waters, and all ports in 
Africa south of the latitude of the Canaries 
(30°N.). 



I have discretion to permit, within the spirit 
of the law, American shipping to operate in 
the combat areas, where there is necessity. It 
is intended by regulation to provide that ships 
and citizens who are now in combat areas may 
get out of them; and for the minimum of 
necessary official, relief, and other similar 
travel which must go on in such areas. It is 
also intended to provide that vessels which 
cleared for combat areas before the act and 
proclamation became eifective shall be allowed 
to complete their voyages. 

Combat areas may change with circimi- 
stances, and it may be found that areas now 
safe become dangerous, or that areas now 
troubled may later become safe. In this case 
the areas will be changed to fit the situation. 

Coastwise American shipping is not affected 
by the bill nor is shipping between American 
republics or Bermuda or any of the Caribbean 
islands. In the main, shipping between the 
United States and Canada is also not affected. 



Proclamation Regarding the Use of Ports or Territorial Waters of the United States by 

Submarines of Foreign Belligerent States 



[Released to the press November 4] 

Use of Ports or Territorial "Waters or the 
United States by Submarines of Foreign 
Belligerent States 

BY THE president OF THE UNITED STATES OF 
AMERICA 

A Proclamation 

Whereas section 11 of the Joint Resolution 
approved November 4, 1939, provides : 

"Wlienever, during any war in which the 
United States is neutral, the President shall 
find that special restrictions placed on the use 
of the ports and territorial waters of the United 
States by the submarines or armed merchant 
vessels of a foreign state, will serve to maintain 
peace between the United States and foreign 
states, or to protect the commercial interests of 
the United States and its citizens, or to promote 



the security of the United States, and shall 
make proclamation thereof, it shall thereafter 
be unlawful for any such submarme or armed 
merchant vessel to enter a port or the territorial 
waters of the United States or to depart there- 
from, except under such conditions and subject 
to such limitations as the President may pre- 
scribe. Wlienever, in his judgment, the condi- 
tions which have caused him to issue his proc- 
lamation have ceased to exist, he shall revoke 
his proclamation and the provisions of this sec- 
tion shall thereupon cease to apply, except as 
to offenses committed prior to such revocation." 

Whereas there exists a state of war between 
Germany and France ; Poland ; and the United 
Kingdom, India, Australia, Canada, New 
Zealand, and the Union of South Africa ; 

Whereas the United States of America is 
neutral in such war; 



NOVEMDEK i, 1 '.);'.!) 



457 



Now, THEKEFORK, I, FkANKI.IN D. EuOSEVELT, 

President of the United States of America, act- 
ing under and by virtue of the authority 
vested in me by the foregoing provision of 
section 11 of the Joint Kesohition approved 
November 4, 1939, do by this proclamation find 
that special restrictions placed on the use of 
the ports and territorial waters of the United 
States, exclusive of the Canal Zone, by the sub- 
marines of a foreign belligerent state, both 
commercial submarines and submarines which 
are ships of war. will serve to maintain peace 
between the United States and foreign states, 
to protect the commercial interests of the 
United States and its citizens, and to promote 
the security of the United States; 

And I do further declare and proclaim that 
it shall hereafter be unlawful for any sub- 
marine of France; Germany; Poland; or the 
United Kingdom, India, Australia, Canada, 
New Zealand, or tlie Union of South Africa, 
to enter ports or territorial waters of the 
United States, exclusive of the Canal Zone, 
except submarines of the said belligerent 
states which are forced into such ports or ter- 
ritorial waters of the United States by force 
majeure; and in such cases of force majeure, 
only when such submarines enter ports or terri- 
torial waters of the United States while run- 
ning on the surface with conning tower and 
superstructure above water and flying the flags 
of the foreign belligerent states of which they 
are vessels. Such submarines may depart from 



ports or territorial waters of tlie United States 
only while running on the surface with con- 
ning tower and superstructure above water and 
flying the flags of the foreign belligerent states 
of which they are vessels. 

And I do hereby enjoin upon all ofRcers of 
the United States, charged with the execution 
of the laws thereof, the utmost diligence in 
preventing violations of the said joint resolu- 
tion, and this my proclamation issued there- 
under, and in bringing to trial and punishment 
any offenders against the same. 

And I do hereby revoke my Proclamation 
No. 2371 issued by me on October 18, 1939, in 
regard to the use of ports or territorial waters 
of the United States by submarines of foreign 
belligerent states. 

This proclamation shall continue in full force 
and effect unless and until modified, revoked 
or otherwise terminated, pursuant to law. 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my 
hand and caused the Seal of the United States 
of America to be affixed. 

Done at the city of Wasliington this fourth 
day of November, in the year of our 

[seal] Lord nineteen hundred and thirty- 
nine and of the Independence of the 
United States of America the one hundred and 
sixty-fourth, at 12.04 p. m. 

Franklin D. Roosevelt 

By the President: 
Cordell Hull 

Secretary of State. 



-f -♦■ + -f -f + -f 



RELEASE TO AMERICAN CREW OF THE STEAMSHIP "CITY OF FLINT" 



[Released to the press October 30] 

Ambassador Laurence Steinhardt, at Mos- 
cow, reported the following Tass despatch pub- 
lished in the Moscow press: 

"The steamship City of Flint has left Mur- 
mansk. 

"Murmansk October 28 Tass. On October 
28 in the evening the steamship City of Flint 



after the machinery had been repaired, left the 
jjort of Murmansk." 

The American Charge in Berlin, Mr. Alex- 
ander C. Kirk, reported on October 29 that he 
had been informed orally by the Foreign Office 
that it was still without definite information 
as to the whereabouts of the vessel. 



458 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



[Released to the press October 30] 

The American Minister to Norway, Mrs. J. 
Borden Harriman, has reported that the Lega- 
tion has heard an unofficial report that the City 
of Flint arrived at Tromso at 1 p. m. today 
flying the German flag and that the vessel left 
Tromso at 4 p. m. proceeding south. 

Minister Harriman reported that she has 
been, up to the time of filing, unable to obtain 
official confirmation of the report, as the 
Foreign Office was closed. 



[Released to the press November 3] 

The American Charge in Berlin, Mr. Alex- 
ander C. Kirk, has reported to the Department 
that he has now been informed by an official of 
the Foreign Office that the appropriate German 
naval authorities have been requested to comply 
with the desire of the United States that all 
precautions be taken to avoid exposing the mem- 
bers of the American crew of the City of Flint 
to unnecessary danger. 



[Released to the press November 3] 

The American Minister to Norway, Mrs. J. 
Borden Harriman, reported to the Department 
at 2 a. m., Saturday morning (Oslo time), that 
she had received a telephonic report from the 
American Consul at Bergen, Mr. Maurice P. 
Dunlap, to the effect that the American steam- 
ship City of Flint now flies the American flag, 
the German prize crew having been interned 
and the American crew released by the Nor- 
wegian authorities. Consul Dunlap had been 
so informed by the Norwegian naval authori- 
ties at Bergen. It appears that the commander 
of the German prize crew had requested per- 
mission to enter the harbor at Haugesund, Nor- 
way, on the ground that he wished to deliver 
an American sailor, who was ill, to the Ameri- 
can consul. The Norwegian Admiral promptly 
sent a doctor aboard the vessel to determine 
the facts. After investigation the doctor re- 
ported that the seaman was not sufficiently ill 
to justify granting permission for the ship to 
anchor. Nevertheless the vessel did anchor, and 
the Norwegian authorities then took the action 
outlined, in accordance with international law. 



■♦- -f -f -f -f -f -f 



ANNEXATION BY THE GERMAN REICH OF PORTION OF TERRITORY OF 

THE POLISH REPUBLIC 



[Released to the press October 30] 

Following are the text of a note from the 
Ambassador of Poland to the Secretary of 
State and the Secretary's reply: 

"The Ambassador of Poland presents his 
compliments to the Secretary of State and 
upon instructions of his Government has the 
honor to inform him that the Polish Govern- 
ment have learned that the German Reich de- 
creed the annexation from November 1, 1939 
of part of the territory of the Polish Repub- 
lic, creating two new provinces called West 
Prussia and Posen and enlarging the existing 
provinces of German Silesia and East Prussia. 

"The Polish Government declare that this 
administrative organization constitutes a new 



violation by the Reich of the elementary prin- 
ciples of international law relating to the con- 
duct of an enemy in occupied territory. Hence 
the Polish Government consider this illegal act 
as null and void. 
"Polish Embassy, 

"Washington, Octoher 27, 1939." 

"The Secretary of State presents his com- 
pliments to His Excellency the Ambassador of 
Poland and has the honor to acknowledge the 
receipt of the latter's note of October 27, 1939, 
informing him that the Polish Government has 
learned that the German Reich decreed the 
annexation from November 1, 1939, of part of 
the territory of the Polish Republic, creating 
two new provinces called West Prussia and 



NOVEMBER 4, 1939 



459 



Posen and enlargin<r tlie existing provinces of 
German Silesia and East Prussia. 

"The Secretary of State has taken note of 
the Polish Government's declaration that it 



considers this act as illegal and therefor null 
and void. 

"Department of State, 

"Washington, October 28, 1039." 



■♦■ -f -f -♦■-♦- -f 4- 



ENDORSEMENT BY THE SOVIET UNION OF PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT'S 
APPEAL FOR PEACE TO GERMANY AND ITALY IN APRIL 1939 



[Released to t\w press by the White House November 1] 

On April 16, 1939. the following cablegram 
from President Kalinin of the Soviet Union 
addressed to President Roosevelt was received 
at the White House: 

"Mr. President: 

"I consider it my pleasant duty to convey to 
you my cordial congratulations and an expres- 
sion of profound sympatliy with the noble 
appeal which you have addressed to the gov- 
ernments of Germany and Italy. You may rest 
assured that your initiative finds most ardent 
response in the hearts of the peoples of the 
Soviet Socialist Union. 



"Sincerely desirous of preservation of uni- 
^'ersal peace. 

Kaunin" 



On April 21, 1939, the President addressed 
the following message to President Kalinin of 
the Soviet Union: 

"I have received your friendly message and 
am glad to learn that your views with regard 
to my efforts on behalf of world peace are 
similar to those expressed to me by the heads 
of luunerous other states. 

Franklin D. Roosevelt" 



> -f + -f -f -f ^ 



EXECUTION BY THE GERMAN MILITARY OF AN AMERICAN CITIZEN 



[Released to the press November 3] 

The Department of State has received a re- 
port from Consul George J. Haering in charge 
of the Consulate General at Warsaw to the ef- 
fect that Mr. Jozef Sadowski w'as executed by 
the German authorities on October 20 after 
having been found guilty by a court martial 
of the Sicherheits Polizei of having concealed 
a considerable quantity of arms and ammuni- 
tion in contravention of regulations published 
by the German authorities upon entering 
Warsaw. 

The German authorities state that Mr. Sa- 
dowski gave no indication that he was an 

189734—39 2 



American citizen, and since he was born in 
Lomza, Poland, and since he admitted that he 
had been a commandant of the. civil guards of 
the twenty-sixth commissariat of Warsaw dur- 
ing the siege of that city, they had no ground 
to believe that he was not a Polish citizen. 

The Consulate General further reports that 
after conducting independent investigations of 
the case it has come to the conclusion that there 
are grounds to believe that the account given 
by the German authorities is not without 
foundation. The twenty-sixth commissariat of 
the civil guards has furnished the Consulate 



460 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



General with a statement to the effect that Mr. 
Sadowski volunteei'ed for service on September 
10, that he signed a declaration in connection 
therewith, that he was at least an assistant 



chief of the sixth precinct of the civil guards, 
and that it was not until after his arrest by 
the German authorities that it became known 
to them that he was an American citizen. 



-f -f -f -f -f -f -f 



SINKING OF THE "ATHENIA" 



[Released to the press October 31] 

Following is the text of a note from the 
British Ambassador to the Secretary of State : 

"October 30, 1939. 
"Sir: 

"The attention of His Majesty's Government 
in the United Kingdom has been drawn to 
various allegations published in this country 
regarding the circumstances in which the 
British steamship Athenia was sunk on Sep- 
tember 3rd last, and in particular to a statement 
made by Mr. Gustav Anderson of Evanston, 
Illinois, and printed in the New York Tiines of 
October 23rd. In this statement Mr. Anderson 
alleged that as a result of his conversations with 
the Chief Officer of the Athenia, Mr. B. M. 
Copland, he had reason to believe that the 
ship's cargo included a certain number of guns 
and that it was intended to fit the ship out as a 
raider on the return journey and that for this 
purpose her decks had been strengthened. Mr. 
Anderson furthermore implied in his statement 
that the Athenia had finally been sunk by gun- 
fire from one of His Majesty's ships to prevent 
her becoming a danger to navigation. 

"I have been instructed by His Majesty's 
Principal Secretary of State for Foreign 
Affairs to convey to you on behalf of His 
Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom, 
a formal assurance that the S. S. Athenia, on 
the voyage in the course of which she was sunk, 
carried no guns, munitions of war or explosives, 
either as cargo or stores; nor did she carry 
either bullion or securities. At the time of her 
sinking the Athenia was neither armed nor 
stiffened to receive armament of any kind, and 



it was not intended to use the vessel as an armed 
raider, armed merchant cruiser or in any other 
offensive capacity at the end of the voyage on 
which she was sunk. The Athenia was not 
sunk by contact with a British mine, by a 
British submarine, by gimfire from one of His 
Majesty's ships or by internal explosion; ac- 
cording to the evidence in the possession of His 
Majesty's Govermnent she was sunk by a sub- 
marine. 

"I am furthermore instructed to inform you 
that Chief Officer Copland has sworn in an 
affidavit that he never discussed with Mr. Gus- 
tav Anderson the question whether or not there 
were guns on board the Athenia. Mr. Cop- 
land's affidavit also contains a sworn statement 
that there were in point of fact no guns or 
other munitions carried as cargo in the ship on 
the voyage in question. 

"I have [etc.] Lothian" 

-♦•-♦• -t- 



TURKEY: NATIONAL ANNIVERSARY 

[Released to the press October 30] 

The President sent the following telegram 
to the President of the Republic of Turkey: 

"October 29, 1939. 
"It is with great pleasure that I extend to 
Your Excellency upon this national anniver- 
sary of your country, sincere felicitations and 
best wishes for the continued peace and pros- 
perity of the Turkish nation. 

Franklin D. Roosevelt" 



NOVEMBER 4, 19 39 



461 



DETENTION BY BELLIGERENTS OF AMERICAN VESSELS FOR EXAMINA- 
TION OF PAPERS OR CARGOES 



[Released to the press November 1] 

Following is a tabulation completed to Octo- 
ber 31 showing the American vessels which 
have been reported to the Department of State 
as having been detained by belligerents since 
September 1, 1939, for examination of papers or 
cargo. 

It was explained at the Department of State 
that injury to American vessels destined to 
European ports has not resulted in the main 
from their diversion from the liigh seas to bel- 



ligerent ports. As a general practice, for rea- 
sons of their own, these vessels ordinarily put 
into belligerent ports en route to their destina- 
tions, and the principal difficulty thus far has 
arisen in connection with delay involved in the 
examination of the vessels and their cargoes 
before being permitted to proceed on their 
voyages. Although all cases of detention may 
not have been reported to the Department, the 
statement is as nearly complete as is possible to 
arrange it. 



American Vessels Reported to Department to Have Been Detained by Belligerents 
Since September 1, 1939, for Examination of Papers or Cargo 



Name of vessel 



Saccarappa 

Shickshinny 

Sundance 

Black Osprey.. 
Santa Paula 

Executive 



Ethan Allen 

Patrick Henry . 

Oakman 

Cranford 

Nashaba 

West Hobomac- 
City of Joliet.__ 

Syros 

Hybert 



Owner or operator 



South Atlantic S. S. Co„ . 

South Atlantic S. S. Co.. 
South Atlantic S. S. Co.. 

Black Diamond Line 

Grace Line 



American Export Line. 



Lykes Bros. S. 

Lykes Bros. S. 

Lykes Bros. S. 
Lykes Bros. S. 
Lykes Bros. S. 

Lykes Bros. S. 

Lykes Bros. S. 

Lykes Bros. S. 

Lykes Bros. S. 



S. Co. 

S. Co- 

S. Co. 
S. Co. 
S. Co. 

S. Co. 

S. Co- 

S. Co. 

S. Co. 



Cargo 



Phosphate, cotton. 



Phosphate, cotton. 

Rosin and general 

cargo. 
General 



Tobacco. 



Cotton, flour, cop- 
per. 



Copper, cot- 
ton, etc. 

Gilsonite, cotton, 
rice. 

Cotton, lead, cop- 
per, etc. 



Detained 



Arrived September 3. Cargo 
seized September 8 by British 
authorities. 

Detained September 16, Glas- 
gow, by British authorities. 

Detained October 11, London, 
by British authorities. 

Vessel picked up September 5 by 
British naval vessel. 

When 30 miles from Curajao 
ordered to stop, delayed 20 
minutes, unidentified British 
cruiser, believed to be Essex. 

Detained Casablanca, Morocco, 
September 27 on orders from 
Paris, because of nature of 
cargo. 



British authorities, September 

20. 
British authorities, October 10_. 

British authorities, October 13. . 
British authorities, October 17., 
French authorities, October 14.. 

French authorities, October 18.. 

French authorities, September 
14. 

French authorities, September 
22. 

Detained September 10 about 
2 hours by German sub- 
marine. Examined papers 
and warned not to use radio 
for 24 hours. 



Released 



Ship released 
promptly. 
Cargo un- 
loaded. 

September 18. 

October 2.5. 
September 13. 



September 29 
on condition 
vessel pro- 
ceed to Bi- 
zerte, Tu- 
nisia. 

September 30. 

October 22. 

October 27. 
October 21. 
October 25. 

October 25. 

October 5. 

October 10. 



462 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



American Vessels Reported to Department to Have Been Detained by Belligerents 
Since September 1, 1939, for Examination of Papers or Cargo — Continued 



Name of vessel 



Lehigh.. 
Warrior. 
Wacosta. 



Blaclt Eagle 

Exochorda 



City of Flint. 



I. C. White... 



Eglantine. 



Meanticut. 



West Gambo... 
Endicott 



President 
Harding. 



Owner or operator 



U. S. Maritime Commis- 
sion. 
Waterman S. S. Corp 



Waterman S. S. Corp.. 

Black Diamond Line... 
American Export Line. 



U. S. Maritime Commis- 
sion, owner. Char- 
tered to United States 
Lines. 

Standard Oil of N. J 



Lylces Bros. S. S. Co_ 



Lyiies Bros. S. S. Co. 

Lykes Bros. S. S. Co. 
Lykes Bros. S. S. Co. 

United States Lines.. 



Cargo 



Cargo for Ham- 
burg. 



General cargo, 
part of which 
was contraband. 



Detained 



British authorities, September 5. 

British, September 7, cargo 

phosphate requisitioned. 
Detained September 9 for 3 

hours by German submarine. 

Papers examined, holds 

searched. 
British authorities. Details not 

known. 
French authorities at Marseille. 

Removed 2 seamen (German 

nationality) September 6. 
Seized on high seas and taken by 

German prize crew to Soviet 

port. 

Tanker challenged by an un- 
identified cruiser September 
7, when 15 miles offshore near 
Barranquiila, Colombia. 

German, September 18. 
Ordered to stop by German 
submarine; told not to use 
radio and to send papers for 
inspection. Advised not to 
use radio for 3 hours on being 
permitted to proceed. 

British, October 23. Ordered to 
proceed to Oran to discharge 
certain Italian cargo. 

French, October 22. 750 bales 
carbon black ordered ashore. 

French, October 22. 2,276 bars 
of copper and 1,796 bags car- 
bon black ordered ashore. 

French, September 9. Cargo 
still under seizure on October 
28: 135 tons copper, 34 tons 
petroleum, hides, oil, coffee, 
tin plate, and miscellaneous. 



Released 



September 7. 
September 9. 

September 6. 



.\fter 1 hour 
and 20 min- 
utes. 



October 27. 



Promptly. 



-f -f -f -f ■♦- -f -f 

EXPRESSION OF GRATITUDE BY FINLAND TO THE UNITED STATES 



[Released to the press by the White HouJ^e October IS] 

Following is a copy of a telegram from 
Kyosti Kallio, President of the Republic of 
Finland, received at the White House October 
18: 

"In the name of the people of Finland I here- 
with beg to express to you and through you to 
the great American people the sincere gratitude 



felt by the people of Finland for the sympathy 
and moral support you and the people of the 
United States have shown us. Your personal 
valuable assistance and interest in Finland's 
fate and difficult problems will never be for- 
gotten in this country. 

Kyosti Kallio 
President of the Republic of Finland'''' 



The American Republics 



INTERPRETATION OF THE DECLARATION OF PANAMA 



[Released to the press November 3] 

In response to questions with regard to the 
Dechxration of Panama,^ the following inter- 
pretation was made available at the Depart- 
ment of State : 

The Declaration of Panama is based upon 
two simple principles. First, the assertion of 
the 21 American nations that, so long as they 
maintain their neutrality, a war in Europe in 
which they are not involved should not jeop- 
ardize their right to self-protection nor inter- 
fere witli or destroy normal relations between 
the American republics; and, second, that con- 
sequently the belligerent activities undertaken 
by the European powers participating in such 
war should not take place within those waters 
adjacent to the American continent which em- 
brace) normal inter-American maritime com- 
munications, and within which belligerent 
activities would endanger the security of the 
American republics. General respect for these 
principles will mean that the lives and the vital 
interests of the nationals of the American re- 
publics will be to a great extent insured and 
that the preservation of peace in the Western 
Hemisphere will be materially safeguarded. 

As stipulated in the second article of the 
Declaration of Panama, the governments of the 
American republics will endeavor, through 
joint representations, to secure the acquiescence 
of the belligerents in these principles. It is 
obvious that many highly complicated and 
technical questions will present themselves 
which will have to be fully considered and 
determined through discussions with the bel- 
ligerents. It is equally apparent that these 
discussions may necessarily continue over a 
considerable period of time. 



1 See the Bulletin of October 7, 1939 (Vol. I, No. 15), 
pp. 331-333. 



Beyond this agreement for joint representa- 
tions, the Declaration provides that the Ameri- 
can governments will, whenever they consider 
it necessary, consult together to determine upon 
measures which they may individually or col- 
lectively undertake in order "to secure the 
observance of the provisions of the Declara- 
tion." This provision for consultation is 
similar to the agreement on the part of the 
American republics to consult together as pro- 
vided in the inter-American agreements of 
Buenos Aires and of Lima in the event that 
there exists a menace to the peace of the Ameri- 
can republics. It should be emphasized that 
such consultation would be undertaken solely 
for the purpose of determining upon the meas- 
ures which the American republics might 
"individually or collectively undertake" and 
as stipulated in the second article of the Decla- 
ration of Panama "without prejudice to the 
exercise of the individual rights of each State 
inherent in their sovereignty." There is no 
implication within this provision of the exer- 
cise of force on the part of any American 
republic. 

It will be further noted that the provisions 
contained in the fourth article of the Declara- 
tion which provides that the American repub- 
lics, in the circumstances set forth, may patrol 
"either individually or collectively, as may be 
agreed upon by common consent" the waters 
adjacent to their coasts within the area defined in 
the Declaration, provide for nothing more than 
the kind of patrol which the Government of the 
United States and several other American gov- 
ernments have already undertaken. The pur- 
pose of the patrol proposed is to enable the gov- 
erimients of the American nations to obtain the 
fullest information possible with regard to 
what is going on within the restricted urea. It 

463 



189734—39- 



464 

must be apparent that in times such as these 
it is of the utmost importance in the interest 
of the preservation of the neutrality of this 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

hemisphere that each American nation have the 
fullest possible advice as to the activities under- 
taken within the waters near its coasts. 



-f + -♦■ -f -f + + 



CONFERENCE ON INTER-AMERICAN RELATIONS IN THE FIELD OF 

EDUCATION 



[Released to the press November 2] 

Over 400 leaders in the field of education 
have accepted the invitation of Secretary of 
State Cordell Hull to attend a Conference on 
Inter- American Relations in the Field of Edu- 
cation, sponsored by the Division of Cultural 
Relations of the Department of State, to be held 
in Washington on November 9 and 10. 

Delegates to the Conference will include pres- 
idents and deans of State and privately en- 
dowed institutions; representatives of college, 
university, and school associations, educational 
organizations, learned societies, foundations, 
editors of educational reviews and journals, di- 
rectors of international student houses, and 
prominent philanthropists. 

At the opening session, on November 9, the 
Honorable Sumner Welles, Under Secretary of 
State, will outline the policy and program of 
the United States Goveniment in international 
cultural relations. The historical basis of inter- 
American cultural relations will be presented 
by Herbert E. Bolton, head of the Department 
of History of the University of California. 
James T. Shotwell, Chairman of the National 
Committee of the United States of America on 
International Intellectual Cooperation, will dis- 
cuss the activities of unofficial agencies in the 
promotion of international understanding. 

Findings, based upon a survey sponsored by 
the National Committee of the United States 
of America on International Intellectual Co- 
operation, as to the present contribution of 
educational agencies in the United States to 
inter-American cultural relations will be read. 
Brief reports on the fiftieth anniversary of the 
Pan American Union will be presented by 
Director General Leo S. Rowe; on the Eighth 



American Scientific Conference by Warren 
Kelchner, Acting Chief of the Division of In- 
ternational Conferences of the Department of 
State; on the Coronado Cuarto Centennial An- 
niversary by James F. Zimmerman, President 
of the University of New Mexico; and on the 
Institute of Inter-American Affairs by John 
J. Tigert, President of the University of Flor- 
ida ; and Clarence H. Haring, Chaii-man of the 
Committee on Latin American Studies, will 
describe the projects of that Committee. 

Following a luncheon at which the Secretary 
of State will address the conferees, the after- 
noon session will be devoted to a discussion of 
exchange scholarships, fellowships, and pro- 
fessorships. This session, presided over by the 
Honorable George S. Messersmith, Assistant 
Secretary of State, will hear Ernesto Galarza, 
of the Division of Intellectual Cooperation of 
the Pan American Union, outline the oppor- 
tunities for such exchanges in the other Amer- 
ican republics. The objectives and values of 
exchanges will be discussed by Stephen Dug- 
gan, Director of the Institute of International 
Education, Henry Allen Moe, Secretary of the 
Guggenheim Memorial Foundation, and others. 
The administration of the Buenos Aires con- 
vention for the exchange of graduate students 
or teachers and professors will be outlined by 
L. E. Blanch, of the United States OflSce of 
Education, and Richard Pattee, of the Division 
of Cultural Relations of the Department of 
State. Dean F. K. Richtmyer of the Graduate 
School of Cornell University will present a 
report of the Committee of Inquiry appointed 
by the five associations of colleges and univer- 
sities on proposals for enlarging existing pro- 



NOVEMBER 4, 1939 

visions for privately supported exchange schol- 
arships, fellowshii>s, and professorships. 

At an informal dinner at the Mayflower 
Hotel on the evening of November 9, delegates 
to the Conference will hear Samuel F. Bemis, 
Professor of History at Yale University, 
Stephen Duggan, Director of the Institute of 
International Education, and other speakers 
describe the exjieriences of the exchange pro- 
fessor in the other Americas. 

The second day of the Conference will be 
featured by parallel discussion groups in which 
delegates will discuss specific problems and 
formulate proposals. Trustees, presidents, 
deans, and other educational administrators 
and industrial fellowship donors will discuss 
ways and means of stimulating greater ex- 
change of students, teachers, and professors, 
the selection of candidates, problems of financ- 
ing such exchanges, and accrediting between 
institutions in the United States and the other 
American republics. 

Curriculum authorities, department heads, 
and professors will discuss and compare pro- 
grams for academic and public education in 
inter-American affairs. Topics will include a 
comparison of the organization and content of 
courses and institutes, together with possibili- 
ties of cooperation among groups of institu- 
tions; inter-collegiate gatherings; summer 
schools and seminars. 

Deans and advisers of men and women and 
directoi's of international houses and hospi- 
tality centers will discuss problems involved in 
the adjustment of students from abroad to their 
new environment and will formulate plans for 
more effective guidance and hospitality. 
Among specific problems to be discussed will 
be information for foreign students prior to 
departure for the United States; arrangements 
for reception of students on arrival ; campus 
adjustment ; community adjustment ; unifica- 
tion and coordination of efforts to assist the 
^asiting student in this country. 



465 

Editors of journals of education, learned 
societies, authors, and publishers will explore 
tlie possibility of more effectively acquainting 
the United States with scholars and writers 
in the other Americas. 

Representatives of schools of medicine and 
medical, hospital, and nurses associations will 
consider cooperative projects with the other 
American republics in the field of medical edu- 
cation and research. 

The final session of the Conference will be 
devoted to a consideration of reports on the 
findings of the various groups. 

A list of the persons who plan to attend the 
Conference, as of October 26, was released to 
the press by the Department on November 2. 



The Far East 



AMBASSADOR GREW'S CONVERSA- 
TION ON NOVEMBER 4 WITH THE 
JAPANESE FOREIGN MINISTER 

[Released to the press November 4] 

In reply to inquiries by press correspondents 
for comments on press despatches from Tokyo 
to the effect that Mr. Joseph C. Grew, Ameri- 
can Ambassador to Japan, informed the Japa- 
nese Minister for Foreign Affairs on November 
4 that Japan was in danger of economic pres- 
sure from tlie United States if it continued its 
present program in China, the Department in- 
formed the correspondents that the American 
Ambassador to Japan has reported by tele- 
graph that his talk with the Foreign Minister 
today dealt with objective facts and that he 
wished to say categorically that no tlireats of 
economic sanctions were made either in the 
substance or in the tone of what he said. 



Commercial Policy 



TRADE-AGREEMENTS PROGRAM 

Exchange of Correspondence Between Assistant Secretary Grady and Governor Vanderbilt 

of Rhode Island 



[Released to the press October :n ] 

The following is an exchange of correspond- 
ence between the Honorable Henry F. Grady, 
Assistant Secretary of State, and the Governor 
of Rhode Island : 

"September 30, 1939. 
"The Honorable William H. Vanderbilt, 
Governor of Rhode Island, 

Providence. 
"My Dear Governor : 

"Thank you for your letter of September 14, 
1939^ regarding the lace concessions in the 
trade agreement with France and your plan 
to test the coiistitutionahty of the Trade 
Agreements Act. 

"As stated in my letter of September 1,- 
the constitutionality of the Act was given very 
thorough consideration at the time that Con- 
gress enacted the legislation, and I am sure 
there is very good reason to believe that the 
constitutionality of this Act would be upheld 
in the courts. In this connection, I should like 
to call your attention to the detailed discussion 
of this subject contained in a memorandum 
submitted by the Department in the record of 
the hearings before the Committee on Ways 
and Means during the consideration of the Act 
in lllIU (Hearings on H. 11. 8430. T3d Congress, 
2d session, page 303 et seq.). Again in 1937, 
in connection with the hearings on the exten- 
sion of the Act, a memorandimi, copy of which 
is enclosed,'- was pi'esented by Mr. Sayre, As- 
sistant Secretary of State, on the same subject 
(Hearings on 11. .1. Kes. OG. 7.')th Congress, 1st 
session, page 138 et seq.). 

"The report of the Ways and Means Com- 
mittee, in 1934, devoted considerable attention 



"Not printed. 
466 



to this question (Report no. 1000 of the Com- 
mittee on Ways and Means, 73d Congress, 2d 
session, jiage 7 et seq.). The Committee's con- 
clusions were as follows: 

" 'The committee has given particular atten- 
tion to questions of constitutionality presented 
by the proposed bill, particularly in view of 
arguments advanced during the hearing to the 
effect that it proposes the delegation of too 
broad a discretionary power to the President. 
As a matter of fact, the proposed bill goes no 
further than many previous enactments of the 
Congress ; in fact, it follows a cuiTent of legis- 
lation enacted from the earliest days of our 
history.' 

"In 1937, in connection with the renewal of 
the Trade Agreements Act, the report of the 
Senate Committee on Finance stated: 

" 'We consider that it is clear that no con- 
stitutional or other legal considerations require 
Senate ratification of Executive agreements. 
The numerous precedents demonstrating be- 
3'ond question that the Trade Agreements Act 
involves no improper delegation of legislative 
or treaty-making powers are briefly^ summar- 
ized in the Ways and Means Committee's re- 
port.' (Report no. Ill of the Committee on 
Finance, 75tli Congress, 1st session, page 3). 

"The summary of the precedents referred to 
in the previous quotation is found on pages 14- 
16 of Report no. 166 of the Committee on Ways 
and Means, 75th Congress, 1st session. 

"In view of the precedents and court deci- 
sions referred to in some detail in the memo- 
randa and reports cited above, the Department 
is fully convinced that the Trade Agreements 
Act would be sustained in the courts. If a test 



NOVEMBER 4. 1939 



467 



case is brought challengiii<r the validity of the 
Act, its defense on belialf of the Government 
will be in the hands of tlie Department of 
Justice, with which it would naturally be in- 
cumbent upon this Department to cooperate. 

"With reference to your comments on the sub- 
ject of the Rhode Island lace industry, it is of 
course true that there has been a substantial in- 
crease since the years 1933-1935 in imports of 
those types of lace on which the duties were 
retluced in the trade agreement with France. 
This fact has of course been taken into con- 
sideration b}' the experts of the Tariff Commis- 
sion and other government agencies represented 
in the trade-agreements organization who have 
studied the operation of the agreement with 
France. 

"I feel sure j^ou will agree, however, that 
there are many other facts to be taken into ac- 
count, as I pointed out in my previous letter. 
Such facts are : the influence of general business 
conditions on the domestic lace industry; the 
recent trend in style towards the use of Val 
laces which are not made in this coimtry in 
significant quantities; and the benefits for 
American industry in the French market re- 
ceived in return for the lace concession and 
other concessions. I should like to mention 
also the fact that the total value of lace pro- 
duction in the year 1937, the latest year for 
which census figures on lace production are 
available, was $26,770,273 as compared with 
$27,885,844 in 1929, which indicates that the 
duty reductions made in the trade agreement 
with France did not prevent the lace industry 
from recovering its pre-depression level of pro- 
duction in terms of value. 

"As regards your statement that no upward 
tariff revision has been made in any trade 
agreement, may I point out that the aim of the 
trade-agreements pi'ogram has been and is to 
bring about reciprocal ancl mutually beneficial 
reductions in excessive trade barriers. In re- 
turn for carefully-considered reductions in our 
own tariff rates we have obtained substantial 
benefits for American industries and agricul- 
ture in the markets of many foreign countries. 



Clearly, no such benefits could be obtained in 
return for upward tariff revisions. 

"In your letter you have stated that our ex- 
port business has not, in recent years exceeded 
more than 10 percent of the total value of the 
movable or exportable goods produced. I feel 
sure you will agree, however, that no govern- 
ment could wisely ignore the needs and oppor- 
tunities of a businessi representing so large a 
proportion of our vast national production. 
Furthermore, in the case of many of our most 
important branches of agriculture and industry 
exports constitute a much higher percentage of 
production. 

"I realize, of course, that it is your aim, as 
you say, to put as many people as possible to 
work. This is likewise the aim of the trade- 
agreements program. As you probably know, 
United States exports, which in 1929 amounted 
to $5,240,295,000, dropped to a low point of 
$1,611,016,000 in 1932, and great numbers of 
our workers were deprived of employment. In 
addition, the people who had been dependent 
on export markets for their livelihood were, 
<3f course, unable to buy the goods produced by 
othei's in the United States and the result was a 
general decline in prosperity. The chief mar- 
ket of the American lace industry is, of course, 
the home market, and unless that market is 
prosperous the lace industry camiot be pros- 
perous. By helping to stimulate our foreign 
trade, the trade-agreements program has helped 
to increase employment and consumer purchas- 
ing power to the benefit of domestic producers 
and workers generally. 

"You state in your letter that the present 
European situation will undoubtedly affect our 
trade with France to such an extent that im- 
ports from that country will no longer have 
much influence on the American lace industry. 
You express concern, however, regarding the 
possible effect of an eventual cessation of hos- 
tilities in Europe on American industry. I 
may assure you that the agencies of the Gov- 
ernment concerned will continue to study our 
trade with France in the light of all develop- 
ments likely to have an effect on American 



468 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



industry. I believe you will agi-ee, however, 
that any action based on any hypothesis as to 
the specific effects on the American lace industry 
of a cessation of hostilities would be premature 
at the present time. 

"Sincerely yours, 

Henry F. Gr.\dt 
Assistant Secretary'' 

"October 23, 1939. 

"Honorable Henrt F. Grady, 

Assistant Secretary of State, 

Washington, D. C. 
"My Dear Mr. Secretary: 

"Your long letter of September 30th in reply 
to mine of September 14th is acknowledged 
with thanks. 

"While I appreciate the time and attention 
you gave to your reply, I regret that I cannot 
find in it anything of importance which is new 
or anything which would impel me to alter my 
opinion as to the injurious effects of the trade 
agreement program. 

"You refer to a memorandum, copy of which 
you were kind enough to enclose, prepared by 
the Department of State for the information 
of the Committee on Ways and Means when 
that body was considering the Act in 1934. 

"This memorandum was carefully prepared 
undoubtedly as were also the memoranda pre- 
pared by various and sundry persons opposed 
to the Act. It is entitled to the careful study 
and analysis which any statement of this na- 
ture warrants, but it carries no weight beyond 
that of an opinion which, after study, is sub- 
ject to possible negation. 

"In the same connection, the report of the 
Ways and Means Committee deserves attention 
only as the opinion of that Committee. Per- 
haps it was not even their free opinion. It is 
a matter of record that legislation has been 
urged upon the Congress with the suggestion 
that the question of constitutionality be ignored 
prior to enactment and that it be determined 
by the courts later. 

"There is nothing sacrosanct about the opin- 
ions of the Solicitor of the Department of 



State nor of the Committee on Ways and Means. 
Their opinions carry weight to the extent that 
they coincide with the facts and the law. This 
statement applies equally to the opinions and 
beliefs of the opponents of the trade agreement 
program. The sure way to determine a proper 
conclusion is to debate the question before an 
impartial court and abide by its rulings. 

"I note that you refer to the fact that if a test 
case should be brought challenging the validity 
of the Act, its defense on behalf of the Govern- 
ment of the United States would be in the 
hands of the Department of Justice. That 
seems to me to be normal procedure but the 
arranging of the details necessary to have the 
United States Government join with the State 
of Rhode Island in instituting proceedings be- 
fore the Supreme Court ought to be a matter 
easily arranged. 

"Since the Department of State apparently 
firmly believes that the trade agreement pro- 
gram is unassailable in its constitutionality, it 
should have no objection to the institution of 
such proceedings, particularly in view of the 
fact that very recently the Governors of Minne- 
sota and Kansas, whose constituencies are 
largely composed of those persons supposed to 
have been benefited by trade agreements, have 
expressed their ardent desire for adjudication 
of the entire mattei". 

"In commenting on my statement that our 
export business has not, except during the war 
years, exceeded more than ten percent of the 
total value of the movable or exportable goods 
produced, you assume that I will agree 'that no 
government could wisely ignore the needs and 
opportunities of a business representing so 
large a proportion of our vast national produc- 
tion.' I agree that attention should be given 
to this ten percent of our exportable productive 
capacity, but, on the other hand, is it unreason- 
able to exjiect that the ninety percent of our 
movable goods consumed in the home market 
should receive their proportional part of the 
beneficent attention of the Government which 
would be nine times that given to fostering ex- 
port business for the minority? 



NOV'EMBER 4, 1939 



469 



"There is so much to be said in opposition to 
the present policy of trade agreements and the 
international free-trade point of view which 
prompts them that this correspondence could 
go on interminably. The whole question of our 
foreign policy with regard to foreign trade, in- 
cluding the trade agreement program, seems to 
be based on politics rather than economics. It 
would be extremely diiEcult for the two schools 
of thought to meet on a common ground for a 
reasonable discussion and settlement of the dif- 
ficulties which have arisen. It therefore be- 
comes the duty of those responsible for the pro- 
tection and welfare of their constituents in the 
various states of the Union to have the facts 
presented and the law interpreted before an 
impartial judicial tribunal such as the Supreme 
Court of the United States, and for my part, on 
behalf of the people of the State of Rhode 
Island, this is what I propose to do, if it is 
Ijossible. 

"Sincerely yours, 

William H. Vanueebilt 

Governor'''' 

"October 28, 1939. 
"The Honorable William H. Vandekbilt, 

Governor of Rhode Island, 

Providence. 
"My Dear Governor : 

"I have received your letter of October 23 in 
further regard to your position on the trade- 
agreements program. 

"My purpose in bringing to your attention 
the information relating to the question of con- 
stitutionality of the Trade Agreements Act, 
communicated to you by my letter of September 
30, was simply to provide you with pertinent 
and significant facts, principles and other con- 
siderations, including references to existing 
court decisions. I felt that your expressed in- 
terest in and emphasis upon the constitutional 
aspect would incline you to an interest in the 
available information on the subject. It was, of 
course, never my intention to indicate or imply 
the slightest objection to any proper and appro- 



priate legal proceedings you may consider de- 
sirable. There can, of course, be no objection 
to such proceedings when . properly initiated 
through the established legal procedure. 

"In writing to you originally it had been my 
hope to interest you in a broader and more ac- 
curate and informed view regardiiig the eco- 
nomic merits of the trade-agreements program, 
than was apparent in certain statements attrib- 
uted to you in the press. In view of your letter 
of October 23, 1 must with regret submit to your 
disinclination to consider this matter on its eco- 
nomic merits. In reply to your comment that 
the question 'seems to be based on politics 
rather than economies', I can only say that it is 
unfortunately tiiie that objective consideration 
of this program on the basis of its economic 
merits is only too frequently obscured by oppo- 
sition of a partisan political nature which 
should have no place in the determination of 
important national policies. 

"In view of your action hi giving out your 
letter of October 23 for publication, I am re- 
leasing to the press my letter of September 30, 
to which your letter of October 23 was a reply, 
together with this letter, hi order that the public 
may be fully informed. 
"Sincerely yours, 

Henry F. Grady 
Assistant Secretary''"' 



Publications 



Department of State 

Reciprocal Trade : Agreement Between the United 
States of America and Canada, and Related Notes, 
Declaration, and Proclamation. — Agreement signed at 
Washington November 17, 1938 : proclaimed November 
25, 1938 ; supplementary proclamation June 17, 1939 ; 
entire agreement effective June 17, 1939. Executive 
Agreement Series No. 149. Publication 1365. 56 pp. 

io<;. 

Inter-American Cultural Relations. Inter-American 
Series 17. Publication 1369. 26 pp. 5^. 



International Conferences, Commissions, etc. 



EIGHTH AMERICAN SCIENTIFIC CONGRESS 



[Released to the press November 1] 

The Department of State announced today 
that preparations for the Eighth American Sci- 
entific Congress, which will be held in Wash- 
ington, D. C, May 10-14, 1940, are actively 
progressing. Pursuant to the provisions of 
Public Kesolution 109, 75th Congress, approved 
June 13, 1938, invitations on behalf of the 
President have been issued to the governments 
of the American republics members of the Pan 
American Union to participate in this Con- 
gress, which will be one of the important 
events in the celebration of the fiftieth anni- 
versary of the founding of the Pan American 
Union. 

The following persons have accepted the in- 
vitation of the Secretary of State to serve upon 
an Organizing Committee which is collaborat- 
ing with the Department in formulating defi- 
nite plans for the Congress: 

The Honorable Sumner Welles, Under Secre- 
tary of State, chahinan 

Dr. Warren Kelchner, Acting Chief, Division 
of International Conferences, Department of 
State, vice chairman 

Dr. Alexander Wetmore, Assistant Secretary of 
the Smithsonian Institution, secretary 

Dr. C. G. Abbot, Secretary of the Smithsonian 
Institution 

Dr. Isaiah Bowman, President, Johns Hopkins 
University 

Di'. Vannevar Bush, President, Carnegie Insti- 
tution of Washington 

Dr. Ben M. Cherrington, Chief, Division of 
Cultural Relations, Department of State 

Mr. Laurence Duggan, Chief, Division of the 
American Republics, Department of State 

Dr. Ross G. Harrison, Chairman, National Re- 
search Council 

Dr. Waldo G. Leland, Secretary, American 
Council of Learned Societies 

470 



Mr. Archibald MacLeish, Librarian of Con- 
gress 

Dr. Thomas Parran, Surgeon General, United 
States Public Health Service 

Dr. Stuart A. Rice, Chairman of the Central 
Statistical Board 

Dr. Leo S. Rowe, Director General, Pan 
American Union 

Dr. James Brown Scott, Trustee and Secretary, 
Carnegie Endowment for International 
Peace. 

Dr. Wetmore has been designated also as 
secretary general of the Congress. 

This series of inter- American meetings, serv- 
ing as a medium for the exchange of valuable 
scientific information of particular interest and 
importance to the governments and peoples of 
this hemisphere, has enjoyed a long and dis- 
tinguished history dating from the first Latin 
American Scientific Congress held at Buenos 
Aires in 1898. The Second Latin American 
Scientific Congress was held at Montevideo in 
1901 and the third at Rio de Janeiro in 1905. 

In 1908 the Government of Chile, which had 
offered to act as host to the Fourth Latin Amer- 
ican Scientific Congress, enlarged the scope of 
the meeting and invited this Government to 
participate. Coincidentally, the name of the 
meeting was changed to the First Pan American 
Scientific Congress. The United States Gov- 
ernment was represented by 10 official delegates, 
and in addition a mnnber of universities and 
scientific organizations in the United States 
which had been directly invited by the Or- 
ganizing Committee of the Congress also sent 
delegates to the meeting. 

The Second Pan American Scientific Con- 
gress was in session in Washington, D. C, from 
December 27, 1915, until January 8, 1916, and 
was more largely attended than any other con- 
ference i)i the series. Twenty-five hundred and 



NOVEMBER 4, 19 3 9 



471 



sixty-six persons participated in the sessions, 
including a total of 90 official delegates of the 
20 Latin American governments, 22 official dele- 
gates of the United States Government and 130 
representatives of scientific societies and insti- 
tutions in the other American republics. 

This Government was represented by 10 of- 
ficial delegates at the Third Pan American 
Scientific Congress held at Lima, Peru, in 
December 1924 and January 1925. The fourth 
meeting in this second series of Scientific Con- 
gresses was held in Mexico City in September 
1935 and in recognition of the continuity of the 
preceding conferences was designated as the 
Seventh American Scientific Congress. A dele- 
gation composed of 7 prominent educators and 
scientists was appointed to represent this Gov- 
ernment at the meeting, and in addition 22 
representatives of universities and scientific as- 
sociations in the United States participated in 
the sessions. 



At a meeting of the Organizing Committee 
held at the Department of State on October 23 
it was decided that the Congress will be divided 
into the following sections, each to be in charge 
of a cliairman assisted by a vice chairman, 
secretary, and section committee : 

I. Anthropological Sciences 
II. Biological Sciences 

III. Geological Sciences 

IV. Agriculture and Conservation 
V. Public Health and Medicine 

VI. Physical and Chemical Sciences 
VII. Statistics 
VIII. History and Geography 
IX. International Law, Public Law, and 
Jurisprudence 
X. Economics and Sociology 
XI. Education 

It is anticipated that the chairmen of the 
respective sections will be selected at an early 
date, at which time detailed arrangements for 
the activities of each group will be made. 



■f ^ -f -f -f -f + 



EVTER-AMERICAN COMMITTEE OF EXPERTS ON NATURE PROTECTION 

AND WILDLIFE PRESERVATION 



[Released to the press November 1] 

The Eighth International Conference of 
American States held at Lima, Peru, in De- 
cember 1938 adojDted a resolution on nature 
protection and wildlife preservation designed 
to extend on a continental basis legislation pro- 
viding for the protection and preservation of 
the fauna and flora of this hemisphere. 

Pursuant to the provisions of this resolution 
the Pan American Union has proceeded with 
the establishment of the Inter- American Com- 
mittee of Experts on Nature Protection and 
Wildlife Preservation, to which each of the 
American republics may appoint one repre- 
sentative. The Pan American Union also has 
authorized the designation of such advisers to 
the respective committee members as each of 
the governments may deem necessary. 



With the approval of the President, Dr. 
Alexander Wetmore, Assistant Secretary of the 
Smithsonian Institution, has been designated as 
this Government's representative on the Inter- 
American Committee of Experts. The follow- 
ing officials have accepted the invitation of the 
Secretary of State to serve upon an Advisory 
Committee to assist the United States repre- 
sentative : 

Dr. Ira N. Gabrielson, Chief, Bureau of Bio- 
logical Survey, Department of the Interior 

Mr. Victor H. Cahalane, Chief, Wildlife Divi- 
sion, National Park Service, Department of 
the Interior. 

Dr. H. L. Shantz, Chief, Division of Wildlife 
Management, Forest Service, Department of 
Agriculture 

Mr. Samuel W. Boggs, Geographer, Depart- 
ment of State 



472 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



The Director General of the Pan American 
Union has informed the Department that the 
first meeting of the Inter- American Committee 
of Experts on Nature Protection and Wildlife 



Preservation will be held at the Pan American 
Union from Monday, May 13, to Thursday, May 



16, 1940, inclusive. 



Foreign Service of the United States 



PERSONNEL CHANGES 



[Released to the press November 4] 

Changes in the Foreign Service since October 
21, 1939: 

Hasell H. Dick, of Sumter, S. C, consul at 
Strasbourg, France, has been assigned as consul 
at Bordeaux, France. 

Laurence W. Taylor, of Bakersfield, Calif., 
vice consul at Strasbourg, France, has been 
assigned as vice consul at Bordeaux, France. 

Boies C. Hart, Jr., of Mystic, Comi., vice 
consul at Stuttgart, Germany, has been as- 
signed as vice consul at Cologne, Germany. 

C. Burke Elbrick, of Louisville, Ky., vice 
consul and third secretary of legation at 
Bucharest, Eumania, has been designated third 
secretary of embassy at Paris, France. 

Landreth M. Harrison, of Minneapolis, 
Minn., second secretary of embassy at Warsaw, 
Poland, has been assigned as consul and second 
secretary of legation at Bucharest, Rumania. 

William P. Cochran, Jr., of Wayne, Pa., sec- 
ond secretary of embassy at Lima, Peru, has 
been assigned as consul at Veracruz, Mexico. 

Carlos C. Hall, of Kingman, Ariz., consul at 
Colon, Panama, has been assigned as consul at 
Cartagena, Colombia. 

Walter T. Prendergast, of Marion, Ohio, sec- 
ond secretary of legation and consul at La Paz, 
Bolivia, has resigned from the Foreign Service 
effective October 19, 1939. 

Donald C. Dunham, of Cleveland, Ohio, vice 
consul at Aden, Arabia, has resigned from the 
Foreign Service effective October 30, 1939. 



David K. Caldwell, of Washington, D. C, 
vice consul at Canton, China, has resigned from 
the F'oreigi\ Service effective November 26, 
1939. 

Charles E. Dickerson, Jr., of Oldwick, N. J., 
Foreign Service officer, designated as commer- 
cial attache at Stockholm, Sweden, has been 
assigned as Foi'eign Service officer at the em- 
bassy at Moscow, LTnion of Soviet Socialist 
Eepublics. 

Henry E. Stebbins, of Milton, Mass., Foreign 
Service officer, designated as assistant trade 
commissioner at Paris, France, has been desig- 
nated as assistant trade commissioner at Lon- 
don, England. 

George C. Howard, of New York, N. Y., 
Foreign Service officer, designated as trade 
commissioner at Athens, Greece, has been des- 
ignated as commercial attache at Stockholm, 
Sweden. 

Thormod O. KHath, of Sioux City, Iowa, 
Foreign Service officer, designated as commer- 
cial attache at Warsaw, Poland, has been desig- 
nated commercial attache at Oslo, Norway. 

Jule B. Smith, of Fort Worth, Tex., Foreign 
Service officer, designated as trade commis- 
sioner at Warsaw, Poland, has been designated 
as trade commissioner at Copenliagen, Den- 
mark. 

Fred E. Waller, of Washington, D. C, vice 
consul at Lille, France, has been appointed vice 
onsul at Nantes, France. 

William W. Walker, of Asheville, N. C, vice 
consul at La Ceiba, Honduras, has been ap- 
pointed vice consul at Colon, Panama. 



Treaty Information 



Compiled by the Treaty Division 
JUDICIAL SETTLEMENT 
Permanent Court of International Justice 



India 

There is quoted below the text of a letter re- 
ceived by the Secretariat of the League of Na- 
tions on October 2, 1939, relating to the accept- 
ance by India of the Optional Clause (article 
36) of" the Statute of the Permanent Court of 
International Justice: 

"India Office, 
Whitehall, 27th Sefteniber, 1939. 
"Sir: 

"I am directed by the Secretary of State for 
India to inform you that he has found it nec- 
essary to consider, in consultation with the Gov- 
ernment of India, the position, in present cir- 
cumstances, of India's acceptance of the Op- 
tional Clause of the statute of the Permanent 
Court of International Justice. This accept- 
ance was for ten years from the date of ratifi- 
cation, which took place on the 5th February, 
1930. 

"In this connection he has had an opportunity 
of studying the considerations mentioned in the 
letter which was addressed to you on the 7th 
September last by His Majesty's Secretary of 
State for Foreign Affairs on behalf of His Maj- 
esty's Government in the United Kingdom. 
These considerations apply equally to the posi- 
tion of India. I am therefore to notify you that 
India's acceptance of the Optional Clause will 
not be regarded as covering disputes arising out 
of events occurring during the present hostili- 
ties. 

"I am to request that this notification may 
be communicated to the Governments of all 
States which have accepted the Optional 
Clause, and to the Kegistrar of the Permanent 
Court of International Justice. 
"I am [etc.] Cecil Kisch" 



There is printed below the text of a circular 
letter dated October 6, 1939, from the Secre- 
tary General of the League of Nations which 
relates to the position of the Swiss Government 
regarding the declarations made by the Gov- 
ernments of Australia, France, Great Britain, 
New Zealand, and the Union of South Africa 
concerning the acceptances by these Govern- 
ments of the Optional Clause of the Statute of 
the Permanent Court of International Justice : 

"With reference to my letters of September 
13th, 19th and 20th, 1939 (C. L. 141, 142, 143, 
147 and 148. 1939. V.), by which I had the 
honour to forward to you copies of the letters 
from His Majesty's Governments in the United 
Kingdom, in the Commonwealth of Australia, 
in New Zealand and in the Union of South 
Africa, and from the Goverimient of the French 
Eepublic, concerning the acceptance by the said 
Governments of the Optional Clause of the 
Statute of the Permanent Court of Interna- 
tional Justice, I beg to inform you that the Fed- 
eral Councillor, Head of the Swiss Federal 
Political Department, sent to me on Septem- 
ber 25th, 1939, a letter the text of which is re- 
produced below : 

'■'■ {Translation.) 

" 'By communications dated September 13th, 
19th and 20th, the Secretariat of the League of 
Nations has informed us that the Australian, 
United Kingdom, French, New Zealand and 
South African Governments have unilaterally 
denounced their obligations under the Optional 
Clause of Article 36 of the Statute of the Per- 
manent Court of International Justice. 

" 'We have the honour to inform you that, 
while taking note of these notifications, the 
Swiss Federal Council has reservations to make 
regarding the principle which a denunciation 
effected in such circumstances involves.' 

473 



474 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



"This communication reached the Secretariat 
of the League of Nations on September 28th, 
1939." 

RESTRICTION OF WAR 

Convention for the Amelioration of the Con- 
dition of the Wounded and the Sick of 
Armies in the Field (Treaty Series No. 

847) 

There is quoted below the translation of a 
note dated October 18, 1939, from the Swiss 
Minister at Washington regarding the adher- 
ence of the Slovak Republic to the Convention 
for the Amelioration of the Condition of the 
Wounded and the Sick of Armies in the Field, 
signed at Geneva on July 27, 1939 : 

"Me. Secretary of State : 

"In execution of Article 37 of the Convention 
for the Amelioration of the Condition of the 
Sick and Wounded of Armies in the Field, con- 
cluded at Geneva on July 27, 1929, I have the 
honor to advise you, by order of my Govern- 
ment, that the Government of the Slovak Re- 
public has notified the Swiss Federal Council, 
through the intermediary of the Legation of 
Switzerland at Berlin, of its adherence to this 
agreement on September 15, 1939. 

"The act of adherence provides that the 
Slovak Government would consider itself, in 
accordance with Article 37 of the said conven- 
tion, a party to the latter, from the beginning 
of hostilities in which Slovakia might find 
itself engaged. 

"I should be grateful to you, if you would be 
good enough to give me official notification of 
the receipt of the present communication, and 
I beg you to please accept [etc.] 

C. Bruggmann 
Minister of Switzerland" 

According to the information of the Depart- 
ment the following countries have ratified or 
adhered to the convention : Aden, LTnited States 
of America, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Bul- 
garia, Canada, Chile, China, Czechoslovakia, 
Denmark, Egypt, Estonia, Ethiopia, Finland, 



France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hun- 
gary, India, Iraq, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Lith- 
uania, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nor- 
way, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Rumania, Spain, 
Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Union of South 
Africa, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, 
Thailand (Siam), and Yugoslavia. 

Convention Relating to the Treatment of 
Prisoners of War (Treaty Series No. 846) 

There is quoted below the translation of a 
note dated October 18, 1939, from the Swiss 
Minister at Washington regarding the adher- 
ence of the Slovak Republic to the Convention 
Relating to the Treatment of Prisoners of War, 
signed at Geneva on July 27, 1929 : 

"Mr. Secretary of State: 

"In execution of Article 95 of the Conven- 
tion relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of 
War, concluded at Geneva July 27, 1929, 1 have 
the honor to inform you, on instructions from 
my Government, that the Government of the 
Slovak Republic notified the Swiss Federal 
Council, through the Legation of Switzerland 
at Berlin, of its adherence to this agreement 
under date of September 15, 1939. 

"The act of adherence provides that, in ac- 
cordance with Article 95 of the said Conven- 
tion, the Slovak Government is to consider it- 
self a member thereof upon the beginning of 
hostilities in which Slovakia should find itself 
engaged. 

"I should appreciate it if you would be good 
enough to acknowledge the present communi- 
cation and I beg you to accept [etc.] 

G. Bruggmann 
Minister of Switzerland''' 

According to the information of the Depart- 
ment the following countries have ratified or 
adhered to the convention: Aden, United 
States of America, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, 
Bulgaria, Burma, Canada, Chile, China, 
Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Egypt, Estonia, 
France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hun- 
gary, India, Italy, Iraq, Latvia, Lithuania, 



NO\TEMBER 4, 19 39 

Mexico. Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, 
Poland, Portugal, Rumania, Spain, Sweden, 
Switzerland, Turkey, Union of South Africa, 
Thailand (Siam), and Yugoslavia. 

HEALTH 

Convention Modifying the International 
Sanitary Convention of June 21, 1926 

The American Minister to Egypt trans- 
mitted to the Secretary of State with a despatch 
dated September 20, 1939, a copy of the decree 
of September 14, 1939, which creates a Quar- 
antine Administration as an organ of the 
Egj'ptian Ministry of Public Health and annuls 
previous decrees under which the Sanitary, 
Maritime, and Quarantine Board of Egypt was 
established. The decree, which entered into 
force on November 1, 1939, is printed below in 
the translation furnished by the Legation : 

Decree Creating a Quarantine Administra- 
tion AS AN Organ of the Ministry or Public 
Health and Suppression of the Sanitary, 
Maritime and Quarantine Board of Egypt. 

We, Farouk I, Iving of Egypt, 

In view of the Decrees of January 3, 1881 
and June 19, 1893 organizing the Sanitary, 
Maritime and Quarantine Board of Egypt; 

In view of the Decree Law of September 19, 
1935 approving of the International Sanitary 
Convention signed at Paris June 21, 1926; 

In view of the Decree of August 6, 1939 pro- 
mulgating the Convention signed at Paris on 
October 31, 1938, modifying the International 
Sanitary Convention of June 21, 1926; 

In view of the Decree of December 10, 1878 
dividing the Government services among the 
various Ministerial Departments; 

On the proposal of Our Minister of Public 
Health and with the agreement of Our Council 
of Ministers; 

Decree: 

Article 1. The Minister of Public Health is 
charged : 



475 

(1) With the taking of measures in order to 
prevent the introduction into Egypt, by sea, 
land and air, of epidemic sicknesses, as well as 
their transmission abroad; 

(2) With the provision of measures relative 
to the sanitary control of Egyptian pilgrims 
going to or returning from the Hejaz; 

(3) With the permanent control of the sani- 
tary condition of i^roducts of foreign countries; 

(4) With the dissemination of necessary in- 
formation and notices particularly those re- 
quired by the International Sanitary Conven- 
tions. 

To this end, a "Quarantine Administration" 
which shall have at its head a Director General, 
is created in the Ministry of Public Health. 

Article 2. In case of necessity, preventative 
measures, having as their purpose the preven- 
tion of the introduction into Egypt of epidemic 
sicknesses or their transmission abroad, may be 
taken by the Director General, of the Quaran- 
tine Administration. 

He may likewise in such circumstances issue 
the necessary notices. 

Article 3. The property assigned to the serv- 
ices required by the Sanitary, Maritime and 
Quarantine Board of Egypt shall be trans- 
ferred to the competent Ministries on Novem- 
ber 1, 1939. 

Article 4. The Decrees of January 3, 1881 
and June 19, 1893, organizing the Sanitary, 
Maritime and Quarantine Board of Egypt, are 
annulled. 

Article 5. Our Minister of Public Health is 
charged with the execution of the present de- 
cree, which shall go into force on November 1, 
1939. 

He shall make any resolutions necessary for 
this end. 

Done at Montaza Palace, September 14, 1939. 

Farouk 

By the King: 

The President of the Council of Minis- 
ters, 

Aly Maher. 
The Minister of Public Health, 

Hamed Mahmoud. 



476 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BUIXETIN 



PUBLICATIONS 

Convention on Interchange of Publications 

United States 

On October 23, 1939, the instrument of rati- 
fication by the United States of the Convention 
on Interchange of Publications, signed at the 
Inter-American Conference for the Mainte- 
nance of Peace, Buenos Aires, December 23, 
1936, was deposited with the Pan American 
Union in Washington. The convention was 
ratified by the United States with the following 
understanding made a part thereof: 

"To carry out the provisions of article III, 
bilateral agreements may be entered into 
through exchanges of notes between the United 
States and the other governments parties to 
the convention settmg forth the procedures to 
be followed, any modifications which may seem 
advisable in the number of copies of publica- 
tions required to be exchanged under the said 
article, and the government agencies to be 
responsible for the delivery of the publications." 

The Director General of the Pan American 
Union transmitted to the Secretary of State 
with a letter dated October 27, 1939, a certified 
copy of the Proces-Verbal of the deposit. The 
letter is quoted below : 

"OcTOBEK 27, 1939. 
"Mt Dil\r ]\Ie. Secretary : 

"I have the honor to inform you that on this 
date the signatories of the Convention on In- 
terchange of Publications, signed at the Inter- 
American Conference for the Maintenance of 
Peace at Buenos Aires in 1936, were notified of 
the deposit on October 23, 1939 of the instru- 
ment of ratification on the part of the United 
States of America of the said convention. Cer- 
tified cojiies of the proces-verbal of deposit, 
which contains the text of the understanding 
formulated by the Government of the United 
States of America in ratifying the convention, 



were sent to the signatories with the notifica- 
tion of the deposit. A certified copy of the said 
proces-verbal is likewise sent to you enclosed 
herewith. 

"The signatories were also informed that the 
procedure with reference to reservations, pro- 
vided for in paragraph 2 of Resolution No. 
XXIX ^ of the Lima Conference, was not fol- 
lowed in the case of the above mentioned under- 
standing for the reasons set forth in your letter 
of October 6, 1939, which read textuaUy as 
follows : 

" 'In the opinion of the Department of State 
this understanding is not of the nature of a res- 
ervation coming within the purview of the 
resolution of the Lima Conference but is rather 
merely a grant of authority to the Executive 
branch of this Government to implement the 
Convention separately with other countries by 
exchanges of notes. The understanding does 
not relieve the United States of any obligations 
under the Convention or place any obligations 
on the other parties to it. Each of the other 
parties would be free to enter into such ex- 
changes of notes with the United States as are 
contemplated by the understanding or not, as it 
might elect.' 

"I beg to remain, my dear Mr. Secretary, 
"Yours very sincerely, 

L. S. EowE 
Director General'''' 

The countries which have ratified the con- 
vention are United States of America, Brazil, 
Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, 
Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Nicaragua, 
Panama, Peru, and Venezuela. 



' Paragraph 2 of Resolution XXIX reads as follows : 
"2. In the event of adherence or ratification with 
reservations, the adhering or ratifying State shall 
transmit to the Pan American Union, prior to the 
deposit of the respective instrument, the text of the 
reservation which it proposes to formulate, so that the 
Pan American Union may inform the signatory States 
thereof and ascertain whether they accept it or not. 
The State which proposes to adhere to or ratify the 
Treaty, may do it or not, taking into account the 
observations which may be made with regard to its 
reservations by the signatory States." 



U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1939 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C. — Price 10 cents ----- Subscription price, $2.75 a year 

FUBLISBBD WEEKLY WITH THE APPKOVAL OF THE DIRECfTOR OF THE BCHEAU OF THE BDDQET 



V 



j>,jK.J^ 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



.O \j ILj 



^ 



J 



ETIN 



Qontents 



NOVEMBER ii, 1939 
Vol. I: No. 20 — Publication 1 40 4 




Europe: 

Neutrality Act of 1939 — rules and regulations: page 

Combat areas 479 

Travel of American citizens on belligerent ves- 
sels 480 

Arms for disciplinary purposes on American ves- 
sels 481 

Contributions for relief in belligerent countries . . . 482 

Transfer of title 485 

Detention by belligerents of American vessels for 

examination of papers or cargoes 486 

The American Republics: 

Conference on Inter-American Relations in the Field 
of Education: 

Address by the Secretary of State 489 

The Policy and Program of the United States Gov- 
ernment in International Cultural Relations: Re- 
marks by Under Secretary Welles 491 

Proceedings of the Conference 494 

Meeting of Treasury Representatives of the American 

Republics 506 

The Good-Neighbor Policy for the Americas: Sum- 
mary of Remarks by Assistant Secretary Grady . . 507 
The Far East: 

Address by the American Ambassador to Japan . . . 509 

\Over\ 



U. §. gllPfPir'TFNPENT OF DOCUMENTS 
D£C 11 1939 



Commercial Policy: Page 

Letter from the Secretary of State to Senator Capper . 516 
Analysis of the trade agreement with Venezuela . . . 524 
Publications: 

Publication of Foreign Relations of the United States, 

1924 540 

Treaty Infokmation: 

Arbitration and judicial settlement: 

General Act for the Pacific Settlement of Intenui- 

tional Disputes 541 

Mutual guaranties: 

Pact of Mutual Assistance between Latvia and the 

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 542 

Pact of Mutual Assistance between Estonia and the 

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 543 

Anglo-Franco-Turkish Treaty of Mutual Assistance. 544 
Organization: 

Protocol for the Amendment of the Preamble, of 
Articles 1,4, and 5, and of the Annex to the Cove- 
nant of the League of Nations 546 

Extradition: 

Extradition treaty with Germany (Treaty Series No. 

836) . . . . " "...." 546 

Health: 

Convention Modifying the International Sanitary 

Convention of June 21, 1926 547 

Commerce: 

Reciprocal Trade Agreement with Venezuela . . . 547 



NEUTRALITY ACT OF 1939— RULES AND REGULATIONS 

Combat Areas 



[Keleasetl to the press November 6] 

Regulations Under Section 3 of the Joint 
Resolution of Congress Approved Novem- 
ber 4, 1939 

Xo%'ember 6. 1939. 
The President's Proclamation of November 
4, 1939, issued pursuant to the provisions of 
section 3 of the joint resolution of Congress 
approved November 4, 1939, provides as 
follows : 

[Here follows the text of the proclamation 
defining combat areas, which is printed in the 
BuUetm of November 4. 1939 (vol. I. No. 19). 
pages 454-455.] 

By virtue of the authority vested in him by 
the President's proclamation quoted above to 
promulgate such rules and regulations not in- 
consistent with law as may be necessary and 
proper to cari'y out the provisions of section 
3 of the joint resolution of Congress approved 
November 4, 1939, as made effective by this 
proclamation, the Secretary of State prescribes 
the following regulations: 

(1) Holders of American passports issued 
or validated subsequent to September 4, 1939 
for travel in Europe are hereby permitted to 
proceed, in accordance with the authoriza- 
tions and subject to the restrictions noted on 
such passports, into and through any such 
combat area, whether by surface vessels or 
aircraft, or both, until further regulation. 
Holders of American passports, whether or 



not so issued or validated, presently in the 
combat areas defined by the proclamation of 
the President of the United States dated No- 
vember 4, 1939, are hereby permitted to pro- 
ceed into and through such combat areas in 
connection with travel in accordance with the 
authorizations and subject to the restrictions 
noted on such passj^orts, until further regula- 
tion. 

(2) The provisions of the Pi-esident's 
Proclamation of November 4, 1939, do not 
apply to the current voyage of any American 
vessel which cleared for a foreign port in the 
combat area defined in that proclamation and 
which departed from a port or from the 
jurisdiction of the United States in advance 
of the date of the President's proclamation. 

(3) The provisions of the proclamation do 
not apply to vessels of the United States 
Navy or the United States Coast Guard pro- 
ceeding through or into this area under orders 
or in the course of dut3\ 

(4) The provisions of the proclamation do 
not apply to any American vessel which, by 
arrangement with the appropriate authorities 
of the United States Government, is commis- 
sioned to proceed into or through this combat 
area in order to evacuate citizens of the United 
States who are in imminent danger to their 
lives as a result of combat operations incident 
to the present war, or to any American vessel 
proceeding into or through this area under 

479 



480 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BUIXETIN 



charter or other direction and control of the 
American Eed Cross and under safe conduct 
granted by belligerent states named in the 



President's proclamation of November 4, 1939. 

CoKDELL Hull, 
Secretary of State. 



Travel of American Citizens on Belligerent Vessels 



[Released to the press November 6] 

Regulations Under Section 5 or the Joint 
Resolution of Congress Approved No\t.m- 
BER 4, 1939 

Section 5 of the joint resolution of Congress 
approved November 4. 1939, provides as fol- 
lows: 

"(a) Whenever the President shall have 
issued a proclamation under the authority of 
section 1 (a) it shall thereafter be unlawful 
for any citizen of the United States to travel 
on any vessel of any state named in such proc- 
lamation, except in accordance with such rules 
and regulations as may be prescribed. 

'•(b) Wlienever any proclamation issued 
under the authority of section 1 (a) shall have 
been revoked with respect to any state the 
provisions of this section shall thereupon cease 
to apply with respect to such state, except as to 
offenses committed prior to such revocation." 

Section 15 of the said joint resolution pro- 
vides as follows : 

"In every case of the violation of any of the 
provisions of this joint resolution or of any 
rule or regulation issued pursuant thereto 
where a specific penalty is not herein provided, 
such violator or violators, upon conviction, 
shall be fined not more than $10,000, or im- 
prisoned not more than two years, or both." 

On November 4, 1939, the President issued 
a proclamation in respect to France; Ger- 
many; Poland; and the United Kingdom, In- 
dia, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the 
Union of South Africa under the authority of 
section 1 of the said joint resolution, thereby 
making effective in respect to those countries 



the jjrovisions of section 5 of the said joint 
resolution quoted above. 

Section 13 of the said joint resolution pro- 
vides as follows: 

"The President may, from time to time, 
promulgate such rules and regulations, not in- 
consistent with law as may be necessary and 
proper to carry out any of the provisions of 
this joint resolution: and he may exercise any 
jjower or authority conferred on him by this 
joint resolution through such officer or officers, 
or agency or agencies, as he shall direct." 

The President's proclamation of November 
4. 1939, issued pursuant to the provisions of 
section 1 of the above-mentioned joint resolu- 
tion provides in part as follows : 

"And I do liereby delegate to the Secretary 
of State the power to exercise any power or 
authority conferred on me by the said joint 
resolution, as made effective by this my procla- 
mation issued thereunder, which is not spe- 
cifically delegated by Executive order to some 
other officer or agency of this Government, and 
the power to promulgate such rules and regu- 
lations not inconsistent with law as may be 
necessary and proper to carry out any of its 
provisions." 

In pursuance of those provisions of tlie law 
and of the President's proclamation of Novem- 
ber 4, 1939, which are quoted above, the Sec- 
retary of State announces the following 
regulations : 

American diplomatic and consular officere 
and their families, members of their staffs and 
their families, and American military and 
naval officers and personnel and their families 



NOVEMBER 11, 1939 



481 



may travel i)iirsuant to orders on vessels of 
France; Germany ; Poland; or the United 
Kingdom, India, Australia, Canada, New Zea- 
land and the Union of South Africa if the 
public service requires. 

Other American citizens may travel on ves- 
sels of France; Germany; Poland; or the 
United Kingdom, India, Australia, Canada, 
New Zealand and the Union of South Africa, 
provided, however, that travel on or over the 



north Atlantic Ocean north of 35 degrees 
north latitude and east of 66 degrees west 
longitude or on or over other waters adjacent 
t'l Europe or over the continent of Europe or 
adjacent islands shall not be permitted except 
when specifically authorized by the Secretary 
of State in each case. 

CoRDELL Hull, 
Secretary of State. 
November 6, 1939. 



Arms for Disciplinary Purposes on American Vessels 



[Released to the press November 6] 

EEGtJLATIONS UndER SeCTION 6 OF THE JoiNT 

Resolution of Congress Approved November 
4, 1939 

Section 6 of the joint resolution of Congress 
approved November -l, 1939, provides as 
follows : 

"Whenever the President shall have issued 
a proclamation under the authority of section 
1 (a), it shall thereafter be unlawful, until 
such proclamation is revoked, for any Amer- 
ican vessel, engaged in commerce with any 
foreign state to be armed, except with small 
arms and ammunition therefor, which the 
President may deem necessary and shall pub- 
licly designate for the preservation of disci- 
pline aboard any such vessel." 

Section 15 of the said joint resolution pro- 
vides as follows: 

''In every case of the violation of any of the 
provisions of this joint resolution or of any 
rule or regulation issued pursuant thereto 
where a specific penalty is not herein provided, 
such violator or violators, upon conviction, 
shall be fined not more than $10,000, or impris- 
oned not more than two years, or both." 

On November 4, 1939, the President issued 
a proclamation in respect to France ; Germany ; 
Poland ; and the United Kingdom, India. Aus- 



tralia, Canada, New Zealand and the Union of 
South Africa under the authority of section 1 
of the said joint resolution, thereby making 
effective the provisions of section 6 of the said 
joint resolution quoted above. 

Section 13 of the said joint resolution pro- 
vides as follows: 

"The President may, from time to time, pro- 
mulgate such rules and regulations, not incon- 
sistent with law as may be necessary and proper 
to carry out any of the provisions of this joint, 
resolution; and he may exercise any power or 
authority conferred on him by this joint reso- 
lution through such oflScer or officers, or agency 
or agencies, as he shall direct." 

The President's proclamation of November 
4, 1939, issued pursuant to the provisions of 
section 1 of the above-mentioned joint resolu- 
tion provides in part as follows: 

"And I do hereby delegate to the Secretary 
of State the power to exercise any power or 
authority conferred upon me by the said joint 
resolution, as made effective by this my procla- 
mation issued thereunder, which is not spe- 
cifically delegated by Executive order to some 
other officer or agency of this Government, and 
the power to promulgate such rules and regula- 
tions not inconsistent with law as may be nec- 
essary and proper to carry out any of its 
provisions." 



482 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



In pursuance of those provisions of the law 
and of the President's proclamation of Novem- 
ber 4, 1939, which are quoted above, the Sec- 
retary of State announces the following 



regulations : 



Ainerican vessels engaged in commerce with 
foreign states may carry such small arms and 
ammunition as the masters of these vessels may 
deem indispensable for the preservation of dis- 
cipline aboard the vessels. 



Contributions for Relief in Belligerent Countries 



[Released to the press November 6] 

EtJLES AND Regulations Go-mcrning the Solic- 
itation AND Collection of Contributions 
FOR Use in France: Germany; Poland; and 
THE United Kjngdom, India, Austr.\lia, 
Canada, New Zealand, and tiie Union of 
South Africa 

Section 8 of the joint resolution of Congress 
approved November 4, 1939 (Public Resolu- 
tion — No. 54 — 76th Congress — Second Session) 
provides as follows: 

"Sec. 8. (a) Whenever the President shall 
have issued a proclamation under the authority 
of section 1 (a), it shall thereafter be unlaw- 
ful for any pers(m witliin the United States 
to solicit or receive any contribution for or 
on behalf of the govermnent of any state 
named in such proclamation or for or on be- 
half of any agent or instrumentality of any 
such state. 

"(b) Nothing in this section shall be con- 
strued to prohibit the solicitation or collection 
of funds and contributions to be used for medi- 
cal aid and assistance, or for food and clothing 
to relieve human suffering, when such solicita- 
tion or collection of funds and contributions 
is made on behalf of and for use by any person 
or organization which is not acting for or on 
behalf of any such government, but all such 
solicitations and collections of funds and con- 
tributions shall be in accordance with and sub- 
ject to such rules and regulations as may be 
prescribed. 

