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VOLUME XIV: Numbers 341-365 
January 6 -June 30, 1946 



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Publication 2668 



INDEX 
Volume XIV: Numbers 341-365, January 6-June 30, 1946 



Academy of Political Science, New York, N.Y., address 

by Mr. Clayton, 677. 
Acheson, Dean : 

Addresses, statements, etc. : 

British loan, 51, 1S5, 317, 511, 759. 

China, military aid to, 1115. 

Greece, trade relations with, 175 n. 

Harvard Clubs, Associated, Boston, Mass., 1(M5. 

Japan, policy on, 756, 915. 

Korea, administration of, 155. 

St. Lawrence Seaway and Power Project, favoring 

legislation, 334. 
Trusteeship, principles involved in, 150. 
World peace, U.S. share in, 893. 
Atomic Energy Committee, chairman, 58, 177. 
Correspondence : 
Arab countries of Near East, answering opinion on 
Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry report on 
Palestine, 917. 
British Ambassador, on U.S. attitude toward pro- 
posed contract between Italian Government and 
U.S. airline, 908. 
Mr. McCormack, on resignation as Special Assistant 

to Secretary, 778. 
Organizations concerned with Palestine problem, on 
report of Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry, 
956. 
Polish Ambassador (Lange), on Export-Import Bank 

loan, 761. 
President of TWA, on U.S. attitude toward proposed 

contract with Italian Government, 908. 
Secretary of War, commending Generals McNamey 

and Clay, 681. 
Senator Vandenberg, on U.S. policy on Polish dis- 

placed-i)ersons camps in Germany, 1003. 
UNRRA areas, request made to various governments 
for press and radio facilities in, 131. 
Participant in radio broadcasts, 191, 774. 
Ackerman, Ralph H., designation in State Department, 

826. 
Addresses, statements, and broadcasts of the week, listed, 

683, 728, 751, 819, 860, 920, 967, 1010, 1078. 
Advisory Committee on Intelligence, Russell Plan for, 929. 
A. F. of L., representation in United Nations affairs, 126, 

199, 276. 
Agar, Herbert, participant in radio broadcast, 11. 
Agricultural Sciences, Inter-American Institute of, re- 
search fellowship in agriculture to U.S. citizen, 179. 
Agriculture : 

International organizations concerned with, listed, 949. 
Research fellowship offered by Inter- American Institute 

of Agricultural Sciences, 179. 
U.S. missions to China and the Philippines, 1054. 
Agriculture, Department of: 
Designation of Mr. Anderson as chairman of inter-agency 

committee on PAO problems, 656. 
U.S. Agricultural mission to visit Near East, 34& 



I 



Agriculture and Food Organization of United Nations. 

See Food and Agriculture Organization. 
Aid to China, remarks by Mr. Marshall, 484. 
Ala, Hussein (Iranian Delegate to Security Council), let- 
ters to Security Council regarding Soviet troops in 
Iran, 659, 706, 854, 941. 
Alaska Highway, agreement regarding U.S. equipment on, 

683. 
Albania : 

Admission into United Nations, question of, 199, 754, 851. 
Remittances to persons in, limitation, 1120. 
Alcan Highway, agreement regarding U.S. equipment on, 

683. 
Algeria, closing of U.S. Consulate at Oran, 1130. 
Alien enemies: 

Disposition of those deported from other American re- 
publics to U.S., 33. 
Removal from U.S., proclamation by President Truman, 
732. 
Aliens, employment. State Department policy (D.R. 322.1), 

1016. 
Aliens in Japan, Far Eastern Commission policy regarding, 

1042. 
Allen, George V., appointment as U.S. Ambassador to Iran, 

828. 
Allen, Ward P., article on regional arrangements and their 

relation to United Nations, 923. 
Allied Commission on Reparations, resignation of Mr. 

Lubin as Associate U.S. Representative, 224. 
Allied Control Council for Germany. See Control Council. 
Allied Council in Austria, jurisdiction, 81. 
Allied Mission to Observe the Greek Elections. See Elec- 
tion.?, Greek. 
Allied-neutral negotiations on German external assets, 
U.S. representative: 
Appointment and resignation of Mr. Paul, 374, 1077. 
Appointment of Mr. Rubin, 955. 
Allied-Swedish negotiations on German external assets, 
meeting in Washington : 
Dates, 990, 1042, 1074, 1111. 
Delegations, 992. 
Allied-Swiss negotiations regarding German holdings: 
Agreement between Allies and Swiss Government : 
Article on, 1101. 
Texts of letters, 1121. 
Dates of meeting in Washington, 525, 565, 618, 655, 711, 
755, 813, 856, 884, 946, 955, 990. 
America — as others see us, radio broadcast, 11. 
American Academy of Political and Social Science, Phila- 
delphia, Pa., address by Mr. Wilcox, 630. 
American A.ssociation for the United Nations, New York, 

N.Y., address by Mr. Winant, 975. 
American Federation of Labor, representation in United 

Nations affairs, 126, 199, 276. 
American Platform Guild, Washington, D.C. : 
Address by Mr. Benton, 7. 
International affairs, conference of lecturers on, 6, 11. 

1137 



1138 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN i 



American republics (see also Commissions; Conferences; 
Inter-American; Pan American; Treaties; and the 
individual countries) : 
Alien enemies from, disposition by U.S., 732. 
Cereal requirements, table showing, 898. 
Child welfare in, promotion, article by Mrs. Enochs, 428. 
Cultural and scientific cooperation with U.S., report rec- 
ommending continuance, 1092. 
Cultural leaders, visit to U.S., from : Argentina, 349, 868 ; 
Bolivia, 867 ; Brazil, 40 ; Costa Rica, 868, 962 ; Cuba, 
263 ; El Salvador, 40 ; Guatemala, 1091 ; Haiti, 1053 ; 
Mexico, 687; Paraguay, 962; Peru, 777; Uruguay, 
1130 ; Venezuela, 870. 
Enemy aliens from other American republics, disposi- 
tion of, U.S. memorandum, 33. 
Exchange-students program, address by Mr. Braden, 396. 
Fascism in, discussion by Mr. Braden, 101. 
German propaganda in, 280. 

Good-neighbor policy, comments by Mr. Braden, 295, 296. 
Graduate students, Uruguayan statute providing for ac- 
ceptance at University of Montevideo, 960. 
Inter-American cooperation, announcement of addresses 

on, by Mr. Braden and Mr. McGurls, 683. 
Loans authorized by Export-Import Bank, table, 384. 
Military cooperation, inter-American, bill, letter of 
transmittal from President Truman to Congress and 
statement by Secretary Byrnes before House Foreign 
Affairs Committee, 859, 1001. 
Mutual assistance, plans for, 287, 667, 732. 
Regional arrangements in, discussed in article by Mr. 

Allen, 924. 
Social-service programs, development and administration 

of, 21. 
Travel grants for study in, resumed, 179. 
U.S. memorandum regarding Argentine situation, 285, 

666. 
Visit of agricultural expert from U.S. (Rutford), 960. 
Visit of Herbert Hoover to, 958. 
American Society of International Law, letter from Sec- 
retary Byrnes to president (Coudert), 758. 
Anglo-American Caribbean Commission (see also Carib- 
bean Commission) : 
Activities, 130. 

Name, change proposed, 36, 292. 
Publication, 264. 
Anglo-American civil aviation conference. See Civil 

aviation conference. 
Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry: 

Executive order providing for furnishing of informa- 
tion to (Ex. Or. 9682), 127. 
Hearings in Washington, 74. 
Itinerary, 786. 
Meetings, dates and places, 169, 245, 290, 330, 375, 431, 

476, 525, 565, 618, 655, 711, 755. 
Membership of, 35. 
Relation to Cabinet Committee on Palestine and Related 

Problems, 1089. 
Report on Palestine and immigration and settlement 
problems of Jews and other displaced persons: 
Excerpts, 784. 

Letters and statement regarding, 783. 
U.S. views on : 

Letter to organizations in U.S., 956. 
Memorandum to Near East governments, 956. 
Reply to view of Arab countries, 917. 
Anglo-American Rice Commission, establishment, tri- 
partite agreement, signature, 863. 
Anglo-Siamese peace treaty, text, 963. 
Anslinger, Harry J., appointment as U.S. representative 

to United Nations commission, 1052. 
Antilla, Cuba, closing of U.S. Consulate at, 263. 
AP. See Associated Press. 



Arab leaders in Palestine, consultation with U.S., and 

U.K., proposed, 917, 956. 
Archaeological excavations in U.K., invitation to U.S. 

students to participate in, 961. 
Archives, German, Italian-Fascist, and Japanese, requests 

for information from (D.R. 230.1), 1016. 
Argentina (see also American republics) : 
Cultural leaders, visit to U.S., 349, 868. 
Elections : 

U.S. attitude on charges against U.S. Embassy by 

Per6n, 222. 
U.S. memorandimi regarding, 667. 
General von der Becke, visit to U.S., 1129. 
Postponement of conference at Rio de Janeiro owing to 

attitude of, 427. 
U.S. Ambassador (Messersmith), appointment, 687. 
U.S. memoranda regarding situation in, 285, 666. 
Arica, Chile, closing of U.S. Vice Consulate, 499. 
Armed forces : 
Demobilization of, discussed in President Truman's mes- 
sage to Congress, 141, 142. 
Foreign Service examinatiens for, 306. 
Armed forces, German, quadripartite draft treaty to 

disarm and disband, 815. 
Armed forces, Soviet, in Iran. See Iranian case under 

Security Council. 
Arms and ammunition : 

Germany, prohibition of production in, 636, 815. 
Mexico, investigation of charges against American firms 

for alleged shipments, 39. 
Spain, denial of alleged sale to by U.S. authorities, 218. 
Arms and Armaments, Policy Committee on, functions, 

composition, etc. (D.R. 183.8), 1096. 
Armstrong, Elizabeth H., report on West Indian confer- 
ence, 840. 
Army-Navy-State College, plans for, 259. 
Asia, propaganda, German, in East Asia, 313. 
Assets. See Property. 

Assets, German, in neutral countries. See Germany. 
Associated Press, protest of State Department at discon- 
tinuance of short-wave broadcasting service to the 
Government : 
Letter to president of AP Board of Directors, 94. 
Statements and comments by Mr. Benton, 92, 217, 574, 
726. 
Asylum to political refugees, discussion in General As- 
sembly, 199. 
Atcheson, George, Jr., remarks on SCAP policy on internal 

political activities in Japan, 915. 
Atomic Development Authority, International : 
Address by Mr. Baruch, 1057. 
Creation of, proposal, 558. 
Discussed in radio broadcast, 775. 
Atomic energy : 
Control of: 
Radio broadcast, 774. 

Report of Atomic Energy Committee, 553, 668. 
Statements by Secretary Byrnes, 58, 146. 
Denaturing of atomic explosives, report by group of 

scientists, 668. 
Human rights, relation to, 333, 334. 
Nazi plants in Spain, alleged, statement regarding, 681. 
Atomic Energy Commission of United Nations: 

Address by Mr. Baruch at ojjening session in New York, 

N.Y., 1057. 
Appointment of U.S. representative on (Baruch), 676. 
Dates of meeting, 946, 990, 1042, 1074, 1111. 
Delegates and advisers, final list, 1076. 
Establishment by General Assembly, 19, 58, 89, 198. 
Members invited to atomic-bomb tests, 209, 864. 
Atomic Energy Committee (of Secretary of State) : 
Appointment of committee, 58. 
Board of Consultants, 177, 553, 774. 



INDEX, JANUARY TO JUNE 1946 



1139 



Atomic Energy Committee — Continued 
Report of Board of Consultants on international con- 
trol of atomic energy : 
Clarification, 668. 

Foreword by Secretary Byrnes, 553. 
Letter of transmittal to Secretary Byrnes, 553. 
Radio broadcast, 774. 
Text, excerpts from, 555. 
Atomic-bomb tests, at Bikini : 
Civilian committee to evaluate, appointment, 560. 
Observers, invitation to — 
Foreign representatives, 209. 
Trygve Lie, 1130. 

United Nations Atomic Energy Commission, members, 
864. 
Postponement, 560. 
Statement by President Truman, 667. 
Attlee, C. R. (Prime Minister of U.K.), joint statement 
with President Truman and Prime Minister King on 
continuing Combined Food Board operations, 861. 
Australia : 

Joint Chiefs of Staff in, organization, 221. 
Prime Minister Chifley, visit in U.S., 825. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Bermuda telecommunications agreement (1945), ac- 
ceptance, 714. 
Lend-lease, reciprocal aid, and surplus property, set- 
tlement of, with U.S., 1118. 
Occupation of Japan to be participated in by BCOF, 

agreement with U.S., summary, 220. 
Peace, with Siam, exchange of notes, 966. 
Sanitary convention (1926), as amended (1944), 
protocol prolonging, entry into force and text, 
869. 
Sanitary convention for aerial navigation (1933), as 
amended (1944), protocol prolonging, entry into 
force, 869. 
War criminals of European Axis, prosecution and 
punishment of (1945), accession, 261. 
Austria : 

Allied Council in, jurisdiction of, 81. 
Allied treaty with, recommendation to Council of For- 
eign Ministers regarding, statement by Secretary 
Byrnes, 891. 
Credit arrangement with U.S., 818. 
Displaced-persons camps in, question of closing, 498. 
Exit permits for refugees to return to their country, 

U.S. ban lifted, 73. 
Lignite reserves and production, table, 651. 
Mail service restored, 40. 
Recognition by U.S. Government, 81. 
Relations with Germany (1940), 462. 
Relations with U.S. and status as independent state dis- 
cussed, 339. 
Representative in U. S. (Kleinwaechter), 177. 
Treaty with U.S., U.K., France, and U.S.S.R., proposal 
by U.S. to determine independent status of discussed, 
339. 
U.S. representative (Erhardt), appointment, 177. 
Views of Council of Foreign Ministers regarding, dis- 
cussed in address by Secretary Byrnes, 954. 
Zones of occupation, article by Mr. Hoffman, (549. 
Automobile permits for U.S. citizens in U.S. zone of 

Germany, 447. 
Aviation (see also CITE JA ; PICAO; Treaties) : 
Air law, international, private, article by Mr. Latchford, 

835. 
Air routes of U.S. and U.K. carriers, 589. 
Air-navigation facilities abroad, functions relating to. 
transferred from War and Navy Departments to 
Department of Commerce (Ex. Or. 9709), 684. 
Conferences : 
Air-navigation conference, regional, 219, 290, 330, 375. 
Anglo-American conference at Bermuda. See Civil 
aviation conference. 



Aviation — Continued 

Radio distance indicators, agreement between U.S. and 

U.K., 397. 
U.S. air bases on Kurile Islands, question of, 190. 
U.S. policy on trade privileges in ex-enemy states, letter 
of Mr. Acheson to British Ambassador and to presi- 
dent of TWA, 908. 
Aviation Division, Office of Transport and Communica- 
tions : 
Composition, 1094. 

Organization and functions (D.R. 131.11), 1131. 
Axis (see also Germany; Japan; War criminals, Euro- 
pean) : 
Conferences of leaders (1941), German documents on, 

1103. 
Relations with Spain (1940-43), texts of documents, 413. 
Ayala, Juan B., credentials as Paraguayan Ambassador to 

U.S., 730. 
Azerbaijan, government of, discussed in Soviet-Iranian 

correspondence with Security Council, 659. 
Azores : 

Airports in, transit use by U.S., agreement with Portugal 

(1944), 1051, 1080. 
Closing of U.S. Consulate at Horta, Fayal, 1130. 

Bahamas : 

Liquidation of surplus property in, 350. 
North American regional broadcasting, interim agree- 
ment, signature by U.K. on behalf of, 376. 
Baker, George P., resignation from State Department, 

1054. 
Bangkok, Siam, opening of U. S. Legation, 83. 
Bank, International, for Reconstruction and Develop- 
ment. See International Bank. 
Baruch, Bernard M. r 

Address before United Nations Atomic Energy Com- 
mission, 1057. 
Appointment as U.S. representative on United Nations 
Atomic Energy Commission, 676. 
Bay, Charles Ulrick, appointment as U.S. Ambassador to 

Norway, 1054. 
BCOF (British Commonwealth Occupation Force) : 
Occupation of Japan, agreement between U.S. and 
Australia : 
Statement by Gen. Douglas MacArthur, 221. 
Summary of agreement, 220. 
Beale, T. M., Jr., designation in State Department, 351. 
Becke, General von der (Argentina), visit to U.S., 1129. 
Beddie, J. S., selection and translation of official German 

documents, 459, 699, 984. 
Beira, Portuguese East Africa, closing of U.S. Consulate, 

132. 
Belgium : 
Mr. Spaak elected president of first General Assembly 

of United Nations, 17. 
Property of U.S. nationals in, filing of declarations of 

damage to, 634. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Air transport, interim arrangement with U.S., 263. 
Air-transport services, bilateral, with U.S., signature, 

633, 683. 
Bretton Woods agreements (1945), signature and 

acceptance, 36. 
Reparation from Germany, draft, 114 n. 
Sanitary convention concerning maritime travel 

(1926), as amended (1944), accession, 451. 
Sanitary convention concerning maritime travel 
(1926), as amended (1944), protocol prolonging, 
signature, 869. 
Sanitary convention for aerial navigation (1933), as 

amended (1944), accession, 451. 
Sanitary convention for aerial navigation (1933), as 
amended (1944), protocol prolonging, signature, 
869. 



1140 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Belgium — Continued 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

War criminals of European Axis, prosecution and 
puuisliment of (1945), accession, 2G1. 
U.S. Ambassador (Kirk), appointment, 224. 
Bellegarde, Dantes, credentials as Haitian Ambassador 

to U.S., 1050. 
Benton, William : 

Addresses, statements, etc. : 
American Platform Guild, 7. 
Death of Grayson N. Kefauver, 39. 
Information service, international : 
American press associations, 574. 
Associated Press and United Press, discontlQuance 
of service to Government, 92, 94, 217. 
. U.S. news abroad, 722. 

U.S. short-wave broadcasting, status, 900. 
Understanding among peoples, 408. 
UNESCO, description, 625. 
Correspondence : 

President of Associated Press (McLean), 94. 
Secretary Byrnes, transmitting report of U.S. educa- 
tion mission to Japan, 767. 
Designation in State Department, 351. 
Participant in radio broadcasts, 11, 156. 
Berlin, Germany : 

Joint administration by Allies, 599. 
Opening of U.S. Consulate, 399. 

Opening of U.S. Consulate General, 451 ; corrected, 872. 
Bermuda, liquidation of surplus property in, 350. 
Bermuda civil-aviation conference, 75, 169, 219, 290, 302, 

584. 
Bermuda Telecommunications Conference : 
Agreement, list of signatories, 714. 
Article by Miss Kelly, 59. 
Delegations, listed, 75. 
Bevin, Ernest, attitude on Soviet demands regarding Brit- 
ish troops in Indonesia, 275. 
Bidault, Georges, message to Secretary Byrnes regarding 
establishment of central agencies for control of Ger- 
many, 441. 
Biesanz, John B., visiting professor to Panama, 962. 
Bikini. See Atomic-bomb tests. 
Blacklist. See Blocked Nationals. 
Blair House, article by Mi.ss Crane, 322. 
Blake, Thomas D., resignation from State Department, 736. 
Blocked Nationals, Proclaimed List: 

Enforcement program regarding, statement by Depart- 
ment of State, .579, 
Revision X, Cumulative Supplements 1, 2, 3: 259, 491. 

1052. 
U.S. foreign trade and ex-Proclaimed List nationals, 
article by Mr. Monsma, 875. 
Bloom, Julius, participant in radio broadcast. 11. 
Bloom, Sol, participant iu radio broadcast, 386. 
Blue Bonk, U.S. memorandum on Argentine situation, 666. 
Blum, Leon, and French Mission, reception for, in New 

York, N. Y., address by Mr. Hilldring, 674. 
Board of Consultants of Atomic Energy Committee 177 

553, 555, 668, 774. 
Bolivia (see also American republics) : 
Cultural leader, visit to U.S., 867. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Bretton Woods agreements (1945), signature and ac- 
ceptance, 36. 
Military-aviation mission, with U.S. (1941), renewal, 

83. 
Peace, friendship, commerce and navigation (1858), 
with U.S., exchange of notes regarding most- 
favored-nation provisions in relation to Philip- 
pines, 1049. 
U.S. Ambassador (Flack), appointment, 828. 
Boskey, Bennett, designation in State Department, 826. 



Boundaries, international : 
Italy-Yugoslavia : 
Commission appointed to make recommendations on, 

391. 
Council of Foreign Ministers, views, 950. 
Soviet-Polish : 
Map showing, 342. 
Treaty regarding, text, 341. 
Braden, Spruille : 

Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Cultural-relations program, 396. 
Freedom of information, 392. 
National Socialist ideology, remnants of, 101. 
Peace, 535. 
Radio broadcast, 26. 

State Department responsibility for Institute of 
Inter-American Affairs and Inter-American Edu- 
cational Foundation, 1012. 
Committee to draft treaty proposals for Rio de Janeiro 
conference, motion proposed by, 732. 
Bradford, Saxton, article on German propaganda abroad, 

278. 
Bradley, Carolyn, visiting professor to Chile, 40. 
Brazil (.see also American republics) : 

Closing of U.S. Vice Consulate at Mandos, 1054. 

Cultural leader, visit to U.S., 40. 

Peace conference at Rio de Janeiro, postponement, 427, 

667. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Bretton Woods agreements (1945), signature and 

acceptance, 36, 528. 
Customs, modus vivendi with Venezuela (1940), ter- 
mination, 581. 
Sanitary convention (1926), as amended (1944), 
ratification, 299. 
U.S. Ambassador (Pawley), appointment, 828. 
Visiting professor from U.S., 351. 
Bread (see also Wheat), OPA regulation regarding, dis- 
cussed iu article by Mr. Stillwell, 834. 
Bremen, Germany, opening of U.S. Consulate, 399, 687, 872. 
Bretton Woods agreements (.see also International Bank; 
International Monetary Fund), signatories and in- 
struments of acceptance, listed, 36, 528. 
Bretton Woods Agreements Act, 380, 384. 
Briggs, Ellis O., participant in radio broadcast, 26. 
British Commonwealth Occupation Force. See BCOF. 
British loan. See Financial agreement, U.S.-U.K. 
Broadcasting Committee, International Short-Wave, com- 
position, 862. 
Broadcasts, addresses, and statements of the week, listed, 

083, 728, 751, 819, 860, 920, 967, 1010, 1078. 
Broadcasts, radio. See Radio broadcasts. 
Brophy, Gerald B., resignation from PICAO, acceptance, 

857. 
Brown, Winthrop G., address on expanding international 

trade, 539. 
Brunauer, Esther C, appointment as U.S. Representative 
and member of Executive Committee of UNESCO, 
337. 
Budget and Finance, Office of, UNRRA Division, functions 

(D.R. 124.4), 1015. 
Bulgaria : 

Opposition parties in Government : 
Aide-memoire of U.S. regarding, 447. 
Note from Secretary Byrnes to Soviet Embassy at 
Washington, 485. 
Property rights of U.S. citizens, restoration, 446. 
Bunce, Arthur C, appointment as adviser to General 

Hodge, U.S.A., in Korea, 224. 
Bunn, Charles, article on U.S. trade proposals, 647. 
Burma, attitude on opium control, 239, 243. 
Bush, Vannevar, participant in radio broadcast, 774. 



INDEX, JANUARY TO JUNE 1946 



1141 



Byrnes, James F. : 

Addresses, statements, etc. : 

American Platform Guild, greetings to, 6. 

Appointment of Mr. Fahy as Legal Adviser, 735. 

Arrival of Mr. Lie in U.S., 529. 

Atomic energy, control of, 58, 146. 

Atomic-bomb test, 209. 

Cabinet Committee on Palestine and Related Prob- 
lems, appointment of Mr. Grady as alternate on, 
1089. 

Council of Foreign Ministers, recommendations to, 
891. 

Death of— 

Chalmers, Philip O., 299. 
Leach, Irene B., 218. 

Displaced-persons camps in Germany and Austria, 
closing, 498. 

Economic and financial agreements, U.S.-U.K., 267. 

Far Eastern Commission, first Washington meeting, 
378. 

Financial agreement between U.K. and Greece, 155. 

Funds for State Department intelligence program, lacli 
of appropriation for, 687. 

General Assembly of the United Nations, 87. 

General MacArthur's jurisdiction in Pacific, 449. 

Germany, civil administration, 197. 

Greek elections, 529. 

Italian elections, 299. 

Message at opening meeting of Security Council in 
New York, 567. 

Military cooperation bill, inter- American (H.R. 6326), 
statement before House Foreign Affairs Commit- 
tee, 1001. 

Paris conference of Foreign Ministers (Apr. 25-May 
16), report, 950. 

Poland, alleged political murders in, 209. 

Poland, elections, 209. 

Security Council, discussion of Soviet-Iranian matter, 
570, 571, 620, 621, 828. 

Trade, principles of, promotion for peace and pros- 
perity, 892. 

United Nations, our hope in, 355. 

U.S. military strength, relation to United Nations and 
world peace, 481. 

Yalta agreement on the Kurile Islands and Sakhalin, 
189, 282. 
Atomic energy, control : 

Appointment of committee to study, 58. 

Foreword to report on, 553. 
Correspondence : 

American Society of International Law (Coudert, 
president), on U. S. policy in maintaining and 
developing international law, 758. 

Chinese and Soviet Governments, on industrial enter- 
prises in Manchuria, 448. 

Foreign Ministers, Council of, suggestion for meeting 
of, 624. 

French Foreign Minister (Bidault), concerning estab- 
lishment of central agencies for control of Ger- 
many, 440. 

Frencli Government, respecting conference on peace 
treaties, 112. 

General MacArthur, tribute, 449. 

Greek Foreign Minister, regarding good-will visit of 
U.S.S. Missouri to Greece. 731. 

Mr. Swing, regarding favorable position of State De- 
partment toward compulsory jurisdiction of Inter- 
national Court of .Justice, 633. 

Mr. Walton, on resignation as Minister to Liberia, 450. 

President Truman, regarding — 

International Information Service, 57. 
Protocols prolonging amendments (1944) of sani- 
tary convention (1926) and sanitary convention 
for aerial navigation (1933), 1085. 



Byrnes, James F. — Continued 
Correspondence — Continued 

President Truman, regarding — Continued 

Report on convention with Canada relating to fish- 
eries of the Great Lakes, 823. 
Report on General Assembly of United Nations 

(1st part of 1st session), 530. 
Report on supplementary protocol to income-tax con- 
vention with U.K. (1945) , 1087. 
Senator Myers, on U.S. position regarding recognition 

of Trans-Jordan, 765. 
U.S.S.R., on U.S. aide-memoire to Bulgaria on opposi- 
tion parties in, 485. 
Yugoslavia, on establishment of diplomatic relations 
with U.S. and on appointment of Ambassador to 
U.S. (Kosanovic), 728. 
Departure for meeting of Council of Foreign Ministers 

at Paris, 1074. 
Directive on U.S. policy in occupied areas, 734. 
General Assembly, first part, first session, participation, 
62. 

Cabinet Committee on Palestine and Related Problems, 
Executive Order 9735 establishing, and statements 
by President Truman and Secretary Byrnes. 1089. 
Camps in U.S. zone in Germany, closing postponed, 764. 
Canada: 

Customs procedure, discussion of with U.S., 261. 
Silver-fox furs, reconsideration of quotas on, 176. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Bretton Woods agreements (1945), signature and 

acceptance, 36. 
Civil-aviation convention (1944), ratification, 377. 
Fisheries of the Great Lakes, convention with U.S. 

relating to, 823. 
North American regional broadcasting, interim agree- 
ment, signature, 376. 
St. Lawrence Seaway and Power Project, with U.S., 

address by Mr. Acheson on, 334. 
Sanitarv convention concerning maritime travel 

(1926), as amended (1944), ratification, 40. 
Sanitary convention concerning maritime travel 
(1926), as amended (1944), protocol prolonging, 
signature, 869. 
Sanitary convention for aerial navigation (1033), as 

amended (1944), ratification, 40. 
Sanitary convention for aerial navigation (1933), as 
amended (1944), protocol prolonging, signature, 
869. 
U.S. defense installations In, agreement to purchase, 
conclusion, 683. 
U.S. sui-plus property, disposal, ,350. 
Canby, Henry Seidel, participant in radio broadcast, 11. 
Canol project, disposal, 350. 
Caribbean area, efforts by U.S. and U.K. to expand food 

and livestock production, 130. 
Caribbean Commission (srr. also Anslo-Amorican Carib- 
bean Commission ; West Indian Conference) : 
France and Netherlands, membership, 36, 202, 331. 
Name changed from Anglo-American Caribbean Commis- 
sion, 331. 
Cartels : 

Effects of, article by Mr. Terrill, 4.55. 
Germany, question of revival, discussed in radio broad- 
cast, 911. 
Casablanca, Morocco, U.S. Consular office elevated to rank 

of Consulate General, 872. 
Catudal, Honor# Marcel, designation In State Department, 

3,51. 
Celestials, The, New York, N.Y., address by Mr. Braden, 

294. 
Censor.ship : 

Japanese publications, SCAP report, 751. 
Moscow, procedure for U.S. newspapermen, 731. 



1142 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Censorship — Continued 

Tehran, for foreign correspondents, 731. 
U. S. statement, 772. 
Censorship files, presidential authority for review of, 264. 
Central America. See American republics, and the indi- 
vidual countries. 
Central Services, Division of, functions (D.R. 121.4), 1094. 
Cereals. See Food ; Wheat. 
Chalmers, Philip O., death, 299. 
Chapin, Selden, address on the Foreign Service, 163. 
Charts. See Maps and charts. 

Chicago, 111., Army Day address by President Truman, 622. 
Chifley, Joseph Benedict (Australian Prime Minister), 

visit to U.S., 825. 
Child welfare in American republics, promotion, article 

by Mrs. Enochs, 428. 
Childs, J. Rives, appointment as U.S. Minister to Saudi 

Arabia, 828. 
Chile (see also American republics) : 

Pan American Congress of Social Service (1st), 21. 
Suffrage for women, question of, 249. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Bretton Woods agreements (1945), signature and 

acceptance, 36. 
Whaling, regulation of, agreement (1937) and proto- 
col (1938), accession, 451. 
U.S. Vice Consulate at Arica, closing, 499. 
Visiting professors from U.S., 40, 962. 
China (see also Far East) : 

Appointment of Dr. Kuznets as Economic Adviser to, 

961. 
Cultural leaders, visit to U.S., 263, 961, 1092. 
Cultural-relations program, U.S. technical experts, re- 
turn to U.S., 351. 
Delegation to Security Council, joint statement with 
U.S., U.K., and U.S.S.R. on voting procedure, 851. 
Executive Headquarters, U.S.-Chinese, description, 484. 
Foreign policy of U.S. concerning, statement by Presi- 
dent Truman, 139. 
Manchurian industrial enterprises, exchange of mem- 
oranda witli U.S. regarding control, 448. 
Military aid from U.S., remarks by Mr. Acheson, 1115. 
Repatriation of Formosan-Chinese in Japan, Far East- 
ern Commission policy regarding, 1044. 
Soviet troops, withdrawal, 201. 
Travel grants for students, extension of application 

date, 1091. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Bretton Woods agreements (1945), signature and ac- 
ceptance, 36. 
Chinese Eastern Railroad and South Manchurian 

Railroad, Yalta agreement regarding, 282. 
Civil-aviation convention (1944), ratification, 377. 
Friendship, with Dominican Republic (1940), amend- 
ment (1945), ratification, 538. 
Friendship and alliance, with U.S.S.R., (1945) : 
Exchange of memoranda with U.S., 448. 
Text and related papers, 201. 
Lend-lease, settlement of, with U.S., signature, 1118. 
Sanitary convention (1926), as amended (1944), pro- 
tocol prolonging, signature, 869. 
Sanitary convention for aerial navigation (1933), as 
amended (1944), protocol prolonging, signature, 
869. 
U.S. agricultural mission to, 1054. 
U.S. assistance to, remarks by General Marshall, 484. 
U.S. consular offices at Chungking, Dairen, Mukden, and 

Peiping, opened, 46, 499, 687, 736, 828. 
U.S. Consulate at Taipei (Taihoku), Taiwan (For- 
mosa), administration, 872. 
U.S. Embassy at Chungking closed, and opened as com- 
bined office at Nanking, 828. 
U.S. Embassy at Peiping, closed, 46. 
U.S. engineer (Darnell) to visit, 962. 
Visiting professor from U.S., 1092. 



Chinese Changchun Railway, Sino-Soviet agreement re- 
garding, 204, 207, 448. 
Chistiakov, Col. Gen. Ivan M., letter to General Hodge on 

administration of Korea, 111. 
Chungking, China, closing of U.S. Embassy and opening 

of U.S. Consulate, 828. 
Churchill, Winston, German propaganda regarding. 365. 
CITEJA (Comity International Technique d'Experts 
Juridiques A^riens ) , 14th plenary session : 
Agenda, 169. 

Article by Mr. Latchford, 835. 
Dates of meeting, 169, 219, 290. 
U.S. Delegation, listed, 170, 835. 
Civil aviation. See Aviation. 
Civil aviation conference, Anglo-American : 
Dates of meeting at Bermuda, 169, 219, 290. 
Delegation, U.S., 75. 
Results : 

Agreement between U.S. and U.K., 302. 
Final act, text, 584. 
Civil aviation organization, international, proposed, dis- 
cussed by Mr. Clayton, 1005. 
Civil liberties in Japan, policy of Far Eastern Commis- 
sion on, 946. 
Claims : 

Settlement agreement, U.S.-France, text, 997. 
Settlement agreement, U.S.-U.K., 580. 
U.S. property in Netherlands and Poland, instructions 
for filing, 729, 1083. 
Clay, Gen. Lucius D., U.S.A., commendation for part in 

German industry settlement, 681. 
Clayton, William L. : 
Addresses and statements: 

Civil aviation convention, international, specific 

provisions, 1004. 
Economic and financial agreements, U.S.-U.K., 271, 

437. 
Economic relations, importance to world peace, 677. 
UNRRA, fourth Council session, 527, 644. 
Appointment as U.S. Alternate Governor of the Inter- 
national Monetary Fund and International Bank, 
262. 
Cleveland City Club, address by Mr. Wilcox, 96. 
Coal : 

Europe, shortage, 195, 300. 

Transportation bottlenecks in shipping, 195. 

Transportation from Poland to Europe and the Balkans, 

plans for, 761. 
U.S. shipments : 
Article by Mr. Stillwell, discussed in, 832. 
To France, 675. 
To liberated areas, 152. 
Coal Jlining Committee of ILO, first meeting in London, 

accomplishments, article by Mr. Ross, 704. 
Coffee agreement, inter- American (1940), protocol extend- 
ing, 180, 778, 867. 
Cohen, Benjamin V., participant in radio broadcast, 386. 
Collaborators with enemy in Philippines, disposition of, 

statement by President Truman, 534. 
Collado, Emilio G., appointment as U.S. Executive Director 
of the International Bank for Reconstruction and De- 
velopment, 262. 
Colombia (see also American republics) : 
International Monetary Fund, signature and acceptance, 

36. 
Statement by Mr. Restrepo at the General Assembly 

of the United Nations, 64. 
Suffrage for women, question of, 249. 
Visit of President-elect (Ospina P^rez) to U.S., 892. 
Columbia University Club, Washington, address by Mr. 

Braden, 396. 
Combined Food Board : 

Continuation, joint statement by President Truman, 
Prime Minister Attlee, and Prime Minister King, 
861. 



INDEX, JANUARY TO JUNE 1946 



1143 



Combined Food Board — Continued 

Establishment of International Emergency Food Council 

to replace, 1075. 
Functions, 949. 

Grain shipments to India, 958. 
Comity International Technique d'Experts Juridiques 

A(5riens. See CITEJA. 
Commerce Department : 
Petroleum Facilities Coordinating Committee, member- 
ship on, 3. 
Transfer of certain functions from War and Navy De- 
partments (Ex. Or. 9709), 684. 
Commercial agreements with enemy countries, Czecho- 
slovak declaration of invalidity of, 960. 
Commercial and diplomatic agreement with Yemen, 297, 

917. 
Commercial Policy, Division of. Motion Picture Section in, 

functions (D.R. 131.24), 1096. 
Commercial policy, joint declaration with Prance, 995. 
Commissions, committees, etc., international (see also name 
of commission; United Nations) : 
Agricultural Sciences, Inter-American Institute of, 179. 
Allied Control Council for Germany, 76, 79. 
Allied Council for Austria, 81. 

Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry, 35, 74, 127, 169, 
245, 290, 330, 375, 431, 476, 525, 565, 618, 655, 711, 755, 
783, 917, 956, 1089. 
Caribbean Commission, 36, 130, 264, 292, 331. 
CITEJA, 169. 

Combined Food Board, 861, 949, 958, 1075. 
Commission of experts to prepare report on Italy- Yugo- 
slavia boundary, 391. 
Cotton Advisory Committee, 714. 
Cotton Study Group, 169, 219, 290, 330, 711, 755, 813, 856, 

S84. 
Disarmament of Japan, Committee on, 566, 6.55. 
Emergency Economic Committee for Europe, 248, 565, 

618, 833, 949. 
Emergency Food Council, 1075, 1111. 
Far Eastern Commission, 127, 169, 370, 375, 431, 477, 525, 

&55, 1074. 
Food and agriculture, international organizations con- 
cerned with, listed, 949. 
Foreign Ministers, Council of : 

Meetings in Paris, 169, 624, 711, 755, 813, 815, 856, 884, 

891, 946, 990, 1042, 1074, 1111. 
Meetings of Deputies, 169, 219, 290, 330, 375, 391, 431, 
476, 525, 565, 618, 655, 711, 755, 813, 856, 884, 946, 
990, 1042, 1074, 1111. 
German External Property Commission, 76. 
Great Lakes Fisheries, International Commission for, 

823. 
India Famine Emergency Committee, 1084. 
Inter-AUjed Trade Committee, 395. 
International Bank for Reconstruction and Develop- 
ment, 36, 262, 381, 528, 563, 581, 856, 1044. 
International Labor Organization, 35, 169, 245, 290, 348, 
566, 691, 704, 713, 739, 799, 813, 882, 884, 946, 948, 
993, 1028. 
International Monetary Fund, 36, 262, 528, 563, 581, 

856, 1044. 
International Office of Public Health, 655, 711, 755, 813, 

856, 884. 
Merchant Marine Commission, Tripartite, 445. 
North American Regional Engineering Committee, 377, 

3T9. 
Petroleum Facilities Coordinating Committee, 3. 
Philippine War Damage Commission, 955. 
Reparation Agency, Inter-Allied, 1063. 
Rice Commission, 958. 
Short-wave broadcasting committee, 862. 
Trade organization, international, proposed, 383, 403, 

431, 616, 631, 647. 
United Maritime Authority, 171. 

719539—46 2 



Cormnis.sions, committees, etc., international — Continued 
UNRRA, Council of, 4th session, 290, 293, 375, 431, 476, 
525, 565, 856. 
Commissions, committees, etc., national : 

Advisory Council on International Monetary and Finan- 
' cial Problems, 380, 381. 

Atomic Energy Committee, 58, 177, 553, 555, 668, 774. 
Cabinet Committee on Palestine and Related Problems. 

1089. 
Export Control Committee, 154, 178. 
Famine Emergency Committee, 716. 
Foreign Liquidation Commission, report, 820. 
Interdepartmental Committee on Scientific and Cul- 
tural Cooperation, 72, 428. 
Rubber, Inter-Agency Policy Committee on, 541. 
Communications. See Information ; Mails ; Telecommu- 
nications. 
Compulsory jurisdiction of International Court of Justice, 

633. 
Conferences, congresses, etc. (see also name of confer- 
ence) : 
Air-navigation conference, regional, 219, 290, 330, 375. 
Allied-Swedish negotiations for German external assets, 

990, 992, 1042, 1074, 1111. 
Allied-Swiss negotiations on German external assets, 

525, 655, 856, 990, 1101, 1121. 
Civil-aviation conference, Anglo-American, 75, 169, 219, 

290, 302, 584. 
Civil Aviation Organization, Provisional, International, 
conferences : 
Annual as.sembly (1st), Montreal, 655, 711, 755, 813, 

856, 884, 886, 946, 090, 1042, 1074. 
European and Mediterranean air route services con- 
ference, Paris, 525, 565, 618, 655, 711, 713, 755, 
813, 856, 884, 946, 990, 1042, 1074. 
Near Eastern route service conference, Cairo, 655, 711, 

755. 
North Atlantic route service conference, Dublin, 431, 
476, 525, 565. 
Copyright conference, inter-American, 82, 992, 1112. 
Cotton Study Group, 169, 219, 290, 330, 711, 755, 813, 856, 

884. 
Economic counselors and advisers to U.S. missions in 

Europe, 327. 
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Na- 
tions, 277, 858, 1075. 
German-owned patents outside Germany, 1112. 
Inter- American conference for maintenance of conti- 
nental peace and security, 427, 477, 732. 
Inter- American conference on problems of war and peace, 

285. 
Inter-American Demographic Congress, 1st, 66. 
International affairs, conference of lecturers on, 6, 11. 
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development 
and International Monetary Fund, meeting of 
Boards of Governors at Savannah, 219, 290, 330, 331, 
375, 431, 433, 476, 478, 525, 527. 
International Bureau of Education, conference (9th), 

375, 431, 476. 

International Monetary Fund and International Bank 

for Reconstruction and Development, meeting of 

Boards of Governors at Savannah, 219, 290, 330, 331, 

375, 431, 433, 476, 478, 525, 527. 

Meteorological services, international, 219, 290, 330, 375. 

Non-repatriable victims of German action, conference 

on, 857. 
North American regional broadcasting engineering con- 
ference, 170, 376, 379. 
Pan American Railway Congress (5th), 476, 525, 56.5, 

618, 655, 711, 755, 813. 
Reparation, Paris Conference on, 114. 
Rio de Janeiro, postponement, 427, 477, 732. 
Telecommunications, Bermuda, 59, 75. 



1144 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Conferences, congresses, etc. — Continued 

Trade, plans, 140, 175 n., 188, 326, 327, 403, 455, 509, 561, 

616. 
United Maritime Autliority, Council of, 171. 
UNRRA Council, fourth session, 293, 476, 565, 619, 857. 
West Indian Conference, 169, 292, 330, 332, 840. 
Congress, U.S. : 
Atomic-bomb tests, selection of members to observe, 560. 
Civil aviation convention, statement by Mr. Clayton 

before Senate Foreign Relations Committee, 1004. 
House Appropriations Committee, failure to appropriate 
funds for State Department intelligence program, 
statement by Secretary Byrnes, 687. 
House Foreign Affairs Committee : 

Military assistance to China, remarks by Mr. Acheson, 

1115. 
Military cooperation bill, inter-American, statement by 

Secretary Byrnes, 1001. 
Under Secretary of State for Economic Affairs, Office 

of, action on bill for establishment, 1093. 
UNESCO, statements by Mr. Benton and Mr. Mac- 
Leish, 625, 629. 
Messages from President Truman : 
Annual message, 135. 
Civil aviation convention, 1079. 
Financial agreement, U.S.-U.K., 183. 
Foreign loans, U.S. objectives, 380. 
Inter-American Military Cooperation Act, 8.59. 
Lend-lease reports (21st and 22d), letters of trans- 
mittal, 223, 1091. 
UNRRA, supplemental estimate, letter of transmittal, 
866. 
Military cooperation bill, inter-American (H.R. 6326), 
statement by Secretary Byrnes before House Foreign 
Affairs Committee, 1001. 
Philippine rehabilitation and recovery (H.R. 5856 and 

S. 1610), statement by President Truman, 822. 
Publications, listed, 264, 352, 400, 452, 596, 1019, 1053, 

1130. 
Report of Foreign Liquidation Commission, 820. 
Senate Committee on Banking and Currency, statement 

by Mr. Ache.son on British loan, 511. 
Senate Foreign Relations Committee : 

St. Lawrence Seaway and Power Project, address by 

Mr. Acheson, 334. 
Statement by Mr. Clayton on civil aviation convention, 
1004. 
Under Secretary of State for Economic Affairs, action by 
House Foreign Affairs Committee on bill (H.R. 
6646 ) for establishment of office, 1093. 
UNESCO, statement by Mr. Benton and Mr. MacLeish 

before House Foreign Affairs Committee, 625, 629. 
UNRRA report (5th, 6th, and 7tli), letters of trans- 
mittal, 347, 757, 1126. 
Winant, John G,, Senate confirmation of nomination as 
U.S. Representative on Economic and Social Coun- 
cil, 573. 
Consular offices. See Foreign Service, U.S. 
"Consultation Among the American Republics With Re- 
spect to the Argentine Situation" (Blue Book), U.S. 
memorandum regarding, 666. 
Control Council for Germany : 
Effectiveness discussed : 
President Truman, 137, 138. 
Radio broadcast, 910. 
Functions, messages between Secretary Byrnes and 
French Minister of Foreign Affairs (Bidault) 
regarding, 440. 
German assets : 

Council law regarding, 283. 

State Department denial of Mr. Nixon's conclusions 
regarding, 76. 
German reparations and post-war industries, 79, 636, 
681. 



Control Council for Germany — Continued 
Joint declaration by U.S., U.S.S.R., U.K., and France 
on liaison with other United Nations governments, 
113. 
Significance of Council, comments by Mr. Hilldring, 676. 
Conventions. See Conferences ; Treaties. 
Cooper, Prentice, appointment as U.S. Ambassador to 

Peru, 828. 
Copyright conference, inter-American : 
Announcement, 82. 
Drafting of document, 1112. 
Meeting, dates, 946, 1042, 1074. 
U.S. Delegation, listed, 992. 
Corcoran Art Gallery, historical background, 323. 
Costa Rica (see also American republics) : 

Bretton Woods agreements (1945), signature and ac- 
ceptance, 528. 
Cultural leaders, visit to U.S., 868, 962. 
Cotton : 

Export-Import Bank loans for, 381, 382. 
Report of textile mission to Japan, 1009. 
Cotton Advisory Committee, International, 5th meeting: 
Announcement and plans, 714. 
Executive committee. Creation of, and powers and 

duties, 887, 888. 
Final resolution, text, 888. 
Cotton Study Group, 169, 219, 290, 330, 884. 
Council of United Maritime Authority. See United Mari- 
time Authority. 
Crane, Katharine Elizabeth, article on Blair House, 322. 
Credentials. See Diplomatic representatives in U.S. 
Crimea conference, agreement on repatriation of U.S. and 

Soviet citizens, 443. 
Cuba (see also American republics) : 
Closing of U.S. Consulate at AntUla, 263. 
Cultural leader, visit to U.S., 263. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Bretton Woods agreements (1945), 36, 528. 
North American regional broadcasting, interim agree- 
ment, 376. 
Cultural and economic collaboravlon agreement, U.S.S.R. 

and Mongolia, text, 968. 
Cultural cooperation (see also American republics; China, 
UNESCO) : 
Address by : Mr. Benton, 408 ; Mr. Braden, 396, 683 ; Mr. 

McGurk, 683. 
Archaeological excavations In U.K., Invitation to U.S. 

students to participate in, 961. 
Article by : Miss Green and Mrs. Esman, 227 ; Mr. Mc- 

George, 72. 
Interdepartmental Committee on Scientific and Cultural 

Cooperation, 428, 1092. 
Korean leaders visit U.S., 812. 
U.S. Agricultural Mission to visit Near East, 348. 
U.S. program in Near East, 503, 608. 
Visitors from U.S. to — 
China, 961, 962, 1092. 
Near East, 1011. 

Other American republics, 40, 351, 870, 960, 962. 
Cultural-relations attaches, description of activities, 608. 
Currency (see also Financial agreement, U.S.-U.K.), 

Czechoslovak, deadline extended for deposit of, 339. 
Curzon Line, comments on, 189. 
Customs : 
Modvs vwendi between Brazil and Venezuela, termina- 
tion, 581. 
Procedure, discussion by U.S. and Canadian officials, 
261. 
Czechoslovakia : 
Ambassador to U.S. (SlAvik). credentials, 1082. 
Attitude toward Siam in World War II, 730. 
Documents, U.S. order for restoration of, 338. 
Issuance of death certificates by, 262. 
Relations with Germany (1940), 462. 



INDEX, JANUARY TO JUNE 1946 



1145 



Czechoslovakia — Continued 
Securities, deadline extended for deposit of currency 

and registration of securities, 330. 
Statement by Mr. Masaryk at General Assembly of 

United Nations, 64. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Bretton Woods agreements (1945), signature and ac- 
ceptance, 36. 
Civil aviation, air-transport services, bilateral, with 

U.S., 83. 
Commercial agreements with enemy countries, 

Czechoslovak declaration of invalidity of, 960. 
Monetary agreement with U.K., 81. 
I^ostal, universal (1939), adherence, 350. 
War criminals of European Axis, prosecution and pun- 
ishment of (1945), accession, 261. 

Dairen, Cliina : 

Opening of U.S. Consulate, 499. 736. 
Sino-Soviet agreement regarding, 204, 205. 
Yalta agreement regarding, 282. 
Damages. Sec Claims; Reparation. 
Danubian transportation problems, article by Mrs. Whit- 

nack and Mr. Handler, 1108. 
Darnell, Richard C, to visit China, 962. 
Davidson, Kenneth W., visiting professor to Chile, 962. 
de Wolf, Francis C, address at North American regional 

broadcasting engineering conference, 379. 
DeCourcy, William E., designation in State Department, 

826. 
Delgado, Francisco A., appointment as member of Philip- 
pine AVar Damage Commission, 955. 
Demilitarization. See Germany ; Japan ; Treaties. 
Democracy, definition, address by Mr. Braden, .536. 
Demographic Congress, first inter-American (in Mexico 

City, October 1943), article by Miss Roberts, 66. 
Denazification procedures in Germany, 547, 910. 
Denmark : 

A.ssets belonging to U.S. nationals, release, 1083. 
' Attitude on Charter of United Nations, statement by 
Mr. Rasmu.ssen at General Assembly, 64. 
Hitler's plans for (1940, 1942), German documents on, 

699, 702, 939. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Civil aviation, interim agreement (1944), U.K. with- 
drawal of reservation respecting Denmark, 715. 
War criminals of the European Axis, prosecution and 

punishment of (1945), accession, 261. 
Whaling, regulation of, supplementary protocol 
(1944), 347. 
Denny, Charles R. (acting chairman. Federal Communi- 
cations Commission), letter to State Department on 
status of U.S. short-wave broadcasting, 904. 
Departmental regulations : 

Archives, German, Italian-Fascist, and Japanese, re- 
quests for information from (D.R. 230.1), 1016. 
Area Divisions, functions (D.R. 132.16), 45. 
Arms and Armaments, Policy Committee on, functions, 

composition, etc. (D.R. 183.8), 1096. 
Aviation Division, organization and functions (D.R. 

1.31.11), 1131. 
Broadcasting Division, International, functions (D.R. 

132.12), ■'43. 
Censorship files, presidential authority for review of, 

264. 
Central Services, Division of, functions (D.R. 121.4), 

1094. 
Commercial Policv, Division of. Motion Picture Section 

in, functions (D.R. 181.24), 1096. 
Consular services to ships and seamen, transfer of func- 
tions to Shipping Division, 83. 
Contacts with Department of Justice regarding immi- 
gration and visa matters (D.R. 232.2), 970. 
Employment of aliens (D.R. 322.1), 1016. 



Departmental regulations — Continued 

Exchange of Persons, Division of International, func- 
tions (D.R. 132.14), 44. 

Foreign Service, Office of. Corps of Foreign Service In- 
spectors in, functions (D.R. 122.1), 1095. 

Foreign Service, Secretariat of Board of Examiners, 
functions and organization (D.R. 122.8), 1016. 

Geographic Offices, divisions, functions, and organiza- 
tion (D.R. 140.1), 827. 

Information and Cultural Affairs, Office of International, 
functions and responsibilities (D.R. 132.10), 42. 

Intelligence, Advisory Committee on, functions, member- 
ship, and meetings (D.R. 183.5), 826. 

Intellisence Coordination and Liaison, Office, functions 
(D.R. 133.20), 827. 

Intelligence Collection and Dissemination, Office, func- 
tions and organization (D.R. 133.30), 827. 

International Organization AfCairs, Division of, func- 
tions (D.R. 118.11), 1094. 

International Organizations Immunities Act, responsi- 
bilities of Protocol Division and Division of Inter- 
national Organization Affairs under (D.R. 118.11, 
121.10, and 240.1), 1018, 10»9. 

Investigations, Division of, functions and organization 
(D.R. 123.6), 180. 

Liaison with National Archives (D.R. 232.1), 969. 

Libraries and Institutes, Division of, functions (D.R. 
132.15), 45. 

Motion Pictures Division, International, functions (D.R. 
132.13), 44. 

Occupied Areas, Assistant Secretary of State for, func- 
tions, re.sponsibilities, etc. (D.R. 134.1), 1132. 

Passenger Shipping Committee, composition and func- 
tions (D.R. 183.7), 970. 

Policy Information Services, functions (D.R. 183.4), 970. 

Press and Publications Division, International, func- 
tions (D.R. 132.11), 43. 

Shipping Division, organization and functions (D.R. 
131.12), 1132. 

Special Assistant to Assistant Secretary for Economic 
Affairs, responsibilities (D.R. 131.2), 1015. 

Special Assistant to Secretary of State and Foreign 
Liquidation Commissioner, delegation of authority 
to (D.R. 139.1), 1017. 

State Department records, use of (D.R. 420.1 ) , 779. 

Surplus property, disposal, designation of authority for 
(D.R. 139.2), 1017. 

Telecommunications Division, organization and functions 
(D.R. 131.13), 1132. 

Transjwrt and Communications, Office of, functions, 
responsibilities, etc. (D.R. 131.10), 1131. 

Treaties, agreements, etc., advice and assistance on mat- 
ters pertaining to ( D.R. 251.1 ) , 1017. 

UNRRA Division, Office of Budget and Finance, func- 
tions (D.R. 124.4), 1015. 
Deutsche Auslandsproimnnndn Ziisammenstellung der 
Standardthesen und RicMlinien fiir: 

Article on by Mr. Bradford, 278. 

Excerpts, 311, 365. 
Diplomatic and commercial agreement with Yemen, con- 
clusion, 917. 
Diplomatic immunity and taxation, 199. 276, 348. 
Diplomatic officer, transportation of ashes, 447. 
Diplomatic relations, with — 

Austria, recommended by Allied Council, 81. 

Haiti, resumption, 682. 

Rumania, establishment, 256, 298. 

Siam, resumption, 5. 

Trans-Jordan, letter from Secretary Byrnes to Senator 
Myers on U.S. position regarding recognition of, 
765. 

Yemen, establishment, 446. 

Yugoslavia, establishment, 728. 



1146 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Diplomatic representatives in U.S. : 

Appointment of Austrian representative (Klein- 

waeehter), 177. 
Credentials, 132, 351, 730, 1000, 1050, 1082. 
Disarmament. See Germany ; Japan ; Treaties. 
Displaced persons and refugees (see also Anglo-American 
Committee of Inquiry ; Cabinet Committee ; United 
Nations) : 
Admission to U.S. from U.S. zone in Germany, 400. 
Camps in Europe, U.S. zone : 

Austria, closing, comments by Secretary Byrnes, 498. 
Germany : 
Closing — 

Comments by Secretary Byrnes, 498. 
Postponement, 764. 
Condition, discussed in radio broadcast, 913. 
Poland, policy on, exchange of letters between Senator 
Vandenberg and Mr. Aclieson, 1003. 
Conference on non-repatriable victims of German action, 

857. 
Discussion in General Assembly regarding, 199, 276. 
Immigration quota, preference to persons in U.S. zone 

in Germany, 635. 
Migration policies and world economy, address by Mr. 

Warren, 213. 
Property in U.S. owned by German and Japanese refu- 
gees, release, 1011. 
Resettlement agency for, creation of, comments on U.S. 
proposal for, 865. 
Documents, Czechoslovak, restoration of, 338. 
Dodecanese, disjjositlon of German assets In, 124. 
Dominican Republic (see also American republics), 
treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Bretton Woods agreements (1945), signature and ac- 
ceptance, 36. 
Civil-aviation agreements : air transport and interim 

(1944), acceptance, 377. 
Clvll-aviation convention (1944), ratification, 377. 
Friendship, with China (1940), amendment (1945), 

ratification, 538. 
North American regional broadcasting, interim agree- 
ment, signature, 376. 
Dort, Dallas, article on UNRRA, 359. 
Double-taxation conventions, U.S. and — 
France, conversations regarding, 451. 
U.K., protocol modifying, 1052, 1087. 
Duran, Gustavo, designation in State Department, 826. 

East Asia, German propaganda to, 313. 
Economic Affairs, Office of Under Secretary of State for, 
establishment, action by House Committee on For- 
eign Affairs on bill (H.R. 6640), 1093. 
Economic Affairs, Special Assistant to Assistant Secre- 
tary for, responsibilities (D.R. 131.2), 1015. 
Economic and cultural collaboration agreement, U.S.S.B. 

and Mongolia, text, 968. 
Economic and Employment Commission of United Na- 
tions : 
Establishment, resolution on, 798. 
Initial members, 799. 
Olijectives, 797, 798, 800. 
Opening meeting at New York, 814. 
Relation to ILO, 799. 
Scope, 800. 

Subcommissions, establishment and comiwsition of, 798, 
802. 
Economic and Social Council of United Nations : 

Commissions and committees of, composition, 471, 596. 
Co-operative Alliance, International, request for mem- 
bership in, 126. 
Designation of U.S. Representative (Winant), 74, 573. 
Displaced persons and refugees, problems, 276. 
Employment, U.S. resolution on trade and, 326. 
Employment and trade conference, plans, 648, 988. 



Economic and Social Council — Continued 
Health conference under au.spices of, 1076. 
Lal)or groups, request for membership, 126. 
Meetings, dates: in London, 24.5, 290, 330; in New York, 

476, 884, 1111. 
Opening meetings of Commissions in New York, 814. 
Organization of, 62, 63, 65, 83, 90. 
Trade and employment, U.S. resolution on, 326. 
Trade and employment conference, plans for, 648, 988. 
Women, International Federation of, request for mem- 
bership, 126. 
Work of, discussed in address by Mr. Winant, 975. 
World Federation of Trade Unions, request for mem- 
bership, 91. 
Economic counselors and advisers to U.S. missions in 
Europe, participants and program of conference in 
Paris, 327. 
Economics (see also Economic and Employment Commis- 
sion ; Finance) : 
Aid to Korea, U.S. consideration of, 449. 
Allied Control Council plan for German post-war level, 

636. 
Allied economic control policy in Japan, study of, 10. 
Austria, loan from U.S. to purchase surplus property, 

818. 
Cotton. See Cotton. 
Economic warfare, use of Proclaimed List of Blocked 

Nationals in, 876. 
Emergency Economic Committee for Europe, 248, 565, 

618, 8.33, 949. 
Financial relations, importance of, addresses by : Mr. 
Acheson, 317, 511 ; Secretary Bvrnes, 267 ; Mr. Clay- 
ton, 271, 437, 677 ; Mr. Winant, 975. 
Foreign loans, table showing those authorized by Ex- 
port-Import Bank, 384. 
Foreign loans, U.S. policy regarding, 139, 144, 380, 381. 
France, agreement on economic and financial problems. 

994, 1127. 
German holdings in Switzerland, understanding between 

Allied and Swiss Governments regarding, 1121. 
Migration policies and world economy, address by Mr. 

Warren, 213. 
Reconstruction of Fi-ance, address by Mr. Hilldring, 674. 
Rubber, relation to world economy, article by Mr. 

Phillips, 932. 
Situation in Far East, Ambassador Pauley to study, 821. 
Wool program proposed, comments by President Tru- 
man, 491. 
ECOSOC. See Economic and Social Council. 
Ecuador (see also American republics) : 

Constitution, new, provision for women suffrage, 249. 
Galapagos base, U.S. withdrawal from, 644. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Bretton Woods agreements (1945), signature and ac- 
ceptance, 36. 
Sanitary convention (1926), as amended (1944), 

protocol prolonging, signature, 869. 
Sanitary convention for aerial navigation (1933), as 
amended (1944), protocol prolonging, signature, 
869. 
Education (see also UNESCO) : 

Conference of International Bureau of Education (9th), 

375, 431, 476. 
Cooperative, with Panama, 223. 
Exchange program with Near East, 608. 
Foreign students, special courses for, colleges listed, 

1013. 
Importance of short-wave broadcasting in, article by Mr. 

Stone, 906. 
Japan : 

SCAP report on, 807. 

U.S. advisory group to, 345, 641, 767. 

U.S. institutions In Near East, 506, 609. 



INDEX, JANUARY TO JUNE 1946 



1147 



Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization of the 

United Nations. See UNESCO. 
Egypt (see also Near East) : 

Air transport agreement, with U.S., text of annex, 1088. 
Bretton Woods agreements (1945), signature and ac- 
ceptance, 36. 
U.S. Consulate at Suez, closing, 544. 
Eisenhower, Gen. Dwight D., attitude on civil administra- 
tion of Germany, 197. 
El Salvador {see also American republics) : 

Bretton Woods agreements (1945), signature and ac- 
ceptance, 528. 
Cultural leader, visit to U.S., 40. 
Elections, Argentine: 

U.S. attitude on charges against Embassy by Peron, 222. 
U.S. memorandum regarding, 667. 
Elections, German, January 1946, results, 550. 
Elections, Greeis, Allied Mission to observe (see also Elec- 
toral lists) : 
Appointment by President Truman of U.S. Delegation, 

56. 
Organization and list of U.S. representatives, 129, 297. 
Report, 671, 865. 

Statement by Secretary Byrnes, 529. 
Statement on results, by chiefs of Mission, 582. 
Elections, Italian, U.S. interest in, 299. 
Elections, Japanese: 

Advisability of, exchange of communications between 
General MacArthur and Far Eastern Commission 
regarding, 639. 
Far Eastern Commission, decision regarding, 566. 
Postponement, 749. 
SCAP report on, 1067. 
Elections, Polish : 
Plans, note from Polish Ambassador, 762. 
Keferendum, purpose of, note from Polish Ambassador 

explaining, 762. 
Relation of Export-Import loan to, 761. 
Statement by Secretary Byrnes, 209. 
Elections, Rumanian. U.S. protest, 1007, 1048, 1125. 
Electoral lists, Greek, Allied Mission to observe revision : 
Invitation to U.S. to send delegation, 1050. 
Mr. Morris heads U.S. Section, 1128. 
Emergency Economic Committee for Europe, under aus- 
pices of Conference of Ministers of Food and Agricul- 
ture, 248, 565, 618, 833, 949. 
Employment (see also Economic and Employment Com- 
mission) : 
Conference on trade and U.S. proiwsals for considera- 
tion by, 326, 403, 455, 509, 561, 616. 
U.S. proposals concerning, article by Mr. Plank and Mr. 
Erickson, 561. 
Employment of aliens. State Department policy (D.R. 

322.1), 1016. 
Engert, Cornelius Van H., to head UNRRA mission to 

Turkey and Near East, 960. 
Enemy aliens from other American republics, 33, 732. 
Enochs, Elizabeth Shirley : 

Article on child welfare in American republics, 428. 
Report to Pan American Union on first Pan American 
Congress of Social Service, 21. 
Entry permits for U.S. owners of property in Poland, 670. 
Erhardt. John G., appointment as U.S. Political Repre- 
sentative to Austria, 177. 
Erickson, Maurice J., article on U.S. trade proposals, 561. 
Ertegiin, Mehmet Miinir, Turkish Ambassador to U.S., 

ashes transported to Turkey, 447. 
Esman, Sherly Goodman, article on cultural centers in 

other American republics, 227. 
Espionage activities of Red Army ofiicer (Redin), alleged, 

U.S. reply to Soviet inquiry regarding charges, 682. 
Espionage in Argentina, findings regarding, 285. 
Estate tax, double, convention with France, conversations 
regarding, 451. 



Ethiopia : 

Agreement for the prosecution and punishment of major 
war criminals of the European Axis (1945), ac- 
cession, 261. 
Bretton Woods agreements (1945), signature and ac- 
ceptance, 36. 
Minister to U.S. (Imru), credentials, 1000. 
Europe (see also individual countries) : 

Cereal requirements, table showing country-by-country 

estimate, 898. 
Displaced persons in. See Anglo-American Committee 

of Inquiry ; Displaced persons. 
Food crisis: 
Address by: Mr. Hoover, 717; Mr. La Guardia, 716; 

President Truman, 716. 
Article by Mr. Stillwell, 831. 
Radio broadcast, 191. 
German propaganda, 311, 36i5. 

Loans authorized by Export-Import Bank, table, 385. 
Population, displacement, 213. 
Reconstruction of, address by Mr. Thorp, 300. 
Regional arrangements in, discussed in article by Mr. 

Allen, 923. 
Shortage of coal and wheat, 300. 
European and Mediterranean air route service conference : 
Meeting at Paris, 525, 565, 618, 655, 711, 755, 813, 856, 884, 

946, 990, 1042, 1074. 
U.S. Delegation, 713. 
Evans, Robert F., designation in State Department, 351. 
Evans, Walter (vice president, Westinghouse Electric Cor- 
poration), letter to State Department on status of 
U.S. short-wave broadcasting, 903. 
Exchange-students program, address by Mr. Braden, 396. 
Executive orders : 

Air-navigation facilities abroad, functions relating to, 
transferred from War and Navy Departments to 
Department of Commerce (Ex. Or. 9709), 684. 
Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry, providing for 

furnishing information to (Ex. Or. 9682), 127. 
Cabinet Committee on Palestine and Related Problems, 

establishment (Ex. Or. 9735), 1089. 
Inter-American Affairs, Office of, termination, and trans- 
fer of certain functions to State Department (Ex. 
Or. 9710), 686. 
Lend-lease, maintenance of accounts and fiscal records 
of, transfer to Treasury Department (Ex. Or. 
9726), 959. 
Surplus property in foreign areas (amending Ex. Or. 

9630) , 1000. 
War Relief Control Board, President's, termination (Els. 
Or. 9723), 1015. 
Exemptions and immunities : 
International Organizations Immunities Act, description, 

348. 
United Nations Secretariat, discussion on diplomatic 
immunity and taxation, 199, 276. 
Exit permits for Austrian refugees, 73. 
Export Control committee, membership, 154. 
E.xport-Import Bank of Washington : 
Appropriation to increase lending power, 380, 381. 
Loans authorized : 
Greece, 78. 

Poland, exchange of notes, 761. 
Table showing, 384. 
Exports Managers Club, New York, N.Y., address by Mr. 

Brown, 539. 
Expropriation, Poland, compensation to U.S. property 

owners, discussed, 670. 
External assets, German, negotiations : 
Allied-neutral, 374, 955, 1077. 
Allied-Swedish, 990, 992, 1042, 1074, 1111. 
Allied-Swiss, 525, 565, 618, 655, 711, 755, 813, 856, 884, 
946, 955, 990, 1101, 1121. 



1148 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



External Property, German, Commission for : 
Creation, by Allied Control Council, 283. 
State Department denial of Mr. Nixon's conclusions on 
protection of German assets, 76. 

Fahy, Charles, appointment as Legal Adviser in State 

Department, 735, 1097. 
Famine Emergency Committee : 
Article by Mr. Stillwell, discussed in, 832. 
Report on world food requirements and supplies, 897. 
Visit to American republics of Mr. Hoover, and list of 
party, 958. 
FAO. See Food and Agriculture Organization of United 

Nations. 
Far East (see also Far Eastern Commission and the individ- 
ual cou7itries) : 
Cultural leaders, visit to U.S. from Korea, 812. 
German propaganda in East Asia, 313. 
International Military Tribunal for : 

Establishment of, text of charter, 361, 890. 
Members appointed, 751. 
Jurisdiction of General MacArthur, extent, 449. 
Population, displacement, 216. 
Kadio broadcast on Korea and, 104. 
Regional arrangements in, discussed in article by Mr. 

Allen, 924. 
Rice shortage, 300. 
Rubber allocations for U.S., 224. 
U.S. Ambassador (Pauley) to study economic problems 

in, 821. 
U.S. policy, statement by President Truman, 138. 
War criminals, trial of, 376, 809. 

—Charter and proclamation regarding, 361, 618, 890. 
Indictment, statement by Mr. Keenan, 846. 
List of, 847. 
Far Eastern Advisory Commission. See Far Eastern 

Commission. 
Far Eastern Commission : 
Activities, 127, 431. 
Address by Secretary Byrnes, 378. 
Aliens in Japan, policy regarding, 1042. 
Berendsen, Sir Carl, remarks regarding U.S. food ship- 
ments to Japan, 712. 
Chairman, officers, and committees, 376, 477. 
Civil liberties in Japan, policy relating to, 946. 
Constitution in Japan, new : 
Criteria for adoption, 886. 
Message from State Department on, 991. 
Text of consultation with SCAP, 991. 
Disarmament of Japan, committee on, establishment, 

566, 655. 
Inter-Allied Trade Committee, proposals for establish- 
ment, submitted to, 395. 
Japan, elections. See Elections, Japanese. 
Japan, food supplies for, statements by Mr. Acheson, 

Mr. Hilldring, and Mr. Hoover, 756, 897, 947. 
Meeting, first, members and proceedings, 375, 378. 
Mission to Tokyo, report, 291, 370. 
Press relations, procedure on, 431. 
Procedure for submitting documents, 525. 
Reparations policy for Japan, interim, 884, 946, 990, 

1074, 1111. 
Secretariat, new positions approved and defined, 526. 
Soviet participation, 372. 

War criminals, approval of policy regarding, 618. 
Fascism in American republics, address by Mr. Braden, 

101. 
Fascism on trial at Niirnberg, radio broadcast, 250. 
Fascism in Argentina, U.S. memorandum on, 285. 
Fearing, George R., Jr., designation in State Department, 

826. 
Feinsinger, Nathan P., designation as U.S. representative 

on Governing Body of ILO, 713. 
Fellowship program, cooperative, Panama-U.S., agree- 
ment, 223. 



Finance (see also Economics) : 

Advisory Board of Office of War Mobilization and Re- 
conversion, resolution on financial agreements, 436. 
British loan. See Financial agreement, U.S.-U.K. 
Czechoslovak securities, deposit and registration, 339. 
International Monetary and Financial Problems, Na- 
tional Advisory Council on, 380, 381. 
Intel-national Monetary Fund and International Bank 
for Reconstruction and Development, meeting of 
Boards of Governors, 219, 245, 290, 330, 331, 375, 431, 
476, 478, 525, 527. 
Italy, funds belonging to nationals of United Nations, 

restoration, 817. 
Japan, money, banking, and public finance, SCAP report, 
806. 
Financial agreement, U.K.-Greece, statement by Secretary 

Byrnes, 155. 
Financial agreement, U.S.-U.K. : 
Addresses and statements by : Mr. Acheson, 185, 317, 
511, 759; Mr. Brown, 540; Secretary Byrnes, 267; 
Mr. Clayton, 271, 437; Mr. Thorp, 302; Mr. Wilcox, 
96. 
Charts illustrating British iwsition in world trade, 515. 
National Advisory Council on International Monetary 

and Financial Problems, statement, 381. 
Office of War Jlobilization and Reconversion, resolution 
by Advisory Board, and statement of President Tru- 
man, 436. 
Transmittal to Congress by President Truman, 183. 
Financial aid to persons in Albania, limitation, 1120. 
Finland, journalists visit to U.S., 339. 
Fisheries and Wildlife Branch of International Resources 

Division, establishment and functions, 735. 
Fisheries oC the Great Lakes, proposed convention with 
Canada, letter of transmittal by President Truman, 
with report by Secretary Byrnes and summary of text, 
823. 
Fishing, Japanese, Allied policy on, 346. 
Flack, Joseph, appointment as U.S. Ambassador to Bolivia, 

828. 
Food («ee also FAO; UNRRA) : 

Caribbean area, efforts by U.S. and U.K. to expand 

production. 130. 
Combined Food Board operations, joint statement by 
President Truman, Prime Minister Attlee, and 
Prime Minister King, 86l. 
Emergency Economic Committee for Europe, Coordina- 
tion with FAO, 248, 833. 
Emergency Food Council, to replace Combined Food 

Board, 1075. 
Famine crisis : 
Addresses and statements by : Mr. Acheson, 893 ; Mr. 
Hoover, 717 ; Mr. La Guardia, 716 ; President Tru- 
man, 246, 412, 716. 
Discussion with U.K. mission, 864, 895. 
World cereal requirements, tables, 897. 
Famine Emergency Committee, discussed in article by 

Mr. Stillwell, 831. 
Germany, rations, 192. 
India, crisis, exchange of messages between — 

Indian Vicerov (LordWavell) and President Truman, 

861. 
Mr. Minor and Mrs. Pearl S. Buck, 1084. 
International organizations concerned with, listed, 949. 
Japan, policy of Far Eastern Commission regarding, and 
statements by Mr. Acheson and Mr. Hilldring, 712, 
756. 947. 
Rice, shortage of crops, 291, 300. 
Bice, tripartite agreement with U.K. and Siam, 863, 

9.58. 
Sea food, occupation orders for Japan regarding pro- 
duction, 346. 
Shortages. 191, 291, 300, 542. 

TransjMjrtation of, U.S. vessels to be made available to 
foreign countries for, 730, 822. 



INDEX. JANUARY TO JUNE 1946 



1149 



Food — Continued 

United Nations cooperation urged to combat world short- 
age, 276. 
Wlieat. See Wheat. 
Pood and Agriculture, conference of Ministers, meetings, 

565, 618. 
Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations: 
Combined Food Board, relation to, 1075. 
Conference, plans for, 277. 
Exemptions and immunities, 348. 
Functions, SS2, 949. 
Secretariat, 814. 

Urgent food problems, special meeting, 618, 858, 884, 946. 
Message of President Truman, 948. 
Statement by Director General (Orr), 949. 
U.S. responsibilities in, letter from President Truman 
to Secretary of Agriculture (Anderson), 656. 
Foreign intelligence activities : 

Directive by President Truman, 174. 
N.Y. Publishers Association, endorsement, 260. 
Foreign Liquidation Commissioner : 
Delegation of authority to (D.R. 139.1 and 139.2), 1017. 
Report to Congress on sale of surplus property abroad, 
820. 
Foreign Ministers, Council of: 
Paris meeting, beginning April 25: 
Dates of meeting, 169, 624, 1042. 
Departure of Secretary Byrnes and staff, 711. 
Draft treaty on Germany, 815. 

Recommendations and report of Secretary Byrnes, 891. 
Paris meeting, beginning June 15, departure of Secretary 
Byrnes, 1074. 
Foreign Ministers, Council of, Deputies of : 
Appointment of commission to recommend Italy- Yugo- 
slavia boundary, 391. 
Meetings, dates, 711, 884, 1111. 
Foreign nationals in Japan, repatriation of, SCAP report, 

751. 
Foreign policy, U.S., and its principles, address by Mr. 

Braden, 294. 
Foreign policy, U.S., mail on, analysis of, 350. 
Foreign Policy Association, Hartford, Conn., address by 

Mr. Chapin, 163. 
Foreign Policy Association, New York, N.Y., address by 

Secretary Byrnes, 267. 
"Foreign Relations of the United States : The Paris Peace 

Conference, 1919", publication of vol. VII : 918. 
"Foreign Relations of the United States, 1931", publica- 
tion of vol. Ill : 1129. 
Foreign Service, U.S. (see also Diplomatic relations) : 
Ambassadors : 

Appointment: Argentina (Messersmlth), 687; Bel- 
gium (Kirk), 224; Bolivia (Flack); 828; Brazil 
(Pawley), 828; Iran (Allen), 828; Mexico 
(Thurston), 971; Norway (Bay), 1054; Peru 
(Cooper), 828; U.K. (Harriman), 687; U.S.S.R. 
(Smith), 544. 
Resignation: U.S.S.R. (Harriman), 306. 
Consular offices : Antilla, Cuba, closing, 263 ; Arica, 
Chile, closing, 499; Beira, Portuguese East Africa, 
closing, 132; Berlin, Germany, opening, 399, 451 
(corrected, 872) ; Bremen, Germany, opening, 399, 
687, 872 ; Casablanca, Morocco, elevation to rank 
of Consulate General, 872 ; Chungking, China, open- 
ing, 828; Dairen, China, opening, 499, 736; Foynes, 
Ireland, closing, 872; Gdansk, Poland, opening, 
10.54 ; Frankfurt, Germany, opening, 399, 451 ; 
Hamburg, Germany, opening, 399, 451; Horta, 
Payal, Azores, closing, 1130; Limerick, Ireland, 
opening, 872; Malmo, Sweden, closing, 400, 1130; 
Mangos, Brazil, closing, 1054; Mukden, China, open- 
ing, 687 ; Munich, Germany, opening, 399, 544 ; 
Oran, Algeria, closing, 1130; Peiping, China, open- 
ing, 46 ; Poznan, Poland, opening, 263 ; Saigon, 



Foreign Service, U. S. — Continued 
Consular offices — Continued 

French Indochina, opening and elevation to rank 
of Consulate General, 736, 828, 1054; Strasbourg, 
France, opening, 736; Stuttgart, Germany, open- 
ing, 399, 451; Suez, Egypt, closing, 544; Taipei 
(Taihoku), Taiwan (Formosa), opening and ad- 
ministration, 736, 872; Tapachula, Mexico, closing, 
1130; Tvmis, Tunisia, elevation to rank of Con- 
sulate General, 1130; Turin, Italy, opening, 224, 
1054 ; Zagreb, Yugoslavia, opening, 1130. 
Consular services to ships and seamen, inter-offlce trans- 
fer of functions, 83. 
Diplomatic Mission to Yemen, membership, 446. 
Embassies : 
Chungking, China, closed at and reestablished as 

combined office at NanMng, 828. 
Nanking, China, opening of combined office, 828. 
Peiping, China, closing, 46. 
Foreign Service Inspectors, Corps of, functions (D.R. 

122.1), 1095. 
Future of, address by Mr. Chapin, 163. 
Institute proposed, 166. 

Legations: Bangkok, Siam, opening, 83; Budapest, Hun- 
gary, change from U.S. Mission to, 352 ; Siam, open- 
ing, 5. 
Medal for Merit presented to officers of, 499. 
Ministers, appointment: Iraq (Pinkerton), 828; Liberia 
(Lanier), 352, 450; Luxembourg (Kirk), 224; Saudi 
Arabia (Childs), 828; Siam (Stanton), 828. 
Philippine foreign-affairs training program, 298. 
Representative in Austria (Erhardt), appointment, 177. 
Research materials, procurement of, article by Mr. 

Himiphrey, 22. 
Secretariat of Board of Examiners, functions and or- 
ganization (D.R. 122.8), 1016. 
Training program: 

Announcements, 918, 972, 1020, 1054, 1097, 1133. 
Examinations for veterans and members of the armed 
forces, 306. 
Foreign students, special courses for, colleges listed, 1013. 
Formosa, opening of U.S. Consulate at Taipei (Taihoku), 

736, 872. 
Foynes, Ireland, closing of U.S. Consulate, 872. 
France (see also Europe) : 

Caribbean Commission, membership in, 36, 292, 331, 332, 

333. 
Control Council for government of Germany, joint dec- 
laration on liaison with other United Nations gov- 
ernments, 113. 
Economic reconstruction, U.S. aid In, address by Mr. 

Hilldring, 674. 
General Assembly, statement of M. Paul-Boncour, 89. 
Germany, political reconstruction, policy toward, 552. 
Minister of Foreign Affairs (Bidault), message to Secre- 
tary Byrnes regarding establishment of central 
agencies for control of Germany, 441. 
Peace treaties, part in proposed conference on, 112. 
President Gouin, Joint declaration with President Tru- 
man, on U.S.-French .agreements on economic and 
financial problems, 994, 1127. 
Security Council, discussion of presence of French troops 

in Syria and Lebanon, 234, 275. 
Spanish situation, position, and exchange of views with 

U.S. regarding, 399, 412, 486. 
Telegraphic service, direct, between Washington and 

U.S. Embassy in Paris, 345. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Air transport, with U.S., signature, 583. 
Bretton Woods agreements (1945), signature and ac- 
ceptance, 36. 
Disarmament and demilitarization of Germany, quad- 
ripartite draft treaty, text, 815. 
Double taxation, with U.S., conversations, 451. 
Economic and financial, with U.S., text, 994, 1127. 



1150 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



France — Continued 

Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 
German holdings, with U.S., U.K., and Switzerland, 

summary of, 955. 
Lend-lease settlement, with U.S., 997. 
Reparation from Germany, draft, 114 n. 
Rubber, purchase from Far East, bilateral, with U.S., 

1119. 
Sanitary convention (1926), as amended (1944), 

protocol prolonging, signature, 869. 
Sanitary convention for aerial navigation (1933), as 
amended (1944), protocol prolonging, signature, 
869. 
U.S. businessmen In, accommodations, 1086. 
U.S. Consulate at Strasbourg, opening, 736. 
Wheat crop, 193. 

Zones of occupation in Austria and Germany, 603, 652. 
Franck, Dorothea Seelye, articles on cultural relations 

with Near East, 503, 608. 
Franco y Bahamonde, Gen. Francisco: 
Relations with Axis leaders, 413. 
Retention as head of Spanish Government : 

Attitude of U.S., U.K., and France, 399, 412, 486. 
Remarks and discussion in Security Council regard- 
ing, 709, 788, 796, 881. 
Frankfurt, Germany, opening of U.S. Consulate General, 

399, 451. 
Free Germany Committee, 551. 
Free press. See Press. 
Freedom of infonnation : 

Addresses by Mr. Benton and Mr. Braden, 392, 722. 
U.S. proposal to establish subcommission of United 
Nations on, 855. 
Freedom of the press, radio broadcast on, 156. 
French Indochina, opening of U.S. Consulate at Saigon 
and elevation to rank of Consulate General, 736, 828, 
1054. 
Friendly Sons of St. Patrick, Society of. New York, N.Y., 

address by Secretary Byrnes, 481. 
Friendship, agreement with Yemen, proposal, 297. 
Friendship, treaty, China and Dominican Republic (1940), 

amendment (1945), ratification, 538. 
Friendship and alliance, treaty, China and U.S.S.R., agree- 
ment and exchange of notes (1945), texts, 201. 
Friendship and alliance, treaty, Poland and U.S.S.R., agree- 
ment and ratification (1945) , texts, 340. 
Friendship and mutual aid, treaty, Poland and Yugoslavia, 

text, 919. 
Friendship and mutual assistance, treaty, U.S.S.R. and 

Mongolia, text, 968. 
Frontier. See Boundaries. 

Fry, Kenneth D., designation in State Department, 1054. 
Fuller, Leon W., article on German political revival, 547. 

Galapagos base, U.S. withdrawal from, 644. 
Galbralth, John K., designation in State Department, 826. 
Gdansk, Poland, opening of U.S. Consulate General, 1054. 
General Assembly, First Part of First Session in London : 
Address by Secretary Byrnes, 87. 
Atomic energy : 

Establishment of Commission, 89, (text) 198. 
Resolution on, 19. 

Statement by Secretary Byrnes, 146. 
Commissions and committees of, creation and composi- 
tion, 20, 21, 467. 
Greece, situation discussed, 199. 
Indonesia, situation discussed, 199. 
Meetings, dates. 169, 330, 525, 565, 946, 1042, 1111. 
Organization, 17, 65, 147, 234, 277, 468. 
President, Paul-Henri Spaak, 17. 
Proceedings, 17, 62, 147, 199, 233, 274, 386, 468. 
Refugee problem discussed, 199, 236, 276. 
Report by Secretary Byrnes and letter of transmittal to 
Congress by President Truman, 540. 



General Assembly — Continued 
Secretariat, organization of, 147. 
Secretary-General, Trygve Lie, 147, 234. 
Terms of oflice of first officials, 277. 
Tribute to Franklin D. Roosevelt, by Mr. Spaak, 18. 
Trusteeship, discussion, 90, 199. 
Wheat and rice, draft resolution on, text, 291. 
Geographic OflSces, divisions, functions, and organization 

(D.R.), 827. 
Geographic offices. State Department Intelligence Oflice, 

Russell Plan for, 928. 
German documents, texts of translations, 459, 699, 936, 984, 

1038, 1103. 
German-owned patents outside Germany, conference on, 

nil. 
Germany (see also Control Council) : 
Argentine complicity with Nazi regime, 285. 
Assets in Dodecanese and Venezia Giulia, disposition, 

124. 
Assets in neutral countries, negotiations regarding (see 
also Property, infra) : 
Allied-neutral, U.S. representative, 374, 1077. 
Allied-Swedish, 990, 992, 1042, 1074, 1111. 
Allied-Swiss, 525, 565, 618, 655, 711, 755, 813, 856, 884, 

946, 955, 990, 1101, 1121. 
Restitution, 120, 121. 
Boundaries, reparations, and demilitarization of, views 
of Council of Foreign Ministers on, discussed by 
Secretary Byrnes, 953. 
Cartels in, question of revival, discussed in radio broad- 
cast, 911. 
Central agencies for control of, U.S. and French posi- 
tions on establishing, 440. 
Citizens in Spain, repatriation, 1011. 
Civil administration, question of, 197. 
Damages. See Reparation. 

Deutsche AusJ^ndspropaganda, article on, by Mr. Brad- 
ford, 278. 
Denazification procedures, 547, 910. 
Disarmament and demilitarization, quadripartite draft 

treaty on, 815. 
Displaced-persons. See Displaced persons. 
Economic penetration in Western Hemisphere, effective- 
ness of Proclaimed List In eliminating, article by 
Mr. Monsma, 876. 
Enemy aliens from other American republics, disposi- 
tion of, U.S. memorandum and proclamation, 33, 
732. 
External Property Commission for, 76, 283. 
Food rations, 192. 
Hess's flight to England, oflScial documents on (1941), 

1103. 
Industries, post-war, plan of Allied (Control Council 

for, 636, 681. 
Merchant fleet, disposal, 445. 
Nationals in Japan, 374. 
Navy, Anglo-Soviet-American communique on disposal 

of, 173. 
Nazi atomic plants in Spain, alleged, statement regard- 
ing, 681. 
Nazis in Spain, repatriation of, remarks to Security 

Council by Mr. Stettinius regarding, 789. 
Occupation by Allies, discussed in radio broadcast, 910. 
Official documents, translations, 459, 460, 699, 936, 984, 

1103. 
Parcel-post service to U.S. zone, 1012. 
Patents outside Germany, German-owned, conference on, 

1112. 
Permits for U.S. citizens to transport automobiles to, 

447. 
Polish-Soviet treaty regarding, 340. 
Political reconstruction, U.S. policy, article by Mr. 

Fuller, 547. 
Postal service with other countries, resumption, 490, 635. 



INDEX, JANUARY TO JUNE 1946 



1151 



Germany — Continued 

Propaganda program abroad, excerpts from ofiBcial pub- 
lications, 278, 311, 365. 
Property (see also Assets supra) : 
Allied Control Council law regarding, 76, 283. 
Instructions to U. S. citizens and others for claiming 
German-held property in Netherlands, 729. 
Raw materials for, U.S. program for supplying, 173. 
Refugees, release of property in U.S. 1011. 
Relations with Japan (1939-41), texts of documents, 

1038. 
Relations with Spanish Government (1940-43), texts of 

documents, 413. 
Reparation. See Reparation. 
Slave labor, 214, 215, 300. 

Steel industry in, discussed in radio broadcast, 910. 
Transportation system in, 675. 
U.S. Consulates, opening, 399, 451, 687, 872. 
U.S. Consulates General at Berlin, Frankfurt, Hamburg, 

and Munich, opening, 451, 544. 
U.S. Political Adviser on German Affairs, Office of, 872. 
U.S. zone, progress of reeducation in, 698. 
War aims (1940), 459, 466. 

Zones of occupation, article by Mr. Hoffman, 599. 
Ginzberg, Eli, appointment as U.S. representative at con- 
ference on non-repatriable victims of German action, 
857. 
Gold: 
Allied-Swiss agreement regarding German gold in Switz- 
erland, 1101, 1121. 
Paris conference resolution on transfer from Germany 

to neutral countries, 121. 
Restitution to Hungary of gold in U.S. custody, 1120. 
Treaty provisions regarding restitution of gold found in 
Germany, 120. 
Good-neighbor policy, comments on, 295, 296. 
Gouin, Felix (President of Provisional French Govern- 
ment), declaration, joint, with President Truman, on 
U.S.-French agreements on economic and financial 
problems, 994, 1127. 
Grady, Henry F. : 
Appointments: 
Alternate on Cabinet Committee on Palestine, 1089. 
Head of U.S. Delegation to observe Greek elections, 
56, 129. 
Statement on Greek elections, 582. 
Grain. See Wheat. 

Gray, Cecil Wayne, designation in State Department, 969. 
Gray, Edward R., designation in State Department, 1097. 
Great Britain. See United Kingdom. 
Great Lakes fisheries : 

International Board of Inquiry, report by, cited in letter 

of President Truman to Senate, 823. 
International Commission for, proposed in letter of Sec- 
retary Byrnes to President Truman, 823. 
Proposed convention with Canada, 823. 
Greece : 
Advisory Economic Mission to, proposal by U.K., 79. 
British troops in, discussion in Security CouncU, 233. 
Economic experts from U.S., offer, 79. 
Elections, Allied Mission to observe (see also Elections, 

Greek 1, .56, 129, 297, .529, 5S2, 671, 805. 
Electoral lists, revision of. Allied Mission to observe, 

1050, 1128. 
General Assembly, discussion, 199. 
Good-will visit of U.S.S. Missouri, 731. 
Loan to, approval by Export-Import Bank, 78. 
Negotiations with U.S. on expansion of production and 

employment, 175. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Air services, with U.K., signature, 582. 
Air transport, with U.S., signature, 583. 
Bretton Woods agreements (1945), signature and ac- 
ceptance, 36. 

719539—46 3 



Greece — Continued 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

Civil-aviation agreement, air transport (1944), ac- 
ceptance, 715. 
Financial agreement, with U.K., 155. 
Sanitary convention (1926), as amended (1944), pro- 
tocol prolonging, signature, 869. 
Sanitary convention for aerial navigation (1933), as 
amended (1944), protocol prolonging, signature, 
869. 
War criminals of the European Axis, prosecution and 
punishment of (1945), accession, 261. 
Greene, Dorothy, article on cultural centers in other 

American republics, 227. 
Greenland, liquidation of surplus property in, 350. 
Gromyko, Andrei A., letters and remarks to Security 
Council regarding Soviet-Iranian matters, 568, 657, 
828. 
Guatemala (see also American republics) : 

Bretton Woods agreements (1945), signature and ac- 
ceptance, 36. 
Cultural leader, visit to U.S., 1091. 

Inter- American Indian Institute (1940), adherence, 82. 
Gutt, Camille, election as Managing Director of Inter- 
national Monetary Fund, 1044. 

Hackworth, Green H., election as judge of International 

Court of Justice, 258. 
Hague, inaugural sitting of International Court of Justice 

at, 757. 
Haiti (see also American republics) : 

Ambassador to U.S. (Bellegarde), credentials, 1050. 

Cultural leader, visit to U.S., 1053. 

Diplomatic relations with U.S., resumption, 682. 

Government, new, description of, 682. 

Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Sanitary convention (1926), as amended (1944), pro- 
tocol prolonging, entry into force and text, 869. 
Sanitary convention for aerial navigation (1933), as 
amended (1944), protocol prolonging, entry into 
force, 869. 
War criminals of the Euroi)ean Axis, prosecution and 
punishment of (1945), accession, 261. 
Hamburg, Germany, opening of U.S. Consulate General, 

399, 451. 
Handler, David, article on Danubian transportation prob- 
lems, 1108. 
Harriman, W. Averell, resignation as U.S. Ambassador 
to U.S.S.R. and appointment as Ambassador to U.K., 
306, 687. 
Harvard Clubs, Associated, Boston, Mass., address by Mr. 

Acheson, 1045. 
Hawaii, transfer of Japanese property in to U.S., 131. 
Hazard, John Newbold, designation in State Department, 

180. 
Health Organization, International : 
Functions, 882. 

Meetings, dates, 330, 476, 525, 565, 618, 655, 711, 755, 
856, 884, 1076, 1111. 
Hilldring, John H. : 

Address on U.S. aid in economic reconstruction of 

France, 674. 
Appointment as Assistant Secretary of State, 369, 736. 
Letter to Far Eastern Commission regarding food sup- 
plies to Japan, 947. 
Participant in radio broadcast, 910. 

Statement on Far Eastern Commission policy on food 
supplies to Japan, 756. 
Hiss, Alger, participant in radio broadcast, 386. 
Hitler, Adolf, plans for Norway (1940) and for Norway 
and Denmark (1942), German documents concerning, 
700, 936. 
Hittl, Philip K., visiting professor to Near East, 1011. 



1152 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Hodge, Lt. Gen. John R., letter to Col. Gen. Ivan M. 

Chistiakov on administration of Korea, 111. 
Hodgson, Joseph V., resignation as U.S. Commissioner on 

United Nations War Crimes Commission, 855. 
Hoffman, L. A., articles on zones of occupation in Ger- 
many, 599, &i9. 
Holland, G. Kenneth, designation in State Department, 

452. 
Honduras, agreements : 

Bretton Woods agreements (1945), signature and ac- 
ceptance, 36. 
War criminals of the European Axis, prosecution and 
punishment of (1945), accession, 261. 
Hoover, Herbert (chairman. Famine Emergency Commit- 
tee) : 
Address on vyorld famine crisis, 717. 
Report to President on accomplishments of Committee, 

897. 
Visit to American republics, 958. 
Horsky, Charles A., participant in radio broadcast, 250. 
Horta, Fayal, Azores, closing of U.S. Consulate, 1130. 
House of Representatives. Scf Cougre.ss, U.S. 
Howard, John B., articles : 

Inter-Allied Reparation Agency, 1063. 
Paris agreement on reparation from Germany, 1023. 
Howe, John, designation in State Department, 180. 
Human rights, the United Nations Charter and the pro- 
motion of, article by Mrs. McDiarniid, 210. 
Human Rights, Commission on, 814, 855. 
Humanity, crimes in Far East against, statement by Mr. 

Keenan, 846. 
Humelsine, Carlisle H., designation in State Department, 

826. 
Humphrey, Richard A., article on procurement of foreign 

research materials, 22. 
Hungary : 

German documents on, 984. 

Minister to U.S. (Szegedy-Masznk), credentials, 132. 
Prime Minister Nagy, visit to U.S., 1091, 1120. 
Property and gold, restitution, 1120. 
U.S. Mission at Budapest, change to Legation, 352. 
Hutcheson, Josepli C. (chairman of U.S. members of Anglo- 
American Committee of Inquiry), letter transmitting 
report of Committee to President Truman, 783. 
Hutson, John B., participant in radio broadcast, 191. 
Hyde, Louis K., Jr., article on U.S. trade proposals, 616. 

Iceland : 
Admission to United Nations, question of, 773. 
Bretton Woods agreements (1945), signature and ac- 
ceptance, 36. 
Military facilities, U.S. proposal regarding, 773. 
Surplus war property, liquidation, 350. 
ILO. See International Labor Organization. 
Immigration : 

Address by Mr. Warren on migration policies, 213. 
Displaced persons in U.S. zone in Germany, preference, 
635. 
Immigration and %'lsa matters, contacts with Department 

of Justice regarding (D.R. 232.2), 970. 
Immunity : 

International Organizations Immunities Act, descrip- 
tion of, 348. 
United Nations Secretariat, discussion on diplomatic 
immunity and taxation, 199, 276. 
Importation of Swiss watches, proposed limitation on, ex- 
change of memoranda, 763. 
Imru, Ras H. S., credentials as Ethiopian Minister to U.S., 

1000. 
Income tax, double : 
France, with U.S., conversations, 451. 
U.K., with U.S., supplementary protocol, 1052, 1087. 
Independence, Philippine : 

Preparation for, article by Mr. Mill, 980. 
Proclamation ceremonies at Manila, 1051. 



India : 
Food crisis : 

Exchange of messages between Lord Wavell and Presi- 
dent Truman, 861. 
Letter from Mr. Minor to Mrs. Pearl S. Buck, 1084. 
Grain shipments to, U.S., 957. 
Mudaliar, Sir Ramaswami, elected president of Economic 

and Social Council, 90. 
Opium control, quotations from statement of Govern- 
ment, 239, 240. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Bretton Woods agreements (1945), signature and 

acceptance, 36. 
Bulk-sale agi-eement, preliminary, with U.S., con- 
clusion, 733. 
Lend-lease, reciprocal aid, and surplus property, settle- 
ment of, with U.S. (1946) , signature, 733, 916. 
Occupation of Japan. See BCOF. 
Peace, with Siam, signature (1946), 963. 
War criminals of the European Axis, prosecution and 
punishment of (1945), accession, 954. 
Indonesia, discussion in Security Council regarding 

presence of British troops In, 199, 234, 275. 
Industrial committees of ILO, 704 n. 
Industrial enterprises In Manchuria, U.S. memorandum to 

China and U.S.S.R., and Chinese reply, 448. 
Industrial property : 

International registration (1891), London revision 

( 1034 ) , adherence by Luxem1)ourg, 514. 
Patent interchange (1942), agreement on amendments, 

with U.K., signature, 579. 
Patents outside Germany, German-owned, conference on, 

1112. 
Protection of (1S83), London revision (1934), adher- 
ence by Luxembourg. 61. 
Industrial situation in Japan, SCAP report, 805. 
Industries, German, post-war, action of Allied Control 

Council on, 636. 681. 
Industry, Polish, nationalization of, 670. 
Information (.see also Radio) : 
Addresses by Mr. Benton and Mr. Braden on inter- 
national service, 392, 722. 
Advisory group to prepare recommendations on mass 

communications for UNESCO, 172. 
AP and UP, attitude toward State Department's 

program, 217. 
Freedom of, U.S. proposal for establishment of sub- 
commission in United Nations, 855. 
Japan, dissemination, SCAP report, 807. 
Proposals for international service, letter from Secretary 

Byrnes to President Truman, 57. 
Rumania, freedom of press in, U.S. protest on non- 
fulfilment of assurances regarding, 1007, 1048, 1125. 
Information and Cultural Affairs, International, Office of, 
establishment of overseas information service, letter 
from Secretary Byrnes to President Truman, 57. 
Institute of Inter-American Affairs, transfer to State 

Department, 685. 
Institute of International Education, placement of Pan- 
amanian students in U.S. institutions, 223. 
Intelligence, Advisory Committee on, objectives (D.R. 

18:^.5), 826. 
Intelligence activities, coordination of foreign : 
Directive from President Truman, 174. 
N. Y. Publishers As.sociation, endorsement, 260. 
Intelligence Collection and Dissemination, Office : 
Functions and organization (D.R. 133.30), 827. 
Russell Plan for, 930. 
Intelligence Coordination and Liaison, Office: 
Functions (D.R. 1.S3 20), 827. 
Russell Plan for, 929. 
Intelligence program. State Department : 
Russell Plan for organization, 928. 

Statement by Secretary Byrnes regarding lack of funds, 
687. 



INDEX, JANUARY TO JUNE 1946 



1153 



Intelligence program in Japan, SCAP report, 750. 
Inter-Allied Reparation Agency : 
Article by Mr. Howard, 1063. 
Establishment of, 114, 115, 119. 
Inter-Allied Trade Committee, establLshment proposed, 395. 
Inter-American Affairs, Institute of, transfer to State 

Department, remarks by Mr. Braden, 1012. 
Inter-American Affairs, Office of: 
Activities in information field, comments by Mr. Benton, 

725. 
Termination of, and transfer of certain functions to 
State Department : 
Executive Order 9710 : 686. 
Letter from Secretary Byrnes to President Truman, 

57. 
Statement by President Truman, 685. 
Statement by State Department, 685. 
Inter-American conference for maintenance of peace and 
security : 
Appointment of committee to draft treaty proposals 

for consideration by, 732. 
Postponement, 477. 
Inter-American conference of exjaerts on copyright, meet- 
ings, dates, 946, 990, 1042, 1074, 1111. 
Inter-American conference on problems of war and peace, 

attitude of Argentina, 285. 
Inter-American Educational Foundation, tran.sfer to State 
Department: 
Remarks by Mr. Braden, 1012. 
Statement by State Department, 685. 
Inter-American Indian Institute, convention for (1940), 

adherence of Guatemala, 82. 
Inter-American military cooperation, bill, letter of trans- 
mittal from President Truman to Congress and state- 
ment by Secretary Byrnes before House Foreign 
Affairs Committee, 859, 1001. 
Inter-American Navigation Corporation, termination, 

transfer to State Department preliminary to, 685. 
Inter-American policy, what it is, radio broadcast, 26. 
Inter-American relations. See American republics. 
Inter-American system, address by President Truman, 720. 
Inter-American Transportation Corporation, termination, 

transfer to State Department preliminary to, 685. 
Interdepartmental Committee on Scientific and Cultural 
Cooperation : 
Description, 428. 
Detail of U.S. jwrsonnel to other governments, article 

by Mr. McGeorge, 72. 
Program in American republics, report recommending 
continuance, 1092. 
Intergovernmental Committee on Refugees, problems, 215. 
Intergovernmental commodity arrangements, article by 

Mr. Phillips, 509. 
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development : 
Articles of agreement, status of signatures and accept- 
ances, 36, 528. 
Election of President (Meyer), 1044. 
Executive Directors, 856. 
Italian membership in, proposed, 581. 
Meeting at Savannah, Boards of Governors, with Inter- 
national Monetary Fund. See Savannah meeting. 
Relation to employment ob.iectives, 563. 
Statement by National Advisory Council on Interna- 
tional Monetary and Financial Problems regarding, 
3S1. 
U.S. representatives, appointment, 262. 
International broadcasting. See Radio broadcasts. 
International Cooperative Alliance, request for member- 
ship in Economic and Social Council, 126. 
International Court of Justice of United Nations : 
ComiMJSition of, 474. 

Compulsory jurisdiction, U.S. position favorable to, 633. 
Inaugural sitting, 757. 
Judges, selection of, 199, 234, 258. 
Location to be at The Hague, 91. 



International C<jurt of Justice — Continued 
Meeting, dates, 711, 755, 813, 884, 94G. 
Mr. Hackworth elected as judge, 258. 
Transition from Permanent Court of International Jus- 
tice of League of Nations to, discussed in articles by 
Dr. Reiff, 691, 739. 
International Emergency Food Council to replace Com- 
bined Food Board, invitation to prospective members 
to meeting of Food Board, 1075. 
International Health Organization, preliminary meeting of 

conference on, 330, 375, 431, 525, 618, 655. 
International Information and Cultural Affairs, Office of : 
Divisions, 43, 44, 45. 
Establishment and' functions, 37, 42, 57. 
International information program, memorandum by Mr. 

Macmahon, 37. 
International Labor Organization : 
Committees : 

Coal Mining Committee, 704. 

International Development Works Committee, 169, 

219, 245. 
Iron and Steel, Industrial Committee, 711, 712, 755, 

813 
Metal Trades Committee, 711, 755, 813, 856, 884. 
Conference, 2Sth maritime session: 
Meeting, dates, 946, 990, 1042, 1074, 1111. 
U.S. Delegation, listed, 993. 
Conference of American states members (3d) : 
Meeting, dates, 476, 525, 565, 61S, 711. 
U. S. Delegation, listed, 566. 
Conference of delegates on constitutional questions, 35, 

169, 290. 
Constitution of, amendment proposals, article by Mr. 

Wiesman, 1028. 
Exemptions and immunities, 348. 
Functions, table listing, 882. 
Governing Body: 
Meeting (98th), dates, 884, 946. 
U.S. representative on, 713, 948. 
Scope in relation to functions of Economic and Employ- 
ment Commission, 799. 
Transfer from League of Nations to United Nations, 
discussed in articles by Dr. Reiff, 691, 739. 
International law, U.S. policy in maintaining and develop- 
ing, letter from Secretary Byrnes to president of 
American Society of International Law (Coudert), 
758. 
International Monetary and Financial Problems, National 

Advisory Council on, 380, 381. 
International Monetary Fund : 
Articles of agreement, status of signatures and accep- 
tances, 36, 528. 
Executive Directors, 856. 
Italian membership in, proposed, 581. 
Managing Director (Gutt), election, 1044. 
Meeting at Savannah, Boards of Governors, with Inter- 
national Monetary Fund. See Savannah meeting. 
Relation to employment objectives, 563. 
U.S. representatives, appointment, 262. 
International Office of Public Health, 655, 711, 755, 813, 856, 

884. 
International Organization Affairs, Division of: 
Functions (D.R. 118.11), 1094. 

Responsibilities under International Organizations Im- 
munities Act (D.R. 240.1), 1018, 1019. 
International organizations, functions, table listing, 882. 
International Organizations Immunities Act: 
Provisions of, 348. 

Responsibilities under (D.R. 240.1), 1018. 
International Sugar Council, meeting, 219. 
International Technical Committee of Aerial Legal Ex- 
perts. See CITEJA, 
International Trade Organization, proposed, 383, 403, 431, 
616, 631, 647. 



1154 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Inverchapel, Lord, credentials as British Ambassador to 

U.S., ior.0. 

Investigations, Division of, functions and organization 

(D. R. 123.6), 180. 
Iran : 
Blind censorship of foreign newspapermen : 
Report of, 731. 
U.S. views on, 772. 
Bretton Woods agreements (1945), signature and ac- 
ceptance, 36. 
Dispute with U.S.S.R. See Iranian case under Security 

Council. 
Opium production, limitation, 239. 
U.S. Ambassador (Allen), appointment, 828. 
Iraq : 
Bretton Woods argeements (1945), signature and ac- 
ceptance, 36. 
U.S. Minister (Pinkerton), appointment, 828. 
Ireland, closing of U.S. Consulate at Foynes and establish- 
ment at Limerick, 872. 
Italy : 
Armistice with Allies, revised, recommendation to Coun- 
cil of Foreign Ministers regarding, statement by Sec- 
retary Byrnes, 891. 
Boundary, Italian-Yugoslav : 

Commission appointed to recommend, 391. 
Views of Council of Foreign Ministers on, 950. 
Civil aviation contract with TWA, U.S. attitude toward, 

90S. 
Colonies, views o^Council of Foreign Ministers on, 950. 
Constituent Assembly, elections, 299. 
Food. See Food. 

Interview between Reich Foreign Minister and Musso- 
lini (19-11). German documents on, 1103. 
Membership in World Fund and Bank, proposed, 581. 
Military strength, German propaganda regarding, 313. 
Property belonging to nationals of United Nations, 

restoration, 817. 
Relations with Spanish Government, texts of documents, 

413. 
Reparation, views of Council of Foreign Ministers on, 

mo. 

Resumption of private trade with, 261. 
U.S. Consulate at Turin, opening, 224, 1054. 
Iron and Steel, Industrial Committee of ILO, announce- 
ment of U.S. delegation, 712. 
Iron and steel industry, Japanese, reparations-removal 

policy of Far Eastern Commission, 1074. 
ITO. See International Trade Organization. 

Jackson, C. D., participant in radio broadcast, 11. 
Japan (.see nlso Far East; Far Eastern Commission) : 

Assets in Manchuria, disposition, 364. 

Axis nationals In, communications regarding, 374. 

Consular premises and property in Hawaii, transfer to 
U.S. by Swedish official, 131. 

Declaration of war by Soviet Union, conditions govern- 
ing, 282. 

Democracy, U.S. radio broadcast, 581. 

Diet, new, composition, 1072. 

Elections in, communications between Far Eastern Com- 
mission and General MacArthur regarding, 639. 

Emperor, attitude of Far Eastern Commission on tour 
of, 1(H2. 

Food for citizens of, policy regarding, 712, 756, 897, 947. 

Mandated islands, U.S. policy on, 113. 

Materials for export, supply, 395. 

Military strength, German propaganda regarding, 313, 
315. 

National City Bank of New York, reopening of branch 
in Tokyo, 642. 

Non-military activities in, report of General Headquar- 
ters, SCAP, 749, 805, 915, 1067. 

Occupation policies. Allied, for fishing and aquatic in- 
dustries, 346. 



Japan — Continued 
Raw materials, U.S. program for supplying, 173. 
Refugees in Japan, Far Eastern Commission policy re- 
garding, 1043. 
Refugees in U.S., release of property in U.S., 1011. 
Relations with Germany (1939-41), texts of documents, 

1038. 
Reparation. See Reparation. 

Repatriation of citizens in British areas, visit of Ad- 
miral Leahy to U.K. regarding, 892. 
SCAP. See Supreme Commander for Allied Powers. 
Textile mission, international, report, 178, 1009. 
Trade, control and regulation, 394. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Disarmament and demilitarization of, draft treaty 

on, 1113. 
Kurile Islands, agreement at Yalta regarding, 189, 

190, 282. 
Occupation to be participated in by BCOF, agreement 

between TT.S. and Australia, summary, 220. 
Sakhalin, agreement at Yalta regarding, 189, 190, 282. 
U.S. education mission and report, 345, 641, 807. 
Digest of report, 769. 
Letters of transmittal, 767, 768. 
Statement by General MacArthur, 769. 
War criminals, trial of, 361, 376, 618, 751, 809, 846, 847. 
Jessup, Joe L., designation in State Department, 351. 
Jewish National Home in Palestine, 957. 
Jews in Europe (see also Anglo-American Committee of 
Inquiry; Displaced persons) : 
German directives and propaganda regarding, 311, 813, 

315, 365, 465. 
Retribution for German crimes against, statement by 
President Truman, 369. 
Johnson, Herschel V., appointment as U.S. Deputy Repre- 
sentative on Security Council, 754. 
Johnson, Nelson T., Secretary General of Far Eastern 

Commission, election, 376. 
Joint Chiefs of Staff in Australia, organization, 221. 
Journalism, awards for Negroes, Washington, address by 

Mr. Braden, 392. 
Judson, Harold, participant In radio broadcast, 250. 
Julian March. See Venezia Giulia. 

Keenan, Joseph B. (counsel for prosecution of Far East- 
ern war criminals), statement on the indictment, 846. 
Kefauver, Grayson N., death. 39. 
Kelly, Helen G., report on Bermuda telecommunications 

conference, 59. 
Kindleberger, Charles P., designation in State Depart- 
ment, 826. 
King, W. L. Mackenzie (Prime Minister of Canada), 
joint statement with President Truman and Prime 
Minister Attlee on continuing Combined Food Board 
operations, 861. 
Kirk, Alan G., appointment as U.S. Ambassador to Bel- 
gium and U.S. Minister to Luxembourg, 224. 
Kleinwaechter, Ludwig, appointment as Austrian repre- 
sentative in U.S., 177. 
Korea (see also Far East) : 

Administrative coordination by U.S. and Soviet com- 
mands, 111. 
Bunce, Arthur C, appointment as adviser to General 

Hodge, U.S.A., 224. 
Cultural leaders visit U.S., 812. 

Nationals in .Japan, repatriation. Far Eastern Commis- 
sion policy regarding, 1044. 
Needs in, examination by U.S., 449. 

Non-military activities in, report of General Headquar- 
ters, SCAP, 749, 805, 915. 
Radio broadcast on, 104. 

U.S. policy, statements by President Truman and De- 
partment of State, 139, 155, 449, 644. 
Kosanovic, Sava N., appointment as Yugoslav Ambas- 
sador to U.S., 728. 



INDEX, JANUARY TO JUNE 1946 



1155 



Kurile Islands : 
Agreement at Yalta, official statements regarding, 189, 

190. 
Text of agreement, 282. 
U.S. air bases, question of, 190. 
Kuznets, Simon S., appointment as Economic Adviser to 
China, 961. 

Labor. See American Federation of Labor ; International 
Labor Organization ; World Federation of Trade 
Unions. 
Labouisse, Henry K., Jr., designation in State Depart- 
ment, 351. 
Labrador, liquidation of surplus property in, 350. 
La Guardia, Fiorello H. : 
Director General of UNRRA, appointment, 619. 
World famine crisis, address, 716. 
Lange, Oskar (Polish Ambassador), letter to — 
Acting Secretary Acheson, on Export-Import Bank loan 

to Poland, 761. 
Secretary Byrnes, on : 
Polish attitude regarding U.S. trade with Philippines, 

773. 
Purpose of referendum in connection with Polish 
elections, 762. 
Security Council, on Franco regime in Spain, 660. 
Langer, William L., appointment as Special Assistant to 

tlie Secretary, 826. 
Lanier, Raphael O'Hara, appointment as U.S. Minister 

to Liberia, 352. 450. 
Laparra, Arnauld (France), statement on Greek elec- 
tions, 582. 
Latchford, Stephen, article on private International air 

law, 835. 
Leach, Irene B., death, 218. 
League of Nations, transfer of assets to United Nations, 

91, 200, 691, 739, 743, 744, 747. 
League of Women Voters, St. Louis, Mo., address by Mr. 

Acheson, 317. 
Leah.v, Fleet Admiral William D., visit to U.K., 892. 
Lebanon : 
Near East Foundation, work, 508. 

Security Council, complaint to on presence of British 
and French troops in, 234, 275. 
Legislation. See Congress, U.S. 
Lehman, Herbert H., resignation as Director General of 

UNRRA, 619. 
Lend-lease : 

Functions relating to maintenance of accounts and fiscal 
records, transfer to Treasury Department (Ex. Or. 
9726), 959. 
Report of operations (21st and 22d), letters of trans- 
mittal from President Truman to Congress, 223, 1091. 
Lend lease, settlement agreements : 
Statement by President Truman, 139. 
U.S. agreements with : Australia, 1118 ; Canada, 683 ; 
China, 1118; France, 997; India, 733, 916; Turkey, 
868; U.K., 580. 
Liberated areas : 
Austria, U.S. recognition of government, 81, 339. 
Shipping agreement for transportation of supplies to, 

488. 
UNRRA shipments to (1945), 224. 
Wheat shipments to, 151, 152, 360, 716, 717. 
Liberia, appointment of U.S. Minister (Lanier), 450. 
Liberty ships, U.S., transportation of grain from U.S.S.R. 

to France, 730. 
Lie, Trygve : 
Addresses and statements to Security Council. See 

Security Council. 
Arrival in U.S., 529. 
Invitation to atomic-bomb tests, 1130. 
Secretary-General of United Nations, appointment, 147, 
234. 
Limerick, Ireland, establishment of U.S. Consulate, 872. 



