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Full text of "Department of State bulletin"



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Given By 
U. S. SUPT. OF DOCUMENTS 



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July 7-December 29, 1946 



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"• S. iUOERINTEKDENT t,; 

APR 30 mi 

INDEX 



Volume XV: Numbers 366-391, July 7-December 29, 1946 



Abdul Aziz (King of Saudi Arabia) letter to President 

Truman, on I'alestine problem, 848. 
Acbeson, Dean : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 
Arrival of Soviet Ambassador in New York, investiga- 
tion of incident, 726. 
Germany, bizonal arrangements for, opening session of 

U.S.-U.K. meetings on, 940. 
India : 
Air-transport agreement, with U.S., 966. 
Representative Executive Council, 463. 
U.S. attitude toward, 1113. 
International Court of Justice, jurisdiction, 154. 
Japanese reparations program, 1058. 
Jewish immigration to Palestine, 70. 
Korea : 
Administration of, 670. 
Liberation, 1st anniversary, 384. 
Philippine independence, 67, 68. 

Philippine training program, U.S. participation, 964. 
Polish President's remarks concerning Ambassador 

Lane, answer to, 265. 
UNRRA, activities, 1107. 
UNRR.V. opening session of 6th Council Session, 

1140. 
Welcome to General Assembly representatives, 750. 
Whaling conference, international, 1st plenary ses- 
sion, 1001. 
Xugo.slavia, civil liberties in, 725. 
CorresiMndence : 

British Ambassador, on congressional approval of 

British loan, 172. 
Canadian Ambassador, on interpretation of Rush- 

Bagot agreement, 1152. 
Chairmen of congressional committees, on recommen- 
dations of United Maritime Consultative Council 
to member governments, 1093. 
Congress, transmitting surplus-property report (2d), 

247. 
President Truman, report on protocol transfeiTing 
functions and assets of International Institute of 
Agriculture to FAO, 74. 
Secretary-General of United Nations, transmitting 
U.S. declaration of recognition of compulsory ju- 
risdiction of International Court of Justice," 452. 
Soviet Charge d'Affaires, on admission of U.S. cor- 
respondents into areas receiving UNRRA aid, 37. 
Soviet Charge d'Affaires, on Soviet proposals regard- 
ing Black Sea Straits, 421. 
Meeting with committees on Palestine, 334. 
Acquisition and Distribution Division, responsibilities 

(D.R. 133.31), 468. 
ADA. See Atomic Development Authority. 
Addresses, statements, and broadcasts of the week, listed, 
332, 431. 465, 495, 538, 691, 779, 915, 965, 1010, 1039, 
1115, 11.59, 1191. 
Advisory Committee on Intelligence, functions, member- 
ship, etc. (D.R. 183.5), 471. 
Afghanistan, membership in United Nations, resolution 

proposed in Security Council, 488. 
Africa, devastated areas in, report of subcommission of 
ECOSOC, 626. 



Agreements and treaties concluded by U.S.S.R. in 1945, 

article by Dr. Fisher, 391. 
Agricultural Sciences, Inter-American Institute of, priv- 
ileges, immunities under International Organizations 
Immunities Act (Ex. Or. 9751), 108. 
Agriculture, Department of, allotments of wheat and flour 

to South American countries, 779. 
Agriculture, International Institute of: 
Dates of meetings, 29, 64, 107, 162, 222, 261. 
Termination, and transfer of functions to FAO, 362. 
Message of transmittal to Senate by President Tru- 
man, and report of Acting Secretary Acheson, 74. 
Ratification of protocol by President Truman, 514. 
Agriculture and Food Organization of United Nations. 

See Food and Agriculture Organization. 
Afjriculture in the Americas, 411, 915. 
Air. See Aviation. 

Air Navigation, International, Commission for, 29th ses- 
sion : 
Dates of meetings, 534, 573, 629, 662, 721, 753, 813. 
Resolutions, 946. 
Air navigation, special radio technical division, meeting 
at Montreal : 
Announcement, 845. 

Dates of meetings, .534, 662, 753, 843, 939. 
Air-traffic control committee, European-Mediterranean re- 
gion, meeting of : 
Dates of meetings, 662, 752, 843, 892. 
Proceetlings, 1101. 
Alaska highway, commerce authorized over, 918. 
Albania : 

Agreement with U.S.S.R. in 1945, article by Dr. Fisher, 

391. 
Bilateral treaties with U.S., Albanian refusal to recog- 
nize, 913. 
Border violations, dispute with Greece on. See Greek 

question under Security Council. 
Currency law, 385. 

Exit permits for U. S. citizens, question of, 581, 764, 914. 
Mail from abroad, treatment, 385. 
Membership in United Nations, question discusswl in 

Security Council, 488. 
U.S. Mission at Tirana, closing, 913, 1001. 
Aldrich, Winthrop W., statement on functions of Com- 
mittee for Financing Foreign Trade, 111. 
Algiers radio transmitters, U.S.-French arrangement, 

conversations regarding, 507. 
Alien Property Administration, Philippine, establishment 

(Ex. Or. 9789), 826. 
Alien Property Custodian : 
Article by Mr. Boskey, 297. 

Authority of Secretary of State (Ex. Or. 9760), 237. 
Termination (Ex. Or. 9788), 826. 
Aliens, policy of Far Eastern Commission on Japanese 

taxation, 162. 
Allied Commission for Austria, establishment of, agree- 
ment between U.S., U.K., U.S.S.R., and France, text, 
175. 
Allied Control Commission (Bulgaria; Rumania; Hun- 
gary) : 
Economic situation in Hungary, 229, 231, 265. 
Free elections in Bulgaria, 818, 820. 
Statement by Secretary Byrnes, (567. 



Index, July to December 1946 



Allied Control Council for Germany : 
Discussed by Mr. Fahy, 852. 

Effectiveness, statement by Secretary Byrnes, 498. 
Proclamations and laws, text, 859. 
Allied Council for Japan, procedural organization, remarks 

by U.S. representative (Atcheson), 382. 
Allied Military Government : 

Venezia Giulia, administration, 412. 
Yugoslav obstruction to administration, protest by U.S. 
and U.K., 409. 
Allied missions to observe revision of Greek electoral lists, 

and plebiscite, 424. 
Allied-Swedish negotiations on German external assets: 
Accord reached, 174. 
Dates of meetings, 29, 64, 107, 162. 
Altmeyer, Arthur J., appointment as US. member of Social 

Commission of BCOSOC, 891. 
American Bar Association, Atlantic City, N..I., address by 

Mr. Fahy, 852. 
American Chemical Society: 

Address at Chicago, HI., by Mr. Zwemer, 545. 
Contribution to UNESCO, 938. 
American Club, Paris, address by Secretary Byrnes on 

U.S. policy in Europe, 665. 
American Hospital Association, Philadelphia, Pa., address 

by Mr. Benton, 671. 
American Legion, National Housing Conference of, addres.s 

by Mr. Nitze, 916. 
American Legion Convention, San Francisco, Calif., ad- 
dress by Mr. HilUlring, 679. 
American Psychological Society, Philadelphia, Pa., address 

by Mr. Bussell, 509. 
American republics ( see also Commissions ; Conferences ; 
Inter- American ; Pan American ; Treaties ; and the in- 
dividual countries) : 
Allotments of wheat and flour to, 779. 
Arbitration in, address by Mr. Braden, 777. 
Area division of OflSce of International Information and 
Cultural Affairs for, functions (D.R. 132.16), 557. 
Caribbean affairs. See Caribbean. 
Cultural leaders, visit to U.S. from : 

Argentina, 189, 682 ; Brazil, 79, 132 ; Colombia, 387 ; 
Peru, 266. 
Development of the Americas, private enterprise in, 

address by Mr. Braden, 539. 
Exchange of professors with U.S. : 
Article by Mr. Espinosa, 89. 
Travel grants, 873, 1010, 1189. 
Military cooperation, inter-American, statement by Mr. 
Butler before Senate Foreign Relations Committee, 
131. 
Rights and duties of American States to their Govern- 
ments, draft declaration, 188. 
American Republics, Division of Research for, functions 
and responsibilities in Office of American Republic 
Affairs (D.R. 142.10), 470. 
Amerika Illustrated, distribution in U.S.S.R., 513. 
AMG. See Allied Military Government. 
Amrine, Horace F., article on radio aids to navigation, 

1130. 
Anderson, Clinton P. (Secretary of Agriculture), report 
to President Truman on famine-relief food shipments, 
194.5^6: 119. 
Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry : 
Meeting of Mr. Acheson with, 334. 
Statement by President Truman, 669. 
Anglo-American financial agreement. See Financial agree- 
ment, U.S.-U.K. 
Anglo-American oil policy, address by Mr. Rayner, 867. 
Anslinger, Harry J., U. S. representative on Commission 

of Narcotic Drugs, 10.50. 
Arabs, invitation to attend conference on Palestine situa- 
tion, statement by Secretary Byrnes, 1105. 
Arbitration treaty, Albania with U.S. (1928), Albanian 
refusal to recognize, 914. 



Archeologists of the Caribbean, international conference 

(1st), 494. 
Argentina (see also American republics) : 

Ambassador to U.S. (Ivanissevich), credentials, 515. 
Cultural leaders, visit to U.S., 189, 682. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agreements drawn up at Chicago (1944) : 
Convention, adherence, 78, 337, 970. 
Interim agreement, and air services transit agree- 
ment, acceptance, 78. 
Air transport, with U.S., negotiations, 514, 682. 
Narcotics drugs, convention for limiting manufacture 
and regulating distribution (1931), ratification, 
552. 
Nature protection and wildlife preservation in 'V 

ern Hemisphere (1940), ratification, 552. 
Opium and other drugs, convention and protocols for 
suppression of abuse of (1912, 1913), ratification 
552. 
Opium convention, international (1925), ratification 

552. 
Rubber, with U.S. and Brazil (1945), cancellation, 

514, 827. 
Whaling, international agreement for regulation of 
(1937), accession to protocol (1944), and ratifi- 
cation of agreement (1937) and protocol (1938) 
553. 
Wheat, memorandum of agreement, with U.S., U.K. 
Australia, and Canada (1942), approval (1942) 
revision planned, 165, 359. 
Arica, Chile, closing of U.S. Vice Consulate, 134. 
Armament, conference on limitation of (1921-22), dis- 
cussed in article by Mr. Noble, 978. 
Armaments. See Arms. 
Armed forces : 

Bulgarian, discussed by Mr. Caffery, 714. 
Regulation and reduction : 
Discussed by Secretary Byrnes, 1141. 
Discussed in General Assembly, 1137. 
Arms and ammunition : 

Armaments, regulation and reduction, discussed in Gen- 
eral Assembly, 934, 1084, 1137. 
Fortifications, Greco-Bulgarian, discussed by Mr. Caf- 
fery, 714. 
Military equipment, standardization, 1191. 
Army-Navy Liquidation Commissioner, Office of. See 

Foreign Liquidation Commissioner. 
Artistic and historic monuments in Europe, protection and 
salvage of, functions of former American commission 
assumed by State Department, 385. 
Asia, devastated areas in, report of subcommission of 

ECOSOC, 626. 
Assets. See Property. 
Atcheson, George, Jr., remarks on Allied Council for Japan, 

382. 
Atomic-bomb tests, at Bikini: 

First and second, reports, 115, 272, 508. 
Tliird, postponement, 508. 
Atomic Development Authority, proposed: 
Creation, functions, and powers, 97. 
Relation to United Nations, 102. 
Statement by Mr. Hancock, 152. 
Atomic energy (see also Atomic Energy Commission; 
Atomic Development Authority), intermitional con- 
trol : 
Address by Mr. Hancock, 150. 
Discussed at General Assembly, 934, 1084, 1137. 
Atomic Energy, International Control of, publication, 1091. 
Atomic Energy Commission of United Nations : 
Control of atomic energy, discussed by — 
Baruch, Bernard M., 1088. 
Hancock, John, 150. 
Dates of meetings, 29, 222, 406, 572, 843, 1099, 1175. 



1i; 



Department of State Bulletin 



Atomic Energy Commission of United Nations — Continued. 
U.S. memoranda : 

1. Control and development of atomic energy, 96. 

2. Functions and powers of proposed Atomic Develop- 

ment Authority, 98. 

3. Relations between Atomic Development Authority 

and organs of United Nations, 102. 
Working Committee (1st meeting), charts showing areas 
of agreement and disagreement of members of Com- 
mission, 106. 
Austin, Warren R. (U.S. delegate to General Assembly) : 
Addresses : 

Armaments, 934. 
Peace goals, 16. 
Appointment, 221. 
Australia : 

Ambassador to U.S. (Makin), credentials, 551. 
Legation at Washington, elevation to rank of Embassy, 

126. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Air transport, with U.S., signature, 1113. 
Sanitary convention concerning maritime travel 
(1926) and sanitary convention for aerial navi- 
gation (J933), as amended (1944), signing of 
protocols prolonging, 337. 
Tin negotiations, with U.S., U.K., and Siam, conclu- 
sion, 1186. 
Whaling agreement, international (1937), protocol 

amending, signature (1945), 284. 
Wheat, memorandum of agreement with U.S., U.K., 
Argentina, and Canada (1942), approval (1942), 
revision planned, 165, 359. 
U.S. Ambassador (Butler, Robert), appointment, 134. 
U.S. Legation at Canberra, elevation to rank of Em- 
bassy, 126. 
Austria : 
Allied Commission for Austria, establishment of, agree- 
ment between U.S., U.K., U.S.S.R., and France, text, 
175. 
Federal Republic, U.S. policy on status of, 864. 
Foreign Minister (Gruber), visit to U.S., 864. 
German assets in : 

Soviet order regarding, 123n. 

U.S. prepared to renounce share in, text of note, 123. 
Minister to U.S. (Kleinwachter), credentials, 1114. 
Occupation policy, discussed in article by Mrs. Cassidy, 

293. 
Peace treaty, with Allies, proposals by U.S. delegation 

to Foreign Ministers Counsel, 1082. 
Problem of, attitude of Foreign Ministers, 171. 
Relation to Germany, statement by Secretary Byrnes, 

500. 
Reparation for non-repatriable citizens: 
Agreement concerning, text, 71. 
Article by Dr. Ginzberg, 56. 
U.S. deputy for, appointment of Lieutenant General 

Clark, use. 
U.S. Minister (Erhardt), appointment, 285. 
Vienna, elevation of U.S. Mission to rank of Legation, 
812. 
Automotive traffic, regulation of inter-American, conven- 
tion on (1943) : 
Action by U.S., 338, 426, 1021. 
Ratification by Panama, 1159. 
Aviation (see also CITEJA; PICAO ; Treaties) : 
Addresses and articles by — 

Amrine, Horace P., on radio aids to navigation, 1130. 
Latehford, Stephen, on private international air law, 

879. 
Norton, Garrison, on U.S. policy in world air transport, 

1006. 
Tobin, Irwin M., on nationalization of civil aviation 

in U.K., 617. 
Walstrom, Joe D., on bilateral air-transport agree- 
ments concluded by U.S., 1126. 



Aviation — Continued. 

Air Coordinating Committee, establishment (Ex. Or. 
9781), &i(i. 

Air route, Panama Canal to Tokyo, description, 1125. 

Air-tran.sport policy, international, U.S.-U.K. joint 
statement, 577, 1009. 

Aircraft in the region of the Straits. See Montreux 
convention. 

Airport at Keflavik, transfer to Iceland by U.S., 826. 

Conferences. See Commissions ; Conferences. 

"Five Freedoms of the Air", incorporation into inter- 
national air agreements, 1008. 

NOTAM, (notices to airmen), communication centei-s 

Sweden, purchase of U.S. surplus planes, 865. 
Yugoslavia : 

Alleged territory violations by U.S. planes, U.S. re- 
plies to protests, 414, 415, 501. 
Request by U.S. for compensation for loss of aircraft, 
725. 
Aviation Division (D.R. 131.11), redesignation, 1023. 
Axis (see also Germany; Japan) : 

Conferences of leaders, German documents on, 57, 197, 

399, 480, 564, 607, 695, 1040. 
Propaganda, use of cartography in, discussed by Mr. 

Hoggs, 1122. 
War criminals. See War criminals. 
Azores, closing of U.S. Consulate at Horta, 431. 

Baker, George P., appointment as U.S. member of 

ECOSOC commission, 891. 
Balkans, border dispute with Greece. See Greek 

question under Security Council. 
Balkans and Finland, Economic Commission for, remarks 

by Mr. Vandenberg, 656, 712, 745, 747. 
Bank for Reconstruction and Development, International. 

Sec International Bank. 
Bank of England, nationalization, discussed in article by 

Mr. Tobin, 616. 
Barber, Willard F., designation in State Department, 

1195. 
Barnet, John W., article on tin, 195. 
Barringer, J. Paul, article on PICAO conference on North 

Atlantic Ocean weather observation stations, 901. 
Bartelt, Edward F., appointment as U.S. member of 

ECOSOC commission, 891. 
Baruch, Bernard : 

Address to Atomic Energy Commission, 1088. 
Statement at first meeting of Commission's Working 
Committee, 106. 
Beals, Walter B., appointment as U.S. member of Military 

Tribunal in Germany, 1187. 
Beddie, J. S., selection and translation of official German 

documents, 57, 197, 399, 480, 564, 607, 695, 1040. 
Begg, John M., designation in State Department, 516. 
Belgium : 
Court of Cassation at Brussels, address by Mr. Jackson, 

377. 
Liberation of, ceremonies commemorating, 77. 
Property damage, filing of claims by U.S. nationals, 

330. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Double-taxation, with U.S., negotiations regarding, 

73, 173, 677. 
Lend-lease and surplus-property, settlement, with 

U.S., signature, 644. 
Sanitary convention concerning maritime travel 
(1926) and sanitary convention for aerial navi- 
gation (1933), as amended (1944), signing of 
protocols prolonging, 337. 
Trade, reciprocal, with U.S. (1935), Belgian attitude 
toward Philippine trade, 79. 
Benton, William : 

Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Education mission to Germany, 429. 

Liberia, one hundred years of independence, 582. 



Index, July to December 1946 



Benton, William — Continued. 

Addresses, statements, etc. — Continued. 

State Department information, scientific and cultural 

cooperation program, 671. 
Surplus-property sales for educational purposes 

(Fulbright bill), 262. 
UNESCO : 

General Conference, 1st meeting, 841, 995. 
National Commission, U.S., 356, 633. 
U.S. membership in, authorized by Congress, 259. 
Appointment as chairman of U.S. delegation to 

UNESCO, 779. 
Reports to Secretary Byrnes : 

U.S. education mission to Germany, 765. 
U.S. National Commission for UNESCO, 6.83. 
Berlin conference of the three powers (U.S., U.K., and 
U.S.S.R.), resolution (1945), regarding revision of 
Straits convention (1936), 421. 
Bevin, Ernest, letter to Secretary Byrnes, regarding Pales- 
tine conference, IKXi. 
Biddle, Francis, report to President Truman on Interna- 
tional Military Tribunal in Nurnberg trials, 954. 
Biehle, Martha H., article on 6th session of Intergovern- 
mental Committee on Refugees, 1148. 
Bierut, Boleslaw (President of Polish National Council), 
remarks concerning Ambassador Lane by, statement 
by Mr. Acheson, 265. 
Bikini. See Atomic-bomb tests. 
Biographic Information Division, responsibilities (D.R. 

133.33), 468. 
Bipartisan program for foreign affairs, statement by 

President Truman, 911. 
Biryusov, Colonel General, letter to Major General Robert- 
son, regarding free elections in Bulgaria, 821. 
Bizonal arrangements for Germany, U.S.-U.K. meetings: 
Agreement : 

Discussions, 266, 910. 
Text and signature, 1102. 
Date of meeting, 892. 

Statement by Acting Secretary Acheson, 940. 
U.S. delegation, listed, 941. 
Black Sea straits (see also Montreux convention) : 
Regime, U.S. attitude, 722. 

Treaties and conventions (1774-1936), 435, 790, 803. 
Blacklist, withdrawal, 112. 

Blocked Nationals, Proclaimed List, withdrawal, 112. 
Bloom, Sol, appointment as U.S. delegate to General As- 
sembly, 221. 
Boggs, Samuel W. : 

Article on cartohypnosi-s, 1119. 
Designation in State Department, 728. 
Bohlen, Charles B., designation in State Department, 

1115. 
Bolivia {see also American republics) : 

Ambassador to U.S. (Martinez Vargas), credentials, 

551. 
Government, new, U.S. recognition, 385. 
Interim agreement on international civil aviation 
(1944), acceptance, 78. 
Borton, Hugh, designation in State Department, 971. 
Boskey, Bennett, article on conference on German-owned 

patents, 297. 
Boundaries, international : 

European, report on Paris Peace Conference by Secre- 
tary Byrnes, 740. 
Governmental experts on passport and frontier formal- 
ities. United Nations meeting, dates of, 1000, 1052, 
1100, 1145. 
Greek, dispute with Albania, Bulgaria, and Yugoslavia. 

See Greek question undev Security Council. 
Italian-Yugoslav-Trieste, remarks by Senator Conually, 
at Paris Peace Conference 570, 708. 
Braddock, Daniel M., designation in State Department, 

Bradon, Spruille, addresses on Inter-American affairs, 539, 
777. 



Bramble, Harlan P., article on national rubber program, 

700. 
Bratislava, Czechoslovakia, opening of U.S. Consulate 

General, 431. 
Brazil (seel also American republics) : 

Closing of U.S. Vice Consulates at Manaos and Curitiba, 

239 812 
Cultural leaders, visit to U.S., 79, 132. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Air transport, with U.S., signature, 556. 
Civil-aviation convention (1944), ratification, 337. 
Coffee exports to U.S., agreement : 
Signature, 464, 690. 
Termination, 872. 
Lend-lease settlement, with U.S., signature and text, 

187. 
Rubber, with U.S. and Argentina (1945), cancellation, 

514, 827. 
Surplus property, with U.S., signature and text, 185. 
Brazzaville, French Equatorial Africa, closing of U.S. Con- 
sulate General, 42. 
Bread. See Wheat. 

Brickell, Herschel, designation in State Department, 516. 
British loan. See Financial agreement, U.S.-U.K. 
Broadcasting conference, four-power: 
Dates of meetings, 720, 753, 813. 
Delegation, listed, 755. 
Broadcasting conference, world high frequency, proposed, 

945. 
Broadcasts, addresses, and statements of the week, listed, 
332, 431, 465, 495, 538, 691, 779, 915, 965, 1010, 1039, 
1115, 1159, 1191. 
Brown, G. Stewart, designations in State Department, 971, 

1159. 
Building, Civil Engineering and Public Works, ILO Indus- 
trial Committee on, meeting : 
Dates of meetings, 629, 721, 814, 939, 1051. 
U.S. delegation, listed, 10O2. 
Bulgaria : 
Allied Control Commission, 818, 820. 
Border violations, dispute with Greece on. See Greek 

question under Security Council. 
Free elections, exchange of letters between — 

Major General Robertson and Colonel General Biryu- 
sov, 820. 
Secretary Byrnes and Bulgarian Prime Minister, 818. 
Peace treaty, with Allies : 

Council of Foreign Ministers, meeting of, to draft, 755. 
Discussed in radio broadcast, 205. 
Remarks by Mr. Caffery at Paris Peace Conference, 
714. 
Treaties and agreements with U.S.S.R. in 1945, article 

by Dr. Fisher, 392. 
War-damage claims of U.S. nationals, procedure for 
filing, 179. 
Businessmen, U.S., information on conditions in Shanghai 

and Netherlands East Indies, 334, 550. 
Butler, George H. : 

Appointment as U.S. Ambassador to Dominican Re- 
public, 134. 
Statement before Senate Foreign Relations Committee 
on Inter-American Military Cooperation Bill, 131. 
Butler, Robert, appointment as U.S. Ambassador to Aus- 
tralia, 134. 
Butterworth, William Walton, Jr., Counselor of Embassy 

at Nanking, China, personal rank of Minister, 190. 
Buy American act, discussed by President Truman, 284. 
Byrnes, James F., 

Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Council of Foreign Ministers, meetings : 

Paris conference (Nov. 4-Dee. 12), report of, 167. 
Paris Peace Conference (July 29-Oct. 15) : 

Remarks and statements, 202, 205, 251, 253, 313, 

318, 352, 496, 749. 
Report of, 739. 
Foreign Sei-vice Act, effective date, 947. 
Palestin* situation, conference on, 1105. 



Department of State Bulletin 



Byrnes, James F. — Continued. 

Addresses, statements, etc. — Continued. 

Regnilation and reduction of armaments and armed 

forces, 1138. 
Repatriation of prisoners of war, 1106. 
UNESCO, 841. 

U.S. aims and policies in Europe, 496, 665. 
Correspondence : 
British Foreign Secretary (Bevin), on Palestine con- 
ference, 1105. 
Bulgarian Prime Minister (Georgiev), on free elec- 
tions, 818. 
Congress, transmitting 3d report on foreign surplus 

disposal, 968. 
Department of State (cablegram from Paris), on im- 
portance of British financial agreement to inter- 
national economic cooperation, 109. 
Deputy U.S. representative on Security Council (John- 
son), memorandum on access of non-member 
states to International Court of Justice, 327. 
Donnell, Forrest C, on constitutionality of British 

financial agreement, 110. 
Italian Foreign Minister (Nenni), on peace aims, 821. 
Speaker of House of Representatives, on legislation 

for military aid to China, 125. 
Ukrainian Foreign Minister (Manuilsky), concerning 
investigation of assault on Ukrainian delegation 
to United Nations, 1048. 
Wise, Stephen S., on Palestine situation, 822. 
Council of Foreign Ministers (see also Addresses supra), 

attendance at New York meeting, 755. 
Economic unity in Germany, instructions to General 

McNarney, 227. 
Treaty of general relations and protocol between U.S. 

and Philippines, report, 2S2. 
Whaling agreement (1937), protocol amending, report. 



Cabinet Committee on Pale.stine and Related Problems : 
Functions and organization (D.R. 182.5), 518. 
Meeting of members with Acting Secretary Acheson, 334. 
Meeting with British Cabinet group: 
Dates of meetings, 107, 162, 222, 261. 
Departure for London, 107. 
Recall to Washington, 266. 
Statement by President Truman, 669. 
Caffery, Jefferson, statement regarding drafting Bulgarian 

peace treaty, 714. 
Cairo, Egjpt, elevation of U.S. Legation to rank of Em- 
bassy, 727. 
Cameron, Warde M., designation in State Department, 873. 
Canada : 

Air-transport conference, with U.S., revision of agree- 
ment (1945), proposed, 1149. 
Ambassador to U.S. (Wrong), credentials, 911. 
Canadian-American Commercial Arbitration Commis- 
sion, 777. 
Commerce over Alaska Highway, authorization for U.S., 

918. 
Fur, U.S. restrictive quotas on, denial of rumor, 1114. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Air transport with U.S. (1945), question of revision, 

1149. 
Civil-aviation convention (1944), ratification, 337. 
Rush-Bagot, with U.S. (1817), interpretation, ex- 
change of notes, 1152. 
Sanitary convention concerning maritime travel 
(1926) and sanitary convention for aerial navi- 
gation (1933), as amended (1944), signing of 
protocols prolonging, 337. 
Whaling agreement, international (1937), protocol 

amending, signature (1945), 284. 
Wheat, memorandum of agreement, with U.S., U.K., 
Australia, and Argentina (1942), approval 
(1942), question of revision, 165, 359. 



Canadian-American Commercial Arbitration Conunission, 

remarks by Mr. Braden, 777. 
Canberra, Australia, U.S. Legation elevated to rank of 

Embassy, 126. 
Cannon, Mary M., U.S. delegate to Inter-American Com- 
mission of Women, 5th assembly, 946. 
Caribbean Affairs, Division of, functions (D.R. 14212). 

730. 
Caribbean areheologists, international conference (1st). 

494. 
Caribbean Commission : 

Dates of meetings, 29, 64, 10.52, 1100, 1145. 
Establishment of Commission, agreement between U S., 

France, Netherlands, and U.K., 920. 
Functions, 165. 
Secretariat. 65, 165, 1055. 

Secretary General, 1st (Cramer), appointment, 165. 
Caribbean regional air-navisation meeting: 
Announcement, 331. 
Article on, 897. 

Dates of meetings, a58, 491, 533. 
Proceedings, 406, 456. 
U.S. delegation, listed, 407. 
Caribbean Research Council, establishment, agreement 
between U.S., France, Netlierlands, and U.K., 920. 
Caribbean tourist conference: 
Background and objectives, 492. 
Dates of meetings. 491, 534, 572, 628, 662. 
Plans for tourists, article by Miss McReynolds, 735. 
Caribbean Tourist Development Association, certificate of 

incorporation, text, 736. 
Cartography, Pan American Consultation on (3d), 359, 

406, 455. 
Cartohypnosis, article by Mr. Boggs, 1119. 
Cassidy, Velma Ha.stings, article on U.S. policy in occu- 
pied areas, 291. 
Central America. See American republics, and the indi- 

vidnal countries. 
Central America and Panama Affairs, Division of, func- 
tions (D.R. 142.11), 730. 
Cession of Polish and European territory, discussed by 

Secretary Byrnes, 500. 
Chapin, Selden, designation in Foreign Service Division 

of State Department, 971. 
Chapman, William W., Jr., designation in State Depart- 
ment, 728. 
Charles, Joseph D., credentials as Haitian Ambassador to 

U.S., 727. 
Charts. See Maps and charts. 

Children's Emergency Fund, International, proposed, 932. 
Cliilds, J. Rives, credentials as U.S. Minister to Yemen, 

690. 
Chile (see also American republics) : 

Commercial agreement, provisional, with U.S. (1945), 

extension, 283. 
Trade discussions in U.S., acceptance of invitation, 754. 
U.S. Vice Consulates at Arica and Punta Arenas, clos- 
ing, 134, 1158. 
China (see also Far East) : 

Ambassador to U.S. (Koo), credentials, 180. 
Conditions in Shanghai, information for U.S. business- 
men, 334. 
Cultural leaders, visit to U.S., 234, 238, 556, 873. 
Fellowship grants, U.S., for students, 5.50. 
Military aid from U.S. : 

Letter from Secretary Byrnes to Speaker of House 

of Representatives, 125. 
Objectives and policies of U.S. regarding, 34. 
National holiday, statement by U.S. Ambassador Stuart, 

724. 
Policy, U.S., toward, statement by President Truman, 

1179. 
Political situation, joint statements by General Marshall 

and Ambassador Stuart, 384, 723. 
Property, U.S. and other foreign, instructions for filing 
claims, 965. 



Index, July to December 1946 



China — Continued. 

Sale of U.S. military items to, joint denial by Assistant 
Secretary of War Petersen and Foreign Liquidation 
Commissioner (McCabe), 548. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Civil-aviation convention (1944), ratification, 337. 
Friendship, commerce and navigation, with U.S., sig- 
nature, 866. 
Sanitary convention concerning maritime travel 
(1926) and sanitary convention for aerial naviga- 
tion (1933), as amended (1944), signing of pro- 
tocols prolonging, 337. 
Surplus property, with U.S., signature, 548. 
UNRRA supplies, delivery, statement by Mr. Clayton, 

461. 
U.S. Ambassador (Stuart), appointment, 134. 
U.S. Consulates, at — 
Dairen, opening, 42. 
Kunming, change of status, 516. 
Tsingtao, elevation, 603. 
U.S. Minister (Butterworth), appointment, 190. 
Chisholm, Brock, exchange of letters with Mr. La Guardia 
on transfer of UNRRA functions to World Health 
Organization, 847. 
Christian X, King of Denmark, remarks at opening of 

FAO conference, 2d session, 491. 
CINA. See Air Navigation, International Commission for. 
Cincinnati Rotary Club, address by Mr. Norton, 1006. 
Cinematographic art, 11th international exhibition: 
Dates, 406, 455, 491, 533. 
Purpose, 408. 
CITEJA (Comite International Technique d'Experts 
Juridlques Aeriens) : 
Article by Mr. Latchford, 879. 
Dates of'iueetings, 534, 573, 629, 662, 721, 753, 814, 843, 

U.S. delegation to 15th plenary session, 894. 
Civil Aeronautics Act (1938), discussed in address by Mr. 

Norton, 1007. 
Civil aviation. See Aviation. 
Civil Aviation Organization, Provisional, International. 

See PICAO. 
Claims : 

U.S. nationals («ee also Protection of U.S. nationals), 

claims against enemy countries for mistreatment of 

life and property, 427. 

War damages, provisions of Philippine Rehabilitation 

Act regarding, article by Mr. Mill, 478. 

Claims convention, with Mexico (1941), payment by 

Mexico of instalment due under, 1061. 
Clark, Lt. Gen. Mark, appointment as U.S. deputy for 
Austria, to session of deputies. Council of Foreign Min- 
isters, 1186. 
Clark, Tom C, letter to Secretary Byrnes, on validity of 
commercial aviation agreements to v^hich U.S. is a 
party, 1070. 
Clattenburg. Albert E., Jr., designation in State Depart- 
ment, 516. 
Clay, Gen. Lucius D., negotiations on U.S.-U.K. bizonal 

arrangements for Germany, 266 n. 
Clayton. William L. : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Economic questions and policies, 320, 950. 
Relief supplies to China, 461. 

Resignation of Mr. McCabe as Special Assistant to 
Secretary and as Foreign Liquidation Commis- 
sioner, 556. 
United Maritime Consultative Council, 2d session, 816. 
UNRRA, shipments to Yugoslavia by, 544. 
UNRRA, termination, 249, 268. 

U.S. information service in Yugoslavia, discontinu- 
ance, 637. 
Appointments : 

Chairman of Air Coordinating Committee, 646. 
Under Secretary of State for Economic Affairs, 338, 



Clayton, William L. — Continued. 
Correspondence : 
President of Senate, on House amendment to UNRRA 

appropriation bill, 35. 
Yugoslav Ambassador, protest against disregard for 

Allied military regulations in zone A, 676. 
Yugoslav Charge d' Affaires, on alleged territory viola- 
tions of U.S. planes, 501. 
Coal, shortage in Japan, 1178. 

Coal industry in United Kingdom, nationalization, dis- 
cussed in article by Mr. Tobin, 616. 
Code of Federal Regulations, Title 22, authority to accept 

reparations payment under, 873. 
Coffee agreement with Brazil : 
Signature, 464, 690. 
Termination, 872. 
Coffee Board, Inter-American, privileges, exemptions, and 
Immunities under International Organizations Immu- 
nities Act (Ex. Or. 9751), 108. 
Colombia (see also American republics) : 
Cultural leader, visit to U.S., 387. 
Naval mission, agreement with U.S., signature, 870. 
Comite International Technique d'Experts Juridlques 

Agriens. See CITEJA. 
Commerce. See Trade. 
Commerce, friendship and navigation, treaty between U.S. 

and China, signature, 866. 
Commerce, treaties between U. S. and other countries, not 
affected bv Philippine privileges in relations with 
U.S.: 
Egypt (1930), 431. 
Ethiopia (1914), 235. 
Portugal (1910), 463. 
Yugoslavia (1881), 726. 
Commercial agreements, between — 
France and U.S.S.R. (1945), text, and decree promul- 
gating, 553. 
U.S., and— 
Chile (1945), extension of provisional agreement, 283. 
Czechoslovakia, text of U.S. note, 1004. 
Netherlands, exchange of notes, 1108. 
Commercial and diplomatic agreement, U.S. with Yemen, 

signature, 94. 
Commercial aviation agreements, validity of, executed by 
the President, discussed in letter by Attorney General 
Clark to Secretary Byrnes, 1070. 
Commission for Austria, Allied, establishment of, agree- 
ment between U.S., U.K.. U.S.S.R., and France, text, 
175. 
Commissions, committee.?, etc., international (see also 
name of commission ; United Nations) : 
Agriculture, International Institute of, 29, 64, 74, 107, 

162, 222, 261, 362, 514. 
Air Navigation, International Commission for, 29th ses- 
sion, 534, 573, 629, 662, 721, 753, 813, 946. 
Allied Commission for Austria, 175. 
Allied Control Commission (Bulgaria; Rumania; Hun- 
gary), 229, 231, 265, 667, 818, 820. 
Allied Control Council for Germany, 498, 852, 859. 
Allied Council for Japan, 382. 
American-Philippine Financial Commission, 921. 
Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry, 334, 669. 
Canadian-American Commercial Arbitration Commis- 
sion, 777. 
Caribbean Commission, 29, 64, 65, 165, 920, 1052, 1055, 

1100, 1145. 
CariJjhpan Tourist Development Association, 735. 
CITEJA, 534, 573, 629, 662, 721, 753, 814, 843, 879, 892, 

894, 939. 
Committee for Financing Foreign Trade, 111. 
Cotton Advisory Committee, 1075. 
Cotton Study Group, International, 1078. 
Economic Commission for Balkans and Finland, 620, 

656, 712, 745, 747. 
Economic Commission for Italy, 532, 710. 
Emergency Food Council. International, 3(53, 578. 



Department of State Bulletin 



Commissions, committees, etc., International — Continued. 
European Central Inland Transport Organization, 180, 

246, 1100, 1145. 1175. 
Far Eastern Commission, 29, 48, 162, 222, 358, 383, 455, 

491, 572, 628, 753, 939, 1144, 1177. 
Fisheries Commission, International, 1071. 
Foreign Ministers, Council of: 
Meetings in New York, 721, 755, 892, 999, 1051, 1082, 

1083, 1099, 1144. 
Meetings in Paris, 29, &i, 107, 167. 
Meetings of Deputies, 29, 64, 107, 162, 1144, 1175, 118a 
Informal Policy Committee on Germany, 292. 
Inter-Allied Reparation Agency, 298, 563, 721, 892, 999, 

1099, 1175. 
Inter-AUied Trade Board for Japan, 753, 939, 1051, 

1099, 1144, 1175. 
Inter-American Coffee Board, 108. 
Inter-American Commercial Arbitration Commission, 

777. 
Inter-American Commission of Women, Sth assembly, 

332, 534, 662, 721, 753, 946, 1000, 1099. 
Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences, 108. 
Inter-American Statistical Institute, 108. 
lutergoyernmental Committee on Refugees, 56, 71, 76, 

260, 358, 721, 814, 940, 1018, 10-52, 1148, 1175. 
Inter-Governmental Maritime ConsiUtative Organiza- 
tion, 1093. 
International Office of Public Health, Permanent Com- 
mittee, 756. 
International reconstruction, financing, committee to 

malie report and recommendations on, 33. 
Joint Inventory Commission, S66. 
Joint Soviet-American Commission, 670. 
Maritime Consultative Council, United, 64, 534, 573, 631, 

662, 720, 752, 813, 1002, 1092. 
Military Tribunal, International, 364, 771, 776, 856, 865, 

9.j4. 
Palestine Committee, 228. 
Pan American Sanitary Bureau, 108. 
Petroleum Commission, International, proposed, 869. 
Political and Territorial Commission for Italy, 570. 
Preparatory Committee of the International Conference 

on Trade and Employment, 1055. 
Restitution of Monetary Gold, Tripartite, Commission 

for, 563, 563n. 
Rubber Study Group, 3d meeting, 814, 844, 895, 940, 999, 

1054. 
Telegi-aph Consulting Committee, International, 753, 814, 

Tin, Combined Committee, 195. 663, 1186. 

UNRRA 35. (54, 107, 162, 222, 243, 248, 260, 268, 330, 358, 
523, 645, 842, 929, 1000, 1032, 1107, 1134, 1146, 1148, 
1156. 

Wheat Council, International, 12th and 13th sessions, 
107, 165, 359, 1176. 

World Food Board, proposed, 329. 
Commissions, committees, etc., national : 

Air Coordinating Committee, 646. 

Cabinet Committee on Palestine and Related Problems, 
107, 162, 222, 261, 266, 334, 518, 669. 

Famine Emergency Committee, 32. 

Joint Chiefs of Staff's Evaluation Board, 116, 273, 275. 

National Advisory Council, 33, 111. 

National Commission for UNESCO, 356, 491, 598, 633, 
683, 995, 1016. 

Philippine War Damage Commission, 478. 

President's Evaluation Commission, 115, 272, 275. 

Protection and Salvage of Artistic and Historic Monu- 
ments in Europe, American Commission for. 38.j. 

Rubber, Inter-Agency Policy Committee on, 700, 1054. 

State-War-Navy Coordinating Committee, 47, 292. 
Commodity Committee, Interim, resolution on, adopted by 

Preparatory Committee of ITO, 1055. 
Communications. See Information; Mails; Telecommu- 
nications. 



Conciliation treaty, Albania with U.S. (1928), Albanian 

refusal to recognize, 914. 
Conferences, congresses, etc. {see also name of conference; 
United Nations) : 
Air-services agreement. U.S. and Mexico, dates of discus- 
sions, 29, 64, 107, 162, 222, 261. 
AJlied-Swedish negotiations on German external assets, 

29, 64, 107, 162, 174. 
Armament, limitation of (1921-22), 978. 
Bizonal arrangements for Germany, U.S.-U.K. meetings, 

266, 892, 910, 940, 1102. 
Broadcasting conference, four-power, 720, 753, 755, 813. 
Broadcasting, world high frequency, proposed, 945. 
Caribbean archeologists, 1st conference, 494. 
Caribbean tourist conference, 491, 492, 534, 572, 628, 662, 

735. 
Cinematographic art, 11th international exhibition, 406, 

408, 455, 491, 533. 
Copyright conference, inter-American, 29, 721. 
Danube traffic, proposed, 716, 986. 
Emergency economic committee for Europe, housing 

committee, 752. 
Film festival (1st), 492, 534, 572, 628, 661. 
Food Council, International Emergency, 29, 64, 107, 162 

222, 363, 578, 752. 
Geodesy and Geophysics, International Union of, meet- 
ing of Extraordinary General Assembly, 29, 64, 107. 

162, 222, 261. 
(German external property negotiations with Portgual 

and Spain, dates of meetings, 572, 813, 1051, 1099, 

1144, 1175. 
German-owned patents outside Germany, 29, 64, 107, 162, 

222, 297, 300. 
Health Office, International, 211 n., 454, 573, 628, 662, 

720, 752, 756, 813, 843, 892, 933. 
Higher education, emergency problems in, 118. 
Housing and town planning, 18th international congress, 

331, 538, 572, 630, 662. 
Inter- American medical congress (1st), 408, 455, 491, 

.535, 814. 
Labor statisticians, 6th international conference, 1053. 
Leprosy, Pan American conference on (2d), 664, 677, 

720, 752, 813. 
Mining engineering and geology. Pan American (2d), 

534, 576, 630, 662, 720, 846. 
Montreux convention, proposed conference to revise, 

U.S. attitude, 422. 
Non-self-governing territories in South and Southwest 

Pacific, conference for establishment of regional 

advisory commission for, 1176. 
Palestine, conference of U.S.-U.K. Cabinet Committees 

on, 107, 162, 222, 261, 266. 
Palestine conference of Jewish and Arab leaders and 

representatives of U.K., 380, 1105. 
Pan American Consultation on Cartography (3d), and 

Pan American Institute of Geography and History, 

General Assembly (4th), 3.59, 406, 455. 
Pan American Institute of Geography and History, 

General Assembly (4th), and Pan American Con- 
sultation on Cartography (3d), 359, 406, 4.55. 
Paris Peace Conference, 107, 202, 205, 222, 251, 253, 269, 

313, 318, 320, 352, 406, 491, 496, 532, 570, 572, 620, 

656, 661, 708, 710, 711, 714, 739, 741, 744, 746, 749, 

752. 
Physical education. Pan American (2d), 536, 572, 628, 

662, 720. 
Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, 5th congress, 

358, 361, 406, 455, 491, 534, 572, 628, 815. 
Postal Union, Universal proposed, 816, 940, 1000, 1055, 

1144. 

Radiology, inter- American congress of (2d), 721, 753, 

814, 844, 893, 939. 
Resource conservation and utilization. United Nations 

scientific conference, proposed, 623, 624, 933. 
Sanitary conference. Pan American (12th), proposed, 

814, 940, 1175. 



Index, July to December 1946 

735042 — 47 2 



C!onferences, congresses, etc. — Continued. 

Sanitary education, Pan American (2d), proposed, 814, 

940, 1175. 
Scientific Unions, International Council of, dates of 

meeting of General Assembly, 29, 64, 107, 162. 
Social security, inter-American committee on, meeting 
of medical and statistical commissions, 893, 1052, 
1145, 1176. 
Sugar Council, 29, 64, 107, 162, 222. 