"(c) Whenever any proclamation issued 
under the authority of section 1 (a) shall have 
been revoked with respect to any state the 
provisions of this section shall thereupon cease 



to apply with respect to such state, except as 
to oifenses committed prior to such revocatioiL" 

Section 15 of the said joint resolution pro- 
vides as follows: 

"Sec. 15. In every case of the violation of 
any of the provisions of this joint resolution 
or of any rule or regulation issued pursuant 
thereto where a specific penalty is not herein 
provided, such violator or violators, upon con- 
viction, shall be fined not more than $10,000, 
or imprisoned not more than two vears, or 
both." 

On November 4, 1939, the President issued a 
pi'oclamation in respect to France; Germany; 
Poland ; and the United Kingdom, India, Aus- 
tralia, Canada. New Zealand, and the Union 
of South Africa under the authority of section 
1 of the said joint resolution, thereby making 
effective in respect to those countries the pro- 
visions of section 8 of the said joint resolution 
quoted above. 

Section 13 of the said joint resolution pro- 
vides as follows : 

"Sec. 13. The President may, from time to 
time, promulgate such i-ules and regulations, 
not inconsistent with law as may be necessary 
and proper to carry out any of the pro- 
visions of this joint resolution; and he may 
exercise any power or authority conferred on 
him by this joint resolution through such officer 
or officers, or agency or agencies, as he shall 
direct." 

The President's proclamation of November 
4, 1939, referred to above, issued pursuant to 



NOVEMBER 11, 1939 



483 



the provisions of section 1 of the above- 
mentioned joint resohition pro\'ides in part 
as follows: 

"And I do hereby delegate to the Secretary 
of State the power to exercise any power oi' 
authority conferred on me by the said joint 
resolution, as made effective by this my proc- 
lamation issued thereunder, wliich is not 
specifically delegated by Executive order to 
some other officer or agency of this Govern- 
ment, and the power to promulgate such rules 
and regulations not inconsistent with law as 
may be necessary and proper to carry out any 
of its provisions." 

Ill pursuance of those provisions of the law 
and of the President's proclamation of Novem- 
ber 4, 1939, referred to above, the Secretary of 
State promulgates the following regulations: 

(1) The term ''person" as used herein and 
in the act of November 4, 1939, includes a 
partnership, company, association, organiza- 
tion, or corporation as well as a natural 
person. 

(2) Any i^erson within the United States, 
its territories, insular possessions (including 
the Philippine Islands), the Canal Zone, and 
the District of Columbia who desires to en- 
gage in the solicitation or collection of 
contributions to be used for medical aid and 
assistance in France; Germany; Poland; or 
the United Kingdom, India, Australia, Can- 
ada, New Zealand, and the Union of South 
Africa, or for food and clothing to relieve 
human suffering in any of those countries, and 
who is not acting for or on behalf of the Gov- 
ernments of France ; Germany ; Poland ; or the 
United Kingdom, India, Australia, Canada, 
New Zealand, and the Union of South Africa, 
or for any agent or instrumentality of such 
countries, shall register with the Secretary of 
State. To this end, such person shall make 
application in duplicate to the Secretary of 
State upon the form provided therefor. 

(3) Organizations or associations having 
chapters or affiliates shall list them in their 
application for registration and shall set forth 
therein the addresses of such chapters or affil- 



iates. In case chapters or affiliates are foi'med 
after the registi'ation of the parent organiza- 
tion, the parent should iuunediately inform 
the Secretary of State in order that its regis- 
tration may be amended to name the new 
chapters or affiliates. 

(4) No person shall solicit or collect con- 
tributions without having in his possession a 
notice from the Secretary of State of ac- 
ceptance of registration which has not been 
revoked; Provided, however, that nothing in 
this regulation shall be construed as requiring 
a duly authorized agent of a registrant to have 
in his possession a notice of acceptance of 
registration. Chapters or affiliates named in 
the parent organization's registration may, of 
course, operate under this registration. No- 
tices of accejDtance of registration shall not be 
exhibited, used, or referred to in any manner 
which might be construed as implying official 
endorsement of the persons engaged in the 
solicitation or collection of contributions. 

(5) All persons registered with the Secre- 
tary of State must maintain for his inspection 
or that of his duly authorized agent, complete 
I'ecords of all transactions in which the regis- 
trant engages. 

(6) Persons receiving notification of accept- 
ance of registration shall submit to the Sec- 
retary of State not later than the tenth day of 
every month following the receipt of sucii 
notification sworn statements, in duplicate, on 
the form provided therefor setting forth fully 
the information called for therein. 

(7) The Secretary of State reserves the 
right to reject applications or to revoke reg- 
istrations for failure on the part of the 
registrant to comply with the provisions or 
purposes of the law or of these regulations. 

(8) A registrant may act as an agent for 
the transmittal abroad of funds received by 
another registrant, but such funds shall not 
be accoimtable as contributions received by 
the transmitting registrant. 

(9) Any changes in the facts set forth in 
the registrant's application for registration, 
such as change of address, of officers, or of 
means of distribution abroad, should be re- 



484 



DEPARTMEXT OF STATE BULLETIN 



ported promptly to the Secretary of State in 
tlie form of a supplemental application, in 
duplicate, projDerly sworn to. 

(10) In view of the purposes and special 
status of "The American National Red Cross'' 
as set forth in the Act of Congress approved 
January 5, 1905, entitled "An Act to incor- 
])orate the American National Eed Cross" (33 
Stat. 599), and particularly in view of the 
fact that it is required by law to submit to 
the Secretary of War for audit "a full, com- 
plete, and itemized report of receipts and ex- 
penditures of whatever kind", so that the 
submission to the Secretary of State of re- 
ports of funds received and expended would 
constitute an unnecessary duplication, "Tlie 
American National Red Cross" is not required 
to conform to the provisions of these regula- 
tions. 

(11) No registration will be accepted until 
satisfactory evidence is presented to the Secre- 
tary of State that the applicant for registra- 
tion has organized an active and responsible 
governing body which will serve without com- 
pensation and which will exercise a satisfac- 
tory administrative control, and that the funds 
collected by the registrant will be handled by 
a competent and trustworthy treasurer. 

(12) No registration will be accepted if the 
means proposed to be used to solicit or collect 
contributions include the employment of so- 
licitors on commission or any other commis- 
sion method of raising money; the use of the 
"remit or return" method of raising money by 
the sale of merchandise or tickets; the giving 
of entertainments for money-raising purposes 
if the estimated costs of such entertainments, 
including compensation, exceed 30 percent of 
the gross proceeds, or any other wasteful or 
unethical method of soliciting contributions. 

(13) No registration will be accepted until 
the Secretary of State has been informed in 
writing by a responsible officer of the applicant 
for registration that he has read these 
regulations. 

(14) The Secretary will exercise the right 
reserved under regulation (7) to revoke any 
registration upon receipt of evidence which 



leads him to believe that the registrant has 
failed to maintain such a governing body as 
that described under regulation (11), has failed 
to employ such a treasurer as that described 
imder regulation (11), has employed any of 
the methods for soliciting contributions set 
forth under regulation (12). has employed un- 
ethical methods of publicity, or has failed to 
attain a reasonable degree of efficiency in the 
conduct of operations. 

(16) The sworn statement to be submitted 
by registrants in accordance with regulation 
(6) shall be supi)lemented by such further 
information as the Secretary of State may 
deem necessary. 

(16) Valid registrations under the rules and 
regulations governing the solicitation and col- 
lection of contributions for use in belligerent 
countries promulgated September 5, 9, and 11, 
and October 4, 1939, pursuant to section 3 of 
the Neutrality Act of May 1, 1937, remain valid 
under these regulations. 

CoKDELL Hull,, 
Secretary of State. 

November 6, 1939. 



[Released to tbe press November 9] 

The following persons and organizations 
Iiave registered with the Secretai'y of State 
since October 28, 1939 (the names of 151 reg- 
istrants were published on and before that 
date) under the rules and regulations govern- 
ing the solicitation and collection of contribu- 
tions to be used for medical aid and assistance 
or for the supplyiiig of food and clothing to 
relieve human suffering in the countries now 
at war, promulgated pursuant to the provi- 
sions of section 3 (a) of the Neutrality Act of 
May 1, 1937, as made effective by the Presi- 
dent's proclamations of September 5, 8, and 
10, 1939, and pursuant to the provisions of 
section 8 of the act of November 4, 1939, as 
made effective by the President's proclamation 
of November 4, 1939 (the names in parentheses 
represent the countries to which contributions 
are being sent) : 



NOVEMBER 11, 1939 



485 



152. Les Aiiciens Combattants Frangais de la 
Grande Guerre, Room 313 War Memorial 
Building, San Francisco, Calif. (France) 

153. Polish Relief Fund, Echo Club, 341 Por- 
tage Road, Niagara Falls, N. Y. (Poland) 

154. United Committee for French Relief, 330 
West Thirtieth Street, New York, N. Y. 
(France) 

155. Polish Civilian Relief Fund, St. Joseph's 
School Hall, Monroe Street, Passaic, N. J. 
(Poland) 

156. Polish Aid Association of the Sixth Con- 
gressional District, including Perham and 
Browerville, INIinn., Little Falls, Minn. 
(Poland) 

157. Central Committee Knesseth Israel, 214 
East Broadway, New York, N. Y. (Pales- 
tine) 

158. Polish Relief Committee of Nassau Coun- 
ty, N. Y., 450 Front Street, Hempstead, 
N. Y. (Poland) 

159. L'Union Alsacienne, Inc., 28 West Thirty- 
ninth Street, New York, N. Y. (France) 

160. Committee of the American Fund for 
Breton Relief, care of Mrs. W. Kennedy 
Boone, Jr., 21 East 10th Street, New York, 
N. Y. (France) 

161. Polish Relief Fund of Syracuse, N. Y., 
and vicinity, 1411 West Genesee Street, 
Syracuse, N. Y. (Poland) 

162. Polish Relief Committee, 1680 Acushnet 
Avenue, New Bedford, Mass. (Poland) 

163. American Friends of Czecho-Slovakia, 
Room 2213, 8 West Fortieth Street, New 
York, N. Y. (Great Britain, France, and 
Bohemia and Moravia) 



164. The Sacred Heart Roman Catholic 
Church, Sacred Heart Rectory, Furnace 
Street, Little Falls, N. Y. (Poland) 

165. Golden Rule Foundation, 60 East Forty- 
second Street, New York, N. Y. (Poland 
and Palestine) 

16G. United Polish Committees in Racine, Wis., 
1809 Howe Street, Racine, Wis. (Poland) 

167. Saint Adalbert's Polish Relief Associa- 
tion, Polish National Home, Thompsonville, 
Conn. (Poland) 

168. Cercle Frangais de Seattle, 308 Marion 
Street, Seattle, Wash. (France and Great 
Britain) 

169. General Gustav Orlicz Dreszer Founda- 
tion for Aid to Polish Children, 209 Heurich 
Building, Washington, D. C. (Poland) 

170. Polish Relief Committee of Holyoke, 
Mass., 200 Main Street, Holyoke, Mass. 
(Poland) 

171. Ware Polish Relief Fund, Pulaski Street, 
Ware, Mass. (Poland) 

172. Milford, Connecticut, Polish Relief Fund 
Committee, 61 Lafayette Street, Milford, 
Conn. (Poland) 

173. Central Council of Polish Organizations, 
103 West Miller Street, New Castle, Pa. 
(England, Poland, and France) 

174. Polish Relief Committee, 138 Bernard 
Street, Rochester, N. Y. (Poland) 

175. Polish Relief Fund of Fall River, Mass., 
827 Globe Street, Fall River, Mass. (Po- 
land) 

176. American Auxiliary Committee de 
L'Union des Femmes de France, 353 Fourth 
Avenue, New York, N. Y. (France) 



Transfer of Title 



[Released to the press November 10] 

Regulations Under Section 2 (c) and (i) of 
THE Joint Resolution of Congress Approved 
November 4, 1939 

On November 4, 1939, the President issued a 
proclamation under the authority of section 1 
of the joint resolution of Congress approved 

19124a— 39 2 



on that same day finding that a state of war 
exists between Germany and France; Poland; 
and the United Kingdom, India, Australia, 
Canada, New Zealand, and the Union of South 
Africa and thereby making applicable to the 
export or transport to those countries of any 
articles or materials (except copyrighted ar- 
ticles or materials) the provisions of section 



486 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULliETIN 



2 (c), (d), (e), (f), (g),(h), (i),and (1) of 
the said joint resolution. 

Tlie President's Proclamation of November 
4, 1939, provides in f)art as follows: 

"And I do hereby delegate to the Secretary 
of State the power to exercise any power or 
authority conferred on me by the said joint 
resolution as made effective by this my procla- 
mation issued thereunder, which is not si^ecif- 
ically delegated by Executive order to some 
other officer or agency of this Government, and 
the power to promulgate such rules and regu- 
lations not inconsistent with law as may be 
necessary and proper to carry out any of its 
provisions." 

By virtue of the authority vested in him by 
the President's proclamation quoted above to 
promulgate such rules and regulations not in- 
consistent with law which may be necessary 
and proper to carry out the provisions of sec- 
tion 2 (c) and (i) of the joint resolution of 
Congress approved November 4, 1939, as made 
effective by this proclamation, the Secretary 
of State prescribes the following rules and 
regulations : 

(1) The provisions of section 2 (c) do not 
apply to personal effects and household goods 
or any other articles or materials intended for 
the personal use of any United States citizen 
traveling on a valid jDassport. 



(2) The lirovisions of section 2 (c) do not 
apply to any articles or materials exported for 
relief purposes by the American Red Cross or 
by any person or organization authorized to 
solicit and collect contributions under the rules 
and regulations issued by the Secretary of 
State pursuant to section 8 of the Neutrality 
Act of November 4, 1939. 

(3) The provisions of section 2 (c) do not 
apply to the transport to any of the countries 
named in the President's Proclamation of No- 
vember 4, 1939, referred to above, of arms and 
ammunition intended exclusively for sporting 
or scientific purposes, when carried on the per- 
son of an individual or in his baggage. 

(4) Articles and materials the shipment of 
which originated outside the geographic 
United States and which are shipped through 
the United States in bond or which arrive at a 
port in the United States merely as an incident 
of transit between two foreign points, whether 

01 not transshipped in a port of the United 
States, need not be covered by the sworn decla- 
ration as to transfer of title required by section 

2 (c) of the Neutrality Act of 1939 if the 
shipper is outside the geographic United 
States and is not a citizen of the United States, 
or an agent of such citizen, and the articles and 
materials are not consigned to a citizen of the 
United States, or an agent of such citizen. 



-f -f -f > -f -f -f 

DETENTION BY BELLIGERENTS OF AMERICAN VESSELS FOR 
EXAMINATION OF PAPERS OR CARGOES 



[Released to the press November 8] 

Following is a tabulation completed to No- 
vember 8, 1939, showing the American vessels 
which have been reported to the Department 
of State as having been detained by belliger- 
ents since September 1, 1939, for examination 
of papers or cargo. 

It was exjalained at the Department of State 
that injury to American vessels destined to 



European ports has not resulted in the main 
from their diversion from the high seas to bel- 
ligerent ports. As a general practice, for rea- 
sons of their own, these vessels ordinarily put 
into belligerent ports en route to their des- 
tinations and the principal difficulty thus far 
has arisen in connection with delay involved 
in the examination of the vessels and their 
cargoes before being permitted to proceed on 



NOVEMBER 11, 1939 



487 



their voj^ages. Although all cases of deten- 
tion maj' not have been reported to the De- 



partment, the statement is as nearly complete 
as is possible to arrange it. 



American Vessels Reported to Department To Have Been Detained by Belligerents 
Since September 1, 1939, for Examination of Papers or Cargo 



Name of vessel 


Owner or operator 


Cargo 


Detained 


Released 


Saccarappa 


South Atlantic S. S. 


Phosphate, cot- 


Arrived September 3. Cargo seized 


Ship released 




Co. 


ton, general. 


September 8 by British authori- 
ties. 


promptly. 
Cargo un- 
loaded. 


Shickshinnj- 


South Atlantic S. S. 


Phosphate, cot- 


Detained September 16, Glasgow, 


September 18. 




Co. 


ton. 


by British authorities. 




Sundance 


South Atlantic S. S. 


Rosin and gen- 


Detained October 11, London, 


October 25. 




Co. 


eral cargo. 


British authorities. 




Black Osprey 


Black Diamond Lines- 


General 


Vessel picked up September 5 by 


September 13. 








British naval vessel. 




Santa Paula 


Grace Line 




When 30 miles from Curagao or- 










dered to stop, delayed 20 min- 










utes, unidentified British cruiser. 










believed to be Essex. 




Executive 


American Export 




Detained Casablanca, Morocco, 


September 29 on 




Lines, Inc. 




September 27 on orders from 
Paris because of nature of cargo. 


condition ves- 
sel proceed to 
Bizerte, Tu- 
nisia. 


Ethan Allen 


Lykes Bros. S. S. Co. 


Tobacco 


British authorities, September 20. . 


September 30. 


Patrick Henry 


Lykes Bros S. S. Co. 


Cotton, flour. 


British authorities, October 10 


October 22. 


Oakman 


Lvkes Bros. S. S. Co. 
Lvkes Bros. S. S. Co. 
Lykes Bros. S. S. Co. 


copper. 


British authorities, October 13 

British authorities, October 17 

French authorities, October 14 


October 27. 


Granford 




October 21. 


Nashaba 


Copper, cotton, 

etc. 
Gilsonite, cot- 


October 25. 


West Hobomac- 


Lykes Bros. S. S. Co. 


French authorities, October 18 


October 25. 






ton, rice. 






City of Joliet 


Lykes Bros. S. S. Co. 


Cotton, lead, 
copper, etc. 


French authorities, September 14 __ 


October 5. 


Syros 


Lykes Bros. S. S. Co. 


Cotton, lead, 
machinery. 


French authorities, September 22.. 


October 10. 






Hybert 


Lykes Bros. S. S. Co. 




Detained September 10 about 2 










hours by German submarine. 










Examined papers and warned 










not to use radio for 24 hours. 




Lehigh 


U. S. Maritime Com- 
mission. 


Cargo for Ham- 
burg. 


British authorities, September 5 


September 7. 


Warrior 


Waterman S. S. Corp. 


Phosphate rock. 


British, September 7, cargo phos- 


September 18. 








phate requisitioned. 




Wacosta 


Waterman S. S. Corp. 




Detained September 9 for 3 hours 


September 9. 








by German submarine. Papers 










examined, holds searched. 




Black Eagle 

Exochorda 


Black Diamond 

Lines. 
American Export 

Lines, Inc. 




British authorities, October 26 ^ 

French authorities at Marseille. 
Removed 2 seamen (German 


November 5. 




September 6. 














nationality) September 6. 




City of Flint 


U. S. Maritime Com- 


General cargo 


Seized on high seas by German 


November 4 by 




mission, owner. 


part of which 


vessel and taken by prize crew to 


Norwegian au- 




Chartered to 


contraband. 


Soviet port. 


thorities. 




United States 










Lines. 








I.C.White 


Standard Oil of N. J.. 




Tanker challenged by an unidenti- 










fied cruiser September 7, when 










15 miles offshore near Barran- 










quilla, Colombia. 





488 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



American Vessels Reported to Department To Have Been Detained by Belligerents 
Since September 1, 1939, for Examination of Papers or Cargo — Continued 



Name of vessel 


Owner or operator 


Cargo 


Detained 


Released 


Eglantine 


Lykes Bros. S. S. Co. 




Ordered to stop by German sub- 
marine September 18; told not 
to use radio and to send papers 
for inspection. Advised not to 
use radio for 3 hours on being 
permitted to proceed. 

British, October 23. Ordered to 
proceed to Oran to discharge 
certain Italian cargo. 

French, October 22. 750 bales 
carbon black ordered ashore. 

French, October 22. 2,276 bars of 
copper and 1,796 bags of carbon 
black ordered ashore. 

French, September 9. Cargo still 
under seizure on October 28: 
135 tons copper, 34 tons petro- 
leum, hides, oil, coffee, tin plate, 
and miscellaneous. 

British authorities at Kirkwall, 
October 14, 1939. 

British authorities at Kirkwall, 
October 30, 1939. 

British authorities, September 17, 
1939. 

British authorities at Downs, 
September 12, 1939. 

British authorities, October 6, 
1939. 

British authorities, October 6, 
1939. 

British authorities, September 19, 
1939. 

British authorities at Weymouth, 
October 7, 1939 

British authorities, October 11, 
1939 

British authorities at Downs, Oc- 
tober 31, 1939 

British authorities at Gibraltar, 
October 14, 1939 

British authorities at Downs, Oc- 
tober 30, 1939 

French authorities, October 5, 
1939. Vessel westbound from 
Marseille. Reported to have 
been examined several times by 
French naval authorities. 




Lykes Bros. S. S. Co. 




20 minutes. 
October 27. 




Lykes Bros. S. S. Co- 
Lykes Bros. S. S. Co_ 

United States Lines . 

American Scantic 

Line. 
American Scantic 

Line. 
Black Diamond 

Lines. 
Black Diamond 

Lines. 
Black Diamond 

Lines. 
Black Diamond 

Lines. 
Black Diamond 

Lines. 
Black Diamond 

Lines. 
Black Diamond 

Lines. 
Black Diamond 

Lines. 
American Export 

Lines, Inc. 
Lykes Bros. S. S. Co. 

American Export 
Lines, Inc. 
















Promptly. 
October 20. 


ing. 
Scanstates 




Scanpenn 

Black Condor 








September 24. 
September 19. 


Black Eagle 

Black Falcon 






October 17. 


Black Gull 




October 11. 


Black Hawk . . . 




Probably Octo- 


Black Heron 




ber 4. 
October 16. 


Black Tern 




October 28. 


Black Osprey 






Exporter.. _. _. 




October 27. 


Hybert 






Exeter 




October 6. 









The American Republics 



CONFERENCE ON INTER-AMERICAN RELATIONS IN THE FIELD OF 

EDUCATION 

Address by the Secretary of State ^ 



[Released to the press November 9] 

At the outset let me express the thanks of 
the Department of State for your willingness 
to lay aside your duties and join us today. 
"We are peculiarly in need of the kind of 
assistance which you can give. We are seek- 
ing to examine certain aspects of international 
relations in which education and educators 
may make a unique contribution; and we are 
endeavoring, through common counsel, to find 
the methods and means by which that contri- 
bution may be made most effective. 

The gi-eatest triimiph of this hemisphere 
thus far has been the establishment of the 
peace of the Americas, peace by cooperation 
instead of by conquest or by balance of power. 
This has been built through many experiments 
and many phases; it has had setbacks; but in 
the main, the Western Hemisphere has suc- 
ceeded in marked degree in making itself free 
from the militarism of the Old World, and 
free from the idea that only through succes- 
sive wars can its civilization be maintained. 

All of us are, I am sure, familiar with the 
diplomatic and governmental aspects of the 
work which the 21 American republics have 
endeavored to carry on and to which this 
Government has tried consistently to con- 
tribute. Over many decades the principal 
problems affecting inter-American develop- 
ment and bearing on the peace of the Ameri- 
cas were primarily within the American 
continents. We were interested particularly 
in the relationships between the countries of 
this hemisphere. It was necessary to place 
those relationships firmly on a basis of law, 
rather than force, and to bring about recog- 
nition of the juridical equality of every nation 
on this hemisphere, irrespective of size or 



numerical strength. It was necessary to work 
out a sort of inter-American national bill of 
rights, wliich would include complete respect 
for the sovereignty of every country, the 
elimination of intervention, the perfecting of 
mechanisms by which disputes could be solved 
through reason. At the Conference of Monte- 
video in 1933, substantial agreement was 
reached on these essential principles. 

Three years later, in 1936, the danger of 
warfare overseas became apparent, and with 
it a very real danger that much of the world 
might slip back into the anarchy of inter- 
national relations based purely on force. It 
was the firm resolve of this Goverimient, as 
indeed of the other American governments, 
that the New World must be kept free of that 
tragedy. The Conference for the Main- 
tenance of Peace, at Buenos Aires in 1936, was 
called and held for the specific purpose of en- 
deavoring to set up methods and agreements 
which would prevent the rising tide of anarchy 
from invading this hemisphere. In conse- 
quence, the 21 American republics concluded 
certain agreements designed to make possible 
common action by all of the 21 republics in 
the event that peace was threatened. 

During the next 2 years, the trend of affairs 
in other parts of the world continued to worsen ; 
and signs were not wanting that certain 
overseas governments had interested them- 
selves in the affairs of the American Continent. 
In that atmosphere the Eighth International 
Conference of American States met at Lima in 
December of last year. The Conference 
rightly appraised its task as that of setting 



' Delivered November 9, 1939. 



489 



490 



DEPAKTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



up the principles and the mechanics for de- 
fending the peace of the New World against 
any attempt to subvert it by any outside power 
or force. The result was the Declaration of 
Lima, by wliich the 21 American republics 
agreed that they would defend and maintain 
the integrity of the republican institutions to 
which the New World is conamitted ; that they 
would regard an attack on any one of these 
nations as an attack on all; and that they 
would consult together to take measures for 
the common defense in the event of a threat 
to peace, or attack on any one of the American 
family. With the outbreak of war last Sep- 
tember, the mechanics thus set up were 
promptly brought into action at the recent con- 
sultation held at Panama. 

At all these conferences, vigorous efforts 
were made, by discussion and agreement, to 
place the economic relations of the American 
nations — and of each of them with the rest 
of the world — upon a sound basis of mutual 
benefit. We have sought to lay the foundation 
for an elimination or reduction of excessive 
trade barriers and for the establishment of the 
vital principle of equality of commercial treat- 
ment. In the relations of government to gov- 
ernment, we have striven to implement these 
ideas through appropriate action — for the 
sake of promoting the economic well-being 
of each of us, as well as because of our firm 
conviction that sound and healthy economic 
relations among nations constitute an indis- 
pensable foundation of enduring peace. 

This is a bare outline of diplomatic and 
governmental steps. Those of us who have 
most to do with measures of govermnent are 
fully aware of the fact that governmental ac- 
tion can never rise higher than its source, 
and that the source is the moral and intel- 
lectual structure which lies behind and beneath 
the formal governmental action. Bad me- 
chanical arrangements may be successful when 
there is common understanding, when men's 
minds march together, and when none of the 
parties are strangers to each other's ideas and 
ideals. On the other hand, the best techni- 
cal arrangements in the world are futile if 



there is not uiiderlying them the foundation of 
that understanding. For this reason we, in 
common with our neighbors, are especially 
interested in buttressing the economic and 
political relations which we have by broad 
understanding between peoples. The creation 
and continuance of this understanding is, I 
am convinced, the peculiar contribution which 
education can make to inter-American rela- 
tions and to the security, peace, and welfare 
of the Americas. 

The present moment is unusually happy for 
developing to the fullest the contributions 
which each of us in the American family can 
make to the other. Never have relations be- 
tween the American republics been more cor- 
dial. Never has there been greater realization 
that each of us has much to contribute to the 
other; never has there been greater mutual 
respect or greater comprehension. For that 
very reason it is clearer to all of us than ever 
before that the relations among our nations 
must not rest merely on the contacts between 
diplomat and diplomat, political leader and 
political leader, or even between businessman 
and businessman. They must rest also on con- 
tacts between teacher and teacher; between 
student and student; upon the confluence of 
streams of thought, as well as upon more for- 
malized governmental action and constructive 
business activity. 

Understanding, trust m each other, and 
friendliness are the foundations of those close 
relations of cooperation upon which the prog- 
ress of all depends. Education, exchange of 
information, earnest effort to learn from each 
other and to understand and respect each 
other's point of view are among the greatest 
factors in promoting these essential objectives. 
In the American republics, the intellectual 
plays a part of first importance in the national 
life. The poet, the scholar, and the teacher 
are likely to be found not only in universities 
and in cultural circles but in places of diplo- 
matic and political responsibility. No less 
than in the United States, the American re- 
publics lying to the south of us make active 
use of their intellectual resources, and their 



NOVEMBER 11, 19 39 



491 



men of learning and letters and arts stand 
high in the national respect of their peoples. 
Our own country can afford to learn many 
lessons in this respect. In asking you today 
to consider the problem of educational and 
cultural relations, I am certain that out of 
that relationship we shall receive as much as 
we give. It is within our power to make our 
own splendid educational resources available 
to our neighbors, as well as to draw upon 
them for ideas and inspiration which may bs 
of great use to us. 

You are more familiar than I with the 
teclinical avenues for accomplishing the result 
which we have in mind. You realize, I am 
sure, how much our own country needs to learn 
of the civilization of other American peoples 
and of the possibility of disseminating this 
knowledge through our schools, our colleges, 
our universities, and our technical journals; 
and, in like measure, the possibilities which 
these institutions afford for making the tools 
of our own civilization available to our neigh- 
boring countries. 

The process of making available the fruits of 
our intellectual work in the other American re- 
publics and of bringing the fruits of their work 
to the United States properly ought to be car- 
ried on by the private and semipublic educa- 
tional agencies which are already in existence. 
Mechanically, the Department of State is able 



to give you very considerable help. It is my 
hope that we may place at your disposal the 
facilities of this Government so that we may 
assist you in contributing the wisdom which 
you have to our neighbors who seek it; and 
that, in like manner, we may assist you in find- 
ing contact with the scholars and scientists and 
institutions of learning outside the United 
States which have something to say to us. 

Let me close by saying that in my judgment 
this work in which we are all engaged is of the 
highest importance. None can forecast the fu- 
ture in world affairs. It is possible that the 
great shadow which lies heavily over Europe 
may become a long twilight. It is not incon- 
ceivable that many of the lights of western 
civilization may there be dimmed or altogether 
put out. It may even be that for a time the 
New World may have to guard and maintain 
the achievements of that civilization, holding 
them in trust for a time when they can once 
more be general throughout the world. 

Though governments can help, this is not a 
task for government alone, but for all of us. 
The teachers, the men of science and learning 
throughout the New World, must resolve to 
work together to accomjilish that function 
which is rightfully theirs : to guard, to enrich, 
and to forward the civilization which, in the 
high calling of education, all of us must seek 
to serve. 



The Policy and Program of the United States Government in International Cultural 
Relations: Remarks by Under Secretary Welles ^ 



[Released to the press November D] 

On behalf of the Department of State, it 
is my pleasure to extend a cordial welcome to 
those attending this Conference dedicated to 
the promotion of inter- American cultural re- 
lations in the broad field of education. In 
extending the invitations for this gathering, 
we have had in mind a threefold objective: 
namely, first the submission to the conferees 
of an outline of the Government's program, 
second an exchange of views regarding this 
aspect of international cooperation between 



the American republics, and finally the explo- 
ration, in as direct and specific a manner as 
may be possible, of the avenues which may be 
opened for the increase of cultural inter- 
changes through the coordinated activities of 
private agencies and of the Government. The 
response to our invitation, as evidenced by the 
presence here today of representatives of in- 
stitutions from every section of the country, is 
highly gratifying, and the Department of 

' Delivered November 9, 1939. 



492 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



State is deeply appreciative of the sacrifice you 
have made in coining to Washington to make 
available to us and to each other your exper- 
ience and counsel. 

The importance of cultural interchanges in 
the development of friendly relations between 
the nations of the American Continent has 
been realized by many of the leaders in all the 
republics of our hemisphere. Today more 
than ever, it is essential that all obstacles to 
mutual understanding and harmony in the 
Americas be removed. It is more desirable 
than ever that both governmental and private 
agencies be enlisted in the common task of 
strengthening the cultural as well as the po- 
litical and economic ties between our peoples. 

It cannot be said that this task of cultural 
interchange has been neglected in the past. 
The Pan American Union has rendered a very 
gi'eat service to inter-American understand- 
ing through achievement in numerous fields 
of activity. No other single agency has con- 
tributed so much to the development of in- 
tellectual cooperation; not the least of its 
achievements perhaps is the stimulation of a 
desire for further progi-ess, one expression of 
which is the fact that we are gathered here 
today. It is the intention of the Department 
of State to continue to cooperate with the Pan 
American Union in every possible way. 

Yet, in spite of what has been done, the 
fact is that between the United States and the 
other American republics intellectual relation- 
ships have not been as close or as extensive as 
we might desire. We .should wish to welcome 
to this country many more students from our 
neighbors, and the number of students from 
the United States who have availed themselves 
of educational facilities in the other American 
republics has been small when the extent of 
such opportunities is considered. The flow of 
ideas, publications, and spokesmen has thus far 
not been adequate. 

One result of the careful thought and con- 
sideration of the means best calculated to 
further our objectives was the decision to es- 
tablish a Division of Cultural Kelations in the 



Department of State. This constituted a de- 
parture from the traditional practice of our 
Federal Government in that educational and 
intellectual activities in this country have been 
almost completely the province of organiza- 
tions and institutions under the auspices of 
private bodies or of State and local govern- 
mental units. These organizations and insti- 
tutions, many of which are represented here 
today, have done admirable work on behalf of 
cultural cooperation and have contributed 
effectively to the better understanding between 
the peoples of this hemisphere. It appeared 
to us in the Department of State, however, that 
the time had come when the Federal Govern- 
ment should take a more active interest in 
this important field, and it was with this in 
mind that the Division of Cultural Kelations 
was created in July of 1938. It should be 
emphasized that it is the very definite view 
of the Department that in this country the 
initiative for cultural exchange properly resides 
with you and that the major function of the 
Division is to make the good offices of the 
Government available to you. The concep- 
tion of "an official culture" is altogether alien 
to us. 

This emphasis on the initiative of private 
agencies other than those of the Federal Gov- 
ernment is illustrated by the act which was 
approved at the last session of Congress 
authorizing the Pi-esident to create such ad- 
visory committees as in his judgment may be 
of assistance in carrying out the reciprocal 
undertakings and achieving the cooperative 
purposes enunciated in the resolutions and dec- 
larations signed by the American republics 
at the Inter-American Conference for the 
Maintenance of Peace at Buenos Aires in 1936 
and at the Eighth International Conference 
of American States held at Lima in 1938. In 
the field of cultural relations, the Department 
of State has already enlisted the services of a 
number of distinguished leaders to form a 
permanent advisory committee for consulta- 
tion on questions covering such matters. It is 
anticipated that a number of subcommittees 



NOVEMBKK 11. 1939 



493 



will be created to advise on certain phases of 
the program. We hope that as the program 
develops more extensively we may continue to 
avail ourselves of this very valuable type of 
cooperation. 

It seems to me that what I have said about 
the relative functions of the Department of 
State, as performed by the Division of Cul- 
tural Relations, on the one hand, and of the 
institutions and organizations which you rep- 
resent on the other, leads naturally and logi- 
cally to the definition of the Division of 
Cultural Relations as essentially a clearing- 
house, a coordinating agency, whose purpose 
it is to collaborate in every appropriate way 
without trespassing upon and much less sup- 
planting your activities. The need for coor- 
dination springs from the very fact that there 
exists such a widespread and genuine desire 
to stimulate cultural relations; the Division 
can do much to see that the energies available 
are apjslied in the most efficient manner and 
that overlapping of activities is avoided. We 
can advise you about your plans and projects 
in the light of what is being done in the field 
as a whole. It is our hope that the Division 
of Cultural Relations will become increasingly 
an agency to wliich you may turn for the type 
of aid which the Government can most help- 
fully extend. 

The creation of this new Division in the 
Department has served to coordinate the in- 
terest in cultural matters of the officers of the 
Foreign Service of the United States stationed 
at embassies, legations, and consulates through- 
out the world and particularly in the other 
American republics. Generally speaking, the 
central governments in the American repub- 
lics are more actively engaged in strictly cul- 
tural activities than is the Government of the 
United States; in order for you to obtain or 
exchange information in regard to these ac- 
tivities, contact with Ministries of Public In- 
struction and with Ministries of Foreign 



Affairs is often essential. We therefore are 
justified in hoping that you will turn to us 
whenever official cooperation may be useful 
or desirable. 

Before closing, I should like to enumerate 
some of the activities which have already 
been undertaken by the newly created Di- 
vision and which we like to think of as rep- 
resenting a beginning in the task we have 
set ourselves and in which we need your sym- 
pathetic advice and assistance. Among these 
activities may be listed the steps taken for 
fulfilling the Convention for the Promotion 
of Inter-American Cultural Relations, which 
pi'ovides for the annual exchange of two grad- 
uate students or teachers and one professor be- 
tween each of the ratifying countries; the 
three book exhibitions held last summer in 
Buenos Aires, Montevideo, and Rio de Janeiro 
in which the Department cooperated witli a 
group of 30 publishing houses; the participa- 
tion in the first international Exposition of 
Educational Cinematography lield in Buenos 
Aires in June of this year, and very especially 
the two conferences already held this autumn 
in wliich various aspects of the problem of 
inter-American cultural relations in the fields 
of art and music were examined. 

I am deeply appreciative of your presence 
here today. I realize that you have taken time 
from your many occupations to come to Wash- 
ington to discuss among yourselves and with 
the officers of the Department some of the most 
challenging problems in the field of education 
as a means of international cultural rap- 
prochement. I am confident that this meet- 
ing will be fruitful in results and helpful in 
solving some of the major difficulties which 
perplex us in working out an effective pro- 
gram. I hope other conferences will follow 
in which we may join in lenewed cooperative 
efforts to promote a wider knowledge and 
appreciation of the cultural achievements of 
all the American peoples. 



101243 — 39- 



494 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

Proceedings of the Conference 



[Beleased to the press November 9] 

Stressing the essential reciprocity of cultural 
interchange, speakers at the opening session 
of the Conference on Inter- American Kelations 
in the Field of Education held at the May- 
flower Hotel today pointed to the vast intel- 
lectual and artistic resources of the Western 
Hemisphere and emphasized the importance 
of increasing and making more effective pro- 
grams of cultural interchange among the 21 
American republics. 

The Honorable Sumner Welles, Under Sec- 
retary of State, extended a message of greet- 
ing to those attending the Conference. The 
threefold object of the Conference, Mr. Welles 
said, was the submission to the Conference of 
an outlme of the Government's program, an 
exchange of views regarding this aspect of 
international cooperation between the Ameri- 
can republics and, finally, the exploration in 
as direct and specific a manner as possible of 
the avenues which may be opened for the in- 
crease of cultural interchange through the co- 
ordinated activities of private agencies and of 
the Government. 

The importance of cultural interchanges in 
the development of friendly relations between 
the nations of the American Continent has 
been realized by leaders in all the republics 
of our hemisphere, Mr. Welles said. Today, 
more than ever, he added, it is essential that 
all obstacles to mutual understanding and 
harmony in the Americas be removed. To this 
end it is more desirable than ever that both 
governmental and private agencies be enlisted 
in the common task of strengthening the cul- 
tural as well as the political and economic ties 
between our peoples. 

Praising the work of the Pan American 
Union and other agencies for their service 
to inter-American understanding, Mr. Welles 
stressed the importance of strengthening the 
intellectual relationships between the United 
States and the other American republics. "We 
should wish to welcome to this country many 



more students from our neighbors, and the 
number of students from the United States 
who have availed themselves of educational 
facilities m the other American republics has 
been small when the extent of such oppor- 
tunities is considered." Mr. Welles stated that 
it appeared that the time had come when the 
Federal Government should take a more active 
interest in the development of cultural coopera- 
tion with the other American republics and it 
was with this in mmd that the Division of Cul- 
tural Relations was created in July 1938 in the 
Department of State. Mr. Welles emphasized 
the very definite view of the Department that in 
this country the initiative for cultural ex- 
change properly resides in private activity and 
tliat the major function of this Division was 
to make the good offices of the Govermnent 
available to such groups. In the field of cul- 
tural relations the Department of State has 
already enlisted the services of a number of 
distinguished leaders to form a permanent ad- 
visory committee for consultation on questions 
covering such matters, Mr. Welles said. The 
Division, he added, would act essentially as a 
clearinghouse, a coordinating agency, whose 
purpose is to collaborate in every appropriate 
way without supplanting or trespassing upon 
the activities of private gi'oups or individuals. 
Dr. Herbert E. Bolton, head of the Depart- 
ment of Histoi'y of the University of Califor- 
nia, outlined the historical basis of inter- 
American cultural relations. Culture, Dr. 
Bolton said, is the epitome of history. The 
antiquities of the Western Hemisphere are 
comparable to the ancient fountainheads of 
culture. The literature, poetry, music, paint- 
ing, and contributions of medical and mechan- 
ical science of the Americas take their place 
with the finest produced in the world. The 
problem of this Conference, Dr. Bolton added, 
is how the fabulous resources of this hemi- 
sphere may be shared. His answer to that 
question was "get acquainted." 

Dr. James T. Shotwell, Chairman of the 
National Committee of the United States of 



XO\'EMBER 11, 19 39 



495 



America on International Intellectual Co- 
operation, explained the work of his Com- 
mittee, established by the League of Nations. 
He described the Committee as a unit to an- 
swer inquiries from abroad concerning the cul- 
tural activities of the United States, its chief 
function to act as a liaison unit with European, 
Asiatic, and Latin-American cultural interests. 
Dr. Shotwell cautioned the Conference by say- 
ing that both now and throughout the future 
it must be kept clearly in mind that both 
North and South America have other cultural 
contacts. "Because there is thunder on our 
left this morning," he said, "we must maintain 
our poise by keeping in proper perspective the 
general catholicity of culture." 

Dr. Harold Benjamin, head of the Depart- 
ment of Education of the University of Mary- 
land, reported on the present contribution of 
educational agencies in the United States to 
inter-American cultural relations. He called 
the attention of the Conference to the wealth 
of activities brought out by the preliminary 
survey of inter- American cultural activities in 
the United States, which survey was made pos- 
sible by Dr. Shotwell's Committee. 

Brief reports were made by the Honorable 
Leo S. Eowe, Director General of the Pan 
American Union, on the fiftieth anniversary of 
the Union, Avhich will be celebrated on April 
14, 1940, and Dr. Warren Kelchner, Acting 
Chief of the Division of International Confer- 
ences of the Department of State, on the 
Eighth American Scientific Congress, which 
Avill take place May 10 to 18, 1940, and which 
will be attended by leading scientists from all 
of the American republics. The Honorable 
Robert Woods Bliss, President of the American 
Federation of Arts, reported on the Conference 
on Inter-American Relations in the Field of 
Art, held in Washington by the Department of 
State on October 11 and 12, 1939. Mr. Charles 
A. Thomson, Assistant Chief of the Division of 
Cultural Relations, spoke of the significant as- 
pects of the Conference on Inter- American Re- 
lations in the Field of Music, also sponsored 
by the Department, which was held in Wash- 
ington on October 18 and 19, 1939. President 



James F. Zimmerman, of the University of 
New Mexico, spoke to the Conference on the 
Coronado Cuarto Centennial, which will be 
celebrated in New Mexico and contiguous 
States during the summer of 1940. Mr. Rollin 
S. Atwood read a report prepared by Dr. John 
J. Tigert, President of the University of Flor- 
ida, outlining the work and future plans of the 
Institute of Inter-American Affairs of that 
University. Dr. Clarence H. Haring, Chair- 
man of the Committee on Latin-American 
Studies of the American Council of Learned 
Societies, gave a summary of the work and 
projects of his Committee. 

Following these reports a short discussion 
closed the morning session presided over by 
Dr. John W. Studebaker, United States Com- 
missioner of Education, and Mr. Charles A. 
Thomson. 

[Released to the press November 10] 

The importance of exchange scholarships, 
fellowships, and professorships in bringing 
about a better understanding among the peo- 
ples of the Western Hemisphere was empha- 
sized at the second session of the Conference 
on Inter-American Relations in the Field of 
Education held at the Mayflower Hotel under 
the auspices of the Division of Cultural Rela- 
tions of the Department of State. 

The Honorable George S. Messersmith, As- 
sistant Secretary of State, who presided, 
pointed out that in the creation of a Division 
of Cultural Relations it was clearly not the 
intention of this Government to set up a Min- 
istry of Propaganda. He stated that the Divi- 
sion in no sense wished to engage in a field in 
which other agencies of the Government are 
already working nor in any way to let any- 
thing interfere with the initiative and the work 
being done by private institutions and 
organizations. 

Mr. Ernesto Galarza, of the Division of In- 
tellectual Cooperation of the Pan American 
Union, brought to the attention of the Confer- 
ence the educational conditions existing in the 
other American republics. Mr. Galarza stated 
that, if the Conference was to attain the ends 



496 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULlLETIN 



for which it had been calletl. an uiiderstaading 
of what Latin Americans are trying to do and 
an appreciation of what they could contribute 
must be acquired. Citing some of the more 
prominent characteristics of the Latin-Amer- 
ican school sy.stem. Mr. Galarza gave a brief 
though comjirehensive survey of the signifi- 
cant educational trends from the kindergarten 
to the university in the other American repub- 
lics. Curriculum reconstruction is the key- 
note in most of the Latin-American countries, 
with a strong tendency to lengthen the course 
of study, to break from the classical curriculum 
tradition, and to make organized education 
more responsive to social changes. This, Mr. 
Galarza said, is being done in order to offer 
the student a wider and richer preparation for 
earning his living and playing his role as a 
citizen. 

"Vigorous and honest thinking is the most 
impoi'tant factor that will place the educators 
of the United States and Latin America on 
a plane of mutual help and understanding," 
Mr. Galarza pointed out. "It is the only guar- 
antee they have against the threat of being 
entangled in the confusion of our times, a con- 
fusion which affects both democracy and the 
schools which serve it. They must restate cer- 
tain propositions," he added, "among them the 
self-evident one that the school is an agency 
set aside by society to induct its young into 
the principles, the foundations, of its civil- 
ization." 

Exploring the objectives and values of 
scholarship, fellowship, and professorship ex- 
changes, the Reverend John F. O'Hara, Presi- 
dent of the University of Notre Dame, pointed 
out that in the evaluation of the benefits to be 
derived from such exchanges one must go be- 
yond political and economic considerations. 
He suggested that in the development of ex- 
change programs consideration should be given 
to what such opportunities would mean to the 
student, to his family, and to his country. 
"We nnist avoid rash experimentation which 
could conceivably set us back 30 years," 
Father O'Hara said, "in planning expanded 
exchange programs. Thei-e is a large influx of 



students now, many who were attending school 
in Europe, who have come to us since Septem- 
ber, in spite of unfavorable exchange rates, 
which for some countries make an education 
cost from two to six times what it would have 
cost 20 years ago." 

Father O'Hara suggested that particular 
study l>e given to the orientation of the visiting 
student. Schools which accept visiting stu- 
dents must be prepared to give them more per- 
sonal care than they are accustomed to giving 
the students of the particular coimtry in which 
the institution is located, he said. 

Mr. Evan E. Young. Vice President of Pan 
American Airways, pledged the full coopera- 
tion of American businessmen in obtaining the 
objectives sought by the Department of State 
and leaders in education generally toward the 
fullest stimulation of educational interchange. 
Mr. Young explained the policy of Pan Ameri- 
can Airways in gi-anting "travel fellowships" 
to students selected by the Institute of Inter- 
nationa] Education attending institutions in 
the other American republics. "Travel fel- 
lows" are pi-ovided fiee transportation by the 
Pan American Airways. Mr. Young described 
a projected plan whereby American students 
may receive similar assistance in the effecting 
of their arrangements for the pursuit of grad- 
uate studies in Latin-American universities. 

The provisions of the Convention for the 
Promotion of Inter-American Cultural Rela- 
tions, signed in Buenos Aires in 1936 by all the 
American republics and ratified to date by the 
United States and 11 others, were explained by 
Dr. Richard F. Pattee, of the Division of Cul- 
tural Relations, and Dr. L. E. Bhiuch, of the 
United States Office of Education. Dr. Pattee 
explained that the convention provides for the 
annual exchange of one professor and two 
graduate students or teachers among each of 
the ratifying powers. 

Congress has appropriated $75,000 for the 
fulfillment of this Govermnent's obligations 
under the provisions of the convention. As 
soon as feasible panels of five graduate students 
or professors will be transmitted by the United 
States to each of the other American repub- 



XOVEMBEK 11, 1930 



497 



lies ■whicli has ratilit'd (lie iiislruiiK>ii(. Lists 
of available professoi-s will also be submitted. 

Dr. Bhmch dealt with the cooperative rela- 
tionship between the Office of Education and 
the Department of State in the administration 
of the convention. The Office of Education, 
he explained, will handle all preliminary work 
in the selection of nominees. Explanatory leaf- 
lets and application forms have been dissem- 
inated throughout the United States^ by the 
Office of Education to interested parties. 

A note of sorrow entered the Conference by 
the announcement by Dr. Fred J. Kelly, Chief 
of the Division of Hijiher Education of the 
Office of Education, of the death of the late 
Floyd K. Riclitmyer, Dean of the Graduate 
School of Cornell University, who Mas sched- 
uled to present to the Conference a report of 
the Committee on Inquiry appointed by the 
five associations of colleges and universities 
concerning proposals for enlarging existing 
j5ro visions for privately supported exchange 
scholarships, fellowships, and professorships. 
Dr. Stephen P. Duggan, Director of the Insti- 
tute of International Education, read a tribute 
to Dr. Richtmyer, which was adopted by the 
Conference. 

Dr. Kelly explained that the Committee on 
Inquiry appointed by the five associations of 
colleges and universities had been invited by 
the Commissioner of Education and the Chief 
of the Division of Cultural Relations to Wash- 
ington for a brief conference. After a full 
daj-'s deliberation a report was adopted stress- 
ing the importance of greatly increasing the 
(>xchange of scholars, fellows, and teachers be- 
tween this comitry and the other American 
republics. A plan toward this end, the report 
stated, should receive the cooperation of three 
parties: The colleges and universities in pro- 
viding tuition; other sources of funds in pro- 
\iding the cost of board, room, and local ex- 
l)enses: and transportation agencies in provid- 
ing reduced fares. Contacts would be made 
with both educational institutions and other 
agencies necessary to carry the plan into effect. 

Dean Everett W. Lord, of Boston Univer- 
sity, representing the Association of Urban 



UniA'ersities ; Guy E. Suaveley, Executive Di- 
rector of the Association of American Col- 
leges; and President Alfred Atkinson, of the 
University of Arizona, representing the Asso- 
ciation of Land Grant Colleges, pledged the 
full sui)port of their resi^ective organizations 
to these efforts. 

Dr. Stephen Duggan emphasized the fact 
that the American people owe a debt of grati- 
tude to colleges and universities which have 
provided .52 fellowships in the Latin-American 
field. Their vision, he said, in providing 
understanding and peace through the grant- 
ing of such fellowships and scholarships 
is highly commendable. Dr. Duggan expressed 
the hope that the number of fellowships very 
likely would be increased to 100 or more 
through the contributions of American busi- 
nessmen who have pledged their support to the 
development of better imderstanding among 
the Americas. 

Among the distinguished participants in the 
general discussion which followed were Mr. 
Robert H. Patchin, Vice President of W. R. 
Grace and Company; Dr. William M. Lewis, 
President of Lafayette College; and Irma La- 
bastille of the American Association of Uni- 
versity Women. 

[Released to the press November 10] 

W. AV. Waymack, editor of the Des Moines 
Reghter and Tnbune, addressing the Confer- 
ence on Inter-American Relations in the Field 
of Education at an informal dimier held at 
the Mayflowei- Hotel on November 9, said he 
foresaw "a magnificent development of inter- 
changes of persons and of knowledge." He 
said : "I can see a United States press that 
ra])idly grows more conscious of a rapidly 
growing general interest in things Latin 
American. I can see radio employed interest- 
ingly and effectively on a far greater scale to 
the same end. I can see pan-American cultural 
institutes both in this country and far to the 
south. I can see music and arciiitectme and 
painting and scidpture and the whole range 
of science more adequately associated for our 
common benefit," 



498 



DEPAETMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Preceding Mr. Waymack, Dr. Stephen Dug- 
gan, Director of the Institute of International 
Education and Dr. Samuel F. Bemis, Profes- 
sor of History at Yale University, described 
to those attending the dinner the experiences 
of "Professors at Large in the Other Amer- 
icas." In their addresses, sprinkled with amus- 
ing anecdotes, they pointed to the opportuni- 
ties and pitfalls that await the North American 
professor in institutions of higher learning in 
the other American republics. Many of the 
barriers inhibiting the true understanding 
among certain elements in Latin America, they 
said, were founded upon misconceptions of the 
United States based upon gross misrepresenta- 
tion. The visiting professor can and is doing 
yeoman work in allaying suspicion and 
building good will among those he contacts. 
Once misunderstanding has given way to con- 
fidence, the North American will find in his 
southern neighbor no truer or more enthusi- 
astic friend, it was pointed out. There exists. 
Dr. Duggan and Dr. Bemis indicated, a com- 
mon objective of ideal and aspiration between 
North and South America which needs only 
the facilitation of opportunity for better ac- 
quaintanceship to cement the solidarity of the 
peoples of the Western Hemisphere. 

Dr. George F. Zook, President of the 
American Council on Education, who presided 
at the dinner, paraphrasing the remarks of 
Secretary Hull made earlier in the Confer- 
ence at the luncheon on Thursday, said that 
in the attainment of an ordered world in which 
peace might prevail, it was less the oiBcial re- 
lationships of government between govern- 
ment, the commerce of one nation with that 
of another, than the essential understanding 
of the dependency of the people of one section 
of the world upon the people of another 
section. 

"I should like to see," Dr. Zook said, "not 
only more professors 'at large' in the other 
Americas but superintendents of schools and 
teachers of our primary and secondary schools 
as well. We shall not fully know our neigh- 
bors until first-hand impressions of them are 
brought to the little red schoolhouse. 



"It is the hope and aim of all those con- 
nected with the broad objectives of education," 
Dr. Zook continued, "that international wars 
and conflicts be eliminated. Until that high 
purpose is attained we cannot be satisfied 
merely by building up our defenses and exer- 
cising the utmost discrimination in apprais- 
ing the welter of propaganda with which we 
are flooded. We shall be at the peace table 
either as one who has participated in the war 
which has ended, which God forbid, or as an 
interested neutral. Our hope is that out of 
conferences such as this one may somehow 
evolve some means of bringing peace to the 
world and in laying the foundations now 
whereby once peace has returned good will may 
remain among men." 

[Released to tbe press November 11] 

At its plenary session late Friday afternoon, 
November 10, delegates to the Conference on 
Inter-American Relations in the Field of 
Education, sponsored by the Division of Cul- 
tural Eelations of the Department of State, 
heard reports made by spokesmen of the six 
parallel discussion groups which had devoted 
the morning sessions to specific problems in- 
volved in the development of more effective 
cultural and educational interchanges between 
the United States and the 20 other American 
republics. 

The report of the Findings Committee 
which was read by the Reverend John F. 
O'Hara, President of the University of Notre 
Dame, recommended: 

1. That the Conference express its gratitude 
to the Committee of the United States of 
America on International Intellectual Co- 
operation for the report wliich it has provided 
entitled "A Preliminary Survey of Inter- 
American Cultural Activities in the United 
States." 

2. That the members of this Conference 
bring to the attention of their colleagues and 
associates the meeting of the Eighth American 
Scientific Conference to be held in Washington 
in May 1940. 



NOVEMBER 11, 1939 



499 



3. That a Temporary Continuation Com- 
mittee be chosen to prepare a digest of the 
record of the Conference and send a copy at 
an early date to each of those present at the 
Conference and to other interested persons; 
the members of tliis committee to be chosen by 
the Chairman of the Findings Committee and 
the Chief of the Division of Cultural Kela- 
tions of the Department of State. 

4. That the Temporary Continuation Com- 
mittee give careful consideration to recom- 
mendations and resolutions of the six 
discussion groups and refer such of them as 
call for further action to appropriate organi- 
zations represented at this Conference. 

The following two amendments to the 
Findings Committee report were adopted at 
the plenary session. 

1. That the entire membership of the Con- 
ference express its feeling of appreciation and 
gratitude to the Department of State for 
calling this Conference. 

2. That an expression of appreciation be 
extended to Archer Huntington for his gen- 
erosity and vision in making possible the 
Hispanic Foundation in the Library of 
Congress. 

The report was adopted unanimously by the 
Conference. 

Royal N. Chapman, Dean of the Graduate 
School of the University of Minnesota, read 
the recommendations of Group I. This group, 
consisting of presidents, deans, trustees, other 
educational administrators, and industrial 
fellowship donors, recommended: 

1. In order that citizens of Latin America 
may be adequately informed of the advantages 
which universities, colleges, and schools in the 
United States offer to Latin-American youth of 
both sexes, it is recommended that descriptive 
and fully informative literature, in the Spanish 
and Portuguese languages, be distributed in the 
Latin-American countries. This information 
would be made available to American em- 
bassies, legations, and consulates, to graduates 
of American institutions resident in Latin 



America, and to others interested. The ma- 
terial should include essential data regarding 
fees and living expenses in various parts of the 
United States, including transportation costs 
and particularly such reductions in fares as 
American steamship companies offer to stu- 
dents and teachers. 

2. It is recommended that a committee be 
appointed by the Institute of International 
Education to canvass possible donors with a 
view to increasing the number of fellowships 
and scholarships available for inter- American 
exchanges. 

It is further recommended that the said com- 
mittee study the problem of the cost of travel 
between the United States and Latin-American 
countries to see if the cost of travel can be re- 
duced, especially for students and teachers. 

3. It is recommended that the United States 
Government add educational attaches to its 
diplomatic staffs. Every ambassador and min- 
ister has on his staff today military, naval, and 
commercial attaches, whose business it is to 
keep in touch with the latest developments in 
their fields in the countries where they are lo- 
cated. Certainly it is equally important for 
each nation to keep in touch with what is going 
on in the development of intellectual leadership 
and effective citizenship elsewhere. 

George L. Maxwell, Coordinating Vice 
President of the Department of Adult Educa- 
tion of the National Education Association, 
reporting on the discussion of Group I, stated 
that among the considerations given to the 
stimulation of greater exchange of students, 
teachers, and professors, the group considered 
first, the question of policy regarding the types 
of students who should be encouraged to come 
to the United States on scholarships and fel- 
lowships; second, the problem of support for 
fellowships and scholarships; third, the prob- 
lem of selection, both of students and teachers 
in this country and the other American re- 
publics; fourth, accrediting academic creden- 
tials; and fifth, the motivation of students in 
the United States to study Latin-American 
culture. 



500 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BITLLETIN 



Among those contributing suppoit to the 
creation of fellowships and scholarships Dr. 
Maxwell cited colleges and universities which 
are increasing tuition scholarships; business- 
men; educational organizations; and founda- 
tions. Dr. Maxwell said the general consensus 
of opinion was, however, that foundations 
could make greater contributions in the future 
than they are able to do at the present time. 

Only graduate students and those with defi- 
nite objectives in view should be selected, Dr. 
Maxwell said. He also pointed to the diffi- 
culty in determining effective methods of ap- 
praising the student's ability. The probleni 
of recognition of credits between institutions 
of Noi'th and South America, he indicated, was 
a question yet to be solved. In the selection 
of professors, differences between colleges and 
universities in the United States and Latin 
America was of great significance. The visit- 
ing professor should, the gi'oup felt, give in- 
formal lectures on the campus and in the com- 
munity in which the institution was located. 

North American professors of education 
could make an effective contribution in South 
American countries. In the selection of teach- 
ers we should send our ablest scholars. Dr. 
Maxwell said. Any student or professor 
granted a fellowship should have a well- 
grounded knowledge of the language of the 
country to which he is sent. He should be 
afforded ample time to pursue his studies in 
order to become better acquainted with the 
cultural attaimnents of tlic country visited. 
In order to do this, Kuffitient stipends .shoidd 
be given. Professors of Latin-American his- 
foi-y in institutions in the United States should 
be encouraged to visit Latin America, Dr. 
Maxwell observed. 

Harold Benjamin, Chairman of the Depart- 
ment of Education of the University of 
Maryland, reported on the discussion and re- 
commendations of Group II. This group con- 
sisted of curriculum authorities, department 
heads, and professors. Dr. Benjamin stated 
that the group had discussed and compared 
programs for academic and i)ublic education 
jn inter-American affairs. These included 



courses, sunnner schools, proposed institutes, 
and projects for conferences in university cen- 
ters. Programs in our elementary and second- 
ai-y schools. Dr. Benjamin said, should include 
broad studies dealing with the social, geo- 
graphical, and political factors of the South 
American coimtries. The group discussion, 
Dr. Benjamin stated, had brought out the ex- 
isting need for more history texts. Too few 
books and pictures on Latin-American life are 
available to the public in this country. The 
same condition exists in South America con- 
cerning material dealing with the United 
States. Visual aids depicting the life on both 
the continents of North and South America 
should be more extensively utilized in the 
schools of the United States and the other 
American republics. Descriptive material on 
the United States translated from English to 
Spanish and Portuguese should be widely dis- 
seminated throughout the schools of the other 
American republics, and similar material on 
Latin-American subjects should be translated 
i]ito English for use in the schools of the 
United States. The radio and motion pictures. 
Dr. Benjamin indicated, could make a vital 
contribution to the promotion of better under- 
standing among students in all the Americas 
concerning the life of their neighbors in the 
Western Hemisphere. 

Among the recommendations made by Group 
II were that the study of Spanish and Portu- 
guese be vigorously promoted in the public- 
.school system of the United States. To this 
end the group called upon the Connnissioner 
of Education to consult with public adminis- 
liators in the development of an increased 
program of teaching these languages. 

In the promotion of additional courses wliich 
would bring a better understanding of our 
neighbors to the south, the group found, Dr. 
Benjiunin said, that there was a woeful lack 
of )nalerials on Latin-American ecrmomics 
suitable for use as textbooks in tlie public 
schools of this country. To overcome this de- 
ficiency the group recommended that assistance 
l)e sought from such '^oui'ces as the Pan Ameri- 
can Union and the Hispanic Foundation of 



XOVK.JI15KK 11, 1939 



501 



tlie Library of C<3n<tress. The gi"oup furtlicr 
recoinniendeil tliat a central clearinghouse be 
established for use in the preparation of such 
material. It was pointed out that informal 
seminars, travel, and sunnner schools are in- 
structive instruments in the attainment of 
personal contact among students from each of 
tlie 21 American republics. 

It was recommended to colleges and univer- 
sities that programs be established wliereby a 
visiting Latin-American student could com- 
plete his undergrad\uite work in such insti- 
tutions in the Laiited States in 3 years. Every 
encouragement, however, should be given to 
visiting students to remain in this coinitry for 
a full -l-year course. The development of con- 
ferences in univei-sity centei-s in Latin America, 
Dr. Benjamin said, were highly desirable and 
were recommended. 

The recommendations of deans and advisers 
of men and women, directors of international 
houses and hospitality centers, comprising 
(iroup III were read by Edgar J. Fisher, Assist- 
ant Director of the Institute of International 
Pjducation. 

"We are in complete accord with the Depart- 
ment of State on the program of encouraging 
contacts of all useful kinds between the United 
States of America and the Latin-American 
countries," Dr. Fisher said. "But we realize," 
he continued, ''that more harm than good may 
result from teachers and students exchange 
unless the conditions are carefully chosen and 
carefully received upon their arrival in the 
country concerned. On this account it is im- 
portant that exchanges should not be increased 
too rapidly and that they should not be asso- 
ciated with the present abnormal situation 
created by the European war. This applies 
equally well to North American teachers and 
students going abroad. 

"Turning now to the problem of students 
coming to the United States we all agree that 
more attention should be given to the student 
before he leaves his native land. This should 
include items such as introductions to United 
States citizens and returned students abroad 

101243—39 4 



((ualified to render assistance, distribution of 
guidebooks and academic catalogs, and the 
(ijiportunity to see moving pictures descriptive 
(if American student life. 

"We further agree that it is important that 
provision be made to meet the students upon 
their arrival, both in this country and upon the 
college and university campus. 

"Without seeming to set off the foreign stu- 
dents as a separate group, but with the realiza- 
tion that they should be integrated normally 
as soon as possible with the student body, we 
believe that the transition period to the new- 
academic and community environment calls for 
special counseling, including a special adviser, 
with faculty and student committees. 

"Experience proves the value of facilitating 
tlie attendance of foreign students upon stu- 
dent conferences, and all possible encourage- 
ment .should be given to assist them to this 
end. 

"It is reconmiended that the Division of Cul- 
tural Relations of the Department of State ap- 
point a continuation committee in consultation 
with the Departments of State and Labor and 
the Office of Education to study the question 
of selecting and implementing a private agency 
or agencies qualified : 

"1. to advise Latin-American and other for- 
eign students before departure to the United 
States, upon arrival at a port of entry and upon 
taking up their residence and study at the 
educational institutions of their choice 

"2. to consult with the officers of the Depart- 
ment of State and the Immigration and Nat- 
in-alization Service regarding questions and 
problems pertaining to visas and their exten- 
sion, adequate working knowledge of English 
and financial competence 

"?>. to act as a clearinghouse for educational 
and other institutions in the United States de- 
siring to give or to receive advice and assist- 
ance concerning Latin -American and other 
foreign students 

"4. to make a survey of the Latin-xVmerican 
and other foreign students in the United 
States 

■'5. to make a survey of the private agencies 
concerned with foreign students with a view 
to expansion of activities, wherever advanta- 
geous, and their adequate financing 



502 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETLN 



"6. to prepare a roster of all persons respon- 
sible for the personal guidance and activities 
of the foreign students 

"7. to consider the advisability of establishing 
an adequate Student Loan Fund, provision for 
group health and accident insurance and kin- 
dred questions 

"8. to send a copy of the report and findings 
of the Conference on Education to all colleges 
and universities in this country, and 

"9. to call another conference of those offi- 
cially concerned with and responsible for the 
adjustment of the foreign student in the United 
States." 

Samuel Guy Inman, Director of the Com- 
mittee on Cooperation in Latm America, re- 
porting on Group IV at wliich editors of edu- 
cational journals and publications of learned 
societies explored the possibility of more effec- 
tively acquainting the United States with 
scholars and writers in the other American 
republics, stated that the topics of discussion 
at this group were three. First, what type of 
information is needed? Second, what are the 
opportunities for the increase of materials on 
the educational exiDerience in Latin-American 
journals? And finally, what are the opportu- 
nities for the more effective interchange of 
publications ? 

The group report prepared by Isaac L. 
Kandel, Professor of Education, Teachers Col- 
lege, Columbia University, read by Dr. Inman 
follows : 

The chairman in opening the meeting re- 
ferred to his own experience during a year 
spent in some of the Latin-American countries 
about 15 years ago and a few years later in 
Mexico. The chief difficulties he encountered 
were to find the right people with whom to 
start his investigation and the lack of avail- 
able research materials. On the side of the 
Latin Americans, there was the corresponding 
difficulty with reference to publications on 
North American culture. Since that time the 
interest in both parts of the continent in each 
other has been considerably increased through 
the exchange of students and professors. Re- 
ferring to his own special field, education, he 
pointed out that there has been an increase 
in the number of publications and in research 



m current problems, that on the whole the 
tendency to look more to the United States for 
guidance is marked. 

Dr. Samuel Guy Inman spoke on the subject 
of the availability of Latin-American writers 
for North American publications. He men- 
tioned as examples a number of outstanding 
Latin-American writers who would be avail- 
able for articles in publications of the United 
States. There are certain classes of these 
writers: In the first place, those living in the 
United States, professors of Spanish and Por- 
tuguese, and other Latin Americans occupying 
various positions in this country; graduates 
of North American institutions now living 
in Latin America, prominent Latin-American 
authors, editors, and authorities in special 
fields; refugee scholars from Europe now oc- 
cupying positions in Latin-American miiver- 
sities, who are opening up new fields of 
research. 

Concerning the difficulty of securing right 
contacts. Dr. Cross of the Yale Review reported 
that he had encountered the difficulty of invit- 
ing people to write and receiving no reply. 

Proposals wei'e made to publish in Spanish, 
either in the United States or in Latin-Amer- 
ican centers, reviews like the Yale Review and 
the Reader's Digest (although there are such 
digests now published in Latin America). It 
was reported that the Journal of International 
La/w was published in Spanish for a while with 
unsatisfactory results. 

In this connection the work of the Inter- 
American Bibliographical Association was 
announced. Names of authors can be secured 
from such bibliographies. 

Arising out of discussion of securing writers, 
the question of the exchange of publications 
was presented. Wliere can good journals 
published in the United States be placed? Is 
there a list of serious publications available? 
The point was made that relatively unknown 
journals in a special field may be of great 
value to the research worker. 

The question of whether these writers and 
periodicals should be evaluated was raised. It 
was clear that this was a question that could 



KO\'EMBER 11, 193 9 



503 



not be decided or iiiidertakeii by an official 
organization, but it was the sense of the meet- 
ing that chissified lists be prepared and made 
available by such organizations as may be 
established. 

The discussion indicated that the question 
of exchanges is twofold: one of interest to the 
general reader and the other to the specialist. 
It was agreed that the general reader needs 
more guidance than the specialist. 

The discussion turned to the question of the 
cost of exchanges. It was noted that most 
publications are today having budget difficul- 
ties. It is necessary, therefore, that these 
journals make arrangements in their budgets 
for exchange with Latin-American publica- 
tions. 

The Duke University Press announced that 
it is now making reductions in subscriptions 
for Latin-American readers in view of the 
difficulties of exchange. 

Given the unportance of securing a list of 
Latin-American writers, the question was 
raised as to whether the Division of Cultural 
Relations of the Department of State might 
undertake the job of furnishing a list of 
Latin-American writers with the aid of a com- 
mittee of persons in the United States who are 
familiar with Latin America. It was sug- 
gested that aid might be secured from the dip- 
lomatic representatives of the United States 
in Latin-American fields. 

The next question that was taken up was 
the problem of marketing books from North 
America in the Latin- American countries. The 
booksellers in this country have been slow to 
accommodate their methods to the credit sys- 
tems prevailing in Latin- American countries. 
At the same time, a great deal of interest was 
shown in the exhibits of books held in Buenos 
Aires, Montevideo, and Rio de Janeiro last 
siunmer. 

The next question discussed concerned the 
opportunities available for increasing in the 
publications of the United States materials on 
the culture of Latin America; to what degree 
would North American publications open their 



pages to Latin-American writers in different 
fields. 

In connection with publishing reviews of 
Latin-American publications, the difficulty of 
securing books from publishers and authors 
was mentioned by a number of speakers. Bib- 
liographies frequently appear long after the 
j)ublication of a book, and the Latin-American 
books are frequently published from type in 
.small editions which are soon exhausted. 
Furthermore, the question was raised whether 
it is desirable to review books that are not 
easily purchasable in this country. 

In connection with the discussion of the 
exchange of publications, it was suggested 
that the Congressional Library secure copies 
of as wide a range as possible of Latin-Amer- 
ican books and disseminate information about 
them ; also, that we urge more South American 
publishers to exhibit their books in this coun- 
try. It was noted witli pleasure that one such 
exhibit is now being displayed by the Com- 
mittee on Coop)eration with Latin America of 
the American Library Association. 

An outstanding feature of the meeting was 
widespread expression of interest not only 
from the specialists in the field of Latin- 
American culture, but in the general fields as 
well. It was clear that what is needed at the 
present time is the capitalizing of this interest 
through the creation of appropriate commit- 
tees and the dissemination of definite informa- 
tion and lists of periodical publications and 
writers to the various groups that have shown 
interest. It is encouraging to note the new 
interest shown by Latin Americans in the cul- 
tural life of the United States. 

The following reconunendations were 
adopted by the members of Group IV, to be 
submitted to the Division of Cultural Relations 
of the Department of State : 

1. That a list of Latin-American writers 
classified according to their fields of interest 
be made generally available. 

2. That it is desirable to draw up a classi- 
fied list of periodicals and publishers in the 
Latin-American countries. 

3. That the Department of State be re- 
quested to investigate the possibility of imple- 



504 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



meriting the second con\ention agreed upon at 
Buenos Aires in 1936 concerning the inter- 
change of publications between national 
libraries which has already been ratified by the 
Senate but for which appropriations have not 
yet been made. 

4. That the Department of State be re- 
quested to bring to the attention of publishers 
through appropriate channels the desirability 
of considering the whole problem of the sale of 
books including credit facilities. 

5. That the attention of Latin-American 
publishers be directed to the curient interest 
in their publications and the desirability of 
having book exhibits from time to time in 
the United States. 

6. That the Division of Cultural Eelations 
of the Department of State be requested to 
refer for further study to the Conference on 
Books, Libraries, and Publications to be held 
on November 29 and 30 the question of making 
more available in the United States, both for 
sale and for review, books published in Latin 
America. 

It was the desire of the meeting that the list 
of members attending and the recommenda- 
tions to be submitted to the Division of Cul- 
tural Relations of the Department of State be 
sent to the members present and others inter- 
ested in this particular topic. 

It was suggested that a Continuation Com- 
mittee representing this Conference be ap- 
pointed to cooperate in the near future with 
the Division of Cultural Relations in carrying 
out the findings of this Conference. 

William D. Cutter, Secretary of the Council 
on Medical Education and Hospitals of the 
American Medical Association, read the find- 
ings of Group V. This group composed of 
representatives of medical and allied fields 
considered the cooperative projects with the 
other American republics in the field of medical 
education and research. 

The findings of this group were presented 
under three headings: (1) Problems, (2) Op- 
jiortunities, and (3) Suggestions. 

I. Problems. 

1. Language difficulties 

2. Financial support 

3. Problems of premedical education 

4. Lack of facilities for disseminating scien- 
tific journals published in the United 
States in the other American republics. 



These include medical, nursing, public 
health, dental, and other journals dealing 
with the biological sciences 

5. Inadequate soui'ces of information about 
prospective students from the Latin- 
American coiuitries 

G. Problems of medical licensure 

II. Opportunities. 

1. Laboratory facilities in many fields are 
presently available for qualified workers 

2. Opportunities in medical education are 
principally on the graduate student level 

3. Opportunities are available in the United 
States in the field of nursing education 

4. Hospital administration 

5. Dentistry 

G. ,\.mple opportunities are available for stu- 
dents from the other American republics 
for field experience in public health meas- 
ures and public health achninist ration 

7. Moving-j^icture films for teaching pur- 
poses are available 

8. A limited number of intei'nships are avail- 
able in the United States for selected 
graduates of schools in the other American 
republics 

9. The field of tropical medicine offers a 
large opportunity for the development of 
desirable teaching services 

10. A limited number of opportunities exist 
for research workers in institutions in the 
other American republics. Ample ma- 
terial is available for research 

III. SugOTStions. 

1. Study and analysis of medical education, 
medical schools, and research institutes in 
the American republics 

2. Reciprocal exchanges of biblio-fihn be- 
tween the Army Medical Library and the 
other American republics 

3. Reciprocal loan collections between the 
Army JNIedical Museum and the other 
Amei'ican republics 

4. Training of medical librarians and mu- 
seum directoi-s by the Army Medical Li- 
brary and the Army Medical Museum. 

5. Collection and reciprocal exchange of in- 
formation in: 

a. Medicine, nursing, public health, 
dentistry, sanitary engineering 

b. English sunmiary of literature of the 
other American republics 

c. Summaries or our literature in the 
appropriate languages for tjie other Ameri- 
can republics 

6. Expansion of nursing education 

7. Public health education of general teach- 
ers in the otlier American republics 



NOVE JIBEK 11, 19 39 

8. Creation of a Contimiing Couiniittee to 
explore these and other recommendations, 
this committee to include representatives 
from the following fields: 

Medicine 

Tropical medicine 

Dentistry 

NuT-sing 

Publidiealth 

Sanitary engineering 

Hospital administration. 

Miss Edith E. Pence, Director of Curriculum 
of the San Francisco Public Schools, presented 
the tentative report of Group VI. At this 
group primary and secondary school adminis- 
ti'ators and teachers discussed curriculum ma- 
terials for Latin- American studies and teacher 
exchanges. 

After thorough discussion and with due re- 
gard to diiferences of opinion expressed by 
various members of the group, the following 
conclusions and recommendations were pre- 
sented for approval by the general assembly of 
the Conference: 

1. The study of Latin-American history and 
of various phases of Latin-American civiliza- 
tion properlj' belongs in tlie courses of study 
of the elementary and secondary schools of the 
United States, materials and procedures to be 
adapted to the respective levels. 

2. The teaching of United States history in 
tlie primary and secondary schools should be 
I'egarded as one phase of the broader concept 
of American history, in which the development 
of the other American nations should be given 
proper attention. School authorities should be 
encouraged to foster activities of a curricular 
and extracurricular nature which will aid in 
bringing within the experience of school chil- 
dren a knowledge and understanding of all the 
American peoples. Likewise, the study of the 
languages spoken in Latin America — Spanish, 
Portuguese, and French — should be encouraged, 
and in conjunction with such language study 
there should be the study of Latin-American 
civilization. 

3. This group eai-nestly recommends that, 
as a part of the effort to enlist wider public 



')05 



support for the introduction and expansion of 
Latin-American studies in the schools, the ad- 
dress delivered by Dr. Herbert E. Bolton be 
given the greatest possible circulation among 
school teachers, administrators, and educa- 
tional authorities. Active work should be 
carried on through educational journals, par- 
ent-teacher's associations, administrative or- 
ganizations, and state conventions of teachers 
to the end that Latin- American studies in the 
schools be actively fostered. With regard to 
secondary school courses of study, it is recom- 
mended that efforts be made to obtain the recog- 
nition of elective courses on Latin America 
by secondary and college accrediting associa- 
tions. 