Livestock in Caribbean area, efforts by U.S. and U.K. to 

increase production, 130. 
Load line convention, international, suspension during 

war emergency, proclamation revoking, 132. 
Loans : 
Austrian, arrangement with U.S., 818. 
Export-Import Bank, table, 384. 

Transfer of League of Nations - sponsored loans to 
United Nations, question discussed in articles bv Dr. 
Reiff, 698, 740. 
U.S. policy regarding, messages of President Truman to 
Congress, and statement by National Advisory 
Council on International Monetary and Financial 
Problems, 380, 381. 
Loot, transfer of gold to neutral countries from Germany, 

resolution of Paris Conference on Reparation, 121. 
Los Angeles, Calif., address by Mr. Benton, 408. 
Lubin, Isador, resignation from Allied Commission on 

Reparations, 224. 
Luthringer, George P., designation in State Department, 

1097. 
Luxembourg : 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Bretton Woods agreements (1945), signature and 

acceptance, 36. 
Industrial property, protection of (1883), London 

revision (1934), adherence, 61. 
Reparation from Germany, draft, 114 n. 
Sanitary convention (1926), as amended (1944), proto- 
col prolonging, entry into foii^ and text, 869. 
Sanitary convention for aerial navigation (1933), as 
amended (1944), protocol prolonging, entry into 
force, 869. 
Trade marks, international registration (1891), 

London revision (1934), adherence, 514. 
War criminals of the European Axis, prosecution and 
punishment of (1945), accession, 261. 
U.S. Minister (Kirk), appointment, 224. 
Lyon, Frederick B., designation in State Department, 969. 

MacArtbur, Gen. Douglas (see also Supreme Commander 
for the Allied Powers) : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 
BCOF in Japan, 221. 
Japanese elections, 1067. 
U.S. education mission to Japan, 769. 
Cooperation with Far Eastern Commission, 291, 370, 373. 

639. 
Japanese trade program, responsibility for, 394. 
Jurisdiction in Pacific, extent, comments by Secretary 

Byrnes, 449. 
Letter of tribute from Secretary Byrnes, 449. 
Proclamation establishing International Military Tribu- 
nal for the Far East, 361. 
Staff in Tokyo, experts to join, 10. 
Machado HernSndez, Alfredo, credentials as Venezuelan 

Ambassador to U.S., 730. 
MacLeish, Archibald, statement on UNESCO, 629. 
Macmahon, Arthur W., memorandum on international in- 
formation program, 37. 
Macy, Noel, excerpts from memorandum on meeting with 

AP representatives, 93. 
Madow, William G., visiting professor to Brazil, 351. 
Mail on U.S. foreign policy, analysis, 350. 
Mails : 
Parcel-post service to U.S. zone in Germany, 1012. 
Postal service to Austria and Germany, resumption, 40, 
490, 635. 
Malaya, purchase of rubber by U.S., 644. 
Malmo, Sweden, closing of U.S. Consulate, 400, 1130. 
Mandos, Brazil, closing of U.S. Vice Consulate, 1054. 
JIanchuria : 

Industrial enterprises, question of control, 448. 
Japanese assets in, disposition, 3M. 



1156 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Mandated islands (Japanese), U.S. policy on, 113. 
Mandatory in Palestine, recommendation regarding, 785. 
Manila, proclamation ceremonies of Philippine independ- 
ence day at, 1051. 
Manhattan Project, 668. 

Mann, Thomas C., designation in State Department, 1097. 
Maps and charts : 
British loan, 515. 

Japanese elections, extent of geographic coverage, 1069. 
Loans authorized by Export-Import Bank, 384. 
Port Arthur Naval Base Area as provided in Sino-Soviet 

treaty (1945), 202. 
SCAP, administrative areas of, 804. 
Soviet-Polish state boundary, 342. 
Marine Perch (ship), repatriation of German nationals In 

Spain, 1011. 
Maritime. See Shipping. 

Maritime Authority, United. See United Maritime Au- 
thority. 
Marshall, Gen. George C, remarks on U.S. assistance to 

China, 484. 
Martin, Edwin M., participant in radio broadcast, 104. 
Martin, Haywood P., designation in State Department, 826. 
Master of a vessel, consular services relating to entry and 

clearance, inter-offioe transfer of functions, 83. 
Material, classified, sale of, clearance processes for, 821. 
Matlock, Clifford C, designation in State Department, 1097. 
McCabe, Thomas B. (Foreign Liquidation Commissioner), 
report to Congress on sale of surplus property abroad, 
820. 
McCormack, Alfred, resignation as Special Assistant to 
Secretary, letter to and reply from Acting Secretary 
Acheson, texts, 778. 
McCoy, Maj. Gen. Frank R., election as chairman of Far 

Eastern Commission, 376. 
McDermott, Michael J., statement regarding Japanese 

assets in Manchuria, 364. 
McDiarmid, Alice M., article on the United Nations Charter 

and promotion of human rights, 210. 
McGeorge, Henry H., article on detail of U.S. personnel 

to other governments, 72. 
McGhee, George C, designation in State Department, 351. 
McLean, Robert (President of Board of Directors of Asso- 
ciated Press), 92, 04. 
McNarney, Gen. Joseph T., commendation for part in Ger- 
man industry settlement, 681. 
Medal for Merit, award to Foreign Service officers, 499. 
Meetings, calendar of. See name of organization or con- 
ference. 
Memorandum on the post-war international information 
program of the U.S., by Dr. Macmahon, publication of, 
37. 
Merchant Marine Commission, Tripartite, report on dis- 
posal of German merchant fleet, 445. 
Messersmith, George S., appointment as U.S. Ambassador 

to Argentina, 687. 
Metal Trades Committee of ILO, 711, 755, 813, 856, 884. 
Mexico (see also American republics) : 
Arms and ammunition shipments by U.S. firms, investi- 
gation of charges of, 39. 
Cultural leader, visit to U.S., 687. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Air-transport agreement, with U.S., discussions re- 
garding, 1112. 
Brettoii WiMids agreements (1945), signature and ac- 
ceptance, 36. 
North American regional broadcasting, interim agree- 
ment, signature, 376. 
U.S. Ambassador (Thurston), appointment, 971. 
U.S. Vice Consulate at Tapachula, closing, 1130. 
Meyer, Eugene, election as president of International Bank 

for Reconstruction and Development, 1044. 
Migration policies and world economy, address by Mr. 
Warren, 213. 



Mikhailovich, Gen. Draza: 

U.S. requests to submit testimony in behalf of, 634, 909. 
Yugoslav denial of U.S. requests, 669. 
Military aid to China, remarks by Mr. Acheson, 1115. 
Military-aviation mission, with Bolivia (1941), renewal, 

83. 
Military cooperation, inter-American, bill, letter of trans- 
mittal from President Truman to Congress and state- 
ment by Secretary Byrnes before House Foreign 
Affairs Committee, 859, 1001. 
Military facilities in Iceland, U.S. proposals regarding, 

773. 
Military Government, U.S. zone (in Germany), Office of, 
relation to State-War-Navy Coordinating Committee, 
discussed in radio broadcast, 914. 
Military mission agreement, with Venezuela, 1050. 
Military movement of U.S.S.R. toward Iran, reported, 483. 
Military organizations in Germany and Japan, quadri- 
partite draft treaties to disarm and disband, 815, 1113. 
Military Staff Committee of the United Nations. See 

United Nations. 
Military strength, U.S., relation to United Nations and 

world peace, address by Secretary Byrnes, 481. 
Military training, discussed by Secretary Byrnes, 357, 482. 
Military Tribunal, International, for the Far East : 
Charter and proclamation establishing, 361, 618. 
Charter, changes in text, 890. 
Mill, Edward W., articles: 

Philippine foreign affairs training program, 148. 
Philippines prepares for independence, 980. 
Miller, Frieda, Miss (Department of Labor), appointment 
as U.S. Representative on Governing Body of ILO, 948. 
Mining. See Coal. 

Minor, Harold B., letter to Mrs. Pearl S. Buck (chairman, 
India Famine Emergency Committee) regarding U.S. 
food shipments to India, 1084. 
Missions, military, accredited to Allied Control Council by 

several governments, 113. 
Missions, U.S. : 

Agricultural, to China and the Philippines, 1054. 
Greece, to observe elections, and revision of electoral 

lists, 297, 1128. 
Military, to Venezuela, 1050. 
Military aviation, to Bolivia, 83. 
Missouri (ship), good-will visit to Greece, 731. 
Molotov, Vyacheslav M. (U.S.S.R.), exchange of notes with 
Wang Shih-chieh regarding friendship and alliance 
treaty between U.S.S.R. and China, 204. 
Monetary agreements, U.K. with Czechoslovakia, Nether- 
lands, and Norway, 81. 
Monetary Fund, International. See International Mone- 
tary Fund. 
Mongolia, treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Economic and cultural collaboration, with U.S.S.R., 

text, 968. 
Friendship and mutual assistance, with U.S.S.R., text, 

968. 
Status quo of Mongolian People's Republic guaranteed 
in Yalta agreement, 282. 
Monroe Doctrine, present-day effectiveness, 295. 
Monsma, George N., article on ex-Proclaimed List nationals 

and U.S. foreign trade, 875. 
Morgan, Stokeley W., resignation from State Department, 

969. 
Morocco, elevation of U.S. Consular office at Casablanca 

to rank of Consulate General, 872. 
Morris, Leland B., appointment to head U.S. Section of 
Allied Mission to Observe Revision of Greek Electoral 
Lists, 1128. 
Motion Picture Section, Division of Commercial Policy, 

functions (D.R. 131.24), 1096. 
Motion pictures, U.S., exhibition in France, understanding 

regarding, text, 999. 
Movement Coordinating Committee. See Export Control 
Committee. 



INDEX, JANUARY TO JUNE 1946 



1157 



Mudaliar, Sir Ramaswami, election as president, Economic 

and Social Council, OO. 
Jlukden, C'liiua, opening of U.S. Consulate General, 687. 
Munich, Germany, opening of U.S. Consulate and U.S. 

Consulate General, 399, 544. 
Munitions plants in Japan, privately owned, reparations 

removal policy of Far Eastern Commission regarding, 

1111. 
Mutual aid. See Lend lease. 
Mutual aid and friendship, treaty between Poland and 

Yugoslavia, text, 919. 
Mutual assistance, American republics, plans for, 287, 667, 

732. 
Myers, Denys P., notes on composition of organs, commis- 
sions, and committees of the United Nations, 467. 

Nagy, Ferenc (Hungarian Prime Minister), visit to U.S., 

1091, 1120. 
Nanking, China, opening of U.S. combined office, S28. 
Nansen passports, renewal, question of, discussed in letters 

between Senator Vandeuberg and Mr. Achesou, 1003. 
NARBA. See North American regional broadcasting 

agreement. 
Narcotic Drugs, United Nations Commission on, appoint- 
ment of U.S. representative (Anslinger), 1052. 
Narcotics, limitation of opium production, U.S.-U.K. notes 

on, 237. 
National Advisory Council on International Monetary and 

Financial Problems, 380, 381. 
National Archives, liaison with State Department (D.R. 

232.1), 969. 
National City Bank of New York, Tokyo branch, reopen- 
ing, 642. 
National Democratic Club, New York, N.Y., address by 

Mr. Braden, 535. 
National Farm Institute, Des Moines, Iowa, address by 

Mr. Clayton, excerpts, 271. 
National Socialist ideology in the New World, address by 

Mr. Braden, 101. 
National War College, 259. 
Navigation laws. See Transport and Communications, 

Office of. 
Navy Department : 
Air-navigation facilities abroad, functions relating to, 
transfer to Department of Commerce (Ex. Or. 
9709), 684. 
Petroleum Facilities Coordinating Committee, member- 
ship on, 3. 
State-War-Navy Coordinating Committee, 734, 914, 
1132. 
Neal, Jack D., designation in State Department, 969. 
Near East : 

Cultural relations with, article by Mrs. Franck, 503, 608. 
Jewish and Arab leaders in Palestine, consultation with, 

proposed, 917, 956. 
League of Arab States, discussed in article by Mr. Allen, 

924. 
Loans authorized by Export-Import Bank, table, 385. 
Trans-Jordan, status of and U.S. attitude on recognition 
of, letter from Secretary Byrnes to Senator Myers, 
765. 
UNRRA mission to, 960. 
U.S. Agricultural Mis.sion to, 348. 
View of Arab countries on Anglo-American Committee 

of Inquiry report on Palestine, U.S. reply to, 917. 
Visiting professor from U.S., 1011. 
Near East Foundation, activities, 508. 
Near Eastern route service conference, meeting at Cairo, 

655, 711, 755. 
Netherlands : 

British troops in Indonesia, attitude toward, 275. 
Membership in Caribbean Commission, 36, 292, 331, 332, 
333. 



Netherlands — Continued 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Bretton Woods agreements (1945), signature and ac- 
ceptance, 36. 
Monetary agreement with U.K., 81. 
Reparation from Germany, draft, 114 u. 
Rubber, purchase from Par East, bilateral, with U.S., 

1119. 
War criminals of the European Axis, prosecution and 

punishment of (1945), accession, 261. 
Whaling, regulation of, agreement (1937) and proto- 
col (1938), 347. 
U.S. and other foreign property in, instructions for filing 

claims, 729, 1083. 
Visit of editors to U.S., 398. 
Neutral governments, German assets and gold in, resolu- 
tions of Paris Conference on Reparation respecting, 
121. 
Neutral nationals in Japan, Far Eastern Commission policy 

regarding, 1043. 
New York Publishers Association, endorsement of State 

Department information program abroad, 260. 
New York University Club, address by Mr. Braden, 101. 
Newfoundland : 

Liquidation of surplus property in, 350. 
North American regional broadcasting, interim agree- 
ment, signature by U.K. on behalf of, 376. 
Newspaper Editors, American Society of, Washington, ad- 
dress by Mr. Benton, 722. 
Newspapermen. See Press. 
Newspaperwomen's Club, New York, N.Y., address by Mr. 

Benton, 574. 
New Zealand : 

Berendsen, Sir Carl, remarks before Far Eastern Com- 
mission regarding U.S. food shipments to Japan, 
712. 
Cereal requirements, 899. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Bermuda telecommunications agreement (1945), ac- 
ceptance, with reservation, 714. 
Occupation of Japan. See BCOF. 
Sanitary convention (1926), as amended (1944), pro- 
tocol prolonging, signature, 869. 
Sanitary convention for aerial navigation (1983), as 
amended (1944), protocol prolonging, signature, 
869. 
War criminals of the European Axis, prosecution and 
punishment of (1945), accession, 261. 
Nicaragua {see also American republics), treaties, agree- 
ments, etc. : 
Bretton Woods agreements (1945), signature and ac- 
ceptance, 528. 
Civil-aviation agreements : air transit, air transport, 

and interim (1944), acceptance, 171. 
Civil-aviation convention (1944), ratification, 171. 
Sanitary convention (1926), as amended (1944), proto- 
col prolonging, entry into force and text, 869. 
Sanitary convention for aerial navigation (1933), as 
amended (1944), protocol prolonging, entry into 
force, 869. 
Nixon, Russell, statement criticizing protection of German 

external assets, 76. 
North America, German propaganda regarding, 314, 368. 
North American regional broadcasting agreement, 376, 379. 
North American regional broadcasting engineering con- 
ference (2d) : 
Address by Mr. de Wolf, 379. 
Dates of meeting, 170, 219, 290, 330, 375, 379. 
Interim agreement, signature, 376. 
Standard-band broadcasting, 377, 379, 400. 
North American Regional Engineering Committee: 
Establishment, 377. 
F\inctions, 379. 
North American wildlife conference, 219. 



1158 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



North Atlantic route service conference: 
Announcement, 431. 
Meeting at Dublin, 431, 476, 525, 565. 
Norway : 

Hitler's plans for, German documents on, 699, 936. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Bretton Woods agreements (1945), signature and ac- 
ceptance, 36. 
Monetary agreement, with U.K., 81. 
War criminals of the European Axis, prosecution and 
punishment of (1945), accession, 261. 
U.S. Ambassador (Bay), appointment, 1054. 
Novikov, Nikolai Vasilievich, credentials as Soviet Am- 
bassador to U.S., 1050. 
Niirnberg trial, 250, 369. 

Occupied areas (see also Austria; Germany; Japan; 
Korea ; Venezia Giulia ) : 
Defined, 734. 

Poland, damages caused by German occupation, Polish- 
Soviet agreement and protocol (1945), texts, 343. 
Problems of, mentioned in President Truman's message 

to Congress, 140. 
U.S. policy in. State Department directive concerning, 
734. 
Occupied Areas, Assistant Secretary of State for, func- 
tions : 
Departmental regulation (134.1), 1132. 
Relation to SWNCC, 734. 
Office of International Information and Cultural Affairs, 

scope, 614. 
Office of Price Administration, regulation on bread, dis- 
cussed in article by Mr. Stillwell, 834. 
Office of Under Secretary of State for Economic Affairs, 
establishment, action by House Committee on For- 
eign Affairs on bill, 1093. 
Office of War Information, activities, comments by Mr. 

Benton, 725. 
Office of War Mobilization and Reconversion, resolution 
by Advisory Board endorsing British loan, and Presi- 
dent Truman's statement, 436. 
OIAA. See Inter-American Affairs, Office of. 
Oil, article by Mr. Robertson, 3. 
Oil corporation, Soviet-Iranian, discussed in letters to 

Security Council, 659. 
OPA. See Office of Price Administration. 
"Operation Crossroads". See Atomic-bomb tests. 
Opium, notes between U.S. and U.K. regarding limitation 

of production, 237. 
Oran, Algeria, closing of U.S. Consulate, 1130. 
Orr, Sir John Boyd (Director General of FAO), statement 
at special meeting of FAO on urgent food problems, 
949. 
Ospina Pi^rez, Mariano (President-elect of Colombia), visit 

to U.S., 892. 
Outer Mongolia : 

Sino-Soviet notes regarding, 204. 
Status quo guaranteed in treaty, 282. 
Overseas Press Club, New York, N.Y., address by Secretary 
Byrnes, 355. 

Palestine, immigration of Jews and displaced persons to. 
See Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry ; Cabinet 
Committee. 
Pan American Highway, description and status, 125. 
Pan American Union, Washington : 

Address by President Truman before Governing Board, 

720. 
Exemptions and immunities, 348. 

Mutual-assistance treaty among American republics, ap- 
pointment of committee to draft document for con- 
sideration by conference, 732. 
Social Service, first Pan American congress of, report, 21. 



Panama (see also American republics) : 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Bretton Woods agreements (1945), signature and 

acceptance, 528. 
Cooperative fellowship program with U.S., 223. 
War criminals of the European Axis, prosecution and 
punishment of (1945), 261. 
Visiting professor from U.S., 962. 
"Papers Relating to the P'oreign Relations of the United 
States, the Paris Peace Conference, 1919", publica- 
tion of vol. VII : 918. 
Paraguay (see also American republics) : 

Ambassador to U.S. (Ayala), credentials, 730. 
Cultural leader, visit to U.S., 962. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Bretton Woods agreements (1945), signature and ac- 
ceptance, 36. 
Civil-aviation convention (1944), ratification, 171. 
Parcel-post service to U.S. zone in Germany, 1012. 
Paris agreement on reparation from Germany, article by 

Mr. Howard, 1023. 
Paris Conference on Reparation, agreement (draft text), 

final act, and resolutions, 114. 
Paris Peace Conference, 1919, publication of vol. VII in 
"Foreign Relations of the United States" series, 918. 
Passenger Shipping Committee, State Department, com- 
position and functions (D.E. 183.7), 970. 
Passports : 

Austria, removal of U.S. ban against exit permits, 73. 
Requirements, change, 395. 
Pasvolsky, Leo, resignation, 499. 
Patents, German-owned, outside Germany, conference on, 

U.S. delegation, listed, 1112. 
Patents («ee also Industrial property), interchange agree- 
ment (1942), with U.K., amendments, 579. 
Paul, Randolph, Special Assistant to the President, to 
conduct negotiations on German external assets, 374, 
1077. 
Paul-Boncour, J. (French Delegate to the General As- 
sembly), 89. 
Pauley, Edwin W., appointment to study Far Eastern 

economic problems, 821. 
Pawley, William D., appointment as U.S. Ambassador to 

Brazil, 828. 
Peace : 

Address by : Mr. Acheson, 893 ; Mr. Braden, 535 ; Presi- 
dent Truman, 622. 
Council of Foreign Ministers to meet in Paris July 15, 

plans, 112, 891, 950, 952. 
Crimes in Far East against, statement by Mr. Keenan, 

846. 
Trade, relation to, statements by Secretary Byrnes and 
Mr. Clayton, 677, 892. 
Peace treaties, Siam with : 
Australia, text, 966. 
U.K. and India, text, 963. 
Peffer, Nathaniel, visiting professor to China, 1092. 
Peiping, China, closing of U.S. Consulate and opening of 

Embassy, 46. 
Penicillin agreement, with U.K., 451. 

People's Republic of Mongolia, Sino-Soviet notes regard- 
ing, 204. 
Permits, exit, for Austrian refugees, 73. 
Peron, Juan D., charges against U.S. Embassy in Argen- 
tine elections, U. S. attitude, 222. 
Peru (se« also American republics) : 

Bretton Woods agreements (1945), signature and ac- 
ceptance, 36. 
Civil-aviation convention (1944), ratification, 715. 
Cultural leader, visit to U.S., 777. 
Suffrage for women, question of, 249. 
U.S. Ambassador (Cooper), appointment, 828. 
Petersen, Howard C. (Assistant Secretary of War), par- 
ticipant in State Department radio broadcast, 910. 



INDEX, JANUARY TO JUNE 1946 



1159 



Petroleum Facilities Coordinating Committee, article by 

Mr. Robertson, 3. 
Peurifoy, Jolin E., designation in State Department, 826. 
Phelps, Vernon L., designation in State Department, 826. 
Philippines : 

Articles by Mr. Mill, 148, 980. 

Collaborators with enemy in, disposition of, statement 

by President Truman, 534. 
Foreign affairs, training program in U.S., 148, 298. 
Foreign Relations, Office of, 149. 

Independence, proclamation ceremonies at Manila, 1051. 
Rehabilitation and recovery of, under H.R. 5856 and 

S. 1610, statement by President Truman, 822. 
Roxas, Gen. Manuel, visit to U.S., 867. 
Tariff policy, U.S., notes between U.S. and Bolivian 

Governments regarding, 1()49. 
Trade with U.S., Polish attitude toward, 773. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Bretton Woods agreements (1945), signature and ac- 
ceptance, 36. 
Civil-aviation agreements: air transit and interim 

(1944), acceptance, 715. 
Friendship, commerce and consular rights (1931 ) , U.S. 
and Poland, Polish attitude toward Philippine 
trade, 773 . 
U.S. agricultural mission to, 1054. 

War Damage Commission, appointment of U.S. mem- 
bers, 955. 
Phillips, William T., articles : 
American trade proposals, 509. 
Rubber in relation to world economy, 932. 
PICAO. See Provisional International Civil Aviation Or- 
ganization. 
Pinkerton, Lowell C, appointment as U.S. Minister to 

Iraq, 828. 
Plank, Ellsworth H., article on U.S. trade proposals, 561. 
Poland : 
Area of Germany administered by, 602. 
Boundaries, 341. 

British troops in Indonesia, attitude toward, 275. 
Claims for war damage, by U.S. citizens, procedure for 

filing, 1083. 
Displaced persons. See Displaced persons. 
Elections : 

Plans for, note from Polish Ambassador, 762. 
Relation of Export-Import loan to, 761. 
Export-Import Bank, loan by, exchange of notes between 
Acting Secretary Acheson and Polish Ambassador 
(Lange), 761. 
Franco regime in Spain, recommendation for considera- 
tion by Security Council, 660. 
Grain scarcity in, letter from President of National 
Council of the Homeland and reply of President 
Truman, 542. 
Opening of U.S. Consular offices at Gdansk and at Poz- 

nan, 263, 1054. 
Political murders, alleged reign of, 209. 
Relations with Germany (1940), 462. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Boundaries, with U.S.S.R., text (1945), 341. 
Bretton Woods agreements (1945), signature and ac- 
ceptance, 36, 528. 
Damages from Germany, agreement and protocol, with 

U.S.S.B., (1945), texts, 343. 
Friendship and alliance, with U.S.S.R. (1945), text, 

340. 
Friendship and mutual aid, with Yugoslavia, text, 

919. 
Friendship, commerce and consular rights (1931), 
U.S. and Poland, Polish attitude toward Philip- 
pine trade, 773. 
War criminals of European Axis, prosecution and 
punishment (1945), accession, 261. 
U.S. property owners in, compensation to, 670. 
U.S. trade with Philippines, attitude toward, 773. 



Policy Information Services, functions (D.R. 183.4), 970. 
Political activities, internal, in Japan : 

Remarks by Mr. Atcheson on SCAP policy, 915. 
SCAP report, 749. 
Political parties in Germany, 549. 

Port Arthur, Sino-Soviet agreement regarding, 204, 205. 
Port Arthur Naval Base Area (map), 202. 
Porter, Paul (administrator. Office of Price Adminis- 
tration) : 
Letter to State Department on status of U.S. short- 
wave broadcasting, 904. 
Participant in radio broadcast, 156. 
Portugal : 
Airports in Azores, agreement for transit use by U.S. 

(1944), text and expiry, 1051, 1080. 
Closing of U.S. Consulate at Beira, 132. 
Postal convention (1939), adherence by Czechoslovakia, 

350. 
Postal service, resumption : 
U.S. and Austria, 40. 
U.S. and Germany, 490, 635. 
Potter, Margaret, article on U.S. trade proijosals, 403. 
I'oznan, Poland, opening of U.S. Consulate, 263. 
Prencinradio, termination, transfer to State Department 

preliminary to, 685. 
Preparatory Commission of UNESCO. See UNESCO. 
Preparatory Commission of United Nations. See United 

Nations. 
Prescott, Col. Brainard E., participant in radio broad- 
cast, 104. 
President, U.S. See Truman, Harry S. 
President's Cabinet Committee on Palestine and Related 

Problems. See Cabinet Committee. 
Press (see also Information) : 

American press associations, address by Mr. Benton, 574. 

Associated Press. See Associated Press. 

Facilities requested by Acting Secretary Acheson of 

various governments receiving UNRRA aid, 131. 
Newspapermen : 

Dutch, visit to U.S., 398. 
Finnish, visit to U.S., 339. 

Foreign, as guests of Virginia Press Association, 
plan, 260. 
United Press. See United Press. 
U.S. censorship in Moscow and Tehran, 731, 772. 
Price control and rationing in Japan, SCAP report, 806. 
Prisoners of war and civilian internees. See Displaced 

persons ; Repatriation. 
Proclaimed List of Certain Blocked Nationals. See 

Blocked Nationals. 
Proclamations : 

Alien enemies, removal from U.S., 732. 
Load line convention, revoking suspension during war 
emergency, 132. 
Propaganda, German : 

Article by Mr. Bradford, 278. 

Excerpts from official German publications, 311, 365. 
Property (see also Surplus war property) : 
German. See Germany. 

German and Japanese refugees in U.S., 1011. 
Hungarian, in U.S. custody, 1120. 
Japanese, in Manchuria, 364. 
United Nations nationals, in Italy, 817. 
U.S., in: Belgium, 634; Bulgaria, 446; Denmark, 1083; 
Italy, 817 ; Netherlands, 729, 10S3 ; Poland, 670. 
Protocol, Division of, responsibilities under International 
Organizations Immunities Act (D.R. 121.10 and 240.1), 
1018, 1019. 
Provisional International Civil Aviation Organization : 
Conferences : 

Annual assembly (1st), Montreal: 

Meetings, listed, 655, 711, 755, 813, 856, 884, 946, 

990, 1042, 1074. 
U.S. Delegation, 886. 



1160 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Provisional International Civil Aviation Organization- 
Conferences — Continued 

European and Mediterranean air route services con 
ference, Paris, 525, 5&5, 61S, 655, 711, 713, 755, 
813, 856, 884, 946, 9flO, 1(M2, 1074. 
Near Eastern route service conference, Cairo, 655, 711 

755. 
North Atlantic route service conference, Dublin, 431, 
476, 525, 565. 
Coordination vrith CITEJA, discussed in article by Mr, 

Latcliford, 836. 
Resignation of Mr. Brophy as U.S. representative, ac 
ceptance, 857. 
Public Healtli, International Office of, meetings, 711, 755 

813, 856, 884. 
Public health and welfare in Japan, SCAP report, 807. 
Public Liaison, Division of, cooperation with American 

Platform Guild, 6. 
Public safety in Japan, SCAP report, 750. 
Publications : 

Agriculture in the Americas, 1133. 
Anglo-American Caribbean Commission, 264. 
Foreign Commerce Weekly, 968, 1014. 
Lists : 

Congress, U.S., 264, 352, 400, 452, 596, 871, 1019, 1053, 

1130. 
Department of State, 308, 543, 688, 780, 1098, 1134. 
State Department: 
Allied Mission to Observe Greek Elections, report, 865. 
Foreign Relations of the United States, 1931, vol. Ill: 

1129. 
Foreign Relations of the United States: The Paris 
Peace Conference (1919), vol. VII: 918. 
Treasury Department, 452. 
Purchasing missions, foreign, discussions on, 819. 

Quisling, Vidkun, complicity in German occupation of 
Norway, German documents on, 699, 936. 

Radar, staten>ent on sale of, 821. 

Radcliffe College, Cambridge, Mass., address by Mr. 

Warren, 213. 
Radio broadcasts : 

German propaganda program, 367. 

Standard-band broadcasting. See North American 

regional broadcasting engineering conference. 
UNRRA reporting, statement by Acting Secretary 
Acheson, 131. 
Radio broadcasts, short-wave : 

Discontinuance of AP and UP service discussed by 

Assistant Secretary Benton, 92, 94, 217, 574, 726. 
International committee, functions and membership, 

862. 
Programs, U.S., recommendations : 

Expression of views by: Mr. Denny, 904; Mr. Evans, 
903 ; Mr. Porter, 904 ; Mr. Reed, 902 ; Mr. SarnofC, 
903 ; Mr. Shouse, 901 ; Mr. Stanton, 902. 
Statements by Mr. Benton, 92, 94, 725, 900. 
U.S. responsibility in, article by Mr. Stone, 905. 
Radio broadcasts, State Department : 
America — as others see us, 11. 

AP and UP, attitude toward State Department's pro- 
gram, 92, 94, 217, 574, 726. 
Atomic energy, international control of, 774. 
British loan — what it means to us, 51. 
Citizen's role in foreign policy, 492. 
Credit to Britain, the key to expanded trade, 185. 
Democracy in Japan, .581. 
Freedom of tlie press, world-wide, 156. 
General Assembly, meeting of, 38G. 
Germany and the occupation, 910. 
Inter-American policy, 20. 
Korea and the Far East, 104. 
Niirnberg trials, 2.50. 
U.S.-U.K. relations, 644. 
Wheat crisis in Europe, 191. 



Radio distance indicators, agreement with U.K., 397. 
Radius, Walter A., designation in State Department, 180. 
Rationing and price control in Japan, SCAP report, 806. 
Raw materials (see also Cotton ; Rubber) : 

Germany and Japan, U.S. program for supplying, 173. 
Japanese, supply for export, 395. 
Surplus, problem of, article by Mr. Phillips, 509. 
Wool, proposed program for distribution, 491. 
Raynor, G. Hayden, designation in State Department, 826. 
Rayon industry in Japan, report of textile mission, 1009. 
Reciprocal aid. See Lend lease. 
Reconversion, status, 268. 
Redin, Lt. Nicolai G. (U.S.S.R.), charges against, U.S. 

reply to Soviet inquiry regarding, 682. 
Reed, Philip D. (chairman of the board. General Electric 
Company), letter to State Department on status of 
U.S. short-wave broadcasting, 902. 
Reeducation in U.S. zone of Germany, progress of, 698. 
Refugees. See Displaced persons. 

Regional arrangements and their relation to United Na- 
tions, article by Mr. Allen, 923. 
Reiff, Henry, articles on transition from League of Na- 
tions to United Nations, 691, 739. 
Relief. See Food ; UNRRA ; wheat. 
Religion : 

Germany (1940), comments on, in official German docu- 
ments, 465. 
Japan, SCAP report, 807. 
Reparation : 

Allied Commission on Reparations, resignation of Mr. 

Lubin, 224. 
Germany : 

Agreement of Allied powers, text of draft, 114. 

Allied Control Council plans, 636. 

Articles by Mr. Howard, 11123. 1063. 

Comments by Mr. Hilldring, 675. 

Merchant fleet, disposal, 445. 

Occupation by, agreement ( 1945) between Poland and 

U.S.S.R. on compensation, 343. 
Plant equipment, list, 79. 
Inter-AUied Reparation Agency, establishment, at Paris 

conference, 114, 115, 119, 1063. 
Italy, views of Council of P'oreign Ministers on, 950. 
Japan : 

Far Eastern Commission, interim policy, 884, 946, 990, 

1074, 1111. 
U.S. proposals, 826. 
Reparations Mi.s.sion, U.S., membership of, 821 n. 
Repatriation : 
Far Eastern Commission, policy regarding non-J'apanese 

in Japan, 1043. 
German nationals in Spain, 1011. 
U.S. and Soviet citizens, Yalta agreement regarding: 
Statement by State Department, 443. 
Text, 444. 
Representation of interests, transfer of Japanese property 

in Hawaii, by Swedish official to U.S., 131. 
Research and intelligence, in State Department, Russell 

Plan on, 028. 
Research materials, foreign, procurement of, article by 

Blr. Humphrey, 22. 
Restitution of property removed by Germans from Allied 
countries, resolution of Paris Conference on Repara- 
tion, 122. 
Reuters, Ltd., objection to statements in memorandum on 

U.S. international information program, 38. 
Rice, Commission, Anglo-American, tripartite agreement 

witli Siam, 863, 958. 
Rice, shortages of crops, 291, 300. 
Rio de Janeiro conference. See Inter-American conference 

for maintenance of peace and security. 
Roberts, Sarali B., article on First Inter-American Demo- 
graphic Congress, 66. 
Robertson, David A., article on Petroleum Facilities Co- 
ordinating Committee, 3. 
Rogers, Edith Nourse, participant in radio broadcast, 492. 



INDEX, JANUARY TO JUNE 1946 



1161 



Roosevelt, Franklin D., German propaganda regarding, 

279, 311, 312, 313, 314, 315, 365. 
Roosevelt, Mrs. Eleanor, delegate to General Assembly of 

United Nations, t)2. 
Ross, Murray, article on ILO Coal Mining Committee, 704. 
Roxas, Gen. Manual (President-elect of the Philippines), 

visit to U.S., statement by President Truman, 867. 
Rubber : 
Allocations for U.S. from Far East, 224. 
Inter-Agency Policy Committee on, 541, 934. 
Purchase from Far East, bilateral agreements regard- 
ing, 1119. 
Purchase from Malaya, 644. 

Relation to world economy, article by Mr. Phillips, 932. 
Supply, 510. 
Rubber Advisory Panel, 933. 
Rubber Study Group, 933. 
Rubin, Seymour J., appointment as U.S. representative for 

negotiations on German external assets, 955. 
Rumania : 
Decisions of Moscow Conference of Foreign Ministers, 
non-fulfilraent of, U.S. protest: 
Notes from U.S., 1007, 1125. 
Replies to U.S. notes, 1048, 1125. 
Recognition by U.S., 256, 298. 
Russell, Donald S., plan for organization of intelligence 

research in State Department, 928. 
Russell, Francis, participant in radio broadcasts, 250, 492. 
Rutford, Skuli, visiting professor to American republics, 

960. 
Ryter, Joseph F., participant in radio broadcast, 492. 

Saigon, French Indochina, opening of U.S. Consulate and 
elevation to rank of Consulate General, 736, 828, 1054. 
St. Lavcrence Seaway and Power Project, U.S. and 
Canada, statement by Mr. Acheson, favoring legisla- 
tion, 334. 
Sakhalin, agreement at Yalta regarding, 189, 190, 282. 
Saltaneh, Ghavam (Iranian Prime Minister and Foreign 
Minister), letter to Security Council accrediting Hus- 
sein Ala as Iranian representative, 657. 
Sanitary convention concerning maritime travel (1926), 
as amended (1944) : 
Accession by Belgium, 451. 

Ratification by: Brazil, 299; Canada, 40; U.K., 40. 
Sanitary convention concerning maritime travel (1926), 
as amended (1944), protocol prolonging: 
Entry into force, 869. 
Text, 860. 

Transmittal to Senate, with report of Secretary Byrnes, 
1085. 
Sanitary convention for aerial navigation (1933), as 
amended (1944) : 
Accession by Belgium, 451. 
Application to British territories, 40, 81. 
Ratification by Canada, 40. 
Sanitary convention for aerial navigation (1933), as 
amended (1944), protocol prolonging: 
Entry into force, 869. 

Transmittal to Senate, with report of Secretary Byrnes, 
1085. 
Sarnoff, David (president. Radio Corporation of Amer- 
ica), memorandum to Secretary of State on status of 
U.S. short-wave broadcasting, 903. 
Satterthwaite, Joseph C, designation in State Depart- 
ment, 1097. 
Saudi Arabia : 
Minister to U.S.(Asad al Faqih), credentials, 351. 
Radiotelegraph circuit with U.S. discussed, 61. 
U.S. Minister (Cbilds), appointment, 828. 
Savannah meeting of Boards of Governors of International 
Bank and Fund : 
Addresses by Mr. Vinson, 478. .527. 
Dates of meeting, 290, 330, 375, 431, 476, 525. 
International secretariat, listed, 433. 



Savannah meeting of Boards of Governors of International 
Bank and Fund — Continued 
Invitations extended in accordance with Bretton Woods 

agreement.s, 219. 
Message from President Truman, 478. 
Purpo.se of meeting, 331. 
U.S. Delegation, listed, 433. 
SCAP. See Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers. 
Scientific and Cultural Cooperation, Interdepartmental 

Committee on. See Interdepartmental (Committee. 
Seamen, consular services to, inter-offlce transfer of func- 
tions, S3. 
Secretariat of the United Nations. See United Nations. 
Secretary of Agriculture, designation as chairman of inter- 
agency committee on FAO problems, 656. 
Secretary of State (see also Byrnes, James F. ), appoint- 
ment as member of Cabinet Committee on Palestine 
and Related Problems, 1089. 
Secretary of the Treasury, appointment as member of 
Cabinet Committee on Palestine and Related Prob- 
lems, 1089. 
Secretary of War, appointment as member of Cabinet 
Committee on Palestine and Related Problems, 1089. 
Securities, Czechoslovak, deadline extended for registra- 
tion, 339. 
Security Council of United Nations: 
• Admission of new members of United Nations, provi- 
sional rules of procedure on, 663, 945. 
. Agenda, provisional rules of procedure on, 661. 
Albania, question of admission to United Nations, 754, 

851. 
Applications for United Nations membership to be rec- 
ommended by, proposal by Mr. Stettinius, 881. 
Appointment of U.S. Deputy Representative (Johnson), 

754. 
Committee of Experts, dates of meeting, 375, 431, 476, 

525. 
Communications from private individuals and non-gov- 
ernmental bodies, provisional rule of procedure on, 
664. 
Composition of Council, 469. 
Conduct of business, provisional rules of procedure on, 

663, 942. 
Greece, British troops in, settlement of dispute con- 
cerning, 90, 233, 267. 
Indonesia, discussion on British troops in, 90, 234, 275. 
Iranian case: 
Alleged Soviet interference in Iranian matters : 
Referral to Council by Iran, 90. 
U.S. inquiry, 483. 
Letters and remarks : 

Mr. Ala (Iran), 657, 706, 854, 941. 
Secretary Byrnes (U.S.), 267, 435, 570, 620, 828. 
Mr. Gromyko (U.S.S.R.), 568, 657, 828. 
Mr. Stettinius (U.S.), 529, 706, 752, 987. 
Resolutions regarding, 147, 621, 8-i3. 
Retention on agenda, question of : 
Letter from Iranian Representative to Secretary- 
General, requesting withdrawal, 706. 
Letter from Secretary-General to Council Presi- 
dent regarding, 707. 
Remarks of U.S. Representative, favoring retention, 
706, 707, 70S, 9S7. 
Summaries, bv Secretary-General of Council (Lie), 
657, 753, 849. 
Languages, provisional rule of procedure on, 663, 943. 
Meeting in London, dates, 219, 290, 330. 
Meeting in New York, dates, 431, 5^5, 755, 884, 1111. 
Meetings, provisional rules of procedure on, 661. 
Messages from President Truman and Secretary Byrnes 

at opening meeting in New York, 567. 
Organization, 62, 65. 

Presidency, provisional rules of procedure on, 662. 
Procedure : 

Adoption of provisional rules, 661, 942. 
Summary statements by IMr. Lie, 754, 850. 



1162 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Security Council of United Nations — Continued 
Publicity of meetings, provisional rules of procedure on, 

663, 944. 
Records, provisional rules of procedure on, 663, 944. 
Representation and credentials, provisional rules of pro- 
cedure on, 662. 
Resignation of U.S. Representative (Stettinius), ex- 
change of letters between President Truman and 
Mr. Stettinius, 988. 
Secretariat, provisional rules of procedure on, 663. 
Spanish situation: 

Polish referral of question of Franco regime to Se- 
curity Council, 660. 
Proposals for resolution on, 788. 
Status, summary statements by Mr. Lie, 753, 850. 
Subcommittee on Franco : 
Establishment In Security Council, 796. 
Progress of, 881. 
U.S. position regarding, 486, 709. 
Status of matters under consideration by, summary 

statements by Mr. Lie, 753, 849. 
Syria and Lebanon, complaint on presence of British 

and French troops in, 234, 275. 
Voting procedure, 663, 851, 943. 
Selective Service Act : 
Comments by Secretary Byrnes, 482. 
Extension of, proposed by President Truman, 141. 
Selective Service processing of U.S. citizens outside U.S., 

1035. 
Senate Committee on Banking and Currency, statement 

by Mr. Clayton on British loan, 437. 
Senate confirmations of U.S. representatives. See Foreign 

Service. 
Shipping (see also Transportation ; Vessels) : 
German merchant fleet, disposal, 117, 445. 
Passenger Shipping Committee, State Department 

(D. R. 183.7), 970. 
United Maritime Authority : 
Discontinuance, and text of temporary multilateral 

agreement on, 487. 
Meeting in London, 171, 219, 290, 292. 
U.S. Liberty ships, grain transported from U.S.S.R. to 

France in, 730. 
U.S. vessels to be made available to foreign countries, 
822. 
Shipping Division, Office of Transport and Communi- 
cations : 
Composition, 1094. 

Organization and functions (D.R. 131.12), 1132. 
Short-wave broadcasting. See Radio. 
Shouse, J. D. (vice president in charge of broadcasting, 
Crosley Corporation), letter to State Department on 
status of U.S. short-wave broadcasting, 901. 
Siam: 
Attitude of Czechoslovakia toward, in World War II: 

730. 
Resumption of relations with U.S. and U.K., 5. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Anglo-American Rice Commission, establishment of, 

tripartite agreement, signature, 863. 
Existing treaties and agreements with U.S. to continue 

in force, 178. 
Peace treaty, with: Australia, text, 966; India and 
U.K., text, 963. 
U.S. Legation at Bangkok, opening, 83. 
U.S. Minister (Stanton), appointment, 82S. 
Silesia, cession, comments by Mr. Acheson, 189, 190. 
Silver-fox furs, reconsideration of Canadian quotas, 176. 
Sldvik, Juraj, credentials as Czechoslovak Ambassador to 

U.S., 1082. 
Smith, Harold D. (director of Bureau of the Budget), 
letter to President Truman with supplemental esti- 
mate of appropriation for UNRRA, 866. 
Smith, Henry Lee, Jr., heads language-training program, 
1133. 



Smith, Walter Bedell, appointment as U.S. Ambassador 

to U.S.S.R., 544. 
Snyder, John W. (director of War Mobilization and Re- 
conversion), assistance to foreign countries in food- 
supply problems, 822. 
Social Commission, temporary, of Economic and Social 

Council, opening meeting in New York, 814. 
Social-.service work in Latin America, report to Pan Amer- 
ican Union, 21. 
South America. See American republics, and the individ- 
ual countries. 
Soviet Purchasing Mission, trade plans on termination of, 

819. 
Soviet Union. See Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. 
Spaak, Paul-Henri, President of first General Assembly, 17. 
Spaeth, Carl B., designation in State Department, 826. 
Spain : 
Franco regime : 

Attitude of U.S., U.K., and France, 399, 412, 486. 
Position of United Nations. See Spanish situation 

under Security Council. 
Relations with Axis leaders, 413. 
German nationals in, repatriation, 1011. 
Nazi atomic plants in, alleged, statement regarding, 681. 
Nazis in, deportation, remarks to Security Council by 

Mr. Stettinius regarding, 789. 
Sale of U.S. arms to, allegation denied, 218. 
Standard-band broadcasting, 377, 379, 400. 
Stanton, Edwin F., appointment as U.S. Minister to Siam, 

828. 
Stanton, Frank (president, Columbia Broadcasting Sys- 
tem), letter to State Department on status of U.S. 
short-wave broadcasting, 902. 
State Department {see also Departmental regulations; 
Executive orders; Radio broadcasts) : 
Appointments : 

Assistant Secretary of State (Hllldring), 736. 
Legal Adviser (Fahy), 735. 
Special Assistant to the Secretary (Langer), 826. 
Fisheries and Wildlife Branch of International Re- 
sources Division, establishment and functions, 735. 
Intelligence program : 
Lack of funds for, statement by Secretary Byrnes, 687. 
Russell Plan for organization, 928. 
Inter-American Affairs, Office of, transfer of certain 

functions to (Ex. Or. 9710), 686. 
Occupied areas, directive concerning, 734. 
Office of Transport and Communications, realignment of 

organizational structure, 1094. 
Office of Under Secretai-y of State for Economic Affairs, 
establishment, action by Committee on Foreign Af- 
fairs on bill, 1093. 
Petroleum Facilities Coordinating Committee, member- 
ship on, 3. 
Publications. See Publications. 
Records of, use (D.R. 420.1), 779. 

Training announcements, 918, 972, 1020, 1054, 1097, 1133. 
State trading, relation to international trade, 407. 
State-War-Navy Coordinating Committee: 
Coordination of U.S. policy in occupied areas. State 

Department directive on, 734. 
Relation to Office of Military Government, U.S. zone (in 

Germany), discussed in radio broadcast, 914. 
State Department member (D.R. 134.1), 1132. 
Statements, addresses, and broadcasts of the week, listed, 

683, 728, 751, 819, 860, 920, 967, 1010, 1078. 
Statistical Commission, opening meeting in New York, 814. 
Stettinius, Edward R., Jr. : 
British troops in Indonesia, Soviet demands for commis- 
sion of inquiry opposed by, 275. 
Iranian case, remarks to Security Council, 529, 706, 752, 

853, 987. 
Letter to Secretary-General of Security Council, pro- 
posing resolution on applications for membership in 
United Nations, 881. 



INDEX, JANUARY TO JUNE 1946 



1163 



Stettinius, Edward B., Jr. — Continued 

Security Council, general statement to, 63. 
Spanlsli situation, remarks to Security Council, 709, 788. 
Resignation as U.S. Representative to United Nations, 
exchange of letters with President Truman, 968. 
Stevenson, Adlai E., resignation as U.S. Delegate to United 

Nations, 427. 
Steyme, Alan N., designation in State Department, 826. 
Stillwell, James A. : 
Articles : 

U.S. responsibilities in European food crisis, 831. 
Wheat and coal for liberated areas, 152. 
Participant in radio broadcast, 191. 
Stoddard, George D. (chairman of U.S'. education mission 
to Japan) : 
Letter to Mr. Benton on completion of work, 641. 
Report of, letter of transmittal to General MacArthur, 
768. 
Stokes, Isaac N. P., designation in State Department, 826. 
Stone, Donald C, appointment as U.S. representative on 

Preparatory Commission of UNESCO, 257. 
Stone, William T. : 
Article on international broadcasting, 905. 
Designation in State Department, 180, 351. 
Strasbourg, France, opening of U.S. Consulate, 736. 
Strong, Gordon, appointment to study Korean finances, 

449. 
Students, foreign, special courses for, colleges listed, 1013. 
Students, U.S., invitation to participate in archaeological 

excavations in U.K., 961. 
Stuttgart, Germany, opening of U.S. Consulate, 399, 451. 
Suez, Egypt, closing of U.S. Consulate, 544. 
Suffrage for women in South America, 249. 
Sugar, regulation of production and marketing, interna- 
tional agreement (1937), protocol prolonging, 236, 
778, 1084. 
Sumner, John D., designation in State Department, ISO, 

452. 
Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers (see also 
MacArthur) : 
Administrative areas, map showing, 804. 
Constitution in Japan, new, consultation with Far East- 
ern Commission regarding, 990. 
General Headquarters, report on non-military activities 

in Japan and Korea, 749, 805, 807, 1067. 
International Military Tribunal for the Far East, as 

established by changes in text of Charter, 8iX). 
Political activities, internal, in Japan, policy on, re- 
marks by Mr. Atcheson, 915. 
Summation of activities in Japan and Korea, for March 
1946, announced, 915. 
Surplus commodities, problem of, article by Mr. Phillips, 

509. 
Surplus war property, disposal : 
Agreements. See Lend lease. 
Austria, loan from U.S. to purchase, 818. 
Canada and Atlantic areas, offices in, 350. 
Designation of authority for (D.R. 139.2), 1017. 
Foreign Liquidation Commissioner, report, 820. 
National Advisory Council on International Monetary 

and Financial Problems, statement, 382. 
Petroleum facilities abroad, 3. 
President Truman's message to Congress, mention in, 

143. 
Redistribution of functions, in foreign areas (Ex. Or. 

9730, amending Ex. Or. 9630), 1000. 
U.S. defense installations in Canada, agreement regard- 
ing purchase, 683. 
U.S. vessels to be made available to foreign countries, 
822. 
Surrey, Walter S., designation in State Department, 452. 
Sweden : 

Closing of U.S. Consulate at Malmo, 400, 1130. 
Negotiations with Allies regarding German external 
assets in, 990, 992, 1042, 1074, 1111. 



Sweden — Continued 
Representation of Japanese interests in Hawaii and 
transfer of property to U.S., 131. 
Switzerland : 
Exportation of watches to U.S., proposed limitation on, 

exchange of memoranda, 763. 
German assets in, disposition of: 
Agreement between Allied and Swiss Governments, 

texts of letters, 955, 1121. 
Article on, 1101. 

Meeting in Washington, 525, 565, 618, 655, 711, 755, 
813, 856, 884, 946, 955, 990. 
SWNCC. See State-War-Navy Coordinating Committee. 
Syria, complaint to Security Council, on presence of Brit- 
ish and French troops in, 234, 275. 
Szegedy-Maszdk, Aladdr, credentials as Hungarian Minis- 
ter, 132. 

Taipei, Taiwan (Formosa), opening of U.S. Consulate, 736, 

872. 
Tapachula, Mexico, closing of U.S. Vice Consulate, 1130. 
Tariff (see also Customs) : 

Discussed in article by Mrs. Potter, 404. 
Negotiations, alleged, for reductions, U.S. and U.K., 820. 
Policy toward Philippines, notes between U.S. and Bo- 
livian Governments regarding, 1049. 
Taussig, Charles W., address at opening plenary session 

of West Indian Conference, 333. 
Taxation. See Double taxation. 

Taylor, Myron C, return to the Vatican as Personal Rep- 
resentative of President Truman, 818. 
Telecommunications : 

Bermuda agreement (1945) : 

Acceptance by U.K. and Australia, 714. 
Entry into force, 714. 
Bermuda conference, report by Miss Kelly, 59. 
Direct service between State Department and Paris Em- 
bassy inaugurated, 345. 
North American regional broadcasting engineering con- 
ference, 170, 376, 379, 400. 
Radio distance indicators on aircraft, agreement be- 
tween U.S. and U.K., 397. 
Short-wave broadcasting. See Radio. 
Telecommunications Division, OflBce of Transport and Com- 
munications : 
Composition, 1094. 
Functions (D.R. 131.13), 1132. 
Terrill, Robert P., article on U.S. trade proposals, 455. 
Textile mission, international, to Japan : 
Composition, 178. 
Report, 1009. 
Thorp, Willard L., address on reconstruction of Europe, 

300. 
Three Eastern Provinces, Sino-Soviet agreement regard- 
ing, 204, 206. 
Thurston, Walter, appointment as U.S. Ambassador to 

Mexico, 971. 
Tokyo, Japan : 

Far Eastern war criminals, first trial in, 3(54. 
National City Bank of New York, reopening of branch 
in, 642. 
Trade, international (see also Blocked Nationals; Finan- 
cial agreement, U.S.-U.K. ) : 
Barriers, article by Mrs. Potter, 403. 
Cartels, relation to, article by Mr. Terrill, 455. 
Conference, plans for, 140, 175 n., 188, 326, 327, 328, 383, 

539, 648, 892, 98S. 
Discussions, plans for, 820. 
Economic affairs between U.S. and Philippines, Polish 

attitude, 773. 
Expansion of, address by Mr. Brown, 539. 
Greece, negotiations on expansion of production and 

employment, 175. 
International Trade Organization, proposed, 326, 383, 
403, 430, 616, 631, 647. 



1164 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Trade, international — Continued 

Italy, resumption of private trade with, 261. 
Japan, control and regulation, 394. 
Polish loan, provisions of, 761. 

Privileges, exclusive, in ex-enemy states, U.S. policy on, 

letter of Mr. Acheson to British Ambassador and to 

president of TWA, 908. 

Purchasing missions in U.S., foreign, discussions on, 819. 

St. Lawrence waterway, comments by Mr. Acheson, 334. 

Silver-fox furs, reconsideration of Canadian quotas, 176. 

U.S. proposals for expansion, articles and statements 

by: air. Bunn, 647; Secretary Byrnes, 892; Mr. 

Clayton, 680; Mr. Erickson and Mr. Plank, 561; 

Mr. Hyde, 616; Mr. Phillips, 509; Mrs. Potter, 403; 

Mr. Terrill, 455; Mr. Wilcox, 630. 

Trade Agreements Act, relation to U.S. trade proposals, 

article by Mr. Bunn, 647. 
Trade and employment conference, proposed : 
Announcement by Secretary-General of United Nations, 

988. 
Economic and Social Council, resolution to call (text), 

648. 
Plans, 140, 175 n., 188, 326, 327, 328, 383, 403, 539, 632, 648. 
Statement by Secretary Byrnes, 892. 
Trade marks (see also Industrial property), international 
registration (1891), London revision (1934), adher- 
ence by Luxembourg. 514. 
Trade Organization, International, proposed, 326, 383, 403, 

431, 616, 631, 647. 
Trade Unions, World Federation of, representation in 

United Nations affairs, 199, 276. 
Transcontinental and Western Air, Inc., letter to presi- 
dent (Frye) from Mr. Acheson regarding U.S. atti- 
tude toward proposed contract with Italy, 908. 
Trans-Jordan, status of and U.S. attitude on recognition 
of, letter from Secretary Byrnes to Senator Myers, 
765. 
Transport and Communications, Office of: 
Functions (D. R. 131.10), 1131. 
Reorganization, 1094. 

Ships and seamen, consular services for, transferred 
from Office of the Foreign Service, 83. 
Transport and Communications Commission, temporary, 
of the Economic and Social Council, opening meeting In 
New York, 814. 
Transportation : 

Export Control Committee, membership, 154. 

Poland, purchase of U.S. railway equipment, loan for, 

761. 
Problems relating to development of Danube basin, 

article by Mrs. Whitnack and Mr. Handler, 1108. 
Supplies to Europe, 193, 194, 195. 
Travel grants for Chinese students, extension of applica- 
tion date, 1091. 
Travel grants for study in other American republics re- 
sumed. 179. 
Treasury Department : 

Publication of "Census of Foreign-owned Assets in 

U.S.", 452. 
Transfer of certain lend-lease functions from State De- 
partment to (Ex. Or. 9726), 959. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Advice and assistance on matters pertaining to (D.R. 

251.1), 1017. 
Anglo-American Rice Commission, establishment of, 

U.S., U.K., and Siam, signature, 863. 
Aviation (see also Civil aviation infra) : 

Air bases, with U.K. (1941), draft of heads of agree- 
ment relating to, 593, 864. 
Airports in Azores, transit use by U. S., with Portugal 
(1944) : 
Expiration, 1051. 
Text, 1080. 
Military-aviation mission, with Bolivia (1941), re- 
newal, 83. 



Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 
Aviation — Continued 

Sanitary convention for aerial navigation. See 
Sanitary convention infra. 
Bermuda telecommunications agreement (1945) : 
Acceptance by Australia, New Zealand, and U.K., 714. 
Entry into force, 714. 
Boundaries, Poland and U.S.S.R., text of agreement 

(1945), 341. 
Bretton Woods agreements (1945), lists of signatures 

and acceptances, 36, 528. 
Bulk-sale agreement, preliminary, with India, conclu- 
sion, 733. 
Civil aviation (see also Aviation supra) : 

Agreements and convention drawn up at Chicago, 

described by Mr. Clayton, 1004. 
Air services transit agreement (1944), acceptances: 
Nicaragua, 171 ; Philippines, 715 ; Venezuela, 715. 
Air transport agreement (1944), acceptances: Domin- 
ican Republic, 377 ; Greece, 715 ; Nicaragua, 171 ; 
Venezuela, 715. 
Bilateral agreements : 

Air .services agreement, U.K. with Greece (1945), 

description of, 582. 
Air-transport services, U.S. with : Belgium, signa- 
ture, 633, 683; Czechoslovakia, signature, 83; 
Egypt, text of annex, 10S8; France, signature, 
583; Greece, signature, 583; Mexico, conversa- 
tions on, 1112; Turkey, signature, 306; U.K., 
statements and text, 302, 390, 584, 586. 
Convention (1944) : 

Message from President to Senate urging ratifica- 
tion, 1079. 
Ratifications: Canada, 377; China, 377; Dominican 
Republic, 377; Nicaragua, 171; Paraguay, 171; 
Peru, 715; Turkey, 171. 
Statement by Mr. Clayton, 1004. 
Interim agreement (1944) : 

Acceptances: Dominican Republic, 377: Nicaragua, 

171; Philippines, 715; Venezuela, 715. 
Withdrawal by U.K. of reservation respecting Den- 
mark, 715. 
Interim arrangement between U.S. and Belgium, con- 
clusion by exchange of notes, 263. 
Claims, with U.K. (1945), acceptance, 580. 
CofCee agreement, inter-American (1940), protocol ex- 
tending : 
Proclamation by President Truman, 867. 
Senate approval, 778. 
Transmittal to Senate, 180. 
Commercial agreements, Czechoslovakia and enemy 
countries, Czechoslovak declaration on invalidity, 
960. 
Customs, modus Vivendi, Brazil and Venezuela (1940), 

termination, 581. 
Damages from Germany, Poland and U.S.S.R., agree- 
ment and protocol (1945), texts, 343. 
Defense installations, U.S., purchase by Canada, conclu- 
sion, 683. 
Diplomatic and commercial, with Yemen, conclusion, 

917. 
Disarmament and demilitarization of Germany, quadri- 
partite draft treaty, text, 81-5. 
Disarmament and demilitarization of Japan, quadri- 
partite draft treaty, text, 1113. 
Double taxation, with France: 

Estate-tax convention, conversations on negotiation, 

451. 
Income-tax convention (1939), conversations on revi- 
sion, 451. 
Double taxation, with U.K.: 
Income tax (1945), supplementary protocol: 
Signature, 1052. 

Transmittal to Senate, with report by Secretary 
Byrnes, 1087. 



INDEX, JANUARY TO JUNE 1946 



1165 



Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 
Economic and cultural collaboration, U.S.S.R. and 

Mongolia, text, 968. 
Economic and financial, with Provisional French Gov- 
ernment, texts : 
Declaration by President Truman and President 

Gouin, 994, 1127. 
Joint statement on commercial policy, 995. 
Lend lease, reciprocal aid, surplus war property, and 

claims, settlement of, 997. 
Motion pictures, U.S., exhibition in France, 999. 
Educ.-itinii, ciHiiierativf, with Panama, 223. 
Financial, Greece and U.K., statement by Secretary 

Byrnes, 155. 
Financial agreement, U.S.-U.K. : 
Addresses and statements by: Mr. Acheson, 185, 317, 
511, 759 ; Mr. Brown. 540 ; Secretary Byrnes, 267 ; 
Mr. Clayton, 271, 437. 
President Truman's message to Congress, 183. 
Resolution by Advisory Board of Office of War Mobi- 
lization and Reconversion and President Tru- 
man's statement, 436. 
Fisheries of the Great Lakes, proposed convention with 
Canada, letter of transmittal by President Truman, 
with report by Secretary Byrnes and summary of 
text, 823. 
Friendship, China and Dominican Republic (1940), as 

amended (1945), ratification, 538. 
Friendship and alliance, China and U.S.S.R. (1945) : 
Agreement and exchange of notes, texts, 201. 
U.S.-Chinese memoranda, 448. 
Friendship and alliance, Poland and U.S.S.R., agree- 
ment and ratification (1945), text, 340. 
Friendship and commerce, with Yemen, proposal, 297. 
Friendship and mutual aid, Poland and Yugoslavia, 

text, 919. 
Friendship and mutual assistance, U.S.S.R. and Mon- 
golia, text, 968. 
German assets in Switzerland, understanding between 
Allied and Swiss Governments regarding, and texts 
of Swiss letters, 955, 1101, 1121. 
Industrial property : 

International registration of trade marks (1891), Lon- 
don revision (1934), adherence by Luxembourg, 
514. 
Patent interchange (1942), agreement on amend- 
ments, with U.K., signature, 579. 
Protection of (1883), London revision (1934), ad- 
herence by Luxembourg, 61. 
Inter-American Indian Institute, convention providing 

for (1940), adherence by Guatemala, 82. 
International Bank for Reconstruction and Develop- 
ment: 
Signatories and acceptances, lists of, 36, 528. 
International Monetary Fund : 

Signatories and acceptances, lists of, 36, 528. 
Japan, occupation of, BCOF to share in, summary of 

agreement between U.S. and Australia, 220. 
Kurile Islands, agreement between U.S., U.K., and 

U.S.S.R. at Yalta (1945), 189, 190, (text) 282. 
Lend-lease, settlement of, with : Australia, signature, 
1118; Canada, conclusion, 683; China, signature, 
1118; France, signature, 997; India, signature, 733, 
916; Turkey, signature, 868; U.K. (1945), accept- 
ance, 580. 
Lend-lease equipment returned to U.S. by U.K., dis- 
posal provided for in agreement between U.S. and 
Canada, 683. 
Load Line convention, proclamation revoking suspen- 
sion during war emergency, 132. 
Military mission, with Venezuela, signature, 1050. 
Monetary agreements, U.K. with Czechoslovakia, Neth- 
erlands, and Norway, 81. 
Motion pictures, U.S., understanding regarding exhibi- 
tion in France, with France, text, 999. 



Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

Mutual assistance, American republics, plans for, 287, 

667, 732. 
Naval and air bases, with U.K. (1941), status of ar- 
rangements for proposed agreement, 593, 864. 
North American regional broadcasting, interim agree- 
ment, signature, 376, 379. 
Patent interchange (1942), agreement on amendments, 

with U.K., signature, 579. 
Peace, friendship, commerce and navigation (18.58), 
with Bolivia, exchange of notes regarding most- 
favored-nation provisions in relation to Philippines, 
1049. 
Peace, Siam with : 
Australia, text, 966. 
U.K. and India, text, 963. 
Penicillin agreement, with U.K., conclusion, 451. 
Postal, universal (1939), adherence by Czechoslovakia, 

350. 
Radio distance indicators, with U.K., signature, 397. 
Reciprocal aid. See Lend lease, settlement of. 
Reparation from Germany, Paris agreement on : 
Articles by Mr. Howard, 1023, 1063. 
Draft text, 114. 
Repatriation of U.S. and Soviet citizens, with U.S.S.R. : 
Statement by State Department, 443. 
Text, 444. 
Rubber, purchase from Far East, bilateral agreements, 

with France, Netherlands, and U.K., 1119. 
St. Lawrence seaway and power project, with Canada, 

address by Mr. Acheson, 334. 
Sanitary convention concerning maritime travel (1926), 
as amended (1944) : 
Belgium, accession, 451. 
Brazil, ratification, 299. 
British territories, application to, 40. 
Canada, ratification, 40. 
Sanitary convention concerning maritime travel (1926), 
as amended (1944), protocol prolonging: 
Entry into force, 869. 
Text, 869. 

Transmittal to Senate, with reiwrt of Secretary 
Byrnes, 1085. 
Sanitary convention for aerial navigation (1933), as 
amended (1944) : 
Belgium, accession, 451. 
British territories, application to, 40, 81. 
Canada, ratification, 40. 
Sanitary convention for aerial navigation (1933), as 
amended (1944), protocol prolonging: 
Entry into force, 869. 

Tran.smittal to Senate, with report of Secretary 
Byrnes, 1085. 
Shipping, continuance of control for United Nations 
purposes (1944), discontinuance of United Mari- 
time Authority constituted under, text, 487. 
Siam, treaties and agreements with U. S. to continue 

in force, 178. 
Sugar, international agreement regarding production 
and marketing (1937), protocol prolonging: 
Proclamation by President, 1084. 
Transmittal to Senate, and Senate approval, 236, 778. 
Surplus war property. See Lend lease, settlement of. 
Trade arrangements, proposed with Philippines, rela- 
tion to treaty of friendship, commei-ce and consular 
rights (1931), Polish note, 773. 
Trade marks, international registration (1891), London 

revision (1934), adherence by Luxembourg, 514. 
UNESCO constitution, acceptance by U.K., 432, 508. 
UNRRA (1943), ratification by Uruguay, 281. 
War criminals of European Axis, prosecution and pun- 
ishment of (1945), accessions, 261, 954. 
Whaling, regulation of, agreement (1937) and protocol 
(1938), accession by: Chile, 451; Netherlands, 347. 



1166 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 
Whaling, regulation of, supplementary protocol (1944), 
accession by Denmark, 347. 
Tripartite Commission (pursuant to Moscow Conference 

of Foreign Ministers), non-fultilment of Rumanian 

assurances to, U.S. protest, 1007, IMS, 1125. 
Tripp, Col. John T., return from China, 351. 
Troops, Soviet, in Iran. See Iranian case under Security 

Council. 
Troops, U.S., in Pacific area under British command, 

withdrawal of, visit of Admiral Leahy to U.K. regard- 
ing, 892. 
Truman, Harry S. : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Air-transport agreement, U.S.-U.K., 399. 

Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry, report, 783. 

Anniversary of V-E Day (1st), 859. 

Atomic-bomb test, 667. 

Boards of Governors of International Monetary Fund 
and International Bank for Reconstruction and 
Development, meeting, 478. 

Cabinet Committee on Palestine and Related Prob- 
lems, establishment, 1089. 

Combined Food Board operations, continuation, joint 
statement with Prime Minister Attlee and Prime 
Minister King, 861. 

Crime against Jews in Germany, retribution for, 369. 

FAO, special meeting on urgent food problems, 948. 

Financial agi'eemeut, U.S.-U.K., endorsement by Ad- 
visory Board of Office of War Mobilization and 
Reconversion, 436. 

Food crisis, world-wide, 246, 412, 716, 861. 

Foreign policy, objectives, 136. 

Inter-American Affairs, Office of, termination and 
transfer of corporations to State Department, 
685. 

Inter- American system, 720. 

Peace, attainment of lasting, 622. 

Personal Representative (Taylor) to the Vatican, 818. 

Philippines, collaborators with enemy in, disposition 
of, 534. 

Philippine rehabilitation and recovery, 822. 

United Nations Security Council, message read by 
Secretary Byrnes at opening meeting in New York, 
567. 

UNRRA, Council of, message to opening meeting of 
fourth session at Atlantic City, 480. 

Visit to U.S. of President-elect of the Philippines 
(Roxas), 867. 

Wool program, proposed, 491. 

Yalta agreement on the Kurile Islands, 190. 
Correspondence : 

Harriman, W. Averell, on resignation as U.S. Ambas- 
sador to the Soviet Government, 306. 

Indian Viceroy (Lord Wavell), on food crisis in 
India, 861. 

International Monetary Fund and International Bank 
for Reconstruction and Development, message to 
inaugural meeting of Boards of Governors, 478. 

Judge Hutcheson, on receipt of report of Anglo-Ameri- 
can Committee of Inquiry, 783. 

Mr. Stettinius, on resignation as U.S. Representative 
to United Nations, 988. 

Officers of private organizations, on food crisis, 412. 

President of Polish National Council, on UNRRA 
shipments of grain, 542. 

Secretary Byrnes, on Foreign Service examinations, 

306. 
Secretary of Agricidture (Anderson), on designation 
as chairman of Interagency committee for FAO, 
656. 



Truman, Harry S. — Continued 
Correspondence — Continued 
West Indian Conference, on opening session at St. 
Thomas, Virgin Islands, 332. 
Declaration, joint, with President Gouin, on U.S. -French 
agreements on economic and financial problems, 
994, 1127. 
Executive orders. See Executive orders. 
Foreign intelligence activities, directive on, 174. 
Messages to Congress: 
Annual message, 135. 
Congress, transmitting — ■ 

Financial agreement, U.S.-U.K., 183. 
Foreign-loans policy, U.S. statement, 380. 
Inter-American Military Cooperation Act, 859. 
Lend-lease reports (21st and 22d), 223, 1091. 
Report of 1st part of 1st session of General Assem- 
bly of United Nations, 530. 
UNRRA quarterly reports (5th, 6th, and 7th), 347, 

757, 1126. 
UNUR-^ supplemental estimate of appropriation, 
866. 
Senate, transmitting — 

Civil aviation, convention on, 1079. 
Income-tax convention with U.K. (1945), supple- 
mentary protocol, 1087. 
Reports and convention with Canada relating to 

fisheries of the Great Lakes, 823. 
Sanitary convention (1926) and sanitary conven- 
tion for aerial navigation (1933), as amended 
(1944), protocols prolonging, 1085. 
Proclamations : 

Alien enemies, removal from U.S., 732. 
Load line convention, revocation of suspension during 
war emergency, 132. 
Wheat shipments to liberated areas, directive on, 151. 
World food crisis, discussion with U.K. mission, plans 
for, 864. 
Trusteeship : 
Italian colonies, views of Council of Foreign Ministers, 

95L 
Japanese mandated islands, U.S. policy, 113. 
Korea, U.S. policy, 155. 
Trusteeship Council of United Nations : 
Composition of, 474. 

General Assembly, discussion, 21, 90, 190. 
Palestine, policy recommended by Anglo-American Com- 
mittee of Inquiry, 785. 
Statements regarding, 150, 235. 
Tsaldaris, C. (Greek Minister of Foreign Affairs), ex- 
change of messages with Secretary Byrnes regarding 
good-will visit of U.S.S. Missouri to Greece, 731. 
Tugwell, Rexford G. (Governor of Puerto Rico), com- 
ments at final session of West Indian Conference, 845. 
Tunis, Tunisia, elevation to rank of Consulate General, 

1130. 
Turin, Italy, opening of U. S. Consulate, 224, 1054. 
Turkey : 

Return of ashes of Ambassador Ertegun, 447. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Air-transport services, bilateral, with U.S., 306. 
Civil-aviation convention (1944), ratification, 171. 
Lend-lease settlement, with U.S., signature, 868. 
UNRRA mission to, 960. 
TWA (Transcontinental and Western Air, Inc.), letter to 
president (Frye) from Mr. Acheson regarding U. S. 
attitude toward proposed contract with Italy, 908. 

Ukrainian S.S.R., complaint to Security Council on pres- 
ence of British troops in Indonesia, 234, 275. 

UMA. iSffc United Maritime Authority. 

Under Secretary of State for Economic Affairs, Office of, 
establishment, action by House Committee on For- 
eign Attairs on bill (H.R. 6646), 1093. 



INDEX, JANUARY TO JUNE 1946 



1167 



UNESCO (United Nations BMueational, Scientific and 
Cultural Organization) : 
Addresses and statements: Miss Wilkinson, 20O; Mr. 
Benton, 408 ; Mr. Benton and Mr. MacLeish before 
House Foreign Affairs Committee, 625, 629. 
Aims and scope, 307, 027. 
Constitution, acceptance by U.K., 432, 508. 
Cooperation with other agencies, 9. 
Functions, table listing, 882. 
Headquarters, 337. 
Mass communications : 
Advisory group on, 172. 

Appointment of senior counselor (White), 714. 
Preparatory Commission : 
Establishment, discussed in report, 432. 
Function, 337. 

U.S. Representatives, appointment : Dr. Brunauer, 
337; Mr. Stone, 257; Mr. Wilson, 338. 
Union of South Africa, signature and acceptance of Bret- 
ton Woods agreements (1945), 36. 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics : 

Anglo-Soviet-Ameriean communique on disposal of Ger- 
man Navy, 173. 
Ambassador to U.S. (Novikov), credentials, 1050. 
British troops in Indonesia, attitude toward, 275. 
Bulgaria, opposition parties in, U.S. reply to Soviet in- 
quiry regarding U.S. aide-memoire, 485. 
Control Council for government of Germany, joint decla- 
ration on liaison with other U.N. governments, 113. 
Dispute with Iran. See Iranian case under Security 

C^touncil. 
Far Eastern Commission, participation, 372. 
German propaganda regarding, 313, 316, 365. 
Germany, political reconstruction, policy toward, 551. 
Gromyko, Andrei A., statements in United Nations, 64, 

568, 657, 828. 
Japanese assets in Manchuria, interest in disposition, 

364. 
Manchurian industrial enterprises, U.S.-Chinese memo- 
randa regarding control, 448. 
Purchasing Mission in U.S., trade plans on termination 

of, 819. 
Redin, Lt. Nicolai G., charges against, U. S. reply to 

Soviet inquiry regarding, 682. 
Refugee-control measures, certain proposals by, 276. 
Security Council : 
Complaint to on presence of British troops in Greece, 

233. 
Voting procedure, joint statement with U.S., U.K., 
and China, 851. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Boundaries, with Poland, text (1945), 341. 
Damages from Germany, agreement and protocol, 

with Poland (1945), texts, 343. 
Disarmament and demilitarization of Germany, quad- 
ripartite draft treaty, text, 815. 
Disarmament and demilitarization of Japan, quadri- 
partite draft treaty, text, 1113. 
Economic and cultural collaboration, with Mongolia, 

text, 968. 
Friendship and alliance, with China (1945) : 
Clarification, U.S.-Chinese memoranda on, 448. 
Text, 201. 
Friendship and alliance, with Poland (1945), text, 340. 
Friendship and mutual assistance, with Mongolia, 

text, 968. 
Kurile Islands, agreement at Yalta regarding (1945), 

189, 190, (text) 282. 
Repatriation of U.S. and Soviet citizens, with U.S. : 
Statement by State Department, 443. 
Text, 444. 
Sakhalin, agreement at Yalta regarding, 189, 190. 
Troops in China, withdrawal, 201. 
U.S. Ambassador (Harriman), resignation, 306. 
U.S. Ambassador (Smith), appointment, 544. 



Union of Soviet Socialist Republics — Continued 

U.S. newspapermen in Moscow, censorship procedure, 

731. 
Vyshinsky, Andrei, statement in General Assembly, 89. 
War against Japan, conditions governing entry, 282. 
Zone of occupation in Austria, 650. 
Zone of occupation in Germany, (502. 
United Kingdom {see also Anglo-American Committee of 
Inquiry) : 
Advisory Economic Commission to Greece, proposal, 79. 
Ambassador to U.S. (Lord Inverchapel), credentials, 

1050. 
Anglo-American Caribbean Commission, announcement 

of West Indian Conference, 36. 
Anglo-Soviet-American communique on disposal of Ger- 
man Navy, 173. 
Archaeological excavations, invitation to U.S. students 

to participate in, 961. 
Aviation, U.S. note replying to British aide-memoire 
regarding proposed contract between Italy and 
TWA, 908. 
Control Council for government of Germany, joint dec- 
laration on liaison with other U.N. governments, 
113. 
Export trade, problems, 267, 271, 301, 318. 
Food. See Food. 

General Assembly, statement by Mr. Bevin, 64. 
German propaganda, 312, 365, 461, 699, 701. 
Germany, political reconstruction, jwllcy toward, 552. 
Loan. See Financial agreement, U.S.-U.K. 
Opium, limitation of production of, texts of U.S. and 

U.K. notes and memoranda, 237. 
Security Council : 
Discussions on presence of British troops in Greece, 
Indonesia, and Syria and Lebanon, 233, ^4, 275. 
Voting procedure, joint statenient with U.S., U.S.S.R., 
and China, 851. 
Siam, resumption of diplomatic relations with, 5. 
S'panish situation, exchange of views with U.S. regard- 
ing, 399, 412. 
Tariff-reduction negotiations with U.S., State Depart- 
ment denial, 820. 
Telecommunications, conference in Bermuda, 59. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Air bases, with U.S., draft of heads of agreement 

(1941), 593, 864. 
Air-services agreement, with Greece, 582. 
Air transport, with U.S. : 
Joint statement and final act of conference, 302, 584. 
Statement by President Truman, 399. 
Text, 586. 
Anglo-American Rice Commission, establishment of, 

with U.S. and Siam, signature, 8(>3. 
Bermuda telecommunications agreement (1945), ac- 
ceptance, 714. 
Bretton Woods agreements (1945), signature and ac- 
ceptance, 36. 
Civil aviation, interim (1944), withdrawal of reserva- 
tion respecting Denmark, 715. 
Disarmament and demilitarization of Germany, 

quadripartite draft treaty, text, 815. 
Disarmament and demilitarization of Japan, quadri- 
partite draft treaty, text, 1113. 
Double taxation, with U.S., income tax (1945), sup- 
plementary protocol : 
Signature, 1052. 

Transmittal to Senate, with report by Secretary 
Byrnes, 1087. 
German assets in Switzerland, with U.S., France, and 
Switzerland, summary of, and texts of Swiss 
letters, 955, 1121. 
Financial agreement with Greece, 155. 
Financial agreement with U.S. See Financial agree- 
ment. 



1168 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



United Kingdom — Continued 

Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued 

Kurile Islands, agreement with U.S. and U.S.S.R. at 

Yalta (1945), 189, 190, (text) 282. 
Lend-lease equipment returned to U.S. by, disposal 
provided for in agreement between U.S. and Can- 
ada, 683. 
Lend-lease settlement, reciprocal aid, surplus war 
property, and claims (1945), with U.S., accept- 
ance, 580. 
Monetary agreements, with Czechoslovakia, Nether- 
lands, and Norway, 81. 
Naval and air bases, with U.S. (l&tl), draft of heads 

of agreement, 593, 864. 
Occupation of Japan. See BCOF. 
Patent interchange (1942), agreement on amendments, 

with U.S., signature, 579. 
Peace, with Siam, text, 963. 
Penicillin, with U.S., conclusion, 451. 
Radio distance indicators, with U.S., signature, 397. 
Reparation from Germany, draft, 114 n. 
Rubber, purchase from Far East, bilateral, with U.S., 

1119. 
Sanitary convention (1926), as amended (1944), 

application to certain territories, 40. 
Sanitary convention (1926), as amended (1944), pro- 
tocol prolonging, entry into force and test, 869. 
Sanitary convention for aerial navigation (1933), as 
amended (1944), application to certain terri- 
tories, 40, 81. 
Sanitary convention for aerial navigation (1933), as 
amended (1944), protocol prolonging, entry into 
force, 869: 
UNESCO constitution, acceptance, 432, 508. 
U.S. Ambassador (Harriman), appointment, 687. 
Visit of U.S. Admiral (Leahy) to consult with Chiefs 

of Staff, 892. 
World food crisis, agreement with U.S. for joint effort 

in, 895. 
Zone of occupation in Austria, 651. 
Zone of occupation in Germany, 601. 
United Maritime Authority : 
Council of, meeting in London : 
Dates of meeting, 171, 219, 290. 
Recommendations at final session, 292. 
Representation, 171. 
Discontinuance, text of agreement, 487. 
United Nations : 

Address by Secretary Byrnes, 355. 
Albania, question of admission, 190, 754, 851. 
Argentine pledges to, alleged breach of, U.S. memoran- 
dum on, 285. 
Budget, 91, 235. 
Charter: 

Relation to human rights, article by Mrs. McDiarmid, 

210. 
U.S. ideals expressed in, discussed by Mr. Braden, 296. 
Commissions, committees, organs, 65, 467. 
Administrative and Budgetary Committee, creation, 

21. 
Atomic Energy Commission. See Atomic Energy 

Commission. 
Economic and Employment Commission. See Eco- 
nomic and Employment Commission. 
Economic and Financial Committee, creation, 20. 
Economic and Social Council. See Economic and 

Social Council. 
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. 

See UNESCO. 
Food and Agriculture Organization. See Food and 

Agriculture. 
Freedom of Information, subcommittee on, proposed 

establishment, 855. 
General As.sembly. See General Assembly. 
Health organization, world, proposed, 882, 1076. 



United Nations — Continued 
Commissions, etc.- — Continued 

Human Rights, Commission on, meeting in New York, 

814, 855. 
International Court of Justice. See International 

Court. 
League of Nations Assets, Committee on Transfer of: 
Articles liy Dr. Reiff, 691, 739. 
Discussion, 91. 
Meeting, dates, 525, 655, 755. 
Reports, 200, 743, 744, 747. 
Legal Committee, creation, 21. 
Military Staff Committee: 
Composition of, 470. 
Meeting, dates, 476, 655, 990, 1111. 
Status and rules of procedure, statements by Mr. 
Lie, 754, 850. 
Narcotic Drugs, appointment of U.S. representative 

(Anslinger), 1052. 
Political and Security Committee, creation, 20. 
Preparatory Commission : 

Relation to General Assembly, 18. 
Report by, discussed, 62, 63. 
Report of Executive Committee to, 18. 
Security Council, recommendation of agenda, 63. 
Termination of Commission, determined, 18. 
Refugees and Displaced Persons, 375, 431, 476, 664, 

865, 1111. 
Secretariat : 
Composition of, 474. 
Diplomatic immunity and taxation, discussion, 199, 

276. 
Discussion of, between Secretary Byrnes and 
Secretary-General (Lie), 529. 
Security Council. See Security Council. 
Social, Humanitarian and Cultural Committee, crea- 
tion, 20. 
Trade and employment conference. Preparatory Com- 
mittee for, 648. 
Trusteeship Council. See Trusteeship. 
UNRRA, plans, 20, 199. 

War Crimes Commission, resignation of Lieutenant 
Colonel Hodgson, 855. 
Documents, announcement, 987. 
Exemptions and immunities, 199, 276, 348. 
Headquarters, permanent, selection and negotiations 

regarding, 235, 275, 1078. 
Iceland, question of admission to, 773. 
Information program, 236. 

Membership applications, proposed resolution on, 881. 
Organs, commissions, committees of, composition, 65, 

467. 
Property in Italy belonging to nationals of, restora- 
tion, 817. 
Regional arrangements, relation to, article by Mr. Allen, 

923. 
Resignation of U.S. Delegate (Stevenson), 427. 
Resignation of U.S. Representative (Stettinlus), ex- 
change of letters with President Truman, 988. 
Secretary-General, election : 
Candidate, question of selection, 91. 
Selection of Mr. Lie, 147, 234. 
United Nations' Association of Maryland, Baltimore, Md., 

address by Mr. Acheson, 185. 
United Nations nationals In Japan, repatriation of. Far 

Eastern Commission policy regarding, 1043. 
United Press, protest of State Department at discontinu- 
ance of short-wave broadcasting service to the 
Government : 
Statements and comments by Mr. Benton, 217, 574, 726. 
United States citizens (see also Displaced persons; Re- 
patriation) : 
Assets in Denmark, release, 1083. 
Businessmen in Paris, accommodations for, 1086. 
Claims for war damages in Poland and Netherlands, 
procedure for filing, 729, 1083. 



/iVZ>£X, JANUARY TO JUNE 1946 



1169 



United States citizens — Continued 

Expropriation of property, compensation by Poland 

discussed, 670. 
Graduate students, Uruguayan statute providing for 

acceptance at University of Montevideo, 960. 
Passport requirements, change, 395. 
Property in : 
Belgium, procedure for damages, 634. 
Bulgaria, restoration, 446. 
Italy, restoration, 817. 

Netherlands, instructions for filing claims, 729. 
Poland, expropriation, 670. 
Return from Germany, plans, 400. 
Role in foreign policy, radio broadcast, 492. 
Selective Service processing outside U.S., 1035. 
Troops in Paclfie area under British command, with- 
drawal, visit of Admiral Leahy to U.K. regarding, 
892. 
University of Montevideo, Uruguay, acceptance of gradu- 
ate students from other American republics, 960. 
UNRRA : 

Agreement (1943), ratification by Uruguay, 281. 
Article by Mr. Dort, 359. 
Contributions, list of, 131. 
Council of, fourth session : 
Announcement, 330. 
List of U.S. Delegation, 476. 
Message from President Truman, 480. 
Statements by U.S. representative on (Clayton), 527, 

644. 
Text of resolution on food, 857. 
Director General of, resignation of Mr. Lehman and 

appointment of Mr. La Guardia, 619. 
Exemptions and immunities, 348. 
Funds : 

Contributions, list of, 131. 

Establishment of committee in General Assembly for, 

199. 
Resolution for increase of, presented at General As- 
sembly, 20. 
Supplemental estimate of appropriation : 
Mr. Smith (Director of the Bureau of the Budget), 

letter to President Truman, 866. 
President Truman, letter of transmittal to Con- 
gress, 866. 
Liberated areas, shipments (1945) to, 224. 
Poland, exchange of messages between president of 
National Council of the Homeland and President 
Truman regarding shipments of grain to, 542. 
Press and radio reporting of activities, request made 
to various governments by Acting Secretary Ache- 
son, 131. 
Quarterly reports (5th, 6th, and 7th), transmittal to 

Congress by President Truman, 347, 757, 1126. 
Scope, statement of, 949. 

Shipping agreement for transportation of supplies, 488. 
Surplus property transferred from Foreign Liquidation 

Commission, 820. 
Turkey and Near East, mission to, 960. 
Wheat crisis abroad, address by Director General (La 
Guardia), 716. 
UNRRA Division, Office of Budget and Finance, functions 

(D.R. 124.4), 1015. 
UP. See United Press. 
Uruguay (.see also American republics) : 
Ciiltural leader, visit to U.S., 1130. 

Graduate students from other American republics at 
University of Montevideo, statute providing for, 960. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Bretton Woods agreements (1945), signature and ac- 
ceptance, 36. 
UNRRA (1943), ratification, 281. 
War criminals of European Axis, agreement for pros- 
ecution and punishment of (1945), accession, 954. 
Visiting professor from U.S., 870. 



Vandenberg, Arthur H., letter to Secretary of State re- 
garding U.S. policy on Polish displaced-persons camps 
in Germany, 1003. 
Vatican City, return of Personal Representative (Taylor? 

of President Truman, 818. 
V-E Day, 1st anniversary, statement by President Tru- 
man, 859. 
Venezia Giulia : 

German assets in, disposition, 124. 

Government of, views of Council of Foreign Ministers 
on, discussed in address by Secretary Byrnes, 951. 
Venezuela {see also American republics) : 
Ambassador to U.S. (Machado Hernfindez), credentials; 

730. 
Cultural leader, visit to U.S., 870. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Civil-aviation agreements : air transit, air transport, 

and interim (1944), acceptance, 715. 
Customs, modus Vivendi, with BrazU (1940), termina- 
tion, 581. 
Military mission, with U.S., signature, 1050. 
War criminals of the European Axis, prosecution and 
punishment of (1945), accession, 261. 
Vessels : 
Entry and clearance, consular services for, inter-office 

transfer of functions, 83. 
Marine Perch, repatriation of German nationals in 

Spain, 1011. 
Missouri, good-will visit to Greece, 731. 
Veterans, Foreign Service examinations for, 306. 
Vienna, Austria, joint administration by Allies In, 650. 
Vincent, John Carter : 
Memorandum to Far Eastern Commission, 376. 
Participant in radio broadcast, 104. 
Vinson, Fred M. : 

Address at meeting of Boards of Governors of Inter- 
national Monetary Fund and International Bank 
for Reconstruction and Development, 478, 527. 
Appointment as U.S. Governor of International Mon- 
etary Fund and International Bank, 262. 
British loan, discussed in radio broadcast, 51. 
Virginia Press Association, foreign newspapermen to be 

guests of, 260. 
Visa and immigration matters, contacts with Department 

of Justice regarding (D.R. 232.2), 970. 
Vyshinsky, Andrei (Soviet Vice Commissar for Foreign 
Affairs) : 
Atomic Energy Commission, attitude, 89. 
British troops in Indonesia, withdrawal recommended 
by, 275. 

Walton, Lester A., resignation as Minister to Liberia, 450. 
Wang Shih-chieh, exchange of notes vv-ith Molotov regard- 
ing friendship and alliance treaty, China and U.S.S.R., 
204. 
War against Allies, question of Spanish entry into, texts 

of Spanish and Axis documents, 413. 
War against Japan, conditions governing entry of U.S.S.R. 

into, 282. 
War booty, removal from Manchuria, alleged reports, 364. 
War Crimes Commission, United Nations, resignation of 

Lieutenant Colonel Hodgson, 855. 
War criminals, European : 

Agreement between major powers for prosecution of 

(1945), accessions, 261, 954. 
Confiscation of property, resolution of Paris Confer- 
ence on Reparation, 124. 
German, crime against Jews, 369. 
War criminals. Far East: 
Charter and proclamation regarding, 361, 618, 890. 
Far Eastern Commission, attitude, 618. 
Indictment, statement by Mr. Keenan (chief of counsel 

for prosecution), 846. 
Japan, SCAP reports, 751, 809. 
List of, 847. 
Trial, 361, 376. 



1170 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETiS 



War Damage Commission, Philippine, appointment of 

U.S. members, 955. 
War Department : 
Air-navigation facilities abroad, functions relating to, 
transfer to Department of Commerce (Ex. Or. 
9709), 684. 
Cabinet Committee on Palestine and Related Problems, 
appointment of Secretary of War as member, 1089. 
Germany, civil administration in, 197. 
Petroleum Facilities Coordinating Committee, member- 
ship on, 3. 
State-War-Navy Coordinating Committee, 734, 914, 1132. 
War expenditures, discussed in President Truman's mes- 
sage to Congress, 142. 
War Information, Office of, consolidation and transfer of 

certain functions, 57. 
War Relief Control Board, President's, termination (Ex. 

Or. 9723), 1015. 
War Shipping Administration : 

Assignment of vessels for relief work, 730. 
Membership on Petroleum Facilities Coordinating 
Committee, 3. 
Waring, Frank A., appointment as member of Philippine 

War Damage Commission, 955. 
Warren, George L., address on migration policies and 

world economy, 213. 
Warsaw Convention of 1929, discussed in article by Mr. 

Latchford, 839. 
Watches, importation of, exchange of memoranda between 
U.S. and Swiss Governments regarding limitation, 763. 
Water power, development. See St. Lawrence. 
WaveU, Lord (Viceroy of India), letter to President Tru- 
man on food crisis in India, 861. 
Weather stations, U.S., in Canada, agreement regarding 

purchase, 683. 
Welles, Sumner, European visit (1940), German docu- 
ments on, 459. 
West Indian Conference, 2d session, St. Thomas, Virgin 
Islands : 
Address by Mr. Taussig, 333. 
Agenda, 292. 

Countries represented, 330. 

Dates of meeting, 169, 219, 290, 330, 375, 431, 476. 
Message from President Truman, 332. 
Report by Miss Armstrong, 840. 
West Indies. See Anglo-American Caribbean Commission 

and the individual countries. 
Whaling, regulation of, agreement (1937) and protocols 

(1938 and 1944), 347, 451. 
WhGftt ' 
Transportation from U.S.S.R. to France in U.S. Liberty 

ships, 730. 
U.S. 1945 crop, 301. 

U.S. shipments to: France, 674; Germany, 756; India, 
861, 958, 1084; Japan, 756; Liberated areas, 151, 
152, 360, 716, 717. 
World shortages, 191, 291, 300, 831, 895. 
White, Harry D., appointment as U.S. Executive Director 

of the International Monetary Fund, 262. 
White, Llewellyn B., appointment as senior counselor in 

mass communications for UNESCO, 714. 
Whitnack, Doris S., article on Danubian transportation 

problems, 1108. 
Wiesman, Bernard, article on ILO constitution, amend- 
ment proposals, 102S. 
Wilcox, Clair, addresses : 
British loan, 96. 
U.S. trade proposals, 630. 
Wildlife and Fisheries Branch of International Kesources 

Division, establishment and functions, 735. 
Wilkinson, Ellen, remarks on UNESCO, 200. 



Willkie, Wendell L., Negro journalism awards, address oy 

Mr. Braden, 392. 
Wilson, Howard E., designation as principal officer of fl^' 
ternational secretariat. Preparatory Commission X^ 
UNESCO, 338. ■i 

Winant, John G. : * 

Address on economic and social world, 975. 
Designation as U.S. representative on Economic ai* 
Social Council, 74, 573. 
Winchell, Walter, statement charging U.S. sale of arms to 

Siiain, 218. 
Windle, R. T. (U.K.), statement on Greek elections, 582. 
Women, International Federation of, request for member- 
ship in Economic and Social Council, 126. 
Women, status of, subcommission of ^COSOC opening 

meeting in New York, 814. 
Women's Action Committee, National Convention of, 

Louisville, Ky., address by Mr. Acheson, 759. 
Women's American Organization for Rehabilitation 
Through Training, New York, N.Y., address by Mr, 
Acheson, 893. 
Women's Organizations, Service Bureau for, Hartford, 

Conn., address by Mr. Thorp, 300. 
Wood, C. Tyler, designation in State Department, 351, 969. 
Wood, Merle K., designation in State Department, 351. 
Wool: 
Proposed program for distribution, comments by Presi- 
dent Truman, 491. 
Report of textile mission to Japan, 1009. 
World Federation of Trade Unions : 
Economic and Social Council, request for membership 

in, 91. 
Representation in United Nations affairs, 199, 276. 
Wright, William D., designation in State Department, 826. 

Yalta agreements : 
Kurile Islands and Sakhalin, 189, 190, 282. 
Repatriation of U.S. and Soviet nationals, 443, (text) 
444. 
Yemen : 
Agreements : 

Diplomatic and commercial, with U.S., conclusion, 917. 
Friendship and commerce, U.S. representatives in- 
vited to discuss, 297. 
U.S. Mission to, membership, 446. 
Young, John P., designation in State Department, 180, 452. 
Young, John S., appointment as member of Philippine War 

Damage "Commission, 955. 
Yugoslavia : 

Ambassador to U.S. (Kosanovic), 728. 
Boundary, Italian-Yugoslav : 
Appointment of commission to recommend, 391. 
Views of Council of Foreign Ministers on, address 
by Secretary Byrnes, 950. 
Establishment of diplomatic relations with U.S., 728. 
Mikhallovich, Gen. Draza : 

U.S. requests to submit testimony in behalf of, 634, 

909. 
Yugoslav denial of U.S. requests, 669. 
Opening of U.S. Consulate at Zagreb, 1130. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Bretton Woods agreements (1945), signature and 

acceptance, 36. 
Friendship and mutual aid, with Poland, text, 919. 
Reparation from Germany, draft, 114 n. 
War criminals of the European Axis, prosecution and 
punishment of (1945), accession, 261. 

Zagreb, Yugoslavia, opening of U.S. Consulate, 1130. 
Zones of occupation in Austria and Germany, articles by 
Mr. Hoffman, 599, 649. 



V. 9. aOVERNHIIIT rllHTIHt OFFICII l>4i 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

jMHm 

VOL. XIV, NO. 341 JANUARY 6 AND 13, 1946 



In this issue 



Can America Afford To Be Silent? 

By ASSISTANT SBCEETAET BENTON 

General Assembly of UNO 

REPORT FROM LONDON 

What Is Our Inter-American Policy? 

RADIO BROADCAST 

Procurement of Foreign Research Materials 

By RICHARD A. HUMPHREY 

Petroleum Facilities Coordinating Committee 

By DAYID A. ROBERTSON 



For complete contents >^^^&4fi«l^^^r 

see inside cover * 







THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

BULLETIN 



,^«NT o> 



Vol. XIV'No. 341» 




• Publication 2449 



January 6 and 13^ 1946 



For Bale by the Superintendent of Documents 

U. S. Government Printing Office 

'Washington 25, D. C. 

Subscription: 

52 issues, $3.50; single copy, 10 cents 

Special offer: 13 weeks for $1.00 
(renewable only on yearly basis) 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Research and 
Publication, Office of Public Affairs, 
provides the public and interested 
agencies of the Government with 
information on developments in the 
field of foreign relations and on the 
work of the Department of State and 
the Foreign Service. The BULLETIN 
includes press releases on foreign 
policy issued by the White House and 
the Department, and statements and 
addresses made by the President and 
by the Secretary of State and other 
officers of the Department, as well as 
special articles on various phases of 
interruitional affairs and the functions 
of the Department. Information con- 
cerning treaties and international 
agreements to which the United States 
is or may become a party and treaties 
of general internatioruil interest is 
included. 

Publications of the Department, cu- 
mulative lists of which are published 
at the end of each quarter, as well as 
legislative materialin the field of inter- 
national relations, are listed currently. 



(^ontents 



Beginning with volume XIV, issues of the 

Bulletin will carry an advance date of one 

week. It is necessary therefore to assign 

a double date to this issue. 



Page 

Petroleum Facilities Coordinating Conunittee. By- 
David A. Robertson 3 

Resumption of Relations With Siam 5 

Conference of Lectui-ers on International Affairs: 

Participants and Programs 6 

Message From the Secretary of State 6 

Can America Afford To Be Silent? By Assistant 

Secretary Benton 7 

Experts To Join General MacArthur's Staff .... 10 

America — As Others See Us: Radio Broadcast . . . 11 

General Assembly of UNO: Report From London 
to the Office of Public Affairs, Department of 

State 17 

Social-Service Work in Latin America 21 

Procurement of Foreign Research Materials. By 

Richard A. Humphrey 22 

What Is Our Inter-American Policy? Radio Broad- 
cast 26 

Disposition of Enemy Aliens From Other American 

Republics: United States Memorandiun ... 33 

International Organizations and Conferences 

Calendar of Meetings 35 

Activities and Developments: 

Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry 35 

The Conference of Delegates on Constitutional Questions 

of the International Labor Organization . 35 

West Indian Conference 36 

Signing of Bretton Woods Agreements 36 

The Record of the Week 

Release of Macmahon Memorandum on U. S. International 

Information Program: 

Summary of Memorandum 37 

Objections by Reuters, Ltd., to the Memorandum ... 38 
Mexican Government Investigates Charges Against American 

Firms 39 

Death of Grayson N. Kefauver 39 

Mail Service With Austria 40 

Carolyn Bradley Accepts Visiting Professorship to Chile . . 40 

Visit of Brazilian Educator 40 

Visit of Salvadoran Musician 40 

Sanitary Conventions of 1944: Canada, United Kingdom . 40 

(Continued on page It'll) 
U. S. SUPERINTENDENT Of IKICUMEN|| 

f£B .7 1946 



Petroleum Facilities Coordinating Committee 



By DAVID A. ROBERTSON, Chairman^ 



D 



DBING THE CLOSING MONTHS OF 

the war a number of agencies 
of this Government were 
confronted with the tremen- 
dous task of judicious disposal of United States- 
owned surphis and lend-lease properties abroad. 
The conclusion of hostilities in Europe and Asia 
and the desire of the American people to secure 
the earliest possible return of our military forces 
brought the problem into sharp focus. There was 
danger that, under the pressure for haste, dispo- 
sition of these properties might be carried out in 
a manner inimical to the short-range financial in- 
terest of the United States and detrimental to the 
long-range commercial and political foreign poli- 
cies of this Government. 

The properties involved vary widely in char- 
acter and in the aggregate represent a tremendous 
dollar value. From a post-war economic and se- 
curity standpoint, one of the vital sectors of our 
intei'ests is in the field of petroleum facilities con- 
structed or lend-leased abroad to service air, naval, 
and military bases and outposts, as well as to 
facilitate the procurement of petroleum from the 
oil fields and refineries of the United Nations. 

To assure that disposal in this field would be 
orderly, as well as prudent, and that it would be 
in accordance with the interests and policies of 
the American people and Government, the Secre- 
tary of State in August 1945 invited the Secre- 
taries of War, Navy, and Commerce, the Petro- 
leum Administrator for War, and the War Ship- 
ping and Foreign Economic Administrators to 
join in the establisluneut of the Petroleum Facili- 
ties Coordinating Committee (PFCC). 

Each agency indicated the importance it at- 
tached to participation in the functioning of the 
Committee by designating as its representatives 
key personnel engaged in administering its petro- 
leum activities. These member officers with their 
alternates are as follows : 



State 

David A. Robertson, chairman. Assistant 
Chief, Petroleum Division ■'■'■■ 

DAvro E. LoNGANECKER, Petioleum Division 

(alternate) 
Col. Sidney Grtjneck, Director, Fixed In- 
stallations Division, Office of Foreign 
Liquidation (FLC) (member) 
Leo F. Connell, Petroleum Consultant, 
Fixed Installations Division, FLC (alter- 
nate) 
Albert E. Ernst, Chief, Petroleum Division, 

FLC (member) 
Critchell Parsons, Assistant Chief, Petro- 
leum Division, FLC (alternate) 
Wa7- 

Brig. Gen. H. L. Peckham, Director, Fuels 

and Lubricants Branch (member) 
Col. James H. Wright, Deputy Director, 
Fuels and Lubricants Branch (alternate) 
Navy 

Rear Admiral A. F. Carter, Director, Petro- 
leum Operations (member) 
Lt. Commander Ross B. Nelson, Assistant to 
Admiral Carter (alternate) 
Comm''erce 

H. B. McCoy, Chief, Division of Industrial 

Economy (member) 
George W. Muller, Chief, Industrial Proj- 
ects Unit (alternate) 
Petroleum Administration for War — Interior 
Edward B. Swanson, Director, Research 
Division (member) 
War Shipping Administration 

E. A. Hohmeyer, Manager, Vessel Opera- 
tions Bunker Fuel (member) 
Provision was made for the attendance of ob- 
servers and consultants from other agencies when 



'Mr. Robertson is Assistant Chief of the Petroleum 
Division, OflSce of International Trade Policy, Department 
of State. 



4 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



cases of interest to them were being considered, 
providing the Committee with expert advice. On 
this basis the Surplus Property Administrator 
designated his Deputy in Charge of Foreign Dis- 
posals, Eric Taff, to serve as permanent observer 
with PFCC. 

The proposal to establish the Committee, for 
the purpose of implementing applicable United 
States foreign policy and coordinating related ac- 
tivities and policies of all interested United 
States agencies in the disposal of lend-lease and 
surplus petroleum facilities costing in excess of 
$100,000, received prompt and enthusiastic ap- 
proval from the heads of the agencies consulted. 

The functions of the Committee are as follows : 

1. To expedite listing of petroleum facilities by 
owning agencies (see -Budget-Treasury Regula- 
tion No. 5). 

2. To collate, by countries or geographic divi- 
sions, and to examine lists of petroleum facilities 
prepared by owning agencies, taking preliminary 
notice of equipment declared excess and likely to 
be declared surplus. 

3. To ascertain and consolidate the views of the 
War and Navy Departments on any military as- 
pect and the views of the interested United States 
civilian agencies on any commercial aspect or in- 
terest in acquiring ownership or control of the 
petroleum facilities involved. 

4. To formulate, on the basis of the examina- 
tion referred to above, appropriate recommenda- 
tions to the pertinent disposal agency (such as 
the Office of the Army-Navy Liquidation Com- 
mission) on specific cases involving the disposal 
of surplus petroleum facilities, such recommenda- 
tions being designed to implement United States 
commercial foreign policy whether disposal is 
recommended through (1) bulk sale to a foreign 
govermnent, or (2) sale to private interests on a 
competitive-bid basis, under applicable rules and 
regulations governing such sale. 

James Q. Reber has been detailed from the 
Department of State's Central Secretariat to serve 
as Executive Secretary of the FFCC. 

Within a period of weeks the PFCC was fully 
organized and a number of cases were acted on 
which for some time had been pending interde- 
partmental examination and clearance. The need 
for invoking Budget-Treasury Regulation No. 5 to 
ascertain the identity of petroleum facilities con- 
structed abroad by the United States agencies was 



resolved by the voluntary compilation of lists by 
owning agencies on a uniform basis approved by 
PFCC. 

Arrangements were made to consider petroleum 
facilities when reported excess to the needs and 
responsibilities of the theater commanders and 
prior to being declared surplus by the owning 
agency. In addition, steps were taken through 
the Foreign Operations Committee of the Petro- 
leum Administration for War to inform the 
petroleum industry of the nature and extent of 
these facilities, in many cases prior to their being 
reported excess. 

The Secretary of State, acting on a suggestion 
of the Secretary of War, approved the extension 
of the PFCC terms of reference to cover petro- 
leum equipment as well as fixed installations in 
order to assure coordination in their disposal. 
This extension proved wise since it made it pos- 
sible for the purchasers of an installation to obtain 
auxiliaiy equipment essential to an integrated 
operating unit, thereby enhancing the value of the 
installation to prospective purchasers and insur- 
ing against stripping the facilities of necessary 
operating and replacement equipment. 

The Committee has considered, has cleared from 
an interdepartmental standpoint, and has made 
disposal recommendations on many types of fa- 
cilities throughout the world. Representative of 
cases acted on are major pipelines in China, 
Burma, India, Egypt. Canada, Italy, and France ; 
a refinery in Canada : bulk stations in Africa along 
the south and central routes of the Air Transport 
Command; tank farms in Brazil, New Guinea, 
Tulagi, and Kenya ; drum and can plants in Pales- 
tine, Eg3'pt, Iran, England, and India ; and many 
others. These facilities have received consideration 
in the order of their urgency arising from (1) a 
declaration of excess by the theater commanders 
or a declaration of surplus by the owning agency 
for the purposes of deploying troops and of aban- 
doning bases, (2) current negotiations of bulk dis- 
posals by this Government, and (3) agreements set- 
ting forth the terms under which disposals are to 
be conducted in a foreign country. 

The number and complexity of cases relating to 
specific petroleum facilities have necessitated a 
twofold expansion of the Committee. A working 
subcommittee has been created to establish and 
maintain a list of countries in the order of 
priority for PFCC action on surplus disposals, 
to prepare material, to formulate recommenda- 



JANUARY 6 AND 13, 1946 

tions for PFCC consideration, and to perform 
other work as directed by PFCC. In addition, 
an advisory group composed of representa- 
tives of other offices of the Department of 
State has been designated to assist the chairman 
of PFCC in determining the interest of the De- 
partment, from a political- and commercial-policy 
viewpoint, in the disposition of petroleum installa- 
tions before the Committee. 

Arrangements have been made also to work 
closely in liaison with the Air Coordinating Com- 
mittee, an interdepartmental committee similar to 
PFCC established to determine the post-war com- 
mercial interests of this Government in airfields 
abroad, for the primary purpose of coordinating 
the disposal of aviation-fuel storage with the air- 
ports they service. 

The PFCC, in summary, has provided a forum 
for discussion of and cooperation in the related 
activities or policies of the member agencies. It 
has obtained lists of 152 facilities scattered over 
53 foreign countries, coordinated disposals of fa- 
cilities with equipment, and informed the Ameri- 
can industry of the available facilities. Of first 
importance, the PFCC has taken steps to eliminate 
the possibility of discrimination against American 
nationals by foreign governments in favor of their 
own nationals. To this end it has obtained agree- 
ment from the Foi-eign Liquidation Commissioner 
that his discretionary authority under SPB Regu- 
lation No. 8 will be so construed as to eliminate 
the possibility of such discrimination in any dis- 
posal arrangements. His field commissioners have 
been instructed accordingly. 

The PFCC has kept abreast of United States - 
United Kingdom current negotiations, coordi- 
nated its activities with these developments, and 
provided a channel f oi- the expression of the views 
of interested United States agencies with regard 
to the petroleum aspects of the negotiations. 

Consideration is pi'esently being given to the 
coordination of the disposal in the United States 
of surplus facilities and equipment located in this 
country which may be purchased for export, with 
disposals of similar surpluses abroad. Other 
measures under consideration will facilitate the 
l^rompt and wise disposal of United States - owned 
surplus abroad and tend to promote international 
trade and the participation therein of American 
nationals consistent with United States commer- 
cial foreign policy. 



Resumption of Relations 
With Siam ' 

The Department of State is pleased to announce 
that diplomatic relations with Siam were resumed 
on January 5 when the Secretary of State re- 
ceived Luang Dithakar Bhakdi, Charge d'Affaires 
of the Siamese Legation, and Charles W. Yost 
became Charge d'Affaires of the American Lega- 
tion at Bangkok. It is understood that Mr. Yost, 
who is now in Bangkok, will be formally received 
by M. R. Seni Pramoj, Pi-ime Minister and Min- 
ister of Foreign Affairs of Siam. 

This marks the formal reestablishment of those 
friendly relations which have characterized Sia- 
mese-American association for over a century. We 
look forward to even closer friendship in the fu- 
ture and to the early admission of Siam to mem- 
bership in the United Nations Organization. 

Resiunption of diplomatic relations between 
Great Britain and Siam took place at the same 
time. This Government welcomes the reestablish- 
ment of friendly relations between Great Britain 
and Siam following the recent termination of the 
state of war between the two countries. 

Although not a party to the British-Siamese 
negotiations leading to the recently concluded 
agreement terminating the state of war between 
Great Britain and Siam, this Government had 
naturally a deep interest in the negotiations. For 
a period of several months this Government was 
in friendly conversation with the British Govern- 
ment concerning the proposed terms of that agree- 
ment, and it made known to the British Govern- 
ment its views on a number of points which it 
considered either of direct concern to the United 
States or of general concern to all nations inter- 
ested in the stability and prosperity of southeast- 
ern Asia. This Government was pleased with the 
ready and cordial response the British Govern- 
ment accorded the views which we presented. 

The recent conclusion of the British-Siamese 
state of war and the resumption of diplomatic 
relations with Siam by the United States and 
Great Britain are important steps looking to the 
restoration of a peaceful, stable world in which 
all countries will work closely together within the 
United Nations Organization. 



' Released to the press Jan. 5. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Conference of Lecturers on 
International Affairs 



PARTICIPANTS AND PROGRAMS 



The Conference of Lecturers on International 
Affairs sponsored by the American Platform 
Guild, in cooperation with the Division of Public 
Liaison, Department of State, held a meeting on 
the morning of January 3 at the Department of 
State. The morning session was opened by Julius 
Bloom, vice president, American Platfonn Guild, 
and director, Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sci- 
ences. Mr. Bloom read a message from the Secre- 
tary of State to the Conference. 

The theme of the morning session was "United 
Nations Organization — Since San Francisco and 
Next Steps". The panel presenting this theme in- 
cluded : Donald C. Blaisdell, Associate Chief, Di- 
vision of International Security Affairs, Depart- 
ment of State ; Morse Salisbury, Director of Public 
Information, UNRRA; Gove Hambidge, Execu- 
tive Director, FAO ; John Gambs, Adviser on In- 
ternational Labor Relations, Department of 
Labor; E. R. Marlin, Liaison Officer, PICAO; 
Kenneth Holland, President, Inter-American 
Educational Foundation, Office of Inter- American 
Affairs. 

The theme of the afternoon session was "Eco- 
nomic Foundations for Peace", with a panel of 



the following gentlemen presenting the theme: 
Dean Acheson, Under Secretary of State; Clair 
Wilcox, Director, Office of International Trade 
Policy, Department of State; James L. McCamy, 
Director, Office of World Trade Policy, Depart- 
ment of Commerce ; Charles Bunn, Adviser, Divi- 
sion of Commercial Policy, Department of State ; 
Raymond Mikesell, Chief Economic Analyst, 
Treasury Department. Following this session 
there was a series of six round-table discussions 
with various geographic divisions of the Depart- 
ment of State. 

The morning and afternoon sessions were closed 
to the public, but the speeches at the evening din- 
ner at the Statler Hotel, which started at 8:30, 
were open to the public and press. Speakers at the 
dinner included: William Benton, Assistant Sec- 
retary of State ; Henry Seidel Canby, editor, Sat- 
ttrday Review of Liteimture, visiting lecturer in 
Australia under auspices of OWI ; C. D. Jackson, 
director, international division. Time and Life 
publications, formerly field representative of OWI 
in North Africa and western Europe; Herbert 
Agar, director, British Division, OWI, former 
editor of the Louisville C'owrier- Journal. 



MESSAGE FROM THE SECRETARY OF STATE ^ 



It is with a profound sense of the importance 
of public meetings to the success of our common 
efforts to build a world of peace, that I give my 
best wishes and greetings to the American Plat- 
form Guild. As you all know, our Nation is com- 
mitted in its foreign policy to achieve world-wide 
political, social, and economic cooperation through 
the United Nations Organization. On the success 
of its efforts depends the security of the people 
of all countries, including our own. The success of 
our own share in this cooperative undertaking de- 
pends upon the understanding and support of the 



^ Released to the press Jau. 3. 



American people. This can be obtained only by a 
continuous and effective two-way communication 
between the people and their Government. The 
people at all times must have the facts; the Gov- 
ernment at all times must have their views. 

The Department of State is eager to supply es- 
sential information on America's part in world af- 
fairs. Oftentimes, this information can best be 
explained by a speaker at a public gathering. We 
are also eager to receive as wide and as complete 
an expression of public opinion as possible. In 
this process it seems to me that the lecture platform 
has a unique and indispensable role. 



JANUARY 6 AND 13, 1946 



Can America Afford To Be Silent? 