Telecommunications, five-power, preliminary, at Mos- 
cow, 363, 459, 491, 534, 575, 628, 720, 943. 
Telecommunications, world plenipotentiary, in U.S., pro- 
posed, 363, 632. 
Telecommunications Union, International, 581, 632, 944. 
Tin, 534, 538, 572, 628, 662, 663. 
Tourist organizations, 534, 537, 572, 628, 662, 896. 
Trade, plans for, and meeting of preparatory committee, 
323, 506, 534, 628, 664, 754, 813, 999, 1055, 1056, 1188. 
U.S.-U.K. meetings on bizonal arrangements for Ger- 
many, 266, 892, 910, 940, 1102. 
Weights and measures, international committee on, 

dates of meetings, 720, 813, 892. 
Whaling conference, 844, 895, 940, 1001, 1101. 
Wool talks, international, 721, 753, 789, 814, 843, 894, 

942, 1163. 
World telecommunication conference, 459. 
Congress, U.S.: 
British loan : 

Joint resolution approving, 173. 

Letter from President Truman on importance of, 109. 
Dirksen amendment to third deficiency appropriation 

bill, 35, 38. 
Foreign Service Act of 1946, 333, 386. 
Fulbright bill on surplus-property sales for educational 

purposes, 262. 
House Appropriations Committee, statement by Mr. 

Clayton on termination of UNRRA, 268. 
House Committee on Banking and Currency, letter from 
President Truman on importance of British finan- 
cial agreement, 109. 
House of Representatives : 

Military aid to China, letter from Secretary Byrnes 

to Speaker of House, recommending, 125. 
UNRRA appropriation bill, adoption of amendment, 
letters from President Truman and Mr. Clayton 
to president of Senate and Speaker of House on 
Soviet attitude, 35, 38. 
Legislation, listed, 43, 79, 134, 190, 239, 287, 338, 519, 

558, 921. 
Messages from President Truman: 
International Institute of Agriculture, transmittal to 
Senate of protocol transferring functions and as- 
sets to FAO, 74. 
Philippines, treaty of general relations and protocol, 

transmittal to Senate, with report, 282. 
Whaling, international agreement (1937), protocol 
amending, transmittal to Senate, with report, 284. 
Military aid to China, letter from Secretary Byrnes to 

Speaker of House of Representatives, 125. 
Military cooperation bill, inter-American, statement by 
Mr. Butler to Senate Foreign Relations Committee, 
131. 
Philippines, legislative measures affecting relations 

with, article by Mr. Mill, 475. 
Publications. See Legislation supra. 
Senate Foreign Relations Committee: 

Statement by Mr. Butler, on Inter-American Military 

Cooperation Bill, 131. 
Subcommittee on Jurisdiction of International Court 
of Jastice, on S.J. Res. 196, statements by Mr. 
Acheison and Mr. Fahy, 154, 157. 
Surplus property: 
Disposal, 2d and 3d reports on, letters of transmittal, 

247, 968. 
Sales for educational purposes (Fulbright bill), 262. 
Under Secretary of State for Economic Affairs, Ofllce of, 
act establishing, 387. 

1204 



Congress, U. S. — Continued. 
UNESCO, membership from U.S. authorized, 259. 
UNRRA : 

Appropriation bill, adoption of amendment to, 35, 38. 
Report (8th), letter of transmittal, 645. 
Termination, statement by Mr. Clayton, 268. 
Connally, Tom : 
Appointment as U.S. delegate to General Assembly, 221. 
Participant in radio broadcast, 205. 
Statements and remarks : 
General Assembly of United Nations, on — 
Disarmament, 1084. 
Spanish situation, 1086. 
Veto question, 987. 
Paris Peace Conference, on problem of Trieste, 570, 
708. 
Connolly, Gen. Donald H., appointment as Foreign Liqui- 
dation Commissioner, 556. 
Constantinople and the Straits, article on, 790. 
Consular offices. See Foreign Service, U.S. 
Control Commission, Allied (Bulgaria; Rumania; Hun- 
gary) : 
Economic situation in Hungary, 229, 231, 265. 
Free elections in Bulgaria, 818, 820. 
Statement by Secretary Byrnes, 667. 
Control Council for Germany, Allied : 
Discussed by Mr. Fahy, 852. 

Effectiveness, statement by Secretary Byrnes, 498. 
Proclamations and laws, text, 859. 
Conventions. See Conferences ; Treaties. 
Cooperation, voluntary, and good relationship, proposed 
agreement between Netherlands and Indonesia, U.S. 
attitude, 1188. 
Copenhagen conference of FAO. See Food and Agricul- 
ture Organization. 
Copyright conference, inter-American, 29, 721. 
Copyright protection, inter-American convention on, sig- 
nature, 29. 
Cotton, article by Mr. Evans on U.S. policy regarding, 1075. 
Cotton Advisory Committee, International, 107.5. 
Cotton Study Group, International, 1078. 
Council of Foreign Ministers. See Foreign Ministers. 
Court of Cassation, Brussels, Belgium, address by Mr. 

Jackson, 377. 
Cramer, Lawrence W., appointment as first Secretary Gen- 
eral of Caribbean Commission, 165. 
Crawford, Johnson Tal, appointment as U.S. member of 

Military Tribunal in Germany, 1187. 
Credentials. See Diplomatic representatives in U.S. 
Crombie, Capt. William, report on Yugoslav attack on U.S. 

plane, 416. 
Crown Prince of Japan, tutor for, 462. 
Cuba {see also American republics), reciprocal trade 
agreement, with U.S. (1934), and protocols (1939, 
1941 ) , tariff preference, question of, 1188. 
Cultural, Educational, and Scientific Cooperation, U.S. 

National Commission. See ECOSOC. 
Cultural Affairs and Information, International, Office of. 

See Information and Cultural Affairs. 
Cultural cooperation (see also American republics; Carib- 
bean; China; Education): 
Addresses by- 
Mr. Benton, 671. 
Mr. Heindel, 1062. 
Chinese fund for promotion of cultural exchange with 

U.S., 549. 
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization of 

United Nations. See UNESCO. 
Visit to U.S. of— 

Brazilian leaders, 79, 132. 

Chinese leaders, 234, 238. 556, 873. 

Colombian archivist, 387. 

Czechoslovak journalists, 281. 

Egyptian journalists, 77. 

Greek Prime Minister (Tsaldaris), 1189. 

Indian industrialists, 180, 514. 

Department of State Bulletin 



Cultural cooperation — Continued. 
Visit to U.S. of— Continued. 
Nepalese good-will delegation, 237. 
Soviet journalists, 124. 
Swiss journalists, 134. 
Cultural property, conservation, 385. 
Cummins, Edward T., designation in State Department, 

728. 
Curitiba, Brazil, closing of U.S. Vice Consulate, 812. 
Curran, Alice T., designation in State Department, 971. 
Currency (see also Finance) : 
Gold. See Gold. 

Money order convention, U.S. and Albania (1932), Al- 
banian refusal to recognize, 914. 
Par values: 
Albania, 385. 
Gold- and dollar-exchange equivalents of Hungarian 

"forint", 281. 
Transactions of International Monetary Fund, 575, 

576, 1173. 
United States dollar: 

Letter from Secretary of the Treasury (Snyder) 
to Managing Director of International Mone- 
tary Fund (Gutt), 576. 
Table showing, 1174. 
Customs. See Tariff. 
Czechoslovakia (see also Europe) : 
Danubian vessels, question of ownership of, action by 

ECOSOC, 716, 987. 
Journalists visit to U.S., 281. 
Nationalization program in : 
Article by Dr. Oatman, 1027. 
Compensation claims, 1003, 1004. 
Opening of U.S. Consulate General at Bratislava, 431. 
Property in, U.S., instructions regarding — 
Filing claims, 1003. 
Tax returns, 915, 1031, 1108. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Commercial policy and compensation for nationalized 

properties, text of U.S. note, 1004. 
Mutual aid, with U.S. (1942), adherence, 1005. 
Peace, with Hungary, remarks by Ambassador Smith 

at Paris Peace Conference, 744. 
Reparation funds for non-repatriable victims of Ger- 
man action, 5-power agreement, text, 71. 
Treaties and agreements with U.S.S.R. in 1945, article 
by Dr. Fisher, 392. 

Dairen, China, opening of U.S. Consulate, 42. 
Damages. See Claims ; Reparation. 
Danube, international traffic on the : 
Action taken by ECOSOC : 

Czech and Yugoslav vessels, question of ownership, 

716, 987. 
Proposals and resolutions, 658, 986. 
Discussed in letter from U.S. Ambassador Smith to 

Soviet Government, 230. 
Remarks by Senator Vandenberg at Paris Peace Con- 
ference, 656, 711. 
David. Paul T., designation as U.S. representative on 

PICAO committee, 897. 
de Wolf, Francis Colt : 

Chairman of U.S. delegation to — 
Broadcasting conference, 755. 
Telecommunications conference, 363. 
Report on Moscow telecommunications conference, 943. 
Defense sites agreement (1942), return of bases to 

Panama by U.S., in accordance with, 551. 
Demilitarization. Sefi Germany ; Japan. 
Democracy, oil for the lamps of, address by Mr. Russell, 

509. 
Denazification of Germany and Austria, report by Secre- 
tary Byrnes on attitude of Foreign Ministers, 170. 
Denmark : 

Christian X, remarks at opening of FAG conference, 
2d session, 491. 



Index, July to December 1946 



Denmark — Continued. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Friendship, commerce and navigation, with U.S. 
(1826), Danish attitude toward Philippine trade, 
596. 
Sanitary convention concerning maritime travel 
(1926), as amended (1944), and protocol, acces- 
sion, 1022. 
Whaling agreement, international (1937), protocol 
amending, signature (1945), 284. 
Departmental regulations : 

Acquisition and Distribution Division (D.R. 133.31), 



American Republics, Division of Research for, func- 
tions and responsibilities in Office of American Re- 
public Affairs (D.R. 142.10), 470. 

Aviation Division (D.R. 131.11), 1023. 

Biographic Information Division (D.R. 133.33), 468. 

Cabinet Committee on Palestine and Related Problems 
(D.R. 182.5), 518. 

Caribbean Affairs, Division of (D.R. 142.12), 730. 

Central America and Panama Affairs, Division of (D.R. 
142.11), 730. 

Educational Foundation, Inc., Inter-American (D.R. 
193.2), 1023. 

Europe, Division of Research for, responsibilities in 
Office of European Affairs (D.R. 141.30), 469. 

Far East, Division of Research for, responsibilities in 
Office of Far Eastern Affairs (D.R. 141.20), 469. 

Foreign .Service, Board of (D.R. 182.7), 971. 

Foreign Service personnel, training of (D.R. 324.3), 
518. 

Historical Policy Research, Division of (D.R. 132.23), 
729. 

Information and Cultural Affairs, International Ofllce 
of (D.R. 132.10 and 132.16), 517, 557. 

Intelligence, Advisory Committee on (D.R. 183.5), 471. 

Intelligence, International and Pimctional, Division of 
(D.R. 133.22), 466. 

Intelligence activities, interdepartmental, State Depart- 
ment participation (D.R. 182.4), 471. 

Intelligence Collection and Dissemination, Office of 
(D.R. 133.30), 468. 

Intelligence Coordination and Liaison, Office of (D.R. 
133.20), 465. 

Intelligence Coordination Division (D.R. 133.21), 466. 

Inter-American Affairs, Institute of (D.R. 193.3), 875. 

Inter- American Affairs, Office of (D.R. 193.1), 731. 

Inter-American Affairs, Special, Division of, functions 
in Office of American Republic Affairs (D.R. 
142.10), 470. 

Inter-American Navigation Corporation (D.R. 193.1), 
731. 

Inter-American Tran.sportation, Institute (D.R. 193.1), 
731. 

Legal Adviser, Office of (D.R. 116.1), 691, 874, 1115. 

Map Intelligence, Division of (D.R. 133.23), 467. 

Munitions Division (D.R. 123.7), 730. 

Near East and Africa, Division of Research for, respon- 
sibilities in Office of Near Eastern and African Af- 
fairs (D.R. 141.10), 468. 

Prencinradio, Inc. (D.R. 103.1), 731. 

Presentation Division (D.R. 121.11), .517. 

Protocol, Division of (D.R. 121.10), 516. 

Public Affairs, Offic-e of (D.R. 132.20), 728. 

Public Liaison, Division of (D.R. 132.21), 728. 

Public Studies, Division of (D.R. 132.22), 729. 

Publications, Division of (D.R. 132.24), 729. 

Publications Commission, National Historical (D.R. 
18.5.1), 1195. 

Reference Division (D.R. 133.32), 468. 

Research and Intelligence, Special Assistant to Secre- 
tary for (D.R. 133.1), 4&5. 

Shipping Division (D.R. 131.12), 1023. 

Telecommunications Division (D.R. 131.13), 1023. 

Voluntary Foreign Aid, Advisory Committee on (D.R. 
182.6), 874. 

1205 



Dependent areas, standards of social policy as recom- 
mended by ILO, President Truman's message to Con- 
gress, 235. 
Detention of U.S. citizens, in — 
Enemy countries, claims for uiistrealnient during deten- 
tion period, 427. 
Yugoslavia, protest by U.S., 232, 415, 504. 
Devastated Areas, Subcommission of ECOSOC on Eco- 
nomic Reconstruction of, 221, 261, 323, 358, 455, 533, 
572, 626, 716, 1000, 1100, 1176. 
Diplomatic property in U.S., German and Japanese, con- 
trol (Ex. Or. 9760), 237. 
Diplomatic relations, with — 
Bolivia, new government, 385. 
Yemen, agreement, signature, 94. 
Diplomatic representatives in U.S., credentials, ISO, 234, 

515, 551, 657, 727, 911, 1114, 1158. 
Dirlisen amendment. See UNKRA. 
Disarmament. See Germany ; Japan. 
Displaced persons and refugees (see also Intergovern- 
mental C!ommittee on Refugees; Refugee Organiza- 
tion) : 
Agencies assisting: 

Joint UNRRA-United Nations Planning Commission, 

260. 
United States agencies, report to President Truman 

on, 381. 
UNRKA : 
Articles by- 
Mr. Persin!?er, 523, 1032. 
Mr. Preu, 250. 
Discussed by Mr. La Guardia, 358. 
Albania : 

Denial of exit permits to U.S. citizens, 581, 764. 
Refusal to recognize agreement with U.S. (1926), 
on passport visa fees for non-immigrants, 914. 
Arrival in U.S. of— 
Estonians, 826, 914. 
Europeans, 381, 1184. 
U.S. repatriates from Poland, 1151. 
Austrian problem : 

Attitude of Foreign Ministers, 171. 
U.S. aid, 864 n. 
Czechoslovali-Hungarian problem on resettlement of 

minority groups, 744. 
Estonians, immigration visas for, 826, 914. 
Europeans, immigration to U.S., statements by Presi- 
dent Truman, 381, 670, 826, 914, 1184. 
Jews: 

Admission to Palestine. See Cabinet Committee; 

Palestine. 
Non-repatriable, reparation for, 56, 71. 
Non-reiiatriable victims of German action, five-power 

agreement, text, 71. 
Prisoners of war: 

Application of Geneva convention (1929), 761. 
Claims of U.S. nationals against enemy countries for 

labor performed as, 427. 
Repatriation of, U.S. position on, statement by Secre- 
tary Byrnes, 1106. 
Yugoslavia, use of U.S. citizens in slave labor, and de- 
nial of exit permits, 761. 
Dodecanese, decision of Foreign Ministers, regarding dis- 
position, 169. 
Dollar exchange. See Currency. 
Dominican Republic («ee also American republics) : 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agreements drawn up at Chicago (1944) : 
Air transport, international, denunciation, 970. 
Convention, ratification, 337. 
Most-favored-nation treatment in customs matters, 
with U.S. (1924), Dominican Republic attitude to- 
ward Philippine trade, 691. 
Sanitary convention concerning maritime travel 
(1926) and sanitary convention for aerial navi- 
gation (19,33), as amended (1944), accession to 
protocols prolonging, 337. 

1206 



Dominican Republic — Continued. 

Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued. 

Sanitary convention for aerial navigation (1933), as 
amended (1944), adherence, 552. 
U.S. Ambassador (Butler, George H.), appointment, 134. 
Donnell, Forrest C. (U.S. Senator), exchange of letters 
with Secretary Byrnes, on constitutionality of British 
financial agreement, 110. 
Dorr, Russell, H., U.S. representative on Tripartite Com- 
mission for Restitution of Monetary Gold, 563 n. 
Dort, Dallas W., designation in State Department, 873. 
Double-taxation conventions, U.S. and — 
Belgium, discussions, 73, 173, 677. 

France, exchange of notes, and signature, 40, 827, 1187. 
Luxembourg, discussions, 73, 173, 677. 
Netherlands, discussions, 73, 173, 6S7. 
Philippines, negotiations, 1060. 
South Africa, signature, 1192. 

U.K. (1945), exchange of instruments of ratification, 
238. 
Douglas, Helen Gahagan, appointment as U.S. alternate 

to General Assembly, 221. 
Doull, Dr. James A., appointed U.S. representative to In- 
ternational OflSce of Public Health, Permanent Com- 
mittee, 756. 
Dreyfus, Louis G., Jr., appointment as U.S. Minister to 

Sweden, 285. 
Dulles, John Foster : 

Appointment as U.S. alternate to General Assembly, 221. 

Statement on trusteeship system, U.S. position on, 991. 

Dunn, James C, appointment as U. S. Ambassador to Italy, 

239. 
Durango, Mexico, closing of U.S. Consulate, 134, 190. 

Earthquake areas in Peru, Inspection by U.S. Ambassador 

(Cooper), 1067. 
Eaton, Charles A., appointment as U. S. alternate to Gen- 
eral Assembly, 221. 
ECITO. See European Central Inland Transport Organi- 
zation. 
Economic Affairs, Office of Under Secretary of State for: 
Appointment of Mr. Clayton as Under Secretary, 338. 
Establishment, 387. 
Economic agreements and treaties concluded by U.S.S.R. 

In 1945, article by Dr. Fisher, 391. 
Economic and Employment Commission of ECOSOC, 659, 

718, 891, 1000, 1145, 1176. 
Economic and Social Council of United Nations. See 

ECOSOC. 
Economic Commission for the Balkans and Finland, re- 
marks at Paris Peace Conference, by — 
Mr. Thorp, 620, 747. 
Senator Vandenberg, 656, 712, 744. 
Economic Reconstruction of Devastated Areas, Subcom- 
mission of ECOSOC, 221, 261, 323, 358, 455, 533, 572, 
626, 716, 1000, 1100, 1176. 
Economic Security Policy, Office of, federal regulation, 
authorizing Director of Office to accept reparation 
payments to U.S., 873. 
Economics (see also Finance) : 

Economic and Employment Commission of ECOSOC, 659, 

718, 891, 1000, 1145, 1176. 
Economic missions : 
Greek, to U.S., 426. 
United States, to — 
Germany, 726. 
Greece, 1151. 
Japan, 823. 
Emergency economic committee for Europe, meeting of 

housing committee, 752. 
Rehabilitation of Germany (see also Bizonal arrange- 
ments), 227, 266, 295, 1184. 
Resource conservation and utilization, U.S. draft resolu- 
tion proposing international conference, text, 623. 
Situation in Hungary, 229, 231, 263, 638, 746. 
U.S. aid to Austria, 864 n. 
U.S. aims in policy toward Korea, 462. 

Department of State Bulletin 



Economics — Continued. 

U.S. foreign economic policy, addresses by — 
Mr. Acheson, 1107. 
Mr. Clayton, 320, 950. 
ECOSOC (Economic and Social Council of United Na- 
tions) : 
Commissions, committees, etc. : 
Drafting Committee of ITO, Preparatory Committee. 

See Trade Organization, International. 
Economic and Employment Commission : 

Dates of meetings, tentative, 1000, 1145, 1176. 
Establishment of Subcommission on Economic De- 
velopment, U.S. proposal concerning, 659. 
Membership, listed, 718. 
U.S. member (Lubln), appointment, 891. 
Economic Reconstruction of Devastated Areas, Sub- 
commission on : 
Dates of meetings at London, 261, 358, 455, 533, 572. 
Dates of meetings at Geneva, tentative, 1000, 1100, 

1176. 
Establishment, 323. 
Functions, 221. 
Reports, 323, 626, 716. 
U.S. member (Lubln) and advisers, 221. 
Finances, Committee on, report on IRO, 258, 260. 
Fiscal Commission : 

Establishment, 717, 933. 
Membership, listed, 718. 
U.S. member (Bartelt), appointment, 891. 
Human Rights Commission : 

Dates of meetings, tentative, 1000, 1100, 1176. 
Discussed by Mr. MuUlken, 1016. 
Membership, listed, 718. 
U.S. member (Roosevelt), 891. 
Interim Commodity Committee, resolution on, adopted 

by Preparatory Committee of ITO, 1055. 
Narcotic Drugs : 
Agenda, lOoO. 
Articles by — 

Mr. Morlock, 885. 
Mr. Mulliken, 1015. 
Dates of meetings, 720, 844, 940, 1099, 1144. 
Opium smoking in the Far East, draft resolution, 

text, 1170. 
U.S. representatives, 1050. 
Non-governmental Organizations, Committee for Con- 
sultation with : 
Dates of meetings, 330, 358, 406; tentative, 1052, 

1176. 
Relation with other agencle.s, 717. 
Report of Mr. Winant, 3^1. 
Population Commission : 

Dates of meetings, tentative, 1000, 1100, 1176. 
Discussed by Mr. Mulliken, 1018. 
Establishment, 717, 933. 
Membership, listed, 718. 
U.S. member (Hauser), appointment, 891. 
Social Commission : 
Dates of meetings, tentative, 1000, 1100, 1176. 
Discussed by Mr. Mulliken, 1017. 
Membership, listed, 718. 

U.S. member (Altmeyer), appointment, 891. 
Statistical Commission : 
Dates of meetings, 814, 1052, 1176. 
Membership, listed, 718. 
T'.S. member (Rice), appointment, 891. 
Status of Women : 
Dates of meetings, tentative, 1052, 1145, 1176. 
Discussed by Mr. Mulliken, 1018. 
Membership, listed, 718. 
U.S. member (Kenyon), appointment, 891. 
Transport and Communications : 
Dates of meetings, 1052, 1100, 1176. 
Membership, listed, 718. 
U.S. member (Baker), appointment, 891. 



ECOSOC— Continued. 

Commissions, committees, etc. — Continued. 
U.S. members of commissions and committees, ap- 
pointment by President Truman, 891. 
Council session (3d) : 
Agenda, provisional, 405. 
Dates of meetings, 29, 107, 358, 455, 533, 6C1. 
Report of U.S. representative (Winant) to Secretary 

Byrnes, 932. 
Summary, 715. 
Council session (4th), dates of meetings, scheduled, 

1052, 1100, 1145, 1176. 
Danube, international traflSc on : 
Draft resolution, 658. 
Proposed conference, 986. 
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Na- 
tions, assistance to, proposed resolution, 6.58. 
Progress made by Council, statement by Mr. Winant, 26. 
Reports of Mr. Winant to Secretary Bvrnes, 322, 404. 

932. 
Resource conservation and utilization, U.S. proposal for 
conference on. See Resource conservation. 
Ecuador {see also American republics) : 

Ambassador to U.S. (YUescas), credentials, 1158. 

Sanitary convention concerning maritime travel (1926) 

and sanitary convention for aerial navigation 

(1933), as amended (1944), signing of protocols 

prolonging, 337. 

Eddy, Col. William A., appointment as Special Assistant to 

Secretary of State, 286. 
Education (see also Conferences; UNESCO): 
Fellowship and travel grants for — 

Foreisn students in U.S., 429, 430, 550. 
U.S. students abroad, 430, 871, 1189. 
National War College, 515, 837, 949. 
Surplus-property sales to promote education (Fulbright 

bill), statement by Mr. Benton, 262. 
Training of U.S. Foreign Service personnel. See 

Foreign Service. 
U.S. cooperation abroad : 
Germany : 

Education mission to : 
Delegation, listed, 429. 
Report, 764. 
Long-range policy statement for re-education in, 428. 
Korea, 462. 

Peru, Army Air Forces mission to, 727. 
Philippine training program, 964. 
Educational Foundation, Inc., Inter-American (D.R. 

193,2), functions and organization, 1023. 
Edwards, Corwin D., head of mission on Japanese com- 
bines, 823. 
Egypt : 

Ambassador to U.S. (Hassan), credentials, 727. 
Commercial agreement with U.S. (1930), Egyptian 

attitude toward Philippine trade, 431. 
Elevation of Missions at Cairo and Washington to rank 

of Embassy, 727. 
Journalists, visit to U.S., 77. 
U.S. Ambassador (Tuck), appointment, 727. 
El Pato air base, transfer from U.S., to Peru, 866. 
Elections : 

Bulgaria, exchange of letters between — 
Major General Robertson and Colonel General Bir- 

yusov, 820. 
Secretary Byrnes and Bulgarian Prime Minister, 818. 
Greece, revision of electoral lists, and plebiscite. Allied 

missions to observe, 424. 
Poland, protests by U.S. on conduct of, 422, 1057. 
Rumania, protests by U.S. on conduct of, 851, 967, 1057, 
Venezia Giulia, arrangements for, 409. 
Elizalde, Joaquin M., credentials as Philippine Ambassa 

dor to U.S., 234. 
Embassies, U.S. See Foreign Service. 
Emergency Food Council, International. See under Food 
Employment and trade conference, international. See 
Trade and employment. 



Index, July to December 1946 



Engineering, mining. See Mining engineering. 

Englesby, Thomas H., designation in State Department, 

338. 
Entrance visas. See Passports. 
Erhardt, John G., appointment as U.S. Minister to Austria, 

285. 
Ernie Pyle^ arrival from Poland with repatriated U.S. 

citizens, 1151, 1184. 
Espinosa, J. Manuel, article on exchange of professors 

between U.S. and other American republics, 89. 
Estate-tax conventions to which U.S. is a party. Bee 

Double-taxation conventions. 
Estonian refugees, immigration visas for, statements by 

President Truman, 826, 914. 
Etheridge, Mark F., appointment as U.S. representative 
on commission of Investigation of border violations, 
Security Council of United Nations, 1172 n. 
Ethiopia, commerce treaty with U. S. (1914), Ethiopian 

attitude toward Philippine trade, 235. 
Europe (see also the individual countries) : 

Artistic and historic monuments in, American commis- 
sion for protection of, transfer of functions, 385. 
Cession of territory, discussed by Secretary Byrnes, 500. 
Displaced persons and refugees in. See Displaced 

persons. 
Economic reconstruction of Devastated Areas, Subcom- 

mission on. See ECOSOC. 
Gasoline rations in five countries for U.S. motorists, 180. 
Nazi war criminal!?. See War criminals. 
Occupying forces, proposals for limitation, 1082. 
Prisoners of war: 

Claims of U.S. nationals against enemy countries for 

labor performed as, 427. 
Repatriation of, U.S. position on, statement by Sec- 
retary Byrnes, 1106. 
Reconstruction of, U.S. financial aid in, 950. 
UNRRA activities. See UNRRA. 
U.S. aims and policies in, address by Secretary Byrnes, 



Europe, Division of Research for, responsibilities in Office 

of European Affairs ( D R. 141.30) , 469. 
European Central Inland Transport Organization 
(KCITO): 
Council meeting, 6th session, 1100, 1145, 1175. 
Gasoline rations for American motorists, 180. 
Recommendations to OFLC, 246. 
European-Mediterranean region, air-trafflc control com- 
mittee, of PICAO, 662, 752, 843, 892, 1101. 
Evaluation Board, Joint Chiefs of Staff's. See Joint Chiefs 

of Staff. 
Evaluation Commission, President's. See President's 

Evaluation Commission. 
Evans, Allan, designation in State Department, 1195. 
Evans, James Gilbert, articles : 
U.S. cotton foreign policy, 1075. 
U.S. wool import policy, 783. 
Evatt, H. V. (Australian Minister of External Affairs), 
letter to Secretary-General of United Nations, on vot- 
ing procedure in Security Council, 256 n. 
Examinations for Foreign Service officers, application re- 
quirements for servicemen, veterans, and government 
employees, 133. 
Exchange of professors between U.S. and other American 

republics, article by Mr. Espinosa, 89. 
Exchange-students program, promotion through funds 

from surplus-property sales, 262. 
Executive orders : 

Air Coordinating Committee, establishment (Ex. Or. 

9781), 646. 
Alien Property Custodian, termination (Ex. Or. 9788), 

Designating public international organizations entitled 
to enjoy certain privileges, exemptions, and Immu- 
nities (Ex. Or. 9751), 108. 

German and Japanese diplomatic and consular property 
in U.S. (Ex. Or. 9760), 237. 

1208 



military government of Ger- 
jnal Court of Jus- 
world food 



Executive orders — Continued. 

Philippine Alien Projierty Administration, establishr 
ment (Ex. Or. 9789), 826. 
Executives' Club, Chicago, 111., address by Mr. Braden, 

539. 
Exit permits. See Passports. 
Export-Import Bank of Washington : 

Credit to Greece, discussions regarding early utiliza- 
tion, 426. 
Credit to Poland, 335. 
Loans authorized by, table showing, 597. 
Export-import mission to Germany, 726. 
External assets, German, Allied-Swedish negotiations on, 

29, 64, 107, 162, 174. 
Extradition treaty, Albania with U.S. (1933), Albanian re- 
fusal to recognize, 914. 

Fahy, Charles: 
Address on the lawy€ 

many, 852. 
Statement on jurisdiction of Inte 
tice, 157. 
Famine Emergency Committee, assistance 

crisis, 32. 
FAO. See Food and Agriculture Organization of United 

Nations. 
Far East («ee also Far Eastern Commission; and the in- 
dividual countries) : 
American business with, address by Mr. Vincent, 959. 
Arrival of students in U.S., 429. 
Economic Reconstruction of Devastated Areas, Subcom- 

mission on. See ECOSOC. 
Opium smoking, suppression of, U.S.-U.K. notes and draft 

resolution on, 1165, 1170. 
Tin mines, U.S. missions cooperate in rehabilitation, 

article by Mr. Barnet, 195. 
UNRRA activities, discussed in article by Mr. Stillwell, 

929. 
U.S. policy in, article by Mr. Noble, 975. 
Far East, Division of Research for, responsibilities in 

Office of Far Eastern Affairs (D.R. 141.20), 469. 
Far Eastern commission : 
Allied looted property in Japan, 163. 
Comments by Mr. Atcheson, 383. 

Dates of meetings, 29, 222, 358, 491, 572, 628, 939, 1144. 
Establishment of Inter-Allied Trade Board for Japan, 

753. 
Exercise of civil and criminal jurisdiction over U.N. 

nationals, text of policy on, 455. 
Functions, discussed in article by Mr. Hilldring, 48. 
Liaison with SCAP, 164. 

Reparations removal policy in Japan, interim, 629, 1178. 
Taxation of aliens by Japan, 162. 
Trade unions in Japan, principles for, 1177. 
Farrar, Victor J., 982. 

Farriss, James J., designation in State Department, 338. 
Federal Regulations, Code of, Title 22, authority to accept 

reparations payment under, 873. 
Fellowship and travel grants for students from — 
Near East and Far East, 429, 550. 
Philippines, 430. 
Fetter, Frank W., designation in State Department, 287. 
Film festival, international (1st) : 
Dates of meetings, 534, 572, 628, 661. 
Purpose, 492. 

U.S. representative (Barry), 492. 
Finance («ee also Economics) : 
Committee for Financing Foreign Trade, 111. 
Committee on Finances of proposed IRO, 258, 260. 
Foreign loans : 

British. See Financial agreement, U.S.-U.K. 
Hungary, 638. 
Philippines, 477, 1190. 
Poland, 335. 

Siam, invitation to U.S. capital for development of 
mineral resources in, 550. 

Department of State Bulletin 



Finance — Continued. 

Foreign loans — Continued. 
Table stiowing those authorized by Export-Import 
Bank, 597. 
International Bank and Fund. See International Bank ; 

International Monetary Fund. 
Italian stock securities in U.S., conversion of, 232. 
Occupation zones in Germany, cost to U.S., 266 n. 
Philippine National Bank reinstates pre-war deposits 
of U.S. citizens, 271. 
Financial agreement, U.S.-U.K. : 
Approval by Congress: 
Exchange of notes between Acting Secretary Acheson 

and British Ambassador, 172. 
Statement by President Truman, 172. 
Text of joint resolution, 173. 
Constitutionality of, exchange of letters between Secre- 
tary Byrnes and Senator Donnell, 110. 
Importance to international economic cooperation : 
Cablegram from Secretary Byrnes, 109. 
Letter from President Truman to chairman of House 
Committee on Banking and Currency, 109. 
Financial Commission, American-Philippine, establish- 
ment, 921. 
Finland : 

Economic Commission for, 656, 712, 715. 

Peace treaty with Allies, Council of Foreign Ministers 

meeting to draft, 755. 
Reparation, reduction in, U.S. proposal at Paris Peace 

Conference, 744. 
Treaties and agreements with U.S.S.R. in 1945, article 
by Dr. Fisher, 393. 
Fiscal Commission of ECOSOC, 717, 718, 891, 933. 
Fisher, Raymond H.. article on agreements and treaties 

concluded by U.S.S.R. in 1945 : 391. 
Fisheries Commi.ssion, International appointment of U.S. 

member (James), 1071. 
"Five Freedoms of the Air", incorporation into inter- 
national air agreements, 1008. 
Food (see also FAO ; UNRRA) : 
Agreements, U.S. and — 
Brazil, 464, 690, 872. 
Peru, 1153. 
Coffee : 
Agreement with Brazil, 464, 690, 872. 
Coffee Board, Inter-American, 108. 
Destination of exports from U.S., 1945-46, table show- 
ing, 122. 
Emergency Food Council, International : 
Continuance of controls, 578. 
Dates of meetings, 29, 64, 107, 162, 222, 752. 
Membership, listed, 363. 
Food-supply program, relation to proposed termination 

of UNRRA, 224. 
Relief shipments from U.S., 1945-46, report of Secretary 
of Agriculture Anderson, and statement by Presi- 
dent Truman, 119. 
Sugar Council, international meeting of, dates of, 29, 

64, 107, 162, 222. 
U.S. aims in policy toward Korea, 462. 
U.S. shipments to Japan, SCAP report, 128. 
Wheat, U.S. shipments abroad, 31, 779, 1058. 
World needs : 

Article by Mr. Stillwell, 927. 
U.S. contribution, 31. 
Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations : 
Conferences : 
Annual session (2d session), at Copenhagen: 
Agenda, 361. 

Dates of meetings, 330, 406, 455, 533. 
Officers, 491. 

U.S. delegation, listed, 362. 
Preparatory Commission, at Washington: 
Article by Mr. Wall, 905. 

Dates of meetings, 662, 753, 813, 999, 1099, 1175. 
U.S. delegation, listed, 844. 

Index, July to December 1946 



Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations — 
Continued. 
Membership : 
Admittance requirements, 357. 

Applications from Italy, Spain, and Switzerland, 357. 
Relation to International Cotton Advisory Committee, 

discussed by Mr. Evans, 1078. 
Statistical data, 258. 

Transfer of functions and assets of International In- 
stitute of Agriculture at Rome to, 74, 362, 514. 
United Nations assistance to, U.S. resolution proposing, 

658. 
World food board, proposed, 329. 
Foreign Agriculture, 544. 

Foreign Commerce Weekly, 42, 134, 387, 647, 963 
Foreign Liquidation Commissioner : 

Resignation of Mr. McCabe and appointment of General 

Connolly, 556. 
Surplus property disposal : 
Article on, 243. 
Irregularities in sales in Japan, answer to charges of, 

463. 
Report (2d and 3d), transmittal to Congress, 247, 
968. 
Foreign Ministers, Council of: 

New York conference (Nov. 4-Dec. 12) : 

Dates of meetings, 721, 892, 999, 1051, 1099, 1144. 
Occupation forces, European, proposals for limita- 
tion, 1083. 
Peace treaties : 

Austria and Clermany, discussion, 1082. 
Bulgaria, Finland, Hungary, Italy, and Rumania, 
drafting, 755. 
Proposed agenda for next meeting, 1082. 
Paris conference (June 15-July 12) : 
Dates of meetings, 29, 64, 107. 
Report by Secretary Byrnes, 167. 
Foreign Ministers, Council of. Deputies of: 
Dates of meetings, 29, 64, 107, 162, 1144, 1175. 
Deputies for Austria and Germany, appointment, 1186. 
Foreign policy, U.S. addresses and articles by : Mr. Hender- 
son, 590 ; Mr. Heindel, 1062 ; Mr. MuUiken, 1011 ; Mr. 
Noble, 975; Mr. Russell, 948; President Ti-uman, 577, 
911. 
Foreign Policy Association, New York, N.Y., address by 

Senator Austin, 16. 
Foreign Relations of the United States (1931), vols. I and 

II : 982, 1064. 
Foreign Service, Philippine, discussed in article by Mr. 

Mill, 479. 
Foreign Service, U.S. {see also Diplomatic) : 
Ambassadors : 

Appointment: Australia (Butler, Robert), 134; China 
(Stuart), 134; Dominican Republic (Butler, 
George H.), 134; Egypt (Tuck), 727; Haiti (Titt- 
mann), 134; Italy (Dimn), 239; Uruguay (Mc- 
Gurk), 134. 
Return to U.S. for consultation: Poland (Lane), 724. 
Board of: 
Appointments to, 971. 

Functions and composition (D.R. 182.7), 971. 
Consular offices : Arica, Chile, closing, 134 ; Bratislava, 
Czechoslovakia, opening, 431 ; Brazzaville, French 
Equatorial Africa, closing, 42 ; Cairo, Egypt, eleva- 
tion to rank of Embassy, 727 ; Canberra, Australia, 
elevation to rank of Embassy, 126; Curitiba, Brazil, 
closing, 812; Dairen, China, opening, 42; Durango, 
Mexico, closing, 134, 190 ; Goteborg, Sweden, eleva- 
tion to rank of Consulate General, 285; Horta, 
Azores, closing, 431 ; Krakow, Poland, opening, 134 ; 
Kunming, China, status changed from Consulate 
General to Consulate, 516; Manaos, Brazil, closing, 
239; Manzanillo, Mexico, closing, 239; New Delhi, 
India, elevation to rank of Embassy, 827, 971, 1001 ; 
Puerto Cortes, Honduras, closing, 1158 ; Puerto la 
Cruz, Venezuela, change of name, 190 ; Punta 
Arenas, Chile, closing, 1158; San Seba.stiiln, Spain, 

1209 



Foreign Service, U.S. — Continued. 
Consular offices — Continued. 

closing, 812; Strasbourg, Fi-ance, opening, 239; Tai- 
pei, Taiwan (Formosa), opening, 285; Tapachula, 
Mexico, closing, 42 ; Tirana, Albania, closing, 1001 ; 
Tsingtao, China, elevation to status of Consulate 
General, 603 ; Vienna, Austria, elevation to rank of 
Legation, 812. 
Deputy Director General (Harrington), appointment, 

971. 
Director General (Chapin), appointment, 071. 
Embassy at Manila, Philippines, opening, 134. 
Examinations for servicemen, veterans, and govern- 
ment employees, 133. 
Foreign Service of tomorrow, address by Mr. Russell, 

947. 
Installations in Europe, Mr. Russell to inspect, 39. 
Ministers, appointment: Austria (Erhardt), 28.5; China 
(Butterworth), 190; Sweden (Dreyfus), 285; Ye- 
men (Childs), presentation of credentials, 690. 
Mission at Albania, closing, 913. 
National War College, 515, 837, 949. 
Orientation series, 339, 388, 472. 
Pay increase, statements by Secretary Byrnes and Mr. 

Russell, 947, 948. 
Public-affairs officer in Yugoslavia, appointment of Mr. 

Thompson, 190. 
Reorganization, provision for, 387. 
Training for officers, 43, 135. 
Training of all personnel (D.R. 324.3), 518. 
Foreign Service Act : 
Benefits, a33, 948. 

Effective date, statement by Secretary Byrnes, 947. 
Statement by President Truman, 386. 
Foreign Service Institute, establishment. 334. 
Foreign surplus disposal. See Foreign Liquidation Com- 
missioner. 
"Forint", gold- and dollar-exchange equivalents of, 281. 
Formosa, opening of U.S. consulate at Taipei (Taiwan), 

285. 
France {see also Europe) : 

Agreement with U.S.S.R. in 1945, article by Dr. Fisher, 

394. 
Hitler's view on French attitude. German document on 

interview with Laval, 197. 
Tax on U.S. assets in, provisions for payment, 914. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Allied Commission for Austria, with U.S., U.K., and 

U.S.S.R., text. 175. 
Caribbean Commission, establishment, with U.S., 

U.K., and Netherlands, 920. 
Commercial relations, with U.S.S.R. (1945), text of 

agreement and decree promulgating, 553. 
Double taxation, witJi U.S., exchange of notes and 

signature, 40, 827, 1187. 
German-owned patents, treatment of, with U.S., 

Netherlands and U.K., text, 300. 
Radio transmitters near Algiers, arrangement with 

U.S. on use of, conversations regarding, 507. 
Reparation funds for non-repatriable victims of Ger- 
man action, five-power agreement, text, 71. 
Sanitary convention concerning maritime travel 
(1926) and sanitary convention for aerial naviga- 
tion (1933), as amended (1944), signing of 
protocols prolonging, 337. 
Whalinir agreement, international (1937), protocol 
amending, signature (1945), 284. 
U.S. Consulate at Strasbourg, opening, 239. 
U.S. Consulate General at Brazzaville, French Equa- 
torial Africa, closing, 42. 
Franco y Bahamonde, Gen. Francisco, resolutions adopted 
by General Assembly of United Nations regarding, 
1085, 1143. 
Freedom of press. See Press. 

"French Line", attitude of Council of Foreign Ministers 
on establishment, 570. 



Friendship, commerce and consular rights, treaty between 
U.S. and Norway (1928), Norwegian attitude toward 
Philippine trade, 38. 

Friendship, commerce and navigation, treaty between 
U.S. and China, signature, 866. 

Friendship, commerce and navigation, treaty between 
U.S. and Denmark (1826), Danish attitude toward 
Philippine trade, 596. 

Friendship and commerce, treaty between U.S. and Yemen, 
text and signature, 94. 

Frontier. See Boundaries. 

Fry, Kenneth D., designation in State Department, 728. 

Fulbright bill on use of proceeds from surplus-property 
sales for educational purposes, statement by Mr. Ben- 
ton, 262. 

Fund, International Monetary. See International Mone- 
tary Fund. 

Fur, U.S. restrictive quotas on imports from Canada, 
denial of rumor, 1114. 

Gasoline rations for U.S. motorists in Europe, 180. 
General Assembly, Second Part of First Session at New 
York: 
Addresses, statements, etc., by — 

Under Secretary Acheson, welcome to representatives, 

t50. 
Senator Austin, on reduction and regulation of arma- 
ments, 934. 
Secretary Byrnes, on disarmament, 1138. 
Senator Connally, on — 
Reduction of armaments, 1084. 
Spanish question, resolution regarding, 1085. 
Veto question, 987. 
Mr. Dulles, on trusteeship, 991. 

Mrs. Roosevelt, on proposed refugee organization, 935. 
President Truman, address at opening session, 808. 
Agenda, 254, 327, 35.5, 718. 
Armaments, regulation and reduction of: 
Addresses and statements, 934, 1084, 1138. 
Principles governing, 1137. 
Committees, listed, and general information, 325. 
International Refugee Organization, U.S. position on, 

discussed by Mrs. Roosevelt, 935. 
Meetings : 

Dates of, 29, 64, 406, 491, 573, 662, 843, 892, 1051. 
Postponement of, letter from Mr. Lie to Foreign Min- 
isters regarding, 220. 
Opening session, address by President Truman, 808. 
Radio digest of proceedings ("United Nations Review"), 

751. 
Relations with proposed Atomic Development Authority, 

103. 
Spanish situation (see also Security Council), resolu- 
tions regarding, 1085, 1143. 
Trustee.ship system, U.S. position, statement by Mr. 

Dulles, 991. 
U.S. delegation, appointments, 161, 221. 
Veto question : 
Proposed for agenda by Australian Minister of State, 

256 n. 
Statement by Mr. Connally, 987. 
Geodesy and Geophysics, International Union of, dates of 

meetings, 29, 64, 107, 162, 222, 261. 
Geography and History, 4th General Assembly of Pan 

American Institute of, 359, 406, 455. 
Geology and mining, 2d Pan American congress. See 

Mining engineering and geology. 
Georgiev, Kimon (Bulgarian Prime Minister), letter to 

Secretary Byrnes, on free elections, 819. 
German documents : 

Program for publication by State Department, (590. 
Texts of translations, 57, 197, 399, 480, 564, 607, 695, 
1040. 