4. Preliminary discussion has shown that a 
number of individuals and in some cases school 
systems have been experimenting with Latin- 
American studies in the elementary and second- 
ary schools. With due acknowledgment of 
the foresight of these teachere and administra- 
tors, it is recommended that a survey be made 
of the courses, projects, units, assembly pro- 
grams, and other activities relating to Latin 
America which have been carried out. This 
survey should aim at a critical analysis of the 
experience thus gained in order to place it at 
the disposal of teachers and administrators 
who may be interested in Latin-American ac- 
tivities. Moreover, there ought to be a con- 
tinuing effort, carried on through a central 
agency, to coordinate all such activities any- 
where in the United States. The information 
thus collected should be regularly disseminated 
or held at the disposal of teachers and shoidd 
include experience in the teaching of the lan- 
guages of Latin America mentioned above. 

5. Groiqj VI calls attention to the valuable 
services which the Pan American Union has 
been rendering in the past in the distribution 
of materials useful in the study of Latin 
America in the elementary and secondary 
schools. It also wishes to refer to the services 
which the Institute of Pacific Relations is 
ready to render in this respect. It particu- 
larly wishes to stress the importance of mak- 
ing as soon as possible a comprehensive study 



506 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



of the classroom materials and study aids avail- 
able in this field. A committee of competent 
persons should be appointed to carry out this 
study and to make recommendations for the 
preparation of additional materials such as 
maps, motion pictures, textbooks, reading lists, 
biographies, translations, anthologies, etc. 
Such a study also should aim at the coordina- 
tion of the interest and efforts of private, com- 
mercial, and public agencies in the preparation 
of such materials. 

6. On the matter of teacher exchanges be- 
tween Latin America and the United States, 
it is recommended that such exchanges include 
elementary and secondary school teachers and 
administrators, chosen with regard to their 
ability both to represent their own culture and 
to appreciate sympathetically the culture of 
Latin America. This type of teacher exchange 
should aim especially to provide opportunities 
for teachers preparing to teach Spanish, Por- 
tuguese, or French and to teach courses on 
Latin-American civilization in the schools of 
the United States. Contact between organi- 
zations of teachers and administrators in the 
United States and Latin America are highly 
desirable for the purpose of establishing 
friendly intercourse based on common in- 
terests. It is also recommended that the diplo- 
matic missions of the American republics in- 
clude cultural attaches whose duty it would 
be to aid all those interested in inter-American 
cultural exchange in general and in education 
in particular. 

7. Group VI calls the attention of the Con- 
ference to the fact that by unanimous action 
it has created a national committee which will 
continue the work of fostering interest in 
Latin-American studies. 

Following the reading of reports of the var- 
ious discussion groups and the unanimous 
adoption by the conferees of the Findings 
Committee report, as amended. Dr. Ben M. 
Cherrington, Chief of the Division of Cultural 
Relations, brought the Conference to a close. 
He expressed the appreciation of the Depart- 



ment to those present for the sacrifices they 
had made in making the Conference possible. 
"The significant results which may be ex- 
pected from these meetings," Dr. Cherrington 
said, "is obvious. The determination on the part 
of so many that our neighbors and friends in the 
o<her republics that lie to the south of us may 
come to know us better and we to share in their 
cultural accomplishments may be properly 
termed a 'people's movement.' In the attainment 
of the ends sought by this movement you may be 
sure that the Department of State earnestly 
seeks to aid in every appropriate way to the 
best of its ability. God grant that your Gov- 
ernment and you, the people it serves, may 
with your help and counsel bring about the 
e)Kls for which we have been talking these past 
2 days. And in seeking to bind the ties of 
friendship among the peoples of the Western 
Hemisphere that its civilization may grow in 
peace, let us also set our goals toward the day 
when this cooperative sharing of the intel- 
lectual and spiritual achievements may con- 
tribute to a world of peace." 

■f ■♦- -f 

MEETING OF TREASURY REPRE- 
SENTATIVES OF THE AMERICAN 
REPUBLICS 

[Released to the press November 6] 

This Government has accepted the invitation 
of the Govei-iunent of Guatemala to partici- 
pate in a Meeting of Treasury Representa- 
tives of the American Republics to convene at 
Guatemala City on November 13, 1939, pur- 
suant to a recommendation of the Eight 
International Conference of American States, 
and the President has approved the appoint- 
ment of the following persons to represent this 
Government at the meeting : 

Representative on the part of the United 

States: 
Mr. Herbert E. Gaston, Assistant Secretary of 

the Treasury 



NOAT.MBER 11, 1939 



507 



A(lvisei\s to the Representative of the United 
States: 

Mr. Laurence Duggan, Chief, Division of the 
American Republics, Department of State 

Mr. Joseph P. Cotton, Jr., Assistant to the 
Secretary of the Treasury 

Mr. Howard H. Tcwksbury, Commercial At- 
tache, American Legation, Guatemala City 

Mr. Simon G. Hanson, Economic Analyst. 
Treasury Department 

Mr. Emilio G. Collado, Principal Divisional 
Assistant, Department of State 



Mr. Orvis A. Schmidt, Assistant Economic 

Analyst, Treasury Department. 

The Lima recommendation contemplated a 
series of periodic informal meetings of which 
the Guatemala Conference will be the first, 
affording to the treasuries of the American 
republics opportunities for the discussion of 
technical subjects of mutual interest. Special 
emphasis will be placed upon an examination 
of problems relating to monetary, foreign 
exchange, and banking policy. 



■f -f + -f -f + -f 



THE GOOD-NEIGHBOR POLICY FOR THE AMERICAS 

Summary of Remarks by Assistant Secretary Grady ^ 



[Released to the press November 5] 

Mr. Grady said that it seemed to him par- 
ticularly appropriate to discuss before the 
California Society the "good neighbor" policy 
for the Americas. The spirit upon which our 
West was built was the spirit of good-neigh- 
borliness. Pioneer men and women, strug- 
gling against the hardships of nature and the 
hostility of Indians, developed a remarkable 
spirit of cooperation and mutual helpfulness. 
Although the land was only sparsely settled, 
the long distances between settlers did not 
deter them from answering the call of a neigh- 
bor in distress. They fought against nature, 
the Indians, and lawlessness and built a pro- 
gressive society, with that blending of races 
which is characteristic of the Americas as a 
whole. There was a mingling of the Latin, the 
Indian, and the Anglo-Saxon. The soldier- 
adventurers from Spain and Mexico came into 
contact with the plainsmen from the eastern 
sections of the United States. There arose in 
this cosmopolitan setting an enriched and 
virile culture which is the heritage of 
California. 



"Delivered before the California State Society, 
Wasbington Hotel, Washington, D. C, November 5, 
1939. 



There is a sound and ti-ied basis, Mr. Grady 
pointed out, for the existence of the good- 
neighbor spirit and policy in the Americas. 
Although the term "good neighbor" for de- 
scribing international relationships is rela- 
tively new, it is a term which has long been 
applicable in respect of relationships between 
the countries in the Western Hemisphere. The 
extent to which this vast area of the world 
has been able to live in almost complete peace 
for generations is in striking contrast with the 
situation in Europe where wars seem almost 
to have been chronic. The lesson of the rela- 
tions of the countries in the Americas is one 
for the world to study and to follow. 

From there he went on to point out the ab- 
sence of boundary defenses in the Americas. 
This is notably true between such great indus- 
trial countries as Canada and the United 
States, where the fear of invasion or armed 
conflict is completely nonexistent. In contrast 
to the present situation in Europe, as exempli- 
fied by the Siegfried and Maginot lines, Mr. 
Grady referred to the thousands of miles of un- 
fortified boundaries in the Americas, which, 
except for the customs and immigration serv- 
ices, are not even patrolled. 



508 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Mr. Gnidy showed tliul luiiiuiueiit in the 
Americas compared witli that in Europe is 
strikingly less. For example, the per capita 
national defense expenditures in 1938 in North, 
South, and Central America amounted to $4.64, 
while those of Europe were $16.98. For the 
Americas the percentage of ]3opulation ac- 
counted for in 1938 by active land forces was 
0.21 as compared with Europe's 0.98, whereas 
the i^ercentage of population accounted for in 
active and reserve land and air forces was 0.75 
for the Americas and 8.76 for Europe. 

He empliasized how remarkably well the nia- 
thinery foi- tlie adjustment of boundary dis- 
putes which inevitably arise between countries 
has worked in tlie Americas. They have given 
practical proof that international questions can 
be settled satisfactorily by peaceful means — by 
direct negotiation or by submission to a third 
part}'. This is the essence of good-neighborli- 
ness; only when this policy is world-wide will 
lasting peace be assured. 

Mr. Gradv pointed out that it is as impor- 
tant to get trade barriers between the Americas 
reduced as it is to keep the territorial boun- 
daries clear of menacing and provocative mili- 
tary fortifications. Excessive barriers to trade 
may be defensive in their inception but inevi- 
tably they tend to l)ecome provocative, as do 
excessive armaments. They become the instru- 
ments of commercial warfare. Hence there is 
not much use in taU:iii(/ about better economic, 
political, and cultural relations with the Latin- 
American countries uidess we take measures to 
improve what is fundamental in these relations, 
namely, trade. 

He said, "The idea persists that we can sell 
and not buy. Wc envision increased markets 
for ow products in the Latin-American coun- 
tries; in fact there are those who confidently 
expect fidl comiJcnsation (here for our trade 



losses in Europe; but when the administration 
seeks to increase our trade with the countries 
to the south of us in the only practical way 
that it can be done, through reciprocity, and 
announces that it proposes to negotiate trade 
agreements for this purpose, a clamor of pro- 
test arises from this special-interest lobby or 
that, all crying to high heaven that this or 
that article must not be touched by any conces- 
sions to facilitate imports, even when only re- 
motely and indirectly competitive products are 
concerned and irrespective of the care Avith 
which concessions are formulated for safe- 
guarding our own producers." 

Mr. Grady stated that in seeking to develop 
inter-American trade this Govei-nment had, 
during the course of the past 5i^ years made 
trade agreements with Cuba, Brazil, Haiti, 
Colombia, Honduras, Nicaragua, Guatemala, 
Costa Rica, El Salvador, Ecuador, and Canada. 
(Jur trade with Newfoundland and with the 
British colonies in North and South America 
is covered in our trade agreement with the 
United Kingdom, and likewise our trade with 
the Dutch and French possessions in the West- 
ern Hemisphere is covered in our trade agree- 
ments with the Netherlands and France, re- 
spectively. We expect shortly to sign an agree- 
ment with Venezuela, and we have announced 
intention to negotiate agreements with Argen- 
tina, Uruguay, and Chile. It is to be expected, 
therefore, that we .shall soon have agreements 
for the "limitation of economic armaments" 
with most of the countries in the Americas. 
Such contracts are essential to any sound 
method of imi^ementing a trade-promotion 
jji'ogram. 

In closing, Mr. Grady said: "If we do not 
want to get trade by trading and do not wish 
to lower barriers to facilitate trading, let's stop 
talking about the glorious possibilities of trade 
inci-eases in tlie Western Hemisphere." 



The Far East 



ADDRESS BY THE AMERICAN AMBASSADOR TO JAPAN 



Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen: 
First of all, permit me to express my great 
satisfaction on returning from leave of absence 
to learn that there has been improvement in 
the health of our beloved President, Prince 
Tokugawa. I well know that I am reflecting 
the hopes of all of us in most heartily wishing 
that he may before long find complete recov- 
ery and return to the chair which he so long 
has occupied with distinction and great help- 
fulness. I beg that our chaiiman today may 
be good enough to convey to the Prince an 
expression of this deep feeling. 

Yoiu' welcome today is genuinely appreci- 
ated. Last spring we were going "home" to 
the United States, and this autumn, when we 
left America, we were going "home" to Japan. 
When one has remained for 7 years at a post, 
one can hardly regard it as other than "home." 
At any rate, that is the way my wife and I 
feel about Jajjan and especially about Tokyo, 
and that same feeling extends to our friends 
here, both Japanese and American. To come 
once again to a gathering of this society is 
to come into a homelike atmosphere, and that 
in itself gives us a very warm feeling. We 
thank you for your welcome. 

I have been told of rumors that have been 
flitting about here and there to the effect that 
we were not returning to Japan. If thei-e have 
been such rumors, they just have been based 
on speculation pure and simple, for at no 
moment has there been the slightest doubt 
about our returning. Having been on the job 
here for approximately 3 years without a clay 
of furlough, I was very considerately given an 
extra month of leave, over and above the usual 



" Delivered by Mr. Grew before the American-Japan 
Society, Tokyo, Japan, October 19, 1939. 
191243—39 5 



60 days in the United States. Some of you 
with whom I talked before our departure may 
remember that I said at that time that I ex- 
pected to be back in September or October, 
and here we are, right on schedule. Our plans 
have undergone no change and no thought of 
change. 

We have had a pleasant and interesting 
time. Much of our furlough was spent at our 
place at Hancock in the refreshing hills and 
woods of New Hampshire, M'here we were 
surrounded by our three daughters, occasion- 
ally some sons-in-law, and six grandchildren, 
which inevitably made me feel something like 
an old patriarch, but we had time for visits 
also and we saw both the New York and the 
Golden Gate world's fairs which, of course, 
were thrilling. I visited Washington on three 
occasions. 

With regard to the world's fairs in New 
York and in San Francisco I think that Japan 
has every reason to be pi'oud of her pavilions 
and exhibits. I spent much time studying 
them in both places. The Japanese pavilion 
in the New York Fair is of great beauty. 
The Japanese exhibit in the Division of Pa- 
cific Cultures at the Golden Gate International 
Exposition and the effective way in which it 
is presented is past all praise. These objects, 
portraying the historical sequence of Japanese 
art and culture, have most courteously been 
lent not only by many of the foremost Jap- 
anese collectors, many of them personal 
friends of mine, but also by the Imperial 
Household Museum. As Mr. K. Sato wrote 
in the Offjcial Catalogue of the department of 
fine arts of the expositions: 

"It will be a surprise to us if you do not 
read from these material objects the spirit of 

509 



510 



DEPAKTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



the race that made them, so like and so 
different from your own. 

"Surely America, newly come to join us on 
the rim of the Pacific Ocean, will feel the 
splendid lift of the same tides that wash our 
beaches." 

Yes, we in America do feel the lift of the 
same tides that wash the beaches of Japan. 
I hope that both our Nations will always and 
progressively feel the lift of those tides of 
friendship. I have returned to Japan to de- 
vote all that I have to give, now and in 
future, to try to inspire new life in those tides. 

As for the future, Mrs. Grew and I are go- 
ing to try to return to the United States as 
often as possible — every year or two if it is fea- 
sible, although such a plan must necessarily 
depend upon many unpredictable factors and 
is perhaps just a bit optimistic. But there is 
no doubt in my mind that an ambassador can 
do more helpful work and can more intelli- 
gently and effectively represent his Govern- 
ment and can better contribute to clear 
international understanding upon which good 
international relations are built when given 
frequent opportimity foi- personal contact with 
his Government and the people of his own 
country. As I have often said, indeed as I 
said not long ago before this distinguished 
society, an ambassador is essentially an inter- 
preter, an interpreter of official and public 
opinion as they exist in his own country and 
in the country of his residence. By going 
home this year I was able to do a great deal 
of interpreting of .lapan and of Japanese opin- 
ion both to my Government and to the Ameri- 
can people. A number of addresses were made 
to important groups, and I talked with a large 
number of people. I hope and believe that my 
interpretations were fair and accurate. It was 
made very clear that the Japanese picture has 
many sides and many angles and that without 
a comprehension of these many sides and 
angles it is difficult, if not impossible, for an- 
other people far away to arrive at a clear and 
accurate conception of the basic causes and in- 
centives that lead to Japanese thought and 



l)()licy and action. Those talks aroused much 
interest. 

I enjoyed several constructive talks with my 
good friend Ambassador Horinouchi, who is 
ably representing Japan in our country, and 
with other Japanese visiting or residing in the 
United States. 

In the same way, there can be no doubt that 
as a result of my stay in the United States and 
my personal contacts with a large number of 
Americans, both official and unofficial, my in- 
terpretations here of American thought and 
policy and action are going to be much more 
complete and accurate than they could have 
been had this summer's furlough not taken 
place. We have a phrase in English "straight 
from the horse's mouth." I never knew why 
the particular animal chosen was a horse, 
esiiecially as most horses are generally not very 
communicative. But the meaning is clear 
enough. What I shall say in Japan in the en- 
suing months comes "straight from the horse's 
mouth" in that it will accurately represent and 
interpret some of the current thoughts of the 
American Government and jJeople with regard 
to Japan and the Far East. I had the privilege 
of also conferring I'epeatedly with the Presi- 
dent and with the Secretary of State during 
my stay at home. 

But here I am constrained to pause before 
passing on, to pause in sadness, in deepest sor- 
row, yes and in impotent bitterness, at the 
dreadful holocaust that has broken loose in 
Europe, a holocaust not of God's doing but of 
man's. That we, in our lifetime, should have 
to pass through another such frightful disaster 
seems an intolerable burden for one generation 
of humanity. I shall not try to deal with that 
subject today; indeed, what could possibly be 
said to alter in any infinitesimal degree the 
blackness of the cloud that has descended upon 
us. I say "us" advisedly. I pray with all my 
heart and mind that we in America may be 
spared from part icijjat ion again in armed con- 
flict, but in this modern world of ours no na- 
tion and no people can emerge unscathed from 
the effects, direct or indirect, of warfare any- 
where. When the structure of international 



XOVEMnKK 11, 19:59 



511 



good faith, when the reliance of mankind and 
jjovernnient upon tlie inviohibility of the 
pledged word becomes undermined and col- 
lapses, when mijrht makes right and force be- 
comes an instrument of national policy rather 
than discussion and settlement of disputes by 
peaceful means, then civilization crumbles also 
and chaos intervenes. 

I turn now to some of the thoughts of the 
American Government and of the American 
people with regard to the situation in East 
Asia in general and to our relations with Japan 
in particular. It is trite to say— but all too 
often the fact is overlooked — that in our dem- 
ocratic system the policies and measures of our 
Government reflect, and inevitably must le- 
flect, public opinion. If therefore in any given 
case or situation we search for the underlying 
causation of American policy, or of any specific 
measure or series of measures taken by our 
Government, we must first try to analyze the 
state of public opinion in the United States 
and the developments which have induced that 
state of public opinion, factors which in turn 
have given rise to some specific policy or some 
specific measure or measures of our Govern- 
ment. In this connection I have not for a 
moment lost sight of the force of public opin- 
ion in Japan. 

Obviously American public opinion is fre- 
quently divided; seldom is it unanimous. In 
the face of a divided public opinion, the Gov- 
ernment must choose between acting according 
to its judgment as to what will best serve the 
interests of the country and withholding ac- 
tion altogether. But when public opinion is 
unanimous, or nearly unanimous, then govern- 
mental policy and action must and will reflect 
the opinion and wishes of the people as a whole. 
For the American Government is the servant 
of the American people. American public 
opinion with regard to recent and current de- 
velopments in the Far East is today very nearly 
unanimous, and that opinion is based not on 
mere hearsay or on propaganda but on facts. 

Among the conditions existing in the United 
States which impi-ess me more and more 
vividly each time I return to my country are: 



First, the freedom which prevails in public 
discussion ; and second, the demand for knowl- 
edge of facts and the intelligent appraisal of 
those facts by men and women in every walk 
of life. Especially is this true today in regard 
to foreign affairs. It is not alone the Govern- 
ment official or the student or the businessman 
or the manufactiu-ei- or the financier who keeps 
his finger on the pulse of our foreign relations. 
This interest — and it is a keen, living inter- 
est — extends to the masses — the factory hand, 
the servant in the house, the taxi driver in the 
street. In the past few months at home I 
have been immensely impressed by the intel- 
ligent grasp by people in every quarter of 
what is going on in every corner of the world. 
I have been drawn into discussion of foreign 
affairs not only by men and women in im- 
portant and influential positions but by travel- 
ers in the smoking compartment of railroad 
trains, by the stewards in airplanes, by the 
men and women behind the counters in the 
stores and shops, by the attendants at gasoline 
stations, by the drivers of taxis who were 
taking me to some destination. And what im- 
pressed me most was that these people not only 
knew what was going on abroad but had 
formed their own individual opinions of those 
events and of what the United States should 
or should not do about it. Those people, 
mostly, are widely read. My chiropodist, when 
I entered his room, was reading an important 
book on Japan, and we discussed that book 
throughout the session. A farmer in the small 
New England village where we live lent me 
another recent book on Japan. In the many 
talks which I had with many, many people, I 
received the distinct impression that those 
people are sufficiently well-informed and suf- 
ficiently wide awake to distinguish between 
fact and propaganda. I do not suppose that 
any country in the world is better served to- 
day, by press and radio, with accurate foreign 
infoi'mation than is the United States. In 
every country there are of course certain ele- 
ments of the press inclined toward sensation- 
alism, but the vast majority of the American 
people today read and demand the despatches 



512 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



and comments of correspondents and com- 
mentators of proved reliability for accurate 
reporting. Propaganda not based on fact, or 
distorting fact, is anathema to the average 
American. And the senseless propaganda with 
which foreign countries sometimes try to in- 
fluence public opinion in our country does the 
countries of its origin and the interests of 
those countries far more harm than good. 
The average American, knowing the facts, sees 
through it and will have none of it. 

Here, then, is the stuff of which public 
opinion in the United States is built. It is 
only through such individual contacts as I 
enjoyed this summer that one comes to appre- 
ciate the tremendous force of public opinion in 
our country and to realize its fabi'ic and its 
power. When such opinion tends toward 
unanimity in any given issue, it is a force to be 
reckoned with, a force which the Government 
cannot possibly overlook and will not fail to 
reflect in its policies and actions. 

What am I to say to you today? Would it 
be the act of a friend of Japan, a friend of the 
members of this society, would it be in the in- 
terests of Japanese-American relations which 
this society steadily labors to build up and im- 
prove, if I were to misstate the truth or try to 
obscure it by painting an inaccurate picture of 
my observations at home? If an ambassador 
is in effect an interpreter, mustn't he mterpret 
correctly on the basis of facts known to him? 
And on returning from a long stay in America, 
would it not insult your intelligence if I were 
to talk of trivialities? I suppose that there is 
not a person here who does not know that 
American public opinion strongly resents some 
of the things that Japan's armed forces are 
doing in China today, including actions against 
American rights and legitimate interests in 
China. On that subject public opinion in the 
United States is unanimous. And, mind you, 
I know whereof I speak, from personal talks 
with a very large number of people in diverse 
walks of life throughout our country, consti- 
tuting a reliable cross-section of the American 
public. 



If we then accept as a regrettable fact this 
state of American public opinion, and we must 
accept it as a fact, then isn't it from every point 
of view, especially from the point of view of 
statesmanship, reasonable and logical that we 
should in all frankness examine the basic causes 
of that state of public opinion ? I know those 
causes in general and in detail. It would be 
harmful to overlook them. I earnestly believe 
that those causes must be removed and that by 
their removal only constructive good can come 
to both our Nations. The attainment of such 
mutually constructive good, needless to say, is 
and has been and always will be the funda- 
mental purpose of my ambassadorship to 
Japan. 

Before I left for America last May a Japa- 
nese friend of mine begged me to tell my 
friends in America the situation in Japanese- 
American relations as he conceived it. It ran 
somewhat as follows : 

American rights and interests in China are 
suffering some minor and unimportant incon- 
veniences in China as a result of Japanese mili- 
tary operations; the Japanese military take 
every possible precaution to avoid inconven- 
ience to American interests; reports published 
in the United States in regard to damage to 
xVmerican interests by the Japanese in China 
are intentionally exaggerated in order to in- 
flame the American people against Japan; in 
large measure those activities of the Japanese 
to which Americans object are the result of 
differences in customs, differences in language, 
and a legalistic attitude which has been adopted 
by the United States; the attitude of the Gov- 
ernment of the United States in regard to 
imj^airment of American rights and interests 
in the Japanese-occupied areas of China is in 
large part due to internal political conditions 
in the United States; in the near future the 
situation in the occupied areas of China will be 
so improved that the United States will no 
longer have any cause for comjjlaint. That 
was the point of view of my Japanese friend. 

Alas, the truth is far otherwise. The facts, 
as they exist, are accurately known by the 



XOVEMBEU 11, 1939 



513 



American Government. They are likewise 
known by tlie American jjeople, and in the 
interests of the future relations between Japan 
and the United States those facts must be 
faced. Only through consideration of those 
facts can the present attitude of the American 
Government and people toward Japan be 
understood; only through consideration of 
those facts, and through constructive steps to 
alter those facts, can Japanese-American re- 
lations be improved. Those relations must be 
improved. 

Having said all this I do not propose today 
to deal in detail with the causations which have 
brought about that feeling in my coimtry. 
I'his is not the occasion to enter any "bill of 
particulars." Those facts, those difficulties be- 
tween our Nations, are matters for considera- 
tion by the two Governments; indeed, some 
of them are matters which I have been dis- 
cussing with the Japanese Government during 
the past 2 years, and I shall continue to ap- 
proach these matters. But I believe that the 
broad outline of those facts and difficulties are 
known to you. Some of those difficulties are 
serious. 

Now many of you who are listening to me 
may well be thinking: "There are two sides 
to every picture; we in Japan also have our 
public opinion to consider." Granted. In 
America, as I have already said, I did my best 
to show various angles of the Japanese point 
of view. But here in Japan I shall try to 
show the American point of view. Without, 
careful consideration of both points of view 
we can get nowhere in building up good rela- 
tions. I wish you could realize how intensely 
I wish for that most desirable end and how 
deeply I desire, by pure objectivity, to con- 
tribute to a successful outcome. Let me there- 
fore try to remove a few utterly fallacious 
conceptions of the American attitude as I think 
they exist in Japan today. 

One of these fallacies is that the Ajnerican 
approach to affairs in East Asia is bound by 
a purely "legalistic" attitude, a conception 
^vluch widely prevails in this country today. 
TAHiat is meant by a "legalistic" attitude? If 



we mean respect for treaties, official commit- 
ments, international law, yes; tliat respect is 
and always will be one of the cardinal princi- 
ples of American policy. But the very term 
"a legalistic attitude," as it has often been used 
in my hearing in Japan, seems to imply a 
position where one cannot see the woods for 
the trees, where one's vision of higher and 
broader concepts is stultified. Let me there- 
fore touch briefly on a few of the cardinal 
principles of American policy and objectives, 
moulded to meet the requirements of modern 
life, which, it is true, are fundamentally based 
upon but which seem to me far to transcend 
any purely "legalistic" approach to world 
affairs. 

The American people aspire to relations of 
peace with every country and between all 
countries. We have no monopoly on this de- 
sire for peace, but we have a very definite 
conviction that the sort of peace which, 
throughout history, has been merely an in- 
terlude between wars is not an environment in 
which world civilization can be stably de- 
veloped or, perhaps, can even be preserved. 
We believe that international peace is de- 
pendent on what our Secretary of State has 
characterized as "orderly processes" in inter- 
iiational dealing. 

The American people desire to respect the 
sovereign rights of other people and to have 
their own sovereign rights equally respected. 
We have found by experience that the success- 
ful approach to the resolving of international 
disputes lies not so much in merely abstaining 
from the use of force as in abstaining from any 
thought of the use, immediately or eventually, 
of the methods of force. Let cynics look about 
them and contemplate the consequences of re- 
sort to menacing demands as a process in the 
conduct of international relations. Is it being 
purely "legalistic" to put to wise and practical 
use the finer instincts common to all mankind ? 

The American peojjle believe that the day is 
past when wars can be confined in their effects 
to the combatant nations. When national 
economies were based upon agriculture and 
handcraft, nations were to a large extent self- 



514 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



sufficient; they lived primarily on the thing-s 
which they themselves grew or produced. 
That is not the case today. Nations are now 
increasingly dependent on others both for com- 
modities which they do not produce them- 
selves and for the disposal of the things which 
they produce in excess. The highly complex 
system of exchange of goods has been evolved 
by reason of each nation's being able to extract 
from the ground or to manufacture certain 
commodities more efficiently or economically 
than others. Each contributes to the common 
good the fruits of its handiwork and the boun- 
ties of nature. It is this system of exchange 
which has not only raised the standard of liv- 
ing everywhere but has made it possible for 
two or even three persons to live in comfort 
where but one had lived in discomfort under a 
simple self-contained economy. Not only the 
benefits of our advanced civilization but the 
very existence of most of us depends on main- 
taining in equilibrium a delicately balanced 
and complex world economy. Wars are not 
only destructive of the wealtli, both human and 
material, of combatants, but they disturb the 
fine adjustments of world economy. Conflict 
between nations is therefore a matter of con- 
cern to all the other nations. Is there then any 
stultification through "legalistic" concepts 
when we practice ourselves and urge upon 
others the resolving of international disputes 
by orderly processes, even if it were only in 
the interests of world economy? How, except 
on the basis of law and order, can these various 
concepts in international dealing be secured ''{ 

The American people believe in equality of 
commercial opportunity. Theie is probably no 
nation w^hich has not at one time or other in- 
voked it. Even Japan, where American in- 
sistence on the "open door'* is cited as the 
supreme manifestation of what is characterized 
as a "legalistic" American attitude — even 
Japan, I say — hasinsisteduponandhas received 
the benefits of the "open door"' in areas other 
than China, where, we are told, the principle 
is inai^plicable except in a truncated and emas- 
culated form. That highly complicated sys- 



tem of world economy of which I have just 
spoken is postulated upon the ability of nations 
to buy and sell where they please under condi- 
tions of free competition — conditions which 
cannot exist in areas where preemptive rights 
are claimed and asserted on behalf of nationals 
of one particular country. 

I need hardly say that the thoughts which 
I have just expressed are of universal 
applicability. 

Another common fallacy which I am con- 
strained to mention is the charge that the 
American Government and people do not 
understand "the new order in East Asia." 
Forgive me if I verj' respectfully take issue 
with that conception. The American Govern- 
ment and people understand what is meant by 
the "new order in East Asia" precisely as 
clearly as it is understood in Japan. The "new 
order in East Asia" has been officially defined 
in Japan as an order of security, stability, and 
progress. The American Government and 
people earnestly desire security, stability, and 
progress not only for themselves but for all 
other nations in every quarter of the world. 
But the new order in East Asia has appeared 
to include, among other things, depriving 
Americans of their long-established rights in 
China, and to this tlie American people are 
opposed. 

There's the story. It is probable that many 
of you are not aware of the increasing extent 
to which the people of the United States 
resent the methods which the Japanese armed 
forces are employing in China today and what 
appear to be their objectives. In saying this, 
I do not wish for one moment to imply that 
the American people have forgotten the long- 
time friendship which has existed between 
the people of my country and the people of 
Japan. But the American people have been 
profoundly shocked over the widespread use 
of bombing in China, not only on grounds of 
humanity but also on grounds of the direct 
menace to American lives and property accom- 
panied by the loss of American life and the 
crippling of American citizens; they regard 



XdVKMUKIl 11. 1!I31) 



515 



with growinji- sorioiisncss the violation of and 
interference with Ajiierican rights by the 
Japanese armed foi-ces in China in disregard 
of treaties and agreements entered into by the 
United States and Japan and treaties and 
agreements entered into by several nations, in- 
cluding Japan. The American people know 
that those treaties and agreements were entered 
into voluntarily by Japan and that the pro- 
visions of those treaties and agreements con- 
stituted a practical arrangement for safeguard- 
ing — for the benefit of all — the correlated 
principles of national sovereignty and of 
equality of economic opportunity. The prin- 
ciple of equality of economic opportunity is 
one to which o\er a long jjeriod and on many 
occasions Japan has given definite approval 
and upon which Ja]3an has frequently insisted. 
Not only are the American people perturbed 
over their being ai'bitrarilj' deprived of long- 
established rights, including those of equal op- 
portunity and fair treatment, but they feel that 
the present trend in the Far East if continued 
will be destructive of the hopes which they 
sincerely cherish of the development of an 
orderly world. American rights and interests 
in China are being impaired or destroyed by 
the policies and actions of the Japanese author- 
ities in China. American property is being- 
damaged or destroyed ; American nationals are 
being endangered and subjected to indigni- 
ties. If I felt in a position to set forth all the 
facts in detail today, you would, without any 
question, appreciate the soundness and full jus- 
tification of the American attitude. Perhaps 
you will also understand why I wish today to 
exercise restraint. 

In short, the American people, from all the 
thoroughly reliable evidence that comes to 
them, have good reason to believe that an ef- 
fort is being made to establish control, in 
Japan's own interest, of large areas on the 
continent of Asia and to impose upon those 
areas a system of closed economy. It is this 
thought, added to the effect of the bombings, 
the indignities, the manifold interference 



with American rights, that accounts for the 
attitude of the American people toward Japan 
today. For my part I will say this. It is my 
belief, and the belief of the American Govern- 
ment and people, that the many things injur- 
ious to the United States which have been 
done and are being done by Japanese agencies 
are wholly needless. We believe that real 
security and stability in the Far East could 
be attained without running counter to any 
American rights whatsoever. 

Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen : I 
have tried to give an accurate interpretation 
of American public opinion, most carefully 
studied and analyzed by me while at home. 
The traditional friendship between our two 
Nations is far too precious a thing to be either 
inadvertently or deliberately impaired. It 
seems to me logical that from every point of 
view — economic, financial, commercial, in the 
interests of business, travel, science, culture, 
and sentiment — Japan and the United States 
forever should be mutually considerate friends. 
In the family of nations, as between and 
among brothers, there arise inevitable con- 
troversies, but again and again the United 
States has demonstrated its practical sym- 
pathy and desire to be helpful toward Japan 
in difficult times and moments, its admiration 
of Japan's achievements, its earnest desire for 
mutually helpful relations. 

Please do not misconstrue or misinterpret 
the attitude which has prompted me to speak 
in the utmost frankness today. I am moved 
first of all by love of my own country and my 
devotion to its interest; but I am also moved 
by very deep affection for Japan and by sin- 
cere conviction that the real interests, the 
fundamental and abiding interests of both 
countries, call for harmony of thought and 
action in our relationsliips. Those who know 
ray sentiments for Jajjan, developed in happy 
contacts during the 7 years in which I have 
lived here among you, will realize, I am sure, 
that my words and my actions are those of a 
true friend. 



516 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



One Japanese newspaper queried, on my re- 
turn from America, whether I had concealed 
in my bosom a dagger or a dove. Let me 
answer that query. I have nothing concealed 
in my bosom except the desire to work with 
all my mind, with all my heart, and witli 
all my strength for Japanese-American 
friendship. 



Today I have stated certain facts, straight- 
forwardly and objectively. But I am \also 
making a plea for sympathetic understanding 
in the interests of the old, enduring friendship 
between our two great Nations. In a world 
of chaos I plead for stability, now and in the 
long future, in a relationsliip which, if it can 
he preserved, can bring only good to Japan 
and to the United States of America. 



Commercial Policy 



LETTER FROM THE SECRETARY OF STATE TO SENATOR CAPPER 



[Released to the press November S] 

Following is the text of a letter from the 
Secretary of State to the Honorable Arthur 
Capper, United States Senate: 

"November 7, 1939. 
"My Dear Senator Capper: 

"I have received your letter of October 17, 
1939,- in which you comment further upon the 
proposed trade agi'eement with Az'gentina. 
Elaborating the expressions of apprehension 
concerning the possible eilects of this agi'ee- 
ment upon agriculture which were contained 
in your previous letter, you discuss at some 
length certain of the agricultural items which 
were listed in our public announcement as be- 
ing open to consideration for the granting of 
possible concessions to Argentina. 

"It would manifestly be improper for me, 
wlrile the negotiations are in progress and be- 
fore any decisions have been reached concern- 
ing these and other pending items, to attempt 
to anticipate the results of the very careful 
study which will be given to all such items 
by the best practical experts from the various 



'Not printed. 



Departments of the Govenunent which are 
collaborating in this work, including, of 
course, the Department of Agriculture. I 
note that you have sent a copy of your letter 
to the Committee for Reciprocity Information 
with a request that it be made a part of the 
statement which you submitted to the Com- 
mittee at the hearings on October 16. You 
may be assured that tliis additional expression 
of your views will be carefully 'considered 
by tlie interdepartmental trade-agreements 
organization. 

"Your views appear to be broadly similar 
to those expressed before the Committee for 
Reciprocity Information, at the recent hear- 
ings on the Argentine agreement, by various 
other members of Congress, and also by 
representatives of certain organizations speak- 
ing, or purporting to speak, for the farmer. 
Hence I should like — speaking also for the 
farmer as well as for the rest of tlie country — 
to take this opportunity to point out some of 
the salient facts which should be borne in 
mind in connection with this whole matter. 



XOVEMIiKI! 11, 19 39 



517 



"First of all. 1 want to emphasize that at- 
tempts to prejudge the case by forecasting all 
sorts of dire happenings to agriculture in con- 
sequence of an agreement with Argentina 
which has not yet been negotiated, are wholly 
premature and are in no sense justified by the 
experience in connection with earlier agree- 
ments. Expressions of fear and sweeping as- 
sertions of this type liave been heard every 
time trade-agreement negotiations have been 
undertaken with another country. Invariably, 
this occurred hefom the negotiation of the par- 
ticular trade agreement had been completed. 
Invariably, the clamor subsided as soon as the 
actual terms of the agreement were made pub- 
lic, and the moderate and cai-eful nature of 
the tariff adjustments made by us was re- 
vealed. 

"Second, I want to emphasize that neither 
you yourself nor any of the others who have 
expressed opposition to the negotiation of a 
trade agreement with Argentina, on the ground 
of alleged injury to agriculture, can possibly 
have more at heart than I do the interests of 
the farmers of this country. Thei-e cannot be 
any question of that. The point at issue is 
\vholly different. I am convinced that the 
trade-agreements program has been highly 
beneficial to our farmers and to the nation as 
a whole. You, apparently, are not. I am con- 
fident that the proposed trade agreement witli 
Argentnia, which is a part of the program, 
will not be injurious to our farmei's, but, on 
the contrary, will be helpful both to our agri- 
culture and to the economic well-being of the 
nation as a whole. You, apparently, are not. 
Let us look at the facts. 

"In most of the recent discussions of the 
proposed agreement with Argentina, including 
your own observations, I note a decided tend- 
ency not only to prejudge this prospective 
agreement in the absence of any knowledge of 
wiiat its actual terms will be, but also to weigh 
it solely by itself, entirely separate and aparc 
from the remainder of the trade-agreements 
program. That, I submit, is wholly untenable 



and unfair. I recognize, of course, that each 
agreement must be appraised, in the first in- 
stance, on its own merits; but I cannot, in 
fairness to the interests of the farmers them- 
selves or the nation as a whole, agi-ee that 
responsible consideration of the matter can 
stop at that point. 

"As regards the prospective agreement witli 
Argentina, obviously it cannot be appraised on 
its own merits until its actual terms are de- 
termined. At the present stage of the nego- 
tiations, neither I nor any one else concerned 
with the negotiations can possibly know pre- 
cisely what commodities will be affected and in 
what measure — except that, as was invariably 
the case in all previous negotiations, the well- 
being of our farmers, as well as of all other 
groups of the population, will be fully and 
carefully taken into account. 

"As to the wisdom of negotiating an agree- 
ment with a country like Argentina, it should 
be noted, first of all, that during the past 15 
3'ears our sales to Argentina amounted to 
$1,543,000,000, which was $487,000,000 in ex- 
cess of our purchases from Argentina. The 
agreement now under negotiation is necessai'V 
in order to safeguard and expand this im- 
portant foreign market for American products 
as a necessary means of expanding our domes- 
tic market as well. Shall we throw away this 
mutually beneficial trade relationship and the 
inci'eased purchasing power for both agricul- 
ture and industry resulting from it, simply 
because of exaggerated fears — entirely luiwar- 
ranted and, in too many instances, unfairly 
fostered — that American farmers might be in- 
jured by an agreement containhig, among its 
other features, limited adjustments of tariffs 
on a few agricultural products, some of them 
largely or wholly non-competitive and all of 
them supplementary to our own production? 

"The whole question of negotiating a trade 
agreement with Argentina or any other coun- 
try is one which can be fully and properly eval- 
uated only in conjmiction with the entire pro- 
gram. Ill the conduct of trade negotiations 



518 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



there is neither justification in principle nor 
authority in law for deliberately discriminat- 
ing between agricultural and non-agricultural 
countries in choosing the field for negotiation. 
If we are to proceed seriously with this broad 
program for the reopening of the channels of 
trade, we must be prepared to negotiate either 
limited or comprehensive agreements — as cir- 
cumstances warrant — with all countries whose 
trade policies are such as to afford a basis for 
negotiation under principles laid down in the 
Trade Agreements Act. 

"Almost without exception, opponents of this 
agreement — even those who, in all sincerity, 
have been making public statements in oppo- 
sition to it — have failed to grasp the funda- 
mentals of the issue. The problem is one of 
promoting the economic welfare of the entire 
nation through increase of purchasing power 
and expansion of markets, at home and abroad, 
to the benefit of our agriculture, industry and 
labor. To do this requires that we exert every 
effort — without materially impairing, even 
temporarily, the interests of any established 
and reasonably efficient domestic industry — to 
lower or remove excessive barriers to inter- 
national trade. Agriculture, dependent as it 
is not only upon foreign markets but also upon 
the general prosperity of the nation, has prob- 
ably more to gain from such a program of 
trade liberalization than any other major 
branch of the nation's economic life. 

"This is the central problem which we have 
been seeking to solve through trade agreements. 
It is because of the vital bearing of a construc- 
tive foreign trade policy on our national pros- 
perity that the President and his entire Ad- 
ministration have made the trade- agreements 
program an essential part of their unceasing 
effort to rehabilitate our agriculture and our 
whole economic life. 

"The trade-agreements program has had, 
and now has, no purpose more essential than 
that of benefiting our agriculture. Notwith- 
standing reckless and grossly imfair assertions 



U) the contrary, we have made great headway 
in the face of difficulties of the most serious 
character. Now, however, as we enter upon 
negotiations with Argentina, it is violently as- 
serted in certain quarters that we should forego 
the unquestionable advantages of a trade 
agreement with Argentina on the spurious and 
unsupported plea that certain branches of 
American agriculture would be injured in the 
process. It is even sweepingly alleged, with- 
out one scintilla of supporting evidence, that 
agriculture as a whole will suffer from this 
agreement. 

"However sincerely such feelings may be 
held, they are not, I repeat, founded upon a 
full understanding of the facts. They rest 
upon premises which are so erroneous or so 
narrow that the entire picture is distorted. 
The allegation that the Argentine agreement 
will be injurious to certain branches of Amer- 
ican agriculture is based upon two false as- 
sumptions: (1) that whatever tariff adjust- 
ments ai'e made will not be as carefully con- 
sidered and as adequately safeguarded as those 
made in agreements already negotiated; and 
(2) that every additional pound or bushel or 
other unit that is imported deprives the domes- 
tic producers of that much business. This sec- 
ond assumption entirely overlooks the fact that 
the domestic market is not a fixed or a static 
market but, on the contrary, expands or con- 
tracts under the influence, among other fac- 
tors, of a prosperous or a depressed foreign 
trade. 

"The inherent fallacy involved in the as- 
sumption that the domestic market is a static 
one is nowhere better demonstrated than by 
our own experience under embai'go tariffs. I 
have discussed that experience so often and 
so fully in the past that it is surely unneces- 
sary to repeat it here. The essential facts 
are, as our Hawley-Smoot experience pain- 
fully demonstrated: first, that it is impossible 
to grant embargo tariffs to some groups and 
withhold them from others, and that, once 
political trading of this sort gets under way, 



NOVEMBER 11, 1939 



519 



R there is no stopping short of prohibitive tariffs 
all along the line; and second, that the net re- 
sult of such an embargo tariff policy is a dis- 
astrous decline in our foreign trade which 
leaves in its wake a prostrate agriculture and a 
prostrate nation. 

"Far from being preserved, the farmer's 
home market — as well as his foreign — is dras- 
tically reduced as a result of embargo tariffs. 
We have learned fi'om experience that to em- 
bark upon such a policy is ruinous folly. For 
well-meaning persons assuming to speak for 
agriculture still to cling, despite all that hap- 
pened after 1930, to the delusion that the 
farmer has something to gain from embargo 
tariffs — or from resisting a program for ad- 
justing such tariffs below the embargo level 
while still providing thoroughly adequate safe- 
guards — is folly compounded. Most of those 
who are today attempting to destroy our trade 
jarogram by making insupportable charges that 
it is injuring agriculture are the same false 
prophets who solemnly assured the farmers 
that the Hawley-Smoot embargoes would 
guarantee to them full and permanent pros- 
perity; whereas, in actual fact, within two 
years from the enactment of the 1930 tariff, 
millions of farmers found themselves in, or 
on the verge of, bankruptcy. 

"The plain truth is that farmers in this 
country have everything to gain and nothing 
to lose from a carefully administered program 
for the reestablishment of our foreign trade, 
to the fullest extent that international condi- 
tions will permit. It is either such a course 
of moderation, with expanding markets for 
American products at home and abroad, or 
else it is embargo tariffs all around, with con- 
sequences that we have already seen. 

"Moreover, there is no basis in fact for 
truly astounding statements that the program, 
in actual operation, has injured American 
farmers. The very reverse is the case. 

"The facts are that we have secured ex- 
tremely valuable benefits for agriculture 
through the safeguarding and expanding of 



foreign markets for our farm surpluses. The 
improved facilities for the marketing abroad 
of the products of our farms were one of the 
major factors responsible for the rise in our 
agricultural exports from $662,000,000 in 1932 
and $694,000,000 in 1933 to $828,000,000 in 
1938, as contrasted with their drastic decline 
from a level of $1,693,000,000 in 1929. In ad- 
dition, of course, the farmer's home market 
has expanded in consequence of increased 
domestic employment and purchasing power 
for farm products, partly brought about by 
trade-agreement concessions obtain ed for 
American exports of both agricultural and 
non-agricultural commodities. 

"The trade agreements thus far concluded 
are with countries which take about 60 per- 
cent of our total exports. In these agreements 
we have obtained valuable concessions, in- 
cluding binding of duty-free entry, for 47 per- 
cent of our exports of farm products to all 
countries. These concessions cover about three- 
fourths of our exports of farm products to 
the trade-agreement countries themselves. Old 
markets have been safeguarded and new mar- 
kets have been opened up for all surplus-pro- 
ducing branches of our agriculture. A few 
illustrations will suffice. 

"After a prolonged period of domestic short- 
age, the corn-hog industry is again becoming 
heavily dependent upon export outlets. Ke- 
duction of barriers against our exports of pork, 
ham or bacon has been obtained in ten coun- 
tries. On lard, nine countries have reduced 
barriers, while 3 others have agreed not to 
impose new restrictions. Of special signifi- 
cance is the removal in the agreement with 
Great Britain of a burdensome preferential 
duty on lard, originally imposed in retaliation 
for some of the super-protectionist provisions 
of the Smoot-Hawley tariff. 

"On grains and grain products, foreign trade 
barriers have been lowered in all but five of 
the agreements now in effect, and in three of 
the remaining five agreements the foreign 
countries concerned have bound existing favor- 



520 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



able clutifts against increase. Great Britain has 
removed its duty on wheat, also originally im- 
l)osed in retaliation for our action under the 
Smoot-Hawley tariflP, and has bound corn and 
cotton on the fi-ee list. 

"Fruits, vegetables and a long list of othei' 
farm products liave benefited from the con- 
cessions obtained in the trade agreements. 

"Analysis of the results obtained under the 
trade-agreements program reveals that between 
1935 and 1938 our exports of farm products to 
ti-ade-agreement countries increased by nearly 
50 percent, whereas to other countries they 
actually declined slightly. It is a stupendous 
fact that this progress in re-opening market 
outlets was attained in the face of such formid- 
able obstacles as the continuation in many 
countries of exorbitantly high trade barriers, 
the existence abroad of an extraordinarily low 
level of purchasing power, the increasing di- 
version of purchasing power to the jirocure- 
ment of commodities needed for the construc- 
tion of armaments, and the disastrous eifects 
of unprecedented droughts upon our own ex- 
porting capacity. 

"One would look in vain, in the mass of stat e- 
ments and appeals with which those who seek 
to destroy the trade-agreements program have 
flooded the farmers, for any reference to these 
undisputed and important benefits secured, 
through trade agreements, for the fanners 
themselves and for the nation as a whole. In 
their unholy zeal, they deliberately suppress 
and withhold all material facts favoi-able to 
the trade-agreements program. It is high time 
for the farmers of our corn-hog belt, our wheat 
belt, our cotton belt to ask why such opponents 
of the trade-agreements program — professing, 
as they do, to have the interests of the farmers 
at heart — do not give them all of the facts 
essential for informed judgment on this issue, 
which is so crucial to their welfare. 

"The agreements we have concluded are with 
countries which account for a little over 60 
l)ercent of our total imports. Among these 
are such important agricultural pi-oducers as 



Canada and some of the Latin American Re- 
publics. To these countries we have granted 
carefully considered and carefully safeguarded 
tariff adjustments on some of their character- 
istic products, designed to permit a moderate 
increase of their sales to us in exchange for 
increased outlets for our products. 

"Much has been said in recent years about 
imports of agricultural products, by persons 
who have sought to persuade fanners that such 
imports are highly detrimental; and efforts 
have been unceasing to make it appear that 
trade-agreement concessions have been seri- 
ously harmful in this connection. It has even 
been falsely asserted that the bulk of the con- 
cessions granted by us in trade agreements 
have been on farm products. Repeated ex- 
posure of the utter hollowness of such un- 
founded assertions has not prevented their end- 
less repetition. 

"The facts with regard to concessions on 
farm products are that, while duties have been 
adjusted on more than a fifth of our non- 
agricultural impoi'ts, in the case of agricultural 
imports the tai-itf adjustments now in effect 
apply to only about 8 percent of the total. 
It is clear that these adjustments in duties on 
fann jiroducts could not possibly have been a 
factor of any considerable importance in the 
recent situation as regards imports of agri- 
cultural products. 

"It needs to be understood just what these 
agricultural imports are and what is the true 
explanation of the changes in their volume 
i]i recent years. In all of the vast array of 
misleading literature put out on this subject, 
there is not the slightest suggestion as to the 
true chiiracter or the true significance of these 
imports. 

"For example, if we examine the figures for 
1938 — the last full year available, and a year 
in which most of the abnormality in the im- 
port figures arising from the cumulative effects 
of the droughts of 1934 and 1936 had disap- 
])eared — what do we find? We find that, of 
the total imports of agricultural, or so-called 



NOVEMBEE 11, 1939 



521 



iigriculliual, products, amounting to $956,- 
000,000, more thiin half consisted of things 
like rubber, coifee, silk, etc., which are not even 
produced in the United States. Among these 
Hems were $138.{X)0.00O worth of cofTee; $130.- 
(100,000 of crude rubber; $89,000,000 of raw 
silk: $29,000,000 of bananas; $20,000,000 of 
cocoa beans; $18,000,000 of tea; $13,000,000 of 
carpet wool ; and $10,000,000 of sisal and hene- 
quen (mostly for the farmer's binder twine). 
This was the situation notwithstanding that 
the relatively low business and industrial ac- 
tivity in the United States in 1938 resulted in 
much smaller importation of industrial raw 
materials than takes place in more prosperous 
years. For example, in 1937 our imports of 
products of this type, not produced in the 
United States, amounted to $711,000,000. 

''With respect to the remainder of our 1938 
imports of agricultural products (amounting 
to slightly less than half of the total), we find 
that sugar alone accounted for $130,000,000, or 
well over a fourth; and sugar imports have 
been regulated by quota restriction until cjuite 
recently when the quotas were removed and the 
tariff duty on Cuban sugar reverted to the pi'e- 
Cuban-trade-agreement rate. So far as con- 
cerns the rest of these imports, two things are 
to be noted: first, that they consist — as in the 
case of sugar — of commodities of a type which 
we do not produce in suflBcient quantities, de- 
spite high taritfs on most of them, to meet our 
own requirements; and second, that, in very 
considerable part, they consist of products im- 
ported because of seasonal, quality or other 
special factors. 

"The significance of changes in the volume 
of hnpoi'ts of agricultural, or so-called agricul- 
tural, products from year to year is equally in 
need of clarification. It is easy to attach a 
completely false significance to the rise of such 
imports from $668,000,000 in 1932 to $956.- 
000,000 in 1938, meanwhile conveniently ignor- 
ing the fact that farm income, after reaching its 
lowest ebb in 1932, had, increased, between 1932 
and 1938, by almost three lillion dollars. It 



is easy to neglect pointing out that in 1929 we 
brought in from abroad $2,218,000,000 of such 
products; so that, on the theory that the volume 
of farm imports governs farm prosperity, agri- 
culture should have reached the very bottom of 
depression in 1929, instead of which — after two 
years of Hawley-Smoot embargoes — it reached 
bottom in 1932. It is easy to niake utterly false 
use of import figures which are, in a large de- 
gree, abnormal. For example, a large part of 
the greatly increased volume of agricultural 
imports in 1937 was — as every informed person 
should have known — the direct result of severe 
domestic shortages caused by the droughts of 
1934 and 1936. -V considerable part of the in- 
ci-ease was also, of course, the residt of the 
marked economic improvement in 1937, which 
led to increased imports of agricultural and 
other raw materials, in large part non-competi- 
tive and essential for the operation of our in- 
dustries. 

"That our agriculture has not been injured 
by these imports of agricultural products may 
be clearly seen from an examination of the in- 
come received by farmers in recent j-ears and 
from the movement of prices of the principal 
agricultui'al commodities. What the figures 
show, on the contrary, is that agricultural im- 
ports and farm income have tended generally 
in the past to move up and down together. 

"The total cash income from the marketing 
of all farm products, exclusive of government 
payments, was $4,606,000,000 in 1932; $5,248,- 
000,000 in 1933; $8,621,000,000 in 1937; and 
$7,538,000,000 in 1938. The latest estimated 
income for 1939 is $7,600,000,000. All major 
groups of producers participated in these in- 
creases, just as in the preceding three years they 
all shared in the calamitous decline of farm 
income from the level of $11,221,000,000 which 
was received in 1929. 

"The contrast between the two periods is 
striking. During the first, the Hawley-Smoot 
tariff was in full operation ; during the second, 
the trade-agreements pi'ogram was increasingly 
being put into effect. 



522 



DEPAKTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



"When the Hawley-Smoot tariff was enacted 
in 1930, the farmers were promised a period 
of great prosperity, under the slogan, 'the 
American market for the American farmer'. 
Instead, during the three years which fol- 
lowed, the cash income from the marketing of 
crops fell by $1,355,000,000, while the incomL' 
from the marketing of livestock and livestock 
products dropped by $2,338,000,000. This lat- 
ter figure included a decline of $1,252,000,000 
in the income from meat animals alone, and a 
decline of $641,000,000 in the income from 
dairy products. 

"When the Trade Agreements Act was 
passed and periodically since then, as trade 
agreements were negotiated, irresponsible and 
terrifying predictions were made in some 
quarters that the effect would be to 'ruin' our 
agriculture. Yet, between 1933 and 1938, the 
income received from the marketing of crops 
increased by $716,000,000, and the income re- 
ceived from the marketing of livestock and 
livestock products increased by $1,574,000,000. 
This latter figure includes an increase of 
$952,000,000 in the income from meat animals 
and of $408,000,000 in the income from dairy 
products. 

"The movement of prices of farm products 
since 1932 tells essentially the same story. In 
1932 the average index of farm prices (1909- 
14=100) was 65; in 1938, it was 95. In 1932 
the average farm price of wheat was 38.8 
cents a bushel ; in 1938, 66.1 cents ; and on Sep- 
tember 15, 1939, 72.7 cents. For corn the fig- 
ures for these same respective dates were 28.1, 
49.0, and 56.2 cents a bushel. For hogs, the 
figures were $3.34, $7.74, and $7.06 a hundred, 
respectively. For beef cattle, the figures were 
$4.25, $6.53 and $7.07 a hundred. For butter- 
fat, the figures were 17.9, 26.3 and 24.7 cents a 
pound. For wool, the figures were 8.6, 19.1 
and 24.3 cents a pound. 

"While there was a considerable rise in 
prices of some of these products after the re- 
cent outbreak of war in Europe, inspection of 
the earlier figures reveals that, before that 



time, the prices received by farmers for beef 
cattle, hogs, corn and wheat had risen one and 
one-half times as compared with 1932; those 
for butterfat, by nearly one-third; and tho.se 
for wool, to three times their 1932 level. 

"The data for income and prices with re- 
spect to beef cattle and dairy products are 
particularly significant. It is m connection 
with these commodities that the loudest proph- 
ecies of doom and the most reckless claims of 
injury have been occasioned by the tariff ad- 
justments made in the trade agi'eements. Yet 
both of these branches of our agriculture have 
shown substantial improvement during recent 
years. It is in the face of such facts as these 
that some lobbyists in and out of Washington 
purporting to speak for dairy and livestock 
interests carry on their unceasing efforts to 
mislead not only the public but the very in- 
dustries for whom they pretend to speak. 

"The record recited above shows all too 
clearly that the whole idea that farmers have 
anything to gain by supporting a policy of 
air-tight embargo tariffs on farm products is 
shot through witli fallacy. It shows, as al- 
ready stated, that this leads to embargo tariffs 
all around, destroying both foreign and domes- 
tic markets and resulting in disaster to agri- 
culture, as to other branches of our economic 
life. It proves conclusively that statements to 
the effect that our farmers are being injured 
by the trade agreements can only be based 
either upon ignorance of the facts, for which 
there is little excuse, since all of the data given 
above are regularly published and are easily 
available; or else upon a deliberate attempt to 
mislead the farmers and the public in general. 
It is an incontrovertible fact that no agricul- 
tural tariff adjustments have been made in our 
trade agreements without the utmost care to 
see to it that those branches of our agriculture 
affected were left with ample safeguards. 

"I feel that I must emphasize once more the 
point that those who now attack the trade- 
agreements program on the alleged ground that 
the projjosed Argentine agreement will injure 



NOVEMBER 11, 1939 



523 



our agriculture assume that this agreement, or 
any single agreement, can be weighed in com- 
plete dissociation from the remainder of the 
entire pi-ogram. They would have us ignore 
completely the moderate nature of the conces- 
sions made in other trade agreements and the 
beneficial effects of other agreements upon agri- 
culture, through expansion of market outlets 
for farm products both at home and abroad. 
They even assume that the tariff adjustments 
which we may make in the Argentine agree- 
ment can be appraised independently of the 
benefits obtained in the way of safeguarding 
and expanding our exports to Argentina. 

"Far from injuring farmers, the trade agree- 
ments have made a twofold contribution to 
their economic welfare. Increased foreign 
markets for agricultural products have eased 
the burden of our surpluses and have placed 
greater purchasing power in the hands of the 
producers. Increased foreign markets for in- 
dustrial, as well as agricultural, products — and 
in the trade agreements negotiated to date, 
valuable concessions were secured from foreign 
countries for one-quarter of our nonagricul- 
tural exports — have expanded domestic demand 
for all types of farm products. 

"The accomplisliment of both of these aims — 
that is, expansion of both the domestic and the 
foreign demand for our products at fair 
prices — is among the paramount purposes of 
the trade-agreements program. Neither is 
possible in a satisfactory measure without the 
establishment throughout the world of condi- 
tions under which mutually profitable trade, 
based upon the essential principle of equal 
treatment, can be given the greatest practicable 
scope of operation. And experience has shown 
that no more effective method of promoting 
such conditions of trade has been devised than 
that embodied in our trade-agreements pro- 
gram. 

"We have taken a position of leadership in 
this field, not only because a healthy develop- 
ment of foreign trade is necessary to the 
economic stability and welfare of this country 
and is an indispensable foundation of endur- 



ing peace; but also because the alternative to 
the type of policy which we pursue is a growth 
of national economic isolation, with all its 
disastrous results for the peace and prosperity 
of nations. That alternative means, within 
nations, increasing regimentation in all phases 
of economic life, beginning with the siirplus- 
producing industries and steadily extending to 
all other branches of production and distribu- 
tion. It means the dole in an expanding and 
more and more aggravated form, and a decline 
in the general standard of national well-being. 
Even before the outbreak of the present war, 
excessive trade barriers were predominantly 
responsible for the piling up of huge surpluses 
in some countries, while millions of people 
throughout the world were compelled to sub- 
sist on short rations. Internationally, it 
means growing animosities, bitter resentments, 
and, in the end, the anarchy of violence 
through the unbridled use of armed force. 

"When the present unfortunate period of 
hostilities is over, this and other important 
nations will be confronted with the choice of 
either furnishing an increased measure of 
leadership in bringing the world back to a sane 
and healthy economy, both domestically and 
internationally, and thus in building the 
foundation of enduring peace; or of under- 
going a steady deterioration in their economic 
life, with all the evil consequences of such a 
downward course for stability and prosperity 
within nations and for peace among nations. 

"At the present time, the best interests of 
this nation require the greatest possible effort 
in the direction of maintaining the results of 
our unremitting work in the field of trade- 
agreement negotiations during the past five 
years and of extending the area of negotia- 
tions wherever possible. The negotiations 
now in progress with such countries as Argen- 
tina are a part of tliis vital effort. Here we 
have an opportunity to place the trade re- 
lations between this country and the nations 
to the south of us on a basis of greater mutual 
advantage, to the benefit of both sides, and at 
the same time to strengthen the ties of friend- 



524 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLET12Sr 



ship and solidarity in the Western Hemi- 
^[)here, which are so vitally important to our 
cduunon security in a world harassed by war. 
"In view of all these circumstances, I ear- 
nestly hope that those, like yourself, who have 
been ai)prehensive concerning the pending 
negotiations will give the whole matter further 
thought. It seems to me that it is due the 
nation, and the farmers themselves, that pre- 
mature judgments with respect to these 
negotiations be suspended and that, when the 
negotiations are completed, appraisal of the 
results be based upon all of the relevant facts. 
I am confident that, if this is done, the only 



leasouable verdict will be that the interests of 
the farmers will have been promoted, rather 
than hurt. I am confident that, in consequence 
of both direct and indirect benefits arising 
from the Argentine agreement itself and of 
the further impetus that conclusion of this 
agreement will give to a progi-am which is 
basically in their interest, farmers will share 
with tlie I'est of the nation the manifest ad- 
vantages to be gained from the improvement 
of our trade I'elations with an influential and a 
friendly nation in the Western Hemisphere. 
Sincerely yours, 

CoRDELL Hull" 



+ + -f ^ -f -f -f 



ANALYSIS OF THE TRADE AGREEMENT WITH VENEZUELA " 



[Released to the preBS November 7] 

Summary 

The United States and Venezuela signed at 
Caracas on November 6, 1939, a reciprocal 
trade agreement designed to maintain and im- 
prove the mutually beneficial trade relations 



'This information has been prepared by representa- 
tives of the Department of State, the Department of 
Agriculture, the Department of Commerce, the Depart- 
ment of the Treasury, and the Tariff Commission. 
Tliese Government agencies, under the reciprocal-trade- 
agreements program, cooperate in the formulation, 
negotiation, and conclusion of all trade agreements 
entered into by the United States under the provisions 
of the Trade Agreements Act of 1!(34, as extended by a 
joint resolution of Congress on llarch 1, 1937. 

The text of the agreement and accompanying sched- 
ules will be printed in the Executive Agreement Series. 



between tlie two countries. This agreement is 
the twenty-.second trade agreement negotiated 
by the United States under the provisions of 
tlie Trade Agreement Act of June 12, 1934, as 
extended on March 1, 1937, and is the eleventli 
to be concluded with another American re- 
])ublic. Upon entry into force of tlie agree- 
ment with Venezuela, our trade with that na- 
tion and the other 19 countries with which 
trade agreements are now in effect will consti- 
tute about 60 percent of total United States 
trade with the world, on the basis of trade 
statistics for 1938. 

Under tlie terms of a modus vivendi signed 
the same ilay, the substantive provisions of the 
agreement, including the general provisions 
and the schedules of concessions, will enter 



XOVKIMBEB II. in:iO 



525 



in-oviwionally into force on December 16, 1939, 
pendiiiii ratiticutioii of the ngreement by the 
y Venezuehm Government. The agreement ■will 
enter into full force 30 days after exchange of 
the instrument of ratification of the Venezue- 
lan Government and the proclamation of the 
agreement by the President of the United 
States. It will remain in force, subject to cer- 
tain special provisions, until December 15. 
1942, and may continue in force indefinitely 
thereafter until 6 months after notice of ter- 
mination has been given bj' either country. 

Since May 12, 1938, trade relations between 
the United States and Venezuela have been 
regulated by a provisional commercial agree- 
ment providing for reciprocal unconditional 
niost-favored-nation treatment. The recipi"o- 
cal trade agreement, which supplants the 
previous arrangement, continues and strength- 
ens the provisions for unconditional most- 
favored-nation treatment and in addition 
pi'ovides for reciprocal tariff concessions. 
These concessions include benefits for United 
States exports in the form of reductions or 
bindings of numerous Venezuelan tai'iff rates.' 
In return, Venezuela receives reductions in 
duties or guaranties of the continuance of 
existing tariff treatment on a smaller number 
of products which rej^resent a large percentage 
of its exports to the United States. 

Concessions, including bindings, obtained 
from Venezuela cover such important Ameri- 
can exports to that country as wheat flour, 
oatmeal, prepared milks, hog lard, lumber, 
iron and steel products, automotive products 
and accessories, radios, refrigerators, engines, 
pharmaceutical products, and paints. These 
products represented in 1938 about 36 percent 
of total United States exports to Venezuela, or 
about $19,000,000 out of $52,000,000. 

Concessions granted to Venezuela include a 
reduction of 50 percent in the import tax on 

' For convenience, the word "concessions" is used 
ill this statement to include botti tliese classes ot 
benefits, 



crude petroleum and fuel oil on an annual 
quota of imports not in excess of 5 percent 
of the total quantity of crude petroleum 
processed in refineries in the continental 
United States during the preceding calendar 
year. The other concessions granted to Ven- 
ezuela consists chiefly of guaranties of con- 
tinued dut_y-frec entry on fuel oil used for 
vessel bunkei's and on a list of tropical or 
semitropical products of which Venezuela ii 
a supplier. 

I. General Background 

A. GENERAL CHARACTER OF THE VENEZUELAN 
ECONOMY 

The petroleum industry is today the principal 
factor in the economic life of Venezuela. As 
late as 1914 petroleum production was neg- 
ligible, and the country's economy was based 
largely on coffee and cacao. In 1938 the out- 
put of Venezuelan oil wells reached a record 
total of about 188 million barrels of crude oil, 
and approximately 90 percent of the Re- 
public's exports consisted of petroleum and its 
derivatives. 

Venezuela's area of approximately 352.000 
squai-e miles supports a population of 3,500,000 
and is divided into three main economic areas : 
The petroleum district in the western part of 
the country around Lake Maracaibo and the 
city of the same name; the agricultural and 
pastoral district in central Venezuela with its 
chief center of population at Caracas, the 
capital, and its production of coffee, cacao, 
sugar cane, tobacco, corn, and tropical fruits 
and vegetables; and the Orinoco region in east- 
ern Venezuela, which is known for its forest 
products, such as balata, tonka beans, divi-divi, 
hard woods, and medicinal plants. The re- 
cently developed oil fields in eastern Venezuela 
are also becoming increasingly important. 

Manufacturing is relatively unimportant in 
Venezuela, but the following articles now pro- 
duced in considerable quantities are indicative 



526 



DEPABTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



of the industrial trend : Petroleum derivatives, 
cotton textiles, leather, sawmill products, sugar, 
flour, corn meal, cigars, cigarettes, footwear, 
matches, glass, paper, dairy products, lard, 
soap, beverages, bakery products, confectionery, 
and furniture. 

B. Venezuela's foreign trade 

The character of the economy of Venezuela 
is reflected in the composition of the country's 
foreign trade. The most important imports 
are manufactured products, particularly ma- 
chinery, equipment, and supplies for the pe- 
troleum industry. Other important import 
groups are: Foodstuffs, including wheat flour 
and lard; iron and steel manufactures; auto- 
motive vehicles, parts, and accessories; cotton 
fabrics; rayon and wool textiles; electrical 
apparatus, including radios, refrigerators and 
storage batteries; drugs and pharmaceutical 
products ; and lumber. 

In the export trade, crude petroleum is by 
far the most important item, representing 
about 84 percent of merchandise shipments to 
foreign countries. If petroleum derivatives 
are included, this figure approaches 90 percent. 
Coffee accounts for about 5 percent of exports 
and cacao for less than 2 percent, but these 
products are of great importance in the econ- 
omy of central Venezuela. Other exports in- 
clude cattle, hides, skins, balata, pearls, divi- 
divi, tonka beans, hard woods, and bananas. 

The United States supplies about one-half 
of Venezuela's imports. During 1938 Amer- 
ican particiiJation amounted to 56.2 percent as 
compared with 11.9 percent for Germany and 
7.0 percent for the United Kingdom. Except- 
ing shipments of crude petroleum from Vene- 
zuela to the nearby Netherlands West Indies 
for refining and reexport, the United States 
provides the chief market for exports from 
Venezuela. During 1938 the United States 
absorbed 13.2 percent of total Venezuelan ex- 
ports as compared with 3.3 percent for the 
United Kingdom, the next most important con- 
sumer of Venezuelan products following the 
Netherlands West Indies and the United 
States. Although the islands of Curasao and 



Aruba take about three-fourths of Venezuela's 
total exports in the form of shipments of crude 
petroleum for their refineries, a considerable 
part of this Venezuelan oil is later reexported 
to the United States. Approximately 95 per- 
cent of exports of petroleum products from 
the Netherlands West Indies to the United 
States is produced from Venezuelan crude oil. 

C. SUMMARY OF TRADE BETWEEN THE UNITED 
STATES AND VENEZUELA 

Trade between the United States and Vene- 
zuela has undergone a sharp increase during 
recent years, with an expansion of both exports 
and imports. Total trade between the two 
countries in 1938 was valued at about $72,300,- 
000 as compared with $69,200,000 in 1937, a 
depression low of $26,600,000 in 1933, an aver- 
age of $59,000,000 for the period 1926-30, and 
an average of $16,500,000 for the period 
1911-15. 

The trade of the United States with Vene- 
zuela during the period 1911-38 is shown below 
in table 1: 



Table 1. United States Trade With Venezuela, 
1911-38 







(Values in thousands of dollars) 






Year or period 


Exports' to 
Venezuela * 


General imports 
from Venezuela ^ 


1911- 


1 .5 






5, 
14, 
14, 
38, 
15, 
37, 
45, 
32, 
15, 
10, 
13, 
19, 
18, 
24, 
46, 
52, 


522 
582 
576 
129 
371 
920 
325 
967 
645 
229 
115 
281 
585 
079 
445 
278 


10, 
19, 
14, 
35, 
20, 
38, 
51, 
36, 
26, 
20, 
13, 
22, 
21, 
26, 
22, 
20, 


949 


1916-20 


178 


1921- 


•2F, 






873 


1926-30 _ __ _ 


78? 


1931- 


35 . 






827 


1928 








905 


1929 - 


224 


1930 --- - 


868 


1931 


845 


1932 -- 


?94 


1933 


450 


1934 - 


120 


1935 


428 


1936 _ 


258 


1937 . 


770 


1938 - --- 


035 







• Includes reexports of foreign goods, a small fraction of the total. 
» The figures for the first five entries indicate the yearly average. 

Exports of American products to Venezuela 
have more than doubled during the last 3 
years. This expansion of trade is due in large 



KOVEMBER 11, 19 39 



527 



measure to increased activity in the petroleum 
industry. There have also been substantial 
purchases of American supplies and equipment 
in connection with the Venezuelan Govern- 
ment's public works program. 

Among the chief exports from the United 
States to Venezuela, in their approximate 
order of importance are: Industrial 
machinery, including well and refinery 
machinery, construction and conveying ma- 
chinery; iron and steel manufactures, includ- 
uig pipe, shapes, tanks, and wire products; 
automotive vehicles, parts, and accessories; 
wheat flour, dairy products, oatmeal, lard, and 
canned fish; cotton, rayon and wool fabrics; 
electrical apparatus; lumber; medicinal and 
pharmaceutical preparations; paints; rubber 
tires, tubes, and hose; leather; glass; paper 
products; and copper wire. 

Direct merchandise imports into the United 
States from Venezuela amounted to $20,035,000 
in 1938 as compared with $22,770,000 in 1937, 
a decrease of 12 percent, which was accounted 
for largely by smaller imports of goat and kid 
skins, cacao, and coffee. In 1938 about four- 
fifths of the dii'ect imports in value consisted 
of 23,564,000 barrels of crude petroleum worth 
$16,541,000, a small decrease from 1937. The 
fact should not be overlooked, however, as in- 
dicated above, that a large additional part of 
Venezuelan oil production reaches the United 
States indirectly. The bulk of the petroleum 
products credited in our import statistics to 
the Netherlands West Indies is produced from 
Venezuelan crude oil. 

Coffee is the second most important com- 
modity imported directly from Venezuela. 
Imports in 1938 were valued at $1,963,000, a de- 
cline from the considerably higher values of 
$3,286,000 in 1937 and $4,909,000 in 1936. Im- 
ports of cacao from Venezuela declined in 
value in 1938 to $759,000 as compared with 
$1,695,000 in the previous year. Less impor- 
tant Venezuelan products imported into the 
United States during recent years were the 
following: balata, divi-divi, tonka beans, 
orchid plants, barbasco or cube root, reptUe 
skins, certain manures, and boxwood. 



II. Nature and Scope of the Concessions 

A. TARTPF CONCESSIONS OBTAINED FROM VENEZUELA 

Venezuela's present tariff policy reflects its 
dependence upon import duties as an impor- 
tant source of revenue, its program to diversify 
and extend agricultural and industrial pro- 
duction, and its desire to maintain develop- 
ment of the important petroleum industry. 
Under this policy, machinery, equipment, and 
supplies for petroleum companies, for certain 
mining and public utility enterprises, and for 
the Venezuelan Government are imported free 
of duty imder special provisions. Most con- 
sumer goods are dutiable, liowever, at rela- 
tively high tariff rates, while capital goods, 
including machinery and building materials, 
if not free of duty under special provisions, 
are for the most part dutiable at moderate 
rates. The present Venezuelan tariff, which 
became effective on October 23, 1936, provided 
for numerous duty increases on "luxury" pro- 
ducts and articles not considered necessities. 
Duties on so-called "necessities" were reduced 
in numerous instances. 

The tariff advantages obtained from Vene- 
zuela under the present agreement cover a 
long list of agricultural and industrial products 
classified under 96 items of the Venezuelan 
tariff. On the basis of United States trade 
figures for 1938, exports to Venezuela of 
products covered by these 96 items represented 
a value of nearly $19,000,000 and accounted for 
approximately 36 percent of total exports to 
Venezuela. Duty reductions in varying de- 
gree were obtained on 35 items, the most im- 
portant of which include wheat flour, hog lard, 
lumber, furniture, and parts for agricultural 
machinery and implements. Assurances against 
less favorable customs treatment were obtained 
in the case of the remaining 61 items, impor- 
tant among which are prepared milks, oatmeal, 
hams, and other food products; iron and steel 
products ; automotive products and accessories ; 
tires and tubes; radio sets and other electrical 
apparatus; office equipment; and paints. 

By a Venezuelan decree of September 11, 
1939, issued as an emergency measure to protect 



528 



DEPABTMEKT OF STATE BULLETIN 



consumers against rising prices as a result of 
war conditions, the general tariff rates on 
certain food products M-ere temporarily re- 
duced. On two of the products included 
among those on which concessions were ob- 
tained in the trade agreement, hog lard and 
rolled oats, the rates of duty provided for by 
the emergency decree are lower than jthose 
specified in the trade agreement. In the case 
of those products, impoi'ts from the United 
States will, while the emergency decree re- 
mains in force, receive the benefits of the rates 
provided therein, and whenever that decree 
is repealed, be dutiable at rates noi higher than 
those set forth in the trade agreement. In the 
case of wheat flour, also included in the trade 
agreement, the general rate of duty was also 
reduced by the decree, but to a rate higher 
than that provided for in the trade agreement. 
Accordingly imports of wheat flour from the 
United States, at present dutiable at the rate 
set forth in the decree, will be subject to the 
lower rate specified in the trade agreement, 
when the agreement becomes effective. 

Table 2 below summarizes the tariff conces- 
sions obtained from Venezuela in the trade 
agreement : 

Table 2. Summary ok Tarifk Coxnckssioxs Ohtai.nkd 
From Venezuela (Schedule I) 





Num- 
her of 
items 


Exports to 

Venezuela 

in 1938 

from the 

United 

States 

(thousands 

of dollars) 


Percent of 
total ex- 
ports to 

Venezueli 

from the 

ITnited 

States 


\. Reductions in duty 

B. BindinRs 


35 
61 


."i. 122 
13,590 


9.S 
26,1 


'J'otal itf^ns upon which Larilf conces- 
sions were obtained - - - 

Exports not subject to tarilT conces- 
sions , - - - . . 


'.t*i 


18,712 
33. 357 


35. 9 
64,1 


Total exports of domestic merchan- 
dise from the United States to Vcn- 




52,069 











B. TARIFF CONCESSIONS MADE BY THE 
UNITED STATES 

The tariff concessions granted by the United 
States to Venezuela cover 14 items which in 
1938 accounted for 88.6 percent of the total 



value of United States imports from Vene- 
zuela. The concessions are of three types: 
Reductions in tariffs or import taxes on four 
items, of which the mo,-^t important are crude 
petroleum and fuel oil; hinding of the pres- 
ent duty on one item, orchid plants; and 
binding on the free list of nine items. Table 
3 below summarizes the tariff concessions made 
bv the United States: 



Table 3. Summary of Tariff Concessions Made by 
THE TTnited States (Schedule II) 





Num- 
ber of 
items 


Imports 
into the 
United 
States in 
1938 from 
Venezuela 
(thousands 
of dollars) 


Percent 
of total 
imports 
into the 
United 
States 
from 
Venezuela 


A, Reductions in duty or import tax: 
Imports subject to customs quotas 
(crude petroleum and fuel oils 
derived from petroleum, includ- 
ing gas oil and topped crude 

petroleum) •* 

Imports not subject to quotas 
(ground barbasco root and tonka 


2 
2 


14, 965 
31 


74.6 
,2 








4 


14, 996 


74.8 






B. Bindings: 
Binding of present duty (orchid 
plants) 


1 
9 


13 
2,750 


.1 
13.7 








10 


2,763 


13.8 






Total items upon which taritf 

concessions are granted 

Imports not subject to tariff conces- 


14 


17, 759 
2,295 


88.6 
11.4 








Total imports into the United 
States from Venezuela 




20,054 


1()0. 