By ASSISTANT SECRETARY BENTON 



I WELCOME this opportunity to talk with Amer- 
ica's lecturers on international affairs. You 
have a professional as well as a personal interest in 
this country's first peacetime program of inter- 
national information and cultural exchange. I 
shall explain to you as simply as I can why the 
United States is developing such a program and 
what the State Department is now preparing to do. 

Thanks in part to your efforts, year in and year 
out, the citizens of the United States hold high 
rank in the quantity and quality of their informa- 
tion on world affairs. To you on the lecture plat- 
form, the American people have addressed in their 
own voices some of the misunderstandings, preju- 
dices, and fears which separate the peoples of the 
earth in spirit one from another. 

No other country has such variety of public 
forums, such a free press, and such a wealth of 
radio programs expressing divergent points of 
view. Among the world's two billion men and 
women, outside the United States, only the fortu- 
nate and favored few have the opportunity to read 
or to hear about us. Compared with our knowl- 
edge of them, insufficient as it is, their understand- 
ing of the United States is tragically one-sided or 
inadequate. 

There was a time, not so long ago, when some 
of us trusted in the rapid development of com- 
munications and transportation to make America 
known everywhere as we wished to be known and 
should be known — ^just as we are. 

We no longer pin such hopes upon the parapher- 
nalia of physical progress. We have seen the arts 
of planned destruction leap far ahead of the peace- 
ful arts of communication and friendly private 
interchange. 

In harmony the invisible electrons can be made 
to send Beethoven's symphonies around the world. 
Or in disharmony they can be made to war upon 
each other, setting the elements on fire in the ulti- 
mate disintegration of the earth. 

Twice in this century the great mass of the 
world's people, in sad ignorance of each other, 



have fought world wars of rapidly accelerating 
destruction. Up until the last moment, those who 
see the issue must keep working for the victory 
of mutual understanding in this third and last 
heat of the century's race against disaster. 

Humanity will not obliterate itself if it can 
learn how to prevent it. Do you not sense in your 
audiences a feeling of urgency, of an almost des- 
perate desire to understand more — so that they 
can somehow help to avoid the disaster? The 
same spirit of urgency is abroad everywhere, 
among the peoples of other lands as well as our 
own. 

Thus you and I are working together. I suspect 
"I need thee every hour". In the State Depart- 
ment, we ask your understanding of the assign- 
ment President Truman has given us, to build in 
the hearts and minds of foreign peoples every- 
where, in his words, "a full and fair picture of 
American life and of the aims and policies of the 
United States Government". 

The national security of the United States is 
directly concerned in this objective. Fear and 
misunderstanding of America can cost us the 
friends and allies we need in time of crisis. We 
must not rely only on the friendship of govern- 
ments and rulers. History shows the weathervane 
characteristics of such friendships. We must seek 
the friendship of peoples — their understanding of 
our own people and of our free society. It is the 
peoples of the world in whom we must put our 
trust. 

The strong nation too readily becomes hated 
and feared by all the rest — and we are today the 
strongest nation since gunpowder was invented. 
Do our returning troops report everywhere a ris- 
ing tide of warm affection and esteem for the 
United States? I am afraid they report, all too 
often, just the contrary. Our very virtues, in 
fact, seem often held against us. 



^ An address delivered by Mr. Benton at a meeting of the 
American Platform Guild in Washington on .Tan. 3 and 
released to the press on the same date. 



8 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Distorted impressions are arising even in the 
ai'eas which we thought knew us best. Lord 
Keynes was quoted in London as saying recently, 
after three months of negotiation in Washington, 
"What a depth of misunderstanding governs the 
relationships between even the friendliest and most 
like-minded nations". In large regions of the 
globe we are but a hazy legend of military and 
naval power, of wealth, luxury, and carefree irre- 
sponsibility. 

You may remember that the Nazis, before the 
war, told their people that "we do not care whether 
or not Germany is hated, so long as she is feared". 
That was logical enough for those who boasted of 
their faith in force. But what of those who place 
their faith in justice? 

If there were time enough, we Americans could 
wait for misunderstandings to straighten them- 
selves out. Actions do speak louder than words. 
But actions also speak through words, as this 
group well knows, and the words must be clearly 
and widely understood. Thus, to present '"a full 
and fair picture of American life" we shall have 
to explain our actions all over the world. We can- 
not rely on others to explain them for us. We 
must keep that explanation fresh and timely, a 
continuous complement to our diplomatic and 
political action. 

The State Department does not intend to en- 
gage in so-called "propaganda". We shall profit 
most by portraying ourselves frankly, the bad 
with the good. Our democracy is far from perfect. 
The United States has its own problems of poverty 
and maladjustment. We have much to learn our- 
selves — as we have much to teach. 

Wlio is going to carry out the proposed pro- 
gram? We in the State Department know that 
private interests are eager to do more than they 
have ever done. They are seeking world markets. 
The total volume of their efforts represented by 
news carried by the commercial wire services, by 
foreign editions of magazines and books, by 
movies, tourists, and commercial contacts will 
amount to vastly more than the Government's con- 
tribution. The Government's job will be merely 
to fill the gaps — though the gaps are important 
and often crucial. 

For example, there are many places of con- 
siderable diplomatic importance — you can often 
call them the hot spots or tinder-boxes of the 
world — which do not have any American wire 



services. AP, UP, and INS just don't get in. 
Further, newspapers abroad often operate under 
principles which seem strange to us. I remember 
the OWI fieldman in the Mid-East, who took his 
documents from the United States to the editor of 
a local paper and offered them free of charge. The 
Arab gentleman took them gladly and then asked 
what was for him a supremely logical question, 
"How much will you pay me to print them?" 

In some nations, where the mass of the popula- 
tion has little power over foreign policy, and less 
undei'standing of foreign ideas, our diplomatic 
target may be small groups far too few in number 
to provide a profitable market for American 
private enterprise. Yet such groups may be the 
only channels through which American informa- 
tion, and the ideals of world collaboration, can be 
introduced to the people as a whole. Through our 
missions abroad, we can reach such groups with 
information about America. 

Some of the best work done by the OWI and 
the OIAA was preventive and could be tested only 
by the misunderstandings which did 7iot arise. 
Quite recently, in Turkey, after President Tru- 
man had sent a message to Congress regarding 
the succession to the presidency, a story circulated 
that Pi'esident Truman planned to resign. OWI 
men were able to supply the background informa- 
tion about the workings of our govermnental sys- 
tem, which promptly scotched the story. The 
tragedy of President Wilson and Versailles was 
in part the result of wide-spread ignorance abroad 
of the workings of our Government. Background 
information, which is unprofitable for our wire 
services to handle, may be as important to the 
peace of the world as the fast and accurate han- 
dling of spot news. 

A foreigner who has read of Chicago's murders 
but never of its university, who has seen enter- 
tainment films but never a documentary film of 
American life, may have a most distorted view of 
America. The State Department proposes to sup- 
plement the picture of America currently presented 
abroad by private enterprise with background doc- 
umentary material, with documentary films, and, 
finally, with short-wave radio. 

Some regions, such as the Balkans, can be reached 
with news about America by no other means than 
short-wave radio, an operation which is not profit- 
able for private enterprise. The future control 
and operation of international radio is being 



I 



JANUARY 6 AND 13, 1946 



studied in the Department and recommendations 
will be made to the President and Congress within 
the next few months. Meanwhile, the State De- 
partment is carrying on with this powerful new 
medium largely developed during the war. It is 
essential that the radio voice of America shall not 
be silenced. 

Perhaps the most hopeful area for the long pull 
is the exchange of students, professors, scientists, 
and technicians. This again is not an area for 
private enterprise. There is no substitute for face- 
to-face contacts. The State Department is now a 
coordinating agency for 26 departments and bu- 
reaus of the United States Government that have 
foreign-exchange programs. We plan a flow of ex- 
perts and special information to other nations on 
such subjects as American methods of soil conser- 
vation, rural electrification, public-health safe- 
guards, child care, and adult education. Foreign 
specialists will come for training in our own State 
and Federal governments. These programs will 
be worked out cooperatively with other govern- 
ments; they will share responsibility and costs. 

In the same spirit, we welcome the establishment 
of foreign-information services within our own 
borders. We shall seek to encourage a two-way 
flow of information and culture across national 
boundaries. 

Complementing our own overseas information 
and cultural activities will be the work of the 
proposed United Nations Educational, Scientific 
and Cultural Organization, which has the basic 
purpose of promoting understanding on a world- 
wide basis. UNESCO will work through and 
with the existing informational and cultural pro- 
gi-ams — both governmental and non-govern- 
mental — of the various United Nations. 
UNESCO will have the essential task of pro- 
moting collaboration among these programs. 

A bill giving the Department of State legisla- 
tive authority to conduct such world-wide ex- 
changes, and its proposed overseas informational 
and cultural activities, has been unanimously ap- 
proved by the House Committee on Foreign Af- 
fairs and will be reported to the House immedi- 
ately following the holiday recess. It is hoped 
that the Congress will then approve the proposed 
program in every detail. The work will be, and 
should be, under full public scrutiny. We shall 
court the kleig lights and abide by them. We shall 

679191 — 46 2 



welcome any help you can be in encouraging public 
discussion of our plans and purposes. 

On January 1, a single American information 
and cultural-relations program under my direc- 
tion replaced a number of scattered and inde- 
pendent activities. It has a rich backlog of ex- 
perience gained in the war, a small group of highly 
trained specialists, a tested communications sys- 
tem, and a chain of outlets strung out all over the 
world. Arrangements are being made for the 
new work in 62 United States diplomatic mis- 
sions abroad. Information activities are planned 
in 22 additional smaller posts using the part-time 
services of regular Foreign Service officers. 

We have completed, in the months since my ap- 
pointment, the job of cutting down and reshaping 
the former OWI and OIAA for merging with 
established divisions in the State Department into 
a permanent peacetime organization. On July 1, 
1945 these two wartime agencies employed 5,782 
people at home and abroad, exclusive of native 
foreign -born personnel. By June 30, 1946 this 
number will have been reduced by almost 60 per- 
cent. Of these only some 400 will be public- 
affairs officers serving regularly in our missions in 
some 60 countries. They contrast with more than 
1,600 during the war. The cable- wireless service 
of the OWI has been reduced to one sixth its war- 
time wordage. The radio activities of OWI and 
OIAA have been physically merged in New York 
and San Francisco. 

A part of our responsibility is a special emer- 
gency information program, set up to handle our 
responsibilities in the occupied areas of Germany, 
Austria, and Japan. We are undertaking similar 
emergency work in areas of China and southeast 
Asia where the Japanese have only recently been 
expelled. These will be temporary activities, but 
they account for a large part of our personnel. 
They are not to be regarded as regular parts of an 
overseas program. 

The permanent peacetime j^rogram will operate, 
in the early stages at least, along nine channels of 
action. I shall merely list these for your atten- 
tion — as a summary of preceding remarks. The 
more colorful details will be filled in by the 
gentlemen of the panel, who can draw upon their 
personal experiences to answer your queries. 

First, there is the exchange-of -persons pro- 
gram — the students, professors, and distinguished 
visitors, who will be brought to this country and 
sent abroad in increasing numbers. In 1946 some 



10 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



10,000 foreign students will be studying in the 
United States; we expect at least 20,000 in 1947. 
Most of these are here on their own, financing 
themselves. 

Second, the maintenance and servicing of 
American libraries of information in 60 countries 
abroad. Elmer Davis told me that nothing dur- 
ing the war so strongly warranted continuing 
support as these libraries. Long lines of eager 
people seek news of America, each day and every 
day, from the documents and books in these 
libraries connected with our missions throughout 
the world. 

Tliird, a daily wireless bulletin to carry to our 
diplomatic missions the full texts, or textual ex- 
cerpts, of important official announcements. This 
bulletin keeps our diplomatic officers informed of 
events at home. 

Fourth, a documentary service to supply our 
missions, by mail, with background material, bio- 
graphical sketches, and information about life in 
America, together with a limited service of still 
photogi'aphs from Government sources. 

Fifth, photo-exhibits, displays, and film-strips 
for non-commercial use in foreign countries. Our 
film-strips today are being shown to 12 million 
Chinese school children monthly. 

Sixth, the continuation of the bimonthly illus- 
trated magazine, America, in the Russian lan- 
guage for distribution in Russia where private 
foreign magazines are barred. 

Seventh, acquiring, adapting, and scoring in 
foreign languages a continuing series of newsreels 
and documentary films about the United States, for 
non-commercial showing to foreign audiences". 
These are today being shown to 4 million to 5 mil- 
lion people monthly in Latin America. 

Eighth, the on-the-spot work of small staffs in 
our missions in 62 countries, which will provide the 
tact, judgment, and human warmth which alone 
can make our pi'ogram effective. 

Ninth, and last, the operation, in 1947 at least, 
of short-wave broadcasting covering virtually the 
whole world. 

All these nine add up, I think, to a favorable 
beginning of a permanent, continuous, two-way cul- 
tural and informational exchange which may 
eventually do more for world security than a fleet 
of battleships — and at a tiny fraction of the cost. 



Its greatest virtue in my opinion is that it is 
ready to go to work in the here-and-now. Events 
move too swiftly for us to be comialacent when 
serious misconceptions of America take root 
abroad. We know that our intentions are good, 
but international cause and effect are so closely 
coupled that the outbreak of war at any one spot 
on the globe might ripen within the hour into the 
destruction of cities thousands of miles away. I 
am using no empty figure of speech when I say 
that the fuse of disaster is lit and burning stead- 
ily. If areas of mass ignorance and ill-will are 
permitted to remain in the world, and if the fuse 
reaches and inflames them, these may act as deto- 
nators for an explosion that could engulf us all. 
The hope for the future lies in eliminating the J 
areas of mass ignorance and ill-will. We must * 
combat them as never before. 

Tliat is the objective of the program I have out- 
lined tonight. That is an objective on which I 
hope we can all unite — the Congress, the State De- 
partment, the press, radio, and motion-picture in- 
dustries — yes, the lecturers and their audiences — 
and the people of the United States and peoples 
everywhere throughout the world. 



Experts To Join General 
Mac Arthur's Staff' 

A State Department - War Department group 
of experts was scheduled to leave Hamilton Field 
on Januaiy 3 for Tokyo to join General Mac- 
Arthur's staff. The group, headed by Corwin D. 
Edwards of the State Department, will procure 
data and make studies for use in comiection with 
the implementation of Allied economic control 
policy in Japan. Other members of the group 
include James M. Henderson, William C. Dixon, 
and Samuel E. Neel, Justice Department; Robert 
M. Hmiter, professor of law, Ohio State Univer- 
sity ; Robert B. Dawkins, Federal Trade Comniis- 
sion; Benjamin B. Wallace, Tariff Commission; 
and Raymond Vernon, Securities and Exchange 
Cormnission. The groujD is expected to submit its 
report in three months. 



' Released to the press Jan. 3. 



JANUARY 6 AND 13, 1946 



U 



America — As Others See Us 



RADIO BROADCAST 



Participants 

William Benton 

Assistant Secretary of State in Charge of 
Public Aflfairs 

C. D. Jackson 

Managing Director, Overseas Editions and 
Staffs, Time and Life 
Herbert Agar 
Henry Seidel Canby 

Editor, Saturday Review of Literature 
Julius Bloom 

Director, Brooklyn Institute of Arts and 
Sciences; Vice President, American Plat- 
form Guild 

Announcer : This evening the Mutual Network 
takes you to Washington, D. C, where a group of 
outstanding American lecturers has just concluded 
a day-long conference on international affairs. 
The meetings, held in cooperation with the De- 
partment of State, were sponsored by the Ameri- 
can Platform Guild — a national organization rep- 
resenting lecturers and their sponsors. They cov- 
ered the whole range of today's most pressing 
international issues. In the next half hour you 
will hear some of the highlights of that discussion, 
brought to you by five Americans uniquely quali- 
fied in the field of world affairs. The chairman 
of tonight's broadcast on "America — As Others 
See Us" is Julius Bloom, vice president of the 
American Platform Guild. Mr. Bloom is director 
of the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences 
and in that capacity is in charge of one of the 
largest public lecture programs now conducted in 
the United States. 

Bloom : Thank you," Mr. Studley. It is often 
said that the world does not understand the United 
States, that people of other nations have strange, 
mistaken notions about us. I think this is true. 
It is also true that we Americans must plead guilty 
to not knowing too much about the rest of the 
world and its people. 

The men who are taking part in this discussion 
tonight have been or are presently engaged in the 



task of international information. That task has 
taken them, within the past epochal years, to Ger- 
many and Australia — to Britain and Algiers. 
There, as America's spokesmen, they have seen the 
reflection of America that dominates the world 
today — an image often twisted beyond recogni- 
tion by the distortions of Axis propagandists; a 
mirage built up sometimes beyond all possibility 
of fulfilment by the desperate hopes of under- 
ground fighters, cut off from outside contacts by 
long years of enforced isolation. These are some 
of the men and women you will hear about tonight. 

You will hear Commander Herbert Agar, for- 
mer editor of the Louisville C owrier-J owrnoH^ who 
served as head of the British Division of OWI 
for more than two years and has just returned to 
America during the past week. 

With us tonight also is C. D. Jackson, managing 
director of the overseas editions and staffs of Time 
and Life magazines. Mr. Jackson's war job was 
to serve as OWI's top representative with the 
Army's Psychological Warfare Branch, in North 
Africa, in London, in France, and in Germany. 

Recently returned fiom a wartime lecture tour 
of Australia and New Zealand and here with us 
this evening is Dr. Henry Seidel Canby, one of 
the editors of the Satut'day Review of Literatv/re 
and best known to Americans, perhaps, as one of 
the judges of the Book-of-the-Month Club. 

And in addition to these men who have such 
direct knowledge of the Government's information 
work during the war is the man most concerned 
with the task to come. Assistant Secretary of State 
William Benton, the man whose day-to-day job is 
to bring truth about America to the four corners 
of the earth. Mr. Benton, would you like to start 
us off by telling us something about your job and 
how you plan to do it ? 

Benton : Before talking about what we are do- 
ing I should like to say just a word about the why 
of our program. We have our sights fixed on a 
very definite objective. In the first place, we are 
trying to dispel the doubt and misunderstanding 



' Released to the press Jan. 3. 



12 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



which breed wars. We see the overseas informa- 
tion program as vital to our national security. In 
fact, I believe that the very modest expenditures 
we propose to make if Congress approves — to 
tell the truth about America and American foreign 
policy — will prove a much more important invest- 
ment in enduring peace than another cruiser or 
two for our Navy or more tanks or planes for our 
Army. 

Bloom : In other words you are saying that un- 
derstanding is a kind of force. 

Benton: There is a tremendous thirst for 
knowledge of America — about us, our customs, 
our way of life, and above all our intentions toward 
the rest of the world. Modern means of speedy 
communication compel us to change our concep- 
tion of diplomacy. Today it is not so much the 
diplomat who makes de<;isions but, to an increasing 
degree, the people themselves. They are on the 
march all over the world. And they want to 
know. Since you have pitched this discussion in 
terms of people, Mr. Bloom, I'd like now to ]nck 
up that cue. 

The individuals who come to my mind happen 
to be French and Italian. I haven't met them per- 
sonally, but I have seen some of the letters they 
have been writing, letters addressed to the United 
States Government's radio station, "The Voice of 
America". 

We have a daily half-hour question-and-answer 
broadcast in French called "A Vos Ordres''' and 
a similar one in Italian called "^?" Vostri Ordmi", 
both of which mean "At Your Service". 

About 300 letters a week are coming in from 
France as a result of the French program, and an 
equal number from Italy. Some of the questions 
are answered on the air ; the rest are answered by 
our Rome and Paris outposts. Through this cor- 
respondence we are certainly getting a view of our- 
selves through French and Italian eyes. 
Bloom: Is it in focus? 

Benton: Far from it; but, through our re- 
plies, we are doing our best to straighten it out. 
You'll see the i)roblem if I quote just a few of 
the questions. Here's one, for instance, from a 
listener in Valguenera, Italy, asking whether 
American gangsters are really as prevalent as 
American films and mystery stories have led him 
to believe. A gentleman in Rome, equally con- 
cerned with the American crime situation, wants 
to know what weapons are used by our police in 



gang wars. A thrifty Frenchman inquires as to 
whether it is possible to sustain life in de-luxe 
America on the equivalent of his salary of 10,000 
francs a month. 

From Naples we get a reflection of the common 
European notions as to our loose morality when a 
listener asks whether it is true that any American 
can get a divorce without serious reason on pay- 
ment of $200. 

Bloom : Are any of the audience concerned with 
questions of American foreign policy? 

Benton : Most decidedly. We recently received 
a long communication from an industrial agent 
in Lille, France, expressing concei-n that America 
will soon revert to the isolationism which caused, 
so he says, the second World War. Why, he asks, 
if you are genuinely interested in future peace, do 
you treat France with such "revolting casualness"? 

Bloom : I suppose that sort of letter reflects the 
disappointment of the French people with the 
hardships that followed liberation. Are most of 
the letters bitter in tone ? 

Benton : By no means. Many of them simply 
reflect curiosity. There was, for instance, the 
Dijon housewife who wanted to know whether 
French is still the native tongue of Woonsocket, 
R.I. 

And not all of our correspondents suffer from 
misconceptions about America. Many simply 
want i^ractical information. For instance, a Cath- 
olic priest in Normandy wrote to ask about the 
latest developments in the cultivation of apples 
and pears and about new musical compositions for 
his organ. 

Bloom : Orchards and organs — rather a tall 
order ? 

Benton : Not at all ; our Department of Agri- 
culture was readily able to supply us with the 
latest fruit-growing information ; and our friends 
in the musical world were happy to cooperate with 
lists and scores of new organ compositions. 

Bloom : It is correct to assume, is it not, Mr. 
Benton, that this sort of correspondence is simply 
a by-product of the Government's broadcasting 
activities. The programs themselves do a lot to- 
ward presenting us to the world, do they not? 

Benton: That's right. The programs are all 
designed for that purpose. We are now running a 
radio series called "America Since 1939" which 
fills in the great gaps in the knowledge of Euro- 
peans who have been cut off from us for five years ; 



JANUARY 6 AND 13, 1946 



13 



on another series called "America Speaks", im- 
portant books published in the United States are 
dramatized. There are musical programs, featur- 
ing the works of American composers and drama- 
tizations of representative American plays. Fur- 
ther, we send similar printed material abroad to 
our missions for distribution by them to all who 
are interested. 

Bloom : Just how extensively does the Govern- 
ment plan to stay in the radio business, Mr. Ben- 
ton? 

Benton: That's a question I can't really an- 
swer yet, Mr. Bloom. The whole problem of short- 
wave radio is being studied by the Government. 
Since there is no money to be made in overseas 
broadcasting, Government underwriting will be 
needed if the "Voice of America" is to stay on the 
air. We have reduced the languages in which 
we broadcast to less than half the number used 
during the war. We know that it is important 
for the "Voice of America" to continue to be 
lieard — especially in regions where there are virtu- 
ally no newspapers because of paper shortages and 
lack of press services, or where censorship prevails 
and where short wave is our only means of direct 
access with news for the millions of people who 
want to know about us. 

Bloom : Mr. Jackson, during your overseas serv- 
ice in psychological warfare you saw at first hand 
what the American radio meant to the people of 
occupied countries, didn't you? 

Jackson : I surely did, Mr. Bloom. Allied ra- 
dio did a tremendous job which could have been 
performed by no other medium of information. 
But it was a limited job. We must remember that. 
Radio brought news and instructions to resist- 
ance forces. But it could not supply the vast 
wealth of background information — the kind of 
information that really builds our knowledge of 
the world. It is difficult for us in the United 
States to realize the extent to which the lights 
went out in Europe. That is more than an empty 
expression. It was a total blackout on informa- 
tion. 

Bloom: Then you found among liberated peo- 
ples the thirst for knowledge of which Mr. Benton 
spoke ? 

Jackson: To an incredible degree. It is a 
thirst which we must try to slake by every method 
which will commend itself — ^by means of radio, 
the written word, through exchange of peojjle. To 



illustrate what I mean, I would like to talk for a 
minute about five Norwegians. 

Bloom: Any special Norwegians? 

Jackson : Very special Norwegians. They were 
five Norwegian journalists who made a coast-to- 
coast tour of the United States this fall as guests 
of the United States Government. Since they 
came here well stocked with the customary supply 
of misconceptions about the United States, they 
were wide-eyed at much that they found. For in- 
stance, they were astonished to discover quite a 
numbeir of really nice girls in New York — having 
been prepared to find nothing but delinquent 
bobby-soxers. 

To give you a rough idea of the ground they 
covered — in one week they took a look at Dali 
paintings in the Museum of Modern Art in New 
York and at the insides of a pig at the Wilson 
Packing Company in Chicago. They saw the be- 
ginning of an automobile on the assembly line at 
River Rouge and the beginning of an automobile 
strike at UAW-CIO headquartei-s in Detroit. 
They talked with hundreds of Americans about 
international relations, about what should be done 
with Germany, the length of cigarette butts in 
America, the way Life magazine comes off the 
Lakeside Press, and the way steel comes out of the 
mold in Gary, Ind. 

Bloom : And I suppose the Government was 
well satisfied with the reports they sent home. 

Jackson : As a matter of fact no one connected 
with the American Government saw the reports 
until the clippings from the Norwegian papers 
were mailed here. The Norwegians filed their 
stories in sealed envelopes, telling what they saw as 
they wished to say it. The philosophy behind such 
tours is not to furnish the visitors with cut-and- 
dried press releases, but to let them see America 
as it is. We have plenty of confidence that the 
whole — the complete — story of America is a great 
one that we are proud to have told. All we tried 
to do was to make the full, rounded picture avail- 
able to them — not just one side. And we have 
ample evidence that this policy pays rich dividends 
for us. This summer, for example, six Belgian 
journalists made a swing of the country as the 
Government's guests. One of them sununed up 
the results of the trip better than I could. I'd like 
to quote what he said : 

"We never really knew what America was like 
until we came over here. We had heard of your 



14 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



achievements but I suppose we did not believe it. 
Now we know it is true." 

We had the same experience with a group of 
French newspapermen who came to the United 
States. At the beginning of the trip several of 
them were skeptical about, if not hostile to, 
America. You can imagine the effect on their 
readers when their stories gradually changed to 
enthusiastic accounts of democracy actually 
working in the United States and to tributes to the 
heroism of American fighting-men. 

Bloom : I understand, Mr. Jackson, that this 
sort of activity is not entirely one-sided — there 
is two-way traffic across the oceans, isn't there? 

Jackson: You are quite right — and as you 
pointed out tonight part of the job is for us in the 
United States to know more about people of other 
nations. Americans who travel abroad, whether 
as foreign correspondents, as businessmen, or on 
official missions, do a two-way job. They bring 
the story of the world home to us, and in their 
persons they take quite a bit of America abroad. 

I have here with me a copy of an Australian 
newspaper which pays eloquent tribute to the con- 
tributions made by Americans who visited Aus- 
tralia during the war years, under Government 
auspices. Mention is made of such famous guests 
as Dr. Allan Nevins of Columbia; Dr. Dixon 
Wecter of the University of California ; and I see 
that a special paragraph is devoted to one of my co- 
speakers on tonight's progr-am — Dr. Henry Seidel 
Canby. Dr. Canby, perhaps this would be a good 
moment for you to give us some of the highlights 
of your Australian visit. 

Canby: The most dramatic day, Mr. Jackson, 
the day I shall always remember, was April 12, 
or the thirteenth if you had been in Australia. 
It was early in the morning when Australia re- 
ceived the news that Franklin D. Roosevelt had 
died. I arrived just before opening time at the 
United States Government Information Library 
in Melbourne. Already the telephones were ring- 
ing incessantly. Every newspaper editor in Aus- 
tralia knew that the Information Library was the 
one place he could get the facts he needed. The 
questions asked were of every kind: "Does Con- 
gress take over the country now?" "How is the 
succession decided ?" "Will Mr. Byrnes be Presi- 
dent?" "Will another election be held imme- 
diately?" "Wliere and what is the electoral col- 
lege?" The library staff worked far into the 



night, and I stayed to lend a hand until my broad- 
cast to the Australian people that noon. Many of 
the questions concerned detailed or obscure points 
of American history and political custom. Thanks 
to the fine shelf of reference books with which the 
library is stocked, we were able to come up almost 
immediately with authoritative, accurate answers 
to every question raised. 

The result in next day's Australian press was 
amazing. Not only did they carry the full report 
of F.D.E.'s death — news which moved and 
shocked the Australian people to the bottom of 
their hearts — but the papers were, in addition, 
veritable encyclopedias of American social and po- 
litical traditions and practices. I do not ever re- 
call seeing anything like it in the foreign press. 
And the fact that these many, sound factual special 
articles were put together so rapidly was the direct 
result of the information close at hand in the 
American library. 

Bloom : I can readily see that a good reference 
library is a vital part of any overseas information 
program, particularly in English-speaking coun- 
tries. Are American libraries also maintained . 
and used in countries where English is not the 
native tongue ? 

Canby : By way of answer I should like to read 
you a brief excerpt from a letter written by one 
of the most enthusiastic users of the American 
library in Greece. I have a copy of the letter here ; 
the author is Mr. Sophocles A. H. Theodotus of 
Amphitritis Street, Paleon Faleron, and is ad- 
dressed to Miss Elizabeth Darbishire. 

". . . when I first saw the grand and sumptu- 
ous office of yours [that description you must un- 
derstand is Mr. Theodotus' — the Athens Library 
is actually a modest and pretty decrepit two-story 
building — but to get back to the letter] I said in my 
mind 'Those Americans have many dollars and 
waste them' . . . because . . . propaganda 
. . . is not at all necessary among the Greeks 
. . . . Well, my opinion has been quite super- 
ficial .... Wlien I entered for the second time 
and saw your library and went upstairs . . . 
and saw . . . how Greek youth of both sexes, 
and grown people, form every day a file for getting 
such English-written American books they have 
chosen, even if they speak but a little English, and 
with what a perseverance they sit and read 
. . . . Well, then I opened the eyes of my soul 
and admired the whole idea and blessed the in- 



JANUARY 6 AND 13, 1946 



15 



spiration. Because I understand that in reading 
American books the new Greek generation will lit- 
tle by little gain and obtain some of the precious 
characters that are the privilege of the prac- 
tical Americans, and will learn to be serious 
and educated . . . and becoming better 
citizens. . . ." 

May I say that I have heard such statements 
in New Zealand and Australia not once but hun- 
dreds of times. 

Mr. Theodotus writes quite a long letter, and I 
will skip over the rest of it except to mention that 
he winds up with the suggestion that the United 
States open a branch library in the suburb of Old 
Faleron where he lives. He even suggests a fine 
location — an abandoned police office on the corner 
of Amphitritis and St. Alexander Streets. I 
wonder, Mr. Benton, whether the State Depart- 
ment has acted upon Mr. Theodotus' suggestion? 

Benton : I'm afraid our budget just won't per- 
mit it. Dr. Canby. Our present plans call for 
maintaining altogether 45 libraries in the Eastern 
Hemisphere. They are scattered from London to 
Shanghai, from Oslo to Capetown. Since we are 
limited as to funds the libraries are all in capitals 
or key cities where they are assured maximum 
usage. We are closing 62 small libraries estab- 
lished by OWI during the war. 

Bloom : Is there a similar program for the 
AVestern Hemisphere ? 

Benton: Yes, the State Department will con- 
tinue to maintain its libraries in Mexico City, 
Montevideo, and Managua and will help to sup- 
port more than 25 other American library collec- 
tions at key points below the Rio Grande. Herbert 
Agar, who is just b<ack from London, where one of 
our most efficient libraries functioned during the 
war, can tell us at first hand about that one. 

Agar: I can underscore everything that has 
been said about our libraries, Mr. Benton. And 
there is one side of this problem that I would like 
to dwell on just a little — and that is the extent to 
which people overseas are unable to learn what 
they want to learn about us. 

Bloom : You mean they have not been receiving 
accurate information during the war? 

Agar: I mean they haven't been receiving 
enough information. And it isn't anybody's fault. 
Let's take England for an example. First, be- 
cause of war shortages they have mostly four-page 
newspapers. How much room does such a paper 



have for American news ? Just about enough room 
to give a sentence or two to the most sensational 
highlights. It isn't the fault of the English that 
their tiny little newspapers can't afford to pay 
cable charges on the full text of an important 
speech in America, or an important state docu- 
ment. But they simply can't afford to pay for a lot 
of stuff that they haven't room to print. So they 
IDay for an excerpt. And the excerpt naturally 
plays up everything that is most peculiar or excit- 
ing in the speech — not what is most revealing of 
American policy or American life. Then suppose 
you had to write an editorial for a London paper 
on the basis of that excerpt—or make a speech in 
Parliament — or comment on the radio. It wouldn't 
be your fault if you gave a warped picture of 
America. You'd read everything you could get 
your hands on, and it wasn't enough. You really 
can hardly overemjihasize the need for texts. The 
minute word got around that the President was 
going to make a speech, I would be besieged by 
calls from editors, public figures, and others 
wanting to be sure they had the text the minute it 
was allowed out. 

That's why I think i\\& work we did in London, 
to try and get full texts to people on time, before 
they commented, was well worth doing. That's 
why I hope our Government will go on doing it in 
the future. The point is that tlie English — and I 
suspect everybody else for that matter — want to 
know about us. They want to understand us and 
interpret us straight. And, since the world will 
be a safer and better place if they do understand 
us, I think it's well worth our while to help them. 

Blooji : And you think the sort of help you have 
been describing will always be needed? 

Agar : I do think so, but I want to make it very 
clear that I'm not attacking the press or the news 
agencies when I say that. No one has wanted to 
give the British a false picture of us. Yet the 
fact remains that the opening of the opera in 
New York and the luxurious glitter of the dia- 
mond horseshoe is news and makes the foreign 
papers; the problem of an Ohio farm family 
trying to pay off the mortgage just isn't news. 
The same goes for those celebrated Chicago gang 
wars which have been for many years the favorite 
Americana of foreign readers, as are Hollywood 
elopements, Reno divorces, I'ace riots. This sort 
of news sold well overseas, and there just wasn't 
and isn't a comparable commercial market for the 



16 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



solid, plain, rather humdrum facts of American 
living. 

Bloom : Well, that brings up the American 
movies — are they an asset or a liability ? 

Agar : I have no intention of belaboring Holly- 
wood. But the fact remains that films which were 
designed and made primarily as entertainment for 
American audiences have created a strange im- 
pression of us abroad. At home, we see Betty 
Grable as a stenographer on the screen, elegantly 
gowned by Adrian. We know it's simply make- 
believe because we see real stenographers in the 
subway every day. Overseas, the effect is some- 
thing else again, and one of the problems we are 
up against is the popular delusion abroad that 
Americans live in incredible luxury. 

Bloom : Combating this sort of misapprehen- 
sion is, I suppose, the negative part of our job. 

Agar : Actually, our approach is positive. For 
example, one way to combat the picture of lush, 
luxurious America is to broadcast, as the "Voice 
of America" has done, dramatizations of such 
plays as Our Toion. Another way is to make solid, 
factual American books available in our libraries. 
Another way is to see to it that our admirable Gov- 
ernment documents and reports are easily available 
for anybody who wants to buy them — and you'd 
be surprised at how many do want to buy them. 
Mr. Benton can probably give a fuller picture than 
I of the methods that will be used in the Govern- 
ment's continuing program. 

Benton : A large number of them have been 
touched upon tonight. Other phases of our pro- 
gram call for international exchange of students, 
teachers, scientific specialists, and leaders in liter- 
ature and the arts. For the long pull, this is the 
most promising activity of all. As the visits of 
foreign newspapermen show, there is no substitute 
for face-to-face contacts. 

The Government will distribute documentary 
motion pictures produced by American film com- 
panies as a part of this program. Foreign pub- 
lications will be supplied by our missions with in- 
terpretiva background articles explaining what 
makes the United States what it is. Cultural in- 
stitutions will be maintained in a few foreign coun- 
tries — where people can learn English, attend lec- 
tures on America, and meet Americans. 



All these pieces together shape the pattern of a 
program designed to promote among foreign peo- 
ples a better understanding of the life and policies 
of the United States as they actually are. 

Bloom : It would seem to me that you'll need a 
great many people to maintain that program. 

Benton : No, Mr. Bloom, our plans are quite 
modest, particularly in contrast with the activi- 
ties developed by the OWI and OIAA during the 
war. For example, we plan on only about 400 
people abroad, in our missions, operating our li- 
braries, showing our films, arranging for the ex- 
change of students and professors. 

On many phases of overseas information — 
broadcasting, distribution of documents, and so 
forth — our proposed plans are less comprehensive 
than those of some other nations. We are start- 
ing such activities belatedly — long after many 
other nations which have had a big head start 
on us. 

It is not our intention to engage in rivalry in 
this field with other nations. But it is very defi- 
nitely our intention to make available to the peo- 
ples of the world the facts about America which 
they are eager to have. To furnish such knowl- 
edge seems to me one of the thriftiest, most sensible 
investments which the American people can make. 
It is an investment designed to yield only one 
dividend — that understanding of us which is es- 
sential to lasting peace. 

Announcer : You have been listening to a spe- 
cial presentation on "America — ^As Others See Us" 
sponsored by the American Platform Guild. 
Heard on this program were Assistant Secretary 
of State William Benton, in charge of public af- 
faire ; Julius Bloom, vice president of the Ameri- 
can Platform Guild and director of the Brooklyn 
Institute of Arts and Sciences; and three distin- 
guished Americans who have been engaged over- i 
seas in the wartime task of international infor- \ 
mation : C. D. Jackson, director of the interna- 
tional relations and staff of Time and Life maga- 
zines; Commander Herbert Agar, former editor 
of the Louisville Courier- Journal; and Henry 
Seidel Canby, an editor of the Saturday Review of 
Literature and a judge for the Book-of-the-Month , 
Club. \ 



JANUARY 6 AND 13, 1946 



17 



General Assembly of UNO 



REPORT FROM LONDON TO THE OFFICE OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS, 
DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



London, Jan. 11. — The election of Belgian For- 
eign Minister Paul-Henri Spaak as President of 
the first General Assembly highlighted an impres- 
sive and colorful oi^ening session of the United 
Nations on Thursday, January 10, in Central Hall, 
Westminster. 

The newly elected President, aged 46, is a former 
newspaper editor. He has been a prominent figure 
in the Belgian Government as Deputy Minister of 
Transportation, Posts and Telegraphs, Minister of 
Foreign Affairs and Premier (1938-39). On the 
outbreak of war he became Foreign Minister and 
left for Great Britain after- the French armistice 
to be Foreign Minister for the Belgian Govern- 
ment in London. 

When after the liberation M. Spaak returned to 
Belgium with the Pierlot government, he retained 
his position of Foreign Minister and attended the 
San Francisco conference in this capacity. He was 
also a representative at the UNRRA conference in 
Atlantic City in 1943. 

M. Spaak took a prominent part in the Prepara- 
tory Commission of the United Nations, of which 
he was one of the vice presidents. He is head of 
the Belgian Delegation to the General Assembly of 
the United Nations. 

The British Welcome 

British Prime Minister Clement Attlee in wel- 
coming the delegates keynoted the meeting with 
an address that stressed the "sense of urgency" 
that the delegates of 51 United Nations must 
maintain in completing their work. 

"We realize that as perhaps never before a 
choice is offered to mankind", Mr. Attlee said. 
"Should there be a third world war the long up- 
ward progress towards civilization may be halted 
for generations and the work of myriads of men 
and women through the centuries be brought to 
naught." 

Mr. Attlee emphasized the far-reaching im- 

679191—46 3 



portance of the United Nations. "The United 
Nations organization must become the overriding- 
factor in foreign policy", he said, and pointed 
out that the United Nations Charter "does not deal 
only with Government and states but with the 
simple elemental needs of human beings whatever 
be their race, their color or their creed". 

The night before, clelegates to the Assembly 
including many of the world's leading statesmen 
were guests of King George at a state banquet 
in St. James Palace. In a short topical speech the 
King set forth the nature of the Assembly's work 
and the importance of the issues at stake. 

"It is for you to lay the foundations of a new 
world where such a conflict as that which lately 
brought our world to the verge of annihilation 
must never be repeated, where men and women 
can find opportunity to realize to the full the good 
that lies in each one of them. It is a noble work 
and you have in the Charter of the United Na- 
tions a noble instrument", the King said. 

The London Setting 

The restraint and lack of pomp that marked the 
King's banquet was matched by the opening ses- 
sion at Central Hall. The hall, across the street 
from Westminster Abbey and Big Ben and a short 
distance from Parliament Square, is an audi- 
torium distinctly in line with the traditional Brit- 
ish liking for small meeting places. (The House 
of Commons accommodates less than its total mem- 
bership at one sitting.) 

Nevertheless, the warm informal atmosphere 
of Central Hall with its well-devised floor plan 
for seating the 51 delegations and their technical 
advisers has already proved effective for better 
understanding politically as well as acoustically. 
Delegates address their colleagues not from a high 
remote podium but from a slightly elevated plat- 
form on th« main floor itself. Committee meet- 
ings will be held both in Central Hall and in 



18 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Church House, site of the Preparatory Commis- 
sion deliberations, less than a block away. 

Despite the proverbial London drizzle, large 
crowds Thursday afternoon stood respectfully 
around the entrances to Central Hall and ap- 
plauded warmly whenever one of the dignitaries 
arrived and entered the auditorium under the 
flag-decked marquee. 

Inside the hall, the solemnity of the occasion 
could not dim the brilliance of the gathering. 
The floor of the hall was occupied by the dele- 
gates, who sat at long tables of English oak. The 
Saudi Arabian delegates' flowing robes and head- 
dress added a splash of color to the panorama. 

Dominating the scene just above the rostrum 
hung a huge golden medallion symbolizing the 
United Nations. Suspended by long gilt chains, 
it stood out sharply against a panel of dark blue. 
On the rostrum were only three men : Dr. Eduardo 
Zuleta Angel, principal delegate for Colombia, 
acting chairman of the Assembly, flanked by Ex- 
ecutive Secretary Gladwyn Jebb of Great Britain 
and Andrew Cordier of the United States, ad- 
viser to the Executive Secretary. Directly in 
front of them on the main floor stood the speak- 
er's platform from which Mr. Attlee and thet 
other delegates spoke, and) to either sidje were 
secretaries, stenographers, and translators. On 
both sides of the auditorium were small galleries 
for visitors, and in the rear was the largest gal- 
lery for the press and representatives of private 
organizations, completely filled with many stand- 
ing, 

Spaak's Tribute to Roosevelt 

M. Spaak, newly elected President of the 
United Nations General Assembly, opened the sec- 
ond plenary session Friday morning, January 
11, with his speech of acceptance. He paid tribute 
to the efforts for peace by the late President Roose- 
velt, and, addressing his remarks to Mrs. Roose- 
velt, one of the United States Delegation, he said : 

"I refer to her who bears the most illustrious 
and respected of all names. I do not think it 
would be possible to begin at this Assembly with- 
out mentioning her and the late President Roose- 
velt and expressing our conviction that his dis- 
appearance was a great grief to us all and an 
irreparable loss." 

He urged continuance of the international co- 
operation already established. "A great effort is 
required from us to sink our preferences and put 



aside our antipathies", he said. "We shall none 
of us succeed in this unless we can place our coun- 
tries' interests in the wider setting of the general 
interest of the world and mankind." 

Directly after M. Spaak's remarks, the Assembly 
rapidly went into operation on the items scheduled. 
They authorized the Executive Secretary and his 
staff to perform the functions of the Secretary- 
General and Secretariat until the appointment of 
the Secretary-General and next accepted the re- 
port of the Preparatory Commission presented by 
Dr. Eduardo Zuleta Angel, who had been chair- 
man of that group. 

Preparatory Commission and the Assembly 

The Charter of the United Nations signed on 
June 26, 1945 came into force on October 24, 1945. 
The Executive Committee of the Preparatory 
Commission consisting of delegates from 14 mem- 
ber states of the original Executive Committee of 
the San Francisco conference started its work in 
London on October 16, 1945. It produced its re- 
port to the Preparatory Commission on November 
12. The Preparatory Commission was called into 
session on November 24 and adjourned on Decem- 
ber 24 after it had instructed the Executive Secre- 
tary to convene the first part of the first session of 
the General Assembly on January 10, 1946. The 
Preparatory Commission ceases to exist upon the 
election of the Secretary-General of the United 
Nations. 

Only three times during the course of the morn- 
ing did delegates make proposals counter to the 
program previously set up. Two occurred on the 
question of acceptance of the provisional rules sub- 
mitted by the Preparatory Commission report. 
The Cuban delegate urged that a 51-man steering 
committee be appointed instead of the 14-man body 
suggested by the Preparatory Commission. An- 
other proposal was that of the Ukrainian delegate, 
who urged that nominations be made and discussed 
by the Assembly before elections took place by 
secret ballots as provided in the recommended 
rules of procedure. 

The Assembly voted Friday morning to accept 
the Preparatory Commission's proposed rules of 
procedure as provisional rules until Committee Six 
(Legal Committee) acts upon jjroposed changes. 
The amendments proposed by Cuba and by the 
Ukraine as well as any others that may come up 
will be referred to the Legal Committee. The 
Cuban delegate moved that such a report should be 



JANUARY 6 AND 13. 1946 



19 



submitted in one week, iind in a roll-call vote on 
this time-limit item his motion was carried. 

The third change of the morning's schedule 
came during the discussion on adoption of the 
agenda. A supplementary item, a resolution con- 
cerning convocation of an international conference 
of the press, was put forward by the Pliilippine 
delegate despite the fact that his proposal had 
been submitted after the close of the time limit set 
by the Preparatory Commission Secretariat. 
After a discussion which showed that technical 
communication's faults had caused the Philippine 
suggestion to be delayed past the time limit, Presi- 
dent Spaak said he would accept a motion stating 
that the Philippine proposal should be accepted as 
part of the agenda. The motion was made and 
carried. 

Also part of the morning's work was the ap- 
pointment of a CredeiTtials Committee by the Pres- 
ident. Delegates from Byelorussia, China, France, 
Haiti, Paraguay, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, 
Turkey, and Denmark were named. Their report 
will be considered by the Assembly as soon as it 
is presented. 

At a late-Friday-afternoon meeting of the As- 
sembly, it was voted by acclamation that repre- 
sentatives of the following countries be vice presi- 
dents of the Assembly: China, France, Union of 
Soviet Socialist Republics, United Kingdom, 
United States (i.e. the Big Five). South Africa, 
and Venezuela. 

Primary Purpose — Organization 

The primary purpose of the inaugural meeting 
of the General Assembly in London is to organize 
the United Nations into an efficient working ma- 
chine. Later this year at the second half of the 
General Assembly, probably in the United States, 
substantive matters such as economic and social 
trusteeship and security problems will be consid- 
ered by the working organization which will be 
developed at the present session. 

The agenda suggested to the Assembly by the 
Preparatory Commission includes 21 items. Some 
of the items on which interest centers are : 

1. The establishment of committees. 

2. Election of the non-permanent members of 
the Security Council. 

3. Election of members of the Economic and 
Social Council. 

4. Admission of new members to the United 
Nations. 



5. Appointment of the Secretary-General (as 
soon as the recommendation is received from the 
Security Council). 

6. Matters of urgent importance including the 
problem of refugees. 

7. Consideration of the reports of the commit- 
tees including the following : 

(a) Implementation of the provisions of the 
Charter relating to trusteeship. 

(b) Possible transfer of certain functions, 
activities, and assets of the League of Nations. 

(c) Organization of the Secretariat. 

(d) Site of the permanent headquarters of 
the United Nations. 

(e) The relation between the General Assem- 
bly and the Economic and Social Council. 

(/) The I'elationship between the specialized 
agencies and the United Nations. 

(g) Financial organization and methods of 
assessing and collecting contributions from 
members. 

8. Elections. Election of members of the Inter- 
national Court of Justice. 

9. Consideration of the date and place of the 
second part of the first session of the General 

Assembly. 

In addition to the items on the agenda which 
were proposed by the Preparatory Commission, 
four supplementary items have been proposed by 
members. 

Atomic Energy Proposal 

Sliortly before midnight on January 4, which 
was the deadline for submitting additional items, 
the British Delegation acting on behalf of the 
delegations of the Soviet Union, the United States, 
France, China, and Canada presented a resolu- 
tion for the establislunent of a commission to deal 
with the control of atomic energy based on the 
proposals drawn up by the Moscow Conference of 
Foreign Ministers. The resolution proposed that 
the Atomic Conunission, which consists of one 
representative of each of the 11 states represented 
on the Security Council and Canada if that state 
is not a member of the Security Council, shall 
report to and be under the direction of the Se- 
curity Council. The terms of reference of the 
Commission are that it shall make as soon as 
possible specific proposals with regard to — 

(a) The exchange of basic scientific informa- 
tion between all nations for peaceful ends. 



20 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



(b) The control of atomic energy to insure its 
use only for peaceful purposes. 

(c) The elimination from national armaments 
of atomic weapons adaptable to mass destruction. 

(d) The establishment of effective safeguards 
to protect complying states against violations and 
evasions. 

Additional UNRRA Funds 

The second supplementary agenda item was a 
resolution regarding UNRRA submitted by the 
British Delegation. This resolution, recalling how 
UNRRA was set up to bring relief and help and 
rehabilitation and how thousands of people have 
been saved from starvation and disease by its 18 
months of constructive cooperation, urges : 

(a) That UNRRA members should without de- 
lay contribute a further 1 percent of their na- 
tional income to UNRRA 's funds. 

(b) That other peace-loving nations who are 
not signatories to the UNRRA agreement should 
join the organization. 

(c) That the Secretary-General of the United 
Nations should make arrangements with the Di- 
rector General of UNRRA for the General As- 
sembly to be given full periodic reports of progress 
toward economic recovery in countries receiving 
UNRRA's aid. 

The third additional item, submitted bj- the 
Cuban Delegation, asks for a declaration of the 
international duties and rights of man and of 
nations. 

In addition a fourth proposal was submitted by 
the Philippine Delegation suggesting the convoca- 
tion of an international conference of the press. 
Although this proposal arrived too late to be in- 
cluded in the original supplement to the agenda, 
the Assembly voted to have it consideied by the 
General Committee for addition to the supple- 
mentary list. 

The second session of the Assembly on Friday, 
January 11, dealt with routine matters such as the 
authorization of a temporary secretariat, presen- 
tation of the I'eport of tlie Preparatory Commis- 
sion, adoption of rules of procedure, appointment 
of the Credentials Committee, and the adoption 
of the agenda. 

Six Main Committees 

On Friday also the Assembly created the six 
main committees to consider substantive items ap- 



pearing regularly on the General Assembly 
agenda. Their responsibilities will be determined 
by the Assembly following debate on the Prepara- 
tory Commission report. All member countries 
have the right to be represented on each of the 
main conunittees. These committees will have 
the dual role of considering items referred to them 
by the General Assembly and of preparing draft 
recommendations and resolutions for submission 
to a plenary meeting. 

The six main conunittees are : 

1. 7'he Political and Security Committee (in- 
cluding the regulation of armaments). This 
conunittee is exjjected to consider such matters as 
the admission, suspension and expulsion of mem- 
bers, political and security matters, the general 
principles of cooperation and maintenance of in- 
ternationaP peace and security and the principles 
covering disarmament and the regulation of arnia- 
ments, the promotion of international cooperation 

in the political field, and the peaceful adjustment 1 
of situations likely to impair the general welfare 
and friendly relations among nations. The com- 
mittee elected Dr. Dmitro Z. Maiuiilsky of the 
Ukrainian Delegation as chairman. The member 
of the U. S. Delegation who has been assigned to 
this committee is Senator Tom Connally. 

2. The Econornic and Financial Convmittee. 
This committee will probably deal with the eco- 
nomic and financial work of the United Nations. 
The promotion of international cooperation in the 
economic field including questions of higher stand- 
ards of living, full employment, conditions of 
economic progress and development, and the equi- 
librium and stabilization of prices. The committee 
elected Dr. Waclaw Koncerski of Poland as chair- 
man. The member of the U.S. Delegation as- 
signed to this committee is Representative Sol 
Bloom. 

?>. The Social, Hv/manitarian and Cultural Com- 
mittee. 

This committee is expected to consider the As- 
sembly aspects of social, humanitarian, cultural 
educational, health, and similar work of the Eco- 
nomic and Social Council and the specialized agen- 
cies. It will also consider assistance in the reali- 
zation of human rights and fundamental freedoms 
and the conditions of social progress and devel- 
opment. The committee elected Mr. Peter Fraser, 
Prime Minister of New Zealand, as chainnan. The 



JANUARY 6 AND 13, 1946 

members of the U.S. Delegation on this committee 
are Mrs. Franklin D. Roosevelt and Mr. John G. 
Townsend. Jr. 

4. The 7'rusfeeshlp Comm-iffee. This committee 
will deal with trusteeship arrangements and mat- 
ters concerning non-self-governing territories. 
Dr. Roberto MacEachen, Uruguayan Ambassador 
in London and head of the Uruguayan Delegation, 
was elected chairman. The members of the U.S. 
Delegation on this committee are Mr. John Foster 
Dulles and Representative Sol Bloom. 

5. The Administrative and Budgetary Commit- 
tee. This committee will consider the organiza- 
tions' budget assessments of members and admin- 
istrative matters. The committee elected Mr. Faris 
al-Kliouri, speaker of the Syrian Parliament and 
head of the Syrian Delegation, as chairman. The 
U.S. delegate assigned to this committee is Senator 
Arthur H. Vandenberg. 

6. The Legal Committee. This committee will 
undoubtedly consider proposed amendments to the 
Charter, requests to the International Court of 
Justice for advisor}^ opinions, and problems re- 
ferred from other committees. It will also con- 
sider the encouragement of the progressive de- 
velopment of international law and its codification. 
Dr. Roberto Jimenez, former Minister of Foreign 
Affairs of Panama and head of the Panamanian 
Delegation, was elected chairman. The U.S. mem- 
ber of this committee is Mr. Frank Walker. 

All of the chairmen of committees were elected 
by acclamation. In the selection of these cliair- 
men, the principle of equitable geographic distri- 
bution was taken into account as well as experience 
and personal competence. The vice chairmen and 
the rapporteurs of the committees will be elected 
at the second meeting of the committees. 

While the Security Council and the Economic 
and Social Council are holding their preliminary 
meetings, the Assembly is expected to debate A'ari- 
ous portions of the report of the Preparatory Com- 
mission which may take a week or more. Follow- 
ing this debate the two councils and the main com- 
mittees will get down to business. During the en- 
suing period of two or three weeks, the principal 
activity of the Assembly will take place in the 
meetings of the councils and the committees. 

All of the 51 nations that were signatory to the 
Charter of the United Nations have deposited their 
ratification with tlie Government of the United 
States. 



21 

Social-Service Work 
in Latin America 

That the Four Freedoms may become realities 
in the lives of peoples throughout the world is the 
hope motivating the development and administra- 
tion of social-service programs in most of the coun- 
tries of South and Central America. 

This thought was brought out by Mrs. Elisabeth 
Shii'ley Enochs, Director, Inter- American Cooper- 
ation Unit of the Children's Bureau under the De- 
partment of Labor, in a report which she made 
to the staff of the Pan American Union on her at- 
tendance at the First Pan American Congress of 
Social Service held in Santiago, Chile, in Septem- 
ber 19-15. Mrs. Enochs was chairman of the Amer- 
ican Delegation to this conference. 

The Congress not only celebrated the coming of 
age of the oldest social-service school in South 
America, that of Santiago, but it also demonstrated 
the rapid growth of a new profession in the various 
American republics and gave proof of professional 
solidarity and continental vision among those who 
direct welfare programs in these countries. 

Revealing the great variety of social problems 
of the different nations and the ingenious ways in 
which social workers have rallied to solve them, 
the experiences and reports given by the delegates 
all pointed to a common understanding of the aims 
of improved health and living standards for all. 

Although the achievements of social-welfare 
programs in the American republics during the 
past 20 years have been remarkable in their scope, 
tlie leaders of these programs are not content to 
lest on past glories. Instead, the Congress looked 
even beyond this hemisphere and asked "that each 
delegation bring to the attention of their country's 
representative in the United Nations Organiza- 
tion the feeling of the Congress that provision of 
an organization for social welfare ... is a 
strong necessity". 



Brazil is beginning to resume its i^rofitable 
banana-export trade with Europe, interrupted by 
the war. Twenty-five thousand bunches of ba- 
nanas were recently shipped from Sao Paulo to 
various European ports. 



22 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Procurement of Foreign Research Materials 



By RICHARD A. HUMPHREY ' 



THE GOVERNMENT of the United States 
is a heavy consumer of foreign pub- 
lications in all categories. For many 
years it has made use of certain tech- 
niques in their procurement that are familiar 
enough to all institutions whose research depends 
in greater or less measure upon such materials. It 
has also had at its disposal, however, a unique 
avenue to the literature of the world — the Foreign 
Service. This avenue has constituted a source of 
supply over and above the usual channels of pro- 
curement such as the use of commercial dealers and 
the processes of exchange. 

With the experience of World War II now be- 
hind it, this Government has been forced to the 
conclusion that its former procurement methods 
were inadequate. At the onset of hostilities, the 
dearth of vital foreign research materials at Wash- 
ington's disposal amply demonstrated this in- 
adequacy. Moreover, during the war not only the 
normal commercial channels but also the exchanges 
were in a chaotic state. As a consequence, the 
Federal procurement burden was perforce shifted 
throughout the war to two principal sources of 
supply — the Foreign Service and an interdepart- 
mental committee created for the express purpose 
of acquiring foreign publications. Between them, 
these sources secured thousands of foreign titles 
ranging from the daily press and vital periodical 
literature to maps, charts, statistical yearbooks, 
and other materials necessary to the conduct of the 
public business in wartime. Indeed, a significant- 
enough job was done through these media to con- 
vince the Government as a whole that permanent 
means must be evolved to assux'e an uninterrupted 
and ample flow of research materials of foreign 
origin to the Federal policy officers in all depart- 
ments and agencies. 



' Mr. Humphrey is Special Assistant to the Chief, Divi- 
sion of Research and Publication, OflSce of Public Affairs, 
Department of State. 

•Treaty Series 381 and 382; 25 Stat. 1465 and 1469. 



The problem, now that hostilities have termi- 
nated, has become that of assessing former meth- 
ods, analyzing future demands, and attemptmg 
to relate the two with a view to making such 
changes, additions, or other alterations in pro- 
curement methods as will satisfy the greatly ex- 
panded official demand. 

A brief review of pre-war procurement methods 
will disclose certain factors which have been im- 
portant in planning future operations. By far 
the greatest proportion of foreign material pro- 
cured for this Government prior to the war was 
secured through one or the combination of two 
channels: (1) private commercial, as supple- 
mented by traveling agents of the individual 
departments and agencies, and (2) exchanges. 
Pragmatically judged, these sources supplied con- 
siderably less than the desired quantity of publi- 
cations. The methods as methods, moreover, ex- 
hibited internal weaknesses which accounted, in 
large measure, for their inadequacy. 

The excliange system, as between government 
and government, stems from the Brussels conven- 
tions of 1886.^ A statement of its defects will also 
reveal its principal provisions and suffice for pur- 
poses of illustration. In terms of the needs of this 
Govenm[ient the outstanding defects of the inter- 
national exchanges have been (1) that they pro- 
vided for the exchange of single copies only of the 
si^ecified classes of official publications, an ob- 
viously inadequate coverage when total Federal 
needs are considered; (2) that they did not cover 
at all provincial, municipal, professional, and 
other important private publications; (3) that 
they specifically did not provide for the initiation 
of new exchanges, nor for fluid adjustment to 
changes in departments and ministries; and (4) 
that they did not constitute suitable sources of 
bibliographical information even for tlie classes of 
official publications covered. As a result the vari- 
ous departments and agencies of this Government 
were forced to develop direct, bilateral exchange 



JANUARY 6 AND 13, 1946 



23 



relations with their counterpart or near-counter- 
part agencies in s^jecific foreigii countries. In 
many respects this method eilected the necessary 
relations, but the technique remained essentially 
outside of the formal government-to-government 
pattern. Needless to say, it gave rise to numerous 
additional administrative problems of integration 
as well as to an enormous amount of extra labor 
on the part of the separate agencies. 

Direct purchase of material through normal 
commercial channels, on the other hand, also failed 
to provide the agencies with either the quantity 
or the kind of publications whicli they needed. 
The reasons for this failure were chiefly two : ( 1 ) 
commercial channels did not yield adequate biblio- 
graphical information upon which sound purchase 
procedures could be based; and (2) an inevitable 
time-lag existed — usually extending over a period 
of months — before information concerning pub- 
lications and markets was actually received in 
Washington and orders were processed by the 
agencies and were actually placed with foreign 
dealers. In order to circumvent these difKculties 
two methods of purchase in particular were tra- 
ditionally relied upon — the use of direct repre- 
sentatives of the several agencies traveling abroad, 
usually on temporary missions, and the placing of 
so-called "blanket" orders with commercial dealers. 
The traveling representatives more often than not 
were concerned with assessing markets and at- 
tempting to infuse efficiency (from the agencies' 
point of view) into existing commercial channels. 
The "blanket" ordere were placed with individual 
dealers in terms of inclusive buying, i.e. agencies 
would request dealers to purchase all materials in 
specified fields of knowledge most needed by them. 
Neither of these methods proved satisfactory. 

No single Government agency having large-scale 
needs for foreign printed materials could afford 
enough traveling representatives to attain really 
world-wide coverage. The Library of Congress, 
for example, one of the largest single consumers 
of sucli materials in the Government, maintained 
only a few people at a time on collecting missions 
abroad and never obtained by this means the full 
range of publications desired. Other agencies 
could sei"vice themselves in this respect even less 
adequately. 

Moreover, the fact that traveling representatives 
as officials of this Government functioned in an 



inevitably official relation ms-a-vis other govern- 
ments rendered especially serious duplications of 
effort occurring from time to time in certain coun- 
tries. Consequently, the Department of State 
came more and more to the view that the job to 
be done was essentially a foreign-office function 
and, as such, could neither efficiently nor appro- 
priately be accomplished by agencies other than the 
Department itself. The device of traveling agents, 
it is safe to say, did not attain the results desired 
by the several agencies — full coverage, extensive 
bibliographical information, and efficient and 
speedy placement of orders. 

The other principal purchase method employed 
by the agencies — the "blanket" order — served their 
needs no better. Basically, this technique placed 
responsibility for coverage and selection within the 
fields of interest to the agencies in the hands of 
commercial dealers. The dealers tended, natu- 
rally enough, to select and forward primarily those 
items in a given field of knowledge on which they 
could make a substantial profit. Since reliance 
was obviously placed upon the dealer with regard 
to what was available, this system was clearly more 
beneficial to the dealer than to the ordering agency. 
The point need hardly be labored that the margin 
of profit on a given book is no certain guaranty 
of its usefulness in government research. Conse- 
quently, a great deal of private printing of im- 
portance to this Government never emerged from 
the dealer's channels at all. 

Finally, since the ordinary commercial biblio- 
graphical aids in a given foreign country normally 
reflect only the product of the capital city or of the 
chief publishing area and since they seldom re- 
flect such important private printing as indus- 
trial journals and the periodicals of learned and 
scientific societies, the sources of information as 
to available publication were seriously deficient. 
Yet, even with such information at hand as it could 
glean from the sources mentioned, the average 
agency lost a substantial amount of current out- 
put as a consequence of the lapse of time between 
receipt of information and the preparation and 
placing of orders abroad. Editions which sold out 
in days or even weeks in London or New Delhi 
could not be purchased through orders placed from 
Washington months after their initial appearance. 

The foregoing considerations should show that 
of the principal methods of procurement of foreign 



24 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



publications normally oj^en to this Government — 
purchase and exchange — neither has proved satis- 
factory judged even by pre-war standards. The 
alternatives for future procedure appeared, upon 
consideration, to be the following: (1) the provi- 
sion of such additional channels as might be de- 
vised, to be superimposed upon accepted channels ; 
or (2) tlie modification or clarification of processes 
within old chainiels. Chief reliance has been 
placed upon the latter in the current planning for 
future operations. 

The Foreign Service of the United States has 
assisted the agencies of this Government for many 
years in procuring foreign jirinted materials. One 
factor must be emphasized in this regard which 
is common to the pattern of the past and the pro- 
gram for the future: Foreign Service assistance is 
supplementary to conunercial and other sources of 
supi^ly; it cannot hope to supplant them. As pre- 
viously established, however, standing instructions 
were issued by the DeiJartment to each foreign post 
requiring the assignment to a specific officer of the 
responsibility of complying with requisitions from 
Washington. 

The weaknesses of this system were inherent in 
it and were not the result of lack of diligence on 
the part of the Foreign Sei'vice. For example, in 
practically no case, even in such important pub- 
lishing centers as London, Paris, or Buenos Aires, 
could the full time of even one officer be afforded 
for this task. Moreover, few if any of the officers 
to whom the responsibility was delegated had 
training in the collection or even assessing of li- 
brary materials. The Foreign Service did a sig- 
nificant enough job over a period of years, how- 
ever, to make obvious one solution to the permanent 
problem — the strengthening of the technique the 
potential of which had been clearly demonstrated. 

The Division of Research and Publication of 
the Department of State, after a thorough can- 
vass of the problem, recommended that the De- 
partment hencefoi'th accept a larger responsibil- 
ity to the other agencies in the matter of procure- 
ment from abroad. Upon acceptance of that rec- 
ommendation by the chief policy officers and the 
Office of the Foreign Service, the Division of Re- 
search and Publication worked out with the lat- 
ter office a broad plan of future operations. That 
plan calls for the assignment to the Foreign Serv- 
ice (at first through the medium of the Foreign 
Service Auxiliarj') of a certain number of full- 



time, technically trained officers to coordinate the 
Department's procurement facilities in the princi- 
pal publishing centers of the world or in those 
areas from which foreign publications are most 
sorely needed. Among the posts to which officers 
have already been, or will be, assigned are Lon- 
don, Paris, Berlin, Rome, Cairo, New Delhi, 
Tokyo, Rio de Janeiro, and Buenos Aires. It is 
hoped that these technical officers can ultimately 
fill 25 or 30 such posts. 

The activities of the Department's Publications 
Procurement Officers fall chiefly into two cate- 
gories : the development and maintenance of com- 
prehensive bibliographical information .services in 
the field and the procurement of foreign publica- 
tions and other library materials by exchange, pur- 
chase, and gift. The needs of the Federal Gov- 
ernment require that the materials with which the 
Publications Procurement Officers will be con- 
cerned will be varied. They will include books, 
pamphlets, periodicals and newspapers, federal, 
provincial, and nuinicipal publications, maps, city 
plans, and even ephemera such as posters. Their 
bibliographical i-eporting is expected to provide 
current information on basic reference books and 
treatises, including directories, economic and com- 
mercial guides, statistical works, and private peri- 
odical and other literature published by industi'ial 
concerns and scientific societies, as well as infor- 
mation on the status of commercial publication 
outlets. 

It is clearly understood that the job to be done 
will display very different characteristics in dif- 
ferent parts of the world. Emphasis cannot be 
placed too strongly upon the fact that, in all cases, 
the Department's efforts are intended to supple- 
ment, not to supplant, the normal commercial 
channels long employed by Federal agencies. 
Wliereas, specifically, in one location the principal 
task may be the establishing or rejuvenating of an 
integrated exchange system, in another the need 
may be for coordinating sources of market infor- 
mation and in still another much attention will 
have to be given to "following through" already 
initiated exchange and purchase patterns. Cer- 
tainly for a long time to come, however, the De- 
partment will be able to afford all too few full- 
time officers for what is essentially a gigantic task. 

Some of the Publications Procurement Officers 
to serve under this program are now in the field, 
the first having been sent out in the spring of 1945. 



JANUARY 6 AND 13, 1946 

Their reports on currently available publications 
which are circulated by the Department have al- 
ready proved of great benefit to the Federal agen- 
cies, in view of the fact that the aftermath of the 
war with its disrupted markets, limited editions, 
and almost complete lack of adequate information 
on materials has made efficient ordering extremely 
difiicult. 

The Department has itself learned a great deal 
about the scope of the over-all problem from the 
course of orientation it has established for these 
officers prior to their departure from Washington. 
In addition to having been familiarized with the 
Department's concept of the program, with its di- 
rectives and procedures, the officers have been sent 
to each of the other departments and agencies 
having acquisitions interests in the countries to 
which their assigiiment was being made. Al- 
though time-consuming, this procedure has made 
it possible for each officer to leave for his post with 
a reasonably exact conception of the needs of spe- 
cific agencies, with a fair comprehension of their 
procurement problems, and with a knowledge of 
the exact sums of money available to him. With- 
out this background, sound reporting and servic- 
ing from the field would be a virtual impossibility. 
It has become increasingly evident that an 
integrated procurement policy for the Washing- 
ton agencies is a prime essential for effective 
operations. No one would question the difficulty 
of the Department's position, for example, if it 
were called upon to decide between the some- 
times conflicting needs of agencies. Neither can 
it be seriously questioned that, since the labors of 
these officers ai"e in behalf of the Government as a 
whole, they deserve to have behind them a clearly 
stated policy regarding the Government-wide 
program. 

The outlines of such a coordinated pattern of 
Federal procurement of foreign printed materials 
are now emerging. This progi'am is a direct re- 
sult of the recognition by the several departments 
and agencies that unrelated and even competitive 
procurement has not in the past produced, and 
cannot in the future attain, the best results either 
for the agencies as individual consumers or for 
the Government as a whole. 

The Department of State recently requested the 
Librarian of Congi'ess to explore, with the other 
departments and agencies, a means of providing a 
continuity of acquisitions policy which could guide 
it in its procurement activities. In response to 



25 

this request, the Librarian held a series of informal 
meetings with a group of officials from those agen- 
cies most interested in acquiring foreign publica- 
tions. After they had reached general agreement 
that coordination and integration of the Govern- 
ment's needs were essential, the Librarian was re- 
quested to make certain representations to the 
Secretary of State on behalf of the informal group 
considering the problem. 

These representations took the form of a re- 
quest that the Secretary consider establishing a 
permanent Interdepartmental Committee on the 
Acquisition of Library Materials within the 
framework of the interagency intelligence group 
which the President had requested him to form. 
The duties and responsibilities of the Committee, 
as proposed, are as follows : 

1. To plan a comprehensive program of coop- 
erative acquisition as between and among the sev- 
eral departments and agencies. The scope of this 
planning shall include the maintenance of com- 
prehensive research collections of library mate- 
rials, the rapid interchange and loan of materials, 
and the distribution of bibliographical infor- 
mation. 

2. To originate recommendations to the several 
departments and agencies concerning the develop- 
ment of their libraries within the framework of 
over-all Federal acquisitions, these recommenda- 
tions being designed to make available to this Gov- 
ernment all foreign library materials necessary 
to the conduct of the public business. 

3. To originate recommendations to the Depart- 
ment of State on matters of broad policy con- 
nected with the procurement of foreign materials 
through the Foreign Service. 

4. To review requisitions on the State Depart- 
ment procurement facilities whenever it becomes 
necessary to determine wliether said requisitions 
are consistent with the Committee's comprehen- 
sive acquisitions program. 

It will not escape notice that the basic philos- 
ophy of the Committee negates the principle of 
agency representation. For members of the Com- 
mittee to conceive of themselves, or for their agen- 
cies to conceive of them, solely as representatives 
of the interests of the governmental bodies to 
which they are attached would render most diffi- 
cult the primary task of attaining broad consider- 
ation of Federal procurement policy. The situa- 
( Continued on page 34 ) 



26 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



What Is Our Inter -American Policy? 



RADIO BROADCAST 



Participants 

Spruille Braden 

Assistant Secretary of State for American 
Republic Affairs 

Ellis O. Briggs 

Director, Office of American Republic Affairs, 
Department of State 
Sterling Fisher 

Director, NBC University of the Air 

Announcer: Here are Headlines From Wash- 
ington: 

Assistant Secretary of State Braden Says Axis 
Forces in Argentina Still Constitute a Danger 
to the Ajnericas ; Reaffirms United States Sup- 
jDort of Uruguayan Proposal for Collective 
Security in Western Hemisphere. 

Flllis Briggs of State Department Says United 
States Policy Is To Avoid Unilateral Action, 
but That We Reserve the Right To Speak Out 
and Work for Collective Action for Peace in 
the Americas. 

This is the fourth in a group of State Depart- 
ment programs broadcast by the NBC University 
of the Air as part of a larger series entitled "Our 
Foreign Policy". This time the question "What 
is Our Inter- American Policy?" will be discussed 
by Mr. Spruille Braden, Assistant Secretary of 
State for American republic affairs, and Mr. Ellis 
O. Briggs, Director of the Office of American Re- 
public Affairs. Sterling Fisher, Director of the 
NBC University of the Air, will serve as chair- 
man of the discussion. Mr. Fisher — 

Fisher : Mr. Braden, I'd like to say right here 
that a good many of us have followed your forth- 
right career, as Ambassador to Argentina and as 
Assistant Secretary of State, with interest and 
more than a little admiration. Because we ad- 
mired your actions down in Buenos Aires, we're 
especially delighted to have you as our guest on 
this program. 

Braden: Thanks, Mr. Fisher. But you must 



realize that I acted in Buenos Aires as the official 
representative of my Government. 

Fisher : Granted. But I still think you inter- 
preted United States policy with a unique vigor. 
Mr. Briggs, you've worked with Mr. Braden a 
good deal — don't you agree? 

Briggs: Yes, I think he added his own touch. 

Fisher : Now, if you don't object, Mr. Braden, 
I'd like to ask you a personal question. 

Braden : Go right ahead. 

Fisher: Many of us would be interested in 
knowing how a former mining engineer like your- 
self became a diplomat. Wlien did you first start 
working with the State Department ? 

Braden : Well, in 1933 — 12 years ago — the Pres- 
ident appointed me as a delegate to the Seventh 
International Conference of American States at 
Montevideo. A little over a j'ear later I was 
named a delegate to the Pan American Commer- 
cial Conference. But for years before that I had 
been in business in various parts of the hemisphere. 

Briggs: You also had a lengthy assignment as 
our representative at the Chaco Peace Conference 
in the thirties. 

Braden: Yes, that kept me down there from 
1935 until the end of 1938. In the early part of 
that period it looked as if the negotiations between 
Bolivia and Paraguay might break down. If they 
had, the whole peace structure in the Americas 
might have gone down too. 

Fisher: And after that was settled you went 
to the Republic of Colombia. 

Braden : That's right. That was a very inter- 
esting period. I was Ambassador to Colombia 
when the Axis airlines down there were closed out 
in 1940. 

Fisher : And in 1942 you went to Cuba as our 
Ambassador. That assignment lasted until early 
in 1945, didn't it? 

Braden: Yes, until last April, when I was 
transferred to Argentina. Mr. Briggs here was 
with me in Habana for over two years, as Coun- 

' Released to the press Jan. 5. 



JANUARY 6 AND 13, 1946 



27 



selor of Embassy. He put in a total of eight years 
in Cuba, at different times. And he has served in 
Peru, Chile, and as Ambassador to the Dominican 
Republic — and for three years as Assistant Chief 
of the Office of American Republic Affairs. 

Fisher: That's quite a background for your 
present work, Mr. Briggs. I understand that you 
were one of the youngest ambassadors in our his- 
tory when you were accredited to the Dominican 
Republic. 

Briggs: I may have been, Mr. Fisher. 

Fisher : Now, to get down to the main business 
at hand — Mr. Braden, as you know, there has been 
a good deal of discussion of our inter- American 
policy. Before you became Assistant Secretary 
for American republic affairs, it was sometimes 
charged that we were appeasing the Argentine 
dictatorship. Since you came to Washington that 
sort of criticism has stopped, but some commen- 
tators have claimed that we were intervening too 
actively in our dealings with the other American 
republics. Wliat about that, Mr. Secretary? 

Braden : Our policy of non-intervention in the 
affairs of the other American nations is funda- 
mental and will continue. We have no intention 
of taking that kind of unilateral action. Neither 
do we intend to stand idly by while the Nazi- 
Fascist ideology against which we fought a war 
endeavors to entrench itself in this hemisphere. 
But our policy is one of joint action with the 
other republics — group action for our mutual se- 
curity. 

Fisher : If we can be more specific, Mr. Braden — 
what is the situation with regard to Argentina 
today ? 

Braden: There is one basic fact about Argen- 
tina, Mr. Fisher. The majority of the Argentine 
people have always been pro-democratic and op- 
posed to totalitarian dictatorship. That's truer 
today than ever. 

Fisher : I should think that would be difficult to 
prove. 

Braden: A good example of the opposition to 
the Fascist regime was the magnificent "March 
of the Constitution and of Freedom" last Septem- 
ber. An estimated half-million Argentines pa- 
raded through the streets of Buenos Aires that 
day. Society women and men in overalls marched 
side by side. It was an impressive demonstration 
for democracy, carried out despite every possible 
obstacle put in its path. Over 500,000 people, and 



they were not divided up in groups of business- 
men, labor-union members, or students — they all 
marched together. They alternated in singing 
their own national anthem and "God Bless Amer- 
ica". You can't say that people like that are not 
our friends. 

Briggs: Shortly after that the Government 
clamped down a "state of siege" again. 

Fisher: Just what is a "state of siege", Mr. 
Briggs ? 

Briggs: Well, it means the establishment of 
martial law. Here it would involve the setting 
aside of the Bill of Rights. 

Braden : It means that hoodlums with brass 
knuckles can strike girls in the face for shouting, 
"Long live democracy." It means that the saber- 
wielding mounted police can ride down men, 
women, and children and beat, slug, or arrest any- 
one at will, without fear of reprisal. 

Fisher : I understand that Dictator Juan Peron 
got his training in the Fascist School in Milan, 
Italy. 

Braden : I'm not concerned as much with per- 
sonalities, Mr. Fisher, as I am with ideologies. 
All through the war, the Axis forces in this hemi- 
sphere used Argentina as a base of operations. 
These Axis forces still constitute a danger to the 
Americas. 

Fisher : You mean that Axis business firms in 
Argentina are still untouched, despite all the 
promises that were made? 

Braden : No, I wouldn't say that. I tooidd say 
that nothing has been done against the most pow- 
erful and therefore most dangerous Axis elements. 

Fisher : How does the present Argentine regime 
manage to keep enough popular support to stay 
in power, Mr. Briggs ? 

Briggs : They have the police, an important seg- 
ment of the Army, armed "action groups", and a 
typically National Socialist program, not exclud- 
ing the old formula of bread and circuses for the 
millions. Following recognized Nazi tactics, they 
secured control of certain strategic labor unions. 
If you take over the transport, utilities, and a few 
other important unions, with the help of the police, 
you can control a nation. 

Braden : It follows the German pattern of 1933 
to 1938. The object is to convert a military revo- 
lution into a National Socialist revolution. 

Fisher: The question is, what can be done to 
stop this sort of thing before it spreads to other 



28 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



countries? The New York Herald Ttihune 
pointed ont the other day that here you liave the 
same dilemma that faced the democracies in 1939 
and before. To intervene would be to violate the 
principles of international law ; and "not to inter- 
vene" — to quote the Herald Tribune — ^"is to see 
Fascism . . . take hold and fester in Latin 
America, until it ultimately threatens to wreck 
the continent if not the larger world". Mr. 
Braden, how can you escape from that dilemma? 

Braden : You are perfectly right, Mr. Fisher. 
We are pledged not to intervene in the internal 
affairs of any American republic by taking uni- 
lateral action, and we shall not do so. On the 
contrary we intend to consult with other counti'ies 
in this hemisphere and to follow this by such joint 
action as may be agreed upon. 

Fisher : Which brings up a second major ques- 
tion in our Latin American relations — what about 
the Uruguayan proposal? But first, Mr. Briggs, 
you might tell us just what it is. 

Briggs: What the Uruguayan Foreign Minis- 
ter proposed was that the notorious and repeated 
violation of human rights by any counti"y endan- 
gers the peace and is a matter of concern to other 
countries. The Foreign Minister pointed out the 
close connection between democracy and peace, and 
also visualized the necessity of harmonizing the 
doctrine of no unilateral intervention with the 
need for action to be taken with respect to a regime 
violating human rights. 

Fisher : But what is new about the Uruguayan 
plan? 

Briggs : First, it clearly recognizes that democ- 
racy and peace are parallel, and that the close 
connection between them constitutes a legitimate 
basis for inter- American action. Second, Uruguay 
stressed that "non-intervention" should not be a 
shield behind which crimes may be committed. 
Axis forces sheltered, and obligations disregarded. 
Dr. Rodriguez Larreta put forward this proposal 
and suggested that it be the subject of consultation 
looking toward its adoption. 

Braden : When Seci-etary Byrnes gave the mes- 
sage of the Uruguayan Foreign Minister his 
whole-hearted approval, he put the issue very 
clearly: "Violation of the elementary rights of 
man by a government of force and the non-fulfill- 
ment of obligations by such a government is a 
matter of common concern to all the republics. As 
such," said Mr. Byrnes, "it justifies collective 
nmltilateral action after full consultation anions 



the republics in accordance with established pro- 
cedures." 

Fisher: And Secretary Byrnes' endorsement 
still stands? 

Braden : It does. We are convinced that the 
Uruguayan proposal is sound and moreover fully 
in accordance M'ith the development of the inter- 
American system. We believe that it merits fidl 
public examination and discussion. Furthermore, 
the 4-eplies sent to the Uruguayan Minister which 
have thus far come to our attention show a broad 
area of agreement with respect to the principle in- 
volved. 

FiSHEi! : I remember Sumner Welles said that 
our endorsement of the I^rugnayan proposal made 
it look as though the proposal announced in 
Montevideo had in reality been made through 
prior agreement in Washington. Would you care 
to conunent on that, Mr. Braden ? 

Braden : The proposal was entirely the idea of 
the Foreign Minister of Uruguay. It was drafted 
by him and was submitted simultaneously to this 
Government and to the others. We were prompt 
to approve the general principles involved, be- 
cause they are consistent with our whole inter- 
American policy. The proposal recognizes that 
the American republics have the same right of 
discussion and consultation which they themselves 
have already granted to the United Nations Organ- 
ization, in empowering the Assembly to discuss 
any matter affecting the peace. Furthermore, the 
United Nations Organization will have the power 
to take collective action to meet threats to the 
peace. That's what Uruguay proposes for this 
hemisphere. It may of course take time to imple- 
ment the proposal. That can only be done if after 
thorough consultation the other American repub- 
lics of their own volition are convinced of its wis- 
dom. That's the inter-American way. 

Fisher: There have been some charges, Mr. 
Braden, that this plan would mean the scrapping 
of the doctrine of non-intervention in the internal 
affairs of other countries, on which the good- 
neighbor policy is based. 

Braden : There's no basis for such charges. 
When we take a stand for democracy in the Bal- 
kans, no one cries "intervention". That's a com- 
plaint that seems to be reserved for the Americas. 
Our approval of the LTruguayan proposal doesn't 
mean that we're going to attempt to impose our 
will or send the Marines anywhere. What we 
need first of all is frank and friendly discussion 



JANUARY 6 AND 13, 1946 



29 



of our problems, in the same sort of town-meeting 
atmosphere as in the United Nations Assembly. 
The spotlight of jiublic opinion can do a lot. 

Fisher: What would you add to that, Mr. 
Briggs? 

Briggs : Just this : We don't intend to intervene 
to impose democracy on anyone. We do feel most 
friendly toward those governments that rest on 
the freely and periodically expressed approval of 
those who are governed. We are just as friendly 
to the people living under regimes where they must 
struggle for such expression. 

Fisher : Then, Mr. Briggs, the Uruguayan pro- 
posal doesn't mean intervention — certainly not 
unilateral intervention. But doesn't it imply that 
something less than unanimity should be required 
for action, in case fundamental human rights are 
threatened in any country? 

Briggs : It definitely implies that, Mr. Fisher, 
though certainly no steps would be undertaken by 
this nation or the others unless there was general 
agreement. The idea that we must have unanim- 
ity before we can act together, however, is not 
in accord with practical reality. If we want to 
implement our international ideals, we'll have to 
be content with the reasonable and attainable ob- 
jective of a substantial majority of nations, while 
seeing to it that the rights of the minority are 
fully protected. But these are all questions that 
remain to be worked out with our sister republics. 

Braden : I'd like to add, Mr. Fisher, that a na- 
tion as powerful as ours must be particularly 
scrupulous in any matter involving collective ac- 
tion. No one fears the intervention of small coun- 
tries, but the possession of great military and eco- 
nomic power is bound to arouse suspicion unless 
we are extremely careful in the use of that power. 
But we also have to recognize this fact: Noi 
to use our power in the interests of peace and 
freedom may be ?«isusing that power just as much 
as if we brought our influence to bear on the wrong 
side of an issue. We must lean over backwards 
to avoid intervention by action or inaction alike. 

Fisher : That's a little complicated, I'm afraid, 
Mr. Braden; perhaps you'd better explain what 
you mean by "mtervention by inaction". 

Braden : Well, let me put it this way : Suppose 
a totalitarian regime comes to power in some coun- 
try. If we withhold recognition, that regime may 
claim we're intervening. If we recognize it, then 



its opponents may claim that we are intervening on 
its behalf. 

Fisher: In other words, you're damned if you 
do and damned if you don't. 

Braden: Sometimes that's the way it seems. 
But the only course we can follow is to consider 
all the possibilities and then throw our weight 
on the side of the principles of justice and free- 
dom — the principles for which this country was 
born and for which we have just fought a tragi- 
cally costly war. In that war alone we sustained 
a million casualties and increased our national debt 
by 300 billion dollars, in defending these prin- 
ciples. We shall continue to defend them. In 
so doing we shall act in concert with the great 
majority of other American nations. 

Briggs: AVliat we're really trying to say is that 
the doctrine of non-intervention means no inter- 
vention by any 07ie nation. It's my own belief that 
the necessity for intervention by the use of force 
would rarely occur. You wouldn't have to go this 
far in a majority of cases. The airing of the facts 
should in itself do much to correct the condition. 

Braden : I'd like to quote something at this i^oint 
from one of the greatest legal figures this hemi- 
sphere has produced— the Brazilian jurist, Ruy 
Barbosa. 

Fisher: Go right ahead, Mr. Secretary. 

Braden: Ruy Barbosa said, on July 14, 1916: 

"When violence arrogantly tramples the written 
law underfoot, to cross one's arms is to serve 
it. . . . In the face of armed insurrection 
against established law, neutrality cannot take the 
form of abstention, it cannot take the form of 
indifference, it cannot take the form of silence." 

Fisher: That's an eloquent statement — don't 
you think. Mi'. Briggs? 

Briggs: Yes; and that reference to silence is 
particularly appropriate. Any nation certainly 
has a right to speak its mind on issues it considers 
important. We endorse the right to sjjeak freely, 
to offer sympathy to oppressed peoples, and to 
try to persuade other nations to join us in gi'oup 
action, where action is required. 

Braden : Any other interpretation of non-inter- 
vention is grotesque. People who argue that any 
action or any statement on our part constitutes 
intervention are really asking us to go isolationist ; 
they are asking us to see no evil and hear no evil, 
even if evil is there under our very noses. 



30 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Briggs: No international association could 
prosper if its member nations were denied tlie 
right to express their opinions, or to seek agree- 
ment among themselves on necessary action to be 
taken. And I'd like to emphasize again that such 
action need not be vnanimons. The fact is, very 
few treaties and conventions are unanimously 
ratified. 

Fisher: Haven't a good many pan-American 
treaties been adopted unanimously, Mr. Briggs? 

Briggs: On the contrary; out of a hundred or 
more treaties and conventions signed in this 
hemisphere since 1890, only one of any impor- 
tance — the Pan American Sanitary Convention — 
was ratified by all 21 American republics. You 
can't expect to get unanimity on all major issues. 
If you stick for unanimity, what you'll often get 
is the lowest common denominator — something 
watered down and tasteless rather than useful and 
inspiring. 

Fisher : I am sorry if I keep returning to this 
question of intervention, or rather unilateral ac- 
tion, Mr. Briggs, but I seem to remember that the 
same charges were made when the conference 
scheduled for Rio de Janeiro was postponed late 
last year. What was behind that ? 

Briggs: Well, Mr. Fisher, the Rio conference 
was called for just one purpose: to write the Act 
of Chapultepec into the form of a permanent 
treaty, whereby the countries of this hemisphere 
would come to the aid of any American republic 
whose security might be threatened. But Argen- 
tine developments were such that we felt it woidd 
be meaningless to conclude such a treaty with the 
present Argentine Government as a cosignatory. 
So we suggested to Brazil, the host country, that 
the conference be postponed. 

Fisher : There was some talk at the time to the 
effect that we didn't consult the other countries 
before taking that step. 

Briggs: That talk was totally unfounded. We 
proceeded in a perfectly proper way. We took 
the matter up with the host government first, and 
then discussed it informally with the other gov- 
ernments. That discussion was carried on through 
two channels — we talked with their ambassadors 
in Washington, and our ambassadors abroad con- 
sulted with their Ministers of Foreign Affairs. 
Finally, at the October meeting of the Pan Amer- 
ican Union's Governing Board, the representa- 



tives of the other republics indicated that post- 
ponement was satisfactory to them. 

Braden : As a matter of fact, some of the gov- 
ernments indicated thtey had desired postpone- 
ment for weeks prior to our taking initiative, and 
for the same reason. 

Fisher: Then, Mr. Braden, the reports of uni- 
lateral action were completely false? 

Braden: Yes, the otJier American republics 
were all consulted prior to the meeting of the Pan 
American Union where the decision was made. 

Fisher : And where does the matter stand now ? 
When will the conference be held ? 

Braden : It is scheduled for some time between 
March 15 and April 15 of this year. Our own 
suggestions have been drafted with the collabora- 
tion of members of the Congress and of the War 
and Navy Departments. Other nations have been 
invited to send in their suggestions to the host gov- 
ernment. The treaty, when it is drawn up, will be 
in full harmony with tlie United Nations 
Organization. 

Fisher : Now, what about our economic policy 
for the Americas, Mr. Briggs? The end of the 
war must have brought some severe problems 
south of the border. 

Briggs : Yes, that's true. The war put a severe " 
strain on the economy of many of the American 
republics, at the same time that their various in- I 
dustries were greatly expanded. Just as we are 
now going through a process of reconversion, the 
other American republics are in process of chang- 
ing many lines of trade from wartime to peace- 
time demands. Fortunately most of our neigh- 
bors have substantial dollar balances because of 1 
our purchases of strategic war goods, and the pos- 
session of these balances will help them in making 
the transition. 

Fisher: Isn't the problem of maintaining em- 
ployment highly important to them? 

Briggs : It is indeed. At the Mexico City con- 
ference early last year this problem was recognized 
by all of us, and our Government agreed to a policy 
of easing the transition as much as we could by 
tapering off our purchases of strategic materials 
and giving them as much notice as possible before 
curtailing or terminating our purchases. 

Fisher : And have we kept our word ? 

Briggs: Yes. Of course "tapering off" is sub- 
ject to various interpretations. We are still buy- 
ing some strategic materials. How long we can 



JANUARY 6 AND 13, 1946 



31 



continue that, even for stockpiling purposes, is a 
question. 

Fisher : Mr. Braden, what about our long-range 
economic policy in the Americas ? 

Braden : We believe first of all, Mr. Fisher, that 
we should do everything in our power to help our 
American neighbors to increase industrialization 
along sound lines and to achieve higher standards 
of living. 

Fisher: I've heard the argument that that 
policy will operate to reduce the market for Amer- 
ican goods. 

Braden : Tliat argument was exploded by Adam 
Smith 200 years ago, but it dies hard. When our 
industrial revolution got under way, there were 
some Englishmen who said that, if English capital 
were sent over here, in time we would stop buying 
English goods. Wliat happened? Within two 
generations we were buying six times as much 
English goods as before. No. If you want to 
sell goods, you have to find people with money 
or goods to trade for them. 

Fisher: And what about the political results 
of industrialization, Mr. Braden? Do you feel 
that democracy goes with higher living standards, 
almost automatically ? 

Braden : Rising standards of living help to make 
free institutions possible. But higher living 
standards don't necessarily produce democracy. 
The Germans had higher living standards — and 
for that matter, a higher rate of literacy — than 
most of their neighbors, but they weren't demo- 
cratic. Nor were they peaceful. And we should 
keep this in mind in encouraging industrialization 
in the Americas. I should be guilty of a lack of 
candor if I failed to point this out: We have no 
interest in promoting increased industry and pro- 
ductivity in nations which intend to build self- 
contained, nationalistic economies and aggressive 
military machines. That would be against our 
own interests and against the mterests of the 
inter- American society of nations. 

Fisher : You are thinking in terms of an inter- 
American economic system, then? 

Braden : Quite the contraiy, Mr. Fisher ! We 
want to see this hemisphere an integral part of a 
freely trading world. The best way we know to 
protect this hemisphere — and ourselves — is to help 
to promote prosperity and stability and mutual 
trust not only throughout the Americas but 
throughout the world. 



Briggs: And that means the lowering of com- 
mercial barriers, here as in the rest of the world. 

Braden : Yes. I hope that every American re- 
public will be represented at the United Nations 
Trade and Employment Conference this year. 
Tliat conference can and should do a lot to break 
tlie shackles limiting world trade. 

Fisher : And what about cultural cooperation, 
Mr. Briggs ? 

Briggs: That's highly important also, Mr. 
Fisher, in the long run. We need to build up more 
and more travel, more exchanges of teachers and 
students, within this hemisphere. Too many 
North Americans are ignorant of South America, 
and too many of our southern friends are ignorant 
of the United States. It's just as important for 
them to understand us as it is for us to understand 
them. 

Braden : Yes, our history books are notoriously 
shy on facts about Latin American history and 
culture. Every schoolboy in the United States 
should learn that Bolivar and San Martin, as 
well as George Washington, were fathers of Amer- 
ican freedom. And as they go on in school they 
should learn about the contributions of the other 
republics to our literature, art, music, law, and 
government. If this were done — if we learned 
more about our neighbors and they learned more 
about us — we would gradually come to think of 
ourselves not only as citizens of a single country 
but as citizens of the inter- American system as 
well, and of the world. 

Briggs: That would also help undermine the 
exaggerated nationalism from which nearly every 
country is suffering. Perhaps we all do too much 
thinking about our own country's sovereignty and 
not enough about the responsibility that goes with 
sovereignty — the responsibility of each individual 
nation to the community of nations. 

Fisher: Now, gentlemen, we've dealt with po- 
litical, economic, and cultural questions. In the 
time that's left, I'd like to ask Mr. Braden to sum- 
marize our over-all policy for the Americas. 

Braden: In the first place, Mr. Fisher, it's no 
different from our foreign policy generally. It 
springs from the same basic principles. We have a 
special interest in the security of the Western 
Hemisphere, it's true, because we live in this 
hemisphere. But we know that we can only have 
regional security in a secure and peaceful world. 
Further, we recognize that international peace and 



32 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



individual freedom are intertwined, so it is to our 
interest to encourage representative government 
and oppose irresponsible tyranny. 

Briggs : It's a matter of bringing political de- 
velopment up to date with modern science and 
technologj'. That's a world problem, and a tough 
one. But unless we can develop the science of liv- 
ing together it's apparent that the achievements 
of the industrial era aren't going to be enjoyed by 
anyone very long. 

Braden : As a practical matter we appreciate 
that this can't be done overnight, even though we 
recognize how urgent it is to bring our political 
thinking up to a par with our scientific achieve- 
ments. Actually it may be more important to de- 
termine the direction in which a country is de- 
veloping than it is to estimate the position which 
it may be in at any given moment. The main thing 
is to know whether a country is moving in the 
direction of dictatorship and disregard for the 
rights of man, or whether it is moving toward gov- 
ei'iiment "of the jjeople, by the people, and for the 
people". 

Fisher : But coming down to our specific poli- 
cies, Mr. Braden — how would you summarize 
them ? 

Braden : We believe in the inter-American sys- 
tem as a practical operating arrangement among 
the 21 American republics. We want to see our 
inter- American system developed, to the benefit of 
all of the people of the hemisphere. We believe 
that the inter-American system can be and should 
be a strong supporting pillar of the United Nations 
Organization. We stand for collaboration for 
mutual benefit. We think that cooperation should 
be reciprocal — a two-way street. 

Fisher: Collaboration for mutual benefit? 
Can you give us a more concrete examijle of what 
you mean ? 

Braden: Suppose country A wants to expand 
its public-health program and comes to our Gov- 
ernment with a request for our cooperation. 
Country A asks, for example, if we can furnish 
technical assistance, trained personnel, and scien- 
tific equipment. If after consideration the proj- 
ect appears sound, we would offer to participate in 
a joint program — not necessarily 50-50, but one 
in which along with our contribution the other 
country would contribute according to its resources 
additional personnel, local material, or funds. 



The program would become a genuine reciprocal 
undertaking. It would benefit the country con- 
cerned by raising the standard of health and hence 
of living, and that would be of benefit to all of us. 

Briggs: I should like to call attention, Mr. 
Fisher, to Mr. Braden's reference to the fact the 
country concerned had come to us with its project. 
That is, that country would have taken the initia- 
tive and thereby demonstrated its desire to have 
the project carried out. We don't believe in ex- 
travagance or paternalism. We do believe in 
reciprocal cooperation on a sound basis. 

Braben : Let me add this, Mr. Fisher : We firmly 
believe in the original good-neighbor policy, as 
President Roosevelt stated it many years ago. 
You remember he said that the good neighbor 
was "he who resolutely resjjects himself, and be- 
cause he does so, respects others and their 
rights . . . the neighbor who respects his obliga- 
tions and the sanctity of his agreements in and" 
with a world of neighbors"'. That means a 
policy of respect — first self-respect, and then mu- 
tual respect among nations. That's the funda- 
mental policy that we have had, and still have, 
in the Americas. We offer our friendship and 
cooperation on a reciprocal basis, each country 
giving in proportion of its abilities — economic, 
intellectual, and in other fields. Through such 
cooperation we can all benefit, from the raising of 
standards of living and the growth of democracy 
in each country. 

Fisher : That's a very clear statement of a very 
sound credo, Mr. Braden. And I want to thank 
you and Mr. Briggs for giving us this review of 
our foreign policy for the Americas. 

Announcer: That was Sterling Fisher, Direc- 
tor of NBC's University of the Air. He has been 
interviewing Assistant Secretary of State Spruille 
Braden and Mr. Ellis O. Briggs, Director of the 
State Department's Office of American Republic 
Affairs. The discussion was adapted for radio by 
Seidell Menefee. 

Next week we shall present a broadcast of out- 
standing importance — ^^a joint State and Treasury 
Department program. Secretary of the Treasury 
Fred M. Vinson and Under Secretary of State 
Dean Acheson will discuss the pending British 
loan. Listen in next week at the same time for 
this program. 



JANUARY 6 AND 13, 1946 



33 



Disposition of Enemy Aliens From Other 
American Republics ^ 



UNITED STATES MEMORANDUM 

The State Department has communicated the 
following memorandum to 12 American republics : 
Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Repub- 
lic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Hon- 
duras, Nicaragua, Panama, and Peru, which de- 
ported alien enemies to the United States for 
security reasons during the course of hostilities in 
Europe. In effect the memorandum asks each re- 
public to decide whether it wishes to have all the 
aliens it sent here returned to it for ultimate dis- 
position of its cases, or whether it wishes to have 
the United States continue to exercise primary re- 
sponsibility in deciding which of the aliens are 
so dangerous as to make deportation from the 
hemisphere essential and in taking action accord- 
ingly.2 

Memorandum 

The United States Government currently has in 
custody a considerable number of alien enemies — 
the majority of them German nationals — who for 
security reasons were deported to the United States 
from other American republics during the course 
of hostilities in Europe. During the last two 
months, the Department of State has been engaged 
in carefully reviewing the cases of the individuals 
held in custody in order to decide which aliens 
can with relative safety be released and permitted 
to remain in the hemisphere and which aliens are 
so clearly dangerous as to make their deportation 
imperative under the terms of Resolution VII of 
the Mexico City Conference. 

This review is a time-consuming task and has 
not been completed. A number of individuals, 
however, have already been released from custody 
and permitted to return to the country from which 
they were deported. In making its decisions in 
these cases, the State Department has been giving 
great weight to the factor of native American 
family ties. The Department is prepared to dis- 
regard that factor only in those cases where the 
alien appears to have been guilty of espionage or 
sabotage, or has been a key figure in Nazi or other 

' Released to the press Jan. 3. 

' See Bulletin of Nov. 4, 1945, p. 737, and Dec. 30, 1945, 
p. 1061. 



enemy activity. Even as to those cases where no 
native American family ties exist, the Department 
is willing to release those who, although "pro- 
Nazi" or otherwise hostile in their sympathies, took 
no action (such as joining the Nazi Party) in line 
with their sympathies. These standards are be- 
lieved to be as lenient to the individual as is con- 
sistent with the objectives of Resolution VII of the 
Mexico City Conference ; they are closely parallel 
to those followed by the Department of Justice in 
selecting for repatriation alien enemies who were 
resident in the United States. 

With respect to expulsion from the hemisphere 
of individuals found to be dangerous, it has been 
the intention of the Department to initiate repatri- 
ation proceedings early in 1946, but only after 
(1) opportunity for a hearing has been given in 
each case, and (2) the Ajnericau republic from 
which the individual came has been consulted. 

Recently, however, three of the American re- 
publics involved have expressed themselves as not 
in accord with the above-outlined program. Each 
has assured the Government of the United States 
that it is in full sympathy with the purposes of 
Resolution VII of the Mexico City Conference and 
intends to carry out its commitments under that 
Resolution, but has stated that the aliens it de- 
ported are still under its jurisdiction and that it 
alone can decide which ones should be excluded 
from the hemisphere under the terms of that Reso- 
lution. Accordingly, each of the three Govern- 
ments has requested the return of the aliens — or 
some of them — whom it had deported to this 
country. 

In addition, some of the American republics in- 
volved in the program have, for various reasons, 
submitted to the United States Government re- 
quests for the return of particular individuals, 
without questioning the authority of the United 
States Government to make the ultimate deter- 
mination in their cases. 

In this situation, the Government of the United 
States wishes to follow a policy which will be 
uniformly applicable. To each of the other Ameri- 
can republics concerned, therefore, the Govern- 
ment of the United States makes the following 
proposal : 



34 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



a. The United States Government stands ready 
upon request to transfer to the other American 
republic complete responsibility for determining 
the proper disposition to be made of the aliens 
whom the latter deported to the United States. 
In that event, the United States Govermnent will 
airange for the prompt return to the other re- 
public's territory of all the aliens it deported to 
the United States. The United States Govern- 
ment cannot consent under these circumstances to 
retain any of the aliens in its custody since (1) it 
can accept the responsibility of deciding on the 
disposition of cases only on a uniform basis appli- 
cable to all the individuals from a particular re- 
public and hence cannot undertake to decide only 
that portion of the cases in the disposition of which 
the other republic declares it has no interast, (2) it 
cannot under its laws undertake to deport any 
aliens from the hemisphere without itself mak- 
ing the determination as to their dangerousness. 
After the aliens have been returned to the other 
reijublic, the United States Government will if 
desired collaborate in matters concerning the ulti- 
mate disposition of individual cases. 

b. If the other American republic so desires, the 
United States Government will continue to assume 
primary responsibility in determining which of 
the alien enemies deported to the United States 
from the other republic should be excluded from 
the hemisphere and in taking appropi'iate action 
to that end. In that event, the United States Gov- 
ernment will of course be ready to consult with 
the other republic involved as to the disposition of 



any particular aliens in whom that republic ex- 
presses an interest. In particular, the United 
States Government will arrange for the return to 
the other republic of persons whom that republic 
shall declare to the United States Government to 
be citizens of that republic and whose citizenship 
that republic has not cancelled or does not propose 
to cancel. Any alien who is found not to be dan- 
gerous will be released and will be allowed to 
return to the other republic. 

In order to know how to proceed in this matter, 
the United States Government would like to have 
an early expression from each of the American 
republics involved as to which of the two courses 
of action outlined above it wishes to pursue. The 
United States Government believes that the second 
alternative represents the more effective proce- 
dure. If that course is pursued, decisions can be 
promptly reached on the basis of all the informa- 
tion available to both Governments and those indi- 
viduals found to be dangerous can be repatriated a 
direct from the United States without first return- \ 
ing them to the American republics from which 
they came. 

Pending the receipt of word from the other 
American republics involved, the State Depart- 
ment will in general proceed with its present pro- 
gram of reviewing the individual cases and releas- ■ 
ing those who do not appear to be dangerous. It I 
will not do so, however, in the case of the aliens 1 
from the three republics which have already 
requested that all aliens be returned. 



HUMPHREY— Co»iin«e(i frotn page 25. 

tion demands, rather, the continuous deliberation 
of individuals whose resjjonsibility and chief in- 
terest lies in substantive fields of knowledge not 
necessarily encompassed by the rigid framework 
of governmental administrative structures. It is 
hoped that primary allegiance to the problem may 
be attained through a technique which assumes a 
committee of "experts" rather than a committee 
of "representatives". As a matter of fact, specific 
I^rovision has been made within the internal struc- 
ture of the Conmaittee to deal with its problems on 
a substantive rather than an agency basis. 

Although membership is open to all agencies 
having responsibilities in the field of foreign pro- 
curement, an operating executive subcommittee, se- 
lected by the whole Committee, is also provided 
for. Of first importance is the principle that the 



problems of procurement in specific fields of knowl- 
edge are considered by subcommittees jyTo tern | 
composed of individuals whose agencies deal most 1 
largely with the particular fields in question — 
medicine, law, physical sciences, aeronautics, and 
soon. 

In summary, the Department of State is pres- | 
ently undertaking an expanded program of assist- 
ance to this Government in the field of procure- 
ment of foreign publications. It embarks upon 
this task because it joins the other agencies of this 
Goverimient in recognizing the transcendent im- 
portance of such materials in day-to-day Federal 
operations. The techniques embraced by this ex- 
panded program, it is hoped, will greatly benefit 
those resi^onsible for the effective conduct of the 
public business. 



International Organizations and Conferences 



Calendar of Meetings 



Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry 

Far Eastern Commission 

Inter-American Statistical Institute : Executive Committee 

United Nations Organization : General Assembly 

Caribbean Forestry Commission 

International Commission of the Rhine River 

International Labor Organization : Conference of Dele- 
gates on Constitutional Questions 

West Indian Conference 



Washington 




Hearings open on 
January 7 


Tokyo 




Arrival : January 6 


Rio de Janeiro 




January 7 


London 




January 10 


Port-of-Spain 




January 14-24 


Brussels 




January 17 


London 




January 21 


St. Thomas, Virgin 


February 21 


Islands (U. 


S.) 





Activities and Developments 



Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry. The 

names of organizations and individuals appearing 
at hearings beginning January 7 at the Depart- 
ment of State were announced by the Anglo- 
American Committee of Inquiry. 

The Committee of 12 headed by Judge Joseph 
C. Hutcheson and Sir John E. Singleton was ap- 
pointed to examine political, economic, and social 
conditions in Palestine as they bear upon the 
problem of Jewish immigration and the well- 
being of the peoples now living therein and to 
examine the conditions of the Jews in those coun- 
tries in Europe where tliey have been the vic- 
tims of Nazi and Fascist persecution. 

The first to appear will be Earl Harrison, who 
recently reported to President Truman on the 
conditions of the Jews in Germany. He will be 
followed by Joseph J. Schwartz, European Di- 
rector of the American Jewish Joint Distribution 
Committee which has done much of the relief 
work in Europe. Dr. Schwartz is expected to 
present a comprehensive survey of the numbers 
and origins of the stateless persons in Europe. 
Additional figures on Jews in Europe will be pre- 
sented by the Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant 
Aid Society. 

Robert Nathan, until January 1 the Deputy Di- 
rector of the Office of Mobilization and Eeconver- 
sion, will present the first statement on Palestine. 

Others to be called during the week are : Amer- 



ican Zionist Emergency Council; Zionist Organi- 
zation of America; Mizrachi Organization of 
America; Hadassah, The Women's Zionist Or- 
ganization of America; United Zionist Socialist 
Labor Party Poale Zion — Zeire Zion of America ; 
American Jewish Conference; The American 
Jewish Committee; American Jewish Congress; 
American Council for Judaism, Inc.; American 
Palestine Committee; Christian Council on Pal- 
estine ; Foreign Missions Council of North Amer- 
ica ; Agudas Israel of America ; Institute of Arab 
American Affairs; Prof. Albert Einstein; Dr. 
Walter Clay Lowdermilk, John L. Savage, James 
B. Hayes, Professor Wohlman — all on Jordan 
Valley Authority; Eev. Charles T. Bridgeman; 
Hebrew Committee of National Liberation. 

The Conference of Delegates on Constitutional 
Questions of the International Labor Organiza- 
tion will meet in London on January 21. The 
countries represented at the meeting will include 
the United States, France, Great Britain, Cuba, 
the Union of South Africa, and China. The head 
of the American Delegation will be Frieda S. 
Miller, Chief of the Women's Bureau of the De- 
partment of Labor, and the adviser to the Ameri- 
can Delegation will be Bernard Wiesman of the 
Department of State. Also present at the meet- 
ing will be representatives of the employers' group 
and the workers' group. 

35 



36 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



West Indian Conference.^ Subject to conclud- 
ing transportation and accommodation arrange- 
ments, the second session of tlie West Indian 
Conference will be held in St. Thomas, Virgin 
Islands of the United States, beginning February 
21, 1946 under the auspices of the Anglo-Ameri- 
can Caribbean Commission. 

The first session of the West Indian Conference 
was held in Barbados, British West Indies, in 
March 1944.^ The former British co-chairman. 
Sir Frank Stockdale, presided. (The present 
British co-chairman is Sir John Macpherson.) 
By the terms under which the Conference was 
constituted, the second session is to be held in 
United States territory under the chairmanship 
of the United States co-chairman, Mr. Charles W. 
Taussig. 

An especial interest has been added to the forth- 
coming Conference by the recent announcement 
that both France and the Netherlands have joined 
the Anglo-American Caribbean Commission, the 
name of which is to be changed appropriately. 
Kepresentatives of these Governments and their 
Caribbean territories will also be present and will 
participate in the discussions. 

Further announcements making definite the date 
and place of the Conference and referring to the 
agenda will be made shortly. 

Signing of Bretton Woods Agreements.^ 
Through December 31, 1945 and subsequent to 
the initial signing of the Bretton Woods Fund and 
Bank agreements on December 27, 1945, at which 
time the agreements entered into force, signatures 
were affixed to those documents on behalf of Chile, 
Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Iran, Mexico, and 
Peru. 

The list of the signers of the two agreements 
subsequent to December 27, 1945 is as follows: 

December 28, 1945 

Dominican Republic — Emilio Garcia Godot, 
Ambassador of the Dominican Republic in Wash- 
ington 

Inin — Hussein Ala, Ambassador of Iran in 
Washington 

December 31, 1945 

Chile — Marcial Mora, Ambassador of Chile in 
Washington 

Cuba — GuiLLERMO Belt, Ambassador of Cuba 
in Washington 

Mexico — Antonio Espinosa de los Monteros, 
Ambassador of Mexico in Washington 



Peru — HuMBERTO Fernandez-Davila, Minister 
Counselor of Peru in Washington 

The countries on whose behalf the two agi-ee- 
ments were signed through December 31, 1945 are 
Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, 
Colombia (Fund agreement only), Costa Rica, 
Cuba, Czechoslovakia, the Dominican Republic, 
Ecuador, Egypt, Ethiopia, France, Greece, Guate- 
mala, Honduras, Iceland, India, Iran, Iraq, Lux- 
embourg, Mexico, the Netherlands, Norway, Para- 
guay, Peru, the Philippine Commonwealth, Po- 
land, the Union of South Africa, the United King- 
dom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the 
United States of America, Uruguay, and Yugo- 
slavia. 

Tlie total of the quotas for the Fund and the 
total of the subscriptions to the Bank of the. coun- 
tries signatory to those documents are, respec- 
tively, $7,824,500,000 (83.22 percent of the Fund) 
and $7,600,000,000 (83.52 percent of the Bank). 
Although a few of the signatory countries have 
not yet deposited their instruments of acceptance 
of the agreements, the totals of the quotas and 
subscriptions of the countries which have deposited 
their acceptances are well over the 65 percent re- 
quired for the entry into force of the agreements. 

Instruments of acceptance, as required in each 
agreement in addition to signature, have been de- 
posited on behalf of the following signatory 
countries, with respect to which, as original mem- 
bers, the agreements are now in force: Belgium, 
Bolivia, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia (Fund 
agreement only), Czechoslovakia, the Dominican 
Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Ethiopia, France, 
Greece, Guatemala, Honduras, Iceland, India, 
Iran, Iraq, Luxembourg, Mexico, the Netherlands, 
Norway, Paraguay, Peru, the Philippine Common- 
wealth, the Union of South Africa, the United 
Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, 
the United States of America, Uruguay, and 
Yugoslavia. 

Beginning January 1, 1946 each of the two agree- 
ments will remain open for signature on behalf 
of the government of any country whose mem- 1 
bership is approved in accordance with such terms 
as may be prescribed by the Fund or by the Bank, 
respectively. 



' Rele.ised to the press Jan. 3. 

' Bulletin of Mar. 18, 1944, p. 262, and Apr. 22, 1944, p. 
384. 
° Released to the press Jan. 4. 



The Record of the Week 



Release of Macmahon Memorandum on U.S. International 

Information Program 



SUMMARY OF MEMORANDUM 

[Released to the press December 30] 

Because modern international relations lie be- 
tween peoples and not merely between govern- 
ments, international public information activities 
have become an integral part of the conduct of 
foreign policy. This Government has long been 
aware that foreign policy must be understood and 
accepted both at home and abroad if it is to work. 
Unless other peoples comprehend the background 
against which our policies are made the policies 
will not be clear, and there cannot develop the 
closer understanding among peoples essential to a 
peaceful world. 

Long before the war was won, the State De- 
partment authorized the undertaking of an exten- 
sive survey of the pre-war and post-war inter- 
national information activities and plans of both 
private enterprises and th,e Government itself. 
Although it was understood that the portrayal of 
America must be accomplished primarily through 
the normal private channels of press, radio, and 
motion pictures, it was also necessary to study the 
role of Government information activities. 