Department of State Bulletin 



German external property negotiations with Portugal and 
Spain, dates of meetings, 572, 813, 1051, 1099, 1141, 
1175. 
Germany : 

Aims and policies of U.S. in, statements by Secretary 

Byrnes, 496, 667. 
Allied Control Council for, 498, 852, S59. 
Allied four-power control on zonal basis, weaknesses, 

discussed by Secretary Byrnes, 171. 
Assets in Austria : 

Soviet order regarding, 123 n. 

U.S. prepared to renounce share in, text of note, 
123. 
Assets in Sweden, Allied-Swedish negotiations on, 29, 

64, 107, 162, 174. 
Bizonal arrangements for, U.S. -U.K. meetings : 
Agreement : 

Discussions, 266, 910. 
Test and signature, 1102. 
Date of meeting, 892. 

Statement by Acting Secretary Acheson, 940. 
U.S. delegation, listed, 941. 
Demilitarization of, addresses by Secretary Byrnes, 170, 

667, 1138. 
Diplomatic property in U.S., control of (Ex. Or. 9760), 

237. 
Disarmament of, addresses by Secretary Byrnes, 170, 

667, 1138. 
Economic rehabilitation, U.S. position on, comments on 

address by Dr. van Kleffens, 1184. 
Economic unit.v, instructions from Secretary Byrnes to 

General McNarney, 227. 
Education mission, U.S., 429, 764. 
Export-import mission, U.S., 726. 
Gift parcels, delivery of in British zone, 336. 
Immigration visas, affidavits for, procedure for furnish- 
ing, 39. 
Informal Policy Committee on, 292. 
Lawyer in military government of, address by Jlr. 

Fahy, 852. 
Military Government in Berlin, Office of, announcement 

of policy on German re-education, 428 n., 429. 
Military Governor, American (McNarney), 227. 
Military Tribunal in, appointment by President Truman 

of U.S. members of, 1187. 
Occupation by U.S. : 
Article by Mrs. Cassidy, 293. 
Cost, 266 n. 
Patents outside Germany, German-owned : 

Agreement on treatment of, U.S., U.K., France, and 

Netherlands, text, 300. 
Conference on : 
Article by Mr. Boskey, 297. 
Dates of meetings, 29, 64, 107. 162, 222. 
Peace treaty, with Allies, proposals by U. S. delegation 

to Foreign Ministers Council, 1082. 
Radio broadcasts, U.S., short-wave, opening of relay 

point at Munich, 1187. 
Reparation for non-repatriable citizens : 
Agreement concerning, text, 71. 
Article by Dr. Ginzberg, 56. 
Reparation program, statement by Mr. Pauley, 233. 
Return of prisoners of war in U.S. c-ustody, statement 

by Secretary Byrnes, 501. 
Status of youth in, articles bv Dr. Kellermann, 49, 83, 

139. 
U.S. deputy for, appointment of Ambas.sador Murphy, 
1186. 
Gift parcels, regulations : 

Briti.sh zone in Germany, 336. 
Japan, 508. 
Korea, 78. 
Gilbert, Glen A. : 

Article on PICAO Middle East regional air navigation 

meeting, 1079. 
U.S. delegate to air-navigation meetings, .574, 946, 1079. 

Index, July to December 1946 

735042—47 3 



Ginzberg, Eli, article on reparation for uon-repatriables, 

56. 
Gold: 

Allied, policy of Far Eastern Commission on restoration 

of, 163. 
Austrian, restoration of gold in U.S. custody, 864 n. 
Commission for Restitution of Monetary Gold, Tripar- 
tite: 
Establishment and functions, 563. 
U.S., French, and British representatives, 563 n. 
Gold- and dollar-exchange equivalents of Hungarian 

"forint", 281, 
Hungarian, in U.S. custody: 
Discussed by Mr. Thorp, 748. 
Notes between U.S. and U.S.S.R., 230, 264. 
Statement by U.S. Minister (Schoenfeld), 335. 
Goldenberg, Leon, article ou Polish nationalization law, 

651. 
Goteborg, Sweden, U.S. Consulate elevated to rank of 

Consulate General, 285. 
Grain, James Kerr, designation in State Department, 516. 
Grain, U.S. shipments abroad, 31, 779, 1058. 
Granger, Fitzhugh, designation in State Department, 42, 

190. 
Great Britain. 6'ee United Kingdom. 
Greece : 

Border violations. See Greek question under Security 

Council. 
Dodecanese, deci.sion of Foreign Ministers, 169. 
Economic mission from U.S., announcement and mem- 
bership, 1151. 
Economic mission to U.S., conclusion of discussions, 

426. 
Electoral lists. Allied mission to observe revision, re- 
port, 424. 
Plebiscite, Allied mission to observe, 425. 
Policy in the Balkans, referral to Security Council. See 

Greek question under Security Council. 
Sanitary convention concerning maritime travel (1926) 
and sanitary convention for aerial navigation 
( 1933 ) , as amended ( 1944 ) , signing of protocols pro- 
longing, 337. 
Statements at Paris Peace Conference, by — 
Secretary Byrnes, 3.54. 
Mr. Caffery, 714. 
Venizelos, Soiihocles (former Prime Minister), head of 

economic mission to U.S., 426. 
Visit to U.S. of Prime Minister (Tsaldaris), 1189. 
Gromyko, Andrei A., remarks at Security Council, on mem- 
bership applications to United Nations, 489. 
Gross, Ernest A., designation in State Department, 873. 
Gruber, Karl (Austrian Foreign Minister), visit to U.S., 

864. 
Gulhe, Otto E., designation in State Department, 1115. 

Haering, George J., designation in State Department, 287. 
Haiti (see also American republics) : 
Ambassador to U.S. (Charles), credentials, 727. 
Sanitary convention concerning maritime travel (1926) 
and sanitary convention for aerial navigation 
(1933), as amended (1944), signing of protocols 
prolonging, 337. 
U.S. Ambassador (Tittmann), appointment, 134. 
Hancock, John, address on control of atomic energy, 

150. 
Hannegan, Robert E. (Postmaster General), designation 
as chairman of U.S. delegation to 5th congress of 
Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, 361. 
Harrington, Julian F., designation in State Department, 

971, 1023. 
Harris, Col. Arthur R., elected president of Inter-American 
Educational Foundation and Institute of Inter-Ameri- 
can Affairs, 286. 
Hassan, Mahmoud, credentials as Egyptian Ambassador 

to U.S., 727. 
Hausc-r, Philip M., appointment as U.S. member of Popula- 
tion Commission of ECOSOC, 891. 

1211 



Havlik, Hubert F., designation in State Department, 971. 
Health, International Office (Office International d'Hy- 
giene publique) : 
Meeting of Permanent Committee, 573, 628, 662, 720, 

752, 756, 813, S43, 892. 
Transfer to WHO, 211 n., 454, 933. 
Health, public, international cooperation in : 
Addresses by: 
Mr. Benton, 671. 
Mr. Mulliken, 1015. 
Functions transferred to WHO. See Health, Interna- 
tional Office ; League of Nations ; UNRRA. 
Health conference of United Nations (see also World 
Health Organization), dates of meetings, 29, 64, 107, 
162. 
Health Organization, World. See World Health Organiza- 
tion. 
Heindel, Richard H. : 
Address on U.S. foreign relations, 1062. 
Designation in State Department, 728. 
Henderson, Loy W., address on U.S. foreign policies, 590. 
Heneman, Harlow J., designation in State Department, 873. 
Higher education, emergency problems in, conference on, 

remarks by President Truman, 118. 
Hill, Harry W., Vice Admiral, appointment as Command- 
ant, National War College, 839. 
Hilldring, John H. : 

Address on challenge of peace, 679. 
Article on U.S. policy in occupied areas, 47. 
U.S. representative at U.S. -U.K. meetings on bizonal 
arrangements for Germany, 940. 
Historical Policy Research, Division of, functions and 

organization (D.R. 132.23), 729. 
Hitler, Adolph, German documents on : 

Conferences with Mussolini, 57, 607, 695, 1040. 
Interview with Laval (1943), 197. 
Holmes, Franklin A., designation in State Department, 971. 
Honduras : 

Sanitary convention concerning maritime travel (1926) 
and sanitary convention for aerial navigation 
(1983), as amended (1944), accession to protocols 
prolonging, 337. 
U.S. Consulate at Puerto Cortes, closing, 1158. 
Hooker, John S., appointment as U.S. alternate to Execu- 
tive Director of International Bank for Reconstruc- 
tion and Development, 65. 
Horta, Azores, closing of U.S. Consulate, 431. 
Housing and town planning, 18th international congress 
for: 
Agenda, 331, 538. 
Dates of meetings, 572, 662. 
U.S. representation, .538, 630. 
Housing committee of emergency economic committee for 

Europe, meeting, 752. 
Housing materials, U.S. exports of, address by Mr. Nitze, 

916. 
Howard, Harry N., articles on : 
Montreux convention of the Straits (1936), 435, 803. 
Problem of the Turkish straits, principal treaties and 
conventions (1774-1936), 790. 
Howell, J. Carney, designation in State Department, 971. 
Hulten, Charles M., designation in State Department, 971. 
Human Rights Commission of ECOSOC, 718, 891, 1000, 

1016, llOO, 1176. 
Hungary : 
Allied Control Commission, 229, 231, 265. 
Economic situation : 

Report of Hungarian Finance Minister, text (in part), 

231. 
U. S. protests to U.S.S.R., texts of notes, 229, 263, 638. 
Gold- and dollar-exchange equivalents of Hungarian 

"forint", 281. 
Gold in U.S. custody. See Gold. 
Industrial situation, statement by Mr. Thorp, 747. 



Hungary — Continued. 
Peace treaties, with — 
Allies : 

Council of Foreign Ministers, action, 755. 
Remarks by U.S. delegate to Paris Peace Confer- 
ence (Thorp), 746. 
Czechoslovakia, remarks by Ambassador Smith at 
Paris Peace Conference, 744. 
Rehabilitation, U.S. proposals for, 229. 
Reparations, reduction, U.S. proposal at Paris Peace 

Conference, 746. 
Treaties and agreements with U.S.S.R. in 1945, article 

by Dr. Fisher, 394. 
War-damage claims of U.S. nationals, procedure for 

filing, 179. 
War damage to manufacturing industry, U.S. protest 
to U.S.S.R., 230. 
Hunt, Edward E., designation in State Department, 728. 
Hyde, H. van Zile, articles on world health conferences 
and commissions, 453, 756, 1134. 

Iceland : 

Defense agreement, with U.S. (1941), termination, 583, 

826. 
Membership in United Nations, resolution proiwsed in 
Security Council, 488. 
ILO. See International Labor Organization. 
Immigration. See Displaced persons ; Palestine ; Pass- 
ports. 
Immigration and Naturalization, Acting Commissioner 
(Shoemaker), report to President Truman on arrival 
of displaced persons, 381. 
Import-export mission to Germany, 726. 
Income-tax conventions to which U.S. is a party. See 

Double-taxation conventions. 
India : 
Agreements : 

Air transport, with U.S., signature, 966. 
Interim agreement on international civil aviation 
(1944), reservation with respect to Denmark 
withdrawn, .337. 
Article by Mr. Tliurston, 20. 

Constitution, new, chart showing machinery and pro- 
cedure to formulate, 22. 
Elevation of U.S. Mission at New Delhi to rank of Em- 
bassy, 827, 971, 1001. 
Industrialists visit U.S., 180, 514. 
Internal problems, U.S. interest in, statement by Mr. 

Acheson, 1113. 
Nationals, in South Africa, treatment of letter from 
Sir Ramaswnmi Mudaliar to Secretary-General of 
United Nations, 255 n. 
Representative Executive Council, formation of, U.S. 
attitude, 463. 
Indian Institute, Inter- American, convention for (1940), 

adherence by Venezuela, 866. 
Indonesia, proposed cooperation agreement, with Nether- 
lands, U.S. attitude, 1188. 
Industrial property (see also Alien Property Custodian) : 
German-owned patents outside Germany, 29, 64, IffJ, 

162, 222, 297, 300. 
Protection of, international convention for (1934), ad- 
lierence by — 
New Zealand, 5.">2. 
Western Samoa, 1188. 
Industrial situation in : 
Hungary, 747. 

Manchuria, report by Mr. Pauley, 1154. 
Poland, nationalization of, 0-54. 
Information (see also Press; Radio), U.S. service: 

Discontinuance in Yugoslavia, statement by Mr. Clay- 
ton, 637. 
Discussed by Mr. Benton, 673. 
Information and Cultural Affairs, International, Office of: 
Activities of, discu.ssed by Mr. Mulliken, 1015. 



Department of State Bulletin 



Inforuiatiou and Cultural Affairs, International, Office of— 
Continued. 
Administration of functions of former commission for 
protection of artistic and historic monuments in 
Europe, 385. 
Area Divisions, functions (D.R. 132.16), 557. 
Consolidation of New York and San Francisco radio 

operations, 179. 
Functions and organization (D.R. 132.10), 517. 
Sliort-wave radio facilities for United Nations, 751. 
Institute of Inter-American Affairs. »S'ee Inter-American 

Affairs. 
Institute of Inter-American Transportation, liquidation of 
activities in connection witli terminated Office of 
(D.R. 193.1), 731. 
Intelligence, Advisory Committee on, functions, member- 
ship, etc. (D.R. 1S3.5), 471. 
Intelligence, and Research, Special Assistant to Secretary 

for, position and functions (D.R. 1.33.1), 465. 
Intelligence, International and Functional, Division of, 

functions and organization (D.R. 133.22), 460. 
Intelligence, Map, Division of, functions and organization 

(D.R. 133.23), 467. 
Intelligence activities, interdepartmental, State Depart- 
ment participation (D.R. 1S2.4), 471. 
Intelligence Collection and Dissemination, Office of, func- 
tions and organization (D.R. 133.30), 46S. 
Intelligence Coordination and Liaison, Office of, functions 

and organization (D.R. 133.20), 465. 
Intelligence Coordination Division, fmictions and organi- 
zation (D.R. 133.21), 406. 
Inter-Allied Reparation Asency : 

Discussed in article by Mr. Boskey, 298. 

Meeting on conflicting custodial claims, dates of, 721, 

892, 999, 1099, 1175. 
Relation to Tripartite Commission for Restitution of 
Monetary Gold, 563. 
Inter-Allied Trade Board for Japan. See Japan. 
Inter-American Affairs, Institute of: 
Functions and organization (D.R. 193.3), 875. 
President of, election of Col. Arthur R. Harris, 28G. 
Inter-American Affairs, Office of, liquidation of certain 

activities (D.R. 193.1), 731. 
Inter-American Affairs, Special, Division of, functions in 
Office of American Republic Affairs (D.R. 142.10), 
470. 
Inter-American automotive traffic, convention on. See 

Automotive traffic. 
Inter-American Coffee Board, privileges, exemptions, and 
immunities under International Organizations Im- 
munities Act (Ex. Or. 9751), 108. 
Inter-American Commercial Arbitration Commission, ad- 
dress by Mr. Braden, 777. 
Inter-American Commission of Women, 5th assembly. 

See Women, Inter-American Commission of. 
Inter-American Committee on Social Security. See Social 

Security. 
Inter-American conference of experts on copyright : 
Copyright protection, convention on, signature, 29. 
Report, publication, 721. 
Inter-American Educational Foundation, election of Col. 

Arthur R. Harris as president, 286. 
Inter-Anieriean Indian Institute, convention for (1940), 

adherence by Venezuela, 866. 
Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences; privi- 
leges, exemptions, and immunities under International 
Organizations Immunities Act (Ex. Or. 9751), 108. 
Inter-American medical congress. See Medical congress. 
Inter-American Navigation Corporation, liquidation of ac- 
tivities in connection with terminated Office of (D.R. 
193.1), 731. 
Inter-American Statistical Institute; privileges, exemp- 
tions, and immunities under International Organiza- 
tions Immunities Act (Ex. Or. 9751), 108. 
Interdepartmental Committee on Scientific and Cultural 
Cooperation, statements by Mr. Acheson and Mr. Ben- 
ton, 671, 964. 

Index, July to December 1946 



Intergovernmental Committee on Refugees: 
Background, discussed by Mr. Mulliken, 1018. 
Joint meeting with UNRRA, 260, 661, 843, 1051, 1175. 
Rehabilitation and resettlement of victims of German 

action, 56, 71, 76, 358. 
Sixth plenary session : 
Article by Miss Biehle, 1148. 
Dates of meeting.?, 721, 814, 940, 1052, 1175. 
Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization, 

proposed, 1093. 
Interim Council of PICAO : 
Dates of meetings, 533, 628, 720, 813, 999. 
Designation of U.S. representative (Kuter), 535. 
International and Functional Intelligence, Division of, 

functions and organization (D.R. 133.22), 466. 
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development: 
Annual meeting (1st), Boards of Governors, Bank and 
Fund : 
Article on, 704. 

Dates of meetings, 534, 572, 661. 
Appointments : 

Mr. Hooker, as alternate to Executive Director, G5. 
Mr. Snyder, as Governor, 65. 
Privileges, exemptions, and immunities under Interna- 
tional Organizations Immunities Act (Ex. Or. 
9751), 108. 
Publications, 707. 

Resignation of Mr. Meyer as President, 1092. 
International Commis.sion for Air Navigation. See Air 

Navigation. 
International committee on weights and measures, dates 

of meetings, 720, 813, 892. 
International Control of Atomic Energy, publication, 1091. 
International convention on narcotic drugs. See Narcotic 

drugs. 
International Court of Justice : 
Access of non-member states to Court, question of : 
Attitude of Department of State, 327. 
Definition of conditions for access, 530. 
Articles 11 and 12 of Statute, request by U.S. repre- 
.sentative for interpretation by General Assembly, 
355. 
Judges, listed, 161. 

Jurisdiction, compulsory, recognition by U.S. : 
Declaration by President Truman, 452. 
Letter from Acting Secretary Acheson and note from 
acting U.S. representative (Johnson) to Secretary- 
General of United Nations, 452. 
Jurisdiction, statements by Mr. Acheson and Mr. Fahy 
before Senate Foreign Relations Subcommittee on 
Jurisdiction of International Court of Justice, on 
S. J. Res. 196 : 154, 157. 
Relations with proposed Atomic Development Authority, 
105. 
International health conference. See Health conference. 
International Information and Cultural Affairs, Office of, 
administration of functions of former commission 
for protection of artistic and historic monuments in 
Europe, 385. 
International Institute of Agriculture. See Agriculture, 

International Institute of. 
International Labor Organization : 
Committees : 

Building, Civil Engineering and Public Works, 629, 

721, 814, 939, 1002, 1051. 
Iron and Steel, 447. 
Metal Trades, 447. 

Permanent Migration. 361, 406, 455, 491. 
Petroleum Production and Refining, 1052, 1176. 
Textiles, 629, 721, 814, 846, 892, 942, 99&, 1053. 
Conferences : 

International Labor Conference, 29th session : 
Agenda, 458, 1034. 
Article on, 1034. 

Dates of meetings, 455, 491, 534, 572, 628, 661. 
Proceedings, 574. 
U. S. delegation, listed, 573. 

1213 



International Labor Organization — Continued. 
Conferences — Continued. 
International Labor Office : 
Governing Body, 99th session : 
Dates of meetings, 455, 491, 5^1, 572. 
U. S. delegation, 458, 535. 

U.S. representative (Morse), designation, 535. 
Governing Body, 100th session , reelection of Mr. 
Evans as chairman, 1053. 
Cooperation with Intergovernmental Committee on Ref- 
ugees, discu.ssed in article by Miss Biehle, 1148. 
Recommendation of 27th conference (Paris, 1945) on 
standards of social policy in dependent areas, trans- 
mittal to Congress by President Truman, 235. 
Relation to United Nations, draft agreement, 1034. 
Statistical data, 258. 

U.S. participation in ILO, discussed by Mr. Mulliken, 
1019. 
International law: 
Address by Mr. Jackson, 377. 

Codification, article 13 of U.N. Charter on, request for 
interpretation, 355. 
International Military Tribunal. See Military Tribunal. 
International Monetary Fund: 
Annual meeting (1st), Boards of Governors, Bank and 
Fund : 
Article on, 704. 

Dates of meetings, 534, 572, 661. 
Appointments : 

Mr. I.uthringer, as alternate to Executive Director, 

65. 
Mr. Snyder, as Governor, 65. 
Par values of currencies : 
Announcement of transactions, 575. 
Exchange transactions, 1173. 

Letter from Secretary of the Treasury (Snyder), 576. 
Privileges, exemptions, and Immunities under Interna- 
tional Organizations Immunities Act (Ex. Or. 
9751), 108. 
Publications, 707. 
International Organizations Immunities Act, designation 
of organizations entitled to enjoy certain privileges, 
exemptions, and immunities (Ex. Or. 9751), 108. 
International Refugee Organization. See Refugee Or- 
ganization. 
International Technical Committee of Aerial Legal Ex- 
perts. See CITEJA. 
International Trade Organization. See Trade Organiza- 
tion. 
International Wheat Council, 107, 165, 359, 1176. 
Iran : 
Air-transport agreement, international (1944), signa- 
ture, 970. 
Dispute with U.S.S.R., summary statements by Secretary- 
General (Lie) at Security Council, 528, 1172. 
Ireland : 
Civil aviation convention (1944), ratification, 970. 
Membership in United Nations, resolution proposed in 
Security Council, 488. 
IRO. See Refugee Organization, International. 
Iron and Steel Committee of ILO, article by Mr. Ross, 447. 
Italy : 

Colonies, disposition of, decision of Foreign Ministers 

on, 169. 
Conversations between Hitler and Mussolini, German 

documents on, 57, 607, 695, 1040. 
Economic Commission for, 532, 710. 
FAO, application for membership, 357. 
Partici|)ation of Under Secretary of State (Bastianini) 
in interview between Hitler and Laval, German 
document on, 197. 
Peace aims, exchange of notes between Secretary Bvrnes 

and Italian Foreign Minister, 821. 
Peace treaty, with Allies : 

Council of Foreign Ministers, meeting to draft, 755. 
Statement by Mr. Thorp, 710. 



Italy — Continued. 
Problem of Trieste. See Trieste. 
Reparation : 

Decision of Foreign Ministers regarding, 169. 
Statement by Mr. Thorp, 532. 
Sanitary convention concerning maritime travel (1926) 
and sanitary convention for aerial navigation 
(1933), as amended (1944), accession to protocols 
prolonging, 337. 
Stock securities in U.S., conversion of, 232. 
U.S. Ambassador (Dunn), appointment, 239. 
War-damage claims of U.S. nationals, procedure for 

filing, 179. 
War effoHt (1944), German documents on, 1040. 
ITO. See Trade Organization, International. 
ITU. See Telecommunications Union, International. 
Ivaniissevich, Oscar, credentials as Argentine Ambassador 
to U.S., 515. 

Jackson, Robert H. : 
Addresses : 

Application of international law, 377. 
Closing of Nurnberg trial, 364. 
Final report to President Truman, on NUrnberg trial, 
and resignation, 771. 
Japan (.see also Far East; Far Eastern Commission) : 
Allied Council for, remarks by U.S representative (At- 

cheson), 382. 
Allied occupation. See SCAP. 
Coal, shortage of, 1178. 
Conferences of officials with Reich Foreign Minister, 

German documents on, 399, 480, 564. 
Crown Prince, selection of tutor from U.S., 462. 
Diplomatic property in U.S., control of (Ex. Or. 9760), 

237. 
Food sliipments from U.S., SCAP report, 128. 
Inter-AUied Trade Board for : 

Dates of meetings, 939, 999, 1051, 1099, 1144, 1175. 
Establishment and functions, 753. 
Labor celebrations. May Day, SCAP report, 127. 
Mail service, 508. 

Mandated islands, trusteeship for, statements by Presi- 
dent Truman and Mr. Dulles, and text of draft 
agreement, 889, 992. 
Non-military activities in. See SCAP. 
Occupation policy, discussed in article by Mrs. Cassidy, 

293. 
Reparation («ee also Far Eastern Commission) : 
Report of U.S. mission on, by Mr. Pauley, 957. 
U.S. position on, statement by Acting Secretary Ache- 
son, 1058. 
SCAP (Supreme Commander for Allied Powers). See 

SCAP. 
Securities in, U.S., instructions for filing statements, 

271. 
Surplus war property, charges of irregularities in sale 

of, statement by Mr. McCabe, 463. 
Trade unions, adoption of principles for, by Far Eastern 

Commission, 1177. 
Trusteeship for mandated islands, statements by Presi- 
dent Truman and Mr. Dulles, and text of draft 
agreement, 889, 992. 
U.S. mission on combines, 823. 
Yoshida Cabinet, formation of, SCAP report, 127. 
Zaibatsu system, 823, 1023. 
Jester, Perry N., article on National War College, 837. 
Jews («ee also Cabinet Committee; Displaced persons; 
Palestine), nonrepatriable, reparation for: 
Agreement concerning, text, 71. 
Article by Dr. Ginzberg, 56. 
Johnson, Herschel V. : 
Correspondence : 
Acting Secretary-General of United Nations, propos- 
ing items for agenda of General Assembly, 355. 

Department of State Bulletin 



Johnson, Herschel V. — Continued. 
Correspondence — Continued. 

Secretary-General of United Nations, transmitting 

note from Acting Secretary Aclieson and U.S. 

declaration by President Truman on compulsory 

jurisdiction of International Court of Justice, 452. 

Rank of Ambassador, 106. 

Remarks to Security Council : 

Border violations along Greek frontier, 1171. 
Membership applications to United Nations, 487. 
Johnstone, James R., designation in State Department, 

728. 
Johnstone, William C, Jr., appointment as Public Affairs 

Officer for India, 126. 
Joint Chiefs of Staff: 

Cooperation with State Department in National War 

College, 515. 
Decision regarding 3d atomic-bomb test at Bikini, 508. 
Evaluation Board: 
Membership, 116,275. 

Reports on Bikini atomic-bomb tests (l.st and 2d), 
116, 273. 
Joint Inventory Commission, U.S. transfer of El Pato air 

base to Peru, 866. 
Joint Soviet-American Commission, resumption of discus- 
sions proposed by Mr. Acheson, 670. 
Journalists. See Press. 

Judges of International Court of Justice, listed, 161. 
Julian March. See Venezia Giulia. 

Kellermann, Henry J., articles on status of German youth, 

49, S3, 139. 
Kennedy, Donald D., head of U.S. delegation to wool meet- 

Kenyon, Dorothy, appointment as U.S. member of Com- 
mission on Status of Women of ECOSOC, 891. 
Kina Bureau, functions and composition, 833. 
Kleinwachter, Ludwig, credentials as Austrian Minister 

to U.S., 1114. 
Koo, V. K. Wellington, credentials as Chinese Ambassador 

to U.S., 180. 
Korea (see also Far East) : 

Joint Soviet-American Commission, 670. 
Liberation from Japanese domination, anniversary 
(1st), statement by Acting Secretary Acheson, 384. 
Mail and gift parcel services to, 78. 
Survey of resources in, statement by Mr. Pauley, 233. 
U.S. policy in, 293, 462, 670. 
Kosanovic, Sava N., credentials as Yugoslav Ambassador 

to U.S., 180. 
Krakow, Poland, opening of U.S. Consulate, 134. 
Kunming, China, change of status of U.S. Consulate Gen- 
eral to Consulate, 516. 
Kuter, Maj. Gen. Laurence S., designation as U.S. repre- 
sentative on Interim Council of PICAO, 535. 

La Guardia, Fiorello H. : 

Transfer of certain UNRRA functions to WHO, exchange 

of letters with Dr. Chisholm, 842. 
Transfer of UNRRA to U.N., announcement, 358. 
Labor : 

Conference of labor statisticians, international (6th), 

proposed, 1053. 
Indian industrialists visit U.S., 180, 514. 
Trade unions, Japanese, adoption of principles for, by 

Far Eastern Commission, 1177. 
U.S. slave labor in Yugoslavia, condemnation by U.S., 
761. 
Labor Organization, International. See International 

Labor Organization. 
Landis, James M., appointment as co-chairman of Air 

Coordinating Committee, 646. 
Lane, Arthur Bliss (U.S. Ambassador to Poland) : 

Remarks by Polish President (Bierut) concerning, 

statement by Mr. Acheson, 265. 
Visit to U.S., 724. 



Langer, William L., resignation as Special Assistant to 

Secretary of State, 280. 
Latchford Stephen article on private international air 

law, 879. 
Lausanne convention (1923), discussed in articles by Mr. 

Howard, 435, 790, 799. 
Laval, Pierre, interview with Hitler (1943), German docu- 
ment on, 197. 
Lawyer in military government of Germany, address by 

Mr. Pahy, 852. 
Lead, return to U.S. of lend-lease shipment to China, 1114. 
League of Nations : 

Health organization of, transfer to WHO, discussed, 

454. 
Statistical Division, trau.sfer of activities to United 
Nations, 258. 
Lebanon : 

Trade discussions in U.S., acceptance of invitation, 754. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Air transport, with U.S., signature, 408. 
Postal union convention, universal (1939), adherence 

(1945), 5.^2. 
Telecommunications convention (1932), and Cairo 

regulations (1938), adherence, 552. 
Wounded and sick, amelioration of condition of 
(1929), adherence, 553. 
Lee, Charles Henry, designation in State Department, 728. 
Legal Adviser, Officer of, functions and organization (D.R. 

116.1), 691, 874, 1115. 
Legal committees of United Nations, work of, articles by 

Dr. ReifC, 3, 302, 343. 
Legations, U.S. See EVjreign Service. 
Legislation. See Congress, U.S. 
Lend-Lease : 
Reclamation by U.S. of lead in Burma, 1114. 
Settlement agreements, U.S. and — 
Belgium, signature, 644. 
Brazil, signature and text, 187. 
New Zealand, text, 181. 
Leprosy, Pan American conference on (2d) : 
Agenda, 677. 

Dates of meetings, 720, 752, 813. 
Invitations, 664. 
Liberated areas : 

Austria, recognition of government by U.S., 865. 
China, U.S. aid in reoccupation, statement by Presi- 
dent Truman, 1179. 
Europe, comments regarding economic recovery, 1184. 
Liberia, one hundred years of independence, remarks by 
Mr. Benton at Consul General's dinner at New York, 
582. 
Lie, Trygve (Secretary-General of United Nations) : 
International traffic on Danube, telegram regarding pro- 
posed conference, 986. 
Matters under consideration by Security Council, sum- 
mary statements, 528, 660, 1172. 
Postponement of General Assembly meeting, letter to 
Foreign Ministers, 220. 
Loans authorized by Export-Import Bank, table, 597. 
Lockhart, Oliver C., designation in State Department, 

239. 
Loftus, John A., address on U.S. Foreign oil policy, 276. 
LST, transfer from U.S. to Venezuela, 1071. 
Lubin, Isador, appointment on ECOSOC commissions, 221, 

891. 
Lucas, Scott W. (U.S. Senator), participant in radio broad- 
cast, 205. 
Lunning, Just, designation in State Department, 42. 
Luthringer, George F., appointment as U.S. Alternate to 
the Executive Director of International Monetary 
Fund, &j. 
Luxembourg: 

Double-taxation agreement, with U.S., negotiations re- 
garding, 73, 173, 677. 



Index, July to December 1946 



Luxembourg — Continued. 
Sanitary convention concerning maritime travel (1926) 
and sanitary convention for aerial navigation 
(1933) , as amended (1944) , signing of protocols pro- 
longing, 337. 

MacArthur, Gen. Douglas. See SCAP. 

MacFadden, Hamilton, designation in State Department, 

MacLeish, Archibald, aiipointment as deputy chairman of 

U.S. delegation to UNESCO, 779. 
Macy, J. Noel, designation in State Department, 239. 
Maddox, William P., designation in State Department, 

135, 516, 600. 
Mails: 

Postal and gift parcel services to Korea, resumption, 

78. 
Restricted service to Japan, 508. 
Treatment in Albania, 385. 
Makin, Norman J. O., credentials as Australian Ambas- 
sador to U.S., 551. 
Mallon, Dwight S., designation in State Department, 728. 
Management, Society for Advancement of. New York, N.Y., 

address by Mr. Thorp, 1110. 
Manflos, Brazil, closing of U.S. Vice Consulate, 239. 
Manchuria (see also China) : 

Industrial conditions in, reports by Mr. Pauley, 233, 

1154. 
Industry, damage to (table), 11.54. 
Mandated Islands, Japanese: 
Draft agreement, text, SS9. 
Statement by Mr. Dulles, 992, 
Statement by President Truman, 889. 
Manila, Philippines, opening of U.S. Embassy and plan to 

combine with U.S. Consulate General, 134. 
Manuilslcy, 1).. letter to Secretary Byrnes, regarding in- 
VfsliualiiMi (,f ass.iult i>n members of Ukrainian dele- 
gation to Unitfd Xatinns, 1048. 
ManzaniUo, Mexico, closing of U.S. Vice Consulate, 239. 
Map Intelligence, Division of, functions and organization 

(D.R. 133.23), 467. 
Maps and charts : 

Atomic Energy Commission, chart sliowing areas of 

agreement and disagreement of members, 106. 

Cartohypnosis, article by Mr. Boggs, 1122. 

New Constitution in India, machinery and procedure to 

formulate, 22. 

Marine Falcon, transportation of displaced persons, 1184. 

Marine Flasher, transportation of displaced persons, 382, 

1184. 
Marine Lynx, transportation of students from Near East 

and Far East, 429. 
Marine Marlin, transportation of displaced persons, 1184. 
Marine Perch, transportation of displaced persons, 382. 
Maritime. See Shipping. 

Maritime Consultative Council, Provisional {see also Mari- 
time Consultative Council, United) : 
Establishment and functions, 1092. 
U.S. membership, 1002. 
Maritime Consulative Council, United : 
First session, termination, 64. 
Second session : 
Address by Mr. Clayton, 816. 
Agenda, 631. 

Dates of meetings, 534, 573, 628, 662, 720, 752, 813. 
Eecomniendations to member governments : 

Draft convention for Inter-Governmental Maritime 

Consulative Organization, text, 1094. 
Letter from Acting Secretary Acheson, 1003. 
Recommendations to United Nations, proposing Pro- 
visional Maritime Consultative Council, 1092. 
Termination of organization, 1002, 1092. 
Maritime Consultative Organization, Inter-Governmental 
ificc iil.w Maritime Consultative Council, United), pro- 
posed, 1093. 
Marks, Herbert S., designation in State Department, 728. 

1216 



Marshall, Gen. George C, joint statements with Ambassa- 
dor Stuart, regarding conditions in China, 384, 723. 
Martin, H. P., designation in State Department, 1023. 
Martinez Vargas, Ricardo, credentials as Bolivian Ambas- 
sador to U.S., 551. 
May, Parker, designation in State Department, 338. 
McCabe, Thomas B. : 

Foreign Liquidation Commissioner, work as, 268. 
Resignation, statement by Mr. Clayton, 5.56. 
Sale of military items to China, denial, 548. 
Sale of surplus property in Japan, statement on charges 
of irregularities in, 463. 
McGehee, George C, designation in State Department, 728. 
McGranery, James P. (Acting Attorney General), letter to 
Secretary Byrnes, regarding validity of international 
agreement executed by the President. 1068. 
McGurk, Joseph F., appointment as U.S. Ambassador to 

Uruguay, 134. 
McKee, Oliver, designation in State Department, 600. 
McNarney, Gen. Joseph T., authority for performing duties 
as American Military Governor in Germany, 227, 295. 
McNutt, Paul V. (Ambassador to Philippines), comment on 
reinstatement of pre-war deposits of U.S. citizens in 
Philippine National Bank, 271. 
McReynolds, Frances R. P., article on Caribbean tourist 

plans, 735. 
Medical congress, inter-American (1st) : 
Agenda, 408, 815. 
Dates of meetings, 455, 491. 
U.S. delegation, 535, 814. 
Medicine: 

International industrial control of quinine, discussed in 

article by Mr. Rudolph, 831. 
Pan American conference on leprosy, 664, 677, 720, 813. 
Meetings, calendar of. See name of organization or con- 
ference. 
Merchant, Livingston T., designation in State Department, 

971. 
Merchant marine awards, posthumous, to Philippine sea- 
men, 1159. 
Merrow, Chester, appointment as Congressional adviser 
to U.S. delegation to General Conference of UNESCO, 
842. 
Metal Trades Committee of ILO, article by Mr. Ross, 447. 
Metzger, Laure. article on Polish nationalization law, 651. 
Mexico (see also American republics) : 

Presidential inauguration, U.S. representation at, 919. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Aviation : 

Air services, with l^S., dates of discussions, 29, 64, 

107, ^^■•2. L'L'2, liOl, 
Air ser\ iees transit (1944), acceptance, 78. 
Civil-aviation ennvention (1944), ratification, 78, 
337. 
Claims convention with U.S. (1941), payment of in- 
stalment due under, 1061. 
Whaling agreement, international (1937), protocol 
amending, signature (1945), 284. 
U.S. consular offices, closing, 42, 184, 190, 239. 
Meyer, Eugene, resignation as president of International 

" Bank for Reconstruction and Development, 1092. 
Middle East re.gional air-navigation meeting (4th) : 
Announcement, 574. 
Article bv Mr. Gilbert, 1079. 
Dates of nie.'tings. 534. .572, 628, 661, 720. 
U.S. delegation. .571. 629. 
Middle Eastern and Indian Affairs, formerly Division of 
Middle Eastern Affairs, Office of Near Eastern and 
African Affairs, 558. 
Migration Committee, Permanent, of ILO, meeting: 
Agenda, 361. 

Dates of meetings, 358, 406, 45.5, 491. 
U.S. member and advisers, 301. 
Military aid to — 
China, 34, 125. 
Philippines, 476. 

Department of State Bulletin 



Military cooperation, inter-American, statement by Mr. 

ButJer before Senate Foreign Relations Committee, 

131. 

Military equipment, standardization of, U.S. attitude, 1191. 

Military Government in Berlin, Office of, announcement of 

policy on German re-education, 428 n., 429. 
Military government of Germany, the lawyer in, address 

by Mr. Fahy, 852. 
Military Governor, American, in Germany (McNarney), 

authority for performing duties, 227, 295. 
Military items, sale to China, joint denial by Assistant 
Secretary of War Petersen and Foreign Liquidation 
Commissioner (McCabe), 548. 
Military Staff Committee of United Nations : 
Dates of meetings, 29, 330, 572, 843, 1175. 
Remarks at General Assembly by U.S. representative 
(Austin), 935. 
Military Tribunal, International : 
Discussed by Mr. Fahy, 856. 
Recognition of Austria as liberated area, 865. 
Trial of Nazi war criminals at Niirnberg : 
Closing address by Mr. Jackson, 364. 
Final report to President Truman by Mr. Jackson, 

771. 
Report to President Truman by Mr. Biddle, 954. 
Resignation of Mr. Jackson, 776. 
Military Tribunal for U.S. zone in Germany, appointment 

of U.S. members by President Truman, 1187. 
Mill, Edward W., article on new republic of tlie Philip- 
pines, 475. 
Minerals : 

Article on tin, by Mr. Barnet, 195. 

Resources in Siam, invitation to U.S. capital for de- 
velopment, 550. 
Mining. See Coal; Tin. 

Mining engineering and geology, 2d Pan American con- 
gress : 
Aimounceraent, 576. 

Dates of meetings, 534, 572, 628, 662, 720. 
Final session, 846. 
U.S. delegation, listed, 630. 
Missions, U.S. (see also Foreign Service), to — 
Colombia, naval, 870. 
Germany : 

Education, 429, 764. 
Export-import, 726. 
Greece : 
Economic, 1151. 

To observe revision of electoral lists and plebiscite, 
424. 
Japan : 
Japanese combines, 823, 1023. 
Reparations, 957, 1058. 
Peru, military aviation, 727. 
Monetary exchange equivalents in Hungary, 281. 
Monetary Fund, international. See International Mone- 
tary Fund. 
Money order convention, Albania, with U.S. (1932), Al- 
banian refusal to recognize, 914. 
Mongolian People's Republic, question of membership in 
United Nations, discussion in Security Council, 488. 
Montreux convention of the Straits (1936) : 
Articles by Mr. Howard, 435, 803. 
Revision of: 

Exchange of notes between U.S. and U.S.S.R., 420. 
Soviet position, 655. 
U.S. position, 722. 
Morgan, Sir William D. (Supreme Allied Commander, 
Mediterranean), reply to Mr. La Guardia's letter on 
security for UNRRA supplies for Yugoslavia, 267. 
Morlock, George A., article on international control of 

dangerous drugs, 885. 
Morse, David A., designation as U.S. representative at 
99th session of Governing Body of International 
Labor Office, 458, 535. 
Moscow agreement, application to Bulgarian elections, 



index, July to December 1946 



telecommunications, flve-power, 



Moscow conference 
preliminary : 
Agenda, 459. 

Dates of meetings, 491, 534, 628, 720. 
Report by Mr. de Wolf, 943. 
U.S. delegation, 363, 575. 
Most-favored-nation provisions in U.S. treaties with other 
countries, not affected by Philippine privileges In re- 
lations with U.S., 38, 79, 174, 235, 431, 463, 596, 691 

726. ' 

Most-favored-nation treatment, agreement between U.S. 
and Albania (1922) , Albanian refusal to recognize, 914. 
Motion pictures : 

International exhibition of cinematographic art (11th) 

406,408,455,491,533. 

International film festival (1st), 492, 534, 572 628 

661. ' ' 

Mudaliar, Sir Ramaswami, letter to Secretary-General of 

United Nations, on treatment of Indian nationals in 

South Africa, 255 n. 

Mulliken, Otis E., address on foreign .social policy of U.S., 

Munitions Division, functions (D.R. 123.7), 730. 
Munitions plants in Japan, reparations removal policy, 

discussed by Ambassador Pauley, 957. 
Murph.v, Robert D., appointment as U.S. deputy for Ger- 

iiiany, to session of deputies. Council of Foreign 

Ministers, 1186. 
Murray, James E., appointment as Congressional adviser 

to U.S. delegation to General Conference of UNESCO. 

842. 
Mussolini, Benito, conversations with Hitler, German 

documents on, 57, 607, 695, 1040. 
Mutual aid agreement, Czechoslovakia with U.S. (1942), 

adherence, 1005. 

Narcotic drugs : 

Control by United Nations, question of, 717. 
Conventions, ratification by Argentina: 

Convention and protocols for suppression of abuse 

of opium and other drugs (1912, 1913), 552. 
Convention for limiting manufacture and regulating 

distribution of narcotic drugs (1931), 552. 
Opium convention, international (1925), 552. 
United Nations commission on. See ECOSOC. 
National Advisory Council : 

Cooperation with Committee for Financing Foreign 

Trade, 111. 
Relation to committee of industrialists and bankers 
appointed by President Truman, 33. 
National Association of Secretaries of State, Los Angeles, 

Calif., address by Mr. Henderson, 590. 
National Commission for UNESCO: 
First meeting, 491, 598. 
Relation to UNESCO, 356, 598. 
Remarks by — ■ 

Mr. Benton, 356, 633, 995. 
Mr. Mulliken, 1016. 
President Truman, 633. 
Report to Secretary Byrnes and letter of transmittal, 

683. 
Representation on Commission : 
Individuals, listed, 598. 
Organizations, listed, 356. 
National Committee on Atomic Information, Institute of, 

Washington, D.C., address by Mr. Hancock, 150. 
National Foreign Trade Convention, 33d, New York, N.Y., 

address by Mr. Clayton, 950. 
National Foreign Trade Council, New York, N.Y., address 

by Mr. Vincent, 959. 
National Industrial Conference Board, New York, N.Y., ad- 
dress by Mr. Wilcox, 640. 
National War College: 
Opening, 515. 

Participation of State Department, article by Mr. Jester, 
837. 



1217 



National War College — Continued. 
Training program for Foreign Service personnel, dis- 
cussed by Mr. Russell, 949. 
Nationalization law, Polish, article by Mr. Goldenberg and 

Mi.ss Metzger, C.jl. 
Nationalization program, in : 
China, 965. 

Czecho-slovakia, 1003, 1004, 1027. 
Poland, 651, 654, 912, 969. 
UnHed Kingdom, 615. 
Yugoslavia, 1150. 
Nationalized properties, compensation for, agreement be- 
tween U.S. and Czechoslovakia, text of U.S. note, 
1004. 
Naturalization, Filipino, article by Jlr. Mill, 476. 
Naturalization treaty, Albania with U.S. (1932), Albanian 

refusal to recognize, 914. 

Nature protection and wildlife preservation in Western 

Hemisphere, convention on (1940), ratification by 

Argentina and Nicaragua, 552. 

Naval-mission agreement, with Colombia, signature, 870. 