■» For explanation of customs quota on petroleum and fuel oil, see infra, 

^ Cocoa beans and shells; coffee: divi-divi; manures; gutta balata, 

crude; barbasco root, crude; crude petroleum, topped crude petroleum, 

and fuel oil for supplies of vessels, etc.; reptile skins, raw; boxwood in 

the log. 



Reductions. The four items upon whicli 
duties or import taxes are reduced accounted 
for nearly 75 percent of total United States 
imports from Venezuela in 1938, the value of 
the imjjorts of these items from Venezuela 
amounting to $14,996,000. The outstanding- 
commodities of this group are crude petroleum 
and fuel oil. including gas oil and topped crude 
petroleum. These pioducts are free of duty 
under the Tariff Act of 1930 but are subject 
to an import tax under section 3422 of the In- 
ternal Revenue Code. The present agi-eement 



NOVEMBKR 11, 1939 



529 



provides for the contiiuiance of the duty-free 
sititus of crude petroleum :uid fuel oil. The 
iiuport tax is reduced by the agreement from 
140 to 1/4^ per gallon on an annual quota in 
any calendar year after 1938 not in excess of 
o percent of the total quantity of crude petro- 
leum processed in refineries in the continental 
Ignited States during the preceding calendar 
year. Imports in excess of the quota are sub- 
ject to the full tax of 140 per gallon, which is 
bound against increase. 

The two remaining items on which more fa- 
vorable customs treatment was granted by the 
United States in the agreement are ground bar- 
basco root and tonka beans, on which the duties 
were reduced from 10 percent to 5 percent ad 
valorem and from 25^ per pound to l'2i/2^* per 
pound, respectively. Both of these are typical 
products of the tropical or semitropical zones 
and are not produced in the United States. 

Bindings of existing tariff treatment. The 
one product on which the present rate of duty 
was bound against increase by the United 
States in the agreement is orchid plants, duti- 
able at 15 percent ad valorem. These plants 
had previously been the subject of a concession 
in the trade agreement with the United King- 
dom, effective January 1, 1939, in which agree- 
ment the duty was reduced from 25 percent to 
15 percent ad valorem. 

On the remaining 9 items in schedule II. 
existing duty-free entry into the United States 
was bound against change. These items, most 
of which are tropical commodities not produced 
in the United States, are cacao, coffee, divi-divi, 
manures, ciude gutta balata, crude barbasco 
or cube root, crude petroleum and fuel oil for 
ships' supplies, raw reptile skins, and boxwood 
in the log. 

III. Analysis of Individual Concessions 
Obtained From Venezuela 

(Trade figures are for 1938, uidess otherwise 
specified. All dvties are on a gross-kilo ba- 
sis, equivalent to 2:>i pounds. The average 
value of the Venezuelan bolivar in Septem- 
ber 1939 was about 31 cents.) 



Foodstuffs 

Grain Products. Wheat flour is the most 
important food product exported to Venezuela 
from the United States, and in 1938 the trade 
in this commodity amounted to 317,000 barrels 
with a value of $1,635,000. Under the agree- 
ment, the duty on wheat flour is reduced from 
(►.40 bolivar (about 121/2 cents) to 0.24 bolivar 
(about 71/2 cents). 

The duty on crushed oats or oatmeal is 
bound against increase under the agreement 
at 0.20 bolivar, and affects a trade amounting 
to $430,000. The existing rate of duty on oat 
(lour is also bound against increase. 

Fruits and Vegetables. The Venezuelan 
duty on canned fruit prior to the agreement 
was 1.20 or 1.30 bolivaros. depending on the 
type of fruit. Under the agreement those rates 
are reduced, respectively, to 0.90 or 1.00 boli- 
var, to the benefit of a trade in 1938 to $100,- 
000. More favorable customs treatment was 
also obtained on dried fruit, with a duty re- 
duction from 1.20 bolivares to 0.90 bolivar 
per gross kilo affecting a trade of $62,000. 

In 1938 exports of fresh apples, pears, and 
grapes from the United States to Venezuela 
were valued at $92,000. Under the agreement 
these products receive the benefit of a duty 
reduction from 1.00 to 0.75 bolivar per gross 
kilo. On sterilized fruit juices the former 
Venezuelan duty is lowered from 0.60 to 0.40 
bolivar (approximately 13 cents). Among the 
important items in United States exports of 
foodstuffs to Venezuela are canned vegetables, 
soups, sauces, and relishes. The trade in these 
products in 1938 was valued at $137,000, and 
their sale in Venezuela will be facilitated by 
a duty reduction obtained in the agreement of 
from 1.20 to 0.80 bolivares per gross kilo. 

Canned Fish. Assurance of no less favor- 
able customs treatment was secured in the 
agreement for canned sardines (except those 
packed in olive oil) , an important item in our 
exports of fish products to Venezuela, with 
trade amounting to $301,000 in 1938. The duty 
was bound at 0.28 bolivar or approximately 
8% cents per gross kilo. 



530 



DEPAKTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



On canned salmon, the duty was reduced 
under the agreement from 1.20 to 0.90 boli- 
vares and on canned shellfish from 2.00 to 1.50 
bolivares. The trade in these two items in 
1938 amounted to $60,000. 

Lard and Meat Products. Under the agree- 
ment the duty on hog lard is reduced from 
1.20 to 0.90 bolivares, although the special 
emergency rate, effective September 11, 1939, 
of 0.80 bolivar will be applicable to imports 
from the United States as long as the pro- 
visions of the decree of that date remain in 
effect. In 1938 exports of hog lard to Vene- 
zuela were valued at $331,000, but in former 
years this trade exceeded $1,000,000. The 
trade-agreement rate of 0.90 bolivar per gross 
kilo is equivalent to ajjproximately 12% cents 
per gross pound. 

On bacon and hams the Venezuelan duty is 
bound against increase at the rate of 1.20 boli- 
vares per gross kilo, affecting United States 
exports to Venezuela in 1938 of about $280,000. 
Similar rates of duty on pork sausage and 
canned pork are also bound against increase. 
United States exports of these two products to 
Venezuela in 1938 amounted to approximately 
$160,000. 

Miscellaneous Food Products. Exports of 
prepared milks from the United States to 
Venezuela amounted to $732,000 in 1938, and 
the duty on this important product is bound 
at 0.50 bolivar. Another binding under this 
group of products is that on special foods for 
children and invalids, including malted milk 
prepai'ations. Under the agreement this prod- 
uct will be dutiable at either 0.30 if its cacao 
content is not more than 10 percent or 0.70 
bolivar per gross kilo if such content is more 
than 10 percent but not more than 15 percent. 
The trade in these items in 1938 amounted to 
$374,000. 

Two items m this group on which duty 
reductions were obtained include confection- 
ery, with a lowering of the rate from 6.00 to 
4.50 bolivares per gross kilo, and unsweetened 
crackers and biscuits, with a reduction from 
1.50 to 1.20 bolivares per gross kilo. On these 
two products our exports to Venezuela in 1938 



were valued at about $175,000. On chewing 
gum the existing duty of 2.00 bolivares is 
bound against increase on an amount of trade 
valued in 1938 at $116,000. 

Automotive products 

Automotive products are among the most 
important of our exports to Venezuela, and on 
passenger automobiles, truck and bus chassis 
and parts, the present customs treatment is 
bound against increase. The Venezuelan rates 
of duty on passenger automobiles vary accord- 
ing to the weight of the vehicle, from 0.55 
bolivar per gross kilo on the lightest cars to 
1.60 bolivares on the heaviest models. Auto- 
motive accessories and tires and tubes are 
dutiable at a uniform rate of 1.00 bolivar. 
The importance of the trade in these auto- 
motive lines is indicated by the value of ex- 
ports in 1938: Trucks, $3,709,000; passenger 
cars, $2,209,000; jjarts and accessories, $803,- 
000 ; and tires and tubes, $396,000. 

Machinery 

Existing duty-free entry for all types of 
tractors is bound in the agreement, affecting 
exports in 1938 of $406,000. An important 
reduction in duty of 50 percent was obtained 
in the case of parts for agricultural machinery, 
in which our trade last year was valued at 
about $150,000. 

Existing customs treatment on such import- 
ant export products of the United States as 
typewriters and parts, calculating machines, 
cash registers, and sewing machines is bound 
against increase under the agreement. Such 
treatment protects a trade exceeding $500,000 
in 1938. 

Lutixber and paper 

The chief types of lumber exported from 
the United States to Venezuela are free of 
duty or dutiable according to the sawn size of 
the wood. On the smaller sizes, that is, 25 
centimeters or less in thickness, our exports 
in 1938 were valued at about $475,000, but in 
former years this trade has been much larger. 
Under the agreement the Venezuelan duty on 



NOVEMBER 11, 1939 



531 



this type of lumber is reduced from 0.24 to 
0.15 bolivar per gross kilo, the new rate be- 
ing equivalent to about 4i^ cents per gross 
kilo. Larger sizes of lumber enter Venezuela 
free of duty, and this favorable treatment for 
imports from the United States will be con- 
tinued under the agreement, protecting trade 
valued in 1938 at $110,000. 

On plain writing paper a duty reduction is 
obtained in the agreement of 25 percent from 
tlie existing rate of 1.20 bolivares per gross 
kilo. Our exports of this type of paper to 
"Venezuela in 1938 were valued at $171,000. 

Metals and manufactures 

On such important American exports to 
Venezuela as galvanized sheets, tin plate, and 
filing cabinets, assurance was obtained in the 
agreement of continuance of existing customs 
treatment. The trade in these three items in 
1938 amounted to about $625,000. 

On metal furniture a reduction in duty was 
secured in the agreement from 1.80 to 1.40 
bolivares per gross kilo and on metal beds 
from 1.80 to 1.00 bolivares. The 1.00-bolivar 
rate is equivalent to about 31 cents per gross 
kilo. The trade in these two items amounted 
in 1938 to about $335,000. 

Electrical apparatus 

Several electrical products of major impor- 
tance in our export trade with Venezuela are 
protected under the agreement against in- 
creases in duty. The rates of duty on radio 
receiving sets and phonographs range from 
2.00 to 5.00 bolivares per gross kilo depending 
on weight. With a trade valued at more than 
$400,000 in 1938, these rates are bound. Other 
important electrical products on which pres- 
ent customs treatment is bound include radio 
tubes and parts, automatic refrigerators, and 
storage batteries. The trade in these three 
products in 1938 exceeded $600,000. 

Paints, pharmaceuticals, and chemical 
products 

Several products in this group benefit from 
concessions under the agreement. The rate of 



duty on ready-mixed paints is bound at 0.50 
bolivar per gross kilo and that on varnishes, 
paints, and enamels is reduced from 1.50 to 
1.20 bolivares, while the rate on varnishes and 
lacquers is lowered from 1.20 to 0.80 bolivares. 
Our exports to Venezuela of these three items 
amounted to about $340,000 in 1938. A re- 
duction of 50 percent in the duty of 1.20 
bolivares on industrial polishes was obtained 
in the agreement, and the rate of duty on 
shoe polishes was bound at 1.20 bolivares per 
gross kilo. 

A reduction in duty affecting exports valued 
at $40,000 in 1938 was secured on toilet and 
shaving soaps through lowering of the exist- 
ing rate of 5.00 bolivares by 20 percent. Con- 
tinuance of existing customs treatment was 
secured on numerous pharmaceutical special- 
ties, including dentifrices and antiseptic cotton, 
which involve a trade estimated at $1,250,000 
in 1938. Most of these products are dutiable 
at 1.95 bolivares and others at 2.00 bolivares, 
the difference representing a reduction of 21,^ 
percent granted to France under a commercial 
treaty with Venezuela and extended to the 
United States under the most-favored-nation 
provision of the provisional commercial agree- 
ment between the United States and Venezuela. 

Miscellaneous products 

On hosiery of pure silk or mixtures with a 
trade valued at $134,000 in 1938 the Venezuelan 
customs duty was reduced under the agree- 
ment by 20 percent from the present level of 
50.00 bolivares per gross kilo. A reduction in 
duty was also secured from 40.00 to 15.00 
bolivares on corsets, garters, and similar 
articles made of silk and mixtures, while the 
same articles when made of cotton are assured 
of a continuance of the existing rate of 15.00 
bolivares. 

Present duties on unprinted motion-picture 
film (2.00 bolivares) and on printed film (2.60 
bolivares) are bound against increase under the 
agreement and affect a trade valued in 1938 at 
$100,000. Continuance of existing customs 



532 

treatment is also guaranteed on miscellaneous 
sporting goods, transmission belting, and tire 
repair kits. The trade in these three items 
amounted to nearly $150,000 in 1938. Finally, 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BUI^LETIN 

on wick and pressure lanterns the existing 
duty of 1.20 bolivares is reduced to .80 boli- 
var under the agreement, benefiting a trade 
of $22,000. 



T.\BLE 4. Analysis of United States Export Products Affected by the Reciprocal Trade .\greement With 

Venezuela (Schedule I) 

(The Voaezuelan bolivar equals about $0.31 United States currency. The average exchange rate for September 1939 was 3 17 bolivares to $1.00. All duty 

rates are per gross liilogram. equivalent to 2.2 pounds.) 

(n. a. = statistics not available) 



Venezuelan 


Description of commodities 


Venezuelan duties 


Extent of 
reduction 


U. S. exports to Venezuela 
(thousands of dollars) 


tariff 
number 


1936 tariff 

rate as 

amended 


Agree- 
ment 
rate 


1929 


1937 


1938 


3-D 


Salmon, canned 


1.20 
0.28 

2.00 

-1.20 

1.20 

0.50 

l.OO 
1.20 

1.20 
1.30 
'0.20 
« 0,40 
0.40 
1.20 
1.20 
1.20 
1.20 
0.30 

0.70 

6.00 

1.50 
0.60 
15.00 

50.00 

50.00 or 

40.00 

0.75 

20.00 
20.00 
0.24 

1.20 
0.20 
0.08 
0.40 
l.SO 
1.80 
0.09 

0..55 

0.60 

0.80 

1.00 

1.40 

1.60 


0.90 
0.28 

1.50 
0.90 
1.20 
0.50 

0.75 
0.90 

0.90 
1.00 
0.20 
0.24 
0.40 
1,20 
1.20 
1.20 
0.80 
0.30 

0.70 

4.50 

1.20 
0.40 
15.00 

40.00 
15.00 

0.75 

12.00 
20.00 
0.15 

0.90 
0.20 
0.08 
0.40 
1.00 
1.40 
0.09 

0.55 

0.60 

0,80 

1.00 

1.40 

1.60 


25% 


20 
174 

64 

1.307 

69 

330 

147 
59 

} 163 

91 

1.845 

n. a. 

411 

38 

113 

131 

168 

126 
N. S. C. 
(■•) 

78 
44 

11 

} « 
914 

71 
287 
18 
20 
99 
64 
1,308 

2, 751 


12 
225 

22 
113 
21 

199 

80 
62 

71 

345 

1,579 

n. a. 

179 

11 

91 
97 

313 

17 

113 
12 
C) 

116 

45 

9 

105 
613 

209 
250 
154 
62 
41 
181 
3,419 

3,041 


21 


3-E 


Sardines, canned, in oil (except olive oil), in sauce or in their 

own juice. 
Shellfish, canned... 




301 


3-F 


25% 


39 


4 


Hog lard . . .. — . 


25% 


331 


7 


Bacon . 


30 


9.. -.. 


Prepared milk, including evaporated, condensed, dried 

slcimmed, and dried whole milk. 

Apples, pears, and grapes, fresh 

Dried fruits, not specified, including raisins, prunes, apricots, 

peaches, apples, pears, and mixed fruits. 
Fruits, canned or bottled, in their own juice 




732 


13-B 


25% 


92 


14-C 


25%..... --- 

25% 


62 


15-A -. 




15-B 


Fruits, canned or bottled, in syrup 


23% 




22-B 


Oats, crushed or rolled 




430 


27-A . . . 


Wheat flour 


40%,- 

Bound 

Bound . . 


1 635 


27-C 


Oat flour .. 




36-A 


Hams 


249 


36-B 


Pork sausages. 


12 


36-C 


Canned pork 




147 


36-C 


Vegetables, soups, sauces, and relishes, canned or bottled 

Special foods for children and for dietary uses, including malted 

milk and similar milk-base preparations not containing 

cacao or containing not more than 10 per centum of cacao. 

and also including those with fruit or vegetable bases. 
Special foods for children and for dietary uses, containing more 

than 10 per centum but not more than 15 per centum of 

cacao. 
Sweets, bonbons, and candies of any kind, including chocolate 

confectionery. 
Crackers and biscuits, unsweetened 


33!-^% 


137 


37-B 






37-C --.- 




374 


39 ---. 


25% 

20% 


20 


44 


154 


57 - 


331-4% 


20 


99-E - 


Corsets, elastic garments, garters, and similar articles (of 

cotton). 
Hosiery of pure silk or mixtures 




('') 


143-A 


20% 


134 


143-C 


Corsets, elastic garments, garters, and similar articles (of pure 

silk or mixtures). 
Rubber patches for repairing tires and tubes and emergency 

reiiair kits consisting of patches, cement, and buffer. 
Cigarettes.- 


62^% 


29 


224-F 

229 


Boimd 

40% 


9 










23a-B 


Sawn timber and rough lumber, measuring 25 centimeters or 
less in thickness at both ends, including pitch pine, porder- 
osa pine, sugar pine, Douglas fir, spruce, hemlock, redwood 
(Sequoia), cedar, and southern cypress. 

Writing paper, not lined . 


37^2% 


473 


243 


25% 


171 


298-J 


Iron or steel sheets, galvanized 


Bound 


392 


298-L 


Tin plate in sheets . 




130 


319-D 


Metal filing cabinets 


Bound 


100 


319-E 


Furniture of ordinary metals, not specified 


44% 


52 


319-E 


22% 


283 


320-A 


eluding chassis with cabs. 
Passenger automobiles with bodies, not exceeding 800 kgs. in 

weight. 
Passenger automobiles with bodies whose weight exceeds 800 

kgs. and is not more than l,40n kgs. 
Passenger automobiles with bodies whose weight exceeds 1,400 

kgs. and is not mure than 1,600 kgs. 
Passenger automobiles with bodies whose weight exceeds 1,600 

kgs. and is not more than 1,700 kgs. 
Passenger automobiles with bodies whose weight exceeds 1,700 

kgs. and is not more than 2,000 kgs. 
Pa-ssenger automobiles with bodies whose weight exceeds 2,000 

kgs. 


Bound 


3, 709 


32I-A 


Round 




321-B 


Bound . 




321-C.. 


Bound . 




321-D... 


Round 


2,209 


321-E 






32I-F -. 













• Rate of duty reduced to 0.80 bolivar per gross kilo as an emergency measure by Venezuelan decree of Sept. 11, 1939. 
t> Rate of duty reduced to 0.10 bolivar per gross kilo as an emergeney measure by Venezuelan decree of Sept. 11, 1939. 
' Rate of duty reduced to 0.30 bolivar per gross kilo as an emergency measure by Venezuelan decree of Sept. 11, 1939. 
'' Included in item 143-C. 



NOVEMBER 11, 193 9 



533 



Table 4. Analysis of United States Export PRODtJCTs Affected by the Reciprocal Trade Agreement With 

Venezuela (Schedule I) — Continued 



Venezuelan 

tariff 

number 



Description of commodities 



Venezuelan duties 



1936 tariff 

rate as 

amended 



Agree- 
ment 
rate 



Extent of 
reduction 



U. S. exports to Venezuela 
(thousands of dollars "> 



1929 



1938 



322.... 
322-A. 
322- B. 
322-C. 

322-D 
322-E. 
322-F. 
322-0. 
322-H 
322-K 
330- A. 

330-B. 

330-C. 

330-D 
330-E. 
332-A. 
332-B. 
333-A. 
333-B. 

333-C. 

333-D 
338- A. 
342-B. 
344... 

345... 

346_.. 

348... 

349..- 

356... 
-A. 
-B 
-C. 
-D 
-E. 
-F, 
-G 
-H 
-I 

357... 

358-C. 

368-D 

359... 

364- A. 

367-B. 

370... 

371-A. 

371-B. 

382-C. 

382-H 

394-E 

405... 

406... 

422... 

424_.. 

442... 

451... 

472... 



Accessories for automobiles: 

Wheels fur rubber tires _. 

Rubber tires. 

Inner tubes. 

Spring seats- _ 

Boxes (trunks) for automobiles _ _ 

Automobile tops _ 

Fenders _ 

Spare-tire holders ___ 

Not specified _-. 

Radio receiving sets, phonographs, weighing up to 10 kgs., net 

each. 
Radio receiving sets, phonographs, weighing more than 10 kgs., 

net each up to 25 kgs. 
Radio receiving sets, phonographs, weighing more than 25 kgs., 

net each up to 50 kgs. 
Radio receiving sets, phonographs, weighing more than 50 kgs. 

Accessories for radio receiving sets, including tubes 

Motion-picture film, silent and sound, unprinted 

Motion-picture film, silent and sound, printed 

Refrigerators, weighing up to 100 kgs.. net each 

Refrigerators, weighing more than 100 kgs., up to 260 kgs., net 

each. 
Refrigerators, weighing more than 250 kgs., up to 500 kgs., net 
each. 

Refrigerators, weighing more than 600 kgs., net each 

Sewing machines 

Lanterns, wick and pressure types _ __ 

Typewriters and accessories, including parts, cases, covers, 
and stands. 

Calculating machines, Including electric ones 

Cash registers _ 

Internal-combustion engines __ 

Spark plugs _ 

Parts for agricultural machinery and implements: 

Weighing not more than 1 kg. net each _ ___ 

More than 1 kg. up to 5 kgs. net each- __ 

More than 6 kgs. up to 10 kgs. net each. 

More than 10 kgs. up to 30 kgs. net each ___ 

More than 30 kgs. up to 50 kgs. net each , 

More than 50 kgs. up to 100 kgs. net each 

More than 100 kgs. up to 500 kgs. net each 

More than 500 kgs. up to 1,000 kgs. net each 

More than 1,000 kgs. net each 

Pharmaceutical specialties, not specified 

Absorbent and antiseptic or medicinal cotton 

Pharmaceutical products, not specified 

Dentifrices _ _ 

Chewing gum 

Toilet soap, including shaving soap in any form 

Varnishes and lacquers 

Ready-mixed paints in oil, liquid 

Paints for varnishing and enameling.. 

Industrial preparations for polishing or cleaning 

Industrial preparations for coloring or shining footwear 

Sporting goods, not specified .._ 

Electric batteries (except storage batteries) and parts , 

Storage batteries and parts 

Transmission belting 

Pharmaceutical articles, not specified _. 

Toilet paper _.. 

Tractors, wheel and track-laying types 

Lumber of white pine, pitch pine, and Douglas fir, sawn, meas- 
uring more than 25 centimeters in thickness at both ends. 



1.00 
1.00 
1.00 

1.00 
LOO 
1.00 
1.00 
1.00 
1.00 
2.00 

3.00 

4.00 

5.00 
0.40 
2.00 
2.60 
0.40 
0.60 

0.60 

0.40 
0.20 
1.20 
1.00 

2.00 
2.00 
0.08 
L20 

2.00 
LOO 
0.70 
0.60 
0.60 
0.40 
0.30 
0.20 
0.10 
'2.00 
2.00 
2.00 
2.00 
2.00 
.100 
1.20 
0.50 
1.50 
1.20 
1.20 
O.OS 
0.20 
0.60 
1.20 
2.00 
Free 
Free 
Free 



1 00 
1.00 
1.00 

1.00 
1.00 
1.00 
l.OO 
1.00 
1.00 
2.00 

3.00 

4.00 

6.00 
0.40 
2.00 
2.60 
0.40 
0.50 

0.60 

0.40 
0.20 
0.80 
1.00 

2.00 
2.00 
0.08 
L20 

1.00 
0.60 
0.35 
0.30 
0.25 
0.20 
0.16 
0.10 
0.05 
1.95 
2.00 
1.96 
2.00 
2.00 
4.00 
0.80 
0. .50 
1.20 
0.60 
1.20 
0.08 
0.20 
0.50 
1.20 
2.00 
Free 
Free 
Free 



Bound.. 
Bound.. 
Bound. 

Bound. 
Bound - 
Bound. 
Bound. 
Bound - 
Bound. 
Bound. 

Bound. 

Bound. 

Bound. 
Bound. 
Bound. 
Bound. 
Bound. 
Boimd. 

Bound. 

Bound. 
Bound. 
33V4%-- 
Bound. 



Bound - 
Bound. 
Bound. 
Bound. 



50%.... 
60%.... 
50%.... 
50%.... 
60%.... 
50%.... 
50%.... 
50%.... 
50%.... 

Bound- 

2M%-. 
Bound. 
Bound. 
20%.... 
33H%.. 
Bound.. 
20%.... 
.50%.... 
Bound.. 
Bound. 
Bound. 
Bound. 
Bound. 
Bound. 
Bound. 
Bound. 
Botmd. 



(') 



459': 
46 



593 



80 



304 

12 

125 

42 
96 
91 

24 



323 
43 

474 
.50 
29 
89 
31 

200 

(•) 

14 

11 

28 

117 

29 

65 

n. a. 

9 

206 

762 



{•) 



373 

26 



105 
13 



128 
44 

232 
28 



100 



750 

70 

130 

127 

109 

33 

37 

274 

(•) 

16 

14 

47 

106 

85 

72 

n. a. 

25 

267 

424 



(•) 



365 
31 



803 



105 
17 



147 
22 
180 

96 

86 
306 
23 



(•) 



797 
67 
165 
141 
116 
40 
48 
296 

18 
16 
57 
194 
88 
81 
80 
35 
406 
110 



• Included in parts and accessories. 

' This duty was reduced to 1.95 bolivares in the commercial agreement between Venezuela and France. 

» Included in 371-A. 



534 

rV. Analysis of Individual Tariff Conces- 
sions Made to Venezuela (Schedule II) 

Crude petroleum, topped crude petroleum, and 
fuel oil derived from petroleum, including fuel 
oil known as gas oil {par. 1733). 

Imports of crude petroleum and fuel oils are 
duty-free, but subject to an excise tax of lu- 
cent a gallon.* Under this agreement, the 
excise tax is reduced from 1/2 cent to 14 cent a 
gallon on an annual amount of imports not in 
excess of 5 percent of the total quantity of 
crude petroleum processed in refineries in con- 
tinental United States during the preceding 
calendar year. Any imports in excess of this 
quota will pay the 1/2-cent rate, which is bound 
against increase. The quota applies to the 
combined imports of crude petroleum, topped 
crude, and fuel oil including gas oil, i.e., there 
is no separate quota for each of these com- 
modities. With respect to the significance of 
the 5 percent quota arrangement, it may be 
noted that the total quantity of crude oil proc- 
essed in the refineries in 1938 was 1,165,015,- 
000 barrels, 5 percent of which is 58,251,000 
barrels. The average annual imports of tax- 
able crude and topped petroleum and fuel oil 
for the years 1933-38 were 34,569,000 barrels. 
The quota applies to total imports from all 
sources. 

The United States share of the known world 
reserves of crude petroleum is somewhat less 
than 50 percent. On the other hand, this coun- 
try produces slightly over 60 percent of the 
total world output notwithstanding the fact 
that the principal domestic fields are being 
operated under restrictions in order to avoid 
wasteful production. 

Fuel oil (in one or more grades) is obtained 
from nearly all grades of crude petroleum and 
is produced in most refineries. Venezuelan 
crude is much heavier than the average domes- 
tic crude and yields principally heavy fuel oil 
and asphalt. Domestic crudes yield larger per- 



DEPAETMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

centages of gasoline and kerosene, and supe- 
rior grades of lubricating oil, the more valu- 
able petroleum products. Fuel oil from do- 
mestic crudes consists chiefly of grades much 
lighter than imported fuel oil or fuel oil pro- 
duced in this country from imported crude. 
The domestic demand for all grades of fuel 
oil, including both the heavy grades for ships' 
bunkers and industrial plants and the lighter , 
grades for Diesel engines and residential heat- i 
ing, has been increasing. Production in the i 
United States of heavy fuel oil from low-grade j 
foreign crude and the importation of heavy 
fuel oil tend to reserve the high-grade domestic 
crudes for the production of the more valu- 
able petroleum derivatives. 

The United States leads the world in the 
production and consumption of petroleiun prod- 
ucts. This country is also important both as : 
an importer and an exporter of crude petro- 
leum and petroleum products. The domestic I 
industry has been on an export basis for many '. 
years. In 1938, imports of crude petroleum ! 
amounted to 26,048,000 barrels as compared \ 
with exports of 77,272,000 barrels. Imports , 
in that year of fuel oil of all grades (including 
tax-free entries for use in ships' bunkers) 
amounted to 26,165,000 barrels ° as compared 
with exports of 43,832,000 barrels. Venezuela 
is the most important supplier of United States 
imports of crude petroleum, accounting for 85 
percent of the total in 1937 and 90 percent 
in 1938. Imports of fuel oil are supplied al- 
most entirely by the Netherlands West Indies, 
but most of the fuel oil refined in the Nether- 
lands West Indies is produced from Venezue- 
lan crude. 

Ground barhasco or cube root {par. 35). 

The duty on ground barbasco root or cube 
root is reduced from 10 percent to 5 percent ad 
valorem in the present agreement. 

Barbasco root is not produced in the United 
States. It grows in tropical and semitropical 



' Imports of the.se products are exempt from the 
excise tax when imported either for supplies of ships 
in foreign trade and certain others, or for manufac- 
turing in bond. 



"The figure for imports includes 18,231,000 barrels 
of tax-free fuel oil for use in ships' bunkers and 
682,000 barrels entering free under bond for manu- 
facture and export. 



NOVEMBER 11, 19 39 



535 



climates and is found largely in Central and 
South America. The production of the ground 
root in the United States is entirely depend- 
ent upon imi^orted crude barbasco root, which 
is ground and processed for use in the manu- 
facture of agricultural insecticides. 

Barhasco 7'oot, crude or unmanufactured, not 
specially provided for {par. 1722) . 

Crude barbasco root has been duty-free 
under the TarilT Acts of 1930, 1922, and 1913. 
In the present agreement, the duty-free status 
is bound against change. 

Crude barbasco root is not produced in the 
United States, and most South American 
countries have passed laws preventing its ex- 
port, except in a dried or ground condition, 
iii order to prevent its transplantation to other 
countries. 

Imports of the crude root are supplied prin- 
cipally by Peru, Brazil, and Venezuela. In 
1938 imports from Venezuela, which totaled 
55,000 pounds valued at $8,167, comprised 9 
percent of total imports of the root into the 
United States. 

Torika heans {par. 92). 

The duty on tonka beans is reduced from 
25 cents a pound to 1214 cents a pound. 

Tonka beans are not produced in the United 
States and they do not compete with any pro- 
duct of American farms or forests. These 
beans have an agreeable odor, and their princi- 
pal aromatic constituent, coumarin, is used 
for scenting tobacco, snuff, confectionery, and 
liqueurs. The tobacco industry is by far the 
largest consumer. 

Venezuela is the principal producer and ex- 
porter of tonka beans. Most of the exports 
from Venezuela are shipped to Trinidad, where 
they are treated with rum and then reexported 
to consuming countries. Venezuela and Trini- 
dad together are the principal suppliers of 
tonka beans imported into the United States; 
in 1937, the combined imports from these two 
countries amounted in value to $522,000 and 
in 1938, to $763,000. 



Orchid plants {par. 75^). 

In the agreement with the United Kingdom, 
effective January 1, 1939, the United States 
duty on orchid plants was reduced from 25 
percent to 15 percent ad valorem. In the pres- 
ent agreement the duty is bound against in- 
crease at the 15 percent rate. 

The bulk of the United States requirements 
of orchid jjlants is grown domestically. The 
annual production in this country is estimated 
at about $700,000, or approximately seven times 
the value of imports. It is estimated that the 
total amiual sales of orchid flowers (as dis- 
tinguished from the plants) amounts to be- 
tween 8 and 10 million dollars. 

Imports consist principally of two types: (1) 
Cultivated species or hybrids from the green- 
houses of Europe, and (2) native species col- 
lected in the tropics of South America. The 
United Kingdom, Venezuela, and Colombia are 
the principal suppliers of United States im- 
ports. 

Cocoa or cacao heans {par. 1650). 

Cocoa and cacao beans have been duty-free 
in the Tariff Acts of 1930, 1922, and 1913, and 
are bound against change in the present agree- 
ment; similar action with respect to these 
products has been taken in the trade agree- 
ments with Haiti, Brazil, Honduras, Nicara- 
gua, El Salvador, Costa Kica, Ecuador, and the 
United Kingdom. 

Cacao beans are not produced in the United 
States, and the domestic cocoa and chocolate 
industry depends entirely on imports for its 
source of tliis raw material. The United States 
outranks any other country as a market for 
cacao beans. 

Coffee {par. 165 J,). 

Coffee has been on the free list under all re- 
cent tariff acts. Moreover, it has been bound 
on the free list in previous trade agreements 
with nine countries; and in the present agree- 
ment its duty-free status (except coffee enter- 
ing Puerto Eico) is again bound against 
change. 



536 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



No coffee is produced in continental United 
States, but there is a large and important in- 
dustry for roasting, grinding, and packaging 
coffee, for all of the imports consist of green 
or raw coffee. 

Imports usually range from about 1.5 to 2 
billion pounds annually. From one-half to 
two-thirds of total coffee imports come from 
Brazil and consist of Brazils or strong coffees. 
Imports from other countries are generally 
mild coffees used for blending, and the blends 
desired by American coffee users largely deter- 
mine the quantities of each class imported. 

Venezuela is one of the principal sources of 
mild coffees imported into the United States. 

Reptile skins, raio {par. 1765). 

Kaw reptile skins have been duty-free under 
the Tariff Acts of 1930, 1922, and 1913. They 
were bound on the free list in trade agreements 
with six countries and are again so bound in 
the present agreement. 

The United States is dependent on foreign 
sources for most of the reptile skins used in 
this country. Only alligator skins, practically 
all of which come from Florida, are produced 
on a commercial basis in the United States; 
statistics of domestic production are not avail- 
able. Imports of reptile skins vary closely with 
the demand for reptile leather footwear, which 
is a matter of fashion. 

Divi-divi {par. 1670). 

Divi-divi, the di-ied pod of a tree found in 
tropical America, has been free of duty under 
the Tariff Acts of 1930, 1922, and 1913, and 
is bound against change in the present 
agreement. 

There is no domestic production of divi- 
divi, which is used by the tanning industry 
for the tannin contained in the pods. 

Manures {par. 1685). 

Manures have been duty-free under the 
Tariff Acts of 1930, 1922, and 1913, and 
are bound against change in the present 
agreement. 

Most of the imports from Venezuela con- 
sist of goat manure, which is usually processed 



and packaged before distribution for use in 
gardens and potted plants. 

Gutta halata, crude {par. 1697). 

Gutta balata has been bound on the free list 
in trade agreements with Brazil and Colombia 
and is so bound in the present agreement. 

Crude gutta balata is the coagulated latex 
of a tree found in northern South America ; it 
is used chiefly in the manufacture of covers 
for golf balls and in making transmission 
belts, footwear, chewing gum, medical tape, 
and marine cables. 

Crude petroleum., topped crude petroleum, 
and fuel oil derived from petroleum, includinff 
ftiel oil knoton as gas oil, for use as supplies for 
ships {par. 1733). 

Imports of crude petroleum and fuel oils for 
use as sliips' supplies are free of duty under 
paragraph 1733 of the Tariff Act of 1930 and 
also free of excise tax under section 3451 of 
the Internal Revenue Code. Under the trade 
agreement with the United Kingdom, effective 
January 1, 1939, the United States bound the 
tax-exempt status of all liquid derivatives of 
crude petroleum, including fuel oil, intended 
for use as ships' supplies. This binding is in 
substance repeated in the present agreement 
and extended to include crude petroleum used 
in this manner. 

Boxwood in the log {par. 1803 {2)). 

The duty-free status of boxwood has been 
previously bound in trade agreements with 
four countries and is now bound in the agree- 
ment with Venezuela. 

Boxwood is a wood of fine texture. It is 
not indigenous to the United States, and there 
is no commercial production of logs in this 
country. Boxwood is practically a noncom- 
petitive wood, its principal use in the United 
States being in the production of liigh-grade 
measuring instruments, such as engineers' and 
architects' scales. 

Venezuela has been the outstanding source 
of imports of boxwood in the log for some 
years. 



NOVEMBER 11, 1939 



537 



Table 5. Itemized List op Tariff Concessions Made to Venezuela (Schedule II) 

(n. a.=statistics cot available) 



Paragraph 

number in 

Tariff Act 

of 1930 


Item 


Rate of duty 


Ad valorem 

equivalent on 

basis of imports 

in 1938 


United States imports for con- 
sumption (in thousands of 
dollars) 


1929 


Before agreement 


Under agreement 


Rate 
before 
agree- 
ment 


Rate 
under 
agree- 
ment 


From Venezuela 


From 

all 
coun- 
tries 




1929 


1937 


1938" 


1938° 


35 


A. Reductions in Ddtt 

Barbasoo or cubf root, natural and 
uncompounded, but advanced 
in value or condition by grind- 
ing beyond that essential to 
proper paclcing and the preven- 
tion of decay or deterioration 
pending manufacture, whether 
or not otherwise advanced, and 
not containing alcohol. 

Tonlia beans . 


10% ad 
val. 

25j> lb - - 

Free 

Free 


10% ad val 

25(ilb 


5% ad val 

12)^eib 


Percent 
10 

M9.4 
29.2 


Percent 
5 

9.7 
14.6 


n. a. 

6 
32,609 
(") 






245 


92 


48 
15,760 


31 
14,965 
(•) 


795 


1733 (Internal 




M^gal--. 


'iitgA\ 


16,407 


Revenue 


Fuel oil derived from petroleum, 
including gas oil and topped 
crude petroleum. 

Total.. - 


J^figal 


'Hi gal 


6,098 


Code, sec. 
3422). 














32, 615 


16, 808 


14,996 






B. BiKDiNGs OF Present Dvty 


25% 


'15% ad val 




16% ad val 


15 


15 




754 


n. a. 


16 


13 


103 




Total 






n. a. 


16 


13 






C. Bindings on Free List 

Cocoa or cacao beans, and shells 
thereof. 

Coffee, except coffee imported 
into Puerto Rico and upon 
which a duty is imposed under 
the authority of sec. 319. 

Dyeing or tanning materials: Divi- 
divi, whether crude or advanced 
in value or condition by shred- 
ding, grinding, chipping, crush- 
ing, or any similar process, and 
not containing alcohol. 

Manures 


» Free-.. 
Free 

Free 

Free 

Free 

Free 

Free 

Free 

Free 


Free 










1653 - 


2,716 
13,687 

15 

n. a. 

58 

n. It. 


1,695 
3,286 

M2 


769 
1,964 

2 


20,139 


1654 


Free- . . 


Bound free 






137, 821 


1670 


Free 


Bound free 






3 


1685 


Free 


Bound free 






' 17 


1697- - 


Guttabalata, crude 


Free.. 


Bound free 






181 


1722 


Barbasco or cube root, crude or 
unmanufactured, not specially 
provided for. 

Crude petroleum and fuel oil de- 
rived from petroleum: any of the 
foregoing sold for use as fuel suiv 
plies, ships' stores, sea stores, or 
legitimate equipment on vessels 
of war of the United States or of 
any foreign nation, or vessels 
employed in the fisheries or in 
the whaling business, or actually 
engaged in foreign trade between 
the Atlantic and Pacific ports of 
the United States and any of its 
posseiJsions, under regulations 
prescribed with the approval of 
the Secretary of the Treasury. 

Reptile skins, raw 


Free 










8 

(•) 

17 
n. a. 


44 


1733 anternal 


Tariff free: ex- 
empt from 
taxes imposed 
by sees. 3420 
and 3422 of the 
Internal Rev- 
enue Code. 

Free-- - 

Free- 


Bound tariff 
free and 
bound exempt 
from taxes im- 
posed bv sees. 
3420 and 3422 
of the Internal 
Revenue Code. 

Bound free 






9,845 


Revenue 
Code, sec. 
3451). 

1765 






7 
26 


29 
n. a. 


312 


1803 (2) 


Borwood in the log. 


Bound free 






n. a 




Total-.- --- 












16,509 


6,062 


2,750 



















" Preliminary. 

* Equivalent ad valorem based on total imports into the United States from all countries. The equivalent ad valorem on imports from Venezuela was 
15.6 percent. 

' Imports of crude petroleum and fuel oil are duty-free but subject to an import revenue tax of }4 cent a gallon as imposed under the Internal Revenue 
Code, sec. 3422. The reduction in the import tax from H to Ji cent a gallon in the present agreement is applicable to annual quotas of crude petroleum 
and fuel oil entered, or withdrawn from warehouse, for consumption in any calendar year, not in excess of 5 percent of the total quantity of crude petroleum 
processed in refineries in the continental United States during the preceding calendar year. Imports in excess of the annual quotas are subject to the full 
tax of i-i cent a gallon, which is bound against increase. In addition, the present agreement provides for the binding of the duty-free stattis (as distin- 
guished from the taxable status) of crude petroleum and fuel oil derived from petroleum. 

'' Imports, $10. 

' While there were no direct imports of Venezuelan fuel oil in 1938. a large proportion of the 7,215,000 barrels valued at .$6,070,000 imported from the 
Netherlands West Indies was produced from crude oil of Venezuelan origin. A similar statement applies to tax-free imports for ship supplies. 

' The duty on orchid plants was reduced under the trade agreement with the United Kingdom, effective Jan. 1, 1939. 

" Shells of cocoa beans dutiable at 10 percent under the act of 1922. 

» The values shown here include imports of manures and other fertilizer substances, n. e. s.; these products are entered under the import classification 
saostances used chiefly for fertilizers, o. e. s." 



538 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



V. General Provisions of the Trade Agree- 
ment 

The general provisions of the agreement 
embody the basic principle of equality of 
treatment essential to the development of in- 
ternational trade upon a sound and nondis- 
criminatory basis. They define the nature of 
the obligations assumed by each country in 
making tariff concessions to the other, set fortli 
reciprocal assurances of nondiscriminatory 
treatment with respect to all forms of trade 
control and contain provisions relating to vari- 
ous other matters affecting the trade between 
the two countries. 

provisions relating to treatment of trade in 
general 

Article X. The United States and Venezuela 
undertake to accord to each other uncondi- 
tional most-favored-nation treatment with re- 
spect to customs duties and related matters, 
including methods of levying duties and 
charges and the application of rules and for- 
malities. This means that if either the United 
States or Venezuela reduces any customs duty 
or related charge, either autonomously or in 
connection with a commercial agreement with 
a third country, the other country will imme- 
diately and unconditionally be granted the 
benefit of the reduced rate of duty or charge. 

Article V of the agreement relates to the im- 
position of internal taxes or charges levied in 
either country on products imported from the 
other and provides that such taxes or charges 
shall not be higher than those imposed on like 
articles of domestic or other foreign origin. 
An exception is made, however, in the case of 
taxes imposed by the Venezuelan Government 
on cigarettes, which are taxable at a higher 
rate if of foreign origin than are domestic 
cigarettes. It is provided, however, that the 
present tax rate applicable to cigarettes origi- 
nating in the United States shall not be in- 
creased during the life of the agreement. 
Further, the provisions of the article will not 
apply to taxes imposed in either comitry on 
alcoholic beverages. 



Article VII applies the principle of nondis- 
criminatory treatment to import quotas, pro- 
hibitions, and other forms of restriction on 
imports. All such restrictions are to be based 
upon a predetermined amount of imports to 
be admitted. If either country establishes 
such restrictions and if the amount of per- 
mitted importations is allocated by it among 
exporting countries, the share allotted to the 
other country shall in general be based upon 
the proportion of such imports which that 
country supplied in a previous representative 
period. 

Article VIII provides that if either Govern- 
ment should establish a monopoly or grant 
monopoly privileges for the importation, pro- 
duction, or sale of any product, the commerce 
of the other country shall receive fair and 
equitable treatment in respect of foreign 
purchases by the monopoly. 

Article IX provides that if either Govern- 
ment should establish or maintain any form 
of exchange control, it will accord to products 
imported from the other country, in regard 
to restrictions or delays on payments, exchange 
rates, taxes, or surcharges on exchange trans- 
actions and rules and formalities relating 
thereto, treatment no less favorable than that 
accorded to any product imported from any 
third country. The right is reserved by either 
Government to terminate the agreement on 30 
days' written notice if difficulties should arise 
in the application of the provisions of this 
article which cannot be satisfactorily adjusted. 

Article XI provides for the prompt publica- 
tion of laws, regulations and administrative 
and judicial decisions relating to the classifi- 
cation of articles for customs purposes or to 
rates of duty. It is further provided that such 
laws, regulations, and decisions shall in gen- 
eral be applied uniformly at all ports of each 
country open to foreign commerce. 

PROVISIONS RELATING TO CONCESSIONS 

Articles I and II of the agreement relate to 
the tariff concessions granted by each country 
on products of the other and provide that prod- 
ucts included in the schedules annexed to the 



I 



NOVEMBER 11, 1939 



539 



agreement shall, upon importation into the 
other country, be exempt from ordinary cus- 
toms duties liigher than those specified in the 
schedules and from all other charges in con- 
nection Tvith importation in excess of those 
imposed on the daj^ of signature of the agree- 
ment or required to be imposed thereafter by 
laws in force on that day. 

Article III permits either country, notwith- 
standing the provisions of articles I and II, 
to impose on any product imported from the 
other country an import charge equivalent to 
an internal tax imposed on a similar domestic 
product or on any article from which the im- 
ported product has been made. 

Article IV provides that the schedules an- 
nexed to the agreement will be considered as 
integral parts thereof. 

Article VI relates to quantitative restrictions 
on imports of products included in the sched- 
ules annexed to the agreement and provides as 
a general undertaking that such products may 
not be subjected to such restrictions. It is 
recognized, however, that special circumstances 
may arise necessitating the imposition of 
restrictions on imports of articles included in 
the schedules. In such circumstances pro- 
vision is made for consultation between the two 
Governments and if it is not possible to reach 
an agreement regarding the proposed restric- 
tion, for the termination of the agreement upon 
30 days' notice. It is further provided that a 
period of notice shall be given to traders before 
any quantitative restriction is imposed under 
this article. 

Article XII contains a provision permitting 
either country to terminate the agreement on 
30 days' notice if the rate of exchange between 
the currencies of the two countries varies so 
substantially as to prejudice its industries or 
commerce. 

Article XIII concerns the imposition of cus- 
toms penalties for clerical errors and provides 
that both Governments shall accord the most 
favorable treatment permitted by law. It also 
provides for sympathetic consideration of rep- 
resentations in regard to customs regulations 
and related matters and the application of san- 



itary regulations. If there should be disagree- 
ment between the two Governments with re- 
spect to sanitary laws or regulations, a com- 
mittee of experts including representatives of 
both Governments may be established upon re- 
quest of either Government. This committee 
would then study the matter and submit a re- 
port to both Goverimients. 

GENERAL PROVISIONS AS TO APPLICATION OF THE 
AGREEMENT 

Article XIV provides that the agreement 
shall apply, on the part of the United States, 
to the continental United States and to the 
territories and possessions included in its cus- 
toms territory, the most important of which 
are Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico. The 
most-favored-nation provisions of the agree- 
ment will, however, apply also to those posses- 
sions of the United States which have separate 
tariffs, including the Philippines, the Virgin 
Islands of the United States, American Samoa, 
and the island of Guam. 

Article XV excepts from the application of 
the agreement special advantages granted by 
either Government to facilitate frontier traffic 
and advantages accorded to any third country 
as a result of a customs union. There is also 
included the usual exception relating to spe- 
cial advantages accorded by the United States 
■ and its territories and possessions or the Pan- 
ama Canal Zone to one another or to the Re- 
public of Cuba. This article provides further 
that the Government of Venezuela may con- 
tinue to apply a special import surtax upon 
articles imported into Venezuela from the An- 
tilles not included in the customs territory of 
the United States. 

Article XVI exempts from the provisions of 
the agreement regulations affecting imports or 
exjjorts of gold and silver, measures relating 
to neutrality, sanitary regulations, et cetera. 

Article XVII pledges each country to con- 
sider any representations which the other coun- 
try may make concerning any measure adopted 
which, although not in conflict with the terms 
of the agreement, is considered by the second 
country to impair the effectiveness of any of 



540 



DEPAETMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



the benefits of the agreement. If an agreement 
is not reached with respect to such representa- 
tions, the Government making them has the 
right to terminate the entire agreement. 

Article XVIII provides that the two Govern- 
ments will settle any differences arising in the 
interpretation or execution of the agreement by 
peaceful methods and in conformity with 
treaties and conventions in force between them. 

Article XIX provides that the agreement 
shall be proclaimed by the President of the 
United States and ratified by the Government 
of Venezuela. The agreement will enter into 
full force on the thirtieth day after exchange 



of the instrument of ratification of the Vene- 
zuelan Government and the proclamation by 
the President of the United States. It will 
remain in force, subject to certain special pro- 
visions, until December 15, 1942, and may con- 
tinue in force indefinitely thereafter until 6 
months after notice of termination has been 
given by either country. 

Under the terms of a modus vivendi signed 
the same day, the substantive provisions of the 
agreement, including the general provisions 
and the schedules of concessions, will enter pro- 
visionally into force on December 16, 1939, 
pending ratification of the agreement by the 
Venezuelan Government. 



Publications 



PUBLICATION OF "FOREIGN RELATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES, 1924" 



[Released to the press November 10] 

Foreign Relations of ths United States, 
192Jf, released November 10, is a two-voliune 
compilation of nearly 1,600 pages of dociunents, 
principally correspondence, relating to subjects 
of diplomatic discussion during that year with 
more than 40 other countries. Most of these 
papers have not hitherto been made available 
to the public. Each volume is complete in it- 
self, with table of contents, list of papers, and 
index. 

Volume I opens, as have previous volumes, 
with a section entitled "General," amounting 
to nearly half the volume and devoted to sub- 
jects of multilateral character, such as inter- 
national conferences and boundary contro- 
versies. Among the other topics of 1924 which 
appear under this heading are the negotiations 
looking to the settlement of debts owed by 
foreign governments, conventions for the pre- 
vention of liquor smuggling, and arrangements 
for an around-the-world flight by United States 
Army airplanes. 



The remainder of volume I consists of the 
sections under country headings: Albania, 
Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, 
China, Colombia, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Do- 
minican Eepublic, Ecuador, Egypt, Finland, 
and France. Forty-four separate topics are 
included in these sections. As in preceding 
years the China section is extensive, covering 
250 pages. Among the topics treated therein 
are the civil war in North China, the proposal 
by the Chinese Government to convene a pre- 
liminary customs conference, the failure to 
secure from the interested powers a general 
acceptance of an arms embargo resolution, and 
the policy of the Department of State with 
respect to questions of treaty rights raised by 
Americans in China. 

The wide range of American interests which 
may receive diplomatic attention in their be- 
half is exemplified by the efforts made to 
protect the activities of American archeological 
investigators in Afghanistan, Albania, and 
Egypt. 



NOVEMBER 11, 1939 

Volume II consists of sections under the fol- 
lowing country headings: Germany, Great 
Britain. Greece. Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, 
Hungary, Japan, Lithuania, Mexico, Morocco, 
Netherlands, Nicaragua, Norway, Panama, 
Paraguay, Persia, Peru, Rumania, Russia, 
Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and Turkey. 
More than 60 topics are presented in these 
sections. Under Japan, among the papers on 
the restriction of Japanese immigration, are 
the previously unpublished documents of 
1907-8 containing the Gentlemen's Agreement. 

The section under Germany presents, among 
other topics, the views of the United States 
upon its right to participate in rejiaration pay- 
ments. Elsewhere, under the appropriate 
country headings, are treated such subjects as 
the rights of Americans in mandated areas, 
most-favored-nation treatment in customs mat- 
ters, assistance to the Mexican Government in 
suppressing armed insurrection, policy of the 
United States with regard to participation in 



541 

the Statute of Tangier, rejection by the Nicara- 
guan Government of proposals to supervise 
elections, retention of American extraterritorial 
I'ights in Persia, questions relating to petroleum 
production in Rumania and other parts of the 
world, discontinuance of arms shipments to 
Turkey, the continuation of jVmerican consular 
protection to Swiss interests in Egypt, and the 
policy pursued with regard to Russia. 

Foreign Relations of the United States, 192Jf, 
was compiled in the Division of Research and 
Publication under the direction of the late Dr. 
Cyril Wynne, Chief of the Division, and Dr. 
Ernest R. Perkins, Chief of the Research Sec- 
tion. Copies of the volumes will be available 
to the public shortly and may be obtained from 
the Superintendent of Documents, Government 
Printing Office, Washington, D. C. The 
volumes are sold separately at $1.50 each, cloth- 
bound (volume I, cxiv, 780 pages; volume II, 
xciv, 764 pages). 



Treaty Information 



Compiled by the Treaty Division 



ARBITRATION AND JUDICIAL 
SETTLEMENT 

General Act for the Pacific Settlement of 
International Disputes 

There is quoted below the text of a letter 
from the Swiss Government addressed to the 
Secretary General of the League of Nations 
on September 25, 1939, in regard to the dec- 
laration made by Australia when adhering to 
the General Act for the Pacific Settlement of 
International Disputes, signed at Geneva on 
September 26, 1928 (see the Bulletin of Octo- 
ber 7. 1939, Vol. I, No. 15, p. 352) : 

"[Translation] 

"We have the honour to acknowledge the 
receipt of your letter No. C. L. 144. 1939 of 



SejJtember 13th, regarding the restriction by 
the Government of the Commonwealth of 
Australia of the effect of its accession to the 
General Act for the Pacific Settlement of 
International Disputes of September 26th, 
1928. 

"We have duly noted this communication, 
which obliges us to make the same reservation 
as was made by the Swiss Federal Council in 
regard to the denunciation by certain States 
of the Optional Clause of Article 36 of the 
Statute of the Permanent Court of Inter- 
national Justice". 

The reservation in regard to the denuncia- 
tion by certain states of the Optional Clause of 
the Statute of the Permanent Court of Inter- 
national Justice is printed on page 473 of the 
Bulletin of November 4, 1939 (Vol. I. No. 19). 



542 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



MUTUAL GUARANTIES 

Pact of Mutual Assistance Between Lat- 
via and the Union of Soviet Socialist 
Republics 

There is printed below, in translation, tlie 
text of the Pact of Mutual Assistance between 
Latvia and the Union of Soviet Socialist Re- 
publics, signed October 5, 1939 : 

Pact of Mutual Assistance Between Latvia 
AND THE Union of Soviet Socialist Repub- 
lics 

The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of 
the U. S. S. R. on the one hand and the Presi 
dent of the Latvian Republic on the other, for 
the purpose of developing the friendly rela- 
tions created by the peace treaty of August 
11, 1920,^" which were based on the recognition 
of the independent statehood and noninterfer- 
ence in the internal affairs of the other part}'; 

recognizing that the peace treaty of August 
11, 1920, and the agreement of February 5, 
1932," concerning nonaggression and the ami- 
cable settlement of conflicts continue to be the 
firm basis of their mutual relations and obli- 
gations ; 

convinced that a definition of the precise 
conditions insuring mutual safety is in accord- 
ance with the interests of both contracting 
parties ; 

have considered it necessary to conclude be- 
tween them the following mutual assistance 
pact and for this purpose have appointed as 
their plenipotentiaries : 

The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the 
U. S. S. R.; 

V. M. Molotov, President of the Soviet of 
People's Commissars and People's Commissar 
for Foreign Affairs; 



" For text, see League of Nations Treaty Series, 
vol. 2, p. 195. 

" For text, see League of Nations Treaty Series, 
vol. 148, p. 113. 



The President of the Republic of Latvia; 

Vilhelm Munters, Minister for Foreign 
Affairs ; 

who, having mutually verified their creden- 
tials, which were found to be executed in the 
required form and in proper order, have agreed 
upon the following: 

Article I 

Both contracting parties undertake to ren- 
der each other every assistance, including mili- 
tary, in tlie event of a direct attack, or threat 
of attack, on the part of any European great 
power, with respect to the sea borders of the 
contracting parties on the Baltic Sea, or their 
land bordei'S through the territoiy of the Esto- 
nian or Latvian Republics, or also the bases 
referred to in article III. 

Article II 

The Soviet Union undertakes to render as- 
sistance on preferential conditions to the Lat- 
vian Army in the shape of armaments and 
other war materials. 

Article III 

In order to insure the safety of the U. S. 
S. R. and to consolidate her own independ- 
ence, the Latvian Republic grants to the Union 
the right to maintain in the cities of Liapaja 
(Libava) and Ventspils (Vindava) naval bases 
and several airfields for aviation purposes on 
leasehold at a reasonable rental. The locations 
of the bases and airfields shall be exactly speci- 
fied and their boundaries determined by mutual 
agreement. 

For the purpose of protecting the Straits of 
Irbe, the Soviet LTnion is given the right to 
establish on the same conditions a coast artil- 
lery base between Ventspils and Pitrags. 

For the purpose of protecting the naval 
bases, the airfields, and the coast artillery base, 
the Soviet Union has the right to maintain at 
its own expense on the areas set aside for bases 
and airfields a strictly limited number of So- 
viet land and air forces, the maximum number 
of which is to be fixed by special agreement. 



NOVEMBER 11, 193 9 



543 



Article IV 

Both contracting parties undertake not to 
enter into any alliances or to participate in 
any coalitions directed against one of the con- 
tracting parties. 

Article V 

The carrying into effect of the present pact 
must in no way affect the sovereign rights of 
the contracting parties, in particular their po- 
litical structure, their economic and social 
system, and their military measures. 

The areas set aside for the bases and air- 
fields (article III) remain the territory of the 
Latvian Republic. 

Article VI 

The present pact goes into force with the 
exchange of documents of ratification. The 
exchange of documents will take place in the 
city of Riga within 6 days after the signing 
of the present pact. 

The present pact shall remain in force for a 
period of 10 years, and in the event that one 
of the contracting parties does not consider it 
necessary to denounce the present pact 1 year 
prior to the expiration of such period, it will 
automatically remain in force for the following 
10 years. 

In witness whereof the above-named pleni- 
potentiaries have signed this pact and affixed 
their seals thereto. 

Executed in Moscow, in duplicate, in the Let- 
tish and Russian languages, October 5, 1939. 

V. MUKTERS 
V. MOLOTOV 

Pact of Mutual Assistance Between Estonia 
and the Union of Soviet Socialist Repub- 
lics 

There is printed below, in translation, the 
text of the Pact of Mutual Assistance between 
Estonia and the Union of Soviet Socialist Re- 
publics, signed September 28, 1939 : 



Mutual Assistance Pact Between Estonia 
AND THE Union of Soviet Socialist Re- 



publics 



The Supreme Council of the U. S. S. R. on 
the one part, and the President of Estonia on 
the other, 

Being desirous of promoting the friendly 
relations which were established by the Treaty 
of Peace concluded on February 2, 1920,^- and 
which are founded upon independent political 
existence and noninterference in internal af- 
fairs of the other contracting party ; 

Recognizing that the Treaty of Peace of 
February 2, 1920, and the Pact of Nonaggres- 
sion and Peaceful Settlement of Conflicts of 
May 4, 1932,^^ continue as heretofore the firm 
foundation of their mutual relations; 

Being convinced that it is in the interests of 
both of the contracting parties to determine the 
exact terms of insuring their mutual security; 

They have considered it necessaiy to con- 
clude between themselves the following pact 
for rendering mutual assistance and have de- 
signated as their plenipotentiaries: 

The Presidium of the Supreme Council of 
the U. S. S. R.— the Chairman of the Council 
of People's Conmiissars and the Connnissar for 
Foreign Affairs, Molotov, 

The President of the Republic of Estonia — 
Minister for Foreign Affairs Selter, 

Who have agreed as follows: 

Article J. 

Both contracting parties shall be obliged to 
render each other any mutual aid, also includ- 
ing military assistance, in the case either of a 
direct aggression or a threat of aggression on 
the part of some great European power against 
Baltic maritime borders of the contracting 
parties or against their land borders via Lat- 
vian territory, likewise against bases referred 
to in article 3. 



"For text, see League of Nations Treaty Series, 
vol. 11, p. 30. 

" For text, see League of Nations Treaty Series, vol. 
131, p. 297. 



544 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Article 2. 

The U. S. S. R. shall be obliged to render 
assistance to the Estonian Army with arms 
and other war materials on favored terms. 

Article 3. 

The Republic of Estonia shall secure the 
U. S. S. R. the right to possess on the Eston- 
ian isles of Saaremaa (Oesel), Hiiumas 
(Dago), and in the city of Paldiski bases for 
the Navy and a certain number of landing 
fields for air forces on a leasehold basis at an 
acceptable price. The exact location of bases 
and landing fields shall be marked out and 
the boundaries thereof shall be fixed by mutual 
agreement. 

In the interests of protection of naval bases 
and landing fields, the U. S. S. R. shall have 
the ri,<iht to maintain at their own cost in the 
sectors apportioned under bases and landing 
fields Soviet territorial and air forces in ex- 
actly fixed numbers, the maximum number 
whereof shall be fixed by a special agreement. 

Article J/.. 

Both contracting parties shall obligate 
themselves not to conclude any alliances nor to 
take part in any coalitions directed against 
either of the contracting parties. 

Article 5. 

The entering into force of this pact shall in 
no way infringe upon the sovereign rights of 
the contracting parties, particularly their eco- 
nomic system and political structure. 

The sectors which are designated as bases 
and airfields (article 3), shall remain the ter- 
ritory of the Republic of Estonia. 

Article 6. 

This pact shall enter into force upon the ex- 
change of ratifications. This exchange shall 
take place at Tallinn within 6 days from the 
date of the signing of this pact. 

This pact shall be valid for 10 years and in 
case one of the contracting parties does not 



abrogate the pact before the expiration of 1 
year prior to the termination of its validity', 
tlie validity thereof shall automatically be ex- 
tended for a subsequent period of 5 years. 

Article 7. 

This pact has been made in two original 
texts, in the Estonian and Russian languages, 
in Moscow on September 28, 1939. 

V. M. MOLOTOV 

K. Setter 

Anglo-Franco-Turkish Treaty of Mutual 
Assistance 

There is printed below the text of the Anglo- 
Franco-Turkish Treaty of Mutual Assistance, 
signed on October 19, 1939 : 



Anglo-Feanco-Turkisu Treaty or Mutual 

Assistance 

The President of the French Republic, His 
Majesty the King of Great Britain, Ii-eland 
and the British Dominions Beyond the Seas, 
Emperor <>f India (in respect of the United 
Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern 
Ireland), and the President of the Turkish 
Republic : 

Desiring to conclude a treaty of a reciprocal 
character in the interests of their national 
security, and to provide for mutual assistance 
in resistance to aggression, have appointed as 
their plenipotentiaries, namely : 

Tlie President of the French Republic : 

M. Rene Massigli, Ambassador Extraordi- 
nary and Plenipotentiary, Commander of the 
Legion of Honor; 

His Majesty the King of Great Britain, 
Ireland and the British Dominions Beyond 
the Seas, Emperor of India (in respect of the 
United Kingdom of Great Britain and North- 
ern Ireland) ; 

Sir Hughe Montgomery Knatchbull-Huges- 
sen, K.C.M.G., Ambassador Extraordinary and 
Plenipotentiary; 



NOVEMBER 11. 19 39 



545 



The President of the Turkish Republic: 
Dr. Refik Saydam, President of the Council, 

Minister for Foreign Affairs ad Interim. 

Deputy for Istanbul. 
Who having communicated their full powers, 

found in good and due form, have agreed as 

follows : 

Article I 

In the event of Turkey being involved in 
hostilities with a European power in conse- 
quence of aggression by that power against 
Turkey, the French Government and the Gov- 
ernment of the United Kingdom will cooper- 
ate effectively with the Turkish Government 
and will lend it all aid and assistance in their 
power. 

Article II 

1. In the event of an act of aggression by 
a European power leading to war in the Medi- 
terranean area in which France and the United 
Kingdom are involved. Turkey will collabo- 
rate effectively with France and the United 
Kingdom and will lend them all aid and as- 
sistance in its power. 

2. In the event of an act of aggression by a 
European power leading to war in the Mediter- 
ranean area in which Turkey is involved, 
France and the United Kingdom will collabor- 
ate effectively with Turkey and will lend it all 
aid and assistance in their power. 

Article III 

So long as the guaranties given by France 
arid the United Kingdom to Greece and Ru- 
mania b}' the respective declarations on the 
13th of April, 1939, remain in force, Turkey 
wiU cooperate effectively with France and the 
United Kingdom and will lend them all aid 
and assistance in its power, in the event of 
France and the United Kingdom being engaged 
in hostilities in virtue of either of the said 
guaranties. 

Article IV 

In the event of France and the United King- 
dom being involved in hostilities with a Euro- 



pean power in consequence of aggi-ession com- 
mitted by that power against either of those 
states without the provisions of articles 2 or 3 
being applicable, the high contracting parties 
will immediately consult together. It is never- 
theless agreed that in such an eventuality 
Turkey will observe at least a benevolent neu- 
trality toward France and the United Kingdom. 

Article V 

Without prejudice to the provisions of ar- 
ticle III above, in the event of either: 

1. Aggression by a European power against 
another European state which tlie government 
of one of the high contracting parties had, 
with the approval of that state, undertaken to 
assist in maintaining its independence or neu- 
trality against such aggression, or 

2. Aggression by a European power which, 
while directed against another European state, 
constituted, in the opinion of the government 
of one of the high contracting parties, a menace 
to its own security. 

The high contracting parties will immedi- 
ately consult together with a view to such com- 
mon action as might be considered effective. 

Article VI 

The present treaty is not directed against any 
country, but is designed to assure France. 
Great Britain, and Turkey of mutual aid and 
assistance in resistance to aggression should the 
necessity arise. 

Article VII 

The provisions of the present treaty are 
equally binding as bilateral obligations between 
Turkey and each of the two other high con- 
tracting parties. 

Article VIII 

If the high contracting i^arties aie engaged 
in hostilities in consequence of the operation of 
the present treaty, they will not conclude an 
armistice of peace except by common agree- 
ment. 



546 



ArfMe IX 



The present treaty shall be ratified and the 
instruments of ratification shall be deposited 
simultaneously at Angora as soon as possible. 
It shall enter into force on the date of the 
deposit. 

The present treaty is concluded for a period 
of 15 years. If none of the high contracting 
parties has notified the two others of its inten- 
tion to terminate it 6 months before the expira- 
tion of the said period, the treaty will be re^ 
newed by tacit consent for a further period 
of 5 years and so on. 

In witness whereof the undersigned have 
signed the present treaty and have thereto 
affixed their seals. 

Done at Angora, in trijilicate, the 19th 
October, 1939. 

R. Massigu 

H. M. Knatchbull-Htjgessen 

Dr. Refik Saydam 

Protocol 1 

The undersigned plenipotentiaries state that 
their respective governments agree that the 
treaty of mutual assistance dated this day shall 
be put into force from the moment of its 
signature. 

Protocol 2 

At the moment of signature of the treaty of 
mutual assistance between France. Great Brit- 
ain, and Turkey the undersigned plenipoten- 
tiaries, duly authorized to this effect, have 
agreed as follows: 

The obligations undertaken by Turkey in 
virtue of the above-mentioned treaty cannot 
compel that country to take action having as 
its effect or involving as its consequence entry 
into armed conflict with the U. S. S. R. 

The present protocols shall be considered as 
an integral part of the treaty of mutual assist- 
ance conchided today between France, Great 
Britain, and Turkey. Done at Angora, in trip- 
licate, the 19th October, 1939. 
R. Massigli 

H. M. Knatchbull-Htjgessen 
Dr. Refik Saydam 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

ORGANIZATION 

Protocol for the Amendment of the Pre- 
amble, of Articles 1, 4, and 5, and of the 
Annex to the Covenant of the League of 
Nations 

Netherlands 

According to a circular letter from the 
League of Nations dated October 16, 1939, the 
instrument of ratification by the Netherlands 
of the Protocol for the Amendment of the Pre- 
amble, of Articles 1, 4, and 5, and of the Annex 
to the Covenant of the League of Nations, 
which was opened for signature at Geneva on 
September 30, 1938, was deposited with the 
Secretariat on October 10. 1939. 



EXTRADITION 

Extradition Treaty With Germany (Treaty 

Series No, 836) | 

By a note dated July 22, 1939, the German 
Charge in Washington, on behalf of his Gov- 
ernment, requested that this Government agree 
to the proposal that the operation of the 
Extradition Treaty between the United States 
and Germany, signed on July 12, 1930, shall 
now extend also to the territory in which the 
former Extradition Treaty between the United 
States and Austria (Treaty Series No. S22) 
was effective. 

The proposal was accepted by this Govern- 
ment and the notice thereof was given to the 
German Charge on November 2, 1939. 

The proposal as stated in the above- 
mentioned note of July 22, 1939, is quoted in 
translation as follows: 

"The Government of the German Reich 
considers the Extradition Treaty between the 
Republic of Austria and the United States of 
America, of January 31, 1930, to have ceased 
to exist in consequence of the reunion of 
Austria with the German Reich. Since that 
time, the German extradition law has been 
introduced into the state of Austria by the 
order of April 26, 1939, {Reichsgesetzblatt 
1939, 1, p. 844). 



X0\T;MBER 11, 1939 

"The Government of the German Reich 
therefore proposes that the operation of the 
Extradition Treaty of July 12, 1930, between 
the German Reich and the United States of 
America {Reichsgcsetzhlatt 1931, II, p. 403), 
shall now extend also to the territory in which 
the former Austro- American treaty was 
effective. 

"I should be greatly obliged to you for the 
favor of a statement whether the United 
States Government agrees to this proposal of 
the Government of the German Reich." 

HEALTH 

Convention Modifying the International 
Sanitary Convention of June 21, 1926 

Turkey 

The American Ambassador to Turkey trans- 
mitted to the Secretary of State with a des- 



547 

patch dated October 2, 1939, a translation of 
law No. 3722, whereby the Turkish Grand 
National Assembly ratified the Convention 
Modifying the International Sanitary Conven- 
tion of June 21, 1926, signed at Paris on Octo- 
ber 31, 1938. The law, dated July 10, 1939, 
was published in the Official Gazette for July 
14, 1939. 

COMMERCE 

Reciprocal Trade Agreement With 
Venezuela 

A statement and analysis of the general 
])rovisions and reciprocal benefits of the trade 
agreement with Venezuela signed on November 
G, 1939, appear in this BuJhtin. under the head- 
ing "Commercial Policy."' 



U. S GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE; 1939 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C. — Price 10 cents ----- Subscription price, $2.75 a year 

PUBLISHED WEEKLY WITH THE APPROVAL OF THE DIRECTOR OP THE BUREAU OF THE BUDGET 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



BU 



> yk ^ 



^ 



H^nr 




Js^ 



NOVEMBER i8, 1939 
Vol. I: No. 21 — Publication I405 



Qontents 




Europe: 

Neutrality Act of 1939: Pag« 

Analysis of requirements of section 2 (Commerce with 

States Engaged in Armed Conflict) 551 

Departmental order regarding travel in combat areas 

and on belligerent vessels 553 

Contraband lists: 

Announcement by France 555 

Announcement by New Zealand 556 

Eeturn voyage of the City oj Flint 556 

Sinking of the British steamship Sirdhana in Singapore 

harbor 556 

Detention by belligerents of American vessels for ex- 
amination of papers or cargoes 557 

The American Republics: 

Accomplishments of the Consultative Meeting of For- 
eign Mulisters of the American Republics: Address 

by the Under Secretary of State 560 

Inter-American Financial and Economic Advisory 
Committee: 
Designation of the Under Secretary of State as repre- 
sentative of the United States 564 

Address by the Acting Secretary of State 565 

Fiftieth anniversary of the proclamation of the Brazil- 
ian RepubUc 567 

[Over] 



y. S. SUPERIf; 



The American Republics — Continued. Page 

Catastrophe at Lagunillas, Venezuela 568 

Presentation of letters of credence: 

Ambassador of Colombia 568 

Minister of Paraguay 569 

Proclamation of Convention on Interchange of Publica- 
tions 570 

Foreign Service: 

Personnel changes 570 

Commercial Policy: 

Trade agreement with Venezuela 571 

International Conferences, Commissions, etc.: 

Regional Conference of the American States Members of 

the International Labor Organization 572 

Treaty Information: 
Restriction of war: 

Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of 
the Wounded and the Sick of Armies in the Field 

(Treaty Series No. 847) 573 

Convention Relating to the Treatment of Prisoners 

of War (Treaty Series No. 846) 573 

Commerce: 

Declaration on the Juridical Personality of Foreign 

Companies 574 

Trade agreement with Venezuela 574 

Labor: 

Conventions of the International Labor Conference . 574 
Navigation: 

International Convention for the Unification of Cer- 
tain Rules Relating to Bills of Ladmg for the Car- 
riage of Goods by Sea (Treaty Series No. 931) . . . 575 
Postal: 

Parcel-post service from the United States to Ger- 
many, Czechoslovakia, and Danzig 575 

Publications : 

Convention on Interchange of Publications (Treaty 

Series No. 954) 575 

Publications 576 



Europe 



NEUTRALITY ACT OF 1939 
Analysis of Requirements of Section 2 (Commerce With States Engaged in Armed Conflict) 



[Released to the press November 16] 

I. American vessels (including aircraft) are 
prohibited fi-om carrying passengers or any 
articles or materials to any state named as a 
belligerent in a proclamation issued by the 
President. 

A. Exceptions: 

1. Transportation of any passengers or any 
articles or materials by American vessels 
(including aircraft) on or over lands, lakes, 
rivers, and inland waters bordering on the 
United States. 

2. Transportation by American vessels, 
other than aircraft, of mail, passengers, or 
any articles or materials, except arms, am- 
munition, or implements of war, to any 
port — 

a. in the Western Hemisphere north of 
35° north latitude and west of 66° west 
longitude ; 

b. in the Western Hemisphere south of 
35° north latitude ; 

c. on the Atlantic Ocean or its dependent 
waters south of 30° north latitude; or 

d. on the Pacific or Indian Oceans or 
their dependent waters ; 

provided, that no such port is mcluded 
witMn a combat area. 

3. Transportation by aircraft of mail, pas- 
sengers, or any articles or materials, except 

192711—39 1 



arms, ammunition, or implements of war, to 
any port — 

a. in the Western Hemisphere ; or 

b. on the Pacific or Indian Oceans or 
their dependent waters ; 

provided, that no such port is included 
within a combat area. 

4. Transportation, as described in (1), (2), 
and (3) above, of arms, ammunition, and 
implements of war, if they are to be used 
exclusively by American vessels, aircraft, 
or other vehicles in connection with their 
operation and maintenance. 

II. All right, title, and interest in any ar- 
ticles or materials (except copyrighted articles 
or materials) to be exported or transported 
to a belligerent country must be transferred 
to foreign ownership at the port of lading in 
the United States, before the articles or ma- 
terials are so exported or transported, or at- 
tempted to be so exported or transported, or 
caused to be so exported or transported. 
A. Exceptions: 

1. Transportation of articles or ma- 
terials, other than arms, ammunition, or 
implements of war, by American vessels 
(including aircraft) on or over lakes, 
rivers, and inland waters bordering on 
the United States, or by vehicles or air- 
craft on or over lands bordering on the 
United States. 

551 



552 



2. Transportation by American vessels, 
other than aircraft, of mail or any articles 
or materials, except arms, ammunition, or 
implements of war. to any port — 

a. in the Western Hemisphere north of 
35° north latitude and west of 66° west 
longitude ; 

b. in the Western Hemisphere south of 
35° north latitude; 

c. on the Atlantic Ocean or its depend- 
ent waters south of 30° north latitude; 
or 

d. on the Pacific or Indian Oceans or 
their dependent waters; 

provided, that no such port is included 
within a combat area. 

3. Transportation by aircraft of mail 
or any articles or materials, except arms, 
ammunition, or implements of war, to any 
port — 

a. in the Western Hemisphere; or 

b. on the Pacific or Indian Oceans or 
their dependent waters; 

provided^ that no such port is includerl 
within a combat area. 

4. Transportation by a neutral vessel 
to any port referred to in (2) above, of 
any articles or materials, other than arms, 
ammunition, or implements of war, 

provided, such port is not included in 
a combat area. 

5. Transportation, as described in (1) 
(2), and (3) above, of arms, ammunition, 
and implements of war, if they are to be 
used exclusively by American vessels, air- 
craft, or other vehicles in connection with 
their operation and maintenance. 

(Note : There is no exception in the case 
of transpoi'tation by a vessel of a bel- 
ligerent state.) 