Dr. Arthur W. Macmahon, Consultant on Ad- 
ministration to the State Department and profes- 
sor of political science at Columbia University, 
with the assistance of Haldore Hanson of the State 
Department, devoted nine months to a thorough 
analysis of the entire question of international in- 
formation. Dr. Macmahon's Memorand'u.m de- 
fines the scope of governmental activity in this 
field during the \Var, and indicates the gaps of 
knowledge abroad which, for the present at least, 
must be filled by governmental action.^ These gaps 



^ Memorandum on the Postwar International Information 
Program of the United States, b.v Dr. Arthur W. Macmahon 
(Department of State publication 2438). This memo- 
randum was released to the press Jan. 5. 



are caused chiefly by the fact that other peoples 
do not have enough background knowledge of 
what is broadly typical of the United States to 
interpret fairly the dramatic news episodes which 
are reported by the news agencies. 

Dr. Macmahon recommends that the United 
States Government should not compete with the 
private informational media and industries. He 
feels that in peacetime the Government should not 
conduct any general spot-news or radio-photo serv- 
ices. The Government's supplementary role may 
be illustrated as follows : It will keep its officers in 
the field sufficiently supplied with full texts of im- 
portant utterances and documents and with back- 
ground on newsbreaks which may need fuUer ex- 
planation so that our officers can meet the needs 
of foreign newspapers and other informational 
organs. 

The Macmahon report also stressed the follow- 
ing points : 

The United States in peacetime will need a gen- 
eral information staff throughout the world which 
must be serviced by a headquarters workshop in 
the United States. There are strong grounds for 
associating this information staff with the diplo- 
matic mission and the Department of State. 

The Office of International Information and 
Cultural Affairs should consist of divisions based 
primarily on media. These would include: non- 
competitive news, features, and related press ma- 
terials; visual media; international broadcasting 
contacts; and cultural relations. 

In the matter of the field structure, a full con- 
nection with the diplomatic missions is desirable. 
A crucial phase of the work involves the interpre- 
tation of policies and instant events and must be 
performed in close contact with the heads of mis- 
sions and with access to the flow of confidential 
conmivmications. 

Public policy properly emphasizes the need of 
cheaper, quicker, equal, more abundant and uni- 

37 



38 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



versa! communication facilities to serve the regu- 
lar news agencies, correspondents, and related 
press interests. 

International broadcasting takes several forms : 
broadcasting by shoi't wave direct to the foreign 
listener ; transmitting programs by point-to-point 
short wave for rebroadcast over foreign stations 
by medium wave ; and the export of recordings and 
scripts for use on foreign stations. Direct inter- 
national broadcasting by short wave is unique 
among informational media in its ability to cross 
international boundaries without censorship. 

It seems clear that one entity, whether govern- 
mental or private, should be licensed to conduct 
all direct international broadcasting from the 
United States, subject t« stringent general stand- 
ards. These standards would require a high pro- 
portion of sustaining programs and would limit 
commercial advertising, if any, to the "institu- 
tional" sort. The emphasis would be upon the 
fullest possible utilization of the best domestic 
programs, duly adapted to the various languages, 
together with news and news commentary in those 
languages. 

In the motion-picture field, the industry's vital 
stake in the preservation of its foreign market may 
lead to various forms of voluntary collaboration. 
It may be easier to get rid of slights to other peo- 
ples in films produced in the United States than 
to avoid in commercial films scenes which create 
erroneous impressions about the United States 
among peoples abroad. This fact increases the 
importance of governmental activity in relation 
to documentary films and related types. 

The review of the flow of information which 
private or semi-governmental enterprises may rea- 
sonably support in peacetime reveals certain gaps 
which the Government, in the conduct of its for- 
eign relations, cannot afford to neglect. The gaps 
of information can be filled by a number of media. 

1. Missions should be supplied with the texts of 
important Government speeches and pronounce- 
ments for simultaneous release at home and 
abroad. In this connection the Department's radio 
news bulletin to the missions should be enlarged, 
perhaps double the size of the present 3,500-word 
daily edition. 

2. Supplementing this radio bulletin, the 
Department should send by air mail batches of 
clippings and other background information on 
the United States, suitable for rewriting by an 



information officer in the field in answer to re- 
quests from foreign newspapers for information 
on particular subjects. 

3. Assistance to foreign correspondents in the 
United States is anotlier effective means of insur- 
ing fuUez", fairer coverage in the foreign press. 
Several officers of the Department should be 
assigned to aid visiting journalists. 

4. A morgue of stock pictures on scientific and 
social developments in the United States would be 
needed at the larger American missions. 

5. Exhibits of photographic enlargements may 
be either prepared by the home information organ- 
ization and shipped in finished form, or produced 
in the field from the collection of photo negatives. 

6. Non-fiction motion pictures on the United 
States will require continued Government assist- 
ance in both production and distribution. 

7. Radio recordings and script materials may be 
sent to the missions for loan to local radio stations. 

8. As a minor phase of the programming for 
American short-wave broadcasting the Depart- 
ment of State may produce a few official programs 
each year. 

9. Some Government-supported magazines, such 
as the OWI publications in the Union of Soviet 
Socialist Kepublics, should be continued. 

10. Assistance to foreign publishers in obtain- 
ing good translations of America's best books 
should be continued. 

11. As a field servicing unit for most of the fore- 
going activities an information library will be 
needed at most of the larger missions. 

OBJECTIONS BY REUTERS, LTD., TO THE 
MEMORANDUM 

[Released to the press December 29] 

In compliance with the request contained in a 
letter received by the Department of State from 
Reuters, Limited, the Department has postponed 
the release date of Memorandum o-n the Postwar 
International Information Program of the United 
States, by Dr. Arthur W. Macmahon, from Decem- 
ber 29 to January 5, at which time any statement 
submitted to the Department of State by Reuters, 
Limited, will also be released for publication. The 
letter from Reutei's, Limited, follows: 

December 29, 19Ji5. 
Sir: 
I am today instructed by Mr. Chancellor, the 



JANUARY 6 AND 13, 1946 



39 



General Manager of Reuters Ltd, to lodge the 
strongest possible protest with you at a number 
of false statements regarding the activities of Reu- 
ters Ltd contained in the "Memorandum on the 
postwar International Information Progi-amme 
of the United States" prepared by Dr. Arthur W. 
Macmahon and issued by the State Department 
for publication in the press of December 30th. 

The section headed "Reuters" in Part III of 
this booklet devoted to "Press Communications" 
not only contains statements which are definitely 
untrue but in total effect presents a false and mis- 
leading picture. 

I am also instructed, in the name of honesty, 
decency, and fair dealing, to ask that the release 
date of the booklet be postponed in order that 
Reuters Ltd may have time to study in further 
detail the allegations made by Dr. Macmahon, and 
to present documentary evidence in refutation of 
them for release simultaneously with the booklet. 

We take particular objection to the statement 
attributed to Mr. Guy Ray, second secretary of 
the American Embassy in Mexico City, that "so 
far as Mexico is concerned, at least, any argument 
that Reuters and the B.B.C. are not British Gov- 
ernment agencies is completely untenable". 

We regard this and some of the other refer- 
ences to Reuters as libellous and utterly untrue, 
and we reserve full rights regarding future action 
following the publication of the booklet in its pres- 
ent form. 

I am, sir. 

Your obedient servant, 

Paul Scott Rankine 
Chief of Washington Bureau 

Mexican Government 
Investigates Charges 
Against American Firms 

[Released to the press January 5] 

Reference' is made to the State Department's 
press release of December 18. 1945 regarding alle- 
gations made by Vicente Lombardo Toledano 
charging private American firms with supplying 
arms and ammunition to Mexican political fac- 
tions. Reference is also made to its press release 
of December 21, 1945, in which it was stated that 
the Mexican Government had informed Ambas- 
sador George S. Messersmith that ( 1 ) the Govern- 



ment of Mexico does not associate itself with or 
support the statements of Lombardo Toledano ; 
and (2) the Mexican Government will see that the 
appro]Driate investigations are made in an en- 
deavor to clear up the matter and the American 
Embassy will be informed of the result of such 
investigation.^ 

The Mexican Under Secretary for Foreign Af- 
fairs, Manuel Tello, has now informed Ambassador 
Messersmith that the Mexican Government has 
made the appropriate investigation to determine 
what basis there might be for the statements made 
by Lombardo Toledano, and that the Ministry of 
National Defense and other appropriate agencies 
of tlie Mexican Government which made investi- 
gation found that there was no basis for such 
statements made by Lombardo Toledano in his 
speech of December 16, 1945 with respect to arms 
shipments. 

Death of Grayson N. Kefauver 

[Released to tbe press January 51 

Assistant Secretary Benton announces with deep 
regret the sudden death on Friday, January 4, 
1946, at Los Angeles, of Dr. Grayson N. Kefauver, 
United States Representative on the Preparatory 
Commission for the United Nations Educational, 
Scientific and Cultural Organization. 

Dr. Kefauver's appointment as United States 
Representative on the Preparatory Commission, 
with the rank of Minister, was recently announced. 
Prior to that he had served as Adviser to the 
United States Delegation to the conference held 
in London in November 1945, which drafted the 
Constitution for the United Nations Educational, 
Scientific and Cultural Organization. 

Dr. Kefauver was formerly dean of the school 
of education at Stanford University, and was the 
founder and first chairman of the Liaison Com- 
mittee for International Education. Beginning 
in April 1944 he served as Representative of the 
United States to the Conference of Allied Min- 
isters of Education in London. At the time of 
his death Dr. Kefauver was in the course of a 
speaking trip on the character and purpose of 
the new international agency, UNESCO. He had 
expected to return to Washington for a series of 



' For substance of both press releases, see Bttlletin of 
Dec. 23, 1945, p. 1022. 



40 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



conferences on the future program of the Organi- 
zation before going to London to attend the meet- 
ing of the Preparatory Commission scheduled for 
February 11. 

Mr. Benton said : 

"Dr. Kefauver's death is a shocking loss, de- 
priving our Nation of one of the leading figures 
in education for better understanding between the 
peoples of the world. His unflagging devotion 
and creative contribution to this cause helped ma- 
terially to build a solid foundation for its future. 
He will be sorely missed in the Department of 
State as well as in the international associations 
which he developed in London." 



Visit of Brazilian Educator 

Jorge Americano, rector of the University of Sao Paulo, 
Brazil, is a guest of the Department of State on a tour of 
representative universities in this country. He is accom- 
panied by his 11-year-old son, Jorge, Jr., who like Dr. 
Americano himself is making a second visit to the United 
States, and by J. de Freytas Valle, chief engineer in 
charge of buildings and grounds at the University of Sao 
Paulo. Their itinerary includes universities of the na- 
tional capital and New York and Syracuse, Harvard, 
Pennsylvania, Chicago, and Michigan, as well as West 
Coast institutions. 

While in New York Dr. Americano will complete ar- 
rangements for publishing a translation of his work, re- 
cently issued in Portuguese, on The New Basis of Inter- 
national Law. 



Mail Service With Austria 

[Released to the press January 5] 

According to an announcement recently issued by the 
Post Oflace Department, a limited mail service has been 
instituted between this country and Austria. For the 
present, articles acceptable for mailing will be restricted 
to letters weighing one oimce or less and non-illustrated 
postcards. These communications may be on business as 
well as personal or family matters but are limited to an 
■exchange of information and an ascertainment of facts. 

The postage rates applicable are : 

Letters : 5 cents each 
Postcards : 3 cents each 

It has not been found possible to establish a parcel-post 
service between Austria and the United States because of 
shipping and transportation difficulties in Europe at the 
present time. It is expected that this service will be 
resumed as soon as the facilities improve sufficiently to 
allow it. 

Registration, money-order, and air-mail services are not 
available at the present time. 

Carolyn Bradley Accepts Visiting 
Professorship to Chile 

Miss Carolyn J. Bradley, associate professor of fine arts 
at Ohio State University, has accepted a visiting profes- 
sorship in art at the University of Chile for the current 
session. 

Although this is her first visit to South America, Miss 
Bradley has spent nine summers painting and studying in 
Mexico and Guatemala. She has also painted in Portu- 
gal, Italy, Germany, the French Basque country, and 
Canada, and in the United States in California, New Jer- 
sey, Indiana, Maine, and Massachusetts as well as in her 
home State, Ohio. A contributor to several professional 
magazines, she is author of a work book on costume design 
which is used in many high schools and colleges. 



Visit of Salvadoran Musician 

Humberto Pacas, director and conductor of the symphony 
orchestra at San Salvador, capital of El Salvador, is visit- 
ing musical centers in this country as a guest of the 
Department of State. In 1930, at the age of 25, after study 
at the Conservatory of Guatemala and the Conservatory 
of Mexico, Senor Pacas established the first mixed choir 
in El Salvador and organized an Academy of Music. He 
later directed the Salvadoran National School of Music, 
and since 1940 he has been director and conductor of the 
national symphony orchestra, which he aided in establish- 
ing and has helped develop. 



Sanitary Conventions of 1944 

Canada 

The Ambassador of Canada deposited with the Depart- 
ment of State on November 20, 1945, the Canadian instru- 
ments of ratification of the International Sanitary Con- 
vention, 1944, and the International Sanitary Convention 
for Aerial Navigation, 1944. Both of those conventions 
were opened for signature at Washington, December 15, 
1944 and came into force January 15, 1945 with respect 
to those countries which had signed them without any 
reservation requiring ratification. 

United Kingdom 

The British Ambassador informed the Acting Secretary 
of State by separate notes, dated September 20 and re- 
ceived in the Department of State on September 25, of the 
application to certain territories of tlie International Sani- 
tary Convention, 1944, and the International Sanitary 
Convention for Aerial Navigation, 1&44, as follows : 

International Sanitaey Convention, 1944 



Aden (Colony) 
Basil toland 
Bechuanaland 



Mavrititis 

Seychelles — with reservations 

Swaziland 



JANUARY 6 AND 13, 1946 



41 



The reservations with regard to the Seychelles are as 
follows : 

(a) That no obligation can be accepted to take off ships 
and treat locally persons suffering from infectious dis- 
eases pending the construction of an Infectious Diseases 
Hospital. 

(6) That when such a hospital has been constructed, 
the liability for accepting infectious-disease patients from 
ships is limited to the capacity available in such hospital. 

(c) That, pending the construction of suitable yellow- 
fever quarantine quarters, no person who either is suffer- 
ing from yellow fever or has come from a yellow-fever 
endemic area without a valid inoculation certificate will 
be permitted to land in the Seychelles. 

(d) That in Article XI between the words "maintain" 
and "free from Stegomyia" the words "as far as possible" 
are added. 

International Sanitary Convention fob Aebial 
Navigation, 1944 

Aden (Colony) 
Nyasaland — with reservations 

The reservations with regard to Nyasaland are as 
follows : 

(a) That mosquito-proof accommodation will be pro- 
vided only to the extent that it may be required for persons 
who are non-immune to yellow fever. 

(6) That airfields and their surroundings cannot at 
present be rendered and maintained free of insect vectors 
of yellow fever and malaria. 

By separate notes dated November 28 and received in 
the Department of State on November 29 the British 
Ambassador informed the Secretary of State of the appli- 
cation of those two conventions to additional British terri- 
tories with certain reservations as follows: 

International Sanitary Convention, 1W4 

Barbados 

The Government of Barbados undertakes to comply with 
the requirements of the first paragraph of article XI only 
so far as may be possible. 

British Honduras 

The Government of British Honduras undertakes to 
comply witli the requirements of the first paragraph of 
article XI only so far as may be possible. 

Leeward Islands: Antigua, Montserrat, St. Christopher 
and Nevis, Virgin Islands 
With the reservation in regard to article XI that the 
Government will take measures to keep their ports as free 
from Apdes aegypti as may be practicable, the cost of such 
measures being a determining factor. 

Trinidad 

With the reservation in regard to article XI that the 
Government will take measures to keep their ports as free 
from Aedes aegypti as may be practicable, the cost of such 
measures being a determining factor. 



WUidward Islands: Dominica, Grenada, St. Lucia, St. 
Vincent 
With the reservation in regard to article XI that the 
Government will take measures to keep their ports as free 
from Aedes aegypti as may be practicable, the cost of such 
measures being a determining factor. 

International Sanitary Convention fob Aerial 
Navigation, 1944 

Barbados 

(a) The Government of Barbados does not undertake 
to comply with the provisions of paragraphs (3) and (4) 
of article XII. 

( 6 ) Further, with regard to article XII, the Government 
of Barbados reserves the right, subject to the provisions 
of article XIV (3), to refuse admission to any person 
not in possession of a valid anti - yellow - fever inocu- 
lation certificate who arrives from a region, that is to say, 
a part of a territory, in which yellow fever exists in a 
form clinically or biologically recognizable and who has 
not undergone observation at the point of departure. 

(c) With regard to article XIV, the Government of 
Barbados is not prepared to undertake that aerodromes 
will comply with the requirements of article 38 of the 
International Sanitary Convention for Aerial Navigation, 
1933. 

British Honduras 

(a) The Government of British Honduras does not un- 
dertake to comply with the provisions of paragraphs (3) 
and (4) of article XII. 

(6) Further, with regard to article XII, the Govern- 
ment of British Honduras reserves the right, subject to 
the provisions of article XIV(3), to refuse admission to 
any person not in possession of a valid anti - yellow-fever 
inoculation certificate who arrives from a region, that is 
to say, a part of a territory, in which yellow fever exists 
in a form clinically or biologically recognizable, and who 
has not undergone observation at the point of departure. 

(c) With regard to article XIV, the Government of 
British Honduras is not prepared to undertake that aero- 
dromes will comply with the requirements of article 38 
of the International Sanitary Convention for Aerial Navi- 
gation, 1933. 

Leeward Islands: Antigua, Montserrat, St. Christopher 
and Nevis, Virgin Islands 

(a) With the reservation in regard to article XII(3) 
and (4) that aerodromes in the Colony shall not neces- 
sarily comply with the requirements laid down in article 
38 of the 1933 convention as regards the provision of 
mosquito-proofed buildings. 

(6) With the reservation in regard to article XIV (2) 
that, where exceptional risk exists of the introduction of 
yellow fever into the Colony by passengers from infected 
areas who have not been immunized, the landing of such 
passengers may be prohibited. 

Tanganyika Territory 

With regard to article XIV (1), the Government of 
Tanganyika Territory undertakes to provide only the mos- 
quito-proofed accommodation necessary for the accommo- 



42 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



dation of passengers who are not in possession of valid 
anti - yellow-fever inoculation certificates. 

Trinidad 

(a) With the reservation in regard to article XI (i.e. 
article 36(7) of the 1933 convention as now amended) and 
article XIV (i.e. article 47(2) of the 1933 convention as 
now amended) that arrivals by air presenting valid inocu- 
lation certificates showing that they are immune from 
yellow fever will not be subject to quarantine measures 
in relation to yellow fever, other than medical inspection 
if they come from endemic areas, or surveillance if they 
come from infected areas as defined in the footnote to 
article 22 of the 1933 convention ; and that, without excep- 
tion, arrivals who are not in possession of valid inocula- 
tion certificates will be subjected to surveillance if they 
come from endemic areas and to observation if they come 
from infected areas, unless they have undergone observa- 
tion at the point of departure from the endemic or infected 
area. 

(6) With the reservation in regard to article XIV that 
aerodromes in the Colony shall not necessarily comply 
with the requirement laid down in article 38 of the 1933 
convention as regards the provision of mosquito-proofed 
buildings. 

(e) With the further reservation in regard to article 
XIV that where, in the opinion of the Government, excep- 
tional risk exists of the introduction of yellow fever into 
the Colony by passengers from infected areas who have 
not been immunized, the landing of such passengers may 
be prohibited. 



•^ THE DEPARTMENT ^ 

Office of International Information and 
Cultural Affairs 1 

132.10 Office of Internationai, Infoemation and Cul- 
TUB-\L Affaiks (QIC) : (Effective 12-31-45) 

I Functions. The Ofiice of International Information 
and Cultural Affairs shall be responsible for : 

A The promotion among foreign peoples of a better 
understanding of the aims, policies, and institutions of 
the United States. 

B The coordination of policy and action for pro- 
grams of the United States in the field of international 
information and cultural affairs. 

C The dissemination abroad of information about 
the United States through all appropriate media. 

D The promotion of freedom of information among 
peoples. 



' The Division of Cultural Cooperation and the Interna- 
tional Information Division are abolished and their func- 
tions are assigned to the eon.stituent parts of the Ofiice 
of International Information and Cultural Affairs. 



E The furtherance of the international exchange of 
persons, knowledge, and skills. 

F The integration with over-all United States foreign 
policy of the programs and activities of other Federal 
Agencies involving international interchange of persons, 
knowledge, and skills. 

II Organization. The Office of International Informa- 
tion and Cultural Affairs shall consist of the following 
organization units, with functions and responsibilities as 
indicated : 

A The Office of the Director 

The Program Planning and Evaluation Board 
The Secretariat of the Interdepartmental Com- 
mittee on Scientific and Cultural Coopera- 
tion (routing symbol SCO). 

B The International Press and Publications Division 
(routing symbol INP). 

C The International Broadcasting Division (rout- 
ing symbol IBD). 

D The International Motion Pictures Division (rout- 
ing symbol IMP). 

E The Division of International Exchange of Per- 
sons (routing symbol lEP). 

F The Division of Libraries and Institutes (routing 
symbol ILI). 

G Area Division I (Europe) (routing symbol ADE). 

H Area Division II (Near East and Africa) (routing 
symbol ADN). 

I Area Division III (Far East) (routing sym- 
bol ADF). 

J Area Diviison IV (American Republics) (routing 
symbol ADA). 

K Area Division V (Occupied Areas) (routing sym- 
bol ADO). 

III E^TNCriONS AND RESPONSIBILrnES. 

A The Office of the DiHEcrroR. The Ofiice of the 
Director, including deputies, consultants, assistants, and 
necessary staff, shall be responsible for the direction and 
supervision of the operations of the constituent organiza- 
tion units of the Office. 

B The Phogram Planning and Evaluation Board. 
The Program Planning and Evaluation Board, under the 
chairmanship of the Director of OIC, shall be responsible 
for the issuance of policy and program directives which 
shall govern the operations of the component parts of the 
Office and the conduct of its program abroad. The Board 
shall be composed of the Deputy Director, the Assistant 
Directors of the Office, the Chiefs of Divisions, and the 
Executive Director of the Interdepartmental Committee on 
Scientific and Cultural Cooperation. The Board shall act 
as a reviewing, coordinating, approving, and evaluating 
body for policy and program directives, projects and infor- 
mation materials, which will, in most cases, originate in 
the area and media divisions. The responsibilities of the 
Board shall also include : 

1 The continuing analysis and evaluation of the 
programs of the Office as carried out. 

2 The appropriate attestation (upon request) of 
tlie international educational character of films and re- 
cordings. 



JANUARY 6 AND 13, 1946 



43 



C The Secreh'Akiat of the Intekdb^paktmentai, Com- 
MiTTEB ON Scientific and Cultural Coopeeation. The 
Secretariat, under the supervision of the Executive Direc- 
tor, shall have responsibility for the integration with over- 
all United States foreign policy, and with the policies of 
OIC, of the programs and activities of other departtaents, 
agencies, and independent establishments of the Govern- 
ment involving international interchanges of persons, 
knowledge, and skills. In cooperation with representa- 
tives from other Government agencies participating in, or 
which may participate in, cooperative scientific, technical, 
and cultural activities abroad, it shall, on behalf of OIC, 
plan, coordinate, or initiate all such projects undertaken 
under the auspices of the United States Government. The 
Secretariat shall continue to review and evaluate such 
current and past projects and to facilitate the appraisal 
of future projects or proposals of participating agencies 
in close cooperation with the appropriate divisions in the 
Department of State. 

1 The major functions of the Secretariat shall 
include : 

a Program Operations. The pi'ocessing of all 
scientific, technical, and cultural projects of agencies 
participating with the Department of State on their 
activities abroad ; recommending the allocation to 
participants of funds appropriated to the Department 
of State for such cooi)erative scientific, technical, and 
cultural projects with other countries; the handling 
of all requests for the detail of United States Govern- 
ment employees to foreign governments; correspond- 
ence with the missions on all aspects of the program 
involving participating agencies ; and close liaison 
with operating units of Federal agencies having simi- 
lar programs abroad not included in the budget of the 
Committee ; 

6 Program Control. The continuous analysis 
and evaluation of the appropriate portions of the pro- 
gram ; the planning of new procedures and forms to 
insure that current information is easily available 
from and to all agencies ; the facilitating of depart- 
mental and field clearance for all reports and publica- 
tions of the cooperating agencies under this program ; 
assistance in the preparation of justifications and the 
graphic presentation of the cooperative program to 
the Bureau of the Budget and the Congress. 

The International Press and 
Publications Division 

132.11 The International Press and Publications 
DmsioN (INP) : (Effective 12-31-1.5) The International 
Press and Publications Division, Office of International 
Information and Cultural Affairs, shall be responsible for 
the Initial formulation of operational policy with respect 
to, and for the conduct of, the participation of the Depart- 
ment in the international dissemination of information 
through the media of press, publications (excluding books) , 
and related visual techniques. 

I Functions. The major functions of the Division shall 
include : 

A Preparation and issuance, including arrangements 
for transmission and reception abroad, in cooperation with 



the other interested Divisions of the Department, of the 
daily radio bulletin addressed to our missions abroad.' 

B Coverage of news from Government departments 
and agencies in Washington and, in cooperation with the 
Secretariat of the Interdepartmental Committee, of activ- 
ities of Government departments abroad. 

C Preparation of special articles, periodicals, and 
booklets, either for world wide distribution or of regional 
interest only, the distribution to be through our missions 
for republication abroad. 

D Preparation and distribution of news letters on 
science, art, and other fields, written on a popular rather 
than a technical or professional level. 

E Maintenance of necessary picture files, including 
procurement for accession to files and service to users. 

F Planning, presentation, and creation of exhibits, 
both photographic and three dimensional. 

G Preparation of film strips. 

H Liaison with and assistance to visiting foreign 
journalists and foreign correspondents residing in the 
United States. 

I Liaison with the publishers of magazines circulat- 
ing abroad or containing materials which may be used 
abroad. 

J In general, the preparation and dissemination of 
material of a mass media or popular nature, excluding 
radio, motion pictures, and hooks. 

The International Broadcasting Division 

132.12 The Intf^national Broadoastino Division 
(IBD) : (Effective 12-31^5) 

The International Broadcasting Division, Office of In- 
ternational Information and Cultural Affairs, shall be 
responsible for the initial formulation of operational policy 
with respect to, and for the conduct of, the participation 
of the Department in the international dissemination of 
information through the media of radio broadcasting. 
I Functions. The major functions of the Division 
shall include: 

A The planning, scheduling, writing, casting, produc- 
tion, and broadcasting of radio programs in such of the 
principal languages as required in accordance with guid- 
ances and directives from the Program Planning and 
Evaluation Board; the directing of the content of such 
programs to conform with such guidances and directives ; 
arranging for contracts with privately-owned broadcasting 
organizations to produce and transmit such programs and 
the supervision of their production. 

B The designing, building, installing, operating, and 
maintaining, in close cooperation with the Division of 
Foreign Buildings Operations, of the necessary technical 
facilities, in the United States and abroad, for broadcasting 
radio programs by short wave and relay ; arranging for 
contracts for the use of privately-owned transmitters and 
communications facilities for such purposes; and the ar- 
ranging for commercial channels for the transmission of 
programs point-to-point, for rebroadcast locally by medium 
wave in the country of reception. 

' The functions of the Special Assistant to the Secretary 
for Press Relations relating to the preparation and issu- 
ance of the daily radio bulletin are transferred to the 
Office of International Information and Cultural Affairs. 



44 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



C The writing, editing, and maintaining of a con- 
tinuous news tile in English, based on news agency reports 
and newspapers procured by the International Press and 
Publications Division, as well as the reports of that Divi- 
sion, so that all radio desks may have available for trans- 
lation and broadcast a news report in good radio style; 
and the maintaining of a music department, a library of 
records, transcriptions, and scripts, a special events sec- 
tion, and other services essential to good broadcasting 
operation. 

D The planning, writing, casting, and producing of 
appropriate radio programs for transcription and the pre- 
paring of scripts for distribution abroad. 

B The recording, by agreement with the networks 
and sponsors, of such domestic programs as may be suit- 
able; and the rebroadcasting of such programs by short 
wave or by shipment of transcriptions to radio stations 
abroad. 

P Initial preparation of instructions to United States 
Foreign Service establishments on the over-all program of 
the International Broadcasting Division, particularly on 
the international exchange of radio programs, the placing 
of recorded programs and script material, and the sclied- 
uling of direct relays of short wave. 

G Maintaining liaison with foreign radio correspond- 
ents in the United States, to aid and advise, and, when 
possible, to facilitate the transmission of their voiced 
reports for rebroadcast in their own countries. 

H Cooperation with other Offices of the Department 
and other Government departments and agencies with 
respect to international radio broadcasting and press com- 
munication facilities. 

The International Motion Pictures 
Division 

132.13 The International Motion Pictures Division 
(IMP) (Effective 12-31^5) The International Motion 
Pictures Division, Office of International Information and 
Cultural Affairs, shall be responsible for the initial formu- 
lation of oi)erational ijoliiy with respect to, and for the 
conduct of, the participation of the Department in the 
international dissemination of information through the 
medium of motion pictures. 

I Functions. The major functions of the Division 
shall include: 

A Initiating, planning, and developing motion picture 
projects designed to promote the objectives of the informa- 
tional and cultural program of this Government in other 
countries. 

B Representation on interdepartmental and inter- 
governmental committees concerned with the official use 
of motion pictures abroad. 

C Advice to, and cooperation with, other officials of 
the Department with other Government agencies in plan- 
ning and developing programs as they involve the official 
use of motion pictures abroad. 

D Advice to, and cooperation with, non-governmental 
agencies interested in such Government programs. 

B In cooperation with area specialists and other ap- 
propriate officers of the Department, the shaping of such 
programs to fit the requirements of specific areas and 



activities; and the initial preparing of instructions to 
United States Foreign Service establishments with respect 
to the foregoing and the following matters. 

F Development and maintenance of advisory liaison, 
with commercial and other private organizations and inter- 
ests in motion pictures other than commercial policy 
aspects. 

G Cooperation with other Divisions of the Depart- 
ment with respect to national and international confer- 
ences and meetings, and in arranging and operating for 
the participation of this Government therein so far as 
motion pictures are concerned. 

H Producing, procuring, adapting, editing, and re- 
scoring of materials for use in the program above described. 

I Acquiring prints of approved productions and equip- 
ment as necessary to the presentation thereof. 

J Preparing pertinent utilization materials. 

K Distributing such films, equipment, and materials 
for use abroad. 

The Division of International Exchange 
of Persons 

132.14 The Division of IntBbnationai, Exchange of 
Persons (IEP) : (Effective 12-31-45) The Division of 
International Exchange of Persons, Office of International 
Information and Cultural Affairs, shall be responsible for 
the initial formulation of operational policy with respect 
to, and the conduct of, the participation of the Department 
in the international exchange of information, knowledge, 
and skills so far as such operations involve the exchange 
of students, professors, specialists, or other persons and 
relationships between organizations in the fields of the 
sciences, letters, and arts. 

I Functions. The major functions of the Division 
shall include : 

A The development and maintenance of relationships 
between the Department and scientific, technological, edu- 
cational, professional, and artistic organizations, philan- 
thropic institutions and foundations, and their counter- 
parts in foreign countries in order to assist in effecting 
international exchanges of knowledge and skills. In con- 
nection with this function, the Division shall : 

1 Inform these organizations of the ways in which 
private activities can be correlated with the United 
States Governmental programs. 

2 Keep in touch with American organizations 
which are privately supporting educational, scientific, 
medical, and philanthropic institutions abroad. 

3 Advise all Divisions of OIC regarding the vari- 
ous developments in American culture — scientific, artis- 
tic, social, educational, and literary. 

B The initial formulation of operational policy, and 
the initiation, coordination, and putting into effect of pro- 
grams of the Department relative to the international 
interchange of professors, teachers, specialists, and other 
experts ; the planning of exchanges and their coordination 
with other programs of OIC ; the cooperation with the 
private United States agencies and organizations which 
are concerned with such or similar exchanges ; and the 
conducting of relations with official, semiofficial, and pri- 



JANUARY 6 AND 13, 1946 



45 



[ 



vate agencies and Institutions — educational, learned, tech- 
nical, and professional — to promote such exchanges, coor- 
dinate information, and develop standards of policy and 
operations concerning them. 

C The initial formulation of operational policy, and 
the initiation, coordination, putting into effect, of pro- 
grams of the Department relative to the international in- 
terchange of students in universities and trainees in 
industry ; the conduct of the relations of the Department 
with private agencies engaged in the international ex- 
change of students and trainees; the cooperation with 
private agencies and, through the Secretariat of the Inter- 
departmental Committee on Scientific and Cultural Cooj)- 
eration, with Government agencies in the development of 
a coordinated body of standards of selection, placement, 
and supervision of students and trainees on international 
exchange; and the cooperation in all other matters con- 
nected with the interchange of students and trainees. 

The Division of Libraries and Institutes 

132.15 The Division of LmEARiES and Institutes 
(ILI) : (Effective 12-31^5) The Division of Libraries 
and Institutes, Office of International Information and 
Cultural Affairs, shall be responsible for the initial for- 
mulation of operational policy with respect to, and the 
conduct of, the participation of the Department in the 
international exchange of information, knowledge, and 
skills so far as such operations involve the establishment 
of, assistance to, operation of, or the provision of books 
and other cultural materials for, libraries, cultural cen- 
ters, schools, or other institutions in foreign lands and 
for other uses by the missions. 

I Fttnctions. The major functions of the Division 
shall include : 

A Development and maintenance of programs de- 
signed to facilitate the interchange of information, 
knowledge, and skills by the procurement of printed 
materials and their dissemination through institutional 
activity and participation in cultural cooperation pro- 
grams arising from international agreements. 

B Interchange of publications, music, art, scientific 
equipment, and other cultural materials, and the main- 
tenance of the necessary procedures to promote the rapid 
and effective interchange of cultural materials. 

C Assistance in the establishment and effective 
maintenance of libraries, institutes, and centers for the 
OIC program. 

D Assistance, on request, for correlative activities 
such as library services to diplomatic and consular es- 
tablishments. 

E Liaison with the book trade. 

P Planning and managing of the non-governmental 
translation program for the publication, in foreign lan- 
guages, of selected materials in English ; and, in English, 
of selected foreign materials. 

G Assistance and counsel to organizations engaged 
in maintaining schools and other institutions in foreign 
countries. 



Area Divisions 

132.16 Abba Divi-siONS : (Effective 12-31-45) Area Di- 
visions I, II, III, IV, and V shall be responsible, each in 
its assigned geographic area, for the initial planning of, 
and the general supervision of, all programs of OIO con- 
ducted in foreign lands. The administrative supervision 
and servicing of all Government employees abroad engaged 
in such programs shall be the responsibility of the Foreign 
Service of the United States. All program planning, super- 
vision, and servicing shall be carried out in the closest 
cooperation with, and through the appropriate channels 
of, the Foreign Service of the United States and the Geo- 
graphic Offices of the Department. 

I Area Division I (Europe) (AED) shall be respon- 
sible for the programs of OIC in countries under the juris- 
diction of the Office of European Affairs with the excep- 
tion of Germany and Austria. 

II Area Division II (Near East and Africa) (ADN) 
shall be responsible for the programs of OIC in countries 
under the jurisdiction of the Office of Near Eastern and 
African Affairs. 

III Area Division III (Far East) (ADF) shall be 
responsible for the programs of OIC in countries under the 
jurisdiction of the Office of Far Eastern Affairs with the 
exception of Japan and Korea. 

IV Area Division IV (Other American Republics) 
(ADA) shall be responsible for the programs of OIC in 
countries under the jurisdiction of the Office of American 
Republic Affairs. 

V Area Division V (Occupied Areas) (ADO) shall be 
responsible for the programs of OIC in Germany, Austria, 
Korea, and Japan. 

A Functions. The major functions of these divi- 
sions shall include : 

1 Planning the informational and cultural pro- 
grams in their respective areas. While programs will 
be developed in the closest cooperation with the chiefs 
of the media divisions, the decision as to content of pro- 
grams shall rest with the appropriate Area Division 
Chief, in accordance with the program and policy direc- 
tives of the Program Planning and Evaluation Board. 

2 Coordinating the various programs of OIC 
abroad at the operating stage and establishing controls 
over projects in operation, requests from the field for 
action, and proposals originating elsewhere in OIC or 
the Department. 

3 Liaison with the appropriate Geographic Offices 
of the Department and their component Divisions to 
insure that the informational and cultural programs 
will harmonize with the over-all policies and objectives 
of the Department and that they are so planned as to 
aid the effective implementation of these policies. 

4 In close cooperation with the Office of the Foreign 
Service, and other Offices and Divisions of the Depart- 
ment, recruiting, training, and supervising of the field 
employees engaged in the informational and cultural 
program. 

5 Analytical studies of field reports concerned with 
program content and effectiveness to further the plan- 
ning of more effective programs. 



46 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



•^ THE CONGRESS ^ 

An Act Making appropriations to supply deficiencies in 
certain appropriations for the fiscal year ending June 30, 
1946, and for prior fiscal years, to provide supplemental 
appropriations for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1946, and 
for otlier purposes. Approved December 28, 1945. H.R. 
4805, Public Law 269, 79th Cong. 29 pp. 

Elimination of German Resources for War : Hearings 
before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Military 
Afi'airs, United States Senate, Seventy-ninth Congress, 
first session, pursuant to S.Res. 107 (78th Congress) and 
S.Res. 146 (79th Congress), Authorizing a Study of War 
Mobilization Problems. Part 7, December 1945, I. G. Far- 
ben Material Submitted by the War Department, ii, 102 
pp. 

First Deficiency Appropriation Bill for 1946: Hearings 
before the Subcommittee of the Committee on Appropria- 
tions, House of Representatives, Seventy-ninth Congress, 



first session, on the First Deficiency Appropriation Bill 
for 1946. Part 1. ii, 893 pp. [Indexed.] 

First Deficiency Appropriation Bill for 1946: Hearings 
before a Subcomittee of the Committee on Appropria- 
tions, United States Senate, Seventy-ninth Congress, first 
session, on H.R. 4805, a bill making appropriations to 
supply deficiencies in certain appropriations for the fiscal 
year ending June 30, 1946, and for prior fiscal years, to 
provide supplemental appropriations for the fiscal year 
ending June 30, 1946, and for other purposes. Part 1. ii, 
600 pp. [Indexed.] Part 2. ii, 197 pp. [Indexed.] 



^ THE FOREIGN SERVICE ^ 

Diplomatic and Consular Offices 

The American Embassy at Peiping, China, will be closed 
on December 31, 1945, and the American Consulate at 
Peiping will be established on January 1, 1&16. 



ADVEETISEMENT 



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FEDERAL^REGISTER 

\, ''^* «i^^ 



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effect to the Federal Register for daily publication. 

• The Federal Register presents the only oflScial publication of the text of Federal regulations and notices 

restricting or expanding commercial operations. 



{ 



A sample copy and additional information on request to the Federal Register, 
National Archives, Washington 25, D. C. 



■] 



115 a year 



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Order from 
SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS, U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFHCE, WASHINGTON 25, D. C. 



JANUARY 6 AND 13, 1946 4T 



Contents — continued 



The Department Page 

Office of International Information and Cultural Affairs . 42 

The International Press and Publications Division ... 43 

The International Broadcasting Division 43 

The International Motion Pictures Division 44 

The Division of International Exchange of Persons ... 44 

The Division of Libraries and Institutes 45 

Area Divisions 45 

The Congress 46 

The Foreign Service 

Diplomatic and Consular Offices 46 



U. S. COVERKMENT PRINTING OFFICE: t946 

PUBLISHED WITH APPROVAf OF DIRECTOR 
OF BUREAU OF THE BUDGET 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

msiM 

VOL. XIY, NO. 342 JANUARY 20, 1946 



In this issue 



I 



The British Loan — What It Means to Us 

SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY VINSON AND ACTING SECRETARY OF STATE ACHESON 

General Assembly of UNO 

REPORT FROM LONDON 

First Inter-American Demographic Congress 

By SARAH E. ROBERTS 

Detail of U. S. Personnel to Other Governments 

By HENRY H. McGEORGE 

Bermuda Telecommunications Conference 

By HELEN G. KELLY 






For complete contents 

see inside cover C 



\ 







THE DEPAKT.AIENT OF STATE 



BULLETIN 



Vol. XIV -No. 342 




Publication 2453 



January 20, 1946 



For sale by the Superintendent of DocumenlB 

U. S. Government Printing Oflfice 

Washington 25, D. C. 

Subscription: 

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(renewable only on > early basis) 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Research and 
Publication, Office of Public Affairs, 
provides the public and interested 
agencies of the Government with 
information on developments in the 
field of foreign relations and on the 
uork of the Department of State and 
the Foreign Service. The BULLETIM 
includes press releases on foreign 
policy issued by the W hite House and 
the Department, and statements and 
addresses made by the President anil 
by the Secretary of State and other 
officers of the Department, as uell as 
special articles on various phases of 
international affairs and the functions 
of the Department. Information con- 
cerning treaties and international 
agreements touhich the UnitedStates 
is or may beconte a party antl treaties 
of general international interest is 
included. 

Publications of the Department, cu- 
mulative lists of which are piiblishetl 
at the end of each quarter, as well as 
legislative material in thefield of inter- 
national relations, are listed currently. 







ontents 



The British Loan— What It Means to Us: Radio ^*s« 

Broadcast 51 

American Observers in Greek Elections 56 

Proposals for Overseas Information Service: Letter 

From the Secretary of State to the President . 57 
Control of Atomic Energy: 

Statement by the Secretary of State 58 

Appointment of Committee 58 

Tlie Bermuda Telecommunications Conference. By 

Helen G. Kelly •. . . . 59 

Industrial Property. Luxembourg 61 

General Assembly of L^NO: Report From London 

to the Office of Public Affairs, Department of 

State 62 

The First Inter-American Demographic Congress. 

By Sarah E. Roberts 66 

Detail of U. S. Personnel to Other Qovernments. 

By Henry H. McGeorge 72 

Ban on Exit Permits for Austria Lifted 73 

International Organizations and Conferences 

Calendar of Meetings 74 

Activities and Developments: 

Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry 74 

U. S. Representative on Economic and t^ocial Council of 

UNO 74 

Civil Aviation Conference 75 

The Record of the Week 

Denial of Russell Xixon'f Conclusions on "Protection" of 

German Assets 76 

$25,000,000 Loan to Greek Government 78 

Plants Available for Allocation on German Reparation 

Account 79 

Recognition of Austrian Government 81 

li)33 Sanitary Convention. United Kingdom 81 

United Kingdom Monetary Agreements. Czechoslovakia, 

Ketherlands, and Norway 81 

All-Hemisphere Cojjy right Conference 82 

Inter-American Indian Institute. Guatemala 82 

Military .\viatiun Mission. Bolivia 83 

.\ir-Transport .Agreement With Czechoslovakia 83 

The Department 

Transfer of Functions Concerned With Consular Services 

to Ships and Seamen 83 

The FoREicN Service 

Diplomatic Offices • . 83 

PUBLICATIONS 

Department of State 84 



MAR 19 1946 

The British Loan — What It Means to Us 



RADIO BROADCAST 



Participants 

Fred M. Vinson 

Secretary of the Treasury 
Dean Acheson 

Acting Secretary of State 
Sterling Fisher 

Director, NBC University of the Air 

Announcer: Here are Headlines From Wash- 
ington : 

Secretary of the Treasury Vinson Says British 
Loan Agreement Will Bring Increased Trade 
and Prosperity; Adds Tliat Alternative to 
Loan Is Division of World Into Viciously 
Competing Economic Blocs, With Eesulting 
Danger to World Peace. 

Acting Secretary of State Dean Aclieson Says 
Three Quarters of Future World Trade "\^^ill 
Be Carried On in Dollars and Pounds Ster- 
ling; Claims Provisions of British Loan 
Essential To Free World Trade From Exces- 
sive Restrictions. 

This is the fifth in a group of State Department 
programs broadcast by the NBC University of the 
Air as part of a larger series entitled "Our Foreign 
Policy.*' This time the Secretary of the Treasury, 
Fred M. Vinson, and the Acting Secretary of 
State, Dean Acheson, will discuss ''The British 
Loan". Sterling Fisher, Director of the NBC 
University of the Air, will serve as chairman of 
the discussion. Mr. Fisher — 

Fisher: The i)r()i)()sed loan to Great Britain has 
been the subject of lively discussion since its terms 
were announced last month.^ Many questions have 
been raised by the jiress and public al)out the loan, 
and it has seemed to us tliat tliey deserve frank 
answers. Secretary Vinson, I'd like to ask you, 
as one of the Americans who negotiated tlie agree- 

' Released to the press .lati. 12. Separate prints of this 
broadcast are availalile from the Department of State. 

" For text of the financial agreement, see Bulletin of 
Dec. 9, 194.0, p. 907. 



ment, to describe briefly the proposed terms of the 
loan itself, so that we may know whereof we speak. 

Vinson : The outlines of the agreement are 
simple, Mr. Fisher. We agree to advance a line 
of credit of $3,750,000,000 to Great Britain to buy 
the goods she needs from abroad to help maintain 
her economy while she gets back on her feet. Pay- 
ments of principal and interest— the interest rate 
is 2 percent — start in 1951 and continue for 50 
years, until the loan is paid up. The British, for 
their part, agree to remove many of the discrimina- 
tory exchange and import restrictions which now 
exist. Without the loan it would be impossible for 
tliem to do this. The net results will be of tre- 
mendous value to us and to the whole world, in 
terms of increased trade and prosperity. 

Fisher: Now, Mr. Acheson, I know you have 
taken a special interest in <iur economic policy, first 
as Assistant Secretary of State for Economic Af- 
fairs and more recently as Under Secretary of 
State. What do you say on the Briti.sh loan? 

Acheson : The loan will make it po.ssible for the 
United Kingdom to get back to a peacetime econ- 
omy and join us in developing an ever-increas- 
ing volume of world trade wiiich both of us need 
and the whole world needs. 

Fisher: I have here what is perhaps the finest 
collection of tough questions about the loan that 
has yet been made up. I'll start off with some of 
the milder ones and woik up to the meaner ones 
later. Secretary Vinson, we might start with the 
question of whether Great Britain really needs 
a loan the size of tliis one. Some people are al- 
ready saying, you know, that we are being taken 
for a ride by the wily British. 

Vinson: The debate in the British Parliament 
does not support this conclusion. But there is al- 
ways someone who is ready to assume that we 
will get the worst of everything. The fact is, 
we went into the subject of Britain's economic con- 
dition very thoroughly, and here's where we came 
out — for the next few years Britain will be short 
several billion dollars which slie needs to buy es- 



51 



52 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



seiitial imports. In other words, in order to main- 
tain their economy even at an austei"e level, in the 
next few years the Britisii will have to pay ont 
that ninch more abroad than they take in from 
abroad. It is to our interest and the interest of 
everyone else in the world that Britain be able to 
get back on her feet. Hence the importance of the 
loan. 

Fisher: Why do the British find themselves 
in sncli an unfavorable spot? Haven't they looked 
after Britisii interests pretty well, even during 
the war ? 

Vinson: Xo — the war and war production have 
always come first. So many Britisii industries 
have l)een makino- war materials that now they 
have vei'y few civilian <;(,()ds to export. But even 
though their exports are low. tlie British must 
import huge quantities of food and raw materials 
in order to live. On top of all this, they have 
been forced to sell about four and a half billion 
dollars in foreign investments to keep the war 
going. That cut their income further. And al- 
though we supplied a lot of Britain's war needs 
through lend-lease, she will ])e in debt at the end 
of this year to the tune of about II billion dollars 
to her Dominions, India, and other countries. 
She has to export goods not only to pay for her 
imports but also to pay off part of that debt. And 
she is not yet able to produce many goods for 
export. So you can see what she is up against. 

AciiESON : We have to remember that Great 
Britain has been at war for six years. Before the 
war, Britain was one of the world's greatest trad- 
ing nations. One fifth of all the world's com- 
merce moved in and out of her ports. During 
the war she poured everything she had into the 
prosecution of the war. She had to do this; she 
was right upon the edge of the battle, and her 
existence depended on it. At the end of the war, 
she found herself with only one third of her pre- 
war trade. For a nation that has to bring in huge 
amounts of goods to live, that could oidy mean 
disaster, unless something were done about it. 

Fisher: What would have happened, Mr. Vin- 
son, if the loan negotiations had fallen through? 

Vinson : The British could have existed by 
cutting their imports and their living standards. 
They would have cut their purchases from the 
United States, and other countries, to the very 
bone. This they would have had to do indefinitely 
and it would have meant very bad business for us. 
Before the war, almost one sixth of our exports 



went to the United Kingdom alone, to say nothing 
of the Dominions. In fact, we sold the British 
much more than we bought from them. We want 
to revive and increase that trade. But that isn't 
all. I'd like to point out that we're. dealing here 
with a problem of vast dimensions. Before the 
war there were two great currencies in interna- 
tional trade — the dollar and the pound sterling. 
In V.)?>H half of the world's trade was done in these 
two currencies. 

AcHESON : And we could add that, now that Ger- 
many and Jajtan are pretty well out of the picture, 
something like three quarters of the world's trade 
will be carried on in pounds and dollars. So it's 
not only our trade with Britain or her trade with 
us that is involved here. 

Vinson : If both the dollar and the pound are 
strong, it will mean that trade everywhere will be 
free of excessive restrictions. The level of trade 
for virtu.dly the whole world depends on the elimi- 
nation of restrictions on the dollar and the pound. 
That's a main reason why the proposed British 
loan is important. 

Fisher: Mr. Acheson, what specific advantages 
will we reap from the proposed loan? Just what 
do the Britisii undertake to do to open world 
markets ? 

Acheson : First, as soon as Congress approves 
the credit, the Britisii are required to put an end 
to exchange controls on day-to-day business trans- 
actions with Americans. It will mean that an 
American manufacturer who has sold goods to 
Great Britain will be able to collect his proceeds 
in dollars. 

FisiiER : And after that ? 

Acheson : Second, at the end of one year, it is 
required that exchange controls be ended through- 
out the whole sterling area. 

Fisher : Will yon explain just what the sterling 
area is, Mr. Acheson, before we go any further? 

Acheson : The sterling area is the area where 
the British pound sterling is most extensively used 
for international transactions. It takes in the 
British Empire and all the Dominions, except Can- 
ada and Newfoundland, and it includes India, 
Egypt, Iraq, and Iceland. But I should add that 
under the terms of the agreement, at the end of a 
year no restrictions will be imposed by the British 
on day-to-day transactions in ani/ part of the 
Morld. 

Fisher: What about British import restrictions 



JANUARY 20, 1946 



53 



on Americiin goods, Mr. Vinson? How long will 
they be continued* 

Vinson : They'll be very much lightened by the 
end of 194(i, Mr. Fisher, becanse by that date the 
British will have removed all discriminatory re- 
strictions. Of course, tiiey will keep some controls 
over the kinds of goods their people buy. They'll 
have to, becanse they won't have foreign money 
enougii to go around. But if they decide to spend 
so much on tobacco, or .stockings, or machine tools, 
American firms will be able to compete freely for 
the business. Tliere will be no more discrimi- 
natory quotas applied against the United States. 

Fisher: And about imperial preference, Mr. 
Acheson — the system whereby Britain gives tariff 
preference to British Empire goods as compared 
to American goods. 

AcHESON : The British have agreed to support 
the American proposals to reduce and eventually 
eliminate these special privileges. In some ways, 
the joint American and British statement on com- 
mercial policy is the most important part of the 
agreement. The United States has made certain 
proposals for consideration by a United Nations 
trade conference, wiiich we expect will be held late 
next summer. The British have joined us in these 
proposals for tariff reductions and an end to ham- 
pering restrictions of all sorts. 

Fisher: Now, Mr. Acheson, what bearing does 
Britain's war record have on the loan? 

AciiESON : Mr. Fisher, all of us have great ad- 
miration for the British and we think they did 
a great job in the war. We have great sympathy 
for what they have suffered. But that has nothi)ig 
to do with this loan. This loan is not a pen- 
sion for a worthy war partner. It's not a hand- 
out. It's not a question of relief, of bundles for 
Britain. This loan looks to the future, not to 
the past. It does the things that are necessary 
to keep the kind of world we want. We're willing 
to bet three and three-quarters billion dollars 
that we and the British can make it work. It's 
a case of opening up the trade of the world, so 
that money will be good anywhere in trade. The 
things the British have agreed with us to do will 
go a long way toward accomplishing that — toward 
making it possible for our people to go out and 
do business freely anywhere in the world. That's 
the kind of world we want to live in. 

Fisher: The advantages do add up to quite a 
lot. But there is some criticism of the actual 
terms of the loan that I think vou ought to deal 



with. For example, the interest rate. Mr. Vin- 
son, isn't 2 percent a pretty low rate of interest? 

Vinson : I would say it's a very reasonabJe 
rate. When the British first came here to nego- 
tiate, they would have liked an outright grant. 
We soon convinced them this was impossible. 
Their next preference was for a loan free of inter- 
est. This was also out of the question. The 
interest rate we finally agreed on was what we 
could reasonably expect them to pay. 

Fisher: But isn't there some provision, Mr. 
Vinson, for omitting the interest payments under 
certain conditions ? 

Vinson : Yes — but Britain must always meet the 
payments on the principal. However, in any year 
whei'e the jDresent and prospective conditions of 
international exchange are bad, and Britain's gold 
and other reserves are low, and where her income 
from foreign transactions falls below a certain 
standard, the United States will waive the interest. 
If in any year in the future conditions are so bad, 
it would be better for us and for Britain to have 
the interest waived than to have Britain default 
on the entire credit, as she might otherwise have to. 

Acheson : And remember this too : If interest 
jiayments on the loan are waived by the United 
States, then Great Britain must have her other 
creditors waive interest payments on their loans 
to her. 

Fisher : Are the interest payments just post- 
poned, Mr. Vinson? 

Vinson : No, they'll be written off the books. 

Acheson: If all the interest payments are met, 
Britain will eventually pay us back $2,200,000,000 
more than the credit we're advancing. That's a 
very considerable sum. 

Fisher : Contrary to what some people say, then, 
Mr. Acheson, it's .strictly a business arrangement. 

Acheson : I think it's wrong to think of the loan 
ffimphj as a business arrangement. We're not in 
this to make money out of Britain. We made what 
everybody thought was a "businesslike arrange- 
ment" after the last war. Foreign governments 
floated loans, with engraved bonds and all the 
trimmings, including much higher rates of interest 
than we're asking the British to pay now. But 
after the last .war the foreign governments found 
it impossible to repay those loans. And why ? Be- 
cause we tried to collect payments and interest on 
our loans, wdiile at the same time we refused to let 
our debtors sell us goods to get the dollars they 
needed to pay off these debts to us. 



54 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Vinson : This time, we are milking the loan on 
terms we believe will make repayment possible. 
We have a foreign economic policy now which we 
believe will permit other nations to trade with ns 
and increase tlie total world trade. In fact, we 
are working hard to establish a system wliich will 
cause trade to expand so much that the British will 
find it easy to repay us. 

Acheson: As the Secretary lias said, we don't 
intend to repeat the history of tlie AA'orld AVar I 
loans. 

Fisher: But, Mr. Acheson, can we be sure that 
the British won't default on this loan? 

Acheson : Of course, we take some chance. 
There's always some risk involved in making loans. 
But the total context of the agreement makes it 
possible for them to pay this time. We know they 
expect to and we believe they will. 

Fisher: Then there's the matter of the lend- 
lease settlement. Mv. Acheson, what about that ? 
Isn't it a pretty generous settlement? 

Acheson: No, I think it's a fair settlement. 
Most of the lend-lease material we sent to Britain 
has been used up against the eonnnon enemj-. 
We've written that off. We didn't charge the 
British for the bombs the RAF dropped on Berlin 
and they didn't charge us airmail for delivery. 
The remainder — war materials of various sorts — 
would be worth very little to us. if we chose to 
haul them home. We agieed that $650,000,000 was 
a fair price for the supplies that remained, after 
taking into account the reverse lend-lease which 
the British furnished to us and which was not 
consumed during the war. This time we have 
looked at the entire war account and struck a bal- 
ance, so that what the British will ])ay us will 
completely clean up all of the mutual claims be- 
tween our two countries arising out of the war. 

Fisher; Now for some of the tougher ipiesl ions. 
There have been a number of comments on the loan 
to this effect ; Why didn't we get more of a quid 
fro quo from the British? They have certain ter- 
ritories in this hemisphere, for example, where we 
need permanent bases. What about that, Mr. 
Acheson ? 

Acheson : The proposed loan, Mr. Fisher, is a 
financial and economic agreement between two 
great nations. We did not attempt to use the 
leverage of the loan to obtain territorial conces- 
sions. To demand such concessions as part of the 
loan agreement would have been like saying to 
Bi-itain, "Sure, we'll help you get back on your 



feet, but not unless you hand over some of your 
territoi'y. and do things our way from now on". 
You can imagine how any self-respecting nation 
would react to that. They would have felt we 
were taking advantage of their necessities to drive 
a sharp bargain in a totally different field. No, 
the prof)osed loan is an economic question. It is 
as essential to the foreign economic policy of the 
United States as it is to the future economic pros- 
perity of Great Britain. It's a mutual arrange- 
ment for mutual benefits, arrived at out of nuitual 
necessity. And if a lot of extraneous, non-eco- 
nomic matters had Ijeen injected into the discus- 
sion, it's doubtful whether an agreement could 
ever have been reached. 

Fisher : But, Mr. Acheson, do the same consid- 
erations apply to such matters as comnumications 
and civil aviation? 

Acheson: Yes. I think they do. We have al- 
ready worked out a very good agreement with the 
British on connnunications. That was done at 
the recent Bermuda Telecomnnuiications Confer- 
ence. And for civil aviation, we expect to settle 
our ditl'erences in that field around a conference 
table, too. 

Fisin-:R: Now. here's a basic question. Mr. Vin- 
son: Can we afford this credit of $3.7r>(),000,000 
to Great Britain? Where is the money coming 
from ? 

Vinson : Well, at the end of the war we were 
spending 250 million dollars a day for war pur- 
poses. The British ci'edit. over and above lend- 
lease settlement, is equal to what we spent in 15 
days on the war. Once Congress has approved 
it. the credit will come out of the United States 
Treasury from time to time, as Britain requires 
funds. It will increase our debt by a little more 
than one peivent, it's true. This credit is an in- 
vestment, not an expenditure. We will get it 
back with interest. And in view of what's at 
stake — a healthy Britain and a healthy world 
trade — I don't think we can afford not to make 
the loan. 

Fisher : Another question that is commonly 
asked, Mr. Vinson, is whether we won't be setting 
a precedent for loans to other countries if this 
credit is advanced to Britain. I understand that 
when all bids are in, we may be faced with appli- 
cations for loans totaling 20 billion dollars from 
our various allies. 

Vinson: Mr. Fisher, no other nation plays the 
part in world trade that Britain plays. She is in 



JANUARY 20, 1946 



55 



a special position in this respect — it is incon- 
ceivable that world trade conld be restored and 
expanded unless the British are willinj;- and able 
to join in the effort. In regard to the figure of 
20 billion dollars which you mentioned. 1 would 
like to point out tliat these large figures are just 
somebody's guess on the total a/^pJicaflruif, and it 
is far too high at that. The Government, of 
course, is not lending any such large sums. The 
Government is going to be very careful in con- 
sidering foreign loan applications. 

Fisiiek: Then there's this question, Mr. Vinson, 
and it's also a very common one : In helping Brit- 
ain to get back on her feet, won't we be financing 
our competitor^ Won't this endanger American 
trade, in the long run ? 

Vinson: That notion is based on a fallacy — 
the mistaken idea that there is only so much trade 
to be had — the idea that foreign trade is like a 
melon, and if someone else gets a big slice you get 
a smaller one, in direct proportion. That's simply 
not true. As trade increases, there is more for 
everybody. And the principal purpose of this 
loan is to increase international trade generally. 

Acheson: It isn't competitive trade that we 
fear, it's discriminatory trade — trade hampered by 
high tariffs, exchange restrictions, quotas and so 
on. The British loan enables us to move away 
from these devices, which limit our ability to sell 
abroad. 

Vinson : And let's not forget the fact that Brit- 
ain is normally our best overseas customer. She 
can buy more abroad only if she is prosperous, and 
if she sells more abroad. To restore British trade 
is the first and most important move toward re- 
storing normal American peacetime foreign trade. 
Britain won't be a good customer of ours until 
she's back on her feet. And we need her trade. 

Fisher: Another interesting question, Mr. 
Acheson, is this one : In making this loan to the 
Labor government of Great Britain, won't we be 
''financing Socialism'' '. 

Acheson: No, we will not lie "financing So- 
cialism". When the British Government takes 
over any British private industry it makes pay- 
ment in British Government bonds, and when in- 
terest and principal on the bonds fall due it pays 
them in pounds sterling. It gets the pounds ster- 
ling by taxing the British people or by borrowing 
from them or from British banks. It doesn't need 
to come to us for its own currency. The loan we 



are making is in dollars. The British Government 
needs dollars not to finance expenditures in Britain 
but to finance pui-chases in other countries and 
esi^ecially in this country. The loan will very 
greatly help the British people to finance what they 
need to buy abroad. It has nothing whatever to 
do with what their Government decides to buy at 
home. 

FisiiKR : Now we come to one of the toughest 
questions of all. It's a fairly technical one, but I'll 
try to state it sinii)ly. AVe're facing a danger of 
inflation here at home. We don't have enough 
goods to meet our own demands. If you suddenly 
hand Great Britain three and three-quarters billion 
dollars in purchasing power to buy goods over 
here, won't that be an added pressure for inflation? 
Mr. Vinson, that's one for you to answer, if you 
can. 

Vinson: Well, Mr. Fisher, if you suddenly 
dumped three or four billion dollars in pnri'hasing 
power on the American market, it might well be 
an added force for inflation. But that won't hap- 
pen. The credit will be spread over a period of 
several years, and so it probidily won't add more 
than one or two percent to inirchasing power at 
any one time. And another thing — the British 
won't be buying automobiles and refrigerators 
and other things for which demand is greatest here 
in the United States. The things they'll be buying 
from us will be raw materials, machinery, and 
things that we can spare, for the most part. 
Finally, let me say this : If we get dangerous infla- 
tion, it won't be because of the British loan. The 
causes will be a lot nearer home than that. It will 
be because we have failed to get our peacetime pro- 
duction, rolling soon enough; (U- it will be because 
controls are lifted too soon. These are the real 
danger points — not the Briti.sh loan. 

Fisher: I have one more question, Mr. Acheson. 
In her present condition, is Britain a good invest- 
ment ? 

Acheson: We think she is. All Britain needs 
is a chance to come back economically. If we 
don't give her that chance, then we might as well 
say good-by to our aim of a world with an expand- 
ing trade and rising standards of living. Just 
consider the alternative, and you'll see that we've 
got to help the British to recover. 

Fisher: What is the alternative? 

Acheson : The alternative is that we do not get 
the commercial arrangements which are necessary 
for the survival of our free industrial system. The 



56 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



alternative is the division of the workl into warring 
economic blocs. 

FisiiER : Do you agree with tliat dire prediction, 
Mr. Vinson ? 

Vinson : Yes, Dean is absohitely right. The al- 
ternative to helj)ing the Britisli is to face an exten- 
sion and tightening up of the wliole series of trade 
and exchange controls that have been put in effect 
during the war. The world would soon be divided 
into a few relatively closed economic regions. That 
would mean restricted trade, lower living stand- 
ards, bitter rivalry, and stored-up hatred for the 
United States as the richest nation in the world. 
That would be a dangerous course to take. I'm 
confident that we'll have sense enough to choose 
the other way. 

Fisher: To sunnnarize what you've said, then, 
the proposed British loan is an essential step to- 
ward the expanding world trade that we need if 
we are to remain prosperous. Its terms offer great 
advantages to both parties. It's a loan, not a gift, 
and the total credit we shall advance will be very 
small compared to the benefits we shall receive. 
The alternative to tlie loan would be a reversion 
to destructive economic nationalism such as we had 
in the period between the last two wars. 

Vinson : If there's time, Mr. Fisher, I'd like to 
quote a few sentences from a newspaper editorial I 
have here. 

Fisher : Go right ahead, Mr. Secretary. 

Vi.vson: It's from the A?-k(insas Democrat, and 
I thiidf it puts the whole thing in 2)erspective as 
well as anything I've seen. Here's what it says: 

". . . Without this credit, Britain M'ould have 
to embark on a fight for world trade by every 
device she could invent . . . 

"AVe would have to battle that set-up, with its 
wealth of raw nuiterials and its manufacturing 
skills, for trade in South America and every out- 
lying corner of the world. 

"It would be sheer stupidity to force such a 
course on Britain. The cost to us in trade w^ould 
eventually be far greater than the amount of the 
loan, even if it's never repaid. 

"More than that, Britain nui.st be strong if 
there is to be a balanced world, with any prospect 
for peace. She is our natural ally, and a feeble, 
impoverished Britain . . . would weaken our 
own position. 

"This loan isn't an act of charity. It's just good 
sense." 



So says the Arkan.'<as Democrat^ and I agree. 

Fisher : Well, thank you very much, Mr. Vin- 
son and Mr. Acheson, for answering our questions 
on the British loan. 

Announcer : That was Sterling Fisher, Direc- 
tor of the NBC University of the Air. He has 
been interviewing Secretary of the Treasury Fred 
M. Vinson and Under Secretary of State Dean 
Acheson. The discussion was adapted for radio 
by Selden Menefee. 

Next week we shall present a discussion of our 
policy in Korea and its implications for the Far 
East and the world. Participants will be John 
Carter Vincent, Director of the OfKce of Far East- 
ern Affairs, and Edwin M. ^lartin. Chief of the 
Division of Japanese and Korean Economic Af- 
fairs of the State Department; and Col. Brainerd 
E. Prescott of the War Department Civil Affairs 
Division, former Civil Administrator of the 
United States zone in Korea. 



American Observers in 
Greek Elections' 

On January 11 the President appointed the fol- 
lowing members of the United States Delegation 
which will participate with representatives of 
Great Britain and France in observing the coming 
elections in Greece: Maj. Gen. Harry J. Malony, 
U.S.A., who accompanied Ambassador Grady on 
his recent ]U'eliminary trip to London and Athens; 
Walter Hampton Mallory, who served on the Lon- 
don Munitions Assignment Board, 1945; Joseph 
Coy Green, Adviser on Arms and Munitions Con- 
trol, State Department ; James Grafton Rogers, 
former Assistant Secretary of State ; William Wes- 
ley Wayniack, editor of the Des Moines Register 
and Tribune; and Herman B. Wells, president. 
University of Indiana. Members of the Delega- 
tion, which will be headed by Henry F. Grady, 
will have the personal rank of Minister. The mis- 
sion is being sent to Greece in accordance with the 
undertaking assumed by the United States Govern- 
ment at the Crimea Conference to assist the peoples 
of liberated European coiuitries in solving their 
political problems by democratic means and in cre- 
ating democratic institutions of their own choice. 



'Released to the pres.s by the AVliite House Jan. 11. 



JAJSVARY 20, 1946 



57 



Proposals for Overseas Information Service 



lettp:k from the secretary of state 
to the president 1 

December 31, 1945. 
My Deak Mr. President: 

On August 31 you issued an Executive Oi'dei- 
transferring to tlie Department of State the over- 
seas information functions of the OtHce of AVar 
Information and the Ottice of Inter-American 
Affarirs. You ordered them to be consolidated, 
until December 31, in an Interim International 
Information Service within the Department. At 
the same time you asked me to study our foreign 
informational needs and to formulate during the 
remainder of this calendar year the program to 
be conducted on a continuing basis. 

The overseas information functions of the war 
agencies in this field have been transferred and 
consolidated, as you directed. Their transferred 
personnel has been reduced by half, and many of 
their functions have been ended. The study which 
you requested from me has been made, and on 
January 1 a new Office of International Informa- 
tion and Cultural Atfairs, within the Department, 
will begin to conduct those activities of the former 
war agencies which I feel should be carried on in 
peacetime in the national interest. 

All of this consolidation, reduction and plan- 
ning has taken place without a break, anywhere 
in the world, in the etfort to present what you 
described on August 31 as a ''full and fair picture 
of American life and of the aims and policies of 
the United States Government." 

There never was a time, even in the midst of war, 
when it was so necessary to replace prejudice with 
truth, distortion with balance, and suspicion with 
understanding. 

The past four months have imposed critically 
important tasks upon our information officers in 
every country. Many of them have been serving 
in distant posts, cut off from their homes and fami- 
lies, uncertain about their pay and status, yet they 
have carried on in the finest traditions of American 
foreign service. I should like to commend them, 
and those who have continued servicing them at 
home, for living up to the trust which their country 
placed in them. 



' Relea.sed to the press by the White House Jan. 10. 
679885 — 46 2 



Detailed proposals for the future overseas infor- 
mation service, in terms of money and personnel 
required after July 1, 1946, have been submitted to 
the Bureau of the Budget for submission to you 
and to the Congress. These ])roposals call for the 
maintenance of American libraries of information 
abroad, the supplying of documentary and back- 
ground material by wireless and by mail to our 
mi.ssions overseas, the scoring of documentary films 
into foreign languages, the continued publication 
of a Russian-language magazine for distribution in 
the Soviet Union, the continuing supply of visual 
materials about the United States, and the mainte- 
nance in sixty-two countries of small staffs to con- 
duct our informational and cultural relations, 
under the direct .supervision of the chiefs of our 
diplomatic missions. 

To the.se activities will be added an extension to 
many other countries of the work now being done 
by the Department, principally in Latin America, 
in exchanging students, scholars and technicians 
on behalf of twenty-six agencies of the Federal 
Government. 

Finally, the proposals provided for the continu- 
ance of short wave broadcasting on a reduced scale 
until recommendations can be made to you and 
to the Congress for the ultimate disposition of the 
transmitters and the frequencies now in the Gov- 
ernment's hands. Many countries are interested in 
the development of this powerful new medium 
giving us direct access to the peoples of other lands 
who want to understand the American people and 
their policies. 

The Department's proposals will constitute a 
modest program compared to wartime standards. 
AVe shall not seek to compete with private agencies 
of communication, nor shall we try to outdo the 
efforts of foreign governments in this field. Our 
program, however, calls for a significant expan- 
sion, in terms of personnel and budget, of the pre- 
war expenditures of the Deiiartment of State. It 
will be a new departure for the United States, the 
last of the great nations of the earth to engage in 
informing other peoples about its policies and 
institutions. 

AA'^e cannot expect to carry on our foreign rela- 
tions effectively unless we recognize this activity 
{Coiitiiiiird oil next page) 



58 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Control of Atomic Energy 

STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY OF 
STATE 1 

In accordance with usnal practice, the resohition 
as to the control of atomic energy - will niuloubt- 
edly be referred to a committee, and our repre- 
sentatives will have ample opportunity to make 
certain that there is no misunderstanding as to the 
purpose, scope, and operation of the Connnission. 

The phases of the problem which the Connnis- 
sion is to inquire into are the phases of the problem 
raised by the discovery of atomic energy referred 
to in the opening sentence of the proposed resolu- 
tion. The problem referred to was not how atomic 
energy is pioduced, but how it shall be controlled 
in the interest of peace. I do not see how the 
language used can possibly be construed to give 
the Connnission authority to obtain information 
which is not publicly available or which is not 
voluntarily given to it. 

Under the United Nations Charter neither the 
Assembly nor any commission created by it has 
authority to compel action on the part of any 
state. The language of the resolution makes clear 
that even as to the exchange of basic scientific in- 
formation for peaceful purposes the Commission 
has authority only to make reconnnendations. 

Wliile our Delegation to the Assembly may vote 
to authoiize a study by a commission of the inter- 
national problems raised by the discovery of atomic 
energy, such action could not give to the Commis- 
sion the authority to decide what infoi-mation the 
United States or any other government should 
place at its disposal. 

INFORMATION SERMCE—Contiiiiwd from page 55. 

as, in your own words, "an integral part of the con- 
duct of our foreign affair.s." 

We would defeat our objectives in this program 
if we were to engage in special propagandist plead- 
ing. Our purpose is, and will he. solely to supply 
the facts on which foieign ])eoples can arrive at a 
rational and accurate judgment. 

It is my firm belief tliat the proposed informa- 
tional and culturid activities fif the Department 
of State abroad will lielp to achieve the security 
and peace which t)Ur people so ardently desire. 
Sincerely yours, 

James F. Byrnes 



If the Commission, upon which the United States 
is represented, recommended the exchange of any 
stated information, this recommendation would 
go to the Security Council. Action by the Security 
Council rerpiires the concurrence of the five per- 
manent members, including the United States. 
Therefore, unless the United States concurs in the 
recommendation it could not be adopted. 

If the United States concurred and the Security 
Council adopted the reconnnendation, it would 
still be for the Government of the United States 
by treaty or by congressional action to determine 
to what extent that recommendation should be 
acted upon. If action is required by treaty it 
would take a two-thirds vote of the Senate to 
ratify the treaty. Under all these circum.stances 
I think the interests of the United States are fully 
protected. 

Before the first session our Delegation will have 
a meeting, and we will have an opportunity to dis- 
cuss all subjects on the agenda. 

APPOINTMENT OF COMMITTEE i 

Anticipating favoral)le action by the United Na- 
tions Organization on the proposal for the estab- 
lislnnent of a commission to consider the problems 
arising as to the control of atomic energy and other 
weapons of possible mass destruction, the Secre- 
tary of State has appointed a connnittee of five 
nieml)ers to study tlie subject of controls and safe- 
guards necessary to protect this Government so 
tliat the persons hereafter selected to represent the 
United States on the connnission can have the bene- 
fit of the study. 

The connnittee will be requested, while engaged 
in their study, to keep in touch with the appro- 
priate congressional committees. 

The connnittee will be composed of Under Secre- 
tary of State Dean Acheson, who will act as chair- 
man, Mr. John J. McCloy, former Assistant Secre- 
tary of War, and the three men who supervised 
and directed the development of atomic energy: 
Dr. Vannevar Bush, Dr. James B. Conant, and 
Maj. Gen. Leslie E. Groves. 



' Released to the press Jan. 7. 

' For text of the i-esohitlon as contained in the Connuuni- 
qu6 on the Moscow Conference of the Three Foreign Min- 
isters, see BuLiETiN of Dec. 30, 1945, p. 1032. 



JANUARY 20, 1946 



59 



The Bermuda Telecommunications Conference 



Bv HELEN G. KELLY 



Ti 



I HE UNITED STATES liaS loilg 

had as objectives the im- 
provement of international 
telecommunications and the 
reduction of rates on the international telecommu- 
nications circuits. The first objective involved the 
elimination of traffic bottlenecks at central points 
in other countries where messages, coming in too 
fast to Ije quickly handled, were held up. It also 
included delays or complete stoppages due to 
l)elligerent action by countries at war, when we 
were neutral. The best solution to this problem 
seemed to this Government to be the establishment 
of direct radiotelegraph circuits between the 
United States and foreign countries, so that a mes- 
sage addressed to Shanghai, China, could be sent 
there directly from San Francisco, rather than 
following a circuitous route through intermediate 
jjoints. 

The second objective involved the negotiation 
of arrangements by the United States private tele- 
communication companies with foreign adminis- 
trations or companies whereby the rates between 
the two countries might be low enough so that the 
American public might enjoy the benefits of cheap 
and rai)id communication with the rest of the 
M'orld. It seemed to this Government tliat direct 
connnunication by radio would eliminate nnich of 
the cost factor in sending the messages, and thus 
assist in bringing about reduced rates. 

With these two purposes in mind, this Govern- 
ment over a period of 25 years has supported the 
institution of direct radiotelegraph circuits wher- 
ever possible. It attained considerable success in 
its efforts with one exception — a very important 
exception — namely, the British Connnonwealth of 
Nations — Canada, Australia, Xew Zealand, and the 
Union of South Africa (India, for the purpose of 
this discussion, may be included in tlie group). 
The primary reason for this Government's failure 
with the British Commonwealth was the fact that 



existing commitments to Cable & Wireless, Ltd., 
and its subsidiary companies, made it impossible 
for the Commonwealth countries to gi'ant requests 
for direct radiotelegraph circuits and lower rates. 

After the outbreak of the war, concessions were 
made because of urgent war needs. Direct cir- 
cuits for the duration of the war and six months 
thereafter were granted by Australia, New 
Zealand, and India. Although negotiations were 
carried on with the Union of South Africa, no 
agreement was reached, and no temporary direct 
circuit was installed to communicate with that 
country. When it was evident tliat the war was 
drawing to a close, it seemed to this Government 
imperative that some kind of satisfactory final 
settlement of the question of dii'ect circuits must 
be reached before the dismantling of the tempo- 
rary transmitters and receivers, which represented 
a considerable outlay of money. The closing of 
the direct circuits also meant a return to the old, 
unsatisfactory, indirect methods of communi- 
cation, which made London the center of most 
messages to Africa, Europe, and the Far East, 
and placed a heavy burden on the equipment and 
personnel in that city. 

The other question, wliich tliis Government was 
equally anxious to discuss, was the difference in 
rates between Commonwealth points and points 
outside the Commonwealth. The example most 
cited is the 59-cent rate from San Francisco to Aus- 
tralia, while from Vancouver to Australia the same 
message could be sent for 30 cents a word. Similar 
differences existed elsewhere. For example, from 
Singapore to London the rate was .''>0 cents, while 
from San Francisco to Singapore it was $1.05. 

This Government, therefore, accepted with 
pleasure the invitation of the United Kingdom 



' Miss Kelly, Chief of the Opei-ations Sectiou in the Tele- 
ciiniiuunications Division, Office of Transport and Com- 
munications Policy, Department of State, was secretary to 
the American Delegation at the Bermuda conference. 



60 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Government to attend a conference at Bermuda to 
discuss these and otlier British Commonwealth - 
United States telecommunications problems which 
had troubled the governments for years. Invita- 
tions were received and accepted by all the Com- 
monwealth countries, so that delegations from the 
United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zea- 
land, South Africa, and India attended. The Con- 
ference convened on November 21, 1945, and ended 
on December 4, 1945, with tlie signing of an agree- 
ment by all the governments attending and the 
signing of a protocol by the United States and the 
United Kingdom on the jirobleni of exclusive ar- 
rangements. Thus the Conference in 10 days, in 
an atmo.sphere of friendliness and cooi:)eration, 
solved problems which had vexed the dijjlomats for 
10 years. Both the Commonwealth and the United 
States made concessions, and the results were pleas- 
ing to all. 

The chairnianship of the Conference was of- 
fered to the United States at the suggestion of the 
United Kingdom, since the idea of calling a con- 
ference of tliis nature had originally been put for- 
ward by the United States. James Clement Dunn, 
Assistant Secretary of State, served as chairman 
of the American Delegation and also as chairman 
of the Conference. 

The agenda submitted with the British invita- 
tion contained a number of (juestions dealing with 
])ost-war ]iro])lems to lie considered at the next 
world teleconnnunications conference. It was fi- 
nally derided that the Conference should confine 
itself to the solution of telecommunications prob- 
lems outstanding between the United States and 
the coinitries of the Commonwealth. The agenda, 
as finally adopted, was as follows : 

1. Telecommunication rates for commercial, 
government, and press messages, and division of 
the tolls; treatment of press instructional mes- 
sages 

2. Future of trans-Atlantic cables, mainte- 
nance of cables, including operation of cable shijjs 

3. Continuance of existing, and possible estab- 
lislnnent of new, direct radiotelegraph or radio- 
telephone circuits 

4. Procedure for recording any agreement 
reached as a result of the discussions, and exchange 
of information on methods of securing the im])le- 
mentation of such agreement. 

R.ei>resent«itives of private telecommunication 
companies, both United States and Commonwealth, 



and of the Commonwealth Connnunications Coun- 
cil, attended the Conference as observers. Repre- 
sentatives of the press also attended and were in- 
vited to be present at the plenary sessions of the 
Conference. 

The principal results of the Conference were as 
follows : 

Direct Radiotelegraph Circuits. The three ex- 
isting direct circuits between the United States 
and the United Kingdom are retained, as well as 
both circuits between the United States and Ber- 
muda, the latter being subject to the agreement of 
the Bermudian Government. Of the two tempo- 
rary circuits in operation resi^ectively to Australia, 
New Zealand, and India, one is to be retained on a 
permanent basis. 

The temporary circuits between the United 
States and Gambia, the Gold Coast, and British 
Gniana are to be discontinued. 

The Government of South Africa agrees to un- 
dertake a joint study with the United States to 
determine whether conditions justify the establish- 
ment of a direct circuit between the two countries. 

New direct circuits to Jamaica, Palestine, Cey- 
lon, the INIalay States (Singapore), and Hong 
Kong will be established provided the respective 
goverinnents agree. 

It was further agreed that tralHc ordinarily 
handled over tliese new and existing direct circuits 
should be restricted to terminal trartic. However, 
under certain conditions, such as emergencies or 
where excessive delays were shown, transit traffic 
might be accepted. 

Rates. A ceiling rate of 'M) cents a word for 
ordinary full-rate traffic and 20 cents for code was 
established between the United States and the 
Commonwealth countries. This arrangement 
means that many of the more distant places in the 
Empire will be closer to the United States in terms 
of cost of comnmnication than ever before. Al- 
though the American Delegation had hoped for a 
ceiling rate of 20 cents a word, it accepted the 
ceiling of 30 cents. The Commonwealth penny 
press rate was recognized by this Government, 
although the American Delegation found it impos- 
sible to accept the British suggestion that this low 
rate be extended to United States - British Com- 
monwealth press comnnniications. A ceiling press 
rate of ti'/s cents was set between the United States 
and the Commonwealth. This lowered rate 
should facilitate the dissemination of news of the 



JANUARY 20, 1946 



61 



United States in the Commonweidtli :nul vice 
versa. 

The Coninionweahh governnients would not ac- 
cept the United States suggestion that press- 
service messages be admitted at press rates. Nor 
was an agreement reached on the (luestion of a full 
rate for government messages, instead of the 50- 
percent redui'tion usually allowed. This proposal 
had been urged by the British. The question of 
the rate for urgent messages was also left unsolved. 
However, it was felt by all the parties concerned 
that these were comparatively minor matters, and 
that the reaching of a ceiling rate satisfactory t(j 
all on ordinary messages would aid greatly in 
bringing order into the world teleconnnunicutions 
system. 

Agreement was reached on terminal and transit 
charges, on the 50-50 division of tolls, and on the 
use of dollars and sterling as a basis of exchange, 
instead of the gold franc. 

Technical Developments. The Conference 
viewed favorably a proposal submitted by the 
American Delegation that steps be taken to assure 
the eventual adoption on an international basis of 
a standard code for the speedy transmission of 
messages. This proposal was based on the belief 
that the radioteletypewriter system, at present in 
use by the U. S. Army and Navy, will eventually 
supersede the current Morse-code circuits. The 
five-unit code used by the Army and Navy, which 
permitted great flexibility in their world-wide 
systems, was proposed for adoption as the standard 
code for universal use. 

The Conference agreed also to the holding of a 
meeting in AVashington between repre.sentatives of 
the United States and the British Commonwealth 
to witness demonstrations of two distance indica- 
tors used in aeronautical radio favored respectively 
by the United States and Canada, in order to com- 
pare their respective merits with a view to arriving 
at a definitive position in the matter not later than 
January 31, 1946. 

E,rcJu.slre Arrangements. The United States 
has for some time been endeavoring to establish a 
direct radiotelegraph circuit between Saudi Arabia 
and this country. The United States has impor- 
tant oil interests in Saudi Arabia, and the unsatis- 
factory connnunications between the two countries 
have hampered the efficient operation of the com- 
pany there. In a separate protocol signed by the 
United Kingdom and the United States, the former 



undertook to inform the Saudi Arabian Govern- 
ment that the United Kingdom Government would 
not wish an agreement between a British company 
and the Saudi Arabian Govermnent to stand in the 
way of the establishment of a direct circuit with 
the United States. Two days after the signing of 
this protocol, the British Minister at Jidda in- 
formed the Saudi Arabian Foreign Office of the 
views of his Government as set forth in the 
Ijrotocol. 

All of the countries attending the Conference 
also undertook not to support or approve efforts 
by their governments to prevent or obstruct the 
establishment of direct circuits between the United 
States or British Commonwealth points and other 
countries. 

The foregoing discussion represents the main 
tangible results of the Bermuda telecommunica- 
tions conference. The intangible result — that is, 
the spirit of mutual comprehension and confi- 
dence which will allay future suspicions and mis- 
apprehensions — cannot be assessed in terms of 
dollars and cents ( and is perhaps all the more valu- 
able on that account). It can only be hoped that 
the Bermuda conference has set an example to 
other fields of endeavor in which the countries of 
the Briti-sh Commonwealth of Nations and our- 
selves have an interest. 

Industrial Property 

Luxembourg 

The Swiss JMinister informed the Secretary of 
State in a note dated November 30, 19-15 that in a 
note dated November 19, 1945 the Legation of the 
Grand Duchy of Luxembourg at Bern informed 
the Swiss Federal Council of its Government's 
adherence to the Convention for the Protection 
of Industrial Property signed at London June 2, 
1934,' revising the Paris convention of March 20, 
1883, as revised at Brussels on December 14, 1900, 
at Washington on June 2, 1911. and at The Hague 
on November 6, 1925. 

In conformity with article Ifi of the London 
convention, the adherence of Luxembourg will 
take effect one month after the sending of the com- 
munication bj' the Government of the Swiss Con- 
federation to the other countries of the Union, 
that is, from December 30, 1945. 



' Treaty Series 941. 



62 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



General Assembly of UNO 



REPORT FROM LONDON TO THE OFFICE OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



London, Jan. 1.9. — Mi-s. Eleanor Roosevelt, a 
member of the American Delefjation to the United 
Nations Assembly, told a "ii-onp of rejiresentatives 
of some 4U national and international organiza- 
tions having headquarters or branches in London 
that private organizations can perform one of the 
most important roles in helping to make the L'nited 
Nations a success. This meeting, the first of a 
series to be held in London, came during the sec- 
ond week of United Nations Assembly activity, 
which was studded with impi-essive declarations 
by many of the world's leading statesmen. It was 
held in Church House, scene of many important 
LTnited Nations committee meetings. 

Mrs. Roosevelt's Talk to Group Representatives 

Careful explanations of the methods and prin- 
ciples of the various international organizations 
can go a long way toward strengthening the fabric 
of international cooperation, Mrs. Roosevelt said. 
She added, "You can tell your organizations a 
gi'eat deal that they would never learn in any other 
way. Tell them about the people who are here, 
how decisions are arrived at, what agreements are 
reached. You can educate people to feel a per- 
sonal responsibility for the working of the United 
Nations. We must all learn the discipline of not 
getting discouraged. We must always keep in 
view our main objective, building an atmosphere 
where people can work to keep the world at peace." 
The former First Lady stressed that one of the 
most important tasks of the LTnited Nations was to 
develoj) better economic conditions throughout the 
world for all the peoples of the world. Mrs. 
Roosevelt expressed the wish that there miglit be 
more women delegates and advisers at future 
Assembly meetings. 

Referring to plans for further similar meet- 
ings of Assembly delegates and advisers with 
organization representatives for the period of the 
Assembly meeting. Mrs. Roosevelt said that she 
believed that such programs were an important 
element in the democratic formulation of inter- 
national policies. One representative asked Mrs. 



Roosevelt her opinion on whether nations should 
now surrender their sovereignty to a central body. 
Drawing a parallel between the development of the 
United Nations and the United States and other 
federated governments, Mrs. Roosevelt explained 
that such a surrender of sovereignty was not ex- 
pedient at this time "As in America, the individual 
States will relinquish theii' powers only when the 
necessity for such a move proves itself to be for 
the good of the whole group. History has shown 
that such a granting of sovereignty evolves grad- 
TUilly. The development of S])ecialized agencies 
like the Food and Agriculture Organization and 
other international bodies indicates that the indi- 
vidual countries will delegate authority to an in- 
ternational group when it is in their own best 
interest", she replied. 

Organizing the United Nations 

Over at Central Hall, Westminster, where the 
LTnited Nations first General Assembly was in 
session, delegates of the .51 countries completed 
several organizational duties vital to the smooth 
operation of the LTnited Nations. In this first 
full week of activity, they organized the important 
Security Council and the Econtimic and Social 
Council. A further step towaixl completing the 
United Nations constitutional machinery was the 
organization of the six main committees through 
the naming of the vice chairmen and rapporteurs. 
At the same time the general debate on the report 
of the Preparatory Commission was going on. 
This was opened dramatically by U. S. Secretary 
of State Byrnes, whose address was followed by 
important statements by leading statesmen, in- 
chidiug Ernest Bevin, British Foreign ilini^ter, 
and .Jan jNIasaryk, Czechoslovak Foreign ^Minister. 

In completing the membership of the Security 
Council, the General Assembly followed the plan 
laid down at San Francisco and selecteel countries 
on the basis both of geographical factors and the 
contribution they could make to the maintenance 
of peace. Poland, Australia. Brazil. Mexico, i 



JANUARY 20, 1946 



63 



Egypt, and the Netherlands were elected to serve 
with the permanent members: France, China, 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. United King- 
dom, and United States. Dr. Wellington Koo, of 
China, stated that while he was satisfied with the 
present make-up of the Security Council, ho hoped 
that the large continent of Asia would be better 
represented in the future. French Foreign Min- 
ister Bidault supported this view. The Council 
held its opening meeting Thursday afternoon with 
Norman O. Makin, Australian Navy Minister, 
presiding. Purely of an organizational nature, 
the meeting dealt with adoption of rules of proce- 
dure and the setting up of a committee of experts 
on the establishment of permanent rides. 

Edward R. Stettinius, Jr.. permanent U. S. rep- 
resentative to United Nations and member of the 
Security Council, emiihasized to the Council that it 
"must see that the peace is kept in fact". He 
added, "whether it succeeds or not. however, de- 
pends upon the manner in which the members of 
the Security Council discharge the special obliga- 
tion which they have assumed. This is the obliga- 
tion to agree so that the Council may be able to 
act and act effectively. To meet this obligation 
will often be difficult. It will require the highest 
kind of statesmanship from all the member na- 
tions large and small. But it is an obligation that 
arises from the necessities of mankind's survival 
on this planet. It has been tried and tested and 
not found wanting in the creation of the United 
Nations." 

The agenda for the first meetings of the Security 
Council that was recommended by the Prepara- 
tory Conunission and adopted by the Council in- 
cludes the following items: 

A. Reconnnendation to the General Assembly 
regarding the appointment of the Secretary- 
General. 

B. Atloption of directive to the Military Staff 
Committee to meet at a given place and date. 

C. Discussion of the composition and organiza- 
tion of the staff to be assigned to the Security 
Council. 

D. Discussion of the best means of arriving at 
the conclusion of special agreements for the con- 
tribiition of armed forces and other assistance for 
the purpose of maintaining international peace 
and security. 

E. Consideration of reports and reconnnenda- 
tions from the General Assembly. 



Economic and Social Council 

Indicating the general unanimity of opinion at 
the cimference, the Assembly elected 17 of the 18 
members of the Economic and Social Council by 
tlie necessary two-thirds vote on the first ballot. 
The balloting f(n' the eighteenth seat was dead- 
locked until New Zealand withdrew in favor of 
Yugoslavia. In balloting for terms of office, the 
Assembly voted three-year tenure to China. Peru. 
France, Chile, Canada, and Belgium, two-year 
terms to U. S. S. R., United Kingdom, India, Nor- 
way. Cuba, and Czechoslovakia, one-year terms 
to (ireece, Lebanon, Ukraine, U.S.A., Colombia, 
and Yugoslavia. According to the United Na- 
tions Charter, the Economic and Social Council 
"may make studies with respect to international 
economic, social, cultural, educational, health, and 
related matters and may make recommendations 
with respect to any such matters to the General 
Assenddy, to the Alembei's of the United Nations, 
and to the specialized agencies concerned"'. 

Delegates at the General Assembly have ponited 
out repeatedly that the causes of war are often 
economic, and because of this great importance 
has been attached to the work of the Economic 
and Social Council as a basic means for preventing 
war. The World Federation of Trade Unions, 
claiming a mend)ership of 65 million, has requested 
"full representation" in the Council. This re- 
quest, together with the WFTU's desire for rep- 
resentation on the General Assembly in a "consul- 
tative capacity," poses the first important consti- 
tutional issue which has so far faced the United 
Nations. Russia, the Ukraine, and France voiced 
strong support for the WFTU prfiposal. It was 
turned over to a six-nation subcommittee of the 
Steering Committee for further study and recom- 
mendation. 

Preparatory Commission Praised 

The week's plenary sessions were taken up to 
a large extent with the debate on the report pre- 
sented by the Pi'eparatory Conunission. AVithout 
exception, the delegates who have so far spoken 
to the Assembly have given full support and 
conuneudation to the groundwork done In' the 
Preparatory Commission and placed full confi- 
dence in the war-prevention machinery of the 
United Nations. U. S. Secretary of State James 
Byrnes opened the discussion on the report late 
^Monday afternoon. Mr. Byi-nes outlined two pri- 



64 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



mary tasks as tlie most important woik before 
the organization in the coming months: the pro- 
vision of the armed force which the Security 
Council needs to have to maintain peace, and es- 
tablishment of tlie commission for the control uf 
atomic energy. He went on to pledge "full and 
wholehearted cooperation"' by the United States 
and reassured the delegates that "both tlie United 
States Government and its people are deeply con- 
scious of their responsibility". The Secretary 
painted no flowery pictures of quickly and easily 
obtained success in this most important task. He 
warned again.st expecting feats of magic overnight. 
''Let us beware", he said, "of the die-hard en- 
thusiasts as well as the die-hard unl)elievers. Let 
us avoid casting excessive burdens upon the insti- 
tutions of the United Nations especially in their 
infiincy."'' 

Ecjually as im[)ortant a statement was that made 
by British Foreign Minister Erne.st Bevin Thurs- 
day morning. He praised the Preparatory Com- 
mission's work as a "triumph of detailed organi- 
zation" and launched directly into sujjport for a 
strong international secretariat and an interna- 
tional ci^il-service commission. "The way in 
wliirh this Organization is administered will in 
large measure affect the ciMifidence which the jteo- 
ples of the world rejiose in it", he said. He urged 
caution that the Organization should not develop 
into an extravagant and costly mechanism but at 
the same time warned against "niggardliness which 
would frustrate or hinder its development. Ac- 
cording to an estimate I have heard", he said, "the 
cost per annum of the United Nations to all 51 
nations will be less than half the cost to the United 
Kingdom alone of a single day in the war just 
ended"'. He also warned against changing the 
world "in a moment" and explained that "security 
must be devised in such a way that those powers 
which have been victorious in this war can . . . 
grow together with confidence so that this Organi- 
zation itself may become the real answer to all the 
devilish devices of war."' 

"Calm, Realistic Optimism" 

Foreign Minister Jan Masaryk of Czechoslo- 
vakia paid tribute to the Pi-eparatory Commission 
report and the efficient work of the temporary 
secretariat. "I wish to go on record voicing calm, 
realistic optimism", he said. "Wars should be 
stopped by controlling all means for war, whether 
they are physical, chemical, biological, psychologi- 



cal, or .sociological. Within the framework of our 
Organization, there should be an international pro- 
tection of science against abuse of its progress for 
political or militaristic schemes. Humanity should 
be safeguarded against the result of abuse of sci- 
entific inventions. The armament industry to- 
gether with the latest devastating inventions 
shouhl be ]iut under the control of the United 
Nations", he added. 

Carlos Lleras Restrepo. Colombian delegate, ad- 
dressed the Assembly Wednesday and in his dis- 
cussion on the Preparatory Connnission report 
stressed the importance of the economic and social 
work of the LTnited Nations. "The social-eco- 
nomic task of the LTnited Nations cannot be now 
and shall not be a mere return of the past. We 
begin at a new starting point and go forward to an 
equally new objective. The old mechanism of in- 
ternational economic relations cannot be rebuilt 
without incorporating a more generous and uni- 
versal conception of economic pj'ogress. . . 
We aie confident that in this field of economic and 
social justice a fruitful internationalism will re- 
pface the selfish outlook of isolated national 
groups. In general terms we must seek to raise the 
standardsoflivine: and employment for all. . . ." 

Danish Foreign Minister Gustav Rasmussen 
told the Assembly Tuesday that "Denmark views 
with satisfaction the sober appreciation of prac- 
tical realities which underlies the Charter of the 
United Nations. The necessary safeguards have 
been established to distribute the weight of re- 
sponsibility in harmony with the powers and po- 
tentialities of the difl'erent nations." He ex- 
plained that the Charter is based on the principle 
of equal rights for all member states. "But it is 
equally true, and in our opinion a material im- 
provement on the Covenant of the League of Na- 
tions, that the ultimate responsibility for can-ying 
out vital political decisions must lie with the great 
powers which alone are in a position to enforce 
them", he added. 

Mr. Gromyko's Speech 

In a memorable speech on Friday morning 
Andrei A. Gromyko. Chief of the Soviet Delega- 
tion, told the General Assembly that "the Soviet 
Delegation more than once enqihasized at the con- 
ference at San Francisco the fact that the success 
of the new Organization would directly depend 
on how the experience of collaboration of the 
democratic countries during the war would be 



JANUARY 20, 1946 

taken into account, and to what degree in the fu- 
ture true collaboration of all member nations 
would take place." 

"The endeavors to counterpose big states with 
small ones". Mr. Gromqko continued, "cannot be 



65 

regarded with sympathy in the United Nations 
Organization, for this Organization is the body 
to protect all the peace-loving states big and small. 
This Organization is designed to protect the inter- 
{Continucd on piif/e 83.) 



PRESENT ORGANIZATIONS OF THE UNITED NATIONS 



The General Assembly 

President 

Paul-Henri Spaak of Belgium. 

Vice Presidents 

The heads of the Delegations of the United 
States, the United Kingdom, the Union of Soviet 
Sociali-st Republics, France, China, South Africa, 
and Venezuela. 

Members 



Argentina 

Australia 

Belgium 

Bolivia 

Brazil 

liyelorussia 

Canada 

Chile 

China 

Colombia 

Costa Rica 

Cuba 

Czechoslovakia 

Denmark 

Dominican Republic 

Ecuador 

Egypt 

El Salvador 

Ethiopia 

France 

Greece 

Guatemala 

Haiti 

Honduras 

India 

Iran 



Iraq 

Lebanon 

Liberia 

Luxembourg 

Mexico 

Netherlands 

New Zealand 

Nicaragua 

Norway 

Panama 

Paraguay 

Peru 

Philippines 

Poland 

Saudi Arabia 

Syria 

Tin-key 

Ukraine 

Union of South Africa 

LTnion of Soviet Socialist 

Republics 
United Kingdom 
United States 
LTruguay 
Venezuela 
Yugoslavia 



The Main Committees * 

The General Committee: Provisionally com- 
posed of 14 members as follows : the Presi- 
dent of the General Assembly, the 7 Vice Pres- 

679885—46 3 



idents, and tlie chairmen of the 6 committees 

listed hereafter. 
Political and Securi'j'y: Dr. D. Z. Manuilsky, 

Ukraine 
Economic and Financial: Waclaw Koncerski, 

Poland 
Social, Humanitarian, and Cultural: Peter 

Eraser, New Zealand 
Trustees! I ir: Dr. Roberto MacEachen, Uruguay 
Administrative and Budgetary : Faris al-Khouri, 

Syria 
Legal : Dr. Roberto Jimenez, Panama 

The Security Council 

China (permanent) United States (perma- 
France (permanent) nent) 

Union of Soviet Social- Australia 

ist Republics (per- Brazil 

manent) Egypt 

United Kingdom (per- Mexico 

manent) Netherlands 
Poland 

Military Staff Committee 

The Chiefs of Staff (or their representatives) of 
the United States, the United Kingdom, the Union 
of Soviet Socialist Republics, France, and China. 

The Economic and Social Council 



Belgium 

Canada 

Chile 

China 

Colombia 

Cuba 

Czechoslovakia 

France 

Greece 

India 



Lebanon 
Norway 
Peru 
Ukraine 

Union of Soviet Social- 
ist Republics 
United Kingdom 
United States 
Yugoslavia 



' All these committees except the General Committee 
are composed of representatives of all 51 members of UNO. 



66 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



The First Inter -American Demographic Congress 



By SARAH E. ROBERTS 



THE RECENT WAR gave eai'ly evidence 
that the problem of displaced per- 
sons would be a serious one in the 
post-war era. As a step toward the 
formulation of logical, coordinated plans for the 
reception of immigrants in the Western Hemi- 
sphere, therefore, tlie President of Mexico promul- 
gated a decree on July ;'>, 1943 in which he author- 
ized the Ministry of Government to organize the 
First Inter-American Demograjjhic Congress. 
The decree stated: 

"The fnnctions of the Congress shall consist in 
the exposition and cooidination of the points of 
view of the American nations ct)ncerning the prob- 
lems whicli will arise from postwar migratoi-j* 
movements, and the determination of the demo- 
graphic policy which should be reconnnended for 
that i^eriod of emergency." 

Migratory problems had of course been the ob- 
ject of attention in numerotis international and in- 
ter-American conferences held between the first 
and the second world wars, but it was believed that 
the various studies begun, outlined, proposed, or 
recommended at these meetings should be corre- 
lated, and those found feasible should bfe definitely 
adopted by the American governments and put 
into operation. 

The invitation of the Mexican Government to 
attend a special congress on migration, to be held 
in Mexico City in October 104:!, was accepted by 
all the American nations, including Canada. 
Seventy-one official delegates were present. In 
addition, one non-voting delegate apiece was sent 
by the Pan American Union, the Pan American 
Institute of Geography and History, tlie Inter- 
American Indian Institute, the Inter-American 
Statistical Institute, the Pan American Sanitary 



' Mis.s Roberts is Efonniiiist in tlie Divisicm of Iiitcr- 
natioual Lalior, S<><'ial and Hi'ultli Aflairs, Offiie of Inter- 
national Trade Policy, Department of State. 



Bureau, the International Labor Office, and the 
Economic, Financial and Transit Department of 
the League of Nations. 

The Delegation for the United States consisted 
of Dr. Lowell J. Reed, dean of the school of hy- 
giene and public health at Johns Hopkins Univer- 
sity, chairnuni; Mr. Earl G. Harrison, Commis- 
sioner of the Immigration and Naturalization 
Service, Department of Justice, delegate; Mr. 
Raleigh A. Gibson, First Secretary of the Amer- 
ican Embassy in Mexico, adviser; and Mr. Edward 
S. Maney, Second Secretary at the Embassy, sec- 
retary. 

On October 11, 1043, those delegates who had 
arrived in Mexico City met in a preparatory ses- 
sion to study and approve the proposed program 
for the Congress. In addition, it was agreed to 
designate Migiiel Aleman, the Minister of Gov- 
ernment and head of the Mexican Delegation, as 
President of the Congress and the heads of the 
other delegations as Vice Presidents. The formal 
inaugural session was held on October 12. Senor 
Aleman outlined the reasons for holding the con- 
ference, stating that its chief purpose was to find 
an answer "to the post-war cry of devastated 
peoples of Europe seeking a haven in the New 
World". He welcomed the delegates and took 
over tlie position of President. 

At an extraordinary plenary session held on Oc- 
tober 1."!, tlie following committees were appointed 
to carry on the work of the Congress: Committee 
on Credentials, Committee on Organization and 
Rules, Connnittee on Resolutions, Committee on 
Demography, Committee on Ethnology and Eu- 
genics, and Committee on Demographic Policy. 
Dr. Keed was a member of the Connnittee on 
Organization and Rules and Mr. Harrison, the 
chairmiin of the Committee on Demography. 
From October 14 to '20, the delegates devoted all 
their time to meetings of these connnittees. On 
October '1\ a plenary session for the approval of 



JAlWAIiY 20, 1946 



67 



^•2 lesuhitions - and the closing session were held. 
These 32 resolutions were approved unanimously 
by all the delegations, with certain reservations 
by the Delegate from Canada. 

I liter -American Demographic Committee 

Two OF the resolutions were concerned with means 
for implementing the recommendations of the Con- 
gress. One provided for the creation of an Inter- 
American Demographici Committee. It was to 
liave as one of its principal duties the preparation 
of a i^roject for the creation of an Inter-American 
Demographic Institute. The Committee was be- 
lieved to be particularly necessary in order to 
coordinate the demographic activities of the nu- 
merous inter- American and international organi- 
zations wjiich included among their functions the 
study of certain aspects of demography but no one 
of which concerned itself solely or even especially 
witli the problem of migration. Justification was 
also seen for the Committee in the recommenda- 
tions made by the Inter- American Conference 
for the Maintenance of Peace at Buenos Aires 
and the Eighth International Conference of Amer- 
ican States at Lima for the establishment "as soon 
as possilile" of a committee of experts on questions 
of migration. 

It was proposed that the Committee have head- 
quarters in Mexico City and be composed originally 
of seven experts appointed bj' the governments of 
countries chosen by secret ballot by the Committee 
on Resolutions of the Demographic Congress. The 
countries so selected were Argentina. Brazil. Co- 
lombia, the Dominican Republic, ]\Iexico. Peru, and 
the United States. Once these seven experts were 
chosen and the Committee was organized, experts 
might be appointed by the remaining Ajiierican 
nations to form a part of the Committee with 
powers equal to those of the original members. 

Although the appointment of the first seven 
members of the Committee was originally to be 
completed by February 1, 1944, the seven cited 
countries were not requested to appoint an expert 
before some months later. On November 24, 1945, 
President Trinnan api^roved the appointment of 
Lt. Commander Forrest E. Linder, U.S.N.R., of 
the Bureau of Medicine and Surgery of the Navy 
Department as the United States representative 
on this Committee. 

To assist the Committee in its work, a second 
resolution recommended that each government, if 
it had not already done so, create a special agency 



to .stud}^ population and migration problems and 
to maintain contact with comparable international 
organizations. 

General Statistical Data 
The remaining 30 resolutions covered a much 
broader range of topics than was suggested by the 
presidential decree announcing the Congress. It 
was agreed that the formulation of a demographic 
policy for the post-war period must include con- 
sideration of the general economic, cultural, health, 
and race problems of the Americas as distinct from 
the purely statistical studies which the term de- 
moffraphy would indicate. As the basis for an 
understanding of the more general aspects of these 
problems, however, it was believed that the opinion 
of each country should be solicited as to its own 
economic capacity to receive and utilize immi- 
grants. In conjunction with these opinions, ade- 
quate statistical data were considered essential. 
Numerous resolutions looking toward the compila- 
tion of these data were therefore adopted. 

It was recommended that a census be taken of the 
entire American Continent during the years 1950 
and 1951 which should include statistics not only 
of a strictly demographic nature but also of the 
social economy of the respective countries. The 
latter data should be founded on a basic program 
elaborated by the Inter-American Statistical In- 
stitute and approved by each government. It was 
suggested that countries with an Indian economy 
and culture, in compiling their respective censuses, 
follow the procedure adopted by Mexico in its 
pojjulation census of 1940. 

In order to make unifoi'm in each country the 
data secured in this census and in other statistical 
inquiries, it was recommended that systems and 
methods of investigation concerning demographic 
movements be unified with the help of the Inter- 
American Statistical Institute. Specifically it was 
uiged that a uniform nomenclattu'e for the desig- 
nation of diseases, the causes of death, and the 
causes of stillbirth be adopted and that it be based 
on the intei'uational terms approved by the Inter- 
national Commission for the Revision of the Inter- 
national List of Causes of Death. A separate 
recommendation was made that, in view of the ab- 
solute necessitj' of a uniform definition for the term 
stiUbirth, the legal definition proposed by the 
Health Section of the League of Nations on April 



-A umiibered sumuiary of these resolutions is given at 
the end of this article. 



68 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



1, 1925 be adopted. In countries without a vital- 
statistics bureau, it was urged that one be estab- 
lished in order better to carry out the above 
recommendations. 

Social Standards 

Although statistical data were considered essen- 
tial to the formulation of an adequate demographic 
policy, it was realized that the matter did not end 
there. Rather it was necessary to devise a policy 
which should provide for the adequate develop- 
ment of the actual population of the Americas and 
should protect both the native populations and 
the immigrants, affording to each an equality of 
civil and social rights within the possibilities per- 
mitted by the institutional organization of each 
country, without regard to race, color, or creed. 

Racial Problems 

Consideration of the protection of the present 
American jjopulation focused particular attention 
on two groups, namely, the Indian and the Negro. 
It was recommended, as the basis for the protection 
of the Indian, that all the Amei-ican governments, 
even if they had not been present at the Indian 
Congress held in Piitzcuaro in 1940, adhere to the 
principles approved by it or ratify the convention 
which created the Inter-American Indian Insti- 
tute. In addition, it was suggested that American 
countries with a "quantitatively important" In- 
dian population should pay special attention to the 
elevation of the economic and cultural levels of 
this population. In doing so, however, it was felt 
that the cultural characteristics pecidiar to the 
Indian race should not be lost, and it was therefore 
recommended to the Inter-American Indian Insti- 
tute that it sponsor the publication of an Encyclo- 
pedia of the American Indian, and to the govern- 
ments and cultural institutes of the Americas that 
they "promote the realization, by specialists, of an 
integral plan of investigation concerning Indian 
art, under the auspices of the Inter-American In- 
dian Institute". 

A special resolution on the Afro-American 
population recommended that tlie governments 
take all necessary steps to improve the educational 
facilities available to this race with a view toward 
the improvement of its living conditions and the 
elimination of all discrimination on grounds of 
race or color. This resolution also proposed the 
preparation and publication of a "scientific study 



of Xegro populations, of their conditions, poten- 
tialities, cultures in general and of their contribu- 
tion to the national and continental heritage" in 
order to create a better understanding between 
social groups. Before the Demographic Congress 
was terminated, a group of investigators met in 
jSIexico City to establish the International Insti- 
tute of Afro-American Studies. 

In an effort to eliminate ideas of race superior- 
ity, it was recommended that the American gov- 
ernments "absolutely reject all policy and all 
action of racial discrimination" as being contrary 
both to the conclusions of science and to the prin- 
cij^les of social justice. To this end, the word 
}'aee should never be used in a derogatory sense. 
The word imdesirahle as applied to a given nation- 
ality should also be expurgated from any laws in 
which it had been used. 

Public Health 

VAEiotTs proposals were made to protect or im- 
prove the health both of the existing population 
of the Americas and of the immigrants. In order 
to avoid the transmittal of disease from abroad, 
it was recommended that the Fifth Pan American 
Conference of National Directors of Health, to be 
held in Washington in 1944, consider the advis- 
ability of requiring an international or inter- 
American health certificate as a prerequisite to 
immigration. 

It was proposed not only that the medical ex- 
aminations necessary for the issuance of these 
health certificates be made before the immigrant 
leaves his country of origin but also that they be 
repeated on his arrival in the country of destina- 
tion. In addition, it was resolved that Centers of 
Hygiene and Social Assistance for the Family, if 
they do not already exist, be established in this 
country for the use of these immigrants or that 
periodic health examinations be given to them. 
These measures were labeled as transitory, to 
apply only until an inter- American sanitary con- 
vention be formulated and adopted. 

To protect as well as to improve the public 
health, it was recommended that campaigns for 
health improvement be carried on, that marriage 
be regulated eugenically, and that an adequate plan 
of eugenic education be developed. A long resolu- 
tion discussed plans for tlie study of eugenic and 
medico-social problems for the purpose of adopt- 
ing a common program of action. The Pan Amer- 



JANVARY 20, 1946 



69 



ican Sanitary Bureau was charged, in this connec- 
tion, witli the constitution of a Pan American Of- 
fice of Eugenics and Horaiculture. Particuhxr at- 
tention was to be paid to activities against syphilis 
anil alcoliolisni and to the protection of tlie mother 
and child. 

As pait of the program for improved public 
health, it was recommended that full employment 
be planned in order to permit an adequate stand- 
ard of living for both the worker and his depend- 
ents. To determine the existing standard, it was 
recommended that each government make a study 
of the family liudget of the laboring classes, using 
as a basis for this work the technique employed by 
the International Labor Office in its investigations 
of this character. For the further protection of 
the worker, it was urged that all applicable con- 
ventions of the International Labor Office be 
promptly ratified and that systems of social insur- 
ance be established, amj)lified, or perfected, ac- 
cording to the case. 

The importance of adequate nutrition to health 
was duly noted. In this connection, it was recog- 
nized that maximum i^roduction and reasonable 
prices were both essential since "it is useless to pro- 
duce food if individuals and nations are not given 
means to acquire it". It was therefore recom- 
mended that the American governments study and 
apply, so far as their respective abilities permit, 
the recommendations and resolutions of the Inter- 
national Food Conference held in Buenos Aires in 
1939 under the auspices of the League of Nations, 
the Second Inter-American Agricultural Confer- 
ence in Mexico in 1942, and the United Nations 
Conference on Food and Agriculture held at Hot 
Springs, ^'a., in 1943. 

Assistance to Immigrants 

It was recognized "that the American countries 
in defining their migration policy will have to ad- 
just themselves to the changes produced in their 
economy by the effect of war and by the develop- 
ment of their activities, trying to diversify the 
contributions of the immigrants in accordance 
with the programs and opportunities for their in- 
dustrialization and colonizaton". In order to 
widen these opportunities, it was recommended 
"that the Govei-nments of the American countries 
whose industrial structure is little developed out- 
line and carry out a program of industrial de- 
velopment as a means of raising the standard of 



living of its laboring classes and creating the con- 
ditions in(lisi)ensable for the absorption of immi- 
grants". In Older to avoid repetition of work in 
this field, the Permanent Council of American 
Associations of Commerce and Production was re- 
quested to make available its studies, then in prog- 
ress, on such matters as consumption, industrializa- 
tion, and economic changes effected in the Amer- 
icas by the war. The Council and similar organiza- 
tions were also asked to include the demographic 
aspects of problems in their studies and to consider 
the effects of post-war economic demobilization on 
labor. 