Navicert system, British policy on documents concerning, 

578. 
Navigation, friendship and commerce, treaty between U.S. 

and China, signature, 806. 
Navigation and comiuercn, agreement with Yemen, con- 
cerning, signature, 94. 
Navigation Coriroration, Inter-American, liquidation (D. 

R. 193.1), 731. 
Navy Department : 

Joint statement with State and War Departments, on 
claims of U.S. nationals against enemy coimtries, 
427. 
National War College, joint establishment, with War 
and State Departments, and U.S. Foreign Service, 
838. 
Naxi Conspiraci/ and Aggression, publication of vols. Ill, 

IV, V, VI, Vll : 364 n., 379, 604, 870, 969, 1114. 
Nazi war criminals. See War criminals. 
Nazi youth, present status of, articles by Dr. Kellermann, 

49, 83, 139. 
Near East, arrival of students in U.S., 429. 
Near East and Africa, Division of Research for, respon- 
sibilities in Office of Near Eastern and African Af- 
fairs (D.R. 141.10), 468. 
Near Eastern and African Affairs, Office of. Division of 
Middle Eastern Affairs, name changed to Division of 
Middle Eastern and Indian Affairs, 558. 
Nepalese good-will delegation visits U.S., 237. 
Ness, Norman T., designation in State Department, 873. 
Netherlands : 

Economic rehabilitation of Germany, comments on Dr. 

van Kleffens' protest, 1184. 
Treaties, agreements, etc.: 

Caribbean Commission, establishment, with U.S., U.K., 

and France, 920. 
Commercial policy, with U.S., exchange of notes, texts, 

1108. 
Double taxation, with U.S., negotiations regarding, 

73, 173, 687. 
German-owned patents, treatment of, with U.S., 

France, and U.K., text, 300. 
Voluntary cooiieratioii ;iud good relationship, with 

Indonesia, U.S. attitndi', 1188. 
Whaling agreciiicut, i;itcinational (19.37), protocol 
amending, signature (1945), 284. 
Netherlands East Indies, travel information for U.S. busi- 
nessmen, 550. 
Nevins, Allan, appointment as Public Affairs Officer at 

U.S. Embas.sy in London, 39. 
New Delhi. India. U.S. Mission, elevation to rank of Em- 
bassy, 827, 971, 1001. 
New Zealand ; treaties, agreements, etc, : 
Air transport, with U.S., signature, 1113. 
Industrial property, international convention for pro- 
tection of (1934), adherence, 552. 



New Zealand ; treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued. 
Interim agreement on international civil aviation 
(1944), withdrawal of reservation with respect to 
Denmark, 78. 
L»>nd-lease settlement and surplus property, with U.S., 

text, 181. 
Sanitary convention concerning maritime travel (1926) 
and sanitarv convention for aerial navigation 
(1933), as amended (1944), signing of protocols 
l)rolonging, 337. 
Whaling agreement, international (1937), protocol 
amending, signature (1945), 284. 
NewspaiKjrmen. See Press. 

Nicaragua (see also American republics), treaties, agree- 
ments, etc. : 
Air transport, international, denunciation, 970. 
Civil-aviation convention (1944), ratification (1945), 

Nature protection and wildlife preservation in Western 

Hemisphere (1940), ratification, 552. 
Sanitary convention concerning maritime travel (1926) 
and sanitary convention for aerial navigation 
(1933), as amended (1944), signature of protocols 
prolonging, 337. 
Nichols, Clarence W., report on international wool talks, 

1163. 
Nitze, Paul H. : 

Address on U.S. exports of housing materials, 916. 
Designation in State Department, 728. 
Noble, G. Bernard, article on U.S. policy in the Far East, 

975. 
Non-self-governing territories. See Trusteeship. 
North Atlantic Ocean weather obsenation stations, 
PICAO conference on : 
Article by Mr. Barringer, 901. 
Dates of meetings, 491, 584, 572, 628, 661. 
Delegations, listed, 535, 678, 901. 

E.sitahlishment and operation of stations, agreement on, 
conclusion, 678. 
Norton, Garrison : 

Address on development of U.S. policy of world air 

transi30rt, 1006. 
Designation in State Department, 516. 
Noi'way : 

Friendship, commerce and consular rights agreement 
with U.S. (1928), Norw^ian attitude toward Phil- 
ippine trade, 38. 
Trade discussion in U.S., acceptance of invitation, 754. 
Whaling agreement, international (1937), protocol 
amending, signature (1945), 284. 
NOTAM (notices to airmen), communication centers for. 



Nuermberger, Gustave A., 982. 
Niirnberg trial. See War criminals. 

Oatman, Miriam E., article on nationalization program in 

Czechoslovakia, 1027. 
Occupation forces in : 

Europe, proposals for limitation of, U.S. delegation to 

Foreign Ministers Council, 1082. 
Germany and Japan. See Germany ; Japan. 
Hungary, Soviet, food supplies for, U.S. protest to So- 
viet Union, text, 230. 
Occ-upied areas (see also Austria; Germany; Japan; 
Korea ; Venezia Giulia ) : 
Area division of Office of International Information and 
Cultural Affairs for, functions (D.R. 132.16), 557. 
Military forces in, proposals for, limitation, 1082. 
Office of Assistant Secretary of State for, functions, 47. 
U.S. policy in, articles by — 
J.Irs. Cassidy, 291. 
Mr. Hilldring, 47. 
Office International d'Hygiene publique of Paris. See 

Health, International Office. 
Office of Price Administration, decontrol of coffee prices, 
872. 



Department of State Bulletin 



OFLO. See Foreign Liquidation Commissioner, Office of. 
OIAA (Office of Inter-Anierican AfCairs), liquidation of 

certain activities (DR. 193.1), 731. 
OIC. See Information and Cultural Affairs, International. 
Oil: 

Addresses by : 

Mr. Loftus, 276. 

Mr. Kayner, 867. 
Proposed world organization, 281. 

Reparations removal program, interim, for Japan, 629. 
OPA (Office of Price Administration), decontrol of coffee 

prices, 872. 
Opium. See Narcotic drugs. 
Orphans, unaccompanied, from Elurope, sponsorship for, 

381. 
Outer Mongolia, question of admission to United Nations, 

487. 

Palestine (see also Cabinet Committee) : 
Admission of displaced Jews : 

Conference of President Truman with members of 

Jewish Agency Executive, 70. 
Exchange of letters between Abdul Aziz and Presi- 
dent Truman, 84S. 
Exchange of notes between Secretary Byrnes and 

Rabbi Wise, 822. 
U.S. attitude, 3S0. 
Conference of Jewish and Arab leaders and British rep- 
resentatives, proposed, 380, 1105. 
Conference of U.S.-U.K. Cabinet Committees on, 107, 

162, 222, 261, 266. 
Jewish Agency Headquarters, reported raid on, 39. 
"Morrison plan," described in statement by President 

Truman on Palestine situation, 669. 
Terrorism in, statement by President Truman, 228. 
Pan American congress of mining engineering and geology 
(2d): 
Final session, U.S. delegation, listed, 8-16. 
General announcement, 576. 
Pan American congress on physical education (2d). See 

Physical education. 
Pan American Consultation on Cartography (3d), and 
Pan American Institute of Geography and History, 
General Assembly (4th), conference: 
Announcement, 359. 
Dates of meetings, 406, 455. 
Pan American Institute of Geography and History, Gen- 
eral Assembly (4th), and Pan -American Consultation 
on Cartography (8d), conference: 
Announcement, 359. 
Dates of meetings, 406, 455. 
Pan American Institute of Mining Engineering and Geol- 
ogy (PAIMEG), S46. 
Pan American Sanitary Bureau, privileges, exemptions, 
and immunities under International Organizations Im- 
munities Act (Ex. Or. 9751), 108. 
Pan American Union : 

Chairman of Governing Board (Rocha), election, 920. 
Governing Board, approval of transmittal of draft dec- 
laration on rights and duties of American States 
to their Governments, 188. 
Publication, 727 . 
Panama («ee also American republics) : 

Automotive traffic, regulation of inter-American, con- 
vention on (1943), ratification, 1159. 
Defense sites agreement (1942), return of bases by U.S., 

in accordance with, 551. 
Disease outbreak, U.S. aid to control, 1067. 
Panama and Central American Affairs, Division of, func- 
tions (D.R. 142.11), 730. 
Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United 
States, 1931, publication of vols. I and II : 982, 1064. 
Paraguay (see also American republics) : 

Civil-aviation convention (1944), ratification, 337. 
Trade agreement, with U.S., signature, 550. 



Paris Peace Conference (July 29-Oct. 15) : 
Addresses and statements by — 

Byrnes, James F., 202, 205, 251, 253, 313, 318, 352, 

496. 739, 749. 
Caffery, Jefferson, 714. 
Clayton, William L., 320. 
Connally, Tom, 570, 708. 
Smith, Walter Bedell, 744. 
Thorp, Willard, 532, 620, 710, 746. 
Vandenberg, Arthur H., 656, 657, 711, 744. 
Committee on Rules of Procedure, meeting of, 2.53, 313. 
Dates of meetings, 107, 222, 330, 406, 491, 572, 661, 7.52. 
Departure of Secretarj' Byrnes from Washington, 202. 
Economic Commission for Balkans and Finland, 656, 

712, 745, 747. 
Economic Commission for Italy, attitude of U.S. on 

reparation from Italy, 532, 710. 
Italian-Yugoslav boundary, and problem of Trieste, 

570, 708. 
Peace treaties discussed : 
Bulgarian, 205, 714. 
Czechoslovak-Hungarian, 744. 
Finnish, 205, 744. 
Hungarian, 205, 744, 746. 
Italian, 205, 710. 
Rumanian, 205, 657, 711. 
Trieste, free territory of, 207, 570, 708. 
Relation to United Nations, discussed in radio broad- 
cast, 206. 
Report by Secretary Byrnes, 739. 
Representation : 

Nations represented, 202 n. 
U.S. delegation, 202. 

World War II veterans, exchange of letters between 
commander in chief (Stack) and President 
Truman expressing views on, 203. 
Voting procedure, 318. 
Parran, Dr. Thomas : 

Appointment as U.S. representative to World Health 

Organization, Interim Commission, 750. 
Departure for World Health Organization meeting, 893. 
Passports : 

Exit permits for U.S. citizens, refusal by — 
Albania, 581, 764. 
Yugoslavia, 232, 761. 
Governmental experts on passport and frontier formali- 
ties. United Nations meeting, dates of, 1000, 1052, 
1100, 1145. 
Immigration visas for : 

Estonian refugees, statements by President Truman, 

826. 914. 
Germans, procedure for furnishing affidavits, 39. 
Passport visa fees for non-immigrants, agreement, 
Albania with U.S. (1926), Albanian refusal to rec- 
ognize, 914. 
Patents outside Germany, German-owned. See Germany. 
Pauley, Edwin W., statements and reports: 
European reparation program and survey of resources 

in Korea and Manchuria, 233. 
Industrial conditions in Manchuria, 1154. 
Japanese reparations program, 9.57, 1058. 
Paxton, J. Robert, designation in State Department, 728. 
Peace (see also Paris Peace Conference) : 
Addresses and remarks, by : Mr. Austin, 16 ; Mr. Benton, 
995 ; Mr. Clayton, 950 ; Mr. Connally, 988 ; Mr. Jack- 
son, 377: Mr. Hilldring, 679: Mr. Mulliken, 1011; 
Mr. Savage, 269; President Truman, 808, 1179. 
Aims, mutual, U.S. and Italy, exchange of notes, 821. 
Radio broadcast, 205. 

Treaties, Allies, with Germany and Austria, discussion 

by Council of Foreign Ministers at New York, 1082. 

Perkins, E. R., review of Papers Relating to the Foreign 

Relations of the United States, 1931, vol. II : 1064. 
Persinger, David, articles on UNRRA : 
Fifth council session, 523. 
Sixth council session, 1032. 



Index, July to December 1946 



Peru {see also American republics) : 

Ambassador to U.S. (Praclo), credentials, 551. 
Cultural leader, visit to U.S., 266. , „ . ^ 

Earthquake areas, inspection by U.S. Ambassador 

(Cooper), 1067. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : „ ^ . 

Air base, with U.S. (1942), implementation of termi- 
nation clause, 866. 
Aviation mission, military, with U.S., signature, 727. 
Civil-aviation convention (1944), ratification, 337. 
Food supply, with U.S. (1948), continuation, 1153. 
Petersen, Howard C. (Assistant Secretary of War) : 
Head of export-import mission to Germany, 726. 
Joint statement with Foreign Liquidation Commissioner 
(McCabe), denying sale of military items to Chma, 
548. 
Petroleum. See Oil. 
Petroleum Association, Independent, Ft. Worth, Texas, 

address by Mr. Rayner, 867. 
Petroleum Production and Refining Committee of ILO, 
dates of proposed meetings, 1052, 1176. 

Alien'^Property Administration, PhUippine, establish- 
ment (Ex. Or. 9789), 826. 
Ambassador to U.S. (Elizalde), credentmls, 284^^ 
Fellowships and travel grants for students in U.S., 430. 
Financial Commission, joint American-Philippine, es- 
tablishment, 921. 
Independence : 
Article by Mr. Mill, 475. 
Messages and statements of President Truman and 

Acting Secretary Acheson, 67, 68. 
Proclamation by President Truman, 66. 
Badio program saluting, 67. 
Merchant marine awards, posthumous, to seamen, 1159. 
National Bank reinstates pre-war deposits of U.S. citi- 
zens, 271. 
Public property, improvement, allocation of U.S. funds 

for, 1190. 
Rehabilitation Act, 478, 964, 1190. 
Training program, U.S. participation, statement by Mr. 

Acheson, 964. 
Treaties, agreements, etc.: 

Air transport, with U.S., signature, 1021. 
Customs preferences, with U.S., replies to U.S. note 
from ■ Belgium, 79 ; Denmark, 596 ; Dominican Re- 
public, 691; Egypt, 431; Ethiopia, 235; Norway, 
88 ; Portugal, 463 ; Spain, 174 ; Yugoslavia, 726. 
Double' taxation, with U.S., negotiations, 1060. 
General relations and protocol, with U.S. : 
Signature and text, 282, 824. 

Transmittal to Senate by President Truman, with 
report by Secretary Byrnes, 282. 
Trade and related matters, as amended, with V.h., 
signature, and proclamation by President Truman, 
1190. 
U.S. Embassy, opening, 184. 
War Damage Commission, 478. 
Physical education, 2d Pan American congress on : 
Agenda, 586. 

Dates of meetings, 572, 628, 662, 720. 
PICAO (Provisional International Civil Aviation Organi- 

Agreement bringing organization into relationship with 
United Nations, discussed in report on 8d session of 
ECOSOC, 933. 

Air Transport Committee, appointment of U.S. repre- 
sentative (David), 897. 

Article by Mr. Norton, 1007. 

Conferences : 

Dates of meetings, for— 

Accident investigation division, 1052, 1100, 114&, 

Aeronautical maps and charts division, 813, 940, 
1100, 1175. 



1220 



PICAO— Continued. 

Conferences — Continued. 

Dates of meetings, for— Continued. 
Airline operating practices division, lOoJ, 1100, 1145, 

1175. 
Airworthiness division, 1052, 1100, 1145, 1175. 
Communication and radio aids to navigation, 534, 

720, 843, 999, 1099, 1144. 
Meteorological protection of international aero- 
nautics, 534, 662, 813, 892, 999. 
Personnel licensing division, 818, 1052, 1175. 
Rules of the air and air traffic control practices, 

534, 720, 843, 1000, 1175. 
Search and rescue, 534, 720, 893, 1000. 
South Pacific regional air-navigation meeting, 1052, 
1100, 1145, 1175. 
Meetings and proceedings — . 

Air navigation committee, special radio technical 

division, 584, 662, 753, 845, 939. 
Caribbean regional air-navigation meeting, 831, 358, 

406, 456, 491, 533, 897. 
Interim Council, 585, 628, 720, 813, 999. 
Middle East regional air-navigation meeting, 534, 

572, 574, 629, 661, 720, 1079. 
North Atlantic Ocean weather observation stations, 

491, 535, 628, 661, 678, 901. 
Radio navigational aids to aviation, demonstrations 
in New York and Indianapolis, 534, 572, 628, 
662, 720, 752. 
Radio navigational aids to aviation, demonstrations 
in United Kingdom, 455, 457, 491, 538, 572, 628, 
661. 
Function of PICAO in air-transport agreements, dis- 
cussed by Mr. Walstrom, 1128. 
Relation to CITEJA, article by Mr. Latchford, 879. 
Plebiscite, Greek, Allied mission to observe, 425. 
Poland : 

Cession of Polish and European territory, discussed by 

Secretary Byrnes, 500. 
Elections in, protests by U.S. on conduct of, 422, 1057. 
Export-Import Bank, arrangements for loan, 835. 
Incident concerning U.S. Ambassador (Lane) : 

Remarks of President of Polish National CouncU 
(P.ierut) concerning Ambassador Lane, state- 
ment by Mr. Acheson, 265. 
Return of Ambassador Lane to U.S. for consultation, 
announcement of, 724. 
Nationalization : 
Industries, 654, 969. 
Nationalization law : 

Article by Mr. Goldenberg and Miss Metzger, 651. 
U.S. position on, 912. 
Newspapers, Polish-American, banned, 1151. 
Repatriation of U.S. citizens from, 1151. 
Restitution of property to U.S. citizens, 969. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Civil-aviation convention (1944), ratification (1945), 

337. 
Economic, with U.S., receipt of text by U.S., 335. 
Sanitary convention concerning maritime travel 
(1926) and sanitary convention for aerial navi- 
gation (1933), as amended (1944), accession to 
protocols prolonging, 337. 
Treaties and agreements with U.S.S.R. in 1945, article 

by Dr. Fisher, 395. 
U.S. Consulate at Krakow, opening, 134. 
U.S. surplus property, resumption of deliveries to, 33. 
Political and Territorial Commission for Italy, remarks 

by Senator Connally, 570. 
Population Commission of ECOSOC, 717, 718, 891, 933, 

1000, 1018, 1100, 1176. 
Population transfer, Czechoslovak-Hungarian negotiations, 

Porter, Paul, appointment as chief of U.S. economic mis 
sion to Greece, ll."""!. 

Department of State Bulletin 



Portugal : 

Commercial agreement with U.S. (1910), Portuguese at- 
titude toward Philippine trade, 463. 
Membership in United Nations, resolution proposed in 
Security Council, 488. 
Postal experts meeting, relation.ship between Universal 
Postal Union and United Nations : 
Agreement discussed, 1055. 
Dates of meetings, 940, 1000, 1144. 
Postal service. See Mail. 
Postal Union, Universal, proposed : 
Congress of, S16. 

Relationship with United Nations, meeting of postal 

experts on question of, 940, 1000, 1055, 1144. 

Postal union convention, universal (1939), adherence by 

Lebanon (1945), and Syria (1946), 552. 
Postal Union of the Americas and Sijain, 5th congress, Rio 
de Janeiro : 
Agenda, 815. 

Dates of meetings, 358, 406, 455, 491, 534, 572, 628. 
U.S. delegation, listed, 361, 815. 
Potsdam agreement, U.S. attitude toward, discussed by 

Secretary Byrnes, 496. 
Prado, Jorge, credentials as Peruvian Ambassador to U.S., 

551. 
Prencinradio, Inc., liquidation of activities (D.R. 193.1), 

731. 
Preparatory Commission of FAO. See Food and Agri- 
culture Organization of United Nations. 
Presentation Division, responsibilities (D.R. 121.11), 517. 
President, U.S. See Truman, Harry S. 
President's Cabinet Committee on Palestine and Related 

Problems. See Cabinet Committee. 
President's Evaluation Commission : 
Membership, 115, 275. 

Reports on Bikini atomic-bomb tests (1st and 2d), 115, 
272, 275. 
Presidential appointments and authentications section of 
Division of Protocol, functions and relation to White 
House and Department units (D.R. 121.10), 516. 
Press (see also Radio) : 

Allied protest to Yugoslav subornation, 410. 

Freedom of, in areas receiving UNRRA aid. House 

amendment regarding, 35. 
Journalists, visit to U.S., from: Czechoslovakia, 281; 

Egypt, 77; Switzerland, 134; U.S.S.R., 124. 
New.spapers, Polish-American, banned from Poland, 

1150. 
U.S. information service, 637, 673. 
Preu, Fred L., article on Fifth Council Session of UNKRA, 

248. 
Pridi Banomyong (ex-Prime Minister of Siam), visit to 

U.S., 1113. 
Prisoners of war (see also Displaced persons) : 

Claims of U.S. nationals against enemy countries for 

labor performed as, 427. 
Repatriation of, U.S. position on, statement by Secretary 
Byrnes, 1106. 
Proclaimed List of Certain Blocked Nationals : 
History and scope, 113. 
Withdrawal, 112. 
Property (see also Surplus war property) : 
Alien Property Custodian, termination (Ex. Or. 9788), 

828. 
Allied looted property in Japan, restitution, policy of 

Far Eastern Commission, 163. 
Artistic and historic monuments in Europe, conserva- 
tion, functions of former commission assumed by 
State Department, 385. 
Copyright protection, inter-American convention on, 29. 
German, in — 
Austria, 123. 

Sweden, 29, 64, 107, 162, 174. 
U.S. (diplomatic), 237. 



Property — Continued. 

German external property negotiations with Portugal 
and Spain, dates of meetings, 572, 813, 1051, 1099, 
1144, 1175. 

Greek as.sets in U.S., unblocking, 426. 

Hungarian, in U.S. zones of Austria and Germany, 230, 
265, 747. 

Japanese (diplomatic), in U.S., 237. 

Philippine, Alien Property Administration, establish- 
ment (Ex. Or. 9789), 826. 

Transfer of assets from International Institute of Agri- 
culture at Rome to FAO, 514. 

United Nations nationals, in Rumania, investigations on, 
620. 

U.S., in other countries. See Protection of U.S. na- 



Protection, juridical, agreement with Yemen concerning, 

signature, 94. 
Protection of U.S. nationals and property (see also United 
States citizens) : 
Belgium, claims for damage in, 336. 
China , instructions for filing claims, 965. 
Czechoslovakia, claims for nationalized property in, 915, 

1003, 1005, 1027, 1108. 
Enemy countries, 427. 
France, tax on, 914. 
Italy, Bulgaria, Rumania, and Hungary, procedure for 

filing war-damage claims, 179. 
Japanese enterprises, protection for investments in, 271. 
Philippine National Bank, reinstatement of pre-war de- 
posits, 271. 
Poland, restitution, 969. 
Yugoslavia : 

Attack on plane and detention of personnel, 415, 501, 

504, 544, 725. 
Claims in, instructions for filing, 544, 1150. 
Slave labor in, 761. 
Protection of Yugoslav persons and property in Venezia 
Giulia, U.S. replv to alleged improper treatment by 
Allied military police, 579. 
Protocol, Uiwsidii of, functions (D.R. 121.10), 516. 
Provisional International Civil Aviation Organization. 

See PICAO. 
Provisional Maritime Consultative Council. Sec Maritime 

Consultative Council. 
Public Affairs, Office of, functions and organization (D.R. 

132.20), 728. 
Public Liaison, Division of, functions and organization 

(D.R. 132.21), 728. 
Public Studies, Division of, functions and organization 

(D.R. 132.22), 729. 
Publications : 

Agriculture in the Americas, 411, 915. 

Foreign Agriculture, 544. 

Foreign Commerce Weekly, 42, 134, 387, 647, 963. 

Foreign Relations of the United States (1931), vols. I 

and II : 982, 1064. 
Inter-American Conference of Experts on Copyright, 

proceedings, 721. 
International Bank and Fund, 707. 
Lists : 

Congress, U.S., 43, 79, 134, 190, 239, 287, 338, 519, 558, 

921. 
State Department, 601, 922, 1193. 
Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression, vols. Ill, IV, V, VI, 

VII : 364 n., 379, 604, 870, 969, 1114. 
Pan American tfnion, 727. 
State Department: 

Amerika Illustrated, distribution in U.S.S.R., 513. 
P.ui.LicTiN, subscription price increased, 970, 1149, 1192. 
German documents. See German Documents. 
International Control of Atomic Energy, 1091. 
Report of the Mission on Japanese Combines, Part 

I, 1023. 
United States and Italy, 1936-1946: Documentary 
Record, 1109. 



Index, July to December 1946 



Publications- — Continued. 

State Department — Continued. 

United States Economic Policy Toward Germany, 
1022. 

U.S. Import Duties, June 1946: 725. 
UNRRA, 287. 
Publications, Chief of Division of, designation on National 

Historical Publications Commission (D.R. 185.1), 

119.5. 
Publications. Division of, functions and organization 

(D.R. 132.24), 729. 
Publications Commission, National Historical (D.R. 

185.1), 1195 
Puerto Cortes, Honduras, closing of U.S. Consulate, 

1158. 
Puerto la Ciniz, Venezuela, change of name of U.S. Con- 
sulate at, 190. 
Punta Arenas, Chile, closing of U.S. Vice Consulate, 1158. 

Quinine, international industrial control of, article by Mr. 

Rudolph, 831. 
Quislings, problem of, in repatriation, discussed by Mrs. 

Roosevelt, 937. 

Radio: 
Air navigation committee of PICAO, special radio 
technical division, meetings and proceedings, 534, 
662, 753, 845, 939. 
Algiers radio transmitters, U.S.-French arrangement 

on use of, conversations regarding, 507. 
Conferences. See Broadcasting conferences; Moscow 

conference. 
Office of International Information and Cultural Af- 
fairs, consolidation of New York and San Francisco 
radio operations, 179. 
Prencinradio, Inc., liquidation (D.R. 193.1), 731. 
Registration of U.S. frequencies with I.T.U. resumed, 
581. 
Radio broadcasts, State Department : 

Broadcasts, addresses, and statements of the weeli, 
listed, 332, 431, 465, 495, 538, 691, 779, 915, 965, 1010, 
1039, 1115, 1159, 1191. 
General Assembly, welcome to representatives by Under 

Secretary Aeheson, 750. 
Paris conference of Foreign Ministers, report by Secre- 
tary Byrnes, 167. 
Paris Peace Conference, report by Secretary Byrnes, 

739. 
Peace in Eurojje, 205. 

Philippine independence, program saluting, 67. 
Philippine rehabilitation, 691. 
Short-wave : 
Facilities for United Nations broadcasts, 751. 
Opening of relay point at Munich, Germany, 1187. 
"United Nations Review", digest of proceedings of 
General Assembly, 751. 
Radio navigational aids to aviation: 
Article by Mr. Amriue, 1130. 

Demonstrations In New York and Indianapolis: 
Announcement, 662. 

Dates of meetings, 534, 572, 628, 720, 752. 
Demonstrations in U.K. : 

Dates of meetings, 455, 491, 533, 572, 628, 661. 
Plans, 457. 

U.S. representation, 458. 
Radiology, inter-American congress of (2d), dates of 

meetings, 721, 753, 814, 844, 893, 939. 
Ralea, Mihail, credentials as Rumanian minister to U S . 

657. 
Raw materials (see also Rubber; Wool), supply, in- 
equality of, discussed by Mr. Thorp, 1110. 
Ray, Guy W., designation in State Department, 516. 
Rayner, Charles, address on Anglo-American oil policy, 

8G7. 
Reciprocal aid. See Lend-lease. 

Reciprocity Information, Committee for, public notice on 
trade-agreement negotiations, 909. 



Reconstruction, international, financing of, appointment of 
committee by President Truman to make report and 
recommendations on, 33. 

Reference Division (D.R. 133.32), 468. 

Refugee Organization, International (IRQ), proposed: 



Meeting of Committee on Finances to 
Remarks by Mr. Mulliken, 1019. 
Draft agreement, discussed by Miss Biehle, 1148. 
Establishment of: 

Action by ECOSOC, 323, 715, 932. 
Remarks by Mrs. Roosevelt at General Assembly, 
935. 
Transfer of UNRRA functions to : 
Article by Mr. Persinger, 1032. 

Joint UNRRA-United Nations Planning Commission, 
meeting of, 260. 
Refugees, Intergovernmental Committee on. See Inter- 
governmental Committee on Refugees. 
Refugees and displaced persons. See Displaced persons. 
Rehabilitation. See Relief. 
Rehabilitation Act, Philippine, 478, 964, 1190. 
Reiff, Henry, articles on work of legal committees of 

United Nations, 3, 302, 343. 
Relief and rehabilitation (.see also Displaced persons; 
Food; UNRRA) : 
China, aid from U.S., 34, 1179. 
Gern)any, comments on address by Dr. van KlefEens 

regarding U.S. position toward, 1184. 
Hungary, tripartite aid in, 229, 231, 263, 638. 
Relief effort, 1947, international cooperation in, ad- 
dress by Mr. Wood, 1059. 
Reorganization of Foreign Service, provision for, 387. 
Reparation : 

Agreement on, establishment of Tripartite Commission 
for Restitution of Monetary Gold to implement, 563. 
Bulgarian, discussed by Mr. Caffery at Paris Peace Con- 
ference, 714. 
Finnish, reduction in, proposal by U.S. delegate (Van- 
denberg), at Paris Peace Conference, 744. 



Discussed by Secretary Byrnes, 497. 
Program in Germany, statement by Mr. Pauley, 233. 
Transfer of assets in Austria to U.S.S.R., issuance of 
order regarding, 123 n. 
Hungarian : 
Exchange of notes between U.S. and U.S.S.R., 229, 

263, 638. 
Proposal by U.S. delegate (Vandenberg), at Paris 

Peace Conference, 746. 
Report of Himgarian Finance Minister, 231. 
Italian : 
Decision of Foreign Ministers regarding, 169. 
Statement by Mr. Thorp regarding U.S. attitude, 532. 
Japanese (see also Far Eastern Commission) : 
Report of U.S. mission on, by Mr. Pauley, 957. 
U.S. position on, statement by Acting Secretary Ache- 
son, 1058. 
Payment to U.S., federal regulation authorizing Direc- 
tor of Office of Economic Security Policy to accept, 
873. 
Reparation funds for non-reiwtriable victims of German 
action : 
Agreement concerning, text, 71. 
Article by Dr. Ginzberg, 56. 
Soviet removal policy in Manchuria and Korea, state- 
ment by Mr. Pauley, 233. 
Reparation Agency, Inter-Allied. See Inter-Allied Repa- 
ration Agency. 
Repatriation. See Displaced persons ; Intergovernmental 

Committee on Refugees ; Refugee Organization. 
Report of the Mission on Japanese Combines, Part I: 

1023. 
Research and Intelligence, Special Assistant to Secretary 
for, position and functions (D.R. 133.1), 465. 



1222 



Department of State Bulletin 



Research for American Republics, Division of, functions 
and responsibilities in Office of American Republic 
Affairs (D.R. 142.10), 470. 
Researcli for Europe, Division of, responsibilities in Of- 
fice of European Affairs (D.R. 141.30), 469. 
Research for Far East, Division of, responsibilities in 

Office of Far Eastern Affairs (D.R. 141.20), 469. 
Research for Near East and Africa, Division of, respon- 
sibilities in Office of Near Eastern and African Af- 
fairs (DR. 141.10), 468. 
Resource conservation and utilization, conference on, 
proposed : 
Action on, at 3d session of ECOSOC, 933. 
Draft resolution submitted by U.S., 623. 
Letter from President Truman to U.S. representative 
(Winant) with outline of proposed program, 624. 
Letter from U.S. representative (Winant) to Acting 
President of ECOSOC (Stampar), 623. 
Rice, Stuart A., appointment as U.S. member of Statistical 

Commission of ECOSOC, 891. 
Rights and duties of American States to their Govern- 
ments, PAU approval of draft declaration, 188. 
Ringwalt, Arthur R., designation in State Department, 728. 
Robertson, Major General, letters to Colonel General Biry- 

usov, regarding free elections in Bulgaria, 820, 821. 
Robinson, Hamilton, designation in State Department, 

1023. 
Rocha, Antonio, election as chairman of Pan American 

Union Governing Board, 921. 
Roosevelt, Mrs. Franljlin D. : 

Delegate to United Nations, appointments, 221, 891. 
Statement on U.S. position on IRO, 935. 
Ross, Murray, article on industrial committees of ILO, 

447. 
Rubber : 

Agreement, between U.S.. Argentina, and Brazil (1945), 

cancellation, 514, 827. 
Inter- Agency Policy Committee on : 
Purpose of, 700. 

Third meeting, proceedings, 1054. 
National program on, article by Mr, Bramble, 700. 
Reparations removal program, interim, for Japan, 629. 
Rubber Study Group, 3d meeting : 

Dates of meetings, 814, 844, 893, 940, 999. 
Delegations, listed, 1054. 
U.S. Delegate (Kennedy) and advisers, 895. 
Rudolph, Walter M., article on international industrial 

control of quinine, 831. 
Rumania : 

Balkan Economic Commission, remarks by Senator Van- 

deuberg at Paris Peace Conference, 712. 
Elections, U.S. protests on conduct of, 851, 967, 1057. 
Minister to U.S. (Ralea), credentials, 657. 
Peace treaty, with Allies : 

Action of Council of Foreign Ministers on, 755. 
Radio broadcast, 205. 

Remarks by Senator Vandenberg at Paris Peace Con- 
ference, 657, 711. 
Treaties and agreements with U.S.S.R. In 1945, article 

by Dr. Fisher, 396. 
United Nations property In, investigations on, remarks 

by Mr. Thorp, 620. 
War-damage claims of U.S. nationals, procedure for 
filing. 179. 
Rush-Bagot agi-eement, U.S. and Canada (1817), inter- 
pretation, e.xchange of notes, 11.52. 
Russell, Donald R. : 
Address on foreign service of tomorrow, 947. 
Appointment, chairman. Board of Foreign Service, 971. 
Inspection trip of Foreign Service installations in 
Europe, 39. 
Russell, Francis H. : 

Address on democracy, 509. 
Designation in State Department, 728. 



Safety of life at sea (1929), international convention, dis- 
cussed by Mr. Clayton, 816. 
San Sebastian, Spain, closing of U.S. Consulate, 812. 
Sanitary Bureau, Pan American, privileges, exemptions, 
and immunities under International Organizations 
Immunities Act (Ex. Or. 9751), 108. 
Sanitary conference, Pan American (12th), dates of pro- 
posed meetings, 814, 940, 1175. 
Sanitary convention concerning maritime travel (1926), 
as amended (1944), accession by Denmark and Syria, 
1022. 
Sanitary convention concerning maritime travel (1926), 
as amended (1944), protocol prolonging: 
Accession by Denmark and Syria, 1022. 
Accessions, signatures, and ratifications, listed, 337. 
Ratification by U.S., 337. 
Status (table), 1158. 

Transfer to World Health Organization of functions 
entrusted to UNRRA under, 842, 1156. 
Sanitary convention for aerial navigation (1933), as 
amended (1944) : 
Dominican Republic, adherence, 552. 
Syria, accession, 1022. 
Sanitary convention for aerial navigation (1933) as 
amended ( 1944 ) , protocol prolonging : 
Accession by Syria, 1022. 

Accessions, signatures, and ratifications, listed, 337. 
Ratification by U.S., 337. 
Status (table), 1158. 

Transfer to World Health Organization of functions 
entrusted to UNBRA under, 842, 1156. 
Sanitary education. Pan American (2d), dates of pro- 
posed meetings, 814, 940, 1175. 
Saudi Arabia, exchange of letters between Abdul Aziz 

and President Truman, on Palestine problem, 848. 
Savage, Carlton, address on U.S. position in the world 

today, 269. 
SCAP (Supreme Commander for Allied Powers) : 
Allied occupation of Japan, report of 1st year, 460. 
Cooperation with Allied Council for Japan, 382. 
General Headquarters, reports, 127, 385, 460, 578, 873. 
Inter-Allied Trade Board for Japan, relation to, 754. 
Liaison policy of Far Eastern Commission, 164. 
Non-military activities in Japan, reports of General 
Headquarters : 
Brief summaries, 385, 460, 578, 873. 
Summary for May 1946 : 127. 
Policy toward Zaibatsu dissolution, 823. 
Schurz, William, designation in State Department, 42. 
Scientific and cultural cooperation program of State De- 
Ijartment, discussed in address by Mr. Benton, 671. 
Scientific groups, government's role in assisting inter- 
national cooperation, address by Mr. Zwemer, 545. 
Scientific Unions, International Council of, dates of meet- 
ing of General Assembly, 29, 64, 107, 162. 
Sebrin.i;, Harold L., appointnieut as U.S. member of Mili- 
tary Tribunal in Germany, 1187. 
Secretariat of United Nations, relations with proposed 

Atomic Development Authority, 106. 
Secretary of State (arr nlxo Byrni^s, James F.), control 
of German and Japanese dipomatic property in U.S., 
authorization (Ex. Or. 9760), 237. 
Securities. See Property. 
Security Council of United Nations: 
Access of non-member states to International Court of 
Justice, question of: 
Attitude of Department of State, 327. 
Definition of conditions for access, 530. 
Admission of new members: 

Proposed resolution by U.S. deputy representative 

(Johnson), 487. 
Question of Albania and Outer Mongolia, 487. 
Summary of rules concerning, by Secretary-General 
(Lie), 1172. 
Border violations, dispute between Greece and Albania, 
Bulgaria, and Yugoslavia. See Greek question 
infra. 



Index, July to December 1946 



Security Council of United Nations — Continued. 
Dates of meetings, 29, 330, 572, 843, 1175. 

• Greek question : 

Commission of investigation on border violations : 
Establishment of, resolution proposed for, 1172. 
U.S. representative (Etheridge), 1172 n. 

Statement by U.S. representative (Johnson), 1171. 

Summary statements by Secretary-General (Lie), 531, 
660, 1173. 

• Iranian case, summary statements by Secretary-General 

(Lie), 528, 1172. 
Relations with proposed Atomic Development Authority, 

104. 
Rules of procedure, summary statement by Secretary- 
General (Lie), .530. 
Spanish situation (see also General Assembly), sum- 
mary statement by Secretary -General (Lie), 528. 
Status of matters under consideration, summary state- 
ments by Secretary-General (Lie), 528, 660. 1172. 
. Veto power in Council : 

Letter from Australian Minister of External Affairs 

to Secretary-General (Lie), 256 n. 
Statement by Senator Connally, 987. 
Senate confirmations of U.S. representatives. See Foreign 

Service. 
Shanghai, Information for U.S. businessmen on conditions 

in, 334. 
Shipping {see also Maritime; Vessels) : 
Danubian traffic, 230, 656, 658, 711. 
Priority for grain export, 1058. 

Vessels in the Straits, principles governing transit and 
navigation. See Montreux convention. 
Shipping Division (D.R. 131.12), redesignation, 1023. 
Shoemaker, T. B., report to President Ti-uman on arrival 

In U.S. of displaced persons, 381. 
Short-wave broadcasting. See Radio. 
Slam: 
Lend-lease from U.S., 196. 
Mineral resources In, invitation to U.S. capital for 

development, 550. 
Tin negotiations, with U.S., Australia, and U.K., con- 
clusion, 1186. 
Visit to U.S. of ex-Prime Minister (PridI Banom.vong), 
1113. 
Sick, convention for amelioration of condition of (1929), 

adherence by Lebanon and Syria, 553. 
Slave labor, U.S., in Yugoslavia, condemnation by U.S., 

761. 
Smith, Bromley K, designation in State Department, 971. 
Smith, H. Gerald, designation in State Department, 1115. 
Smith. W. Bedell (Ambassador to U.S.S.R.) : 
Letter to Mr. Molotov, requesting action to halt Hun- 
garian economic disintegration, 229. 
Remarks at Paris Peace Conference, on Czechoslovak- 
Hungarian treaty, 744. 
Snyder, John W. : 

International Bank for Reconstruction and Develop- 
ment and International Monetary Fund, appoint- 
ment as U.S. Governor for, 65. 
Par value of U.S. dollar, letter to Managing Director 

of International Monetary Fund (Gutt), 576. 

U.S. food shipments abroad, report to the President, 31. 

Social Commission of ECOSOC, 718, 891, 1000, 1017, 1100, 

1176. 
Social policy in dependent areas. President Truman's 
message to Congress, transmitting ILO recommenda- 
tions, 235. 
Social security, inter-American committee on, meeting of 
medical and statistical commissions : 
Announcement, 1176. 
Dates of meetings, 893, 1052, 1145. 
Social Studies, National Council for, Boston, Mass., ad- 
dress by Mr. Heindel, 1062. 
Social work, Kentucky conference of, Louisville, Ky., 

address by Mr. Mulliken, 1011. 
South Africa. See Union of South Africa. 



South America. See American republics, and the indi- 
vidual countries. 
Sovereignty, change of, in Europe, discussed by Secretary 

Byrnes, 500. 
Soviet-American Commission, Joint, resumption of dis- 
cussions proposed by Mr. Acheson, 670. 
Soviet Union. See Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. 
Spaeth, Carl B., designation in State Department, 1115. 
Spain : 

Closing of U.S. Con.sulate at San Sebastifln, 812. 
Customs preference, agreement between U.S. and Philip- 
pines, Spanish attitude toward, 174. 
FAO, application for membership, 3-57. 
Franco regime, position of United Nations regarding: 
Resolutions adopted by General Assembly, 108.'i, 1143. 
Summary statements by Secretary -General (Lie) at 
Security Council, 528. 
Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, 5th congress, 
358, 361, 406, 455, 491, 534, 572, 628, 815. 
Spiegel, Harold R., designation in State Department, 971. 
Stack, Joseph M., exchange of letters with President Tni- 
man, regarding representation of World War II vet- 
erans at Paris Peace Conference, 203. 
State Department (see also Departmental regulations; 
Executive orders; Radio broadcasts) : 
Joint statement with War and Navy Departments, on 
claims of U.S. nationals against enemy countries, 
427. 
National War College, joint arrangement, with War and 
Navy Departments, and U.S. Foreign Service, 515, 
837, 949. 
Outline of present organization, discussed by Mr. Hen- 
derson, 591. 
Participation in interdepartmental intelligence activi- 
ties (D.R. 182.4), 471. 
Public notices on trade-agreement negotiations, 909. 
Publications. See Publications. 
Radio broadcasts. See Radio broadcasts. 
Under Secretary of State for Economic Affairs, Office of : 
Appointment of Mr. Clayton as Under Secretary, 338. 
Establishment, 387. 
State- War-Navy Coordinating Committee, functions: 
Article by Mrs. Cassidy, 292. 
Article by Mr. Hilldring, 47. 
Statements, addresses, and broadcasts of the week, listed, 
332, 431, 465, 495, 538, 691, 779, 915, 965, 1010, 1039, 
1115, 11.59, 1191. 
Statistical Commission of ECOSOC, 718, 814, 891, 1062, 

1176. 
Statistical Division of United Nations, transfer of League 

of Nations activities to, 258. 
Statistical Institute, Inter-American, privileges, exemp- 
tions, and immunities under International Organiza- 
tions Immunities Act (Ex. Or. 9751), 108. 
Stepinac, Archbishop, trial and conviction in Yugoslavia, 

statement by Mr. Acheson, 725. 
Stevens, Arthur G.. designation in State Department, 516. 
Stevenson, Adlai E., appointment as U.S. alternate to 

General Assembly, 221. 
Stillwell, James A., article on U.S. interests in world food 

problem, 927. 
Stiiiebower, Lerov D., designation in State Department, 

338. 
Straits convention. See Montreux convention of the 

Straits. 
Strasbourg, France, opening of U.S. Consulate, 239. 
Strategic and critical materials stockpiling act, statement 

by President Truman on signing, 234. 
Sluart, J. Leighton: 

Appointment as U.S. Ambassador to China, 134. 
Joint statements with General Marshall, regarding con- 
ditions in China, 384, 723. 
Statement on anniversary of Chinese national holiday 
(85th), 724. 
Stuttgart, Germany, address by Secretary Byrnes on U.S. 
policy on Germany, 496. 



Department of State Bulletin 



Subscription price, State Department Buiij;TiN, increased, 

970, 1149, 1192. 
Sugar Council, international meeting of, dates of, 29, 64, 

107, 162, 222. 
Supreme Commander for Allied Powers. See SCAP. 
Surplus war property, disposal : 
Agreements {gee also Lend-lease), U.S. and — 
Brazil, signature and text, 185. 
China : 

Signature, 548. 

Statement by President Truman, 1181. 
Poland, arrangements for deliveries to, 33, 335. 
Foreign Liquidation Commis-sioner, function of. See 

Foreign Liquidation Commissioner. 
Goods sent to Siam, 196. 
Provisions of Philippine Rehabilitation Act regarding, 

article by Mr. Mill, 478. 
Reports (2d and 3d), transmittal to Congress, 247, 968. 
Sale of military items to China, joint denial by Assistant 
Secretary of War Petersen and Foreign Liquidation 
Commissioner (McCabe), 548. 
Sale of 90 planes to Sweden, 865. 