B. Issuance of bill of lading under which 
title passes unconditionally to foreign pur- 



DEPARTMKNT OF STATE BULLETIN 

chaser upon delivery of the articles or ma- 
terials to a carrier constitutes transfer of 
right, title, and interest. 

C. The shipper of such articles or materials 
is required to file with the collector of cus- 
toms at the port of lading a declaration 
under oath that he has complied with the 
requirements of law regarding transfer of 
right, title, and interest, and that he will 
comply with such rules and regulations as 
shall be promulgated from time to time. 

III. In the event of transportation by Ameri- 
can vessels (including aircraft) as described in 
I A (2) and (3), and II A (2) and (3), and by 
neutral vessels (including aircraft) as described 
in II A (4), every such vessel or aircraft shall, 
before departing from the jurisdiction of the 
United States, file with the collector of customs 
of the port of departure, or, if no collector at 
such port, with the nearest collector of customs, 
a sworn statement containing — 

A. a complete list of all articles or materials 
carried as cargo, and the names and addresses 
of the consignees of all such articles and ma- 
terials; and 

B. a statement of the ports at which such ar- 
ticles and materials are to be unloaded and of 
the ports of call of the vessel. 

Note : Section 7 of the Neutrality Act forbids 
the extension of credit to the government of any 
belligerent state or political subdivision thereof 
or to any person acting for or on behalf of such 
government or political subdivision. It does not 
forbid the extension of credit to any person in a 
belligerent state who is not acting for or on 
behalf of a belligerent government or any politi- 
cal subdivision thereof, except that no credit of 
any kind may be extended to any person what- 
soever in a belligeient state in connection with 
the sale of arms, ammunition, and implements 
of war as defined in the President's proclama- 
tion of May 1, 1937. Articles and materials 
other than arms, ammunition, and implements 
of war may, therefore, be sold on credit to pri- 
vate persons or firms in belligerent states, pro- 



NOVEMBER 18, 1939 



553 



vided those persons or firms are not iicting for 
or on beluilf of a belligerent government or a 
political subdivision thereof. 

It may be added that section 7 of the act does 
not apply to the extension of credit to the gov- 



ernments of neutral states or to persons or firms 
in those states, unless those persons or firms 
should be acting for or on behalf of the govern- 
ment of a belligerent state or a political sub- 
division thereof. 



Departmental Order Regarding Travel in Combat Areas and on Belligerent Vessels 



[Released to the press November IS] 

The Acting Secretary of State on November 
17 signed Departmental Order No. 827 setting 
forth regulations relating to travel in combat 
areas and on belligerent vessels, which reads as 
follows : 

Eegulations Eelatixg to Travel in Combat 
Areas axd on Belligerent Vessels 

Departmental Order No. 827 

Section 5 (a) of the Neutrality Act of 1!);5!) 
regarding travel on belligerent vessels provides 
as follows : 

"Sec. 5. (a) Wlienever the President shall 
have issued a proclamation under the authority 
of section 1 (a) it shall thereafter be unlawful 
for any citizen of the United States to travel on 
any vessel of any state named in such proclama- 
tion, except in accordance with such rules and 
regulations as may be prescribed." 

On November 6, the following regulations 
were prescribed in pursuance of the above provi- 
sion: 

"American diplomatic and consular officers 
and their families, members of their staffs and 
their families, and American military and naval 
officers and personnel and their families may 
travel pursuant to orders on vessels of France ; 
Germany; Poland; or the United Kingdom, 
India, Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the 
Union of South Africa if the public service 
requires. 

"Other American citizens may travel on ves- 
sels of France ; Germany ; Poland ; or the United 
Kingdom, India, Australia, Canada, New Zea- 



land and the Union of South Africa, provided, 
however, that travel on or over the north At- 
lantic Ocean, north of 35 degrees north latitude 
and east of 66 degrees west longitude or on 
or over other waters adjacent to Europe or over 
the continent of Europe or adjacent islands shall 
not be permitted except when specifically au- 
thorized by the Secretary of State in each case." 

Section 3 (a) of the Neutrality Act of 1939, 
regarding travel into or through combat areas 
provides as follows: 

"Sec. 3. (a) Whenever the President shall 
have issued a proclamation under the au- 
thority of section 1 (a), and he shall thereafter 
find that the protection of citizens of the 
United States so requires, he shall, by procla- 
mation, define combat areas, and thereafter it 
shall be unlawful, except under such rules and 
regulations as may be prescribed, for any citi- 
zen of the United States or any American 
vessel to proceed into or through any such com- 
bat area. The combat areas so defined may 
be made to apply to surface vessels or aircraft, 
or both." 

The President, by proclamation of Novem- 
ber 4, 1939, entitled "Definition of Combat 
Areas" defined a combat area as follows: 

"All the navigable waters within the limits 
set forth hereafter. 

"Beginning at the intersection of the North 
Coast of Spain with the meridian of 2°45' 
longitude west of Greenwich ; 

"Thence due north to a point in 43°54' north 
latitude ; , 

"Thence by rhumb line to a point in 45°00 
north latitude; 20°00' west longitude; 

"Thence due north to 58°00' north latitude; 



554 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



"Thence by rhumb line to latitude 62° 
north, longitude 2° east; 

"Thence b}' rhumb line to latitude 60° north, 
longitude 5° east; 

"Thence due east to the mainland of Nor- 
way; 

"Thence along the coastline of Norway, 
Sweden, the Baltic Sea and dependent waters 
thereof, Germany, Denniarlc, the Netherlands. 
Belgium, France and Spain to the point of 
beginning." 

On November 6, 1939, the following regula- 
tions relating to travel into and through combat 
areas were prescribed: 

"Holders of American passports issued or 
validated subsequent to September 4, 1939 for 
travel in Europe are hereby permitted to pro- 
ceed, in accordance with the authorizations and 
subject to the restrictions noted on such pass- 
ports, into and through any such combat area, 
whether by surface vessels or aircraft, or both, 
until further regulation. Holders of American 
passports, whether or not so issued or validated, 
presently in the combat areas defined by the 
proclamation of the President of the United 
States dated November 4, 1939, are hereby per- 
mitted to proceed into and through such combat 
areas in connection with travel in accordance 
with the authorizations and subject to the re- 
strictions noted on such passports, until further 
regulation." 

By virtue of and pursuant to the above quoted 
23rovisions of law and in pursuance of the Presi- 
dent's proclamation of November 4, 1939, 1, the 
undersigned, Acting Secretary of State of the 
United States, hereby prescribe the following 
regulation amending the regulations of Novem- 
ber 6, 1939, relating to travel on belligerent ves- 
sels, by substituting for the words "the Secre- 
tary of State" the words "the Passport Division 
of the Department of State or an American Dip- 
lomatic or Consular Officer abroad," and also the 
following regulations supplementing the regu- 
lations prescribed on November 6, 1939, relating 
to travel into or through combat areas. 



1. American nationals may not travel on any 
surface vessel or aircraft into or through any 
area which is or may be defined as a combat 
area unless they possess American passports 
which have been endorsed as valid, as herein- 
after provided, for such travel by the Passport 
Division of the Department of State or an 
American Diplomatic or Consular officer abroad. 

2. Each such endorsement shall be restricted 
in validity to one specific journey into or 
through a combat area and shall not be valid 
for travel on a belligerent vessel unless trans- 
portation on a neutral vessel is not reasonably 
available. 

3. Endorsements valid for travel into or 
through a combat area may be placed on the 
passports of officers and employees of the United 
States, civil or military, and members of their 
families if the public service requires. 

4. Endorsements valid for travel into or 
through a combat area shall not be placed on the 
passports of other American nationals except in 
cases of imperative necessity and unless other 
routes of travel to destination are not reasonably 
available. 

5. These regulations are not applicable to the 
following American nationals who are hereby 
authorized, under the conditions stated, to travel 
into or through combat areas without being in 
possession of American passports endorsed as 
valid for such travel : 

(a) Officers and enlisted personnel on board 
any vessels of the United States Navy or 
United States Coast Guard proceeding into or 
through combat areas under orders or in the 
course of duty. 

(b) Officers and members of the crew of any 
American vessel which, by arrangement with 
the appropriate authorities of the Government 
of the United States, may be commissioned to 
proceed into or through a combat area in order 
to evacuate citizens of the United States who 
are in imminent danger to their lives as a re- 
sult of combat operations incident to the 
present war. 



I 



NOVEMBER 18, 1939 



555 



(c) Officers and members of the crew of any 
American vessel proceeding into or through a 
combat area under charter or other direction 
and control of the American Ked Cross and 
under safe conduct gi'anted by belligerent 
states. 

(d) Officers and members of the crew of any 
American vessel which in advance of a proc- 
lamation by the President defining any area 
as a combat area cleared and departed from an 



American or foreign port for a port or ports 
within the area so defined as a combat area; 
Provided, however, that the provisions of this 
subsection are limited to a current voyage so 
undertaken. 

Sumner Welues 
Acting Secretanj of SfMt 
Department of State, 
November 17, 1939. 



■f -f -f -f > -f -f 



CONTRABAND LISTS 

Announcement by France 



[Released to tile piess November 16] 

The Department of State has received the fol- 
lowing translation of the French Government's 
notice published in the Journal Officiel of Sep- 
tember 4, 1939, listing articles considered as con- 
traband of war during hostilities: 

"The Government of the French Republic 
makes known to interested parties that, during 
the course of hostilities, it will consider as arti- 
cles of contraband the following objects : 

"Absolute Contraband 

"(a) All sorts of arms, munitions, explosives, 
chemical products or apparatuses which may be 
utilized in chemical warfare, and machinery in- 
tended for their manufacture or repair; com- 
ponent parts of these articles, articles necessary 
or appropriate for their utilization ; substances 
or ingredients employed in their manufacture; 
articles necessary or appropriate for the produc- 
tion or utilization of these substances or in- 
gredients ; 

"(b) Combustibles of all sorts; all appara- 
tuses or means permitting of the transportation 
on land, water or in the air, and all machinery 



utilized for their manufacture or repair; com- 
jjonent parts of these articles; instruments, ar- 
ticles or animals necessary or appropriate for 
their employment, substances or ingredients 
utilized in their manufacture; articles necessary 
or appropriate for the production or employ- 
ment of the said substances or ingredients; 

"(c) All means of communication, tools, im- 
plements, instruments, equipment, geographic 
maps, pictures, papers and other articles, ma- 
chinery or documents necessary or appropriate 
for the conduct of enemy operations, articles 
necessary or appropriate for their manufacture 
and their employment ; 

"(d) Coins, gold and silver ingots, banknotes, 
bonds, as well as metals, materials, specie, metal 
sheets, machinery or other articles necessary or 
appropriate for their manufacture. 

"Conditional Contraband 

"All sorts of foodstuffs, provisions, products 
for feeding animals, fodder, clothing, as well as 
objects and material utilized for their pro- 
duction." 



556 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Announcement by New Zealand 



[Released to the press November 16 J 

The Department of State has received from 
the American Consul General at Wellington 
the following extract from the New Zealand 
Gazette No. 106, dated September 7, 1939 : 

"CONTKABAND EMERGENCY REGULATIONS 1939 

"1. These regulations may be cited as the 
Contraband Emergency Regulations 1939. 

"2. During the continuance of the war be- 
tween New Zealand and the Government of 
the German Reich, or until further enactment, 
the articles enumerated in the First Schedule 
hereto shall be treated as Absolute Contraband, 
and the articles enumerated in the Second 
Schedule hereto shall be treated as Conditional 
Contraband. 

"3. These regulations shall have the same 
effect in law as if they were a Proclamation 
made by His Majesty in exercise of His 
Majesty's prerogative powers. 

"4. Nothing herein contained shall be deemed 
to limit or abridge the effect of any Procla- 
mation made by His Majesty and extending to 
New Zealand as part of the law of New 
Zealand. 

"schedules 

^'■First Schedule 

"(a) All kinds of arms, ammunition, ex- 
plosives, chemicals, or appliances suitable for 
use in chemical warfare, and machines for their 
manufacture or repair; component parts there- 
of; articles necessary or convenient for their 
use; materials or ingredients used in their 
manufacture; articles necessary or convenient 
for the production or use of such materials or 
ingredients. 

"(b) Fuel of all kinds; all contrivances for, 
or means of, transportation on land, in the 
water or air, and machines used in their manu- 
facture or repair; component parts thereof; 
instruments, articles, or animals necessary or 
convenient for their use; materials or ingredi- 
ents used in their manufacture; articles neces- 
sary or convenient for the production or use of 
such materials or ingredients. 



"(c) All means of communication, tools, 
implements, instruments, equipment, maps, pic- 
tures, papers and other articles, machines, or 
documents necessary or convenient for carry- 
ing on hostile operations ; articles necessary or 
convenient for their manufacture or use. 

"(d) Coin, bullion, currency, evidences of 
debt; also metal, materials, dies, plates, ma- 
chinery, or other articles necessary or con- 
venient for their manufacture. 
^''Second Schedule 

"(e) All kinds of food, foodstuffs, feed, 
forage, and clothing and articles and materials 
used in their production." 

■f 4- -f 

RETURN VOYAGE OF THE "CITY OF 
FLINT" 

[Released to the press November 13] 

The American Charge in Berlin, Mr. Alex- 
ander C. Kirk, has been informed by the Foreign 
Office that tlie German naval command, in view 
of its understanding that the cargo of the City 
of Flint has been landed at Bergen, Norway, has 
ordered all German warships not to interfere 
with the vessel in any way while it is on its 
voyage to the United States. 

-f -f ^ 

SINKING OF THE BRITISH STEAM- 
SHIP "SIRDHANA" IN SINGAPORE 
HARBOR 

[Released to the press November 13] 

The American Consul General at Singapore, 
Mr. Kenneth S. Patton, reported to the Depart- 
ment that 10 American passengers were saved 
without injury when the British steamship 
Sirdhana was sunk, probably by a mine, in 
Singapore harbor the morning of November 13. 
The 10 American pai=sengers are all members of 
the Nicola Troupe of Magicians. They are re- 
ported to have lost all their belongings and are 



NOVEMBER 18, 1939 

being cared for by tlie steamship company and 
the local theatrical manager at Singapore. 
Their names and addresses are as follows : 

Mr. and Mrs. William Nicola, 322 West First 

Avenue, Monmouth, 111. 
Mr. and Mrs. Charles Classen, 545 Flint Street, 

Rochester, N. Y. 



557 

Mr. and Mrs. Edwin Gailhird, 39 Prospect 
Street, Mount Kisco, N. Y. 

Mr. Charles C. Vance, 100 Randolph Avenue, 
Peoria, 111. 

Miss Mary Elizabeth Camp, Brooklyn, 111. 

Mr. and Mrs. A. Cockelberg, 10731 South Camp- 
bell Avenue, Chicago, 111. 



-♦•>■>>>■♦■>■ 



DETENTION BY BELLIGERENTS OF AMERICAN VESSELS FOR EXAMINA- 
TION OF PAPERS OR CARGOES 



[Releaspd to the press November 18] 

Following is a tabulation completed to 
November 16 showing the American vessels 
which have been reported to the Department 
of State as having been detained by bellig- 
erents since September 1, 1939, for examina- 
tion of papers or cargo. 

It was explained at the Department of 
State that injury to American vessels destined 
to European ports has not resulted in the main 
from their diversion from the high seas to 
belligerent ports. As a general practice, for 
reasons of their own, the vessels which cleared 



from ports of the United States on or before 
November 4, the effective date of the Neutral- 
ity Act of 1939, ordinarily put into belliger- 
ent ports en route to their destinations, and 
the principal difficulty thus far has arisen in 
connection with delay involved in the exam- 
ination of the vessels and their cargoes before 
being permitted to proceed on their voyages. 
Although all cases of detention may not have 
been reported to the Department, the state- 
ment is as nearly complete as is possible to 
arrange it. 



American Vessels Reported to Department to Have Been Detained by Belligerents Since 
September 1, 1939, for Examination of Papers or Cargo 



Name of vessel 


Owner or operator 


Cargo 


Detained 


Released 


Saccarappa 


South Atlantic S. S. Co. 


Phosphate, cotton, 


Arrived September 3. Car- 


Ship released 






general. 


go seized September 8 by 
British authorities. 


promptly. Car- 
go unloaded. 


Shickshinny 


South Atlantic S. S. Co. 


Phosphate, cotton . 


Detained September 16, 
Glasgow, by British 
authorities. 


September 18. 


Sundance 


South Atlantic S. S. Co. 


Rosin and general 
cargo. 


Detained October 11, Lon- 
don, British authorities. 


October 25. 


Black Osprey 


Black Diamond Lines. _ 


General 


Vessel picked up Septem- 
ber 5 by British naval 
vessel. 


September 13. 


Santa Paula 


Grace J^inc 




When 30 miles from Cura- 
sao ordered to stop, de- 


















layed 20 minutes, un- 










identified British cruiser. 










believed to be Essex. 




Executive 


American Plxport Lines. 




Detained Casablanca, Mo- 


September 29 on 






rocco, September 27 on 


condition vessel 








orders from Paris be- 


proceed to Bi- 








cause of nature of cargo. 


zerte, Tunisia, 



192711—39- 



558 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



American Vessels Reported to Department to Have Been Detained by Belligerents Since 
September 1, 1939, for Examination of Papers or Cargo — Continued 



Name of vessel 



Ethan Allen 

Patrick Henry. 

Oakman 

Cranford 

Nashaba 

West Hobomac 
City of Joliet.- 

Syros 

Hybert 

Lehigh 

Warrior 

Wacosta 

Black Eagle 

Exochorda , 

City of Flint. . 

L C. While 

Eglantine 

Mcanlicut 

West Ganibo. . 
Endicott 



Owner or operator 



Lykes Bros. S. S. Co- 
Lykes Bros. S. S. Co_ 
Lykes Bros. S. S. Co. 
Lykes Bros. S. S. Co. 
Lykes Bros. S. S. Co. 
Lykes Bros. S. S. Co. 
Lykes Bros. S. S. Co_- 
LykesBros. S. S. Co.. 
Lykes Bros. S. S. Co_- 



U. S. Maritime Com- 
mission. 
Waterman S. S. Corp. _ 



Waterman .S. S. Corp. 



151ack Diamond Lines.. 
.\meriean Export Lines. 



U. S. Maritime Com- 
mission, owner. 
Chartered to United 
States Lines. 

Standard Oil of N. . I 



Lykes Bros. S. S. Co. 



Lykes Bros. S. S. Co. 

Lykes Bros. S. S. Co.. 
Lykes Bros. S. S. Co.. 



Cargo 



Tobacco. 



Cotton, flour, cop- 
per. 



Copper, cotton, 
etc. 

Gilsonite, cotton, 
rice. 

Cotton, lead, cop- 
per, etc. 

Cotton, lead, ma- 
chinery. 



Cargo for Ham- 
burg. 
Phospliate rock 



General cargo part 
of which was 
contraband. 



Detained 



British authorities, Sep- 
tember 20. 

British authorities, Octo- 
ber 10. 

British authorities, Octo- 
ber 13. 

British authorities, Octo- 
ber 17. 

French authorities, Octo- 
ber 14. 

French authorities, October 
18. 

French authorities, Sep- 
tember 14. 

French authorities, Sep- 
tember 22. 

Detained September 10 
about 2 hours by Ger- 
man submarine. Ex- 
amined papers and 
warned not to use radio 
for 24 hours. 

British authorities, Sep- 
tember 5. 

British, September 7. 
Cargo phosphate requi- 
sitioned. 

Detained September 9 for 
3 hours by German 
submarine. Papers ex- 
amined, holds searched. 

British authorities, Octo- 
ber 26. 

French authorities at Mar- 
seille. Removed 2 sea- 
men (German national- 
ity) September 6. 

Seized on high seas by 
German vessel and taken 
by prize crew to Soviet 
port. 

Tanker challenged by an 
unidentified cruiser Sep- 
tember 7, when 15 miles 
offshore near Barran- 
quiUa, Colombia. 

Ordered to stop by German 
submarine September 18; 
told not to use radio and 
to send papers for inspec- 
tion. Advised not to u.se 
radio for three hours on 
being permitted to pro- 
ceed. 

British, October 23. Or- 
dered to proceed to Oran 
to discharge certain 
Italian cargo. 

French, October 22. 750 
bales carbon black 
ordered ashore. 

French, October 22. 2,276 
bars of copper and 1,796 
bags carbon black 
ordered ashore. 



Released 



September 30. 
October 22. 
October 27. 
October 21. 
October 25. 
October 25. 
October 5. 
October 10. 



September 7. 
September IS. 

September 9. 

November 5. 
September 6. 



November 4 by 
Norwegian au- 
thorities. 



After 1 hour and 
20 minutes. 



October 27. 



Cleared from Havre 
November 2. 

Cleared from Havre 
November 2. 



NOVEMBEK 18, 19 39 



559 



American Vessels Reported to Department To Have Been Detained by Belligerents Since 
September 1, 1939, for Examination of Papers or Cargo — Contmued 



Name of vessel 



Owner or operator 



Cargo 



Detained 



Released 



President Harding. 



Scanstates 

Scanpenn 

Black Condor - 
Black Eagle- 
Black Falcon _. 
Black GulL__. 
Black Ha\vk_ _ 
Black Heron 
Black Tern_.- 



Black Osprey, 



Exporter. 
Hybert--. 



Exeter. 



Ipswich . 



Iberville. 



Gateway City. 

Wacosta 

Exeter 



United States Lines. 



American Scantic Line. 
American Scantic Line. 
Black Diamond Lines.. 
Black Diamond Lines.. 
Black Diamond Lines. _ 
Black Diamond Lines.. 
Black Diamond Lines. _ 
Black Diamond Lines.. 
Black Diamond Lines.. 



Black Diamond Lines. 



American Export Lines. 
Lykes Bros. S. S. Co... 



American Export Lines. 

Waterman S. S. Corp.. 
Waterman S. S. Corp.. 



Waterman S. S. Corp. 



Waterman S. S. Corp.. 
American Export Lines. 



French, September 9. Car- 
go still under seizure on 
October 28; 135 tons 
copper, 34 tons petrole- 
um, hides, oil, coffee, 
tin plate and miscellan- 
eous. 

British authorities at Kirk- 
wall, October 14. 

British authorities, at 
Kirkwall, October 30. 

British authorities, Sep- 
tember 17. 

British authorities, at 
Downs, September 12. 

British authorities, Octo- 
ber 6. 

British authorities, Octo- 
ber 6. 

British authorities, Sep- 
tember 19. 

British authorities, at Wey- 
mouth, October 7. 

British authorities at Wey- 
mouth, October 11. 
Removed 368 bags of 
United States mail. 

British authorities, at 
Downs, October 31. 
Arrived at Ramsgate 
November 2. 

British authorities, at Gi- 
braltar, October 14. 

British authorities, at 
Downs, October 30. 
Arrived at Ramsgate 
November 1. 

French authorities, Octo- 
ber 5. Vessel west- 
bound from MarseiUe. 
Reported to have been 
examined several times 
by French naval a\ithor- 
ities. 

British, September 20. 
Cargo seized which was 
billed for Bremen and 
Hamburg. 

British, October 
13. Cargo seized which 
was to be discharged at 
Antwerp and Rotter- 
dam. 

British, October 16. Car- 
go seized which was 
billed for delivery at 
Antwerp and Rotterdam. 

British, October 24. Seized 
cargo billed for Rotter- 
dam. 

British, November 6. De- 
tained at Gibraltar. 
700 bags United States 
mail for Germany re- 
moved from vessel. 



Promptly. 



October 20. 
November 11. 
September 24. 
September 19. 
October 17. 
October 11. 
ProbablyOctober 4. 
October 16. 
October 28. 



October 27. 

Arrived at Rotter- 
dam November 
5. 

October 6. 

September 30. 
October 24. 

October 31. 

November 8. 
November 6. 



560 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIK 



American Vessels Reported to Department to Have Been Detained by Belligerents Since 
September 1, 1939, for Examination of Papers or Cargo — Continued 



Name of vessel 



Exminster 

Express.. 
Lafcomo.. 



Owner or operator 



American Export Lines. 



American Export Lines. 



Tampa Interocean S. S. 
Co. 



Cargo 



Detained 



British, November 1. De- 
tained at Gibraltar. Re- 
leased without any con- 
fiscation of cargo. 

British, November 8. Re- 
leased after examination 
at Gibraltar. 

Arrived Weymouth, Eng- 
land, November 16. 



Released 



November 6. 



November 8. 



The American Republics 



ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF THE CONSULTATIVE MEETING OF FOREIGN 
MINISTERS OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS 

Address by the Under Secretary of State ^ 



[Released to the press November 13] 

The meeting of consultation between the 
Ministers for Foreign Affairs of the American 
republics, which concluded its sessions early 
last month, was the first meeting of this char- 
acter which has taken place in the history of 
(he American nations. 

The need for such a meeting was foreseen 
by the American governments when they as- 
sembled, upon the initiative of President 
Roosevelt, at the Inter-American Conference 
for the Maintenance of Peace held in Buenos 
Aires in 1936. At that extraordinary confer- 
ence, and at the regular inter-American con- 
ference held at Lima in 1938, agi-eements were 
entered into which provided that in the event 
that an American government believed that 
there existed any menace to the peace of the 21 
American peoples, the Ministers for Foreign 
Affairs of all the American republics, or their 
representatives, would meet for the purpose of 
consultation in order (o determine how best 



' Delivered by Sumner Welles, Under Secretary of 
State, in the National Radio Forum of the Washington 
Evening Star, over the blue network of the National 
Broadcasting Co., November 13, 1939. 



the peace of the Western Hemisphere might be 
preserved. 

Consequently, the meeting at Panama was 
not an inter-American conference in the ordi- 
nary sense of the t«rm. It was a meeting held 
in accordance with prior specific agi'eements 
for the sole purjiose of determining, in view 
of the gi'ave world emergency which had 
arisen, how best the American peoples and 
their governments could collaborate in the task 
of preserving the American republics from in- 
volvement in war and from unnecessary and 
unjustifiable prejudice to their legitimate in- 
terests as the result of the hostilities which had 
broken out in Europe. 

The representatives of the American govern- 
ments, when they assembled in Panama on 
September 23, had before them for determina- 
tion three major problems. 

First, the consideration of how they could 
best, through common endeavor, and through 
practical forms of cooperation, maintain un- 
impaired their normal inter-American eco- 
nomic and commercial life during the con- 
tinuation of the war. The governments which 



NOVEMBEB 3 8, 19 3 9 



561 



they represented had all suffei'ed greatly dur- 
ing the World War years. Many of the 
republics which had maintained their neutral- 
ity throughout that coiiflict had seen their ex- 
port markets greatly diminished, and in many 
cases, where profitable opportiniity for export 
trade still existed, the lack of shipping facil- 
ities had made it impossible for them to send 
their products abroad. In other cases, war 
booms had ended in fantastic overproduction 
and in consequent disastrous dislocation of 
national economies, and even more widespread 
had been rapid fluctuations in exchange with 
resultant prejudice to normal inter-American 
trade. 

Moreover, it must be remembered that dur- 
ing the 3'ears from 1914 to 1918 there had 
never been undertaken any joint effort to at- 
tempt through collaboration to mitigate the 
hardships encountered by each individual re- 
public, and we were all of us persuaded that 
the experience of that period demonstrated 
that by joint inter- American action the dam- 
ages which we as individual nations had suf- 
fered might to a very considerable extent be 
now prevented. 

At the Panama meeting many governments 
presented urgent problems for consideration 
and for study, but it was the unanimous opin- 
ion that the limitations of time made it im- 
possible for the meeting itself to resolve the 
very far-reaching questions presented for our 
consideration. It was consequently agreed 
that the American republics would constitute 
an Inter-American Financial and Economic 
Advisory Committee, which should meet in 
Washington on November 15 and which should 
be composed of properly qualified technical 
representatives from each of the 21 republics. 
It was further agreed that this advisory com- 
mittee would continue in existence for the 
duration of the war, in order that it might 
propose solutions for the general problems 
which affect all the American nations, as well 
as for the specific difficulties which may con- 
front some particular American government 
and which that govermnent may desire to sub- 
mit for the consideration of the Committee. 



This Committee, when it meets 2 days from 
now, will have, in my judgment, a unique op- 
portunity to undertake a task of the highest 
significance and of the highest usefulness. It 
is called upon to deal with practical problems, 
and if it is to be successful, the solutions it 
recommends must in their turn be feasible 
and practical. If it limits itself to theoreti- 
cal expositions of doctrine, however unexcep- 
tionable its recommendations may be, it will 
completely fail to attain the objective for 
which it was created. If it points out in a 
practical manner the way in which existing 
and urgent problems affecting inter-American 
communications and trade can actually be 
solved, bluntly and realistically, it will not 
only have achieved the purpose for which it 
was created, but it will have likewise demon- 
strated the best of reasons why close inter- 
American cooperation of this character should 
continue in the future in times of peace as 
well as in times of war. 

The second great problem with which the 
American representatives at Panama had to 
deal was the question of the steps which the 
American republics might best take in order 
to maintain inviolate their status as neutral 
nations. During the World War the American 
republics pursued no common neutrality 
policy. While the great majority of the 
American govermnents were signatories to the 
Hague conventions of 1899 and of 1907, many 
of them during the last war demonstrated 
widely divergent criteria both as to their rights 
as well as with regard to their obligations as 
neutral powers. At Panama it was agi'eed 
that in the interest of the peace of the hemi- 
sphere as well as in the individual interest of 
every American nation, an effort should be 
made to fix common inter-American standards 
of neutrality without prejudice, of course, to 
our several sovereign rights. The meeting con- 
sequently unanimously agreed upon the decla- 
ration termed the "General Declaration of 
Neutrality of the American Kepublics," in 
wliich are set forth these common standards. 
As a result, the American governments will 
adopt similar dispositions with regard to such 



192711—39- 



562 



DEPAKTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



vital questions as those involving the rights of 
belligerents within their several jurisdictions 
and with regard to their own rights and obli- 
gations as neutrals in their dealings with 
the belligerents. The common determination 
which we have thus set up will be of an im- 
portance that cannot be overestimated in 
avoiding that kind of friction with the bellig- 
erents which has in past years so often led to 
involvement in war. 

Finally, at Panama the American govern- 
ments through their representatives dealt 
realistically with the all-important problem of 
how our nations might best keep war away 
from our New World. We were all of us in 
accord that the sovereign and independent na- 
tions of the Americas, constituting, from the 
northern boundary of the United States to the 
southern tip of Cape Horn, the greater part of 
a continent, were entitled by inherent right to 
insist that so long as they maintain their 
neutrality, the war wliich had broken out more 
than 3,000 miles away and in which they were 
in no sense involved should not interfere with 
nor destroy the purely inter- American life of 
the American republics. We all of us felt that 
the lives of citizens of the American republics, 
traveling from one American port to another 
American port, should no longer be jeopard- 
ized as they were in the World War years and 
that normal and legitimate commercial rela- 
tions between the American republics should 
neither be interfered with nor destroyed as 
they were in so many instances between 1914 
and 1919. 

This consensus of opinion took shape in the 
provisions of a declaration of policy unani- 
mously adopted and which is known as the 
"Declaration of Panama." This Declaration, 
in the name of all the American republics, pro- 
claims that as a matter of inherent right the 
American republics are entitled to obtain of 
the belligei-ents assurances that, within a lim- 
ited area of the waters adjacent to American 
coasts, which is required for the self -protection 
of the American nations and which embraces 
normal inter-American maritime communica- 
tions, the belligerents will not commit acts of 
hostility nor undertake belligerent activities. 



I should make it clear at the outset that the 
provisions of this Declaration were in no sense 
original nor do they represent any new or 
startling theories. In the years 1914 and 1915 
this very thesis, in one form or another, had 
been advanced by several of the American 
republics, notably Colombia, Brazil, Peru, 
Argentina, and Chile. 

I have heard it alleged, however, that the 
Declaration of Panama is bellicose in character 
and destined to involve our own Government 
in dangerous controversies. I have further 
heard it alleged that the United States Navy 
will have to engage in the task of patrolling 
all of the waters comprised within the security 
zone. Finally, I have heard it said that the 
Declaration of Panama is merely a collection 
of words which really mean nothing and that 
it will soon be permitted to lapse. All of these 
assertions are equally unfounded. 

I cannot help but feel that the majority of 
such commentators upon the Declaration of 
Panama have not taken the trouble to read it, 
and since it is relatively brief, I am going to 
read to you the text of the Declaration, which 
is as follows : 

"The Governments of the American Repub- 
lics meeting at Panama, have solemnly ratified 
their neutral status in the conflict which is dis- 
rupting the peace of Europe, but the present 
war may lead to unexpected results which may 
affect the fundamental interests of America 
and there can be no justification for the inter- 
ests of the belligerents to prevail over the 
rights of neutrals causing disturbances and 
suffering to nations which by their neutrality 
in the conflict and their distance from the scene 
of events, should not be burdened with its fatal 
and painful consequences. 

"During the World War of 1914-1918 the 
Governments of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Co- 
lombia, Ecuador and Peru advanced, or sup- 
ported, individual proposals providing in prin- 
ciple a declaration by the American Republics 
that the belligerent nations must refrain from 
committing hostile acts within a reasonable 
distance from their shores. 



NOVEMBER 18, 1939 



563 



"The nature of the present conflagration, in 
spite of its already lamentable proportions, 
would not justify any obstruction to inter- 
American communications which, engendered 
by important interests, call for adequate pro- 
tection. This fact requires the demarcation of 
a zone of security including all the normal 
maritime routes of communication and trade 
between the countries of America. 

"To this end it is essential as a measure of 
necessity to adopt immediately provisions 
based on the above-mentioned precedents for 
the safeguarding of such interests, in order to 
avoid a repetition of the damages and suffer- 
ings sustained by the American nations and 
by their citizens in the war of 1914-1918. 

"There is no doubt that the Governments of 
the American RepubUcs must foresee those dan- 
gers and as a measure of self -protection insist 
that the waters to a reasonable distance from 
their coasts shall remain free from the commis- 
sion of hostile acts or from the undertaking of 
belligerent activities by nations engaged in a 
war in which the said governments are not 
involved. 

"For these reasons the Governments of the 
American Eepublics 

Resolve and Herebt Declare : 

"1. As a measure of continental self-protec- 
tion, the American Republics, so long as they 
maintain their neutrality, are as of inherent 
right entitled to have those waters adjacent to 
the American continent, which they regard as 
of primary concern and direct utility in their 
relations, free from the commission of any hos- 
tile act by any non- American belligerent nation, 
whether such hostile act be attempted or made 
from land, sea or air. 

"Such waters shall be defined as follows. All 
waters comprised within the limits set forth 
hereafter except the territorial waters of Can- 
ada and of the undisputed colonies and pos- 
sessions of European countries within these 
limits :" 

There then follows the technical geographical 
definition of the Zone. 



"2. The Governments of the American Repub- 
lics agree that they will endeavor, through 
joint representation to such belligerents as may 
now or in the future be engaged in hostilities, to 
secure the compliance by them with the provi- 
sions of this Declaration, without prejudice to 
the exercise of the individual rights of each 
State inherent in their sovereignty. 

"3. The Governments of the American Re- 
publics further declare that whenever they con- 
sider it necessary they will consult together to 
determine upon the measures which they may 
individually or collectively undertake in order 
to secure the observance of the provisions of this 
Declaration. 

"4. The American Republics, during the exist- 
ence of a state of war in which they themselves 
are not involved, may undertake, whenever they 
may determine that the need therefor exists, to 
patrol, either individually or collectively, as 
may be agreed upon by common consent, and in 
so far as the means and resources of each may 
permit, the waters adjacent to their coasts within 
the area above defined." 

I wish to emphasize that while the Ameri- 
can republics thus declare their rights as they 
have defined them, the second article of the 
Declaration makes it equally apparent that 
they are solely obligated to endeavor to obtain 
assurances, by means of joint representations, 
from the belligerents that these rights will be 
respected. Many complex problems arise 
which must necessarily be discussed at length 
with the belligerents in order to achieve the 
equitable solution of such questions. Should 
the belligerents refuse to observe the provisions 
of the Declaration — which I may frankly state 
I do not assume — the Declaration further pro- 
vides that in such contingency the American 
republics will consult together to determine 
what steps they may then individually or col- 
lectively take. Thei-e is no implication in this 
agreement of a determination on the part of 
any American republic to undertake to exer- 
cise force in order to procure observance of 
its terms. 



564 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Insofar as the question of the patrol of the 
waters within the security zone is concerned, 
the patrol which may thereby be undertaken by 
each American rejDublic is solely the kind of 
patrol which the United States and many 
other American republics have already under- 
taken. It is a patrol intended to make it 
possible for each American government to 
ascertain to the best of its ability the nature of 
the activities wliich are being undertaken in 
close proximity to its shores. Such informa- 
tion is indispensable in times like these, not only 
to make it possible for us to safeguard our 
neutrality but also to make it possible for every 
American government to insure the security of 
its people. 

There exists no obligation on the part of the 
United States to undertake to patrol the areas 
not adjacent to its own coasts, nor would many 
of the other American republics either request 
or want any such activity on the part of this 
Government. The Declaration solely provides 
that in certain cases agreements may be entered 
into between two or more of the American re- 
publics for collective patrol should such be 
considered desirable by the governments 
concerned. 

General respect on the part of all nations 
for the principles contained in the Declaration 
of Panama will mean that the lives and the 
vital interests of the citizens of the American 



nations will be safeguarded and that the main- 
tenance of the peace of the Western Hemi- 
sphere will be greatly facilitated. 

A well-known writer in an editorial which 
he published a few days ago upon the Decla- 
ration of Panama truly said: "We want to 
keep the backwash of European hostilities 
from our shoi"es. That is the principle, the 
goal, the ideal. . . . Such a principle, so 
clearly aimed singly at the protection of the 
Western Hemisphere, and directed at no 
country's legitimate interests, has within itself 
the vitality to grow and to gain strength as 
the years pass." 

The meeting at Panama was outstanding in 
the sad history of recent times. The delegates 
of 21 sovereign nations, representing 250,000,- 
000 people, met together on terms of complete 
equality. No nation among those there repre- 
sented feared aggression at the hands of any 
one of its neighbors nor were the policies of 
any government determined under the shadow 
of the threat of force. From the first session 
until the last, but one thought and but one 
objective prevailed — to endeavor through co- 
operation to lessen the material hardships with 
whicli tlie American peoples are confronted as 
the result of the European war and to seek by 
joint elfort, to maintain our New World at 
peace. 



-f -f ^ -f >- ^ ■♦- 



INTER-AMERICAN FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC ADVISORY COMMITTEE 

Designation of the Under Secretary of State as Representative of the United States 



[Released to the press November 13] 

The Honorable Sumner Welles, Under 
Secretary of State, has been designated as the 
representative of the United States on the 
Inter-American Financial and Economic Ad- 
visory Committee, which will convene at the 
Pan American Union on November 15, 1939. 

Tliis Committee will be established in ac- 
cordance with a resolution of the Meeting of 
the Foreign INIinisters of the American Re- 
publics held in Panama in September of this 



year and will be composed of one expert 
representing each of the American republics. 
The Committee will consider means of estab- 
lishing a close and sincere cooperation between 
the American republics in order tliat they 
may protect their economic and financial 
structure, maintain their fiscal equilibrium, 
safeguard the stability of their currencies, 
promote and expand their industries, intensify 
their agriculture, and develop their commerce. 



NOVEMBER 18, 1939 



565 



Address by the Acting Secretary of State - 



[Released to the press November 15] 

I regard it as a very great pei-soiial privilege 
to have the honor in the name of the Govern- 
ment of the United States to offer a most 
cordial and friendly welcome to the repre- 
sentatives of the American republics upon 
tlie Inter -American Financial and Economic 
Advisory Committee. 

We enter upon the task entrusted to us under 
highly favorable auspices. Trust, understand- 
ing, and an identity of purpose unite the Amer- 
ican republics. The entire world knows that 
they are as one m their determination to safe- 
guard their security and to preserve the peace 
of the Western Hemisphere. They are hap- 
pily free from those rivalries and antagonisms 
which would put cooperative commercial and 
economic action in their common interest be- 
yond the bounds of possibility. Such a condi- 
tion in the relations between comitries is ex- 
ceptional, and we must make exceptional use 
of these fortunate circumstances. 

This Committee, appointed to deal with the 
economic and monetary questions confronting 
the American republics, was created by i-esolu- 
tion of the consultative meeting of the Min- 
isters for Foreign Affairs of the American re- 
publics, held in Panama a few short weeks ago. 
The immediate cause was the gravity of the 
situation created by the outbreak of war in 
Europe. By the terms of the resolution wliich 
created it, the Committee is called upon to 
study and to recommend solutions of general 
problems, many of which urgently require de- 
termination. But the tasks of the Committee, 
as I see them, are composed of two somewhat 
different kinds, corresponding to their two 
different lines of origin. 

The European war in many directions and 
in many countries has disturbed economic ac- 
tivities and economic balance. Some of the 



^ Delivered by Sumner Welles, Acting Secretary of 
State, at the inaugural meeting of the Inter-American 
Financial and Economic Advisory Committee at the 
Pan American Union, November 15, 1939. 



governments represented upon the Committee, 
faced abruptly with difficulties and disloca- 
tions, will wish to bring these immediate prob- 
lems before this body with a view to securing 
counsel and assistance. I feel sure we will all 
agree that the Committee will accord to each 
such request prompt, helpful, and adequate 
consideration. 

Second, the Committee is called upon to 
make a continuous effort gradually to create 
conditions, or perhaps even institutions, which 
will enlarge and stabilize economic and 
financial dealings between the American peo- 
ples. Here we shall have to consider, through 
such subcommittees and such continued tech- 
nical help as may be necessary, what can be 
done to increase healthy trade between us; to 
improve the monetary and financial mecha- 
nism by wliich trade and other commercial 
transactions are facilitated; to stimulate the 
employment of capital in such productive di- 
rections as may be found sound; to improve, 
not only immediately, but permanently, the 
means of transport and communication between 
us; and to make more fully available among 
all of us that kind of technical ability and 
experience which has now become so important. 

These make a vast array of potentialities. 
The effort to progress towards their achieve- 
ment should be no less than our fullest abilities 
and our most earnest endeavor. 

Commerce between the American republics 
has already reached considerable proportions. 
We supply, one to the other, much of what we 
consume, and we thereby give profitable em- 
ployment to our nationals. This field of com- 
mercial exchange can, I am confident, be 
greatly enlarged. Trade and tariff' obstacles 
between some of us are still in certain directions 
excessive and can be modified with benefit to 
all our national economies. The trade agree- 
ments wliich have been negotiated between 
some of our countries, or which are now in 
process of negotiation, constitute a long and a 
highly desirable step in this direction. Im- 



566 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



provement of the standard of living which we 
are all seeking in our several countries could 
further permanently augment our commerce. 
New fields of complementary production within 
our boundaries await sufficiently capable hands 
and organized effort to provide new oppor- 
tunities for profitable trade between us. This 
Committee can play an important role by dis- 
criminating study and encouragement of such 
governmental actions as may be necessary and 
desirable. Achievement is possible without 
creating any form of discrimination against 
the legitimate commercial interests of nations 
outside of this hemisphere. 

In the sphere of our monetary and banking 
relations I believe that our studies may show 
that we have similar opportunities. Monetary 
and credit arrangements constitute, of course, 
only an intermediary assistance towards more 
basic economic activity. Therefore, anything 
which we may attempt in this field must neces- 
sarily be in accord with the underlying eco- 
nomic facts. 

With regard to questions involving tem- 
porary financial assistance to tide over im- 
mediate emergencies, or with regard to the 
movement or the investment of capital also, I 
feel that this Committee can render assistance 
and guidance, and possibly even, in some cir- 
cumstances, may be enabled to play a more 
active part. There exists in this hemisphere a 
large potential amount of capital available 
for that kind of employment which offei's a 
sufficiently assured reward. Undeveloped nat- 
ural resources in many of our countries offer 
possible fields for such investment. There are 
also many branches of industrial production 
which, competently develojDed, would lead lo 
the supply of goods on better terms than they 
are now available and thereby give enlianced 
employment. 

In summary it may be said that, both within 
each of our republics as between them, there is 
much opportunity to achieve vast results of 
general benefit provided proper human and 
economic arrangements and conditions can be 
established and maintained. That is a prob- 
lem in which we are all of us vitally concerned. 



and I think we will all recognize that our ap- 
proach to the problems wliich we are called 
upon to considei- is rendered far easier by rea- 
son of the fact that there is no longer the 
thought in any of our minds that the citizens 
of any one American republic can claim to en- 
joy a privileged status in any other republic. 
The citizen of one American nation who under- 
takes to do business in another American coun- 
try, or who invests his mone}' in another Ameri- 
can republic, recognizes today that his business 
and Ms investment are subject to the laws of 
that country. He has solely the right to expect 
that he will receive justice under those laws and 
in accordance with the generally accepted prin- 
ciples of international law. 

All of us also recognize that if confidence 
on the part of any of our nationals in the jus- 
tice of the treatment which they will receive 
or which their legitimate investments will re- 
ceive at the hands of the peojile or the author- 
ities of a neighbor country is shaken, credit is 
correspondingly undermined. As li a s been 
truly said, confidence is the mother of credit. 
Without such reciprocal confidence on the part 
of all of our peoples, that increase of inter- 
American trade and investment on a sound and 
mutually beneficial basis, which we all desire 
and from Mhich we would all profit, will neces- 
sarily remain an unattained goal. 

I have attempted in these brief words to 
review some of the immediate and urgent ob- 
jectives which lie before the members of this 
Committee, as well as some of the long range 
problems with which I believe the Committee 
will feel called upon to deal. I am confident 
that as our sessions continue, many of the mem- 
bers of the Committee will bring before you 
additional and valuable suggestions. Of two 
things I can speak with intimate conviction: 
First, of my confidence that if the members of 
this Committee are afforded the opportunity by 
the Governments they represent of solving the 
practical problems presented in a forthright 
and practical manner, the highest interests of 
the peoples of all of the Americas will be gi-eat- 
ly advanced; and the second, that in such an 
endeavor, the members of the Committee can 



NOVEMBER 18. 1939 



567 



count upon the wholehearted cooperation of 
every branch of the Government of the United 
States. 

It is appropriate to note, in closing, that the 
j^roup here assembled is attempting a task new 
in the history of world affaii-s. This is an in- 
ternational committee to forward the cause of 
cooperative economic life in our hemisphere. 
It meets, not in a spirit of competition, but in 
the desire to work out methods of common 
action by which 21 American peoples recognize 



the just right of all of the member nations to 
live their normal lives and to have made avail- 
able to them the means by which they may im- 
prove the condition of their people. This has 
come about not through empire or conquest 
but through common sense and reason. If we 
succeed, as I feel sure we will, our success will 
stand as a great milestone on the road to a 
peaceful, a happy, and a prosperous New 
World. 



■♦■ -f + ^ >■ -f -f 



FIFTIETH ANNIVERSARY OF THE PROCLAMATION OF THE 

BRAZILIAN REPUBLIC 



[Released to the press November 17] 

A letter of felicitation from President 
Roosevelt in commemoration of the fiftieth an- 
nivei-sary of the proclamation of the Brazilian 
Republic was delivered yesterday to President 
Vargas of Brazil by Maj. Gen. Delos C. 
Emmons, who commanded a flight of United 
States Army bombers ("Flying Fortresses'') 
to Rio de Janeiro. Major General Emmons 
was presented by the Honorable Jefferson Caf- 
fery, American Ambassador to Brazil. 

The text of President Roosevelt's letter to 
President Vargas follows : 

''My Dear Mk. Presideitt : 

"On November 15 your country will com- 
memorate the fiftieth anniversary of the Proc- 
lamation of the Brazilian Federative Republic. 
I have great pleasure in sending you on this 
happy occasion my own best wishes and those 
of the people of the United States. 

"It is a tribute to the Brazilian nation and 
its leaders that the complete independence of 
your country was attained by patient adjust- 
ment and without bloodshed. The less fortu- 
nate people who today do not enjoy independ- 
ence and freedom can take courage from the 
lesson in tolerance that your people have given 
to mankind. 

"This occasion is an appropriate one on 
which to refer again to the traditional friend- 



ship of the United States of Brazil tuid the 
United States of America. This friendship 
is based on mutual respect and the New World 
principle which affirms the i-ight of peoples 
to work out their destinies without foreign 
interference. It should be obvious to all that 
the similarity of our objectives, and our co- 
operation in working for their attainment, is 
not due to any mere accident of fate, but to 
the conmion ideals which inspire us. 

"My memory of the warm welcome and hos- 
pitable reception which you and the citizens 
of Rio de Janeiro were kind enough to give me 
at the time of my visit in November, 1936 
serves to assure me of the cordial reception 
that will be given to the commander, officers 
and men who fly this message to you. 

"Believe me, my dear Mr. President, 
"Yours very sincerelj', 

Frankijn D. Roosevelt" 



[Released to the press November 18] 

The President of Brazil has replied to the 
letter of felicitation fi-om President Roosevelt 
in commemoration of the fiftieth aimiversary 
of the proclamation of the Brazilian Republic. 
President Vargas' reply was sent to Ambas- 
sador Jefferson Caffery with the request that 



568 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



he give it to Major General Emmons to take 
to President Roosevelt. 

The text of President Vargas' letter follows : 

"Rio de Janeiro, November 16. 
"Mr. President : 

"I wish to express to you my great satisfac- 
tion upon receiving through General Delos 
Emmons the letter which Your Excellency ad- 
dressed to me sending to the Govermnent and 
people of Brazil the compliments of the Gov- 
ernment and people of the United States of 
America on the Fiftieth Anniversary of the 
Proclamation of the Brazilian Republic. 
There exists, Mr. President, in our country 
the same very affectionate sentiment of cordial 
friendship which Your Excellency has ex- 
pressed. This happy state of mutual feeling 
shows how close the collaboration between our 
two friendly nations in all fields of interna- 
tional relations has been and remains. The 
Brazilian people are highly grateful for the 
reference which Your Excellency made to the 
way in which Brazil has been able to work out 
its political destiny without violence. That 
line of conduct practical in the internal life 
of the nation also guides our foreign relations 
and therefore we may be always found on the 
side of the supporters of peace and of those 
who realize the necessity of resolving peace- 
fully questions of any nature. 

"My Government and the people of Brazil 
cherish the recollection of the visit of Your 
Excellency and we welcome with warm sym- 
pathy the envoys of the American Government 
and representatives of its glorious military 
institutions. 

"Please accept, dear Mr. President, the best 
wislies of tlie people and the Government of 
Brazil for the happiness of Your Excellency 
and the United States of Amei-ica." 

F Released to the press November 18] 

Maj. Gen. Delos C. Emmons, who com- 
manded the flight of Army bombers ("Flying- 
Fortresses") to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, was 



given a message from the President of Para- 
guay for President Roosevelt. 

The text of the message from the President 
of Paraguay reads as follows: 

"I am very grateful for the visit of the 
American aviators and the flying fortresses. 
It is a great honor for Paraguay to have them 
visit my country. My best wishes to my emi- 
nent friend the President of the great republic 
of the United States of America." 

■♦■■♦■-♦■ 

CATASTROPHE AT LAGUNILLAS, 
VENEZUELA 

[Released to the press November 15] 

The Honorable Sumner Welles, Acting Sec- 
retary of State, sent the following message to 
the Minister for Foreign Affairs of Venezuela 
(E. Gil Borges) : 

"November 15, 1939. 
"The jjeople and the Government of the 
United States are profoundly shocked by the 
tragic fire which occurred yesterday at Lagu- 
nillas. Please accept the assurances of my deep- 
est sympatliy. 

Sumner Welles" 

^ + + 

PRESENTATION OF LETTERS OF 
CREDENCE 

Ambassador of Colombia 

[Released to the press November 14] 

Translation, of 7'emarhs of the newly appomfed 
Ainbassador of Colomhia, Senor Dr. Don 
Gabriel Turiay, upon the occasion of the pres- 
entation of his letters of credence: 

Excellency : 

On the occasion of delivering to Your Ex- 
cellency, as I have the honor of doing, the 
letters accrediting me as Ambassador Extra- 
ordinary and Plenipotentiary of Colombia and 



NOVEMBER 18, 193 9 



569 



the letters of recall of my predecessor, Mr. 
Miguel Lopez Pumarejo, I take pleasure in 
bringing to Your Excellency the personal 
greetings of the President of Colombia, Dr. 
Eduardo Santos, and the expi'ession of his 
warm wishes for the well-being and prosperity 
of the people of the United States. 

A historic process of sincere rapprochement 
having been initiated a few years ago, which 
has placed the relations between Colombia and 
the United States on a footing of cordiality 
and mutual confidence, the two nations have 
been drawing closer and closer their bonds of 
cooperation and friendship, favored bj' a propi- 
tious geographical situation and under the 
stimulus of the joint interests which it creates 
and strengthens, to the common benefit. Re- 
cent world events daily render more advisable 
a closer relationship among the countries of 
this hemisphere. Your Excellency contrib- 
uted toward the accomplisliment of this aim, 
with the most timely foresight, when a'ou pro- 
claimed the new good-neighbor policy, which 
was greeted with such approval by the Ameri- 
can peoples. It is, therefore, in the present 
circumstances of international life, a necessity 
to open new channels for increase of relations 
of all kinds among the countries of the New 
World, in order to strengthen the tendencies 
and developments of the policy of continental 
solidarity that was so happily defined at the 
recent consultative meeting at Panama. As far 
as Colombia is concerned, I shall constantly 
devote myself to the task of contributing to the 
translation into actuality of those views of 
political cooperation and intensification of 
economic and commercial relations, in harmony 
with the laudable efforts which the United 
States Government has been making in that 
sense and in conformity with the wishes and 
instructions of my Government. 

It is especially pleasing to me to join in the 
sincere good wishes of the Government and 
the people of Colombia for the prosperity of 
the United States and the personal well-being 
of Your Excellency. 



President EooseveWs reply to the remarks of 
Seiior Dr. Don Gabriel Tuvhaij: 

Mr. Ambassador: 

It is a great pleasure for me to receive from 
you today the letter whereby His Excellency the 
President of the Republic of Colombia accredits 
you near the Government of the United States. 
I also accept the letter of recall of your distin- 
guished predecessor, whose sojourn here I shall 
always warmly remember. 

It will be my privilege, Mr. Ambassador, as 
well as that of the officials of the United States 
Government, to facilitate the accomplislmient of 
your desire to strengthen the economic and cul- 
tural ties which so happilj^ exist between our two 
countries. The recent conference at Panama 
has once again demonstrated the mutual under- 
standing which underlies our efforts for a con- 
tinued cooperation which I am confident will 
become increasingly effective. In these days of 
widespread international discord, the cordial 
relations between the Governments and people 
of Colombia and the United States are a par- 
ticular source of gratification to me. 

In welcoming you, may I ask you to express 
my thanks to His Excellency President Santos 
for his kind sentiments and to convey to him my 
personal greetings and sincere wishes for the 
prosperity and happiness of the Colombian 
people. 

Minister of Paraguay 

[Released to the press NoTember 14] 

Translation of remarks of the neioly appointed 
3Iinisfer of Paraguay., Dr. Horacio A. Fernan- 
dez, upon the occasion of the presentation of 
his letters of credence: 

Mr. President: 

In delivering to Your Excellency the letters 
whereby His Excellency the President of the 
Republic of Paraguay accredits me as Envoy 
Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to 
the United States of America, I have the honor 
to express to Your Excellency, in the name of 
the Paraguayan Government, the most cordial 



570 



DEPABTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



good wishes for Your Excellency's personal 
well-being and for the ever-increasing pros- 
perity of the great people over whom you so 
wisely preside. 

I have the great honor of representing my 
country before Your Excellency's Government 
at a moment of exceptional expectancy; but 
notwithstanding the magnitude of the responsi- 
bilities inherent in my office, I feel encouraged 
by my certainty of the cooperation which I 
shall find in Your Excellency's Govenmient, a 
cooperation of which my country has just re- 
ceived an authentic and memorable proof in 
the financial accords recently signed while His 
Excellency President Estigarribia was the rep- 
resentative of Paraguay at Washington. 

I request you i-espectfully, Excellency, to 
accept, for my part, the assurance that I shall 
at every moment devote my best endeavors to 
cultivating assiduously the cordial relations 
which have always existed between our two 
peoples. I hold express instructions from my 
Government to second the good-neighborly ef- 
forts which have so happily been undertaken by 
Your Excellency's Govermnent for the purpose 
of guiding the policy of our continent in a 
course of common action, a policy the general 
lines of which Your Excellency's Government 
has so clearly traced. In carrying out the said 
instructions I shall fulfill, not a desire of my 
Govenunent only, but that of all the people of 
Paraguay. 

President Roosevelfs reply to the renmrhs of 
Dr. Horatio A. Fernandez: 

Mr. Minister: 

I am happy to welcome you to Wasliington 
and to receive from your hands the letters by 
which His Excellency the President of Para- 
guay has accredited you as \\\s Envoy Ex- 
traordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary 
near the Government of tlie United States. 

Your remarks regarding the economic co- 
operation between the United States and Para- 
guay are most gratifying and I wish to assure 
you that this Government will follow the 



development of these plans with keen and con- 
tinuing interest. I believe that practical 
cooperation of this nature can serve most ef- 
fectively, not only for mutual economic benefit, 
but also to promote better understanding 
between the people of Paraguay and the 
United States. 

May I aslc that you convey to General Esti- 
garribia, your distinguished President, whose 
recent residence in Washington is most cor- 
dially remembered, my good wishes for his 
personal health and happiness and for the 
continued prosperity of the people of 
Paraguay. 

I hope that you will enjoy your stay in 
Washington and that you will feel free to call 
upon the assistance of the officers of this Gov- 
ernment whenever you may have occasion to 
do so. 

-f ■♦■ -t- 

PROCLAMATION OF CONVENTION ON 
INTERCHANGE OF PUBLICATIONS 

An announcement to the press regarding the 
proclamation by the President of the United 
States of the Convention on Interchange of 
Publications appears in this Bulletin under 
the heading "Treaty Information." 



Foreign Service 



PERSONNEL CHANGES 

[Released to (he press November 18] 

Changes in the Foreign Service of the United 
States since November Ii., 1939: 

The assignment of Landreth M. Harrison, of 
Minneapolis, Minn., as second secretary of lega- 
tion and consul at Bucharest, Rumania, has 
l)een canceled. Mr. Harrison has now been 
designated second secretary of embassy and 
consul at Berlin, Germany, and will sei-ve in 
dual capacity. 



571 



William D. Moreland, Jr., of Portland, 
Oreg., vice consul at Bordeaux, France, has 
been assigned for duty in the Department of 
State. 

Edward B. Rand, of Shreveport, La., consul 
at Panama, Panama, will resign fi'om the For- 
eign Service effective February 3, 1940. 

Frederick J. Cunningham, of Boston, Mass., 
Foreign Service officer designated assistant 
trade commissioner at Johannesburg, Union of 
South Africa, has been assigned for duty in the 
Department of State. 

The assignment of Paul C. Daniels, of 
Rochester, N. Y., as second secretary of em- 
bassy and consul at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, has 



been canceled. Mr. Daniels has been assigned 
for duty in the Department of State. 

E. Tomlin Bailey, of Hasbrouck Heights, 
N. J., vice consul at Warsaw, Poland, has been 
designated third secretary of legation and vice 
consul at Kaunas, Lithuania, and will serve in 
dual capacity. 

Harry C. Reed, of New Hampshire, clerk at 
Quito, Ecuador, has been appointed vice consul 
at that post. 

Erland Gjessing, of Mt. Vernon, N. Y., vice 
consul at Copenhagen, Denmark, will retire 
from the Foreign Service effective IMarch 31, 
1940. 



Commercial Policy 



TRADE AGREEMENT WITH VENEZUELA 



[Released to the press November 17] 

The President proclaimed on November 16, 
1939, the reciprocal trade agreement between 
the United States and Venezuela signed at 
Caracas on November 6, 1939. The substan- 
tive provisions of the agreement will become 
provisionally effective on December 16, 1939. 

At the same time, the President addressed 
the following letter to the Secretary of the 
Treasury concerning the application of the 
duties proclaimed in the agreement with 
Venezuela : 

"The White House, 
Washington, November 16, 1939. 
''My Dear Mr. Secretary: 

"Pursuant to the authority conferred upon 
me by the Act to amend the Tariff Act of 1930, 
approved June 12, 1934 (48 Stat. 943), as ex- 
tended by the Joint Resolution approved 
March 1, 1937 (50 Stat. 24), I hereby direct 
that the duties proclaimed on this date in con- 
nection with the trade agi-eement signed on 
November 6, 1939 with Venezuela, and all other 
duties heretofore proclaimed in connection 



with trade agreements (other than the trade 
agreement with Cuba signed on August 24, 
1934, the trade agreement with Nicaragua 
signed on March 11, 1936 and the trade agree- 
ment with Czechoslovakia signed on Mai-ch 7, 
1938, as amended) entered into under the au- 
thority of the said Act, as originally enacted 
or. as extended, shall be applied on and after 
the effective date of such duties, or, as the case 
ma}' be, shall continue to be applied on and 
from the date of this letter, to articles the 
growth, produce, or manufacture of all foreign 
countries, except as otherwise hereinafter pro- 
vided, whether imported directly or indirectly, 
so long as such duties remain in effect and this 
direction is not modified. 

"Such pi'oclaimed duties shall be applied to 
articles the growth, produce, or manufacture 
of Cuba in accordance with the provisions of 
the trade agreement with Cuba signed on 
August 24, 1934. 

"Because I find as a fact that the treatment 
of American commerce by Germany is discrim- 
inatory, I direct that such proclaimed duties 



572 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



shall not be applied to products of Germany. 
Products of territories now under the de facto 
administrative control of Germany shall be 
regarded as products of Germany for the pur- 
poses of this paragraph. 

"My letter addressed to you on April 5, 
1939, witli reference to duties heretofore pro- 
claimed in connection with the trade agree- 



ments signed under the authority of the Act 
of June 12, 1934, is hereby superseded. 

"You will please cause this direction to be 
published in an early issue of the weekly 
Treasuri/ Decisions. 

"Very sincerely yours, 

Franklin D. Roosevelt" 



International Conferences, Commissions, etc. 



REGIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE AMERICAN STATES MEMBERS OF 
THE INTERNATIONAL LABOR ORGANIZATION 



[Released to the press November 18] 

On November 21, 1939, a Eegional Confer- 
ence of the American States Members of the 
International Labor Organization will convene 
at Habana, Cuba. This Government was rep- 
resented at the first and only previous regional 
meeting of this nature, which was held at San- 
tiago, Chile, in 1936. 

The President has approved the designation 
of the following persons as members of the 
United States delegation to the forthcoming 
Conference : 

Delegates : 

Mr. Arthur J. Altmeyer, Chairman, Social 
Security Board, Washington, D. C, Gov- 
ernment delegate and chairman of the dele- 
gation 

Mr. James B. Carey, President, United Elec- 
trical Radio and Machine Workers, 1133 
Broadway, New York, N. Y., labor dele- 
gate 

Mr. George Harrison, President, Brotherhood 
of Railway Clerks, Railway Clerks Build- 
ing, Cincinnati, Ohio, labor delegate 

Mr. Clarence McDavitt, retired Vice Presi- 
dent of the New England Telephone and 
Telegraph Company, 212 Mill Street, New- 
tonville, Mass., employer delegate 

Miss Josephine Roche, former Assistant Sec- 
retary of the Treasury, Denver, Colo., Gov- 
ernment delegate 



Advisers: 

Mr. Willard L. Beaulac, First Secretary of 
the American Embassy, Habana, Cuba. 
Government adviser 

Miss Dorothy Bellanca, Vice President, 
Amalgamated Clothing Workers of Amer- 
ica, 15 Union Square, New York, N. Y., 
labor adviser 

Mr. Parke P. Deans, member of the Depart- 
ment of Workmen's Compensatioii of the 
State of Virginia, Richmond, Va., Govern- 
ment adviser 

The Right Reverend Francis J. Haas, Dean, 
School of Social Science, Catholic Univer- 
sity, Washington, D. C, labor adviser 

Miss Kathryn Lewis, Executive Secretary to 
the President, United Mine Workers of 
America, Washington, D. C., labor adviser 

Mr. Otto T. Mallery, President, Tod Com- 
pany, 1427 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, 
Pa., employer adviser 

Miss Beati'ice McConnell, Director, Indus- 
trial Division, Children's Bureau, United 
States Department of Labor, Washington, 
D. C, Government adviser 

Miss Mary V. Robinson, Industrial Econo- 
mist, Women's Bureau, United States De- 
partment of Labor, Washington, D. C, 
Government adviser 



NOVTIMBER 18, 19 39 



573 



Miss Rose Schneiderman, National President 
of Women's Trade Union League, 80 Cen- 
ter, New Yorls:, N. Y., labor adviser 

Mr. Llewellyn E. Thompson, Jr., Foreign 
Service officer, Department of State, Gov- 
ernment adviser and secretary of the dele- 
sation 



Mr. Ralph Watson, Vice President, United 
States Steel Corporation, New York, N. Y., 
employer adviser 

Miss Mary Nelson Winslow, United States 
Representative on the Inter-American 
Commission of AVomen, Washington, D. C, 
Government adviser. 



Treaty Information 



Compiled by the Treaty Division 



RESTRICTION OF WAR 

Convention for the Amelioration of the Con- 
dition of the Wounded and the Sick of 
Armies in the Field (Treaty Series No. 
847) 

There is printed below the text of a note 
dated November 10, 1939, to the Swiss Minis- 
ter in Washington, sent in acknowledgment of 
the Minister's note dated October 18, 1939, 
concerning the Convention for the Ameliora- 
tion of the Condition of the Wounded and the 
Sick of Armies in the Field, signed at Geneva 
on July 27, 1929, the text of which is printed 
on page 474 of the Bulletin for November 4, 
1939 (Vol. I, No. 19): 

"Sik: 

"As an act of courtesy due from a signatory 
government to the depositary government, I 
have the honor to acknowledge receipt of your 
note of October 18, 1939 in which, by direction 
of 3'our Government and in accordance with 
Article 37 of the Convention for the Ameliora- 
tion of the Condition of the Wounded and 
Sick in Armies in the Field, concluded at 
Geneva on July 27, 1929, you advise that the 
Government of the Slovak Republic has no- 
tified the Swiss Federal Council, through the 
intermediary of the Legation of Switzerland 
at Berlin, of its adherence to the said Conven- 
tion. 



"I deem it proper to remark, however, that 
the Government of the United States of Amer- 
ica does not recognize Slovakia as an inde- 
pendent sovereign state. 

"Accept, Sir, the renewed assurances of my 
highest consideration. 

For the Secretary of State : 

R. Walton Moork" 

Convention Relating to the Treatment of 
Prisoners of War (Treaty Series No. 846) 

There is printed below the text of a note 
dated November 10, 1939, to the Swiss Minister 
in Washington, sent in acknowledgment of the 
Minister's note of October 18, 1939, concerning 
the Convention Relating to the Treatment of 
Prisoners of War, signed at Geneva on July 
27, 1929, the text of which is printed on page 
474 of the Bvlletin for November 4, 1939 (Vol. 
I, No. 19) : 

"Sir: 

"As an act of courtesy due from a signatory 
government to the depositary government, I 
have the honor to acknowledge receipt of your 
note of October 18, 1939 in which, by direction 
of your Government and in accordance with 
Article 95 of the Convention Relative to the 
Treatment of Prisoners of War, concluded at 
Geneva, July 27, 1929, you advise that the Gov- 
ernment of the Slovak Republic has notified 
the Swiss Federal Council, through the Lega- 



574 

tion of Switzerland at Berlin, of its adherence 
to the said Convention. 

"I deem it proper to remark, however, that 
the Government of the United States of Amer- 
ica does not recognize Slovakia as an inde- 
pendent sovereign state. 

"Accept, Sir, the renewed assurances of my 
highest consideration. 

For the Secretary of State : 

R. Walton Moore" 

COMMERCE 

Declaration on the Juridical Personality of 
Foreign Companies 

Dominican Republic 

The Director General of the Pan American 
Union informed the Secretary of State by a 
letter dated November 10, 1939, that the Dec- 
laration on the Juridical Personality of For- 
eign Companies, which was opened for signa- 
ture by the American republics on June 25, 
1936, was signed on behalf of the Dominican 
Republic on November 7, 1939. 

A declaration was made by the Minister of 
the Dominican Republic when signing the Dec- 
laration, which reads in translation as follows : 

"Companies established under the laws of 
one of the Contracting States with place of 
business in the territory thereof, not having 
any company establishment, branch or repre- 
sentation in another of the Contracting States, 
may, nevertheless, perform in the territory of 
the said States juridical acts which are not 
contrary to their laws and may appear in court 
as plaintiffs or defendants, subject to the laws 
of the country". 

The Declaration has been signed by Chile 
(with a statement formulating the principle of 
the Declaration), Dominican Republic (with a 
declaration), Ecuador, El Salvador, Nicaragua, 
Peru, Venezuela, and the United States of 
America (with two understandings). 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

Trade Agreement With Venezuela 

An announcement to the press regarding the 
proclamation by the President of the trade 
agreement with Venezuela appears in this Bul- 
letin under the heading "Commercial Policy." 

LABOR 

Conventions of the International Labor 
Conference 

With a circular letter dated September 21, 
1939, the Secretary General of the League of 
Nations transmitted to the Secretary of State 
certified copies of the draft conventions and 
recommendations adopted by the International 
Labor Conference at its twenty-fifth session 
(Geneva, June 8-28, 1939). 

The 4 draft conventions and 10 recommenda- 
tions are listed as follows : 

Recommendation (No. 57) Concerning Voca- 
tional Training 

Draft Convention (No. 64) Concerning the 
Regulation of Written Contracts of Employ- 
ment of Indigenous Workers 

Recommendation (No. 58) Concerning the 
Maximum Length of Written Contracts of 
Employment of Indigenous Workers 

Draft Convention (No. 65) Concerning Penal 
Sanctions for Breaches of Contracts of Em- 
ployment by Indigenous Workers 

Recommendation (No. 59) Concerning Labour 
Inspectorates for Indigenous Workers 

Recommendation (No. 60) Concerning Appren- 
ticeship 

Draft Convention (No. 66) Concerning the Re- 
cruitment, Placing and Conditions of Labour 
of Migrants for Emijloyment 

Recommendation (No. 61) Concerning the Re- 
cruitment, Placing and Conditions of Labour 
of Migrants for Employment 

Recommendation (No. 62) Concerning Cooper- 
ation Between States Relating to the Recruit- 
ment, Placing and Conditions of Labour of 
Migrants for Employment 

Draft Convention (No. 67) Concerning the 
Regulation of Hours of Work and Rest Pe- 
riods in Road Transport 



KOVEMBER 18, 19 39 



575 



Kecoiiimendation (No. 63) Concerning Indi- 
vidual Control Books in Road Transport 

Recommendation (No. 64) Concerning the Reg- 
ulation of Night Work in Road Transport 

Recommendation (No. 65) Concerning the 
Methods of Regulating Hours of Work in 
Road Transport 

Recommendation (No. 66) Concerning Rest 
Periods of Professional Drivere of Private 
Vehicles. 

NAVIGATION 

International Convention for the Unifica- 
tion of Certain Rules Relating to Bills of 
Lading for the Carriage of Goods by Sea 
(Treaty Series No. 931) 

Ge^'niany 

By a note dated October 27, 1939, the Belgian 
Ambassador at Washington informed the Sec- 
retary of State that the instruments of ratifica- 
tion bj' Germany of the Convention for the 
Unification of Certain Rules Relating to Bills 
of Lading for the Cai-riage of Goods by Sea 
and the Protocol of Signature, both signed at 
Brussels on August 25, 1924, were deposited 
with the Belgian Government on July 1, 1939. 
In accordance with the provisions of article 14 
of the convention it will become effective for 
Germany on January 1, 1940. 

The American Embassy at Brussels reported 
by a despatch dated October 19, 1939, that an 
announcement appeared in the Moniteur Beige 
(No. 289-290), of October 16-17, 1939, stating 
that the instruments of ratification by Germany 
of the above-mentioned convention and proto- 
col of signature were deposited on July 1, 1939, 
and not on July 5, 1939, as was reported in the 
Moniteur Beige (No. 239) of August 27, 1939. 
This information appeared on page 450 of the 
Bulletin for October 28, 1939 (Vol. I, No. 18), 
and note should be taken of the correct date of 
the deposit as now furnished by the Belgian 
Goverrmient. 



POSTAL 

Parcel-Post Service From the United States 
to Germany, Czechoslovakia, and Danzig 

There is printed below the order suspending 
parcel-post service from the United States to 
Germany, Czechoslovakia, and Danzig as pub- 
lished in the Postal Bulletin of November 3, 
1939: 

"Owing to disruption of transportation facil- 
ities, the parcel-post service to Germany, 
Czechoslovakia, and Danzig, cannot be con- 
ducted as provided by the agreements for par- 
cel-post service with those countries. The par- 
cel-post service from the United States to said 
countries is, therefore, suspended immediately 
and until further notice. 

"Until otherwise instructed postmasters will 
refuse to accejjt parcel-post packages for mail- 
ing to Germany, Czechoslovakia, and Danzig. 
Such parcel-post packages for said countries as 
have been mailed or which may be mailed inad- 
vertently hereafter will be returned to the send- 
ers and the postage prepaid on said parcels re- 
funded to the senders (except in the case of 
such of the parcels as had been dispatched 
abroad and returned) if application is made in 
accordance with section 2211 Postal Laws and 
Regidations." 

PUBLICATIONS 

Convention on Interchange of Publications 
(Treaty Series No. 954) 

United States 

On November 15, 1939, the President pro- 
claimed the Convention on Interchange of Pub- 
lications, signed at the Inter- American Con- 
ference for the Maintenance of Peace, Buenos 
Aires, December 23, 1936. The convention will 
be published as Treaty Series No. 954. 



576 DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Publications 



Air Transport Services: Agreement between the United 
States of America and France. — Effected by exchange 
of notes signed July 15, 193i>; effective August 15, 1939. 
Executive Agreement Series No. 153. Publication 1388. 

7 pp. 50. 

Department of State Visits in Uniform by Members of Defense Forces : Ar- 

rangement between the United States of America and 
Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United Cam da. — Effected by exchange of notes dated March 7, 

States, 1924 fin two volumes). Volume I. Publication April 5, and June 22, 1939 ; effective July 1, 1939. Exec- 

1366. cxiv, 780 pp. $1..50 (cloth). utive Agreement Series No. 157. Publication 1393. 

Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United ^^' ^'" 

States, 1924 (in two volumes). Volume II. Publication Diplomatic List, November 1039. Publication 1398. 

1374. xciv, 764 pp. $1.50 (cloth). ii, 83 pp. Subscription, $1 a year ; single copy, 100. 



U S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE- 1939 



For .sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C. — Price 10 cents Subscription price. $2.75 a year 

PCBLISHED WEEKLY WITH THE APPBOVAL OP THE DIRECTOR OF THE BCIIEAC OP THE BUDGET 



^ 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



.O vJ JL^ 




J 



H 



riN 



NOVEMBER 25, 1939 
Vol. I: No. 22 — Publication 1 408 



Qontents 

General: p.^. 

Fundamental Features of our Foreign Policy : Address 

by Assistant Secretary Messersmith 579 

Europe : 

Contributions for relief in belligerent countries . . . 585 

Regulation concerning transfer of title 588 

Regulation concerning credits to belligerents .... 588 
The Far East: 

Relations between the United States and Japan : State- 
ment by the Acting Secretary of State 588 

Situation at Tientsin 589 

The American Repubucs : 

Fiftieth anniversary of the proclamation of the Brazil- 
ian Rejjublic 589 

Death of the President of Ecuador 590 

International Conferences, Commissions, etc. : 

International Commission of Inquiry, United States 

and Portugal 590 

International Commission,United States and Belgiimi . 591 
Regional Conference of the American States Members 

of the International Labor Organization 591 

Foreign Service of the United States : 

Personnel changes 591 

Traffic in Arms, Tin-Plate Scrap, etc. : 

Monthly statistics 593 

Publications 603 

[Over^, 



U, S. SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS 

DEC 111939 



Treaty Information : 

Conciliation : Page 

Treaty with Portugal for the Advancement of Peace 

(Treaty Series No. 600) 604 

Treaty of Conciliation with Belgium (Treaty Series 

No. 824) G04 

Mutual guaranties : 

Anglo-Franco-Turkish Treaty of Mutual Assistance . 604 
I'^xtradition : 

Extradition Treaty with Liberia 604 

Commerce : 

Reciprocal Trade Agreement with the United King- 
dom 604 

'J'reaty of Friendship, Commerce, and Navigation 

with Liberia 6().5 

Telecommmiications : 
International Telecommunication Convention (Treaty 

Series No. 867) 605 

Consular : 
Consular Convention with Liberia 606 



General 



FUNDAMENTAL FEATURES OF OUR FOREIGN POLICY 

Address by Assistant Secretary Messersmith ' 



[Released to tbe press November 23) 

The President, in proclaiming Thanksgiving 
Day this year, called upon the American people 
to give thanks for the "hope that lives within 
us of the coming of a day when peace and the 
productive activities of peace shall reign on 
every continent." 

In these moving words may be discerned the 
fundamental objectives of American foreign 
policy. That policy is an expression of the will 
that our Nation remain at peace, and of the hope 
that peace, which has been broken on other 
continents, will be restored and that conditions 
will be realized soon through wliich the produc- 
tive activities of peace in science and learning, 
in art and letters, in international commerce 
and trade, can be resumed between nations. 

Never so much as now has there been need for 
mankind to realize that it is the part of wisdom 
for nations to live as good neighbors in an 
ordered world. 