The expansion of the work of the Permanent 
Committee on Migration for Settlement was rec- 
omjnended to the governing body of the Interna- 
tional Labor Oi'ganization with the s^iecific sugges- 
tion that this Committee extend "its scope to the 
migration of laborers specialized in industrial 
trades". A special interest was expressed in the 
studies begun by the International Labor Office 
concerning the possibility of creating a special in- 
ternational organization to concern itself with the 
regulation of internatiimal migration "in hai'mony 
with a more liberal interchange of capitals and 
products". 

To facilitate the adaptation of the immigrant 
to his new home, special recommendations were 
made for his required education in the culture and 
customs of his adopted country. To avoid the 
financial difficulties which were called one of the 
greatest obstacles to inunigration since World War 
I, measures were suggested for assisting the immi- 
grant farmer both in the transportation costs to 
his new home and in his settlement on new land. 
It was recommended that the American govern- 
ments establish institutions for this purpose and 
that the International Labor Office follow up the 
proposals on the subject of the organization of 
financial assistance made by the Habana confer- 
(•nce of 1939. 

The suggestions and recommendations made for 
tlie protection of immigrants by the International 
Labor Office were specifically recognized. It was 
resolved that certain international conventions 
relative to immigrants and their equality of treat- 
ment ap2:)roved by the International Labor Con- 
ferences held in Geneva in 192.5, 1926, 1935, and 
1939 be ratified and incorporated in the laws of the 
respective American nations. 

It was suggested that measures be taken to col- 



70 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BVLLETIN 



lect data on naturalized immigrants according to 
the lengtli of tlieir residence in tlieir new home, 
tlieir phxce of birtli, and, if different, their original 
citizenship. 

Miscellaneous Recommendations 

In anticipation of post-war tourist travel, it 
was recommended that the statistics, requisites, and 
documents pertaining to such travel be made uni- 
form throughout the hemisphere '"as a means of 
orienting and stimulating tourist travel". 

Tt) carry out the objectives outlined in its vari- 
ous recommendations, the Congress realized that 
it would be necessary to jiromote a better under- 
standing between the peoples of the Americas. 
The conventions subscribed to at liuenos Aires in 
W?>C} for the promotion of Inter-American cultural 
relations of all types were therefore endorsed. To 
facilitate particularly the fulfilment of the reso- 
lutions on demography, it was recommended that 
demographic courses be established in all American 
universities where they did not exist. 

Implementation 

As NOTKL) earlier, requests have been sent to the 
seven chosen countries for the appointment of an 
expert to the proposed Inter- American Demo- 
graphic Committee, and the member for the United 
States has been named. Questionnaires relating to 
requiiements for post-war innnigration and to the 
statistical aspects of continental demography have 
also l)een circulated among the American govern- 
ments, in fulfilment of resolution one. 

A careful study of the resolutions adopted by the 
Demographic Congress reveals the fact that vari- 
ous ones of the reconnnendations have been en- 
dorsed, reiterated, or acted upon in subsequent 
congresses such as the Fifth Pan American Con- 
ference of National Directors of Health held in 
Washington, the United Nations Conference on 
International Organization, which met in San 
Francisco, the conference of the Confederation of 
Latin Amei'ican Workers in Cali, Colombia, and 
the Inter- American Conference on Problems of 
War and Peace lield in Mexico City. No one of 
these conferences, however, was concerned princi- 
pally with demographic problems, nor did they 
provide for the creation of an organization for 
that imrpose alone such as was planned by the First 
Inter-American Demographic Congress. Since the 
implementation of the resolutions of this Congress 



is assigned for the most part to the conunittee of 
experts now being appointed, further developments 
in the inter- American demographic field must de- 
pend largely on the work of this conmiittee. 

Summary of Resolutions^ 

1. Resolution recommending that the Inter- 
American Demographic Conmiittee secure a report 
on the economic capacity of each American country 
to place antl utilize immigrants in order to have a 
technical base for the coordination of migratory 
movements in America. 

2. Resolution recommending that a census be 
taken of the American Continent during 1950 or 
19.51 and that this census contain economic-social 
data in addition to strictly demographic informa- 
tion. 

3. Resolution recommending that, in the census 
to be taken in 1950, governments of countries with 
an Indian economy and culture follow the methods 
employed by Mexico in taking its census of popu- 
lation in 1940. 

4. Resolution recommending standardization of 
statistics, requisites, and documents pertaining to 
tourist travel. 

5. Resolution recommending the adoption of a 
iniiform definition of the term .stillbirth. 

6. Resolution recommending the gathering of 
data covering the length of residence, the place of 
birth, and, if different, the original citizenship of 
naturalized citizens. 

7. Resolution reconnnending the standardiza- 
tion of systems and methods of demographic 
investigations. 

S. Resolution recommending the adoption of 
measures to facilitate the international comparison 
of demographic statistics. 

9. Resolution reconnnending the adoption of an 
inter-American or international health certificate 
as a prerequisite to innnigration. 

10. Resolution reconnnending that the govern- 
ments represented at the Congress adhere to the 
|)rinciples ai^proved by the Inter-American Indian 
Congress at Patzcuaro or ratify the convention 
which created tiie Inter-American Indian Insti- 
tute. 

11. Resolution recommending the raising of the 



" F(ir fill! text see Acta Finnl del I'riwcr Conyrcxo Demo- 
f/niflro Inhramcricano Cclcbrado en, Mt'xicn, D.F. del 12 
(il 21 de Ocliihrc dc ID.'/S (Mexico, "La Impresorn", 1944), 
43 pp. 



JANUARY 20, 1946 



71 



cultural and economic level of the Indian popu- 
lation. 

12. Resolution recommending that the American 
governments reject all policy and action of racial 
discrimination. 

13. Resolution entitled "Demographic Policy 
Based on Eugenics", which recommends that the 
American countries sponsor a demographic policy 
looking toward tlie economic and biological bet- 
terment of their peoples. 

1-i. Resolution recommending measures to facili- 
tate the cultural assimilation of immigrants. 

15. Resolution recommending that the word un- 
desiraile not be applied to the nationals of any 
country. 

16. Resolution recommending the scientific 
study of Negro populations and improvement in 
the education of Negroes as a means toward the 
abolition of all discrimination against them. 

17. Resolution entitled "Health Conditions of 
Immigrants", which includes among its recom- 
mendations the suggestion that thorough and uni- 
fonn medical examinations be given to immi- 
grants coming to the Americas. 

18. Resolution entitled "Eugenics and Social 
Medicine", which reconnnends that, apart from 
their periodic censuses, the American countries col- 
lect essential data with the end of determining 
general and regional eugenic and medico-social 
jjroblems. 

19. Resolution entitled "Opinion on the Policy 
of Inunigration", which contains detailed recom- 
mendations for a systematic and thorough ap- 
proach in the formulation of immigration policies. 

20. Resolution recommending the establishment 
of an Inter-American Demographic Connnittee 
with a principal duty of studying demographic 
problems in the Americas, especially the capacity 
of each American nation to receive immigrants. 
The eventual establislnnent of a permanent Inter- 
American Demographic Institute is also envisaged 
in this resolution. 

21. Resolution entitled "Specialized Services for 
the Study of the Population", which recommends 
the creation of specialized institutions, where they 
do not exist, to study the problems of existing 
populations and of migrations, and the coordina- 
tion of such studies with the work of the Inter- 
American Demographic Committee. 

22. Resolution entitled "Agriculture and Nu- 



trition", recommending that the various American 
governments study and apply to their demographic 
policies the pertinent resolutions and recommenda- 
tions passed by three cited international confer- 
ences. 

23. Resolution entitled "Development of Cul- 
tural, Economic and Social Relations", which has 
as its principal theme the desirability of cultural 
exchanges between the American nations. 

24. Resolution entitled "Opinion on Demo- 
graphic Problems'", which reconnnends principally 
the ratification of the conventions of the Inter- 
national Labor Office, a careful study of the stand- 
ard of living of the American population and of 
ways to improve it, and the establishment, develop- 
ment, or perfectioning of a social-insurance sys- 
tem. 

25. Resolution recommending the industrializa- 
tion of countries whose industrial structures are 
underdeveloped. 

26. Resolution recommending the establishment 
of institutions which will lend financial assistance 
and advice to immigrant farmers. This resolution 
also recommends .studies concerning methods of 
financing colonization and the technical selection 
of colonists. 

27. Resolution recommending that the Perma- 
nent Council of American Associations of Com- 
merce and Production be asked to make available 
to the Inter-American Demographic Committee 
the conclusions reached in studies which the Coun- 
cil was then carrying out on such matters as con- 
sumption, industrialization, and economic changes - 
effected by the war. 

28. Resolution recommending national studies 
of the family budgets of tlie laboring classes. 

29. Resolution recommending the study of 
demography in the universities of America. 

30. Resolution recommending the compilation 
of an Encyclopedia of the American Indian and a 
study of Indian art. 

31. Vote of thanks to the Mexican Government 
for its initiative in convoking the Congress, to the 
Mexican officials concerned for their efficient han- 
dling of the Congress, and to the representatives of 
the inter-American and international associations 
for their assistance. 

Unnumbered. Declaration of the Delegation of 
the Dominican Republic repeating the offer made 
at the Conference of Evian in 1938 to receive up 
to 100,000 European immigrants. 



72 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BVLLETIN 



Detail of U. S. Personnel to Other Governments 



By HENRY H. McGEORGE 



c 



loNORKSSioxAL approval of an 
act on May 25, 1938, and 
amendment by an act ap- 
proved INIay 3. 1039,= antlior- 
ized the temporary detail of tliose United States 
employees who possess specialized and technical 
qualifications to serve undei' the fi:overnments of 
the other American republics, the Philippines, and 
Liberia. Such legislation has been one means of 
implementin<T this Government's policy of coop- 
eration with those countries. 

Since the original legislation was approved, 93 
enifdoyees of the various dej)artments and agen- 
cies of tlie Fetleral Government have given assist- 
ance to ir> of the American republics and to the 
Philii)])ines and Liberia. In one instance, special 
legislation extended the provisions of the act to 
enable an employee of the Bureau of Reclama- 
tion. Department of the Interior, to assist and 
advise tlie (lOvernment of Australia in connec- 
tion with the construction of Avater-storage dams. 
Twenty-two assignments of agricultural spe- 
cialists have been effected, and a number of others 
liave been concerned with the production and proc- 
essing of agricultural crops. Most of the agri- 
cultural personnel has 



example, natural rubber, insecticides, cinchona, 
and other tropical crops. During the war in 
particular, assistance has been given in developing 
local food supplies and markets. 

Twelve experts in the catching and i^rocessing 
of fish and fish products for local consumption have 
offered specialized service to several of the Ameri- 
can republics. Sucli assistance has done much to 
relit've the dependence of these countries on Axis 
nationals. 

Other types of experts detailed under the act 
have been those specializing in such subjects as 
taxation, statistics, finance, geology, public health, 
child welfare, inunigration. police and jjrison tech- 
niques, library science, and public instruction. 

At present Ifi experts are serving under the pro- 
visions of Public Law 63. Five of these people are 
assisting in connection with the agricultural pro- 
grams of Brazil, Colombia, Liberia, and Venezuela. 
A librarian is aiding in the organization of the 
library of the Instituto Agronomico do Norte at 
Belem, Brazil, and the services of a child-welfare 
expert of the Children's Bureau. Department of 
Labor, have also been made available to the Brazil- 
ian Government. The other specialists now on as- 

sionnient include two 



assisted with the cul- 
tivation and market- 
ing of products com- 
plementary to our 
own agricultural en- 
terprise, such as, for 



' Mr. ]\I((;e(irge is a Di- 
visional .\ssistaiit (in the 
Secretariat of tlie Inter- 
departmental Committee 
on Scientific and Cul- 
tural Cooperation, Ofliee 
of International Infor- 
mation and Cultural Af- 
fairs, Department of 
State. 

= Public Law 6.3, 76th 
Cong. 



The [nlerdepartiiienttil Committee on Scientific and Ctil- 
tiiral Cooperation teas created, at the suggestion of the Presi- 
dent, eiirly in 19.il! as an instrument of the United Slates Gov- 
ernment to undertake a permanent, cooperative program jot 
the development of economic, cultural, and scientific rela- 
tions and to coordinate the activities of departments and 
agencies of the Government, under the leadership of the 
Department of State, in undertaking cooperative projects in 
these fields in the ft eslern Hemisphere. L ntil December 
20, 1944, the Committee was knoivn as the Interdepartmental 
Committee on Cooperation W ith the .American Republics. 
The activities of the Committee are coordinated by the chair- 
man of the Committee, the Assistant Secretary of State in 
charge of public and cultural relations, W illiam Benton. The 
vice chairman of the Committee is the Director of the Office 
of International Information and Cultural Affairs, ff illiam T. 
Stone, and the E.xecutive Director is Rayniund L. Zivemer. 
The Executive Director and members of the Secretariat are 
officers of the Department of State in the Office of Inter- 
national Information and Cultural Affairs. 



statisticians, one in 
Colombia and one in 
Panama, a chemical 
expert in Peru, a pub- 
lic-health engineer in 
the Philippines, an 
expert on civil avia- 
tion and a hydro logisi 
in Ve n e z u e 1 a, and 
t h r e e geologists in 
Chile. 

In order to obtain 
the services of a spe- 
cialist from the 
United States Gov- 
ermnent, the interest- 
ed government makes 



JANUARY 20, 1946 



73 



a request through iliploiuiitic chaunels to the Sec- 
retary of State, who refers the request to the 
department or agency most likely to have avail- 
able an expert of the type desired. After the 
exjiert is selected, arrangements are made for his 
detail to the other government. 

The act provides that an employee possessing 
the necessary qualifications may be assigned for 
temporary service for a period of not exceeding one 
year and that his detail may be extended in ex- 
traordinary circumstances for periods of not to 
exceed six months each. The average detail has 
lasted for a period of seven and one-half months. 
The actual range of the periods of the assignments 
undertaken, however, has been from a minimum 
of nine days to a maximum of two years and seven 
days. 

During the period of the assignment the spe- 
cialist retains his status as an employee of the 
department or agency from wiiich detailed and 
continues to receive his salary and expenses from 
it. Costs of a detail include salary, travel ex- 
penses, a monthly allowance for quarters and sub- 
sistence comparable to those of the Foreign Serv- 
ice of the United States, and in some instances ad- 
ditional compensation to cover expenditures which 
would otherwise result in a financial loss to the 
employee. For the purposes of the assignment, 
the department or agency from which the em- 
ployee is detailed may pay these costs from any 
appropriations available to it for the payment of 
compensation and travel expenses. 

One of the features of the act is that it permits 
the acceptance by the Government of the United 
States of all or part of the expenses from the other 
government concerned. Funds for the purpose 
may be accepted in advance from the other gov- 
ernment, in which event the amounts so received 
are placed in a trust fund that is available for the 
pa_vment of the expenses incident to the detail as 
they are incurred. Any balance remaining in the 
trust fund is returned to the other government at 
the completion of the detail. As an alternative 
to this arrangement, the other government may 
reimburse this Government for the expenses ac- 
tually paid in connection with the employee, and 
in that event the amounts reimbursed are credit- 
able to appropriations current at the time the ex- 
penses were paid or to appropriations current at 
the time the reimbursement is effected. The reim- 
bursed amounts may also be credited in part to 
either of the aforementioned appropriations. 



The average detail costs $4,851 including only 
those expenses paid to or on behalf of the em- 
ployee. Of this amount the average obligation 
of the other government is $1,981, or about -41 
percent of the total. In 78 details for which com- 
plete records are available, the total costs have 
been $378,377, of which the obligations of the other 
governments concerned total $l.^>4,5fi'2. Amounts 
paid directly bj^ the other govermnents for the 
furtherance of their various programs in which 
United States employees have assisted under the 
provisions of the act quite possibly run into mil- 
lions of dollars. 

Because of the coopei'ative nature of the assign- 
ments and the mutual benefits to the Govermnent 
of this country and that of the other countries in- 
volved, the administration of the act has been 
closely integrated with the program of the Inter- 
departmental Conunittee on Scientific and Cul- 
tural Cooperation, the Secretariat of which is 
located in the Office of International Information 
and Cultural Affairs of the Department of State. 



Ban on Exit Permits 
for Austria Lifted' 

The Department of State announces tliat the 
ban on the granting of exit permits for Austrian 
refugees who wish to return to their country has 
been lifted. Austrian refugees who fied to the 
United States to escape Nazi tyramiy after the 
forcible annexation of Austria b}' Germany in 
1938 may now receive the necessary authorization 
to return by application to the State Department. 

The United States did not recognize the German 
annexation of Austria in 1938 and provided a 
haven for many Austrians who escaped religious 
and political persecution by the Nazis. Tliey have 
made many contributions to American democracy 
and to the war against Fascism. Those who re- 
turn will be able to contribute to the reconstruc- 
tion of Austria and to assist in the completion of 
Allied objectives as stated in the Moscow Det'lara- 
tion as well as to bring to the Austrian people the 
assurance that the United States is fulfilling its 
pledge to create an independent and democratic 
Austria. 



' Released to the i)re.ss Jan. 9. 



International Organizations and Conferences 



Calendar of Meetings 



Far Eastern Commission 

Anglo-Aiiierlcau Conmiittee of Incniiry 

Inter-American Statistical Institute: Executive 
Committee 

United Nations Organization : General Assembly 

Caribbean Forestry Commission 
Civil Aviation Conference 

International Connnission of tlie Kliine River 

International Labor Organization : 

Conference of Delegates on Constitutional Ques- 
tions 
International Development Works Committee 

International Technical Committee of Aerial Legal 
Experts (CITEJA) : 14th Session 

International Cotton Study Group: Subcommittee of 
the International Advisory Committee 

West Indian Conference 



Tokyo 
Washington 
Rio de Janeiro 

London 



January 6 (continuing in 
session ) 

Hearings opened Janu- 
ary 7 

January 7-14 

January 10 (continuing In 
session ) 



Port-of-Spain 


January 14-24 


Bermuda 


January 15 (c 




session) 


Brussels 


January 17-18 


London 


January 21 


Montreal 


January 28 


Paris 


January 22 


Washington 


January 24 


St. Thomas, Virgin Islands 


February 21 


(U. S.) 





Activities and Developments 



Anglo-American Commiltee of Inquiry plans to 
complete its hearings in Washington on Janu- 
ary 14 and to sail for England on the Qwen 
Elhuheth on January 18. The Committee will 
hold hearings in London between January '25 and 
31 and proceed immediately tliereafter to conti- 
nental Europe. It expects to leave Europe at the 
end of February and go to Cairo for a short stay on 
its way to Palestine. 

Many members of the Committee have expressed 
approval of the helpful attitude of the organiza- 
tions appearing before them in Washington. 
Among the material submittetl in written form, 
economic studies of Palestine, statistics on Jews in 
Europe, and carefully prepared collections of 
political ilocuments have been specifically men- 
tioned as of great value to the Committee. The 



succinct form of the oral presentations at the hear- 
ings has been particularly gratifying to the Com- 
mittee members because of the need for haste in 
getting on to the problems in continental Europe. 

U. S. Representative on Economic and Social 

Council of UNO. On January 12 the President 
designated Ambassador John G. Winant to act as 
representative of the United States on the Eco- 
nomic and Social Council of the United Nations 
Organization for the organizing meetings of the 
Council to be held during or innnediately after the 
current meetings of the United Nations Assembly. 
In notifying Ambassador Winant, the President 
wrote hini that : 

"The i)rompt development and execution of 
plans for the effective organization of the Eco- 



74 



JANUARY 20, 1946 



75 



iioniic and Social Couruil is vital to the successful 
accomplishment of many important tasks with 
wliich it will have to deal. I amc<infi(lent that your 
contribution to the work of organizing tlie Council 
will be fully in accordance with your past achieve- 
ments and I wish you all possible success in this 
new undertaking." 

Civil Aviation Conference.' The composition of 
the American Delegation to the Civil Aviation 
Conference which will take place in Bermuda be- 
ginning on January 15 ha.s been completed. The 
Delegation will be headed by Col. George P. 
Baker, Director of the Office of Transport and 
Connuunications Policy, Department of State. 

Inclusive of the three members from the De- 
partment of State and the five members from the 
Civil Aeronautics Board whose names were made 
public on January 8, and with the inclusion of 
additional members, the complete list follows : 

Delecjates : 

Depaiiment of State: Colonel Baker ; Mr. Stoke- 
ley W. Morgan, Chief, Aviation Division; Mr. 
Garrison Norton, Deputy Director, Office of Trans- 
])ort and Communications Policy; and Mr. John 
D. Hickerson, Deputy Director, Office of European 
Affairs. 

Civil Aeronauficf Board: Mr. L. "Welch Pogue, 
Chairman of the Civil Aeronautics Board; Mr. 
Harllee Branch, ilr. Oswald Ryan, and Mr. Josh 
Lee, members of the Civil Aeronautics Board; 
Mr. George C. Neal, General Counsel of the Civil 
Aeronautics Board ; and Mr. John Sherman, Liai- 
son Consultant. It is probable that not all of the 
delegates representing the Board will be at Ber- 
muda at the same time. 

Advisers : 

War Department: ^laj. Gen. Lawrence S. Kuter, 
U.S.A., and Lt. Col. William P. Berkeley, A.U.S. 

Navy Department : Mr. Artemus L. Gates, 
formerly Assistant Secretary of the Navy, and 
Vice Admiral Forrest P. Sherman, U.S.N. 

Delegation Staff : 

/';r.s-,y Officer: Mv. Reginald P. ^Mitchell, Assist- 
ant to the Special Assistant to the Secretary of 
State, Mr. M. J. McDermott. 

Secretariat: Mr. William L. Breese, secretary, 
and Miss Frances E. Pringle, assistant secretary, 



' Released to the press .Ian. 11. 



both of the Division of International Conferences^ 
Department of State. 

The Department of State has been informed 
that representatives also will be present from the 
Pan American Airways System, Transcontinental 
& Western Air, Inc., and the American Overseas 
Aviation Companj'. 

Various members of the American delegation, 
together with representatives of the press, are 
scheduled to depart by plane for Bermuda from 
La (iuardia Field, New York, N. Y., at about 
1 ]).ni., Monday, January 14. 

The British Delegation will include Sir William 
Hildred and Mr. L. J. Dunnett of the Ministry of 
Civil Aviation: Mr. N. J. A. Cheetham of the 
Foreign Office; Maj. J. R. McCrindle of the British 
Overseas Airways Corjjoration from London; and 
Sir Henry Self and Mr. Peter Masefield from 
AVashington. 

[Released to the press .Taiumry 0] 

During the fall, when the over-all economic dis- 
cussions with the British were being carried on in 
Washington, there were two specialized collateral 
problems with the British which the State Depart- 
ment believed should be handled coincidentally 
with the Washington negt)tiations but quite sepa- 
rately therefrom. These were the problems of 
civil aviation and of telecommunications. On 
November 21, in Bermuda, we sat down with the 
British to discuss our telecommunications prob- 
lems. On the important issues involved we ap- 
peared to be far apart. In approximately 10 clays, 
because of an honest desire on each side to under- 
stand the fears and problems of the other, and 
because of a firm and overriding conviction on 
both sides that, in the light of over-all world 
events, the countries of the world must be able to 
work together in harmony and cooperation, an 
agreement was signed which was satisfactory to 
the United States and British Governments and to 
the American companies involved. On January 
15 we again sit down with the British in Bermuda. 
This time it is on civil-aviation problems. Again 
on a few impoi'tant issues we appear to be far 
apart. We confidently believe, however, that the 
same over-all approach between the two countries 
will bring as successful an agreement in civil avia- 
tion as was accomplished in telecommunications 
five weeks ago. 



The Record of the Week 



Denial of Russell Nixon's 
Conclusions on "Protection" 
of German Assets 

[Releaseil to the press January 8] 

The State Department denies emphatically both 
the alleged facts and the conclusions stated by Eus- 
sell Nixon, acting United States member of the 
German External Property Coannission, with re- 
spect to State Department "jjrotection" of German 
external assets. 

The misleading and imsupportable statement 
issued by Mr. Nixon, apparently prior to his resig- 
nation from an official post, threatens both the rela- 
tions of the United States with its Allies and the 
effort to obtain control and power of disposition of 
German external assets. The Department there- 
fore believes it necessary to contravert directly ^Ir. 
Nixon's assertions. 

The statement issued by Mr. Nixon is full of mis- 
chievous inaccuracies and misleading innuendoes. 
The cliarge tliat a "western bloc" is created by the 
State Department program is not correct and can 
be based only on wilful misunderstanding. The 
territorial division of labor to whicli Mr. Nixon 
refers was specifically provided for in the Potsdam 
agreement, article IV, sections 8 and 9, whereby 
German external assets in certain specified coun- 
tries are disposed of to the Union of Soviet Social- 
ist Republics and, in all countries except those 
specified, to the other Allies. Obviously the 
'"labor" of laying hands on those assets falls to the 
U.S.S.R. in tlie countries specified and to the other 
Allies in the other countries. The i)ractice of the 
Department has been and is to keep the U.S.S.R. 
fully informed on all steps taken. In addition, the 
Department's jiolicy is to obtain Soviet support of 
measures taken in those countries outside the areas 
in which the Potsdam agreement assigned German 
external assets to the U.S.S.R. witii wliicli the 
Soviet Government maintains diplomatic rela- 
tions, and tlie Department is willing to support 
Soviet action in areas in which the Potsdam agree- 
ment assigned German cxtermil assets to the 
U.S.S.R. 

76 



The allegation that the Department is ''ham- 
stringing" the program to control German external 
assets is disproved on the record. The Department 
points out that it has. over a period of years, main- 
tained a unit whose specific duty was the elimina- 
tion of German economic influence abroad and has 
maintained trained personnel in the various mis- 
sions abroad assigned to this specific purpose. The 
DeiDartment has sponsored and cooperated with 
other governmental agencies in the promulgation 
of such jjublic declarations as the Declaration 
Against Axis Acts of Dispossession of January 5, 
194.'3, the looted-gold declaration of February 1944, 
Bretton Woods Resolution VI, which called upon 
the neutral countries to disclose and to freeze Axis 
assets, and the resolutions of the Inter-American 
Conference on Problems of War and Peace held 
in Mexico in Maich 1945. Not only did State De- 
j)artnient officials eitlier participate in or originate 
tliese resolutions but officers of the State Depart- 
ment })articipated in the drafting of Law No. 5, 
which set up the German External Property Com- 
mission, and the Department actively sponsored 
that law. 

The record will reveal that, with the fidl accord 
of the Secretary of State and Assistant Secretary 
Clayton, two members of Amba.ssador Pauley's 
reparation statf, one an officer of the Treasury De- 
partment and the other an official of the State 
Department, drafted the initial version of Law No. 
5, the pertinent provisions of the Potsdam Declara- 
tion, and a memorandum from the I'resident to 
General Clay asking that the external-asset law be 
pushed tlu'ougli tlie Allied Control Council. The 
record will also reveal that, wiien the issuance of 
the vesting decree in tlie Allied Control Council 
was held u]i, the State Department took tlie matter 
up with the governments of the other occui)ying 
powers and succeeded in obtaining governmental 
instructions to I'epresentatives on the Control 
Council which resulted in issuance of tlie law. 

The Department has also i)ublicly announced 
its intention vigorously to imjilement tlie law vest- 
ing German external assets. Assistant Secretary 
Clayton has stated before the Kilgore Committee 
that "The task of destroying the economic basis 



JANUARY 20, 1946 



77 



of German ajjgression is one tluit requires vigorous, 
simultaneous action along a number of lines." 

Mr. Nixon implies that "dirty deals" are being 
concocted to keep German assets in the Western 
Hemisphere from seizure ■which wouUl prevent 
their use in preparation for World War III. The 
Depai'tment's views in respect of the seizing, liqui- 
dation, and forced sale of German assets in this 
hemispliere so as to eradicate completely inimical 
Gernum influence have many times been ex- 
pressed — most recently in a radio speech by As- 
sistant Secretary' Braden on January 5, 1946 — and 
indicate the absurdity of the implication in Mr. 
Nixon's statement that the Department is attempt- 
ing to preserve German assets in the Western 
Hemisphere. On the contrary, as early as the Rio 
conference in January 1942 the American repub- 
lics entered into inter-American agreements in this 
respect which were amplified in the resolutions of 
the AVashington conference in June 194::! and re- 
flected in the resolutions of the Mexico City con- 
ference. Assistant Secretary Clayton's report of 
July 1945 before the Kilgore Committee describes 
this program and its accomplishments as of that 
time in some detail. Consultation among and joint 
action by the American republics on this prob- 
lem has been a publicly announced program since 
early 1942. The cf)nsultati ve pi'ocedui'e is designed 
to reinforce a pi'ograni which this Government 
has, at all times, backed to the hilt. This consult- 
ative procedure does not mean that the Depart- 
ment's views with regard to the eradication of Ger- 
man influence in this hemisphei'e have changed in 
any respect whatsoever. 

The State Department has recently indicated to 
the United States representative on the German 
External Property Commissif>n that, consistent 
with this program for the replacement of German 
interests and together with the expressed commit- 
ments of this Government in the inter-American 
agreements referred to, the question of seizure of 
the remaining Axis assets in this hemisphere 
should be deferred pending consultation between 
the American republics whicli are parties to the 
agreements in question. Resolutions XVIII and 
XIX of the Mexico City conference both provide in 
part as follows: 

"That the American republics expressly agree 
that their rights in property vested, affected, seized 
or intervened up to the present time or in the fu- 



ture, shall remain, with respect to the final dispo- 
sition of all of such propertj' or of the respective 
proceeds, in status quo, until the American govern- 
ments individually reach a final decision regarding 
such disposition or enter into international agree- 
ments in this respect, in so far as they consider it 
in their respective intei-ests." 

Mr. Nixon's statement reflects a fundamental 
misconception of the nature of the German Ex- 
ternal Property Commission and the manner in 
which it can operate outside of Germany. A pri- 
mary function of the German External Property 
Commission is to investigate and prepai'e cases 
with respect to external assets. Strenuous efforts 
in this direction will be required. But it does not 
appear that Mr. Nixon's statement reflected the 
understanding, concurred in by General Clay at 
tlie time of liis recent visit to Washington, that the 
negotiations with the neutral governments would 
have to be conducted on the dijilomatic and gov- 
ernmental level. The Allied Control Council has 
no formal representation or metliod of communi- 
cating with the neutral govei-nnients otlier than 
througli regular diplomatic cluuinels of the occu- 
pying powers. Matters affecting the relations of 
the negotiating governments, beyond the jurisdic- 
tion of the Control Council, would be involved in 
such negotiations. It was, however, always con- 
templated that the German External Property 
Commission would be represented at such negotia- 
tions, that the law vesting German external assets 
would be the basis of these negf)tiatioiis, and that 
the Coinmission would have an important role in 
procedures resulting from the negotiations. 

Mr. Nixon's statement rejjresents a clear dis- 
service to the cause of the Allied nations. The 
State Department reaffirms its intention to prose- 
cute vigorously, as it has been doing, the question 
of German external assets. The Department de- 
nies completely the implications of a statement 
which apparently arose from a fundamental mis- 
understanding of an essential division of responsi- 
bilities between the Control Council and the gov- 
ernments of the occupying powers. 

It may be added that neither prior to nor since 
issuance of his remarks has Mr. Nixon troubled to 
furnish the State Department with a copy of them, 
so that this statement has necessarily been pre- 
pared only on the basis of press reports of those 
remarks. 



78 

$25,000,000 Loan to 
Greek Government 

[Released to the press January 12] 

Note pvenented o-n January 12 to the GreeJc Foreign 
Office hy the Arnericah Amia-^sador in Athens in- 
forming the Greek authorities of the approval hy 
the Export -Import Bank of a $2.5,000,000 loan ' to 
the Greek Goi^ernment 

The United States Goveninient acknowledges 
receipt of the letter addressed by Mr. Tsouderos to 
tlie Ambassador of the United States in Athens, 
submittino- suggestions for economic aid to Greece. 

The United States (iovernment is mindful of the 
important contrilnitions made by Greece to the 
successful conclusion of the war and sympa- 
thetically aware of the tremendous devastation 
visited on Greece during the period of hostilities. 
In the face of overwhelming odds Greece exhibited 
a courage in resistance which served as an example 
to the liberators who eventually were able to re- 
lease Europe from enemy domination. Tlie relief 
provideil to Greece througli military liaison and 

' With relatively iiniiupoi-tant exceptions, the xn'oceeds 
of the loan may be used only for inirchase in the United 
States of niaterialK. eiinipnieiit, and .services for the 
re.storation of iiroihictive facilities in Greece. 

According to an announeenient by tlie Export-Import 
Bank on .Jan. 11, 1946, the use of the loan is restrieted 
to certain types of materials and equipment approved or 
to be approved by the Exixirt-Import Bank. These are 
expected to be approximately as follows: 

Approximnie 
Item dollar value 

1. Equipment for liarlior wurk.s — reconstruc- 

tion of destroyed liarl)oiis .$1, (>.jO, 000 

2. Roads and highways i-epair and mainte- 

nance; equipment and various tools and 
materials for road-repair-machinery 
workshops 5, 300, 000 

3. List of main outfits, machinery and tools, 

etc., for the construction of the new 
water works for augmenting the Athens 
and Piraeus water supplies 700,000 

4. Railway equipment 2, 100, 000 

5. Salvaging machinery and e(iuipment . . . 1, ."lOO, OOO 

6. Pilot-sliips and motorboats S(», 0(X) 

7. Machinery and material required for the 

alteration of 6 corvettes to postal ships . 4.50, 000 

S. Floating docks and equipment 800, 000 

9. Materials for the repair of merchant 

ships 400, 000 

10. Equipment for the mercantile marine — In- 
struments and clothing 100, 0()0 

n. Passenger motoi- veliicles 120,000 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

the current operations of UXRRA is an effort on 
the part of the United States along with other 
Allied countries to demonstrate their grateful 
recognition of the tremendous sacrifices Greece has 
made. Further assistance toward reconstructi(m 
will be afforded througli a $25 million Export- 
Imi:)ort Bank loan. By means of this loan Greece 
will be able to acquire certain essential supplies 
and equipment. 

There is a danger, which should not be ignored, 
that if energetic steps are not taken to improve 
the present internal economic situation, the assist- 
ance from the United States will not produce the 
lasting benefits that are hojied for. An immediate 
improvement in the economic situation in Greece 
should create an atmosphere favorable to the suc- 
cessfid holding of national elections. Elect itins 
accurately reflecting the wi.shes of the Greek people 
should bring about an improved jjolitical situation 
which should contribute substantially to long-run 
economic recovery and to future stability. 

The severe difficidties which Greece has en- 
countered since liberation can be traced in large 
part to the self-sacrificing heroism with which the 

12. Rubber tires and inner tubes for motor ve- 

liicles $500,000 

13. Requirement for the maintenance and com- 

pletion of the hydraulic works of Mace- 
donia 150,000 

14. Telegraph and telephone overhead line ma- 

terials — materials for the automatic ur- 
ban telephone networks — main and 
branch telephone-exchange equipment 
for the urlian automatic telephone sys- 
tem, and 

15. Equipment and materials for telecomnuuii- 

cations 2,000,000 

16. Water-purifying plant — .\tliens — materials 

and equipment 30, 000 

17. Machinery and equipment for the mainte- 

nance and repair of the hydraulic works . 2, 000, 000 
IS. Macliinery and equipment of state-con- 
trolled electric-power public utilities . . 1.000,000 

19. Wire tietting for use in the flooded areas of 

Macediinia, Thrace. Messenia, etc. . . . 50,000 

20. Instruments and equipment for hydrologi- 

cal research 100,000 

21. Life belts 20,000 

22. Spares and material for the repair and 

maintenance of the gas works 20, 000 

23. Machinery and spares for industrial instal- 

lations 1, 350, 000 

24. Engineering and technical services SIX), 000 

25. To be allocated 4.080,000 

ToT^L 25,000,000 



JAIWARY 20, 1946 



79 



Greek people resisted the common foe. The re- 
sulting emergencj- conditions have prevented suc- 
cessive Greek governments from carrying out 
effectively the stringent kind of internal economic 
stability program that is required. The Govern- 
ment of the United States is aware that Greece's 
burden is a heavy one, but it is convinced that the 
assistance being extended to Greece can accom- 
plish little toward economic recovery unless the 
Greek Government itself undertakes rigorous 
measures to control inflation and to stabilize the 
currency, to reduce Government expenditures and 
to augment revenue, to increase the efficiency of the 
Civil Service Administration, and to revive indus- 
try and trade. 

The execution of such a program has been the 
announced intention of several ISIinistries which 
have been in power in Greece during recent months 
but in no case has it been possible for them to pur- 
sue such a program to a successful conclusion. It 
is assumed that the present Government also has 
under consideration a similar program. The ex- 
tent of possible further American economic assist- 
ance to Greece will nece.ssarily be influenced by the 
effectiveness with which the Greek (Government 
deals with the problem of economic stabilization. 

The United States Government has been advised 
by the British Government of the hitter's proposal 
now under discussion with the Greek Government 
to send an Advisory Economic Mission to Greece. 
In view of the interest which this Government has 
in the success of the economic stabilization and 
recovery of Greece, it welcomes this evidence of 
the desire of the Briti.sh Government to extend 
advisory aid to Greece. If Greece should need ad- 
ditional technical assistance, the United States 
Government would be prepared, upon request of 
the Greek Government, to make available Ameri- 
can technical economic experts to consult on Greek 
financial and economic programs. The particular 
qualifications of any exjierts which might be de- 
sired could be determined in consultation between 
the two Governments, so that they would be best 
equipped to assist on those problems which are now 
most urgent in Greece. 

The Greek Government can be assured that the 
United States Government is fully aware of the 
grave difficulties which beset Greece. It hopes, 
however, that the Greek Government, by taking 
firm action and at the same time being confident of 
outside assistance, will be able to lead Greece on 
the road toward economic recovery. 



Plants Available for Allocation 
on German Reparation 
Account 

[ Released to the pross by the Department of Ooimiieroe .Tanuary 6] 

The Department of State and the Office of Inter- 
national Trade. Department of Commerce, re- 
leased on January (i the first list of two groups of 
individual industrial plants which have been 
declared available for allocation on the German 
reparation account by the Allied Control Council. 

American l^rms or persons interested in accjuir- 
ing any of them are asked to indicate promptly 
their interest in accordance with the procedure 
descril)ed lielow so that the Ignited States claims 
to specific plants can be proi)erly determined. An 
indication of interest constitutes no commitment 
to purchase. It is expected that some of these 
plants will be available by the latter part of the 
year, after allocations are made and dismantling, 
packing, and transportation arrangements are 
comideted. 

On this first list are 4o plants procllicing such 
things as electric power, aluminum foil, chemicals, 
m.ichine tools, ignition equipment, coke and by- 
products, screw machines, aircraft parts, optical 
equipment, forgings. ball bearings, motorcycles, 
small arms, explosives and annmuiition, sub- 
marines and small ships, harvesting equipment, 
tractors, cement, pig iron, stoves and household 
etiuipment. 

Available details concerning these plants will 
be furnished b_v the State Department and GIT. 
Subsequent lists will be made public as other (Ger- 
man factories are declared eligible for removal by 
the ACC. 

American firms or persons interested in purchas- 
ing for transfer to the United States any of the 
plants listed in either group are asked to indicate 
their interest to the Office of International Trade, 
Department of Commerce, Washington. 

Any American concern or person interested in 
purchasing a plant in either group for transfer to 
a third country should, however, file a statement 
of interest with the Division of Investment and 
Economic Development, Department of State, 
Washington. For plants in Group 1 statements 
should be received by January 10, and for those in 
Group '2 by January 25. 

In determining which plants will be claimed for 
transfer to this country, consideration will be given 



80 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



to the need for and availability of such facilities in 
the United States. 

Persons or firms interested in purchasing for 
transfer to this country any German plant not on 
this list and having infornuition concerning it 
are aske<l to furnish as much detail as possible to 
the OIT as to the location, ownershij), type of pro- 
duction, and equipment. In the event this plant 
is subsequently declared available for removal as 
reparation, the interested persons or firms will be 
informed. 

Persons or firms who own or have a substantial 
property interest in industrial plants in (iermany 
which may be declared available for removal on 
reparation account and who desire to purchase 
and transfer such plants for operation in other 
foreign countries should communicate with the 
Division of Investment and Economic Develop- 
ment, Department of State. It is expected that 
wholly German-owned plants will be the first to 
be earmarked for removal from (Jermany, l)ut the 
program of reparation and economic disarmament 
may require the removal of some industrial plants 
wholly or partly owned by nationals of Allied 
countries. 

Whenever a jtlant in which a substantial Amer- 
ican property interest exists is earmarked for re- 
moval, the Department of State will determine, 
after consultation with the American owners 
involved, whether the United States should claim' 
such plant as part of its reparation share. If 
the ))lant in question is actually obtained by the 
United States (lovernment as reparation, due con- 
sideration will be given to tiie American property 
interests in determining the new foreign location 
of the plant and tlie conditions of its sale. Per- 
sons or firms who desire to purchase other Ger- 
man plants which have or may become available 
as reparation, in order to transfer them to other 
foreign countries for operation, should likewise 
connnunicate with the Divisnm of Investment and 
Economic Development, Department of State. 

Claims of American firms or persons arising out 
of removal of plants in which they may have a 
property interest will be settled in accordance 
with such legislation as Congress may enact. 

The list of plants follows: 

Gkoi'I' I (StatenuMits of interest should be re- 
ceived by Jan. 10), Phtntfi araihihle for aJlocation 
hy ACC to the I iifer-Alliid Rcpanttion Agency 
and to Rum/a and Pot and: 

Deut.sche .Sohiff- iiiul Araschinonbiui A.G., sliipbuikliiig 
iilaiit. lit l!rciii<-ii-V;iliMitiii 



C. F. Boigward, toriicdo plaTit. at Bremen 
Ndi-ddeutselie Hnette Aktiengesell.scliat't, coke and by- 
products, at Bremen 
The Halin Tessk.v Index Werke, screw machines, at 

Ksslingen-Necku r 
Norddeutsche Dornierwerke No. 2 factory, aircraft parts, 

at Liibeck 
Norddeiitselie Dornierwerke No. 4 factory, beds and 

liou.sehold utensils, at Rotlieheck 
Arms factory. Rinker at Minden 
Metallwerlve Wolferdmettel (iMBH. armament, Wolfen- 

buettel near Brunswick 
Stulilrelirfabrik Von Kudolf Sieverts, Hamburg Berge- 

dorf 
Norddeutsche Dornierwerke No. 7 factory, Sierksrade 
Pabrik Kanfburen, smokeless powder, near Kaufburen 
Fabrik .\scliau, introcellulose, near Muehldorf 
Fabrik Ebenhausen, introcellulose and smokeless powder, 

near Ingolstadt 
Wehrinaclit Ordnance Plant, Strass 
Geretsried-Wolfratshausen, loading ammunition, Wolf- 

ratshauseu 
VVehrmacht Ordnance Plant, Desnig 
AVerke Tscheldin, ahuninum foil, Tenningen 
Maschinenfabrilv Fahr A.G., harvesting equipment and 

tractors, Gottmadingen 
Maschinenfabrik (;elirii<ler Kramer, ti'actors, Gottma- 
dingen 
Mauser Company, ritles and pistols, Oliendorf (Wiirt- 

tenil)erg) 
I. G. Farben A.G., vitryl chloride, Rlieinfelden 
Degussa Company, peroxide of hydrogen, Rlieinfelden 
R. Bosch, ignition equipment, Sulz ( Wiirttemberg) 
Suddeutsche Arguswerke, small screw pieces, Baden- 
Baden 

Gkoup II (Statements of interest should be re- 
ceived by Jan. 25), Plants availabte for aJlocation 
among member nations lyy the Inter-Allied Repara- 
tion Agency : 

Power plant of the Grosskraftwerke JIannheim A.G., 

at Mannheim 
Machine plant, Hanwell-Lug, at Diisseldorf 
Fireproofing plant, Beiulorf on Rhine, at Bendorf 
Optical-instrument plant, Hensolt, at Herboru 
One-half ball-bearing works of Kugel Fisher at Schwein- 

furt 
Mathes and Weber's soda plant at Duisburg 
Lathe and machine-tool plant, Wagner at Dortmund 
Lathe and machine-tool plant. Fretz Mueller at Esslingen 
Lathe and machine-tool plant, Bohne Kohle at Esslingen 
Klockner Humbolt Dietz, diesel-engine plant at Ober- 

virsel 
Hastedt steam-electric plant at Bremen 
Togency hydroelectric plant at Muehldorf 
BMW motorcycle plant at Jlunich 
Forgings and cranksh;ifts plant, Kusl)ellwellenwerke, 

Glinde at Handmrg 
Small-arms plant. Metalhverke Neuenganune at Ham- 
burg 
Hanseati.sche Kettcnwerke, Hamburg, pr<iduclng cart- 
ridge cases and fuses 
Explosives plant, Falirick Hess Lichenau at Fiirsten- 
haaen 



JANUARY 20, 1946 



81 



Recognition of Austrian 
Government 

[Released to the press January 7] 

In accordance with the resohition of December 
IS, 1945 of tlie Allied Council in Austria, tlic mem- 
bers of the Council unanimously reconnnended to 
their respective governments that the Austrian 
Government formed by Chancellor Leopold Figl 
as a result of the mandate received in the elections 
of November 25, 1945 be recognized by the states 
represented on the Council. The recogniticm of 
the Au.strian Government has been approved by 
the President, and the United States member of 
the Allied Council has been instructed to notify the 
Austrian Government to this effect. The Presi- 
dent has in addition sent the following telegram 
to Dr. Karl Renner on the occasion of his election 
to the presidency of the Austrian Republic : 

"I wish to extend to you my sincere congratu- 
lations on your election as President of the Aus- 
trian Rei^ublic and my best wishes in your task 
of completing the liberation of Austria and the 
revival of an independent and democratic state. 
I can assure you that the people of the United 
States will wish to assist Austria in this endeavor." 

The recognition of the Austrian Government by 
the United States in no way affects the supreme au- 
thority of the Allied Council. The Council will 
continue to operate in carrying out the Allied ob- 
jectives in Austria. As the Council proceeds with 
its ta.sk of eliminating Nazi influences and insti- 
tutions in Austria, and assisting in the reconstruc- 
tion of democratic life, it is hoi)ed that a large- 
scale reduction may be made in the number of oc- 
cupation troops of the four states and that Austria 
may progressively acquire the status of an inde- 
pendent state. The United States Government also 
hopes that 'an Austrian agent will arrive soon in 
Washington to discuss matters of mutual interest 
which clo not affect the supreme authority of the 
Allied Council. 



1933 Sanitary Convention 

United Kingdom 

The Ambassador of the Netherlands informed 
the Secretary of State in a note dated November 
15, 1945 that the Government of the United King- 
dom deposited in the archives of the Netherlands 



Government on September 10, 1945 the acceptance 
of the International Sanitary Convention for ae- 
rial navigation of April 12, 1933 ^ on behalf of 
the British territories of Newfoundland, Basuto- 
land, Bechuanaland, and Swaziland. 

The Ambassador further stated in his note that, 
in accordance with article (15, paragraph 2, of the 
1933 convention, the acceptance shall become bind- 
ing for these territories on the one hundred and 
twentieth day after the day the communication 
was deposited with the Netherlands Government. 



United Kingdom Monetary 
Agreements 

Czechoslovakia, Netherlands, and Norway 

The State Depiirtment has received from the 
American Ambassailor at London British com- 
mand papers 6694, 6681, and 6697, containing the 
te.xts of monetary agreements between the United 
Kingdom on the one hand and Czechoslovakia, 
signed November 1, 1945, the Netherlands, signed 
September 7, 1945, and Norway, signed November 
8, 1945, resjiectively, on the other. Previous is- 
sues of the Bulletin have described recent mone- 
tary agreements between tlie United Kingdom and 
Belgium, Denmark, France, and Sweden. - 

As in the case of those agreements, the chief 
purpose of the latest monetary treaties is to facili- 
tate the reestablishment of commercial and finan- 
cial relations between the United Kingdom and 
other countries which were interrupted by the 
war. In 1938 the seven Euroi^ean countries 
named above took 17.1 percent of the United 
Kingdom's total exports and supplied 16.5 percent 
of that country's general imports. 

The agreements with Czechoslovakia, the Neth- 
erlands and Norway follow closely the general 
pattern of the agreements previously concluded. 
The most important undertakings are the 
following : 

1. Subject to the provisions mentioned in j^ara- 
graph 5 below, a fixed rate of exchange is estab- 
lished between the pound sterling and the cur- 



' Treaty Series 901. 

= Bulletin of Jan. 14, 1945; p. 66 : .\i)r. 1, 1945, p. 585 ; 
June 3, 1945, p. 1016 ; Aug. 5, 1945, p. 191 ; Aug. 12, 1945, 
p. 220 ; and Oct. 14, 1945, p. 563. 



82 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BVLLETIN 



rency of each of the other eontnu'ting govern- 
ments. This rate is not to be varied, in the case 
of Czechoslovakia and the Netherlands, except 
after mutnal considtation ; and in the case of Nor- 
way, except after giving to the other party "as 
nmch notice as may be practicable'". 

2. Each of the parties to the three agreements 
undertakes to furnish its own currency against 
the currency of the other inirty, thus providing 
the latter with what is, in effect, a line of credit 
for current transactions. Net balances accumu- 
lated through the operation of this provision are 
linuted. in tiie case of Czechoslovakia to a maxi- 
mum of 1,()()(),000 pounds sterling or 200,000,000 
koruna, and in the case of the Netherlands to a 
maximum of 5,000,000 pounds sterling or r>3,450,- 
000 guilders. When the specified amount of the 
net balance has been reached, further sales of cur- 
rency are to be paid for in gold. In the Anglo- 
Norwegian agreement no specific limit is placed 
on the amount of currency either contracting gov- 
ernment may purchase from the other. 

3. The United Kingdom undertakes to permit 
the use of sterling at the disposal of residents of 
Czechoslovakia, the Netherlands, and Norway, re- 
spectively, for payments, not only in the United 
Kingdom but in any other part of the sterling area 
as well, and for transfers to other residents of those 
respective countries. A corresponding commit- 
ment is undertaken by Czechoslovakia, the Nether- 
lands, and Norway. It is to be noted, however, that ~ 
the agreements are bilateral. Sterling available 
to residents of Czechoslovakia, for example, can- 
not be used for jiayments to residents of the Neth- 
erlands. The contracting governments also agree 
that "as opportunity offers" they will attempt to 
make balances held by residents of the other con- 
tracting government available for payments to 
residents of "third" countries. 

4. The contracting governments agree to "co- 
operate wilh a view to assisting each other in keep- 
ing capital transactions within the scope of their 
respective policies and, in jtarticular, with a view 
to preventing transfers between tlieir areas which 
do not serve direct and useful economic or commer- 
cial purposes". 

5. In each case there is provision for review of 
the agreement in the event that the contracting 
governments should adhere to a general Interna- 
tional Monetary Agreement. All the agreements 
are terminable on three months" notice. 



All - Hemisphere 
Copyright Conference 

[Released to the press by the Pau American Unionl 

An inter-American conference of copyright ex- 
perts, charged with drafting a permanent agree- 
ment to give all intellectual works uniform protec- 
tion throughout this hemisphere, will meet in 
Washington beginning June 1. 194G. 

The Governing Board of the Pan American 
Union, at its regular monthly .session held on De- 
cember 5, 1945, adopted the report of a committee 
appointed to study this subject. The comnnttee 
recommended that a conference of special dele- 
gates from all the American republics be called to 
exchange views on the present copyright system 
and draw up a treaty for ratification bj' their re- 
spective governments. 

Legal i^rotection of authors and composers in 
America is provided at present by several multi- 
lateral and numerous bilateral agreements, as well 
as certiiin reciprocal arrangements. The basic in- 
strument is the Buenos Aires convention of 1910, 
but, since only 14 countries ratified this agreement, 
it does not afford over-all protection. 

More important still, there are no inter-Ameri- 
can treaties covering work produced in the newer 
fields of radio and television. It will be the pur- 
pose of the conference to provide protection for 
such scripts, as well as to harmonize the principles 
embodied in existing agreements which relate to 
published works. 

Inter-American Indian 
Institute 

Gmitemiila 

The Mexican Ambassador informed the Secre- 
tary of State in a note dated December 12, 1945 
that the Republic of Guatemala has adhered to 
the convention providing for the creation of. an 
Inter- American Indian Institute which was open 
for signature at Mexico City from Novemlier 1 
to December 31, 1940.' The Guatemalan adher- 
ence was communicated to the Mexican Govern- 
ment in a note dated October 29. 1945 and deposited 
in the Ministry of Foreign Aff'airs of Mexico on 
October 30, 1945. 



' Treaty Series 978. 



JANUARY 20, 1946 



83 



Military Aviation Mission 

^Bolivia 

By an excliange of notes at AVashington, dated 
November 1 and December 3, 1945, the agreement 
between the United States and Bolivia for the as- 
signment of a United States Military Aviatitm 
Mission to Bolivia, signed at Washington Septem- 
ber 4, 1941.' was renewed for four years from Sep- 
tember 4, 1945. 



D To rerommencl tliaiiges in the navigation laws of 
the United States and in the Foreign Service regulations 
as related to the functions listed under paragraph I A 
above. 

E To assist masters of vessels in matters relating 
to entrance and clearance of vessels in foreign ports and 
ports of the United States. 



The Foreign Service 



Air-Transport Agreement with 
Czechoslovakia 



Diplomatic Offices 



The American Legation at Bangkok, Siam, was olE- 
eiall.v opened on .January ."i. I04t). 



1 Relea.sed' to the press .lamiary 11] 
The Department of State announces that a bilateral 
air-transport agreement has been concluded with the 
Czechiisliivak (iovernment, providing for so-called Fifth 
Freedom trattic privileges. The agreement became oper- 
ative (in Jaiiuar.v 3., ly-lB. which was the dtite of its 
signature in I'raha. 

Authority is granted for the operation of an American 
civil air service on a route via London and Brussels to 
Praha, and extending through central Europe and the 
Near Eaist to India. Czechoslovak air services are 
granted reciprocal rights to operate on a route to I'raha 
from New York. 



The Department 



Transfer of Functions Concerned with 
Consular Services to Ships and Seamen 

I Tr.\nsfer of Responsibiuty foe Consular Services 
TO Ships AND Seamen. (Effective 11-1-45) The responsi- 
bility for formulating and coordinating the work of the 
Department concerned with protection abroad of seamen 
and official services to shii)S by the Foreign Service of 
the Ujiited States, is hereby transferred from FA. Otiice 
of the Foreign .Service, to SD, Office of Transport and 
Conunuriications I'olicy. This will include the following 
functions : 

A To provide services for the shipment, discharge, 
relief, repatriation, and burial of seamen, and services to 
American aircraft and crews. 

B To ad.hist disputes between masters and crews of 
vessels. 

C To handle estates of decea.sed seamen. 



' Executive Agreement Series 219'. 



UNO — CoiitiiiiK (I fnnii imi/r On. 

ests of tlie big and small states against aggression. 
The counteiposing of the big countries witli the 
small ones has nothing in common with the prin- 
cij^les of the United Nations Organization, wliich 
has been created in the interests of the struggle 
against aggressive states and their allies and 
wiiich united the })eare-loving countries, big and 
.small, in order to light for peace and international 
security. . . . Voices are being heard from 
somewliere to the effect that the Charter has al- 
ready become obsolete and needs revision. Such 
allegations must be decisively rejected by all those 
wlio. not merely by words but by actions, are try- 
ing to build up strong and effective machinery for 
the maintenance of security'." 

Notable in the voting for membership on the 
Security Council was Canada's withdrawal in 
favor of Australia. In the voting for members 
of the Economic and Social Council, New Zealand 
withdrew in favor of Yugoslavia. 

United Nations delegates were welcomed in a 
large demonstration Thursday evening at Royal 
Albert Hall, where more than 200 of the civic 
heads of Great Britain greeted the delegates. 
Field ilarshal Sir Hai'old Alexander presided over 
the meeting, which was organized by the United 
Nations Association of Grreat Britain, a private 
group engaged in prcimoting understanding of the 
United Nations and its principles. Speakers in- 
cluded Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt, Assembly Presi- 
clent Paul-Henri Spaak. and Lady Megan Lloyd- 
George, daughter of Britain's late AVorld War 
leader. 



84 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Publications 

of the DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

For sale h[i the SiiiKiiiitiiulriit of Dociiiiicnts, Ouvenimcnt 
Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C. Address requests 
direct to the Superintendent of Documents, except in the 
ciise of free piihiieations, U'hich may he obtained from 
tile Ijciiiirtiiiint of State. 

Menioranduni on the Postwar Internationnl Information 
Program of the United States. By Di-. Artliur W. M;ic- 
malioii, Consultant on Administration in the Department 
of State. Pub, 2438. xx, 13.5 pp. 3(V. 

Working paper pre.senting (acts and poliev alterna- 
tives confronting tlie Depai'tment of State in organiz- 
ing an overseas information program for tlie future. 

Anglo-American Financial and Commercial Agreements. 

Commercial Policy Series SO. Pub. 2439. 12 pp. 5^. 

Text of financial agreement, together with statement 
by the President of tlie United States and the Prime 
Minister of Great Britain and joint statements on 
commercial policy and on settlement for lend-lease 
. and reciprocal aid. suiplus war proiierty, and claims. 

International Council of Scientific Unions: Brussels and 
Cambridge. By Esther C. Brunauer, Division of Inter- 
national Organization Affairs, Department of State. Pub. 
2413. 12 pp. 5t 

A history of the international organization of scien- 
tists and scientific work from the inauguration of the 
Council following World War I to the present, with 
some discussion of the new interest in international 
scientific collaboration and control of the application 
of scientific knowledge created by the achievements 
of World AVar II. 

Relief and Rehabilitation — What Is Our Stake? For- 
eign Affairs Outline No. ', on "Building the I'eace", Dec. 
1945. Pub. 2433. 4 pp. Free. 

Prepared liy the Department of State to acquaint the 
American people with the problem of the hungry and 
homeless women and children in Europe and Asia and 
wily it is onr problem. 

Certain Problems of Marine Transportation and Litiga- 
tion. Agreement Between the United States of America 
and Norway — Effected by exchange of notes signed at 
Washington May 29, 194.5 ; effective May 29, 1945. Execu- 
tive Agreement Series 471. Pub. 2403. 4 pp. 50. 

Agreement for the waiver of claims by each gov- 
ernment against the other with respect to vessels 
and cargoes lost or damaged in marine transporta- 
tion. 

Health and Sanitation Program. Agreement Between 
the United States of America and Jtlaiti — Effected by ex- 
change of notes signed at Port-au-Prince June 29 and 



.luly 12, 1944. Executive Agreement Series 4.53. Pub. 2417. 

3 i)p. 5<*. 

Continuation of cooperative program of pulilic health 
and sanitation undertaken in Hiiiti since 1942. 

Sanitary Maritime Navigation. Convention Between the 
United States of America and Other Powers Jlodifying 
the Convention of June 21, 192C — Signed for the United 
States Jan. 5, 194.5; ratified by the I'resident May 29, 1945; 
Ijroclainied by the President May 29. 191.5; effective as to 
the United States May 29, 1945. Treaty Series 991. 
38 pp. 100. 

Modification of the 1926 convention in light of present- 
day conditions which call for special measures to 
prevent the spread by land and sea across frontiers of 
epidemic or other communicable diseases. 

Military Service. Agreement Between the T'nited States 
of America and Ecuador — Effected by exchange of notes 
signed at Washington Apr. 2 and 5, 1945. Executive 
Agreement Series 475. Pub. 2426. 4 pp. 50. 

Agreement permitting, on a reciprocal basis, nationals 
of one country residing in the territory of the other 
country, but who liave not declared their intentions 
of becoming citizens of the latter country, to elect 
to serve in the armed forceti of the coimtry of wliich 
they are nationals. 

Jurisdiction Over Prizes. Agreement Between the United 
States of America and New Zealand — Effected by ex- 
change of notes signed at Wellington Nov. 3, 1942 and 
Jan. 28, 1943. Executive Agreement Series 454. Pub. 
2435. 5 pp. 50. 

Agreement providing reciprocal privileges to facilitate 
the disposition of prizes captured during the present 
war. , 

Temporary Migration of Costa Rican Agricultural Work- 
ers. Agreement Between the I'nited States of America and 
Costa Rica Api)ri>ving Memm-andum Agreement Signed 
May 20, 1944 — Effected by exchange of notes signed at 
San Jose May 29, 1944. Executive Agreement Series 451. 
Pub. 2428. 16 pp. 100. 

Contract for the furnishing of a supply of laborers 
from Costa Rica for temporary employment in the 
timber and lumber and food-processing industries in 
the United States. 

Cooperative Rubber Plantation Investigations. Agree- 
ment Between the United States of America and Haiti — 
Effected by exchange of notes signed at Port-au-Prince 
D3C. 29, 1944 and Jan. 8, 1945; effective Jan. 8, 1945 
Executive Agreement Series 462. Pub. 2436. 6 pp. 50. 

Supplementary agreement defining more precisely 
certain procedures affecting the sale of ijroducts 
grown on the lands of the experiment station and 
facilitating the continued development of rubber 
investigations and plantings. 

A cumulative list of the pulilieations of the Department 
of State, from Oct. J, 1929 to Jutij 1, 19.',5 {pub. 2.373), mail 
he obtained from tlie Department of State. 

U S GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 1946 
PUBLISHED WITH APPROVAL OF DIRECTOR OE BUREAU OF THE BUDGET 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

msm 



VOL. XIV, NO. 343 



JANUARY 27, 1946 



General Assembly of the United Nations 



REPORT FROM LONDON 



Statements by Assistant Secretary Benton on AP Action 
The Significance of the British Loan 

By CLAIR WILCOX 

Last Remnants of National Socialist Ideology 

By ASSISTANT SECRETARY BRADEN 

Korea and the Far East 

By JOHN CARTER VINCENT and EDWIN M. MARTIN 



^^^NT o^ 



■^ 



For complete contents 
see inside cover 



/ 






\ 







/ 






THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

BULLETIN 

Vol.. XIV'No. 34S» W^Kl * Publication 2155 




January 27, 1946 



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The Department of State BULLETiy, 
a weekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Research and 
Publication, Office of Public Affairs, 
provides the public and interested 
agencies of the Government with 
information on developments in the 
field of foreign relations and on the 
work of the Department of State and 
the Foreign Service. The BVLLETIN 
includes press releases on foreign 
policy issued by the White House and 
the Department, and statements and 
addresses made by the President and 
by the Secretary of State and other 
officers of the Department, as well as 
special articles on various phases of 
international affairs and the functions 
of the Department. Information con- 
cerning treaties and international 
agreements to which the United States 
is or may become a party and treaties 
of general international interest is 
included. 

Publications of the Department, cu- 
mulative lists of which are published 
at the end of each quarter, as well as 
legislative material in the field of in ter - 
na tional rela tions, are listed currently. 



Contents 



Page 

General Assembly of the United Nations: 

Address by tlie Secretary of State 87 

Report From London to the Office of Public 

Affairs, Department of State 89 

Position of Department of State on AP Action: 

Statements by Assistant Secretary Benton ... 92 

Letter From Assistant Secretary Benton to Presi- 
dent of Board of Directors of Associated 

Press 94 

The Significance of the British Loan. By Clair 

Wilcox 96 

Last Remnants of National Socialist Ideology. By 

Assistant Secretary Braden 101 

Korea and the Far East. Radio Broadcast . . . 104 
American and Soviet Commands in Korea Plan Ad- 
ministrative Coordination Ill 

French Government To Take Part in Conference on 

Peace Treaties 112 

Policy on Japanese Mandated Islands 113 

Military Missions to Control Council in Berlin . . 113 
Reparation From Germany: Final Act and Annex 

of the Paris Conference on Reparation .... 114 
Ten Soutli American Republics Being Linked by 

Pan American Highway 125 

International Organizations and Conferences 

Calendar of Meetings 127 

Activities and Developments: 

Far Eastern Commission 127 

Providing for the Furnishing of Information and Assistance 
to the Joint Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry on 
Jewish Problems in Palestine and Europe 127 

The Record of the Week 

American Group To Observe Elections in Greece 129 

Expansion of Food and Livestock Products in Caribbean 

Area 130 

Tran.sfer of Japanese Property 131 

Assistance for American Correspondents Reporting UNRRA 

Activities Abroad 131 

Contributions to I'NRRA 131 

Revocation of the Proclamation Suspending the International 

Load Lines Convention in Ports and Waters of the 

United States 132 

Letters of Credence: Minister of Hungary 132 

The FoREKiN Service 

Consular Offices 132 

Publications 

Agriculture in the'Americas 124 



•„. S. SUPERINTENDEfn Of IXjCUfcicnIi 



MAR 19 1946 

General Assembly of the United Nations 



Address by THE SECRETARY OF STATE ^ 



WK HAVE MET liei'e todiiy to consider the report 
of the Preparatory Commission. This report 
is the result of painstaking and devoted Uibor by 
the delegates on the Executive Committee and the 
Preparatory Commission. 

This preparatory work has made it possible for 
the United Nations to begin its work at the very 
start of the first year of peace after six successive 
years of devastating war and less than five months 
after the surrender of Japan. 

For this prompt beginning, the world owes an 
innneasurable debt to many who are not here today. 
We are particularly indebted to Fianklin Delano 
Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, and Joseph Stalin. 

It was they who four years ago tliis month at 
one of the darkest moments of the war joined with 
their Allies to proclaim the United Nations Dec- 
laration. Even as they exerted every effort to mo- 
bilize and unite at that late and critical moment 
the forces of freedom for survival, they knew that 
military survival, military victory, was not enough. 

The vision of those nations large and small which 
joined in the United Nations Declaration was not 
restricted to a wartime alliance. Their determina- 
tion was to bind together in peace the free nations 
of the world so that never again would they find 
themselves isolated in the face of tyranny and ag- 
gression. Their resolve was to see that military 
victory was not a mere armistice to allow time for 
aggressoi- nations to choose their victims and 
enslave them one by one. 

The purpose of these nations which united in 
tiie defense of their freedom was not to escape but 
to face the realities of the world in which we live. 
They recognized as the peace-loving nations failed 
to recognize after the last war that in this modern 
world nations, like individuals, cannot live with 
themselves alone. 

They realized the lives and treasure which might 
ha\-e been saved if the free nations of the world had 
heeded in time the practical idealism of Woodrow 
Wilson, Lord Robert Cecil, Aristide Briand, and 
Maxim Litvinov. 



They realized the lives and the treasure which 
might have been saved if the free nations of the 
world had united to preserve the peace before the 
peace of any of them was broken instead of wait- 
ing until aggression had engulfed the whole world 
in flames and compelled them to unite or perish. 

So the nations which were compelled to unite 
in a war for survival resolved eA^en before victory 
was attained that they would take stejis to pre- 
serve a free and a united world. They resolved 
to keep faith with the millions who were fighting 
and dying to give the world the chance which it 
so tragically missed after the first World War. 

At Moscow in 1943, a start was made by Mr. 
Hull, Mr. Molotov, and Mr. Eden. On that oc- 
casion a pledge was undertaken by the United 
States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union, 
in which China joined, to work for the creation of 
an effective international organization. Then 
came the Dumbarton Oaks Proposals, the Yalta de- 
cision to call the San Francisco conference, and 
finally the United Nations Charter, which 51 
nations joined in writing. 

The Charter is now part of the law of nations. 
It has been ratified by all the countries which are 
represented here. The i^re^Daratory work has been 
completed. The Assembly of the United Nations 
is no longer a j^lan on paper. It is a living reality — 
the representatives are here in this hall. The Se- 
curity Council and the Economic and Social 
Council have been elected. 

The functioning of the United Nations will de- 
pend not merely upon the woi'ds of its Charter 
or the rules or jjrocedures we adopt here or upon 
the individuals we elect to hold office. It will 
depend upon the support it receives from the gov- 
ernments and the peoples of the nations which 
have created it and which must sustain it. 

If the United Nations lives in the minds and 
the hearts of our peoples, it will be able to adapt 

' Delivered on .Jan. 14, 1945 in London before the Gen- 
eral Assembly and released to the press on the same date. 
The Secretary of State is the chief representative of the 
United States to the General Assembly. 



87 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



itself to the changing needs of a changing world, 
and it will endure. If it lacks broad popular 
support, no charter iiowever jaerfect will save it. 

I believe tlie United Nations will live. I be- 
lieve it because it springs from the imjjelling 
necessities of the age in which we live. It has been 
born out of the indescribable pain and suffering of 
many peoples in many lands. 

It must live because in this atomic age the com- 
mon interests which should unite free nations in 
maintaining a friendly peaceful world far out- 
weigh any possible conflict in interest which might 
divide them. 

The United Nations does not threaten any peo- 
ple. It comes into conflict with no real or vital 
interest of any of its members. 

It is not interest, it is fear and suspicion which 
in turn breed fear and suspicion that cast a shadow 
upon the path of peace. 

As the late President Roosevelt said, "We have 
nothing to fear but fear itself. We must dedicate 
ourselves to the task of exposing and eliminating 
blind and unreasoning fears and the unnecessary 
difficulties which they create. 

Nothing can help dispel fear and suspicion so 
much as cooperation in common tasks and common 
problems. The opportunities afforded for work- 
ing together within the United Nations can help 
to break down habits of thinking in national iso- 
lation and go far to bring about understanding 
and tolerance. 

The United Nations is not a mere pact among 
its members — it is an institution or a series of 
institutions capable of life and growth. 

Let us use the institutions that we have created 
to help one another rebuild a shattered world in 
which there can be real security. Let us not be 
unduly concerned about possible shortcomings of 
the Charter before we have even tried to operate 
under it. 

No charter that must be acceptable to all of us 
can be regarded as perfect by any one of us. But 
it is a great tribute to the framers of the Chai'ter 
that it has been accepted by all the United Nations 
large and small. 

It is argued that the great states may abuse the 
rights given them under the Charter. There are 
risks in any Imman undertaking. But I have 
confidence that the great states will respect their 
obligations. As President Truman stated in his 
opening address at the San Francisco conference : 



"While these great .states have a special respon- 
sibility to enforce the peace, their responsibility 
is based upon the obligations resting upon all 
states, large and small, not to use force in inter- 
national relations except in the defense of law. 
The responsibility of great states is to serve and 
not to dominate the world." 

Great states as well as small states must come 
to view their power as a sacred trust to be exer- 
cised not for selfish purposes but for the good of 
all peoj^les. 

If the United Nations becomes a working insti- 
tution with broad popular support devoted to the 
development of peace, security, and human well- 
being, whatever defects there may be in its lettered 
provisions will not be beyond practical remedy. 
Institutions that come to live in the minds and 
the hearts of the people somehow manage to meet 
every crisis. 

But I offer a word of warning. Let us not ex- 
pect feats of magic overnight from the institu- 
tions we have created. Let us beware of the die- 
hard enthusiasts as well as the die-hard 
unbelievers. Let us not think that we can give 
over any and every problem to the United Nations 
and expect it to be solved. Let us avoid casting 
excessive burdens upon the institutions of the 
United Nations especially in their infancy. 

I recall to you the clear {provisions of the Char- 
ter which obligate member nations to make every 
effort to settle their disputes by peaceful means of 
their own choice before calling upon the United 
Nations to intervene. The primary responsi- 
bility of the United Nations is to build a lasting 
system of peace and security capable of meeting 
the stresses and strains of the future and to pro- 
mote through more effective international cooper- 
ation the economic and social well-being of the 
peoples of the world. 

In the months ahead we must concenti-ate upon 
these tasks. We have first to provide the Security 
Council with the force it needs to maintain peace. 
This must be done by special agreements which 
remain to be worked out between the Security 
Council and the member states. We should begin 
upon this task immediately. 

We have another task of transcending impor- 
tance. The establislmient of a commission to deal 
with the problems raised by the discovery of 
atomic energy is inseparably linked with the prob- 
lem of security. It is a matter of primary con- 



JANUARY 21, 1946 



89 



cerii to all nations. We must not fail to devise the 
safeguards necessary to insure that this great dis- 
covery is used for human welfare and not for 
more deadly human warfare. 

I hope that this Assembly will approve promptly 
the resolution proposed by my Government in asso- 
ciation with the United Kingdom, the Soviet 
Union, China, France, and Canada so that this 
commission may begin its work without delay. 

The United Nations must be a cooiDerative effort 
upon the part of all peace-loving nations. Our 



fighting-men have given us this opportunity. A 
great res23onsibility now i-ests upon all of us. 
Upon the meeting of that responsibility depends 
the future of civilized humanity. 

Twenty-five years ago we in the United States 
were not fully aware of our responsibility. But, 
with others, we have learned from experience. 
This time both the United States and its people 
are deeply conscious of their responsibility. This 
time on their behalf I pledge full and whole- 
hearted cooperation. 



REPORT FROM LONDON TO THE OFFICE OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS, 
DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



Loxnox, Jmi. 25. — Forceful machinery aimed 
at controlling the potential war menace of atomic 
energy, unknown to the world when the interna- 
tional Charter was drafted at San Francisco, has 
been added to the oi)erational arsenal of the 
United Nations. 

The General Assembly took unanimous action 
to establish a commission to deal with the prob- 
lems raised by the discovery of atomic energy as 
it advanced on schedule into the third week of the 
London meeting. Ahead of the Assembly, how- 
ever, remain other vital organizational tasks, in- 
cluding selection of judges to the International 
Court of Justice, transfer of League of Nations 
assets and functions, and preparation of the 
L'niteil Nations budget, as well as selection of a 
Secretary-General and a site for the permanent 
United Nations headquarters. These nuist be 
completed before the delegates can return home. 

Atomic- Energy Proposal Almost Unopposed 

Regarded as a potential stumbling block, the res- 
olution setting up the Atomic Energy Conunission 
met with little opposition during Committee and 
Assembly discussion. Certain countries said they 
would have preferred a different method of han- 
dling the problem and a different membership 
make-up of the Commission, but "none of these 
views was pressed to the point of opposing the 
resolution," the Committee reported to the Gen- 
eral Assembly. 

Pedro Lopez, Philippines Delegate, pointed out 
to the Assembly that members of the Commission 
are almost the same as those on the Security Coun- 
cil. Some delegates seemed to react favorably to 
Mr. Lopez' criticism, but none supported his 



stand. The Atomic Energy Commission will 
submit its report and reconnnendations to the Se- 
curity Council, and on matters affecting security 
it will be responsible to the Security Council. The 
Council was established under the principle agreed 
upon at San Francisco — that peace must be main- 
tained by those countries with the best equipment 
for maintaining it. 

At the plenary session which adopted the reso- 
lution. United States Secretary of State Byrnes 
urged the Assembly to ''see that the world ceases 
to be an armed camp". He added : "The problems 
presented by the discovery of atomic energy and of 
other forces capable of mass destruction cannot be 
solved by any one nation. They are the common 
responsibility of all nations, and each of us must 
do our part in meeting them."' 

"The First Important Act" 

Audrey Vyshinsky, Soviet Vice Commissar for 
Foreign Affairs, in his first statement to the As- 
sembly since his arrival in London two days be- 
fore, stressed the significance of setting up such a 
commission. "This is the first important act of 
the joint efforts of the United Nations to secure 
peace and security in the world. Let this noble 
work achieve a true and complete success." 

J. Paul-Boncour, French Delegate, also voiced 
support for the j^roposal and expressed the wish 
"that this commission meet on the territory of the 
American continent, whei'e the first utilization of 
atomic energy was applied to end the last World 
War and which has entrusted this power to the 
United Nations". 

The new Commission, composed of members of 
the Security Council and Canada, has to "proceed 



90 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



with the utmost dispatch and inquire into all 
phases of the problem and make such recommen- 
dations from time to time with respect to them as 
it finds possible". 

The Commission will make specific proposals: 
(a ) for extending between all nations the exchange 
of basic scientific information for peaceful ends; 
(h) for control of atomic energy to the extent nec- 
essary to insure its use only for peaceful purposes; 
(c) for the elimination from national armaments 
of atomic weapons and of all other major weapons 
adaptable to mass destruction; (d) for effective 
safeguards by way of inspection and other means 
to protect complying states against the hazards of 
violations and evasions. 

Delegates agreed that the setting up of this 
Commission as the first official act of the United 
Nations General Assembly was a good augury for 
the new Organization, entering upon its tasks on 
the verge of the Atomic Age. 

Another link in the operational chain was 
forged by the Assembly during its second full 
week of activity with the completion of the Eco- 
nomic and Social Council's organization. 

The Council adopted its provisional rules of 
procedure and agenda at this first meeting, and 
elected President, by acclamation, Sir Ramaswanii 
Mudaliar of India. Vice Presidents, also elected 
by acclamation, are Dr. Andriia Stampar of Yu- 
goslavia, and Dr. Carlos Lleras-Restrepo of Co- 
lombia. 

Group Representatives Hear Trusteeship 
Explained 

In Church House, Westminster, where commit- 
tees and subcommittees have been ironing out pro- 
cedural kinks, representatives of private organiza- 
tions met for the second in a series of informative 
meetings and were given a detailed and authori- 
tative picture of the United Nations trusteeship 
procedure. 

Ivan Kerno, alternate Czechoslovak Delegate 
and rapporteur of the important Trusteeship 
Committee, warned against confusing this Com- 
mittee, now engaged in setting up the trusteeship 
system, with the Trusteeship Council, which has 
not yet been formed. 

Dr. Kerno, a victim of five years of Nazi occu- 
2)ation in Czechoslovakia and France, traced the 
development of international trusteeship from its 
beginnings in the League of Nations with its three 
different types of "mandates". 



One of the thorniest problems facing his com- 
mittee, Dr. Kerno admitted, was the exact defini- 
tion of the "directly interested states" with whom 
the nations acting as trustees would have to com- 
plete trusteeship agreements. It has not yet been 
decided, he explained, whether these interested 
states would be the five large powers, those ethni- 
cally concerned (such as the Arab states) , or those 
bordering the trusteeship area. Another impor- 
tant decision would be the naming of the strategic 
trusteeships by the Security Council, Dr. Kerno 
added. 

Among the organizations represented at Thurs- 
day's meeting were the International Council of 
Women ; AVomen's Pacific Institute ; U.S. Veterans 
of Foreign Wars; United Nations Association of 
the U.S.; American Jewish Committee; United 
Nations Association of Great Britain; Commis- 
sion on World Peace of the Methodist Church; 
National Peace Council; St. Joan's Association 
and Joint Alliance; World Jewish Conference; 
B'Nai B'Rith; Salvation Army; National Associa- 
tion of Business and Professional Women; Com- 
mittee on Women in World Affairs; General 
Federation of Women's Clubs; World Govern- 
ment Association; Pan-Pacific Women's Associa- 
tion; International Council of Women; and 
Church Peace Union. 

Security Council Faces Problems 

Three impoi'tant political prolilems, apart from 
the scheduled organizational planning of the As- 
sembly, arose during the week. These, which 
presented the Security Council with the first sub- 
stantive matters to come before the United Na- 
tions, were concerned with the "situations" in 
Iran, Java, and Greece. 

Iran's request for an investigation into the al- 
leged Soviet interference in Iranian internal af- 
faii's was the first to come up before the Security 
Council. Shortly after, the Soviet and Ukrainian 
Delegates presented similar notes requesting in- 
vestigations into the presence of British forces in 
Greece ahd Indonesia. 

There was a diffei-ence of opinion as to whether 
or not such substantive matters should be acted 
upon at this first session, one which was scheduled 
to deal basically with oi-ganizational problems. 

The United States Delegation's position on this 
was outlined by Secretary of State Byrnes in a 
press conference when he said : 



JANUARY 27, 1946 



91 



"AVIienever one of the states complains against 
another state to the Security Council, it must be 
assumed that the complaining state believes an 
emergency exists for its justification, and it is my 
belief that whenever that is done the states in- 
volved must be given a hearing, and the quicker 
it is given tlie better for the Organization." 

Some observers felt that action on these prob- 
lems would go far in strengthening public opinion 
in favor of the United Nations. Others believed 
that it was too early to test the new Organization. 

Another important decision which the Security 
Council must make is the selection of a candidate 
for Secretary-General. The Council's permanent 
members have to agree unanimously on the nom- 
inee. At several informal meetings held thus far, 
they did not reach unanimity and discussions were 
to continue over the weekend. Lester Pearson, 
Canadian Ambassador in Washington, is strongly 
backed for the post. Others frequently mentioned 
are Trygve Lie, Norwegian Minister for Foreign 
Affairs, Wincenty Rzymowski, Polish Foreign 
Minister, Dr. E. N. van Kleffens, Netherlands 
Foreign Minister, and Stanoje Siniic, Yugoslav 
Ambassador in Washington. 

Because of the projected location of the United 
Nations headquarters in the United States, there is 
some sentiment that someone from a small Euro- 
pean nation should be selected as Secretary-Gen- 
eral. Also entering into consideration of candi- 
dates is the sentiment that no one from any of the 
five large powers should be selected. 

Still to be decided is the actual site of the United 
Nations headquarters in the United States. The 
six-man committee inspecting possible locations is 
scheduled to return to London and report on its 
findings early in February. This connnittee may 
suggest several alternate locations in the New 
York or Boston ai'eas for General Assembly con- 
sideration rather than one specific recommenda- 
tion. Also to be selected are interim buildings 
where headquarters can be maintained until new 
buildings at the permanent site have b^en con- 
structed. 

Transfer of League Assets 

Transfer of League of Nations assets and func- 
tions is continually being discussed both by indi- 
vidual and joint committees representing the 
United Nations and the League of Nations. These 
talks have been making exceptionally good prog- 



ress. The General Assembly will have to ap- 
prove, for the United Nations, what these commit- 
tees decide. The League of Nations will probably 
meet sometime in April to ratify these decisions on 
behalf of the League. 

Included in discussions are such functional mat- 
ters as the transfer of several hundred treaties — 
made between the various nations and the 
League — ascribing to the League juridical func- 
tions, appointments of special investigative com- 
mittees, appointment of arbiters in special dis- 
putes, anti-narcotic treaties, and other similar 
work. 

The League's 15-million-dollar buildings and 
records at Geneva, as well as a sizeable amount in 
the League treasury, will probably be turned over 
to the United Nations who will have to decide 
what their disposition will be. C. J. Hambro, 
Norwegian Delegate to the United Nations Assem- 
bly, is also repi'esenting the League in these dis- 
cussions. 

Judges of the International Court of Justice 
still have to be elected, although the decision has 
been made that the Court will be located at The 
Hague. Nominations for these posts are being 
made regularly, and it will be one of the Assem- 
bly's most important tasks to discuss these nomi- 
nations and ballot on them in the ensuing weeks. 

United Nations Budget 

One of the final, but certainly highly important, 
items on the agenda still to be acted on by the 
Assembly is the operating budget for the United 
Nations. Preparatory Commission pi'ovisional 
I'ules say, however, that when the Secretary-Gen- 
eral is appointed he will suT)mit a provisional 
budget for the approval of the Assembly. Mean- 
while the Assembly, and previous work done by 
the Preparatory Commission, is being financed by 
the United Kingdom, which will be reimbursed 
from subsequent national contributions. To tide 
the Organization over during the interim period, 
between this Assembly and the time the final 
budget is approved, is a "working capital fund" 
made up from contributions by the various mem- 
ber nations under a foiniula used by the Food and 
Agriculture Organization. 

The General (Steering) Committee still has 
under discussion the requests of the World Fed- 
(Continued on page 126} 



92 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Position of Department of State on AP Action 



STATEMENTS BY ASSISTANT SECRETARY BENTON ^ 



I consider wliolly unwarranted the fears ex- 
pressed by tlie board of directors of the Associated 
Press ''tliat Government cannot engage in news- 
casting witliout creating the fear of propaganda 
wliicli necessarily would reflect upon the ob- 
jectivity of the news services from which such 
newscasts are jirepared". 

The Associated Press, the United Press, and the 
International News Service have been furnishing 
news to the United States (Tovernment for its 
short-wave broadcasts overseas to the peoples of 
other countries. I regret that the directors of the 
Associated Press have decided to discontinue their 
share of this service. They were asked to continue 
this service until such time as the Congress decided 
what should be the policy of this Government with 
regard to the permanent short-wave-broadcasting 
program, whether it sliould be in private hands or 
under Government control. It is clear that such 
broadcasting nuist be continued. 

It is the fixed policy of the State Department to 
advance tlie cause of press freedom everywhere. 
Nothing in the international information pro- 
gram of the Government, past or planned, contra- 
venes this basic principle. I am proud of the 
objectivity maintained by our interinitional 
broadcasts. One of the purjDOses of short-wave 
newscasting is to get reliable and objective Ameri- 
can news into vast areas of the world where no 
other news from America can penetrate. I can 
only conclude that the directors of the Associated 
Press were not fully informed about tlie program. 



Yesterday's statement of Robert McLean, Presi- 
dent of the Associated Press, recognizes the areas 
"where the aftermath of war has created special 
problems". This gives me hope that the Board of 
Directors of the Associated Press, when it reviews 
the evidence we can present on the vital importance 
of present short-wave broadcasting into such 
areas, will permit the AP service to continue for 
such voice broadcasting. 



'Released to the press Jan. 14 nnd Jan. IS. 



I like to believe that the present decision of the 
AP Board was affected by a general misunder- 
standing of the actual informational activities 
now proposed under my direction in the Depart- 
ment of State. There are three different types of 
activities which might be termed "newscasting": 

1. During the war the Office of War Informa- 
tion sent to its outposts abroad a cable and wire- 
less newsfile prepared from items carried by the 
three major American news services, which ap- 
proximated 100,000 words daily. This service has 
now been discontinued everywhere in the world 
except for Germany, Austria, and Japan. M'here it 
is now being wound up as the jjrivate agencies 
take over, and for Shanghai, Manila, Singapore, 
Saigon, and Bangkok. In these five latter spots 
the daily word file has been reckiced from 100,000 
words to 24,000. Further, this is now background 
news rather than spot news. This .service is being 
continued only because in these areas American 
private news agencies have not yet begun to oper- 
ate. It will be wholly discontinued as soon as 
possible. 

I have discovered that, in this first type of activ- 
ity, there appears to be wide-spread misconception 
of the policy of the Government. Let me restate 
that policy : It is that the Government, through 
the instrumentality of the Department of State, do 
everything within its power to break down the 
artificial barriers to the expansion abroad of pri- 
vate American news agencies. It is to promote 
such expansion and not to compete with it. That 
effort goes forward and will continue to go 
forward. 

2. The radio bulletin of the Department of State 
is the second newscasting activity. This bulletin 
sends daily to our embassies and missions abroad 
significant editorial opinion bearing on the foreign 
policy of this Government, texts oi important Gov- 
ernment documents, full or excerpted texts of 
speeches by high-ranking Government officials, re- 
ports of congressional action, and other Govern- 
ment documentary material important to our mis- 



JANUARY 27, 1946 



93 



sions. Such material is not normally covered by 
private news agencies. This bulletin has been a 
regular function of the Department of State since 
1935. The only material carried in the bulletin 
dei-ived from private news sources is a section, 
averaging about four or five paragraphs, entitled 
"Miscellaneous Press". This material is prepared 
from paid-for wire services and from articles ap- 
pearing in the metropolitan press. Such material 
is for the personal information of those who re- 
ceive it. It is not competitive to the wire services 
and is not for i:)ublication. 

3. Short-wave-radio voice broadcasts is the third 
category. The vital importance of these was dis- 
cussed in my letter to Mr. McLean. If such broad- 
casts are to present a well-rounded picture of the 
American scene it is obvious that the service of the 
major American news services nuist be available in 
their preparation. I must state in all candor that 
it is inconceivable to me for a national of a Balkan 
or any other country to be able to listen to the 
Russian radio and the British Broadcasting Cor- 
poration aliout developments throughout the world, 
prepared from material furnished by an American 
news agency, and yet listen to an American short- 
wave broadcast from which the same source of 
news is withheld. 

From the foregoing brief analysis I can only 
conclude that the action of the Board of Directors 
of the Associated Press was taken under a misap- 
I^rehension of our proposed operation. 

Moreover I feel compelled to draw attention to 
Mr. McLean's statement of yesterday that "rep- 
resentatives of the Department"' at my request "had 
discussed proposals with the top executive staff of 
the Associated Press and with the Board of Direc- 
tors at its special meeting last November". 

Col. Noel Macy, a publisher and editor of news- 
papers with 20 years' experience, and acting head 
of the Department's Overseas Press and Publica- 
tions Division, has furnished me a memorandum 
on this. He states that he and Ralph McGill, editor 
of the Atlanta Constitution, called on Mr. Kent 
Cooper and Mr. Lloyd Stratton early in November 
1945. The meeting lasted about a half-hour. At 
the meeting it was suggested by Mr. Cooper, and 
not by the Department of State, that Colonel Macy 
and Mr. McGill appear at a Board meeting, already 
scheduled and not a special meeting for this pur- 
pose, to be held some two weeks later. 

Mr. McGill being unable to attend, Colonel Macy 

680860 — 46 2 



attended the Board meeting alone. Colonel Macy's 
interview with the Board lasted no moi-e than 25 
minutes. Much of the discussion centered on the 
needs of the Department for a wire service to Ger- 
many and to Japan. At this meeting it was agreed 
that there was no continuing need for the service 
to Japan since the Japanese news agency, as well 
as many Japanese papers, were to receive AP re- 
ports directly. Possibly some 10 niinutes of the 
discussion was devoted to newscasts. Colonel Macy 
pointed out that voice newscasts were mostly in 
foreign languages and included languages aimed 
at such places as the Balkans and southeast Asia 
where no other news from America penetrated. 

Colonel Macy's memorandum continues : 

"After the meeting Mr. Stratton wrote a letter in 
which he said that the Board had decided that their 
service would not be made available anywhere in 
the United States but that it would be available for 
those areas where the AP did not penetrate but only 
at those points nearest to such places. I called Mr. 
Stratton on the phone and pointed out that avail- 
ability in Paris or Rome would be of no use since 
the personnel preparing these broadcasts as well as 
the transmitters used were entirely in this country. 
Mr. Stratton said the Board had thought that we 
were still broadcasting from London and that in 
view of my report we could discuss it further. 

"Subseqviently I wrote Mr. Stratton outlining 
the request of the Department, namely, (1) the 
German newsfile until the Paris operation was set 
up and underway to take its place, (2) the south- 
east-Asia file until that situation had clarified (as 
to how much news was getting in through private 
agencies), and (3) voice broadcasting abroad, 
pointing out that all such broadcasting was done 
from this country and that it would be impossible 
to use AP news on some language programs and 
not on others, since they all came off one file. My 
letter also offered to come to New York and dis- 
cuss the matter further either with him or at a 
Board meeting. Mr. Stratton said that the letter 
completely covered the matter and nothing further 
was needed. In this letter I added a postscript 
offering to pay for the service. 

"Nothing more was heard until Mr. Stratton 
called on the telephone and gave the AP Board's 
resolution, announced publicly last IMonday". 

I think the foregoing quotation from Colonel 
Macy bears out my statement that the AP action 
was arbitrai-y and without full knowledge of the 
facts. 



94 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



LETTER FROM ASSISTANT SECRETARY BENTON TO PRESIDENT OF BOARD OF 
DIRECTORS OF ASSOCIATED PRESS ^ 



Jaimitry 1(>, 19 W. 
Dear Mr. McLean : 

I am addressing you in your capacity as Presi- 
dent of the Board of Directors of the Associated 
Press. I am also addressing your fellow-members 
of the Board, to whom I am sending a copy of this 
letier. I am further releasing this lettei' to the 
press because the American people have a vital 
interest in the issues involved in the AP public 
statement of Monday, the 1-ith. announcing your 
arbitrary decision to discontinue AP service to the 
Government's international shortwave broadcast- 
ing. This decision by your Board creates an 
obstacle to the conduct of American foreign policy. 

T^e arrangement entered into by the Office of 
War Information and the OIAA with the Asso- 
ciated Press was, I recognize, a temporary wartime 
measure. At the time the arrangement was made 
it was not possible to forecast the nature of the 
crises that would follow in the wake of war; or 
to appraise the volume of misinformation about 
America that would exist in many areas of the 
world — partly the result of Axis propaganda ; or 
to foresee that shortwave broadcasting would 
prove, in the aftermath of w^ar, to be an indispen- 
sable medium for transmitting news to otherwise 
blacked-out areas. Such responsibility iav post- 
war foresight was not the job of the war agencies. 

In the adjustment toward peace the Government 
has enormously curtailed the volume of its over- 
seas information work. However, certain aspects 
will be recommended by the Department of State 
to Congress for continuation. Among these is 
shortwave broadcasting; this is deemed essential 
to the vital interests of the American people. 

The decision of the AP to discontinue its service 
is based on assumptions regarding the Govern- 
ment's newscasting for which there appear to be 
no foundation in fact; and the action was taken 
without an effort by your Board to examine the 
facts. No member of your Board or top executive 
staff has talked to me or given me an opportunity 
to review government policy with you. There has 
been no opportunity offered me to hear specific 
criticisms by members of the AP, which, if they 
had turned out to be justified, might have resulted 
in improvements in our operating practices with- 
out cancellation of the AP service. So far as I 



' Released to the press Jan. 17. 



know none of the AP directors has ever heard one 
of our programs or read one of our scripts. 

llow the National Interest Is Involved 

It is critically important that the peoples of 
other nations undeistand the aims and policies of 
the United States, and the background of those 
aims and jjolicies as they spring from our national 
life. President Truman has declared that "the 
nature of present day foreign relations makes it 
essential for the United States to maintain in- 
formational activities abroad as an integral part 
of the conduct of our foreign policy." 

The evidence is overwhelming that in many 
parts of the world the aims and i^olicies of the 
United States are not understood, or are mis- 
understood. In times such as the present — and I 
must remind you that while we are not at war we 
are not yet at peace- — misunderstanding among 
I^eojiles can prevent the advent of peace and indeed 
can set the stage for new conflicts. 

There are many areas of the world where news 
from America, by Americans, can penetrate only 
by shortwave radio. This is true, for examjale, in 
several of the Balkan countries, in much of the 
Near East, in parts of Southeast Asia, and in 
Russia. By depriving our shoi'twave broadcast- 
ing of AP news, it seems clear to me that your 
decision will contribute to the misunderstanding 
of America abi-oad. To the extent that it does, 
it jeopardizes American interests, American se- 
curity and the cause of peace itself. 

The AP is thus taking upon itself the responsi- 
bility for judging and hamstringing the govern- 
ment's shortwave broadcasting. It is also im- 
pugning the objectivity of news agencies that 
continue to provide news for this broadcasting. 
This reflection upon the United Press and Inter- 
national News Service I regard as grossly unfair 
and unwarranted. They are now under the 
charge of the AP Board that, by continuing to 
serve the public interest, they are reflecting upon 
their own objectivity. They must be both coura- 
geous and patriotic if they do not now also, in the 
face of such a charge by the oldest and biggest of 
the American press services, feel forced to con- 
sider withdrawing their services. 

Fear of Government Propaganda 

The AP alleges that "government cannot engage 
in newscasting without creating the fear of propa- 



JAIWARY 27, 1946 



95 



ganda'' and tliat this would "reflect uiJoii the ob- 
jectivity of tlie news services from wliicli sucli 
newscasts are jjrepared". This is a clear imputa- 
tion that the government is not transmitting im- 
partially and objectively the news it receives from 
the press associations; and that the people, the 
Congress and the press of this country cannot be 
trusted to police the Government's broadcasting 
for the purpose of preserving its integrity. The 
fact is that there is today constant pressure from 
all sides on U.S. Government broadcasting to keep 
it objective and impartial. The private press and 
broadcasters of America, fortiuiately for them and 
for the country, do not have to prove their objec- 
tivity by passing before Congress for an annual 
review of their policies and budget. 

We are now transmitting 66 program-hours a 
day, in 21 languages, over 36 shortwave trans- 
mitters in the United States and over relay sta- 
tions in Algiers, Germany, London, Saipan, Hono- 
lulu and Manila. In the four months during 
which I have been responsible for this broadcast- 
ing I have not heard a single complaint about the 
objectivity of the news transmitted. The only 
complaint I have heard is from our diplomatic 
missions abroad, and from travellers returning 
from abroad, who report that there is not enough 
news going to countries such as the Balkans, which 
are starved for American news and can get it in 
no other way. 
The Role and Responsibility of the Government 

We had asked that the AP continue this service. 
During the next year, I hope. Congress will decide 
whether shortwave broadcasting abroad should 
continue to be a government function or whether 
it should be a private function, or some combina- 
tion of the two. It is clear that the international 
broadcasting job must be done. I should person- 
ally be hajDpy if the AP, in concert with other pri- 
vate wire services and with private broadcasters, 
offered to take over the entire operation and bear 
the deficit, which will average from six to ten mil- 
lion dollars a year if the job is done adequately. 

I do not need to remind you that the Department 
of State is pressing for news freedom everywhere 
and that it is consistently fighting for freer access 
to news by private news agencies and for faster, 
cheaper transmission of news. A notable example 
of the operation of this policy was the recent Bei'- 
muda Conference. I have personally taken re- 
sponsibility in the last three months for sponsoring 
the allocation of additional radio frequencies to 



Press Wireless, and I have been active in many 
other directions in the interests of the wire services 
and the American press. 

Mr. Elmer Davis, in his broadcast the day after 
your public statement, said, "Whether or not for- 
eigners suspected the State Department of propa- 
ganda before this, they will certainly suspect it 
now." Mr. Davis reports that the British Broad- 
casting Company and Tass, the Russian Govern- 
ment news agency, get the full service of the AP 
and he points out that "The AP so far has never 
been afraid that its objectivity would come into 
doubt because of this connection .... They 
give the Russians the benefit of the doubt which 
they refuse to give to the Government of their own 
country." 

Because of the serious nature of your charges 
I ask you, in the public interest, to expose your 
Board of Dii-ectors and members to the facts. I 
urge upon you a full investigation conducted with 
the objectivity you seek. I shoidd like to suggest 
that such an investigation be put in the hands of 
Mr. Wilbur Forrest, Assistant Editor of the New 
York IlemJd Tribune, Mr. Ralph McGill, Editor 
(if the Atlanta Constitution, and Mr. Carl Acker- 
man, Dean of the School of Journalism of Colum- 
bia University. These three men traveled around 
the world last year as the "World Freedom of In- 
formation Committee" officially representing the 
American Society of Newspaper Editors. On 
their return they issued a 40,000 word report. 
They have background which it would take the 
members of your Board much traveling and many 
months to acquire. However, if these representa- 
tives of the American Society of NewsjDaper Edi- 
tors are unsatisfactory as investigators to your 
Board of Directors, I would be perfectly happy to 
have you appoint any group of publishers or any 
editors in whom you have confidence to make such 
a study and such a survey for the benefit of the 
State Department, the Congress, your own mem- 
bership and the people of the country. 

My confident expectation is that such a study 
will demonstrate that there is no conflict between 
the interests of the AP, as judged by your Board, 
and the national interest as I have outlined it. 
Very sincerely yours, 

William Benton 
Assistant Secretary of State 

Mr. Robert McLean, 
Philadelphia Bidletin, 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 



96 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



The Significance of the British Loan 

By CLAIR WILCOX' 



TODAY MANY A THOUGHTFUL MAN. eveil ill rich 
America, is looking toward the future witli 
profound misgivinfis. Nor is it surprising that 
this is so. We live in troubled times. We have 
just emerged from the most terrible war in history. 
Great cities lie in ruins. Whole populations have 
been uprooted. jNIillioiis of homeless men, women, 
and children are facing death through slow starva- 
tion. Nations around the world are torn by civil 
strife. New and disturbing i)atterns of organiza- 
tion are appearing on the scene. The task of re- 
building a stable world order appears to be im- 
possibly ditKcult. And now, more in horror than 
in pride, we find ourselves jDossessed of the power 
to destroy civilization itself. Many of us are 
fearful that our wisdom may not be equal to our 
strength. We are uncertain of the future, and, 
because we are uncertain, we are apprehensive. 

Now apprehension has its values. It may well 
strengthen our fundamental motivation, force us 
squarely to face our problems, and lead us to re- 
double our etforts to set the world aright. But it 
also has its dangers. If we permit our fears to 
harden into pessimism, we shall resign ourselves 
to an unhappy fate. 

I sometimes think that the prevailing mood has 
tended to obscure the very great progress that has 
already been made toward the reconstruction of a 
peaceful world. And that progress has been 
great. Just call the roll. The United Nations 
Organization has been established; the General 
Assembly has met; the Security Council and the 
Economic and Social Council have already been 
set up. And this time the United States is not a 
sisectator; it is an active participant. The United 
Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration 
is caring for millions of the needy victims of war- 
fare, and our Congress has doubled our initial 
contribution to its work. The Food and Agricul- 
ture Organization, dedicated to the improvement 
of standards of nutrition tJiroughout the world, 
has established itself and held its first meeting. 

'Address delivered before the City Club of Cleveland. 
Ohio, on Jan. 10 and released to the jiress on the same 
date. Mr. Wilcox is Director of the Office of International 
Trade Policy, Deiiartnient of State. 



Thirty-five nations have ratified the articles of 
agreement of the International Monetary Fund 
and the International Bank for Reconstruction 
and Development, and these institutions will 
therefore be in operation within the next few 
months. Steps have been taken to set up a United 
Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Or- 
ganization and an International Civil Aviation 
Organization. Our Congress has increased the 
foreign lending power of the Export-Import Bank. 
It has increased the authority of the President to 
reduce tariffs under the provisions of the Trade 
Agreements Act. Our line of policy is clear. We 
;ire cooperating fully — more than that, we ai'e tak- 
ing the lead — in developing the programs and 
organizing the institutions through which the 
nations can work together, side by side, to recon- 
struct a shattered world. For so much in the way 
of concrete achievement, in so short a time, there is 
no precedent in history. Much has been done; 
much remains to be done. 

World organization for security is essential ; but 
if it is to succeed it must rest upon continuous in- 
ternational cooperation in economic affairs. The 
stabilizatioii of currencies and the provision of 
credits are necessary and desirable ; but if they are 
to accomplish their purposes, they must rest, in 
turn, upon measures which would remove the bar- 
riers that now obstruct the movement of world 
trade. We cannot long continue to lend money 
unless we are prepared to give debtors an oppor- 
tunity to repay their debts. If political and 
economic order are to be rebuilt, we must provide, 
in our trade program, the solid foundation upon 
which the superstructure of international coopera- 
tion is to stand. 

This is the purpose of the American Proposals 
for Expansion of World Trade and Employ- 
ment which our Government published on Decem- 
ber (), 194.5, and submitted tV)r consideration to the 
American jjeople and to other governments of the 
world. These proposals are based upon the convic- 
tion that human energies can best be directed to- 
ward the improvement of standards of living if the 
world, instead of regimenting its trade, will seek to 
restore the greatest possible measure of economic 



JANUARY 27, 1946 



97 



freedom. They are designed to reverse the pre-war 
trend toward economic isolationism and to resist 
the present tendency to fasten the pattern of war- 
time controls upon a world at peace. Their provi- 
sions may be outlined in a few words. 
AYe have proposed : 

1. That a common code be adopted to govern 
the regulation of commerce by the nations of the 
world. 

2. That tariffs be substantially reduced and that 
preferences l^e eliminated. 

o. That (juantitative restrictions — quotas and 
embargoes — be limited to a few really necessary 
cases and that they be administered without 
discrimination. 

4. That subsidies, in general, should be the sub- 
ject of international discussion, and that subsidies 
on exports should be confined to exceptional cases, 
under general rules. 

All of these proj^osals relate to the reduction or 
the removal of barriers that governments have 
placed in the way of private trade. In many cases, 
however, governments themselves have established 
public enterprises to buy and sell abroad. And in 
tJie Soviet Union the Government has assumed a 
complete monopoly of its foreign trade. Here we 
liave proposed : 

5. That governments conducting such enter- 
prises should agree to give fair ti'eatment to the 
commerce of all friendly states, that they should 
make their purchases and sales on purely economic 
grounds, that they should avoid using a monopoly 
t)f imi^oi'ts to give vmdue protection to their own 
l^roducers, and that governments whose enterprises 
are comjjletely socialized should commit them- 
sehes as to the quantities of goods which they 
propose to import. 

Trade has been restrained by governments. It 
has also been restrained by private monopolists. 
We have therefoi-e proposed : 

6. That cartels and combines should be pre- 
vented, by international action, from restricting 
the commerce of the world. 

If trade is thus to be freed from the fetters that 
have bound it, we must give assurance to the many 
small producers of the great primary commodities 
that necessary adjustments to shifting demands 
will be gradual rather than sudden and that these 
producers will be protected, during the i^eriod re- 
cjuired for such adjustments, against the impact of 



violent change. But we must be sure that the 
measures adopted to this end are temporary rather 
than permanent and that they are not administered 
at the expense of the consumers involved. It is 
therefore proposed : 

7. That action with respect to the special prob- 
lem of surplus commodities, in world trade, be 
international rather than national; that the solu- 
tion of this problem be sought by measures that 
would remove the basic causes of the difficulty, not 
by measures that would perpetuate it ; and that 
the solution be sought, in particular, by measures 
that would expand consumption; and 

8. That measures restricting exports or fixing 
prices, where they are necessary, be limited in 
duration; that they be attended, at every stage, by 
full publicity; and that consuming countries be 
given an equal voice with producing countries in 
their formulation and administration. 

As a means of implementing and supervising all 
of these undertakings, it is proiDOsed: 

9. That an International Trade Organization be 
created, under the Economic and Social Council, 
as an integral part of the structure of the United 
Nations. 

These are the proposals that relate to trade. If 
they are to gain acceptance, assurance must also 
be given that the nations of the world will seek, 
through measures that are not inconsistent with 
them, to achieve and maintain high and stable 
levels of employment. For this reason, it is ]}V0- 
posed, finally : 

10. That each nation should agree, individually, 
to take action designed to provide full and regidar 
employment; that no country should attempt to 
solve its domestic problems by measures that would 
prevent the expansion of world trade; that no 
country, in short, should be free to export its 
unenqjloyment. 

These proposals were not prepared in haste ; they 
date back to article VII of the mutual-aid agree- 
ments of February 1942 and have been actively 
developed by a series of interdepartmental com- 
mittees, meeting successively under the chairman- 
ship of Under Secretary Acheson and Assistant 
Secretary Clayton since the spring of 1943. They 
are not utojjian or visionary; they have been ham- 
mered out in great detail to meet the actual situa- 
tion that exists in the world today. They are 
distinctively American; in substance, if not in 



98 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



detail, they embody the recommendations that 
have been made by such representative bodies as 
tlie Committee on International Economic Policy 
of the Carnegie Endowment, the Council on For- 
eign Relations, the National Planning Association, 
the National Foreign Trade Council, and the Com- 
mittee on Economic Development. The world that 
is pictured in these j^roposals is the kind of a 
world that Americans want. 

This Government will ask the United Nations 
Organization to call an international conference 
to consider its proposals sometime during the fall 
of 1946. In jDreiDaration for this conference, it 
intends to go forward, in the summer, with actual 
negotiations with several countries for the reduc- 
tion of barriers to trade, under the provisions of 
the Trade Agreements Act. Fourteen nations 
have already accepted our invitation to attend this 
meeting. It is our belief that these negotiations 
will afford the greatest contribution that we could 
make toward the success of the conference itself. 

What are the prospects ? Can we persuade the 
other nations of the world to go along with our 
program? This question brings us to a considera- 
tion of the Anglo-xVmerican economic agreements 
which were announced six weeks ago. I think that 
it is fair to say this: If Great Britain is able to 
join hands with us in this enterprise, the prospects 
will be very good indeed ; if she is unable to do so, 
the prospects will be very bad. Before the war, 
the British Empire accounted for a third of the 
world's trade. The dollar or the pound sterling 
was involved in half of the exchanges between 
nations. After the war, this figure will be closer 
to three fourths. The United States and Great 
Britain are the mainstays of the world's economy. 
Economically, there is no other nation that is any- 
where nearly as important to us. It is this fact 
that gives the Anglo-American understandings 
their peculiar significance. 

These agreements — there are three of them — are 
broad in scope, and they conform to the estab- 
lished pattern of American policy. They provide, 
first, for the settlement of the war account. As 
to materials delivered under lend-lease and reverse 
lend-lease and consvnned, before V-J Day, in the 
prosecution of the war, the slate is wiped clean. 
Each of us had made his contribution to the com- 
mon victory. We did not attempt to place a 
monetary value on blood, sweat, and tears. This 
time, at least, our relations with our comrades-in- 
arms are not to be disturbed by an irritating con- 



troversy over war debts. With respect to lend- 
lease goods still in British hands, American 
surpluses remaining in the British Isles, and a 
multitude of individual claims, running both ways, 
a balance has been struck and the resulting sum of 
$t>5(),000,000 is to be paid us, with interest, over 
50 years. 

The second pavt of the agreements is an under- 
.standing on commercial policy, in which the 
United Kingdom expresses its full agreement with 
the American proposals, pledges itself to partici- 
pate in this summer's negotiations for the reduc- 
tion of barriers to trade, and undertakes to support 
the American proposals at the world conference in 
the fall. 

The third item, and the one that has attracted 
the widest public attention, is the financial agree- 
ment. Under its terms, this country would ex- 
tend to the United Kingdom a line of credit of 
$3,750,000,000 against which it could draw at any 
time during the next 5 years. The sums actually 
borrowed are to be repaid, with interest at 2 
percent, beginning in 1951. The United King- 
dom, however, may request the United States to 
waive the collection of interest (but not of prin- 
cipal), and our Government will grant the request 
in any year in which dollars are practically un- 
obtainable and the International Monetary Fund 
certifies that British exports — visible and invis- 
ible — have been running too low to enable her to 
earn her pre-war volume of imports. 

This, in brief, is the British loan. It is an 
integral part of the pattei-n of the Anglo-Ameri- 
can understandings, just as those understandings 
are an integral part of the pattern of American 
foreign policy. But it is unlike other peacetime 
loans in its size, in its terms, and in its purposes. 
And it understandably raises a number of ques- 
tions in the minds of the American people. Each 
of these questions requires an answer. Do they 
need it? What will they do with it? Can they 
repay it? What do we get out of it? Can we 
atford it ? What will happen if we don't nuike it? 

First., do they need it? The people of the 
British Isles are peculiarly dependent upon im- 
ports. They import a large part of the food they 
eat. They import the raw materials that feed 
their factories. Before the war, they paid for 
these imports by using the interest they earned on 
funds invested abroad, by selling shipping and 
other services, and by exporting manufactured 
goods. Then, for more than 6 years, these people 



JANUARY 27, 1946 



99 



were at war — from the day wlien Hitler invaded 
Poland to the day when Japan snrrendered — and 
during most of this time they were on the firing 
line. A considerable part of their standing struc- 
tures and productive equipment was damaged or 
destroyed. A lai'ge jjart of their merchant Heet 
was lost at sea. Of necessity, they converted their 
whole economy to war. They sold a major part 
of their foreign invcHtments. They sacrificed 
their export trade. They borrowed heavily 
abroad. Now they must reconstruct, reconvert, 
and develoji a volume of exports that will enable 
them to pay for necessary imports and service their 
foreign debts. Rnt this will take time. And in 
the meantime they will need to buy more goods 
abroad than they can pay for with their jjresent 
capacity to export. The amount that they will 
need, together with the loans that they will receive 
within the Empire, to make up the difference 
during the transitional period, was carefully calcu- 
lated by the British and the American negotiators 
to be $3,750,000,000. Yes, they need it. 

What win they do ivith the money? They can- 
not well use it to raise their standard of living. 
For the time being, Britain will have to hold 
consumption to levels of austerity little better 
than those experienced during the war. They 
cannot use it to socialize their industries; if the 
coal mines or the railroads or the utility com- 
panies are to be socialized, their owners will be 
paid in pounds, not in dollars, or, more likely, 
simply by trading public bonds for private shares. 
They cannot use it to pay off their other creditors ; 
the agreement requires that these obligations must 
be met in other ways. It is the purpose of the 
loan to enable the British economy to get back on 
its feet. It is working capital — a seed-loan, a 
grubstake, if you please. Britain will use her 
new dollars to i^ay for imported foodstuffs, ma- 
chinery, and raw materials. She will spend some 
of them in this country, but she is free to use them 
anywhere in the world. In either case, of course, 
they will eventually be spent for goods produced 
in the United States. 

Win the loan reany be repaid? That is certainly 
our expectation. Great Biitain is a good risk. She 
has great assets in business reputation, productive 
power, commercial skill, and strong ^^olitical and 
economic ties with many countries of the world. 
All that she needs is a chance to come back. The 
willingness of our negotiators — headed by Mr. 
Clayton and Mr. Vinson — to extend her a loan was 



a profession of their faith in her ultimate solvency. 
It should be recognized that the circumstances 
surrounding this transaction are entirely different 
from those that accompanied the debts arising from 
the first World War. Let me state the differences : 

1. Last time, reparations from Germany were 
payable in cash and our debtors relied upon their 
share of reparations to get a large part of the 
money to pay us. AVhen Germany defaulted, they 
lost the funds on which they had relied. This 
time, reparations are payable in kind and no one 
relies on them for money to pay debts. 

2. The last war's debts, in the main, represented 
goods destroyed in battle. They created no new 
wealth and no new earning jDower. This time, we 
are not trying to collect for dead horses or smashed 
tanks. This loan is for new goods. It will finance 
the production of new wealth. Like any good com- 
mercial loan, it will create the means of its own 
payment. 

3. Last time, we lacked effective international 
arrangements to stabilize foreign exchange. Each 
country acted independently. Exchange rates were 
sometimes too rigid and at other times chaotic. 
This time, we start out with the International 
Monetary Fund. The exchange value of each cur- 
rency will be set in agreement with the Fund and 
will be protected until changed by like agreement. 
Instead of rigidity, followed by break-clown and 
chaotic rates, we shall have an institution well 
designed to maintain a workable stability. 

4. Last time, the debt -funding agreements car- 
ried a rigid annual interest charge and made no 
provision for the difHculties that might well arise. 
When Germany defaulted and the great depres- 
sion struck, the result was the Hoover moratorium. 
This time, the agreement itself provides for the 
waiver of interest when stated circumstances would 
make its payment impossible. It thus avoids the 
accumulation of unpaid obligations and substitutes 
a reasonable flexibility to meet conditions yet 
unknown. 