Sales for educational pui-poses (Fulbright bill), state- 
ment by Mr. Benton, 262. 
Sales to Japan, statement by Mr. McCabe answering 

charges of irregularities in, 463. 
Statement by Mr. Clayton, ,556. 
Transfer of LST vessel to Venezuela, 1071. 
Swearingen, Victor C, appointment as alternate U.S. mem- 
ber of Military Tribunal in Germany, 1187. 
Sweden : 
Civil aviation convention (1944), ratification, 970. 
Membership in United Nations, resolution proposed in 

Security Council, 488. 
Negotiations with Allies on German external assets in, 

29, 64, 107, 162, 174. 
Purchase of U.S. surplus planes, 865. 
Special courses for U.S. students at University of Stock- 
holm, 430. 
Trade agreement with U.S.S.R., attitude of U.S., 464, 

506. 
U.S. Consulate at Goteborg, elevation to rank of Con- 
sulate General, 285. 
U.S. Minister (Dreyfus), appointment, 285. 
Swihart, James W., designation in State Department, 287. 
Switzerland : 
Journalists, visit to U.S., 134. 
Membership in FAO, application for, 357. 
SWNCC. See State-War-Navy Coordinating Committee. 
Syria : 
Minister to U.S. (Zurayk), credentials, 1114. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Postal union convention, universal (1939), adher- 
ence, 552. 
Sanitary convention (1926) and sanitary convention 
for aerial navigation (1933), as amended (1944), 
and protocols of 1946, accession, 1022. 
Wounded and sick, amelioration of condition of 
(1929), adherence, 553. 

Taipei, Taiwan (Formosa), opening of U.S. Consulate, 285. 
Tapachula, Mexico, closing of U.S. Consulate, 42. 
Tariff: 

Policy toward Philippines, replies to U.S. note, from: 
Belgium, 79; Denmark, 596; Dominican Republic, 
691 ; Egypt, 431 ; Ethiopia, 235 ; Norway, 38 ; Portu- 
gal, 4&3 ; Spain, 174 ; Yugoslavia, 726. 
Preferences, reduction of, question of, 1188. 
Tax, property. See Property. 
Taxation. See Double taxation. 

Taxation of aliens, Japanese, policy of Far Eastern Com- 
mission regarding, 162. 
Taylor, Myron C, return to Vatican as Personal Repre- 
sentative of President Truman, 1020. 



Telecommunications (see also Radio) : 
Aeronautical, PICAO recommendations o 

by Mr. Gilbert, 1080. 
Algiers radio transmitters, U.S.-French arrangement on 

use of, conversations regarding, 507. 
Conferences : 
Five-power, preliminary, at Moscow. See Moscow con- 
ference. 
World plenipotentiary, in U.S. : 
Invitation, 632. 
Plans, 363. 
Nationalization of, in United Kingdom, discussed in 

article by Mr. Tobin, 618. 
Telecommunications convention, international (1932), 
and Cairo regulations (1938) , adherence by Lebanon, 
552. 
Telecommunications Advisory Committee of United Na- 
tions, dates of meetings, 844, 939, 1051, 1175. 
Telecommunications Division (D.R. 131.13), redesignation 

1023. 
Telecommunications Union, International : 
Background, 944. 

Invitation to members to meet in U.S., 632. 
Registration of U.S. frequencies resumed, 581. 
Telegraph Consulting Committee, International, meeting: 
Dates of meetings, 753, 814, 843. 
U.S. observers, listed, 846. 
Terrill, Robert P., designation in State Department, 873. 
Territory violations, alleged, U.S. replies to Yugoslav pro- 
tests, 414, 415, 501. 
Textiles, ILO Industrial Committee on, meeting: 
Dates of meetings, 629, 721, 814, 892, 999. 
Proceedings, 1053. 
U.S. delegation, 846, 942. 
Thompson, E. Bigelow, appointment as public-afCairs officer 

in Yugoslavia, 190. 
Thompson, Llewellyn E., designation in State Department, 

Thompson, Louis F., designation in State Department, 

1159, 
Thomson, Charles A., designation in State Department, 

728. 
Thorp, Willard L. : 

Address on world trade, 1110. 
Designation in State Department, 1115. 
Remarks at Paris Peace Conference, on — 
Hungarian reparation, reduction, 746. 
Italian peace treaty, 532, 710. 

United Nations property in Rumania, investigations, 
620. 
Thurston, Ray L., article on India, 20. 
Thurston, Walter, appointment as U.S. special Ambassador 

to Mexican presidential inauguration, 919. 
Timberlake, Clare H., designation in State Department, 

873. 
Tin: 

Article by Mr. Barnet, 195. 
Conference on : 

Dates of meetings, 534, 572, 628, 662. 
Purpose, 538. 

U.S. delegation, listed, 663. 
Procurement from Siam, quadripartite negotiations, 

1186. 
Tin Committee, Combined, membership and scope, 195, 
663, 1186. 
Tirana, Albania, closing of U.S. Mission, 1001. 
Tittmann, Harold H., Jr., appointment as U.S. Ambassador 

to Haiti, 134. 
Tobacco, increased exports from Greece to U.S., discus- 
sions regarding, 426. 
Tobin, Irwin M., article on nationalization in Great Brit- 
ain, 615. 
Tourist conference, Caribbean. See Caribbean tourist con- 
ference. 
Tourist Development Association, Caribbean, certificate of 
incorporation, text, 736. 



Index, July to December 1946 



1225 



Tourist organizations conference, international: 

Agenda, 537. 

Dates of meetings, 534, 572, 628, 602. 

Results, 896. 

U.S. representatives, 537. 
Town planning. See Housing and town planning. 
Trade, international : 

Anglo-American oil policy, address by Mr. Rayner, 867. 

Barriers, address by Mr. Wilcox, 758. 

Blocked Nationals, Proclaimed List, withdrawal, 112. 

Committee for Financing Foreign Trade, functions, 
statement by chairman (Aldrich), 111. 

Conference, plans for, and meeting of preparatory com- 
mittee, 323, 506, 534, 628, 664, 754, 813, 999, 1055, 
1056, 1188. 

Export-import mission to Germany, 726. 

Inter-Allied Trade Board for Japan, 753, 939, 1051, 1175. 

Inter-American trade, addresses by Mr. Braden, 539, 777. 

International Trade Organization, proposed, 506, 585, 
642, 757, 1000, 1100, 1112, 1176. 

Limitation quotas on Canadian furs, denial of rumor, 
1114. 

Oil, address by Mr. Loftus, 276. 

Quinine, industrial control of, article by Mr. 



Return to private channels, appointment of committee 

to make report and recommendations on, 33. 
Strategic and critical materials stockpiling act, state- 
ment by President Truman on signing, 234. 
Trade-agreement program of U.S., summary of informa- 
tion related to, 907, 909. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. (see also Treaties) : 
Sweden and U.S.S.R., attitude of U.S., 464, 506. 
U.S. and: Belgo-Luxembourg Economic Union, 79; 
Cuba, 1188 ; Czechoslovakia, 1004 ; Paraguay, 550 ; 
Philippines, 1190; Turkey, 791, 807; U.K., 109, 
110, 172, 173. 
U.S. policy: 

Addresses and statements by : Mr. Clayton, 9.51 ; Mr. 
Rayner, 867 ; Mr. Thorp, 1110 ; Mr. Vincent, 959 ; 
Mr. Wilcox, 640. 
Trade-agreement program : 
Announcement by Acting Seci'etary of State, 907. 
Public notice of Committee for Reciprocity Informa- 
tion, 909. 
Public notice of State Department, 909. 
Statement by President Ti-uman, 909. 
Trade Act of 1946, bv Philippine, provisions, discussed in 

article by Mr. Mill, 478. 
Trade and employment conference, proposed : 
Plans, .506, 75-1, 1188. 
Preparatory committee: 

Dates of meetings, 534, 628, Sl.S, 999. 
Establishment by BCOSOC, 323. 
Resolution on Interim Commodity Committee, 1055. 
Statement by Mr. Wilcox at final plenary session, 

1056. 
U.S. delegation, listed, 664. 
Trade Organization, International : 
Addresses bv Mr. Wilcox, 642, 757. 
Article by Mr. Thorp, 1112. 
Charter, text of draft and foreword by Under Secretary 

for Economic Affairs, 585. 
Conformance of Sweden, U. S. note regarding, 506. 
Drafting Committee (ECOSOC), tentative dates of 
meetings 1000, 1100, 1176. 
Trade-unions, Japanese, adoption of principles for, by Far 

Eastern Commission, 1177. 
Traffic, Danubian. See Danube. 
Training Services, Division of: 

Appointment of chief (Maddox), 135. 

Budget preparation, course in, 43. 

Clerical training opportunities, 2S8, 432. 

Foreign Service officer training, 43. 

Motion picture series, 520. 

Orientation conferences, 339, 388, 472, 520, 559. 



Training Services, Division of — Continued. 

Work of Division, 600. 
Trans-Jordan, membership in United Nations, resolution 

proposed in Security Council, 488. 
Transport and Communications Commission of ECOSOC, 

718, 891, 1052, 1100, 1176. 
Transportation : 

Danube, international traffic on the, 230, 056, 658, 711, 

716, 986, 987. 
European Central Inland Transport Organization 

(BCITO), 180, 246, 1100, 1145, 1175. 
Institute of Inter-American transportation, liquidation 

(D.R. 193.1), 731. 
Priority for grain export, 1058. 
Transportation Act (1940), U.S. policy on International 

civil air rights, 1007. 
U.S. traffic on Alaska Highway authorized, 918. 
Transtrum, O. H., designation in State Department, 516. 
Travel. See Tourist. 
Travel grants : 

State Department program, article by Mr. Espinosa, 91. 
Study in other American republics for U.S. students, 

873, 1010, 1189. 
Study in U.S. for students from — 
Near East and Far East, 429, 550. 
Philippines, 430. 
Travel information on conditions in: 
Netherlands East Indies, 550. 
Shanghai, 334. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Agriculture, Rome convention on International Insti- 
tute of (1905), termination, and transfer of func- 
tions to PAO, 74, 362, 514. 
Albania, bilateral treaties with U.S., Albanian refusal 

to recognize, 913. 
Allied Commission for Austria, establishment of, agree- 
ment between U.S., U.K., U.S.S.R., and France, 
text, 175. 
Atomic Development Authority, treaty for creation of, 

proposed, 96. 
Automotive traffic, inter-American, convention on regu- 
lation (1943) : 
Advice and consent to ratification by Senate, 338. 
Proclamation by President Truman, 1021. 
Ratifications by- 
Panama, 1159. 
United State.?, 426. 
Status, 1021. 
Aviation : 

Agreements, bilateral, concluded by U.S., article by 

Mr. Walstrom, 1126. 
Agreements not formulated into treaties, validity of, 
letter of Attorney General Clark to Secretary 
Byrnes, 1070. 
Air base (El Pato), with Peru (1942), implementation 

of termination clause, 866. 
Air-services agreement, with Mexico (1946), discus- 
sions on, 29, 64, 107, 162, 222, 261. 
Air transport (1946), U.S. with: Argentina, negotia- 
tions, 514, 682 ; Australia, signature, 1113 ; BrazU, 
signature, 556; Canada (1945), proposed revision, 
1149 ; India, signature and summary, 966 ; Le- 
banon, signature, 408; New Zealand, signature, 
1113; Philippines, signature, 1021; Uruguay, 
signature, 1189. 
Chicago aviation agreements: 
Air services transit (1944) : 
Acceptance by Argentina and Mexico, 78. 
Incorporation of "Five Freedoms", 1008. 
Status, 1008. 
Air transport (1944) : 
Acceptance by Iran, 970. 

Denunciation by Dominican Republic and Nica- 
ragua, 970. 
Incorporation of "Five Freedoms", 1008. 
Status, 970, 1008. 



Department of State Bulletin 



Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued. 
Aviation — Continued. 

Cliicago aviation agreements — Continued. 
Air transport (1944) — Continued. 

Withdrawal by U.S., 23G, 1008. 
Convention (1944) : 
Adherence by Argentina, 78, 337, 970. 
Ratification: Brazil, 337; Canada, 337; China, 
337; Dominican Republic, 337; Ireland, 970; 
Mexico, 78, 337 ; Nicaragua ( 1945) , 337 ; Para- 
guay, 337; Peru, 337; Poland (1945), 337; 
Sweden, 970; Turkey (1945), 337; U.S., 337. 
Status, 970. 
Interim agreement (1944) : 

Acceptance by Argentina and Bolivia, 78. 
Withdrawal of reservation with respect to Den- 
marlv : by India, 337 ; by New Zealand, 78. 
Status as of Oct. 2, 1946 : 688. 
Defense agreement, with Iceland (1911), termination, 

583, 826. 
Military aviation mission, with Peru, signature, 727. 
Ocean weather stations in North Atlantic, operation 

of, conclusion of multilateral agreement, 678. 
Sanitary convention for aerial navigation. See Sani- 
tary convention infra. 
Bizonal arrangements for Germany, with U.K. : 
Discussions and statements, 266, 910, 940. 
Text and signature, 1102. 
Caribbean Commission, establishment of, agreement be- 
tween U.S., France, Netherlands, and U.K., 920. 
Claims convention, with Mexico (1941), payment by 

Mexico of instalment due under, 1061. 
Coffee prices and supplies, with Brazil, signature and 

termination, 464, 690, 872, 
Commerce, with Ethiopia (1914), Ethiopian attitude 

toward Philippine trade, 235. 
Commercial, witli Chile (1945), extension, 283. 
Commercial, with Egypt (1930), Egyptian attitude to- 
ward Philippine trade, 431. 
Commercial, with Portugal (1910), Portuguese attitude 

toward Philippine trade, 463. 
Commercial policy, with Netherlands, exchange of notes, 

texts, 1108. 
Commercial policy and compensation for nationalized 
properties, with Czechoslovakia, text of U.S. note, 
1004. 
Commercial relations, France and U.S.S.R. (1&45), text 

of agreement and decree promulgating, 553. 
Commercial relations, treaty for facilitating and de- 
veloping (1881), with Yugoslavia, Yugoslav atti- 
tude toward Philippine trade, 726. 
Copyright protection, inter-American convention on, 

signature, 29. 
Customs preferences, with Philippines, Spanish attitude 

toward, 174. 
Defense, U.S.-Iceland (1941), termination, 583, 826. 
Defense sites agreement, with Panama (1942), return 

of bases in accordance with, 551. 
Double-taxation conventions, U.S. and — • 
Belgium, discussions, 73, 173, 677. 
France, exchange of notes, and signature, 40, 827, 

1187. 
Luxembourg, discussions, 73, 173, 677. 
Netherlands, discussions, 73, 173, 687. 
I'hilippines, negotiations, 1060. 
South Africa, signature, 1192. 

U.K. (1945), exchange of instruments of ratification, 
238. 
Economic, with Poland, receipt of text, 335. 
Financial agreement, U.S.-U.K. See Financial agree- 
ment. 
Pood supply, with Peru (1943), continuation, 1153. 
Friendship, commerce and consular rights, with Nor- 
way, (1928) Norwegian attitude toward Philippine 
trade, 38. 
Friend.ship, commerce and navigation, with China, sig- 
nature, 868 



Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued. 

Friendship, commerce and navigation, with Denmark, 
(1826) Danish attitude toward Philippine trade, 
596. 

Friendship and commerce, with Yemen, text and signa- 
ture, 94. 

General relations and protocol, with Philippines : 
Signature and text, 282, 824. 

Transmittal to Senate by President Truman, with re- 
port by Secretary Byrnes, 282. 

German assets in Sweden, Allied-Swedish negotiations, 
29, 64, 107, 162, 174. 

ILO, relation with United Nations, draft agreement, 
approval by ILO, 1034. 

Indian Institute, Inter-American (1940), adherence by 
Venezuela, 866. 

Industrial property, international convention for pro- 
tection of (1934), adherence by — 
New Zealand, 552. 
Western Samoa, 1188. 

Japanese Mandated Islands, trusteeship for, statements 
by President Truman and Mr. Dulles, and text of 
draft agreement, 889, 992. 

Lausanne convention (1923), articles by Mr. Howard, 
435, 790, 799. 

Lend-lease, settlement of, with — 
Belgium, signature, 644. 
Brazil, signature and text, 187. 
New Zealand, text, 181. 

Montreux convention of the Straits (1936) : 
Articles by Mr. Howard, 435, 803. 
Revision of: 

Exchange of notes between U.S. and U.S.S.R. 420. 
Soviet loosition, 655. 
U.S. position, 722. 

Most-favored-nation treatment in castoms matters, 
with Dominican Republic (1924), Dominican Re- 
public attitude toward Philippine trade, 691. 

Mutual aid agreement, with Czechoslovakia (1942), ad- 
herence, 1005. 

Narcotic drugs, convention for limiting manufacture 
and regulating distribution (1931), ratification by 
Argentina, 552. 

Nature protection and wildlife preservation in Western 
Hemisphere (1940), ratification by Argentina and 
Nicaragua, 552. 

Naval mission, with Colombia, signature, 870. 

Ocean weather stations, agreement among North At- 
lantic countries, conclusion, 689. 

Oil agreement, with U.K., proposed, 869. 

Opium and other drugs, convention and protocols for 
suppression of abuse of (1912, 1913), ratification 
by Argentina, 552. 

Opium convention, international (1925), ratification by 
Argentina, 552. 

Patents, German-owned, agreement on treatment of, 
U.S., U.K., France, and Netherlands, text, 30O. 

Peace. Allies with Germany and Austria, proposals by 
U.S. delegation to Foreign Ministers Council, 1082. 

Peace, Allies with Italy, Rumania, Bulgaria, Hungary, 
and Finland. See Paris Peace Conference. 

Philippines, general relations with. See General rela- 
tions supra. 

Postal union convention, universal (1939), adherence 
by Lebanon (1945), and Syria (1946), 552. 

Radio transmitters near Algiers, arrangement between 
U.S. and France on use of, conversations regarding, 
507. 

Reciprocal trade (1934), and protocols (1939, 1941), 
with Cuba, tariff preference, question of, 1188. 

Reciprocal trade, with Belgo-Luxembourg Economic 
Union (1935), Belgian attitude toward Philippine 
trade, 79. 

Reparation funds for non-repatriable victims of German 
action : 
Agreement concerning, text, 71. 
Article by Dr. Ginzberg, 56. 



Index, July to December 1946 



1227 



Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued. 
Rubber, between U.S., Argentina, and Brazil (1945), 

cancellation, 514, 827. 
Rush-Bagot, U.S. and Canada (1817), interpretation, 

exchange of notes, 1152. 
Safety of life at sea (1929), international convention, 

discussed by Mr. Clayton, 816. 
Sanitary convention concerning maritime travel (1926), 
as amended (1944), accession by Denmark and Sy- 
ria, 1022. 
Sanitary convention concerning maritime travel (1926), 
as amended (1944), protocol prolonging: 
Accession by Denmark and Syria, 1022. 
Accessions, signatures, and ratifications, listed, 337. 
Ratification by U.S., 337. 
Status (table), 1158. 

Transfer to World Health Organization of functions 
entrusted to UNRRA under, 842, 1156. 
Sanitary convention for aerial navigation (1933), as 
amended (1944) : 
Dominican Republic, adherence, 552. 
Syria, accession, 1022. 
Sanitary convention for aerial navigation (1933), as 
amended (1944), protocol prolonging: 
Accession by Syria, 1022. 

Accessions, signatures, and ratifications, listed, 337. 
Ratification by U.S., 337. 
Status (table), 1158. 

Transfer to World Health Organization of functions 
entrusted to UNRRA under, 842, 1156. 
Surplus property, with— 
Brazil, signature, 185. 
China, signature, 548. 
Telecommunications convention (1932), and Cairo regu- 
lations (1938), adherence by Lebanon, 552. 
Telecommunication convention, Madrid (1932), confer- 
ence to revise, plans, 632. 
Tin negotiations, with U.K., Australia, and Siam, con- 
clusions, 11S6. 
Trade, Sweden and U.S.S.R., attitude of U.S., 464, 506. 
Trade, U.S. with Paraguay, signature, 550. 
Trade and related matters, as amended, with Philip- 
pines, signature, and proclamation by President 
Truman, 1190. 
Turkish straits, principal treaties concerning, article on, 

including excerpts of texts, 790. 
UNESCO constitution, entry into force, and list of sig- 
natories, 1192. 
United Nations headquarters, with United Nations, opin- 
ion of Attorney General on binding effect of agree- 
ment regarding, 10(58. 
Voluntary cooperation and good relationship, Nether- 
lands and Indonesia, U.S. attitude, 1188. 
Whaling, international agreement for regulation of 
(1937), action by- 
Argentina : 

Accession to protocol (1944), 5113. 
Ratification of agreement (1937) and protocol 
(1938), 553. 
United States, action on protocol (1945) : 

President's transmittal to Senate, with report by 

Secretary Byrnes, 284. 
Ratification, 553. 
Wheat, memorandum of agreement, U.S., U.K., Argen- 
tina, Australia, and Canada (1942), plan to revise 
draft convention to replace, 165, 359. 
Wounded and sick, amelioration of condition of (1929), 
adherence by Lebanon and Syria, 553. 
Treaties and agreements concluded by U.S.S.R. in 1945, 

article by Dr. P'isher, 391. 
Trial of Axis war criminals. See War criminals. 
Trieste : 

Foreign Ministers' decision regarding, 168. 
Government, discussed in report by Secretary Byrnes, 

740. 
Problem of, remarks by Senator Connally, 570, 708. 



Trieste — Continued. 

UNRRA supplies en route to Yugoslavia, security for, 
reply of Lieutenant General Morgan to Mr. La 
Guardia's letter, 267. 
Trueblood, Edward G., designation in State Department, 

728. 
Truman, Harry S. : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 

China, U.S. policy toward, 1179. 

Displaced persons and refugees, U.S. provisions for 

immigration of, 1184. 
Estonians, U.S. entrance visas for, 826, 914. 
Financial agreement, U.S.-U.K., approval by Congress, 

172. 
Food needs, world, U.S. contribution to, 31. 
Food shipments in 1945-46, famine-relief, 119. 
Foreign affairs, 577, 911. 
Foreign Service Act of 1946, 386. 
General Assembly, opening session at New York, 808. 
Higher education, duty of in creating international 

understanding, 118. 
International reconstruction, financing, appointment 
of committee to make report and recommenda- 
tions on, 33. 
Mandated Islands (Japanese), trusteeship agreement 

for, 889. 
Palestine situation, 228, 069. 
Philippine independence, 67, 68. 
Strategic and critical materials stockpiling act, 234. 
Trade-agreement negotiations, 909. 
UNESCO, National Commission for, 633. 
UNESCO, U.S. membership authorized by Congress, 
259. 
Appointment of U.S. members of Military Tribunal in 

Germany, 1187. 
Correspondence : 

Abdul Aziz, King of Saudi Arabia, U.S. views on Pal- 
estine problem, 848. 
Biddle, Francis, on receipt of reporf on International 
Military Tribunal, and resignation as U.S. mem- 
ber, 954. 
House Committee on Banking and Cun-ency, Chair- 
man, on importance of British financial agree- 
ment to international economic cooperation, 109. 
Jackson, Robert, on resignation from International 

Military Tribunal, 776. 
Stack, Joseph M., on representation of World War II 

veterans at Paris Peace Conference, 204. 
Winant, John G., on proposal to United Nations for 
conference on conservation of natural resources, 
624. 
Declaration, on U.S. recognition of compulsory jurisdic- 
tion of International Court of Justice, 452. 
Executive orders. See Executive orders. 
International Institute of Agriculture, protocol for ter- 
inination and transfer of functions to FAO, ratifica- 
tion, 74, 514. 
Messages to Congress: 
Congress, transmitting — 

Standards of social policy in dependent areas rec- 
ommended by ILO, 230. 
UNRRA quarterly report (Sth), 645. 
Senate, transmitting — 
Information on news censorehip in countries receiv- 
ing UNRRA aid, 38. 
Nominations of U.S. representatives to G€neral As- 
sembly, 161. 
Protocol amending international whaling agreement 

(1937), 284. 
Treaty of general relations and protocol, with Phil- 
ippines, with report by Secretary Byrnes, 282. 
Palestine, Cabinet Committee on, recall to Washington, 

266. 
Palestine, Jewish immigration to, conference with Jew- 
ish Agency Executive regarding, 70. 
President's Evaluation Commission, 272. 
Proclamation on independence of the Philippines, 66. 



1228 



Department of State Bulletin 



Trusteeship : 

Interpretation of United Nations Charter on, 991. 
Japanese Mandated Islands : 
Draft agreement, text, 8S9. 
Statement by Mr. Dulles, 992. 
Statement by President Truman, SS9. 
Non-self-governing territories in South and Southwest 
Pacitic, conference for establishment of regional 
advisory commission for, 1176. 
Trusteeship Council of United Nations: 
Proposal for establishment, statement by Mr. Dulles, 

991. 
Relations with proposed Atomic Development Author- 
ity, 105. 
Tsaldaris, Constantine (Prime Minister of Greece), visit 

to U.S., 1189. 
Tsingtao, China, elevation of U.S. Consulate to status of 

Consulate General, 603. 
Tuck, S. Pinkney, appointment as U.S. Ambassador to 

Egypt, 727. 
Turkey, treaties, a.?reements, etc. : 

Civil-aviation convention (1944), ratitieation (1945), 

337. 
Montreux convention of the Straits (1936), Soviet posi- 
tion on revision of, 655. 
Straits, article on principal treaties concerning, witli 

excerpts of texts, 790. 
Straits convention, question of revision, exchange of 
notes between U.S. and U.S.S.R., 420. 
Tyler, William R., designation in State Department, 971. 

Ukrainian S.S.R., assault on delegates to United Nations, 
investigation of, exchange of letters between Secre- 
tary Byrnes and Foreign Minister (Manuil.sky), 1048. 
UMCC. See Maritime Consultative Council, United. 
Under Secretary of State for Economic Affairs, Office of. 

See Economic Affairs. 
UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cul- 
tural Organization) : 
Constitution, entry into force, and list of signatories, 

1192. 
Discussed by Mr. Mulliken, 1016. 

Executive Committee, dates of meetings, 330, 358, 406. 
Financial contribution from American Chemical So- 
ciety, 938. 
Functions and membership, 259. 
General Conference, 1st session : 
Address by Mr. Benton, 995. 
Congressional advisers to, 842. 
Dates of meetings, 573, 662, 721, 814, 1051, 1099. 
Plans for, 259, 841. 

U.S. delegation, and advisers to, listed, 755, 894. 
Headquarters, 259. 
"Month" exhibition : 
Dates of, 629, 721, 814, 892, 999, 1144. 
Plans for, 755. 

Statements by Secretary Byrnes and Mr. Benton, 841. 
National Commission for. See National Commission. 
Plenary session, date of meeting, 534. 
Preparatory Commission : 
Dates of meetings : 

At London, 29, 64, 107. 
At Paris, 721, 814, 892. 
U.S. representation, 260. 
Relation to National Commission on Educational, Scien- 
tific and Cultural Cooiieration, 356, 598, 633, 1016. 
Statistical data, 2.58. 

U.S. membership authorized by Congress, statements 
by President Truman and Mr. Benton, 259. 
Union of South Africa : 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Double taxation, with U.S., signature, 1192. 
Sanitary convention concerning maritime travel 
(1926) and sanitary convention for aerial navi- 
gation (1933), as amended (1944), accession to 
protocols prolonging, 337. 



Union of South Africa— Continued. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued. 
Whaling agreement, international (1937), protocol 
amending, signature (1945), 284. 
Treatment of Indians in, letter from Sir Ramaswami 
Mudaliar to Secretary-General of United Nations, 
255 n. 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics: 

Administration of Korea, joint, with U.S., policy of 

U.S., 670. 
Amerika Illustrated, distribution, 513. 
Arrival of Soviet Ambassador in New York, incident, 

726. 
Dispute with Iran, summary statements bv Secretar.v- 

General (Lie) at Security Council, 528, 1172. 
Freedom of U.S. press in areas receiving UNRRA aid, 

Iiosition on, 35. 
German assets in Austria, issuance of order regarding, 

123 n. 
Gromyko, Andrei A., remarks at Security Council, on 

membership applications to United Nations, 489. 
Moscow telecommunications conference. See Moscow 

conference. 
Occupation forces in Hungary, U.S. protest, text, 230; 

Soviet reply, 263. 
Regime of the Straits, 420, 655, 722. 
Removals from Manchuria, Pauley report on, 1154. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Allied CbmrnLssion for Austria, with U.S., U.K., and 

France, signature, 175. 
Commercial relations, with France (1945), text of 

agreement and decree promulgating, 553. 
Montreux convention of the Straits (1936), proposed 
revision : 
Exchange of notes with U.S., 420. 
Soviet attitude, 655. 
U.S. attitude, 722. 
Trade, with Sweden, attitude of U.S., 464, 506. 
Treaties and agreements concluded in 1945, article by 

Dr. Fisher, 391. 
Writers, visit to U.S., 124. 
United Kingdom : 

Air-transport policy, international, joint statement with 

U.S., .577. 
Bizonal arrangements for Germany, U.S.-U.K. meetings, 

266, 892, 910, 940, 1102. 
Conference with Indian political leaders, 1113. 
Nationalization, 1st year, article by Mr. Tobin, 615. 
Navicert system, policy on documents concerning, 578. 
Oil policy, Anglo-American, address by Mr. Rayner, 867. 
Opium smoking in Far East, suppression of, U.S.-U.K. 

notes and draft resolution on, 1165, 1170. 
Palestine committee, conference with U.S. committee. 

107, 162, 222, 261, 266. 
Palestine situation, conference of British leaders with 

Arabs and Jewish leaders on, 1105. 
Protest to Yugoslavia on obstruction to Allied Military 

Government, 409. 
Radio navigational aids to aviation, demonstrations, 

457, 533, 572, 628, 661. 
Treaties, agreements, etc.: 

Allied Commission for Austria, with U.S., France, and 

U.S.S.R., signature, 175. 
Bizonal arrangements for Germany, with U S. : 
Discussions and statements, 266, 910, 940. 
Text and signature, 1102. 
Caribbean Commission, establi.shment, with U.S., 

France, and Netherlands, 920. 
Double-taxation conventions and protocol (1945), with 
U.S., exchange of instruments of ratification, 238. 
Financial agreement, U.S.-U.K. See Financial agree- 
ment. 
German-owned patents, treatment of, with U.S., 

France, and Netherlands, text, 300. 
Oil agreement, with U.S., proposed, 869. 



tndex, July to December 1946 



1229 



United Kingdom — Continued. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued. 
Reparation funds for non-repatriable victims of Ger- 
man action, 5-power agreement, text, 71. 
Sanitary convention concerning maritime travel 
(1926) and sanitary convention for aerial naviga- 
tion (1933), as amended (1944), signing of pro- 
tocols prolonging, 337. 
Tin, negotiations, with U.S., Australia, and Siam, 

conclusion, 1186. 
Whaling agreement, international (1937) protocol 

amending, signature (1945), 284. 
Wheat, memorandum of agreement, with U.S.. Aus- 
tralia, Argentina, and Canada (1942), approval 
(1942), revision planned, 16.j, 359. 
Wool Dispo.'^als Limited, U.K.-Dominion, discussed, 787, 

942, 1163. 
Zone of occupation in Germany, delivery of gift parcels, 
336. 
United Maritime Consultative Council. See Maritime Con- 
sultative Council. 
United Nations : 
Charter : 

Discussed by Senator Austin, 16. 
Interpretation of, regarding — 

International law and its codification, 154, 355. 
Non-self-governing territories, 991. 
Voting in Security Council, 9S7. 
Delegates from Ukrainian S.S.R., investigation of as- 
sault on, 1048. 
Headquarters, question of agreement with U.S. regard- 
ing, opinion of Attorney General, 1008. 
Health conference (sec also World Health Organiza- 
tion), dates of meetings, 29, 64. 107, 102. 
Nationals of members of. Far Eastern Commission policy 
on exercise of civil and criminal jurisdiction over, 
455. 
Organs, commissions, etc. : 

Atomic Energy Commission. See Atomic Energy Com- 

mi.ssion. 
Economic and Social Council (see also ECOSOC), 
commission,?, committees, etc. : 
Drafting Committee of ITO, Preparatory Commit- 
tee. See Trade Organization, International. 
Economic and Emplovment Commission, 659, 718, 

891, 1000, 1145, 1176. 
Economic Reconstruction of Devastated Areas, Sub- 
commission on, 221, 261, 323, 358, 455, 533, 
572, 626, 716, 1000, 1100, 1176. 
Finances, Committee on, 258. 
Fiscal Commission, 717, 718, 891, 933. 
Human Rights Commission, 718, 891, 1000, 1016, 

1100, 1176. 
Interim Commodity Commission, 1055. 
Narcotic Drugs, 720, 844, SS5, 940, 1015, lODO, 1099, 
) 1144, 1170. 

Non-gov(>rnnientaI Organizations, Committee for 

Consultation with, 330, .358, 406, 717, 10.52, 1176. 

Population ('(.miiii>;sion, 717, 718, 891, 933, 1000, 

1018, 1100, 1170. 
Social Commission, 718, 891, 1000, 1017, 1100, 1176. 
Statistical Commission, 718, 814, 891, 1052, 1170. 
Status of Women, 718, 891, 1018, 1052, 1145, 1176. 
Transport and Communications, 718, 891, 1052, 1100, 
1176. 
General Assembly. See General Assembly. 
International Court of Justice. See International 

Court of Justice. 
Legal committees, work of, articles bv Dr. Reiff, 3, 

302, 343. 
Military Staff Committee : 

Dates of meetings, 29, 330, 572, 843, 1175. 
Remarks at General Assembly by U.S. representa- 
tive (Austin), 935. 
Security Council. See Security Council. 



United Nations — Continued. 
Organs, commissions, etc. — Continued. 

Statistical Division, transfer of League of Nations 

activities to, 258. 
Telecommunications Advisory Committee, dates of 

meetings, 844, 939, 1051, 1175. 
Trusteeship Council : 
Proposal for establishment, statement by Mr. Dulles, 
991. 
Relations with proposed Atomic Development Au- 
thority, 105. 
UNRRA-United Nations Planning Commission, Joint, 
meeting of, 260, 661, 843, 1051, 1175. 
Organs of, relations with proposed Atomic Development 

Authority, 102. 
Passport and frontier formalities, governmental experts 

on, dates of meetings, 1000, 1052. 1100, 1145. 
Postal experts meeting, on relationship between Uni- 
versal Postal Union and United Nations : 
Agreement discussed, 1055. 
Dates of meetings, 940, 1000, 1144. 
Property in Rumania belonging to nationals of, investi- 
gations on, 620. 
Radio broadcasts, short-wave, 751. 
Relation to Paris Peace Conference, discussed In radio 

broadcast, 206. 
Resoui'ce conservation and utilization, scientific confer- 
ence, text of draft resolution proposing, 623. 
Secretary-General. See Lie, Trygve. 
Specialized agencies, general function. 324. 

Educational. Scientific and Cultural Organization. 

See UNESCO. 
FAO. See Food and Agriculture Organization. 
ILO (see also International Labor Organization), 
draft agreement est.ablishing as specialized agency 
of United Nations, 1034, 1035. 
International Trade Organization (ITO). See Trade 

Organization. 
Maritime Consultative Council, Provisional. See 

Maritime Consultative Council. 
PICAO. See PICAO. 
Refugee Organization, International, proposed. See 

Refugee Organization. 
UNESCO. See UNESCO. 
WHO. See World Health Organization. 
World Bank and Fund. See International Bank ; In- 
ternational Monetary Fund. 
UNRRA, transfer to, announced 358. 
U.S. representative (Johnson), accorded rank of Am- 
bassador, lOi; ( ,sT, iilxo .Tohnson, Hersehel V.). 
U.S. represfutativi <, ^riimiiitiii.'nrs : Altmeyer, Arthur J., 
St)! : Austin, W.ii r. n II. S-l ; Baker, George P., 891 ; 
Bartelt, Edward 1\, s:>l ; liioom, Sol, 221; Connally, 
Tom, 221 ; Douglas, Helen Gahagan, 221 ; Dulles, 
John Foster, 221 ; Eaton, Charles A., 221 ; Hauser, 
Philip M., 891 ; Kenyon, Dorothy, 891 ; Lubin, Isa- 
dore, 221, 891 ; Rice, Stuart A., 891 ; Roosevelt, Mrs. 
Franklin D., 221, 891; Stevenson, Adlai E., 221; 
Vandenberg, Arthur H., 221. 
Veto question. See Security Council. 
United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration. 

See UNRRA. 
United States and Italy, 1936-1946: Documentary Record, 

1109. 
United States citizens : 

Claims against enemy countries for mistreatment of 
life and property and for money due for labor per- 
formed as prisoners of war, 427. 
Conditions in Shanghai, information for businessmen, 

334. 
Deprivation of rights in Yugoslavia : 
Detention, 232, 415, 504. 
Injury and loss of life as result of Yugoslav attack on 

plane, 415, 416, 501, 544, 725. 
Slave labor, 761. 
Gasoline raticuis in Europe for motorists, ISO. 



1230 



Department of State Bulletin 



United States citizens — Continued. 
Property in — 

Belgium, claims for damage, 336. 

Cliina, instructions for filing claims, 965. 

Czechoslovakia, claims for nationalized property in, 

915, 1003, 1005, 1027, 1108. 
France, tax on, 914. 
Italy, Bulgaria, Rumania, and Hungary, procedure for 

filing war-damage claims, 179. 
Japanese enterprises, protection for, 271. 
Philippine National Bank, reinstatement of pre-war 

deposits, 271. 
Poland, restitution, 969. 
Yugoslavia, claims for property in, 544, 1150. 
Repatriates from Albania, permits for, 581, 764. 
Repatriates from Poland, arrival on S.S. Ernie Pyle, 

1151. 
Special courses at University of Stockholm for U.S. stu- 
dents, 430. 
United States Economic Policy Toward Oermany, 1022. 
University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pa., address by Mr. 

Loftus, 276. 
University of Stockholm, special courses for students 

from U.S., 430. 
UNRRA : 
Activities in Europe and Far East, discussed in article 

by Mr. Stillwell, 929. 
Cooperation with Intergovernmental Committee on 
Refugees, discussed in article by Miss Blehle, 1148. 
Council of, 5th session : 
Articles by- 
Mr. Persinger, 523. 
Mr. Preu, 248. 
Dates of meetings, 64, 107, 162, 261, 358. 
Future policy on supply operations, 222. 
Liquidation plans, 330. 
U.S. delegation, 226, 249. 
Council of, 6th session : 

Address by Mr. Acheson, 1146. 
Announcement of meetings, 1000. 
Article by Mr. Persinger, 1032. 
Dates of meetings, 1000, 1052, 1100, 1145. 
U.S. delegation, listed, 1146. 
Departure of Mr. La Guardia, Mr. Feonov, and Mr. 

Wood for European tour, 107. 
Dii-ksen amendment. Sec U.S. contribution inira. 
Health functions. See Termination, and transfer of 

health functions infra. 
Joint UNRRA-United Nations Planning Commission, 
meeting of: 
Dates of meetings, 661, 843, 1051, 1175. 
Proceedings, 260. 
Quarterly report (8th), transmittal to Congress by 

President Truman, 645. 
Shipments, delivery: 
China, statement by Mr. Clayton, 461. 
Table showing, through December 1946: 931. 
Yugoslavia : 

Policy regarding, statement by Mr. Clayton, 544. 
Security for, reply of Lieutenant General Morgan 
to Mr. La Guardia's letter, 267. 
Surplus property (OFLC) purchased by, 243. 
Termination, and transfer of health functions to WHO : 
Articles by : Dr. Hyde, 454, 756, 1134 ; Mr. Persinger, 

523; Mr. Stillwell, 929. 
Health functions under sanitary conventions, 1134, 

11.56. 
Letters exchanged between Mr. La Guardia and Dr. 

Chisholm, 842. 
Statement by Mr. Clayton, 268. 
U.S. contribution to, proposed discontinuance in areas 
censoring news correspondents : 
Letters from President Truman and Mr. Clayton to 

president of Senate (McKellar), 35, 38. 
Notes exchanged between Mr. Acheson and Soviet 
Charge d'Affaires, 37. 



UNRRA— Continued. 

U.S. position regarding, address by Acting Secretary 
Acheson, 1107. 
Uruguay (see also American republics) : 

Air transport agreement, with U.S. (1944), signature, 

Exchange professors from U.S., 1180. 

U.S. Ambassador (McGurk), appointment, 134. 

van Kleffens, Dr. E. N., protest on U.S. policy in economic 

rehabilitation of Germany, comments on, 1184. 
Vandenberg, Arthur H. : 

Appointment as U.S. delegate to General Assembly, 221. 
Participant in radio broadcast, 205. 
Statements at Paris Peace Conference: 
Danube transportation problem, 656. 
Finnish reparations, 744. 
Rumanian treaty, 711. 
Vatican City, return of Personal Representative (Taylor) 

of President Truman, 1020. 
Venezia Giulia : 
Allied mistreatment of Yugoslavs in, alleged, text of 

U.S. reply, 579. 
Elections, arrangements for, 409. 

Government of. Allied Military Government order, 412. 
Venezuela (see also American republics) : 
Change of name of U.S. Consulate at Puerto la Cruz, 

190. 
Indian Institute, Inter-American convention (1940), ad- 
herence, 866. 
Transfer of LST from U.S. to, 1071. 
Vessels : 
Danubian, question of ownership, action by ECOSOC, 

Ernie Pyle, arrival from Poland with repatriated U S 

citizens, 1151, 1184. 
Japanese U-boats, German document on, 399. 
Marine Lynx, transportation of students from Far East 

and Near East, 429. 
Property of Allies in Japanese waters, policy of Far 

Eastern Commission on restitution, 163. 
Purchase from U.S. by Greek shipowners, discussions, 

426. 
Transfer of LST to Venezuela, 1071. 
Vessels transporting displaced persons from Europe and 
the Far East, 382, 11S4. 
Veterans, aid to study abroad, 871. 

Veterans of Foreign War.s, letter from the commander 
in chief (Stack) to President Truman, on representa- 
tion at Paris Peace Conference, 203. 
Veto question In United Nations, 256 n., 987. 
Vienna, Austria, U.S. Mission elevated to rank of Lega- 
tion, 812. 
Villard, Henry S., designation in State Department, 239. 
Vincent, John Carter, address on American business with 

the Far East, 959. 
Vining, Elizabeth Gray, tutor for Crown Prince of Japan, 
462. 



Visiting professors between U.S. and other American re- 
publics, discussed in article by Mr. Espinosa, 90. 

Voluntary cooperation and good relationship, agreement 
between Netherlands and Indonesia, attitude of U.S. 
1188. 

Voluntary Foreign Aid, Advisory Committee on, functions 
and organization (D.R. 182.6), 874. 

Wall, Duncan, article on international action on agricul- 
tural and nutrition problems, 905. 

Wallace, Henry A., resignation as Secretary of Commerce, 
statement by President Truman, 577. 

Walstrom, Joe D., article on bilateral air-transport agree- 
ments concluded by U.S., 1126. 

War College, National, opening, 515. 