In the critical years which preceded the ac- 
tual outbreak of war in Europe, the American 
Government consistently, and not without some 
measure of success, placed the weight of its 
moral influence behind the cause of peace. 
Time after time, the voices of the President and 
the Secretary of State were raised in appeals 
for cahn, objective consideration of trouble- 
some problems which divided some nations and 
for use of reason instead of resort to force in 
the solution of international conti'ovei'sies. 



Time and again, spokesmen for our people 
called upon the responsible leaders of other 
countries to pause and reflect what war would 
mean in terms of human suffering and of men- 
ace to the modern civilization. Repeatedly 
these spokesmen emphasized the importance of 
observing fundamental moralities as rules of 
conduct between nations as, in most parts of the 
world, they govern the relationships between 
man and man. 

Outstanding among the various statements 
of the principles which we firmly believe to be 
essential to orderly international relations was 
the comprehensive statement issued on July 16, 
1937,2 by the Secretary of State. That state- 
ment dealt not only with the political but also 
with the economic phases of international rela- 
tionships. At this moment I shall limit myself 
to a brief summarizing of the general political 
principles on wliich Secretary Hull laid stress. 
I shall speak later of the economic principles 
involved. 

Secretary Hull said that this coimtry con- 
stantly and consistently advocates maintenance 
of peace, exercise of national and international 
self-restraint, and abstention by all nations 
from the use of force in pursuit of policy and 
from interference in the internal affairs of other 
nations. He reaffirmed this country's advocacy 
of adjustment of problems in international re- 
lations by processes of peaceful negotiation and 
agreement, our advocacy of faithful observance 
of the principle of the sanctity of treaties, and 



' Delivered at the Governors' Session of the Fifteenth 
New England Conference, Boston, Mass., November 23, 
1939. 



- See Press Releases of July 17, 1937 (Vol. XVII, No. 
407), pp. 41-42. 

579 



580 



DRPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



our belief in sucli modification of treaties as 
may from time to time be required by orderly 
processes. In view of events which were then 
taking place in the Far East and of the suc- 
cessive aggressions that have taken place in 
Euroi:)e in the two and one-half years since 
then, especially significant were these words: 
"We believe in respect by all nations for the 
rights of othei'S ..." 

It is a source of most profound regret that 
these principles to which so many governments 
promptly expressed their adherence have not 
been universally applied in practice and that 
widespread hostilities have become, unliappily. 
facts. 

In surveying the fundamentals of this coun- 
try's foreign policy let us note, first of all, the 
substantial and encouraging results it has jiro- 
duced in our relations with other American 
republics. In 1933, at the Montevideo Confer- 
ence, we signed with 19 other American states a 
convention which contained, among other im- 
portant provisions, a condemnation of interven- 
tion in the internal or external affairs of other 
nations. In 1934, we abrogated the Piatt 
Amendment and thereby voluntarily renounced 
ovu- right of intervention in Cuba. In 1934, we 
withdrew our marines from Haiti and gave our 
adherence to the Argentine Antiwar Pact. In 
1935, we participated with five other American 
lepublics in successfully mediating the Chaco 
war between Bolivia and Paraguay, and dur- 
ing the next few years we assisted in the nego- 
tiations which culminated in 1938 in the signing 
of a definitive peace treaty. In 1936, we sug- 
gested the convocation of the Inter-American 
Conference for the Maintenance of Peace which 
was held at Buenos Aires and which resulted in 
the establishment of means for consultation in 
case the peace of the Western Hemisphere were 
threatened. In 1937, we extended our good 
offices, in conjunction with other American 
republics, to Honduras and Nicaragua with ref- 
erence to a boundary dispute and to Haiti and 
the Dominican Republic with I'eference to a 
dispute resulting from the deaths of Haitian 
citizens in the Dominican Republic. In 1938, 
we participated in the Eighth Inter-American 



Conference, held at Lima, which so signally 
reaffirmed the continental solidarity of the 
American republics. Finally, in the recent 
Panama meeting, to which I shall refer again, 
this country actively participated in the suc- 
cessful consultation by the republics of this 
hemisphere with regard to the serious problems, 
affecting their mutual interests, that had arisen 
as a result of the outbreak of war in Europe. 

I cite these illustrations of specific recent steps 
in the execution of the "good neighbor" policy 
as indicating the steady growth of confidence 
between our country and its southern neighbors. 
This course of action has brought rich rewards 
to all concerned. In these days of national 
animosities and o^ien warfare, it is an achieve- 
ment of which the Nation may justly feel proud. 

With the outbreak of war in Europe, your 
Government has been faced with many ines- 
capable problems. Wlien war makes its appear- 
ance anywhere in the modern world, the safety 
and security of all countries everywhere, includ- 
ing our own, are endangered. Perhaps no other 
people desires more than does our people to 
avoid entanglements and conflicts — an attitude 
strongly counseled by our forefathers. Per- 
haps no other government is more acutely con- 
scious than is ours of the desire of its people 
to be sjjared the horroi'S of armed conflict. It 
is not enough, however, for our Government 
to give verbal expression to the desire of the 
American people for security and peace; our 
Government must face the actualities of a men- 
acing situation and nuist act to insure our secu- 
rity and to safeguai'd the various rights and 
interests of our people. 

As you well know, when the war broke out, 
we had on our statute books legislation which 
had been designed to establish certain rules 
governing the conduct of the Government and 
the people in the face of unpredictable events. 
Among these were the arms-embargo provi- 
sions of the law, which were potentially danger- 
ous, inasmuch as it was impossible to tell where 
tliey might lead us in unforeseen circumstances. 
Accordingly, the administration invited Con- 
gress to resume a reconsideration of this ques- 
tion begun last summer and to devise new legis- 



NOVEMBER 25, 1939 



581 



latioii, designed to go as far as legislation can 
toward keei)ing our United States from becom- 
ing involved in conflict. 

The Congress, I am happy to be able to say, 
attacked the problem in a truly realistic and 
farsighted manner. It has modified our neu- 
trality legislation so that no longer is there an 
artificial distinction between the sale of fin- 
ished articles, on the one hand, and of the raw 
materials and foodstuffs, which are likewise 
sinews of war, on the other; so that Ameri- 
can vessels cannot become exposed to perils 
resulting from military operations and from 
various controls established by the belligerents ; 
and so that our goods can still be exported, but 
not imder conditions which would iuvolvt^ 
dangerous risks for tlie country and people, 
of their origin. 

I am confidently of the opinion that by this 
action of our Congress the possibility of this 
country's being drawn into this war is im- 
measurably decreased ; more, that there is vir- 
tually no chance of the United States becom- 
ing involved unless we are challenged beyond 
endurance by overt acts of violence directed 
against us by a warring government. 

Pursuant to the new legislation, the Presi- 
dent has proclaimed as a combat area, into 
which American vessels and American citizens 
may not legally enter, the waters adjacent to 
belligerent European territory. The President, 
has also issued a proclamation under section 
1 of the new statute naming the states involved 
in war, thus bringing into effect, among otliers, 
those provisions of the statute which forbid 
American vessels to carry passengers or ma- 
terials to certain belligerent ports; which re- 
quire the transfer of title to exports shipped to 
such ports: and which prohibit the granting 
of loans or credits for belligerent governments. 
He has, further, issued a proclamation restrict- 
ing the use of American ports or territorial 
waters by submarines of the belligerent powers. 
The Secretary of State, by virtue of authority 
vested in him by the President's proclamations 
01 by special provisions in the act, has issued 
various regulations which define in detail those 



tninsaclions which are not affected by the trans- 
fer of title provisions, which prescribe certain 
exceptions as to entrance of American citizens 
or vessels into the designated combat area and 
as to travel by American citizens on belligerent 
\essels, which deal with arms necessary for 
the preservation of discipline on American 
vessels, and which govern solicitation and 
collection of contributions for use in the 
belligerent nations. 

Another objective of the administration from 
the moment war broke out has been to devise, 
with the Governments of the other American 
republics, measures which would safeguard 
our — and their — neutral position, would lessen 
mutually the economic dislocations in the 
Western Hemisphere resulting from the Euro- 
pean war, and would assure the maintenance 
of peace in this hemisphere. A consultative 
meeting took place at Panama, at which the 
United States was represented by the Honorable 
Sumner Welles, the Under Secretary of State. 
Mr. Welles has asked me to convey to you his 
sincere regret that he is unable to be present 
here tonight. The declarations which issued 
from the consultation at Panama, among other 
things, stated the unanimous intention of the 
lil republics not to become involved in the 
European conflict; laid down the rules of con- 
duct which these republics proposed to follow 
m order to maintain their neutrality and to 
insure that their rights as neutrals are re- 
spected; and provided for the creation of an 
Inter-American Financial and Economic Ad- 
visory Committee, which will consider the most 
practical means of obtaining stability of the 
monetary and commercial relationships between 
the American republics in accordance with 
those liberal principles of international trade 
which have been accepted generally among the 
American nations and which should again 
serve as the basis for expanded world trade 
when order and peace have been restored. 

War is chaos. Eeconstruction after a great 
war, as we have clearly seen in our time, is a 
stupendous task. In no field is the task more 
difficult and more fraught with obstacles than 



582 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



in the field of economic relations. NaiTOW na- 
tionalisms create obstacles to that normal and 
healthy trade which alone enables all peoples 
to make full use of the world's natural resources 
and to benefit to the full from scientific discov- 
eries and technical pi-ogress. Dislocations have 
to be repaired and maladjustments have to be 
corrected. International trade has to be re- 
stored to its normal channels, and purchasing 
power within and among nations has to be set 
free. 

After the last great war the governments of 
the world failed to recognize some of the fun- 
damental conditions of recovery and embarked 
on policies which, by failing to prevent eco- 
nomic warfare, contributed materially to those 
economic maladjustments that have marked 
the post-war period with its recurring economic 
crises and its increasingly frequent outbursts 
of violent aggression. 

Today, in consequence of the outbreak of the 
present war in Europe, we are faced by two sets 
of economic problems. In the first place there 
is the problem of our general economic rela- 
tionships with nations during the course of the 
war itself. In the second place, thought must 
be given to the conditions which will arise upon 
the termination of the war when the period of 
reconstruction begins. 

During the period of hostilities, we shall have 
special problems arising from our trade with 
belligerents and more general problems with re- 
spect to our economic relations with neutral na- 
tions. In dealing wnth the belligerents it is our 
intention to be truly neutral, that is, to trade in 
all commodities with both sides within such 
limitations as may derive from our desire to 
elimmate or reduce danger to our nationals, our 
goods, and our ships, and the legitimate limita- 
tions which may be imposed by the belligerents 
themselves in strict accordance with the rules of 
war. In dealing with nonbelligerent nations 
we shall seek to maintain our economic relation- 
ships on a basis as nearly normal as possible. 
In dealmg with certain neutral nations of Eu- 
rope we shall have to avoid imprudent risks, 
but every effort will be made to keep the trade 
channels reasonably open. So much for the 
immediate problem which, wp iill realize, has 



many complex angles and will require at all 
times the most delicate handling. 

Looking to the future, when the hostilities 
come to an end, we must draw wisdom from 
study of the errors of the past and must coop- 
erate with other countries in a determined effort 
toward a sound and healthy reconstruction of 
international economic relationships. We must 
help to restore trade relations on a rational basis 
of nondiscriminatory treatment, following the 
course outlined by our trade- agreements pro- 
gram — which despite vast obstacles has achieved 
substantial results and has demonstrated to all 
countries a universally applicable and practical 
means of freeing trade from the restrictions 
that have all but strangled it in recent years. 
Only thus may fi-ee enterprise in all nations 
have full opportunity to foster an enriching 
interchange of the products of the world's di- 
verse skills and variegated natural resources. 
In short, we must be prepared, by assisting in 
the promotion of healthy economic relationships 
at home and abroad, to play our part toward 
creating and maintaining a more stable basis 
for peace. 

As Secretary Hull has said : "There is no more 
dangerous cause of war than economic distress, 
and no more potent factor in creating such dis- 
tress than stagnation and paralysis in the field 
of international commerce." It must be our 
constant aim, when peace is restored, to bring 
about an adequate trade revival, which will 
raise the standard of living of peoples through- 
out the world and ease political tensions. 

Our most earnest desire is to see such inter- 
national relationships established and con- 
ducted that peace will be the natural and normal 
condition among nations. The problem of es- 
tablishing conditions wliich will assure a satis- 
factory peace everywhere will have to be 
attacked in a comprehensive manner, not only 
from the angle of economic stabilization, to 
which I have already referred, but from the 
angles of political adjustment as well. These 
problems are interdependent and closely inte- 
grated. 

Only 20 years ago, statesmen representing the 
nMtinns of the earth sat down together at the 



NOVEMBER 2 5, 193 9 



583 



end of the preceding great cataclysm to prepare 
the way for an enduring peace. There was hope 
then of the emergence of a more enlightened 
civilization and a new world order. Interna- 
tional justice and fair dealing were to be the 
guiding principles. We know only too well that 
what was hoped for was never realized. We 
Iniow, too, that since that day international re- 
lationships have deteriorated : such depths were 
reached that brutality and appeals to force have 
become commonplace. It is our sincere hope 
that the next peace conference will function 
to better eifect, will approach its problems with 
as little passion and prejudice as is humanly 
possible, and will give adequate consideration 
to the true interests of the whole human race. 

As regards the Far East, it will be recalled 
that, in 1921, the nine powers having the great- 
est interest in the Far Eastern problems, includ- 
ing the United States, met at Washington, and, 
after months of discussion, in which many con- 
cessions were mutually made as contributions 
to a general agreement, treaties were signed 
(and were subsequently ratified) which pro- 
vided for the regulation of the situation in the 
Pacific and the Far East in such manner as to 
diminish existing friction and to guard against 
recurrence of serious issues in subsequent years. 

In recent years, these treaties have become 
vitally affected by the unfortunate develop- 
ments that have occurred in the Far East. Our 
Government stands on the objectives, the spirit, 
and the provisions of these treaties. This does 
not mean, however, that we are not disposed 
to discuss with all the nations having interests 
in the Far East reasonable proposals which may 
be advanced for sympathetic and intelligent 
reconsideration of the situation in that region 
of the world. We hold, however, that any revi- 
sion which may take place must be achieved by 
due processes of international law, in accord- 
ance with treaty provisions, and with due con- 
sideration for American rights and interests, 
rather than by unilateral action on the part of 
any one power. 

There are some in this country who suggest 
a moratorium for the established principles of 
our foreign policy until the kaleidoscope of the 
modem world has come to rast. New group- 



ings abroad, they say, call or may call for 
changes in our own policy. To these I say 
with conviction that no arrangements between 
other nations can cause the people of this 
country to abandon the principles to which we 
have been committed by instinct and by tra- 
dition from the earliest days of our national 
existence; that our Government cannot and 
must not admit the right of any country arbi- 
trarily to disregard the rights by law and by 
treaty of this country and its citizens; and 
that no changed groupings of foreign countries 
will cause this country to desist from its ad- 
vocacy of orderly processes in international 
relationships. 

Finally, there is another essential problem 
with which the United States is vitally con- 
cerned, namely, the problem of limitation of 
armaments. This country cannot afford; no 
nation, however wealthy in natural resources 
and in its mastery of productive efficiency, can 
afford indefinitely to devote large portions of 
its substance to the piling up of sterile arma- 
ments. At the same time we cannot afford; 
no nation can afford, while some powerful 
nations continue to arm heavily, to permit its 
measures of defense to lag behind. Our coun- 
try, no less than others, has, therefore, a vital 
interest in furthering by all appropriate means 
a world order in which armaments can be re- 
duced to reasonable levels. 

It must be clear that limitation of arma- 
ments should be a potent factor in restoring 
confidence and eliminating international mis- 
trust when peace is made. It must, however, 
be equally clear that there can be expected no 
real disarmament until the basic factors of 
political and economic discord between nations 
have been remedied. 

In conclusion, may I summarize briefly what 
I regard as the cardinal points of our Ameri- 
can foreign policy at the close of this year, 
1939: 

(1) It is the earnest desire of our Govern- 
ment to remain at peace ; 

(2) It is our hope that peace will be restored 
on other continents; 

(3) Wliile war is in progress we are deter- 
mined, in collaboration with the fither govern- 



584 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



ments, to keep the AA'esteni Hemisphere neu- 
tral and free of warlike activities and to give 
in our relations with the other Amei'ican repub- 
lics practical etfect, no less than in peacetime, 
to the "good neighbor" policy ; 

(4) "\ATiere, and when, practicable we shall 
seek to promote a sound and healthy reconstruc- 
tion of international economic relationships; 

(5) With strict regard to American interests, 
we shall seek to assist, by every practicable 
means, in the establishment of conditions which 
will assure stable peace; 

(6) We stand ready to discuss with other 
nations having interests in the Far East, in ac- 
cordance with treaty provisions and by due 
processes of international law, the situation in 
I hat part of the world ; 

(7) We are ready to discuss with otlier na- 
tions the problem of limitation of armaments 
by international agreement. 

In a word, we urge a return to liberal inter- 
national practices and to those standards of 
justice, fair dealing, good faith, and order under 
law which offer the only reliable fomidations 
for enduring peace among nations, and we are 
prepared to assist toward return to and im- 
provement of such practices and standards. 

And now, if I may, I should like to say a few 
A^ ords about the peculiar significance of all this 
for the great New England region. History 
and tradition have made an interest in inter- 
national affairs part and parcel of the life and 
development of the New England States. For 
many generations, the Yankee ships sailing 
from your ports were familiar to the Seven 
Seas. From their daring enterprise, you have 
drawn much of the wealth that made you 
great and a potent factor in the progress of 
the entire Nation. With the growth of manu- 
facturing industry, the products of your in- 
itiative and skill have made New England 
known and appreciated, not only in our own 
developing country, but in the whole world. 

International trade and commerce are an 
integral part of the relations among nations. 
To your region, therefore, as much as to any 
other region of f)ur country — and more than to 
many others — the question of war and peace. 



the question of the kind of world we live in, 
the question of the expansion or curtailment 
of the productive activities of peace in inter- 
national relations are of vital and intimate con- 
cern. That is why, in speaking before such 
an audience as yours, I have sought to canvass 
all outstanding phases of our country's foreign 
policy, for in the formulation and carrying out 
of that policy New England has a profound 
and abiding interest. 

Just a word, before I finish, about one partic- 
ular aspect of that policy. The trade-agree- 
ments program, which is an important corner- 
stone of our foreign policy, has an immediate 
bearing on the life and development of the 
New England States. Your industries are 
vital to the well-being of the Nation as a whole. 
Hence, in making tariff adjustments in the 
agreements we have negotiated, we have taken 
the utmost care not to expose to injury any 
branch of your production — just as we have 
done this with respect to all other regions of 
the country. At the same time, we have 
striven, and striven successfully, to reopen and 
enlarge foreign markets for your characteristic 
products. 

The producers of various types of industrial 
)nachinery in Connecticut, Massachusetts, and 
New Hampshire have benefited by trade con- 
cessions obtained in 14 agreements. The pro- 
ducers of electrical machinery in Massachu- 
setts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut have 
secured better markets in 16 countries. Con- 
necticut's typewriter-manufacturing industry 
has better markets in 15 countries. The pro- 
ducers of machine tools in Vermont and Con- 
necticut profit by concessions obtained from 
^ countries. The rubber-products industry in 
Rhode Island and Massachusetts is better off 
because of concessions obtained fi'om 19 coun- 
tries. Better maikets have been secured in 
8 countries for the ]iaper and allied products 
ii;dustry of Maine and of the other New Eng- 
land States engaged in the manufacture of 
such products. New England's famous textile 
industry and her manufacturers of leather 
])r()ducts have been benefited by concessions in 
a large innnber of countries. 



NOVEMBER 25, 1939 



585 



These are a few outstanding examples. I 
could multiply them if time permitted. I could 
go into the problem of the expansion of our 
domestic juarket for American products re- 
sulting from the business improvement attend- 
ant upon increased exports. All these benefits 
to the Nation as a whole and to every region of 



the country have been amply demonstrated by 
the experience of recent years. 

Whether viewed from a national or a regional 
point of view, a policy of peace, resting upon 
a vigorous promotion of healthy international 
economic relations, is one in which a region like 
yours has a vital stake. 



Europe 



CONTRIBUTIONS FOR RELIEF IN BELLIGERENT COUNTRIES 



(Released to the press November 20] 

Following is a tabulation of contributions 
received and funds expended during the month 
of September 1939 as shown in the reports sub- 
mitted by the persons and organizations regis- 
tered with the Secretary of State for the pur- 
pose of soliciting and receiving contributions 



for use in belligerent countries in conformity 
with the regulations promulgated on Septem- 
ber 5, 9, and 11, 1939, pursuant to section 3 (a) 
of the joint resolution of Congress approved 
May 1, 1937, and the President's proclamations 
of September 5, 8, and 10, 1939 : 



Contributions for Relief in Belligerent Countries 



Name of organization, city, date of registration, and country or 
countries to which contributions are being sent 



Polsko Narodowy Komitet w Ameryce, Scranton, Pa., Sept. 8, 1939. 

Poland 

International Save the Children Fund of America, Inc., New York, 

N. Y., Sept. 8, 1939. England and Poland- 

Anthracite Relief Committee, Wilkes-Barre, Pa., Sept. 8, 1939. 



Po- 



land . 



Polish Union of the United States of North America, Wilkes-Barre, 
Pa., Sept. 8, 1939. Poland 

Polish Relief Fund, Detroit, Mich., Sept. H, 1939. Poland 

Nowy Swiat Publishing Co., Inc., New York, N. Y., Sept. 11, 1939. 
Poland - ---. 

Polish Relief Committee of Philadelphia and vicinity, Philadelphia, 
Pa., Sept.l2, 1939. Poland ._. 

Polish Radio Programs Bureau, Hamtramck, Mich., Sept. 12, 1939." 
Poland - - 

Polish Relief Fund, Jersey City, N. J., Sept. 12, 1939. Poland 

Commission for Polish ReUef, Inc., New York, N. Y., Sept. 12, 1939. 
Poland - 

New Jersey Broadcasting Corp., Jersey City, N. J., Sept. 13, 1939. 
Poland - 

Federation of Polish Jews in America, Inc., New York, N. Y., Sept. 
14, 193C. Poland ---. 

Rckord Printing and Publishing Co., Shamokin, Pa., Sept. 14, 1939. 
Poland- - -- 

Centra! Council of Polish Organizations in Pittsburgh, Pa., Pitts- 
burgh, Pa., Sept. 14, 1939. Poland... 



Funds received 



$2, 325. 32 

None 

1, 427. 87 

76.00 
26, 958. 91 

14, 322. 04 

2,586.12 

16,313,62 
2, 745. 67 

2, 500. 00 
None 
None 
18.00 

1, 312. 78 



Expenditures 

for relief in 

countries 

named 



None 

None 

None 

None 
$20, 000. 00 

10, 000. 00 

None 

14, 548. 06 
None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 



Funds spent 
for adminis- 
tration, 
publicity, 
affairs, cam- 
paigns, etc. 



None 

None 

None 

None 
None 

$15. 10 

None 

None 
None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 



Unexpended 
balance as of 
Sept. 30, 1939 



$2, 325. 32 

None 

1, 427. 87 

75. 00 
6,958.91 

4, 306. 94 

2, 586. 12 

1, 765. 56 

2, 745. 57 

2, 600. 00 
None 
None 
18.00 

1, 312. 7S 



Estimated 

value of 

contributions 

in kind 

collected by 

registrant 

and sent to 

countries 

named 



None 

None 

None 

None 
None 

None 

None 

None 
None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 



• The registration of this organization has been revoked at its request. 
194019—39 2 



586 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BUIXETIN 

CONTBIBUTIONS FOE RELIEF IN BELLIGERENT COUNTRIES Continued 



Name of organization, city, date of registration, and country or 
countries to which contributions are being sent 



Funds received 



Expenditures 

for relief in 

countries 

named 



Funds spent 
for adminis- 
tration, 
publicity, 
aSairs. cam- 
paigns, etc. 



Unexpended 
balance as of 
Sept. 30, 1939 



Estimated 

value of 

contributions 

in kind 

collected by 

registrant 

and sent to 

countries 

named 



American Women's Hospitals, New York, N. Y., Sept. 14, 1939. 
France --- 

American Committee for Civilian Relief in Poland, New York, N. Y., 

Sept. 14, 1939.' Poland - -- 

Polish Club of Washington, Washington, D. C. Sept. 14, 1939. Poland. 
French and American Association for the Relief of War Sufferers, New 

York, N. Y., Sept. 14, l«3!i. France ---- 

Polish Emergency Council of Essex County, N. J., Newark, N. J., 

Sept. 14,1939. Poland 

Central Committee of the United Polish Societies, Bridgeport, Conn., 

Sept. 14, 1939 Poland 

Associated Polish Societies' Relief Committee of Worcester, Mass., 

Worcester, Mass., Sept. 14, 1939. Poland 

Polish National Council of New York, New York, N. Y., Sept. 14, 

1939. Poland. 

Polish Relief Committee of Boston, Boston, Mass., Sept. 14, 1939. 

Poland -,---j- 

Central Citizens Committee, Detroit, Mich.. Sept. 14, 1939. Poland. _ 
Lackawanna County Committee for Polish Relief, Scranton, Pa., 

Sept. 16, 1939. Poland - 

The Council of Polish Organizations in the United States of America, 

Chicago, 111., Sept. 18, 1939. Poland 

James F. Hopkins, Inc., Detroit, Mich., Sept. 16, 1939." Poland 

Chester (Delaware Co., Pa.) Polish Relief Committee, Chester, Pa., 

Sept. 15, 1939. Poland .- 

Federated Council of Polish Societies of Orand Rapids, Mich., Grand 

Rapids, Mich., Sept. 15. 1939. Poland-. 

The Paryski Publishing Co., Toledo, Ohio, Sept. 15. 1939. Poland... 
Modjeska Educational League Welfare Club at the International 

Institute, Toledo, Ohio, Sept. 15, 1939. Poland 

Schuylkill and Carbon Counties Relief Committee for Poland, Frack- 

ville. Pa., Sept. 15, 1939. Poland... 

Holy Rosary Polish Roman Catholic Church, Passaic, N. J., Sept. 15, 

1939. Poland 

Association of Joint Polish-American Societies of Chelsea, Mass., 

Chelsea. Mass.. Sept. 15, 1939. Poland 

Club Amical Framais, Detroit, Mich., Sept. 15, 1939. France, 

Poland, and Great Britain 

Polish National Catholic of the Holy Saviour Church, Union City, 

Conn., Sept. 16, 1939. Poland, 

Committee of Mercv, Inc., New York, N. Y.,Sept. 16, 1939. France, 

Great Britain, and their allies 

Kuryer Publishing Co., Milwaukee, Wis., Sept. 18, 1939. Poland 

Polish Falcons of America, First District, Inc., Brooklyn, N. Y., 

Sept. 16, 1939.» Poland 

Polish Relief Committee of Cambridge, Mass., Cambridge, Mass., 

Sept. 16, 1939. Poland 

Poland War Sutlerers Aid Committee, Cleveland, Ohio, Sept. 16, 1939. 

Poland 

Polish Welfare Association, Hyde Park, Mass., Sept. 16, 1939. Poland 

Polish Relief Committee, Flint. .Mich., Sept. 18, 1939. , Poland 

The Polish National Alliance of Brooklyn, United States of America, 

Brooklyn. N. Y. Sept. 19, 1939. Poland 

Polish Civic League of .Mercer County, Trenton, N. J., Sept. 19, 1939. 

Poland .- 

Polish American Central Civic Committee of South Bend, Ind., South 

Bend, Ind., Sept. 19, 1939. Poland 

Toledo Committee for Relief of War Victims, Toledo, Ohio, Sept. 19, 

1939. Poland 

Edmund Tyszka, Hamtramck, Mich., Sept. 19, 1939. Poland 

The Polish Naturalization Independent Club, Worcester, Mass., Sept. 

20, 1939. Poland 

Polish Falcons Alliance of America, Pittsburgh, Pa., Sept. 20, 1939. 

Poland 

Circle of Poles of St. Hedwig, Polish American Citizens' Committee, 

New Britain, Conn., Sept. 20, 1939. Poland 

Spanish Refugee Relief Campaign, New York, N. Y., Sept. 20, 1939.' 

France - 

Polish United Societies of Holy Trinity Parish, Lowell, Mass., Sept. 

20, 1939. Poland --- 

American Friends of France, Inc., New York, N. Y., Sept. 21, 1939. 

France --- 



None 



None 



None 



$76. 65 

354.50 

3, 989. 68 

71.00 

2, 559. 41 

l.U 12 

1. 609. 37 
None 

5.00 

4, 612. 21 
None 

25.00 

.534. 27 
4, 125. 15 

733. 14 

308.00 

972. 05 

205.00 

143. 33 

141.07 

639. 82 

3, 065. 89 

None 

496.00 

2, 245. 69 

139. 75 

1, 622. 57 

28S.64 

None 

4, 184. 66 

None 
1,010.49 

163.00 

691. 77 

184.31 

6, 047. 64 

1,000.76 

4,614.66 



$60. 55 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 

None 

None 

None 

None 
None 

None 

None 
3. 059. 40 

598. 80 

None 

None 

None 

133. 50 

141.07 

69.00 
566.76 

None 

None 

2, 245. 69 
None 
None 

None 

None 

None 

None 
1.010.49 

None 
691.77 

None 
883.11 

None 
3, 650. 00 



$1.1. 00 
None 
None 
None 

228.70 

10.00 

None 
None 

None 

None 
None 

None 

None 
None 

134. 34 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

.07 
None 

None 

None 

None 
None 
315.69 

None 

None 

95.60 

None 

None 

None 
None 
None 
3. 802. 99 
None 
7.02 



None 



None 

$354. SO 

3, 989. 68 

71.00 

2. 270. 71 

143.12 

1, 609. 37 
None 

5.00 

4, 612. 21 
None 

25.00 

534. 27 
1. 065. 75 

None 

308.00 

972. 05 

205.00 

9.83 

None 

580.75 
2, 609. 13 

None 

495.00 

None 

139. 75 

1, 306. 88 

288. 64 

None 

4, n.88. 9e 

None 
None 

163.00 

None 

184.31 

1, 310. 94 

1, 000. 76 

1, 057. 54 



« The registration of this organization has been revoked at its request. 

' Report for September not yet received. The registration of this organization has been revoked at its request. 

' This organization transmitted $50.50 and contributions in kind with an estimated value of $3,008 to nonbelligerent countries for the relief of Spanish 
refugees. 



NOVEMBER 25, 1939 

Contributions for Relief in Belligerent Countries — Continued 



587 



Name o( organization, city, date ot registration, and country or 
countries to whicii contributions are being sent 



Funds received 



Expenditures 

for relief in 

countries 

named 



Funds spent 
for adminis- 
tration, 
publicity, 
alTairs, cam- 
paigns, etc. 



Unexpended 
balance iv; of 
Sept. 30, 1939 



Estimated 

value of 

contributions 

in kind 

collected by 

retii.strant 

and sent to 

countries 

named 



American Committee for Aid to British Medical Societies, Now York, 
N. Y., Sept. 21, 1939. United Kingdom _ 

Associati'd Polish Societies Relief Committee ot Webster, Mass., 
Webster, Mass.. Sept. 21, 1939. Poland , 

Foster Parents' Plan for War Children, Inc., New York, N. Y., Sept. 

21, 1939. France 

LaFayette Preventoriiun, Inc., New York, N. Y., Sept. 21, 1939. 

France.- 

Beth-Leehem. Inc., New York, N. Y., Sept. 21, 1939. Poland 

Polish War SutTerers Kelief Committee (fourth ward), Toledo, Ohio, 

Sept. 21. 1939. Poland -- 

CentralSpanishCommitteefor Relief of Refugees, Washington, U. C, 

Sept. 21. 1939. France- 

Polish Literary Guild of New Britain, Conn., New Britain, Conn., 

Sept. 21. 1939. Poland - 

Polish Relief Fund Committee of Passaic and Bergen Counties, Pas- 
saic, N. J., Sept. 22, 1939. Poland - , 

United Reading Appeal for Polish War Sufferers, Reading, Pa., Sept. 

22. 1939. Poland 

International Committee of Young Men's Christian .Vssociations, 

New York. N. Y., Sept. 22. 1939. Poland, France, and India 

Medem Committee, Inc., New York, N. Y., Sept. 22, 1939.' Poland. 

Polish Welfare Council, Schenectady, N. Y., Sept. 22, 1939. Poland.. 

Polish Relief Committee of Delaware, Wilmington, Del., Sept. 22, 
1939. Poland -.- 

Polish Women's Fund to Fatherland, Lawrence, Mass., Sept. 23, 1939. 
Poland --- - - 

Polish Relief Fund, Middletown, Conn., Sept. 23, 1939. Poland 

Polish Broadcasting Corporation, New York, N. Y., Sept. 23, 1939. 

Poland - 

'Fundusz Ratunkowv" Polish Aid Fund Committee of Federation of 
Elizabeth Polish Organizations, Ehzabeth, N. J., Sept. 23, 1939. 
Poland 

Springfield and Vicinity Polish Relief Fund Committee, Springfield, 
Mass., Sept. 23, 1939. Poland 

International Relief Association for 'Victims of Fascism, New York, 
N. Y., Sept. 25, 1939. France 

Polish Medical Relief Fund of Mt. Desert Island, Maine, Bar Har- 
bor. Maine. Sept. 25, 1939. Poland _._ 

Polish Episcopal Church in the Diocese of Pennsylvania, Phila- 
delphia, Pa., Sept. 25, 1939. Poland..._ 

The Catholic Leader, New Britain, Conn., Sept. 25, 1939. Poland... 

Relief Fund for Sufferers in Poland Committee, Kenosha, 'Wis., Sept. 

25, 1939. Poland 

Polski Komitet Ratunkowv (Polish Relief Fund), Binghamton, 

N. Y., Sept. 25. 1939. Poland .-- -.-. 

Scott Park Mothers and Daughters Club, Toledo, Ohio, Sept. 25, 

1939." Poland 

California State Committee for Polish Relief, Culver City, Calif., 

Sept. 26. 1939.° Poland 

Polish Relief Fund Committee of Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Wis., Sept. 

26, 1939. Poland -- 

Polish Relief Committee of Gardner, Mass., Gardner, Mass., Sept. 26, 

1939. Poland 

Board of National Missions of the Presbyterian Church in the United 

States of America, New York, N. Y., Sept. 26, 1939. Great Britain, 

France, and Germany 

American Committee for Christian Refugees, New York, N. Y., Sept. 

26, 1939. Germany and France 

Nowiny Publishing Apostolate, Inc., Milwaukee, Wis., Sept. 26,1939. 

Poland 

Polish Relief Fund of Irvington, N. J., Irvington, N. J., Sept. 26, 1939. 

Poland 

St. Stephens Polish Relief Fund of Perth Amboy, N. J., Perth Amboy, 

N. J., Sept. 27, 1939. Poland -.- 

Polish Armv Veterans Association of America, Inc., New York, N. Y., 

Sept. 27, i939. Poland 

Holv Cross Relief Fund Association of New Britain, Conn., New 

Britain, Conn., Sept. 27, 1939. Poland -- - -- 

United Polish Societies of Hartford, Conn., Hartford, Conn., Sept. 

27 1939. Poland 

American Field Service, New York, N. Y., Sept. 27, 1939. France. . . 



None 

$5S.OO 

16,227.99 

3, 172. 20 

503. 7(i 

1,113.16 

2, 110. SO 

302.58 

437. 91 

None 

40.21 
Slfi. .50 
812. .55 

None 

766. 94 
1.331.46 

44.00 

None 

None 

2. 020. 79 

2. 747. 77 

None 
80.00 

1, 240. 39 

263.00 

120. 72 

None 

298. 00 

411.25 

4, 903. 85 
None 

1.020.91 

594. 05 

None 

334. 80 

None 

None 
None 



None 

None 

$5, 675. S3 

2, 277. .10 
None 

1. 105. 16 

20.00 

None 

None 

None 

None 
None 
None 

None 

None 
None 

None 

None 

None 

934. 67 

None 

None 
None 

None 

None 

103. 26 

None 

None 

None 

3. 695. 60 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 
None 



None 

None 

$2, 194. 42 

488.71 
299.84 

None 

553.90 

None 

None 

None 

40 21 

1, 279. SO 

None 

None 

90. 25 
None 

1.75 

None 

None 

486. 16 

96.88 

None 
None 

6.44 

None 

17.46 

None 

None 

None 

476. 96 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 
None 



None 

$58.00 

8,457.74 

405. 99 
203.92 

8.00 

1,536.99 

302.58 

437.91 

None 

None 
None 
812. 55 

None 

676. 69 
1,331.45 

42.25 

None 

None 

599. 9C 

2, 050. 89 

None 
80.00 

1, 233. 95 

263.00 

None 

None 

298.00 

411.26 

731.39 

None 

1, 020. 91 

694. 05 
None 

334.80 

None 

None 
None 



None 

None 

None 

None 
None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

NOBC 

None 
None 

None 

None 
None 

None 

None 

None 

$200. 00 

None 

None 
None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 
None 



Total. 



159, 370. 10 



71, 250. 12 



10, 717. 29 



77, 815. 49 



» The registration of this organization has been revoked at its request. 

' This organization has an apparent hypothetical deficit of $463.30. Since it has, however, received a loan of $1,600, its actual imexpended balance 
is $261.70. 



588 



DEPAETMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



REGULATION CONCERNING 
TRANSFER OF TITLE 

[Released to the press November 25] 

Eegdlations Under Section 2 (c) and (i) of 
THE Joint Resolution of Congress Approved 
November 4, 1939 

By virtue of the authority vested in him by 
the President's prochimation of November 4, 
1939, to promulgate such rules and regulations 
not inconsistent with law as may be necessary 
and proper to carry out the provisions of section 
2 (c) and (i) of the joint resolution of Congress 
approved November 4, 1939, as made effective by 
that proclamation, the Secretary of State 
hereby prescribes the following regulation sup- 
plementary to those prescribed on November 10, 
1939: 

"(5) The shipper's declaration (oath) re- 
quired by section 2 (c) of the Neutrality Act of 
1939 must be filed with the Collector of the Port 
from or through which articles or materials are 
exported prior to the exportation from the 
United States of such articles or materials. If 
the required declarations (oaths) have not been 
filed with regard to all articles and materials 



on any vessel before clearance thereof, the ves- 
sel may nevertheless be cleared if, but only if, 
the Collector of Customs to whom request for 
clearance is made is satisfied that the transfer 
of right, title and interest required by section 
2 (c) has been made as to all such articles and 
materials. All failures by shippers to file the 
declarations (oaths) as required by this regula- 
tion shall be referred to the United States 
attorney having jurisdiction." 



^ ^ ^ 



REGULATION CONCERNING CREDITS 
TO BELLIGERENTS 

[Released to the press November 20] 

Acting Secretary of State Sumner Welles to- 
day called attention to the fact that the Presi- 
dent's Regulation Concerning Credits to Bellig- 
erents, dated September 6, 1939, and amended 
September 11, 1939, which was issued under the 
act of May 1, 1937, expired on November 4, 1939, 
with the enactment of the Neutrality Act of 
1939, which repealed the act of May 1, 1937. 



The Far East 



RELATIONS BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND JAPAN 



Statement by the Acting Secretary of State 



[Released to the press November 22] 

Following is a statement by the Acting 
Secretary of State, the Honorable Sumner 
Welles : 

"Tlie American Ambassador in Tokyo is, and 
has been over a period of many years, con- 
stantly in communication with the Japanese 
Foreign Office on the subject of relations be- 



tween the United States and Japan and 
problems which arise in connection therewith. 

"There are not going on either in Tokyo or 
in Washington negotiations in regard to com- 
mercial treaty relations between the two 
countries. 

"This Government has not instructed Am- 



NOVEMBER 25, 1939 



589 



bassador Grew on the subject of any specific 
feature of possible future treaty relations. 

"The Government of the United States has 
repeatedly made clear that such matters will 
depend upon developments. 



"This Government is, of course, giving at- 
tention to every development and every fact 
bearing upon relations between the two covm- 
tiies and known to it, and is carefully studying 
all angles of the various problems presented." 



+ -♦■ -f > -f -f + 



SITUATION AT TIENTSIN 



[Released to the press November 20] 

In response to inquiries at the press con- 
ference todaj' concerning the situation at 
Tientsin, the Acting Secretary of State said 
that the American Consul General, Mr. John 
K. Caldwell, at Tientsin has been reporting 
that difficulties of transit at the Japanese mili- 
tary barriers around the foreign concessions 
at Tientsin are increasing. Mr. Caldwell tele- 
graphed under date of November 13 that 
although there have been reported only a few 
cases of delay to American citizens he has 
received many complaints of delays, varying 
from many hours to more than a day, to 
American goods. For example, the Japanese 



military authorities have required that loads 
of coal and of peanuts be dmnped on the street 
for inspection. He has reported under date 
November 16 that these transit difficulties are 
on the increase. An American rug manufac- 
turer has comjalained that a truckload of rugs 
proceeding under an American pass bearing 
a Japanese consular visa was refused permis- 
sion to pass through the barrier until the rugs 
had been spread out in the street. Another 
American had complained of difficulties in 
bringing food supplies into the concessions. 
The coal situation was becoming critical 
althovigh ample supplies of coal are easily 
available across the river. 



The American Republics 



FIFTIETH ANNIVERSARY OF THE PROCLAMATION OF THE BRAZILIAN 

REPUBLIC 



[Released to the press November 22] 

Following is the text of a personal message 
sent to President Roosevelt by President Var- 
gas of Brazil on November 21, 1939, while he 
was flying over the city of Rio de Janeiro in one 
of the United States Army "Flying Fortresses :" 

"President Franklin Roosexixt : 

"During a splendid flight in one of the power- 
ful flying fortresses now honoring us with their 



visit for the purpose of joining in the commem- 
oration of the fiftieth anniversary of the Repub- 
lic of Brazil, I present to Your Excellency the 
warm thanks of the Brazilian people for the 
visit of this brilliant military representation 
which brings the greetings of the glorious 
American nation. Cordial best wishes. 

Getulio Vargas" 



590 



DEPABTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

DEATH OF THE PRESIDENT OF ECUADOR 



[Released to the press November 22] 

Following is a message from the Provisional 
President of Ecuador to President Roosevelt : 

"Quito, Ecuador, 
November 19, 1939. 

"The President. 

"I request Your Excellency, respectfully, to 
be so good as to accept the profound thanks of 
the Government and the people of Ecuador for 
your warm expression of sympathy on the occa- 
sion of the lamentable death of the illustrious 
President of the Republic, Doctor Aurelio 
Mosquera Narvaez. 

C. Arroyo del Rio 
Acting Head of the Exemtive Potoer''' 



Following is a message to the Acting Secre- 
tary of State, Sumner Welles, from the Minis- 
ter of Foreign Relations of Ecuador: 

"Quito, Ecuador, 

November 20, 1939. 
"I thank Your Excellency very sincerely for 
your telegram of condolence on the death of His 
Excellency Dr. Mosquera Narvaez, President of 
Ecuador. I have communicated Your Excel- 
lency's expression of regi'et to the family of the 
deceased President and they request me to ex- 
press to you their eternal gratitude and the 
special esteem in which they hold Your Ex- 
cellency's condolence. 

Julio Tobar Donoso 
3Iinister of Foreign Relations''' 



International Conferences, Commissions, etc. 



INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION OF INQUIRY, UNITED STATES 

AND PORTUGAL 



[Released to the press November 22] 

The President has appointed the Honorable 
C. A. Magrath, former Chairman of the Hydro- 
electric Power Commission of Canada and also 
former Chairman of the Canadian Section of 
the International Joint Commission, the United 
States and Canada, as American Nonnational 
Commissioner on the International Commission 
provided for under the terms of the Treaty for 
the Advancement of Peace, between the United 
States and Portugal, signed February 4, 1914." 

Mr. Magrath's appointment fills the vacancy 
caused by the death of the Honorable George 

"Treaty Series No. 600 (38 Stat. 1847). 



Herbert Sedgwick, a former Justice of the Su- 
preme Court of Ontario, Canada, who died 
shortly after his appointment to the Commis- 
sion in March 1939. 

The present composition of the Commission is 
as follows : 

American Commissioners : 

National : James P. Pope, of Idaho 
Nonnational : C. A. Magrath, of Canada 

Portuguese Commissioners : 
National : Barbosa Magalhues 
Nonnational : Sanchez Toca, of Spain 

Joint Commissioner: 

Arnold Raestad, of Norway. 



NOVEMBER 25, 1939 



591 



INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION, 
UNITED STATES AND BELGIUM 

[Released to the press November 25] 

By the joint action of the Governments of 
the United States and Belginm, Mr. Cemil 
Bilsel of Turkey, member of the Permanent 
Court of Arbitration at The Hague, and Mr. 
Jan C. Smuts, Prime Minister of the Union 
of South Africa, have been appointed to the 
positions of Joint Commissioners on the Inter- 
national Commission provided for mider the 
terms of the Treaty of Conciliation between 
the United States and Belgium signed March 
•20, 1929.^ 

The pi'esent composition of the Coimnission 
is as follows : 

Amei'ican C oinmissioner : 

W. Hallam Tuck, of New York 
Belgian Commissioner: 

Alfi-ed Nerinez 
Joint Commissioners : 

Dr. Roberto Repetto, of Argentina, -president 



' Treaty Series No. 824 (46 Stat. 27&4). 



Cemil Bilsel, of Turkey 

Jan C. Smuts, of the Union of South Africa. 

+ 4- + 

REGIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE 
AMERICAN STATES MEMBERS OF 
THE INTERNATIONAL LABOR OR- 
GANIZATION 

[Ueleased to the press November 21] 

The President has approved the designation 
of Miss Mary Nelson Winslow as substitute 
Government delegate to the Regional Confer- 
ence of the American States Membere of the 
International Labor Organization which con- 
venes today at Habana, Cuba. Miss Josephine 
Roche, who was designated as a Govermnent 
delegate in the Department's release of Novem- 
ber 18, will be unable to attend the Conference, 
and Miss Winslow, who was designated as Gov- 
ernment adviser, will take the place of Miss 
Roche as Government delegate. Miss Winslow 
is the United States Representative on the Inter- 
American Commission of Women. 



Foreign Service of the United States 



PERSONNEL CHANGES 



[Released to the press November 26] 

Changes in the Foreign Service since November 
18, 1939: 

William H. Beck, of Washington, D. C, con- 
sul general at Oslo, Norway, has been assigned 
as consul general at Hamilton, Bermuda. 

Harold L. Williamson, of Chicago, 111., con- 
sul at Hamilton, Bermuda, has been assigned 
as consul at Guatemala, Guatemala. 

Cabot Coville, of Los Angeles, Calif., second 



secretary of embassy at Tokyo, Japan, has been 
assigned for duty in the Department of State. 

Herve J. L'Heureux, of Manchester, N. H., 
consul at Stuttgart, Germany, has been assigned 
as consul at Antwerp, Belgium. 

The assignment of Charles A. Converse, of 
Valdosta, Ga., as consul at Palermo, Italy, has 
been canceled. Mr. Converse has now been 
assigned as consul at Manchester, England. 

Gordon H. Mattison, of Wooster, Ohio, thinl 
secretary of legation and vice consul at Bagh- 



592 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



dad, Iraq, has been assigned as vice consul at 
Madras, India. 

Harlan B. Clark, of Brookfield, Ohio, vice 
consul at Birmingham, England, has been desig- 
nated third secretary of legation and vice con- 



sul at Bangkok, Thailand, and will serve in dual 
capacity. 

Tliomas R. Flack, of Chicago, 111., vice con- 
sul at Vienna, Germany, has been appointed as 
vice consul at Frankfort on the Main, Germany. 



Foreign Service Officers Promoted Effective November 16, 1939 



Name 



From class II to class I 



Walter A. Adams 

Joseph W. Ballantine.. 

Pierre de L. Boal 

Monnett B. Davis 

Herschel V. Johnson.. 

John Farr Simmons 

8. Pinkney Tuck 

George Wadsworth 



From class III to class II 



George L. Brandt.. 

Homer Brett 

Joseph Flack 



From class IV to class III 
Ealph C. Busser 

From class Vto class IV 



George Atcheson, Jr.. 

J. Rives Childs 

John Carter Vincent. 



From class VI to class V 



Maurice W, AltatTer. 

George J. Haering 

A. Dana Hodgdon... 
John F. Huddleston., 

Joel C. Hudson 

Quincy F. Roberts. .. 



From class VII to class VI 



H. Merrell BenninghofE.. 

Daniel M. Braddock 

James E. Brown, Jr. 

Gerald A. Drew... 

Kenneth C. Krentz 

Horace H. Smith 

Roberts. Ward _. 

Archer Woodford 



From class VIII to class VII 



Robert English 

Willard Galbraith.... 

Randolph Harrison, Jr 

Frederick P. Latimer, Jr.. 

Cecil B. Lyon 

John B. Ocheltree 

Edward Page, Jr 

James K. Penfield 

John C. Shillock, Jr 

Stanley G. Slavens 

Gerald Warner.. 



From unclassified (A) to class VIII 



William C. Affeld, Jr 

Charles A. Cooper 

Theodore J. Hohenthal.. 

E. Allan Lightner, Jr 

H. Gordon Minnigerode. 
John S. Service 



From unclassified (B) to unclassified (A) 
Jay Dixon Edwards 

From unclassified (C) to unclassified (B) 
Philip D. Sprouse 



Post 



Department.-. 
Department... 
Mexico City.. 
Buenos Aires.. 

London 

Ottawa 

Buenos Aires.. 
Jerusalem 



Department.. 
Callao-Lima. 
Department.. 



Leipzig.. 



Department.. 
Department.. 
Geneva 



Zurich _. 

Warsaw 

Berlin 

Department.. 
Berlin. 



Peiping. 

Caracas 

London . 

Department.. 

Canton 

Shanghai 

Foochow 

Maracaibo... 



Ottawa 

Batavia 

Rio de Janeiro- 
Istanbul 

Department 

San Jos^ 

Department 

Department 

Lisbon 

Tokyo 

Taihoku 



Kobe 

Shanghai.. 

Vienna 

Riga 

Singapore. 
Shanghai.. 



Tokyo. 



Title 



Consul general 

Consul general 

Counselor 

Consul general 

Counselor 

Consul general and counselor.. 

Counselor 

Consul general 



Consul 

Consul general and first secretary. 
First secretary 



Consul general. 



Second secretary. 
Second secretary. 
Consul 



Chefoo Consul 



Consul... 

Consul 

Consul and second secretary. 
Consul 

Consul and second secretary. 



Second secretary. 
Second secretary. 
Second secretary- 
Second secretary. 

Consul 

Consul.. 

Consul. 

Consul 



Home address 



Consul and third secretary 

Consul 

Third secretary 

Consul 

Third secretary 

Consul and third secretary 

Vice consul and third secretary 

Consul 

Consul --. 

Consul 

Consul- - -- 



Peiping. 



Vice consul _. 

Vice consul .- 

Vice consul -- 

Vice consul and third secretary.. 

Vice consul-- 

Vice consul 



Greenville, S. C. 
Amherst, Mass. 
Boalsburg, Pa. 
Boulder, Colo. 
Charlotte. N. C. 
New York City. 
New Brighton, N. 
Buffalo, N. Y. 



Washington, D. C. 
Meridian, Miss. 
Grenoble, Pa. 



Philadelphia, Pa. 



Berkeley, Calif. 
Lynchburg, Va. 
Macon, Ga. 



Toledo, Ohio. 
Huntington Station, N. Y. 
Leonardtown. Md. 
Cleveland, Ohio. 
St. Louis, Mo. 
Wichita Falls, Tex. 



Rochester, N. Y. 
Grand Rapids, Mich. 
Sewickley, Pa. 
San Francisco, Calif. 
Waterloo. Iowa. 
Xenia, Ohio. 
Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Paris, Ky. 



Hancock, N. H. 
Los .\ngeles, Calif. 
Lynchburg, Va. 
New London, Conn. 
New York City. 
Reno, Nev. 
West Newton, Mass. 
San Francisco, Calif. 
Portland, Oreg. 
Austin, Tex. 
Northampton, Mass. 



Minneapolis. Minn. 
Humboldt, Nebr. 
Berkeley. Calif. 
Mountain Lakes, N. J. 
Washington, D. C. 
Oberlin, Ohio. 



Language officer Corvallis, Oreg. 

Language officer Springfield, Tenn. 



Traffic in Arms, Tin-Plate Scrap, etc. 



MONTHLY STATISTICS 



[Released to the press November 25] 

Note : The figures relating to arms, the licenses for 
the export of which were revolted before they were 
used, liave been subtracted from the figures appearing 
in the cumulative column of the table below in regard 
to arms export licenses issued. These latter figures 
are therefore net figures. They are not yet final and 
definitive since licenses may be amended or revoked at 
any time before being used. They are, however, 
accurate as of the date of this press release. 

The statistics of actual exports in these releases 
are believed to be substantially complete. It is pos- 
sible, however, that some shipments are not included. 
If this proves to be the fact, statistics in regard to 
such shipments will be included in the cumulative 
figures in later releases. 

Arms Export Licenses Issued 

The table printed below indicates the charac- 
ter, value, and countries of destination of the 
arms, ammunition, and implements of war 
licensed for export by the Secretary of State 
during the year 1939 up to and including the 
month of October: 





Category 


Value 


Country of destination 


October 1939 


10 months 
ending Octo- 
ber 31, 1939 




I 
IV 

I 
V 


(4) 

(1) 

(4) 

(1) 

(2) 




$25, 000. 00 






360. 79 












69.00 






6, 000. 00 




$420. 00 


1,303.00 


Total 


420.00 


7, 362. 00 




I 
III 

IV 
V 

VI 
VII 


(4) 
(6) 
(1) 
(2) 
CD 
(2) 
(1) 
(2) 
(3) 
(1) 
(2) 






254. 00 


862. CO 




500.00 






275, 000. 00 




2, 285, 68 

77.00 

1, 920. 00 


4, 992. 96 

2, 938. 95 

12,111.00 

156, 750. 00 




21,395.00 
9, 000. 00 


109, 672. 50 
19, 752. 00 
6, 310. 00 




70.00 


39, 266. 22 


Total 


35. 001. 68 


628,145.63 


Australia 


I 

IV 


(1) 
(4) 
(1) 
C2) 




3, 956. 14 






4, 554. 48 






1,131.44 






497. 39 





Category 


Value 


Country of destination 


October 1939 


10 months 
ending Octo- 
ber 31, 1939 


Australia — Continued. 


V (1) 
(2) 
(3) 




$24,296.00 










3, 4.50. 00 






Total 




39, 351. 65 




V (2) 

I C4) 

IV (1) 

(2) 

V (1) 
(2) 




















2 00 






111 38 












1,610.00 






30 00 








Total 




1 840 38 




V (1) 
C2) 










1, 249. 00 






30 00 








Total 




1, 279. OO 




I {« 
(2) 
(4) 

IV (1) 
(21 

V (2) 
(3) 










655. 21 






65, 696 65 






935. 85 






97.48 






20.28 






5, 260. 00 






86, 400. 00 








Total 




149, 055. 47 




IV (1) 
(2) 

V (3) 






Bermuda 




69 13 






17.46 






9, 600. 00 








Total 




9, 686. 58 




I (1) 
(4) 

IV (1) 
(2) 

V (1) 
(2) 
(3) 

VII (1) 










574 00 




$153.00 


I, 052. 00 
487. 39 






550.80 






9, 100. 00 






8, 972. 20 




9, 600. 00 


65, 200. 00 
98,S. 66 








Total- - 


9, 753. 00 


86, 925. 05 




I (1) 
(2) 
(4) 

III (1) 

IV (1) 
(2) 

V (1) 
(2) 
(3) 








202.00 






86, 03S. 00 




612.00 


4, 334. 00 
274, 000. 00 




714. 00 

36.00 

232, 600. 00 

414. 00 

4.000.00 


3, 95.5. 55 
25, 216. 00 
648, 844. 00 
160,714.72 
174, 393. 00 


Total 


238,276.00 


1,377,697.27 




I (4) 
rv (1) 
V (2) 
(3) 
VII (2) 




British Guiana 




20.00 






108. 38 






250.00 






4, 500. 00 






4, 200. 00 








Total 




9. 078. 38 




IV fl) 

(2) 

VII (2) 






British Honduras 




129.20 






75.00 






193. 80 








Total _ 




398.00 



593 



594 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BTTLLETIN 





Category 


Value 


Country of destination 


October 1939 


10 months 
ending Octo- 
ber 31, 1939 


British North Borneo 


I 
V 


(1) 

(2) 
(2) 
(3) 




$26. 43 




28.00 






.50.00 






700.00 








Total 




804.43 


British Solomon Islands _ 


I 


(2) 
(4) 




175.00 




10.00 








Total 




185. 00 




IV 


(1) 
(2) 




23.00 






2.30 








Total- 




25.30 


I 

IV 


(1) 
(4) 
(1) 
(2) 










.522. 10 






190. 00 






1,520.3.". 






128. 46 








Total 




2, 369. 91 


Canada - 


I 
III 

IV 
V 

VII 


(1) 
12) 
(4) 
(5) 
(1) 
(1) 
(2) 
(1) 
(2) 
(3) 
CD 
(2) 




23,651.33 




592. 00 






16, 766. 26 






600.00 






549, 900. 00 






6. 480. 14 






1,019.35 






862,036. IS 






41,899,87 






96, 694. 92 






63, 569. 96 






152, 610. 72 








Total 




1, 815, 820. 73 




IV 

I 

IV 

V 
VII 


(1) 

(1) 
(4) 
(1) 
(2) 
(1) 
(2) 










86.88 








Chile 




60.00 






27.00 






13, 499. 40 






617.00 






15,500.00 






61,055.00 








Total 




90, 7.T8. 40 




I 

III 

IV 
V 

VII 


(1) 
(2) 
(3) 
(4) 
(1) 
(2) 
(I) 
(2) 
(1) 
(2) 
(3) 
(2) 










1,344.00 




$223, 860. 00 

850.00 

850.00 

2,284,94.5.03 

519. 47 


359,257.05 

2, 340. on 

10, 128. 00 

2,310,987.03 

619. 47 

1, 886. 00 






4,371.50 






259, 907. 00 




141,740.35 
1,179,161.00 


359, 683. 27 

1,274,358.00 

49.88 








Total 


3,831,916.86 


4, 684, 732. 10 




I 

IV 
V 

VII 


(1) 
(4) 
(1) 
(2) 
(1) 
(2) 
(3) 
(I) 
(2) 








179. 70 






170. 66 






4, 401. 15 




583.00 


2,848.10 
611, 060. 00 




1,050.00 


31, 190. 50 
126, 050. 00 




2,892.00 


3,977.15 
840. 00 








Total 


4,525.00 


780, 717. 16 




I 

IV 
V 

VII 


C4) 
(1) 
(2) 
(1) 
(2) 
(3) 
(1) 
(2) 








13.00 




96.00 

8.00 

2,000.00 


2,606.65 

492. 00 

21.000.00 

6, 279. 54 




6,150 00 
240.00 


33,082.35 
1, 107. 60 
1,634 93 








Total 


8,494.00 


66, 216. 07 





Category 


Value 


Country of destination 


October 1939 


10 months 
ending Octo- 
ber 31, 1939 


Cuba 


I 

III 

IV 

V 

VII 


(1) 

(4) 

(1) 
(1) 

(2) 
(2) 
(3) 
CD 
(2) 




$67.00 




$84.00 


50,710.60 
57, 800. 00 






6, 856. 19 




2,811.00 
1,495.00 
1,000.00 


13,671.00 
3, 891. 30 

i.ono.oo 

3, 446. 34 






11.00 








Total - 


6,390.00 


137, 443. 43 




I 

IV 

V " 


(4) 
CD 
C2) 
C2) 
(3) 








26.10 






39.00 






49.14 






187.00 






9, 226. 00 








Total 




9, 526. 24 




V 

I 

V 


(3) 

C3) 
C4) 
(D 
(2) 
(3) 






C zechoslo vakia 




12,800.00 








Denmark 




2,750.00 






340.00 






11, 130. 62 






876.00 






5, 275. 00 












20, 371. 52 




I 

IV 

V 

VII 


CD 
(2) 
(4) 
CD 
(2) 
C2) 
C3) 
CD 
(2) 








50.00 


85.00 




100.76 




25.00 


73.00 
4, 095. 00 




7,'566.6o 


2M.0O 

7, 750. 00 

11,100.00 

1,714.40 




1.66 


1.00 


Total 


7,576.00 


25, 183. 15 




I 

IV 
V 


(4) 
«1 
(D 
C2) 
(2) 








92.00 






128.00 






67.00 






149.00 






30.00 








Total 




466.00 




I 

IV 


(1) 
(2) 
(4) 
(6) 
(1) 
(2) 






EevDt 




30.00 






fflO.Ofl 






3, 105. 00 






618.00 






172. 84 






6.30 








Total -_ 




4,431.14 




I 

IV 

V 

VII 


(4) 

CD 
(2) 
(2) 
C3) 
(2) 






El Salvador 




336.00 






4,205.58 




1,630.00 


3, 466. CO 
1,604.00 






860.00 




235.00 


4,365.00 


Total 


1,865.00 


14,716.58 




I 

IV 


(4) 
CD 
C2) 




Federated Malay States 




14.00 






59.08 






16.10 








Total 




88.18 




I 

IV 
V 


(D 
C4) 
CD 
C2) 

P> 
2) 

(3) 










10, 656. 55 






7,423.04 






80.00 






96.67 






16, 4C0. 00 




18,6r/0.00 
830, 400. 00 


142,600.00 
1,141,400.00 




848,900.00 


1,318,654.26 




I 


(D 
(4) 








161.94 






334. 60 



NOVEMBER 25, 1939 



595 





Category 


Value 


Country of destination 


October 1939 


10 months 
ending Octo- 
ber 31, 1939 




III 

IV 
V 

VI 


(1) 

(2) 
(2) 

(1) 

(2) 
(3) 
(1) 




$8,581,050.00 
660 00 










118.00 






375,962 00 






6C2, 067. 14 






1, 947, 616 CO 






2, 200. 00 








Total 




11.610.169.68 




I 


(1) 
(4) 










32.50 






5.92 








Total 




38.42 




I 


(1) 
(4) 






French Equatorial Africa 




34.00 




30 00 








Total. 




64.00 




I 
IV 


(I) 

(4) 
(1) 
(2) 










67.50 






78.31 
4,131.00 






1, 154.76 








Total... 




5. 431. 57 




I 

V 


f4) 
(2) 






French West Africa 




33 83 






90 00 








Total 




123. 83 




I 

IV 
V 


(1) 

(4) 
(1) 
(2) 
(2) 






nprmflny 




69.05 






653. 46 






1, 134. 62 






287.42 






12, 800. 00 








Total 




14,944.55 




I 
III 

IV 
V 

vn 


(1) 
(2) 
(3) 
(4) 
(1) 
(1) 
(2) 
(1) 
(2) 
(3) 
(2) 






Great Britain 




428.85 






1,000.00 






31,100.00 






29, 649. 37 






4, 723, 9,50. on 






937. 78 






438. 65 






431, 134. 25 






211,867.42 






470, 662. 60 






52,978.00 








Total 




5. 954, 136. 72 




I 

V 


(6) 
(2) 
(3.1 










124, 400. 00 






3, 500. on 






2,200.00 








Total 




130, 100. 00 




I 

IV 

V 

VII 


(4) 
(1) 
(2) 
(2) 
(3) 
(1) 
(2) 








$298.00 
73.00 
30 60 


436.00 




1,960.00 
200.15 
84.00 






85.00 






7, 565. 00 






93.00 




780.00 


9 227.50 


Total 


1,181.60 


19, 650. 65 




I 

IV 
VII 


(1) 
(4) 
(1) 
(2) 




Haiti 




11,687.60 






36, 652. 50 






2,391.95 






717.11 






61.52 






332. 50 








Total 




51.843.08 




I 

IV 

V 


(1) 

(2) 
(3) 








159.00 
118.00 


169.00 




1,081.38 
441.00 




864. CO 


3,841.60 
250, COO. 00 






51.00 






5,000.00 





Category 


Value 


Country of destination 


October 1939 


10 months 
ending Octo- 
ber 31, 1939 




VII (2) 




$975.00 






Total 


$1,141.00 


261 'i48 98 




I (1) 

IV ^ 

(2) 
V (2) 
VII (2) 








933 00 












25,211.32 

3,216.92 

40 00 














1,011.60 






Total 




31 098 30 




I (1) 
V 11] 






Iceland 




43 40 












3, 670. 00 






Total. . 




3, 718. 40 




I (1) 

IV [JS 

(2) 

V (1) 
(2) 
(3) 

VI (2) 




India 




2, 048. 95 
6, 673. 29 
3 140 86 




















19,100.00 

1, 905. 00 

2,500.00 

334 00 




















Total 




35, 761. 74 








IraQ 




1 028 27 












40 000 00 






100 00 








Total . 




41,316 37 




I (3) 
(4) 

V (1) 
(2) 
(3) 






Ireland 




26,500.00 
19.34 










210,000.00 






4, 379. 00 






29, 266. 00 








Total 




270, 164. 34 




V (2) 
(3) 






Italy . 


9,310.00 


18, 810. 00 




13,900.00 






Total 


9,310.00 


32,710.00 




I (4) 

IV (1) 

(2) 






62.44 






2,680.97 
460.67 












Total 




3, 194. 08 




V (1) 
(2) 










757,000.00 






100.00 








Total-.. 




757,100.00 




I (1) 
(4) 

IV (I) 
(2) 

V (1) 






Kenya. 




1, 057. 80 




396. 35 






• 173. 20 






124. 36 






2, 300. 00 








Total 




4, 060. 71 




VII (2) 

I (2) 
(4) 






Leeward Islands 




494.00 








Liberia 




4, 000. 00 






11.01 








Total. . . 




4, Oil. 01 




I (1) 
(2) 
(4) 

IV (1) 
(2) 






Macau 




567.75 






800.00 






97.00 






1,312.00 






2, 592. 00 








Total 




6,368.75 


Mauritius 


I (1) 
(4) 




96.43 






86.66 


Total 




183.08 



596 



DEPAKTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 





Category 


Value 


Country of destination 


October 1939 


10 months 
ending Octo- 
ber 31, 1939 




I 

III 
IV 

V 
VII 


(1) 

(3) 
(4) 

(1) 
(1) 

(2) 

(1) 

(2) 
(3) 
(1) 
(2) 


$26. 40 


$785.84 




304, 000. 00 




26.00 


38. 768. 00 
995, 600. 00 




510.00 


36, 690. 51 
16, 492. 00 




102, 350. 00 
3, 495. 00 
6, 000. 00 


617, 363. 00 

322, 537. 05 

896.130.00 

10. 098. 75 




8, 200. 00 


50, 966. 21 


Total 


120,607.40 


3,289,431.36 




I 

V 


(1) 

(4) 
<2) 
(3) 








30.40 






111.67 






1.000.00 






20, 610. 00 








Total 




21,752.07 




I 
III 

IV 
V 

vn 


(2) 
(1) 
(2) 
(1) 
(1) 
(2) 
(3) 
(2) 




17.50 






1,071,640.00 
20, 341. 80 










46.00 






2, 609, 018. 60 




150,700.50 


545,867.09 
1, 071, 462. 00 






40,061.48 










150, 700. 50 


5, 358, 333. 37 




I 
III 

IV 

V 

VII 


(1) 

(2) 
(4) 
(5) 
(1) 
(2) 
(1) 
(2) 
(I) 
(2) 
(3) 
(1) 
(2) 








448. 17 




2,040.00 
238.00 


47, 685. 00 
1,156.91 
4 000 00 




266, 500. 00 
118.80 
227. 00 
138. 82 


1,071,862.00 

21,145.60 

39,889.30 

567. 86 

142 478 00 




84, 327. 00 


214, 432. 18 

324, 442. 00 

10 00 








66, 000. 00 


56,000.00 


Total 


409,589.62 


1,924,106.02 




I 

V 


(1) 
(4) 
(3) 








547. 15 






695 13 






14,000.00 










15, 242. 28 




I 

IV 
V 


(1) 
(4) 
(2) 
(2) 
(3) 










593. 04 






448 47 






166. 63 






3, 000. 00 






14 500 00 








Total - 




IS, 708. 04 




I 

IV 
V 


(1) 
(4) 
(2) 
(2) 
(3) 










17.00 






67 56 






64.00 






18 199 00 






101, 500. 00 








Total 




119,837 56 




I 

I 

IV 

V 

VII 


(4) 

(1) 
(4) 
(2) 
(2) 
(3) 
0) 
(2) 


















New Zealand _.-.__ 




363 66 






401. 88 






82 68 






14, 540. 00 






19, 300 00 






6, 000. 00 






4. 104 00 








Total 




44.782.29 





Category 


Value 


Country of destination 


October 1939 


10 months 
ending Octo- 
ber 31, 1939 


Nicaragua 


I (2) 
(4) 

III CD 

IV (1) 
C2) 

V (2) 
VII C2) 





$1,600.00 




1, 346. 00 






20, 906. 00 






427.00 






2, 069. 70 






62.60 






885.00 








Total 




27, 276. 20 




I (4) 

IV (1) 

C2) 

vn CD 






Nigeria 




41.00 












48.00 






3.67 






5.76 








Total 




57.33 




I (D 
C2) 
C4) 

IV CD 
(2) 

V (2) 
C3) 

VII C2) 






Norway 


$45. 60 
4,374.00 


439. 22 




4, 429. 00 
557. 14 






30.00 




3.00 
1, 900. 00 


6.03 
4, 540. 87 
19, 300. GO 






5, 825. 00 








Total 


6, 322. 50 


35, 126. 26 




V (1) 
(2) 
(3) 








3, 062. 00 






60.00 






450. 00 








Total 




3, 562. 00 




IV CD 

C2) 

V CD 
C2) 
C3) 

VII CD 
C2) 








290.00 


641.88 




465. 00 






5,541.13 






800.00 






1, 764. 39 




1.094.00 


3, 703. 20 
800. 00 








Total 


1, 384. 00 


13. 605. 60 




IV CD 
(2) 








8.00 






820. 00 








Total 




828.00 




III CD 
C2) 

IV CD 
C2) 

V (1) 
C2) 
C3) 

VII CD 
C2) 






Peru 




45.00 






26, 500. 00 






965. 36 






16, 000. 00 






256, 260. 00 






10, 038. 00 






246. 00 






412.00 






37, 100. 00 




10, 643. 10 
3,676.00 


50, 727. 49 

33,602.52 

160.00 






28,688.00 








Total 


14. 218. 10 


460, 623. 37 




I C4) 

I CD 

C4) 

IV CD 

V ^! 

C2) 








7.47 








Poland - - - - 




118. 70 






44.48 






I, 056. 56 






111.39 






420, 000. 00 






60.00 








Totql 




421. 381. 12 




I C4) 

IV CD 
(2) 

V (1) 
C2) 
C3) 






Portugal - 




10.00 






317.00 




100.00 


100.00 
8, 097. 00 




30.00 


9, 205. 00 
475.00 








Total- 


130.00 


18,204.00 



NOVEMBER 25, 1939 



597 





Category 


Value 


Country of destination 


October 1939 


10 months 
ending Octo- 
ber 31, 1939 




I 
V 


(5) 
(2) 
(3) 




$1, 26.5, 000. 00 






3 950 00 






26, 100. 00 








Total 




1, 295, 050. 00 




I 

IV 

V 


(1) 
(4) 
(1) 
(1) 










609 92 






277. 96 






201 75 






1,900.00 






Total 




2, 989. 62 




I 

IV 


(0 
(4) 
(1) 
(2) 






SfTflif-'! Rpt:flpTnAnt.<; 




39 00 






116.37 






229 50 






34.76 








Total 




419.63 




I 
ni 

V 


(1) 
(4) 
(1) 
(1) 
(2) 
(3) 










71.25 






1 248 74 




$902, 250. 00 
66,000.00 
60, 307. 28 


902.250.00 
70, 520. 00 

193.213.12 
19,916.00 






Total 


1, 017, 557. 28 


1, 187, 218. 11 




I 

IV 
V 


(1) 
(1) 
(1) 
(2) 
(3) 








62.90 






616.76 






237 967 50 






22. SIO. 84 






20. 200. 00 








Total . - 




281.657.99 




IV 

I 

IV 
V 


(2) 

(1) 
(4) 
(1) 
(2) 
(2) 
(3) 










19.00 












23.58 






12.18 




2, 896. 25 


23,744.26 
41.83 






32. 347. 61 




115,000.00 


386, 960. 00 


Total 


117,896.26 


443, 129. 46 




I 

IV 
V 


(4) 
(1) 
(2) 
(2) 
(3) 




Trinidad 




1.08 






82.50 






37.00 






1,055.50 






8,500.00 








Total 




9, 676. 08 




I 
III 

IV 

V 

VI 


(2) 
(5) 
(1) 
(2) 
(1) 
(2) 
(2) 
(3) 
(1) 






Turkey.. 


35,000.00 

158, 750. 00 

1,653,749.00 

28, 883. 60 


35. ono. 00 




170, 450. 00 

1, 653, 749. 00 

28, 883. 60 

16, 672. 34 






1, 205. 25 




333,269.95 


768.037.12 
116.026.00 






8. 100. 00 








Total 


2. 209, 642. 55 


2, 797, 122. 31 




IV 


(1) 
(2) 




Turks and Caicos Islands 




18.70 






.80 








Total . 




19.50 




I 

IV 
V 

VII 


(1) 
(4) 
(1) 
(2) 
(1) 
(2) 
C3) 
(2) 






Union of South Africa 




1, 086 68 






1, 737. 33 






3,010.46 






347. 24 






59, 663. 00 






10, 635. 07 






3, 765. 00 






11,760.00 








Total 


92,004.78 





Category 


Value 


Country of destination 


October 1939 


10 months 
ending Octo- 
ber 31, 1939 


Union of Soviet Socialist Re- 


V 


(1) 

(2) 
(3) 




$702,900.00 
70, 614. 23 
146,408.00 


publics. 












Total 




919,922.23 




I 

I 

IV 
V 

VII 


(4) 

(I) 
(2) 
(4) 
(1) 
(2) 
(1) 
(2) 
(3) 
(1) 
(2) 




Uruguay.. 




13 00 








Venezuela . . 




40 00 






166 00 






98 00 












I 276 05 




$196,200.00 

6, 927. 00 

17, 767. 00 

577.60 


277, 670. OO 
20, 467. 26 

141, 353. 50 
6,463.21 
13 650 00 








Total 


220,471.60 


481 544 36 




V 


(1) 
(2) 
(3) 




Yugoslavia . 




63 ono 00 




2,210.00 


40, 937. 00 
2, 000 00 








Total 


2, 210. 00 


105, 937. 00 






Grand total 


9,274,478.93 


49, 748, 571. 36 









During tlie month of October, 158 arms ex- 
port licenses were issued, making a total of 
3.602 such licenses issued during the current 



year. 



Arms Exported 



The table printed below indicates the char- 
acter, value, and countries of destination of the 
arms, ammunition, and implements of war ex- 
ported during the year 1939 up to and including 
the month of October under export licenses is- 
sued by the Secretary of State. 





Category 


Value 


Country of destination 


October 1939 


10 months 
ending Octo- 
ber 31, 1939 




IV (1) 

I (4) 

V (1) 
(2) 




$360. 79 








Angola 




59.00 






7, 427. 00 






545.00 








Total 




8. 031 . 00 




I (4) 
(5) 

III (1) 
(2) 

IV (1) 
(2) 

V (1) 
(2) 
(3) 

VI (1) 

VII (2) 






Argentina 




608. 00 




$500.00 
11, 240. 00 


810. 00 

761.012 00 

2. 707. 00 






1.0n6. 60 






7, 026. 00 






155, 276. 00 




1, 5.'<6. 00 


105. 155. 20 
10. 752. 00 






6, 310. 00 




1,941.00 


26,447.00 


Total.. 


15,273.00 


1,067,289.70 



598 



DEPABTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 





Category 


Value 


Country of destination 


October 1939 


10 months 
ending Octo- 
ber 31, 1939 




I 

IV 
V 


(1) 

(4) 
CD 
(2) 

(1) 

(2) 
(3) 




$1, 010. 94 






4, .'■|.53. 76 






1,131.44 






497. 39 






17. 296. 00 






157. 244. 95 






3, 450. 00 








Total 




188, 184. 4S 




V 

I 

IV 
V 


(2) 

(4) 
(1) 
(2) 
(1) 
(2) 










40.00 












2.00 






111.38 






87.00 






1, 610. 00 






30.00 








Total 




1, 840. 38 




V 


(1) 
(2) 










1, 249. 00 






30.00 












1. 279. 00 




I 

IV 
V 


(I) 
(2) 
(4) 
(I) 
(2) 
(1) 
(2) 
(3) 






Belgium 




655. 21 




55, 769 00 






938. 35 






111.62 






35.11 






114 800. 00 






6, 51S. 00 






86, 400. 00 








Total 




264, 227. 29 




IV 
V 


(1) 
(2) 
(3) 






BermudB 




69. 13 






17.45 






9, 600. 00 








Total 




9, 688. 68 




I 

IV 
V 

VII 


(1) 
(2) 
(4) 
(1) 
(2) 
(1) 
(2) 
(3) 
(1) 








574. 00 






7, 000. 00 




$464. 00 


1, 402. 00 
487. 39 






550. 80 






9, 100. 00 




2,000.00 


5, 772. 20 
47. 200. 00 




72.00 


994. 16 


Total 


2,536.00 


73,080 55 




I 
III 

IV 

V 


(1) 
(2) 
(4) 
(1) 
(1) 
(2) 
(1) 
(2) 
(3) 




Bra?]] . 