5. And this is most important. Last time, we 
raised our tariffs— in 1921, in 1922, and again in 
1930 — thus denying our debtors an opportunity to 
earn the funds with which to pay us. This time, 
we start with the Trade Agreements Act in force, 
with our proposals for the reduction of trade bar- 
riers published to the world, and with conferences 
to act on these proposals projected for the summer 
and the fall. This time we intend to let our debtors 
earn the funds with which to pay us. We have 



100 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



come to recognize our creditor position and to 
adopt the commercial policy which that position 
requires. We have demonstrated, at last, that we 
can learn from history. 

The real question on the rei)ayment of this loan 
and other foreign loans is whether the world is 
going to be prosperous and foreign trade large. If 
our hopes for the expansion of world trade and 
employment are realized, the service on this loan 
will be manageable. If they are not. and if there 
is another great depression, much greater values 
will be lost than the repayments on this loan. Of 
course there is a risk. But the stakes are very great. 
To them I now turn. 

What do loe get out of thh transaction? This 
is a fair question and it deserves a candid answer. 

1. In addition to the $3,750,000,000 in principal, 
we get $'2,200,000,000 in interest, if the whole 
credit is used and none of the interest is waived. 

2. We get participation by Britain in the Inter- 
national Monetary Fund and a consequent com- 
mitment that she will not take independent action 
to put our exporters at a competitive disadvantage 
by depreciating the pound. 

;>. We get her agreement, when the loan is made, 
immediately to remove exchange controls on day- 
to-day transaction'?; between our two countries, so 
that Americans who sell to the United Kingdom 
will then be able to obtain their pay in any cur- 
rency they choose. 

4. We get her promise, within the following 
year, to remove exchange controls on day-to-day 
transactions with other countries, making sterling 
freely convertible into dollars or other currencies, 
so that foreign businessmen who sell in England 
will no longer have to buy there but can buy in 
America if they choose. 

5. We get her pledge to settle her debts within 
the Empire by getting them scaled down, refunded, 
and I'epaid, and as she pays them to make the 
pounds she pays convertible into other currencies, 
so that her creditors can use them, if they wish, 
to buy American goods. 

6. We get her agreement, by the end of 194fi, so 
to administer her import quotas that they do not 
discriminate against the United States, thus giving 
the American exporter, who sells for scarce dol- 
lars, an equal oijportunity in the British market 
with exporters who sell for more plentiful cur- 
rencies. 

7. We get Britain's promise to work with us, 



this summer, toward the reduction of tariffs and 
the elimination of preferences. Specifically, it 
is agreed that her existing commitments to Empire 
countries are not to stand in the way of this pro- 
gram. And it is further agreed that every cut in 
taritis, within the Empire, will cut the margin of 
imperial preference by the same amount. This, 
again, will enable American businessmen to enter 
Empire markets more nearly on a basis of com- 
petitive equality. 

8. We get British support for the American 
trade program. And this is not a socialist or an 
imperialist program; it is a liberal program. In 
short we have obtained Britain's pledge that her 
foreign economic policy will henceforth be devoted 
to restoring an international order that is favor- 
able to the preservation and expansion of private 
enterprise. 

All of these matters are directly related to the 
loan. They are commitments that Britain is en- 
abled to make by virtue of the loan. They are 
commitments that she could not make if she didn't 
get the loan. Our negotiators did not seek con- 
cessions that would have been extraneous to the 
loan, concessions that would have challenged Brit- 
ish sovereignty and affronted British pride. These 
agreements are economic, not political. It would 
have been unwise for us to attempt to push our 
bargaining power farther than it would go. It 
cannot be said with sufficient emphasis that the 
American peojjle want the economic freedom and 
the trade expansion that are involved in this loan 
fully as much as the British people want them. 
In shoi't, we are getting plenty. 

Can we afford if ? If this $";5,750,000,000 were an 
outright grant, it Mould increase our national debt 
by a little more than one percent. If the war had 
gone on for two more weeks, we would have spent 
this sum without a momenfs hesitation, without 
a second's thought. But this is not an expendi- 
ture; it is an investment. The cost to us will not 
be $3,750,000,000. but the difference between the 
interest we ijay our people and the interest we col- 
lect from overseas — for the rest of the century no 
more, perhaps, than a quarter of a billion dollars. 
This does not seem an excessive sum to invest in 
our hopes for private enterprise and expanding 
trade. We are investing in Britain, yes. But. 
more than this, we are investing in our own future. 
Can we afford not to make the Joan? What 
would haj^pen if we didn't make it? Britain 
(Continued on page 113) 



J4MV4RY 27, 1946 



101 



Last Remnants of National Socialist Ideology 



By ASSISTANT SECRETARY BRADEN ^ 



I want to talk to you, with so imicli frankness 
as ciirunistances allow, of the problem with which 
1 am principally occupied these days. I refer to 
the ijersistence into the post-war period, whether 
overt or covert, of the ideology and the methods 
identified with what we call "National Socialism". 
Our future — the future of all of us, of the world, 
of our civilization — depends on whether we have 
the intelligence and determination to meet this 
problem squarely and deal with it effectively. 

The prime fact I wish to set before you is that 
tlie attainment of complete military victory over 
the armed forces of the Axis has not of itself wiped 
out the sinister ideology that they represented and 
that their partners, satellites, and successors con- 
tinue to represent. The Hydra still has some 
heads left, and will grow more if we allow our- 
selves now, in the hour of military victory, to 
relax our vigilance and our purpose. We have 
won the greatest battle, but we could still lose the 
war. We have not yet achieved peace, and there 
will be no peace for us short of final victory. It 
is true that many of the principal Axis criminals 
are dead or in our hands, that the great industrial 
war-machine that served their purpose lias been 
smashed. But the ideology of National Socialism 
is not yet dead. In the hour of Germany's defeat, 
in the hour of Japan's collapse, we find it flourish- 
ing still in the midst of our international commu- 
nity, ready for the day when, if we allow it to do so, 
it will become resurgent. 

In an address before the German workers in tlie 
Rheinmetall-Borsig factory on December 10, 1940 
Hitler declared that the world was divided into 
two irreconcilable parts — the democratic world 
and the National Socialist world — and that be- 
tween them it was war to the death. To this he 
added : "I grant that one must succumb." That 
affirmation was true in 1940 and is still true today. 
There can be no compromise and no reconciliation 
between democracy and Fascist totalitarianism. In 
a world as small as ours, democracy dare not, must 
not disregard Fascist totalitarianism, wherever it 
may show itself, let alone do business with it. For 
we who are dedicated to and represent the ideal 
of democracy must face the fact that Fascism, 

680860—46 3 



wherever it is allowed to thrive, is like a gun 
pointed at our head. 

There are some who say that it is no proper con- 
cern of ours if an armed gang seizes power in a 
foreign country, destroys its civil liberties, denies 
human rights, and regiments the people. They 
stand on the book qf diplomatic etiquette; or they 
jjoint to imperfections in our own democratic 
practice; or they scoff at the notion of any danger 
to us. Such persons, wishfully disregarding the 
plain and terrible lesson that has been adminis- 
tered to the world in the pa.st decade, completely 
misunderstand the nature of the National Socialist 
ideology. 

It is not only that Fascism and democracy are 
irreconcilable. Fascism and jseace are irrecon- 
cilable. Masses of people do not consent to .sur- 
render their liberties to a Fascist government 
because they love slavery, or because they are 
powerless. The Fascist band, appealing to the 
evil passions and prejudices of some, and taking 
advantage of a carefully cultivated intellectual 
confusion among others, obtains their consent by 
persuading them that they are menaced from 
abroad, or by tempting them with the joromise of 
foreign loot. The threat of war, the incitation to 
war, and the practice of war form the basic pattern 
of action through which a Fascist government 
perpetuates itself. It is no coincidence that when- 
ever a Fascist government comes into power it 
innnediately embarks on a progi-am of expanding 
the nation's military establishment. That is just 
as true in the Americas today as we have seen it 
to be in Europe. Some 18 months ago, one of 
Hitler's and Goebbels' imitators in this hemisphere 
stated his belief that "war is an inevitable social 
phenomenon" and that into its i^reparation must 
go "every inhabitant, all their energies, all 
their wealth, all their industries and produc- 
tion, all their means of transport and com- 
munication, . . . the armed forces being 
merely . . . the fighting instrument of that 
great whole which is 'the nation in arms' ". 

This invocation of war by Fascist governments 

' All atldre.ss ilelivei'ed before the I'liiversity Clnb In New 
York, N. Y., on Jan. 19, 1940, and released to the press on 
the same date. 



102 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



as an excuse for the imposition of domestic tyranny 
has been so abundantly demonstrated in our times 
that it is unnecessary to cite examples. We may, 
however, recall certain circumstances and events, 
not without their irony, in which this was demon- 
strated to us in our own hemisphere and almost in 
the hour of our military victory over the Axis. 
The case involves a government that, in common 
honesty, no one could call anything but Fascist, 
and typically Fascist, unless he chose to believe 
its verbal professions and to disregard its activi- 
ties and the whole pattern of its behavior. You 
will not forget the many times that Adolf Hitler 
appeared in public, placed his hand over his heart, 
and swore that no man was more devoted to the 
cause of humanity and freedom and more deter- 
mined to keep the peace than he. When this gov- 
ernment to which I am referring, under heavy 
moral pressure fi'om public opinion at home and 
in the other American republics, finally made the 
gesture of declaring war on the Axis powers, it 
used that declaration of war, pharisaical though it 
was, as an excuse for decrees that further restricted 
and obliterated the liberties of the people and 
were applied with special rigor, in actual practice, 
against the democratic element that .supported 
most actively the war aims of the United Nations. 
Persons distinguished for their devotion to those 
aims were arrested wholesale without any charge 
whatsoever to this day being brought against 
them. A declaration of war, even a declaration 
of war against Fascism, provided an excuse for 
apprehending, and frequently torturing, those 
elements which, because they were genuinely anti- 
Fascist, constituted an implicit threat to that dic- 
tatorial military government. 

What are these Fascist governments, with their 
outward pomp and circumstance and their in- 
ward degradation, but "whited sepulchres . . . 
full of dead men's bones, and of all uncleanness" ? 
It is their moral weakness more than their physical 
strength that makes them dangerous to other na- 
tions. When a small group of armed men impose 
a tyranny of oppression over millions of people 
who in their hearts love freedom, the very govern- 
ment that they establish is likely at any moment 
to prove their deathtrap. They are encircled by 
inextinguishable forces that may be temporarily 
latent but that will in the end surely overpower 
and destroy them. Such a regime is not a strong 
govermneut, for all its chest-thumping, but a 
miserably weak government. It is out of craven 



fear of its own people that it piles on restrictions 
and resorts to ever greater brutalities against them. 
It is craven fear that drives it eventually to resort 
to the desperate distraction of international quar- 
relsomeness. There was a day when the dictators 
pointed with scorn at what they conceived to be 
the weakness and impotence of our democratic 
system of government. But, when the United 
States found itself actively at war and locked in 
the death-struggle abi'oad, its Government did not 
feel compelled to impose a state of siege at home, 
or to imprison the jaolitical opjjosition, or to for- 
bid public criticism. When the test came, our 
system of government proved its i-eal strength, 
which lay in the devotion of the people it repre- 
sented. And the United States, under its demo- 
cratic system of government, is in no degree a 
threat to any other nation on the face of the earth, 
for all the vast power that it has at its command. 

Now a Fascist government anywhere is a stand- 
ing menace to world peace and therefore to our 
security. But the existence of a Fa.scist govern- 
ment menaces most immediately those who are its 
closest neighbors. We American republics, because 
of our common aspirations, our similar histories, 
aiul our geographical proj^inquity, have estab- 
lished ourselves as a comnuinity of neighbors. 
When a Fascist government arises within that com- 
nuinity, the danger and the evil have an immediacy 
that we and the other American republics cannot 
jjossibly afford for one moment to disregard. This 
sickness threatens all of us. 

Despite some assertions I have heard to the con- 
trary, there is nothing in the book of diplomatic 
etiquette that requires us to embrace the enemies 
of our way of life. Etiquette is what we practice 
with our friends, with those we respect. Neither 
can we maintain that the persistence of an ideology 
which can realize itself only in war is none of our 
business. In a world as interdeijendent as oui's, we 
certainly could not, if we would, disregard a na- 
tion that has become afflicted with a Fascist gov- 
ernment. A thousand daily circumstances — eco- 
nomic or political — throw us into association with 
it. What are we to do then? Shall we demon- 
strate a pretended or spurious friendship that 
would encourage and support its government in 
the denial of everything we hold dear? Or shall 
we be honest with ourselves and with the world? 
I submit to you that the sacrifice made by so many 
million Americans, who gave up the comforts of 
home and all considerations of personal security 



JANUARY 27, 1946 



103 



to fight the forces of Fascism abroad, gives us the 
answer. This country would not be true to its 
own ho2:)es of peace, to its owu traditions and prin- 
ciples, or to its dead on the battlefields of the world, 
if it did not point the finger of accusation at those 
governments that still serve the ideology of Na- 
tional Socialism, employing its methods against 
their own people and eventually— if only by de- 
liberate contagion — against their neighbors. Ac- 
cusation is not intervention. It is what a nation 
owes, under such circumstances, to its own integ- 
rity as well as its own security. 

The only alternative is to sink into the passivity 
that, in the recent past, has cost us all so heavily. 
How many statesmen of the last two decades, if 
they were given another chance, would again stand 
aside and watch with folded arms while National 
Socialism rose and spread, from its small begin- 
nings in a Munich beer-hall, to become the raging 
inferno that engulfed the world? How many 
would again make the concessions of the era of 
appeasement in the hope of thus pmxhasing peace ? 
A repetition of the timorousness and blind com- 
placency that were once theirs is unthinkable, in 
the light of that experience. 

There is another aspect to this matter. The 
exponents of Nazi ideology, when it is to their 
advantage, do not hesitate to pay a disingenuous 
lip-service to democracy. Within the year, the 
representative of an American rejaublic stated offi- 
cially, at a meeting of the Governing Board of the 
Pan American Union, that his government is deter- 
mined to preserve "the democratic principles that 
constitute a common aspiration of the nations of 
this continent". But what is one to think of that 
government when it maintains a "state of siege" 
under which basic democratic rights are denied to 
the people it is supposed to represent; under which 
men speak their minds at their peril ; under which 
organized hoodlums can physically attack defense- 
less people in the streets — women and children for 
their political beliefs or because of their race — 
while the police look on with folded arms or arrest, 
not the assailants, but their victims ; under which it 
can disregard constitutional guaranties and prac- 
tice any kind of fraud it wishes on the peoj^le ? 

One way in which National Socialism pays lip- 
service to democracy is in Its pseudo-concern for 
the laboring masses, enlisting their support, to 
their own later ruin, with bx-ead and circuses, 
organizing tliem into government-controlled 
unions that are simply instruments of slavery. As 



the New Yoi'k Times put it in an editorial on 
Tuesday of this week, "Who serves a dictator soon 
becomes a slave". 

When I say that National Socialism sometimes 
pays lip-service to democracy, using its machinery 
and even indulging in what a^apear to be free elec- 
tions, I do so with the authority, such as it is, of 
National Socialism itself. In a lecture on "The 
Nature and Form of National Socialism", deliv- 
eied in 1934, Herr Doktor Goebbels said : 

"We have openly declared that we made use of 
democratic means only to gain power, and that 
after the seizure of power we would ruthlessly 
deny to our opponents all those means they had 
granted to us during the time of our ojJi^osition". 

As early as 1928 this same Goebbels had written, 
in his paper Ber Angriff : 

"We enter Parliament in order to supply our- 
selves, in the storehouse of democracy, with its own 
weapons. ... If democracy is so stupid as to 
give us free tickets and salaries for this bear's 
work, that is its affair. . . ." 

My conclusion is simple, and I offer it to you 
bluntly. Economic and political situations can- 
not be contained, either in their causes or their 
effects, by boundaries on a map. We were and are 
opposed to the ideology to which the peoples of 
Germany and Japan lent themselves. We could 
not compromi.se, we could not afford to compromise 
with that ideology. We renuiin opposed to that 
ideology todaj^ as during the recent period of ac- 
tive hostilities. Our j^olicy toward the American 
republics continues just as devotedly as ever to be 
that of the good neighbor. It is based on mutual 
respect between self-respecting nations. But it 
would be the grossest perversion to pretend that it 
requires us to respect Fascism, in any of its guises, 
anywhere, at any time. We are determined that 
no complacency on our part shall allow a new 
growth of Fascism in this hemisphere. To do so 
would be foolhardy, jjerhaps suicidal. To com- 
promise with Fascism now, and that within the 
confines of this hemisphere, would be to leave the 
field before the battle is won. Our security and 
that of our neighbors require that all of us fight on 
to the finish. Our self-respect and the respect of 
others, to which we aspire, demand that we reso- 
lutely carry on to the complete victory which will 
erase from this New World every remaining ves- 
tige of the National Socialist ideology. Not until 
then will we be safe. 



104 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Korea and the Far East 



RADIO BROADCAST 



Participants 

John Carter Vincent 

Director, Office of Far Eastern Affairs 
Edwin M. Martin 

Chief, Division of Japanese and Korean 
Economic Affairs 
Col. Brainard E. Prescott 

Civil Affairs Division, War Department; 
former Civil Administrator of the U.S. 
Zone in Korea 
Sterling Fisher 

Director, NBC University of the Air 

Announcer : Here are Headlines From Wmh- 

ington: 

John Carter Vincent Sees Moscow Agreement on 
Korea as Affording Test for Soviet-American 
Cooperation and as Pattern for Developing 
Peoples Toward Self-Government and Inde- 
pendence. 

Edwin Martin of State Deisartnient Asserts Ques- 
tion of Nationalizing Korean Industry Will 
Be Left Strictly for the Koreans To Decide. 

Colonel Prescott, Former Civil Administrator of 
Korea, Says Division of Korea into Zones Has 
Disrupted Its Economic Life; Says United 
States Is Striving To Achieve Quick Unifi- 
cation. 

This is the sixth in a group of State Department 
programs, broadcast by the NBC University of the 
Air as part of a larger series entitled "Our 
Foreign Policy". This time the subject is 
"Korea and the ¥&v East". The participants are : 
^Ir. John Carter Vincent, Director of the Ofiice of 
Far Eastern Affairs, and Mr. Edwin M. Martin, 
Chief of the Division of Japanese and Korean 
Economic Affairs, both of the State Department; 
and Col. Brainard E. Prescott, who recently re- 
turned from Korea and is now on temporary duty 
in the Civil Affairs Division of the War Depart- 
ment. Sterling Fisher, Director of the NBC 
University of the Air, will serve as chairman of 
the discussion. Mr. Fisher — 



' Released to the pre.ss Jan. 10. 



Fisher: Mr. Vincent, we're especially glad to 
welcome you back to our microphone. I remem- 
ber our last session here, in which you forecast the 
abolition of National Shinto and other policies 
which have subsequently been aj^plied in our 
occupation of Japan. Since then, the question of 
what to do about Korea has been the subject of a 
good deal of discussion in the press and on the 
radio. But a good many people are a little con- 
fused about Korea. Mr. Vincent, you might start 
by telling us just why the Korean question is 
important. 

Vincent: To go back a little. Mr. Fisher, for 
35 years Korea has been an unwilling part of the 
Japane.se Empire. In tlie decades before and 
after 1900 Korea was a source of friction in inter- 
national relations in the Far East. At Cairo 
President Roosevelt. Premier Churchill, and 
Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek promi.sed inde- 
pendence to Korea, and the Soviet Union in adher- 
ing to the Potsdam Declaration is also committed 
to independence for Korea. These four powers 
are determined to carry out their commitment and 
to see to it that Korea has a stable democratic 
government, strong enough to stand on its own 
feet. Korea must not become an international 
political football. 

Fisher : I suppose the agreement at Moscow 
regarding Korea was drawn up with these objec- 
tives in mind. 

Vincent: Yes, and that agreement affords an 
auspicious test for Soviet-American cooperation 
in the Far East. Furthermore, the solution of 
Korea's immediate economic i)roblem is of the 
utmost importance. Mr. Martin here can tell you 
about that. 

Fisher: All right, Mr. Martin — what about the 
economic importance of Korea ? 

M.vRiiN ; Well. Mr. Fisher, Korea is important 
as a crossroads of international commerce. Be- 
cause of the Japanese control of Manchuria, rail 
lines have been built so that many Manchurian 
exports can best be shipped out through Korean 
ports. Then too. shijunents to and from Siberia 
can be diverted to north Korean ports when it is 



JANUARY 27, 1946 



105 



diffioiilt to keep the 2^oi-t of Vladivostok free of 
ice in mid-winter. 

Fisiiek: So Korea is economically important to 
China, Japan, and the Soviet Union. But, Mr. 
Martin, as Bill Johnson of Sioux City, Iowa, 
mifiht say, what's that got to do with the price of 
fish here in the United States? 

Martin : Korea won't have much of a direct 
effect on our economy, Mr. Fisher, although we 
did have a very extensive commerce with her be- 
fore the Japanese moved in, 40 years or so ago. 
But if we can settle the Korean question quickly 
and fairly, through the cooperation of the great 
powers, it will remove a potential trouble-spot and 
contribute greatly to the peace of Asia. And that 
might mean a lot to Bill Johnson, because a peace- 
ful Asia is essential to the increased world trade 
that will mean more jobs for Americans. 

Vincent: And then we might add that the 
Koreans have a great cultural heritage. They 
are a very peaceful people — which is one reason 
they were an easy prey to Japan back in 1905. 

Fisiieh: But, Mr. Vincent, isn't their civiliza- 
tion largely Japanese after all these years of occu- 
pation? 

Vincent: No. Throughout the decades of Jap- 
anese control the Koreans kept their cultural in- 
tegrity. They are individualists, you know, and 
they have great pride in their past achievements. 
Why, from the year 25 a.d. up to the sixth century 
the Koreans were sending cultural missions to 
Japan to try to teach the Japanese to read the 
Chinese classics, build proper houses, and wear 
woven textiles. 
^ Fisher : That's one for Ripley — a "believe it or 
not". 

Vincent: Well, here's some more for Ripley. 
The Koreans were the first Far Eastern people 
to use a phonetic alphabet, and the first in the world 
to invcHt a printing j^ress with movable type. That 
was in 1403 — about 50 years before Gutenberg made 
a parallel invention in Europe. Koreans built the 
world's first astronomical observatory in fi40 a.d., 
and in 1596-97 they defeated an invading force led 
by the Japanese shogun, Hideyoshi. by using the 
first iron-clad warships in the world. 

Fisher : Colonel Prescott, after putting in three 
months or so as Civil Administrator of Korea, 
what do you say about Japanese influence there? 

Prescott: The Japanese tried their best to Nip- 
ponize Korea, Mr. Fisher, but they failed. They 



taught only the Japanese language in the schools 
for many years and deluged the people with Jap- 
anese ijrojjaganda. But the people remained 
Korean through and through. We found a uni- 
versal hatred of the Japanese. Even the Koreans 
who had pi'ospered under Japanese domination 
gave only lip-service to their masters. 

P'isHERS How do you account for that. Colonel ? 

Prescott : By their long tradition of independ- 
ence, and by the fact that the Japanese defeated 
their own purpo.ses by their cruel treatment of 
Korean patriots. 

Martin : And then, of course, there was the 
economic exploitation of the Koreans. 

Fisher: I suiipose you mean, Mr. Martin, that 
the Japanese siphoned off most of Korea's produc- 
tion to Japan? 

Martin : Yes. Everything they did in Korea 
was for the benefit of the Japanese, and the Ko- 
reans knew it. They were abused and impover- 
ished by the Japanese. 

Fisher: Colonel Prescott, what did you find 
when you first landed in Korea? But fir.st, you 
might tell us how you happened to be named Civil 
Administrator there. Had you ever been in Korea 
before ? 

Prescott: No, not until September 6, 1945 — the 
day we landed there. I was a lawyer in East 
Aurora, New York — just outside of Buffalo — when 
I was called to active service in September 1940 
with an infantry division. Later I taught at the 
General Staff School in Fort Leavenworth, one of 
the subjects being military government. When 
the Tenth Army was formed for the Okinawa 
show I was assigned to it, later becoming the xVct- 
ing G-1 for the operation. Among other things, 
I was concerned with military government. Sub- 
sequently, I was detailed as Civil Administrator 
in Korea. 

Fisher: I suppose you got a royal welcome 
when you landed in Korea? 

Prescott: We certainly did, Mr. Fisher. As 
soon as the preliminary arrangements for the sur- 
render had been made at Inchon, where we landed, 
I was ordered by General Hodge, the commander 
of the Korean occupation forces, to proceed to 
Seoul, the Korean capital. There my party """as 
to meet a small advance party who had come in 
by air. It was a 25-mile drive from Inchon to 
Seoul. General Hodge had notified the people 
that there were to be no demonstrations. 

Fisher : Why was that ? 



706 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Prescott: Well, you must remember that the 
Japanese sun-ender came very quickly. Japan 
had a full-scale army in Korea, and witli the ship- 
ping available to us it was possible to mount only 
one division of American troops. So we weren't 
sure what kind of a reception we would get. Gen- 
eral Hodge was particularly anxious not to give 
the Japanese any excuse for shedding Korean 
blood, and, due to his foresight, not one Korean or 
American life was lost in the operation. 

Fisher: Did the Koreans, then, follow his in- 
structions to the letter? 

Prescott : That was really too nmch to ask, after 
40 years of Japanese occupation. The roads were 
lined with people who had been waiting all day 
to see our party of Americans drive by. They 
shouted and clapped, but didn't stage any wild 
demonstrations. What tliey did do was to take 
a holiday from work to celebrate — and it took some 
days to persuade them to return to their jobs. 

P^isher: Colonel Prescott, just how did you go 
about taking over the Korean Government? 

Prescott : Well, Mr. Fisher, as you know Korea 
had an essentially colonial government inider 
Japan, with all the departments and bureaus 
headed by Japanese. 

Fisher : I remember there was some criticism 
last fall about your retaining some of these Japa- 
ne.se officials. 

Prescott : We had to keep them long enough to 
get the information we needed before we could 
send them back to Japan. They had done a great 
deal of looting between August G, when Hiroshima 
was atomized and tliey knew surrender was inevi- 
table, and when we landed four weeks later. By 
holding them, we recovered a lot of government 
funds — in fact, we saved millions of yen for the 
Korean people. And we also got some valuable 
information on the governmental set-up. 

Fisher: After that, I suppose you sent them 
packing to Japan. 

Prescott: Yes, as soon as we could replace the 
bureau heads and other top officials with American 
military-government officers, we got rid of them. 

Fisher : Couldn't you find Koreans to take over? 

Prescott : AVe found very few Koreans who were 
trained in administration. The Japanese saw to 
that. As fast as we could, we dismissed al? Japa- 
nese from the government, and wherever possible 
we have replaced them by qualified Koreans. We 



still have very few Koreans in top posts, but the 
number is increasing. 

Vincent: Our policy, of course, is to bring 
Koreans into responsible jobs as rapidly as possi- 
ble. But it can't be done overnight. 

Fisher : I suppose, Mr. Vincent, that Americans 
will have to fill the breach. 

Vincent : Yes. they will — but not only Amei'i- 
cans. We hope that experienced administrators 
and technicians of other nationalities may also be 
brought in. 

Fisher : Colonel Prescott, did you have any 
trouble keeping order while you were evacuating 
the Japanese? 

Prescott: None at all. The evacuation has 
gone off without trouble. That was quite a record 
considering that we are moving all the Japanese 
out of Korea. There were 180,000 Japanese troops 
and over half a million civilians there when we 
came in. Practically all the troops and over 90 
percent of the civilians have been evacuated. 

Fisher : And in what condition did you find the 
Korean economy? 

Prescott: I took an extensive trip through the 
country in late November. I went mostly by rail, 
and found the railway system operating faii'ly 
efficiently, although it was short of coal and 
equipment and in bad repair. The Korean people 
are not suffering too severely from the effects of 
the war. The fishing fleets are back in operation 
from the southern ports, and we are reopening 
icing plants as fast as possible to preserve the fish, 
as well as drying and salting plants. We found 
the Korean farmers harvesting a bumper rice 
crop — for the first time in their recent history they 
have enough rice. The problem is one of getting 
it distributed. 

Fisher: Mr. Martin, in view of the food short- 
age in Japan, will any of that rice be used to pre- 
vent acute hunger among the Japanese ? 

Martin : No, Mr. Fisher — we have no intention 
of depriving the Koreans of their rice to help 
Japan. The Japanese have done that for long 
enough. If anything, the shoe will be on the other 
foot now — we may arrange to get some industrial 
equipment from Japan, and ship it to Korea. 

Fisher: AVhat kind of industrial equipment? 

Martin: Well, Korea has plenty of tungsten, 
and she makes electric-light bulbs. But she gets 
the wire for the filament from Japan. We think 
Korea sliould liave her own equipment for making 



JANUARY 21, 1946 



107 



filaments, to end this sort of dependence on Japan. 
That's one example. We want Korea to have a 
healthy economy, so she will be able to stand on 
her own feet. 

FisiiEH : Colonel Prescott, what abont the divi- 
sion of the country into Soviet and American zones 
of occupation ?• What eli'ect has that had i 

Pkescott: a very great effect. Korea can't be 
cut in two by an artificial boundary at the 38th 
jjarallel and survive. One half is too much depend- 
ent on the other half. The original purpose of the 
division was to facilitate the disarming of the Jap- 
anese. Now, the big centers of population are in 
the American zone, which has about 17 million 
population compared to only about 6 or 7 million 
in the Soviet zone. The factories in our zone need 
coal from the north before they can resume 
operations. 

Martin : You see, there are only a few coal 
mines in all of southern Korea, and they produce 
only low-grade coal in small amounts. 

Prescott: We've brought in a little coal fronr 
Japan to Korea, of course, Mr. Martin, but nowhere 
near enough. Such coal as we have is conserved 
for essential industry. The railroads have first 
priority. 

Fisher : But, Colonel Prescott, haven't you been 
able to work out these problems with the Russians 
on the spot ? 

Prescott: Unfortunately, no, Mr. Fisher. Gen- 
eral Hodge attempted to establish satisfactory liai- 
son with the Soviet command on several occasions, 
but without success. That's one reason why the 
Moscow agreement on Korea is so important — it 
paves the way for the economic unification of 
Korea, so we can establish free movement of goods 
and people between the two occupation zones. 

Fisher: Mr. Vincent, you went to Moscow with 
Secretary of State Byrnes — can you give us the 
story on the Moscow agreement on Korea? 

Vincent: Well, Mr. Fisher, the basic draft of 
the agreement was submitted by the Russians — but 
the encouraging thing was that their draft went 
far toward meeting our viewpoint. We proposed 
a few amendments which were found acceptable 
by the Soviet and British representatives. 

Fisher: Can you summarize the terms of the 
agreement for us ? 

Vincent: Yes. It provides for the creation of 
a Joint American-Soviet Commission which, in 
consultation with Korean democratic parties and 



social organizations, shall make recommendations 
with regard to the formation of a Korean provi- 
sional democratic government. These recom- 
mendations will be submitted for the consideration 
of the Governments of China, Great Britain, the 
Soviet Union, and the United States and for final 
approval by the latter two. It will then be the 
task of the Joint Commission, with the participa- 
tion of the newly created provisional government, 
to work out measures for the achievement of dem- 
ocratic self-government and Korean independence. 
The agreement also provides for a conference of 
the Soviet and American military commands to 
tackle the inunediate economic and administrative 
problems we have been discussing. This confer- 
ence has been in progress in Seoul since January 15. 

Fisher: But, Mr. Vincent, what about the 
question of trusteeship for Korea? 

Vincent: I was coming to that. The agree- 
ment also provides that the Joint Commission, 
after consultation with the provisional Korean 
government, shall submit proposals to the four 
Governments I have mentioned concerning a trus- 
teeship, as a possible interim measure to assist in 
the achievement of complete independence. 

Fisher: I remember Sumner Welles said this 
was the most significant thing about the Moscow 
agreement — it establishes for the fii-st time the 
basis for an international trusteeship. But I have 
also read that the trusteeship proposal was severely 
ci'iticized by the Koreans themselves. Mr. Vin- 
cent, didn't they stage some demonstrations 
against trusteeship and in favor of immediate 
independence? 

Vincent: Yes, they naturally want their inde- 
pendence as soon as possible. Also, I am told that 
first reports of the Moscow agreement to reach 
Korea were incomplete and garbled. Secretary 
Byrnes pointed out in his radio address of Decem- 
ber 30 that "The Joint Soviet- American Commis- 
sion, working with the Korean provisional demo- 
cratic government, may find it possible to dispense 
with a trusteeship".^ 

Fisher : But have the Russians given any indi- 
cation of their stand ? Do they agree that a trus- 
teeship maj' be dispensed with? 

Vincent : As I have said, the Russians drafted 
the original text of the agreement, the clear im- 
plications of which are that self-government and 



' Bulletin of Dec. 30, 1945, p. 1034. 



108 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



independence are the goal, and that trusteeship is 
only a procedure, which may or may not be neces- 
sary. 

Fisher: How, then, would you summarize the 
United States position ? 

Vincent : We have one olijective only in Korea — 
to bring about self-government and independence 
at the earliest possible moment. The Moscow con- 
ference demonstrated that this was also the desire 
of the Soviet Union and Great Britain. Whether 
or not there is to be a trusteeship for Korea de- 
pends on the ability of the Koreans to get together 
with the Joint Commission in forming a demo- 
cratic [irovisional govermnent capable of unifying 
and a<lministeriug Korea. I am sjjeaking here of 
an entirely new provisional govermnent, repre- 
senting all major gioups. not of the so-called ''pro- 
visional govermnent" in exile, members of which, 
as individuals, have recently returned to Korea 
from Chungking. If a provisional government 
finds itself /lof equal to the task of giving Korea 
an efficient, unified administration, then a four- 
power trusteeship under the United Nations will 
probably be recommenc|ed by the Joint Commis- 
sion. 

Fisher : How long would such a trusteeship last? 

Vincent: If we set up a trusteeship, it would 
pi-obably last for the full five-year period provided 
for in the agreement. If it's necessary at all, I 
believe it will be necessary for that length of time. 

Fisher: In your opinion, Mr. Vincent, is there 
much probability that a provisional government 
will be able to achieve a unified set-up strong 
enf)Ugh to stand on its own legs? 

Vincent: I am an ojitimist, Mr. Fisher, l)ut nut 
a prophet. Some progress is being made toward 
unification. Colonel Prescott can tell you about 
Korean politics and the chaotic state it was in 
when he arrived. 

Prescott : We found a large number of political 
parties when we came in — over 90, many of them 
local groups. One grouj), the People's Republic, 
had taken over local administi-ation by force of 
arms in some places. 

Fisher: How does the situation shajie up now? 

Prescott: It has shaken down somewhat, as 
Mr. Vincent has indicated. The smaller parties 
have merged into five main groups, the largest of 
which are — the Democratic Party, which is sup- 
jjorted by various classes, including businessmen, 
landowners, and tenant farmers; the People's Re- 



public, whicli advocates drastic economic leforms 
and is sui:)ported, though not dominated, by the 
Communists; and the People's Party, which is also 
leftish in tendency. 

Fisher : While we are on the subject of political 
jjarties, Colonel Prescott, there have been some 
charges in the American press that our militarj' 
government in Korea has supported the conserva- 
tives — the Democratic Party. 

Prescott : On the contrary. General Hodge con- 
sulted with political leaders from all the pai'ties. 
Our policy is not to mix in Korean politics, but to 
try to get outstanding men from all parties to take 
i-esponsible positions in the government. We 
found capable men in all groups. In several cities 
where representatives of the "People's Republic" 
had taken over local administration, we found 
them operating efficiently and left them in office. 
Our only concern is to see a Korean government 
which is truly rejjresentative of the Korean 
people. 

Fisher: Well, if that policy is followed, there 
should be little basis for criticism. Now. Mr. Vin- 
cent, you were speaking of the trusteeship angle 
of the agreement — just what would be the 
alternative to trusteeship? 

Vincent: If the Koreans do get together and 
there is no trusteeship, the Soviet-American Com- 
mission will probably continue in existence for 
some time; that is, until the provisional govern- 
ment is well established and free elections are held 
to provide for the formation of a democratic gov- 
ernment representative of the will of the Korean 
])eoi)le. It may also be advisable for the Joint 
Connnission to assist in drawing up a draft con- 
stitution for submission to the Korean people in 
advance of national elections. It is hoped, how- 
ever, that in this interim period, the demonstrated 
ability of the provisional government will make it 
possible for the Connnission to place an increasing 
amount of responsibility on the Koreans. Inci- 
dentally, we exjject to see the Joint Commission 
become more and more a civilian organization as 
time goes on. Furthermore, it is hoped that con- 
ditions w^ll permit the withdrawal of Soviet and 
American troops from Korea in the not too distant 
future. 

Fisher : Mr. Vincent, has our top representative 
on the Joint Commission been designated yet ? 

Vincent: No, but he should be a high-ranking 
American, whose ability is universally recognized. 



JANUARY 27, 1946 



109 



Fisher: Mr. Martin, what do you think about 
the trusteeship question from the economic point 
of view? 

Mautin : I can see certain dangers in it, Mr. 
Fislier. When we come to withdraw from Korea 
inider the terms of the trusteeship, it may create 
a sharp break. On the other hand, if we turn every- 
thing; over to the Koi-eans too soon, we run the 
danger of leaving behind a weak govei-nment wliich 
miglit liave to lean on foreign powers for financial 
and technical assistance. 

Vincent : Tliat might be a danger to Korean sov- 
ereignty, and it should be avoided at all costs. 

Presgott: I'd like to point out one thing: you 
can't have political unification in Korea until 
Korea is integrated economically. There must be 
complete freedom to travel and ship goods from 
one zone to the other. Until this is accomplished 
there is bound to be dissension and political agita- 
tion, and it will be impossible to form an effective 
provisional government. So the first problem to 
be tackled is economic unification. 

Vincent: Our objective is complete unification 
of Korea at the earliest possible moment, Colonel, 
for exactly the I'easons you mentioned. And in 
Moscow, the Soviet Government gave every indi- 
cation that it holds the same view. It may take a 
little time, but once we form the Joint Commission 
we should be able to lay the groundwork for a pro- 
visional government without much delay. 

Fisher: That's very encouraging, Mr. Vincent. 
Now, Mr. Alartin, to get back to the economic side, 
what are the main economic problems facing 
Korea ? 

Martin : Well, aside from a proper distribution 
of rice and coal, Korea needs unification of her 
transportation and communications systems. Then 
she badly needs a unified finance system. In addi- 
tion, the inflated Bank of Chosen yen now in use 
must be replaced by a new Korean currency. But 
a new currency alone will not stop the present infla- 
tion. Increased production of things people want 
to buy is the only final solution for that. 

Fisher: Colonel Prescott, what about that? 

Prescott : Korea certainly does have inflation. 
On August 6, 1945 there were 4 billion yen circu- 
lating in Korea. In the next month the Japanese 
put an additional '?> billion yen into circulation. 
Some of it they gave to the Korean Morkers as a 
bonus to try to buy good-will so they could get 
away safely. Some was used to buy goods to salt 



away against inflation. Some the Japanese tried 
to take back to Japan, but we searched them pretty 
thoroughly at the ports, and I don't think much 
slipped through. I agree with Mr. Martin that 
Korea must have a new currency system, but the 
integration of the two zones must come first. 

Fisher: Mr. Martin, what about Korean in- 
dustry ? 

Martin: So far the main task there has been 
to get Korean personnel to take it over. Vir- 
tually all transport, utilities, and heavy industry, 
including chemicals and light metals, were owned 
by Japanese corporations or by the Japanese 
colonial government of Korea. 

Fisher: What has been done with these in- 
dustries ? 

Martin: Title to these, and to all Japanese 
property, is vested in the Military Government, 
which is running them now. It will continue to 
do so until a Korean jirovisional government is 
set up on a democratic basis. Then the Koreans, 
through their own government, will decide 
whether they want to leave these inchistries in the 
hands of their government or adopt some other 
course. This is a basic decision, and it must be 
made by the Koreans themselves. 

Fisher: That's fair enough. Now, about in- 
dustrial technicians, Mr. Martin — are there 
enough of them available over there? 

Martin: No, that's a serious problem. AVith 
the consent of the Koreans, we've left a very few 
Japanese in technical jobs, under close supervision. 
The alternatives are to turn the jobs over to 
Koreans, who aren't always well trained and ac- 
cept considerable inefficiency, or to bring in 
foreigners to help operate the Korean economy 
and train Korean replacements. The carefully 
managed use of a limited number of foreign tech- 
nicians seems to be necessary, but we will always 
have to be on our guard to prevent permanent de- 
pendence on foreigners. It's always a lot easier 
to get them in than to get them out. 

Fisher : And what about dividing up the land ? 
That must be quite a problem. 

Martin: Yes, Korea has a severe land prob- 
lem — the same serf-like landlord-tenant relation- 
ship that you find in so many Oriental countries. 
So despite the fact that the land is very productive, 
the peasants have had little opportunity to improve 
their lot. This is a long-range problem that the 
Koreans will have to work out themselves. The 



110 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



most we can do is lielji them along the riglit track. 
FisiiER : Some of tlie land must liave been oAvned 
by the Japanese, Mr. Martin. What happened to 
it? 

Martin: It i.s now being- rented by the Military 
Government to the tenant farmers who work it. 
Under the plan we contemplate, it will be divided 
up and sold on such terms that the tenant farmers 
can purchase it. A national agricultural credit 
system will have to be established to make long- 
term loans at low interest rates. 

Fisher: And who would get the money? The 
former Jajianese owners ? 

Martin : No, the Korean Government. All the 
Japanese get for their possessions in Korea is a 
receipt, which the Japanese Government can honor 
or not, as it chooses. 

Fisher: Mr. Vincent. I suppose the Keparation 
Commiasion will have the final say on the disposal 
of Japanese assets in Korea. 

Vincent: Yes. We expect it to turn all Japa- 
nese assets there over to Korea. At least that's 
the recommendation of the President's special am- 
bassador on reparation problems, Mr. Pauley. 

Martin: One further point: Korea has the re- 
sources to stand on her own feet. She's not rich, 
but she has plenty of food and other essentials to 
support her large population. But she cannot 
live entirely to herself. Her economy is too closely 
tied up with that of Manchuria. Her transporta- 
tion, her imports of soy beans and millet, her 
Yalu River electric-power system, all call for 
close integration with the Chinese economy in 
Manchuria. 

Vincent: And I might add that we hope even- 
tually to facilitate the return of American mis- 
sionaries and businessmen to Korea. The mis- 
sionaries have done good work there. And the 
businessmen will help Korea by reviving American 
trade, which was once so important to her. 

Fisher: Well, Mr. Vincent, your program for 
Korea seems to provide for the establishment of 
democracy in both the political and economic 
fields. It would result in reforms as far reaching 
and progressive as those instituted in Japan, and 
would eventually make Korea a progressive, in- 
dependent nation. This would be done under the 
joint auspices of the United States and the Soviet 
Union. 

Vincent: You're right, Mr. Fisher. It will be 
a test of the ability of two great poM'ers to co- 



operate in solving a problem of mutual interest 
and of interest to the United Nations as a whole. 
If the Joint Commission works out as successfully 
as we hope it will, the achievement should furnish 
a firm stepping-stone for solving other problems 
that will inevitably face us. Furthermore, the 
successful achievement of our aims in Korea 
should furnish a pattern for tlie development of 
other peojjles toward self-government and inde- 
pendence. 

Martin : To put it in slightly different terms, 
Mr. Vincent, the United States and the Soviet 
Union have a made-to-order opportunity to show 
that we can free Korea without getting involved in 
any imperialistic adventures. 

Vincent: Yes,- there's something to what you 
say. And I might add that there are two major 
essentials to the success of this undertaking. They 
are: that the Russian and American representa- 
tives chosen to do the job be of a caliber and 
character which will assure that they will ap- 
proach the problem with unprejudiced intelligence 
and in a spirit of real cooperation; and that 
the Korean leaders submerge their factional dif- 
ferences and work with united zeal to reestablish 
the statehood of Korea. 

FisiiER : Well, thank you. gentlemen, for giving 
us this revealing picture of Korea and the signifi- 
cance of our policy there. And, Mr. Vincent, 
we're looking forward to discussing our policy in 
China with you, before too long. 

Announcer : That was Sterling Fisher, Director 
of NBC's University of the Air. He has been in- 
terviewing John Carter Vincent and Edwin M. 
Martin of the State Department and Col. Brainard 
E. Prescott of the War Department, on our Korean 
policy and its implications for the Far East. The 
discussion was adapted for radio by Selden Mene- 
fee. 

Next week we expect to present a broadcast of 
outstanding interest. The question "How Free 
Can World News Be?'' will be discussed by As- 
sistant Secretary of State AVilliam Benton and 
others. The proposal for an international agree- 
ment on freedom of the press, the relationship of 
the United States Government information service 
abroad to the private news agencies, and the re- 
sults of the recent Bermuda Telecommunications 
Conference will all come in for discussion. Listen 
in next week at the same time for this important 
broadcast. 



JANUARY 27. 1946 



111 



American and Soviet Commands in Korea Plan 
Administrative Coordination^ 



The Department of State has been informed of 
an exchange of letters between Col. Gen. Ivan 
Mihailovitch Chistiakov. Commanding General, 
Q.'ith Army Soviet Forces in Korea, and Lt. Gen. 
John II. Hodge, United States Army, Command- 
ing General, Korean area. 

The text of the letter from General Chistiakov, 
dated January 8, follows: 

Dear General : 

I have received from my Commanding Officer 
orders to discuss with you important questions 
about south and north Korea, and to take measures 
to establish jDermanent administrative coordina- 
tion between the American Command of South 
Korea and the Soviet Command of North Korea. 
It is necessary to do so within 2 weeks of confer- 
ence between representatives of American and So- 
viet Commands in Korea. 

Hereby, I have the lionor to inform you of our 
readiness to conduct such a conference. 

The representative of the Soviet Command in 
this conference is Colonel General Shtikov, who is 
ready to meet with your representatives between 



the 15th and 20th of January, 1946, in Seoul or any 
other place convenient to you. 

Colonel General Shtikov will be accompanied by 
the Political Advisor Tsarapkin, Major General 
Panin, Major Genei-al Romanyenko and the group 
of advisors and technical personnel of between 12 
and 15 men. 

If you are ready to conduct the above mentioned 
conference, will you kindly appoint your repre- 
sentatives and inform me of your agreement about 
conduction this conference. 
Respectfully yours, 

Chistiakov, Colonel General 

General Hodge replied on January 9: 

Dear General Chistiakov : 

I have the honor to have received your letter of 
8 January in reference to a meeting between rep- 
resentatives of the Soviet and American forces in 
Korea. 

I suggest that the place of meeting be at Seoul 
and that the date be not later than 15 January, 



WILCOX — Continued from page 102. 
would have to curtail her imports and buy these 
smaller quantities within the sterling area instead 
of buying in the United States. She would have 
to tighten exchange controls so that her limited 
supply of dollars could not be spent freely for 
American goods. She would be compelled so to 
administer her import quotas as to discriminate 
against goods that had to be paid for in scarce 
monies — specifically, in dollars. She would be 
driven to raise her tariffs against us, widen the 
margins of imperial preference, and enter into 
bilateral deaLs with other countries of the world. 
Such measures might well be justified by the situa- 
tion in which Britain would find herself. But 
they would operate to exclude American traders 
from the richest markets in the world. The pres- 
sure for retaliation Mould almost certainly be 
irresistible. 

If there were to be an economic war, I think it is 
clear that the American Proposals for E.vpansion 



of World. Trade and E-mploynvent would have 
to be abandoned. Our whole line of policy would 
have to be reversed. We should have to regiment 
our import and our export trade. And, in the 
process, we should have to deprive our domestic 
industry of a large measure of the freedom which 
it now enjoys. Excluded from markets in the 
sterling bloc, we should have to attract and hold 
the members of a dollai- bloc. And we might have 
to spend a good many billions in the process. If 
there should be an economic war, we could doubt- 
less win it. But it would be a sorry victory. The 
division of the world into contending economic, 
political, and military blocs would be a tragedy, 
not only for Britain but for us and for every other 
nation on earth. To prevent it is the dominating 
purjjose of our foreign economic policy. It is in 
the context of this policy that one must judge the 
British loan. This is its real significance. 



' Released to the press Jan. 15. 



112 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



1946, or as soon tliereafter as your party can ai'- 
range. 

I will provide accommodations for the Soviet 
party of 12 to 15 persons. If there is any cliange 
in the total niimlier in the l)arty, it is requested that 
I be informed in suthcient time to make the neces- 
sary billeting arrangements. It is also requested 
that I be furnished with a full list of your party 
by rank and a statement of office equipment desired 
]^' them. These may be dispatclied l>y telephone 
direct to my headquarters or through the Soviet 
Consulate. 

Major General A. V. Arnold will liead the 
American committee for the conference with 



Colonel General Shtikov and will have the neces- 
sary and appropriate technical personnel readilj' 
available. 

It is presumed that the Soviet personnel will 
travel to Seoul by rail. If this assumption is cor- 
rect, it is requested that I be informed of the ex- 
pected time and date of arrival in order that we 
may meet and transport them. 

In order to facilitate further communication 
between our 2 headquarters, it is suggested that 
you place a Russian English language interpreter 
on duty with your lieadijuarters. 

Sincerely yours, 

John R. Hodge, Lt. General, V. S. Army 
Conimanding General, Korean Area 



French Government To Take Part in 
Conference on Peace Treaties 



Te.rt of a note delivered to the French Govern- 
ment bj/ the Secrefari/ of State Byrnes, on Janu- 
ary 13. It is being released siniultaneously in 
London, Paris, and Washington} 

I am happy to note that the French Govern- 
ment has expressed its willingness to take part 
in the proposed Conference for the consideration 
of peace treaties and is ready so far as it is con- 
cerned to invite all the governments envisaged 
in the proposal to send their representatives to the 
Conference at Paris. 

In order that the Frencii Government may be 
in a position to confirm this understanding, I am 
glad to furnish in response to the French Govern- 
ment's request for clarification, the following ex- 
planations and information in the name of the 
Governments of the United States of America, the 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the 
United Kingdom : 

(1) The French Government desires to be in- 
formed of the future work of the Council of the 
Foreign Ministers. It is our understanding that 
tilt" future role of the Council of Foreign INIinisters 
is that provided in the Potsdam Agreement with 
the exi'eption that after the Peace Conference is 
held tlu' states which are signatory to the Armis- 
tice will draft the final treaty, taking into account 



' Released to the press Jan. IS. 



the recommendations of the Peace Conference. 
As stated in the French Government's conununi- 
cation, the Potsdam Agreement provided for the 
preparation of the peace settlement with Ger- 
many. The agreement reached at Moscow is in 
no way intended to alter the previous understand- 
ing with regard to the preparation of the peace 
settlement with Germany. Fiu-thermore, the 
Potsdam Agreement likewise provided that other 
wox'k might be assigned to the Council from time 
to time by the member governments. No change 
in this provision was anticipated at Moscow. 

(2) In response to Point 2 of the French com- 
munication it may be stated that the Potsdam 
Agreement provided for the possibility that the 
Council of Foreign Ministers might invite the rep- 
resentatives of other governments when matters 
which particularly concerned them were to be 
discussed. Inasmuch as the Moscow agreement 
did not seek to i*epeal the Potsdam Agreement, the 
Council retains the authority to invite any state 
to particii)ate in the discussions whenever there is 
pending a matter of direct interest to such state. 
The Council, as constituted for the preparation of 
specific treaties, or the Deputies of the Powers 
represented for that purpose, may determine from 
time to time when such matters arise and are 
authorized to extend invitations. 

(3) The French Government may rest assured 



]ANVARY 27, 1946 



113 



that as broad and thorough a discussion as possible 
shall take place at the forthcoming Conference 
and that the final drafts of the treaties will be 
made only after the fullest consideration has been 
given to the recommendations of the Conference. 
We have no doubt that no final treaty would be 
concluded which arbitrarily rejected the recom- 
mendations of the Conference. 

(4) With respect to the views of the states with 
which the treaties are to be concluded, the work 
of preparation for the draft treaties will take into 
account the views of these states and adequate 
opportunities will be given these states to discuss 
tlie treaties and to present their views both in the 
fornndation of the drafts, as was permitted in the 
earlier meetings in London, and at the May Con- 
ference. It is agreed that this does not constitute 
a precedent for peace settlements which are not 
tlie subject of the present discussions. 

It is believed that the foregoing explanation will 
provide the information necessary for the deter- 
mination of the functions of the proposed Con- 
ference, and it is hoped that the French Govern- 
ment will now be in a position to confirm its agree- 
ment to participate in the proposed Conference. 

Policy on Japanese 
Mandated Islands 

At the President's press and radio news confer- 
ence on January 15 a correspondent said there had 
been reports that the Delegation at London seems 
to be divided on the question of Japanese man- 
dated islands, and asked what the administration's 
policy was regarding these islands. The President 
declared that those we do not need will be placed 
under UNO trusteeship, and those we need we will 
keep. Asked how long we intended to keep these 
islands, Mr. Truman said, as long as we needed 
them. Asked whether they would be under indi- 
vidual trusteeship of this country, the President 
replied in the affirmative in regard to tho.se islands 
we need. Asked whether the others would be un- 
der tlie Security Council, Mr. Truman replied in 
the afhrmative, adding, just like all the rest of 
tliem. A correspondent asked whether some is- 
lands would be under our trusteeship and some 
under individual trusteeship of other nations. The 
President said that some would be under indi- 
vidual trusteeships as well as collective trusteeship. 



but that policy would have to be worked out by the 
United Nations Organization as it went along. 
Asked whether we would have to ask UNO's au- 
thority for our individual trusteeships, the Presi- 
dent replied affirmatively. A correspondent said 
that there were several Pacific islands below the 
equator that were not Japanese-mandated and 
asked M'liether we were interested in those. The 
President replied, only in conjunction with our 
Allies. Asked whether we had demanded any of 
these islands which we need, the President declared 
that we have not. 

Military Missions to 
Control Conncil in Berlin' 

On June 5, 1945 the Governments of the Lhiited 
States, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, 
and the United Kingdom, and the Provisional 
Government of the French Republic stated that : 

"5. Liaison with the other United Nations Gov- 
ernments chiefly interested will be established 
through the appointment by such Governments of 
military missions (which may include civilian 
members) to the Control Council. These missions 
will have access through the appropriate channels 
to the organs of control." " 

Pursuant to this declaration the Allied Control 
Council in Berlin on October 3, 1945 agreed to re- 
ceive military missions accredited to the Control 
Council from the following Ifi countries: Aus- 
tralia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China, Czecho- 
slovakia, Denmark, Greece, Netherlands, India, 
Luxembourg, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, 
South Africa, and Yugoslavia. 

The Department of State understands that each 
mission will be limited to 10 members, because of 
housing shortage and lack of other facilities in 
Berlin, and that the missions will be stationed 4 
to each occupation sector in Berlin. 

Each government was asked to send a repre- 
sentative to Berlin to make the necessary arrange- 
ments for accommodations and arrival of the mis- 
sion. It is understood that some of the missions 
have already arrived and the others will arrive 
shortly. 



' Relea.sed to tlin press Jan. IS. 

■ Bulletin of June 16, 194.">. p. 1054. 



114 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Reparation From Germany 



FINAL ACT AND ANNEX OF THE PARIS CONFERENCE ON REPARATION 



CONFERENCE RECOMMENDATION 

The Paris Conference on Reparation, which has 
met from 9 November 1945 to 21 December 1945, 
recommends that the Governments represented at 
the Conference should sign in Paris as soon as 
possible an Agreement on Reparation from Gei'- 
many, on the Establishment of an Inter-Allied 
Reparation Agency and on the Restitution of 
Monetary Gold in the terms set forth below.- 

DRAFT AGREEMENT ON REPARATION FROM GER- 
MANY, ON THE ESTABLISHMENT OF AN INTER- 
ALLIED REPARATION AGENCY AND ON THE RESTI- 
TUTION OF MONETARY GOLD 

The Governments of Albania, The United 
States of America, Australia, Belgium, Can- 
ada, Denmark, Egypt, France, The United 
Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ire- 
land, Greece, India, Luxembourg, Norway, New 
Zealand, The Netherlands, Czechoslovakia, 
The Union of South Africa and Yugoslavia, in 
order to obtain an equitable distribution among 
themselves of the total assets which, in accordance 
with tlie provisions of this Agreement and the 
Provisions agreed upon at Potsdam on 1 August 
1945 between the Governments of the United 
States of America, the United Kingdom of Great 
Britain and Northern Ireland and the Union of 
Soviet Socialist Republics, are or may be de- 
clared to be available as rejjaration from Germany 
(hereinafter referred to as German reparation), 
in order to establish an Inter-Allied Reparation 
Agency, and to settle an equitable j^rocedure for 
the restitution of monetary gold, 

Have agreed as follows : 

Part I 

German Reparation 
Article 1. Shares in Reparation. 

A. German reparation (exclusive of tlie funds 
to be allocated under Article S of Part I of this 



' Released to the press Jan. 15. 

^ On Jan. 14 the following governments signed the 
agreemont: United States, France, United Kingdom, Neth- 
erlands, Belgium, Yugoslavia, and Luxemliourg. The sig- 
natures represent 84.15 percent of Category A quotas, thus 
hringing tlie agreement into effect as of Jan. 14. 



Agreement), shall be divided into the following 
categoi'ies : 

Category A, whicli shall include all forms of 
German repai'ation except those included in 
Category B, 

Category B, which shall include industrial and 
other capital equipment removed from Germany, 
and merchant ships and inland water transport. 

B. Each Signatory Government shall be enti- 
tled to the pei'centage share of the total value of 
Category A and the percentage share of the total 
value of Category B set out for that Government 
in the Table of Shares set forth below : 

Table of Shares. 



Country 



Albania 

United States of America. 

Australia 

Belgium 

Canada 

Denmark 

Egypt 

France 

United Kingdom 

Greece 

India 

Luxembourg 

Norway 

New Zealand 

Netherlands 

Czechoslovakia 

Union of South Africa (o) 
Yugoslavia 

Total 



Category A 




05 


28 


00 




70 


2 


70 


3 


50 




25 




05 


16. 


00 


28. 


00 


2. 


70 


2. 


00 




15 


1. 


30 




40 


3. 


90 


3. 


00 




70 


6. 


60 


100. 


00 



Category B 



.35 

11. 80 

.95 

4. 50 

1. 50 

.35 

.20 

22. 80 

27. 80 



4. 35 
2. 90 

.40 

1. 90 

.60 

5. 60 
4. 30 

. 10 
9. 60 



100. 00 



(0) The government of the Union of South Africa has undertaken to waive 
Its claims to the extent necessary to reduce its percentage share of Category B 
to the fifiure of 0.1 per cent but is entitled, in disposing of German enemy 
assets witliin its jurisdiction, to charge the net value of such assets against its 
percentage share of Category A and a i)ercentage share under Category B of 
0.1 percent. 

C. Subject to the provisions of paragraph D 
below, each Signatory Government shall be en- 
titled to receive its 'share of merchant ships deter- 
mined in accordance with Article 5 of Part I of 
this Agreement, provided that its receipts of 



}.4!\VARY 27, 1946 



115 



mercluuit ships do not exceed in value its share in 
Categoi'y B as a whole. 

Subject to tlie provisions of paragraph D be- 
low, each Signatory Government shall also be 
entitled to its Category A percentage share in 
German assets in countries which i-emained neu- 
tral in the war against Germany. 

The distribution among the Signatory Govern- 
ments of forms of German reparation other than 
merchant ships, inland water transpoi't and Ger- 
man assets in countries which remained neutral 
in the war against Germany shall be guided by 
the principles set forth in Article 4 of Part I of 
this Agreement. 

D. If a Signatory Government receives more 
than its percentage share of certain types of assets 
in either Category A or Category B, its receipts 
of other types of assets in that Category shall be 
i-educed so as to ensure that it shall not receive 
more than its share in that Category as a whole. 

E. No Signatory Government shall receive more 
than its percentage share of eitlier Category A 
or Category B as a whole by surrendering any 
part of its percentage share of the other Category, 
except that with respect to German enemy assets 
within its own jurisdiction, any Signatory Govern- 
ment shall be permitted to charge any excess of 
such assets over its Category A percentage share 
of total German enemy assets within the juris- 
diction of the Signatory Governments either to 
its receipts in Category A or to its receipts in 
Category B or in part to each Category. 

F. The Inter- Allied Reparation Agency, to be 
established in accordance with Part II of this 
Agreement, shall charge the reparation account 
of each Signatory Government for the German 
assets within that Government's jurisdiction over 
a period of five years. The charges at the date 
of the entry into force of this Agreement shall be 
not less than 20 per cent of the net value of such 
assets (as defined in Article 6 of Part I of this 
Agreement) as then estimated, at the beginning 
of the second year thereafter not less than 25 per 
cent of the balance as then estimated, at the begin- 
ning of the third year not less than 33V3 per cent 
of the balance as then estimated, at the beginning 
of the fourth year not less than 50 per cent of the 
balance as then estimated, at the beginning of the 
fifth year not less than 90 per cent of the balance 



as then estimated, and at the end of the fifth year 
the entire remainder of the total amount actually 
realized. 

G. The following exceptions to paragraphs D 
and E above shall apply in the case of a Signatory 
Government whose share in Category B is less 
tlian its share in Category A: 

(i) Receipts of merchant ships by any such 
Government shall not i-educe its percentage share 
in other types of assets in Category B, except to 
the extent that such receipts exceed the value ob- 
tained when that Government's Category A per- 
centage is applied to the total value of merchant 
ships. 

(ii) Any excess of German assets within the 
juri.sdiction of such Government over its Category 
A percentage share of the total of German assets 
within the jurisdiction of Signatory Governments 
as a whole shall be cliarged first to the additional 
share in Category B to which that Government 
would be entitled if its share in Category B were 
determined by applying its Category A {lercent- 
age to the forms of German reparation in Cate- 
gory B. 

H. If any Signatory Government renounces its 
shares or part of its shares in German reparation 
as set out in the above Table of Shares, or if it 
withdraws from the Inter-Allied Reparation 
Agency at a time when all or part of its shares in 
German reparation remain unsatisfied, the shares 
or part thereof thus renounced or remaining shall 
be distributed rateably among the other Signatory 
Governments. 

Article 2. Settlement of Claims against Germany. 

A. The Signatory Governments agree among 
themselves that their respective shares of repara- 
tion, as determined by the present Agreement, 
shall be regarded by each of them as covering all 
its claims and those of its nationals against the 
former German Government and its Agencies, of 
a governmental or private nature, arising out of 
the war (which are not otherwise provided for), 
including costs of German occupation, credits ac- 
quired during occupation on clearing accounts and 
claims against the Reichskreditkassen. 

B. The provisions of paragraph A above are 
without prejudice to: 

(i ) The determination at the proper time of the 



116 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



forms, diiratidii ov totiil iuiiount of reparation to be 
made by Germany ; 

(ii) The ri<iht which each Signatory Govern- 
ment may liave with respect to the final settlement 
of German reparation ; and 

(iii) Any political, territorial or other denninds 
which any Signatory Government may put for- 
ward witii respect to the peace settlement with 
Germany. 

C. Notwithstanding anything in the provisions 
of paragraph A above, the present Agreement shall 
not be considered as affecting: 

(i) The obligation of the appropriate authori- 
ties in GermaJiy to secure at a future date the dis- 
charge of claims against Germany and German 
nationals arising out of contracts and other obliga- 
tions entered into, and rights acquired, before the 
existence of a state of war between Germany and 
the Signatory Government concerned or before the 
occupation of its territory by Germany, whichever 
was earlier; 

(ii) The claims of Social Insurance Agencies 
of the Signatory Governments or the claims of 
their nationals against the Social Insurance Agen- 
cies of the former German Government ; and 

( iii ) Banknotes of the Reichsbank and the Ren- 
tenbank, it being understood that their realization 
shall not have the result of reducing improperly 
the amount of reparation and shall not be eifected 
without the approval of the Control Council for 
Germany. 

D. Notwithstanding the provisions of para- 
graph A of this Ai-ticle, the Signatory Govern- 
ments agree that, so far as they are concerned, the 
Czechoslovak Government will be entitled to draw 
upon the Giro Account of the National Bank of 
Czechoslovakia at the Reichsbank, should such ac- 
tion be decided upon by the Czechoslovak Gov- 
ernment and be approved by the Control Council 
for Germany, in connection with the movement 
from Czechoslovakia to Germany of foimer 
Czechoslovak nationals. 

Article 3. Waiver of Claims Regarding Property Allo- 
cated as Reparation, 

Each of the Signatory Governments agrees that 
it will not assert, initiate actions in international 
tribunals in respect of, or give diplomatic sup- 
port to claims on behalf of itself or those persons 
entitled to its protection against any other Signa- 



tory Govenunent or its nationals in respect of 
property received by that Government as repa- 
ration with the approval of the Control Council 
for Germany. 

Article 4. General Principles for the Allocation of 
Industrial and other Capital Equipment. 

A. No Signatory Govermnent shall request the 
allocation to it as reparation of any industrial or 
other capital equipment removed from Germany 
except for use in its own territory or for use by its 
own nationals outside its own territory. 

B. In submitting requests to the Inter- Allied 
Reparation Agency, the Signatory Governments 
shoidd endeavour to submit comprehensive pro- 
grams of requests for related groups of items, 
I'ather than requests for isolated items or small 
groups of items. It is recognized that the work 
of the Secretariat of the Agency will be more effec- 
tive, the more comprehensive the programs which 
Signatory Governments submit to it. 

C. In the allocation by the Inter-Allied Repara- 
tion Agency of items declared available for repa- 
ration (other than merchant .ship.s, inland water 
transport and (ierman assets in countries which 
remained neutral in the war against Germany) , the 
following general principles shall serve as guides: 

(i) Any item or related group of items in which 
a claimant country has a substantial prewar finan- 
cial interest shall be allocated to that country if it 
so desires. Where two or more claimants have 
such substantial interests in a particular item or 
group of items, the criteria stated below shall guide 
the allocation. 

(ii) If the allocation between competing claim- 
ants is not determined by paragraph (i) , attention 
shall be given, among other relevant factors, to the 
following considerations : 

(a) The urgency of each claimant country's 
needs for the item or items to rehabilitate, recon- 
struct or restore to full activity the claimant 
country's economy; 

(b) The extent to which the item or items 
would replace property which was destroyed, 
damaged or looted in the war, or requires re- 
placement because of excessive wear in war pro- 
duction, and which is important to the claimant 
coimtry's economy ; 

(c) The relation of the item or items to the 
general pattern of the claimant country's prewar 



JANUARY 27, 1946 



117 



economic life aiul to programs for its postwar 
economic adjustnu'iit or development; 

{(/) The requirements of countries whose rep- 
aration shares are small but which are in need of 
certain specific items or categories of items. 

(iii) In making allocations a reasonable balance 
shall be maintained among the rates at which the 
re[)aration shares of the several clainumt (jovern- 
ments are satisfied, subject to such temporary ex- 
ceptions as are justified by the considerations under 
l)aragraph (ii) (a) above. 

Article 5. General I'riiiciples fttr the Allitcatiim itf 
Merchant Ships and Inland II aler Transport. 

A. (i) German merchant ships available for dis- 
tribution as reparation among the Signatory 
Governments shall be distributed among them in 
proportion to the respective over-all losses of 
merchant shipping, on a gross tonnage basis, of 
the Signatory Governments and their nationals 
through acts of war. It is recognized that trans- 
fers of merchant ships by the United Kingdom 
and United States Governments to other Govern- 
ments are subject to such final approvals by the 
legislatures of the United Kingdom and United 
States of America as may be required. 

(ii) A special committee, composed of repre- 
sentatives of the Signatory Governments, shall be 
appointed by the Assembly of the Inter-xVllied 
Reparation Agency to make recommendations 
concerning the determination of such losses and 
the allocation of German merchant ships available 
for distribution. 

(iii) The value of German merchant ships for 
reparation accounting purposes shall be the value 
determined by the Tri-partite Merchant Marine 
Commission in terms of 1938 prices in Ger- 
many plus 15 per cent, with an allowance for 
depreciation. 

B. Recognizing that some countries have special 
need for inland water transport, the distribution 
of inland water transport shall be dealt with by 
a special committee appointed by the Assembly 
of the Inter-Allied Reparation Agency in the event 
that inland water transport becomes available at a 
future time as reparation for the Signatory Gov- 
ernments. The valuation of inland water trans- 
port will be made on the basis adopted for the 
valuation of merchant ships or on an equitable 
basis in relation to that adopted for merchant 
ships. 



Article 6. German External Assets. 

A. Each Signatory Government shall, under 
such procedures as it may choose, hold or dispose 
of German enemy assets within its jurisdiction in 
manners designed to preclude their return to Ger- 
man ownership or control and shall charge against 
its reparation share such assets (net of accrued 
taxes, liens, expenses of administration, other in 
rem charges against specific items and legitimate 
ci>ntract claims against the German former owners 
of such assets). 

B. The Signatory (jovernments shall give to 
the Inter-Allied Rei)aration Agency all informa- 
tion for which it asks as to the value of such assets 
and the amounts realized from time to time by 
their liquidation. 

C. German assets in those countries which re- 
mained neutral in the war against Germany shall 
be removed from German ownership or control 
and liquidated or disposed of in accordance with 
the authority of France, the United Kingdom 
and the United States of America, pursuant to ar- 
rangements to be negotiated with the neutrals by 
these countries. The net proceeds of liquidation 
or disposition shall be made available to the Inter- 
Allied Reparation Agency for distribution on 
reparation account. 

D. In applying the provisions of paragraph A 
above, assets which were the proj)'erty of a coun- 
try which is a member of the United Nations or 
its nationals who were not nationals of Germany 
at the time of the occupation or annexation of this 
country by Germany, or of its entry into war, shall 
not be charged to its reparation account. It is 
understood that this provision in no way pre- 
judges any questions which may arise as regards 
assets which were not the property of a national of 
the country concerned at the time of the latter's 
occupation or annexation by (lermany or of its 
entry into war. 

E. The German enemy assets to be charged 
against reparation shares shall include assets 
which are in reality German enemy assets, despite 
the fact that the nominal owner of such assets is 
not a German enemy. 

Each Signatory Government shall enact legis- 
lation or take other appropriate steps, if it has 
not already done so, to render null and void all 
transfers made, after the occupation of its terri- 
tory or its entry into war, for the fraudulent pur- 
pose of cloaking German enemy interests, and 



778 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



thus saving them harmless from the effect of con- 
trol measures regarding German enemy interests. 
F. The Assembly of the Inter- A Hied Repara- 
tion Agency shall set up a Committee of Experts 
in matters of enemy property custodianship in 
order to overcome practical difficulties of law and 
interpretation which may arise. The Committee 
should in particular guard against schemes which 
miglit result in effecting fictitious or other trans- 
actions designed to favour enemy interests, or to 
reduce improperly the amount of assets wliicli 
might be allocated to reparation. 

Article 7. Captured Supplies. 

The value of supplies and other materials sus- 
ceptible of civilian use captured from the Ger- 
man Armed Forces in areas outside Germany and 
delivered to Signatory Governments shall be 
charged against their reparation shares in so far 
as such supplies and materials have not been or 
are not in tlie futiu-e either paid for or delivered 
under arrangements precluding any charge. It 
is recognised that transfers of such supplies and 
material by the United Kingdom and United States 
Governments to other Ciovernments are subject to 
such final approval by the legislature of the United 
Kingdom or the United States of America as may 
be required. 

Article 8. Allocation of a Reparation Share to Non- 
repatriahle Victims of German Action. 

In recognition of the fact that large numbers 
of persons have suffered heavily at the hands of 
the Nazis and now stand in dire need of aid to pro- 
mote their rehabilitation but will be unable to 
claim the assistance of any Government receiving 
reparation from Germany, the Governments of 
the United States of America, France, the United 
Kingdom, Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia, in con- 
sultation with the Inter-Governmental Commit- 
tee on Refugees, shall as soon as possible work out 
in common agi-eement a plan on the following 
general lines: 

A. A share of reparation consisting of all the 
non-monetary gold found by tlie Allied Armed 
Forces in Germany and in addition a sum not ex- 
ceeding Li;-) million dollars shall be allocated for 
the rehabilitation and resettlement of non-repatri- 
able victims of German action. 

B. The sum of 25 million dollars shall be met 
from a iDortion of the proceeds of German assets 



in neutral countries which are available for rep- 
aration. 

■ C. Governments of neutral countries shall be 
requested to make available for this purpose (in 
addition to the sum of 25 million dollars) assets 
in such countries of victims of Nazi action who 
have since died and left no heirs. 

D. The persons eligible for aid under the plan 
in question shall be restricted to true victims of 
Nazi persecution and to their immediate families 
and dependents, in the following classes: 

(i) Refugees from Nazi Germany or Austria 
who require aid and cannot be returned to their 
countries within a reasonable time because of pre- 
vailing conditions; 

(ii) German and Austrian nationals now resi- 
dent in Germany or Austria in exceptional cases 
in which it is reasonable on grounds of humanity 
to assist such persons to emigrate and providing 
they emigrate to other countries within a reason- 
able period ; 

(iii) Nationals of countries formerly occupied 
Iiy the Germans who cannot be repatriated or are 
not in a j^osition to be repatriated within a reason- 
able time. In order to concentrate aid on the most 
needy and deserving refugees and to exclude per- 
sons whose loyalty to the United Nations is or was 
doubtful, aid shall be restricted to nationals or 
former nationals of previously occupied countries 
who were victims of Nazi concentration camps or 
of concentration camps established by regimes 
under Nazi influence but not including persons who 
liave been confined only in prisoners of war camps. 

E. The sums made available under paragraphs 
A and B above shall be administered by the Inter- 
Governmental Committee on Refugees or by a 
United Nations Agency to which appropriate func- 
tions of the Inter-Governmental Committee may 
in the future be transferred. The sums made 
available under paragraph C above shall be ad- 
ministered for the general purposes referred to in 
this Article under a program of administration 
to be fornudated by the five Governments named 
above. 

F. The non-monetary gold found in Germany 
shall be i^laced at the disposal of the Inter-Govern- 
mental Committee on Refugees as soon as a plan 
has been worked out as provided above. 

G. The Inter-Governmental Committee on Refu- 
gees shall liave power to carry out the purposes of 



JANUARY 27, 1946 



119 



tlie funil tlirough appropriate public ami private 
field organisations. 

H. Tlie fund sliall be used, not for tlie compensa- 
tion of individual victims, but to further the re- 
habilitation or resettlement of persons in the eligi- 
ble classes. 

I. Nothing in this Article shall be considered to 
l)reju(liee the claims which individual refugees 
ma}' have against a future German Government, 
except to the amount of the benefits that such refu- 
gees may have received from the sources referred 
to in paragraphs A and C above. 

Part II 
Inter-Allied Reparation Agency 
Article 1. Establishment of the Agency. 

The Governments signatory to the present 
Agreement hereby establish an Inter- Allied Repa- 
ration Agency (hereinafter referred to as the 
"Agency"). Each (iovernment shall appoint a 
Delegate to the Agency and shall also be entitled 
to api^oint an Alternate who, in the absence of the 
Delegate, shall be entitled to exercise all the func- 
tions and rights of the Delegate. 

Article 2. Functions of the Agency. 

A. The Agencj' shall allocate German repara- 
tion among the Signatory Governments in accord- 
ance with the provisions of this Agreement and 
of any other agreements from time to time in force 
among the Signatory Governments. For this 
purpose, the Agency shall be the medium through 
which the Signatory Governments receive infor- 
mation concerning, and express their wishes in 
regard to, items available as reparation. 

B. The Agency shall deal with all questions re- 
lating to the restitution to a Signatory Govern- 
ment of property situated in one of the Western 
Zones of Germany which may be referred to it by 
the Commander of t];at Zone (acting on behalf of 
his (iovernment), in agreement with the claimant 
Signatory Government or Governments, without 
]n-ejudice, however, to the settlement of such ques- 
tions by the Signatory Governments concerned 
either by agreement or arbitration. 

Article 3. Internal Organization of the Agency. 

A. The oi'gans of the Agency shall be the As- 
sembly and the Secretariat. 

B. The Assembly shall consist of the Delegates 
and shall be presided over by the President of the 



Agency. The President of the Agency shall be 
the Delegate of the Government of France. 

C. The Secretariat shall be under the dii-ection 
of a Secretary General, assisted by two Deputy 
Secretaries General. The Secretary General and 
the two Deputy Secretaries General shall be ap- 
pointed by the Governments of France, the United 
States of America and the United Kingdom. The 
Secretariat shall be international in character. It 
shall act for the Agency and not for the individual 
Signatory Governments. 

Article 4. Functions of the Secretariat. 

The Secretariat shall have the following func- 
tions : 

A. To prepare and submit to the Assembly pro- 
grams for the allocation of German reparations; 

B. To maintain detailed accounts of assets avail- 
able for, and of assets distributed as, German 
reparation; 

C. To prepare and submit to the Assembly the 
budget of the Agency ; 

D. To perform such other administrative func- 
tions as may be required. 

Article 5. Functions of the Assembly. 

Subject to the i^rovisions of Articles i and 7 of 
Part II of this Agreement, the Assembly shall allo- 
cate German reparation among the Signatory Gov- 
ernments in conformity with the provisions of this 
Agreement and of any other agreements from time 
to time in force among the Signator}' Govern- 
ments. It shall also approve the budget of the 
Agency and shall perform such other functions as 
are consistent with the provisions of this Agree- 
ment. 

Article 6. Voting in the Assembly. 

Except as otherwise provided in this Agreement, 
each Delegate shall have one vote. Decisions in 
the Assembly shall be taken by a majority of the 
votes cast. 

Article 7. Appeal from Decisions of the Assembly, 

A. When the Assembly has not agreed to a claim 
presented by a Delegate that an item should be 
allocated to his Government, the Assembly shall, at 
the request of that Delegate and within the time 
limit prescribed by the Assembly, refer the ques- 
tion to arbitration. Such reference shall suspend 
the effect of the decision of the Assembly on that 
item. 



120 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



B. The Delegates of the Governments claiming 
an item referred to arbitration under paragraiih 
A above shall select an Arbitrator from among 
the other Delegates. If agreement cannot be 
reached upon tlie selection of an Arbitrator, the 
United States Delegate shall either act as Arbi- 
trator or appoint as Arbitrator another Delegate 
from among the Delegates whose Governments are 
not claiming the item. If the United States Gov- 
ernment is one of the claimant Governments, the 
President of the Agency shall appoint as Arbitra- 
tor a Delegate whose Government is not a claimant 
(iovernment. 

Article H. Powers of the Arbitrator. 

When the question of the allocation of any item 
is referred to arbitration under Article 7 of Part 
II of this Agreement, the Arbitrator shall have 
authority to make final allocation of the item 
among the claimant Governments. The Arbitrator 
may, at his discretion, refer the item to the Secre- 
tariat for further study. He may also, at his dis- 
cretion, i-equire the Secretariat to resubmit the item 
to the Assembly. 

Article 9. Expenses. 

A. The salaries and expenses of the Delegates 
and of their staffs shall be j^aid by their own Gov- 
ernments. 

B. The common expenses of the Agencj' shall be 
met from the funds of the Agency. For the first 
two years from the date of the estaltlisliment of 
the Agency, these funds shall be contributed in 
proportion to the percentage shares of the Signa- 
tory Governments in Category B and thereafter in 
proportion to their percentage .shares in Category 
A. 

C. Each Signatory Government shall contribute 
its share in the budget of the Agency for each 
budgetary period (as determined by the Assem- 
bly) at the beginning of that period ; provided that 
each Government shall, when this xVgreement is 
signed on its behalf, contribute a sum equivalent 
to not less than its Category B percentage share 
of £50,000 and shall, within three months there- 
after, contribute the balance of its share in the 
budget of the Agency for the budgetary period in 
which this Agreement is signed on its behalf. 

D. All contributions by the Signatory Govern- 
ments shall be made in Belgian francs or such 
other currency or currencies as the Agency may re- 
quire. 



Article 10. Voting on the Budget, 

In considering the budget of the Agencj' for any 
budgetary period, the vote of each Delegate in the 
Assembly shall be proportional to the share of the 
budget for that period payable by his Govern- 
ment. 

Article 11. Official Languages. 

The official languages of the Agency shall be 
English and French. 

Article 12. Offices of the Agency, 

The seat of the Agency shall be in Brussels. The 
Agency sliall maintain liaison offices in such other 
places as the Assembl}% after obtaining the nec- 
essary consents, may decide. 

Article 13. If ithdraiial. 

Any Signatory Government, other than a Gov- 
ermneni which is responsible for the control of 
a part of German territory, may witlulraw from 
the Agency after written notice to tlie Secretariat. 

Article 14. Amendments and Termination, 

This Part II of the Agreement can be amended 
or the Agency terminated by a decision in the As- 
sembly of the majority of the Delegates voting, 
provided that the Delegates forming the majority 
represent Governments whose shares constitute col- 
lectively not less than 80 per cent of the aggregate 
of tlie percentage shares in Category A. 

Article 15. Legal Capacity. Immunities and Privileges, 

The Agency shall enjoy in the territory of each 
Signatoi-y Government such legal capacity and 
such privileges, immunities and facilities, as may 
be necessary for the exercise of its functions and 
the fulfilment of its purposes'. The representatives 
of the Signatory Governments and the officials 
of the Agency shall enjoy such privileges and 
immunities as are necessary for the independent 
exercise of their functions in connection with the 
Agency. 

Part III 
Restitution of Monetary Gold 
Single Article. 

A. All the monetary gold found in Germany by 
the Allied Forces and that referred to in para- 
grajih G below (including gold coins, except those 
of numismatic or historical value, which shall b6 



JANUARY 27, 1946 



121 



restored directly if identifiable) shall be pooled 
for distribution as restitution among the countries 
participating in the pool in proportion to their 
respective losses of gold through looting or by 
wrongful removal to Germany. 

B. Without prejudice to claims by way of rep- 
aration for unrestored gold, the portion of mone- 
tary gold thus accruing to each covmtry i)artici- 
pating in the pool shall be accepted by that coun- 
try in full satisfaction of all claims against Ger- 
many for restitiition of monetary gold. 

C. A proportional share of the gold shall be 
allocated to each country concerned which adheres 
to this arrangement for the restitution of monetary 
gold and which can establish that a definite amount 
of monetary gold belonging to it was looted by 
Germany or, at any time after March l'2th, 1938, 
was wrongfully removed into German territory. 

D. The question of the eventual participation 
of countries not represented at the Conference 
(other than (iermany but including Austria and 
Italy) in the above-mentioned distribution shall 
be reserved, and the equivalent of the total shares 
which these countries woidd receive, if they were 
eventually admitted to participate, shall be set 
aside to be disposed of at a later date in such man- 
ner as may be decided by the Allied Governments 
concerned. 

E. The various countries participating in the 
pool shall supply to the Governments of the 
United States of America, France and the United 
Kingdom, as the occupying Powers concerned, de- 
tailed and verifiable data regarding the gold losses 
suffered through looting by, or removal to, 
Germany. 

F. The Governments of the United States of 
America, France and the United Kingdom shall 
take aj^propriate steps within the Zones of (ier- 
many occupied by them respectively to implement 
distribution in accordance with the foregoing pro- 
visions. 

G. Any monetary gold which may be recovered 
from a third country to which it was transferred 
from Germany shall be distributed in accordance 
with this arrangement for the restitution of mone- 
tary gold. 

Part IV 

Entry into Force and Signature. 

Article 1. Entry into Force. 

This Agreement shall be open for signature on 
behalf of any Government represented at the Paris 



Conference on Reparation. As soon as it has been 
signed on behalf of Governments collectively enti- 
tled to not less than 80 per cent of the aggregate of 
shares in Category A of German reparation, it 
shall come into force among such Signatory Gov- 
ernments. The Agreement shall thereafter be in 
force among such Governments and those Govern- 
ments on whose behalf it is subsequently signed. 

Article 2. Signature. 

The signature of each contracting Government 
shall be deemed to mean that the effect of the pres- 
ent Agreement extends to the colonies and overseas 
territories of such Government, and to territories 
under its protection of suzerainty or over which 
it at present exercises a mandate. 

In witness whereof, the undersigned, duly au- 
thorized by their respective (lovermnents, have 
signed in Paris the present Agreement, in the Eng- 
lish and French languages, the two texts being 
equally authentic, in a single original, wliich shall 
be deposited in the Archives of the Government of 
The French Eepul)lic, a certified copy thereof being 
furnished by that Government to each Signatory 
Government. 
for the Government of 

194 . 
for the Government of 

194 . 

UNANIMOUS RESOLUTIONS BY THE CONFERENCE 

The Conference has also unanimously agreed to 
include the following Resolutions in the Final 
Act: 

1. German Assets in the Neutral Countries. 

The Conference unanimously resolves that the 
countries which remained neutral in the war 
against Germany should be prevailed upon by all 
suitable means to recognize the reasons of justice 
and of international security policy which moti- 
vate the Powers exercising supreme authority in 
Germany and the other Powers participating in 
this Conference in their efforts to extirpate the 
German holdings in the neutral countries. 

2. Gold transfered to the Neutral Countries. 

The Conference unanimously resolves that, in 
conformity with the policy expressed by the 
United Nations Declaration Against Axis Acts of 
Dispossession of January Ttth, lOio and the United 
Nations Declaration on Gold of February 22nd, 



122 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



1944, the countries which remained neutral in the 
war against Germany be prevailed upon to make 
available for distribution in accordance with Part 
III of the foregoing Agreement all looted gold 
transferred into their territories from German3^ 

3. Equality of Treatment regarding Compensation 
for War Damage. 

The Conference unanimously resolves that, in 
the administration of reconstruction or compensa- 
tion benefits for war damage to property, the treat- 
ment accorded by each Signatory Government to 
physical persons who are nationals and to legal 
persons who are nationals of or are owned by na- 
tionals of any other Signatory Government, so far 
as they have not been compensated after the war 
for the same property under any other form or 
on any other occasion, shall be in principle not 
less favourable than that which the Signatory 
Government accords to its own nationals. In view 
of the fact that there are many special problems 
of reci]3rocity related to this principle, it is recog- 
nized that in certain cases the actual implementa- 
tion of the principle cannot be achieved except 
through special agreements between Signatory 
Governments. 

Reference to the Annex to the Final Act. 

During the course of the Conference, statements 
were made by certain Delegates, in the terms set 
out in the attached Annex, concerning matters not 
within the competence of the Conference but hav- 
ing a close relation with its work. The Delegates 
Avhose Governments are represented on the Control 
Council for Germany undertook to bring those 
statements to the notice of their respective Gov- 
ernments. 

In witness whereof, the undersigned have signed 
the present Final Act of the Paris Conference on 
Reparation. 

Done in Paris on December 21, 1945, in the Eng- 
lish and French languages, the two texts being 
equally authentic, in a single original, which shall 
be deposited in the Archives of the Government 
of the French Republic, certified copies thereof, 
being furnished by that Government to all the 
Goveinments I'epresented at that Conference. 

Delegate of the 

Government of 

Delegate of the 

Government of 



ANNEX. 

1. Resolution on the subject of Restitution. 

The Albanian, Belgian, Czechoslovak, Danish, 
French, Greek, Indian, Luxembourg, Netherlands 
and Yugoslav Delegates agree to accept as the 
basis of a restitution policy the following prin- 
ciples : 

{a) The question of the restitution of property 
removed by the Germans from the Allied countries 
must be examined in all cases in the light of the 
United Nations Declaration of January .5th, 1943. 

(ft) In general, restitution should be confined to 
identifiable goods which (i) existed at the time 
of occupation of the country concerned, and were 
I'emoved with or without payment; (ii) were pro- 
duced during the occupation and obtained by an 
act of force. 

(c) In cases where articles removed by the en- 
emy cannot be identified, the claim for replace- 
ment should be part of the general reparation 
claim of the country concerned. 

{d) As an exception to the above principles, 
objects (including books, manuscripts and docu- 
ments) of an artistic, historical, scientific (exclud- 
ing equipment of an industrial character), educa- 
tional or religious character which have been 
looted by the enemy occupying Power shall, so far 
as possible, be replaced by equivalent objects if 
they are not restored. 

(e) With respect to the restitution of looted 
goods which were produced during the occupation 
and which are still in the hands of German con- 
cerns or residents of Germany, the burden of proof 
of the original ownership of the goods shall rest 
on the claimants and the burden of proof that the 
goods were acquired by a regular contract shall 
rest on the holders. 

(/) All necessary facilities under the aiispices of 
the Commanders-in-Chief of the occupied Zones 
shall be given to the Allied States to send expert 
missions into Germany to search for looted prop- 
erty and to identify, store and remove it to its 
country of origin. 

{g) German holders of looted property shall be 
compelled to declare it to the control authorities; 
stringent penalties shall be attached to infractions 
of this obligation. 

2. Resolution on Reparation from Existing Stocks 
and Current Production. 

The Delegates of Albania, Belgium. Czechoslo- 



JANUARY 27, 1946 



123 



vakia, Denmark, Egypt, France, Greece, India, 
Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway and Yugo- 
slavia, 

In view of the decision of the Crimea Conference 
that Germany shall make compensation to the 
greatest possible extent for the losses and suffering 
which she has inflicted on the United Nations, 

Considering that it will not be possible to satisfy 
the diverse needs of the Governments entitled to 
reparation unless the assets to be allocated are suffi- 
cientl}' varied in nature and the methods of alloca- 
tion are sufliciently flexible, 

Express the hope that no category of economic 
resources in excess of Germany's requirements as 
defined in Part III, article 15 of the Potsdam Dec- 
laration, due account being taken of article 19 of 
the same Fart, shall in principle be excluded from 
the assets, the sum total of which should serve to 
meet the reparation claims of the Signatory Gov- 
ernments. 

It thus follows that certain sjjecial needs of dif- 
feient countries will not be met without I'ecourse, 
in particular, to German existing stocks, current 
production and services, as well as Soviet recipro- 
cal deliveries under Part IV of the Potsdam Dec- 
laration. 

It goes without saying that the foregoing shall 
be without prejudice to the necessity of achieving 
tlie economic disarmament of Germanj^ 

The above-named Delegates would therefore 
deem it of advantage were the Control Council to 
furnish the Inter-Allied Reparation Agency with 
lists of existing stocks, goods from current pro- 
duction and services, as such stocks, goods or serv- 
ices become available as reparation. The Agency 
should, at all times, be in a position to advise the 
Control Council of the special needs of the differ- 
ent Signatory Governments. 

3. Resolution regarding Property in Germany 
belonging to United Nations or their nationals. 

The Delegates of Albania, Belgium, Czechoslo- 
vakia, France, Greece, Luxembourg, the Nether- 
lands, Norway and Yugoslavia, taking into ac- 
count the fact that the burden of reparation should 
fall on the German people, recommend that the 
following rules be observed regarding the alloca- 
tion as reparation of property (other than ships) 
situated in Germany : 

(a) To determine the proportion of German 
property available as reparation, account shall be 
taken of the sum total of property actually consti- 



tuting the German economy, including assets be- 
longing to a LTnited Nation or to its nationals, but 
excluding looted property, which is to be restored. 

(h) In general, property belonging legitimately 
to a United Nation or to its nationals, wdiether 
wholly owned or in the form of a shareholding of 
more than 48 percent, shall so far as possible be 
excluded from the part of German propei'ty con- 
sidered to be available as reparation. 

(c) The Control Council shall determine the 
cases in which minority shai'eholdings of a United 
Nation or its nationals shall be treated as forming 
part of the property of a German juridical person 
and therefore having the same status as that 
juridical j^erson. 

( (I) The foregoing provisions do not in any way 
prejudice the removal or destruction of concerns 
controlled by interests of a United Nation or of its 
nationals when this is necessary for security 
reasons. 

((') In cases where an asset which is the legit- 
imate property of one of the United Nations or 
its nationals has been allocated as reparation, or 
destroyed, particularly in the cases referred to in 
paragraphs b, c, and d above, equitable compensa- 
tion to the extent of tlie full value of this asset 
sjiall be granted by the Control Council to the 
United Nation concerned as a charge on the Ger- 
man economy. This compensation shall, when 
possible, take the form of a shareholding of equal 
value in German assets of a similar character 
which have not been allocated as reparation. 

(/) In order to ensure that the property in 
Germany of persons declared by one of the United 
Nations to be collaborators or traitors shall be 
taken from them, the Control Council shall give 
effect in Germany to legislative measures and 
juridical decisions by courts of the United Nation 
concerned in regard to collaborator's or traitors 
who are nationals of that United Nation or were 
nationals of that United Nation at the date of its 
occupation or annexation by Germany or entry 
into the war. The Control Council shall give to 
the Government of such United Nation facilities 
to take title to and possession of such assets and 
to dispose of them. 

4. Resolution on captured War Materiel. 

The Delegates of Albania, Belgium, Denmark, 
Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Czecho- 
slovakia and Yugoslavia, taking account of the 
fact that part of the war materiel seized by the 



124 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Allied Armies in Germany is of no use to tliese 
Armies but -would, on the other hand, be of use 
io other Allied countries recommend: 

(a) That, subject to Resolution 1 of this Annex 
on the subject of restitution, war material which 
was taken in the Western Zones of Germany and 
which has neither been put to any use nor destroyed 
as being of no value, and which is not needed by 
the Armies of Occupation or is in excess of their 
requirements, shall be put at the disj^osal of coun- 
tries which have a right to receive reparation from 
the Western Zones of Germany, and: 

(h) That the competent authorities shall deter- 
mine the available types and quantities of this 
materiel and shall submit lists to the Inter-Allied 
Reparation Agency, which shall proceed in ac- 
cordance with the provisions of Part II of the 
above Agreement. 

5. Resolution on German Assets in the Julian March 

and the Dodecanese. 

The Delegates of Greece, the United Kingdom 
and Yugoslavia (being the Delegates of the coun- 
tries primarily concerned), agree that: 

(ff) The German assets in Vcnezia Giulia (Ju- 
lian March) and in tlie Dodecanese shall be taken 
into custody by the military authorities in occu- 
pation of those parts of the territory which they 
now occupy, until the territorial questions have 
been decided ; and 

(b) As soon as a decision on the territorial 
questions has been reached, the liquidation of the 
assets shall be undertaken in conformity with the 
provisions of Paragraph A of Article 6 of Part I 
of the foregoing Agreement by the countries whose 
sovereignty over the disiDuted territories has been 
recognized. 

6. Resolution on Costs relating to Goods Delivered 

from Germany as Reparation. 

The Delegates of Albania, Australia, Belgium, 
Canada, Denmark, Egypt, France, Greece, India, 
Luxembourg, Noi-way, New Zealand, the Nether- 
lands, Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia, recommend 
that the costs of disnuiutling, packing, transport- 
ing, handling, loading and all other costs of a gen- 
eral nature relating to goods to be delivered from 
Germany as reparation, until the goods in ques- 
tion have passed the German frontier, and expendi- 
ture inciu-red in Germany for the account of the 
Inter-Allied Reparation Agency or of the Dele- 



gates of the Agency should, in so far as they are 
payable in a currency which is legal tender in 
Germany, be paid as a charge on the German econ- 
omy. 

7. Resolution on the Property of War Criminals. 

The Delegates of Albania. Belgium, France, 
Luxembourg, Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia ex- 
press the view that : 

(r/) The legislation in force in Germany against 
German war criminals should provide for the con- 
fiscation of the property in Germany of those crim- 
inals, if it does not do so already ; 

(h) The property so contiscated, except such as 
is already available as reparation or restitution, 
should be liquidated by the Control Council and the 
net proceeds of the liquidation paid to the Inter- 
Allied Reparation Agency for division according 
to the principles set out in the foregoing Agree- 
ment. 

8. Resolution on Recourse to the International 

Court of Justice. 

The Delegates of Albania, Australia, Belgium, 
Denmark, France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, 
Norway, Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia recom- 
mend that : 

Subject to the jirovisions of Article 3 of Part I 
of the foregoing Agreement, the Signatory Gov- 
ernments agree to have recourse to the Interna- 
tional Court of Justice for the solution of every 
conflict of law or of competence arising out of the 
provisions of the foregoing Agreement which has 
not been submitted by the parties concerned to 
amicable solution or arbitration. 



Asriciilture in the Americas 

The following article of interest to readers of 
the BuijjjriN appeared in the December issue 
of AuriciiUiire in the Ameritris, a publication of 
the Department of Agriculture, copies of which 
may be obtained from the Superintendent of 
Documents, Government Printing Office, for 10 
cents each : 

"Brazil's Sugar Industry", by Hubert Maness, 
now assistant agricultural economist, American 
Embassy, Chungking, and formerly vice consul 
at Rio de Janeiro. 



JANUARY 21, 1946 



125 



Ten South American Republic Being Linked by 
Pan American Highway ' 

That part of the Pan American Highway which 
lies in South America will, when completed, unite 
the 1(1 republics and further the development of 
(hat great continent with a route for economic 
intercourse as well as for tourist and pleasure 
travel through sections of surpassing scenic beauty. 

He who would tour in South America is still 
obliged to ship his car to some South American 
port — La Guaira in Venezuela, for example, or 
Turbo in Colombia. From La Guaira he can easily 
drive through Venezuela and Colombia and most 
of Ecuador. But here again he must make a de- 
tour by sea, because of two unfinished gaps in the 
road in Ecuador, and he will probably land at 
Tumbes in northern Peru. 

Now his detour troubles are largely over, for lie 
can drive through Peru, largely over an asjihalt 
highway, to Chile, througli Chile to Argentina, 
and in Argentina over a fine, hard-surfaced high- 
way to Buenos Aires. From there good roads lead 
to Bolivia, Paraguay, and Brazil or across by ferry 
to Ui'uguay. 

The motorist in South America has an intimate, 
first-hand view of the commercial transportation 
of the continent. Beside buses, numerous trucks 
loaded with agricultural produce or livestock, oil, 
and building materials remind him that many of 
the South American countries ai'e not connected 
with each other by rail and that even within their 
borders the Pan American Highway absorbs much 
of the normal railroad traffic. 

He will revel also in a great variety of scenic 
beauty, as the road climbs from the lush growth 
of the tropics some 14,000 feet into the majestic 
heights of the Andes, dipping and winding through 
mountainous areas of Venezuela, Colombia, and 
Ecuador, where it crosses the Equator at 10,000 
feet in a fertile, green valley surrounded by glisten- 
ing snow peaks. 

For almost the entire length of Peru and north- 
ern Chile, he can drive with the blue Pacific on 
one hand and on the other the narrow coastal 
plain, beyond which rise the rhythmic i^eaks of 
the Andes. This stretch is passable the year 
round, for this is one place in the world without 



' Released to the press by the Pan .\meriean Union. 



rainfall. The tourist will welcome the refreshing 
greenness bordering the many rivers that flow 
from the Andes across the desert to the sea. From 
Santiago, Chile, the road turns east toward the 
mountains again, crossing the Andes at 13,000 
feet through magnificent scenes and dropping 
again onto the peaceful green Argentine pampas 
to Buenos Aires. 

Automobile rationing has ended, and new cars 
and trucks will begin to ajipear on the highways 
of the LTnited States ns fast as they leave the 
assembly lines. How soon they will be available 
for South America is another question, but it 
should not be too many months before they will 
swell the volume of traffic on the Pan American 
Highway. Meanwhile, highway engineers are 
constantly working on elimination of the few re- 
maining gaps, while many state-supported tour- 
ist bureaus and automobile associations are eagerly 
preparing to receive their "good neighbors" in 
ever increasing numbers. When cars are ready 
for the road, the road — and comfortable stopping 
places — will be ready for the cars. 

A trip to Cape Horn in the family car is a dream 
which shows promise of fulfilment in the not too 
distant future. From the Rio Grande to the Co- 
lombian border in South America the Pan Ameri- 
can Highway is about 70 percent completed for 
all-weather driving. On to Buenos Aires, Argen- 
tina, it is paved almost straight through. 

Right now, you can drive from the United States 
border at Laredo, Texas, straight south into Mex- 
ico for 1,135 miles. For the next 400 miles, to the 
border of Guatemala, there are gaps in the high- 
way which, it is expected, will be eliminated by 
1947. From this point on through the countries 
of Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, and Nic- 
aragua, the highway is in all-weather shape, with 
the exception of a few short detours here and there 
during the rainy season. 

In Costa Rica, for numerous and complicated 
I'easons, the job is still incomplete. Of the 425 
miles through that country, only about 300 are 



126 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



passable even in dry weather, and a good many 
miles are washed out when the rains start. With 
the end of tlie war, new machinery and new interest 
in the project may combine to speed the work. 

In Panama tliere are some very difficult jungle 
areas still to be penetrated by the highway, espe- 
cially between the Panama Canal and the Co- 
lombian border, but here too the probabilities are 
for faster jjrogress now. 

Within South America there are good roads, 
most of them paved, from Bogota, Colombia, to 
Buenos Aires. This stretch of some 3,000 miles is 
open not only to the citizens of those countries but 
also to the American tourist if he ships his car to 
South America. 

Perhaps the most important role of the highway 
is to bind together the peoples of the various re- 
publics it ci'osses, improving their economy and 
raising living standards. Before the road came 
througli, the peoples of the Central American 
countries were almost completely isolated from 
each other. Once, unbelievable as it seems, when 
Costa Rica suffered a shortage of rice she found it 
cheaper to import the grain from China than to 
get it from her next-door neighbor, Nicaragua, 300 
miles away. 

The effects of land commvmication on tliese coun- 
tries are tremendous. The character of entire 
towns along the highway has changed, the road 
bringing improved building construction and in- 



creased public utilities as well as small stores and 
garages all along the route. Today there are elec- 
tric refrigerators and modern plumbing in small 
village inns preparing to meet the needs of trav- 
elers. 

The Central American republics need no longer 
depend solely on bananas and coffee to support 
their economy. Pineapples and cashew nuts, 
coconuts and coconut oil, and large quantities of 
cacao will be winding over the highway to neigh- 
boring countries and to the United States; and 
coming back to these primarily agricultural coun- 
tries will be the manufactured articles for which 
there is constantly increasing demand. 

Now that the war has ended, the tourist is again 
taking to the roads, and the Pan American High- 
way will have a strong appeal. As far back as 
1932, when Mexico's paved road ended at Monter- 
rey, 175 miles south of the border, 2,000 cars made 
the trip from Laredo every weekend. Multiply 
that number by thousands, and future motor 
traffic on the Pan American Highway can be 
roughly gaged. 

An eight-page Report on the Present State of 
the Pan American Highway in South Ainerica has 
been prepared by Maurice E. Gilmore, Acting 
Director of the Department of Transportation and 
Economic Development, Office of Inter-American 
Affairs, Washington, D. C. Copies of the report 
majr be obtained from that office. 



LONDON BEPOKl—Vontinitcd from pafle 9. ■ 
eration of Trade Unions for membership in the 
Economic and Social Council. Repercussion of 
this recjuest was similar to requests from other 
international organizations, including the Inter- 
national Co-operative Alliance, American Federa- 
tion of Labor, and International Federation of 
Women. 

Most members of the Steering Committee 
agreed tluit admission of such organizations 
would be a violation of the basic United Nations 
Charter. Some were favorably inclined toward 
the suggestion made by Assembly President Spaak 
that it might be possible for the Economic and 
Social Council to work out a system for bringing 
these groups into clo.se collaboration. He also 
suggested that a special category of "official per- 
manent gue.sts" could be set up and that their 



opinions could be heard by the General Assembly 
at regularly designated times. 

Just before Secretary Byrnes left London to 
return to Washington late in the week, he summed 
up the work already accomplished by the General 
Assembly. 

"I think the Conference has made splendid 
progress", he said. "It is a very difficult thing to 
have representatives of 51 nations agree even on 
organizational matters. It is particularly grati- 
fying to me that in the very first week of the work 
of the Organization the Assembly has approved 
tlie Atomic Energy Commission idea and got on 
with the vital business of the Organization instead 
of some unimjiortant administrative resolutions. 
I think it will be.heartening to all people to look to 
the Organization to see big, important things, in- 
stead of small things." 



Calendar of Meetings 



Far Eastern Commission 
Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry 

United Nations Organization : 
General Assembly 
Security Council 

Civil Aviation Conference 

Council of the United Maritime Authority 

International Lal)or Organization : 

Conference of Delegates on Constitu- 
tional Questions 

International Development Works Com- 
mittee 

International Te<-hnical Committee of 
Aerial Legal Experts (CITEJA) : 
14th session 

International Cotton Study Group: Sub- 
committee of the International Ad- 
visory Committee 

Council of the United Maritime Authority 

North American Regional Broadcast En- 
gineering Conference 

West Indian Conference 



Tokyo 
London 

London 
London 

Bermuda 

London 

London 

Montreal 

Paris 



January 6 (continuing in session) 

Hearings open on January 25 (hearings 
closed in Washington on January 14) 

January 10 (continuing in session) 
January 17 (continuing in session) 

January 15 (continuing in session) 

Fel)ruary 4 

January 21 (continuing in session) 

January 28 

January 22 (continuing in session) 



Washington 






January 24 (continuing in session 


London 






January 18 (continuing in session) 


Washington 






February 4 


St. Thomas, 


Vi 


•gin 


February 21 


Islands 


(U. 


S.) 





Activities and Developments 



Far Eastern Commission is meeting in .Tai:)iin at 
Kove, after having stayed in Tokyo Bay for about 
two weeks. The delegates will return to Tokyo 
on January 31 at which time they will talk with 
General MacArthur before sailing for Pearl Har- 
bor on February 2. It is exjiected that the Com- 
mission will return to Washington about Feb- 
ruary 15. 

France, Canada, and India have accepted the 
invitation to join the commission and information 
has been received from the Union of Soviet So- 
cialist Republics that Lt. Gen. K. N. Derevyanko 
has been named as the Soviet representative to the 
Allied Council; his alternate will be Y. A. Malik, 



former Soviet Ambassador to Japan ; Peter Victor 
Anurov will serve as Mr. Malik's alternate; and 
L. A. Eazin has been named Soviet economic ad- 
viser. The Soviet Delegation is leaving Moscow 
for Tokyo immediately. 

Providing for the Furnishing of Information and 
Assistance to the Joint Anglo- American Committee 
of Inquiry on Jewish Problems in Palestine and 
Europe ^ 

Whereas by an exchange of notes on December 
10, 1945, between the Secretary of State of the 



' Ex. Or. 9682 (11 Federal Register 787). 



727 



128 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



United States and the British Ambassador there 
has been created a joint Anglo-American Commit- 
tee of Inquiry (hereinafter referred to as the Com- 
mittee), whose terms of reference are as follows: 

1. To examine political, economic and social con- 
ditions in Palestine as they bear upon the problem 
of Jewish immigration and settlement therein and 
the well-being of the peoples now living therein. 

2. To examine the position of the Jews in those 
countries in Europe where they have been the vic- 
tims of Nazi and Fascist persecution, and the 
practical measures taken or contemplated to be 
taken in those countries to enable them to live free 
from discrimination and oppression, and to make 
estimates of those who wish, or will be impelled by 
their conditions, to migrate to Palestine or other 
countries outside Euroj^e. 

3. To hear the views of competent witnesses and 
to consult I'epresentative Arabs and Jews on the 
problems of Palestine as such problems are aft'ected 
by conditions subject to examination under para- 
graphs 1 and 2 above and by other relevant facts 
and circumstances, and to make recommendations 
to the Governments of the United States and of 
the United Kingdom for ad 'Interim handling of 
these problems as well as for their permanent 
solution. 

4. To make such other reconnnendations to the 
Governments of the United States and of the 
United Kingdom as may be necessary to meet the 
immediate needs arising from conditions subject to 
examination under paragrapli 2 above, by reme- 
dial action in the European countries in question 
or by the provision of facilities for emigration to 
and settlement in countries ovitside Europe; 

And whereas the Goveriunent of the United 
States is desirous of rendering all possible aid to 
the Committee to enable it properly to perform the 
task entrusted to it : 

Now THEREFORE, by virtuc of the authority 
vested in me by the Constitution and the statutes, 
and as President of the United States and Com- 
mander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the 
United States, it is hereby ordered as follows: 

1. All departments, agencies, and independent 
establishments of the Executive branch of the 
Federal Government .shall furnish to the Connnit- 
tee, upon the request of the American Chairman 
of the Committee, such of their records and docu- 
ments as relate to the subjects referred to the Com- 



mittee for examination and study under its several 
terms of reference : Provided, hovreverjthat a de- 
partment, agency, or independent establishment 
shall not be requii'ed to disclose confidential rec- 
ords and documents the disclosure of which would 
be prejudicial to the interests of the United States : 

Provided further, that in all such cases, the head 
of the department, agency, or independent estab- 
lishment concerned shall furnish the American 
Chairman of the Conniiittee with a statement jus- 
tifying the withholding of the records and docu- 
ments requested by him. 

2. Any officer or employee of an Executive de- 
partment, agency, or independent establishment 
of the Government possessing personal informa- 
tion or knowledge relating to the .subjects referred 
to the Committee for examination and study under 
its several terms of reference, may, upon the re- 
quest of the American Chairman of the Commit- 
tee and with the approval of the head of the de- 
partment, agency, or independent establishment 
cfincerned, furnish such information or knowledge 
to the Connnittee either orally or in writing, as 
shall in each case appear to be desirable. 

3. The Secretary of State may assign or detail 
officers and employees of the Department of State, 
including officers and employees of the Foreign 
Service of the United States, for service with the 
American members of the Committee. 

4. The head of any department, agency, or in- 
dependent establi.'^hment of the Government may, 
upon request of the Secretary of State, detail or 
assign officers and employees of his department, 
agency, or independent establishment for sei-vice 
with the American members of the Committee. 

6. The Secretary of War and the Secretary of 
the Navy are authorized to provide appropriate 
assistance including the furnishing of available 
Government-owned motor transportation and 
other Government-owned and operated facilities 
which can be spared to enable the Committee prop- 
erly to perform the tasks entrusted to it. 

6. The Secretary of State may, in order to effect 
the purposes of this order, and in conformity with 
exi.sting law, delegate to one or more responsible 
officers of the Department of State the authority 
vested in him by this order. 

Harry S. Truman 

The White House, 
January IS, 1946. 



The Record of the Week 



American Group To Observe 
Elections in Greece 

[Released to the press January 14] 

In fulfilment of the resiDonsibilities undertaken 
by this Government at Yalta, and in response to 
the invitation of the Greek Government for Allied 
observation of Greek elections, the President ap- 
pointed Henry F. Grady as his representative, 
with the personal rank of Ambassador, to head 
the American group to observe those elections in 
collaboration with representatives of Great Brit- 
ain and France.^ In November Ambassador 
Grady visited London for preliminary consulta- 
tions with the British and French representatives, 
who subsequently accompanied him to Athens for 
conferences with the Greek authorities. During 
this visit the Greek Government reiterated its 
desire for Allied observation and fixed the date of 
March 31, 1946 for the elections. 

The President has now announced the appoint- 
ment of the following members of the United 
States mission, with the personal rank of Min- 
ister:- Harrj' J. ilalony. Major General, U.S.A.; 
Joseph Coy Green, Adviser to the Secretai-y of 
State; Walter H. Mallory, executive director, 
Council on Foreign Relations; James Gi^afton 
Rogers, lawyer and educator, former Assistant 
Secretary of State; William W. AVaymack, editor 
of the Des Moines Register and Tribune; Herman 
B. Wells, President of Indiana University. 

The members of the mission are now assembled 
in AVashington for the mission's initial meetings, 
scheduled for January 14 and 15. 

The mission will be assisted in carrying out the 
observation by a civilian secretariat and advisory 
staff of approximately 80 persons and by a mili- 
tary staff numbering about .500 persons. 

Appointments to the principal positions on the 
civilian staff include: 

Technical Advif^crs: Sarah Wambaugh, author 
and lecturer, authority on plebiscites. Technical 
Adviser and Deputy Member of Saar Plebiscite 
Commission; S. Shepard Jones, Assistant Chief, 
Division of Public Liaison, Department of State; 
Raymond J. Jessen, Bureau of Agricultural Eco- 



nomics, Statistical Laboratory, Iowa State Col- 
lege; J. Arnold King, Bureau of Agricultural 
Economics, Statistical Laboratory, Iowa State 
College. 

Special Assistant to the Chief of the Mission: 
James Hugh Keeley, Foreign Service officer. 

Secretary General: Foy D. Kohler, Foi'eign 
Service officer. 

Aibninistratire Officer: William Barnes, For- 
ign Service officer. 

Interpreters Section : Jay S. Seeley, former in- 
structor, Anatolia College, Salonika, Greece; 
Commander Robert B. Kleinhaus, U.S.N.R., 
former instructor, Athens College, Athens. 

Indoctrination and Reports Section: Carl W. 
Blegen, professor, University of Cincinnati, cul- 
tural-relations attache, Athens; Shirley H. AVeber, 
professor, American School of Classical Studies, 
director of the Gennadius Library, Athens; Frank 
E. Bailey, professor, Mount Holyoke College. 

District Secretaries: Jack Curts, former in- 
structor, Athens College, Athens, Labor Rela- 
tions Officer, Legal Division, Office of Chief of 
Engineers, AVar Department ; James F. Clarke, 
Office of International Information and Cultural 
Aft'airs, Department of State; Sherman AVallace, 
Chief of Southeast Europe Section, Strategic 
Services Unit, War Department ; Raymond Bax- 
ter, former executive of the Foreign Economic 
Administration in North Africa and in Greece; 
Donald C. Bergus, Foreign Service officer. 

By direction of the President ^ the State and 
War Departments are collaborating closely in the 
organization of the mission and are receiving the 
assistance of the Navy Department and other exec- 
utive branches of the Government. General 
Malony, as principal representative of the War 
Department, will be in chai-ge of the military per- 
sonnel constituting the observation teams and 
handling the physical arrangements of the mis- 
sion, which will be largely self-sufficient as regards 
supply, transportation, and communications. The 



' Bulletin of Oct. 21, 194.5, p. 611. 
- Bulletin of Jan. 20. 1946, p. 56. 