Index, July to December 1946 



War criminals, Axis : 

Military Tribunal, International, report to President 

Truman by Mr. Biddle, 954. 
Niirnberg trial : 

Closing address by Mr. Jackson, 364. 
Final reiiort to the President by Mr. Jackson, 771. 
War Damage Commission, Philippine, discussed in article 

by Mr. Mill, 478. 
War Department : 

Joint statement with State and Navy Departments, on 
claims of U.S. nationals against enemy countries, 
427. 
National War College, joint arrangement, with Navy 
and State Departments and U.S. Foreign Service, 
838. 
Warren, George L., U.S. representative on Committee on 
Finances of proposed International Refugee Organi- 
zation, 258. 
Wasson, Thomas C, designation in State Department, 239. 
Weather observation stations, North Atlantic Ocean, con- 
ference on. See North Atlantic. 
Weights and measures, international committee on, dates 

of meetings, 720, 813, 892. 
Wells, Milton K., designation in State Department, 239. 
West Indian Conference (see also Caribbean Commission), 
establishment of, agreement between U.S., France, 
Netherlands, and U.K., signature, 920. 
West Indies. See the individual countries. 
Western Samoa, international property, international con- 
vention for protection of (1934), adherence, 1188. 
Whaling, international agreement for regulation of (1937), 
action by — 
Argentina : 

Accession to protocol (1944), 553. 
Ratification of agreement (1937) and protocol (1938), 
553. 
United States, action on protocol (1945) : 

President's transmittal to Senate, with report by Sec- 
retary Byrnes, 284. 
Ratification, 553. 
Whaling conference, international, 1st plenary session: 
Address by Mr. Acheson, 1001. 
Dates of meetings, 844, 893, 940, 999, 1051. 
Purpose, 895. 
Results, 1101. 
Wheat (see also Pood), U.S. shipments abroad, 31, 779, 

1058. 
Wheat Council, International, 12th and 13th sessions : 
Dates of meetings, 107, 162, 222, 358, 1176. 
Wheat agreements, plans concerning: 
Draft convention (1941, 1942), revision, 165, 359. 
Memorandum of understanding (1942), amendment, 
165, 359. 
WHO. See World Health Organization. 
Wilcox, Clair : 

Addresses on trade, 640, 757, 1056. 
Designation in State Department, 287. 
Wildlife preservation and nature protection in Western 
Hemisphere, convention on (1940), ratification by 
Argentina and Nicaragua, 5S2. 
Willis, Armond D., appointment in Office of International 

Information and Cultural Affairs, 126. 
Winant, John G. (U.S. representative on ECOSOC) : 
Correspondence : 

Acting president of ECOSOC, on draft resolution for 
conference for on resource conservation and utili- 
zation, and text of resolution, 623. 
Byrnes. Secretary, transmitting reports on ECOSOC, 

322, 404, 932. 
Lie, Trygve, on establishment of ECOSOC subcommis- 
sion on economic development, 659. 
Statement on progress made by ECOSOC, 26. 
Wise, Stephen S., letter to Secretary Byrnes on Palestine 

situation, 822. 
Women, Inter-American Commission of, 5th assembly : 
Background and agenda, 332, 946. 



Women, Inter-American Commission of, 5th i 
Continued. 
Dates of meetings, 534, 662, 721, 753, 1000, 1099. 
U.S. delegate (Cannon), 946. 
Women, Status of, ECOSOC Commission on, 718, 891, 1018, 

1052, 1145, 1176. 
Wood, C. Tyler, address on international cooperation for 

1947 relief effort, 1059. 
Wool, U.S. import policy, article by Mr. Evans, 783. 
Wool talks, international: 

Dates of meetings, 721, 753, 814, 843. 
Report by Mr. Nichols, 1163. 
Statement by heads of delegations, 942. 
Text of resolution, 942. 
U.S. delegation, 789, 894. 
Working Committee of Atomic Energy Commission of 

United Nations. See Atomic Energy Commission. 
World air transport, development of U.S. policy, address 

by Mr. Norton, 1006. 
World Bank. See International Bank. 
World Food Board, proposals for, position of U.S. Govern- 
ment, 329. 
World Fund. See International Monetary Fund. 
World Health Organization (WHO) : 

Composition and objectives, article by Dr. Hyde, 453. 
Constitution, establishing as specialized agency of United 
Nations : 
Countries signing, 219 n. 
Text, 211. 
Discussed in ECOSOC reports from Mr. Winant to Sec- 
retary Byrnes, 323, 933. 
Documents signed at United Nations health conference, 

211 n. 
Funds, ECOSOC resolution requesting, 717. 
Interim Commission : 
Article by Dr. Hyde, 453. 
Discussed by Mr. MuUiken, 1014, 
Establishment of Commission, 453 n. 
Second session, at Geneva : 
Articles by Dr. Hyde, 756, 1134. 
Dates of meetings, 534, 662, 814, 939. 
Departure of Dr. Parran and other U.S. representa- 
tives, 893. 
Transfer of functions to. See Health, International 
Office ; League of Nations ; UNRRA. 
World telecommunication conference, 459. 
Wounded, amelioration of condition of, convention for 

(1929), adherence to Lebanon and Syria, 553. 
Writers. See Press. 

Wrong, Humphrey Hume, credentials as Canadian Ambas- 
sador to U.S., 911. 

Yemen : 

Friendship and commerce agreement, with U.S., signa- 
ture, 94. 
U.S. Minister (Childs), credentials, 690. 
Ylleseas, Dr. Don Francisco, credentials as Ecuadoran 

Ambassador to U.S., 11.58. 
Youth, German, present status of, articles by Dr. Keller- 

mann, 49, 83, 139. 
Yugoslavia : 

Allied mistreatment of nationals in Venezia Giulia, al- 
leged, text of U.S. reply, 579. 
Ambassador to U.S. (Kosanovie), credentials, 180. 
Attack on U.S. plane and detention of personnel, U.S. 
protests : 
Messages from U.S. Ambassador, 418. 
Notes to Yugoslav Government, 415, 417, 501, 725. 
Report of Captain Crombie, 416. 
Report of U.S. Consul in Zagreb, 416. 
Statement by Acting Secretary Clayton, 544. 
Border violations, dispute with Greece on. See Greek 

question under Security Council. 
Civil liberties in, statement by Mr. Acheson, 725. 
Displaced persons, settlement in midwest U.S., 382. 



Department of State Bulletin 



Yugoslavia — Continued. 

Information service in, U.S., discontinuance, statement 

by Mr. Clayton, 637. 
Injury and loss of tf.S. life as result of Yugoslav attack 

on U.S. plane, 415, 416, 501, 544, 725. 
Nationalization of private enterprise in, 1150. 
Ownership of Danubian vessels. See Danube. 
Problem of Trieste, 168, 570, 708. 
Protests from U.S., on — 

Attack on plane and detention of personnel. See At- 
tack supra. 
Deprivation of rights of U.S. citizens, 232. 
Obstruction to Allied Military Government, 409. 
Refusal to compensate for loss of aircraft, 725. 
Troops in Zone A, 414, 676. 
UNRRA shipments to, 544. 
Use of U.S. citizens for slave labor, 761. 
Stepinac, Archbishop, trial and conviction, statement by 

Mr. Acheson, 725. 
Territory violations, alleged, U.S. replies to Yugoslav 

protests, 414, 415, 501. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Commercial relations, treaty for facilitating and de- 
veloping with U.S. (1881), Yugoslav attitude 
toward Philippine trade, 726. 
Reparation funds for non-repatriable victims of Ger- 
man action, 5-power agreement, text, 71. 



Yugoslavia — Continued. 

Treaties and agreements with U.S.S.R. in 1945, article 
by Dr. Fisher, 398. 

UNRRA shipments to, policy on, statement by Mr. Clay- 
ton, 544. 

UNRRA supplies in, security for, reply of Lieutenant 
General Morgan to Mr. La Guardia's letter, 267. 

U.S. and other property in, instructions for filing claims 
1150. 

U.S. public-affairs officer (Thompson), appointment, 190. 

Use of U.S. citizens for slave labor, U.S. protest, 761. 

Zones of occupation in Germany : 

Control Council proclamations and laws, text, 859. 
Economic unification, discussed by Secretary Byrnes. 

171, 498. 
Revival of economy in, 726. 

U.S.-U.K. meetings on bizonal arrangements. See Bi- 
zonal arrangements for Germany. 
Zook, George F., letter to Mr. Benton, transmitting report 

of U.S. education mission to Germany, 764. 
Zurayk, Costi K., ci-edentials as Syrian Minister to U.S.. 

1114. 
Zwemer, Raymond L., address on Government's role in 
assisting international cooperation between scientific 
groups, 545. 



Index, July to December 1946 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

msim 



Peace Goals 

By SENATOR AUSTIN page 16 

India on the Threshold 

Article by RAY L. THURSTON page 20 

Work of United Nations "Legal Committees" 

Article by HENRY REIFF page 3 



/ 

For complete contents 

see inside cover * 




o^ 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



BULLETIN 



Vol. XV No. 366» W%KW ' 1'ubi.ication 2563 




July 7, 1946 



>r sale by the Superintendent of Docun 

U. S. Government Printing OfiBce 

Washington 25, D. C. 

SOBSCmPTIOH: 

52 issues, $3.50; single copy, 10 cent. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Research and 
Publication, Office of Public Affairs, 
provides the public and interested 
agencies of the Government with 
information on developments in the 
field of foreign relations and on the 
work of the Department of State and 
the Foreign Service. The BULLETIN 
includes press releases on foreign 
policy issued by the White House and 
the Department, and statements and 
addresses made by the President and 
by the Secretary of State and other 
officers of the Department, as well as 
special articles on various phases of 
international affairs and the functions 
of the Department. Information con- 
cerning treaties and international 
agreements to which the United States 
is or may become a party and treaties 
of general international interest is 
included. 

Publications of the Department, cu- 
mulative lists of which are published 
at the end of each quarter, as well as 
legislative material in thefield of inter- 
national relations, are listed currently. 



AUG 13 1946 

Contents 

General Policy 

India on the Threshold. Article by Ray L. Thurston . . . 
Contribution of U.S. in Meeting World Food Needs: 

Statement by the President 

A Report to the President by John W. Snyder 

Resumption of Surplus-Property Deliveries to Poland . . . 
U.S. Objectives and Policies in Affording Aid to China . . . 
Procedure for Furnishing Affidavits for Immigration Visas . 

Inquiry on Palestine Situation 

The United Nations 

Work of the United Nations "Legal Committees". Article 

by Henry Reiff 

Peace Goals. By Senator Austin 

Progress Made by the Economic and Social Council. State- 
ment by the U.S. Representative 

Economic Affairs 

Financing of International Reconstruction. Statement by 

the , President 

International Information 

Position on Admission of Correspondents to Areas Receiving 

UNRRA Aid 

Letter From Assistant Secretary of State Clayton to Senator 

Kenneth McKellar 

Exchange of Notes Between Acting Secretary Acheson and 

the Soviet Charg^ d'Afifaires 

Letter From the President to the President of the Senate . 
Appointment of Allan Nevins as Public Affairs Officer in 

London 

Treaty Information 

Treaty Obligations and Philippine Independence: Reply of 

Norwegian Government to U.S. Note .' 

Inter-American Copyright Convention Signed 

Resumption of Surplus-Property Deliveries to Poland . 
Proposed Double-Taxation Convention With France . . . 

International Organizations and Conferences 

Calendar of Meetings 

Activities and Developments 

The Department 

Appointment of Officers 

The Foreign Service 

Assistant Secretary Russell To Inspect Foreign Service In- 
stallations 

Consular Offices 

The Congress 

Publications 

Foreign Commerce Weekly 

Training Announcements 



Work of the United Nations 



Legal Committees" 



^rl.V/e fey HENRY REIFF 



Ti) THE projecting, designing, and construction 
of the United Nations the so-called "legal com- 
mittees"' which sat at Dumbarton Oaks, San Fran- 
cisco, and London contributed, according to the 
record, considerable engineering skill. 

At Dumbai'ton Oaks, in the summer of 1944, 
one of the four subcommittees set up to assist 
in the conduct of the Conversations was entitled 
"Legal Subcommittee". Under the chairmanship 
of Green H. Hackworth,^ then Legal Adviser, De- 
partment of State, it held four meetings during the 
first phase of the Conversations. From its recom- 
mendations resulted chapter VII of the Proposals, 
which dealt with An International Court of 
Justice.^ It also suggested the desirability of 
holding a preliminary meeting of jurists for the 
purpose of drafting the Statute of the proposed 
Court. Such a Committee of Jurists, to which 
the governments to be represented at San Fran- 
cisco were invited to send delegates, met in Wash- 
ington, D. C., April 9 to 20, 1945, and prepared 
a draft statute for submission to the forthcoming 
United Nations Conference on International 
Organization (UNCIO).* 

For the successful discharge of the tasks en- 
trusted to the United Nations Conference on In- 
ternational Organization in San Francisco in the 
spring of 1945 and to the Preparatory Commis- 
sion and the General Assembly in London in the 
fall and winter of 1945-1946, it was found neces- 
sary to include among the several committees set 
up for the performance of technical functions at 
each of these stages a committee, variously called, 
but uniformly charged with the handling of a 
miscellany of legal problems. At UNCIO it was 
Committee IV/2 on "Legal Problems"; in the 
Executive Committee of the Preparatory Commis- 



sion in London it was Committee 5 on "Court and 
Legal Problems" ; in the Preparatoiy Commission 
it was Committee 5 on "Legal Questions"; and 
in the General Assembly it was Committee 6, the 
"Legal Committee". Except in the case of Com- 

'Di-. Reiff is an officer in llu- Division of International 
Organization Affairs, ( )tlic.- ..f S|ic,i;il I'oliiical Affairs, 
Department of State. Hi' scivnl as a li'c-linieal expert 
with the Delegation of tlie United States to the United 
Nations Conference on International Organization at 
San Francisco. For articles by Dr. Reiff on Transition 
from League of Nations to United Nations, see Bttlletin 
of Apr. 28, 1946, p. 691, and May 5, 1946, p. 739. 

- The other United States representatives on the sub- 
committee were Benjamin V. Cohen and Stanley K. Horn- 
beck. The Soviet representatives were Professor Sergei 
A. Golunsky and Professor Sergei B. Krylov ; United 
Kingdom, Sir William Malkin and Peter Loxley. Dur- 
ward V. Sandifer, Assistant Chief of the Division of In- 
ternational Organization Affairs, Depaitment of State, 
served as technical advLser to the American members of 
the subcommittee. Hayden Raynor, Special Assistant 
to the Under Secretary of State, and the following officers 
from the Division of International Organization Affairs 
also assisted the American members; Lawrence Preuse, 
Alice McDiarmid, Marcia Maylott, and Norman Padelford. 
See "Subcommittees fm- the ('iMi\(>rsations," Bulletin 
of Aug. 27, 1944, p. 20; 1 : .in, I .I.iiims F. Green, "The Dum- 
barton Oaks Conver.snlinns', Ilrii i:tin of Oct. 22, 1944, 
p. 459. 

" "Dumbarton Oaks Documents on International Organ- 
ization", Bulletin of Oct. 8, 1944, pp. 365, 370. 

'Lawrence Preuss, "The Intcrnatinnal i 'nurt of Justice 
and the Problem of Compulsory .Iinis.li.i inn". Bulletin 
Sept. 30, 1945, pp. 471, 473. Sec also Ginii II. Hackworth 
"The International Court of Justi(;e", Bulletin of Aug, 
12, 1945, p. 216; and liy tlie same author "The Inter 
national Court of Justice and the Codification of Inter 
national Law", Bulletin of Dec. 23, 1945, p. 1000. Cf. 
The International Court of Justice, Selected Documents 
Relating to the Drafting of the Htatute (Department of 
State publication 2491). 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



mittee 5 of the Executive Committee, whose mem- 
bership was confined to the number of states repre- 
sented on the Executive Committee, i.e. fourteen, 
these committees were composed of representa- 
tives of all of the members of the United Nations. 
The United States was, of course, represented on 
each of these committees,^ but not on all of the 
subcommittees which were set up from time to 
time. 

It is with the work of the legal committees set 
up in San Francisco and in London that the pres- 
ent discussion deals. The work of these commit- 
tees falls naturally into two periods. At San 

■"The personnel assigned to UNCIO Commission IV on 
"Judicial Organization", which embraced both Committee 

1 on the "International Court of Justice" and Committee 

2 on "Legal Problems", was as follows: Senator Tom 
Connally and Commander Harold E. Stassen, U. S. N. R., 
Delegates; Green H. Hackworth, Legal Adviser to the 
Department of State, and Charles Fahy, Solicitor General 
of the United States (on June 19, 1946 Mr. Fahy became 
Legal Adviser to the Department of State) , Advisers ; Dur- 
ward V. Sandifer, Chief, Division of International Or- 
ganization Affairs, Department of State, a chief technical 
expert; Miss Marcia Maylott, Miss Marjorie M. White- 
man, Philip C. Jessup, Mrs. Alice M. McDiarmid, and 
Henry Reiff, technical experts. Of this group, Mr. Fahy 
represented tlie Delegation regularly on Committee l:, as- 
sisted by Dr. Jessup and Dr. ReifC. 

The representation on the committees in London was 
as follows: Committee 5 of the Executive Committee, 
Dr. Reiff; Committee 5 of the Preparatory Commission, 
Dr. Reiff, John W. Halderraan, Acting Assistant Chief, 
Division of International Organization Affairs, Depart- 
ment of State, and A. H. Feller, Department of State; 
Committee 6 of the General Assembly, Frank Walker, Al- 
ternate Delegate, Green H. Hackworth, Senior Adviser, 
Mr. Feller, Mr. Halderman, Dr. Reiff, and William F. 
Cronin, Assistant to Mr. Walker. 

° Subcommittee A of Committee IV/2 at its first meeting 
invited Judge Manley O. Hudson and Judge J. Gustavo 
Guerrero of the Permanent Court of International Justice 
to attend its discussions as observers. The subcommittee 
frequently availed itself of Judge Hudson's views. 

'Thus eight of the first members (15 in number) of the 
International Court of Justice had served on one or more 
of these legal committees : Abdel Hamid Badawi Pasha 
(Egyptian) ; John Erskine Read (Canadian) ; Green Hay- 
wood Hackworth (American); Sergei Borisovich Krylov 
(Russian); Jules Basdevant (French); Jos4 Gustavo 
Guerrero (Salvadoran) ; Bohdan Winiarski (Pole) ; and 
Milovan ZoriCic (Yugoslav). Two had served on Com- 
mittee IV/1: Hsu Mo (Chinese) and Charles de Vls- 
scher (Belgian) ; and two had served on other commit- 
tees during these formative stages. Many of the candi- 
dates proposed but not elected had also rendered dis- 
tinguished service to one or another of the legal com- 
mittees. 

'Infra. 



Francisco, Committee IV/2 was charged primarily 
with the preparation of certain provisions for 
inclusion in the Charter. The several legal com- 
mittees sitting in London were charged with de- 
vising certain of the means of putting the Charter 
into operation. All of the committees, however, 
were expected to furnish, and on occasion did fur- 
nish, advice to other committees on the legal as- 
pects of problems which confronted them. 

The legal committees were fortunate, as indeed 
were various of the other technical committees, 
in having among their number members of pre- 
eminent talent.** Attorneys general and other na- 
tional law officers of similar rank, judges of the 
highest tribunals, national and international, legal 
advisers to foreign offices, counselors of diplomatic 
missions, experts long associated with the League 
of Nations, jurists renowned in forum and class- 
room — these furnished leadership for the commit- 
tees and seasoned their deliberations with a wis- 
dom born of responsibility.' Enough of those who 
had served at UNCIO reappeared for the Pre- 
paratory Commission and the General Assembly 
stages to give to the development of the United 
Nations a most desirable internal consistency. 

Debates in Committee IV/2 generally com- 
ported with tlie high purposes for which UNCIO 
was called. No occlusive political juristic the- 
ory held sway. To every proposal advanced was 
applied the simple touchstone of pragmatism. 
Though ideals were invoked, decisions reflected 
experience— experience prior to the League of 
Nations and in and out of it. The lessons then 
being learned from World War II were not ig- 
nored. Often the discussions had the quality of 
those recorded in Madison's Journal. Both in 
what it recommended for inclusion in the Charter 
and in what it declined to so recommend, Connnu- 
tee IV/2 may be thought to have acquitted itself 
well. 

The legal committees in London, charged with 
the performance of more detailed tasks, witnessed 
more prosaic discussions. On occasion, however, 
as when the Australian proposal to postpone elec- 
tion of the judges of the International Court af 
Justice * and when the amendments to the pro- 
visional rules of the General Assembly * were under 
consideration, debate took on a quality reminiscent 
of San Francisco's best. Members believed prin- 
ciples were at stake, and they spoke accordingly. 

The present discussion seeks only to outline the 



JULY 7, 1946 



work of these several committees, to furnish a 
thread througli their Libyrinthian recoi'ds. No 
attempt will, tlierefore, be made to set forth the 
positions (if delegations, to summarize debaters, or 
to interpret tlie provisions or instruments adopted. 
Official " and unofficial '° commentaries on the re- 
sults of UNCIO have already appeared. In due 
course, no doubt, commentaries will appear on the 
labors of the Executive Coniiuiltee. the Trepura- 
tory Commission and the tirst part, the "constitu- 
tive part," of the General Assembly. Meanwhile, 
the present outline may be of sei'vice in use of the 
records. 

UNCIO Committee IV/2 on Legal Problems of 
Commission IV on Judicial Organization 

Committee IV/2, unlike other committees at San 
Francisco, had no sections of the Dumbarton Oaks 
Proposals specifically assigned to it. The meeting 
of the chairmen of delegations requested it "to 
prepare and recommend to Commission IV draft 
provisions for the Charter . . . relating to 
mattei's dealt with in connection with the function- 
ing of the United Nations Organization, . . ." 
such as (1) registration of treaties; (2) treaty ob- 
ligations inconsistent with the Charter; (3) the 
juridical status of the Organization; and (4) priv- 
ileges and immunities of officials of the Organiza- 
tion." These had been omitted from the skeletal 
Proposals but obviously needed to be inserted in the 
finished Charter. At the first meeting of the 
committee, the chairman, Badawi Pasha (Egypt), 
suggested for considenit ion (Ti) codification of in- 
ternational law and ((■)) icvisiiin of treaties (other- 
wise frequently referred to as the process of "peace- 
ful change"' ) .'- Subsequently the following topics 
were also placed on the agenda: (7) relation of 
international law and the Chaiter to internal law: 
(8) interpretation of the Charter: and (9) coming 
into force of the Charter. 

Certain other items of a miscellaneous character, 
though not placed on the agenda of Committee 
IV/2, were mentioned in connection with its work 
and may be listed here for disposal presently : (10) 
definition of acts of aggression ; (11) organization 
of an international bar association; (12) the con- 
sequences of taking an "oath of allegiance" to the 
Organization by members of the Secretariat ; and 
(13) a flag for the United Nations. 

In the discussion of these topics, Committee 
IV/2 was aided bv some 85" of the Comments 



and Proposed Amendments Ooncerning the Dum- 
barton Oaks Proposals Submitted by the Delega- 
tions to the United Nations Conference on Inter- 
national Organization}* These were compiled ac- 
cording to subject-matter by the Secretariat and 
presented in separate documents to the committee 
when the corresponding items appeared on the 
agenda. Numerous additional proposals and sug- 
gestions, however, were made from the floor under 
the generous rules of procedure applied to the dis- 
cussions of the committee and its subcommittees. 

Committee IV/2 utilized for drafting purposes 
only two small subcommittees, named A and B 
respectively. To Committee IV/2/B was assigned 
only one topic, that relating to interpretation of 
the Charter. The task of examining and reporting 
on the other proposals committed by Committee 
IV/2 fell to Committee IV/2/A. Documents pre- 
pared for the use of these subcommittees, called 
"Working Documents", are included in the 
compilation published by the United Nations 
Information Organizations.'^ Eleven delegations 
were represented on subcommittee A ■* and six 
on subcommittee B,'' the United States being in- 
cluded in both cases. A verbatim record, not 

^Charter of the United Nations: Report to the Presi- 
dent on the Results of the San Francisco Conference by 
thr Chiiiiiiinn of the United States Delegation, The Secre- 
l.mj uf Stiitr, June 26, 1945 (Department of State Pub- 
liciifi(Jii 2:UU, Conference Series 71). 

"' L. M. Goodrich and E. Hambro, Charter of the United 
Nations: Commentary and Documents (World Peace 
Foundation, Boston, 1946). 

""Organization of the Conference", UNCIO Doc. 31, 
DC/6, Apr. 27, 1945, p. 5. 

" Summary Report of tlie First Meeting of Committee 
IV/2, May 5, Itur., I'NCK i Doc. 115, IV/2/2, May 6, 1945. 

'"Guide to Ann ndnn uls. Comments and Proposals Con- 
cerninci the niinihuitun Oaks Proposals for a General 
IntcrnittKiiiiil Onjimization. UNCIO Doc. 288, G/38, May 14 

" Ciiuiiiilatiuu so entitled under UNCIO Doc. 2, and dated 
Jlay 7, lil45. 

"■'■ Documents of the United Nations Conference on Inter- 
national Organization, San Francisco, 1945, Published in 
cooperation with the Library of Congress (London, New 
York, United Nations Information Organizations, 1945, 15 
vols., index vol. to be issued), vol. XIII. Commission IV, 
Judicial Organization, pp. 567 ff. 

'" Belgium, Colombia, France, Iran, New Zealand, Nor- 
way, Philippine Commonwealth, Soviet Union, United 
Kingdom, United States, and Venezuela. The Chairman 
of Committee IV/2, the delegate of Egypt, served also as 
chiiirman of this subcommittee. 

" Belgium, France, Norway, Yugoslavia, United King- 
dom, and United States. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



ly uiion 1 



yet published, was kejit of the proceedings of 
Committee IV/2 as of other similar committees, 
but not of its subcommittees, where the conduct 
of business was on a very informal level. Mem- 
bers were, however, at liberty at all times to 
make records of these discussions for the use of 
their delegations, and some did so regularly. A 
summary record of the proceedings of Committee 
IV/2, as of other similar committees, prepared by 
the Secretariat,^" was issued promptly after each 
session. Committee IV/2 held 16 meetings; Com- 
mittee IV/2/A, 15 ; and Committee IV/2/B, 1. 

Miscellaneous Topics 

Before taking up seriatim the items which ap- 
peared on the agenda, it may be convenient to 
dispose of the miscellaneous topics. 

It was suggested at the first meeting of Com- 
mittee IV/2 tliat the connnittee undertake a defini- 
tion of the term aggrexmr. The chairman de- 
clared, however, that consideration of that topic 
belonged properly to other committees.^^ Com- 

'" In all of its work. Coniiiiitlpe IV/2 naturally relied 
■ e ineiubers of tlie Secretariat assi?nert to it. 
riifive Ofticer for Commission IV, Norman 
the Assistant Executive Officer, Joseph 
(lie Associate Executive Officer, Robert 
Harpignies. the foUovFing officers were assigned to Com- 
mittee IV/2: Secretary, Edwin D. Dicliinson; Assistant 
Secretaries, Dana Backus, Llewellyn Pfankuchen, and 
James Simsarian. UNCIO Doc. 66, IV/1, May 3, 1945. 
For the list of the personnel of the Secretariat, see Dele- 
gates and Officials of the United Nations Conference on 
International Organization, Revised to May 28, San Fran- 
cisco, California, 1945, UNCIO Doc. 639, G/3(2), May 
28, 1945, pp. 79 ff. 

" To Committee III/3, concerned with "Enforcement 
Arrangements" under the Security Council, had been as- 
signed "matters dealt with in Chapter VIII, Section 
B ... of the Dumbarton Oaks Proposals." That section 
embraced "Determination of Threats to the Peace or Acts 
of Aggression and Action with Respect Thereto." UNCIO 
I >oc. 31, cited supra, n. 11. See Report of Committee III/3 
on chapter VIII, section B, UNCIO Doc. SSI, III/3/46, June 
10, 1945, p. 4. 

-" UNCIO Doc. 115, cited supra, n. 12. 

-' But the records of Committee IV/1 do not reveal con- 
sideration of the subject. See, e.g.. Report of the Rap- 
porteur of Committee IV/1, UNCIO Doc, 913, IV/1/74 (1), 
June 12, 1945. 

^The UNCIO Sununary Heport for this meeting omits 
this detail. UNCIO Doc. 450, IV/2/20, May 19, 1945. No 
provision for a flag was made in the Convention on the 
Privileges and Imnumities of the United Nations approved 
by the General Assembly in London. 

''Draft Report of Subcommittee I/2/D (the Secretar- 
iat), June 1, 1945, UNCIO Doc. 720, I/2/D/1, May 31, 1945. 



Under the 
J. Padi'lfci 
Sweeney, 



mittee IV/2 therefore did ii<jt discuss the 
problem.™ 

At the same meeting it was suggested that the 
committee might consider the organization of an 
"International Bar Association." The chairman 
ventured the view that the subject really pertained 
to Committee IV/1, which dealt with the Inter- 
national Court of Justice. Committee IV/2 tliere- 
upon dropped the matter.-^ 

In the scventli meeting of Committee IV/2 on 
May 1!>, l'.»4."i diiriiio- the discussicm of the report 
of the -iiKi'diiiiiiittcc on privileges and immunities, 
the Chilean Delegate expressed the view that pro- 
visidii shiJiilil be made for the use of a flag by the 
United Nations, as for example, when chartering 
a sliip, and for otlier purposes. He thought that 
if reference to the idea appeared in the report it 
might come in handy later when a convention on 
privileges and immunities was being drafted. The 
chairman felt, however, that the report had gone 
into enough detail. The delegate then did not 
press the matter.^- 

Dnring a diseiission in Committee 1/2 of a para- 
grapli in a icport-^ by the subcommittee on the 
Secretariat dealing with a proposed undertaking 
by tlie members of the United Nations "to respect 
the exclusively international character of the re- 
sponsibilities of the Secretary-General and the 
staff and not to seek to influence them in the dis- 
charge of their responsibilities", the "question was 
raised whether this paragraph covered the risk 
which might be faced by a member of tlie Secre- 
tariat as the result of taking an oath of allegiance 
to the Organization" and as a result of participat- 
ing "in the preparation of military plans for pos- 
sible use against his own state". Committee 1/2 
felt these were matters for the attention of Com- 
mittee IV/2. The records of Committee IV/2 do 
not, however, indicate that these matters were 
presented to it for examination. 

Agenda Topics 
Of the nine problems dealt with at some length 
l>y Committee IV/2 and its subcommittees, four 
did not become the subject of texts recommended 
by the connnittee for inclusion in the Charter. 
Their disposition will now be outlined. 

codikication ok development of international 
Law 

The wide-spread interest of governments in se- 
curing some provision in the Charter devoted to 



JULY 7, 1946 



the development of international law is evidenced 
by the fact that fifteen governments submitted com- 
ments on the subject, eight of them also offering 
proposed amendments, and that the Four Spon- 
soring Powers included the subject in one of their 
joint proposed amendments.-* Accordingly, the 
topic appeared on the agenda of the tenth meeting 
of Committee IV/2 for May 23, 1945.== It was 
speedily pointed out in debate, however, that Com- 
mittee II/2 on "Political and Security Functions," 
was also dealing with this question and had already 
passed two motions on the matter.^'' The questions 
put to Committee II/2 wei-e: (1) "Should the 
Assembly be empowered to initiate studies and 
make recommendations for the codifii'ation of in- 
ternational law?" and (2) 'Shoiilil I he Assembly 
be empowered to initiate stmlif^ ami make i-ecom- 
mendations for promoting the revision of the rules 
and principles of international law?" For both 
the vote was in the affirmative. But on the follow- 
ing question, the vote of Committee II/2 was 2G 
to 1 in the negative : (3) "Should the Assembly be 
authorized to enact rules of international law 
which should become binding upon members after 
such rules shall have been approved by the Security 
Council ?" Confronted with this voting record of 
a fellow committee, Committee IV/2 declined to 
proceed with its agenda item.=' In its final report 
it submitted no recommendation on the subject,=^ 
but the decisions of Committee II/2 are embodied 
in the clause dealing with international law in 
article 13 of the Charter. 

Revision or Reconsideratuin of Treaties 

"Should the Charter provide for the reconsidera- 
tion of treaties and what should be the criteria 
of such reconsideration V This question appeared 
on the agenda for Committee IV/2 for May 21, 
1945.'" On opening of the debate, the Delegate of 
China referred to the proposal put forward by the 
Four Sponsoring Powers, then before Commission 
II, empowering the General Assembly "to recom- 
mend measures for the peaceful adjustment of any 
situations, regardless of origin, which it deems 
likely to impair the general welfare or friendly 
relations among nations . . ." =*" This, he de- 
clared, provided for the principle of revision of 
treaties. He raised the question whether, in view 
of the debate occurring in Committee II/2, the 
present committee would wish to deal with the sub- 
ject. A division of opinion among delegates there- 
upon appeared with respect to the nature of the 



subject, whether it was political or juridical, or 
both. Some delegates "felt that there were jurid- 
ical aspects which could be distinguished from 
tiie political nature of the problem and that these 
should be discussed by the connnittee." The en- 
tire session of the committee was devoted to dis- 
cussion of the jurisdictional question. In the end 
it was agreed that "the question of revision of 
treaties should be postponed until the Steering 
Committee " requests Committee IV/2 to take the 
matter under advisement." ^~ No such request came 
to Committee IV/2. Committee II/2, however, 
after extended and exegetic debate,'^ recommended 
the provision quoted above for inclusion in the 
Charter, where it appears in a qualified context 
in article 14. 

Relation of International Law and the 
Charter to Internal Law 

Several governments in their comments and pro- 
posed amendments in relation to the Dumbarton 
Oaks Proposals had displayed interest in a pi-o- 
vision for the Charter designed expressly to subor- 
dinate national internal law to international law 
and the obligations of the Charter. The text 
offered by the Belgian Delegation came under dis- 
cussion first. It read : "No state can evade the au- 
thority of international law or the obligations of 

" Documentation for Meetings of Committee IV/2, Devel- 
opment of International Law, UNCIO Doc. 225, IV/2/9, 
May 11, 1945. 

"' UNCIO Doc. 522, IV/2/25, May 23, 1945. 

^' Summary Report of Tenth Meeting of Committee II/2, 
May 21, 1945, UNCIO Doc. 507, II/2/22, May 23, 1945. 

" Summary Report of Tentli Meeting of Committee IV/2, 
May 23, 1945, UNCIO Doc. 554, IV/2/2S, May.25, 1945. 

"* Report of the Rapporteur of Committee IV/2, UNCIO 
Doc. 933, IV/2/42/(2), June 12, 1945, p. 6. 

'"UNCIO Doc. 458, IV/2/21, May 20, 1945. For the 
comments and iH'oposecl amendments submitted to the 
Conference, see UNCIO Doc. 223, IV/2/8, May 11, 1945. 

'° Summary Report of Third Meeting of Committee II/2, 
May 9, 1945, UNCIO Doc. 203, II/2/8, May 10, 1945. 

"Composed of the chairmen of all the delegations. It 
had authority to "consider any major policy or procedure 
question submitted to it during the Conference by the 
Co-Presidents or by the Chairman of any Delegation." 
"Organization of the Conference", UNCIO Doc. 31, DC/6, 
Apr. 27, 1945. 

'' Summary Report of Eighth Meeting of Committee IV/2, 
May 21, 1945, UNCiO Doc. 492, IV/2/23, May 22. 1945. 

'' See particularly Summary Reports of the Seventeenth 
and Eighteenth Meetings, June 1 and June 2, 1945, UNCIO 
Doc. 748, II/2/39, June 2, 1945, and Doc. 771, II/2/41, June 
3, 1945, respectively. Senator Vandenberg's exposition is 
in Doc. 748. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETII\ 



the present Charter by invoking the provisions of 
its internal law."^* The summary report for the 
ninth meeting of Committee I'V/2 accurately sums 
up the debate on the proposal : "There was no dis- 
agreement with the principle underlying the pro- 
posal before the Committee. It was stated, how- 
ever, that such a proposal did not need to be in- 
serted in the Charter, but more properly belonged 
in a codification of international law, if that were 
later to be undertaken by the General Assembly." ^^ 
On the question of inclusion or exclusion of such 
a clause, the vote of the committee was 21 in favor 
of insertion and 15 against. The motion was lost, 
liowever, for lack of a two-thirds majority. The 
principal motion having failed of adoption, a 
subordinate motion to commit the subject for 
study to the subcommittee, favored by various del- 
egates who had objected to insertion, was lost too. 
Nevertheless, the chairman, interpreting the "good 
will" of the committee and in the absence of ob- 
jection, referred the defeated proposal amidst 
general laughter to the subcommittee. The sub- 
committee, IV/2/A, did not, however, resume dis- 
cussion of the subject.^" 

Interpretation of the Charter 

At the eleventh meeting of Committee II/2 on 
Political and Security Functions, on May 23, 1945, 
the following question was discussed : "Should the 
General Assembly have sovereign (exclusive) 
competence to interpret the provisions of the 
Charter?" After some of the implications of the 
question were explored. Committee II/2 approved 
a suggestion that the topic of interpretation should 
be referred to Committee IV/2 for consideration.^' 

" Documentation for Meetings of Cominittee IV/2, Rela- 
tion of International Law and the Charter to Internal Law, 
UNCIO WD 12, IV/2/24, May 22, 1945. 

" May 22, 1945, UNCIO Doc. 527, IV/2/27, May 23, 1945. 

™ Report of Committee IV/2, UNCIO Doc. 933, 
IV/2/42/(2), June 12, 1945. 

" UNCIO Doc. 536, II/2/24, May 24, 1945. 

^ Agenda for Twelfth Meeting of Committee IV/2, May 
28, 1045, UNCIO Doc. 623, IV/2/31, May 28, 1945. 

'" Summary Report of Twelfth Meeting of Committee 
IV/2, May 28, 1945, UNCIO Doc. 664, IV/2/33, May 29, 
1945. See supra, n. 17, for delegations appointed to this 
subcommittee. 

"Report of Special Subcommittee of Committee IV/2 
on the Interpretation of the Charter, UNCIO Doc. 750, 
IV/2/B/1, June 2, 1945. 

"Revised Summary Report of Fourteenth Meeting of 
Committee IV/2, June 7, 1945, UNCIO Doc. 873, IV/2/37 
(1), June 9, 1945. 



For Committee IV/2 the question was rephrased 
to read : "How and by what organ or organs of 
the Organization should the Charter be inter- 
preted T"'** The French Delegate reviewed and 
summarized the discussion in Committee II/2 for 
the benefit of Committee IV/2 at its twelfth meet- 
ing on May 28, 1945. Then followed probably one 
of the most instructive debates witnessed in any 
of the technical committees of the Conference. 
The quintessential of the role of the interpreta- 
tive function under various types of fundamental 
instruments, both national and international, were 
set forth by experts eminently qualified to speak 
for diverse juristic and political systems. At the 
conclusion of the debate the committee decided 
that a special subcommittee be appointed to in- 
vestigate the question further and to prepare a re- 
port for submission to the full committee.^" 

When the report of the subcommittee *° was pre- 
sented to Committee IV/2 further debate ensued. 
After defeat of an amendment which some mem- 
bers believed would have weighted the process un- 
duly in favor of the advisory opinion method of 
interpretation, Committee IV/2 approved the re- 
port without any change in its language.^^ The 
text of the substantive part of the report follows : 

"In the course of the operations from day to 
day of the various organs of the Organization, it 
is inevitable that each organ will interpret such 
parts of the Charter as are applicable to its par-, 
ticular functions. This process is inherent in the 
functioning of any body which operates under an 
instrument defining its functions and powers. It 
will be manifested in the functioning of such a 
body as the General Assembly, the Security Coun- 
cil, or the International Court of Justice. Accord- 
ingly, it is not necessary to include in the Charter 
a provision either authorizing or approving the 
normal operation of this principle. 

"Difficulties may conceivably arise in the event 
that there should be a difference of opinion among 
the organs of the Organization concerning the 
correct interpretation of a provision of the 
Charter. Thus, two organs may conceivably hold 
and may express or even act upon different views. 
Under unitary forms of national government the 
final determination of such a question may be 
vested in the highest court or in some other 
national authority. However, the nature of the 
Organization and of its operation would not seem 
to be such as to invite the inclusion in the Charter 



JULY 7, 1946 

of any provision of this nature. If two member 
states are at variance concerning the correct inter- 
pretation of the Charter, they are of course free 
to submit the dispute to the International Court 
of Justice as in the case of any other treaty. 
Simihxrly, it woukl always be open to tlu' Ueneral 
Assembly or to the Security Council, in appro- 
priate circumstances, to ask the International 
Court of Justice for an advisory opinion con- 
cerning the meaning of a provision of the 
Charter. Should the General Assembly or the 
Security Council prefer another course, an ad hoc 
committee of jurists might be set up to examine 
the question and report its views, or recourse might 
be had to a joint conference. In brief, the mem- 
bers or the oi-gans of the Organization might have 
recourse to various expedients in order to obtain 
an appropriate interpretation. It would appear 
neither necessary nor desirable to list or to describe 
in the Charter the various possible expedients. 

"It is to be understood, of course, that if an 
interpretation made by any organ of the Organ- 
ization or by a committee of jurists is not gen- 
erally acceptable it will be without binding force. 
In such circumstances, or in cases whei'e it is de- 
sired to establish an authoritative interpretation 
as a precedent for the future, it may be necessary 
to embody the interpretation in an amendment to 
the Charter. This may always be accomplished 
by recourse to the procedure provided for amend- 
ment." 

Provisions Recommended for Charter 

On five subjects. Committee IV/2 recommended 
texts of provisions for inclusion in the Charter. 
The process of preparing the texts in each case 
included one or more days of general debate of 
the subject in the full Committee IV/2 ; study and 
detailed discussion by subcommittee IV/2/A in 
one or more of its meetings ; the drafting of a text 
and a report to accompany it in the subcommittee 
with the aid of the Secretariat and, on one occasion, 
of a small special drafting committee set up by the 
subcommittee ; and the submission of the text and 
the accompanying report to the full committee for 
its scrutiny, discussion, and approval. Members 
of the subcommittee would have cause to con- 
gratulate themselves in view of the fact that 
Committee IV/2 made no changes in the texts they 
submitted and very few changes in their accom- 
panying reports. 

701071—46 2 



Peivileoes and Immunities 

The fii-st substantive topic to which Committee 
IV/2 turned its attention, after it had organized 
itself, was privileges and immunities of the Organ- 
ization, its officials and its staff, and the national 
representatives accredited to it. The committee 
had before it for its consideration certain com- 
ments and amendments submitted by the delega- 
tions of Canada and Mexico.*- Subsequently, it 
had the benefit of a text proposed by the Belgian 
Delegation, which was included in supplementary 
documentation.*^ After discussion of the ques- 
tions on the agenda,*" one of which referred to 
"diplomatic" privileges and immunities, and of 
the Canadian proposal, which envisaged author- 
izing the General Assembly to adopt a conven- 
tion on the whole subject of privileges and immuni- 
ties, "the committee unanimously agreed that the 
Charter should provide privileges and immunities 
for: (a) property owned or occupied by the 
United Nations Organization and devoted to its 
use, and (6) representatives of members and offi- 
cials of the United Nations Organization and their 
staffs." It was also unanimously agreed that the 
subcommittee should "draft the text of a provision 
reo-arding the principle of immunities and privi- 
leges to be included in the Charter".*" 

In pursuance of this mandate. Subcommittee 
IV/2/A devoted its first four meetings to detailed 
examination of the topic and the preparation of a 
text for the Charter. Various of the members, in- 
cluding those sitting for the United States and the 
United Kingdom, offered draft phrasings for the 
desired text. It was agi-eed during the lengthy 
and highly technical discussions: (a) that the sub- 
committee should in its draft Charter provision 
avoid the term "diplomatic" and substitute "a more 
appropriate standard, based, for the purposes of 
the Organization, on the necessity of realizing its 
purposes and, in the case of the representatives of 
its members and the officials of the Organization, 
on providing for the independent exercise of their 
functions;" (J) that the provision should be ap- 
plicable only to organs and agencies established by 

" Documentation for Meetings of Committee IV/2, Privi- 
leges and Immunities, UNCIO Doc. 174, IV/2/6, May 9,1945. 

" UNCIO Doc. 297, IV/2/16, May 15, 1945. 
tions on the agenda,** one of which referred to 

"Agenda for the Second Meeting of Committee lV/2, 
May 10, 1945, UNCIO Doc. 153, IV/2/3, May 9, 1945. 

"Summary Report of Second Meeting of Committee 
IV/2, May 10, 1945, UNCIO Doc. 228, IV/2/10, May 11, 1945- 



10 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



the Charter or in pursuance of the same, and not 
to international agencies independently estab- 
lished but brought into relation with the Organiza- 
tion; (<?) that the General Assembly should have 
a choice of means in determining the application 
of the Charter provision, by making recommenda- 
tions or proposing conventions for the purpose; 
and (tf) tliat whether or not the General Assembly 
exercised the authority conferred on it, the rule set 
forth in the Charter should be obligatory for all 
members as soon as that instrument became 
operative.*" 

Accordingly, the subcommittee submitted a text 
along these lines and a report in explanation of it 
to Committee IV/2 at its seventh meeting. May 18, 
1945.*' In the full committee considerable discus- 
sion centered on the question whether the Interna- 
tional Court of Justice, whose Statute was then 
being elaborated in Committee IV/1, was covered 
by the provisions of the suggested article. It was 
agreed that the article covered the Court as an 
organ of the United Nations but that the privileges 
and immunities of the judges remained to be de- 
fined in an appropriate article of the Statute of 
the Court.*^ The report was amended to clarify 
this point, but the text proposed by the subcom- 
mittee was adopted without change.*^ The lan- 
guage of the text, including the purely stylistic 
changes made by the Coordination Committee,'" 
appears in article 105 of the Charter thus : 

"1. The Organization shall enjoy in the terri- 
tory of each of its Members such privileges and 
immunities as are necessary for the fulfillment of 
its purposes. 