202 00 




3,"i63.'66 


86. 038. 00 

4. 654. 00 

663. 240. Ofl 




2, 109. 00 
9, 279. Ofl 
34, .511. 00 
17, 045. 00 
2,000.00 


8. 762. 40 
30.862.00 
576, 445. 00 
107, 614. 33 
120. 896. 00 


Total- 


68.107.00 


1, 603, 613 79 




I 

IV 
V 

VII 


(4) 
(1) 
(2) 
(3) 
(2) 














108. 38 






250 00 






4, 500. 00 






4. 200 00 








Total 




9.078 38 




IV 
VII 


(1) 
(2) 
(2) 






British Hondura.s 




129 20 






7.5.00 






302 60 








Total - 




506.80 




I 

V 


(1) 
(2) 
(3) 






British North Borneo 




26 43 






28 00 






760 00 








Total.. 




804.43 





Category 


Value 


Country of destination 


October 1939 


10 months 
ending Octo- 
ber 31, 1939 




I 


(2) 
(4) 




$175. 00 






10.00 








Total 




185.00 




IV 


(1) 
(2) 






Bulgaria 




23.00 






2.30 








Total. . . 




25.30 




I 
IV 


(1) 
(4) 
(1) 
(2) 










667. 10 






203.00 






1, 620. 35 






128.46 








Total 




2, 418. 91 




I 

III 
IV 

V 

VII 


(1) 
(2) 
(4) 
(5) 
(1) 
(1) 
(2) 
(1) 
(2) 
(3) 
(1) 
(2) 










21, 972. 62 






592. 00 






16, 740. 74 






600.00 






550, 020. OO 






6, 863. 94 






1. 039. 54 






883, 255. 14 






57, 848. 08 






106, 235. 04 






90. 675. 37 






216.131.28 








Total 




1.951,973.65 




IV 

1 

IV 

V 

VII 


(1) 

(1) 
(4) 

CD 
C2) 
CD 
C2) 
C2) 










8G.88 








Chile 




60.00 






116.00 






13, 677. 45 






730. 00 






4, 600. 00 






35.00 




$35. 661. 00 


47, 516. 00 


Total... 


35,661.00 


66, 634. 45 




I 
III 

IV 
V 

vn 


C2) 
C3) 
C4) 
CD 
(D 
C2) 
CD 
C2) 
C3) 
C2) 




China 




135, 408. 00 






1, 490. 00 






8. 735. 00 






26, 042. 00 






1, 760. 00 






126.00 




66,261.00 


961,461.00 
116,647.00 




8,082.00 


76, 982. 00 
49.88 








Total 


74,343.00 


1, 327. 699. 88 




I 

IV 
V 

VII 


CD 

C4) 

CD 
C2) 
CD 
C2) 
C3) 
CD 
C2) 




Colombia - -. 




281 70 






211.66 






4, 358. 65 






3, 890. 10 




16,000.00 


306. 436. 00 
40. 687. 60 




1, 642. 00 
3,362.49 


132,965.00 

3,977.49 

840.00 








Total 


19, 994. 49 


493, 648. 00 




I 

IV 
V 

VII 


C4) 
CD 
C2) 
CD 
C2) 
C3) 
CD 
C2) 


Cn.sta Rica - - 




13 00 






2, 510. 66 






484.00 






41, 680. 00 




47.00 
2,400.00 


5,430.00 

34,976.00 

728 00 






1, 606. 93 








Total 


2, 447. OO 


87, 326. 68 




I 

III 
rv 


CD 
C4) 
CD 
CD 
C2) 








67.00 




39.00 
43,350.00 


60,647.00 
43. 360. 00 
7, 002 35 




573.66 


9, 296. 00 



NOVEMBER 25, 1939 



599 





Category 


Value 


Country of destination 


October 1939 


10 months 
endin^r Octo- 
ber 31, 1939 


Cuba— Continued. 


V 
VII 


(2) 
(3) 

(1) 

(2) 


$1, 300. 00 
1,000.00 


$2. 300. 00 
1,000.00 
3 3U8. 82 






11.00 








Total 


46.262.00 


117,031.17 




I 

IV 

V 


(4) 
(2) 
(2) 
(3) 








25. 10 






49. 14 






1S7. 00 






9, 226. 00 








Total 




9, 487. 24 




V 


(1) 
C3) 










115,500.00 






12, 800. 00 








Total 




128, 300. 00 




I 

V 


(2) 
(4) 
(1) 
(2) 
(3) 










2, 750. 00 






340.00 






11,211. 48 






3. 266. 00 






6,500.00 












23, 067. 48 




I 
rv 

V 
VII 


(I) 
(2) 
(4) 
(1) 
(2) 
(2) 
(3) 
(1) 










35.00 






100.76 






19, 548. 00 






4. 000. 00 






264. 00 






250.00 






11,100.00 






1, 714. 40 








Total - 




37, 012. 15 




I 

IV 
V 


(4) 
(5) 
(I) 
(2) 
(2) 










60.00 






128. 00 






34.00 






245. 00 






26.00 








Total 




493.00 




I 

IV 
V 


(1) 

(5) 
(1) 
(2) 
(1) 






Egypt -. 




30 00 






518.00 






192. 39 






6.40 






1, 600. 00 








Total.. 




2, 346. 79 




I 

IV 

V 

VII 


(4) 
(1) 
(2) 
(2) 
(3) 
(2) 






El Salvador 


41.00 


180. 00 




4, 324. 63 




1,630.00 


1,791.00 
1, 604. 00 






850.00 




244.00 


4, 364. 00 


Total 


1,915.00 


13,013.63 


Estonia 


V 
VII 


(2) 
(1) 





44, 180. 00 






2.07 








Total. 




44, 182. 07 


Federated Malay States.. 


I 

IV 


(4) 
(1) 
(2) 




14.00 






59.08 






66.10 


Total. 




139. 18 




I 

IV 
V 


(1) 
(4) 
(1) 
(2) 
(1) 
(2) 
(3) 






Finland 




8. 517.05 






7,041.95 






80.00 






96.67 






14, 5.50. 00 




34. 875. 00 
31, 502. 00 


67, 025. 00 
164.170.00 


Total - 


66,377.00 


261, 479. 67 




I 


(1) 
(4) 




France . _ 




161.84 






339.00 





Category 


Value 


Country of destination 


October 1939 


10 months 
ending Octo- 
ber 31, 1939 


France— Continued. 


III (1) 
(2) 

IV (2) 

V (1) 
(2) 
(3) 

VI (1) 




$14,474,481.00 

660 00 

118.00 

379, 002. 00 

720, 301. 14 

2, 406, 631. 00 

2, 200. 00 






























Total 




17,982,844.08 




I (1) 
(4) 








32.50 
6.92 










Total 




38.42 




I (1) 
(4) 




French Equatorial Africa 




34.00 
32.00 










Total. 




66.00 




I (1) 
(4) 

IV (1) 
(2) 




French Indochina 




67.60 

78.31 

4, 131. 00 

1, 169. 26 


















Total 




5,436.07 




I (4) 
V (2) 




French West Africa 




33.83 

95.00 










Total 




128.83 




I (1) 
(4) 

IV (1) 
(2) 

V (2) 
(3) 




Qermanv^ 




123.70 
793.70 

1, 160. 12 

287.42 

13,300.00 

7, 000. 00 






















Total..,. 




22, 664. 94 




I (1) 
(2) 
(3) 
(4) 

III (1) 

IV (1) 
(2) 

V (1) 
C2) 
(3) 

VII (2) 




Qreat Britain. . . 




428 85 






1,000.00 
34, 585. 00 














24. 417, 393. 00 
965 28 
















492, 464. 00 
613, 948. 08 
649 223 5(1 














277 843 Of) 








Total 




26, 550 919 68 




V (2) 
(3) 






Greece.... 




3,500.00 
2, 200. 00 










Total.. _ 




6, 700. 00 




I (1) 
(4) 

IV (1) 
(2) 

V (2) 
(3) 

VII (1) 
(2) 




Ouatomala. 


$298. 00 
73.00 
122. 00 






1, 923. 00 
169. 55 
84.00 






192 00 






7, 666. 00 
93.00 








741. 00 


9, 489. 00 


Total 


1,234.00 


19, 813. 55 




I (1) 
C4) 

IV 'D 
(2) 

VII (1) 
(2) 




Haiti 


6,875.00 


11,688 00 




36, 652. 60 






2, 380. 75 






728. 11 






30.76 






334.54 








Total. 


6, 875. 00 


51.814.66 




I C4) 

IV (1) 

(21 




Honduras 




576. 38 






441.00 






2, 535. 60 


V (1) 
(2) 


50,000.00 


100,000.00 
61.00 


C3) 


2,560.06 


2,500.00 



600 



DEPAKTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 





Category 


Value 


Country ot destination 


October 1939 


10 months 
ending Octo- 
ber 31, 1939 


Honduras— Continued. 


VII (2) 




$959. 00 






Total - 


$52, 500. 00 


107.062.98 




I (1) 
C4) 

IV CD 
(2) 

V (2) 
VII (2) 




818. 40 






6.54. 68 






22, 608. 78 






3, 215. 92 






40.00 






1, 037. 86 








Total - 




28, 375. 64 




I (D 

(4) 

V C3) 




43.40 






6.00 






3, 670. 00 








Total - - 




3, 718. 40 




I (1) 
(4) 

IV (1) 
(2) 

V CD 
(2) 
(3) 

VI C2) 




2,026.60 






6, 684. 29 






3, 140. 86 






59.64 






16, 780. 00 






1, 905. 00 






2, 600. 00 






334.00 








Total 




33,430.39 




IV (1) 
(2) 

V CD 
(2) 










975.08 






162. 85 






40, 000. 00 






100.00 








Total - 




41, 237. 93 




I C3) 
(4) 

V CD 
(2) 
C3) 










26, 600. 00 






4, 958. 00 






210. 000. 00 






4, 300. 00 






29, 298. 00 








Total 




275, 056. 00 




V C2) 
(3) 






Italy 




26, 740. 00 






13, 900. 00 








Total 




40, 640. 00 




I (4) 

IV CD 

C2) 










62.44 






2, 762. 97 






463.67 








Total 




3, 269. 08 




IV CD 

V CD 
(2) 










6,380.00 






757, 000. 00 






235, 210. 00 








Total 




998, 590. 00 




I (1) 
(4) 

IV CD 
C2) 

V (1) 










1,067.80 






396. 35 






173.20 






124.36 






2, 300. 00 








Total -- 




4,050.71 




VII C2) 

I CD 
(2) 
(4) 










864.00 












30.80 




2,000.00 


2,000.00 
18.83 








Total 


2, 000. 00 


2, 049. 63 




I (I) 
(2) 
(4) 

IV C2) 








567. 75 






3, 576. 00 






613.00 






1, 276. 00 








Total 






6,032.78 





Category 


Value 


Country of destination 


October 1939 


10 months 
ending Octo- 
ber 31, 1939 




I 


(D 

C4) 




$312.43 






123. 66 








Total 




436. 09 




I 

III 
IV 

V 
VII 


CD 
C2) 
(3) 
(4) 
(D 
(D 
(2) 
CD 
(2) 
(3) 
CD 
C2) 






Mexico 


$26.40 


792. 34 




175.00 






76, 000. 00 






9, 330. 00 






935, 600. 00 






18, 273. 89 






16, 660. 00 




120, 850. 00 
1,096.00 
6, 750. 00 


499, 660. 00 

327,080.00 

888, 846. 00 

13, 609. 50 




17,000.00 


49,973.08 




145.721.40 


2. 836, 889. 81 




I 
I 

V 


(4) 

(D 
C4) 
C2) 
(3) 








9.00 












30.40 






111.67 






1,000.00 






20, 610. 00 








Total - - 




21,762.07 




I 

HI 

IV 
V 

VII 


C2) 
CD 
C2) 
CD 
CD 
C2) 
C3) 
C2) 










17.50 




364,866.00 


486, 488. 00 
449. 00 






45. 00 






n04, 029. 00 




14, 040. 00 
145, 819. 00 


312. 630. 67 

944, 023. 00 

52. 779. 00 








Total - --- 


624,725.00 


2, 400, 461. 17 




I 
III 

IV 
V 

VII 


(D 
(2) 
C4) 
C5) 
CD 
C2) 
CD 
C2) 
CD 
C2) 
C3) 
CD 








65. 25 






45, 645. 00 




46.00 


402, 48 
496. 660. 00 






4.856 313.00 






21,026.80 




112.00 


39, 774. 30 
314 82 






142, 478. 00 




53, 360. 00 
28, 830. 00 


124. 752. 10 

261, 607. 00 

10.00 








Total 


82, 338. 00 


5, 987, 938. 75 




I 

V 


(1) 
C4) 
(3) 








699. 25 




851.37 
14, 000. OO 






15,550.62 




I 

IV 
V 


CD 
C4) 
C2) 
C2) 
(3) 










612. 87 






448. 47 






166. 53 






2. 740. 00 






14, .500. 00 












18, 467. 87 




I 

IV 
V 


(D 
(4) 
C2) 
C2) 
(3) 






New Guinea, Territory of 




17.00 




91.66 






82.00 






18.199.00 






102. 000. 00 








Total 




120. 389. 56 




I 
I 

IV 
V 


(4) 

(D 
C4) 
C2) 
(1) 
C2) 
C3) 










116. 10 












466.61 






.■>92. 43 






106.58 






4, .500. 00 






12,752.00 






19, 300. 00 



NOVEMBER 2 5, 1939 



601 





Category 


Value 


Country of destination 


October 1939 


10 months 
ending Octo- 
ber 31, 1939 


New Zealand— Continued 


VII (1) 
(2) 




$5,578.00 
5 964 00 








Total ... 




49,259.62 




I (2) 

(4) 

HI (1) 

IV (1) 
(2) 

V (2) 
VII (2) 




















20, 906. 00 










2,059.70 
30 00 










S85 00 








Total 




27 '*')2 70 




I (4) 

IV (1) 

(2) 

VII (1) 










41 00 


















3 57 














Total 








I (1) 
C2) 
(4) 

IV (1) 
(2) 

V (2) 
(3) 

VII (2) 






















558 14 












2 03 






4, 326. 87 
19, 537. 00 
2 471 00 




$6,610.00 








Total-... 


6. 610. 00 


27 461 76 




V (1) 
(2) 
(3) 




Palestine 




3, 052. 00 
72 00 










404.00 








Total 




3 528 00 




IV (1) 
(2) 

V (1) 
(2) 
(3) 

VII (1) 
(2) 






Panama 




251 SK 






465 00 












800 00 




i."894.'6o' 


2. 400. 00 

4, 082. 00 

728 00 








Total 


1,894.00 






IV (1) 

(2) 




Paraguay. 




g 00 




820.00 


820.00 


Total 


820.00 


828 00 




I CD 
C2) 

II '« 

m (1) 

(2) 

IV (D 

C2> 

V CD 

(2) 
(3) 

VII CD 

C2) 




Peru.. 




45 CO 






37, 000. 00 
955. 36 






16, 000. 00 






1. 083, 240. 00 






10, 078. 40 






303. 50 




49.00 

27. 500. 00 

1,041.50 

3, 575. 00 


412.00 
36. 585. 00 
93,976.10 
65,972.00 

150.00 




558.00 


29, 368. 00 


Total 


32, 723. 50 


1 374 685 36 




I (4) 

I CD 

C4) 

IV CD 
C2) 

V CD 
(2) 




Pitcairn Island 




7.47 








Poland... 




118.70 






167. 48 






1,056.55 






111.39 

257, 705. 00 

39.00 








Total 




259, 198. 12 




I C4) 
IV (1) 










10.00 






.117.00 





Categnry 


Value 


Country of desfinatien 


October lom 


10 months 
endins Octo- 
ber 31, 1939 




V 


CD 
C2) 
C3) 




$9,135.00 
6,280.00 
















Total.. 








I 
V 


C6) 
C2) 
C3) 
















3, 970. 00 
26.190.00 






Total 




865 160 on 




I 

IV 
V 


CD 
C4) 
CD 
CD 






Southern Rhodesia 




609 92 












201 75 






1,900 00 








Total 




2, 989 62 




I 

IV 


CD 
C4) 
CD 
C2) 






.Straits Settlements, 




39.00 
116 37 






229.50 
34 70 








Total 




419 63 




I 

V 


CD 
C4) 
CD 
C2) 
C3) 






Sweden.. 




71 25 






1. 292. 14 






2.000 00 




$39, 307. 28 
3, 530. 00 


12.5, 231. 72 
19, 915. 00 


Total 


42, 837. 28 


148, 510. 11 




I 

IV 
V 


CD 
CD 
CD 
C2) 
C3) 




Switzerland 




62.90 






634. 75 






245, 697. 00 
13. 544. 00 






20, 200. 00 








Total 




280. 1.38. 65 




IV 

I 

IV 

V 


(2) 

CD 
C4) 
(1) 
C21 
C2) 
C3) 






Syria 




19.00 








Thailand 




23.58 






12. IS 




1,401.98 


22, 200. 41 
41.83 






65, 167. 61 
271. 960. 00 








Total 


1,401.98 


359,411.61 




I 
rv 

V 


(4) 
CD 
C2) 
C2) 
C3) 




Trinidad... . 




1.08 






79.50 






37.00 






1. 051. .50 






10, 000. 00 








Total.... 




11, 169. 08 




IV 
V 


CD 
C2) 
C2) 
C3) 




170. 34 






5.25 






327, 278. 00 






25.00 








Total.. 




327,478.69 


Turks and Caicos Islands 


IV 


CD 
C2) 




18.70 






.80 








Total . 




19,50 




I 

IV 
V 

VII 


CD 
C4) 
CD 
C2) 
CD 
C2) 
(3) 
(2) 






T^nion of South Africa 




1,210.83 






1, 835. 41 






.3,3,56.21 






368.24 






63,178.00 






10, 553. 57 






3, 766. 00 






11,760.00 








Total. 




96, 027. 26 



6U2 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 





Category 


Value 


Country of destination 


October 1939 


10 months 
ending Octo- 
ber 31, 1939 




V 


(1) 
(2) 
(3) 




$845, 966. on 


publics. 


$8, 808. 00 


74, 513. 78 
146, 408. 00 








Total 


8,808.00 


1,066,887.78 






(4) 
(2) 








13.00 






160. 00 








Total 




173, 00 




IV 
V 

VII 


(1) 
(2) 
(4) 
(1) 
(2) 
(1) 
(2) 
(3) 
(1) 
(2) 










40.00 






41.00 






57.00 




20.92 


20,449.24 
1, 286. 75 






76, 722. on 




159.00 


19,824.50 
141, 086. .SO 






6, 109. 77 




7, 350. 00 


13, 410. on 


Total 


7,629.92 


279, 026. 7r, 




IV 
V 


(1) 

(1) 
(2) 
(3) 




Windward Islands 




48 00 








Yugoslavia ^ 




182,036 00 




8,640.00 


32, 967. 00 
1, 906. 00 








Total 


8.640.00 


216, 909. 00 








Grand total 


1,259,573.67 


70,823,139.71 









Arms Import Licenses Issited 

The table printed belo^v indicates the char- 
iicter, vahie, and countries of origin of the arms, 
ammunition, and implements of war licensed 
for import, by the Secretary of State during 
the month of October 1939 : 



Country of origin 


Category 


Value 


Total 


Rplpinm 


1 0) 

V (2) 

V (1) 

V (2) 
(3) 

I (2) 

(4) 

I (4) 

V CD 
I (4> 

V (2) 

V (I) 


$300.00 

30.00 

4,800.00 

1,000.00 

9.000.00 

5. 500. 00 

40.00 

460.00 

20,000,00 

424. on 

2,600.00 
12.000.00 


1300 no 


Brazil 


30 00 


Canada 


4,800.00 
} 10, 000. 00 

} 5. 540. 00 


Cuba 


Tlenmark 


Fl Salvador 


(Ireat Britain.- 




Netherlands 

New Zealand 

Venezuela.. - 


424.00 
2, 600. on 
12,000.00 


Total 




66,144.00 









During the month of October, 10 arms import 
licenses •were issued, making a total of 143 such 
licenses issued during the current year. 



Categories of Abms, Ammunition, and Imple- 
ments OF War 

The categories of arms, ammunition, and im- 
plements of war ui the appropriate column of 
the tables printed above are the categories into 
which those articles were divided in the Presi- 
dent's proclamation of May 1, 1937, enumerat- 
ing the articles which woidd be considered as 
arms, ammunition, and implements of war for 
the purposes of section 5 of the joint resolution 
of May 1, 1937 [see pages 74-76 of the Bulletin 
of July 22, 1939 (Vol. I, No. 4) ]. 

Special Statistics in Eegard to Arms Exports 
TO Cuba 

In compliance with Article II of the conven- 
tion between the United States and Cuba to 
suppress smuggling, signed at Habana, March 
11, 1926, which reads in part as follows: 

"The High Contracting Parties agree that 
clearance of shipments of merchandise by water, 
air, or land, from any of the ports of either 
country to a port of entry of the other country, 
shall lie denied when such sloipment comprises 
articles the importation of which is prohibited 
or restricted in the country to which such ship- 
ment is destined, unle.ss in this last case there 
has been a compliance with the requisites de- 
manded by the laws of both countries." 

and in compliance with the laws of Cuba which 
restrict the importation of arms, ammunition, 
and implements of war of all kinds by requir- 
ing an import permit for Pitch shipment, export 
licenses for shipments of arms, ammunition, and 
implements of war to Cuba are required for 
the articles enumerated below in addition to the 
articles enumerated in the President's procla- 
mation of May 1, 1937 : 

(1) Arms and small ai-ms using ammunition 
of calilter .22 or less, other than those classed 
as toys. 

(2) Spare parts of anns and small arms of 
all kinds and calibers, other than those classed 
as toys, and of guns and machine guns. 

(3) Ammunition for the arms and small 
arms under (1) above. 



NOVEMBER 2 0, 193 i) 



603 



(4) Sabers, swords, and military' machetes 
with cross-guard hilts. 

( 5 ) Explosives as follows : explosive powdei-s 
of all kinds for all purposes; nitrocellulose 
having a nitrogen content of 12 percent or less; 
diphenylamine ; dynamite of all kinds; nitro- 
glycerine; alkaline nitrates (ammonium, potas- 
sium, and sodium nitrate); nitric acid; nitro- 
benzene (essence or oil of mirbane) ; suli)hur; 
sulphuric acid; chlorate of potash; and ace- 
tones. 

(6) Tear gas (CeH^COCH.Cl) and other 
similar nontoxic gases and apparatus designed 
for the storage or projection of such gases. 

The table printed below indicates, in respect 
to licenses authorizing the exportation to Cuba 
of the articles and commodities listed in the 
preceding paragraph issued by the Secretary 
of State during October 1939, the number of 
licenses and the value of the articles and com- 
modities described in the licenses: 



1936, together with the number of tons author- 
ized to be exported and the value thereof: 





October 1939 


10 months ending 
October 31, 1939 


Country of destinstion 


Quantity 

in long 

tons 


Total 
value 


Quantity 

in long 

tons 


Total 
value 


Japan 


247 


$4,945.00 


9,760 


$182,895.52 



During the month of October, 5 tin-plate 
scrap licenses were issued, making a total of 
156 such licenses issued during the current year. 

Helium 

No licenses authorizing the exportation of 
helium gas under the provisions of the act ap- 
proved September 1, 1937, and the regulations 
issued pursuant thereto, were applied for or 
issued during the month of October 1939. 



Number of licenses 


Section 


Value 


Total 


48 


(1) 

(6) 


$493. 16 

115. 70 

14, 226. 60 

31, 662. 88 


1 




I $4(;, 498. 33 



The table printed below indicates the value 
of the articles and commodities listed above 
exported to Cuba during October 1939 tnider 
licenses issued by the Secretary of State : 



Section 



(1) 
(2) 
(3) 
(5) 



Value 



$540.00 

46.40 

2, 085. 00 

16, 198. 50 



Total 



$18,868.00 



Tin-Plate Scrap 

The table printed below indicates the number 
of licenses issued during the year 1939, up to 
and including the month of October, authoi- 
izing the export of tin-plate scrap under the 
provisions of the act approved February 15, 



Publications 



Department of State 

Foreign Service List, October 1, 1939. Publication 1399. 
iv, 111 pp. Subscription 500 a year ; single copy 15?!. 

Neutrality : Agreement between the United States of 
America and Panama. — Effected by exchange of notes 
signed August 25. 10.30. Executive Agreement Series 
No. 160. Publication 1403. 2 pp. 50. 

Exchange of Cotton and Rubber: Agreement between 
the United States of America and Great Britain.— 
Signed at London June 23, 1939 ; effective by exchange 
of notes August 25, 1939 : proclaimed September 6, 1939. 
Treaty Series No. 947. 7 pp. 50. 



Treaty Information 



Compiled by the Treaty Division 



CONCILIATION 

Treaty With Portugal for the Advancement 
of Peace (Treaty Series No. 600) 

The present composition of the International 
Commission provided for under the terms of 
(he Treaty between the United States and Por- 
tugal, signed February 4, 1914, for the Advance- 
ment of Peace, a^jpears in this Bulletin under 
the heading "International Conferences, Com- 
missions, etc." 

Treaty of Conciliation With Belgium 
(Treaty Series No. 824) 

The present composition of the International 
Commission provided for under the terms of 
the Treaty of Conciliation between the United 
States and Belgium, signed March 20, 1929, 
appears in this BiiJlefi7i tinder the heading 
"International Conferences, Conunissions, etc."' 

MUTUAL GUARANTIES 

Anglo-Franco-Turkish Treaty of Mutual 
Assistance 

The American Ambassador to Turkey re- 
p<n-ted by a telegram dated November 16, 1939, 
that the deposit of the ratifications of the 
Anglo-Franco-Turkish Treaty of Mutual As- 
sistance, signed October 19, 1939, took place at 
Ankara, on November 16, 1939. The treaty 
entered into force upon the deposit of the instru- 
ments of ratification. The text of the treaty is 
printed on pages 544-54G of the Bidletin for 
November 11. 1939 (Vol. I, No. 20). 



EXTRADITION 

Extradition Treaty With Liberia 

The American Minister to Liberia reported 
by a telegram dated November 21, 1939, that 
the ratifications of the Extradition Treaty be- 
tween the United States and Liberia, signed on 
November 1, 1937, were exchanged at Monrovia 
on November 21, 1939. The treaty entered into 
effect upon the exchange of ratifications and 
will remain in force for a period of 5 years. 
If neither party shall have given notice 1 year 
before the expiration of the 5-year period of 
intention to terminate the treaty, it will con- 
tinue in force until the expiration of 1 year 
from the date on which such notice of termina- 
tion shall be given by either of the contracting 
parties. 

COMMERCE 

Reciprocal Trade Agreement With the 
United Kingdom 

The American Ambassador to Great Britain 
reported by a telegram dated November 24, 
1939, that the exchange of the President's proc- 
lamation of the Ti'ade Agreement between the 
L^nited States and the United Kingdom, signed 
on November 17, 1938, and the King's instru- 
ment of ratification of the agreement took place 
on November 24, 1939. Under the terms of 
the agreement it will enter into force defini- 
tively 30 days after the exchange of the Presi- 
dent's proclamation and the instrument of rati- 
fication by His Majesty the King, namely. 
December 24, 1939. 



(i04 



NOVEMBEK 2 5, 193 9 

Treaty of Friendship, Commerce, and Navi- 
gation With Liberia 

The American INIinister to Liberia reported 
by a telegram dated November 21, 1939, that 
the ratifications of the Treaty of Friendship, 
Commerce, and Navigation between the United 
States and Liberia, signed on August 8, 1938, 
■were exchanged at Monrovia on November 21, 
1939. According to the terms of article XXIV 
of the treaty it entered into force on the ex- 
change of ratifications and will continue in 
force for a term of 5 years. If within 1 year 
before the expiration of the 5-year period 
neither party notifies to tlie other an intention 
of terminating the treaty upon the expiration 
of the 5-year period, the treaty will remain in 
force until 1 year from such time as either 
party shall have notified to the other an inten- 
tion of terminating it. 

This treaty supplants the Treaty of Com- 
merce and Navigation between the United 
States and Liberia which was signed at London 
on October 21, 1862 (Treaty Series No. 195). 

TELECOMMUNICATIONS 

International Telecommunication Conven- 
tion (Treaty Series No. 867) 

Latvia 

The American Legation at Riga transmitted 
to the Department with a despatch dated Oc- 
tober 20, 1939, a translation of a law published 
in the Valdiba-s Vestnesis (Government Her- 
ald) No. 229, for October 9, 1939, by which the 
Latvian Government ratified the General Radio 
Regulations, the Additional Radio Regulations, 
the Telegraph Regulations, and tlie Telephone 
Regulations, annexed to the International Tele- 
conmaunication Convention of 1932, as adopted 
at Cairo on April 4 and 8, 1938. 

The following notices are printed, in trans- 
lation, from Notification No. 343, dated Novem- 
ber 1, 1939, from the Bureau of the Interna- 
tional Telecomiiuuiication Union at Bern : 



605 
"Bohemia and Moravia (Protectorate of) 

"By a letter received October 25, the Fed- 
eral Political Department at Bern sent us a copy 
of the note quoted below, which it received from 
the Legation of Germany at Bern: 

"'(Ti'anslation). On instructions from the 
German Government, the Legation of Germany, 
referring to Article 5, sections 1, 4 and 5 of the 
International Telecommunications Convention 
signed at Madrid December 9, 1932, has the 
honor to advise the Federal Political Depart- 
ment that the acceptance, by Germany, of the 
said Convention and the four Regulations an- 
nexed thereto is valid for the territory of the 
Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia. 

" 'In this regard, attention is particularly 
drawn to the fact that the telegraphic and tele- 
phonic rates hitherto applied in intercourse 
with localities of the Protectorate remain in 
force for the present. 

" 'The Legation of Germany requests the Fed- 
eral Political Department to be good enough 
to bring this declaration — which the Embassy 
of Germany at S. Sebastian transmitted to the 
Spanish Government on September 7, 1939, for 
communication to the other contracting Govern- 
ments — to the knowledge of the Bureau of the 
International Telecommunications Union at 
Bern. 

" 'The Legation of Germany would appreci- 
ate it if the Federal Political Department would 
inform it of the action taken on the present note 
and takes this opportunity . . .' " 

"The Federal Political Department adds that, 
to the present, it has not received the pertinent 
notification from the Spanish Government." 

"Sweden 

"Communication received October 23, from 
the Royal Legation of Sweden at Bern : 

" 'In compliance with instructions received 
and in accordance with Article 7 of the Inter- 
national Telecomnnmications Convention, con- 
cluded at Madrid December 9, 1932, the Royal 



606 

Legation of Sweden has the honor to inform 
the Bureau of the International Telecommiuii- 
cations Union that, under date of the 6th of this 
month, the King's Government gave its ap- 
proval to the following revised regulations con- 
nected with the said Convention, i. e., the Tele- 
graph Regulations, the Telephone Regulations, 
the General Regulations on Radiocommunica- 
tions and the Additional Regulations on Radio- 
communications.' " 

CONSULAR 

Consular Convention With Liberia 

The American Minister to Liberia reported 
by a telegram dated November 21, 1939, that 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

the instruments of ratification of the Consular 
Convention between the United States and Li- 
beria, signed on October 7, 1938, were exchanged 
at Monrovia on November 21, 1939. According 
to the tenns of article XIV of the convention 
it will enter into force on December 21, 1939, 
i. e., 30 days from the day of the exchange of 
ratifications, and it will i-emain in force for a 
term of 6 years. If neither party notifies to 
the other an intention of modifying or of ter- 
minating the convention 6 months before the 
expiration of the period of 5 years, it will re- 
main in force until 6 months from such time as 
either party shall have notified to the other an 
intention of modifying or terminating the 
convention. 



U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTINS OFFICE: 1939 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents. Washington, D. C— Price 10 cents Subscription price, $2.75 a year 

PUBLISHED WEEKLY WITH THE APPROVAL OF THB DIRECroR OP THB BtJRMAn OF THE BUDGET 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



iJ_j) \J ii aW A 



ETI 




DECEMBER 2, 1939 
Vol. I: No. 2 J — Publication I40g 



Qontents 



Eueope: 

Finnish-Soviet situation: Page 

Statement by the President 609 

Statement by the Secretary of State 609 

Appeal by the President regarding bombardment 

from the air of civilian populations 609 

Reports from the American Minister to Finland . . 610 
Detention by belligerents of American vessels for exami- 
nation of papers or cargoes 612 

Contributions for relief in belligerent countries . ... 613 
The American Republics: 

Conference on Inter-American Relations in the Field of 
Publications and Libraries: 
The Role of the United States Government in Inter- 
national Cidtural Relations: Address by Assistant 

Secretary Grady 614 

Proceedings of the Conference 616 

First Meeting of the Finance Ministers of the American 
Republics at Guatemala: 

Final Act of the Meeting 625 

Adjudication of agrarian claims in Mexico 631 

Inter-American Financial and Economic Advisory 

Committee 631 

Fiftieth anniversary of the proclamation of the Brazilian 

Republic 632 

\OveT\ 




Commercial Policy: Page 

Statement by the Secretary of State regarding address 

of the Prime Minister oi Great Britain 632 

The Present Need for a Sane Commercial Policy: Ad- 
dress by Assistant Secretary Grady 633 

Supplemental trade-agreement negotiations with Can- 
ada 639 

Allocation of tariff quota on heavy cattle 640 

Availability of AustraUan wool 641 

Trade agreement with Turkey 64 1 

Foreign Service: 

Personnel changes 642 

Proclamations of Two Treaties and a Convention 

With Liberia 642 

Treaty Information: 
Arbitration: 

Permanent Court of Arbitration 643 

Extradition: 

Extradition Treaty with Liberia (Treaty Series No. 

955) 643 

Commerce: 
Treaty of Friendship, Commerce, and Navigation 

with Liberia (Treaty Series No. 956) 643 

Supplemental trade agreement with Canada .... 643 

Trade agreement with Turkey 643 

Consular: 

Consular Convention with Liberia (Treaty Series No. 

957) 643 

Finance: 

Double income taxation with Sweden 643 

Final Act of the First Meeting of Finance Ministers 

of the American Republics at Guatemala .... 643 
Industrial Property: 

Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property 

(Revised 1934) (Treaty Series No. 941) 644 

Arrangement for the Suppression of False Indications 

of Origin on Merchandise (Revised 1934) .... 644 
Arrangement Concerning the International Registra- 
tion of Trade Marks (Revised 1934) 644 

Arrangement Concerning the International Registra- 
tion of Industrial Designs and Models (Revised 

1934) 644 

Postal: 

Universal Postal Convention of 1934 644 

Publications: 
Exchange of Official Publications with Argentina 

(Executive Agreement Series No. 162) 645 

Publications ; ; 646 



Europe 



FINNISH-SOVIET SITUATION 



Statement by the President 



[Released to the press by the White House December 1] 

The news of the Soviet naval and military 
bombings within Finnish territory has come 
as a profound shock to the Government and 
people of the United States. Despite efforts 
made to solve the dispute by peaceful methods 
to which no reasonable objection could be of- 
fered, one power has chosen to resort to force 
of arms. It is tragic to see the policy of force 
spreading, and to realize that wanton disre- 
gard for law is still on the march. All peace- 
loving peoples in those nations that are still 
hoping for the continuance of relations 



throughout the world on the basis of law and 
order will unanimously condemn this new 
resort to military force as the arbiter of inter- 
national differences. 

To the great misfortune of the world, the 
present trend to force makes insecure the inde- 
pendent existence of small nations in every 
continent and jeopardizes the rights of man- 
kind to self-government. The people and Gov- 
ernment of Finland have a long, honorable, and 
wholly peaceful record which has won for 
them the respect and warm regard of the people 
and Government of the United States. 



Statement by the Secretary of State 



[Released to the press November 29] 

This Government is following with serious 
concern the intensification of the Finnish- 
Soviet dispute. It would view with extreme 
regret any extension of the present area of war 
and the consequent further deterioration of 



international relations. Without in any way 
becoming involved in the merits of the dispute, 
and limiting its interest to the solution of the 
dispute by peaceful processes only, this Gov- 
ernment would, if agreeable to both parties, 
gladly extend its good offices. 



Appeal by the President Regarding Bombardment From the Air of Civilian Populations 



[Released to the press December 1] 

The American Minister to Finland and the 
American Ambassador to the Union of Soviet 
Socialist Republics were requested to deliver 
the following message in the name of the 



President to the Governments to which they 
are accredited : 

"The ruthless bombing from the air of civil- 
ians in unfortified centers of population dur- 

609 



I', " ■ 



610 

ing the course of hostilities which have raged 
in various quarters of the earth during the 
past few years, which has resulted in the maim- 
ing and in the death of thousands of defenseless 
men, women and children, has sickened the 
hearts of every civilized man and woman, and 
has profoundly shocked the conscience of 
humanity. 

"If resort is had to this form of inhuman 
barbarism during the period of the tragic 
conflagration with which the world is now con- 
fronted, hundreds of thousands of innocent 
human beings who are not even remotely par- 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIISt 

ticipating in hostilities, will lose their lives. 
I am therefore addressing this appeal to the 
Soviet Government [read Finnish Government 
in the message to Helsinki], as I have to gov- 
ernments which have been engaged in general 
hostilities, publicly to affirm its determination 
that its armed forces shall in no event, and un- 
der no circumstances, undertake the bombard- 
ment from the air of civilian populations or 
of unfortified cities, upon the understanding 
that these same rules of warfare will be scru- 
pulously observed by all of their opponents. 
I request an immediate reply. 

Franklin D. Koosevelt" 



Reports From the American Minister to Finland 



[Released to the press November "0] 

The American Minister to Finland, Mr. H. 
F. Arthur Schoenfeld, reported on November 
30 to the Department of State that at 10:20 
a. m., Helsinki time, he had handed to the 
Finnish Minister of Foreign Affairs a mem- 
orandum containing the text of Secretary 
Hull's statement of November 29, printed 
above. 

The Foreign Minister said the Finnish Gov- 
ernment would welcome the exercise of good 
offices to put an end to the Russian attack, 
especially as it had no communication with 
the Soviet Government. The Foreign Minis- 
ter said no attack had been made from the 
Finnish side anywhere but an artillery bom- 
bardment began at 7 a. m. the morning of No- 
vember 30 by land and sea near Terijoki and 
Kuokkala District as well as north of Lake 
Lagoda where Russians crossed the frontier. 
The Russians had also occupied the Finnish 
part of Fisherman's Peninsula at Petsimo and 
seized Finnish frontier guards on the northern 
boundary. A plane which flew over Helsinki 
at 9 : 20 the morning of November 30 dropped 
five bombs on the Malmi airfield. 

The American Charge at Moscow, Mr. Walter 
C. Thur^on, reports that at 11 : 45 a. m., Mos- 



cow time, November 30, he handed to the Vice 
Commissar for Foreign Affairs, with a brief 
covering note, a copy of Secretary Hull's state- 
ment of November 29. The Vice Commissar 
remarked that in his opinion there was no 
occasion for good offices. Beyond this he made 
no comment, but the Charge reported that pre- 
sumably the Vice Commissar will deliver the 
statement at once to higher officials. 

[Released to the press November 30] 

The American Minister to Finland reported 
that at 9:20 o'clock, Finnish time, November 
30, one Soviet two-motored plane passed over 
Helsinki at a low altitu,de. It was fired on by 
anti-aircraft artillery and departed after 15 
minutes. At 10 : 20 a. m., Finnish time, a flight 
of 9 Soviet light bombers attacked fortresses 
in the Bay of Helsinki, were met by anti-air- 
craft fire, and departed at 10 : 25 a. m. 

[Released to the press November 30] 

The American Minister to Finland reported 
to the Department of State at 5 p. m., Fimiish 
time, November 30, that there was another air 
raid the afternoon of November 30, at about 3 
o'clock, when 15 planes flew over the immediate 
vicinity of the Legation offices, and some build- 



DECEMBER 2, 1939 



611 



ings witliin 3 blocks of the Legation were burn- 
ing. 

So far as Minister Schoenfeld was aware there 
have been no American casualties. 

Minister Schoenfeld has opened an emer- 
gency office at the Badgi-ankuUa Hotel, which is 
approximately 17 kilometere west of Helsinki, 
and is evacuating the Legation personnel to 
nearby places. 

On the night of November 30 the personnel 
of the American Legation were being estab- 
lished at their new locations, and Mr. Schoen- 
feld will probably return to Helsinki itself on 
the morning of December 1. 

[Released to the press December 1] 

The American Legation at Helsinki reported 
to the Dejaartment of State at 12 : 30 a. m., Fin- 
nish time, December 1, that it is evacuating 
numerous Americans from Helsinki to the 
Legation's emergency quarters at Badgrankullai 
in private cars of the members of the Legation. 

Helsinki was reported as being rapidly evac- 
uated in cars, busses, and afoot. Fires were 
still burning at various places but were being 
brought under control. The casualty list in- 
cludes children. 

[Released to the press December 1] 

Despatches to the Department of State from 
the American Legation at Helsinki, telephoned 
to the Legation at Stockholm, report that a 
heavy air raid started over Helsinki about 1 
o'clock the afternoon of December 1. 

A new Cabinet has been formed, headed by 
Mr. Kiti, Director of the Bank of Finland, as 
Prime JNIinister, with Mr. Tanner, late Minister 
of Finance as Minister of Foreign Affairs. 

It wafc also reported from Furnish sources 
that hea\v artillery jd reparations from the sea 
for an attempted landing had been proceeding 
at Hangoe, where transports visible at sea have 
met with strong resistance. The same sources 
also reported that air bombing squadrons 
crossed the Finnish Gulf entering Finnish ter- 
ritory over Sveaborg, passing Tavastehus in 



the direction of the industrial cities Tammer- 
fors and Jyvaskyla. 

[Released to the press December 1] 

The American Minister to Finland, Mr. H. 
F. Arthur Schoenfeld, reported to the Depart- 
ment at 3 p. m., Finnish time, December 1 that 
the Minister of the Interior made a radio 
speech to the nation at noon, December 1. The 
Minister of the Interior said that there was 
calm throughout the whole country, that evac- 
uation was proceeding smoothly, solicited the 
continued jDublic cooperation, praised the sol- 
diers, and appealed to the public to follow their 
example. He said that the Finnish people 
have chosen indeijendence and are unanimous, 
and history will show whether their choice was 
right. 

Mr. Schoenfeld reported in his telegram that 
the calm of the public is impressive and that 
remarkable patience is noticeable everywhere. 
He described the temper of the public as ad- 
mirable, despite severe hardships and approach- 
ing winter. 

[Released to the press December 2] 

The American Minister to Finland reported 
to the Department of State that 42 persons 
were known to have been killed in Helsinki by 
the air raids on November 30. The casualties 
were fewer on December 1. During the air 
raid of 15 planes which flew in the immediate 
vicinity of the Legation offices in Helsinki 
about 3 o'clock on the afternoon of November 
30, Minister Schoenfeld personally witnessed 
indiscriminate bombing, and casualties were 
seen by members of the Legation. Buildings 
within 3 blocks of the Legation burned. 

The city gas plant buildings were demol- 
ished, but the main tank was apparently intact 
and empty. An attack on the water reservoir 
on December 1 failed. 

There were three heavy air raids on Helsinki 
on December 1. Minister Schoenfeld was in 
Helsinki the night of December 1 but expected 
to return immediately to Badgranknillu tlirough 
a fairly effective blackout, 



612 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



DETENTION BY BELLIGERENTS OF AMERICAN VESSELS FOR EXAMINA- 
TION OF PAPERS OR CARGOES 



[Released to the press November 2G] 

Following is a list of American vessels in 
addition to the tabulation issued on November 
17, 1939, showing the American vessels which 
have been reported to the Department of State 
as having been detained by belligerents since 
September 1, 1939, for examination of papers 
or cargo. 

It was explained at the Department of State 
that injury to American vessels destined to 
European ports has not resulted in the main 
from their diversion from the high seas to 
belligerent ports. As a general practice, for 



reasons of their own, the vessels which cleared 
from ports of the United States on or before 
November 4, the effective date of the Neutral- 
ity Act of 1939, ordinarily put into belligerent 
ports en route to their destinations, and the 
principal difficulty thus far has arisen in con- 
nection with delay involved in the examination 
of the vessels and their cargoes before being 
permitted to proceed on their voyages. Al- 
though all cases of detention may not have 
been reported to the Department, the state- 
ment is as nearly complete as is possible to 
arrange it. 



Name of vessel 



Owner or operator 



Cargo 



Detained 



Beleased 



Express- 



Black Hawk 

Exeter 



Black Condor. 
Nishmaha 



President Polk. 
Scanmail 

Tulsa 

Examiner 



American Export Lines. 



Black Diamond Lines.. 
American Export Lines. 

Black Diamond Lines . 
Lykes Bros. S. S. Co... 



American President 
Lines. 

American Scantic Line. 



South Atlantic S. S. 

Co. 
American Export Lines. 



General. 



Cotton, paraffin, 
beef casings. 



Mixed. 



General, oil, 
grease, rubber 
tires, cotton 
goods. 



British, November 12, at Malta. 
Being detained pending receipt 
of instructions from British 
Government. Has remaining 
on board 420 tons general 
cargo for Greece, Turkey, and 
Rumania. Free to depart after 
November 21, in view of dec- 
laration furnished. 

British, November 13. Arrived 
at Ramsgate. 

French, November 8. Detained 
24 hours. 1,400 bales cotton- 
seed hulk consigned to Switzer- 
land removed. 

British, November 5, at Wey- 
mouth. Part of cargo seized; 
162 bags mail removed. 

British, November 11, at Gibral- 
tar. Large number of items of 
cargo seized. Free to proceed 
after November 17 on captain's 
undertaking to unload at Bar- 
celona cargo for that port and 
to proceed to Marseille for 
unloading seized items. 

British, November 5, at Port 
Said. Certain cargo detained 
for inquiry. 

British, November 5, at Kirkwall. 
Part of cargo seized and de- 
tained. Free to depart after 
November 21 to return to 
United States. 

British, October 23, at London... 

British, November 17, at Gi- 
braltar. 1 1 bags first-class mail 
removed. 



Departed No- 
vember 23. 



November 10. 



November 17. 



November 9. 



DECEMBER 2, 1939 



613 



Name of vessel 


Owner or operator 


Cargo 


Detained 


Released 


West Harshaw- _ 
Yaka 


Lykes Bros. S. S. Co— 

Waterman S. S. Co 

American Export Lines. 
American Export Lines 


General, cotton, 
oil, carbon 
black. 

General, cotton, 
barbed wire, 
tool handles. 

General, oil, films. - 


British, November 16, at Rams- 
gate. 

British, November 11. Destina- 
tion London and Rotterdam. 

British, November 20, at Gi- 
braltar. 

British, November 22, at Gi- 
braltar. 

British, November 17. 




Excambion 

Exmouth 




Black GuD 


Black Diamond Lines. . 

















CONTRIBUTIONS FOR RELIEF IN BEL- 
LIGERENT COUNTRIES 

[Released to the press November 2S] 

The following persons and organizations 
have registered with the Secretary of State 
since November 9, 1939 (the names of 176 
registrants were published on and before that 
date) under the rules and regulations govern- 
ing the solicitation and collection of contribu- 
tions to be used for medical aid and assistance 
or for the supplying of food and clothing to 
relieve human suffering in the countries now 
at war, promulgated pursuant to the provisions 
of section 8 of the Neutrality Act of Novem- 
ber 4, 1939, as made effective by the Presi- 
dent's proclamation of November 4, 1939 (the 
names in parentheses represent the countries 
to which contributions are being sent) : 

177. Massachusetts Relief Committee for 
Poland, 340 Main Street, Worcester, Mass. 
(Poland) 

178. Southbridge Allied Committee for Relief 
in Poland, 18 Ballard Court, Southbridge, 
Mass. (Poland) 

179. American Friends Service Committee, 20 
South Twelfth Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 
(United Kingdom, Poland, Germany, and 
France) 

180. Refugies d'Alsace-Lorraine en Dordogne, 
486 California Street, San Francisco, Calif. 
(France) 

181. United Polish Societies of Manchester, 158 
Eldridge Street, Manchester, Conn. (Po- 
land) 



182. Polish Relief Committee of Jackson, 
Mich., 1425 Joy Avenue, Jackson, Mich. 
(Poland) 

183. Share A Smoke Club, Inc., 504 Stewart 
Avenue, Ithaca, N. Y. (England and 
France) 

184. Committee of French-American Wives, 
18 East Forty-sixth Street, New York, N. Y. 
(France) 

185. Hadassah, Inc., 1860 Broadway, New 
York, N. Y. (Palestine) 

186. Federation of Franco-Belgian Clubs of 
Rhode Island, Sampson Street, Woonsocket, 
R. I. (France) 

187. Societe Fran^aise de St. Louis, Inc., 3533 
Longfellow Boulevard, St. Louis, Mo. 
(France) 

188. American German Aid Society, 2206 West 
Twenty-first Street, Los Angeles, Calif. 
(Germany) 

189. French War Relief, 1209 Pershing Square 
Building, 448 South Hill Street, Los An- 
geles, Calif. (France) 

190. General TaufHieb Memorial Relief Com- 
mittee for France, 265 Miramar Avenue, 
Santa Barbara, Calif. (France and Eng- 
land) 

191. Polish Business and Professional Men's 
Club, Inc., 5252 South Broadway, Los An- 
geles, Calif. (Poland) 

192. League of Polish Societies of New Kens- 
ington, Arnold and vicinity, 857 Kenneth 
Avenue, New Kensington, Pa. (Poland) 

193. British-American War Ralief Association, 
in care of Dr. Ira L. Neill, Cobb Building, 



614 



DEPAKTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Seattle, Wash. (United Kingdom and allied 
countries) 

194. The Fashion Group, Inc., 30 Eockefeller 
Plaza, New York, N. Y. (France) 

195. Secours Franco-Americain — War Relief, 
2555 Woodward Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
(France) 

196. Mrs. Carroll Greenough, 1408 Thirty-first 
Street, N. W., Washington, D. C. (France) 

197. The United Polish Societies of Bronx 



County, 705-09 Courtlandt Avenue, Bronx, 
New York, N. Y. (Poland) 

198. Committee for the Relief for Poland, 1714 
Eighteenth Street, Seattle, Wash. (Poland) 

199. Polish Women's Relief Committee, 149 
East Sixty-seventh Street, New York, N. Y. 
(France, Poland, and Germany) 

200. Mrs. Walter R. Tuckerman, Edgemoor, 
Bethesda, Md. (Great Britain) 



The American Republics 



CONFERENCE ON INTER- AMERICAN RELATIONS IN THE FIELD OF 

PUBLICATIONS AND LIBRARIES 

The Role of the United States Government in International Cultural Relations: Address by- 
Assistant Secretary Grady ^ 



[Released to the press November 29] 

It is an honor to welcome here today this dis- 
tinguished group of writers, publishers, book 
dealers, and librarians. Your coming here to 
discuss the ways and means of increasing inter- 
American understanding and exchange through 
the printed word is, I assure you, greatly appre- 
ciated. 

This is a subject of outstanding importance. 
A greater knowledge on the part of the two 
Americas of how the other continent lives, of 
what it thinks, and of what it likes is funda- 
mental to a closer drawing together of the 
American republics and to the fullest realiza- 
tion of the "good neighbor" policy. It is nat- 
ural that in seeking to promote cultural under- 
standing between the Americas effort should be 
directed to a greater reciprocal exchange of 
publications. 

A knowledge of the culture of a people leads 
to an understanding of their social, economic, 

'Delivered at the C'onfprence on Inter-American Re- 
lations in the Field <>t Piihllentions and Libraries, in 
the Coolidge Auditorium, Library of Copgr^ss, Nov'em- 

Oct* ^<7t J-Uo^* 



and political life. Culture is a social phe- 
nomenon. It is the pattern which determines 
how people in relation to others in a group think 
and act. The physical characteristics of man — 
the complexion of his skin, the color of his hair 
and eyes, the shape of his head, and his stat- 
ure — are his biological heritage. His behavior 
and habits of thought, that is, his industry, his 
technical skill, his artistic appreciation, his 
moral code, including his attitude toward the 
institution of property, individual rights, and 
freedom of speech, are in a large part governed 
by his cultural environment. Differences in 
cultural environment account largely for differ- 
ences in legal, political, and economic institu- 
tions. 

Although the culture of a people is deter- 
mined in part by geographical and other mate- 
rial factors, it may nevertheless be modified, 
developed, and enriched by the infiltration of 
ideas and values of other peoples. The devel- 
opment of the arts and tribal institutions of 
primitive peoples has resulted in many instances 
from migrations and invasions. The amalga- 



DECEMBER 2, 1939 



615 



mations of cultures produced revitalized social 
organizations. The glory that was Kome was 
in some measure borrowed from Greece. The 
colonization of western Europe by the Romans 
influenced the development of feudal society in 
the Middle Ages. The Renaissance, in which 
our modern civilization has its roots, provides 
an outstanding and well-known instance in his- 
tory of the effect of the diffusion of the thought 
and learning of one society, even though of an 
ancient and bygone age, into the culture of 
another. 

Social behavior and habits of thought dur- 
ing the Middle Ages were dominated by the 
church. The monks were the only writers and 
the monasteries the only libraries. The church 
was the guardian of learning and controlled its 
dissemination. The infiltration of the thought 
and knowledge from the East, however, follow- 
ing the Crusades and the Mongolian invasions, 
broadened the intellectual horizon of the peo- 
ple. Copies of the works of Plato and Aris- 
totle and the Greek poets, which found their 
way into southern Italy, and a knowledge of 
higher mathematics, j^hysics, and chemistry, 
which found its way into Europe from the 
Moorish universities in Spain, opened the 
minds of the people in the West, raised ques- 
tions, and prepared the way for the reception 
of science. In Spain this intellectual reawak- 
ening found expression in voj-ages of discovery, 
made possible by the mariner's compass, im- 
ported from Asia, and led to the founding of 
new civilizations in the Americas. 

The penetration of eastern and ancient cul- 
ture into Europe was in a large part due to the 
printing press, also a product of the East. It 
made the dissemination of knowledge on a 
wide scale mechanically easy and financially 
possible. The printed word was one of the 
basic factors in the rise of modern civilization. 
As a medium for the expression of the aspira- 
tions, emotions, and intellectual activity and 
interests of a people, the printed word is today 
a powerful social force, and, because this 
medium of cultural expression is broad in scope 
and widely appreciated, it is a factor of great 
importance in international relations. 

194019—39 2 



By the exchange of the printed word between 
peoples of various countries, there may be 
brought about a reciprocal exchange of ideas, 
learning, and values; in short, a welding to- 
gether of cultures which enriches our lives, 
promotes the growth of common interests 
among nations, and leads to the maintenance of 
peace and harmony in the world. 

Peace is the objective toward which our for- 
eign policy is directed. In our relations with 
Latin America our desire for the preservation 
of peace and harmony has found expression in 
a number of inter-American conferences. At 
the Conference of Montevideo in 1933 substan- 
tial agreement was reached by the American 
republics concerning matters involving respect 
for sovereignty, elimination of intervention, 
and the perfecting of mechanisms by which dis- 
putes could be solved by peaceful means. At 
the Conference for the Maintenance of Peace, 
at Buenos Aires in 1936, the 21 American re- 
publics concluded certain agreements designed 
to make possible common action by all of the 
21 American republics in the event that peace 
was threatened. At the Eighth International 
Conference of American States at Lima last 
year they agreed that they would defend and 
maintain the integrity of the republican in- 
situations to which the New World is com- 
mitted; that they would regard an attack on 
any one of these nations as an attack on all; 
and that they would consult together to take 
measures for the common defense in the event 
of a threat to peace or an attack on any one of 
them. At the outbreak of war last September, 
action was promptly taken on the basis of 
these provisions, and consultation of the 
American republics was held at Panama. 

Moreover, in our trade-agreements program 
we are seeking to promote peace and prosper- 
ity through the elimination of trade discrim- 
inations and the reduction of barriers to in- 
ternational commerce. In order to avoid eco- 
nomic frictions and consequent international 
ill-feeling which ultimately leads to war, the 
trade of all nations must be treated fairly and 
equitably and oppoiiunity must be afforded 
them through the lowering of barriers against 



616 

their exports to realize more fully their eco- 
nomic potentialities. Only under conditions 
of economic prosperity is peace secure. Trade 
agreements providing on a reciprocal basis for 
most-favored-nation treatment and the relaxa- 
tion of import restrictions have been concluded 
by this Government with 11 Latin- American 
countries, namely, Cuba, Brazil, Haiti, Colom- 
bia, Honduras, Nicaragua, Guatemala, Costa 
Kica, El Salvador, Ecuador, and Venezuela. 
Moreover, notice has been given of intention 
to negotiate trade agreements also with Argen- 
tina, Chile, and Uruguay. 

Cultural relations therefore in promoting 
understanding and good will between nations 
are of vital interest to this Govemment from 
the point of view of its foreign policy, and 
this Conference, which is meeting to discuss 
the possibilities of developing more effective 
channels for the flow of culture between the 
two continents, has a far-reaching significance. 

It is the theory and viewpoint of the Gov- 
ermnent, however, that cultux'al activities in 
this country rest primarily with private initia- 
tive and that the Government should play a 
secondary role, placing at the disposal of such 
agencies its facilities and aid. In this connec- 
tion it may be noted that the establishment 
of the Division of Cultural Relations in the 
Department of State and the Hispanic Foun- 
dation of the Library of Congress constitute 
important Government gestures to this end. 
Both are eager to make their facilities avail- 
able and to aid in every legitimate way in the 
furtherance of inter-American cultural re- 
lations. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

The Division of Cultural Relations of the 
Department of State has been established es- 
sentially as a clearinghouse and coordinating 
agency to offer the good otEces of the Govern- 
ment to the important private agencies in the 
field. The recent book exhibits held in Buenos 
Aires, Rio de Janeiro, and Montevideo in 
which the Department collaborated with 32 
publishing houses of this country indicate how 
the Department can cooperate with private 
initiative. Another important step which has 
been taken toward the increase of exchange in 
the field of books is the Convention on the 
Interchange of Publications, signed at Buenos 
Aires in 1936. This accord provided for (a) 
the establislunent in each national library or 
official library of a section dedicated to the 
other signatory states, (b) the installation in 
these sections by each of the signatory states 
of "a collection of works of such character 
as to afford an understanding of the thought 
of their men of letters and science", and (c) the 
provision (article III) by each signatory to 
the other contracting parties of copies of "offi- 
cial publications and such other publications 
as are edited with official assistance." This 
convention has been ratified by the Senate. 

The Department is deeply appreciative of 
the presence of all who have come to Washing- 
ton to consult and advise with each other and 
with the Department on these matters. These 
conferences are evidence in themselves of the 
desire of the Government to enlist the aid and 
cooperation of the numerous private agencies 
throughout the country in the task of further- 
ing more effectively increased understanding 
between the peoples of this hemisphere. 



Proceedings of the Conference 



(Released to the pieHS November 28] 

Representatives of leading publishing houses, 
university presses, i)ublic and special libraries, 
journals, magazines, and newspapers will at- 
tend a Confeivnci' on Inter-American Relations 
in the Field of Publications and Libraries to be 
held at the Library of Congress on November 



29 and 30.^ The Conference, sponsored by the 
Department of State, has been called for the 
purpose of discussing how inter- American 
undei-standing can be forwai'ded by the ex- 



" A list of the persons who had indicated their in- 
tention of attending the Conference as of November 
27, l!)3f), was released to the press by the Department 
on November 28. 



DECEMBER 2, 193 9 



617 



change of books and other publications and 
how this material can be made readily available 
to the public. 

At the opening session, which will be held 
at 10 a. m. on November 29 in the Coolidge 
Auditorium, the Honorable Henry F. Grady, 
Assistant Secretary of State, will address the 
Conference on the role of the United States 
Government in international cultural relations. 
The Honorable Archibald MacLeish, Librarian 
of Congress, will discuss the contribution of 
libraries to inter-American cultural relations. 
Under a review of resources for interchange, 
the Conference will hear Jose Balseiro of 
Puerto Rico, formerly Professor of Spanish 
Literature at the University of Illinois, outline 
what of special interest to the United States 
the other American republics can contribute. 
John A. Mackay, President of the Princeton 
Theological Seminary, formerly Professor of 
Philosophy at the University of San Marcos in 
Lima, Peru, will discuss what of si^ecial inter- 
est to the other American republics the United 
States can contribute. Stanley K. Hornbeck. 
Adviser on Political Relations, Department of 
State, and Ben M. Cherrington, Chief, Division 
of Cultural Relations, De])artment of State. 
will preside at the opening session. 

The second session of the Conference, to be 
held at 2 : 30 Wednesdaj' afternoon, will be de- 
voted to a consideration of the facilities for in- 
terchange. Henry M. Snyder, President of 
Henry M. Snyder & Co., will outline the view- 
point of the general publisher. Mr. Snyder 
represented the American publishers partici- 
pating in the exliibitions of books published in 
the United States held last summer in Buenos 
Aires, Montevideo, and Rio de Janeiro. R. O. 
Rivera, Director of the Duke University Press, 
will outline the contribution of imiversity 
presses. Discussing the contribution of librar- 
ies, the Conference will hear from Charles F. 
Gosnell, Chairman, Committee on Library Co- 
operation with Latin America, American Li- 
brary Association; Lewis Hanke, Director of 
the Hispanic Foundation of the Library of 
Congress ; the Honorable Leo S. Rowe, Director 



General of the Pan American Union, who will 
describe the work of the Union's Columbus Li- 
brary; and Laura A. Woodward, Vice Presi- 
dent of the Special Libraries Association. 

The place of the journal in the other Ameri- 
can republics will be discussed by Samuel Guy 
Inman, of the University of Pennsylvania. 
Mortimer Graves, Administrative Secretary of 
the American Council of Learned Societies, will 
outline the contribution of scholarly journals. 
The Honorable Wilbur Cross, editor of The Yale 
Review, will discuss the contribution of literary 
journals. The contribution of technical, trade, 
and business journals will be presented by John 
Abbink, President of the Business Publishers 
International Corporation. Joshua Powers, of 
Editors Press Service, Inc., will speak on the 
contribution of newspapers. Dr. Hanke will 
preside at the second session. 

An informal dinner will be held at the Na- 
tional Press Club Wednesday evening at which 
delegates to the Conference will hear Hubert 
Herring, Executive Director of the Committee 
on Cultural Relations with Latin America, 
Blair Niles, author of Peiuvian Pageant, and 
Waldo G. Leland, Permanent Secretary of the 
American Council of Learned Societies, discuss 
personal adventures in the other Americas. The 
Reverend Edmund A. Walsh, Vice President of 
Georgetown University, will preside at the 
dinner. 

The delegates will split up into two parallel 
discussion groups the second day of the Confer- 
ence. Group I will consider how the market 
for books published in the United States can be 
increased in the other American republics; 
credit arrangements and exchange problems; 
methods of shipment ; lu)\v the market in the 
United States for books published in the other 
American republics can be increased; develop- 
ing a reading public, and its relation to the 
teacliing of Spanish and Portuguese ; a general 
survey of the resources for potential trans- 
lations — English to Spanish or Portuguese, and 
Spanish or Portuguese to English ; methods of 
selection of individual works; problems of pub- 
lication and circulation; and the improvement 



618 

of inter-American cultural relations through 
coiJyright protection. 

Group II will consider how books may be 
obtained from the other American republics; 
booklists and bibliographies ; agencies for pur- 
chase and circulation ; the exchange and use of 
government documents and official publications; 
stimulation of interchange of journals and 
articles; library cooperation other than through 
exchange of books, such as fellowships and 
grants-in-aid, exhibits, reproduction of biblio- 
film, photostats, translations of publications 
about library work, library schools, and library 
participation in other phases of cultural co- 
operation, such as art and music. Curtis W. 
McGraw, Vice President of McGraw-Hill Book 
Co., will act as presiding officer in Group I, 
while Carl H. Milam, Secretary of the Ameri- 
can Library Association, will preside in 
Group II. 

At its plenary session Thursday afternoon, 
the Conference will hear reports from the group 
meetings and the report of the Conference 
Findings Committee. Charles A. Thomson, 
Assistant Chief, Division of Cultural Relations, 
Department of State, will preside at the plenary 
session. 

[Released to the press November 29] 

Publishers, authoi-s, and librarians attend- 
ing the Conference on Inter-American Rela- 
tions in the Field of Publications and 
Libraries were welcomed on November 29 by 
Assistant Secretary of State Henry F. Grady 
and Arcliibald MacLeish, Librarian of Con- 
gress, and heard Mr. Jose A. Balseiro, prom- 
inent Puerto Rican intellectual, and Dr. John 
A. Mackay, President of the Princeton Theo- 
logical Seminary, discuss the type of literature 
best suited to contribute to better inter- 
American understanding. Approximately 150 
persons attended the opening session of the 
Conference, held in the Coolidge Auditorium 
of the Library of Congress. 

Discussing the evident increasing interest in 
this couptry concerning the other American 
republics, Mr. MacLeish expressed the opin- 
ion that the cultural log jam of the past could 



DEPAKTMENT OF STATE BXJLLETIN 

be broken by making readily available to the 
public the literary treasures of both conti- 
nents. 

Expressing the appreciation of the Depart- 
ment of State to those attending, Assistant 
Secretary of State Grady stated that a greater 
knowledge on the part of the two Americas of 
how the other continent lives, what it thinks, 
and what it likes, is fundamental to a closer 
drawing together of the American republics 
to the fullest realization of the "good neighbor" 
policy. 

Discussing what of particular interest the 
other American republics can contribute to 
the United States, Dr. Balseiro, who was for- 
merly a professor of Spanish literature at the 
University of Illinois, urged that an adequate 
edition in English of a selected number of 
works of Ibero-American authors be published. 
Such an inexpensive edition. Dr. Balseiro said, 
would be welcomed by the legion of North 
American readers who would like to become 
familiar with the essays, novels, plays, and 
poems of the other American republics. Such 
material, he added, was deserving of the wid- 
est possible public in the United States. 

"It is not enough," Dr. Balseiro cautioned, 
"to read one another's books. We learn little 
from books unless we learn from life as well." 
To learn at first-hand. Dr. Balseiro urged that 
more teachers come to the United States; lec- 
turers who could speak in English on the 
people's customs of the other Americas. "Men 
and women giving voice to the aspirations of 
their own peoples coming to tliis country as 
ambassadors of their governments and cultural 
centers, their scientific associations and artist 
groups, will bring to the United States an un- 
derstanding of the essential spirit of Central 
and South America and the republics of the 
Caribbean." 

The main republics of Tbero-America, Dr. 
Balseiro added, should arrange cultural pro- 
grams to be transmitted by radio to the United 
States. Such programs might consist of les- 
sons in Spanish and discussions in English of 
the art, literature, folk music, and narratives 
of their own history and biography. 



DECEMBER 2, 1939 



619 



A pan-American university should be es- 
tablished, Dr. Balseiro said. Such university 
would have a rotating plan for the periodic re- 
newal of its teaching force representing each 
of the countries of the Western Hemisphere. 
Students of the keenest mind and most solid 
worth from all the Americas, he said, would 
form even more surely a continental conscience. 
Dr. Balseiro urged that travel be stimulated in 
all the Americas. "After we have looked with 
clear eyes and a heart disposed to understand- 
ing, it will be to the mutual interests of each 
to search out the books and music which reveal 
in its entirety the soul of the continent." 

Dr. John A. Mackay, who was at one time 
professor of philosophy at the University of 
San Marcos in Lima, Peru, outlined what of 
si^ecial interest to the other American republics 
the United States could contribute. The selec- 
tion of material suitable for exchange should be 
dependent upon the cultural situation in Latin 
America, he said. Particular note should be 
given to the Latin American's evaluation of his 
own needs. "Latin America has the closest cul- 
tural ties with France; similar ties exist with 
Italy. Prior to the Nazi Revolution, German 
literature and works of science were widely 
read. Barcelona and Madrid popularized edu- 
cation. The Latin American knows our 
science, our miracles of mechanics, but he 
knows nothing of our cultural interests. 
Among the masses in the other American re- 
publics there is a greater popular interest in 
artistic matters than in the United States." 

Agreeing with Dr. Balseiro, Dr. Mackay 
stated that the Latin- American mind was per- 
sonalistic. The greatest cultural contribution 
we can make is to send to the other Americas 
cultured persons who may interpret and rep- 
resent what is best in the United States. "The 
persons you send," Dr. Mackay said, "are just 
as important as the books you send." 

The greatest need in view of the exigencies 
in Europe, Dr. Mackay indicated, is for popu- 
lar books on contributions which have been 
made by the United States to the store of hu- 
man knowledge; books popularizing and ex- 
plaining the birth and growth of typically 



American movements such as how education 
developed in this country ; and popular biogra- 
phies of great North American personalities. 
Translations of the poetry of Longfellow, La- 
nier, and Whittier would be popular. AVorks 
of the literary humanists — representative re- 
gional novels of the United States — Dr. Mac- 
kay said, would furnish a window through 
which our southern neighbors might see us as 
we are. 

Dr. Stanley K. Hornbeck, Adviser on Politi- 
cal Relations of the Department of State, and 
Dr. Ben M. Cherrington, Chief of the Division 
of Cultural Relations, presided at the opening 
session of the Conference. 

[Released to the press November 30] 

Pointing to the wealth of literary, scientific, 
and technical material suitable for exchange 
between the United States and the other Amer- 
ican republics, speakers at the second session 
of the Conference on Inter- American Relations 
in the Field of Publications and Libraries dis- 
cussed ways and means whereby this material 
might be made readily available to the reading 
public. 

Keynote of the Conference, held under the 
auspices of the Department of State at the 
Coolidge Auditorium in the Library of Con- 
gress, was the essential reciprocity of a coor- 
dinated program designed to make available in 
the other American republics books and other 
publications representative of the intellectual 
attainments of the United States and to receive 
from them outstanding works which would 
bring to the reading public in this country a 
better understanding of their culture. 

Citing the unusual interest shown by the 
people of Argentina, Uruguay, and Brazil 
in books published in the United States, 
Henry M. Snyder, president of Henry M. 
Snyder & Co., said that regardless of the 
fact that English is not a compulsory language 
in South America some 50,000 people attended 
the recent exhibitions of American books 
shown in Buenos Aires, Montevideo, and Rio 
de Janeiro. Mr. Snyder, who represented the 
32 publishers who cooperated in the showing 
of more than 2,000 vokunes in each of these 



620 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



cities, expressed the opinion that the exhibi- 
tions aroused an immense amount of interest 
in American publications. ''If we will but 
kee|> this alive by sincere and hearty coopera- 
tion in the future, tiie time is not far distant 
when the two Americas will be brought closer 
together in thouglit and understanding." 

"Cultural relations." Mr. Snyder continued, 
"the underlying motive of the book exhibitions 
and' of this Conference on which our hopes for 
future success are based, have come to have a 
fuller meaning for me than heretofore in that 
I sense the necessity that they become recip- 
rocal. With this view in mind I have tried 
to assure South American publishers of the 
sincerity of our purpose and that North Amer- 
ican publishei-s will be glad to have informa- 
tion on their innjortaut publications suitable 
for translation into English and which may 
be published and marketed through their reg- 
idar bookselling channels. 

"The first step in such reciprocal publishing 
has been accomplished. While in Rio, my at- 
tention was called to a series of juveniles is- 
sued and subsidized to u great extent by the 
Ministry of Education. Each year a prize is 
offered b}' the Government for the best juvenile 
in an effort to encourage the publishing of 
worth-while books for younger children. Im- 
pressed with the excellent color work and gen- 
eral format of this year's prize winner, The 
titan/ of the Palm Tree., the thought occurred 
to me that it might readily lend itself for trans- 
lation into English and find a place on one of 
our ]nib]ishers' lists. Under ordinary publish- 
ing conditions this book might well be expected 
to retail at a jn'ice of $2 in this country. The 
Minister of Education, however, was so inter- 
ested in securing the widest sale possible, an 
extremely low price quite below cost was quoted 
and by his .selection offered to Grosset & Dunlap 
for first refusal. These publishers have placed 
their oi'der with the Brazilian Minister of 
Education for 10,000 copies, all of which are 
to be manufactured complete in Biazil, which 
will be .sold here at a retail price of $1 per copy." 

Charles F. Gosnell, Chairman of the Com- 
mittee on Libi-ary Cooperation with Latin 



America of the American Library Association, 
told the Conference of the aims and program 
of the committee. These, he stated, included a 
survey of what could be done for the libraries 
both in the United States and the other Amer- 
ican republics; the preparation of a handbook 
on technical problems of libraries; and making 
available fellowships to librarians in the other 
American republics in order that they might 
come to the United States to study library pro- 
cedure. Among the long-range objectives of 
the connnittee, Mr. Gosnell listed a survey of 
public interest in Latin America as indicated 
by book resources, circulation, and reading 
habits of libraiy users throughout the United 
States; a study of collections available in col- 
leges and imiversities offering courses on Latin- 
American subjects; a study of the possibilities 
of promoting cultural relations through the ex- 
change of publications; a study of the exchange 
relations now existing between important 
libraries in the United States and the other 
Americas; a study of the distribution of 
scholarly journals; a description of important 
Latin-American collections in the United 
States; and the assembling of information 
about libraries in the other American republics. 

Lewis Hanke, Director of the Hispanic 
Foundation of the Library of Congress, ex- 
plained that the scope of the Foundation was 
to assemble materials on Spain, Portugal, and 
Latin America. He stated that studies in the 
Portuguese tongue had been sadly neglected 
in the United States. In order that more at- 
tention might be given to such studies in the 
future. Dr. Hanke explained that it was the 
hope of the Foundation to build up large col- 
lections from Brazil and Portugal. 

Citing the tremendous importance of journals 
.upon the life of the people of the other Amer- 
ican republics, Samuel Guy Inman, of the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania, traced the history of 
the development of journals and magazines in 
the other xVmericas. No better insight into the 
contemporary life, ideas, and aspirations of our 
southern neighbors. Dr. Inman stated, can be 
found than in the pages of these publications. 
He urged that some means be devised wherebv 



DI'X'KiMBER •_', 1939 



621 



these journals and magazines might be given 
wider circidation in this country. 

Mortimer Graves, Administrative Secretary 
of the American Council of Learned Societies, 
speaking on the contribution of literary iVmerican. 



pul)lics, Mr. Johnston staled that the press 
of the United States, small as well as metro- 
politan, was rapidly becoming aware of the 
increasing reader interest in things Latin 



journals to international understanding, stated 
that current literary journals were improving 
the exchange of live ideas between the con- 
tinents of North and South America. North 
American journals, he added, should be en- 
couraged to publish articles dealing with the 
work done in their fields in South America. 
He also expressed the opinion that such jour- 
nals should publish articles in Spanish and 
Portuguese dealing with significant develop- 
ments in the United States. 

John Abbink, President of Business Pub- 
lishers International Corporation, told the Con- 
ference that 200,000 issues of technical, trade, 
and business journals published in the United 
States aie circulated in the other American 
republics. Ninety percent of these, he added, 
are published in Spanish and Portuguese. 
Many are used as textbooks in the technical 
schools of Latin America, Mr. Abbink said. 

Stating that many of the larger metropoli- 
tan dailies published in South America devote 
as much space to international news as papers 
published in the United States devote to local 
1 city coverage, Joshua Powers of Editors Press 
Service, Inc., pointed to the ever-increasing 
volume of news published in Latin-American 
papers concerning the United States. Mr. 
Powers expressed the opinion that Latin- 
American editors M'ere much more aware of 
the United States than editors in this country 
were aware of significant literary developments 
in the other American republics. As an ex- 
ample, he cited a three-column review in a 
Colombian paper of a book published in the 
United States. Corroborating the statements 
of Mr. Powers, Edward C. Johnston, Vice 
President of Western Newspaper Union, stated 
that during a recent visit in South America 
he found that quickened reader interest in 
North America was noted by South American 
publishers. Wliile events in Europe had lim- 
ited full coverage of the otlier American re- 



[Released to the prps.s November 30) 

The average North American is apt to think 
of South America as a continent composed of 
countries with essentially the same cultural and 
intellectual heritages. That this is a miscon- 
ception which must not be overlooked in any 
effort toward promoting intellectual coopera- 
tion with the people of the South American 
Continent was the observation of Waldo G. 
Leland, Director of the American Council of 
Learned Societies, addressing delegates to the 
Conference on Inter- American Relations in the 
Field of Publications and Libraries at an in- 
formal dinner held Wednesday night, Novem- 
ber 29, at the National Press Club, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

Dr. Leland, who has just returned from an 
extended tour of South America, stated that to 
be effective any program of cultural inter- 
change with the other American republics must 
take full account of the desires and needs of 
each of the participatmg countries. Visiting 
South America to determine the most effective 
method whereby scholars of both continents 
might consult each other in their mutual en- 
deavors. Dr. Leland stated that he found an 
exceedingly friendly interest in the United 
States. Many Latin-American students ex- 
pressed the desire to come to the United States 
to study. Concerning the types of books and 
IDublications desired in South America, Dr. 
Leland found that material which could serve 
as supplemental reading to courses taught in 
universities were most in demand. He said that 
the exhibitions of books published in the United 
States held in Buenos Aires, Montevideo, and 
Rio de Janeiro had made a sensation and had 
stimulated gi-eat interest in contemporary Noi-th 
American letters. 