' Ex. Or. 9657 of Nov. 16, 1945 ; for text, see Bulletin 
of Nov. 18, 1915, p. 792 ; 10 Federal Register 14243. 

129 



130 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



assignments to the principal positions on the mili- 
tary staff follow : 

Chief of Staif: Col. Julian E. Riiymoiul. Inf. 

District. Commanders: Col. Earle A. Johnson, 
Inf. ; Col. Albert J. Hastings. F. A. ; Col. Robert 
H. Stumpf, Inf.; Col. John T. English, Inf.; 
Colonel Gray. 

Naval Air Commander: Lt. Commander Charles 
A. Merryman, U.S.N. 

It lias been agreed among the participating gov- 
ernments that the three national groups will be 
organized into an Allied Mission To Observe the 
Greek Elections and that the observation will be 
conducted as a combined Allied operation. The 
United States and British Governments will eacli 
furnisli 100 and the French about 40 mobile obser- 
vation teams, each consisting of a military officer 
and enlisted man and a Greek interpreter, equipped 
with a jeep and trailer. During a period of three 
weeks prior to election day these teams will inspect 
and report on the status of the electoral registers 
and of the provisions made for the election. On 
election daj' the teams will be sent to a sufficient 
number of representative polling places through- 
out Greece to give a valid sample of the effective- 
ness and integrity of the polling. 

The pattern of observation will be worked out 
by a staff of sampling and statistical experts. 

The operation will be carried out through a 
Combined Central Office in Athens and Combined 
District Offices in Athens, Salonika, Patras, Tri- 
polis, and Herakleion, all headed by members of 
the three Allied missions. Specific areas will not 
be assigned to the representatives of the three dif- 
ferent nations, but American, British, and French 
teams will be interspersed, one team to each selected 
polling place. 

Mission personnel will observe the election proc- 
ess and will not interfere in any way. In the event 
of disturbances, observers will avoid becoming in- 
volved and will simply report the facts to the 
appropriate officers of the Mission. Military per- 
sonnel will in no sense be in Greece for military 
purposes. All Allied staff members will wear dis- 
tinctive personal identification in the form of 
shoulder patches for military personnel and bras- 
sards for civilians. 

A group of members of the Interpreters Section 
of the United States mission, headed by Mr. Seeley, 
is now en route to Greece to join with British col- 
leagues in selecting the 200 or more Greek-English 



interpreters to be emj^loyed by the Mission. An- 
otlier group from the civilian and military staffs, 
headed by Mr. Keeley, is now in London consulting 
with British and French representatives and elab- 
orating tlie plans for the combined observation 
operation. Other groups, particularly the techni- 
cal advisers and central and district office staffs, 
will proceed to Greece in the near future to under- 
take the necessary advance studies and plans and 
to make advance airangements for offices and 
quarters and for supplies. 

Personnel of the three Allied contingents will be 
assembled in the Naples area of Italy in mid-Feb- 
ruary for a period of indoctrination and training 
before proceeding to Greece to begin the observa- 
tion early in March. 

Expansion of Food and Live- 
stock Products in Caribbean 
Area 

[Released to the press January 15] 

Expansion in production of food crops and 
livestock jiroducts in the Caribbean area is pro- 
posed by the Governments of the United States 
and Great Britain. It is felt that the area is suited 
for an increased production of certain agricultural 
products needed for a more adequate and better 
balanced nutrition of the people. This is one point 
of a 30-point program for the economic develop- 
ment of the United States and British territories 
in the Caribbean made public on January 14 in a 
I'eport issued in Washington and London. 

The joint pronouncement is based upon the rec- 
ommendations of the first West Indian Conference 
held in Barbados last year under the auspices of 
the Anglo-American Caribbean Commission. This 
Conference, in which the delegates were themselves 
representatives of the peoples of the area, recom- 
mended action by the home Governments on seven 
general subjects: local food production; expansion 
of fisheries; reabsoriJtion into civil life of persons 
engaged in war employment ; planning of public 
works for the improvement of agriculture, educa- 
tion, housing, and public health; health protection 
and quarantine; industrial development; and pos- 
sibilities of expansion of the Caribbean Research 
Council. 

The joint statement is the result of a series of 
conversations between American and British offi- 
cials and of special studies made by the two Gov- 
ernments. 



JANUARY 27, 1946 



131 



Transfer of Japanese Property 

[Released to the press January 18] 

Supplementing the Department of State's press 
release of December 20, 1945 ^ and with specific 
reference to paragraph five thereof concerning 
the contemplated release to the United States Gov- 
ernment of Japanese consular premises and ar- 
chives and other property in the Territory of Ha- 
waii, the Department of State announced that this 
transfer was accomplished on January 18 by means 
of a protocol signed jointly by Col. Erik de Laval, 
Counselor, Legation of Sweden at Washington, 
and Thomas F. Fitch, Chief Special Agent, De- 
partment of State. 

The relinquishment of the custody of this j^rop- 
erty by the Swedish Government was in accord- 
ance with instructions given by the Japanese Gov- 
ernment, based upon a directive issued by General 
MacArthur on October 25, 1945. 

The representation of Japanese interests in the 
Territory of Hawaii from the outbreak of the war 
with Japan has been in the hands of the Swedish 
Government. The handling of this work has been 
the special resiDonsibility of Colonel de Laval as 
Chief of the Department of Japanese Interests of 
the Legation, through the agency of the Swedish 
Consulate at Honolulu. 

It is expected that a portion of the former Jap- 
anese consular premises at Honolulu will continue 
for the present to be occupied by the Swedish vice 
consul in connection with the protection of the in- 
terests of individual Japanese nationals in the 
Territory of Hawaii. 

Assistance for American 
Correspondents Reporting 
UNRRA Activities Abroad 

[Released to tlie press .Taiinary 17] 

A request to facilitate reporting by American 
press and radio representatives in areas receiving 
UNRRA assistance has been forwarded to nine 
governments by Acting Secretary of State Dean 
Acheson. 

The aide-memoire were despatched in accord- 
ance with Public Law 2C2, approved December 18, 
1945, in which Congress requested the President, 
through appropriate channels, to assist American 
l^ress and radio correspondents in their reporting 
of UNRRA activities abroad. 

The aide-memoire inform the governments of the 
recommendations of Congress. They request that. 



in the interest of better understanding between our 
peoples, aiJjjropriate measures be taken to assure 
that properly accredited representatives of the 
American press and radio are able to investigate 
and report fully without censorship on the util- 
ization and distribution of UNRRA supplies and 
services. 

It is requested further that the Department of 
State be informed of the measures taken so that it 
may report them to Congress. 

The aide-memoire have been sent to Albania, 
China, Czechoslovakia, Greece, Italy, Poland, the 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, and Yugo- 
slavia. 

Contributions to UNRRA 

I Kele.ised to the press by UNRR.\ January 12] 

A total of $3,011,942,710 had been paid or 
pledged to UNRRA by its 47 member nations as 
of December 31, 1945. Included in this total are 
authorizations of $1,722,0G9,3G9 representing the 
second contributions by four of the non-invaded 
countries^ — the United States, the United King- 
dom, Canada, and the Dominican Republic. The 
United Kingdom and the Dominican Republic 
have made available as their second contributions 
$302,250,000 and $1,050,000 respectively. The 
United States has appropriated $750,000,000 of the 
second $1,350,000,000 authorized by Congress, and 
Canada has made available $22,522,522 of its sec- 
ond-contribution authorization of $69,369,369. 

Thirty of the 31 non-invaded member govern- 
ments of UNRRA have paid or pledged payments 
on the first contributions requested for UNRRA. 
Negotiations are in progress with the one remain- 
ing government. 

Under resolutions adopted by the UNRRA 
Council, invaded nations are asked to contribute 
only to the admmistrative-expense fund. Of the 
16 invaded nations, 12 have paid their adminis- 
trative contributions in full, 2 have paid more 
than half of their allocations, aiid the remaining 
2, recently admitted to UNRRA membership, 
have not yet been formally requested to make ad- 
ministrative contributions, since determination of 
their contribution will be made at the next meet- 
ing of the UNRRA Council. 

The following table shows contributions author- 
ized or in process by each of the 47 UNRRA mem- 
ber governments as of December 31, 1945 : 



1 Bulletin of Dec. 23, 1945, p. 1022. 



132 

Contributions of UNRRA Member Govern- 
ments Authorized or in Process as of Decem- 



ber 31, 1945 



(In U. S. dollar equivalents) 



Country 



Total contri- Paid or made t„ „„„„-- 
hutions availabli. "' Process 



Non-invaded countrie:^ (making 
both operntiiig and adminiMra- 
tire eonlribuUnn^): 



Australia 

Bolivia ... . . . 

Brazil 

Canada' 

Chile 

Colombia 

Costa Rica 

Cuba 

Dominican Republic ' . 

Ecuador 

Egypt 

El Salvador 

Guatemala 

Haiti 

Honduras 

Iceland 

India 

Iran 

Iraq 

Liberia 

Mexico 

New Zealand .... 

Nicaragua 

Panama 

Paraguay 

Peru 

Union of South Africa 
United Kingdom ' . . 
United States >. . . . 

Uruguay 

Venezuela ..... 



Invaded countries (making ad- 
ministrative contributions only): 



Belgium 

China 

Czechoslovakia 

Denmark 

Ethiopia 

France 

Greece 

Lii.xembourg 

Netherlands 

Norway 

Philippines 

Poland 

Union of Soviet Socialist Re- 
publics ' 

Yugoslavia 



Total . 



$38, 400. 000 

95, 238 

30, 000, 000 

138, 738, 738 

2, 153, 312 

2. 356, 493 
100, 000 

6, 03.5, 000 

1,400,000 

1.50.000 

4, 255, 833 

128,750 

! 8, 750 

48, 750 

58, 7.50 

717,975 

24, 042, 072 

325, 100 

218, 250 

13. 750 

3, 601. 500 
8, 476, 000 

128, 750 

408, 750 

38, 449 

1. 000, 000 

18, 135, oon 

624, 650, 000 

2, 700, 000, 000 

. 620, 000 

1, 017, 500 



175, 000 
875, 000 
176, 000 

18, 750 

8,750 

700.000 

87, 500 

8, 750 

262, 500 

52,500 

8, 750 

176, 000 

1,750,000 
122, .500 



$3,611,942,710 



$38, 400, 000 

31,746 

10. 000, 000 

91, 891, 891 



2, 365, 994 



35,000 
1, 400, 000 



70. 000 
6,000 
! 8, 7.50 
48, 750 
68, 750 
717, 975 
24, 042, 072 



17,600 

13,760 

1, 148, 000 

8, 476, 000 

125, 000 

142,083 

9,890 

792, 692 

5, 137. 600 

621, 660. 000 

I, 100, 000, 000 

505. 000 

350, 833 



17.5.000 

875,000 

176, 000 

18, 750 

8,750 

700,000 

87. 600 

8,760 

262. .500 

52, .500 

8,750 

100, 000 

1, 000, 000 
122, 500 



$63, 492 

20, 000, 000 

46, 846, 847 

2, 153, 312 

499 

400,000 

6, 000, 000 



160,000 

4, 186, 833 

123, 7.50 



325, 100 
200, 750 



2, 453, 600 



3,750 

266, 667 

28.550 

207, 308 

12,997,500 



600. 000. 000 

15, 000 

666, 667 



75. 000 



$2, 914, 029, 1,S5 



$697, 913, 626 



' Non-invaded country which has authorized both first and second con- 
tributions. 

2 Administrative contribution only: negotiations in process for operating 
contribution. 

3 Includes Byelorussian and Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republics. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

Revocation of the Proclamation 
Svispending the International Load 
Lines Convention in Ports and Waters 
of the Lnited States' 

By the Peesident of the United States of Amekica 
A PROCLAMATION 

Whi'.iu'L^s by Proclaiiuiriiui No. 2500," dated August 9, 
1941, the President declared and proclaimed the Inter- 
national Load Lines Convention, signed by the respec- 
tive lilenipotentiaries of the United States of America and 
certain other countries at London on July 5, 1930, sus- 
pended and inoperative in the jiorts and waters of the 
United States of America, and in so far as the United 
States of America was concerned, for the duration of the 
existing emergency; and 

Whereas it appears that the continued suspension of the 
said International Load Lines Convention is no longer 
necessary or desirable: 

Now. Therefokb. I, Hai!ry S. Truman. President of the 
United States of America, do <leclare and pi'oclaim that tlie 
said Proclamation No. 2500, dated August 9, 1941, is hereby 
revoked, effective as of January 1, 1946. 

In Witness Whekeof, I have hereunto set my hand and 
caused the seal of the United States of America to be 
affixed. 

Done at the City of Washington this 21st day of Decem- 
ber in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred 

[.seal] and forty-five and of the Independence of the 
United States of America the one hundred and 
seventieth. 

Harrt S. Truman 

By the President : 
Dean Aoheson, 
Acting Secretary of State. 

Letters of Credence 

MINISTER OF HUNGARY 

The newly apiwinted Minister of Hungary, Aladar 
Szegedy-Maszak, presented liis letters of credence to the 
President on January 18. For text of remarks on the 
occasion of the presentation of liis cre<Ientials and reply 
by the President .see Department of State press release 44. 



The Foreign Service 



Consular Offices 

The American Consulate at Beira, Portuguese East 
Africa, was closed on November 30, 1945. 



' Proclamation 2675 (10 Federal Register 15365). 
- Bulletin of Aug. 9, 1941. p. 114. 



PUBLISHED WITH APPROVAL OF DIRECTOR OF BUREAU OF THE BUDGET 
U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1946 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 




VOL. XIV, NO. 344 



FEBRUARY 3, 1946 



State of the Union 

PEESIDENT'S MESSAGE TO CONGKESS 

General Assembly of the United Nations 

CONTEOL OP ATOMIC ENEEGY: STATEMENT BY TEE SECKETAEY OF STATE 
EEPORT FROM LONDON 

Freedom of the Press — World-Wide 

By ASSISTANT SECRETAEI BENTON and PAUL PORTER 

Philippine Foreign Affairs Training Program 

By EDWARD W. MILL 

Wheat and Coal for Liberated Areas 

By JAMES A. STILLWELL 



Vl^NT o^ 



For complete contents 
see inside cover 




THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



BULLETIN 



Vol. XIV •No. 344* 




* Publication 2158 



""■*TS9 f* 



February 3, 1946 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documente 

U. S. Government Printing Office 

Wasbington 25, D. C. 

Subscription: 

52 iBBuce, $3.50; single copy, 10 centB 

Special offer: 13 weeks for Sl.OO 
{renewable only on yearly basie) 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a tceekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Research and 
Publication, Office of Public Affairs, 
provides the public and interested 
agencies of the Government with 
information on developments in the 
field of foreign relations and on the 
work of the Department of State and 
the Foreign Service. The BULLETIN 
includes press releases on foreign 
policy issued by the White House and 
the Department, and statements and 
addresses made by the President and 
by the Secretary of State and other 
officers of the Department, as well as 
special articles on various phases of 
international affairs and the functions 
of the Department. Information con - 
cerning treaties and international 
agreements towhich the United States 
is or may become a party and treaties 
of general international interest is 
included. 

Publications of the Department, cu- 
mulative lists of which are published 
at the end of each quarter, as well as 
legislative material in the field of inter- 
national relations, are listed currently. 



Contents 



The State of the Union. page 

The President's Message to the Congress .... 135 
General Assembly of the United Nations: 

Statement by the Secrei.ary of State on Control of 

Atomic Energy 146 

Report From London to the Office of Public 

Affairs, Department of State 147 

Philippine Foreign Affau-s Trainmg Program. By 

Edward W. Mill 148 

Procedm-e and Principles Involved in Individual 

Trusteeship 150 

Wheat Shipments to Liberated Areas. 

Dh-ective From the President 151 

Wheat and Coal for Liberated Areas. 

Article by James A. StiUwell 152 

*British-Greek Fmancial Agreement. 

Statement by the Secretary of State 155 

Administration of Korea 155 

Freedom of the Press — World-Wide 156 

Future of the Foreign Service. By Selden Chapin . 163 

International Organizations and Conferences 

Calendar of Meetings 169 

Activities and Developmenls: 

International Teclinical Committee of Aerial Legal Experts . 169 
North American Regional Broadcasting Engineering Con- 
ference 170 

*Civil-Aviation Agreements: Paraguay, Nicaragua, Tur- 
key 171 

The Record of the Week 

Advisory Group To Prepare Recommendations on Mass 

Communications 172 

Anglo-Soviet-American Communique on the Disposal of the 

German Navy 173 

Program for Supplying Raw Materials to Germany and Japan 

Clarified 173 

Coordination of Foreign Intelligence Activities. Directive 

From the President 174 

U.S. — Greek Negotiation on Expansion of Production and 
Employment. Exchange of Notes Between the Govern- 
ments of the United States and Greece 175 

*Reconsideration of Quotas on Silver-Fox Furs 176 

Appointment of Board of Consultants on Atomic-Energy 

Committee 177 

Appointment of U. S. Political Representative to Austrian 

Government 177 

Approval of Designation of Austrian Representative in U. S. . 177 

♦International Agreements With Siam Continue in Force. 

Statement by Acting Secretary Acheson 178 

Special International Textile Group Leaves for Japan .... 178 

♦Research Fellowship in Agriculture 179 

Resumption of Travel Grants for Study in Other American 

Republics 179 

♦Transmittal of Protocol to Inter-American Coffee Agree- 
ment 180 

The Department 

Appointment of Officers; Division of Investigations .... 180 

• Treaty iuformation. 



(i. --. -j::,.:,-rrEWDErjT of DocuME^rs 
MAR 19 1946 



The State of the Union 



THE PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE TO THE CONGRESS 



I. FROM WAR TO PEACE— THE YEAR OF DECISION 

In his last Message on the State of the Union, 
delivered one year ago, President Roosevelt said : 

''This new year of 1945 can be tlic greatest year 
of achievement in human history. 

"1945 can see the final ending of the Nazi- 
Fascist reign of terror in Europe. 

"1945 can see the closing in of the forces of 
retribution about the center of the malignant 
power of imperialistic Japan. 

"Most important of all — 1945 can and must see 
the substantial beginning of the organization of 
world peace." 

All those hopes, and more, were fulfilled in the 
year 1945. It was the greatest year of achieve- 
ment in human history. It saw the end of the 
Nazi-Fascist terror in Europe, and also the end 
of the malignant power of Japan. And it saw 
the substantial beginning of world organization 
for peace. These momentous events became reali- 
ties because of the steadfast purpose of the United 
Nations and of the forces that fought for free- 
dom under their flags. The plain fact is that 
civilization was saved in 1945 by the United 
Nations. 

Our own part in this accomplishment was not 
the product of any single service. Those who 
fought on land, those who fought on the sea, and 
those who fought in the air deserve equal credit. 
They were supported by other millions in the 
armed forces who through no fault of their own 
could not go overseas and who rendered in- 
dispensable service in this country. They were 
supported by millions in all levels of government, 
including many volunteers, whose devoted public 
service furnished basic organization and leader- 
ship. They were also supported by the millions of 
Americans in private life — men and women in in- 
dustry, in commerce, on the farms, and in all man- 



ner of activity on the home front — who contrib- 
uted their brains and their brawn in arming, 
equipping, and feeding them. The country was 
brought through four years of peril by an effort 
that was truly national in character. 

Everlasting tribute and gratitude will be paid 
by all Americans to those brave men who did not 
come back, who will never come back — the 330,000 
who died that the Nation might live and progress. 
All Americans will also remain deeply conscious 
of the obligation owed to that larger number of 
soldiers, sailors, and marines who suffered wounds 
and sickness in their service. They may be cer- 
tain that their sacrifice will never be forgotten or 
their needs neglected. 

The beginning of the year 1946 finds the United 
States strong and deservedly confident. We have a 
record of enormous achievements as a democratic 
society in solving problems and meeting oppor- 
tunities as they developed. We find ourselves 
possessed of immeasurable advantages — vast and 
varied natural resources; great plants, institu- 
tions, and other facilities ; unsurpassed technologi- 
cal and managerial skills ; an alert, resourceful, and 
able citizenry. We have in the United States Gov- 
ernment rich resources in information, perspec- 
tive, and facilities for doing whatever may be 
found necessary to do in giving support and form 
to the widespread and diversified efforts of all our 
people. 

And for the immediate future the business pros- 
pects are generally so favorable that there is danger 
of such feverish and opportunistic activity that 
our grave postwar problems may be neglected. 
We need to act now with full regard for pitfalls ; 
we need to act with foresight and balance. We 

Excerpts from the President's Message on the State 
of the Union and Transmitting the Budget, dated Jan. 14 
and released to the press by the White House on the 
same date. 

135 



136 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



should not be lulled by the immediate alluring 
prospects into forgetting the fundamental com- 
plexity of modern affairs, the catastrophe that can 
come in this complexity, or the values that can be 
wrested from it. 

But the long-range difficulties we face should no 
more lead to despair than our inunediate business 
prospects should lead to the optimism which 
comes from the present short-range prospect. On 
the foundation of our victory we can build a last- 
ing peace, with greater freedom and security for 
mankind in our country and throughout the world. 
We will more certainly do this if we are constantly 
aware of the fact tliat we face crucial issues and 
prepare now to meet them. 

To achieve success will require both boldness in 
setting our sights and caution in steering our way 
on an uncharted course. But we have no luxury of 
choice. We must move ahead. No return to the 
past is possible. 

Our Nation has always been a land of great op- 
portunities for those people of the world who 
sought to become part of us. Now we have become 
a land of great responsibilities to all the people 
of all the world. We must squarely recognize and 
face the fact of those responsibilities. Advances 
in science, in communication, in transportation, 
have compressed the world into a community. The 
economic and political health of each member of 
the world community bears directly on the eco- 
nomic and political health of each other member. 

The evolution of centuries has brought us to a 
new era in world history in which manifold rela- 
tionships between nations must be formalized and 
developed in new and intricate ways. 

The United Nations Organization now being 
established represents a minimum essential begin- 
ning. It must be developed rapidly and st<?adily. 
Its work must be amplified to fill in the whole pat- 
tern that has been outlined. Economic collabora- 
tion, for example, already charted, now must be 
cai-ried on as carefully and as comprehensively as 
the political and security measures. 

It is important that the nations come together 
as States in the Assembly and in the Security 
Council and in the other specialized assemblies and 
councils that have been and will be arranged. But 
this is not enough. Our ultimate security requires 
more than a process of consultation and com- 
promise. 

It requires that we begin now to develop the 
United Nations Organization as the representa- 



tive of the world as one society. The United Na- 
tions Organization, if we have the will adequately 
to staff it and to make it work as it should, will 
provide a great voice to speak constantly and 
responsibly in terms of world collaboration and 
world well-being. 

There are many new responsibilities for us 
as we enter into this new international era. The 
whole power and will and wisdom of our Gov- 
ernment and of our people should be focused to 
contribute to and to influence international ac- 
tion. It is intricate, continuing business. Many 
concessions and adjustments will be required. 

The spectacular progress of science in recent 
years makes these necessities more vivid and ur- 
gent. That progress has speeded internal devel- 
opment and has changed world relationships so 
fast that we must realize the fact of a new era. 
It is an era in which affairs have become complex 
and rich in promise. Delicate and intricate rela- 
tionships, involving us all in countless ways, must 
be carefully considered. 

II. THE FEDERAL PROGRAM 

International Affairs 
1. Foreign Policy 

The year 1945 brought with it the final defeat 
of our enemies. There lies before us now the 
work of building a just and enduring peace. 

Our most immediate task toward that end is 
to deprive our enemies completely and forever 
of their power to start anotlier war. Of even 
greater impoi'tance to the preservation of inter- 
national peace is the need to preserve the war- 
time agreement of the United Nations and to 
direct it into the ways of peace. 

Long before our enemies surrendered, the 
foundations had been laid on which to continue 
this unity in the peace to come. The Atlantic 
meeting in 1941 and the conferences at Casa- 
blanca, Quebec, Moscow, Cairo, Tehran, and 
Dumbarton Oaks each added a stone to the 
structure. 

Early in 1945, at Yalta, the three major pow- 
ers broadened and solidified this base of under- 
standing. There fundamental decisions were 
reached concerning the occupation and control 
of Germany. There also a formula was arrived 
at for the interim government of the areas in 
Europe which were rapidly being wrested from 
Nazi control. This formula was based on the 



FEBRUARY 3, 1946 

I^olicy of the United States that people be per- 
mitted to choose their own form of government 
by their own freely expressed choice without in- 
terference from any foreign source. 

At Potsdam, in July 1945, Marshal Stalin, 
Prime Ministers Cliurchill and Attlee, and I met 
to exchange views primarily with respect to Ger- 
many. As a result, agreements were reached 
whicli outlined broadly the policy to be executed 
by the Allied Control Council. At Potsdam there 
was also established a Council of Foreign Minis- 
ters which convened for the first time in London 
in September. The Council is about to resume 
its primary assignment of drawing up treaties 
of peace with Italy, Eumania, Bulgaria, Hun- 
gary, and Finland. 

In addition to these meetings, and in accordance 
with the agreement at Yalta, the Foreign Minis- 
ters of Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and the 
United States conferred together in San Francisco 
last sjjring, in Potsdam in July, in London in Sep- 
tember, and in Moscow in December. These meet- 
ings have been useful in promoting understanding 
and agreement among the three governments. 

Simply to name all the international meetings 
and conferences is to suggest tlie size and complex- 
ity of the undertaking to jirevent international 
war in which the United States has now enlisted 
for the duration of liistory. 

It is encouraging to Isnow that the common effort 
of the United Nations to learn to live together did 
not cease with the surrender of our enemies. 

Wlien difficulties arise among us, the United 
States does not propose to remove them by sacri- 
ficing its ideals or its vital interests. Neither do 
we pi-opose, however, to ignore the ideals and vital 
interests of our friends. 

Last February and March an Inter-American 
Conference on Problems of War and Peace was 
held in Mexico City. Among the many significant 
accomplishments of that Conference was an under- 
standing that an attack by any country against 
any one of the sovereign American republics would 
be considered an act of aggression against all of 
them; and that if such an attack were made or 
threatened, the American republics would decide 
jointly, through consultations in which each re- 
public has equal representation, what measures 
they would take for their mutual protection. This 
agreement stipulates that its execution shall be in 
full accord with the Charter of the United Nations 
Organization. 



137 

The first meeting of the General Assembly of 
the United Nations now in progress in London 
marks the real beginning of our bold adventure 
toward the preservation of world peace, to which 
is bound the dearest hope of men. 

We have solemnly dedicated ourselves and all 
our will to the success of the United Nations Or- 
ganization. For this reason we have sought to in- 
sure that in the peacemaking the smaller nations 
shall have a voice as well as the larger states. The 
agreement reached at Moscow last month preserves 
this opjjortunity in the making of peace with Italy, 
Rumania, Bulgaria, Hungary, and Finland. The 
United States intends to preserve it when the 
treaties with Germany and Japan are drawn. 

It will be the continuing policy of the United 
States to use all its influence to foster, support, 
and develop the United Nations Organization 
in its i^urpose of preventing international war. 
If peace is to endure it must rest upon justice no 
less than upon power. The question is how jus- 
tice among nations is best achieved. We know 
from day-to-day experience that the chance for 
a just solution is immeasurably increased when 
everyone directly interested is given a voice. 
That does not mean that each must enjoy an 
equal voice, but it does mean that each must be 
heard. 

Last November, Prime Minister Attlee, Prime 
Minister Mackenzie King, and I announced our 
proposal that a commission be established within 
the framework -of the United Nations to explore 
the problems of effective international control of 
atomic energj'. 

The Soviet Union, France, and China have 
joined us in the purpose of introducing in the 
General Assembly a resolution for the establish- 
ment of such a commission. Our earnest wish is 
that the work of this commission go forward care- 
fully and thoroughly, but with the greatest dis- 
patch. I have great hope for the development 
of mutually effective safeguards which will permit 
the fullest international control of this new 
atomic force. 

I believe it possible that effective means can 
be developed through the United Nations Organi- 
zation to prohibit, outlaw, and prevent the use 
of atomic energy for destructive purposes. 

The power which the United States demon- 
strated during the war is the fact that underlies 
every phase of our relations with other countries. 
We cannot escape the responsibility which it 



138 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



thrusts upon us. What we think, plan, say, and 
do is of profound significance to the future of 
every corner of the world. 

The great and dominant objective of United 
States foreign policy is to build and preserve a 
just peace. The peace we seek is not peace for 
twenty years. It is permanent peace. At a time 
when massive changes are occurring with light- 
ning speed throughout the world, it is often diffi- 
cult to perceive how this central objective is best 
served in one isolated com^jlex situation or an- 
other. Despite this very real difficulty, there are 
certain basic propositions to which the United 
States adheres and to which we shall continue 
to adhere. 

One proposition is that lasting peace requires 
genuine understanding and active cooperation 
among the most powerful nations. Another is 
that even the support of the strongest nations 
cannot guarantee a peace unless it is infused 
with the quality of justice for all nations. 

On October 27, 1945, I made, in New York 
City, the following public statement of my under- 
standing of the fundamental foreign policy of the 
United States. I believe that policy to be in 
accord with the opinion of the Congress and of 
the people of the United States. I believe that 
that policy carries out our fundamental objectives. 

"1. We seek no territorial expansion or selfish 
advantage. We have no plans for aggression 
against any other state, large or small. We have 
no objective which need clash with the peaceful 
aims of any other nation. 

"2. We believe in the eventual return of sov- 
ereign rights and self-government to all peoples 
who have been deprived of them by force. 

"3. We shall approve no territorial changes in 
any friendly part of the world unless they accord 
with the freely expressed wishes of the people 
concerned. 

"4. We believe that all peoples who are pre- 
pared for self-government should be permitted 
to choose their own form of government by their 
own freely expressed choice, without interference 
from any foreign source. That is true in Euroi^e, 
in Asia, in Africa, as well as in the Western 
Hemisphere. 

"5. By the combined and cooperative action of 
our war allies, we shall help the defeated enemy 
states establish peaceful democratic governments 

' Bulletin of Oct. 28, 19-15, p. 654. 



of their own free choice. And we shall try to at- 
tain a world in which nazism, fascism, and mili- 
tary aggression cannot exist. 

"6. We shall refuse to recognize any govern- 
ment imposed upon any nation by the force of 
any foreign power. In some cases it may be im- 
possible to prevent forceful imposition of such a 
government. But the United States will not 
recognize any such government. 

"7. We believe that all nations should have the 
freedom of the seas and equal rights to the navi- 
gation of boundary rivers and waterways and of 
rivers and waterways which pass through more 
than one country. 

"8. We believe that all states which are accepted 
in the society of nations should have access on 
equal terms to the trade and the raw materials of 
the world. 

"9. We believe that the sovereign states of the 
Western Hemisphere, without interference from 
outside the Western Hemisphere, must work to- 
gether as good neighbors in the solution of their 
common problems. 

"10. We believe that full economic collaboration 
between all nations, great and small, is essential to 
the improvement of living conditions all over the 
world, and to the establishment of freedom from 
fear and freedom from want. 

"11. We shall continue to strive to promote 
freedom of expression and freedom of religion 
throughout the jieace-loving areas of the world. 

"12. We are convinced that the preservation of 
peace between nations requires a United Nations 
Organization composed of all the peace-loving 
nations of the world who are willing jointly to 
use force, if necessary, to insure peace." ' 

That is our foreign policy. 

We may not always fully succeed in our ob- 
jectives. Thei"e niay be instances where the at- 
tainment of those objectives is delayed. But we 
will not give our full sanction and approval to 
actions which fly in the face of these ideals. 

The world has a great stake in the political 
and economic future of Germany. The Allied 
Control Council has now been in operation there 
for a substantial period of time. It has not met 
with unqualified success. The acconnnodation of 
vai'ying views of four governments in the day-to- 
day civil administration of occupied territory is 
a challenging task. In my judgment, however, 
the Council has made encouraging progress in the 



FEBRUARY 3, 1946 



139 



face of most serious difficulties. It is my purpose 
at tlie earliest practicable date to transfer from 
military to civilian personnel the execution of 
United States participation in the government of 
occupied territory in Europe. We are determined 
that effective control shall be maintained in Ger- 
many until we are satisfied that the German peo- 
ple have regained the right to a place of honor 
and respect. 

On the other side of the world, a method of in- 
ternational cooperation has recently been agreed 
upon for the treatment of Japan. In this pattern 
of control, the United States, with the full ap- 
proval of its partners, has retained primai-y au- 
thority and pi'imary responsibility. It will con- 
tinue to do so until the Japanese people, by tlieir 
own freely expressed choice, choose their own 
form of government. 

Our basic policy in the Far East is to encour- 
age tlie development of a strong, independent, 
united, and democratic China. That has been 
the traditional policy of the United States. 

At Moscow the United States, the Union of 
Soviet Socialist Republics, and Great Britain 
agreed to further this development by supporting 
the efforts of the national government and non- 
governmental Chinese political elements in bring- 
ing about cessation of civil strife and in broaden- 
ing the basis of representation in the Government. 
That is the policy which General Marshall is so 
ably executing today. 

It is the purpose of the Government of the 
United States to proceed as rapidly as is prac- 
ticable toward the i-estoration of the sovereignty 
of Korea and the establislmient of a democratic 
government by the free choice of the people of 
Korea. 

At the threshold of every problem which con- 
fronts us today in international affairs is the 
appalling devastation, hunger, sickness, and per- 
vasive human misery that mark so many areas 
of the world. 

By joining and participating in the woi'k of the 
United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Admin- 
istration the United States has directly recognized 
and assumed an obligation to give such relief as- 
sistance as is practicable to millions of innocent 
and helpless victims of the war. The Congress 
has earned the gratitude of the world by generous 
financial contributions to the United Nations Re- 
lief and Rehabilitation Administration. 



We have taken the lead, modest though it is, 
in facilitating under our existing immigration 
quotas the admission to the United States of refu- 
gees and displaced persons from, Europe. 

We have joined with Great Britain in the or- 
ganization of a commission to study the jDroblem 
of Palestine. The Commission is already at work 
and its recommendations will be made at an early 
date. 

The members of the United Nations have paid 
us the high compliment of choosing the United 
States as the site of the United Nations head- 
quarters. We shall be host in spirit as well as in 
fact, for nowhere does there abide a fiercer de- 
termination that this peace shall live than in the 
hearts of the American jaeople. 

It is the hope of all Americans that in time 
future historians will speak not of World War I 
and World War II, but of the first and last world 
wars. 

2. Foreign Economic Policy 

The foreign economic policy of the United States 
is designed to promote our own prosperity, and 
at the same time to aid in the restoration and ex- 
pansion of M'orld markets and to contribute 
thereby to world peace and world security. We 
shall continue our efforts to provide relief from 
the devastation of war, to alleviate the sufferings 
of displaced persons, to assist in reconstruction and 
develojament, and to promote the expansion of 
world trade. 

We have already joined the International Mone- 
tary Fund and the International Bank for Recon- 
struction and Development. We have expanded 
the Export-Import Bank and provided it with ad- 
ditional capital. The Congress has renewed the 
Trade Agreements Act which provides the neces- 
saiy framework within which to negotiate a re- 
duction of trade barriers on a reciprocal basis. It 
has given our support to the United Nations Relief 
and Rehabilitation Administration. 

In accordance with the intentions of the Con- 
gress, lend-lease, except as to continued military 
lend-lease in China, was terminated upon surren- 
der of Japan. The first of the lend-lease settle- 
ment agreements has been completed with the 
United Kingdom. Negotiations with other lend- 
lease countries are in progress. In negotiating 
these agreements, we intend to seek settlements 
which will not encumber world trade through war 
debts of a character that proved to be so detri- 



140 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



mental to the stability of the world economy after 
the last war. 

We have taken steps to dispose of the goods 
which on VJ-day were in the lend-lease pipe line to 
the various lend-lease countries and to allow them 
long-term credit for the purpose where necessary. 
We are also making arrangements under which 
those countries may use the lend-lease inventories 
in their possession and acquire surplus property 
abroad to assist in their economic rehabilitation 
and reconstruction. These goods will be accounted 
for at fair values. 

The proposed loan to the United Kingdom, 
which I shall recommend to the Congress in a sep- 
arate message, will contribute to easing the tran- 
sition problem of one of our major partners in the 
war. It will enable the whole sterling area and 
other countries affiliated with it to resume trade 
on a multilateral basis. Extension of this credit 
will enable the United Kingdom to avoid discrim- 
inatory trade arrangements of the type which de- 
stroyed freedom of trade during the 1930's. I con- 
sider the progi-ess toward multilateral trade which 
will be achieved by this agreement to be in itself 
sufficient warrant for the credit. 

The view of this Government is that, in the 
longer run, our economic prosperity and the pros- 
perity of the whole world are best served by the 
elimination of artificial barriers to international 
trade, whether in the form of unreasonable tariffs 
or tariff preferences or commercial quotas or em- 
baigoes or the resti'ictive practices of cartels. 

The United States Government has issued pro- 
posals for the expansion of world trade and em- 
ployment to ■which the Government of the United 
Kingdom has given its support on every important 
issue. These proposals are intended to form the 
basis for a trade and employment conference to be 
held in the middle of this year. If that conference 
is a success, I feel confident that the way will have 
been adequately prepared for an expanded and 
prosperous world trade. 

We shall also continue negotiations looking to 
the full and equitable development of facilities 
for transportation and communications among 
nations. 

The vast majority of the nations of the world 
have chosen to woik together to achieve, on a coop- 
erative basis, world security and world prosperity. 
The effort cannot succeed without full cooperation 
of the United States. To play our part, we must 
not only resolutely carry out the foreign policies 



we have adopted but also follow a domestic policy 
which will maintain full production and employ- 
ment in the United States. A serious depression 
here can disrupt the whole fabric of the world 
economy. 

3. Occupied Countries 

The major tasks of our Military Establish- 
ment in Europe following VE-day, and in the 
Pacific since the surrender of Japan, have been 
those of occupation and military government. 
In addition we have given much-needed aid to 
the peoples of the liberated countries. 

The end of the war in Europe found Germany 
in a chaotic condition. Organized government 
had ceased to exist, transportation systems had 
been wrecked, cities and industrial facilities had 
been bombed into ruins. In addition to the tasks 
of occupation we had to assume all of the func- 
tions of government. Great progress lias been 
made in the repatriation of displaced persons 
and of prisoners of war. Of the total of 3,500,- 
000 disiDlaced persons found in the United States 
zone only 460,000 now remain. 

The extensive complications involved by the 
requirement of dealing with three other govern- 
ments engaged in occupation and with the gov- 
ernments of liberated countries require intensive 
work and energetic cooperation. The influx of 
some 2 million German refugees into our zone 
of occupation is a pressing problem, making ex- 
acting demands upon an already overstrained 
internal economy. 

Improvements in the European economy dur- 
ing 1945 have made it possible for our military 
authorities to relinquish to the governments of 
all liberated areas, or to the United Nations Re- 
lief and Rehabilitation Administration, the re- 
sponsibility for the provision of food and other 
civilian relief supplies. The Army's responsi- 
bilities in Europe extend now only to our zones 
of occupation in Germany and Austria and to 
two small areas in northern Italy. 

By contrast with Germany, in Japan we have 
occupied a country still possessing an organized 
and operating governmental system. Although 
severely damaged, the Japanese industrial and 
transportation systems have been able to insure 
at least a survival existence for the population. 
The repatriation of Japanese military and ci- 
vilian personnel from overseas is proceeding as 
lapidly as shipping and other means permit. 



FEBRUARY 3, 1946 



141 



In order to insure that neither Germany nor 
Japan will again be in a position to wage aggres- 
sive warfare, the armament-making potential of 
these countries is being dismantled and funda- 
mental changes in their social and political struc- 
tures are being effected. Democratic systems are 
being fostered to the end that the voice of the 
common man may be heard in the councils of 
his government. 

For the first time in history the legal culpa- 
bility of war makers is being determined. The 
trials now in progress in Niirnberg — and those 
soon to begin in Tokyo — ^bring before the bar of 
international justice those individuals who are 
charged with the responsibility for the suffer- 
ings of the past six years. We have high hope 
that this public portrayal of the guilt of these 
evildoers will bring wholesale and permanent re- 
vulsion on the part of the masses of our former 
enemies against war, militarism, aggression, and 
notions of race superiority. 

4. Demobilization of Our Armed Forces 

The cessation of active campaigning does not 
mean that we can completely disband our fight- 
ing forces. For their sake and for the sake of 
their loved ones at home, I wish that we could. 
But we still have the task of clinching the vic- 
tories we have won — of making certain that Ger- 
many and Japan can never again wage aggres- 
sive warfare, that they will not again have the 
means to bring on anotlier world war. The per- 
formance of that task requires that, together with 
our allies, we occupy the hostile areas, complete 
the disarmament of our enemies, and take the 
necessary measures to see to it that they do not 
rearm. 

As quickly as possible, we are bringing about 
the reduction of our armed services to the size 
required for these tasks of occupation and dis- 
armament. The Army and the Navy are follow- 
ing both length-of-service and point systems as 
far as possible in releasing men and women from 
the service. The points are based chiefly on 
length and character of service, and on the exist- 
ence of dependents. 

Over 5 million from the Army have already 
passed through the separation centers. 

The Navy, including the Marine Corps and the 
Coast Guard, has discharged over one and a half 
million. 

Of the 12 million men and women serving in the 

681639—46 2 



Army and Navy at the time of the surrender of 
Germany, one-half have already been released. 
The gieater part of these had to be brought back 
to this country from distant parts of the world. 

Of course, there are cases of individual hardship 
in retention of personnel in the service. There 
will be in the future. No system of such size can 
operate to perfection. But the systems are founded 
on fairness and justice, and they are working at 
full speed. We shall try to avoid mistakes, in- 
justices, and hardship — as far as humanly possible. 

We have already reached the point where ship- 
ping is no longer the bottleneck in the return of 
troops from the European theater. The govern- 
ing factor now has become the requirement for 
troops in sufficient strength to carry out their 
missions. 

In a few months the same situation will exist in 
the Pacific. By the end of June, 9 out of 10 who 
wei'e serving in the armed forces on VE-day will 
have been released. Demobilization will continue 
thereaftter, but at a slower rate, determined by our 
military responsibilities. 

Our national safety and the security of the 
world will requii-e substantial armed forces, par- 
ticularly in oveiseas service. At the same time it is 
imperative that we relieve those who have already 
done their duty, and that we relieve them as fast 
as we can. To do that, the Army and the Navy 
are conducting recruiting drives with considerable 
success. 

The Army has obtained nearly 400,000 volunteers 
in the past four months, and the Navy has obtained 
80,000. Eighty percent of these volunteers for 
the regular service have come from those already 
with the colors. The Congress has made it pos- 
sible to offer valuable inducements to those who 
are eligible for enlistment. Every effort will be 
made to enlist the required number of young men. 

The War and Navy Departments now estimate 
that by a year from now we still will need a 
strength of about 2 million, including officers, for 
the armed forces — Army, Navy, and Air. I have 
reviewed their estimates and believe that the safety 
of the Nation will require the maintenance of an 
armed strength of this size for the calendar year 
that is before us. 

In case the campaign for volunteers does not pi'o- 
duce that number, it will be necessary by additional 
legislation to extend the Selective Service Act be- 
yond May 16, the date of expiration under existing 



142 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



law. That is the only way we can get the men 
and bring back our veterans. There is no other 
way. Action along this line should not be post- 
poned beyond March, in order to avoid uncertainty 
and disruption. 



Recommendations for Specific Federal Activities 
1. War Liquidation and National Defense 

(a) War expenditures 

The fiscal year 1947 will see a continuance of 
war liquidation and occupation. During this 
period we shall also lay the foundation for our 
peacetime system of national defense. 

In the fiscal year that ended on June 30, 1945, 
almost wholl}' a period of global warfare, war 
expenditures amounted to 90.5 billion dollars. 
For the fiscal year 1946 war expenditures were 
originally estimated at 70 billion dollars. That 
estimate was made a year ago while we were still 
engaged in global warfare. After victory over 
Japan this estimate was revised to 50.5 billion 
dollars. Further cut-backs and accelerated de- 
mobilization have made possible an additional 
reduction in the rate of war spending. During 
the first 6 months 32.9 billion dollars were spent. 
It is now estimated that 16.1 billion dollars will 
be spent during the second 6 months, or a total 
of 49 billion dollars during the whole fiscal year. 

For the fiscal year 1947 it is estimated, tenta- 
tively, that expenditures for war liquidation, for 
occupation, and for national defense will be re- 
duced to 15 billion dollars. The War and Navy 
Departments are expected to spend 13 billion 
dollars; expenditures of other agencies, such as 
the United States Maritime Commission, the War 
Shipping Administration, and the OiSce of Price 
Administration, and payments to the United Na- 
tions Relief and Rehabilitation Administration 
are estimated at 3 billion dollars. Allowing for 
estimated net receipts of 1 billion dollars arising 
from war activities of the Reconstruction Finance 
Corporation, the estimated total of war expendi- 
tures is 15 billion dollars. At this time only a 
tentative break-down of the total estimate for 
war and defense activities can be indicated. 

An expenditure of 15 billion dollars for war 
liquidation, occupation, and national defense is 
a large sum for a year which begins 10 months 
after fighting has ended. It is 10 times our ex- 
penditures for defense before the war; it amounts 



to about 10 percent of our expected national in- 
come. This estimate reflects the immense job that 
is involved in winding up a global war effort and 
stresses the gi-eat responsibility that victory has 
placed upon this country. The large expenditures 
needed for our national defense emphasize the 
great scope for effective organization in further- 
ing economy and efficiency. To this end I have 
recently I'ecommended to the Congress adoption 
of legislation combining the War and Navy De- 
partments into a single Department of National 
Defense. 

A large part of these expenditures is still to 
be attributed to the costs of the war. Assuming, 
somewhat arbitrarily, that about one-half of the 
15-billion-dollar outlay for the fiscal year 1947 
is for war liquidation, aggregate expenditures 
by this Government for the second World War 
are now estimated at 347 billion dollars through 
June 30, 1947. Of this, about 9 billion dollars 
will have been recovered through renegotiation 
and sale of surplus property by June 30, 1947; 
this has been reflected in the estimates of receipts. 

Dcm-ohiUzation and strength of armed forces. — 
Demobilization of our armed forces is proceeding 
rapidly. At the time of victory in Europe, about 
12.3 million men and women were in the armed 
forces; 7.6 million were overseas. By the end of 
December 1945 our armed forces had been reduced 
to below 7 million. By June 30, 1946, they will 
number about 2.9 million, of whom 1.8 million will 
be individuals enlisted and inducted after VE-day. 
Mustering-out pay is a large item of our war liqui- 
dation expense; it will total 2.5 billion dollars in 
the fiscal year 1946, and about 500 million dollars 
in the fiscal year 1947. 

In the fiscal year 1947 the strength of our armed 
forces will still be above the ultimate peacetime 
level. As I have said. War and Navy Department 
requirements indicate a strength of about 2 million 
in the armed forces a year from now. This is neces- 
sary to enable us to do our share in the occupation 
of enemy territories and in the preservation of 
peace in a troubled world. Expenditures for pay, 
subsistence, travel, and miscellaneous expenses of 
the armed forces, excluding mustering-out pay, are 
estimated at 5 billion dollars. 

Contract settlement and surplus property dis- 
posal. — The winding up of war procurement is the 
second most important liquidation job. By the 
end of November a total of 301,000 prime contracts 
involving commitments of 64 billion dollars had 



FEBRUARY 3, 1946 



143 



been terminated. Of this total, 67,000 contracts 
with commitments of 35 billion dollars remained 
to be settled. Termination payments on these con- 
tracts are estimated at about 3.5 billion dollars. It 
is expected that more than half of these terminated 
contracts will be settled during the current fiscal 
year, leaving payments of about 1.5 billion dollars 
for the fiscal year 1947. 

Another important aspect of war supply liqui- 
dation is the disposal of surplus property. Muni- 
tions, ships, plants, installations, and supplies, 
originally costing 50 billion dollars or more, will 
ultimately be declared surplus. The sale value 
of this property will be far less than original cost 
and disposal expenses are estimated at 10 to 15 
cents on each dollar realized. Disposal units 
within existing agencies have been organized to 
liquidate surplus i^roperty under the direction of 
the Surplus Property Administration. Overseas 
disposal activities have been centralized in the 
State Department to permit this program to be 
carried on in line with over-all foreign policy. 
Thus far only about 13 billion dollars of the ulti- 
mate surplus, including 5 billion dollars of un- 
salable aircraft, has been declared. Of this 
amount, 2.3 billion dollars have been disposed of, 
in sales yielding 600 million dollars. The tre- 
mendous job of handling surplus stocks will con- 
tinue to affect Federal expenditui-es and receipts 
for several years. The speed and effectiveness of 
surplus disposal operations will be of great im- 
portance for the domestic economy as well as for 
foreign economic policies. 

War supplies, maintenance, and relief. — Ade- 
quate provision for the national defense requires 
that we keep abreast of scientific and technical 
advances. The tentative estimates for the fiscal 
year 1947 make allowance for military research, 
limited procurement of weapons in the develop- 
mental state, and some regular procurement of 
munitions which were developed but not mass- 
produced when the war ended. Expenditures for 
procurement and construction will constitute one- 
third or less of total defense outlays, compared to 
a ratio of two-thirds during the war years. 

The estimates also provide for the maintenance 
of our war-expanded naval and merchant fleets, 
military installations, and stocks of military equip- 
ment and supplies. Our naval combatant fleet is 
three times its pre-Pearl Harbor tonnage. Our 
Merchant Marine is five times its prewar size. The 



War Department has billions of dollars worth of 
equijiment and supplies. Considerable mainte- 
nance and repair expense is necessary for the 
equipment which we desire to retain in active 
status or in war reserve. Expenses will be incurred 
for winnowing the stocks of surpluses, for prepar- 
ing lay-up facilities for the reserve fleets, and for 
storage of reserve equipment and supplies. 

Military expenditures in the current fiscal year 
include 650 million dollars for civilian supplies 
for the prevention of starvation and disease in 
occupied areas. Expenditures on this account 
will continue in the fiscal year 1947. The war 
expenditures also cover the expenses of civilian 
administration in occupied areas. 

During the war, 15 cents of each dollar of our 
war expenditures was for lend-lease aid. With 
lend-lease terminated, I expect the direct opera- 
tions under this program to be substantially com- 
pleted in the current fiscal year. The expendi- 
tures estimated for the fiscal year 1947 under this 
program are mainly interagency reimbursements 
for past transactions. 

Relief and rehabilitation expenditures are in- 
creasing. It is imperative that we give all neces- 
sary aid within our means to the people who 
have borne the ravages of war. I estimate that 
in the fiscal year 1946 expenditures for the 
United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Ad- 
ministration will total 1.3 billion dollars and in 
the following year 1.2 billion dollars. Insofar as 
possible, procurement for this purpose will be 
from war surpluses. 

(fe) Authorizations Jot War and national defense 

During the war, authorizations and appropri- 
ations had to be enacted well in advance of obli- 
gation and spending to afford ample time for 
planning of production by the procurement serv- 
ices and by industry. Thus our cumulative war 
program authorized in the period between July 
1, 1940, and July 1, 1945, was 431 billion dollars, 
including net war commitments of Government 
corporations. Expenditures against those au- 
thorizations totaled 290 billion dollars. This 
left 141 billion dollars in unobligated authoriza- 
tions and unliquidated obligations. 

With the end of fighting, it became necessary 
to adjust war authorizations to the requirements 
of war liquidation and continuing national de- 
fense. Intensive review of the war authoriza- 
tions by both the executive and the legislative 



144 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



branches has been continued since VJ-day. As a 
result, the authorized war program is being 
brought more nearly into line with expenditures. 
Rescisaions and authorizations through the -fis- 
cal year 19Ifi. — Readjusting the war program, as 
the Congress well knows, is not an easy task. 
Authorizations must not be too tight, lest we 
hamper necessary operations; they must not be 
too ample, lest we lose control of spending. Last 
September, I transmitted to the Congress recom- 
mendations on the basis of which the Congress 
voted H.R. 4407 to repeal 50.3 billion dollars of 
appropriations and authorizations. I found it 
necessary to veto this bill because it was used 
as a vehicle for legislation that would impair 
the reemployment program. However, in order 
to preserve the fine work of the Congress on the 
rescissions, I asked the Director of the Bureau 
of the Budget to place the exact amounts indi- 
cated for repeal in a nonexpendable reserve, and 
to advise the departments and agencies accord- 
ingly. This has been done. 



8. International Financial Programs 

I have already outlined the broad objectives of 
our foreign economic policy. In the present sec- 
tion I shall indicate the Federal outlays which the 
execution of these programs may require in the 
fiscal years 1946 and 1947. 

(a) On the termination of lend-lease, the lend- 
lease countries were required to pay for goods in 
the lend-lease pipe line either in cash or by bor- 
rowing from the United States or by supplying 
goods and services to the United States. Credits 
for this purpose have already been extended to 
the Soviet Union, France, the Netherlands, and 
Belgium amounting to 675 million dollars. The 
settlement credit of 650 million dollars to the 
United Kingdom includes an amount preliminar- 
ily fixed at 118 million dollars which represents 
the excess of purchases by the United Kingdom 
from the pipe line over goods and services supplied 
by the United Kingdom to the United States since 
VJ-day and the balance of various claims by one 
government against the other. 

Ci'edits are also being negotiated with lend-lease 
countries to finance the disposition of lend-lease 
inventories and installations and propei'ty de- 
clared to be surplus. For instance, 532 million 



dollars of the settlement credit to the United 
Kingdom is for this purpose. These credits will 
involve no new expenditures by this Government, 
since they merely provide for deferred repayment 
by other governments for goods and services which 
have been financed from war appropriations. 

(5) Expenditures from the appropriations to 
United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Admin- 
istration, which were discussed under war expendi- 
tures above, are estimated to be 1.3 billion dollars 
in the fiscal year 1946 and 1.2 billion dollars in the 
fiscal year 1947. 

((?) To assist other countries in the restoration 
of their economies the Export-Import Bank has 
already negotiated loans in the fiscal year 1946 
amounting in total to about 1,010 million dollars 
and an additional 195 million dollars will probably 
be committed shortly. The Bank is also granting 
loans to carry out its original purpose of directly 
expanding the foreign trade of the United States. 
In this connection the Bank has established a fund 
of 100 million dollars to finance the export of cot- 
ton from the United States. The Export-Import 
Bank has thus loaned or committed approximately 
1,300 million dollars during the current fiscal year 
and it is expected that demands on its resources 
will increase in the last 6 months of the fiscal year 
1946. Requests for loans are constantly being re- 
ceived by the Bank from countries desiring to se- 
cure goods and services in this country for the re- 
construction or development of their economies. 
On July 31, 1945, the lending authority of the Ex- 
port-Import Bank was increased to a total of 3,500 
million dollars. I anticipate that during the period 
covered by this Budget the Bank will reach this 
limit. The bulk of the expenditures from the loans 
already granted will fall in the fiscal year 1946 
while the bulk of the exjienditures from loans yet 
to be negotiated will fall in the fiscal year 1947. 
In view of the urgent need for the Bank's credit, 
I may find it necessary to request a further increase 
in its lending authority at a later date. 

{(I) The proposed line of credit of 3,750 million 
dollars to the United Kingdom will be available up 
to the end of 1951 and will be used to assist the 
United Kingdom in financing the deficit in its bal- 
ance of payments during the transition period. 
The rate at which the United Kingdom will draw 
on the credit will depend on the rapidity with 
which it can reconvert its economy and adapt its 
trade to the postwar world. The anticipated rate 



FEBRUARY 3, 1946 



145 



of expenditure is likely to be heaviest during the 
next 2 years. 

(e) Since the Bretton Woods Agreements have 
now been approved by the required number of 
countries, both the International Monetary Fund 
and the International Banl?; for Eeconstruction 
and Development will commence operations dur- 
ing 1946. The organization of these institutions 
will undoubtedly take some time, and it is unlikely 
that their operations will reach any appreciable 
scale before the beginning of the fiscal year 1947. 

Of the 2,750 million dollars required for the 
Fund, 1,800 million dollars will be provided in 
cash or notes from the exchange stabilization fund 
established under the Gold Reserve Act of 1934. 
The remaining 950 million dollars will be paid 
initially in the form of non-interest-bearing notes 
issued by the Secretary of the Treasury. It is not 
anticipated that the Fund will require in cash any 
of the 950 million dollars during the fiscal years 
of 1946 and 1947. Consequently, no cash with- 
drawals from the Treasury will be required in 
connection with the Fund in these years. 

The subscription to the Bank amounts to 3,175 
million dollars. Of this total, 2 percent must be 
paid immediately and the Bank is required to call 
a further 8 percent of the subscription during 
its first year of operations. The balance of the 
subscription is payable when required by the 
Bank either for direct lending or to make good 
its guarantees. It is likely that the United States 
will be required to pay little if any more than the 
initial 10 percent before the end of the fiscal 
year 1947. 

I anticipate that net expenditures of the Ex- 
port-Import Bank and expenditures arising from 
the British credit and the Bretton Woods Agree- 
ments will amount to 2,614 million dollars, in- 
cluding the non-cash item of 950 million dollars 
for the Fund, in the fiscal year of 1946, and 2,754 
million dollars in the fiscal year 1947. 



Expenditures for our share of the adminis- 
trative budgets of the United Nations and other 
permanent international bodies will increase 
sharply in the fiscal year 1947, yet will remain a 
small part of our total Budget. The budget for 
the United Nations has not yet been determined ; 
an estimate for our contribution will be submitted 



later. Our contributions to the Food and Agri- 
culture Organization, the International Labor 
Office, the Pan American Union, and other similar 
international agencies will aggregate about 3 
million dollars for the fiscal year 1947. The ad- 
ministrative expenses of the International Mone- 
tary Fund and the International Bank will be 
met from their general funds. 



We have won a great war — we, the nations of 
plain people who hate war. In the test of that 
war we found a strength of unity that brought us 
through — a strength that crushed the power of 
those who sought by force to deny our faith in 
the dignity of man. 

During this trial the voices of disunity among 
us were silent or were subdued to an occasional 
whine that warned us that they were still among 
us. Those voices are beginning to cry aloud again. 
We must learn constantly to turn deaf ears to 
them. They are voices which foster fear and 
suspicion and intolerance and hate. They seek 
to destroy our harmony, our understanding of 
each other, our American tradition of "live and 
let live." They have become busy again, trying 
to set race against race, creed against creed, 
farmer against city dweller, worker against em- 
ployer, people against their own governments. 
They seek only to do us mischief. They must not 
prevail. 

It should be impossible for any man to contem- 
plate without a sense of personal hmnility the 
tremendous events of the 12 months since tiie last 
annual Message, the great tasks that confront us, 
the new and huge problems of the coming months 
and years. Yet these very things justify the deep- 
est confidence in the future of this Nation of free 
men and women. 

The plain people of this country found the 
courage and the strength, the self-discipline, and 
the mutual respect to fight and to win, with the 
help of our allies, under God. I doubt if the 
tasks of the future are more difficult. But if they 
are, then I say that our strength and our knowl- 
edge and our understanding will be equal to those 
tasks. 



Haert S. Tkuman 



January H, 19^6 



146 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



General Assembly of the United Nations 

STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY OF STATE ON CONTROL OF ATOMIC ENERGY 



I WISH to make a short statement in suppoi't of 
the very able report just made to the Gen- 
eral Assembly by the Political and Security 
Committee. 

The United Nations were obliged to unite in 
war to preserve their common freedom. The 
United Nations are now committed to remain 
united to preserve their common jaeace. We won 
the war against aggi'ession and tyranny by fight- 
ing together. We must now keep the peace by 
working together. 

The report filed by the Committee calls upon 
us to join in creating a commission to study from 
the point of view of international control the 
problems created by the discovery of atomic en- 
ergy and of other forces capable of mass destruc- 
tion. It calls upon us to find ways which will 
permit and promote the use of our knowledge of 
the forces of nature for the benefit of mankind 
under safeguai'ds which will prevent their use 
for destructive purposes. 

Science is a monopoly of no one nation. The 
discovery of atomic energy like other great scien- 
tific discoveries is based on early discoveries and 
the research of many inquiring minds in many 
countries. In a number of countries scientists 
were probing into the field of atomic energy be- 
fore the war started. The United States, United 
Kingdom, and Canada decided to pool their 
knowledge, and the United States at a cost of 2 
billion dollars pressed forward with research and 
developments to insure that the nations fighting 
to preserve freedom on this earth should not lag 
in the race to discover the secret of the atom. We 
entered the race not to destroy but to save civili- 
zation, but if the race continues uncontrolled the 
civilization we hoped to save may be destroyed. 

The problems presented by the discovery of 
atomic energy and of other forces capable of mass 
destruction cannot be solved by any one nation. 
They are the common responsibility of all nations, 
and each of us must do our part in meeting 
them. In meeting these problems we must realize 
that in this atomic age and in this interdependent 
world our common interests in preserving the 



peace far outweigh any possible conflict in in- 
terest that might divide us. 

At this first session of the General Assembly we 
must begin to put less emphasis on our particular 
viewpoint and particular interests and seek with 
all our hearts and all our minds to find means of 
reconciling our views and our interests for the 
common good of all humanity. Peace and recon- 
ciliation cannot be achieved by unilateral action. 
Peace and reconciliation require conmion action. 
That is why the more tasks we set for ourselves 
the more we are likely to come to understand each 
other's problems and interests. And certainly 
the problem of devising the necessary safeguards 
to insure that atomic energy will be used for the 
benefit of humanity and not for its destruction 
is a common problem. To consider this and other 
common problems in the spirit of peace and re- 
conciliation, we must get back to conditions of 
peace. 

There will be need for the continuation for 
some time to come of armies of occupation in 
Germany and Japan, but it will not make for a 
peaceful world to have armies of occupation re- 
main in countries which we hope will soon join 
us in the United Nations. 

We must see that the world ceases to be an 
armed camp. We must see that peace treaties 
with the states which were brought into unwill- 
ing partnership with the Axis powers are 
jiromptly concluded and occupation forces with- 
drawn. We must begin to live together and to 
work together. 

I hope that the General Assembly will promptly 
approve the resolution which is before it. I hope 
that the Commission will promptly set to work 
on its tasks. It will be comforting to the peace- 
loving peoples of the world to know that we are 
moving promptly to endeavor to find ways to 
avoid a race in armament. 

We who fought together for freedom must now 
show that we are worthy of the freedom that 
we have won. 

Marte at the 17th plenary session of the General As- 
sembly in London on Jan. 24 and released to the press 
on the same date. 



FEBRUARY 3, 1946 



147 



REPORT FROM LONDON TO THE OFFICE OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



London, Feb. 1. — The unanimous Security 
Council decision this week to retain "a continuing 
concern" in negotiations between the Soviet Union 
and Iran has led the United Nations through its 
iirst political test to a stronger and more confident 
position. This precedent-setting decision together 
with the Council's nomination of Trygve Lie, 
Norwegian Foreign Minister, to the post of Sec- 
retary-General were the two leading actions in 
the third full week of activity of the United Na- 
tions General Assembly. The "situation in north- 
ern Iran" provided the basis for more than six 
hours of intense discussion and much "plain talk" 
by Council members. As a result direct negotia- 
tions will be resumed by the Soviet Union and 
Iran for the purjDose of arriving at a solution 
acceptable to the Security Council as well as the 
two countries involved. Compromise between the 
two extreme stands of Iran and the Soviet Union 
was achieved in a resolution presented in its final 
form by British Foreign Minister Ernest Bevin 
and adopted unanimously by the Council. Text 
of the resolution says : 

"Having heard the statement by the representa- 
tives of the Soviet Union and Iran in the course of 
the meeting on January 28 and 30 and having 
taken cognizance of the documents presented by 
the Soviet and Iranian Delegations and those re- 
ferred to in tlie course of the debate and consider- 
ing that both parties have affirmed their readiness 
to seek a solution of the matter at issue by negotia- 
tion and that such negotiations will be resumed in 
the near future, tlie Council requests the parties to 
inform the Council of any results achieved in such 
negotiations. The Council in tlie meanwhile re- 
tains the right to request information on the 
l^rogress of the negotiations at any time." 

Briefly, the situation in northern Iran arises 
from the allegation that Soviet troops prevented 
Iranian police contingents from crossing into the 
Iranian province of Azerbaijan to suppress a sep- 
aratist group reported attempting to set up an 
independent state. During the course of the Coun- 
cil discussion U. S. Chief Delegate Edward R. 
Stettinius urged that the matter be retained on the 



Security Council agenda. In helping to achieve 
a successful solution, Mr. Stettinius agreed to 
withdraw his demand provided it was clearly un- 
derstood that the dispute would be a matter of 
"continuing concern" to the Council until it was 
settled in conformity with the principles of the 
United Nations Charter. 

Nominalion of Trygve Lie 

Nomination of Trygve Lie culminated several 
weeks of informal Security Council discussions. 
Lie's name had once before been brought before 
the Assembly in the balloting for presidency of 
the General Assembly, in which he was strongly 
supported by the American Delegation. The 
Council voted 11-0 to bring Lie's name before the 
Assembly for final approval. 

Organizing the Secretariat 

The Secretary-General, chief administrative 
officer of the Organization, receives an annual sal- 
ary of $20,000 plus an additional $20,000 for ex- 
penses as well as a furnished residence at United 
Nations headquarters. Among his immediate 
tasks is to take steps to establish an administrative 
organization which will permit the effective dis- 
charge of his administrative and general responsi- 
bilities under the Charter and the efficient per- 
formance of those functions and sei'vices required 
to meet the needs of the several organs of the 
United Nations. In this latter connection, he will 
be required to name assistant secretaries-general to 
head the principal units of the Secretariat. They 
are: 

1. Department of Security Council Affairs 

2. Department of Economic Affairs 

3. Department of Social Afl'aii's 

4. Department for Trusteeship and Information 

from Non-Self-Governing Territories 

5. Department of Public Information 

6. Legal Department 

7. Conference and General Services 

8. Administrative and Financial Services. 

Because of delay in transmission, it will be necessary 
to print the complete report of Feb. 1 from London in the 
Bulletin of Feb. 10. 



148 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Philippine Foreign Affairs Training Program 



Article by EDWARD W. MILL 



A Philippine Foreign Affairs Training Pro- 
gram designed to assist the Filipinos in pre- 
paring for the conduct of their own foreign 
relations when independence is granted on July 
4, 1946 is now in progress in the Department of 
State. 

Origins of Program 

This program is the outgrowth of preliminary 
studies made several years ago by representatives 
of the Department of State. The recent war and 
the subsequent occupation of the Philippines by 
the Japanese interrupted plans of the Department 
for developing an active training program, but 
with the end of the war in the Pacific definite 
steps were again taken to devise plans to assist 
in developing a Philippine Foreign Service after 
independence and to aid in the work incident to 
establishing a Department of Foreign Affairs for 
the new republic. 

Participation in Foreign Service Officers' Training 
School 

On December 3, 1945 the first group of Filipino 
trainees, consisting of Jose F. Imperial, Tiburcio 
C. Baja, Vicente I. Singian, Manuel A. Adeva, 
and Candido T. Elbo, entered the Department to 
begin their training under the central supervision 
of the Division of Philippine Affairs. This group 
participated in most of the recent sessions of the 
Foreign Service Officers' Training School. 

During the first week in the Foreign Service 
School the trainees attended a series of general 
orientation lectures on the work of the Depart- 
ment and the work of the Foreign Service. Mal- 
colm Morrow, Chief of the Division of Public In- 

Mr. Mill is Acting Assistant Chief of the Division of 
Philippine Affairs, Office of Far Eastern Affairs, De- 
partment of State. 



quiries. Government Information Service, Bu- 
reau of the Budget, spoke on the "Organization 
of the Federal Government", and Walton C. Fer- 
ris, Foreign Service officer detailed as Inspector, 
discussed the "Organization of the Foreign 
Service". John F. Simmons, American Ambassa- 
dor Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to -El 
Salvador, talked to the group on "How a Diplo- 
matic Mission Operates". 

In the second week of work Nelson T. Johnson, 
American Envoy Extraordinary and Minister 
Plenipotentiary to Australia, spoke on the sub- 
ject, "Conduct and Contacts Abroad", and a spe- 
cial conference was held for the Filipino trainees 
on the organization and functioning of the Office 
of the Foreign Service, by Selden Chapin, Direc- 
tor of the Office of the Foreign Service, and 
Julian F. Harrington, Deputy Director of the 
Office of the Foreign Service. 

During the third week special citizenship work 
was conducted for the Philippine gi'oup by Eu- 
gene C. Rowley, member of the Board of Review 
of the Passport Division. 

During the fourth week the trainees heard a 
lecture on "Writing of Economic Reports" by 
William C. Trimble, Assistant Chief of the Divi- 
sion of Northern European Affairs, and a lecture 
on "Handling of Political and Economic Reports 
in the Department of State" by Roger L. Hea- 
cock. Foreign Service officer. Chief of the Com- 
mercial Liaison Section of the Division of Cen- 
tral Services. Perry N. Jester, Acting Chief of 
the Division of Training Services, also lectured 
on "Service Etiquette". 

In the fifth week the trainees participated in 
work on shipping and on commercial treaties. 

Other important and instructive lectures were 
given during this intensive six weeks' session of 
the Foreign Service Officers' Training School. 



FEBRUARY 3, 1946 



149 



Other Work Arranged by Division of Philippine 
Affaire 

In addition to the work in the Foreign Sei'vice 
Officers' Training- School, the trainees have par- 
ticipated in other work and lectures arranged by 
the Division of Philippine Affairs. Specialists 
in the Passport, Visa, Commercial Policy, and 
Shipping Divisions conducted special classes for 
the trainees in their fields of work. A repre- 
sentative of the Bureau of the Budget. Walter C. 
Laves, discussed the over-all subject of the con- 
duct of foreign relations by a modern govern- 
ment. The trainees have submitted regular re- 
ports on various phases of the work and have 
taken a series of examinations. Each Friday a 
general review session f)n the work of the week 
has been held in the Division of Philippine Af- 
fairs. 



Plans To Assign Filipinos to Embassies and 
Consulates for Training 

With the completion of the first phase of the 
work in the Department, it is now hoped to as- 
sign some of the trainees to American embassies 
and consulates abroad where they will receive 
practical training in the field. Estimates re- 
garding the length of the time required for the 
field training vary, but a period of three months is 
under consideration. 

After their training has been completed in 
the Department and abroad, it is expected that 
most of the trainees will be assigned to respon- 
sible positions in the new Philippine Department 
of Foreign Affairs and Foreign Service which 
will be created with independence on July 4. 
Already an act creating ;in Office of Foreign Be- 
lations has been passed by the Philippine Con- 
gress and approved by President Osmefia. Since 
foreign relations continue to be under the "direct 
supervision and control of the United States" 
during the pre-independence period,^ the func- 
tions of this new office are now confined to plans 
for organization of the future Department of 
Foreign Affairs and the training of the necessary 
personnel. A preliminary step has. however, been 
taken in the creation of this office. 

681639—46 3 



Proposed Philippine Department of Foreign 
Affairs 

Representatives of the Department of State and 
the Philippine Commonwealth Government have 
exchanged plans of organization for the new 
Philippine Department of Foreign Affairs. One 
plan submitted by the Commonwealth Govern- 
ment provides for a department headed by a 
secretary under whom there will be a permanent 
career under secretary and three assistant secre- 
taries, one for political affairs, one for economic 
affairs, and one for administrative affairs. Under 
each of these assistant secretaries would be a 
group of divisions totaling eight. This plan of 
organization is still subject to change, but it is 
believed that the basic outlines of the plan will 
be adopted. The Philippine Department of For- 
eign Affairs ^i'ill necessarily be small compared 
with that of the United States Department of 
State. 

Proposed Foreign Service 

It is expected that the Foreign Service of the 
Philippine Republic will be organized on a strictly 
career basis. One plan submitted provides that 
all members of the Philippine Department of 
Foreign Affairs and diplomatic and consular mis- 
sions belong to one Foreign Service. It will be 
necessary for the Philippine Government to draw 
up a basic organization statute for the Foreign 
Service as well as to fix a set of rules and regu- 
lations to govern its activities. A final organiza- 
tion of the Service will not take place before 
independence. 

Additional Trainees Expected in Near Future 

Additional groups of Filipino Foreign Affairs 
trainees are expected to arrive in the Department 
early in 1946. These new trainees are being se- 
lected on the basis of ability and character as 
well as on the basis of proven loyalty to the 
United States and Commonwealth Governments. 
They will add to the group of Filipinos trained 
to carry on the foreign affairs of their country 
after independence arrives on July 4, 1946. 

' Sec. 2 (a-lO) of the Tydings-McDuffie act and sec. 
10 of the ordinance appended to the Philippine Con- 
stitution. 



750 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Procedure and Principles Involved 
In Individual Trusteeship 



AOT'iNO Secretary Acheson opened his press 
and radio conference on January 22 by re- 
calling that a correspondent had asked the pre- 
vious week whether the requirement of unanimity 
among the five permanent members of the Secu- 
rity Council put an impediment in the way of 
working out an individual trusteeship by which 
this country could fortify some area which it re- 
garded as necessary for its defense. He said he 
had looked into this question and thought he was 
fairly clear. Mr. Acheson explained that the pro- 
cedure and the basic principles involved were as 
follows : that if the nations principally concerned 
in the particular area desired to propose a trus- 
teeship as a strategic area, these nations propose 
that to the Security Council and negotiate with 
the Security Council. In certain cases, he pointed 
out, a nation in possession of the area — whether 
by mandate or by right of military conquest — 
would be the principal leader in those negotia- 
tions. Explaining that it is provided that in 
a vote upon such a proposal the Council would 
have to vote under the provisions which require 
assenting votes of fi^•e permanent members, the 
Acting Secretary said that any one of the per- 
manent members could refuse to agree in the 
negotiations. He added that a result of fail- 
ure to agree was to leave the situation as it 
was, so that if this country were in possession 
of one of these areas and there was failure to 
agree, it simply would remain where it was before. 
If they agi'ee, he continued, there would be a 
trusteeship agreement which presumably is satis- 
factory to the nations which propose it or other- 
wise they would not agree to it. The Acting 
Secretary pointed out that after a trusteeship 
agreement had been entered into in a strategic 
area, it could not be changed without the consent 
of the Security Council and therefore it could 
not be changed without the consent of the United 
States. Mr. Acheson said that he thought this 
discussion brought out the significance of agree- 
ment : namely, the requirement that there would be 
an agreement by the five principal powers who 
would operate chiefly in, perhaps, making the ne- 



gotiations more lengthy in the first instance but 
making them more final after they had been made, 
always with the fact in mind that, if there is no 
agreement, then you stay where you were before 
you started the negotiations. 

In other words, a correspondent inquired, if the 
United States wanted to hold Okinawa, fortify it, 
and have it under an individual trusteeship, it 
could take up that matter of fortification as condi- 
tion precedent to that trusteeship, and, if that were 
not agreed to, we could fortify it '? Replying in the 
affirmative, Mr. Acheson explained that at the veiy 
outset the party initiating the negotiation has to 
state whether this is a strategic area or non-strate- 
gic area. He pointed out that, if it is a non-stra- 
tegic area, negotiation is with the Trusteeship 
Council and the final approval is by the General 
Assembly, that if it is a strategic area, the 
opposite negotiating party is the Security Council. 

Asked what constituted the states directly con- 
cerned, the Acting Secretary said that he presumed 
that that would have to be settled by diplomatic 
negotiation. He added that there are obvious 
states which would be concerned in any Japanese 
former mandate — those states which had residual 
treaty rights in the area at the time the mandate 
was created and perhaps any otliers which put 
forward claim, which might or might not be recog- 
nized by those obviously legally entitled to speak. 
Asked whether the fact that Okinawa was taken 
in the name of the Allied Supreme Command 
might be made basis of claim bj' other powers about 
interest in its final disposition, Mr. Acheson replied 
in the affirmative, adding that that would have to 
be ironed out by diplomatic negotiation. 

Wlien asked whether this Government does not 
have to be awarded an area at a peace conference 
prior to decisions of trusteeship, Mr. Acheson said 
that he did not think that was necessary, saying 
that you can proceed in any order that the nations 
concerned think best. Asked whether the formula 
with reference to trusteeship protected the interest 
of the United States, the Acting Secretary said he 
thought that as the result of the San Francisco 



FEBRUARY 3, 1946 



151 



hearing, sound results were carefully worked out 
which piotected the interest of powers. 

Asked whether a trusteeship agreement would 
take treaty form and be subject to congressional 
or senatorial review, the Acting Secretary ex- 
plained that in some areas, the United States had a 
dual interest, part of which is a result of treaties 
made after the last war in which Germany, Japan, 
and other powers concerned recognized that this 
Government was one of the Princijial Allied and 
Associated Powers and had whatever interest in 
these mandated areas these powers had, thereby 
giving the United States an interest created by 
treaty. If that interest were going to be changed 
or removed from this Government, Mr. Acheson 
presumed, it would be done by a document as 
legally significant as the one which created it. He 
added under questioning that he assumed the 
proper legal form would be found through par- 
ticipation of Congress, by treaty or some legis- 
lation. 

A correspondent said that there was fear in 
some of the British Dominions that some of the 
mandates granted them in the Pacific, which the 
United States occupied militarily to drive the 
Japanese out, may be considered by Americans 
as highly important strategic areas for the safety 
of the United States, and asked how that would 
be ironed out. Mr. Acheson said he supposed 
that that would have to be worked out by agree- 
ment between the United States and the Do- 
minions and that perhaps the Security Council 
would come into it too. Asked whether, in its 
thinking about island questions, the Department 
separated mandated islands from Japanese posses- 
sions such as the Bonins, the Acting Secretary 
said that he thought legally it did. He said that 
it would not if it were considering them from 
a strategic point of view, but that there were dif- 
ferent legal considerations involved. 

Asked if our Allies had recognized this Gov- 
ernment's right to these Pacific islands, the Act- 
ing Secretary said he did not think the question 
had been raised. A correspondent said that that 
seemed to him like a question that only a peace 
conference could settle. Mr. Acheson asserted 
that he did not think there was any magic in 
the words "peace conference", adding that it was 
settled by international agreement. 

When a correspondent said that it was his 
understanding that the Kuriles were given to 



the Eussians by secret agreement at Yalta, the 
Acting Secretary said that as he understood the 
situation was a matter of occupation, not a final 
award. 

Asked how the United States could prepare 
to make an agreement with the United Nations 
for an island which possibly the Soviet Union, 
Britain, or China might want to have as their 
property, Mr. Acheson explained that if they 
had such ambitions, they would put them for- 
ward and they would then assert a position as 
a nation concerned and that position would 
either be recognized or not by those who were 
conducting the negotiation. 

Wheat Shipments to Liberated 
Areas 

DIRECTIVE FROM THE PRESIDENT 

Sent on January 25 to the Secretaries of State, 
Agriculture, War, Navy, and Labor, the Ad?nin- 
istrator of the War Shipping Administration, and 
the Director of the Office of Defense Transporta- 
tion and released to the press hy the White House 
on the saine date 

I have become increasingly concerned over the 
shortages of vitally needed supplies to liberated 
countries. I am particularly alarmed at what 
now appears to be a world-wide shortage of 
wheat. I am informed that many of the coun- 
tries of Europe now possess less wheat than is 
necessary to maintain distribution, even though 
their bread ration is down to a starvation level. 

The problem of supplying the destitute people 
of the world with this vital food rests mainly 
on the shoulders of the United States, Canada, 
Australia and Argentina. I am informed that 
estimated shipments through the first six months 
of 1946 will be at least 5 million tons short of 
the requirements of the deficit areas. In view of 
this situation, this Government is recommending 
that each of the supplying countries accept its 
proportionate share of the responsibility in meet- 
ing the urgent requirements of the liberated 
countries on an equitable basis. Furthermore, 
this Government recommends that each of the 
importing countries procure from its own inter- 
nal sources the maximum quantity of wheat, and 
make the best possible use of existing stocks. 
(Continued on page 17S) 



152 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Wheat and Coal for Liberated Areas 



Article by JAMES A. STILLWELL 



THE STORY of wheat and coal is the story of life 
in Europe today. It is not a pretty story. 
These two commodities mean tlie difference be- 
tween extreme suffering and simple economic 
existence. 

Since the end of the war in Europe and Japan 
the people of the United States through the me- 
dium of public-opinion polls and by expression 
through service organizations and relief societies 
have overwhelmingly indicated their desire to 
fulfil the maxium relief requirements of the 
war-torn areas of the world. 

The public officials of this Government have 
on many occasions announced their determination 
to export maximum quantities of essential sup- 
plies to liberated countries, particularly during 
the emergency period. The President has em- 
phasized this Government's policy to aid the suf- 
fering people of the war-torn areas. Upon his 
return from the Berlin conference he stated: 

"If we let Europe go cold and hungry, we 
may lose some of the foundations of order on 
which the hoije for world-wide peace must rest. 
We must help to the limits of our strength. And 
we will." 1 

At a press conference on September 17 the 
President pointed out that at that time the de- 
liveries of essential supplies from this country 
to the deficit areas were limited primarily by 
the financial resources of the paying governments 
and UNRRA. As a matter of fact, there then 
existed in the United States quantities of food 
supplies and coal considerably in excess of our 
domestic needs which were not being procured 
by UNRRA or the liberated countries because of 
their extremely limited cash resources. Subse- 

.Mr. Stilhvell is Adviser on Supplies in War Areas in 
the Office of International Trade Policy, Department of 
State. For other articles on supplies for liberated areas 
by Mr. Still well, see BtTU.ETiN of May 20, 1944, p. 469, 
and May 20, 1945, p. 917. 

' Bulletin of Aug. 12, 1945, p. 212. 



quently, however, several of the paying govern- 
ments negotiated loans through the Export-Im- 
port Bank to take care of some of their longer 
range rehabilitation needs, thereby releasing cash 
reserves and short-term credits for the procure- 
ment of expendable items such as food and coal. 
UNRRA and the countries it serves gained a new 
lease on life when the United States Congress 
appi'opriated $550,000,000 to fulfil our first com- 
mitment to this international I'elief organization 
and, in addition, pa.ssed new legislation commit- 
ting this Government to a second apjiropriation 
of $1,350,000,000 as continued aid to UNRRA's 
operation through the year 1946 and the first 
quarter of 1947. 

After some of the financial bottlenecks had thus 
been removed, the people of this country and par- 
ticularly the people of the liberated countries ex- 
pected that the immense productive capacity of 
the United States would begin to grind out relief 
supplies in ever increasing quantities. 

The actual shipment of essential civilian sup- 
plies lias increased during recent months, but new 
and greater difficulties have appeared. Although 
the pi-esent shipments of supplies from this 
country are not fulfilling the minimum urgent 
requirements of the deficit areas, the size of the 
programs is so tremendous that we are finding it 
increasingly difficult to maintain a steady flow of 
exports even at the present rate. 

The two commodities most essential to the eco- 
nomic existence of our liberated Allies are wheat 
and coal : The basic ration of the people of Europe 
is dependent primarily upon bread, and it has long 
been recognized that coal is the hub of the 
economic life of Europe. 

The minimum import requirements of wheat for 
the deficit areas during the first 6 months of 1946 
are approximately 17,000,000 tons. Even this 
quantity together with the indigenous supplies 
will provide pitifully low bread ration in most of 
tlie countries of Europe. Failure on the part of 
the supplying countries to meet this minimum im- 



FEBRUARY 3, 1946 



153 



port program will undoubtedly result in wide- 
spread suffering and some starvation in many spots 
throughout the continent. 

The food authorities of the Combined Food 
Board estimate that the four supplying coun- 
tries — United States, Canada, Australia, and 
Argentina — can provide onlj' 12,000,000 tons of 
wheat during the first 6 months of 1946. They 
have estimated that of this amount 6,000,000 tons 
must come from the United States. If the result- 
ant shortage of 5,000,000 tons is allowed to mate- 
rialize we must expect chaotic conditions to de- 
velop which could easily threaten to destroy some 
of tlie foundations of order referred to by Presi- 
dent Truman. 

Every effort is being made by this Government 
to meet this quota of 6,000,000 tons of wheat ex- 
ports during the first 6 months of 1946. This 
amount, however, is not enough. We must greatly 
exceed this quota and at the same time secure com- 
mitments from the other three major supplying 
countries to assume their full share of supplying 
the total minimum requirements of 17,000,000 tons. 

It is difficult for people who face possible starva- 
tion to realize that a country so rich and so great as 
the United States might be limited in its ability to 
furnish the amount of relief they may re(iuire. A 
large number of citizens in this country may be 
astonished that there is any doubt of our ability 
to ship any amount of supplies anywhere in the 
world. They reason that since we have the largest 
merchant fleet in the world's history and since we 
succeeded in supplying the largest military ex- 
peditionary force ever maintained overseas by 
any country and, at the same time, supplied mili- 
tary requirements of many of our Allies, surely we 
should be in a position to meet any demands for 
civilian su^jplies to liberated countries. If it were 
only a question of ships, this would be true. 

During the past 6 months, however, the export 
of civilian supplies for liberated countries has so 
greatly increased that we are now facing the most 
difficult inland-transportation, handling, and 
poi't-loading problems ever experienced in this 
country. Even though we have a surplus of cargo 
vessels we are now finding it extremely diflBcult 
to load the vessels fast enough to transport the 
available quantity of supplies. 

This situation may be more readily understood 
if reviewed on a comparative scale along with the 
transport job accomplished during the war. In 



November 1944, during the peak of the war, ap- 
proximately 600 ships were loaded at Atlantic 
ports with both military- and civilian-relief sup- 
plies. In November 1945, however, approximately 
1,200 ships were loaded with civilian supplies 
through the same Atlantic ports. Such an increase 
in our export shipments has naturally increased 
our inland-transportation and port-handling 
problems by a much greater ratio than the net 
increase in tonnage. 

During the last 5 months of 1945 we experienced 
difficulty in moving to port, loading, and exporting 
approximately 5,800,000 tons of coal, yet we must 
attempt to increase that rate of export to at least 
1,750,000 tons monthly. During that same period 
we faced many difficulties in exporting 3,500,000 
tons of wheat, yet we must now increase our ex- 
port shipments of wheat to more than 1,000.000 
tons a month. The inland transportation, port 
handling, and loading of these two connnodities 
alone to achieve the rate of 2,700,000 tons monthly 
present difficulties so complex that direct coordi- 
nated control over the whole operation must be 
maintained on an hourly basis. 

For those who are inclined to criticize the policy 
of exporting these commodities to Europe, it 
should be j^ointed out that this country now pos- 
sesses a surplus of coal which would allow us to 
ship 2,500,000 tons a month if it were possible 
to move it. The Department of Agriculture re- 
ports that we can easily obtain 6,000,000 tons of 
wheat during the next 6-month period in excess 
of our domestic needs. For the producers of these 
two vital commodities this rate of movement pro- 
vides a very lucrative business and is greatly in 
excess of any export business they ever enjoyed 
in the past. 

During the pre-war 4-year period, 1935-38 in- 
clusive, this country exported to Europe less than 
50,000 tons of coal annually. Compare this amount 
with the 5,800,000 tons exported in the last 5 
months of 1945 or with the 1,750,000 tons we must 
strive to export monthly during the first half of 
1946. During the same pre-war period the United 
States exported to Europe, including the Soviet 
Union and Germany, approximately 790,000 tons 
of wheat annually. Compare this amount with 
the 3,500,000 tons exported during the last half 
of 1945 or with the 1,000,000 tons we must strive 
to exceed each month during the first half of 1946. 

It should also be remembered that a major por- 



154 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



tion of these exports are being delivered to the 
paying governments for cash and considerably 
less quantities are being delivered to UNRRA and 
paid for with funds appropriated by the United 
States Congress for that purpose. 

In spite of the extreme difficulties which have 
hampered our efforts in exporting smaller quanti- 
ties during the last 5 months, we must find a way 
to meet and exceed the goal of exporting 1,750,000 
tons of coal and 1,000,000 tons of wheat monthly 
during this extremely critical period. If we fail 
in this task the disastrous effect on the economies 
of the war-torn areas may be so catastrophic and 
far-reaching that our struggle to build a firm 
foundation for peace may be greatly delayed. 

The officials of this Government are greatly 
alarmed over the urgency of this problem, and, 
even though the immensity of the task is almost 
beyond comprehension, nothing is being left un- 
done to assure the movement and export of every 
possible ton of these essential commodities during 
the next few months. 

In order to assure the most perfect coordination 
among the various Government agencies, commer- 
cial channels of trade, and common carriers, John 
W. Snyder directed the establishment of an Export 
Control Committee on January 2. This Committee 
has been directed "to ensure the continuous and 
effective coordination of the inland shipments, 
loading, ocean shipment and unloading of the basic 
export commodities in accordance with established 
schedules. When necessary the Conunittee may 
establish export priorities." Capt. Granville Con- 
way, Deputy Administrator, War Shipping Ad- 
ministration, was ajjpointed by Mr. Snyder as the 
chairman of the Committee. The Committee mem- 
bership consists of James A. Stillwell, Department 
of State; Col. Wilbur Elliott, War Department; 
Admiral M. W. Callahan, Navy Department; A. S. 
Johnson, Office of Defense Transportation; Wil- 
liam F. Hahman, Solid Fuels Administration; 
Theodore Cummins, Office of War Mobilization 
and Reconversion; William MacArthur, Depart- 
ment of Agriculture; William Freeman, Treasury 
Procurement; and Irwin Heinie, War Shipping 
Administi'ation — Secretary. The Committee is in 
almost constant session by telephone and convenes 
formally at least once a week. Two operating sub- 
committees were established to maintain direct 
control of the movement and export of wheat and 
coal. Field operating committees have been estab- 



lished and will be established as necessary, to 
maintain hourly supervision over the inland 
handling and movement of these two vital com- 
modities. 

The Committee's operation has already proved 
the wisdom of Mr. Snyder's action. It has con- 
sidered and directed immediately effective action 
on several major problems of export movement. 
The Committee will not become entangled in 
lengthy discussions of policy because the members 
have been directed _ by their respective agencies 
to take immediate and effective action concei'ning 
any operational problem hindering the move- 
ment of the supplies which are so desperately 
needed by the suffering j^eople of the war-torn 
areas. 

It was through the Committee's efforts that 
the loading of wheat vessels in Albany, N. Y., was 
started early in January, at a time of the year 
when such loadings are customarily prohibited 
because of the extremely cold weather conditions. 
In order to insure the continuance of this loading 
schedule, ocean-going tugs are now being em- 
ployed as ice-breakers to keep the channels free 
for the movement of wheat ships. The possibility 
of transporting wheat through the Great Lakes 
from Duluth, Minn., to Buffalo, N. Y., during 
the winter months has also been explored. The 
extreme ice conditions through this area, however, 
liave so far prohibited such transport. 

The average citizen must be made fully aware 
of the true complexities of this tremendous task. 
He should realize, for instance, that tlie gathering 
of wheat stocks in the United States involves 
many thousands of farmers, laborers, truckmen, 
and local mill operators in addition to the thou- 
sands employed by the many railroad systems. 
Almost 90 percent of the wheat available in the 
United States is stored on the farms and in local 
elevators of the central, north-central, and north- 
western States. Even the first step of moving 
grain from the farms by truck to the local ele- 
vators is a tremendous task and requires the co- 
operation of thousands of people. Since most 
individuals think of wheat in terms of bushels, 
thej' will comprehend more readily the size of 
the task to be accomplished if they realize that 
37,000,000 bushels of wheat must be moved and 
loaded on ships each month to accomplish the 
export of 1,000,000 long tons. 

The complexities of the coal problem are just 
( Uontinued on page 162 ) 



FEBRUARY 3, 1946 



155 



British-Greek Financial Agreement 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY OF STATE 



On January 12, when a $25,000,000 Export- 
Impoi't Bank loan to Greece was announced, the 
United States Government addressed to the 
Greek Government a note expressing sympathetic 
interest in the financial and economic problems 
of Greek rehabilitation and the belief that a 
firm stabilization program instituted by the (rreek 
Government could start tiie country on the ad- 
mittedly difficult road to economic recovery. For 
this heavy task the Greek people can take hope 
from the knowledge of continuing outside as- 
sistance so richly deserved by a nation whose 
economy was deliberately shattered by the Axis 
occupation forces, against whom the Greek nation 
had offered such glorious resistance. 

At the request of the Greek Government, con- 
versations on methods of assisting Greek economy 
have been under way in London for the past sev- 
eral weeks between British and Greek officials. 
Kepresentatives of the United States Government 
have been present at these meetings. 



It is gratifying that the agreement on financial, 
economic, and industrial matters concluded in 
London on January 24 between the British and 
Greek Governments offers substantial financial 
and economic assistance for the solution of some 
of the most pressing problems in Greece. I am 
also happy to find in the agreement the evidence 
of a determination on the part of the Greek Gov- 
ernment to put into effect a series of remedial 
measures which should contribute to the long- 
term welfare of the Greek people by laying a 
solid basis for gradual improvement in the years 
ahead. 

I have noted with particular interest the in- 
tention of the Greek Government to invite an 
American citizen to become a member of the Cur- 
rency Committee which will be set up by Greek 
law to have statutory management of the note 
issue. 



Administration of Korea 



Asked whether the original American plan for 
Korea had projected a 10-year instead of a 5-year 
trusteeship, and whether it had omitted provision 
for the interim establishment of a Provisional 
Korean Government, Acting Secretary Acheson, 
at his press and radio conference on January 25, 
said that the so-called "original American plan" 
was not a plan in the sense that it proposed a 
specific series of pi'oposals. He said it was a 
paper which stated the general problem and di- 
rected attention to possible lines of solution. In 
that paper, he said, the thing that was stressed 
was the necessity for a unified Korean adminis- 
tration which was to be brought about by the 
two commands, the American command and So- 
viet command. It was not discussed in that paper 
whether this administration should be a gov- 
ernment or whether it should be something else, 
but the important thing which was brought for- 
ward for discussion was that it should be an 
achninistration operated by Koreans and created 
by the two commands. Mr. Acheson said that as 
a result of the discussion of that paper, the pro- 
posal for the Provisional Korean Government 



was put forward by the Soviet Government and 
readily accepted by the American Govemment. 
A correspondent asked whether it was correct 
that the United States first brought up the 
Korean subject at the Moscow conference. Mr. 
Acheson said that was correct and that in the 
paper there was also discussion of the necessity 
or desirabilitv or utility of a trusteeship. He 
said it had been suggested that it might not be 
necessary to have one but, if one was necessary, 
a plan should be made for a period of five years. 
If at the end of that time it seemed a further ex- 
tension was unnecessary, that would be the end 
of that, and if at the end of that time extension 
was necessary, anotlier period of five years might 
be considered. In other words, Mr. Acheson said 
this again was not put forward as a concrete 
plan but as a suggestion as to the basis of dis- 
cussion. Asked whether the discussions between 
the Russians and Americans were still going on 
at S'eoul, IMr. Acheson said he thought they were. 

The above statement in the financial agteeraent was 
released to the press on Jan. 27. 



156 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Freedom of the Press— World-Wide 



A discussion and explanation of the general question of 
inlernational freedom of the press and communications and 
what can he done to place that freedom on a firmer hasis 
was broadcast on January 26, 1946 by Assistant Secretary of 
State Benton and Federal Communications Commissioner 
Paul Porter. The text of their conversation on the air is 
presented below. The broadcast was the seventh in a group 
of Stale Department programs in the NBC University of the 
Air series entitled "Our Foreign Policy". Sterling Fisher, 
director of the NBC University of the Air, was chairman 
of their discussion. [Released to the press January 26] 



Fisher : Last month, Mr. Benton, we discussed 
with you the State Department's plans for its new 
International Information Service. This time we 
are tackling a broader subject — the general ques- 
tion of international freedom of the press and 
communications, and what can be done to place 
that freedom on a firmer basis. This issue has 
come in for a great deal of discussion in the last 
year or two. Why, Mr. Benton, is this a matter 
of such immediate importance? 

Benton : Mr. Fisher, freedom of the press is 
something that will always fire the imagination of 
Americans, because it's so deeply imbedded in our 
traditions. People have fought for freedom of 
expression all through the ages. It is written into 
our Bill of Rights — in fact, it's the very first point 
there. I have no doubt people will still be making 
broadcasts on freedom of the press in 1996 — or, 
for that matter, in 2046. This is an essential part 
of man's eternal struggle against ignorance and 
oppression. 

Fisher : Granted that "freedom of the press" is 
a great battle cry. But why is it such an urgent 
matter right now ? 

Benton : I think that the line from Prime Min- 
ister Attlee that is quoted as a keynote in the 
Charter of UNESCO— the United Nations Edu- 
cational, Scientific and Cultural Organization — 
is the answer. You remember he said that "it is 
in the minds of men that the defenses of peace must 
be constructed". It has always been important to 
seek a free flow of information among the peoples 
of the world. But since August 6 of last year — 
Hiroshima, if you remember — it has become a mat- 
ter of paramount urgency. Freedom of the press 



is freedom of men's minds to seek the truth. With- 
out that, we can't build the defenses and can't hope 
for a secure peace. 

Fisher : I think you've made your point. 

Benton : I'd like to quote something from Kent 
Cooper, general manager of the Associated Press. 
I'm having my troubles with the AP but I like 
this quotation : "Every war of aggression in mod- 
ern times has been preceded by distrust, then fear, 
and finally hatred, all created by a systematic 
poisoning of the news by the aggressor state." 
That happened in Germany and Italy and Japan, 
and I agree it was one of the main causes of the 
war. At least, it made it possible for the aggressor 
nations to sell their own people the idea of war. 

Fisher : Mr. Porter, what do you say on this? 

Porter : Freedom of the press is one thing on 
which everyone agrees — in principle. Everyone is 
for it. The question is how to bring it about. 
We've certainly failed to bring it about interna- 
tionally in the last 25 years. 

Benton : In fact, ]\Ir. Porter, we've gone back- 
ward, taking the world as a whole. Until the war, 
the trend was away from greater freedom, not 
toward it. There have been large areas of the 
world where press freedom has been blacked out 
altogether. 

Fisher: You're speaking, Mr. Benton, of the 
Axis countries? 

Benton : Primarily. In Italy, for example, a 
whole generation of human beings has grown up 
without ever having known what a free press 
means. Think of it — men 25 years old who can't 
remember anything but Fascist censorship and 
oppression until our troops arrived ! 

Fisher : Would you define press freedom then, 
Mr. Porter, as freedom from censorship? 

Porter: That's a fundamental part of it — 
freedom to criticize, freedom to print the facts 
without fear of censorship, except for security 
reasons during wartime. 

Benton : But when I was speaking of a trend 
away from freedom in this field, I meant more 
than freedom from censorship. The economic 
developments of the last two or three decades 
have added new restrictions on the free exchange 
of information — such as quotas on books and mo- 



FEBRUARY 3, 1946 



157 



tion pictures, for example. When I was in Lon- 
don last November, the British Parliament was 
discussing the fact that American movies were 
taking 80 million dollars a year out of the Brit- 
ish Isles. That's approximately the amount of 
the annual interest on the proposed loan to 
Britain. The British are very short of dollars, 
and so Parliament was discussing quotas on 
American films. 

Fishek: And what other kinds of restrictions 
are there? 

Benton : There have been many restrictions on 
the use of cable and wireless facilities, with which 
Mr. Porter is even more familiar than I am. 

Porter : We dealt with some of those restric- 
tions at the Bermuda conference, of course. 

Fisher: When we talk about freedom of the 
press, we have a tendency to take a "holier than 
thou" attitude. We assume that we, and a few 
other nations, perhaps, have a complete press 
freedom. Mr. Porter, is that true? 

Porter : Our press isn't perfect, if that's what 
you mean. I'd be the first to admit that. If 
you look for it, you can find a certain amount of 
distortion and coloring of the news — more in some 
papers than in others. But only a few papers 
are very bad otfendei-s — most of our press is 
reasonably objective, in its presentation of the 
news. 

Benton : But distortion isn't the main prob- 
lem, Paul. Part of the press distorts the news, 
it's true; but that doesn't matter too much be- 
cause other parts of the press can step up and 
say, "Look here, that fellow is cock-eyed." Dis- 
tortions can be answered. In fact our American 
concept of freedom of the press allows for the 
rankest distortion, on the theory that if there's a 
free voice for everyone, the truth will eventually 
win out. 

Fisher: Then what is the main problem, Mr. 
Benton ? 

Benton : Our main limitation here in America 
is an economic one. It's hard to break into the 
newspaper, radio, and movie industries because 
of the large investment that is required, and the 
many restrictions against the newcomer which 
make it tough for him to move in and compete. 
This limits the number of voices that can speak 
effectively. The day of the soapbox is over. 

Porter: In radio, of course, the opening up of 
about 5,000 new FM channels is going to help. 



That means there will be room for a lot of "little 
fellows" to break in. 

Benton : Yes, that is a good thing, but in the 
newspaper and movie businesses the tendency has 
been toward bigness — toward fewer and fewer 
voices. 

Fisher: One more point before we leave this 
genei'al question. Mr. Benton, doesn't the Soviet 
Union have an entirely different idea of the role 
of the press from ours, and isn't this an obstacle 
to world-wide agreement on freedom of the press? 

Benton : I wouldn't put it quite like that, Mr. 
Fisher. It's true that the Soviet Union, China, 
and many other countries have a high degree of 
state control or censorship of the press. China 
is committed to changing that. China has al- 
ready lightened the censorshii^ of outgoing news 
and has said she would do the same internally 
for her own press. 

Fisher: But what about the Soviet Union? 

Benton : The Russians not only frankly admit 
but boast that their concept of freedom of the 
press is different from ours. They even deny 
that ours is freedom. They point out that the 
Soviet Constitution guarantees any group of 
workers the right to issue their own papers and 
magazines and the materials to do it with. To 
us, that means state subsidies and state control, 
which are fundamentally opposed to our concept 
of an independent press, free to criticize the 
Government. The Russians, for their part, can't 
understand why we allow American newspapers 
to i^rint attacks on our wartime Allies. They take 
such press attacks very seriously, just as we some- 
times are too prone to assume that Marshal Stalin 
personally writes or approves of every word of 
every article that appears in Pravda or Izvestia. 
And the Russians think that our press is domi- 
nated by the wealthy class and the advertisers. 

Fisher: Do you see any hope of bringing the 
two viewpoints closer together? 

Benton : Yes, I do see hope. It will undoubt- 
edly be a gi'adual process. It will be easier to 
get agreement on some things than others. I 
hope that the time will come when we shall get 
a free flow of news between the Union of Soviet 
Socialist Republics and the United States. Last 
year a committee was sent around the world by 
the American Society of Newspaper Editors. The 
report of that committee is hopeful about there 
being a basis for progress toward agreement on 
freedom of news transmission. 



158 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Fisher: Did the committee of editoi-s reach 
any conclusior. on the general world outlook for 
press freedom? 

Benton: Yes, they were reasonably hopeful. 
They concluded that in the world as a whole "the 
spark of press freedom is alight". Now that the 
war is over, we can hope that all free countries 
will px'ogress in the direction of greater liberties 
for their people. 

Fisher: Now that we've made clear what we 
mean by a press . . . 

Benton: I think iwe ought to broaden our 
phrase. Let's call it freedom of communication. 
Radio, movies, books — they're all included. 

Fisher: All right. Now, the key question, as 
I see it, Mr. Benton, is what is being done to get 
freer communications? William Philip Simms 
alleged just the other day that the various for- 
eign ministers have been hiding behind a smoke 
screen, saying, "Oh ! Yes ! We favor freedom of 
the i^ress", but doing nothing to bring it about 
through the United Nations Organization. "Wliat 
is the State Department doing? 

Benton : Of course, this isn't a job just for 
the State Department. It's one for everybody, 
at least everybody and every Government agency 
concerned with communications. Not only the 
State Department but Congress, the FCC, and 
our delegations to the various United Nations 
conferences are doing something about it. In 
the State Department we've attacked the problem 
on three diiferent fronts: the economic front, the 
political front, and what you might call the 
"operating front". 

Fisher : Let's take the economic front first. 

Benton : The outstanding achievement on this 
front has been the Bermuda Telecommunications 
Conference. Paul Porter, who was down there as 
vice chairman of the American Delegation, can 
tell you about that. ]\Ir. Porter carried the load 
and was the key figure of the conference — at least, 
in our part of it. 

Fisher : Just why, Mr. Porter, was the Bermuda 
conference so significant? 

Porter : It was significant because the problems 
of high cost and bottlenecks in transmitting news 
and telegraph messages between the United States 
and the British Empire — a problem which has 
vexed newsmen and other telegra])h users for 25 
years — was solved in 10 days over the conference 
table in Bermuda. 



Fisher: Can you tell us a little about the prob- 
lem itself before you go into the solution ? 

Porter : Well, before the war all telegraph mes- 
sages from the United States to points in the Bi'it- 
ish Empire were funneled through London or 
some other British point. There were no direct 
radio circuits from this country to other parts of 
the British Empire because the British policy re- 
quired the use of their own extensive cable facili- 
ties, which hooked up the whole Empire. The re- 
sult was a very high cost, which kept commercial 
correspondence as well as news transmission be- 
tween British territories and the United States at 
too low a level. 

Fisher: How about an example or two? 

Porter : The ordinary telegraph rate from New 
York to London was 20 cents a word, but the rate 
from New York to Ceylon was 55 cents, the rate 
to Singapore was 89 cents, and the rate to Sara- 
wak, in Borneo, was $1.05. The press rate was 
about a third as much, but it was still too high 
to encourage the transmission of news to and from 
the British territories. 

Benton : But the British had what they called 
a "pennj' press rate". 

Porter: Yes, but that applied only between 
British points. With the penny press rate, a press 
message could be sent between any two points in 
the British Empire for a penny a word, British 
money, which is not quite two America)! cents. 
American newspapers could take advantage of this 
low rate only indirectly and by the sacrifice of 
speedy and direct service. An American corre- 
spondent in Bombay sending a news story to New 
York could send it over British facilities to Mont- 
real at two cents a word. But at Montreal, his 
story would have to be reforwarded to New York 
b}' an agency maintained by the newspaper. By 
using indirect British facilities in this way, the 
news story could be transmitted to New York for 
a little more than 3 cents a word. But if the news- 
paper correspondent wanted to send that same 
news story from Bombay directly to New York 
over the direct radio circuit, it would cost about 
13 cents a word. 

Benton : That direct radio circuit to India, 
Paul, was one of the many circuits established 
during the war with British points where our 
soldiers were stationed. 

Portjor : Yes, but the Indian circuit as well as 
the circuits to several other British Em2:)ire points 
were agi'ced to by the British only for the war 



FEBRUARY 3, 1946 



159 



period plus six months. They made an exception 
to their regular policy only because of wartime 
conditions. 

Fisher: Well, Mr. Porter, how did the Ber- 
muda conference change all this? 

Porter: In the first place — and this is funda- 
mental — the British readjusted their pre-war pol- 
icy by agreeing to continue all the essential point- 
to-point radio circuits developed during the war. 
For example, direct radio circuits between the 
United States and Australia and New Zealand 
and India are to be kept. In addition, the British 
agreed to direct circuits from this country to Ja- 
maica and Palestine, and to the Union of South 
Africa, Hong Kong, Malaya, and Ceylon, if 
traffic studies or conditions justify them. 

Benton : In other words, the British abandoned 
their pre-war monopoly position and recognized 
that in this shrinking world we need faster and 
cheaper communications directly with the various 
British territories, so that we can get quicker and 
better news coverage of them and give them bet- 
ter news coverage of ourselves. 

Porter: Exactly. The British have adjusted 
their policy to the principles of an expanding 
world commerce. The rate adjustments they 
made were also very important. Beginning 
April 1, or earlier, the ceiling price for tele- 
graph messages from any place in the United 
States to any place in the British Empire will 
be 30 cents a word, instead of up to $1.05, and 
the press rates muII be 6I/2 cents or less a word, 
instead of u]} to 40 cents a word. An American 
newspaper will now be able to send a 100-word 
news story from any place in the United States 
to any place in the British Empire for $6.50, 
where before the same-length story would have 
cost $16 from New York to Hong Kong, $11.50 
to New Delhi, $18.50 to South Africa, and $9 to 
Melbourne. It will be easier to exchange news 
not only with British territories but with some 
other areas as well. The British agreed to re- 
nounce certain exclusive rights they had obtained 
in Greece and Arabia so that direct circuits could 
be established between the United States and 
those countries. That means that American com- 
panies can come in there. 

Fisher : Mr. Porter, what concessions did we 
make? We must have given them something in 
return. 

Porter: Well, Mr. Fisher, the reduction of 
rates is a mutual proposition, and lower rates to 



the United States will benefit British commerce, 
and their press as well. The increased volume of 
traffic which is generally stimulated by reduced 
rates can be expected to increase their gi-oss reve- 
nues from their communications system. And 
don't forget that it was to their advantage, as 
well as ours, to reach an understanding with us 
on disputed matters, rather than to permit dis- 
putes to work themselves out through destructive 
competition. 

Benton : I think you ought to say a word about 
the multiple-address sytem, because that will 
mean still greater economy in press transmission. 

Porter: At Bermuda, the British agreed to 
encourage the use of multiple-address press trans- 
missions from the United States. To give you 
some idea of the saving that is possible, one Ameri- 
can wireless company has proposed to the FCC a 
rate amounting to only three eighths of a cent a 
word for multiple transmissions ! It would simply 
beam the news toward a given country, and all 
the subscribers there would pick it up and use it, 
or some central agency would pick it up and relay 
it to them. 

Fisher: We've made great progress toward 
cheaper press rates, then. 

Porter: Yes, it's up to the American news 
agencies now to take advantage of these rates in 
selling their services. 

Fisher : Well, Mr. Porter, all this will do a lot to 
facilitate communications with the British areas. 

Porter : Its significance is a lot wider than that, 
Mr. Fisher. This is only one step toward a ra- 
tional world-wide communications system. The 
principles of freedom of information which the 
British accepted at Bermuda were adopted by the 
American republics at the Inter- American Radio 
Conference at Rio de Janeiro earlier last fall. 
These agreements have paved the way for world- 
wide accei^tance of the same principles at an inter- 
national communications conference we expect to 
hold sometime this year. And we must not over- 
look the fact that the field of communications, like 
so many activities today, is dynamic and global in 
nature. The complex problems which exist can be 
successfully solved only by international under- 
standing such as we have been discussing. 

Fisher : Doesn't that suggest that the interna- 
tional conference you mention, or some permanent 
international communications body, should be 
made a part of the United Nations Organization? 



160 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Porter : Perhaps. It would fit very well into 
the Economic and Social Council's list of affiliates. 

Fisher : Well, interesting as all this is, I think 
we've spent enough time on the economic aspects 
of free communication. 

Pokter: I'd like to add just one thing: The 
Bermuda conference succeeded beyond all expec- 
tations. But the improvement of communications 
is not an end in itself. It is a means to an end — 
the real end bei)ig to bring the democratic nations 
of the earth closer togethei' by making possible a 
freer exchange of ideas, more complete under- 
standing, and the development of better commer- 
cial relations. 

Fisher : Right. Now, Mr. Benton, it's your 
turn. What about the political approach to free- 
dom of the press, or rather, freedom of communi- 
cations? What is the State Department's posi- 
tion on this ? 

Benton: The State Department plans to do 
everything within its power along political or 
diplomatic lines to help break down the artificial 
barriers to^ the expansion of private American 
news agencies, magazines, motion pictures, and 
other media of communications throughout the 
world. And of course we welcome information 
from abroad through the same channels. It's a 
reciprocal process — a two-way arrangement. 

Fisher: What about the crusade waged by 
Hugh Baillie of the United Press, Kent Cooper of 
the Associated Press, the American Society of 
Newspaper Editors, and others for world-wide 
recognition of certain basic press freedoms? 

Benton: They have done a great job in helping 
bring to the attention of the public the need for a 
free flow of news among all nations, without cen- 
sorsliip, and without discrimination in transmis- 
sion rates or in making news available at the 
source. The State Department endorses and sup- 
ports these objectives. 

Fisher : But what has been done, Mr. Benton, 
toward translating these aims into reality? 

Benton: To try to answer that I'll have to go 
back a bit. Freedom of the press — and freedom of 
exchange of information generally — is an inte- 
gral part of our foreign policy. Back in 1944, if 
you will recall. Congress passed a joint resolution 
endorsing "the world-wide right of interchange of 
news by news-gathering and distributing 
agencies . . . without discrimination as to 
sources, distribution rates, or charges . . . 



this right should be protected by international 
compact." 

Porter: Both political parties endoreed the 
same j^rinciples in their 1944 platforms. 

Benton : Yes, Paul, and the following spring 
the inter-American conference at Chapultepec de- 
clared for the ending of all peacetime censorship 
and for the free transmission of all news and 
information in this hemisphere. Our Delega- 
tion, of which I was a member, gave that resolu- 
tion its strongest support. And President Tru- 
man, in his Navy Day speech last October, said 
that one of the main points in our foreign policy 
was to ". . . promote freedom of expression 
and freedom of religion throughout the . . . 
world". 

Fisher: What progress has been made, Mr. 
Benton, toward United Nations action to guaran- 
tee freedom of communications? 

Benton : The United Nations Charter has as 
one of its objectives the promotion of "human 
rights and fundamental freedoms". Under the 
Economic and Social Council, which has just been 
set up: by the United Nations General Assembly, 
the Charter provides for a Commission on Human 
Rights. It is my understanding that this Com- 
mission will outline basic goals. Freedom of 
speech is one of the fundamental freedoms, and 
this includes freedom of the press and of com- 
munications. The then Secretary of State said at 
San Francisco that "When a Commission is estab- 
lished, the United States Government will urge 
that it promptly study the means of promoting 
freedom of the press, freedom of communication, 
and a fuller flow of knowledge and of informa- 
tion between all peoples. In the meantime, we 
shall press forward our active efforts to further 
these objectives in every practicable way". 

Fisher : And that still stands ? 