'" The subcommittee met on May 14, 15, 16, and 17 re- 
spectively. Report Submitted by Subcommittee to Com- 
mittee IV/2, UN'CIO Doe. 412, IV/2/A/2 (1), May 18, 1945. 

•" Summary Report, UNCIO Doc. 450, IV/2/20, May 19, 
1945. 

'*Art. 19 of the Statute provides: "The members of 
the Court, vrhen engaged on the business of the Court, 
shall enjoy diplomatic privileges and immunities." 

'" Summary Report of Seventh Meeting of Committee 
IV/2, May 18, 1945, UNCIO Doc. 450, IV/2/20, May 19, 
1945. Corrigendum to UNCIO Doc. 412, supra, is UNCIO 
Doc. 412, IV/2/ A/2 (2), May 19, 1945. 

" Discussed infra, n. 84. 

" Documentation for Meetings of Committee IV/2, Regi.s- 
tration and Publication of Treaties and International 
Agreements, UNCIO Doc. 173, IV/2/5, May 9, 1945. 

" Summary Report of Third Meeting of Committee IV/2, 
May 11, 1945, UNCIO Doc. 261, IV/2/13, May 12,' 1945. 

'■' May 18, 19, 21, 24, and 25, 194!j, respectively. 

" Cf. Report to the PresUtnit. p. 154, cited Kvpra. n, 9. 



"2. Representatives of the Members of the 
United Nations and officials of the Organization 
shall similarly enjoy such privileges and immuni- 
ties as are necessary for the independent exercise 
of their functions in connection with the Organi- 
zation. 

"3. The General Assembly may make recom- 
mendations with a view to determining the de- 
tails of the application of paragraphs 1 and 2 of 
this Article or may propose conventions to the, 
Members of the United Nations for this purpose." 

Registration and Publication of Treaties and 
International Agreements 

Sundry governments in their comments on the 
Dumbarton Oaks Proposals suggested the inclu- 
sion of a provision in the Charter for the regis- 
tration and publication of treaties and interna- 
tional agreements.^ There was no dissent in Com- 
mittee IV/2 from the principle of this proposition, 
but there was general agreement that certain of the 
stipulations in the correlative provision in the Cov- 
enant, ai-ticle 18, particularly the one related to 
the non-binding character of an unregistered 
treaty, had not been altogether satisfactory. De- 
bate concentrated on three aspects of the question : 
(a) the scope of a desirable provision, i.e., what 
types of intergovernmental agreements should be 
subject to registration; (b) the sanction for non- 
registration, i.e., what penalty should attach for 
failure to register; and (c) whether the operation 
of the obligation should be prospective, i.e., requir- 
ing the registration of agreements which become 
effective after the date of coming into force of the 
Charter, or whether it should be retroactive, i.e., 
I'equiring the registration of agreements which had 
become effective prior to the date of coming into 
force of the Charter, back to a date remaining to 
be agreed upon.^^ 

Subcommittee IV/2/A devoted five entire meet- 
ings, its fifth to ninth inclusive,'^ to discussion of 
a suitable text. It examined in detail the aspects 
explored in the full committee. It discussed over 
several days the applicability of the principle of 
registration to agreements which might be con- 
cluded in pursuance of the security scheme con- 
templated for the Organization.^' The most diffi- 
cult of the problems to be solved, however, related 
to the nature of the sanction for failure to register. 
The subcommittee took up the suggestion made by 
the Brazilian Delegate in the discussion in Com- 
mittee IV/2, to tlie effect that treaties not regis- 



JULY 7, 1946 



11 



tered sliould not be invocable in proceedings be- 
fore the United Nations, and considered various 
forms of words incorporating the idea. It dis- 
cussed at some length the possible effects of such a 
sanction upon treaties to which states not members 
of the United Nations miglit be party and agreed 
that registration would have to be open to states 
not members of the United Nations. It then 
charged a small speciah subcommittee, consisting 
of the chairman (the Delegate of Egypt) and the 
Delegates of the United Kingdom and Belgium, 
all expertly bilingual, with the task of producing 
drafts in English and Frencli. Even these drafts 
were subjected to extensive revision by the sub- 
committee. 

When the draft texts and the commentai-y were 
presented to Connnittee IV/2 on May 26, 1945, 
that committee made no changes in the texts and 
but a few in the commentary.'*^ These texts, with 
the necessary stylistic changes made by the Co- 
ordinating Committee, became article 102 of the 
Charter, which reads as follows : 

"1. Every treaty and every international agree- 
ment entered into by any Member of the United 
Nations after the present Charter comes into force 
shall as soon as possible be registered witli the 
Secretariat and published by it. 

"2. No party to any such treaty or international 
agreement which has not been registered in accord- 
ance with the provisions of paragraph 1 of this 
article may invoke that treaty or agreement be- 
fore any organ of the United Nations." 

It should be noted, however, as the commentary 
of Connnittee IV/2 on paragraph 1 put it : "The 
. . . text is general in terms but is not inteiuled to 
preclude appropriate regulations defining its 
application." =*= 

Obligations Inconsistent With the Charter 

The prol)lem of obligations inconsistent with the 
Charter ■'' was one of the most difficult of those 
dealt with by Committee IV/2 : the committee de 
voted three entire meetings '** to discussion of the 
subject before agreement was sufficiently advanced 
to entrust formulation of a text to the subcommit- 
tee. Thorough-going as this debate was, the sub- 
committee found it necessai-y to spend two whole 
meetings and parts of two others in preparation 
of a text and commentary. =" 

On the agenda "" for the fourth meeting of Com- 
mittee IV/2 were the following questions : 



Should the Charter provide that members 

(a) Agree that all obligations inter se which are 
inconsistent with the Charter are abrogated? 

(h) Agree to take immediate steps to secure re- 
lease from any other obligation which is inconsist- 
ent with the Charter? 

(c) Agree not to undertake any obligation in- 
consistent with the Charter? 

The debate in the full committee revealed widely 
divergent approaches to the solution of the prob- 
lem, some delegates contending that no provision 
on the subject appear in the Charter at all and 
others that a provision be inserted requiring auto- 
matic abrogation of all treaties inconsistent with 
tlie Charter, past and future. There was similar 
divergence of view with respect to providing or 
not providing for a procedure to determine al- 
leged inconsistency. There was further difference 
of opinion as to what organ, if any, of the United 
Nations should be empowered to apply the pro- 
cedure. Delegates set forth many of the subtleties 
involved in the determination of a question of in- 
consistency. Lessons were drawn from the experi- 
ence of the League of Nations under article 20 
of the Covenant. One delegate drew attention to 
the case of agreements not inconsistent with the 
Charter but which could be so used as to frustrate 
or impede action which the Organization might 
wish to take. Others referred to the enormous 
practical difficulties confronting a state on enter- 
ing the United Nations if it were required at that 
time to review all of its outstanding treaty obliga- 
tions on the point of consistency with the Charter. 
Committee IV/2 appeared to agree generally on 

'' Report of Subcommittee IV/2/A on Registration and 
Publication of Treaties, UNCIO Doc. .58.5, IV/2/A/4, May 
25, 1945. As amended by Committee IV/2 it became UNCIO 
Doc. 651, IV/2/A/4(l), May 28, 1945. Summary Report 
of Eleventh Meeting of Committee IV/2, May 26, 1945, 
DNCIO Doc. 629, IV/2/32, May 26, 1945. 

""The making of provisions for the adoption of such 
"appropriate regulations" became one of the tasks of the 
legal committees meeting in London. See infra. 

" Documentation for Meetings of Committee IV/2, Obli- 
gations Inconsistent with the Charter of the United Na- 
tions Organization, UNCIO Doc. 172, IV/2/4, May 9, 1945. 

" Summary Reports for the Fourth, Fifth, and Sixth 
Meetings of Committee IV/2, May 12, 16, and 17, 1945, 
respectively; UNCIO Doc. 270, IV/2/14, May 14, 1945; 
Doe. 378, IV/2/17, May 17, 1945 ; and Doc. 419, IV/2/19, 
May 18, 1945. 

"Its tenth to thirteenth meetings. May 30 and 31. June 
4 and 5, 1945, respectively. 

«° UNCIO Doc. 248, IV/2/11, Mny 12, 1945. 



12 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



iit. least one point, that members should not foi' 
the future undertake obligiitions inconsistent with 
the Charter. 

In the subcommittee, progress toward a solution 
came with the voicing of this concept: "The 
Charter covers a much wider field than did the 
Covenant. It is therefore much more difficult 
to determine the incompatibility of a treaty theo- 
retically in advance of a concrete case arising.'' 
Numerous phrasings of a text embodying this con- 
cept of possible future contingency were exam- 
ined. Finally the subcommittee agreed upon the 
following : 

"In the event of any conflict arising between the 
obligations of Members of the Organization under 
the Charter and their obligations under any other 
international agreement the former shall prevail." 

At the fourteenth meeting of Ci)nimitt(>e IV/2, 
both the text and the commentary '' presented by 
the subcommittee were approved, ''almost unani- 
mously," as the chairman put it. Certain objec- 
tions of the Australian Delegation to both text and 
commentaiy were enteied on the record.''^ The 
language of the text, after stylistic changes by 
the Coordination Committee, appears in article 103 
of the Charter as follows : 

"In the event of a conflict between the obliga- 
tions of the Members of the United Nations under 
the present Charter and their obligations under 
any other international agreement, their obliga- 
tions under the present Charter shall prevail." 

Juridical Status of the Organization 

Although Committee IV/2 first discussed the 
question of legal status of the proposed Organ- 

°' Report of Subcommittee IV/2/A on Obligations In- 
consistent with the Charter, UNCIO Doc. 798, IV/2/ A/6 
(1), June 5, 1945. 

°- Summary Report of Fourteenth Meeting of Committee 
lV/2, June 7, 1945, UNCIO Doc. 843, IV/2/37, June 7, 1945, 
the report of the Australian declaration being corrected in 
UNCIO Doc. 873, lV/2/37 (1), June 9, 1945. 

°' Documentation for Meetings of Committee IV/2, Jurid- 
ical Status of the International Organization, UNCIO 
Doc. 524, IV/2/26, May 23, 1945. 

*' Summary Report of Tenth Meeting of Committee IV/2, 
May 23, 1945, UNCIO Doc. 554, IV/2/28, May 25, 1845. 

"Report of Subcommittee IV72/A on the Juridical 
Status of the Organization, UNCIO Doc. 803, IV/2/ A/7, 
June 6, 1945. 

""Revi.sed Summary Rpport of Fourteenth Meeting of 
Committee IV/2, June 7, 1945, UNCIO Doc. 873, IV/2/37 
(1), June 9, 1!)45. 



ization at its tenth meeting on May 23, 1945, the 
subcommittee had already discussed it in a prelim- 
inary fashion at its first meeting on May 15, 1945 
in the course of its consideration of the larger 
problem of privileges and immunities. The ex- 
tensive debate in both committees on this larger 
question of the functioning of the international 
entity then in process of creation facilitated agree- 
ment on the nature of the status to be accorded the 
Organization. Since there were several propos- 
als ''" on the subject and some difference of opinion 
whether a Charter provision relating to it was 
really necessary, it was agreed to refer the ques- 
tion to the subcommittee "for consideration and 
report, with the understanding that the subcom- 
mittee might report as it saw fit on the matter".''* 

Early in the twelfth meeting of the subcommit- 
tee, delegates compromised between the desire of 
some of them that no provision go into the Charter 
and the insistence of others that the several jurid- 
ical capacities be enumerated by agreeing on a 
general and simple formula modeled upon that in 
the privileges and immunities clause. They re- 
ported the following text to Committee IV/2 : 

■'The Organization shall enjoy in the territory 
of each of its members such legal capacity as may 
be necessary for the exercise of its functions and 
the fulfillment of its puriJose." 
Ill the accompanying report appears the following 
comment : 

"The Organization must be able, in its own ' 
name, to contract, to hold movable and immovable 
property, to appear in court. These are only ex- 
amples. The Subcommittee has jireferred to ex- 
press no opinion on the procedures of internal law 
necessary to assure this result. These procedures 
may differ according to the legislation of each 
member State. It is possible that among the ma- 
jority of them it may be indispensable that the 
Organization be recognized as a juridical person- 
ality. 

"As regards the question of international jurid- 
ical personality, the Subcommittee has consid- 
ered it superfluous to make this the subject of a 
text. In effect, it will be determined implicitly 
from the provisions of the Charter taken as a 
whole." ''^ 

Both the text and the report were approved by 
Committee IV/2 without amendment or objec- 
tion. °° The text entered the Charter without any 
change by the Coordination Committee. 



JULY -, 1946 

Coming Into Force of the Charter 
The final task of drafting assigned to Committee 
1\/-1 consisted in framing a provision for the com- 
in<r into force of the Charter and in preparing 
certain of the so-called "clauses protocolaires," i.e. 
formal provisions regulating procedural details 
pertinent to such coming into force. 

An amendment dealing with ratification pro- 
posed by the Four Sponsoring Powers was dis- 
cussed by Committee IV/2 at its thirteenth meet- 
ing on May 31, 1945. It read : 

"The present Charter comes into force after its 
ratification in accordance with their respective 
constitutional processes by the members of the Or- 
ganization liaving permanent seats on the Security 
Council and by a majority of the other members of 
the Organization." "^ 

Various questions relating to reservations, date 
of effectiveness, deposit of ratifications, and adher- 
ence were raised in the discussion in Committee 
IV/2. "Several delegates felt that the right to 
make reservations was a clear principle of inter- 
national law, but others felt it was highly contro- 
versial and political in nature and should not be 
discussed by Committee IV/'2. It was pointed out 
that this problem was not on the agenda ; that it 
had not formally arisen ; and, tlierefore, it was not 
within the competence of Committee IV/2. It was 
agreed not to discuss this point furtlaer." The 
other questions, however, were entrusted to the sub- 
conunittee for consideration."* 

In the subcommittee,"" tlae Chairman and the 
Delegate of Norway suggested the "Govermnent of 
the United States of America" as the depository 
power. A Chilean proposal for denunciation hav- 
ing appeared among the amendments submitted to 
Committee IV/2,''' the subcommittee discussed it 
briefly. In view of tlie fact that the whole ques- 
tion of "universality" and "withdrawal" had been 
considered in Committee 1/2," the subcommittee 
decided to pass ovei' tlie question of "denunciation". 
It then adopted a form of words for a text which 
included many of the suggestions made in the full 
committee. It relied on tlie report to draw to "the 
attention of the appropriate committee of the Con- 
ference the need for considering the inclusion of 
provisions dealing with the signing of the Char- 
ter" and other matters on which it was submitting 
no text." 

When the subcommittee was examining its pro- 
visional report at its next meeting," it was in- 



13 

formed that the Conference might establish an 
interim commission and that it might be desired to 
liave tlic (■(lnllllis^lon, rather than the Government 
of the I'liiU'cl Si;\tes, act as the depository. An 
amenchiii'iit lo tlie report was accordingly drawn 
up in this sense. 

Connnittee IV/2 examined the provisional re- 
port '* of tiie subcommittee and the amendment at 
its fourteenth meeting." After deleting from the 
report mention of the question of denunciation or 
withdrawal and accepting the subcommittee's 
amendment to its own report, it approved both 
report and text, the latter without change.'" 

The text as it came from Committee IV/2 is as 
follows: 

"1. The present Charter shaU be ratified by the 
signatory states in accordance with their respec- 
tive constitutional processes. 

"2. The ratifications shall be deposited with the 
Government of the United States of America 
which shall notify all the signatory states of each 
deposit. 

"3. As soon as ratifications have been deposited 
by each of the states entitled to a permanent seat 
on the Security Council and by a majority of the 
other signatory states, the Charter shall come into 
force for those states which have deposited their 
ratifications. 

"J:. The Charter shall come into force for each 
of the other signatory states on the date of the 
deposit of its ratification." 

With certain changes and additions made by the 
Coordinating Committee," the text relating to 

" Documentation for Meetings of Committee IV/2, 
Coming into Force of the Charter, UNCIO Doc. 621, 
IV/2/30, May 26, 1945. 

*" Summary Report of Thirteenth Meeting of Committee 
IV/2. May .31, 1945, UNCIO Doc. 721, IV/2/3o, May 31, 1045. 

* Thirteenth meeting, June 5, 1945. 

"Cited supra, n. 67. 

"Cf. Report of the Rapporteur (MeinlitTsliip) of Com- 
mittee 1/2 on chapter III, UNCIO V>w. (UlG, 1/2/43, May 
26, 1945, pp. 3-4. 

" Infra, n. 74. 

" Fourteenth meeting, June 7, 1945. 

"Provisional Report of, Subcommittee IV/2/A on Com- 
ing into Force of the Charter, UNCIO Doc. S20, IV/2/A/8. 
June 6, 1945. 

" Op. cit. supra, a. 66. 

" Report of Subcommittee IV/2/A on Coming into Force 
of tlie Charter, UNCIO Doc. 837, IV/2/A/8(l) , June 7, 1945. 

" Summary Report of Eighteenth Meeting of Coordina- 
tion Committee, June 13, 1945, UNCIO WD 314, CO/126, 
June 14, 1045. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



coming into force as it appears in article 110 
of the Charter is as follows : 

"1. The present Charter shall be ratified by the 
signatory states in accordance with their respective 
constitutional processes. 

"2. The ratifications shall be deposited with the 
Government of the United States of America, 
which shall notify all the signatory states of each 
deposit as well as the Secretary-General of the 
Organization when he has been appointed. 

"3. The present Charter shall come into force 
upon the deposit of ratifications by the Republic of 
China, France, the Union of Soviet Socialist Re- 
publics, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and 
Northern Ireland, and the United States of Amer- 
ica, and by a majority of the other signatory states. 
A protocol of the ratifications deposited shall 
thereupon be drawn up by the Government of the 
United States of America which shall communi- 
cate copies thereof to all the signatory states. 

"4. The states signatory to the present Charter 
which ratify it after it has come into force will be- 
come original Members of the United Nations on 

"UNCIO Doc. S99, IV/2/40, June 10, 1945, with An- 
nexed Docs. 886 and 887. 

'" Sumraar.v Report, UNCIO Doc. 917, IV/2/41, June 12, 

"Draft Report of the UMppcirteur of Committee IV/2 : 
(a.s submitted to tlie sulici.niiiiitee) UNCIO WD 269, 
IV/2/42, June 12, r.t4."p ; (;is presented to committee) 
IV/2, WD 269, IV/2/42 (1), June 12, 1945. 

" Report of the Rapporteur of Committee IV/2, as ap- 
proved by the Committee, UNCIO Doc. 933, IV/2/42 (2), 
June 12, 1945. 

" Summary Report, UNCIO Doc. 934, IV/2/43, June 12, 
1945. 

"^Verbatim Minutes of Second Meeting of Commission 
IV, June 15, 1945, UNCIO Doc. 1007, IV/12, June 15, 1945, 
pp. 12 ff. 

""Organization of the Conference", UNCIO Doc. 31, 
DC/6, Apr. 27, 1915. The Executive Committee was com- 
po.sed of the chairmen of the delegations of the Sponsoring 
Governments, namely, China, Union of Soviet Socialist 
Republics, United Kingdom, United States, and the chair- 
men of the delegations of ten additional governments, 
namely, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Czechoslovakia, 
France, Iran, Mexico, the Netherlands, Yugoslavia. The 
functions of the Executive Committee were to make rec- 
ommendations to the Steering Committee for its con- 
sideration and otherwise to assist the Steering Committee 
MS the latter might authorize. For the personnel of these 
conference committees, as well as the officers of Commis- 
sion IV and its committees, see the handbook cited in 
n. 18, supra. 



the date of the deposit of their respective ratifi- 
cations." 

FiN.\L Report of Committee IV/2 

The draft report of the rapporteur of Committee 
IV/2 '" submitted to the full committee at its fif- 
teenth meeting on June 11, 1945," was thought by 

1045. 

the committee to be too brief. It was sent to the 
subcommittee with instructions to include the 
fuller reports jjreviously adopted by Committee 
IV/2 and for the achievement of cleai-er conform- 
ity in the English and French texts. The rap- 
porteur of Committee IV/2 (the delegate of Nica- 
ragua) was added to the subcommittee for the 
purpose in hand. 

The revised draft report approved by the sub- 
committee at its fifteenth and final meeting on 
June 12, 1945 contained the texts of the reports 
of subcommittees A and B, which had been ap- 
proved by the full committee, with an appropriate 
editing out of material of a non-final character.*" 
Committee IV/2 at its sixteenth meeting on June 
12, 1945 approved this report*^ without comment 
or objection.*- Commission IV at its second meet- 
ing, June 15, 1945, received the report and f onnal- 
ly approved each of the texts proposed for in- 
sertion in the Charter."^ 

Review by Coordination Committee 

Meanwhile, after completion of the work of 
Committee IV/2, the texts of the proposed Charter 
had been transmitted to the Coordination Com- 
mittee. This committee, set up by the meeting of 
the chairmen of delegations, and under the chair- 
manship of Leo Pasvolsky of the United States 
Delegation, consisted of 14 members, one repre- 
senting each member of the Executive Committee. 
It was charged with assisting the Executive Com- 
mittee in the performance of the hitter's func- 
tions.** More specifically, among its other tasks, 
it received and scrutinized texts prepared for in- 
sertion in the Charter, making the necessary 
changes in the language to produce a uniform style 
and to eliminate repetitions and contradictions in 
the final instrument. Where any proposed 
change in language was thought to amount to a 
change in substance, the technical committee 
whence the text emanated was consulted for its 



JULY 7, 1946 

opinion.*" The Coordination Committee was as- 
sisted by a small Advisory Committee of Jurists,'" 
under the chairnumship of Green H. Hackworth 
of the United States Delegation, consisting of six 
distinguished international lawyers, three of 
whom, Jules Basdevant of France, S. A. Golunsky 
of the Soviet Union, and Sir William Malkin of 
the United Kingdom, had served on Committee 
TV/2. The Coordination Committee was also as- 
sisted by an Advisory Committee on Languages 
whose function it was to review approved texts 
from the point of view of language only, in order 
to assure accuracy and uniformity in all the five 
languages in whicli the final text of the Charter was 
to be signed, that is, English, French, Russian, 
Chinese, and Spanish.*' 

Stylistic and other necessary changes made by 
the Coordinating Committee in the texts appi'oved 
by Committee IV/2 have already been noted. One 
proposed alteration in langiuxge, however, was 
finally thought likely to involve a change in sub- 
stance. In the Coordination Committee the phras- 

'■' Coordination Committee, Proposed Conference Pro- 
cedure on Drafting Pinal Cliarter, UNCIO Doc. 178, CO/1, 
May 9, 1945, as amended and explained in the first meet- 
ing of the Coordination Committee. See Summary [Re- 
port] of First Meeting of Coordination Committee, May 9, 
194.5, UNCIO Doc. 198, CO/2, May 10, 1945. 

'"Ibid. 

"' Three panels were set up, one each for Russian, 
Chinese, and Spanish. On each ijanel were five experts, 
representing each of the five official languages but all of 
them knowing the language of the panel on which they 
served. 

'^ UNCIO Doe. 1058, CO/132 (1), June 18, 1945, in com- 
pilation under UNCIO Doc. 1140, CO/179, June 21, 1945. 

™ Italics are the author's. 

"" Final Changes Made by the Coordination Committee 
in the Text of the Charter of the United Nations, as Ap- 
proved by the Steering Committee, June 23, 1945. UNCIO 
Doc. 1192, CO/185, June 25, 1945. 

"' Summary Report of Eleventh Meeting of the Steering 
Committee, June 23, 1945, UNCIO Doc. 1213, ST/23, June 
28, 1945. 

"^ Verbatim Minutes of the Ninth Plenary Session, June 
25, 1945, UNCIO Doc. 1210, P/20, June 27, 1945. 



15 

ing of the article on inconsistent obligations was 
rendered as follows : ** 

"In the event of a conflict between the obliga- 
tions of the Members of the United Nations under 
the present Charter and any other international 
ohligation-s to which they are subject, their obliga- 
tions under the present Charter shall prevail." *' 
The corresponding original phrasing referred to 
"their obligations under any other international 
agreenvent".^"^ There being doubt in the Coordina- 
tion Committee as to whether the new language 
involved a change of substance, the committee 
agreed to refer the article to the officers of Com- 
mittee IV/2 for their opinion. At the i-equest of 
the president of Commission IV, the original 
phrasing was restored "with a view to making the 
text correspond more exactly to the thoughts and 
decisions of Technical Committee IV/2 and of 
Commission IV"."" 

As this precis of the work of Committee IV/2 
indicates, every proposal considered by it which 
resulted in a provision for the Charter was de- 
bated, committed, discussed, examined, drafted, 
amended, revised, x-eported, approved, and other- 
wise technically dealt with repetitively during the 
conference. Indeed, some wag seeking verbs-of- 
action to describe every step in this elaborate 
process might not unreasonably be reminded of 
Eabelais' famous tale of Diogenes and his tub. In 
view of this intricate drafting process, it is un- 
likely then that any word or phrase has entered 
the Charter inadvertently. 

Final Action by UNCIO 
After the Steering Committee had examined 
and approved '^ the final draft of the Charter 
emanating from the Coordination Committee, the 
Conference approved it at its ninth plenary ses- 
sion on June 25, 19J:5."= In an impressive cere- 
mony, the delegates signed the Charter on June 
26, 1945. 

[Editor's note: The work of the United Nations legal 
committees which met in London will be discussed in a 
forthcoming issue of the Bulletin.] 



Peace Goals 



By SENATOR AUSTIN 



THIS FiEST ANNIVERSARY of the signing of the 
Charter of the United Nations is fittingly cele- 
brated by concentrating on peace goals. 

They are those objectives which the nations 
might practically achieve together before some 
world leader announces them as -war goals. The 
achievement of them through the machinery of the 
United Nations, developing a habit among free 
peoples of collaboration on a world program, 
would give vitality to the Charter and demonstrate 
that we can peacefully attain the broader objec- 
tives. 

Working together patiently under God's guid- 
ance is the only way to that understanding and 
confidence which will make the United Nations 
effective. 

The machinery of general international organi- 
zation cannot run itself. Only men who know what 
they want to achieve, and who have the united 
support of their several peoples, can supply the 
energy that will make the wheels turn. 

Therefore, through national organizations of 
business, labor, agriculture, veterans, women, edu- 
cation, religion, and international relations, we 
strive to — 

Plan a nation-wide educational program on 

the United Nations ; 

Inspire Americans, especially such citizens' 

organizations as the 150 conferring under the 

sponsorship of the Foreign Policy Association 

today, to look ahead and discuss what they hope 

An address delivered before the Foreign Policy Associa- 
tion in New York, N. Y., on June 26, 1946 the text of which 
was released to the press on the same date. The dinner 
was given on the occasion of the anniversary of the signing 
of the United Nations Charter. Mr. Austin, presently tJ. S. 
Senator from Vermont, has been nominated as U. S. Rep- 
resentative to the United Nations. 



to see accomplished through United Nations 
machinery, particularly the goals toward which 
they want their representatives in the various 
organs, commissions, and specialized agencies to 
work ; 

Kelate the main lines of American foreign 
policy to the task of clarifying our peace goals ; 

Suggest a few of the specific goals on which 
to exercise the relatively new function of acting 
togetlier internationally. 

Our deeds will count, not only in the attainment 
of their beneficent objectives, but also in building 
up morale to wage peace generally. 

Every strategic point gained in collaboration 
with our Allies in the peace struggle will bring the 
world nearer to the final victory over the imper- 
sonal enemies of mankind. 

In warfare we have defeated the enemy. In 
peace we have not consolidated the victory. This 
will not be achieved unless the purposes and prin- 
ciples of the United Nations are made living mo- 
tives in the souls of men. 

To bring this about, two immediate steps are 
necessary : 

The holding action to prevent threats to peace 
defined in article 2 of the Charter. Thus, as in 
the shadow of a great rock, we could enjoy the 
security in which the other, and corresponding 
step, can be taken. 

Operation of the machinery in definite, spe- 
cific, common enterprises. 

For example, the International Labor Organi- 
zation, liaving more than 50 member states, has 
the basic purpose of promoting improved labor , 
standards and social security in all countries. It 
aims to eliminate sub-labor standards, which cause 
unrest and disturbance, socially and economically. 



16 



JULY 7, 1946 



It is one of the specialized agencies enabled Ly 
article .57 of the Charter to be brought into re- 
lationship with the United Nations. This must 
be done by agreement with tlie Economic and 
Social Council, subject to approval by the General 
Assembly. 

At the Paris Conference, held last December, 
the International Labor Organization prepared 
to sever its loose ties with the League of Nations 
and to affiliate with the United Nations. 

Tlie necessary steps of severing connections with 
the League of Nations were initiated at tlie Paris 
Conference, subject to ratification by the member 
states of the International Labor Organization. 
A draft agreement of relationship between the In- 
ternational Labor Organization and the United 
Nations was approved by the Economic and Social 
Council during the CounciFs present session here 
in New York. 

It is hoped that this agreement will be ajjproved 
by the General Assembly and l>y (he (icnei'al Con- 
ference of the International Labor Organization 
next September. 

This International Labor Organization is a vig- 
orous, going concern. Its practical effect on inter- 
national cooperation is indicated by the fact tliat 
at Paris it readmitted into membership a former 
enemy state — Italy. Here is a twentieth century 
tool of great effectiveness for peace, whose energy 
could be employed on a constructive program 
against common impersonal enemies. In devel- 
oping its process of working, new patterns of 
thinking and common understanding would be 
crystallized into custom and habit. If it should 
become an agency of the United Nations, it would 
bring to our peace objective vast manpower for 
production, trade, and reconstruction. It might 
contribute to industrial peace a mode of relations 
between employer and employee tliat would re- 
duce work-stoppages which endanger tl« chances 
of winning the peace, just as lost man-hours en- 
danger success in the battles of war. 

Another illustration of positive operation of 
United Nations machinery in common enterprises 
is the Food and Agriculture Organization, con- 
sisting of 42 member states. This is a world or- 
ganization for pooling the best knowledge and 
experience relating to nutrition, agricultural pro- 
duction, and marketing, and the best use of farm, 
fishery, and forestry resources. It is strictly a 
fact-finding and advisory body. It does not put 



into effect any of its recommendations. This ap- 
proach, unspectacular though it be, implements 
one of our specific peace goals. 

The work of the Food and Agriculture Organi- 
zation is designed to be integrated with that of the 
United Nations Economic and Social Council. It 
can, without loss of identity, constitute a part of 
the United Nations. 

]\Iay I here quote from the report of the Commit- 
tee on Foreign Relations, filed in the Senate by me 
June 11, 1945 : 

"No lasting peace is possible until the nations of 
the woi-ld work together successfully to reduce the 
underlying social and economic causes of aggres- 
sion and war, or, if possible, to remove them en- 
tirely. The prosperity of this country, as well as 
the peace of the world, is at stake. Without eco- 
nomic collaboration and improved levels of living 
and of production throughout the world, or at 
least in most of it, the maintenance and improve- 
ment of production and levels of living in the 
United States will be impossible. We cannot hope 
to have prosperity in this country if the other coun- 
tries are sunk in depression. 

"The proposed Food and Agriculture Organiza- 
tion, by providing the nations of the world a new 
means of working together to improve the effi- 
ciency of food and agriculture production, and 
distribution, the living conditions of food and 
agriculture producers, and the levels of consump- 
tion of users of those products, can make a great 
contribtition to world security in an important 
economic sphere." 

Definitely, one peace goal is to give the power 
of active public opinion to this common enter- 
prise. 

Another good habit-forming exercise should 
have positive stimulation; namely, the system of 
consultation consolidated by the Act of Chapul- 
tepec. The 21 republics of the Western Hemi- 
si^iere constituting the Pan American Union are 
also members of the United Nations. 

The Final Act of the Inter-American Confer- 
ence on Problems of War and Peace at Mexico 
City, in Februaiy and March, 1945, comprehended 
juridical, economic, social, political, and security 
l^rograms designed to preserve the indej^endence 
and dignity of each member state, and to provide 
for determination of controversies which might 
arise among them. At that time, before the Char- 
ter had been formulated, the regional organization 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



could initiate the ultimate sanction of military 
force in the event of a threat or act of aggression. 

The Act of Chapultepec, which provided espe- 
cially for reciprocal assistance and American soli- 
darity, was so designed that it must conform to the 
principles and policies of the United Nations 
Charter subsequently to be adopted. Within the 
letter and spirit of the Charter which we celebrate, 
this benevolent organization of American repub- 
lics is striving to carry into effect article 52 of the 
Charter, namely : 

"The Members of the United Nations entering 
into such arrangements or constituting such agen- 
cies shall make every effort to achieve pacific set- 
tlement of local disputes through such regional 
arrangements or by such regional agencies before 
referring them to the Security Council. 

"The Security Comicil shall encourage the de- 
velopment of pacific settlement of local disputes 
through such regional arrangements or by such 
regional agencies either on the initiative of the 
states concerned or by reference from the Security 
Council." 

The effect of the ratification of the Charter upon 
the Act of Chapultepec was principally to take 
away from the Union of American Republics the 
right of regional enforcement action without the 
previous authorization of the Security Council. 

Thus, a threat of aggression may not now be met 
without first obtaining direction of the Security 
Council. 

However, it left to the regional organization 
two extremely important functions : 

1st. The right and the duty to consult among 
themselves in order to agree upon the measui-es 
that may be advisable to take ; 

2d. The inherent right of individual or collec- 
tive self-defense if an armed attack should occur 
against a member of the United Nations, until 
the Security Council has taken the measures nec- 
essary to maintain international peace and 
security. 

The system of consultation has developed in the 
Western Hemispliere during the past 56 years, and 
has gradually become a substitute for the use of 
armed force. 

During the past year, the liarmony of the West- 
ern Hemisphere has been disturbed, but no war 
has occurred, and none will occur. 



The situation calls for the exercise of great 
wisdom, poise, patience, and consideration of all 
the various points of view. Here is an opportunity 
to strengthen the habit of collaboration and 
achieve both restoration of harmony in this hem- 
isphere, and the strengthening of the machinery 
of the United Nations. 

Other illustrations of goals and of public par- 
ticipation are the high points advanced by speak- 
ers today covering eight areas. They avoid gen- 
eralities and advance highly significant and real- 
izable objectives. Categorically, they are — 

Expansion of trade and employment. 

Reconstruction and development. 

Human rights — freedom of information and 
education. 

Health and social welfare. 

Peaceful .settlements. 

United military defense. 

Atomic energj' — control and utilization. 

Trusteeship and self-government for dependent 
areas. 

Consideration of j'our time impels me to omit 
discussion of these goals now, notwithstanding 
that these, too, are objectives which the nations 
might practically achieve together before some 
world leader announces them as war goals. 

Our best hope for preventing war is interna- 
tional collaboration on positive goals : 

(1) Developing large-scale plans to wliich each 
country can contribute in terms of its ability — 
really investing the peaceful struggles in a co- 
operative program as we did in the violent struggle. 
The way to stay united is to get busy on common 
enterprises that we can agree on. 

(2) Concentrating the forces and facilities we 
liave on specific objectives that we feel confident 
we can take within a reasonable time — and then 
to apply the principles of logistics to make an ef- 
fective and concerted drive. Resolutions and 
recommendations on principles and purposes are 
not enough; we must be verj' specific on exactly 
what each countrj- can do in a plan of combined 
operations, organize task forces, pool resources, 
bring the experts and organizers of the various 
countries together for united effort to get things 
done. People can't act unless they see clearly 
wliere we are headed and what is required of tliem. 

(">) Bj' doing important things together at a 
few strategic points we will gain strength and 



JULY 7, 1946 

build up moi-ale in the peaceful struggles as we 
did in the war. Only by taking next steps with 
precision and determination will people learn to 
win the final victory over the impersonal enemies 
of mankind. There is danger in dissipating our 
forces on too many fronts, trying to lick tough 
problems with phrases and speeches. Acting to- 
gether is the purpose of talking things over to- 
gether. Start with the goals we most imiversally 
agree on and thus create a pattern of common ac- 
tion to move forward in the more controversial 
areas. 

(i) Behind whatever programs we agi'ee on 
must be a popular will and determination to risk 
and sacrifice and persist. 

In the war we were very specific; we said we 
had to use inland shipping facilities to rush war 
materials to ports and to bring up troops; and 
this meant saving fuel, dim-outs, getting people 
to do specific things to help reach the goal. The 
same kind of specific thinking and j)lanning is 
needed for peace goals. They have to be the ac- 
cepted goals of the people — not only our people 
Ijut the people of the other cooperating nations. 
And the people have to understand clearly why 
such goals are given priority attention, what it 
will take to realize them, what others are prepared 
to do and are doing. 

Now that the United Nations machinery is set 
up, we and all the other United Nations peoples 
have to make up our minds what we want to 
accomplish with it and in what order — putting 
first things first. This is a challenge to all the 
citizen groups that have taken such an active in- 
terest in American participation in the United 
Nations. We're now ready to participate — to do 
something. Wliat? And how? This is a chal- 
lenge to the writers and broadcasters and film 
makers ; to make the goals of peace as vivid and as 
urgent as the goals in the war. 

Let's talk about the real things we want to do, 
and spend less time speculating about whether 
there'll be another M'ar and what this nation or 
that politician may be maneuvering for. 

We need a vast educational program to make 
the possibilities of peace goals understood and to 
help people to understand what they can do to 
cooperate. 



19 



So, this is an invitation on the first anniversary 
of the signing of the Charter for public participa- 
tion in the setting of peace goals and the task of 
organizing collaboration of the nations to achieve 
the goals agreed upon. 

Henry James talked about the moral equivalent 
for war. He thought it involved mobilizing people 
for common struggle against the common imper- 
sonal enemies. If once they could get the exhilara- 
tion of planning campaigns against disease and 
hunger, of collaborating in vast projects of con- 
struction and development, they might bring to 
bear on constructive programs all of the forces 
they expend in the fury of destructive warfare. In 
the process of working and planning together they 
might de-\-elop new patterns of thinking and come 
to understand each other. 

For centuries men fought to take things away 
from each other in a world of low productivity 
and to collect tribute from the conquered. In the 
twentieth century the wars are started by organ- 
izers who claim they want to introduce new orders. 
They gain their dynamic from an appeal to the 
sense of national superiority. Behind all this is a 
powerful drive toward applying the science and 
"know-how" of our times, and breaking down the 
interfering barriers that frustrate large-scale or- 
ganization and exchange. Either we do by agree- 
ment and free collaboration through the United 
Nations what we know is possible to give peoples 
everywhere opportunity to fashion their futures 
with twentieth-century tools, or we confront the 
almost inevitable task of resisting in war the at- 
tempt of another set of strong men to impose order 
and to organize the world as a whole. 

Peace goals, then, are those objectives which the 
nations might practically achieve together before 
some world leader announces them as war goals. 

We in the United States assert the belief that we 
can do cooperatively and by agreement what must 
somehow be done — that we can peacefully apply 
what science has taught us— that we can find ways 
of releasing and organizing the productive and 
creative powers of people on a world-wide basis 
through the processes of democracy. To make 
good on this belief, we must move quickly to col- 
laborate with other free peoples on a program of 
action through the machinery of the United 
Nations. 



India on the Threshold 

Article by RAY L. THURSTON 



VERY LITTLE lias been written about India fioni 
an American point of view. Too often we are 
inclined to look upon that gi'eat country lludu'^li 
the eyes and prejudices of the present protago- 
nists in the struggle there for power. If there is 
a well-considered, long-run American perspective 
toward India, we should start thinking in these 
American terms and avoid the cliches and stereo- 
types that have long prevented a constructive ap- 
proach on our part to the Indian problem. It is 
time that we approach the subject of India with 
a sense of purpose and direction, for India today 
is on the threshold of a new era — an era of momen- 
tous political, economic, and social change. 

It is customary to characterize the Orient as 
"placid" and "changeless'". As applied to rural 
India these descriiilidiis still liave a degree of 
validity. But when wo (urn to the great cities of 
India we find the normal laws of social dynamics 
in full operation. In Bombay, for example. 
Hindus of different castes work side by side in 
the textile mills and endeavor to fight for a com- 
mon cause through their trade unions. In the 
same city capitalists, managers, and their white- 
collared subordinates have begun to emerge as a 
middle class. Around the University of Bombay 
and its numerous colleges and libraries there has 
developed an intelligentsia. All three groups are 
extremely sensitive to the impact of Western cul- 
ture and technology; at the same time they are 
becoming increasingly conscious of their national 
identity as Indians. Out of this cross fertiliza- 
tion, which is going on throughout the urban cen- 
ters, will be born a revitalized India. 

What does a revitalized India mean to us as 
Americans? How will the United States be af- 
fected by the emergence as a full member of the 
family of nations of this far-away country hitherto 

' Mr. Thurston is a Foreign Service officer in the Division 
of Middle Eastern Affairs, Office of Middle Eastern and 
African Affairs, Department of State. 



popularly cataloged as a land of cobras and ele- 
phants and esoteric religions? India, one may 
say, is figuratively "out of this world," so why 
should we concern ourselves with the Hindu- 
Muslim question and the activities and programs 
of Mr. Gandhi and Mr. Jinnah? 

That is a valid question and one "that must be 
answered if the American iJublic is to appraise in- 
telligently the significance of India's achievement 
of full stature. 

As is generally known, there are 400,000,000 In- 
dians — that is, one out of five human beings is an 
Indian. This great concentration of population 
is only three days from New York by air. In this 
bold new world of skyways, India and America are 
neighbors. Neighbors usually find that they have 
connnon interests and problems, and they get ac- 
quainted with one another. 

As a matter of fact Americans and Indians have 
been influencing each other for many years. In 
the nineteenth century Ralph Waldo Emerson 
and some of his literary associates were strongly 
influenced by Hindu philosophy. By a curious 
twist of linguistic reference certain social strata 
in New England have become known as the "Boston 
Brahmins". 

American missfonaries who have long been in 
India have made a deep impression on the Indian 
scene tlirough their humanitarian efforts. The}' 
have established schools, experimental farms, and 
hospitals far from the amenities and conveniences 
of the port cities. The story of Christianity in 
India is a fascinating chapter among the many 
religious chapters of Indian history. Students of 
Indian history point out that over the centuries 
a strong tradition of religious tolerance has per- 
sisted in India. Certainly it is true that in no 
other country do so many large religious com- 
munities live side by side : Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs, 
Christians, and Parsees, to name the leading ones. 

The religions of India represent an aspect of 



JULY 7, 1946 



21 



Indian life with which many Americans are 
familiar. Not so well known are the economic ties 
that have long linked our country with India. 
The American economy is usually considered self- 
sufficient, but our industry and commerce would 
find it difficult indeed to operate without the gunny 
sack made of Iildian jute; without the manganese, 
minei-al sands, and mica that are imported from 
India in large quantities each year; and without 
some of the Indian short-staple cotton that, curi- 
ously enougli, our textile manufacturers require in 
addition to large supplies of domestic cotton. 

Our leather industry looks to the Indian ports 
of Karachi and Bombay for fine quality hides and 
skins, and carpet wool is also exported in con- 
siderable quantity to America from these ports. 
The largest American manufacturer of musical 
records imported in one year almost one half the 
Indian shellac output. India provides the tasty 
cashew nut, tea, and many of our table spices. The 
products of Indian soil and of Indian labor enter 
both our factories and our homes. 

Turning to the other side of the ledger, we dis- 
cover tliat Indians have been buying our automo- 
biles, ty})c\Mil('rs, electrical equipment and ap- 
pliances, clii'iiiicals. (h'ugs and medicines, machin- 
ery, and — not least — our Hollywood films. To sell 
their products in the Indian market, American 
business houses have established agencies in the 
more important Indian cities, and a number of 
American firms keep American businessmen in 
India as resident salesmen. In India American 
firms carry on banking activities, assemble auto- 
mobiles, manufacture tires, and engage in a large- 
scale petroleum business. 

For some time, then, American relations with 
India have been important, but World War II 
has quickened in many ways the tempo and the 
significance of this relation. 

The enhanced position of India, arising from its 
use as an important supply base for the war against 
the Axis, led, shortly before Pearl Harbor, to the 
inauguration of direct diplomatic relations be- 
tween the Governments of the United States and 
India. In Washington the Indian Agent-General 
is in daily touch with the Department of State, and 
the American Commissioner in New Delhi has 
frequent occasion to take up important matters 
with the Indian Department of External Affairs. 
It is anticipated that these direct relations will 
expand in scope and significance in the years im- 
mediatelv ahead. 