Preceding Dr. Leland, the Conference heard 
Hubert Herring, Executive Director of the 
Committee on Cultural Relations with Latin 
America and Blair Niles. author of Po'in'iar 



622 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Pageant, describe personal adventures in the 
other Americas. Expressing the fear that mis- 
guided enthusiasm for Latin America might 
provoke suspicion and retard efforts toward 
closer cultural collaboi-ation, Dr. Herring urged 
that the problem of promoting better under- 
standing betvreen tlie United States and the 
other American republics be approached with a 
greater degree of realism than had past efforts 
at pan-Americanism. 

In describing personal contacts in remote 
parts of Central and South America in prepara- 
tion for her novels, Mrs. Niles paid tribute to 
the spirit of the Indians and cited their con- 
tribution to the culture of Latin America. 

The Reverend Edmund A. Walsh, Vice Presi- 
dent of Georgetown University, who presided 
at the dinner, said that it was fitting that the 
last of the series of conferences sponsored by 
the Department of State should be devoted to 
books, publications, and libraries. The immor- 
tality of the printed word, Father Walsh 
pointed out, preserved forever the knowledge 
that springs from the ancient fountainheads of 
culture. "One of the requisites of international 
cultural relations is that it be a two-way process. 
We have much to learn from Latin America. 
There is much that we can contribute to them. 
Who knows but what the tragedy in Europe 
may bring us to the dawn of a new era? It is 
conceivable that we in this hemisphere may be 
the guardians of western civilization. Wlro 
knows but what the unfolding of the next great 
civilization may be here ? Wliatever the future 
may have in store for us it is our obligation and 
our opportunity to preserve, promote, and strive 
to bring to its fullest fruition the democratic 
ideals of personal freedom grounded upon the 
solid rock of justice, understanding, and good 
will." 

[Released to the pre.ss December 1] 

At its plenary session Thursday afternoon, 
November 30, delegates to the Conference on 
Inter- American Relations in the Field of Pub- 
lications and Libraries heard the recommenda- 
tions of the Conference Findings Committee 
and reports from the publishers' and librarians' 
discussion groups. 



The Findings Committee recommended the 
establishment of a Temporary Committee on 
Report and Recommendations to be constituted 
by Lewis Hanke, Director of the Hispanic 
Foundation of the Library of Congress ; Waldo 
G. Leland, Director of the American Council 
of Learned Societies; and Charles F. Gosnell, 
Assistant Librarian of the Queens College 
Library. The committee was empowered to 
increase its membership as needed. It will re- 
ceive reports from the chairmen of the publish- 
ers' and librarians' groups and will prepare a 
digest of the stenographic transcript of the 
Conference proceedings, which will be mailed 
to those attending the Conference and to other 
interested persons. The committee will con- 
sider all recommendations made at the Confer- 
ence and will study possibilities for the estab- 
lishment of some form of permanent clearing- 
house or similar organization to be used 
by publishei-s and libraries. The Findings 
Committee recommended that a vote of ap- 
preciation and sincere thanks be extended 
to the Conference host — the Library of 
Congi-ess, especially to the Hispanic Founda- 
tion and the Music Division. Report of the 
Findings Committee was read by Charles A. 
Thomson. Assistant Chief of the Division of 
Cultural Relations of the Department of State, 
who presided at the final session of the Confer- 
ence. The report was adopted unanimously 
by the Conference. 

Curtis W. McGraw, Vice President of Mc- 
Graw-Hill Book Co., read the report of Group 
I. This group, consisting of general publish- 
ers, directors of university presses, represent- 
atives of scholarly, literary, technical, trade, 
and business journals, magazines, and news- 
papers, reported that: 

"There is an increase in study of English, 
particularly in secondary schools of the other 
American republics, and a consequent increased 
interest in American books. 

"Some of this increased interest is due to 
work of inter-American associations, such as 
the Argentine-North American Cultural Insti- 
tute and the Brazilian-United States Cultural 
Association. 



DECEMBER 2, 1939 



623 



"It was suggested tliat publishers consider 
establishing permanent book exhibits at such 
institutes and at certain libraries, and it was 
questioned as to whether it is best for such in- 
stitutions to act as sales agents in competition 
with booksellers. 

"Already there is a marketl increase in tiie 
sale of teclmical books in English in the other 
Americas. 

"A number of people emphasized the neces- 
sity of a reciprocal reduction in the book post- 
age rates, as essential to the interchange of 
books. The publishers were requested to jn-o- 
mote such reductions. 

"Credit, exchange, and duty problems were 
thoroughly discussed. Attention was called to 
the facilities of the Department of Commerce 
for obtaining credit reports on accounts in 
Latin America and information available at 
the Department of Commerce relating to the 
preparation of shipments, shipping require- 
ments, legalization of documents, et cetera. 

"It was forcibly brought out by those famil- 
ial- with Latin-American problems that a re- 
duction in the price of books, particularly in 
the more general fields, was absolutely essential 
to obtaining wider markets. It was evident 
that at this time special editions for the Latin - 
American market are not feasible, but that 
publishers must offer their books at lower 
prices than in the United States market in 
order to stimulate sales in Latin America. 

"It was brought out and discussed that thu 
publishers through their new export organi- 
zation are already in contact with many of 
the booksellers in the Latin-American market 
and intend to extend the bookseller contacts 
throughout the continent. Eventually, it is 
hoped that an educational market will be devel- 
oped, as well as a market for translations and 
sale of rights. 

"It was suggested that the publishers of 
jjamphlets for popular distribution in the 
United States, such as reports of the Foreign 
Policy Association, as well as magazines and 
scientific studies, might well be distributed in 
various circles in Latin America. In this way 



a general interest in United States literature 
would be created. 

"It was reported and discussed that in recent 
years there has been a marked decrease in the 
teaching of Spanish and Portuguese, as well 
as other foreign languages, in schools and col- 
leges in the United States, and that, conse- 
(iuentlj% this condition limits the field for 
Latin-American publications in the United 
States. 

"It was suggested that good bibliographies 
of Latin-American books can be obtained from 
Revisfa Iheroam ericana. 

"An excellent proposal was made suggest- 
ing that some publisher or publishers should 
produce a cultural history of the Latin-Amer- 
ican people, somewhat like Beard's Rise of 
American Civilization^ . 

"Studies were reported concerning Latin- 
.Vmerican books translated and printed in the 
United States and those translated and pub- 
lished from the United States in Latin 
-Vmerica. 

"Interesting and enlightening reports were 
made concerning the present copyright situa- 
tion and status in Latin America, and also con- 
cerning the proposed changes in the United 
States copyright law. It was pointed out that 
tlie Latin-American situation was not as dark 
as originally supjDOsed, is improving, and some 
jirotection can. even now be had in most of 
the Latin-American countries. It was also 
brought out that many of the publishers in the 
Latin-American countries are well aware of the 
situation and are working toward improved 
protection. A statement was read from a Bra- 
zilian source concerning the necessity of pro- 
tecting Latin-American copyrights in the 
United States. The discussion made clear that 
the present laws are much more adequate than 
usually supposed and need to be understood 
and applied more generality.'' 

Carl H. Milam, Secretary of the American 
Library Association, read the report of Group 
II. This group, consisting of representatives 
of the American Library Association, the His- 
panic Foundation of the Library of Congress. 



I!i40:!i— 39- 



624 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



the Columbus Library of the Pan American 
Union, publi<- :md special libraries, recom- 
niended that: 

"Every encouragement be given to the ac- 
(juisition by United States libraries of the pub- 
lications of Latin America to the end that the 
cultures of the Latin-American countries may 
become better known in the United States ; and 
to the acquisition by Latin-American libraries 
and readers of books published in the United 
States. 

"It is essential that one copy of every book 
currently published in or for the Latin-Ameri- 
can republics be made available promptly in at 
least one library in tlie United States. The 
responsibility for achieving this objective 
would appear to rest primarily on the library 
agencies of the national government. 

"In the field of bibliographj% a primary need 
is for lists of publications issued in each coun- 
try, with publisher and price. Such bibliog- 
raphies should be published periodically and 
as frequently as possible. 

"It is important to make every effort to meet 
the specific needs of scholars and readers in the 
Latin-American countries and in our own 
country ; the meeting of such needs may be of 
greater immediate importance than the develop- 
ment of large schemes for cooperation. Many 
of the needs can probably be met most rapidly 
through the use of photostats, micro-films, and 
other similar processes of reproduction. 

"For small libraries and general readers 
there should be prepared suitable purchase lists 
and reading lists adapted to interests and needs. 

"Libraries, both small and large, should pre- 
pai'e themselves at once to meet the demands of 
the general readers, students, and special groups 
whose interest in Latin America has been 
greatly aroused by recent world events. 

"Translations from Latin-American litera- 
ture, admittedly inade(|uate. may be somewhat 
increased by the willingness of American pub- 
lishers to operate in a marginal market. It 
would be desirable to increase the number of 
translations available by volunteer translation 
work and nonprofit small edition publication 
in typescript. 



"Encourage and facilitate the publication 
and distribution in the United States of books 
about g]-eat personalities and important events 
in the cultural history of Latin America. 

"Libraries should make available their facili- 
ties for exhibits, talks, lectures, and discussions 
which will assist their readers to become better 
acquainted with the cultural achievements of 
the Latin-American republics. 

"The acquisition of books and periodicals by 
exchange is to be encouraged. 

"This group believes that the interchange of 
publications should be accompanied by an in- 
terchange also of librarians, publishers, and 
others who deal with books, and that the need 
and opportunities for such interchange be 
brought to the attention of those who are in a 
position to assist. 

"That the exchange of students, teachers, and 
professors in accord with the agreement of the 
State Department be brought to the attention 
of library school directoi-s so that librarians 
and students of library science may be included 
in the panel for each. 

"American residents in Latin-American coun- 
tries should be encouraged and assisted to 
establish and make collections of books pub- 
lished in the United States and services similar 
to those rendered by public libraries in the 
United States for the use of American residents 
or anyone else who is interested in any aspect 
of United States culture.'' 

John G. Paine. General Manager of the 
Amei'ican Society of Composers, Authors, and 
Publishers, suggested that the movement to- 
ward inter-American understanding should go 
farther than the mere study of the culture of 
the other American republics. "To really un- 
derstand our neighbors to the south," Mr. 
Paine said, "we must become exposed to the 
emotional forces which color their personalities. 
They in turn nmst become exposed to tlie spirit- 
ual forces that make us Mhat we are. This, to 
me, is the exchange of true culture." 

Bon M. Cherrington, Chief of the Di\ision 
o( Cultural Relations of the Department of 
State, in bringing the session to a close, ex- 
pressed the appreciation of the Department 



DECEMBER 2, 193 9 



625 



for the large attendance at the Conference. 
''The enthusiasm shown at this and at earlier 
conferences," Dr. Cherrington said, "clearly 
indicates the desire of the American people to 
forge new frontiers of friendship. This im- 
pression is strengthened by the enthusiasm of 
those who, returning from the other American 
republics, tell us of the ever-increasing friend- 
ship for us found there. We have much to 
share with each other. One need only live in 
the other Americas but a short time to realize 
what of their culture we want and need. 
There one will find that the amenities of liv- 
ing come first in the hierarchy of life. They 



liave mastered in such a beautiful way a mode 
of living we might well emulate. 

"Our duty," Dr. Cherrington continued, "is 
to cherish and nurture the best that is our cul- 
tural heritage. In the process of sharing, the 
plans of effecting programs of interchange 
rightfully resides in private initiative. The 
sphere of your Government in these plans is 
merely that it lend its good offices when it 
may be of assistance in any appropriate way. 
Our concept of culture is that it is universal 
and therefore its promotion must spring from 
the desires of peoples and not as an instrument 
of policy of the governing body of any 
particular state." 



■f -f -f ■♦- ^ -f > 

FIRST MEETING OF THE FINANCE MINISTERS OF THE AMERICAN 

REPUBLICS AT GUATEMALA 

Final Act of the Meeting 



[Released to the press November 28] 

Text of the Final Act: 

The Governments of the American Republics, 
at the invitation of the Government of Guate- 
mala, and in accordance with recommendation 
No. LXIV of the VIII International American 
Conference at Lima, accredited the Delegations 
shown below, said Delegations having met in 
the City of Guatemala, Eepublic of Guatemala, 
from November fourteenth to November twen- 
ty-first in the year one thousand nine hundred 
and thirty-nine: 

Argentina 
H. E. Doctor Hector Ghiraldo, Representative 

of the Ministry of Finance 

Bolivia 
Honorable Enrique Topke, Delegate Observer 

Brazil 

H. E. Doctor Manuel Cesar de Goes Monteiro, 

Representative of the Ministry of Finance 

Colombia 
H. E. Doctor Jorge Soto del Corral, Represent- 
ative of the Ministry of Finance 



Cofita Rica 
H. E. Licenciado Everardo Gomez Rojas, Min 

ister of Finance 
H. E. Rafael Castro Quezada, Delegate 

Cuba 
H. E. Engineer Eduardo Montoulieu, Repre- 
sentative of the Ministry of Finance 

Chile 

H. E. Fernando Maira Castellon, Representa- 
tive of the Ministry of Finance 

H. E. Caspar Soto Mayer, Representative of 
the Ministry of Finance 

Dominican Republic 
H. E. Nicolas Vega, Representative of the Min- 
istry of Finance 

Ecuador 
H. E. Doctor Cesar D. Andrade, Minister of 
Finance 

El Salvado-r 
H. E. Doctor Juan Ernesto Vasquez, Repre- 
sentative of the Ministry of Finance 
H. E. Doctor Rafael Reyes. Representative of 
the Ministry of Finance 



G20 



DEPARTMENT OF STATK BULLETIN 



United States of Amerwa 
H. E. Herbert E. Gaston, Representative of the 

Ministry of Finance 
Hon. Laurence Duggan, Assistant 
Hon. Howard H. Tewksbury, Assistant 
Hon. Joseph P. Cotton, Jr., Assistant 
Hon. Simon Hanson, Assistant 
Hon. Emilio G. Collado, Assistant 
Hon. Orvis A. Schmidt, Assistant 

Guatemala 
H. E. Licenciado Jose Gonzalez Campo, Secre- 
tary of Finance 

Haiti 
H. E. Montrosier Dejean, Minister of Finance 
Hon. Joe Pierre Luis, Counselloi- 
Hon. Marcel Robin, Secretary 

Honduras 
H. E. Donato Diaz Medina, Representative of 
the Ministry of Finance 

Mexico 
H. E. Eduardo Villasefior, Representative of 

the Ministry of Finance 
Hon. Enrique Sarro, Assistant 

Nicaragua 
H. E. Doctor J. Jesus Sanchez, Minister of 

Finance 
H. E. Doctoi' Modesto Armijo Lozano, Delegate 

Panama 
H. E. Jose A. Arosemena, Representative of 

the Ministiy of Finance 
Hon. Guillernio .\rango. Assistant 

Fern 
H. E. Doctor Juan Mendoza Ahnenara, Rep- 
resentative of the Ministry of Finance 

Uruguay 

H. E. Joso Richling, Representative of the 
Ministry of Finance 

Venezuela 
H. E. Doctor Cristobal L. Mendoza, Repre- 
sentative of the Ministrv of Finance. 



Summary of Proceedings 

Preliminary 

a) At the preliminary session, held on No- 
vember 11, the By-laws of the Meeting were 
approved, and the agenda was read. 

b) At this session the following Connnis- 
sions were appointed : 

1 ) ON CREDENTIALS : 

H. E. Lie. Everardo Gomez Rojas (Costa 

Rica). 
H. E. Fernando Maira Castellon (Chile). 
H. E. Eduardo Villasefior (Mexico). 

2 ) ON COORDINATION : 

H. E. Manuel Cesar de Goes Monteiro 

(Brazil). 
H. E. Herbert E. Gaston (United States of 

America ) . 
H. E. Montrosier Dejean (Haiti). 
H. E. Doctor J. Jesiis Sanchez (Nicaragua). 

'■'>) banking: 
Argentina 
Brazil 
Bolivia 
El Salvador 
Haiti 
Mexico 
LTruguay 

4) monetary: 
Costa Rica 
Colombia 
Chile 

Dominican Republic 
Honduras 
Nicaragua 
Peru 

i>) exchange: 

Cuba 

Ecuador 

United States 

Guatemala 

Panama 

Venezuela 



* 



DECEMBER 



1939 



U27 



iNAtlGURATION 

The Minister of Finance for Guatemala, His 
Excellency Jose Gonzalez Campo, solemnly in- 
aufvurated the Meeting on the fourteenth day 
of Novemher in the year one thousand, nine 
hundred and thirty-nine, at 10 a. m., in the 
Hall of the National Legislative Assembly. 
At this session, Licenciado Gonzalez Campo 
was elected Permanent President. 

Licenciado Eamiro Fernsindez acted as Sec- 
retary-General to the Meetmg. 

Resolutions and Recommendations of the 
Meeting 

As a result of the labors of the different 
Committees, the First Meeting of Finance Min- 
istei-s of the American Republics approved, at 
Plenary Sessions held on November 18 and 20 
in the year one thousand, nine hundred and 
tliirty-nine, the following resolutions and 
recommendations : 



the first meeting of finance ministers of the 

AMERICAN republics 

Resolves: 

lo express to the people of Ecuador, to their 
Illustrious Government and to their Distin- 
guished Representative at this gathering, H. E. 
Cesar D. Andrade, the profound sorrow and 
deej) sympathy felt on learning of the deatli of 
His Excellency Doctor Aurelio Mosquera Nar- 
vaez. President of tlie Republic of Ecuador. 

n 

the first MEETING OF FINANCE MINISTERS OF THE 
AMERICAN REPUBLICS 

Resolves: 

to convey to the people of Venezuela, to their 
Illustrious Government and to their Distin- 
guished Representative at this Conference, H. 
E. Doctor Cristobal L. Mendoza, an expression 
of its sincere condolences and heartfelt sym- 
pathy in connection with the regi'ettable fire 
that occurred on Tuesday, November 14, on 



the shores of Lake Maracaibo and that caused 
considerable loss of life among the inhabitants 
of the town of Lagunillas. 

Ill 

THE FIRST MEETING OF FINANCE MINISTERS OF 
THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS 

CONSIDERING : 

I hat it is to the mutual and special interest of 
all the Nations of America to adopt a uniform 
nomenclature in their Customs tariffs and a 
common system of Customs procedure for the 
development of inter- American trade 

Resolves : 

1. To request that the Pan American Union 
(■om[)lete the work already begun of investi- 
gating and reporting on the adoption by all 
the Nations of the Americas of the various cus- 
toms recommendations approved at former Pan 
American Conferences, in order that a memo- 
i-andum on the matter may be transmitted to 
all the American Governments. 

2. To request that the Pan American Union 
appoint a Committee of five experts, in which 
all the official languages of America are to be 
represented, to undertake : 

a) the preparation of a draft proposal for 
uniform customs nomenclature such as may be 
acceptable to all the American nations, taking 
into account the Laws, Regulations and Cus- 
toms Rulings of said nations, as well as any 
other reports or suggestions from any of the 
American nations, and any proposals for uni- 
form customs nomenclature already in exist- 
ence. The Pan American Union shall submit 
this draft for the study and consideration of 
the American Govermiients and shall convey 
to them all observations made thereon, likewise 
requesting comment on such observations to be 
submitted in turn to all the governments. The 
Pan American Union shall prepare a final 
draft, embodying such observations from the 
various nations as may have received the ap- 
proval of a majority, and shall submit it for 
the final consideration of all the Governments 
of the Americas. 



628 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



b) The drafting of a code of Customs Pro- 
cedure, designed to attain the objectives already 
indicated, to be submitted to the American 
Governments for analysis and approval in the 
manner described in the foregoing paragraph. 

3. Pursuant to the ends described under the 
preceding number, it is recommended that 
each of the Governments of the Americas 
transmit to the remaining American Govern- 
ments, through the medium of the Pan Amer- 
ican Union, any resolutions adopted at any 
time by any of the nations of America in 
regional agreements regarding customs 
matters. 

IV 

THE FIBST MEETING OF FINANCE MINISTERS OF THE 
AMERICAN REPUBLICS 

CONSIDERING : 

that it is highly desirable to extend and 
strengthen exchange relations between all the 
Nations of the Americas, with a view to a 
greater stability of the value of the American 
currencies 

Resolves: 

That the Pan American Union undertake, in 
accordance with investigations and suggestions 
which it will previously request of the Finance 
Ministries and Central Banks of the nations 
of America, to present to the American Gov- 
ernments a draft proposal for the establish- 
ment of an inter-American exchange system 
to facilitate in accordance with sound princi- 
ples the regularization and availability of for- 
eign exchange as between all the Nations of 
America. 

V 

THE FIRST MEETING OF MINISTERS OF FINANCE OF 
THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS 

CONSIDERING : 

that contraband activities are one of the 
principal sources of difficulty in the develop- 
jnent of international trade, especially iji 
neighboring countries or in those that, while 



not adjoining, may be exposed by geographical 
considerations to illicit traffic 

Resolves : 

To recommend that the American Govern- 
ments enter into regional agreements for the 
suppression of smuggling, communicating the 
texts of such agreements to all other American 
nations through the medium of the Pan 
^Vmerican Union. 

VI 

THE FIRST MEETING OF FINANCE MINISTERS OF THE 
AMERICAN REPUBLICS 

CONSIDERING : 

that it is to the mutual and special interest 
of all the nations of the Americas to have 
available statistics of an economic and financial 
character relating to the American Nations 

Resolves: 

1. To recommend that the American Nations 
exchange, through the medium of the Pan 
American Union, all statistics of an economic 
and financial nature, especially those relating 
to their imports and exports; their revenues 
specified by classes; their disbursements speci- 
fied by government agencies ; their balances of 
international payments; their budgets; fluctua- 
tions in rates of exchange with respect to the 
other American currencies quoted on their mar- 
kets; their maritime traffic; their local and in- 
ternational freight rates; and, generally, all 
other statistical information that may lead to 
a better understandmg of current economic 
conditions, such as agricultural and industrial 
production, etc. 

2. To recommend that the Governments of 
the Americas adopt a uniform system for the 
preparation of economic and financial statistics. 
To this end, it is recommended that the Ameri- 
can Governments forward to the Pan Ameri- 
can Union reports on the statistical systems 
now in use, so that the Union may proceed to 
draw up imiform models adaptable as far as 
possible to those now in use and submit them to 
the consideration of the interested governments. 



DECEMBER 2, 19 3 9 



629 



VII 

THE FIRST MEETING OF FINANCE MINISTERS OF THE 
AMERICAN REPUBLICS 

CONSIDERING : 

that it is to the mutual and special interest of 
the different Governments of the Americas to 
be informed of the changes which are being 
intixjcluced bj* any nation in its fiscal organiza- 
tion or tax system 

Resolves: 

To recommend to the different American Gov- 
ernments that each shall communicate to the 
others, and to the Pan American Union, all 
legislative and administrative measures which 
modify, wholly or in part, its existing fiscal 
system or method of taxation, as well as all 
changes made in its Customs tariffs or fiscal 
procedure, or pertaining to the creation and 
operation of agencies for fiscal control. It is 
especially recommended that bulletins be pub- 
lished from time to time, reporting on the ex- 
isting fiscal system and procedure, together 
with modifications introduced therein. 

VIII 

THE FIRST MEETING OF FINANCE MINISTERS OF THE 
AMERICAN REPtTBLICS 

Declares: 

That the existence and operation of a similar 
Monetary Standard throughout the Republics 
of this Continent, as a point of reference in the 
alignment of exchange rates is highly bene- 
ficial for the development of inter-American 
economic relations. 

IX 

THE FIRST MEETING OF FINANCE MINISTERS OF THE 
AMERICAN REPUBLICS 

Considers that the principal and most useful 
result of its labors has been the mutual exchange 
of information and impressions on the mone- 
tary, banking and exchange structures of the 
American Republics. 



THE FIRST MEETING OF FINANCE MINISTERS OF THE 
AMERICAN REPUBLICS 

Considers as of great importance the inter- 
change of all information relating to the organ- 
ization and operation of institutions of social 
security having dii-ect relations with the devel- 
opment of the economy of the nations of the 
Americas. 

XI 

THE FIRST MEETING OF FINANCE MINISTERS OF THE 
AMERICAN REPUBLICS 

Declares: 

That as a medium for promoting the sound 
economic development of the Amei'ican Repub- 
lics, and of creating conditions which make pos- 
sible the stabilization, both internal and exter- 
nal, of the respective currencies, it is desirable 
that the necessary capital be invested for the 
promotion of the agricultural and industrial 
development of the various countries in this 
hemisphere. 

XII 

THE FIRST MEETING OF FINANCE MINISTERS OF THE 
AMERICAN REPUBLICS 

CONSIDERING : 

That the idea of creating a Central Inter- 
American Organization to act as a Clearing 
House and as an Agency for Investments, pre- 
sents delicate technical aspects and gives rise to 
problems involving the harmonizing of the dif- 
ferent interests of the American nations 

Resolves: 

To request that the Inter-American Economic 
and Financial Advisory Committee, taking into 
consideiation the conditions common to all 
American countries, as well as conditions pecul- 
iar to each, investigate the desirability and 
possibility of creating the said Institution, and 
if possible, present its findings two months prior 



630 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



to the next Meeting of Finance Ministers at the 
latest 

XIII 

THE FIKST .\rEETING OF FINANCE MINISTERS OF 
THE AMERICAN REPtTBIJCS 

CONSIDERING : 

that it is lo the special interest of the Ameri- 
can Kepublics to prepare American Producers' 
Agreements ; 

CONSIDERING : 

that these agreements would serve to regulate 
the situation as regards the production and 
exportation of those articles that are of inter- 
est to the life of groups of continental nations 

Resolves : 

To recommend to the Inter-American Eco- 
nomic and Financiiil Advisory Committee the 
possibility and desirability of calling regional 
meetings between American producers of de- 
termined articles that atl'ect the life of the in- 
terested nations, for the purpose of studying 
problems relating to the production and expor- 
tation of such products, taking into considei-a- 
tion the existence and functions of organiza- 
tions and institutions already established and 
tending towai-d the same objectives. 

XIV 

THE FIRST MEETING (JF FINANCE MINIS'ITiKS OF 
THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS 

In order to secure better coordination in Pan 
American activities 

Resolves : 

To n'i|iu'.si that the Inter- American Economic 
and Financial Advisory Committee in Wash- 
ington take effective action aimed at realizing 
(lie desire for closer collaboration in the eco- 
nomic relations of flie American Kepublics. 



XV 

THE FIRST MEETING OF FINANCE MINISTERS OF 
THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS 

Resolves : 

To express its sincere gratitude to His Excel- 
lency the President of the Republic of (juate- 
mala. General Jorge Ubico, to the Government 
and people of Guatemala, for the splendid and 
courteous manner in which the delegations to 
this Conference have been received and en- 
tertained. 

To convey to His Excellency Licenciado Jose 
Gonzalez Campo, Minister of Finance of Gua- 
temala and President of the Conference, its 
recognition of his efficiency and foresight as 
revealed in the preparatoi-y arrangements as 
well as of the tact and discretion with which he 
directed its labors, thus contributing substan- 
tially to its success, and 

To record a vote of congi-atulation to the Sec- 
i-etary-General, Licenciado don Ramiro Fer- 
nandez and to the officers and employees who 
have worked in the Conference, in appreciation 
of the efficient and brilliant manner in wliicli 
they have fulfilled their duties. 

XVI 

THE FIRST MEETING OF FINANCE MINISTICKS OF THE 
AMERICAN REPUBLICS 

Resolves: 

1. That the next Meeting of Finance Min- 
isters of the American Republics be held in tl)e 
City of Quito, Ecuador. 

2. That the date of convocation of said meet- 
ing be decided by agreement between the Gov- 
ernment of Ecuador and the Board of Direc- 
tors of the Pan American Union. 

In token whereof the Finance Ministers of 
the American Republics or tlieir Representa- 
tives, do sign and seal this Final Act. 

Done in Guatemala, Republic of Guatemala, 
C. A., this 21st day of November, in the year 
One thousand, nine hundred and thirty-nine, 
\\ith versions in Spanish. English, Portuguese 



DECEMBER 2, 193 9 



631 



and French, to be deposited in tlie files of the 
Pan American Union, to which they shall be 
transmitted by the Ministry of Foreign Kela- 
tions of Gnateniala. 

[Here follow signatures of delegates.] 

■f -f -f 

ADJUDICATION OF AGRARIAN 
CLAIMS IN MEXICO 

[Released to the press November 30] 

In a note addressed yesterday by the Sec- 
retary of State of the United States to the 
Mexican Ambassador in Washington, it was 
suggested that the period for the adjudication 
of agrarian claims of American citizens whose 
farm propei'ties in Mexico have been expro- 
priated since August 30, 1927, be extended to 
May 31, 1940. In a note dated today, the Mex- 
ican Ambassador states that the Mexican Gov- 
ernment agrees to this extension. 

The American Section of the Agrarian 
Claims Commission, United States and Mexico, 
has jjractically completed its examination of 
the claims which it has received, and it is 
believed that adjudication of the claims can 
be completed within the period provided for 
in the exchange of notes above-mentioned. 

■f 4 + 

INTER-AMERICAN FINANCIAL AND 
ECONOMIC ADVISORY COMMITTEE 

[Released to the press November 27] 

Following is a list of guests attending the dinner 
given by the Under Secretary of State, IVIr. Sumner 
Welles, in honor of the Inter-American Financial and 
Economic Advisory Committee, at the Sulgrave Club, 
Washington, D. C, November 27, 1939: 

Argentina : SeGor Don Ricardo Bunge, Counselor of 
the Argentine Embassy ; Bolivia : the Honorable Senor 
Don Carlos Guachalla ; Brazil : Mr. Eurico Penteado, 
Financial AttachC> to the Brazilian Embassy ; Chile : 
Senor Don Carlos Davila ; Colombia : the Honorable 



Sefior Dr. Don Esteban Jaramillo ; Costa Rica : the 
Honorable Senor Don Ricardo Castro Beeche, the 
Minister of Costa Rica ; Cuba : Sonor Dr. Don Ramiro 
Guerra y Sanchez ; Dominican Republic : the Honor- 
able Senor Don Andrfe Pastoriza, the Minister of the 
Dominican Republic; Ecuador: Sciior Dr. Don Ed- 
uardo Salazar, Financial Counselor of the Embassy 
of Ecuador ; El Salvador : the Honorable Seiior Dr. 
Don Hector David Castro, the Minister of El Salva- 
dor ; Guatemala : Senor Dr. Don Enrique Lopez-Her- 
rarte. First Secretary of the Legation of Guatemala ; 
Haiti : the Honorable Fernand Dennis ; Honduras : the 
Honorable Senor Dr. Don Julian R. Caceres, the Min- 
ister of Honduras ; Mexico : the Honorable Senor Lie. 
Don Antonio Espinosa de los Mouteros ; Panama : His 
Excellency Sefior Dr. Don Augusto S. Boyd, the Am- 
bassador of Panama ; Paraguay : the Honorable Senor 
Dr. Don Horacio A. Fernandez, the Minister of Para- 
guay ; Peru : the Honorable Senor Don Pedro Lar- 
ranaga Montero ; Uruguay : Seiior Dr. Don Santiago 
Rivas, Consul General of Uruguay at New York ; 
Venezuela : the Honorable Seiior Don Gustavo Her- 
rera. 

His Excellency Senor Dr. Don Manuel Bianchi; 
Mr. Guillermo Suro, Secretary General of the Com- 
mittee ; the Honorable Henry Morgenthau, Jr., the 
Secretary of the Treasury ; the Honorable Henry A. 
Wallace, the Secretary of Agriculture ; the Honorable 
Sol Bloom, House of Representatives ; the Honorable 
Edward J. Noble, the Under Secretary of Commerce; 
the Honorable George S. Messersmith, Assistant Sec- 
retary of State; the Honorable Adolf A. Berle, Jr., 
Assistant Secretary of State ; the Honorable George 
T. Summerlin, the Chief of Protocol; Mr. Ernest G. 
Draper, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve 
System ; Mr. Laurence Duggan, Chief of the Division 
of the American Republics, Department of State; Dr. 
Herbert Feis, Adviser on International Economic 
Affairs, Department of State ; the Honorable Leo S. 
Rowe, Director General, Pan American Union ; Dr. 
Pedro de Alba, Assistant Director, Pan American 
Union ; Rear Admiral Emory S. Land, Chairman, 
United 'States Maritime Commission ; the Honorable 
Robert H. Hinckley, Chairman, Civil Aeronautics 
Authority; Mr. Warren Lee Pierson, President, Ex- 
port-Import Bank; Mr. Ellis O. Briggs, Assistant 
Chief of the Division of the American Republics, 
Department of State; Mr. Leroy D. Stinebower, Office 
of the Adviser on International Economic Affairs, 
Department of State; Mr. William E. Pulliam; Mr. 
William A. Wieland ; Mr. H. C. Montee; Mr. Leon 
Pearson; Mr. Edward B. Lockett. 



632 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



FIFTIETH ANNIVERSARY OF THE 
PROCLAMATION OF THE BRAZILIAN 
REPUBLIC 

[Released to tlic press November 2~] 

Following is the text of a message from 
President Roosevelt to the President of 
Brazil (Getnlio Vargas) : 

"The White House, 

November 27, 1939. 

"I deeply appreciate Your Excellency's 
generons message written during a flight in 
one of the airplanes of this Government which 
recentlv visited Rio de Janeiro. 



"It was a great pleasure for the Govern- 
ment of the United States to participate in the 
celebration of the fiftieth ainiiversary of the 
establishment of the Republic of Brazil, and 
I have learned with sincere gratification of the 
spontaneous and warm hospitality with which 
the United States aviators were received in 
Your Excellency's country. We look forward 
with satisfaction to the forthcoming visit of 
the distinguished Brazilian officers who will 
return to the United States with the fiight of 
airplanes. 

"Please accept my warmest personal good 
wishes. 

Franklin D. Roosevelt" 



Commercial Policy 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY OF 
THE PRIME MINISTER 



STATE REGARDING ADDRESS OF 
OF GREAT BRITAIN 



[Released to tlic press November 27] 

At the press conference at the Department 
of State November 27, the Secretary of State 
was asked for comment upon the radio address 
of Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain on 
November 26. The Secretary proceeded to 
comment as follows : 

"I was gratified but not surprised to find that 
Mr. Chamberlain should emphasize so strongly 
the idea that 'there can be no lasting peace 
unless there is a full and lasting trade between 
nations' and that 'only by an increased inter- 
change of goods and services can the standard 
of living be improved.' 

"The trade- agreements program has been de- 
veloped and carried forward by us in the course 
of our judgment that it was essential to bring 
hack balance and prosperity to American agri- 
culture and industry and thus to enable our 
farmers to exist satisfactorily and our workers 
to find steady employment. This is our view of 
the permanent national interest. If this point 



of view is put aside and our trade policy is 
again to be detennined solely by the short- 
sighted and mistaken claims of particular inter- 
ests determined to win a completely favored 
position for themselves, we will fall again into 
the disorderly depression that followed the 
Hawley-Smoot tariff. 

"Along with this comjielling reason in sup- 
port of the trade-agi-eements program has also 
been the belief in the truth of the generally 
recognized judgments expressed by Mr. Cham- 
berlain as well as by the heads of many other 
governments — that the reestablishment of mu- 
tually beneficial international commerce is an 
essential basis of enduring peace and prosperity 
for all nations. I can only hope most earnestly 
that when the time comes to give these economic 
ideas broad and effective application, our peo- 
ple will be sufficiently united in support to en- 
able this country to make an appropriate con- 
tribution, which is so important to every phase 
of our future welfare." 



DECKMBEK 2, 19 3 9 

THE PRESENT NEED FOR A SANE COMMERCIAL POLICY 

Address by Assistant Secretary Grady 



633 



[Released to the pivss November 27] 

Americans in all sections of the counti"y, in 
onr cities and on our farms, in our offices and 
our factories, toiling in our cotton, wheat, and 
corn fields, in our mines and on our railroads, 
all are coming to realize that the United States 
is one of a group of nations which must seek 
their livelihood in an international commu- 
nity. Neither the United States nor any other 
country can draw apart from this world com- 
munity and yet hojie to maintain its present 
standard of living. 

The world's resources are not equally dis- 
tributed. Some countries possess great sur- 
pluses of raw materials but are lacking in 
capital equipment and skilled labor. Other 
countries are well adapted for carrying on 
industrial production but lack necessary raw 
materials. Even the United States with its 
unparalleled abundance of natural i-esources 
cannot hope to be self-sufficient. 

The raw-material-producing countries differ 
widely in respect of the kinds of raw materials 
which they are able to supply, and industrial 
countries differ widely in respect of the types 
of goods which they are best equipped to man- 
ufacture. Even between industrialized coun- 
tries there is close interdependence; the great- 
est development of mutually profitable inter- 
national commerce has been between such 
countries. 

To fulfill the needs of this interdependence of 
nations there has developed a mechanism of in- 
ternational economic relations of which the 
domestic economy of each country forms a 
functioning part. The exchange of commod- 
ities produced by coimtries rich in raw mate- 
rials for articles manufactured by industrial 
coimtries illustrates the economic interdepend- 
ence of nations, just as the exchange of the 
products grown on our fanns for the factory 



' Delivered in the National Radio Forum of the 
Washington EreniiKj f^tiir. over the blue network of 
the National Broadcasting Co., November 27, 1930. 



products of our cities illustrates the economic 
interdependence of the various sections of the 
United States. 

Under normal conditions of peace, economic 
conditions in a country are affected to an im- 
portant extent by the policies and actions of 
other countries. In time of war, however, 
changes occur in the economies of the partici- 
pants which are relatively sudden and violent. 
Such changes have an especially far-reaching 
and disturbing effect on the economic structure 
of the entire world. 

Under normal conditions, the international 
mechanism of trade and capital movements op- 
erates to effect adjustments: under wartime 
conditions, however, the changes which occur 
are even more serious in their consequences be- 
cause of a partial break-down of this mechan- 
ism. The economic problems of war are not 
confined to the belligerents alone ; they burden 
the international community as a whole; no 
nation escapes unaffected. 

My discussion this evening of our present 
need of a sane commercial policy as embodied 
in the trade-agreements program is based, first, 
upon the fact that the world is closely bound 
together commercially, financially, and indus- 
trially, and, second, upon the significance of 
that fact in the light of the present conflict in 
Europe. In order, however, to appreciate the 
need of the trade-agreements program at this 
juncture of world affairs, it is necessary that we 
understand the bearing of foreign trade upon 
a prosperous domestic market and the contribu- 
tion which this progi-am has made to American 
prosperity by helping to restore and expand 
foreign mai'kets for our products. 

The most distinguishing characteristic of the 
depression tlirough which this country passed 
between 1930 and 1932 was the sudden inability 
of manufacturers, farmers, and merchants to 
find buyers for the goods they had to sell and 
their consequent inability to afford the goods 
they had been accustomed to purchase. The 



634 

stagnation of domestic markets and interrup- 
tion of the steady flow of production and con- 
sumption brought in its wake new unemploy- 
ment, increased stagnation of business, and 
general pessimism regarding the future. 

In the course of the depression years of 1930, 
1931, and 1932, we learned once and for all that 
the great domestic market, in which we had 
come to place almost unbounded confidence, 
was capable, like Alice in Wonderland, of rapid 
shrinkage as well as growth. Instead of being 
destined to grow without interruption, as many 
had come to suppose, the market proved to be 
capable of stable activity and expansion only 
so long as it was able to draw nourishment 
from all accustomed forms of economic activity. 
In 1930 and after, this was not the case, and the 
market succumbed from a lack of certain es- 
sential stimulants, one of which was the im- 
petus given to domestic trade by a normal flow 
of foreign trade. 

In 1930, the Hawley-Smoot tariff was 
enacted as if on the assumption that our 
9-billion-dollar foreign trade was a branch of 
the economy not essential to the prosperity of 
our domestic market — an assumption which 
proved to be tragically wrong. The Hawley- 
Smoot Tariff Act raised barriers to nearly all 
foreign goods, including those only remotely 
competitive with our products, and our im- 
ports were sharply and suddenly curtailed to 
a fraction of what they had been. As a result, 
foreign customers, for lack of purchasing 
power, were compelled to forego accustomed 
purchases of basic American export products 
such as cotton, tobacco, lard, tractors, and 
machinery. 

But men thrown out of work by the loss of 
export business could no longer buy the same 
quantities of goods they needed ; domestic pro- 
ducers, despite their increased protection 
against foreign competition, found fewer and 
fewer buyers. Practically the whole domestic 
market was theirs, but it was shrinking at an 
alarming rate before their eyes. The result 
of all this was, of course, net loss for everyone. 

Since 1934, we have been applying a remedy 
designed to quicken the flow of domestic busi- 



DEPAKTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

ness and so to restore Alice to her normal size 
and growth. Through the trade-agreements 
program, authorized by Congress in 1934 and 
extended in 1937, we are reducing some of the 
artificial barriers to foreign trade which have 
grown up both at home and abroad as a result 
of world-wide competition in import restric- 
tions. We are concluding agreements with for- 
eign countries like-minded in this purpose, by 
which they agree to lower tariffs, enlarge 
quotas, and remove discriminations against 
American goods, in return for which we also 
make concessions to facilitate the importation 
of some of their products. 

Each concession gained from foreign coun- 
tries creates an opportunity for American pro- 
ducers to increase exports — men are put to 
work in American factories, or the market for 
some agricultural commodity is strengthened. 
In either case, income is created, and the Amer- 
ican workingman or farmer, when he goes to 
market, has more money to spend. His pur- 
chases stimulate business in many other indus- 
tries, some of which may seem remote from 
foreign trade. Suppose he decided this year 
to buy a turkey for Thanksgiving; suppose 
he found that it was high time to replace an 
old radio, or that he finally decided to have 
his house repainted. Each purchase puts other 
men to work and creates a better market for 
domestic goods and services. This is the es- 
sential purpose of the trade-agreements 
program. 

The trade-agreements program cultivates 
foreign markets for American products because 
the recovery of these markets is essential to the 
restoration of industries which produce for the 
home market as well as the prosperity of those 
which produce for the foreign market. 

The index of the volume of our export trade 
fell from a base figure of 100 in 1929 to the low 
point of 52.3 in 1932, or nearly 48 percent. 
During the same period, the index of industrial 
production fell 47 percent; employment, as 
measured on a man-hour basis, fell 55 percent ; 
and prices of finished products and raw ma- 
terials declined 26 percent and 43.5 percent, 
respectively. 



DECEMBER 2, 193 9 



635 



Similar evidence is to be found in the course 
of economic events in the United States during 
the 8-year period from 1922 to 1929, which was 
for the most part a relatively normal period, 
not affected bj' the abnormal factors of a world 
upheaval as was the period which followed. 
The period from 1922 to 1929 was marked in 
the United States by three distinct but minor 
fluctuations in economic activity which were 
national rather than international in scope. 
As measured by the index of manufacturing, 
the economic activity of the Nation fell to its 
lowest points of this period in 1924 and 1927 
and exjaerienced its greatest annual increases in 
1923, 1925, and 1928-1929, the increase in 1929 
being the same as in 1928. The years in which 
manufacturing activity increased the most, 
that is, in 1923, 1925, and 1928, were also the 
years in which occurred the greatest increases 
in our exports of fhiished manufactures. The 
years of decline in manufacturing activity, 
which were 1924 and 1927, were also the years 
of slower growth in these exports. 

It is no mere coincidence that there has been 
a close correspondence between movements in 
exports and business conditions in the United 
States over a long period of years. There is an 
important connection between activity in pro- 
duction for export and production for the home 
market. 

A few points may be worth mentioning to 
indicate that this connection is far more im- 
portant and fundamental than might be sus- 
pected from the percentage of total output of 
domestic production which is exported. 

In the first place, the percentage of total na- 
tional production which is exported fails to 
indicate the extent to which many industries 
having exportable surpluses are dependent on 
foreign markets. For instance, the percentage 
of national production exported in 1929 was 55 
percent in the case of cotton, 48 percent in the 
case of lard, 41 percent in the case of tobacco, 
36 percent in the case of refined copper, 30 per- 
cent in the case of office appliances, 25 percent 
in the case of agricultural machinery, and from 
8 to 51 percent in the case of certain petroleum 
products. Agricultural industries with large 



exportable surpluses are a basic factor in the 
economic life of large sections of the United 
States. An increase or decrease in exports 
may mean to these sections prosperity or hard 
times. Moreover, some of the manufacturing 
industries constituting the chief mainstays in 
our industrial structure are export industries. 
A decrease or increase in their foreign mar- 
kets affects the entire industrial welfare of the 
Nation. 

Furthermore, the loss of our foreign markets 
would mean a far greater loss than that repre- 
sented by the percentage of our total pi'oduc- 
tion which is exported, for a loss of foreign 
markets would also result in curtailment of the 
domestic market. A part of the production for 
domestic consumption is dependent on the pur- 
chases of those industries and their workers 
who are engaged in supplying goods for the ex- 
port trade. Nor would the decrease in domes- 
tic business activity and employment resulting 
from export losses cease at that point. It 
would continue the cumulative effect to further 
stages of economic depression. Presumably a 
new equilibrium in the domestic economy would 
eventually be reached, but only at the cost of 
painful adjustments. 

Another important aspect of the bearing of 
export trade on domestic economy involves the 
possible effects of export sales on the domestic 
price structure. Foreign sales give rise to 
claims for jjayment from abroad. These claims, 
when liquidated at the domestic banks, may re- 
sult in an increase in the volume or circulation 
of money at home, thus tending to cause a rise 
in the general level of domestic prices and there- 
by stimulating business activity. 

Increases in export trade stimulate domestic 
activity. Under the trade-agreements program 
our exports have increased. Although it is 
always difficult to isolate the effects of any single 
factor where so many are operative, we have 
conclusive evidence to show that our trade has 
improved faster under the agreements than 
would otherwise have been the case. 

In 1934 and 1935, which may be considered 
as substantially preagreement years, exports 
from the United States averaged 2.2 billion 



636 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BUULiETIN 



dollars. In 1937 and 1938, with 17 agreements 
in effect for most of the period, exports aver- 
aged 3.2 billion dollars. It is significant that 
during the postagreement period, 1937-38, ex- 
ports from the United States to countries with 
which reciprocal trade agreements were in op- 
eration showed an increase of 61.2 percent 
against an increase of 37.9 percent in exports to 
non-trade-agreement countries. 

It is significant, moreover, not only that ex- 
ports from the United States to the trade- 
agi'eement countries have gained relatively 
more than exports to non-trade-agreement 
countries, but also that the agreement countries 
have generally increased their imports of 
American products more than they have in- 
creased their imports of the products of other 
countries. For example, in the 3 years 1936-38 
of the first agreement with Canada, that coun- 
try's imports from the United States averaged 
42 percent greater than in 1934-35, compared 
with an average gain of 22 percent in Canadian 
imports from other countries. 

Total Canadian imports from the United 
States increased from $309,000,000 in 1935 to 
$424,000,000 in 1938, a gain of 37 percent. Of 
importance is the fact that imports fi-om the 
United States of products on which Canada 
granted duty reductions showed an increase of 
65 percent in 1938 over 1935. On an average 
for the 3 years of the agreement, 1936-38, 
Canadian imports from the United States were 
39 percent above the 1935 imports. 

Cuban purchases from the United States 
have more than doubled since the agreement 
with Cuba went into effect. In 1936, 1937, and 
1938, Cuban imports from the United States 
were valued at $66,000,000, at $89,000,000 and 
at $75,000,000, respectively, representing gains 
of 193, 292, and 231 percent over 1933. During 
the same years Cuban imports from other 
countries were only 87, 107, and 57 pei-cent 
greater than in 1933. 

Altogether, in the 22 trade agreements con- 
cluded thus far, the foreign governments con- 
cerned have reduced duties, agreed to bind the 
existing duties or the free entiy, or have 
gianted other concessions such as enlarsed 



quotas, on hundreds of commodities which we 
export. 

On the basis of 1937 data, foreign coimtries 
with which trade agreements had been con- 
cluded prior to November 1, 1939, granted con- 
cessions of some kind on about three-quarters 
of their total imports from the United States 
of agricultural products and on almost one- 
half of their total imports from tlie United 
States of nonagricnltural products. For all 
products combined, 56 percent of these agi'ee- 
ment-countries' imports from the United 
States have been the subject of concessions to 
the United States. 

Hundreds of concessions in one form or an- 
other have been obtained for American farm 
pi*oducts in the agreements thus far concluded. 
Let me illustrate by describing concessions and 
increases in our foreign sales of meat products. 

Seventeen countries, plus many British col- 
onies, have granted reductions, quotas, or bind- 
ings on various American meat or other animal 
products. Canada has made reductions rang- 
ing from 12 to 75 percent on fresh meats, 
bacon, ham, lard, cured meats, extracts, and 
other meat products. Canadian imports of 
animal products from the United States in- 
creased in 1938 over 1935 by nearly one and 
one-quarter million dollars. Again, the United 
Kingdom, which in 1937 purchased more than 
half of total United States exports of lard, 
removed its 10-percent duty on this product 
and established a liberal quota for hams. The 
United Kingdom imports of American lard 
and hams for the first 6 months of the agree- 
ment were the greatest since 1935. Cuba, the 
second most important foreign market for 
American lard, reduced its duty by successive 
stages from a rate equivalent to 9.6 cents a 
pound to 1.5 cents. Cuban lard imports from 
the TTnited States increased from $500,000 in 
1933 to !M:,000,000 in 1938. 

Concessions have also been obtained on a wide 
range of American manufactured products. 
Among the impoitant groups of commodities 
benefited are iron and steel semimanufactures, 
automotive products, electrical apparatus, in- 
dustrial, agricultural, and business machinery, 



II 



DECEMBER 2, 1939 



637 



rubber products, chemicals, paints and allied 
pi-oducts, hides and leather products, certain 
textiles, and various American specialty 
products. 

Belgian imports for consumption of automo- 
bile parts for assembly totaled $8,000,000 in 
1938 as compared with $2,700,000 during 1934. 
Canada's imports of passenger automobiles and 
chassis increased between 1935 and 1938 from 
$1,700,000 to $9,200,000. 

These and many other increases in the for- 
eign trade of the United States with trade- 
agreement countries have not only increased 
the prosijerity of those portions of our agri- 
culture, industry, and labor producing goods 
for export, but have also, by increasing employ- 
ment and consumer purchasing power, benefited 
producers and workers engaged in supplying 
the domestic market. 

But while our exjjort trade is a ve^*" impor- 
tant factor in our domestic economiiT activity, 
so that prosperous exports are an essential ele- 
ment in a prosperous general business situation 
at home, we must not permit an undue concen- 
tration in the export side of foreign trade to 
obscure the larger significance of our trade 
with the world. The contribution of our for- 
eign trade to our economic welfare is in the last 
analysis similar to the contribution of trade 
between regions within the country; it makes 
possible a higher standard of living than woidd 
be the case without this exchange of products. 

Our foreign trade enables us to concentrate 
and specialize somewhat more than would oth- 
erwise be possible in those lines of production 
in which we are most capable and naturally 
best endowed. The resulting larger return for 
our efforts is shared by the consumer and the 
producer. And by exchanging with other coun- 
tries the excess of what we produce beyond our 
own needs, of the things we are most capable 
and best endowed to produce, we are enabled 
to enrich our own lives and further raise our 
own standards. 

This fundamental basis of our foreign trade 
should always be kept in mind, and particularly 
now when it may seem to be obscured by the 
distorting effects of warfare in other parts of 



the world. Fortunately our country is, I think, 
more wide awake and informed than it was 
the last time. It is encouraging to note the 
widespread degree of caution expressed in 
business circles against plunging into artificial 
and ephemei-al expansion based on the expec- 
tation of belligerent purchases, without due 
forethought for the aftermath. Let us not 
allow false hopes, based on such increased ex- 
port business as may come to us through war- 
stimulated diversion of trade, to obscure from 
our vision the real nature of profitable foreign 
trade and the necessity of pursuing a sane and 
sound commercial policy which will bear last- 
ing benefits — lasting because of their being 
mutually profitable and constructive. 

Although the war may create a profitable 
market for some of our products, no one could 
be so foolish as to imagine that it will pro- 
vide a lasting basis for prosperity. Far from 
removing the conditions which have created 
an urgent necessity for our trade-agreements 
program, the war will surely create an even 
more imperative need for agreements between 
nations providing for the reduction of exces- 
sive barriers to trade. When the war is over, 
we will be faced with the problem of restor- 
ing export outlets for many branches of our 
industry and agriculture whose exports may 
be curtailed as a result of the war, and of 
creating opportunities for the opening up of 
new channels of trade. Whatever the conse- 
quences of the war may be, one thing is cer- 
tain : it will result in serious economic disloca- 
tions, and statesmanship of the highest quality 
will 'le required to effect the revival of a 
healthy international economic order. 

It is not possible to anticipate exactly how 
this war will affect our trade. Although the 
present war resembles in some ways the first 
World War, there are important differences. 

So far as the trade of our own country is 
concerned, the most conspicuous and probably 
the most important result of the last war was 
an enormous increase in our export balance of 
trade. For the decade before 1914 our exports 
had exceeded our imports by about half a bil- 
lion dollars annually, on the average. During 



638 



DEPAETMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



the war and immediately after it, our export 
surplus increased rapidly, reaching a peak of 
4 billion dollars in 1919. 

We have no reason to assume that the pres- 
ent war will give rise to such an excess of 
exports in our foreign trade as resulted from 
the last war. 

Nevertheless, there can be no doubt that our 
trade will be seriously affected by the war. 
Some of our trade is being interrupted by 
blockade. Our trade with the United King- 
dom and France is bound to be affected by the 
economic changes in those countries which war 
makes necessary. 

Fundamental changes must necessarily take 
place in the foreign trade of the countries at 
war. Even if the belligerent countries were 
to succeed in maintaining their exports, the 
character of their imj^orts must change. Less 
will be imported for civilian consumption in 
order to conserve foreign exchange for the pur- 
chase of needed war materials. 

Consequently, even if our total exports to the 
United Kingdom and France, for example, be 
increased, the character of that trade will un- 
doubtedly change. We will export less of some 
things and more of others. As a result, those 
branches of our industry and agriculture which 
are producing for export the things which the 
European belligerents need for war will tend 
to expand. The development of other branches 
may be retarded. 

When the war is over, there may develop out 
of the immediate needs of reconstruction and 
the satisfying of long-deferred wants, a tem- 
porary boom. The task of statesmanship will 
be to endeavor so to guide affairs as to promote 
the reestablishment of trade on a sound basis 
and to avoid those mistaken and short-sighted 
policies which will lead from temporary post- 
war stimulation into renewed economic depres- 
sion. We must keep our trade- agreements pro- 
gram in the fullest possible effective operation, 
as an essential aid to this future task of states- 
manship. 

Our trade with the neutral countries will also 
be subject to modification because of the war. 
Many neutral countries, including those in 
Latin America, may turn to us for supplies 



previously purchased from other sources but 
now no longer available from them. The de- 
gree in which our exports to these neutral 
countries will expand in consequence of these 
changes will depend in large measure upon 
their ability to sell their products to us in in- 
creased quantities. It is for this reason that no 
opportunity should be lost to provide improved 
opportunity for such increased exchange of 
goods through the negotiation of new trade 
agreements. 

Moreover, the extent to which any increase 
in our trade with neutral countries may be 
based upon a sound and mutually profitable 
increase in reciprocal trade, will serve to dimin- 
ish the dangers and extent of later readjust- 
ments which must follow from unsound and 
uneconomic wartime trade developments. 

The er/l of a major war brings with it a com- 
plicated p.vhain of problems of economic re- 
adaptati^u. In part, but only in part, it leaves 
a need for the restoration of previous channels 
of trade. In part it requires an adaptation of 
the economic system to conditions which are 
entirely new. 

This need for reconstruction and readapta- 
tion will not be confined to the belligerents. It 
will affect American industry and American 
agriculture. 

No approach to a satisfactory and perma- 
nent peace after the war has ended can be made 
without regard to the economic factors which 
govern the relations of countries to each other. 
Economic relations must be adjusted to insure 
friendly and cooperative relations among all 
nations. Economic and commercial warfare is 
a constant menace to peace. The raising of 
trade barriers and the giving and seeking of 
preferential advantages in commercial rela- 
tions is in effect a form of conflict. It repudi- 
ates the concept of mutuality of interest among 
nations and substitutes that of struggle. It is 
aggression, and aggression is the logical ante- 
cedent of military action. 

Every country must be able to feel that its 
interests are associated with a cooperating, 
peaceful world — that the functioning of a 
sound, wholesome international trade is vital 
to its well-being and security. In a word, an 



639 



international economic and political system to 
which every coimtry owes allegiance is the only 
alternative to world confusion and disorder. 
Bj' "system" I mean an informal but nonethe- 
less real association based on accepted rules of 
conduct both political and economic for the 
protection and advantage of all. This means 
the inviolability of treaties and the outlawing 
of any practices whether economic or political 
by which one country injures another. Com- 
mercial policies which prejudice the rights of 



other countries to carry on legitimate trade 
come in this class. 

A stable world order must be based upon a 
cooperative attitude in the relations of nations 
to each other. To this end the whole network 
of excessive and preferential tariffs, of restric- 
tive quotas, of exchange manipulation, of gov- 
ernment-controlled foreign-trade monopolies 
must be replaced by an orderly system of inter- 
national economic relations in order that the 
capitalist system may survive and the whole 
world may prosper and advance. 



-♦■ -f ■♦■ -f -f > -f 



SUPPLEMENTAL TRADE-AGREEMENT NEGOTLVTIONS WITH CANADA 



[Released to the press November 30] 

The Secretary of State today issued formal 
notice of intention to negotiate with Canada a 
trade agreement supplemental to the trade 
agreement signed at Washington on November 
17, 1938, and now in force. Interested persons 
are invited to submit their views in regard to 
these proposed negotiations to the Committee 
for Reciprocity Information. 

The Committee for Reciprocity Information 
issued at the same time a notice setting Decem- 
ber 16, 1939, as the closing date for the submis- 
sion to it by interested persons of information 
and views in writing and of applications to 
appear at public hearings to be held by the Com- 
mittee ; this notice also set Tuesday, December 
19, 1939, at 10 a. m. as the time for the opening 
of public hearings with respect to these negoti- 
ations, which hearings will be held before the 
Committee for Reciprocity Information in the 
hearing room of the United States Tariff Com- 
mission in the Old Land Office Building, 8th 
and E Sts., NW., Washington, D. C. 

The Secretary of State, in issuing the notice 
of intention to negotiate a supplementary trade 
agreement with Canada, stated that the pro- 
posed negotiations will be of a limited char- 
acter and are intended to deal only with special 
emergency conditions which have arisen with 
respect to the marketing of silver and black fox 



furs and skins. The proposed negotiations will 
therefore be restricted to a consideration of the 
limitation of total imports for consumption 
into the United States of live silver and black 
foxes, silver and black fox furs and skins 
(dressed or midressed), parts of such furs and 
skins, and articles made wholly or in chief value 
of such furs and skins; and consideration of a 
reduction in the United States impoit duty on 
silver and black fox furs and skins. The pres- 
ent United States import duty on silver and 
black fox furs and skins originating in Canada, 
as fixed in item 1519 (c) of Schedule II of the 
trade agreement between the United States and 
Canada signed November 17, 1938, is 371/2 per- 
cent ad valorem. 

No consideration will be given in the pro- 
posed negotiations to the treatment by the 
United States of articles other than those men- 
tioned above, or to the treatment by Canada of 
articles imported from the United States. 

commitiee for reciprocitt intormation 

Trade Agreement Negotiations With Canada 

Public Notice 

Closing date for submission of briefs, Decem- 
ber 16, 1939 



640 

Closing date for application to be heard, 

December 16, 1939 
Public hearings open, December 19, 1939 

The Committee for Reciprocity Information 
hereby gives notice that all information and 
views in writing, and all applications for sup- 
plemental oral presentation of views, in regard 
to the negotiation of a trade agreement with 
the Government of Canada, notice of intention 
to negotiate which has been issued by the Sec- 
retary of State on this date, shall be submitted 
to the Committee for Reciprocity Information 
not later than 12 o'clock noon, December 16, 
1939. Such communications should be ad- 
dressed to "Chairman, Committee for Reci- 
procity Information, Old Land Office Building, 
Eighth and E Streets, NW., Washington, D. C." 

A public hearing will be held beginning at 
10 a. m. on December 19, 1939, before the Com- 
mittee for Reciprocity Information in the hear- 
ing room of the Tariff Commission in the Old 
Land Office Building, whei'e supplemental oral 
statements will be heard. 

Six copies of written statements, either type- 
written or printed, shall be submitted, of which 
one copj"^ shall be sworn to. Appearance at 
hearings before the Committee may be made 
only by those persons who have filed written 
statements and who have within the time pre- 
scribed made written application for a hearing, 
and statements made at such hearings shall be 
under oath. 

By direction of the Committee for Reci- 
procity Information this 30th day of November 
1939. 

John P. Gregg 

Secretary 

November 30, 1939. 

department of state 

Trade Agreement Negotiations With Canada 

Public Notice 

Pursuant to section 4 of an act of Congress 
approved June 12, 1934, entitled "An Act to 
Amend the Tariff Act of 1930," as extended by 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

Public Resolution No. 10, approved March 1, 
1937, and to Executive Order No. 6750, of June 
27, 1934, I hereby give notice of intention to 
negotiate a trade agreement with the Govern- 
ment of Canada, to supplement and amend the 
trade agreement with that Government signed 
at Washington, November 17, 1938. 

All presentations of information and views 
in writing and applications for supplemental 
oral presentation of views with respect to the 
negotiation of such agreement should be sub- 
mitted to the Committee for Reciprocity In- 
formation in accordance with the announcement 
of this date issued by that Committee concern- 
ing the manner and dates for the submission of 
briefs and applications, and the time set for 
public hearings. 

CoKDELL Hull 

Secretary of State 

November 30, 1939. 

-f -f -f 

ALLOCATION OF TARIFF QUOTA ON 
HEAVY CATTLE 

[Released to the press December 1] 

The President signed a pi-oclamation on No- 
vember 30, 1939, allocating among countries of 
export for the calendar year 1940 the tariff 
quota applicable to cattle weighing 700 pounds 
or more each (other than cows imported for 
dairy purposes) which was established in the 
trade agreement with Canada signed on No- 
vember 17, 1938. The agreement provides that 
not more than 225,000 head of such cattle may 
be imported in any calendar year at a rate of 
duty of 11/2 cents per pound and that not more 
than 60,000 head of this quantity may be im- 
ported in any quarter year. Imports above 
these amounts are dutiable at 3 cents per pound. 

Under the terms of the proclamation, 86.2 
percent of the quota is allocated to Canada and 
13.8 percent to other foreign countries. These 
proportions are the same as those established 
for the last three quarters of 1939 by the Presi- 



641 



dent's proclamation of February 27, 1939. The 
application of these percentages to the maxi- 
mum annual quota established in the agreement 
results in the following allocation for the 
calendar year 1940: 

Canada 193,950 head 

Other foreign countries- 31,050 head 

The maximum quarterly quota of 60,000 head 
has also been allocated, on the basis of the same 
percentages, as follows : 

Canada 51,720 

Other foreign countries 8,280 

The trade agreement with Canada provides 
that, if, after consultation with the Govern- 
ment of the United States, the Government of 
Canada requests allocation of the tariff quota 
for heavy cattle, the Government of the United 
States shall take the necessary steps to allocate 
the quota. The agreement also requires that 
the allocation shall be based upon the propor- 
tions of total imports into the United States 
supplied by foreign countries in past years, 
account being taken insofar as practicable in 
appropriate cases of any special factors affect- 
ing the trade. Following consultation between 
the two Governments, the Government of Can- 
ada first requested allocation of the quota on 
February 21, 1939. In accordance Avith the 
agreement, the President on February 27, 1939, 
proclaimed the allocation of the quota for the 
last three quarters of 1939. The allocation of 
the quota for 1940 has been made in accordance 
with a similar request from the Canadian Gov- 
ernment. 

The allocations to Canada and to other coun- 
tries are based upon imports into the United 
States during the years 1936 and 1937, which 
the President found to be representative of the 
trade in heavy cattle. 

-♦■■f > 

AVAILABILITY OF AUSTRALIAN 
WOOL 

[Released to the press December 1] 

The following information has been received 
from the American Embassy at London : 



The British Government has formulated ten- 
tative plans for the release of Australian wool 
to the United States. While the total amount 
of wool which will be made available to the 
United States during the present season has not 
been decided upon and will probably depend 
upon current developments, a decision has been 
reached to make up to 10 million pounds of 
Australian wool immediately available to 
United States importers. Definite prices have 
not been decided upon but will be fixed on a 
basis of securing approximate parity between 
manufacturers in the United Kingdom and 
United States. Payment in dollars will be re- 
quired. The British Government at present 
cannot release any Australian wools coarser 
than 59's, nor any type of crossbred New Zea- 
land wool. 

American firms desiring to obtain Australian 
wool now available should communicate with 
the Central Wool Committee, at 419 Collins 
Street, Melbourne, Australia, and in communi- 
cating should include information relative to 
quantities and types of Australian wool nor- 
mally purchased. 

-f -f 4 

TRADE AGREEMENT WITH TURKEY 

[Released to the press December 1] 

A supplementary proclamation was issued by 
the President on November 30, 1939, declaring 
that the trade agreement between the United 
States and Turkey signed on April 1, 1939, 
came into force definitively on November 20, 
1939. 

This trade agreement was proclaimed by the 
President on April 5, 1939, and came into force 
provisionally on May 5, 1939. It has now been 
put into force definitively pursuant to a provi- 
sion of its own article 16 by the receipt by the 
Government of the United States of notification 
of the ratification of the agreement by the 
Grand National Assembly of Turkey and by 
the communication to the Government of the 
Turkish Republic on November 20, 1939, of the 
proclamation of the agreement by the Presi- 
dent of the United States, executed on April 
5, 1939. 



642 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Foreign Service 



PERSONNEL CHANGES 

[Released to the press December 2] 

Changes in the Foreign Service of the United 
States since NoveTuber 24-, 1939: 

Henry H. Balch, of Madison, Ala., consul 
general at Dublin, Ireland, has been assigned as 
consul general at Genoa, Italy. 

Warden McK. Wilson, of IndianajDolis, Ind., 
consul general at Genoa, Italy, lias been desig- 
nated first secretary of legation at Lisbon, 
Portugal. 

Harry F. Hawley, of New York, N. Y., con- 
sul at Oporto, Portugal, has been assigned as 
consul at Gibraltar. 

Erwin P. Keeler, of Indiana, Foreign Service 
officer assigned to the Department of State and 
detailed to the Department of Agriculture, has 
been designated agricultural attache at Rio de 
Janeiro, Brazil. 

Laurence E. Salisbury, of Chicago, 111., now 
assigned to the Department of State, has been 
assigned to Manila, P. I., as Foreign Service 
officer, under commissions as consul and first 
secretai-y in pursuance of the provisions of sec- 
tion 8 of the act of August 7, 1939. 

Walter H. Schoellkopf , of Buffalo, N. Y., first 
secretary of embassy at Madrid, Spain, now on 
leave of absence in the United States, has retired 
from the Foreign Service effective December 1. 
1939. 

Owen L. Dawson, of Illinois, Foreign Service 
officer designated as agricultural commissioner 
at Shanghai, China, now on leave of absence 
in the United States, has been designated agri- 
cultural attache at Shanghai, China. 

Leo J. Callanan, of Dorchester, Mass., con- 
sul at Malaga, Spain, has been assigned as con- 
sul at Opoi'to, Portugal. 

Joseph F. Burt, of Fairfield, 111., consul at 
Veracruz, Mexico, has been designated second 
secretary of embassy at Mexico City, Mexico. 



George Alexander Armstrong, of New York, 
N. Y., second secretary of legation at Lisbon, 
Portugal, has been assigned as consul at 
Malaga, Spain. 

Augustus S. Chase, of Waterbui-y, Conn., 
consul at Canton, China, now on leave of absence 
in the United States, has been assigned as con- 
sul at Dairen, Manchuria. 

Whitney Young, of New York, N. Y., consul 
at Swatow, China, has been assigned as consul 
at Palermo, Italy. 

Douglas Jenkins, Jr., of Charleston, S. C, 
vice consul at Warsaw, Poland, has been desig- 
nated third secretary of legation at Stockholm, 
Sweden. 

M. Williams Blake, of Columbus, Ohio, vice 
consul at AVarsaw, Poland, has been assigned as 
vice consul at Birmingham, England. 

Kingsley W. Hamilton, of AVooster, Ohio, 
vice consul at Zurich, Switzerland, has been 
assigned as vice consul at Saigon, French 
Indochina. 

J. Brock Havron, of Tennessee, vice consul 
at Veracruz, Mexico, has been appointed vice 
consul at Guadalajara, Mexico. 

James R. Riddle, of Alabama, vice consul at 
Guadalajara, Mexico, has been appointed vice 
consul at Veracruz, Mexico. 

The assignment of Casimir T. Zawadzki, of 
New York, N. Y., as vice consul at l^ondon, 
England, has been canceled. Mr. Zawadzki 
will remain as vice consul at Berlin, Germany. 



PROCLAMATIONS OF TWO TREATIES 
AND A CONVENTION WITH LIBERIA 

Announcements to the press regarding proc- 
lamation by the President of an extradition 
treaty, a treaty of friendship, commerce, and 
navigation, and a consular convention with 
Liberia, appear in this Bulletin under the head- 
ing "Treaty Information." 



Treaty Information 



Compiled by the Treaty Division 



ARBITRATION 

Permanent Court of Arbitration 

Iran 

According to a communication from the Sec- 
retary General of the Permanent Court of 
Arbitration dated October 10, 1939, the Govern- 
ment of Iran has appointed as Members of the 
Permanent Court of Arbitration Mr. Hossein 
Ghadimy, Chief of the Section of the League of 
Nations and of International Relations; Mr. 
Mohamed Reza Vodjdani, Solicitor General in 
the Court of Cassation; and Mr. Ali Akbar 
Dehkhoda, Dean of the Tehran Law School. 

EXTRADITION 

Extradition Treaty With Liberia (Treaty 
Series No. 955) 

On November 30, 1939, the President pro- 
claimed the Extradition Treaty with Liberia 
signed on November 1, 1937. The treaty will be 
printed as Treaty Series No. 955. 

COMMERCE 

Treaty of Friendship, Commerce, and Navi- 
gation With Liberia (Treaty Series No. 
956) 

On November 30, 1939, the President pro- 
claimed the Treaty of Friendship, Commerce, 
and Navigation between the United States and 
Liberia, signed on August 8, 1938. The treaty 
will be printed as Treaty Series No. 956. 

Supplemental Trade Agreement With 
Canada 

Two announcements to the press regarding 
intention to negotiate a supplemental trade 



agreement with Canada and the proclamation 
by the President allocating the tariff quota on 
heavy cattle appear in this Bulletin under the 
heading "Commercial Policy." 

Trade Agreement With Turkey 

An announcement to the press regarding the 
supplementary proclamation by the President 
of the trade agreement with Turkey appears in 
this Bulletin under the heading "Commercial 
Policy." 

CONSULAR 

Consular Convention With Liberia (Treaty 
Series No. 957) 

On November 30, 1939, tlie President pro- 
claimed the Consular Convention between the 
United States and Liberia signed on October 
7, 1938. The convention will be printed as 
Treaty Series No. 957. 

FINANCE 

Double Income Taxation With Sweden 

The American Minister to Sweden reported 
by a telegram dated November 25, 1939, that 
the instruments of ratification of the Conven- 
tion for the Avoidance of Double Licome Taxa- 
tion between the United States and Sweden, 
signed on March 23, 1939, were exchanged at 
Stockliolm on November 14, 1939. The conven- 
tion provides that it will become effective on 
the first day of January following the ex- 
change of the instruments of ratification. 

Final Act of the First Meeting of Finance 
Ministers of the American Republics at 
Guatemala 

The text of the Final Act of the First Meet- 
ing of Finance Ministers of the American Re- 



643 



644 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



publics at Guatemala, November 14-21, 1939, 
appears in this Bulletin under the heading 
"The American Republics." 

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY 

Convention for the Protection of Industrial 
Property (Revised 1934) (Treaty Series 
No. 941) 

Belgium — Switzerland 

By two notes dated November 18, 1939, the 
Swiss Minister at Washington informed the 
Secretary of State that the Government of Bel- 
gium and the Swiss Federal Council have ad- 
hered to the Convention for the Protection of 
Industrial Property as revised at London on 
June 2, 1934. The adherence of Belgium be- 
came effective on November 25, 1939, and that 
of Switzerland on November 24, 1939. 

According to the information of the Depart- 
ment the convention has been ratified and ad- 
hered to by the following countries: Belgium, 
Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, 
Japan (including Chosen, Taiwan, and Kara- 
futo), Norway, Tangier (French Zone), 
United States of America, and Switzerland. 

Arrangement for the Suppression of False 
Indications of Origin on Merchandise (Re- 
vised 1934) 

Switzerland 

By a note dated November 18, 1939, the Swiss 
Minister at Washington informed the Secretary 
of State of the adherence by the Swiss Federal 
Council to the Arrangement for the Suppres- 
sion of False Indications of Origin on Mer- 
chandise as revised at London on June 2, 1934. 
The adherence took effect on November 24, 1939. 

According to the information of the Depart- 
ment the arrangement has been ratified or ad- 
hered to by the following countries: France, 
Germany, Great Britain, Switzerland, and 
Tangier (French Zone). 



Arrangement Concerning the International 
Registration of Trade Marks (Revised 
1934) 

Belgium — Switzerland 

By two notes dated November 18, 1939, the 
Swiss Minister at Washington informed the 
Secretary of State of the adherence of the Gov- 
ernment of Belgium and the Swiss Federal 
Council to the Arrangement Concerning the In- 
ternational Registration of Trade Marks as re- 
vised at London on June 2, 1934. The adher- 
ence of Belgium took effect on November 25, 
1939 ; that of Switzerland on November 24, 1939. 
According to the information of the Depart- 
ment this arrangement has been ratified and 
adhered to by the following countries : Belgium, 
France, Germany, and Switzerland. 

Arrangement Concerning the International 
Registration of Industrial Designs and 
Models (Revised 1934) 

Belgium — Switzerland 

By two notes dated November 18, 1939, the 
Swiss Minister at Washington informed the 
Secretary of State of the adherence of the Gov- 
ernment of Belgium and the Swiss Federal 
Council to the Arrangement Concerning the 
International Registration of Industrial De- 
signs and Models as revised at London on June 
2, 1934. The adherence became effective for 
Belgium on November 25, 1939, and for Swit- 
zerland on November 24, 1939. 

According to the infoi'mation of the Depart- 
ment this arrangement has been adhered to by 
the following countries: Belgium, France, 
Germany, and Switzerland. 

POSTAL 

Universal Postal Convention of 1934 

Germany 

There are quoted below, in translation, two 
notes from the Swiss Minister at Washington 
dated November 2 and 18, 1939, regarding the 



645 



adherence of Germany to the Universal Postal 
Convention, signed at Cairo on March 20, 1934, 
and the text of the Department's reply dated 
November 24, 1939 : 

"Legation of Switzerland, 
Washington, D. C, November 2, 1939. 
"Mr. Secretary of State: 

"By order of m}' Government, I have the 
honor to advise you that the Government of 
the Eeich, through its Legation at Bern, has 
notified the Swiss Government that the adher- 
ence of Germany to the Universal Postal Union 
Convention, signed at Cairo March 20, 1934, as 
well as to the arrangements mentioned in Ar- 
ticle 9 of that diplomatic instrument, implies 
that of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Mo- 
ravia and that the latter will be entitled, in the 
future, to a separate share of the taxes. 

"I should appreciate it if you would be good 
enough to acknowledge the foregoing and beg 
you to accept, Mr. Secretary of State, the 
assurance of my very high consideration. 

C. Bruggmann 
Minister of Switzerland " 

"Legation of Switzerland, 
Washington, D. C, November 18, 1939. 
"Mr. Secretary of State : 

"Referring to my communication of the sec- 
ond of this month relative to the application to 
the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia of the 
Universal Postal Convention and of the ar- 
rangements signed at Cairo on March 20, 1934, 
I have the honor, by order of my Government, 
to make clear that the declaration of the Ger- 
man Government was made in application of 
Article 9, Paragraph 4, of the diplomatic instrw- 
ment in question. 

"It was through inadvertence that mention 
was made 'of the agreements mentioned in 
Article 9.' 

"I would be grateful to you, if you would be 
good enough to take note of this correction, and 
beg you to accept, Mr. Secretary of State, the 
assurance of my very high consideration. 

C. Bruggmann 
Minister of Switzerland" 



"November 24, 1939. 
"Sir: 

"In acknowledging the receipt of your note 
of November 2, 1939, advising, by direction of 
your Government, that the Government of the 
Reich through its Legation at Bern has notified 
the Swiss Government that the adherence of 
Germany to the Universal Postal Union Con- 
vention signed at Cairo on March 20, 1934, im- 
plies the adherence also of the Protectorate of 
Bohemia and Moravia, I have the honor to state 
that the Government of the United States of 
America does not recognize the claim of Ger- 
many to a protectorate over Bohemia and Mo- 
ravia, perceiving the existence of no legal basis 
therefor. 

"Accept, Sir, the renewed assurances of my 
highest consideration. 

For the Secretary of State: 

R. Walton Moore" 

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