Benton: It certainly does. We have "pressed 
forward our active efforts" at every opportunity. 
At the Potsdam Conference last July, our Dele- 
gation, headed by President Truman, was instru- 
mental in inserting several important clauses into 
the communique. Freedom of speech, press, and 
religion were guaranteed to the Germans, subject 
to security regulations, and representatives of the 
Allied press were guaranteed full freedom to re- 
port to the world on developments in Poland, 
Rumania, Bulgaria, Hungary, and Finland. 

Fisher: There were a good many complaints, 



FEBRUARY 3, 1946 



161 



Mr. Benton, that these guaranties were more or 
less honored in the breach, in tlie Balkans. 

Benton: Yes, I know. Secretary Byrnes took 
up some of these complaints with Foreign Com- 
missar Molotov in London last fall. They have 
been under discussion since then. The situation 
has improved. 

Fisher: Now, an interesting question has been 
raised at the current United Nations Assembly 
meeting in London. According to the papers, one 
of the delegates from the Philii^pines has pro- 
posed that the Assembly call an international con- 
ference on freedom of the press. 

Benton: I believe that proposal will be dis- 
cussed when the Assembly has finished its organ- 
izing session in London and reconvenes here in 
the United States a few months later. Our dele- 
gates to London will do everything possible to 
speed up the organization of the Economic and 
Social Council and its Human Rights Commission 
to help secure agreement on world-wide objectives. 

Fisher : But what about UNESCO— the United 
Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Or- 
ganization? "Where does that fit into the 
picture ? 

Benton : UNESCO can perhaps make the 
greatest contribution of all to the freedom of com- 
munication. One of UNESCO's purposes, stated 
in its Charter, is to "recommend such interna- 
tional agreements as may be necessary to promote 
the free flow of ideas by word and image". 
UNESCO can become a dynamic force for free- 
dom. That is the world's hope for UNESCO. 
It will press for action by all countries every- 
where. But it will of course be some time before 
UNESCO is functioning on a full scale. 

Porter: If I might sound a slightly skeptical 
note — 

Fisher : Go right ahead, Mr. Porter. 

Porter: I'd like to state my oiDinion, for what 
it's worth, that all the conferences and resolutions 
and bills of rights that you can shake a stick at 
won't be worth two cents as far as getting any 
country that doesn't have a free press to establish 
one. Only the people of the country can do that. 
You can search the history books and never find 
an example of freedom being handed to a people. 
They always have to demand it or fight for it them- 
selves. 

Fisher: Except the Japanese under MacAr- 
thur? 



Porter : Maybe. It remains to be seen whether 
tliey'll keep it. 

FiSHEB : Mr. Benton, what about the suggestion 
that guaranties of freedom of the press be written 
into the peace treaties with former enemy coun- 
tries? 

Benton : "We should do everything in our power 
to achieve a free flow of news, in line with our 
policy as shown by our actions at Potsdam and in 
Japan. As far as internal provisions for press 
freedom are concerned, that will be up to the na- 
tions themselves. Freedom is something that 
can't be imposed from the outside, as Paul Porter 
just said. But I think that free access to news 
sources, and freedom to transmit news from one 
country to another without discrimination, might 
very well be included in appropriate agreements 
or treaties covering our relations with former 
enemy countries. 

Fisher : Then there is the proposal for a gen- 
eral international agreement covering the free 
exchange of news. 

Benton : We shall certainly support efforts to 
get international agreement in this field. The 
United Nations and UNESCO— its educational or- 
ganization — both have freedom of expression as 
a basic objective, as I said. "We should do every- 
thing possible to spell out this objective, through 
these United Nations channels, in a general agree- 
ment on freedom of information. 

Fisher : Well, I think that covers the political 
side, Mr. Benton. But you mentioned a third 
point of attack on this problem. 

Benton: Yes, on what I call the "operating 
front". The State Department plans to do its best, 
if Congress approves, to fill certain gaps left by 
private American activities abroad. Some parts 
of the world still have practically no news from 
American sources, except for what our Govern- 
ment can supply. But the State Department's 
function will be purely supplementary to the activ- 
ities of private agencies. 

Fisher : "Wliich are the gaps ? 

Benton: Good examples are the Balkan coun- 
tries and southeast Asia. There the short-wave 
radio is almost the only way of getting American 
news through. 

Fisher : And what about the Soviet Union ? 

Benton : The Soviet people get some news about 
America indirectly through the Soviet Govern- 
ment News Agency, Tass, which is furnished 



162 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



American news by the AP and UP, and they get 
some first-hand background about America 
through a magazine which the State Department 
publishes in Russian and which a Soviet Govern- 
ment agency distributes in the Soviet Union. We 
are now considering Russian-language news broad- 
casts. Ambassador Harriman has I'ecommended 
such broadcasts, and they may well contribute to 
American-Soviet understanding. The truth is the 
Russian people get very little news about Amer- 
ica — in fact, far too little. Further, all reports 
indicate they are eager for such news. 

Fisher : Do you think, Mr. Benton, that short- 
wave broadcasting by the Government will be con- 
tinued on its present level? 

Benton: That's for Congress to decide. Ster- 
ling. We've cut our operations drastically from 
the wartime level, as I told you on a previous 
broadcast. I believe the short-wave job abroad 
must be done. There is an unfilled hunger for news 
from Ameiican sources, and short-wave broad- 
casting is often the only vehicle we have which gets 
through. I am not opening up for discussion the 
question of the AP and UP wire service for our 
international broadcasting, which I regard as 
vital, because the subject is too big to cover briefly 
on this i^rogram. 

Fisher: To summarize the discussion then, the 
United States is taking a strong stand on behalf 
of freedom of communications throughout the 
world. It has acted to make jjliysical communi- 
cations more direct and less expensive, starting 
with the Bermuda conference. This means re- 
ducing one of the most important barriers to the 
movement of news. Is that right, Mr. Porter? 

Porter : Yes, we shouldn't underestimate the 
importance of the economic side. You have to 
make communication possible and practical be- 
fore you can have a free exchange of news. 

Fisher: The Government is also prepared to 
press vigorously forward to try to obtain general 
acceptance of such principles as freedom from 
censorship and from discrimination, in making 
news and communications facilities available. 
The Government's role in news distribution is 
regarded as purely that of supplementing the 
private news agencies. 

Benton: I think it's safe to say that in the 
months to come our Government will play a lead- 
ing role in the fight against restrictions of all 
sorts on international communications. Only if 



there is a free flow of ideas from one nation 
to another can we hope to secure that mutual 
understanding among the peoples of the world 
upon which we can erect the defenses of peace 
in the minds of men. 

Fisher: Thank you, Mr. Benton and Mr. Por- 
ter, tor a clear analysis of the question of inter- 
national freedom of communications. 

Announcer: That was Sterling Fisher, Direc- 
tor of the NBC University of the Air. He has 
been diseussmg ''Freedom of the Press — ^World- 
Wide" with Mr. William Benton, Assistant Sec- 
retary of State for Public Affairs, and Mr. Paul 
Porter, chairman of the Federal Comnmnications 
Commission and vice chairman of the United 
States Delegation to the Bermuda Telecommuni- 
cations Conference. The discussion was adapted 
for radio bv Selden Menefee. 



STILL WELL — Continued from page 154. 
as great but involve people in different sections 
of the United States. The two problems of move- 
ment added together produce activity felt di- 
rectly or indirectly in almost every village, ham- 
let, and countryside of the whole ITnited States. 
It is the total problem which the Government 
officials are now attempthig to solve. 

It is not enough, however, that a group of 
Government officials shall band themselves to- 
gether in mutual effort to fulfil this Government's 
responsibilities to our liberated Allies. The task 
is so great that it requires the combined efforts 
of all the people of the United States. Even 
those citizens who are not directly connected with 
any phase of the production, movement, or export 
of these essential civilian supplies should take 
an active and direct interest in tlieir respective 
communities concerning the progress of our total 
supply effort. Officials of the Department of 
State and other agencies of the Government di- 
rectly concerned with this problem will endeavor 
to keep the public well informed through the 
press and radio of all the pertinent facts available. 

The people of the United States are faced with 
a new challenge to tlieir indomitable will to ac- 
complish this task, no matter how great, so long 
as it will help to relieve the suffering of hu- 
manity. We should translate into action the 
President's statement, "We must help to the limits 
of our strength. And we will." 



FEBRUARY 3, 1946 



163 



Future of the Foreign Service 



By SELDEN CHAPIN 



EFFECTIVE ACTION by the United States on the 
road to international cooperation requires 
that it be represented by the best men it can 
mobilize and train for the job. The United 
States Foreign Service will be the cutting edge, 
as well as the first line, of our representation 
abroad. The Foreign Service must inform the 
President and the Secretary of State accurately, 
impartially, and fully concerning political and 
economic conditions abroad, evaluate the forces 
shaping events, warn of any developments which 
menace international peace and which directly 
imperil American interests, and propose means by 
which our interests may be protected and our 
objectives advanced. In this respect it must be 
reporter, interpreter, and counselor. 

The Service must make effective the policy of 
the United States by negotiation and by the ex- 
eieise of American influence, must represent the 
character and purposes of the American people to 
the other people of the world, must protect 
American citizens and interests and promote 
American trade. In the execution of these tasks 
it is the chief agent of the American Govern- 
ment abroad. 

The Service must work with and assist the 
specialized missions which play an important part 
in international affairs and must provide con- 
tinuity and an over-all supervision of the execu- 
tion of foreign policy. 

The Service must continue to perform or to 
direct the traditional functions in respect of citi- 
zenship and nationality, immigration, shipping, 
and documentation of merchandise which make 
up a large part of the work in the field. In this 
respect it is primarily a "service" organization. 

The duties I have outlined make up the broad, 
if traditional, frame of reference of a Foreign 
Service officer's career. His service in the new 
diplomacy will however be very different from 
that in the past, not only because, as I have indi- 
cated, his work will be of more vital concern to 
the Nation in winning the peace, but also because 
he will have to perform new work of a specialized 



character under different conditions. Durmg the 
war, officials of executive departments frequently 
entered into direct contact with their opposite 
numbers abroad. The myriad Allied combined 
boards for supply and shipping, lend-lease, eco- 
nomic warfare, finance, and intelligence drew 
diplomacy out of the chancery into new adven- 
tures. 

The career Foreign Service under these condi- 
tions must be able to contribute something more 
to the conduct of foreign relations than efficient 
secretariats and the rituals of old-school-tie diplo- 
macy. It must know the substance of the special- 
ized work which the specialists are called upon to 
jjerform and must be equipped either to partici- 
pate directly in such activities or to assist, guide, 
and coordinate them. If it cannot, it may well 
continue as a distinguished relic of the nineteenth 
century, or as the frill on the lamb chop, but the 
peculiar contribution it has to make in know-how, 
in discipline and continuity, in the arts of nego- 
tiation will go for nought. 

There are perhaps two broad and distinct con- 
ceY>ts of the present and future roles of foreign 
offices and traditional foreign services. One en- 
visages a foreign office as a sort of general staff, 
estimating situations in foreign policy, coordinat- 
ing all information — strategic, economic, and 
political — relating to specific problems in inter- 
national relations : e. g. a proposal for five-power 
consultation on Near Eastern dependent areas — 
and delegating field operations to a group of ex- 
ecutive agencies, of which the career Foreign 
Service is merely one, although it has supervisory 
and coordinating responsibilities. To some extent 
this has been the pattern of our Department and 
Service during the war years. I am frank in say- 
ing, however, that the arrangement has not been 
entirely satisfactory, in either the public interest or 

Excerpts from an address made before the Hartford 
Foreign Policy Association, Hartford, Conn., Jan. 21, 
and released to the press on the same date. Mr. 
Chapin is Director of the Office of the Foreign Service, 
Department of State. Requests for complete texts of the 
address should be sent to the Division of Research and 
Publication, Department of State. 



164 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



that of the several agencies and of the Depart- 
ment. The experience of the war has illustrated 
the confiision, misunderstanding, and irritation 
which can be caused abroad if a number of inde- 
pendent officers representing various agencies are 
acting semi-independently of one another. Fur- 
thermore, the In'dra-headed aspect of our repre- 
sentation tends to confuse the foreigner with whom 
we have to deal. 

The other concept of the operation of a foreign 
office contemplates that it would be a large and 
complex organization, including in its own divi- 
sions technicians and specialists qualified for, and 
engaged in, tasks far outside the accustomed and 
traditional orbits of formal diplomacy. Certainly 
all foreign offices will expand to some degi-ee along 
this line after the war. Yet the pitfalls are ob- 
vious. As one observer put it recently, "a State 
Department cannot take on operating functions 
and the remnants of agencies in dissolution, as the 
present one is doing, without running the risks that 
come with trying to turn a liighly specialized 
business into a general store.'' 

It would not be correct to say that any clear-cut 
decision has been made between these alternatives 
by the American Department of State. It seems, 
however, to be tending more toward the latter 
than it has in the past, and we are steering care- 
fully to avoid the pitfalls. Recently we have taken 
over the functions and part of the personnel of 
OWI, the Office of Inter-American Affairs, the 
Foreign Economic Administration, and a few 
people from OSS — tlie Office of Strategic Serv- 
ices — and the Surplus Property Administration. 

These new tasks mean new problems for the 
Foreign Service in the field of economics, for ex- 
ample. The Foreign Service officer will be doing 
things quite different from the trade promotion 
of the past. Instead of the weapons in the arsenal 
of economic warfare, he will be using peacetime 
tools, in aid of the American economy, as safe- 
guards against future wars, and factors aiding a 
more equitable distribution of the world's goods. 
The experience gained in evaluating the economic 
position of an entire country by a hundred new 
techniques will help to open new horizons to the 
Foreign Service officer. 

It was Canning whose audacious theory that 
public opinion should actually be invoked in the 
councils of diplomacy caused Metternich to de- 
scribe him as a "malevolent meteor hurled by 



divine providence on Europe". The power of pub- 
lic ojiinion has grown mightily from Canning's 
day to that of the Office of War Information. 
Today's relations between states ai'e increasingly 
relations between peoples. The Foreign Service 
officer will have to mesh this force with diplomacy, 
and he will need to participate in the activities of 
the cultural and informational agencies. 

Our foreign policy is bound to involve a rela- 
tively large United States force in being whether 
solely for national defense or as contingent com- 
mitments under the United Nations Security 
Council. In the future the Foreign Service ofiicer 
must know more about our military and naval 
establishment and its policies. 

I have said enough, I believe, to show why the 
Foreign Service must be organized and stafl'ed 
somewhat differently than in the past. I wish I 
were able to report to you that our first-line service 
is in shape to do the job which lies ahead. I should 
like to say that we are ready to step on the stage 
of international affairs with our best foot fore- 
most; that we are prepared, right now, to under- 
take the tasks of the new diplomacy, or even to 
carry on the old. The truth is that we are not but 
tliat we are energetically trying to be. We have 
been working intensively on the most comprehen- 
sive Foreign Service legislation since the Rogers 
act of 1924, a new Magna Charta which effectively 
turns the service inside out and which we hope to 
present to Congress in tlie near future. 

Many, if not most, of our alleged shoi'tcomings 
are due solelj' to lack of manpower. Our pre-war 
service of 833 would be too small for the present 
job ; we estimate that between 1600 and 2000 will be 
required. Actually, we have only 750 men in the 
cai'eer Foreign Service today. During the war the 
needs of the armed forces, of course, took preced- 
ence, and we suspended recruiting of young men 
after 1941. We did mobilize a kind of war i-eserve, 
the Foreign Service Auxiliary, who were for the 
most part specialists in various fields. Many of 
these men will be lost to us as the war emergency 
draws to a close and jobs in private employment at 
higher salaries beckon. 

We plan to combat our manpower shortage in 
various ways; in November of last year we held 
examinations exclusively for members and veter- 
ans of the armed forces and will probably hold 
others this spring which should yield us some 
600 picked men altogether from among thousands 



FEBRUARY 3, 1946 



165 



of candidates. "We have also just sent to the Con- 
gress a bill which would authorize the admission 
into the cai'eer service during a two-year period 
of up to 250 outstandingly qualified officers from 
the Department of State, the armed forces, and 
the other federal agencies, at any grade commen- 
surate with their age, experience, and qualifica- 
tions. We would administer this bill, if enacted 
into law, with due regard to the career principle. 
This recruitment should invigorate the Service by 
the introduction of fresh blood and should bring 
into it a number of special skills. Without these 
it could not hope to cope with its new responsibili- 
ties nor to avoid stagnation. 

We also have a plan which is not yet threshed 
out in detail to establish what we conceive to be 
a "staff" corps of specialists who will be officers 
of the Foreign Service, enjoying the same privi- 
leges as the diplomatic and consular officers, who 
may be known as the "executive", or "line", branch. 
This new branch would include some members of 
the present Auxiliary service, some of the intelli- 
gence, informational, and cultural experts now 
serving in interim classifications, and the members 
of our present administrative and technical corps 
as established by the act of May 3, 1945. There 
would be every opportunity for interchange and 
transfer between the two branches and with the 
Department of State. We shall, however, see that 
what is now called the career Foreign Service in- 
cludes a heavy proportion of specialized talents. 
There are already within that service brains and 
aptitudes for most of the special tasks of the pres- 
ent era, provided only that the Department gives 
adequate training and opportunity to these skills. 
We must retain in our Service most economic func- 
tions, in short to become an economic service. One 
does not have to be a Marxist to recognize that in 
these days political and economic policies are 
inextricably entwined. 

There will also be provision for men to come into 
the Service as reserve officers from elsewhere in 
the Government or private business on temporary 
assignment: for example, a study of metallurgy 
behind the Urals or of malarial control in the Nile 
Delta or the geology of the Arabian peninsula. 

In addition to these attacks on the manpower 
problem we are planning legislation to cover prac- 
tically every phase of Foreign Service reform. At 
present the Service is undermanned, clogged with 
deadwood, insufficiently trained, underpaid, inad- 



equately housed, and clumsily administered. We 
plan campaigns in all these sectors. 

If the Service is to reach a maximum level of 
efficiency, a promotion system should be estab- 
lished which provides for advancement of officers 
with emphasis on merit rather than seniority, and 
for the separation from its ranks of officers who 
are not advanced within a certain period. 

We have made a careful study of the "selection 
out" promotion system of the United States Navy 
and we propose to adapt it for our needs. There 
will be a system of minimum and maximum serv- 
ice in the various grades of the service, and officers 
who are not promoted after serving a maximum 
time in grade will be eliminated, with an annuity 
or lump-sum payment depending on the length of 
service. It is also planned to lower the retirement 
age for officers in Class I and below from 65 to 60 
years. 

Installation of the new promotion system will 
involve a complete review of the personnel-admin- 
istration methods now in force, and we will draw 
on the experience of private industry and other 
Government departments. 

It is clear that we must mobilize for the Foreign 
Service the very best brains and character in each 
generation and train them at a markedly higher 
level of requirement and in a much more serious 
and impressive manner than was ever reached un- 
der the comparatively easy circumstances of the 
past. Our opinion is that, beyond initial orienta- 
tion and indoctrination, a kind of "in service" 
training must be continued throughout a Foreign 
Service officer's career both for the sake of effi- 
ciency and to sustain morale. He should at dif- 
ferent stages of his career attend courses analo- 
gous to those of the Army and Navy Staff Colleges 
and War Colleges. We believe that this instruc- 
tion should begin at the university-graduate level 
and not in an undergraduate academy. It is for 
this reason that we do not subscribe to the idea 
of a West Point or Annapolis for the Foreign 
Service. The basic undergraduate requirements 
of the Foreign Service are not technical. The pri- 
mary requirement is a knowledge of the system of 
ideas concerning the world and man which belong 
to our time and the roots from which these ideas 
have developed. The basis for a Foreign Service 
education can be most advantageously obtained at 
the best colleges and universities long established 
and functioning in the various regions of the 



166 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



United States. An undergraduate Foi-eign Serv- 
ice Academy would tend to stamp future Foreign 
Service officers in one mold and might easily breed 
a caste spii'it, the very thing that the Department 
has prevented from arising in the Foreign Service 
through a selection of men from all segments of 
American life, as well as from diversified educa- 
tional backgrounds and different sections of the 
country. In this connection it is interesting to 
note that in 1941 when our last public examina- 
tions were given there were 440 candidates from 
164 colleges and universities designated to take 
the examination. The 37 successful candidates 
represented 21 educational institutions and 14 
States. In 1940, 483 candidates from 168 colleges 
and universities were designated for the examina- 
tion. The 45 successful candidates represented 26 
educational institutions and 19 States. 

All training programs in the Foreign Service 
would be directed by a foreign-staff college or 
center of training studies which we plan to call 
tlie Foreign Service Institute. This Institute 
would direct in-service training throughout an 
officer's career and would liandle orientation 
courses for beginners as well. It would exchange 
students and faculty with the Army and Navy in- 
service institutions. 

In its higher echelons the school would be a staff 
college or institution comparable to a war college. 
At these levels it would probably administer rela- 
tively little instruction on its own premises but 
would arrange for Foreign Service officers to work 
and consult at high levels, not only in tlie Depart- 
ment of State but in any agency, in any business, 
research organization, or university where pos- 
sibilities exist for widening the background of the 
Foreign Service officer. The staff college, although 
closely affiliated with the Department and using 
classified material in its seminars, should never- 
theless enjoy a certain autonomy. It should thus 
maintain sufficient academic prestige to attract 
the best staff. The Institute would be continually 
engaged in doing basic research on policy, and we 
conceive that its projects would be taken into ac- 
count in the actual formation of policy. At any 
rate this basic research will at least counterbalance 
the necessarily more hurried day-to-day thinking 
in the Department of State by a broader view and 
tlie synthesis of piecemeal data. 

If this program is followed some of the sliort- 
comings of the Service will be corrected. Officers 



will have training equipping them to take the 
"strategic" as well as the merely "tactical" view in 
their reports. Too often in the past, reporting 
from the field has neglected the basic long-range 
study in favor of the "spot" report. 

Another important reform of the Service is its 
"Americanization", if I may use tlie term. On this 
point all who have inspected, studied, or been 
members of the Foreign Service are unanimous. 
In order to preserve contact with America, more 
officers must be brought home more often. Long 
absences of officers from this country and lack of 
understanding in regard to departmental policies 
are responsible for a sense of remoteness, frustra- 
tion, and general inadequacy as a Service truly 
representative of the United States. It is pro- 
loosed to establish by statute a fixed ratio between 
home and field service, as well as to provide for 
adequate home leave at appropriate intervals. In 
this respect during the war the Foreign Service 
was notoriously disadvantaged in comparison with 
officials in other agencies. A tour of duty in the 
United States will not be confined to service in 
the Department. Officers will be sent for special 
service anywhere in the country, for example to 
the branch offices of the Dei^artment of Commerce, 
other Federal or State jobs, or training or observa- 
tion tours with private industry. 

The administration of the Service particularly 
as regards personnel has for a long time been 
rendered difficult by the excessive number of 
grades, or classes, into which it is hierarchically 
divided. The present system of nine classes es- 
tablished by the Rogers act of 1924, with the low- 
est class subdivided administratively into three, 
is an outgrowth of the old Consular Service, which 
was amalgamated by this act with the separate 
Diplomatic Service to form the present Foreign 
Service. The current classification structui'e, 
therefore, was established as a solution to a prob- 
lem existing in 1924, and not because of any in- 
trinsic advantage in having that number of 
grades in the Foreign Service. Our new plans 
recognize that there are not as many gradations 
in relative responsibility of jobs in the Service 
as the existing 11 grades would indicate. In the 
future there will be only 6 grades with an addi- 
tional class of minister actually within the For- 
eign Service. An officer may have the rank of 
minister without necessarily being accredited to 
a mission abroad. The top goal of a diplomatic 



FEBRUARY 3, 1946 



167 



career will thus actually be within the career 
itself rather than outside it ; at present an officer 
resigns from the Service on becoming a minister. 
The new distribution of ranks will bring the 
Service into line with the Army and Navy. It 
will give a longer opportunity to judge the per- 
formance in each class, more administrative flexi- 
bility in assignments, and the possibility of more 
adequate recognition within grade. 

This is a good place to point out that out of 
some 56 chiefs of mission, including the special 
missions in Berlin, Vienna, and capitals of some 
countries with which we do not now have diplo- 
matic relations, about 64 percent come from the 
ranks of the career service. This is a considerable 
improvement, from the Service point of view, 
over conditions obtaining in the old days, but if 
we expect the best men to come into, and remain 
in, the Service we must not restrict unduly the 
typically American opportunity — a fair chance 
to rise to the top. I personally would like to see 
the appointment of more of the so-called "career 
men" ; at the same time I concede whole-heartedly 
that if there are jobs in our diplomacy which 
cannot be best filled by men from our Service 
then the best-qualified men should be sought 
wherever they may be. 

It is still unfortunately true, however, that 
regular Foreign Service officers who do not have 
private means are at a disadvantage in competing 
for the top posts with wealthy men from outside 
the Service. Believe it or not, our salaries for 
ministers and ambassadors were established in 
1856 and have not been changed since. Chiefs 
of mission of relatively small countries are often 
better paid than ours. In the upper brackets the 
comparison is startling; Ambassador Winant in 
London gets a salary of $17,500 subject to income 
tax, plus tax-free allowances to cover such matters 
as rent amounting to about $12,000 dollars. The 
British Ambassador in Washington quite rightly 
receives about $70,000 dollars a year, which is 
tax free. 

In the lower ranks of the Service, also, the men 
are notoriously underpaid with respect to their 
obligations, and we have not yet succeeded, despite 
successive reforms, in making it possible for a man 
without independent means to serve as effectively 
as he should. 

.Since 1924, there has been an over-all expansion 
in level and pattern of living costs. Industrial 



salaries and salaries in emergency Government 
administrations have increased and been adjusted 
to meet this expanded way of living. A further 
increase in Government salaries is desirable. To 
quote the House Committee on Civil Service in its 
report on H.R. 3393 : "In the postwar period, the 
i:)roblems of government, the inevitable complexi- 
ties of administration, and the importance of ef- 
fective service to the people will justify unusual 
emj^hasis upon high standards in selecting, pro- 
moting and retaining personnel. This is particu- 
larly true of the middle and higher brackets. But 
with high qualification standards must be associ- 
ated rates of compensation that are reasonably 
attractive to persons who meet these standards." 
The Foreign Service officer is, of course, faced 
with expenses not imposed on home Civil Service 
personnel, and he has not the same opportunities 
for investment or savings as if he were perma- 
nently domiciled in this country. Despite very 
small increases under the recent Federal Pay Act, 
which so far as "take home" pay is concerned will 
be somewhat nullified by the cessation of overtime, 
salaries and allowances are in our best judgment 
insufficient. The general level remains about 
where it was in 1924. 

In the hearings on the State Department Ap- 
propriation Bill of 1945, Secretary Hull made, I 
think, an illuminating comment on the subject of 
allowances. I quote : 

"Allowances as distinguished from salary are 
premised upon the various conditions which ob- 
tain in the many duty stations and are essential to 
meet the extraordinary cost of maintenance of 
satisfactory standards of living and the perform- 
ance of public business. They are necessary to the 
maintenance, as well, of a mobile and flexible 
service. 

"It is important, particularly in these times, 
that these allowances be maintained at alevel ade- 
quate to meet the ascertained needs and that these 
allowances be considered in the nature of equip- 
ment essential to the performance of Government 
work, rather than as personal perquisites of indi- 
vidual personnel. Many of our personnel are to- 
day experiencing inflation which cannot but 
impede their activities unless allowances are made 
to offset the increasing costs over which they have 
no control. At the same time they are subjected, 
as we all are, to tax legislation which is calculated 
to curb inflation in the United States. These two 



768 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



forces simultaneously in operation have definitely 
placed the jDersonnel of the Foreign Service and 
other agencies operating abroad on the horns of a 
dilemma." 

The way out of the dilemma has been, perforce, 
for the Foreign Service officer to meet the ex- 
traordinary expenses out of his own pocket. 
Our projects will alleviate the situation by reim- 
bursing the officer in part for the expenses peculiar 
to his profession. We will ask for new allowances 
for the exjjenses incurred when the exigencies of 
the Service require an officer to maintain separate 
households for himself and his family, and for the 
exjjense of transporting his children to the United 
States so that they may not be denied the advan- 
tages of an American education. In addition to 
these allowances, others which have been provided 
by previous legislation especially in connection 
with rent, cost of living, and official entertain- 
ment will continue with adjustments to meet the 
current situation. 

The problem of adequate Foreign Service com- 
pensation has been pointed up recently by the 
problem of integrating the war-appointed special- 
ists into the regular establishment. These men 
are receiving salaries on the wartime scale in most 
cases markedly superior to those of Foreign Serv- 
ice officers of much longer experience doing com- 
parable work. The men we want to retain will 
hardly come in at the prevailing salaries for the 
Foreign Service, and some are being employed at 
higher salaries. We have had a flood of telegrams 
from our chiefs of mission, pointing out the dis- 
crepancy. Ambassador Caffery in Paris says that 
he is sure that the Department will be aware of the 
disappointment among our career officers of junior 
and middle grades which might be caused by the 
appointment of some of the men in the interim 
services at the proposed salaries, in many cases 
much in excess of their own. "I do not feel", he 
continues, "that these salaries are excessive but 
I trust that if this salary scale is established and 
the cost of living and rental allowances are set 
up commensurate with those received by our own 
Foreign Service the Department will leave no stone 
unturned to seek from Congress legislation which 
will improve the pay status of our Foreign 
Service." 

We promise to leave no stone unturned. Our 



feeling is that the country needs and absolutely 
must have the best possible Service and must be 
l^repared to pay for it. We expect to approach 
Congress in that spirit taking with us a carefully 
worked out pay scale, from ambassadors down to 
probationers and the lowliest messenger, related 
to comparable executive salaries in this country 
and the costs of living abroad as representatives 
of the United States. 

We will require money for other needed im- 
provements which I have not detailed to you but 
which include administrative surveys of field 
needs and conditions, more frequent inspections, 
better pay and o^Dportunity for the clerical service, 
more language training in the Service, and, no- 
tably, housing for a renovated Service which will 
not be inconsistent with our status as an inter- 
national power. 

After all the cost of a good Foreign Service 
is only part of the cost of our machinery for the 
conduct of foreign relations, which in turn is an 
exceedingly small part of the costs of the Gov- 
ernment and infinitesimally small com23ared with 
the costs of war. One single day of war as it is 
waged today costs our country $245,000,000. The 
estimates for the Department of State and the 
Foreign Service in the entire year of 1946 total 
$77,900,000. Thus for the estimated expense of 
a whole year of supporting this first line of 
national defense of ours, we could wage war, as 
it is waged today, for less than a day. 

Obviously, all the reforms I have sketched for 
you will come to nought unless our officers have j 
the necessary intellectual stature and creative ' 
spirit. The best legislation, the best administra- 
tion, and the best will in the world cannot take 
the place of brains. 

At worst the diplomatic mentality can be a 
sterile thing given to airy dilettantism, or at 
best it can be both creative and conservative. 
The diplomat who has shared the lives of many 
peoples and has learned many disciplines is in 
a way a survival of humanist culture. 

The wise diplomat can help give meaning and 
direction to an engineers' and specialists' world. 
If our new Foreign Service can unite sympathy, 
idealism, and a world view with technical com- 
petency and modern skill it should remain, as it 
now is, as good as any in the world. 



International Organizations and Conferences 



Calendar of Meetings 



Far Eastern Commission Tokyo 

Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry London 

The United Nations : 

General Assembly London 

Security Council London 

Civil Aviation Conference Bermuda 

Council of Foreign Ministers : Meeting of Deputies London 

International Labor Organization : 

Conference of Delegates on Constitutional Questions London 

International Development Works Committee Montreal 

International Technical Committee of Aerial Legal Paris 
Experts (CITEJA) : 14th session 

International Cotton Study Group : Subcommittee of the Washington 
International Advisory Committee 



North American Regional Broadcasting Engineering Con- Washington 
ference 



Council of the United Maritime Authority 
West Indian Conference 



London 

St. Thomas, Virgin Islands 
(U.S.) 



January 6 (continuing in 
session ) 

Hearings opened on Janu- 
ary 25 

January 10 (continuing in 

session) 
January 17 (continuing in 

session ) 

January 15 (continuing in 
session) 

January 18 (continuing in 
session) 

January 21 (continuing in 

session ) 
January 28 (continuing in 

session) 

January 22 (continuing in 
session) 

January 24 (recessed after 
first meeting until Feb- 
ruary 4) 

February 4 

February 4 
February 21 



Activities and Developments 



International Technical Committee of Aerial 
Legal Experts. The Department announced to 
the press on January 21 that the Fourteenth Ses- 
sion of the International Technical Committee of 
Aerial Legal Experts ( CITE JA— Comite In- 
ternational Technique d'Experts Juridiques 
Aeriens), is scheduled to convene at Paris on Jan- 
uary 22, 1916. The United States Group wliich 
will participate in this meeting will consist of 
Stephen Latchford, Adviser on Air Law, Aviation 
Division, Department of State, chairman, United 
States Section of CITEJA; Arnold W. Knauth, 
Specialist in Maritime and Aviation Law, De- 



partment of Justice, member, United States 
Section of CITEJA; Emery T. Nunneley, Jr., 
Assistant General Counsel, Finance, Civil Aero- 
nautics Board ; and Howard B. Kailey, Civil Air 
Attache, American Embassy, Paris. 

This session is the first since the outbreak of the 
war. The agenda will include : 

1. Opening of the Fourteenth Session. Desig- 
nation of the President of CITEJA. 

2. Eegulations of CITEJA. 

The dates in the calendar are as of Jan. 27. 



169 



770 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



3. Consideration of the administrative and 
financial management of CITEJA from 1939 to 
1945 and of the budget estimate for 1945-46. 

4. Coordination of the activities of CITEJA 
with the Provisional International Civil Aviation 
Organization (PICAO) at Montreal and relation- 
ship between the two organizations.^ 

5. Collaboration of the CITEJA in the inter- 
pretation and application of international conven- 
tions on private air law. 

6. Kevision of the Warsaw convention. 

7. Draft conventions on aerial collisions, assist- 
ance and salvage of aircraft on land, legal status 
of the commander and navigating personnel. 

8. Aviation insurance. 

9. Designation of commissions (subcommit- 
tees). Assignment and order of projects. 

10. Date and place of the Fifteenth Session. 

An important objective of the meeting is the 
reorganization of CITEJA, which is covered by 
items 2, 3, and 4. The Committee will reassign for 
fuither study the draft conventions covered by 
items 6, 7, and 8. 

MEMBERS OF THE UNITED STATES SECTION ^ 

The Secretary of State announced on January 
21 that the President has approved the designa- 
tion of the following persons as members of the 
United States Section of CITEJA and of the 
Advisory Committee thereto: 

United States Section 

Chairman: 

Stephen Latchford, Adviser on Air Law, Aviation Di- 
vision, Department of State 

MemVers: 

Russell B. Adams, Director, Economic Bureau, Civil 
Aeronautics Board 

John C. Cooper, Member, Executive Committee, Inter- 
national Air Transport Association 

Arnold W. Knauth, Specialist in Maritime and Aviation 
Law, Department of Justice 

Arthur L. Lebel, Chief, Communications Section, Avia- 
tion Division, Department of State 

George C. Neal, General Counsel, Civil Aeronautics 
Board 

Advisory Committee to the United States Section 

Chairiiian: 

Arnold W. Knauth 

' For an article on this subject see Bulletin of Feb. 28, 
1945, p. 310. 
"Released to the press Jan. 21. 



Vice Chairman: 
John C. Cooper 

Memhers: 

Gordon D. Brown, vice president. Bankers Trust Com- 
pany of New York 

John M. Dickerman, Washington representative, Air 
Line Pilots Association 

Howard S. LeRoy, professor of air law. National Uni- 
versity Law School, Washington, D.C. 

J. Brooks B. Parker, specialist in aviation insurance 

Miss Eleanor H. Finch, Aviation Division, De- 
partment of State, has been designated Secretary 
of the United States Section. 

The International Technical Committee of 
Aerial Legal Experts was created as the result of 
a resolution adopted at the First International 
Conference on Private Air Law, which met in 
Paris on October 27, 1925. It was organized for 
the purpose of developing a comprehensive code 
of private air law through the adojjtion of inter- 
national conventions on various subjects of pri- 
vate air law. The Department understands that 
immediately jirior to the outbreak of the war 27 
countries were official members of CITEJA and 
contributing to its support. The United States 
has been a contributor to CITEJA since the cal- 
endar year 1930. The first session of the Com- 
mittee was held in Paris in Maj' 1926, and the 
Committee held semi-aimual sessions until the 
outbreak of the war. The preliminary draft 
conventions are prepared b}' four commissions, 
which are in effect subcommittees, established by 
the Committee. 

North American Regional Broadcasting Engi- 
neering Conference. The Department announced 
on January 25 that there will be convened in Wash- 
ington on Monda3', February 4, 1946, at 11 a. m. in 
the Department of Commerce Auditorium, 14th 
Street between Constitution Avenue and E Street, 
NW, a North American Regional Broadcasting 
Engineering Conference to consider problems re- 
lated to standard-band broadcasting in the North 
American region particularly as they are affected 
by the North American Regional Broadcasting 
Agreement which expires March 29, 1946. The 
countries which are parties to the agreement are as 
follows: Canada, Bahamas, Cuba, Dominican Re- 
public, Haiti, Mexico, Newfoundland, and United 
States. The British Government has indicated its 
intention of sending obsei'vers in behalf of the 
other British possessions in the North American 
region, and it is possible that observers may be 



FEBRUARY 3, J946 



171 



present from the Central American republics and 
Panama. 

Representatives of the United States broadcast 
industry are invited to participate as observers 
throughout the Conference. It is expected that 
industry representatives will also be present from 
other countries. In order to aid in the arrange- 
ments for the meetings and the disposition of mat- 
ters to be called up, interested persons are 
requested to notify the assistant secretary of the 
Conference, Miss Frances W. Simpson, Telecom- 
munications Division, Department of State, 1818 
H Street, NW, Washington, D.C., not later than 
February 2, 1946. In this connection it is desir- 
able tliat persons who plan to attend identify 
themselves by office or position and, if attendance 
is in a representative capacity, by the identity of 
the persons or organization in whose behalf they 
will attend. 

The agenda of the Conference will consist of 
proposals on behalf of each of the countries which 
are parties to the NARBA agreement and various 
subjects of a technical character designed to im- 
lorove service in each country as well as to mini- 
mize interference between countries. 

Following the opening plenary session, meetings 
will be held in the offices of the Federal Commu- 
nications Commission, Pennsylvania Avenue and 
12th Street NW, Washington, D.C. 

The Delegation of the United States will con- 
sist of the following : Commissioner Ewell K. Jett 
of the Federal Communications Commission, 
chairman; Harvey B. Otterman of the Depart- 
ment of State, vice chainnan; George P. Adair, 
Chief Engineer, and Rosel H. Hyde, General 
Counsel, of the Federal Communications Commis- 
sion; and Donald R. MacQuivey of the Telecom- 
munications Division of the Department of State. 
This Delegation will be assisted by members of the 
staffs of the Federal Communications Commis- 
sion and of the Department of State. 

The secretary of the Conference will be K. Neil 
MacNaughten of the Federal Communications 
Commission, and the assistant secretary will be 
Miss Frances W. Simpson of the Department of 
State. 

United Maritime Authority. A meeting will be 
held in London beginning February 4, 1946 of the 
full Council of the United Maritime Authority, 



whose membership is made up of the following 
maritime nations: United States, United King- 
dom, France, Netherlands, Norway, Australia, 
Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Denmark, Greece, 
India, New Zealand, Poland, Sweden, Union of 
South Africa, and Yugoslavia. The meeting is 
being held for the purpose of discussing the ter- 
mination of the United Maritime Authority, which 
is due to be dissolved on March 2 under the terms 
of its charter providing for its end six months after 
the general suspension of hostilities. The meeting 
will also consider what plans should be made in 
view of the termination of the controlled shipping 
pools of 17 million tons to take care of various na- 
tional shipping programs and to insure as smooth 
a transition as possible from a wartime basis to a 
peacetime operation. The American Delegation is 
made up of official members of the UMA Secre- 
tariat from the War Shipping Administration. 
John Mann of the Shipping Division is represent- 
ing the Department of State as an observer. In 
addition four representatives of the shipping in- 
dustry selected by the National Federation of 
Shipping will attend as advisers. 

Civil-Aviation Agreements: Paraguay, Nicara- 
gua, Turkey. In a press release of January 23 
the Department announced that the Ambassador of 
Paraguay deposited with the Department of State 
on January 21, 1946 the Paraguayan instrument 
of ratification of the Convention on International 
Civil Aviation. 

Other action taken recently on the Interim 
Agreement on International Civil Aviation, the 
Convention on International Civil Aviation, the 
International Air Services Transit Agreement, 
and the International Air Transport Agreement 
concluded at the International Civil Aviation 
Conference in Chicago on December 7, 1944 in- 
cludes the following : 

The deposit by the Ambassador of Nicaragua 
with the Department of State on December 28, 
1945 of the instiniment of ratification of the con- 
vention by the Government of Nicaragua and the 
acceptance of the interim, ti'ansit, and transport 
agreements by that Government ; 

The deposit by the Ambassador of Tui'key with 
the Department of State on December 20, 1945 
of the Turkish instrument of ratification of the 
convention. 



The Record of the Week 



Advisory Group To Prepare Recommendations on Mass 

Communications 



Assistant Secretai-y of State William Benton 
announced the appointment of five special con- 
sultants who will gather and formulate advice 
for the Department of State in developing United 
States proposals in the field of mass communica- 
tions for consideration by the United Nations 
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization 
(UNESCO). 

The members of the advisory group are as 
follows : 

Edward W. Barrett, Editorial Director, News- 
week/ formerly Director, Overseas Branch, 
Office of War Information. Mr. Barrett will 
serve as chairman. 

Thurman L. Barnard, Vice President and Di- 
rector, Compton Advertising Agency, New 
York, N.Y. ; formerly. Executive Director, 
Overseas Branch, Office of War Information. 

Don Francisco, Vice President and Director, J. 
Walter Thompson Advertising Agency, New 
York, N. Y. ; formerly Assistant Coordinator, 
Office of Inter-American Affairs. 

Ferdinand Kuhn, Jr., Consultant, Office of In- 
ternational Information and Cultural Af- 
fairs, Department of State; formerly Chief, 
London Bureau, New York Times, and later 
Deputy Director, Office of War Information, 
and Director, Interim International Infor- 
mation Service. 

John Hat Whitney, formerly Motion Picture 
Chief, Office of Inter-American Affairs, later 
Colonel in the U. S. Army Air Forces. Be- 
fore the war he had extensive experience in 
the commercial motion-iDicture industry as 
chairman of the Board of Selznick Inter- 
national Pictures. 

lieleasod to the press Jan. 27. 
172 



Mr. Benton declared: 

"UNESCO must seek to enlist the full coopera- 
tion of the press, radio, and motion picture, if 
it is to succeed in its purpose of getting the 
peoples of the world behind the peace. That 
peace will not be secure until its defenses are 
built in the minds of men. 

"I am calling on five men who have had long 
experience with mass media in the private in- 
dustry, and who have had special opportunity, 
in their service with the Federal war agencies, 
to acquire first-hand knowledge of the need for 
Government recognition of the immense contri- 
bution that the mass media of communication 
can make to international understanding. These 
five men have been cooperating with the Depart- 
ment since my own appointment. In collabora- 
tion with Archibald MacLeish, chairman of the 
United States Delegation to the London confer- 
ence on UNESCO last November, they will assist 
the Department in outlining a practical program 
through which radio, motion pictures, and pub- 
lications may cooperate with UNESCO in 
strengthening the foundations of world peace. 

"It is hoped that the first meeting of the Gen- 
eral Conference of UNESCO will be held this i 
coming summer. Under the UNESCO Charter * 
each country will appoint five delegates. The 
assignment which I am giving to the Advisory 
GrouiD is to prepare recommendations for the 
use of the Unieed States Delegates at this first 
Conference. It is my hope that this group during 
the next few months will meet with repi-esenta- 
tives of the various media of communications 
and will exjilore with them the most constructive 
activities for UNESCO in the field of motion 
pictures, radio, and publications. It is mj' hope 
that the report of the Advisory Group to the 
State Department, for the guidance of the Dele- 
gates, will be such that it can be made public." 



FEBRUARY 3, 1946 



173 



Anglo- Soviet- American 
Commnnique on the Disposal 
of the German Navy 

[Keleased to the press January 22] 

One. It was decided at the Berlin Conference 
that operable surface units of the German fleet in- 
cluding units which could be made operable within 
a specified time together with 30 U-boats should 
be divided equally between the Three Powers and 
that the remainder of the German fleet should be 
destroyed.^ 

Two. The Tripartite Naval Commission was ac- 
cordingly appointed to make recommendations to 
implement this decision and it has recently re- 
ported to the governments of the Three Powers. 
Its report is laow under consideration by these gov- 
ernments but its recommendation on allocation of 
the main units has been accepted and their division 
between the Three Powers is now being made. 

Three. Surplus U-boats in United Kingdom 
ports have been sunk in accordance with this 
agreement. 

Program for Supplying Raw 
Materials to Germany and 
Japan Clarified 

[Released to the press January 21] 

Many questions have been raised about the re- 
ported plan to furnish supplies of cotton and 
other raw materials to Germany and Japan for 
the i^urpose of reactivating industries in these 
countries. To dispel certain misunderstandings 
which have arisen, the Department of State 
wishes to clarify certain aspects of the program. 

First, the program constitutes in no sense a 
reversal or change in policies previously formu- 
lated and announced by this Government. It 
will be recalled, in particular, that the Secretary 
of State, in a statement issued last December 12,- 
envisaged three stages in the post-hostilities eco- 
nomic development of Germany. At that time, 
he anticipated that the second stage, marking a 
gradual revival of German industrj% would begin 
after the present winter. 

Second, the program will be so designed as to 



be consistent with one of the cardinal features of 
this Government's economic foreign policy, which 
is to insure that economic and industrial recov- 
ery in countries freed from enemy domination 
should have priority over revival in enemy coun- 
tries. Thus the plan for the reactivation of the 
cotton-textile industry which will be drawn up 
by our military-government authorities in Ger- 
many will take into consideration the fact that 
it will be necessary to maximize coal exports for 
the benefit of liberated areas until this spring at 
least, and that the probable coal supply-demand 
situation in Europe even after this winter will 
continue to limit industrial revival. Both in Ger- 
many and Japan raw materials, fuel, and trans- 
port will be provided for industry only to the 
extent compatible with the interests of both the 
occup3'ing powers and the liberated areas. 

Third, there is a world-wide shortage of textile 
products, while there is a surplus of short-staple 
raw cotton. It is impoi-tant that all spindles be 
used to relieve the world textile shortage. Allo- 
cations of raw cotton to Germany and Japan 
would not cut into the supply available for liber- 
ated areas. Moreover, of the textile products 
made from such cotton only enough would be left 
in Germany and Japan to satisfy minimum 
domestic requirements. The balance would be 
exported to pay for the raw cotton and other 
imports which the occupying powers are now 
financing. For these reasons, the cotton-textile 
industry should be among the first industries in 
enemy countries to be reactivated. No concrete 
proposals to supply raw materials other than 
cotton are at present being considered, although 
they may be taken up as conditions warrant. 

Fourth, the program must not be considered a 
charitable undertaking to assist Germany and 
Japan. We expect to get paid for the cotton. 
Moreover, we have a distinct interest in putting 
these countries on a self-sustaining basis. Neither 
countrj' can exist even at a bare subsistence level 
without imports. Neither counti-y can today pay 
for its own imports because its gold and foreign 
assets have been earmarked for reparation and 
restitution, and its industries are virtually at a 
standstill and therefore incapable of producing 
sufficient exports to pay for essential impoi-ts. 

■ Bulletin of Aug. 5, 1945, p. 157. 
' Bulletin of Dec. 16, 1945, p. 964. 



174 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Tlie United States as well as other occupying 
powers in Germany has had to finance the impor- 
tation of food and certain other minimum relief 
supplies necessary to prevent starvation and 
disease and unrest of a character endangering the 
occupying forces. We obviously do not want to 
keep Germany and Japan on relief indefinitely 
at our own cost. The only way to enable these 
countries to pay for their own imports is to 
finance initially the importation of raw materials 
required to start up their export industries. 

Finally, any program for the reactivation of 
industry in Germany and Japan must, of course, 
be within the framework of existing international 
agreements and require the consent of other pow- 
ei's concerned in the occupation or administration 
of these countries. The United States has no in- 
tention to iDroceed unilaterally. 



Coordination of Foreign 
Intelligence Activities 

DIRECTIVE FROM THE PRESIDENT 

[Released to the press by the White House January 22] 

Text sent by the President to the Secretary of 
/State, Secretary of War, and Secretary of the 
Navy with regard to the coordination of the 
foreign intelligence activities of the Federal 
Ooverninent : 

1. It is my desire, and I hereby direct, that all 
Federal foreign intelligence activities be planned, 
developed and coordinated so as to assure the 
most effective accomplishment of the intelligence 
mission related to the national security. I hereby 
designate you, together with another person to be 
named by me as my personal representative, as the 
National Intelligence Authority to accomplish this 
purpose. 

2. Within the limits of available appropriations, 
you shall each from time to time assign persons 
and facilities from your respective Departments, 
which persons shall collectively form a Central 
Intelligence Grouj) and shall, under the direction 
of a Director of Central Intelligence, assist the 
National Intelligence Authority. The Director of 
Central Intelligence shall be designated by me, 
shall be "resjjonsible to the National Intelligence 



Authority, and shall sit as a non-voting member 
thereof. 

3. Subject to the existing law, and to the direc- 
tion and control of the National Intelligence 
Authority, the Director of Central Intelligence 
shall : 

a. Accomplish the correlation and evaluation of 
intelligence relating to the national security, and 
the appropriate dissemination within the Govern- 
ment of the resulting strategic and national policy 
intelligence. In so doing, full use shall be made of 
the staff and facilities of the intelligence agencies 
of your Departments. 

6. Plan for the coordination of such of the activ- 
ities of the intelligence agencies of your Depart- 
ments as relate to the national security and 
recommend to the National Intelligence Authority 
the establishment of such over-all policies and 
objectives as will assure the most effective accom- 
plishment of the national intelligence mission. 

c. Perform, for the benefit of said intelligence 
agencies, such services of common concern as the 
National Intelligence Authority determines can 
be more efficiently accomplislied centrally. 

d. Perform such other functions and duties re- 
lated to intelligence affecting the national security 
as the President and the National Intelligence 
Authority may from time to time direct. 

4. No jDolice, law enforcement or internal se- 
curity functions shall be exercised under this 
directive. 

5. Such intelligence received by the intelligence 
agencies of your Departments as may be desig- 
nated by the National Intelligence Authority shall 
be freely available to the Director of Central In- 
telligence for correlation, evaluation or dissemina- 
tion. To the extent approved by the National | 
Intelligence Authority, the operations of said ' 
intelligence agencies shall be open to inspection by 
the Director of Central Intelligence in connection 
with planning functions. 

6. The existing intelligence agencies of your De- 
partments shall continue to collect, evaluate, cor- 
relate and disseminate departmental intelligence. 

7. The Director of Central Intelligence shall be 
advised by an Intelligence Advisory Board con- 
sisting of the heads (or their representatives) of 
the principal military and civilian intelligence 
agencies of the Government having functions re- 
lated to national security, as determined by the 
National Intelligence Authority. 



FEBRUARY 3, 1946 



175 



8. Within the scope of existing law and Presi- 
dential directives, other departments and agencies 
of the executive branch of the Federal Govern- 
ment shall furnish such intelligence information 
relating to the national security as is in their pos- 
session, and as the Director of Central Intelligence 
may from time to time request pursuant to regu- 
lations of the National Intelligence Authority. 

9. Nothing herein shall be construed to author- 
ize the making of investigations inside the con- 
tinental limits of the United States and its 
l)()Ssessions, except as provided by law and Presi- 
dential directives. 

10. In the conduct of their activities the Na- 
tional Intelligence Authority and the Director 
of Central Intelligence shall be responsible for 
fully protecting intelligence sources and methods. 



U. S.-Greek Negotiation on 
Expansion of Production and 
Employment 

EXCHANGE OF NOTES BETWEEN THE GOV- 
ERNMENTS OF THE UNITED STATES AND 
GREECE 1 

[Released to the press January 25] 

The Acting Secretary of State announced on 
January 25 that, in a recent exchange of notes, the 
Governments of the United States and Greece have 
agreed on the negotiation of measures looking 
toward promoting world expansion of production, 
employment, and the exchange and consumption 
of goods. The texts of these notes follow : 

Royal Greek Embassy, 

Washington, D.C. 

January B, 19^6. 
Excellency : 

I have the honor to make the following state- 
ment of the understanding reached during our re- 
cent discussions: 

1. With a view to promoting the expansion of 
production, employment, and the exchange and 
consumption of goods, the Government of the 
United States of America and the Greek Govern- 
ment hereby undertake that they will enter into 
negotiations at an appropriate date for the reach- 
ing of agreement between themselves and with 
other countries of like mind on mutually advanta- 



geous measures directed to the reduction of tariffs 
and trade barriers, and the elimination of all 
forms of discriminatory treatment in interna- 
tional commerce, payments and investments. 

2. Pending the conclusion of negotiations en- 
visaged in the foregoing j^aragraph, the Govern- 
ments of the United States of America and Greece 
declare it to be their policy to avoid the adoption 
of new measures affecting international trade, pay- 
ments or investments which would prejudice the 
objectives of such agreement. The two Govern- 
ments shall afford each other an adequate oppor- 
tunity for consultation regarding proposed meas- 
ures falling within the scope of this paragraph. 

Accept [etc.] Diamantopoulos 

His Excellency 

Mr. James F. Byrnes, 
Secretary of State, 
Washington, D. G. 

Department of State, 

Washington, D.C. 

January 11, 191fi. 
Excellency : 

I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of 
your note of January 2, 1946 concerning the un- 
derstanding reached during our recent discussions 
in regard to promoting the expansion of produc- 

' Asked at his press and radio uews conference on Janu- 
ary 25 whether this meant that a reciprocal trade agree- 
ment with Greece was in the offing, Mr. Acheson replied 
in affirmative. He added that it particularly meant that 
the Greek Government would join in the international 
trade conference which we were looking forward to during 
the coming summer. A correspondent asked if the ex- 
change of notes represented a preventive and protective 
American step in connection vvitli the new fiscal arrange- 
ment negotiated between Great Britain and Greece to make 
sure there would be no barriers to American trade as a 
result of the tying of Greek economy to Britain. The 
Acting Secretary said that he did not think that this Gov- 
ernment thought it was necessary to do that. He said that 
both the British Government and this Government were 
advancing financial help to the Greeks and that he did 
not think that there was ever any question tliat tliere was 
going to be any exclusive arrangement made by either 
Government. Asked if the reason these notes were an- 
nounced now was because this Government had been sit- 
ting in on the discussions with the Greek and British Gov- 
ernment on financial matters and this was one of the re- 
sults of those discussions, Mr. Acheson replied in the 
negative. He said that this was one of the results of the 
discussions between this Government and the Greek Gov- 
ernment in connection with cmr own financial discussions 



176 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



tion, employment and the exchange and consump- 
tion of goods, and hereby confirm your statement 
of the understanding reached as therein set out. 
Accept [etc.] 

Dean Acheson 
Acting Secretary of State 
His Excellency 

CiMON P. DlAMANTOPOULOS, 

Airibassador of Greece. 



Reconsideration of Quotas 
on Silver-Fox Furs 

[Released to the press January 24] 

Consideration is being given to the question of 
whether the emergency conditions with respect to 
the marketing of silver- or black-fox furs and skins 
which resulted in the supplemental trade agree- 
ments with Canada relating to these articles, 
signed in 1939 and 1940, have ceased to exist or 
have substantially changed. 

Shortly after the outbreak of war in 1939 sev- 
eral European markets whicli previously had ab- 
sorbed large quantities of silver-fox furs were 
practically closed, largely because of the need of 
governments to conserve foreign exchange for es- 
sential supplies. This resulted in much larger 
quantities becoming inunediately available for the 
remaining markets of the world, especially the 
United States, and there was attendant demorali- 
zation of marketing conditions. A supplemental 
trade agreement was therefore negotiated in Can- 
ada in December of that year providing that the 
total number of silver-fox furs which might be 
entered into the United States a year should not 
exceed 100,000. To prevent evasion of the quota 
the restrictions were applied also to live silver 
foxes, parts of furs, and articles made of furs. 
The rate of tariff duty on silver-fox furs was re- 
duced from 371^ to 35 percent ad valorem during 
the continuation of the quota. 

A second supplementary agreement was signed 
in December 1940 and remains in effect. This 
agreement continued the basic quota of 100,000 
silver foxes and furs and the 35-percent rate of 
duty but provided for changes in detail. Sepa- 
rate quotas were provided for parts of silver-fox 
furs, piece plates made therefrom, and articles 
wholly or in chief value of such furs. 



The present quota of 100,000 is allocated during 
the first five months of each quota year so that 
Canada is granted 70 percent of the permissible 
imports and all other countries the ronaining 30 
percent. After the end of such five months unfilled 
portions of the quota may be filled by imports 
from any source. 

The agi'eement provides that either government, 
after consultation with the other, may terminate 
it on 90 days' notice should such government de- 
cide that the emergency conditions which gave 
rise to the agreement have ceased to exist or have 
become substantially modified. Moreover, the 
share of the quota allotted to Canada may be 
changed by mutual agreement; and the entire 
quota arrangement may be terminated at any time 
by agreement between tlie two governments. It is 
provided that upon termination of the supple- 
mental agreement the rate of duty on silver-fox 
furs reverts to 37^/^ percent ad valorem, as fixed 
in the trade agreement between the United States 
and Canada signed November 17, 1938. 

In view of the steps taken since V-E Day toward 
a resumption of commercial activity in Europe, 
the present is deemed an appropriate time to re- 
examine the whole situation regarding silver-fox 
furs, with a view to determining whether an emer 
gency still exists. 

Any person desiring to submit any informa- 
tion or views with respect to the foregoing should 
present them to the Committee for Reciprocity 
Information in accordance with the following an- 
nouncement issued by that Committee on Janu- 
ary 24: 

Eeconsideration of Quotas on Silver Fox Ftjrs 
PUBLIC NOTICE 

Closing date for submission of briefs — February 
25, 1946 

Closing date for application to be heard — Febru- 
ary 25, 1946 

Public hearings open — March 7, 1946 

The Committee for Reciprocity Information 
hereby gives notice that all information and 
views in writing, and all applications for supple- 
mental oral presentation of views in regard to the 
question whether the emergency conditions with 
respect to the marketing of silver or black fox furs 
and skins which resulted in the supplemental trade 



FEBRUARY 3, 1946 



177 



agreements with Canada relative to tliese articles, 
signed on December 30, 1939, and December 13, 
1940, have ceased to exist or have become substan- 
tially modified, shall be submitted to the Commit- 
tee for Reciprocity Information not later than 
twelve o'clock noon, February 25, 19-46. Such com- 
munications should be addressed to "Chairman, 
Committee for Reciprocity Information, Tariff 
Commission Building, Eighth and E Streets, 
N.W., Washington 25, D.C." 

A public hearing will be held beginning at 10 : GO 
A.M. on March 7, 1946, before the Committee for 
Reciprocity Information in the hearing room of 
the Tariff Commission in the Tariff Commission 
Building, where supplemental oral statements will 
be heard. 

Ten copies of written statements, either type- 
written or printed, shall be submitted, of which one 
copy shall be sworn to. Appearance at hearings 
before the Committee may be made only by those 
persons who have filed written statements and 
who have within the time prescribed made written 
application for a hearing, and statements made 
at such hearings shall be under oath. 

By direction of the Committee for Reciprocity 
Information this 24th day of January, 1946. 

Edward Yardley 

Secretary 

Washington, D.C, 
January 2 4, 1946- 



Appointment of Board of 
Consultants on Atomic-Energy 
Committee 

[Released to the press January 25] 

The Department of State announced on Janu- 
ary 25 that a board of consultants had been ap- 
pointed to assist with the work of the Secretary of 
State's Committee on Atomic Energy, which was 
set up on January 7 with Dean Acheson, Under 
Secretary of State, as chairman. 

The board of consultants consists of Mr. David 
E. Lilienthal, chairman of the Tennessee Valley 
Authority, Mr. Chester I. Barnard, president. 
New Jersey Bell Telephone Company, Dr. J. 
Robert Oppenheimer, California Institute of 
Technology, Mr. Charles A. Thomas, vice presi- 



dent, Monsanto Chemical Company, and Mr. 
Harry A. Winne, vice president and manager of 
engineering api^aratus department. General Elec- 
tric Company. Mr. Lilienthal will act as chair- 
man of the group. 

In addition to Under Secretary Acheson, the 
Seci-etary of State's Committee is composed of As- 
sistant Secretary of War Jolin J. McCloy, Dr. 
Vannevar Bush, Dr. James B. Conant, and Maj. 
Gen. Leslie R. Groves. The Committee was ap- 
pointed to study the subject of controls and safe- 
guards necessary to protect this Government so 
that, when the persons are selected to represent 
the United States on the United Nations Commis- 
sion on Atomic Energy, they will have the benefit 
of the study. The proposal for such a Commis- 
sion was adopted formallj^ on January 24 by the 
General Assembly of the United Nations. 



Appointment of U.S. Political 
Representative to Austrian 
Government 

[Released to the press January 21] 

John G. Erliardt has been appointed United 
States Political Representative to the Austrian 
Government. He will serve simultaneously as 
Political Adviser to Gen. Mark Clark, United 
States Member of the Allied Control Council in 
Vienna, until sucli time as the agreement on con- 
trol machinery in Austria is modified by a new 
four-poAver agreement. Mr. Erhardt will have 
the personal rank of Minister. 



Approval of Designation of 
Austrian Representative in U.S. 

[Released to the press January 21] 

The President has approved the designation by 
the Austrian Government of Ludwig Klein- 
waechter as Austrian representative in tlie United 
States, with the personal rank of Envoy Ex- 
traordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary. Dr. 
Kleinwaechter will deal with all matters concern- 
ing relations between the United States and 
Austria which do not affect the supreme authority 
of tlie Allied Council. 



178 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



International Agreements 
With Siam Continue in Force 

STATEMENT BY ACTING SECRETARY 
ACHESON 

[Released to the press January 24] 

In conversations with the Government of Siam, 
following the formal resumption of diplomatic 
relations between the United States and Siam, it 
has been recognized that the treaties and other 
international agreements in force between the 
United States and Siam prior to the outbreak of 
war in the Far East continue in full force and 
effect. Bilateral treaties and agreements covered 
by such conversations include the Treaty of 
Friendship, Commerce, and Navigation of No- 
vember 13, 1937, together with the final protocol 
and accompanying exchanges of notes; the Extra- 
dition Treaty of December 30, 1922; and the 
agreement for the waiver of passport-visa fees 
of September 19, 1925. 



Special International Textile 
Group Leaves for Japan 

[Released to the press Januar.v 21] 

On January 15 a special international textile 
group organized by the State and War Depart- 
ments left for Japan. It will report to the Su- 
preme Commander, General MacArthur, and will 
be charged with the duty of assisting him in de- 
veloping factual information on the textile indus- 
try in Japan. 

United States members will be three representa- 
tives of United States textile industry. Frank 
Rowe, chief engineer. Riverside and Dan River 
Mills, Virginia, and H. Wichenden Rose, vice 
president for research and planning of American 
Viscose, left with the mission on January 15. 
Harry L. Bailey, president of the Wellington- 
Sears Company, New York, will rej^lace Hugh 
Comer, president of Avondale Mills, who has been 
compelled to withdraw for unavoidable personal 
reasons. Mr. Bailey will join the group in Japan. 

The Governments of Great Britain, India, and 
China have accepted invitations to nominate ob- 



servers. They will be: for Great Britain, F. S. 
Winterbottom, British member of Combined Tex- 
tile Committee; for India, Bharat Ram; for 
China, Yang Sih-Zung, member of Textile Regu- 
lation Administration of Chinese Ministry of 
Economic Affairs. Fred Taylor and Stanley 
Nehmer of the Department of State will also be 
attached to the group. 

The report of the group will be made available 
to the State and War Departments, to the gov- 
ernments represented, and to the Combmed Tex- 
tile Committee, which since the dissolution of the 
Combined Production and Resources Board on 
January 1, 1946 has be«n responsible for world 
allocations of textiles. 



WHEAT SHIPMENTS— (.'o;(/i;i»«7 from inuje 151. 

Upon my return from the Potsdam Confer- 
ence I stated : 

"If we let Europe go cold and hungry, we may 
lose some of the foundations of order on which 
the hope for world-wide peace must rest. We 
must help to the limits of our strength, and we 
will." 

I should like to emphasize the last sentence of 
that statement and request that you give the 
personal attention to this problem which the seri- 
ousness of the situation demands. 

Everything possible must be done to provide 
the necessary handling, inland transportation, 
port facilities, and ocean transportation required 
to move all the wheat and flour which can be 
provided. We must reduce to a minimum the 
quantity of wheat used for non-food purposes. 
Also, all other efforts must be made to increase 
wheat for food and for this purpose the possi- 
bility of increasing the extraction ratio in mill- 
ing should be explored. 

I have asked Mr. Snyder to coordinate all of 
the movement activities in this country to make 
certain that we attain maximum shipments of 
wheat as well as coal to liberated countries. Mr. 
Snyder has directed the establishment of a Move- 
ment Coordinating Committee and it is my un- 
derstanding that your Department is represented 
on this Committee. I have also asked him to 
keep me fully informed of the progress being 
made and to report directly any major difficulties 
which are not readily adjusted by his action. 



FEBRUARY 3, 1946 



179 



Research Fellowship in 
Agriculture 

[Released to the press January 21] 

The Department of State has been informed 
by the Inter-American Institute of Agricultural 
Sciences, Turrialba, Costa Kica, of the offer of a 
fellowship in agricultural education and research 
for a citizen of the United States. The fellowship 
is open to male students holding the equivalent 
of a bachelor's degree in agriculture and provides 
tuition, room, board, and laboratory fees for one 
year at the Institute. In order to express the 
interest of the United States in the success 
of this fellowship, the Department of State will 
award a round-trip travel grant to the winning 
candidate. 

The United States has been invited to submit 
a panel of three names to the Institute from 
which final selection of the winning candidate 
will be made. Each candidate must meet the fol- 
lowing requirements : 

1. Have high professional and intellectual 
qualifications 

2. Be in good physical condition 

3. Have good grounding in basic courses such 
as chemistry, physics, botany and zoology 

4. Be a candidate for an advanced degree or a 
person with advanced degree wishing to do spe- 
cial research 

5. Be a citizen of the United States 

6. Have an adaptable personality 

7. Have an adviser in the United States 

During the present year only unmarried men 
will be appointed. Other things being equal, 
joreference will be given to persons having a 
knowledge of Spanish or Portuguese, and to 
veterans of World War II. 

The successful candidate will be expected to 
devote his entire time to the pursuits for which 
the fellowship is awarded and to spend not less 
than one year in residence at the Institute. He 
will also be expected to present a thesis sum- 
marizing the results of the thesis problem assigned 
to him. After the satisfactory completion of his 
work, the student will be awarded the degree of 
master of science. 

Application blanks and information leaflets 
may be obtained from the American Kepublics 
Branch, Division of International Educational 



Relations, United States Office of Education, 
Washington 25, D.C., and should be returned 
before March 15, 1946. It is hoped that announce- 
ment of the award can be made by April 15 in 
order that studies at Turrialba may be undertaken 
jjrior to June 20. 

The Inter-American Institute of Agricultural 
Sciences is an organization comprising, to date, 
14 of the American republics, whose purpose is to 
encourage and advance the development of the 
agricultural sciences in the American republics 
through research, teaching, and extension activi- 
ties in the theory and practice of agriculture and 
related arts and sciences.^ It is particularly inter- 
ested in laying the foundation for a scientific 
approach to the development of important agri- 
cultural products. In a broader sense, it will 
serve to promote friendship and better under- 
standing by fostering constructive cooperation in 
the agricultural field among the republics of the 
American continent. 

Resumption of Travel Grants 
for Study in Other American 
Republics 

[Released to the press January 221 

The Department of State announces the re- 
sumption, on a limited basis, of the progi-am of 
travel and maintenance grants to assist United 
States graduate students to undertake academic 
studies or research in the other American repub- 
lics. The United States Office of Education and 
the Department are cooperating in the adminis- 
tration of this program. 

These grants will be awarded to qualified candi- 
dates to supplement personal funds or funds they 
may expect to receive through fellowships or other 
assistance from universities or research councils 
or other qualified organizations in the United 
States or the other American republics. They will 
provide travel and maintenance in accordance 
with predetermined cost estimates. Preference 
will be given to the travel-gi-ant aspect of the 
program. 

Candidates must hold a bachelor's degree or its 
equivalent and must be engaged in or recently have 
completed graduate study. They must also have 

' For an article on the Inter-American Institute of 
Agricultural Sciences see BirLLBjriN of Oct. 8, 1944, p. 386. 



180 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



a good working Joiowledge of the language of the 
country in which study is to be undertaken. Proj- 
ects will be considered with reference to their use- 
fulness in the development of broader understand- 
ing between the United States and the other 
American re23ublics, and should be sponsored by 
apiDroiDriate university or college authorities. 
Other things being equal, preference will be given 
to honorably discharged veterans of World War 
II who meet tlie above qualifications. 

Application blanks may be obtained from the 
American Republics Section, Division of Inter- 
national Educational Relations, United States 
OiRce of Education, Federal Security Agency, 
Washington 25, D.C., and should be i-eturned to 
that office not later than March 15, 1946. It is 
hoped that announcement of recipients of grants 
can be made by May 1, 1946. Travel must begin 
before June 30, 1946. 

Successful candidates will be expected to remain 
in residence for the purpose of study or research 
for at least six months. Grants will be valid for 
a minimum of six months and a maximum of one 
year. Under exceptional circumstances grants 
may be renewed, provided funds are available. 



Transmittal of Protocol to 
Inter-American Coffee 
Agreement 

[Released to the press by the White House January 22] 

To the Senate of the United States: 

With a view to receiving the advice and consent 
of the Senate to ratification, I transmit hei-ewith 
a protocol to extend for one year from October 1, 
1945, with certain modifications, the Inter-Ameri- 
can Coffee Agreement signed in Washington on 
November 28, 1940. The protocol was open for 
signature at the Pan American Union in Wash- 
ington from Sei:>tember 1, 1945 until November 1, 
1945 and during that period was signed for the 
United States of America, "Subject to ratifica- 
tion", and for the fourteen other American re- 
publics which became parties to the Inter-Ameri- 
can Coffee Agreement. 

With the protocol of extension, I transmit for 
the information of the Senate a report on the pro- 
tocol made to me by the Acting Secretary of State. 



I consider it important that the Senate give early 
consideration to the protocol. 

Harry S. Truman 
The White House, 
January 22, 1,946. 



The Department 



Appointment of Officers 

Walter A. Radius as Adviser on Inland Transport in 
the Office of Transport and Communications Policy, 
effective December 3, 1945. 

John NewboUl Hazard as Adviser on State Trading and 
Government Monopolies in the Division of Commercial 
Policy, effective December 12, 1945. 

John D. Sumner and John P. Young as Advisers in the 
Division of Investment and Economic Development, 
effective January 14, 1946. 

John Howe as Special Assistant to the Assistant Secre- 
tary for Public and Cultural Relations, effective January 
14, 1946. 

William T. Stone as Director of the Office of Interna- 
tional Information and Cultural Affairs, effective Janu- 
ary 14, 1946. 

Division of Investigations 

123.6 DIVISION OF Investigations (CSA) : (Effective 
1-17-46) 

I Functions. CSA of the Office of Controls (CON) 
shall be responsible for the following functions : 

A To investigate Departmental and Foreign Service 
applications for appointment to assure Departmental 
security. 

B To make such investigations in connection with 
the granting of passports and visas as may be necessary. 

C To assist other officials, Offices, Divisions of the 
State Department upon request : 

1 In meeting newly arrived ambassadors and min- 
isters and rendering necessary assistance. 

2 In meeting distinguished foreign visitors and 
members of their ijarties upon their arrival in the 
United States, facilitating their entry and their travels 
within the United States. 

3 By examining all files, archives, and other prop- 
erty in embassies and consulate offices of former belliger- 
ent nations ; by safeguarding such material and prop- 
erty ; and by arranging for its custody until its final 
disposition. 

4 By rendering services for the Department in the 
transfer of foreign consulates within the United States. 

II Okganization. CSA shall be responsible to a Chief 
Special Agent and shall have the necessai-y oi-ganization 
which shall include field offices in strategic cities, each 
office in charge of a Special .^gent. 

PUBLISHED WfTH APPROVAL OF DIRECTOR OF BUREAU OF BUDGET 
U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTINS OFFICEi 1946 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

msiM 

VOL. XIV, NO. 345 FEBRUARY 10, 1946 



U.8.-U.K. Financial Agreement 

THE PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE OF TRANSMITTAL TO CONGRESS 
Address by UNDER SECRETARY ACHESON 

The Wheat Crisis in Europe 

By UNDER SECRETARY OF STATE ACHESON, UNDER SECRETARY OF 
AGRICULTURE HUTSON, and JAMES A. STILL WELL 

The General Assemhly of the United Nations 

RESOLUTION ON ATOMIC COMMISSION 
REPORT FROM LONDON 

The Charter and the Promotion of Human Rights 

Article by ALICE A. McDIARMID 

• Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Alliance 



For complete contents 
see inside cover 




'■*tes °^ 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

BULLETIN 

Vol. XIV 'No. 345* ^^^Sm ' Pubi-ication 2467 

Febriiarr 10, 1946 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents 

U. S. Government Printing Office 

Washington 25, D. C. 

Subscription: 

52 issues, $3.50; single copy, 10 centi 

Special offer: 13 weeks for $1.00 
(renewable only on yearly basis) 



Contents 



The Deparlnirnt of Stale BULLETIN, 
a ueekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Research and 
Publication, Office of Public Affairs, 
provides the public and interested 
agencies of the Government with 
information on developments in the 
field of foreign relations and on the 
uork of the Department of Slate and 
ihc Foreign Service. The BULLETIN 
includes prets releases on foreign 
policy issued by the W hite House and 
the Department, and statements and 
addresses made by the President and 
by the Secretary of State and other 
(officers of the Department, as uell as 
special articles on various phases of 
international affairs and the functions 
of the Department. Information con- 
cerning treaties and international 
agreements touhich the Vnited Stales 
is or may become a party and treaties 
of general international interest is 
included. 

Publications of the Department, cu- 
mulative lists of uhich are published 
at the end of each quarter, as uell as 
legislative material in thefield of inter- 
national Telations,aTe listed currently . 



I 

Page 
*The President Transmits U. S.-U. K. Financial Agreement 

to Congress 183 

Tlie Credit to Britain, the Key to Expanded Trade. 

By Under Secretary Acheson 185 

*Agreement at Yalta on the Kuriles and Sakhalin 189 

The Wheat Crisis in Europe. A Radio Broadcast 191 

Civil Administration of Germany 197 

General Assembly of the United Nations: 

Resolution on Atomic Commission 198 

Report From London to the Office of Public Affairs, De- 
partment of State 199 

*Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Alliance 201 

Foreign Observers at Atomic-Bomb Demonstration .... 209 

Political Murders in Poland 209 

The Charter and the Promotion of Human Rights. 

Article by Alice i\I. McDiarniid 210 

Interaction of Migration Policies and \V<irltl Economy. 

By George L. Warren 213 

Protest by the Department of State on KV and UP Action. 

Statement by Assistant Secretary Benton 217 

Charge of U. S. Sale uf Arms to Spain Denied 218 

Death of Irene B. Leach. 

Statement by the Secretary of State 218 

International Organizations and Conferences 

Calendar of Meetings 219 

Activities and Developments. 

*Bretton Woods .Agreements 219 

The Record of the Week 

*British Commonwealth Occupation Force in .Jajjan. 

Summary of Agreement Between II. S. and Australia . . . 220 

U. S. Government Takes Serious View of Per6n's Charges . . 222 

Lend-Lease Operations: President's Letter to Congress . . . 223 

*Panama-U. S. Cooperative Fellowship Program 223 

UNRRA Shipments for 1945 to Liberated Areas 224 

Rubber Allocations for U. S. From the Far East 224 

.Arthur C. Bunce To Leave for Korea . . , 224 

Resignation of Isador[_Lubin 224 

The Foreign Service: 

Confirmations 224 

Consular Offices 224 

\ ' Treaty information. 



y, ,,, , I OF DOCUMEHTS 

MAR 19 194f 



The President Transmits U. S -U. K. 
Financial Agreement to Congress 



To the (.'ongress of the United States: 

The establislinieiit of a permanent state of 
peace and prosperity is not a simple matter. The 
creation and maintenance of conditions under 
which nations can be prosperous and remain peace- 
ful involves a series of highly complex and diffi- 
cult problems. If we are to reach this greatly 
desired goal, we must be prepared at all times to 
face the issues that will constantly present them- 
.selves and we must be determined to solve them. 
If peace is to be permanent, we must never relax 
our efforts to make it so. 

In his message to the Congress recounnonding 
the approval of the Bretton Woods Agreements, 
President Roosevelt called these proposals "the 
cornerstone for international economic coopera- 
tion." By enacting the Bretton Woods Agree- 
ments Act, the 79th Congress laid this cornerstone 
for the construction of an orderly economic peace. 
The Congress took many other steps during the 
same session which enlarged the .structure, and its 
achievements in this field are just cause for pride. 
Among the most important of these other steps 
were the ratification and implementation of the 
treaty establishing the United Nations Organiza- 
tion, the enactment of legislation to support the 
I iiited Nations Food and Agricultural Organiza- 
tion and to carry on the operations of the United 
Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administra- 
tion, the extension in a broader form of the Reci}>- 
rocal Trade Agreements Act, and the expansion 
of the Export-Import Bank. These steps will 
take us a long way on the road to world-wide se- 
curity and prosperity. They should not make us 
blind, however, to the job that has not been done — 
to the work that lies ahead. 

In ajjproving the establishment of the Interna- 
tional Monetary Fund and the International Bank 
for Reconstruction and Development, the Con- 
gress specifically expressed its belief that 
additional measures for international economic co- 
operation would be necessary to render most effec- 



tive the operations of the Fund and Bank. In the 
Bretton Woods Agreements Act the Congress de- 
clared it to be the palicy of the United States to 
seek to bring about further international agree- 
ment and cooperation along these lines. 

The International Monetary Fund Agreement 
was drafted and the Bretton Woods Agreements 
Act was enacted during the war. Both recognized 
that the financial condition of some countries re- 
sulting from the war might make it impossible for 
tiiem to apply at once the fundamental rule of 
non-discrimination in their monetary and finan- 
cial transactions. Therefore, provision was made 
for a transition period which might postpone as 
long as five years the complete application of this 
fundamental rule. 

Now in time of peace as we rapidly proceed Avith 
the organization of the International Monetary 
Fund we find that the fears which were respon- 
sible for this period of grace are verified by the 
facts. The most important of these facts is that 
the United Kingdom as a result of the war must 
continue for a long period many of its emergency 
wartime financial controls unless it obtains addi- 
tional working capital. It is apparent that, in the 
case of a principal member of the International 
Monetary Fund, we can ill afford to wait for the 
period permitted by the Bretton Woods Agree- 
ments for the removal of these hindrances to the 
financial and commercial relationsliips between 
nations. Now is the time to establish postwar 
monetary and financial policies of the United 
Nations. Now is the time to take action to enable 
the United Kingdom to move with us toward the 
prompt abolition of these restrictions. 

For these reasons, the next order of interna- 
tional business before the Congress should be our 
financial relations with the United Kingdom. 
The problems involved, which are severe but not 
insoluble, are direct consequences of the war. 

The text of this me.ssage was released to the press by 
tlie Wliife House on Jan. 30. 

183 



184 



. DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



They are matters of great urgency and I believe 
that the Financial Agreement which I am trans- 
mitting herewith furnishes a real basis for their 
solution.^ It is my earnest hope that the Con- 
gress will implement the Financial Agreement as 
speedily as is consistent with careful legislative 
consideration. 

It is not too much to say that the Agreement 
now transmitted will set the course of American 
and British economic relations for many years to 
come. In so doing it will have a decisive influence 
on the international trade of the whole world. 
Those who represented the United States in these 
discussions and those who represented the United 
Kingdom were fully aware of the fundamental 
nature of the problems befoi-e them. After long 
and careful consideration they agreed upon the 
arrangements which in my opinion will provide 
a solid foundation for the successful conduct of 
our economic relations with each other and with 
the world. 

The Financial Agreement will by its terms come 
into operation only after the Congress has made 
available the funds necessary to extend to the 
United Kingdom the line of credit of $3,750,000,- 
000 in accordance with the terms set forth in the 
Agreement. Britain needs this credit and she 
needs it now. It will assist her to meet the ex- 
pected deficit in her balance of payments during 
the next six years. It will enable her to buy from 
the world the supplies of food and raw materials 
which are essential to the life and work of the 
British people. At the same time it will keep 
open a market for those surpluses of the United 
States which are customarily exported to the 
United Kingdom. These are the important short- 
term purposes of the credit. 

But the Financial Agreement is much more than 
a credit. Let me repeat, its most important pur- 
pose from our point of view is to cause the removal 
of emergency controls exercised by the United 
Kingdom over its international transactions far 
more speedily than is required by the Bretton 
Woods Agreements. The Financial Agreement 
will enable the United Kingdom, through the 
prompt relaxation of exchange restrictions and 
discriminations, to move side by side with the 
United States toward the common goal of ex- 
panded world trade which means expanded pro- 

' For text of the agreement, see Bxjixetin of Dec. 9, 1945, 
p. 907. 



duction, consumption and employment and I'ising 
standards of living everywhere. 

The line of credit which will be extended to the 
United Kingdom under the Agreement may be 
drawn upon until the end of 1951. At that time 
the United Kingdom will be obligated to begin 
repayment of the principal with interest and those 
payments will continue over a period of 50 years. 
These terms are neither unusual nor difficult to 
understand. Thei'e is one new concept, however, 
embodied in the terms of the credit. We have 
recognized that conditions may exist temporarily 
during such a long period of time which would 
make the payment of interest on such a large 
amount difficult if not impossible. Accordingly, 
provision has been made for the waiver of in- 
terest by the United States Government after a 
certification by the International Monetary Fund 
as to the facts regarding the balance of payments 
position of the United Kingdom. It is not to 
our advantage to press for payment of interest 
when payment is impossible and thus force default 
and a crumbling of international economic 
relations. 

The financial assistance which the United King- 
dom would receive under the Agreement has made 
it possible for the two governments to agree on a 
specific course of action which in a short period 
of time will result in the removal of emergency 
controls over foreign exchange and discriminatory 
import restrictions and the reestablishment of 
peacetime practices designed to promote the re- 
covery of world trade. Britain has agreed to 
abolish the so-called "sterling area dollar pool." 
She has agreed to give up most of her rights dur- 
ing the transition period provided for in the Inter- 
national Monetary Fund Agreement and thus to 
abandon controls over foreign exchange which 
she would otherwise be permitted by the terms of 
that Agreement to continue for a considerable 
period of time. In addition to the direct benefits 
which will flow from this stimulus' to Anglo- 
American trade there will be the added benefits 
derived from the ability of other nations to relax 
their restrictions once the United Kingdom has 
led the way. 

Another troublesome financial problem which 
has been fully and frankly discussed by the two 
nations is that of the sterling liabilities of Great 
Britain which have resulted from her large ex- 

(Continued on page 216) 



FEBRUARY 10, 1946 



185 



The Credit to Britain, the Key to Expanded Trade 



By UNDER SECRETARY ACHESON 



WE Americans who are accustomed to tackle 
most problems with confidence and optimism 
have a curious attitude toward our efforts in in- 
ternational affairs. It is common, and rather 
a mark of sophistication, to say that we have no 
foreign policy. No matter how often the Presi- 
dent and the Secretary of State make definite 
statements defining our foreign policy, the re- 
frain goes on that we have none. If officers of 
the Government lay their views before the coun- 
try they are accused of being propagandists. If 
they say nothing they are accused of secrecy. If 
we go into negotiations with other nations, the 
cry goes up that we will be out-traded. 

Yet within two months we have seen four out- 
standing accomplislmients of American diplo- 
macy — the Moscow Conference, the loan agreement 
witli Great Britain, the creation of the Bretton 
Woods Fund and Bank, and the first meeting 
of the General Assembly of the United Nations. 
Each of these carries forward mightily the main 
stream of policy on which the American people 
are agreed, to strengthen our own security and 
prosperity by promoting the unity and strength 
of the United Nations. I think these four achieve- 
ments alone prove that we have a foreign policy 
and that we are not altogether incompetent in 
carrying it out. 

I propose to speak today about the loan agree- 
ment with Great Britain and its great importance 
to us and to the world. To realize what tlie agree- 
ment is about we must first understand two things, 
the importance of Great Britain to world trade 
and the situation that Great Britain finds her- 
self in at the war's end. 

Great Britain has been for many years the 
world's best customer. She has bought every 
year more of the world's goods of every kind than 
any other single country. She has also been a 
great exjiorter. A fifth of the world's foreign 



commerce moved in and out of her ports before 
the war. But she is even more important than 
this because the countries which use her money- — 
the pound sterling — in their international trans- 
actions conduct almost a third of the world's total 
foreign trade. By comparison, we and the Ca- 
nadians between us carried on less than one fifth 
of the world's foreign trade before the war. Brit- 
ish currency, like our own, is known in every trad- 
ing center in the world, and many other currencies 
depend ui^on the British pound. The pound ster- 
ling and the dollar : these are the two great curren- 
cies in which international business is transacted. 
In 1938 over one half of the world's foreign trade 
was carried on in pounds or dollars. With the 
war over and Germany and Japan pretty well out 
of the picture the figure will be still higher, per- 
haps as high as 70 percent. In other words, by 
far the greater part of all the world's foreign com- 
merce is paid for in pounds or dollars. If these 
two currencies are freely interchangeable at a sta- 
ble rate, businessmen all over the world can start 
up their factories, employ workei's, produce goods 
and buy and sell nearly everywhere — confident 
tliat the purchase price will be paid in money 
which they can use anywhere. 

This ability to exchange British money for 
American money has been disrupted by two wars. 
After the last war we started to exchange our 
money on the old basis — $4.86 to the pound ster- 
ling — but we were forced to give that up in the 
1930's. In this war Great Britain was in the fight- 
ing for six years. The British poured everything 
they had into the war and war jn-oduction. They 
converted their industry almost completely, cut 
their civilian standards to a bare minimum, and 

The above address was delivered before the United 
Natious' Association of Maryland, Baltimore. Md., and 
broadcast over station WBAL on Feb. 1 ; it was released 
to the press on the same date. 



186 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BILLETIN 



suffered destruction at home that we wei'e spared. 
In i)artieuhir. they cut their exjjorts to tlie bone. 
In 1945 they sold abroad less than one-third of 
what they sold in 1988. It will take a lono- time to 
rebuild that trade. 

This is a very serious matter foi' the British 
people. They cannot cut down nnidi on the goods 
they buy abroad, for these goods make up a large 
part of the food they eat and of the raw materials 
tliut keejj their factories running. But the decline 
in their sales to other countries means that they 
earn from sales abroad with which to pay their 
foreign bills not much more than a third of what 
they did before the war. 

This is not the whole story by any means. Be- 
fore the war the British people owned large in- 
vestments overseas — in the United States and 
elsewhere — and the interest and dividends they 
drew frf)m those investments lielped them to pay 
for imports. A large jiart of those investments 
they sold during the war — mostly before Lend- 
Lease got going — to raise ca.sh to pay for guns and 
tanks and airjjlanes. Other investments, such as 
rubber plantations and the British merchant fleet, 
were damaged in the Mar and will take years to 
regain their old earning power. In the meantime 
tlie bills for imported food and raw materials 
keep coming in. 

This is not the whole story even yet. During 
the war the British Government bought war goods 
from many countries on credit. The resulting 
debts, payable in pounds sterling, ran to 14 
billion dollars by the end of 194.5. These debts 
ai-e owed to India, Egypt, Ireland, and other 
countries inside and outside the British Empire. 
We think many of these debts ought to be scaled 
down as a contribution to the war. The British 
think so too, antl in the financial agreement with 
us they have stated what they hoj^e to do about 
tliem. But scaling down requires the agreement 
of the creditors ; and after it is accomplished there 
will .still remain a large obligation to be worked 
off over a period of years. That means that for 
a long time Britain will have to ship goods in 
payment, and for those shipments she will receive 
no income with which to pay for her imports. 

The situation sounds desperate, and it certainly 
is serious and will be so until Britain is able to 
build up her export trade to the point where her 
income is enough to pay for her outgo. It is 
serious, but manageable. Britain has great re- 
sources of technical knowledge, plant, manufac- 



turing '"know-how," financial integrity, and com- 
mercial skill. With reasonable forbearance from 
her creditors and woi-king capital to get over the 
emergency she can surmount her troubles and be- 
come again as she has been so long — one of the 
very largest factors in the commerce of the world. 
Once the pound sterling is made secure and freely 
exchangeable at stable rates for dollars, the way 
is open for a growth of trade that can advance 
all countries to new heights of prosperity and 
welfare. 

This is what the financial agreement with Great 
Britain is about. It is not a reward for an ally, 
however gallant and enduring. It is not a pen- 
sion, gift, or handout of any description what- 
ever. It is an investment in the future : the kind 
of future in which enterprise can operate under 
the rule of equal opportunity to bring about pros- 
perity, the kind of future in which the port of 
Baltimore and every other seaport in the world 
can see its peacetime trade revived and prosperous, 
the kind of future in whicli farmers, merchants, 
manufacturers — and the consumer, who is all of 
us — can enjoy the increased markets and the in- 
creased welfare which an expanded foreign trade 
can bring about. 

I think it is also an investment in security. If 
the loan were not made what would the situa- 
tion be? Britain would still need foreign goods, 
and would have few dollars to pay for them. We 
have never bought nearly as much from her as 
she has from us. She would of course have sup- 
plies of her own currency, pounds sterling, and 
adequate supplies of the currencies of those coun- 
tries which buy as much from her as she from 
them. She would have to buy her needs, or as 
nnich of them as she could afford, from the coun- 
tries which bought equivalent amounts from her 
or those which were willing to take payment in 
pounds sterling. 

We are not in either cla.ss. She would have to 
channel business by government decree — business 
that normally would come to us — to other coun- 
tries. And those other countries would have to 
channel their purchases to her, in order to be sure 
of getting paid. We would see, in short — not be- 
cause Britain wants it but because there would be 
no other clear way out — a stiffening of restrictions 
upon trade, exchange controls, import controls, 
and imperial jneferences. all directed necessarily 
against countries whose currencies were hard for 
her to get, because they did not buy from her 



FEBRUARY 10, 1946 



187 



directly. This would nieuii chiefly the United 
States. 

So there would necessarily be increased dis- 
crimination against American traders in many 
markets. The foreign trading community in this 
country would press for retaliation. Sooner or 
later we would retaliate in kind. Then we would 
see a full-scale economic struggle, led by two 
irreat jxovernments. with no holds barred. 

AVhat nonsense that struggle would be. We 
would be fighting our best cu.stomer, one of our 
great allies, on whose continued cooperation with 
us and the rest of the United Nations the founda- 
tions of the peace depend. And we should be 
struggling for continually shrinking markets, 
instead of working together to expand all mar- 
kets by increasing prosperity everywhere. This 
woukl be a sure formula for defeating every pros- 
pect of success of the United Nations Organiza- 
tion and of improved conditions of life every- 
where based on increased production and 
employment. 

Perhaps these are exaggerated fears. But I 
assure you that my statement of the benefits of 
the agreement is by no means exaggerated. 

Now what does the agreement say? 

First, we agree, if Congress approves, to ex- 
tend to the United Kingdom a line of credit of 
$3,750,000,000, which can be drawir on as needed 
at anv time until December 31, 1951. 

This is not the only emergency financial help 
Cii-eat Britain will receive. She will receive loans 
from certain other countries, and I hope sub- 
stantial debt cancellations from some of her war- 
time creditors. The total is enough, but not too 
much, to enable lier to pay her necessary foreign 
outgo until her export trade exj^ands to the point 
where she can pay her current foreign bills from 
current income. From Britain's point of view, 
that is the major purpose of the credit. 

From our point of view it has several other pur- 
poses. In addition to the undertaking to repay 
the loan with interest (ireat Britain promises: 

F/r--<f: Not to restrict payments to Americans 
for goods imported into England or for other 
current transactions. That takes effect as soon as 
the agreement is approved by Congress, and it 
means that people in this country who engage in 
business with their customers in Britain can get 
paid in dollars with no strings attached. 

Second: Within a year Great Britain agrees to 
make arrangements for the free interchange of 



pounds sterling and dollai's in countries whose 
principal international currency is the British 
pound. When this is done, people who receive 
pounds for current transactions will be able to 
use them anywhere in the world. This means that 
a merchant in Calcutta, for instance, or in Cairo, 
who sells aTjill of goods in London can exchange 
the proceeds for dollars if he wants to. and spend 
them in this country. 

Third: Also within a year, to applj- the same 
rule to transactions with all countries, so that a 
Dutchman or a Frenchman or a Pole or anybody 
el.se who sells goods in the English market can 
exchange the proceeds for any currency he pleases 
and spend them where he wants. 

These provisions are a great step forward. 
With the International Monetary Fund to back 
them up and spread the rule to other currencies 
after a somewhat longer transition period, they 
bring within our sight the day when men in every 
trading country can u^ their income and re- 
sources to buy and sell in the best markets. But 
this is not yet the whole story. 

A moment ago I mentioned the British sterling 
debts arising from the war. As they stood before 
the loan agreement the.se debts were payable only 
in pounds, so that the creditors in order to collect 
their claims had to make purchases of foreign 
goods in Britain or in those cotnitries which would 
accept pounds. Under the loan agreement the 
United Kingdom promises that whatever pay- 
ments on these debts are made after one year will 
be available for use for current transactions in any 
currency area without disi'rimination. This 
means that when Intlian or Egyptian, Irish or 
South American creditors, or other holders of 
these claims are jjaid, they can use the money to 
buy anywhere they please. 

These are the arrangements about money. The 
United Kingdom also promises, effective at the 
ejid of 1946, not to discriminate against this 
country in the administration of its quotas upon 
the quantity of imports. 

This does not mean that thei'c will be no British 
import quotas. I am sure there will be, for loan 
or no loan, Britain cannot afford to let the British 
people buy all the foreign goods they want. But 
under the agreement we have Britain's promise 
that within whatever quotas are established, sellers 
in this country will have a fair chance to comptet 
for the business. 



188 



DEPARTMEIST OF STATE BULLETIN 



All of this put together is a great stej) forward. 
The British thought we were pushing them hard. 
Some of their newspaper editors and public men 
still think so. They have thought the loan should 
be an outright grant, they have criticized the re- 
quirement that interest be paid, they have criti- 
cized especially the requirements about import 
and exchange control that I have just discussed. 
But our British friends have realized that we are 
taking a risk too, and that the terms are not unfair, 
and the British Parliament has approved the fi- 
nancial agreement. The hope for both of us is to 
expand j^rosperity and trade around the world, 
and, to do that, special deals that discriminate 
against third countries must be eliminated. 

One major virtue of this loan agreement is that 
it cuts through the financial log jam which has 
made it so difficult to get on with the job of remov- 
ing other obstacles to trade between nations. 

We are starting on that too. On the same day 
that the financial agreement was signed there were 
made public the American Proposals for Expan- 
sion of World Trade and Employment.^ With 
their immediate financial problem cared for by the 
loan, the British Government was able at once to 
endorse all of the important points in these pro- 
posals. Under them we shall sit down this sum- 
mer with 14 important countries to reduce all 
kinds of barriers to trade under the Ti'ade Agree- 
ments Act, and we hope shortly afterwards to meet 
in general conference of the United Nations for 
the same purpose. 

In trade our interest, the British interest, the 
interest of all countries is in expansion rather than 
restriction, in greater production rather than 
scarcity, in equal opportunity rather than discx'imi- 
nation. 

We have prcjposed the framework of an agree- 
ment that advances these objectives, and we have 
asked the people of this country and the govern- 
ments and peoples of other countries to give it their 
most serious considei'ation. One main advantage 
of the loan agreement with Great Britain is that it 
makes it financially possible for the world's largest 
purchaser of foreign goods to join us in that proj- 
ect. They are back of it as thoroughly as we are. 

One thing should be made perfectly clear in con- 
nection with these trade proposals. They do not 
involve any present agreement about any American 
tariff rates, and they do not increase in any respect 

' For text of the proposals, see Buixktin of Dec. 9, 1945, 
p. 912. 



the President's authority to enter into such agree- 
ments. That authority remains exactly what it was 
before, and is stated in the Trade Agreements Act 
as that Act was last renewed by Congress in June 
1945. 

Our negotiations this summer with 14 countries 
will be conducted under the Trade Agreements Act. 
They will be preceded by public notice and regular 
hearings under that Act. Any concessions made 
by the United States will be determined selectively, 
with regard for the interests of American pro- 
ducers, and only in return for adequate correspond- 
ing concessions made by other countries. One of 
the concessions we shall ask for will be directed 
toward British imperial preference on commodi- 
ties whiclt we export. Negotiations with these 14 
countries will precede the International Confer- 
ence on Trade and Employment, which will be held 
later in the year. 

I have spoken of the things the loan agreement 
deals with. It does not deal with naval bases or 
airfields, or the fifth freedom of the air, or the 
future of Palestine or India. 

Some peojjle have criticized the American nego- 
tiators for this reason. They suggest that we 
should have used the loan negotiations to extract 
from the United Kingdom concessions on a variety 
of subjects having no connection with the loan 
itself. Naturally, each of these critics has his own 
list of the additional concessions which should have 
been obtained. 

There are two reasons why this was not done: 
it would not have been fair, and therefore it would 
not have worked. 

The bargaining power of a lender of money is 
large, but not infinite. If it is pressed too hard 
there comes a point when the prospective borrower 
packs up his bag and goes home. That point is 
likely to arrive when the lender starts inserting 
clauses that have nothing to do with the subject- 
matter of the main transaction. 

The provisions of the loan agreement with 
Gi'eat Britain have been called stiff, and the 
length of the discussions trutlifully suggests that 
they were not all easy to negotiate. But they all 
had to do with the commercial and financial facts 
which were the reason for the credit and with the 
measures needed for the growth of trade which is 
the ultimate main source for its repayment. The 
terms were therefore all germane to the trans- 
action. In the end this had to be admitted. 
(^Continued on next page) 



FEBRUARY 10, 1946 



189 



Agreement at Yalta on the Kuriles and Sakhalin 



At his press and radio news conference on Janu- 
ary 29, the Secretary of State said that he was ad- 
vised that at Mr. Acheson's press conference he 
expressed the understanding that tlie Yalta de- 
cision as to the islands that were in question was 
that the Russians should occupy them but that no 
final award had been made. Explaining that he 
had never seen the original agreement and that 
lie had first learned of it after the surrender of 
the Japanese, the Secretary disclosed that under 
the agreement the southern half of SaMialin, 
which at one time was Russian territory and 
which was ceded to Japan about 1875, was, under 
agreement between Mr. Roosevelt, Mr. Churchill, 
and Mr. Stalin, to be returned to the Soviet Gov- 
ernment after the surrender of Japan. He added 
that the same agreement was made as to the Kurile 
Islands and some islands adjacent to the southeim 
half of Sakhalin. 

Asked whether it would be necessary to have 
a peace treaty to formalize that transfer, the Sec- 
retary replied in the affirmative, adding that that 
was his understanding of all those matters. Point- 
ing out that someone might raise the question 
tliat where territory had previously been in pos- 
session of a government it would not be neces- 



sary, the Secretary said that it was his under- 
standing that any cession of territory must be 
legalized in a treaty, either a treaty between two 
countries, or, where a treaty has been forced 
upon a country that has surrendered, the govern- 
ment is required to sign. He said that he held 
that view as to the territory adjacent to the Cur- 
zon Line and Silesia. A correspondent pointed out 
that in the case of the Curzon Line that had been 
done within a recently announced treaty between 
the Soviet Union and Poland. Replying, the Sec- 
retary said that it could be done only with a treaty 
between two governments, pointing out that that 
had not been done in the case of Japan in answer 
to this particular question. He asserted that what- 
ever government exists in Japan should enter 
into a treaty. Asked whether the agreement was 
so phrased that it could be interjjreted as an award 
of those areas to the Soviet Union, or merely that 
Britain and the United States would support the 
Soviet Union's claim to it in an eventual peace 
treaty, the Secretary replied that it was his recol- 
lection that the language in one of the agreements 
was that it should be turned over, but he added 
that there was not any question about what was 
intended at Yalta because at Yalta he heard Mr. 



XCHESOTS—Continued from page 188. 

By sticking to the point the American nego- 
tiators were able to negotiate a bargain which 
promotes the fundamental interests of the United 
States. Had they done otherwise, I fear that like 
the dog in Aesop's fable they might have lost the 
bone they had. "Dollar diplomacy" is not neces- 
sarily an evil, but it does have its limits, and it is 
well to remember what they are. One of them is 
that between self-respecting people political con- 
cessions are not to be bought for money. 

This transaction should be judged for what it is. 
It does not solve all the troubles of the world, or 
even all the questions between us and the British 
Commonwealth countries. It does solve the larg- 
est and on the whole the most difficult inter- 
national financial problem that confronts us, and 
lets us go ahead to the solution of a host of other 
questions. Four months after the war's end I 
think that is a great accomplishment. 

682258 — 46 2 



I have talked a good deal tonight about trade 
and money, and little about the political founda- 
tions of the peace. The political foundations are 
essential, but one thing we have learned since 1918 
is that they are not enough. The organization 
of the peace means its organization on all fronts. 
We need not only the Security Council of the 
United Nations, but the Economic and Social 
Council also. We need not only the International 
Court of Justice, but the International Monetary 
Fund. We need not only the International Labor 
Organization, but the Food and Agriculture Or- 
ganization of the United Nations. We need not 
only the United Nations Educational, Scientific 
and Cultural Organization, but the International 
Bank for Reconstruction and Development and 
the International Civil Aviation Organization. 
And I am convinced that when we search oui' 
minds we shall decide that we need the Inter- 
national Trade Organization also, and the Briti.sh 
loan that makes it possible. 



190 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Roosevelt on at least one or two occasions take the 
position that as to cession of territory, it was a 
matter that had to be settled in the peace treaty. 
He said that that was always Mr. Roosevelt's 
view and that at Potsdam INIr. Truman took the 
same position as to the Silesian area, making it 
l^lain that it was an agreement, and that at the 
proper time this Government would support it. 

In reply to a query, the Secretary said that the 
agreement was signed on the last day of the Con- 
ference, a fact which he thought was the exj^laiia- 
tion of his knowing nothing about it. Asked 
wliether the agreement was formalized in writing, 
Mr. Byrnes replied in the affirmative. He declared 
that he had no criticism of anybody about his 
not knowing of it, for there were very good rea- 
sons at that time why it should be kept a top 
secret. Calling attention to the fact that the 
Soviet Government took the position that it would 
take 90 days for them to move their troops from 
Germany to participate in the war against Japan, 
the Secretary pointed out that in February, as 
the Soviets were starting their drive that cul- 
minated in the collaj^se of Germany on the eastern 
front, it was exceedingly important that a state- 
ment of this kind should not have been made 
because it would have been information to Japan 
that the Soviet Union was going into the war. 
Asked whether Stalin had agreed to enter the 
Far Eastern war earlier in the Conference, the 
Secretary said that that was his understanding. 
Asked whether it was at Yalta that there was un- 
derstanding that it would take 90 days to move 
to the Far East, Mr. Byrnes said that it was stated 
to the United States military people there. Asked 
Mdiether, at the time that the agreement about the 
islands was entered into, it was entered into with 
full knowledge of the United States Chiefs of 
Start' who were represented at Yalta, the Secre- 
tai-y lejjlied in the affirmative. 

Asked whether the Russians committed them- 
selves to any concessions to the United States for 
any territory it might want in Pacific islands, the 
Secretary said that as far as he had any informa- 
tion, they did not. Asked whether there were any 
land groups or sea areas involved in the agreement 
aside from Sakhalin and the Kuriles, the Secretary 
replied in the negative but revealed that in addi- 
tion to those two points, the agreement had refer- 
ence to the Port Arthur - Dairen situation, which 
was thereafter formalized in a treaty between 

' Sec 1). liOl. 



China and the Soviet Union.' Asked whether the 
Sino-Soviet agreement followed precisely the 
terms first projected at Yalta, Mr. Byrnes replied 
in the affirmative, but he added that there might 
have been some slight deviation. Asked whether 
there was any discussion at the Conference of the 
disposition of the other Pacific islands, the Secre- 
tary explained that he was not at the Conference 
and therefore could not tell the correspondents 
what took place. 

A correspondent inquired why there had to be 
an agreement at all at that time. Mr. Byrnes said 
he did not know why there would have to be an 
agreement. The Secretary replied in the negative 
when asked whether there was any reference at 
Yalta to the possibility of a tru.steeship for those 
areas. Asked whether there was any reason why 
the Yalta agreement with reference to the Kurile 
Islands should not be published, Mr. Byrnes said 
that he saw no reason. 



When the President was asked at his press and 
radio news conference on January 31 when he had 
learned of the Yalta agreement on the Kurile 
Islands, he said that he did not know the exact 
time but that it was some time last summer pre- 
vious to the Potsdam Conference. He added that 
it was necessary for him to be familiar with the 
agreement before attending the Potsdam Con- 
ference. Asked where he had found the agree- 
ment, Mr. Truman said that it had never been 
lost, that it had been tiled in the private files of the 
President of the United States, that it was there 
all the time. Questioned about the likelihood of 
making the agreement public, the President ex- 
plained that the State Department was inquiring 
of Great Britain and the Soviet Union to deter- 
mine whether they have any objections, adding 
that if they do not it will be made public. Asked 
whether the agreement was in the form of a treaty, 
the President replied that it was just like the Yalta 
and Potsdam Agreements. Asked whether any 
more of these agreements would be brought up 
later, the President said that he couldn't answer 
that, but added that most of them had been made 
public. He explained that this type of an agree- 
ment constituted a wartime undei\standing be- 
tween the Allies as to the best method of using 
their combined forces to win the war. In reply 
to a question, the President denied that the United 
States was demanding air bases on the Kuriles. 



FEBRUARY 10, 1946 



191 



The Wheat Crisis in Europe 



A discussion and explanation of the importance which our Government attaches to the question of the wheat 
shortage in Europe was broadcast on February 2, 1946 by Under Secretary of State Dean Acheson; Under 
Secretary of Agriculture John R. Hutson: and James A. Stillwell, Adviser on Supplies for War Areas in the 
Department of Slate. The text of their conversation on the air, released to the press on February 2, is presented 
below. The broadcast was the eighth in a group of State Department programs in the NBC University of the 
Air series entitled '^Our Foreign PoUcy"'. Sterling Fisher, director of the NBC University of the Air, tvas • 
chairman of their discussion. 



Fisher: The question of the wheat shortage in 
Europe is of such vital importance that I am told 
it was discussed at some length in Cabinet meet- 
ings last week and again this week. This pro- 
gram is one result of those discussions. Mr. Ache- 
son, can you explain the extreme importance 
which our Government attaches to this cjuestion * 

Acheson : Mr. Fisher, the facts are simply 
these: There will be suffering and starvation in 
Europe this winter, despite all our efforts to pre- 
vent it. We thought last fall that starvation 
could be avoided, by allocating the sur])lus wheat 
of the great exporting countries — the United 
States, Canada, Argentina, and Australia — to the 
countries that needed it most. Well, we've done 
that, but we find our efforts so far haven't been 
enough — for several reasons. The wheat crops 
of Europe and North Africa were even shorter 
than we had figured.. Shipping has been a se- 
vere problem, too. And finally, we find that our 
surplus stocks are not as great as we had thought. 
We want the world to know the full extent of 
our efforts to get the goods to Europe. At the 
same time we want the people of the United States 
to know we've got to do more than we have done 
so far — even if it means a return to wartime con- 
ditions in some sectors of our economy. We've 
won the war. We can't afford to let hunger and 
starvation defeat us now. 

Fisher: That's laying it on the line. And I 
understand, Mr. Acheson, that the Government is 
taking drastic action to avert this danger, or at 
least to minimize it. 

Acheson : Yes, Pressident Truman this week 
released a directive to all Government Depart- 
ments ordering them to do everything possible to 
speed the shipment of wheat and flour. He also 
ordered them to do evervthing thev could to con- 



serve our wheat resources. The President re- 
peated a statement he made after the Potsdam 
Conference, and I think it's worth quoting here: 

"If we let Europe go cold and hungry, we may 
lose some of the foundations of order on which the 
hope for world-wide peace must rest. We must 
help to the limits of our strength; and we will." 

The President emphasized that last sentence: 
"We nuist help to the limits of our strength; and 
we will."' I believe the American people will 
back him up on this. 

Fisiikk: The public-opinion polls indicate they 
will: most Americans would have l)een willing to 
continue rationing, if necessary, to prevent star- 
vation in Europe. Now, Mr. Hutson, I know that 
as Under Secretary of Agriculture you have made 
a special study of conditions in Europe. Just 
what is the situation now 'I Has actual starvation 
begun ? 

Hutson : Not yet — at least not mass starvation. 
That's what we're struggling to prevent. 

Fisher : How much food are they getting over 
there now? 

Hltson: Well, we have .set as a goal for the 
liberated countries — our Allies — a minimum ra- 
tion of :2,000 calories a day per person. That's 
the standard set by UNRRA for subsistence. 

Fisher: How does that compare, Mr. Hutson, 
with our diet over here? 

Hutson : I think the average American eats 
something over 3,000 calories of food a clay. That's 
at least 50 percent more than we have set as the 
minimum standard for subsistence in Europe. But 
the important thing is, many of the liberated coun- 
tries have had a struggle even to get rations up to 
2,000 calories, and now they'i'e falling behind in 
the figiit. 



192 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



AcHESON : We have just received some estimates 
of the prospects for the next few months. Over 
125 million people in Europe will have to subsist 
on less than 2,000 calories a day. And about 28 
million — mostly city dwellers — will get less than 
1,500 calories a day — less than half as much as we 
get here in America. In some jiarts of Europe, the 
figure will go down to 1,000 calories or less. 

Fisher: Do these figures include Germany, Mr. 
Acheson ? 

Acheson: Yes. Of course, a lower standard has 
been set in Germany than in the liberated countries. 
In Germany the so-called "normal consumer" is 
supposed to eat 1,550 calories per person daily. 
This is considered the bare minimum for prevent- 
ing disease and unrest that might endanger the 
occupying forces. But actually, there is trouble 
meeting that quota also. According to some re- 
ports the Germans in our zone are getting only an 
average of 1,300 to 1,350 calories a day. 

Fisher : The lower ration in Germany is in line 
with the policy of making sure Germany doesn't 
fare better than the liberated areas, isn't it, Mr. 
Acheson ? 

Acheson : Yes, under the Potsdam agreement we 
must give priority to the needs of people in the 
liberated areas. That's only fair. 

Fisher : There has been a lot of interest in the 
question of feeding the Germans. In digging into 
this subject, we found that several hundred people 
have written the White House and the State De- 
partment, pro or con. Here's a connnon question : 
Are we going to let the Germans starve in spite 
of the humanitarian principles we profess? 

Acheson : The answer to that is n-o. It's not 
our policy to let our ex-enemies starve. We don't 
think that's a sound thing to do, from our own 
point of view. Our first responsibility is to pre- 
vent mass starvation among our former Allies. 
But Me can't afford to permit famine conditions 
in Germany either. 

Fisher: Now, Mr. Acheson, we've been talk- 
ing about calories, which is all very well — but a 
calorie is a little hard to put your finger on. 
Can't we pin this thing down in terms of tons, or 
pounds of wheat, or better yet, loaves of bread ? 

Acheson : The countries that are short of 
wheat — which include nearly all of Europe — need, 
between now and July 1, 17 million tons of wheat 
inore than they have on hand. At most, 12 mil- 
lion tons can be shipped to Europe from the 



United States, Canada, Australia, and Argentina. 
Six million tons of this must come from the United 
States. That was the best we figured we could 
do ; the rest must come from the other three coun- 
tries. So, if we all do everything we can, Europe 
will still be 5 million tons short; and that's a lot 
of wheat, especially when you haven't got it. 

Fisher: Mr. Hutson, can you translate that 
figure for us? What would 5 million tons of 
wheat mean to the people of Europe ? 

Hutson: Well, 5 million tons of wheat will 
make around 11 billion loaves of bread. The pres- 
ent bread ration for each person in France and 
Italy is only about half of an ordinary loaf of 
bread a day. And remember this: They have to 
eat a lot more bread than we do, because about 
two thirds of their total diet is bread. But to 
answer your question specifically, Mr. Fisher, 5 
million tons of wheat would feed a hundred mil- 
lion Europeans on their present rations for about 
6 months. 

Acheson : In other words, for every million 
tons of wheat now allocated wliich does not reach 
Europe, 20 million people would have to go with- 
out bi'ead for 6 months — which would mean 
starvation, since bread is the main article in their 
diet. Or, if the wheat they have is spread more 
thinly, it would mean near-starvation for a much 
greater number. 

Hutson: And I'd like to jioint out, Mr. Fisher, 
that the four supplying countries must exei't every 
effort to meet even their present quota. In this 
country, for example, we can supply fi million 
tons only by almost superhuman efforts. 

Acheson: That is why the President is asking 
us to make superhuman efforts. The situation is 
so bad in some countries that there is only enough 
wheat and flour for a two-week supply of bread 
Millions of Europeans will go hungry and may 
even starve before the next crop is in. Tliat's why 
it's so urgent right now that Americans under- 
stand the situation. 

Fisher: I'd like to ask Mr. Hutson how it hap- 
pens that Europe is so short of wheat. I know 
the Nazis drained off what they could, but there 
has been a new crop since then. 

Hutson : There are two reasons. In the first 
l)lace, most of the European countries have ex- 
perienced the worst drought in 50 years. This 
drought also hit North Africa, which normally 
exports