The outbreak of war with Japan, it will be re- 
called, was followed quickly by the Japanese con- 
quest of Burma, which had been until that time the 
only supply route to the besieged Chinese nation. 
In 1942 it appeared possible that India might 
become the meeting point of the Japanese and 
German forces. India suddenly leaped into prom- 
inence as one of the most strategic areas in the war 
picture. General Brereton and a few heroic air- 
men arrived from Java to set up the U. S. 10th Air 
Force with headquarters at New Delhi; General 
Wheeler was ordered from Baghdad to India to lay 
the groundwork for a military supply operation 
in China, Burma, and India; the Air Transport 
Command began operating a regular service to 
Karachi and thence "over the hump" to China. 

First came the generals and their staff colonels 
and majors, then the G.I.'s — by the thousands. 
India had known the American missionary with 
his dedicated purpose; the resourceful and ener- 
getic American businessman; and the wealthy 
American tourist. Now India met the ordinary 
G.I., the ambling, joke-cracking, open-handed, 
friendly American, and liked him. Although cul- 
tural differences were great, real friendships grew 
out of the presence on Indian soil of these many 
thousands of American young men. 

The arri\al of American troops coincided 
with a political and economic crisis in India. Dr. 
Henry Grady with a group of American technical 
experts came to India to survey the possibilities 
of improving Indian production for the war ef- 
fort. President Roosevelt sent Colonel Louis 
Johnson and, later, William Phillips to New Delhi 
as his personal representatives to keep abreast of 
the acute political situation. The Office of War 
Information came on the scene to tell the Indian 
people why the United States was fighting the 
war. Lend-lease and procurement activities of the 
United States in India brought many other Amer- 
icans to that country. The net result of these 
developments was a great upsurge in Indian in- 
terest in things American, an interest which, if 
genuinely reciprocated, will lead to the cementing 
of an enduring cooperation and friendship be- 
tween the two countries. 

It has already been mentioned that an Indian 
Agency General was established in Washington 
in the latter part of 1941. Somewhat later, an 
India Supply Mission, staffed principally by In- 
dians, was instituted at Washington to coordinate 
lend-lease and pi-ocurement questions. Despite 



MACHINfRY m PROCEDURE TO FORMllUTE NEW CONSTITUTION OF INDIA 



S/i/r/S// INDIA 
PROV/A/CfS 

PROVINCIAL 
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ASSEMBLIES 


UNION CONS 

PROVINCIAL ASSEMBLIES 
fleet the following numbers of Rep- 
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WESTERN INDIA STATES 

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CENTRAL INDIA 

GWALIOR 

EASTERN STATES 

HYDERABAD 

MYSORE 

MADRAS STATES 

PUNJAB 

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24 

the difficult transportation problem a number of 
Indian students and businessmen came to America 
during the war. There were, as well, very articu- 
late delegations at the International Business Con- 
ference at Rye, N.Y., and at Bretton Woods. In 
December 1944, Dr. J. M. Kumarappa, Director 
of the Tata Institute of Social Sciences at Bom- 
bay and the first Indian ever to be invited to the 
United States as the official guest of the State De- 
partment, arrived in this country to make a survey 
of American progress in the various fields of prac- 
tical social work including the care of physically 
and mentally handicapped persons. 

Although it is obvious that the war years 
brought America and India closer together, the 
pattern of our future relations remains to be 
described. 

One strong tendency in India which interests 
Americans is the importance which both the Gov- 
ernment of India and the various political parties 
attach to ambitious programs for the industrial 
and agricultural development of the country. 
India looks to America as an important source for 
the capital equipment and the technical assistance 
that must be provided if Indian plans are to be 
carried out. To the economist it is obvious that 
India must have a balanced economy — a better 
balance between agricultui'e and industry llian now 
exists, if there is to be a steadily rising standard 
of living in that country. It is only a steadily 
rising standard of living that will act as a sociolog- 
ical check on the rapid increase in the population of 
India and the resultant poverty in the present 
economic environment. A generally higher stand- 
ard of living for India will create an effective 
demand for commodities from abroad far in ex- 
cess of that which prevails now, even though cer- 
tain articles now imported into India would 
eventually be replaced by Indian manufacturei-s. 
The United States, as one of the technologically 
advanced nations of the world, would certainly 
be able to expoi't an increasing quantity of its 
products to an expanding Indian market, thereby 
iielping to maintain high production and employ- 
ment levels in this country. 

It is, therefore, in our own interest to do what 
we can to help the Indians with their projected 
industrial plans, as well as to give all possible 
assistance in connection with their agricultural 
])roblems. At the present time about 200 Indian 
students are enrolled in American universities for 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

scientific and technical training under an official 
pi-ogram for Indian industrialization. Several 
hundred additional students will come during the 
next year. A leading American firm of engineer- 
ing consultants has recently been selected by the 
Government of India to advise it with respect to 
industrial plans. American technical experts are 
nnich in demand in India now to advise on such 
matters as irrigation, highway construction, and 
soil erosion, and we shall receive requests for tech- 
nical assistance from India for many years to 
come, provided we continue to base our policy 
toward India on the principles of mutiuxl respect, 
friendship, and cooperation. 

It is to be hoped, however, that our relations 
with India will not be characterized only by con- 
siderations of mutual economic benefits. The edu- 
cated Indian is culturally sensitive and remark- 
ably acute in psychological and philosophical per- 
ception. It would be well to encourage a greater 
interchange of ideas and information between 
India and America. This interchange will be stim- 
ulated by the Office of International Information 
and Cultural Affairs in the State Department, 
which is actively working to promote more inti- 
mate relations between American scholars, sci- 
entists, and professional groups and similar ele- 
iiit'iits in (ilhcrconnlrir-. iiirUiding India. One of 
the most pnpulav actions of the United States Gov- 
ernment in India was the opening in 1944 of an 
information library in Bombay. This library, 
which contains more than 3,000 well-selected books 
on all aspects of American life, is always crowded. 
From a long-run point of view there are several 
basic factors favorable to the strengthening of our 
friendly relations with India. One factor is lin- 
guistic. The educated Indian has an excellent 
command of English, but Americans have been 
slow in acquiring fluency in tongues other than 
their own. Another favorable factor is the rough 
similarity between India and the United States in 
terms of size, variety of climates and regions, and 
diverse ethnic stocks. This similarity makes a 
comparison of notes on agricultural and industrial 
problems profitable and also produces a parallel- 
ism in the field of constitutional and legal affairs. 
It was asserted at the outset that India is on the 
threshold of momentous political change. It is not 
intended here to attempt a detailed account of 
political conditions in India or to make predictions 
regarding them. Although the post-war period 



JULY 7, 1946 



25 



in India has been characterized by public unrest 
and sporadic violence, it must be recognized that 
such phenomena are the inevitable accompaniment 
of political transition. The fact is that consider- 
able political iJrogress has been made in the past 
year. Popularly elected governments have once 
again taken control of provincial affairs. The rul- 
ers of Indian states have declared their willingness 
to coojierate in the building of the new India. 
Most important of all, the British Cabinet Mission 
now leaving India after three months of negotia- 
tion with political leaders has succeeded in obtain- 
ing the adherence of the Congress and the Muslim 
League to a plan under which a new constitution 
for a completely self-governing India will be for- 
mulated. The plan envisages an Indian Union 
with a central government having jurisdiction over 
defense, foreign affairs, and communications, re- 
sidual powers being vested in the provinces and 
princely states. It is anticipated that the constitu- 
ent assembly will convene in New Delhi in the very 
near future. 

Although the Cabinet Mission failed to bring the 
two main i^olitical parties together in an interim 
cabinet to govern India while the constitution- 
making is in progress, it has emphasized that the 
Ijresent Government of India is to be considered 
as only a "caretaker" regime. Under the circum- 
stances there is little doubt that this "caretakei'" 
government will be extremely sensitive to Indian 



l)ublic opinion as expres.sed by representative 
political leaders. 

As Americans we are all interested in an early 
and amicable political settlement in India. On 
January 29, 1945 the American official view was 
expressed in a press conference by the then Acting 
Secretary of State Joseph Grew, who said that the 
American Government had continued to follow 
with sympathetic interest developments in the 
Indian question and that it was naturally hopeful 
that progress would be made in this difficult matter 
and that it would be happy to contribute in any 
appropriate manner to the achievement of a satis- 
factory settlement. He added that this Govern- 
ment had close ties of friendship both with the 
British and with the people of India and that these 
ties had been strengthened by our common partic- 
ipation in the war effort. 

We as Americans should rightly be intere.-ted in 
the future of India. One thing is certain : India 
will keep and develop for her own use the scientific 
and industrial apparatus of the West. Even 
should we be so disposed, it is too late to turn the 
clock back. Only by accepting the heavy responsi- 
bility of fostering in every possible way the growth 
of friendly cooperation and tolerance between 
India and ourselves, based on an intelligent under- 
standing and appreciation of our mutual interests, 
can we meet the challenge represented by the emer- 
gence of this new power in Asia. 



Progress Made by the Economic 
and Social Council 

Statement by THE U. S. REPRESENTATIVE 



The first meeting of the Economic and Social 
Council in the United States was necessarily or- 
ganizational. The Council's only previous meet- 
ing was a brief session in London when it was 
brought into existence. I believe substantial prog- 
ress has been made at this session toward making 
it possible for the Council, its commissions, and 
its related agencies to embark before the end of 
this year on a comprehensive program toward 
•carrying out the economic and social objectives of 
the United Nations Charter. 

Four weeks spent on organizational problems 
at a time when hmnan misery is so widespread and 
human need so pressing has been a difficult and 
at times discouraging discipline. But this Coun- 
cil is the nearest thing the world has yet achieved 
to a combined Chiefs of Staff in tlie economic and 
social field, and staff coordination and organiza- 
tion are just as essential to the successful launch- 
ing of a long-range campaign for j^eace as they 
are in a military campaign. 

Two of the most ui-gent tasks before us are the 
reconstruction of devastated areas and the repa- 
triation or resettlement of hundreds of thousands 
of men, women, and children who were driven 
from their homes by oppression and war and will 
still be homeless when UNRRA ends next year. 
The world cannot be restored to economic health 
rmtil substantial progress has been made on both 
these tasks. On both of them, despite some sharp 
diflterences of opinion as to methods, the Council 
has now taken the first steps. It has voted to 
establish an International Refugee Organization 

' Made by John G. Winant, U.S. Representative on the 
Economic and Social Council, on June 24, 1946 and re- 
leased to the press by the U.S. Delegation to the United 
Nations on the .same date. 



to take up where UNRRA will leave off. A draft 
constitution has been appx'oved for circulation to 
all members of the United Nations so that it can 
be put into final form and ready for signature 
during the Assembly meeting in September. In 
the case of the United States, it will have to be 
accepted by Congress in the same way as the In- 
ternational Bank and Fund and the other special- 
ized agencies. Some other countries will have to 
go through similar legislative steps. The United 
States, however, will do everything in its power 
toward bringing the new refugee organization into 
existence by the end of this year. Entirely aside 
from its humanitarian aspects, the presence in and 
out of camps of large numbers of refugees and dis- 
placed persons will be a continuing source of politi- 
cal friction until they can be returned to their 
homes or resettled. 

In the field of reconstruction the Coimcil has 
established a Temporary Subcommission on Eco- 
nomic Reconstruction of Devastated Areas which 
will divide itself into two working teams, one for 
Europe and one for the Far East. They will sur- 
vey the needs of all devastated countries except 
Germany and Japan this summer. The United 
States felt it was essential that this survey include 
the ex-satellite countries, since the chances for a 
speedy economic recovery of many of our war- 
time allies is so much affected by conditions in 
neighboring areas. The Council accepted this 
point of view. 

When this Subcommission has done its work the 
Council and its Economic and Employment Com- 
mission will then have the necessary facts at their 
disposal to work out and recommend to the nations 
a coordinated and practical program for recon- 
struction. 



JULY 7, 1946 



27 



International cooperation in health is another 
field of activity which has both urgent and long- 
range problems. Recognizing the danger of wide- 
spread epidemics resulting from the dislocations 
and hardships of the war and the present period 
of readjustment, the Council called an Interna- 
tional Health Conference to establish as quickly 
as possible a World Health Organization. This 
conference has already begun its meetings here 
in New York. 

Responding to requests from the Food and Agri- 
culture Organization and the newly established 
International Emergency Food Council, the Secre- 
tary-General has been authorized to offer the full 
assistance and cooperation of the United Nations 
Secretariat in working on the critical food 
shortage. 

The Council also made important progress in 
organizing its work for the main objectives as- 
signed to it by the United Nations Charter. 

It approved reports of its six nuclear Commis- 
sions, which makes possible their establishment on 
a full working basis at the next session of the 
Council. These Commissions are the woi'king 
teams of the Council. The United States is eager 
to see them fully manned and operating at the 
earliest possible date. 

The report of the Commission on Human Rights, 
as it was finally adopted by unanimous vote, in- 
cluded provisions particularly desired by the 
United States. 

One of these was a recommendation that human 
rights provisions be written into future interna- 
tional treaties, and particularly into the peace 
treaties. We do not want to permit future regimes 
in the ex-enemy states to violate basic human rights 
as was done by the Nazis and Fascists. 

A second important recommendation was the 
unanimous agreement to authorize the Commission 
on Human Rights to establish a Subcommission on 
Freedom of Information, as proposed by the 
United States. At the suggestion of the Soviet 
Union, the Council also voted to authorize estab- 
lishment of Subcommissions on the Protection of 
Minorities and the Prevention of Discrimination. 
The United States supported the establishment of 
these Subcommissions. The world is still a long 
way from the universal respect for human rights 
and fundamental freedoms to which the Charter 
pledges all the member states, and it was impor- 



tant that an effective beginning be made without 
delay. 

A third important reconnaendation in the field 
of human rights strongly supported by the United 
States was to create a full Commission on the 
Status of Women to replace the present Subcom- 
mission. 

By another major decision the Council organized 
the Economic and Employment Commission. It 
will be the Council's chief adviser on coordinating 
international action for the achievement and main- 
tenance of full employment with higher standards 
of living. An International Trade Conference, 
authorized by the Coiuicil, will meet in London 
in October. 

The Council must have the facts and figures on 
which to base sound recommendations for inter- 
national economic and social action. It api^roved 
proposals of its Statistical Commission which will 
make possible for the first time development of 
reliable world statistics and the drawing up of a 
world economic balance sheet as a basis for action. 

In the field of communications and transport 
the Council took an important step that also has 
its bearing on the development of freedom of in- 
formation by endorsing a world telecommunica- 
tions conference. The United States has already 
taken the first steps toward calling this conference 
to meet in this country. Machinery was also set in 
motion to bring the Provisional International Civil 
Aviation Organization and the Universal Postal 
Union into relationship with the Council and to 
examine the question of establishing an interna- 
tional shipping organization on technical matters. 
We have, in fact, worked out a general pattern of 
cooperation in international transport and com- 
munications. 

Most of the basic executive functions of the 
United Nations in economic and social coopera- 
tion will be performed by specialized agencies 
which are based on separate intergovernmental 
agreements. We therefore completed arrange- 
ments to coordinate the work of the Coimcil with 
tliat of the International Labor Office, the Food 
and Agriculture Organization, and the United 
Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Or- 
ganization. Similar action will be taken with 
respect to the International Bank and the Mone- 
tary Fund at the nest session of the Council which 
meets at the end of August. 

The Economic and Social Council deals with 
matters that affect individual human beings. Its 



28 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



successes and its failures will have a bearing on 
the security a man has in his job, and his old age, 
on the kind of housing and food and clothing and 
medical care he can provide for his wife and 
cliildren, on the educational opportunities that will 
be ojjen to his children and on the opportunities for 
advancement that will be open to himself. It is of 
great importance, therefore, that the Council keep 
in touch with the peoples of the world, not only 
tlirough governments, but also through the many 
non-governmental organizations through which 
people make their desires Iniown and their opinions 
felt. 

The Council, after close examination and ex- 
tended debate, approved a plan by which this 
direct contact can be carried out on a democratic 
liasis. Special arrangements were made to permit 
organizations of labor, of management and busi- 



ness, of farmers and consumers to join in the work 
of the Council and its Commissions. Provision 
also was made for seeking the advice and securing 
the help of other non-governmental organizations. 

Disagreements always make news and the Coun- 
cil has had its share of them during the session 
just ended. I think, however, that from the long- 
range point of view it is significant for the future 
of the Economic and Social Council's work that 
so much agreement was reached in four weeks of 
discussion among representatives of nations with 
such wide differences in history, culture, race, re- 
ligion, and economic and social systems. 

We have already moved forward by patient and 
persistent negotiation. This experience of work- 
ing together and finding agreement on specific 
problems is providing the basis for the world we 
seek to build. 



International Organizations and Conferences 



Calendar of Meetings 



Council of Foreign Ministers : 
Meeting of Foreign Ministers 
Meeting of Deputies 

Far Eastern Commission 

Allied-Swedish Negotiations for German External Assets 

Inter-American Conference of Experts on Copyright 

Proposed International Emergency Food Council 

U. S.-Mexican Discussions on Air Services Agreement 

International Institute of Agriculture : 

Meeting of the General Assenjbly 
Caribbean Commi-ision 

Conference on German-Owned Patents Outside Germany 
International Meeting of the Sugar Council 
International Council of Scientific Unions: Meeting of the 

General Assembly 
International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics : Extraor- 
dinary General Assembly 
The United Nations : 
Security Council 
Military Staff Committee 
Economic and Social Council 
Commission on Atomic Energy 
International Health Conference 
UNESCO : Preparatory Commission 
General Assembly : Second Part of First Session 



Paris 


June 15 




Paris 


May 27 — temper. 


irily adjournetl 


Wasliington 


February 26 




Wasliington 


May 31 




Washington 


June 1-June 22 




Washington 


June 20 




Mexico City 


June 24 




Rome 


July 8 




Washington 


July S-14 




London 


July 10 




London 


July 15 





London July 24-27 

Cambridge, England July 29 



New York 


March 25 


New York 


March 25 


New York 


May 25 


New York 


June 14 


New York 


June 19 


London 


July 5-13 


New York 


September 



The dates in the calendar are as of June ; 



Activities and Developments 



Inter-American Copyright Convention Signed ' 

Representatives of the American Republics 
meeting in conference at the Pan American Union 
signed on June 22 an inter- American convention 
on copyright protection. The conference had been 
in session since June 1 and was convened by the 
Governing Board of the Pan American Union pur- 
suant to a resohition of the Eighth International 
Conference of American States held at Lima, Peru. 



The convention recognizes the exclusive riglit of 
an author of a literary, scientific, and artistic work 
to use and transfer his work in any manner, and 
to transmit it by will or by operation of intestate 
laws. 

The works of a literary, scientific, and artistic 
nature covered by the convention include books and 

^ Released to the press by the Pan American Union 
June 22. 



30 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Ijamphlets; written or recorded versions of lec- 
tures, addresses and sermons; dramatic or dra- 
matico-musical works; choreographic works and 
pantomimes; musical compositions; drawings, il- 
lustrations, paintings, sculptures, engi'avings, lith- 
ographs; photographic and cinematographic 
works ; globes, maps, plans, and sketches or plastic 
works relating to geography, geology, topography, 
architecture, or any science. 

Translations, adaptations or other versions of 
literary, scientific and artistic works, including 
photographic and cinematographic adaptations, 
are protected as original works. 

Articles on cuiTent events in newspapers and 
magazines may, by the terms of the convention, 
be reproduced by the press unless such reproduc- 
tion is prohibited by a specific or general reserva- 
tion. The convention does not give protection to 
the factual contents of news published in news- 
papers. 

The duration of copyright protection is gov- 
erned by the law of the country in which protec- 
tion was originally obtained, but it may not exceed 
the dui'ation fixed by the law of the country in 
which protection is claimed. 

Copyright protection obtained in one state shall 
automatically be granted protection in the other 
states, without the necessity of registration, de- 
posit, or other formality. To facilitate the utili- 
zation of literary, scientific, and artistic works. 



the contracting states agree to encourage the use 
on such works of the expression "Copyright" or 
its abbreviation "Copr." or the letter "C" en- 
closed within a circle, followed by the year in 
which pi-otection begins, the name and address of 
the cojjyright owner, and the place of origin of 
the work. 

In disposing of his copyright by sale, assign- 
ment, or otherwise, the author, by the terms of 
Article 11 of the convention, retains the right to 
claim the paternity of the work and to oppose any 
modification or use of it prejudicial to his reputa- 
tion as an author, unless he consents to waive this 
right in accordance with the law of the coimtry 
in which the contract is made. 

The new convention, which is subject to ratifi- 
cation by the signatory states, replaces the 1910 
convention of Buenos Aires and the revision signed 
at Habana in 1928, and all earlier inter-American 
conventions on copyright, but does not affect rights 
acquired under these conventions. 

The conference also adopted a number of sup- 
plementary resolutions, including provision for 
periodic meetings of registrars of copyrights of 
the several countries, and the exchange among all 
the countries of copyright information, including 
official lists in card or book form of copyrighted 
works, assignments thereof, and licenses for their 



Record of the Week 



Contribution of U.S. in Meeting World Food Needs 



STATEMENT BY THE PRESIDENT 



[Released to the press by the White House June 27] 

The impressive I'ecord made by the United States 
in sliipping food grains abroad for famine relief is 
shown in a report I have just received from John 
W. Snyder, former Director of War Mobilization 
and Reconversion and now Secretary of the 
Treasury. 

In six months, this country has shipped over 
5,500,000 tons of bread grains to help feed the 
hungry people of other lands. In another three 
weeks, we shall have met our half-year goal of 
6,000,000 tons. 

The very fact that housewives today often find 
it hard to buy a loaf of bread is evidence of the suc- 
cess of our famine emergency program. The loaf 
of bread and the bag of flour that they don't buy 
mean that much more for hungry children abroad. 



The good record we have made is due to the 
splendid cooperation of Americans in conserving 
bread at home and in public eating places, the re- 
markable production by American farmers, the un- 
stinting cooperation of millers and bakers, and 
the united efforts of the Famine Emergency Com- 
mittee and the various agencies of our Government. 

But the crisis is not over. It will not be over 
wlien we reach our half-year goal. Cooperation 
and determined effort by the public — by each one 
of us — must be continued during the coming 
montlis of hunger abroad. 

Soon after July 1, I will receive from the Sec- 
retary of Agriculture final figures not only on 
food grains but on the entire contribution of the 
United States toward meeting world food needs 
during the last full year. 



A REPORT TO THE PRESIDENT BY JOHN W. SNYDER 



June 2G, 194G. 

The United States will fully meet its half-year 
goal of 6,000,000 tons of food grains for famine 
relief throughout the world, but final shipments to 
complete the total will not leave our ports until 
after the first of July. 

By the end of June, an estimated total of 5,500,- 
500 long tons of food grains will have been sent 
abroad since January 1. The remainder of the 
6,000,000 total goal is already in possession of the 
Government, much of it on the way to ports or at 
ports ready for loading. The high rate of export 
shipments which has been reached in June will 
be continued until the full goal is reached — prob- 
ably before the middle of July. 

The shipments already made and those to be 
made by the end of June include 5,077,500 long 
tons of wheat and flour (in wheat equivalent), 
and 423,000 tons of corn and corn products espe- 
cially assigned for export under the Corn Bonus 
Plan. 



In addition, but not counted as a part of the 
6,000,000-ton goal, there has been sent abroad since 
January 1 a total of 294,500 long tons of other 
grains — oats, rye, barley, and corn shipped before 
the special bonus corn was procured for famine 
relief. 

Only those grains which will have actually left 
port by June 30 are included as shipments ; not in- 
cluded is grain now in elevators, en route to port 
or at the port for loading after June 30. 

As soon as the total actual June shipments are 
known, the subcommittee on grain of the Inter- 
Departmental Committee on Transportation will 
be able to determine the exact date in July on 
which the United States goal of 6,000,000 tons of 
bread grains for famine relief can be reached. 

The committee, established by the Office of War 
Mobilization and Reconversion last January, has 
performed an outstanding job in solving problems 
impeding the shipment of grain. 



31 



32 

The record of over 5,500,000 tons of bread grains 
in the first half of this year is a tremendous one, 
of which the Government and the people can be 
pi-oud. 

Not only have the people of our country co- 
operated by reducing their own consumption of 
wheat and other bread grains. The agencies of 
Government have helped achieve this export rec- 
ord by combined and diligent effort. These agen- 
cies include the Department of Agriculture, which 
procured the wheat and othea- grains, the Office of 
Defense Transportation, which got it to ports, and 
the War Shipping Administration, which made 
the vessels available to take it abroad. 

The Famine Emergency Committee has been of 
invaluable assistance at every stage of the pro- 
gram, and much of the credit for its success is due 
to the work of Mr. Chester Davis, the chairman 
of the committee, and Mr. Herbert Hoover, the 
Honorary Chairman. 

In meeting the goal, there were many obstacles 
to overcome — including time. Not only did we 
have to reapportion our total grain supply in order 
to share more liberally with the peoples abroad, 
but it was necessary to procure bagging and con- 
tainers, which are short, to work out a timetable 
to facilitate transportation of the grain to ports, 
and finally to load it as expeditiously as possible. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

so as to make the best use of all our transportation 
facilities. The Office of Defense Transportation 
and the AVar Shipping Administration, as well as 
the other agencies concerned, have done a remark- 
able job in this respect. 

Tlirough their efforts and those of the Secretary 
of Agriculture, under whose direction the procure- 
ment program was so successfully managed, we 
have been able in the past crop year to ship through 
our ports a record amount of U.S. wheat and flour. 
The June shipments of U.S. bread grains are the 
highest on record. 

The July shipments necessary to reach the 
6,000,000-ton goal, and representing slightly more 
than 8 percent of the total, will not be deducted 
from the 250,000,000 bushels of grain which are 
scheduled for export during the crop year begin- 
ning July 1, but will be in addition to that goal. 

The Secretary of Agriculture has wisely laid 
plans to continue the acquisition of wheat from the 
new 1946 crop, since w^orld needs will still be great 
for many months to come. Americans must con- 
tinue to conserve wheat, fats, and oils in order to 
share our plenty with those who are starving. 

The following table of shipments compiled by 
the subcommittee on grain of the Inter-Depart- 
mental Committee on Transportation shows the 
record by month and by grain categories: 



S U M M A R Y 

Grain and Flour Shipments — -January 1 to June 30, 194S 

(Figures in thousands, long-weight tons) 



Wheat 

Flour (Wheat equivalent) 




Jan. 
809.5 
306.0 

1, 115.5 


Feb. 
528. 
291. 1 


Mar. 
671. 1 
248. 5 

919. 6 


Apr. 

457.7 • 
242.9 


Est. May 

303. 
219. 7 


E.st. June 

700. 
300.0 


Total 
3, 469. 3 
1, 608. 2 


Total 


819. 1 


700.6 


522. 
63. 





1, 000. 

300. 
60. 








5, 077. 5 


Shipping from stocks acou 
Coin Bonus Plan: 


miilated under 


363. 


Corn Products (Grai 


n equivalent) . 










60.0 


















423. 


Total corn and \ 


vheat Jan. 1 to 


















5, 500. 5 


Other grain — not includii 
nets: 


iig grain prod- 


5.4 
11. 'J 

2. 8 
40. 9 


9. 8 

9. 

. 1 

76.7 


12. 2 
10.5 
.5. 9 

26. 5 

55. 1 


2.3 . 
38. 2 . 

4.0 . 
38. 3 . 










4 Months 
Only 
29.7 


live 

Barley 

Oats 




69 6 










12. 8 










182. 4 












Total .... 


61.0 


95. 6 


82.8 


294.5 



Financing of International 
Reconstrnction 

STATEMENT BY THE PRESIDENT 

[ Kcl.-asi-il to the press liy tlie White House June 2i;] 

I have appointed a committee of industrialists 
and bankers to make a report and recommendation 
on tlie financing of international i-econst ruction. 
They will work closely with the National Advisory 
Council, which has the duty of formnlat ing our na- 
tional policy on foreign lending. 

I have appointed this committee of citizens of 
knowledge and experience because our foreign 
trade, exjjort and import, must in the long run 
be privately handled and privately financed if it 
is to serve well this country and world economy. 

It is true that, tor the innnediate present, gov- 
ernmental help is needed in order to get our for- 
eign trade under way. But I am anxious that 
there shall be the fullest cooperation between the 
governmental agencies and private industry and 
finance. Our common aim is the return of our 
foreign commerce and investments to private chan- 
nels as soon as possible. 

The committee which I have appointed is as 
follows : 

Heebkrt H. Peij^se, president, New Britain JIachine Co., 
New Britain, Conn. 

Ch.\mp Carry, president, Pullman-Standard Car Manufac- 
turing Carp., Chicago, 111. 

Walter J. Cummings, chairman, Continental-Illinois Na- 
tional Bank and Trust Co., Chicago, 111. 

L. M. GiANNiNi, president, Bank of America, San Fran- 
cisco, Calif. 

Paul G. Hoffman, president, Studebaker Corp., South 
Bend, Intl. 

Edward Hopkinson, Jr., partner, Drexel and Company, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

Fowler McCokmick, chairman. International Harvester 
Co., Chicago, 111. 

Irving S. Olds, chairman, U. S. Steel Corp., New York, 
N.Y. 

GoHDON S. Rentschler, chairman, National City Bank of 
New York, New York, N.Y. 

A. \V. Robertson, chairman, We.stinghou.se Eleftric Corp., 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 

WiNTHROP W. Aldrich, Chairman, The Chase National 
Bank of the City of New York, New York, N.Y. 

Tom K. Smith, president. The Boatmen's National Bank 
of St. Louis, St. Louis, JIo. 



33 

Resumption of Surplus- 
Property Deliveries to Poland 

[Released to the press June 26] 

On April 24, 1946 notes were exchanged between 
the Polish Ambassador and the Acting Secretary 
of State regarding the conclusion of negotiations 
for the extension of an Export-Import Bank credit 
to Poland of $40,000,000 and for an additional 
credit of up to $50,000,000 for the purchase by 
Poland of United States surplus property held 
abroad.^ When these notes were exchanged, the 
Polish Provisional Government undertook certain 
obligations. 

Subsequently, on May 10, 194G, the Acting Sec- 
retary of State announced the suspension of deliv- 
eries of surplus property to Poland under the 
$50,000,000 credit by reason of the fact that the 
Polish Provisional Government, in the view of this 
Government, had failed fully to carry out the 
obligations undertaken at the time the credits 
were authorized. Specifically, (1) the texts of 
the notes exchanged had not been published in 
Poland, (2) it appeared that American press dis- 
patches from Poland were being subjected to cen- 
sorship, and (3) the texts of Poland's economic 
agreements with other countries had not been 
made available to this Government as promised.^ 

The Polish Provisional Government has re- 
cently published the exchange of notes concerning 
tlie credits and the question of censorship has been 
satisfactorily clarified. Assurances have now been 
given to the American Ambassador at Warsaw 
indicating that the texts of Poland's economic 
agreements will be furnished to this Government. 

In view of these assurances and in consideration 
of the important role which these surplus mate- 
rials are to play in assisting the Polish people to 
rebuild their devastated country, this Govermnent 
has acceded to the request of the Polish Pro- 
visional Government and has authorized the re- 
sumption of surplus property deliveries to Poland. 

' Bulletin of May 5, 1946, p. 761. 

-Oral announcement at Acting Secretary Acheson's 
press and i-adio news conference of May 10. Not printed. 



34 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



U.S. Objectives and Policies in Affording Aid to China 



[Released to the press June 28] 

Eecent press reports from China indicate a mis- 
iinderstanding or misconstruction by various Chi- 
nese elements of our objectives and jjolicies in 
affording assistance to China. 

Ihe various moves taken by this Government to 
aid Cliina are but steps in the complete imple- 
mentation of a long-agreed program for helping 
the Chinese nation as a whole to rid itself of the 
•effects of a long and devastating war against Ja- 
pan. They cannot rightfully be interpreted an 
current support of any factional military group 
in China. They will not fully materialize for 
many months. Their purpose is to cement rather 
than to destroy unity ; to encourage the Chinese 
to find a solution of their internal problems by the 
democratic process of peaceful agreement rather 
than by resort to military force. 

In the foregoing connection it is pertinent to 
quote from the President's public statement on 
policy towards China of December 15, 1945. He 
said : "As China moves toward peace and unity 
. .. . the United States would be prepared to 
assist the National Government in every reason- 
able way to rehabilitate the country, improve the 
agrarian and industrial economy, and establish a 
military organization capable of discharging 
China's national and international responsibili- 
ties for the maintenance of peace and ordei*." 

There is now in Congress a bill authorizing ad- 
vice and assistance to the Chinese Government in 
the creation of a modern, moderately sized Chinese 
army. One of the principal objectives of this 
legislation is to provide practical assistance to 
tlie Chinese in implementing the agreement 
reached in Chungking on February 25 this year 
for the reorganization and unification of the 
ai-med forces of China. This agreement provides 
for a single, non-political, national army made up 
of troops drawn from the presently existing Com- 
munist and Central Government armies. In tes- 
tifying before the Foreign Affairs Committee of 
tlic House in regard to this legislation, the Acting 
Secretary of State indicated that there was a di- 



rect relation between the successful implementa- 
tion of the plan for the reduction and unification 
of Chinese military forces and steps that might 
be taken under the authoi'ity provided in the bill 
before Congress to give military aid and assistance 
to the Chinese Army. 

Many of the contemplated measures for aid to 
China involve a time-consuming procedui-e of 
negotiation, agreements, legislative action, and, 
lastly, decisions by the President in the light of 
tlie situation existing at the time implementation 
is to be undertaken. These various steps consume 
many months, more than a year in the case of the 
legislation now in the Congress for military advice 
and assistance to China, and, if interrupted in any 
particular stage, could not be readily resumed 
without running the risk of encountering con- 
siderable difficulty. 

Publicity has recently been given to a pipeline 
lend-lease agreement with China for approxi- 
mately $58,000,000. This agreement simply for- 
malized an understanding reached shortly after 
V-J Day that China would purchase those lend- 
lease supplies which were being processed or were 
en route to China. Measures to provide economic 
aid to China in the form of supplies and credits 
are an impartial American effort to contribute to- 
ward a solution of the acute economic crisis in 
China and to forestall a financial and economic 
break-down. Too much stress cannot be laid on 
the hope of this Government that our economic 
assistance be carried out in China through the me- 
dium of a government fully and fairly representa- 
tive of all- important Chinese political elements, 
including the Chinese Communists. This Gov- 
ernment has felt that some measures of economic 
assistance could not be held in abeyance pending 
agreement among the Chinese political parties to 
come together in a unified government. Failure 
to afford sucii minimum economic assistance would 
needlessly invite danger of an economic collapse 
which would bring great tragedy to tlie common 
pcu]i]c of China. 



Position on Admission of Correspondents 
to Areas Receiving UNRRA Aid 



LETTER FROIVI ASSISTANT SECRETARY 
OF STATE CLAYTON TO SENATOR 
KENNETH IMcKELLAR 

[Released to the press July 3] 

July 3,19^6. 
My Dear Senator McKellar: 

Since the fundamental objective of our foreign 
policy is to create conditions in the world under 
which we can live in friendship and peace with 
all nations, I am gravely concerned about the 
action recently taken in the House of Representa- 
tives in adopting the so-called Dirksen Amend- 
ment to the Third Deficiency Appropriation Bill. 

This Amendment, as you know, would deny use 
of the U.S'. contribution to UNRRA for aid to 
any country which refused to agree not to censor 
the reports of American press representatives con- 
cerning the distribution and use of UNRRA sup- 
plies. As the record of the debate in the House 
of Representatives will show, this Amendment 
was directed at the Soviet Union. This action 
was taken in consequence of a reply received from 
the Soviet Government, in answer to a request 
by the President that that Government under- 
take to permit reporting, with respect to UNRRA 
operations, free of the censorship rules which 
have been established in Soviet territories. The 
President made his request pursuant to the direc- 
tion of Congress as expressed in Public Laws 259 
and 262, 79th Congress. 

I should like to take this opportunity to give 
you my views on this matter. At the outset let 
me say that I believe no one is more firmly con- 
vinced than the Secretary and I that the free 
interchange of information between the jjeoples 
and countries of the world is essential to the cre- 
ation of a secure peace. We in the Department 
of State are constantly seeking to achieve this 
objective. My concern about the Dirksen Amend- 
ment therefore is not because I do not seek the 
freedom of information which I feel certain the 
House had in mind when it approved this Amend- 
ment, but because I feel that its passage would 
achieve precisely the opposite result. 

The facts are these : While Russia, in its reply 
to the President's request, has not agreed to remove 
established general rules of censorship with re- 



spect to despatches from our correspondents on 
the use of UNRRA supplies, we have abundant 
evidence that no attempt has in fact been made 
to restrain the free flow of information regarding 
tlie distribution of UNRRA supplies. 

Recently a group of correspondents, including 
representatives of the New York Times, News- 
■week and the Associated Press have made an ex- 
tensive tour of the Ukraine and White Russia — 
the Soviet Republics in which UNRRA is furnish- 
ing relief — and have been permitted to report 
freely and fully on the use which is being made 
of UNRRA supplies. In addition, UNRRA it- 
self has missions in each of these two areas, both 
headed by Americans of unquestioned courage, 
integrity and high standing, and these missions 
have had complete freedom to travel about the 
country, to observe anything they wished to see 
and to report without interference of any sort. 
Both the UNRRA missions and our news corre- 
spondents report that these areas of Russia have 
suffered destruction greater than we had imagined, 
that the conditions are pitiful and the need most 
urgent, and finally tliat UNRRA supplies are being 
distributed with scrupulous attention to the prin- 
ciples which guide UNRRA's operations in all 
areas. In addition, there are reliable reports that 
the common people of these areas are not only 
fully aware that the supplies are coming from 
UNRRA. but are inclined to give the whole credit 
for UNRRA's activities to the United States. As 
a result, the good will being created for our coun- 
try by the UNRRA programs is so great as to 
astonish the Amei'icans who are there with the 
UNRRA missions. 

One of the reasons why we are so concerned to 
promote the free interchange of information be- 
tween countries is that only by such a process 
will the common people of all countries come to 
knf)w and appreciate the achievements and points 
of view of each other. I believe from all I can dis- 
cover that the UNRRA program in the two Soviet 
Republics is serving most effectively to promote 
the accomplishment of these objectives. 

I am convinced that the adoption of the Dirksen 
Amendmeut would set us back immeasurably in 
this respect. I think I can indicate why I feel 



36 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



this way by examining the effect its adoption 
would have upon the Russian people. Undoubt- 
edly, the Soviet Government and the people who 
are in such dire need and who are now receiving 
some relief through the UNRRA program would 
say, and I fear, with considerable justification, 
"We aie scrupulously living up to the UNRRA 
principles of distribution; there has never been 
any attempt here to cover up what is being done 
with these supplies which are being sent in ; there 
has, in fact, been complete freedom to American 
press representatives and to the Americans on the 
UNRRA missions to report anything they wish 
to report. What, then, is the reason the relief 
has stopped? Even if we should agree under 
jjressure that we will never apply our rules of 
censorship to reports about UNRRA, it would not 
change the situation at all because we have never 
applied that censorship and we don't intend to. 
However, we are not going to have anyone dictate 
to us. We would rather suffer without help than 
bow to a threat of this kind." 

I am sure you will agree with me that any proud 
people would react this way. As a result, we 
shall, if we insist on this point, merely give those 
who may be working against friendship and free 
interchange of information, a real basis for mak- 
ing the charge that we are using relief for political 
piu'poses and that we are making threats to achieve 
our objectives. We may very well, by such action, 
wipe out the gains we have already made toward 
this friendship and interchange of information 
through the activities of UNRRA in these areas. 

This whole issue, of course, has a far wider 
significance than its effect on the UNRRA pro- 
gram. I feel sure that adoption of the Amend- 
ment would seriously complicate all our relations 
with the Soviet Union and would, without achiev- 
ing any tangible benefit for us, make far more 
difficult negotiations on many other issues. 

I should like to assure you that if there were not 
in fact freedom of observation for the UNRRA 
missions and for our correspondents to report on 
the use of UNRRA supplies in these two Soviet 
Republics, I should strongly advocate that the 
furnishing of supplies cease. In such a case there 
would be a real matter of principle involved, for 
we and other contributing nations to have the right 
to full information concerning the use of UNRRA 
supplies. Director General LaGuardia feels just 
as strongly on this point as we do. 



I would like to point out further, that all of the 
members of UNRRA, in approving the UNRRA 
agreement, subscribed to the policies and regula- 
tions governing its operations which had been set 
up by mutual agreement. If each of the contrib- 
uting members should now by its own unilateral 
action attempt to establish new and special con- 
ditions, the operation of UNRRA would become 
impossible. There is no question but that the 
UNRRA Council and the UNRRA Administra- 
tion have taken steps to assure adequate observa- 
tion and complete reporting without censorship 
by UNRRA missions and by press representatives 
with respect to all matters of concern to UNRRA 
in the two Soviet Republics. 

There is one other point which seems to me of 
great significance. One of our important con- 
cerns today is to demonstrate that international 
organizations can succeed in dealing with mat- 
ters which affect the interests of all nations. This 
is not an easy task, as recent experience clearly 
proves, and we have made less progress at it than 
we had hoped for. Every success we do have, 
however, by showing that success can be achieved, 
tends to develop confidence in international organ- 
izations generally, and thus promotes success in 
other cases. Conversely every failure has the 
opposite effect. With all the difficulties which 
have beset UNRRA and with all the differences 
of opinion that have developed from time to time, 
nevertheless it cannot be denied that it is one of 
the international organizations that has succeeded, 
on the whole, in accomplishing the objectives for 
which it was designed. It has effectively brought 
relief to millions of people in the war-devastated 
areas, it has produced vast good will for this coun- 
try and for the other contributing countries, it has 
increased contacts between citizens of all nations 
and promoted knowledge and understanding of 
each other among peoples throughout the world. 
It has demonstrated the fact that men of many 
different nations can work together successfully to 
solve a world-wide problem. It would be a tragic 
thing, in this critical period in international 
affairs, with UNRRA so close to the end of its 
period of operations, to destroy in large part the 
effect which UNRRA has had in promoting confi- 
dence and understanding between nations and to 
turn its success as an operating international 
oi-ganization into failure during the last months of 
its existence. I should very much regret to see 



JULY 7, 1946 



37 



such an outcome of an international effort which, 
otherwise, has such bright prospects of confound- 
ing those who doubt that any attempt at coopera- 
tion by nations in a common cause is possible. 

I apologize for having burdened you with such 
a long discussion of this subject, but it is, in my 
opinion, of such vital importance in the whole 
field of our foreign relations that I must put 
before you fully the considerations which I believe 
would make the adoption of the Dirksen Amend- 
ment a vei'y grave mistake. 
Sincerely youi"S, 

W. L. Clayton 
Assistant Secretary 
[ISditok's note : This letter is made public as the Bulletin 
goes to press.] 



EXCHANGE OF NOTES BETWEEN ACTING 
SECRETARY ACHESON AND THE SOVIET 
CHARGE D'AFFAIRES 

[Released to the press June 25] 

Acting Secretary of State Acheson made jniblic 
on June 25 the text of the note dated Janua-ry 
S, 1946 which he addressed to the Soviet Charge 
d^Affaires ad interim with respect to the admis- 
sion into areas receiving VNRRA aid of properly 
accredited members of the American press and 
radio. The text follows: 

The Acting Secretary of State presents his com- 
pliments to the Charge d'Affaires ad interim of 
the Union of Soviet Socialist Kepublics and in- 
forms liim of the decision of the Congress of the 
United States in voting the American contribu- 
tion to the United Nations Relief and Rehabilita- 
tion Administration whereby the Congress re- 
quests the Pi-esident to facilitate, through the 
appropriate channels, the admission into areas re- 
ceiving UNRRA aid of properly accredited mem- 
bers of the American press and radio in order that 
they may be permitted to report without censor- 
ship on the utilization and distribution of UNRRA 
supplies and services. 

It would accordingly be appreciated if the com- 
petent Soviet authorities, in the interest of better 
understanding between the peoples of the Union 
of Soviet Socialist Republics and the United 
States, would extend all necessary facilities to en- 
able properly accredited representatives of the 



American press and radio to exercise their func- 
tions fully and freely in accordance with the ex- 
pressed desire of the Congress of the United 
States. 

Since it is proposed to advise the Congress of 
tile United States of the response to this request, 
it would also be appreciated if the Soviet Govern- 
ment would be so kind as to inform this Govern- 
ment of any steps which may be taken in this con- 
nection. 

Department of State, 

Washington, January 8, 1946. 

Following is a tranMation of the reply received hy 
the Secretary of State from the Charge d Affaires 
of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics: 

The Charge d'Affaires of the Union of Soviet 
Socialist Republics presents his compliments to 
tlte Secretary of State and with reference to the 
note of the Acting Secretary of State of January 
8, 1946, has the honor to communicate the 
following : 

Inasmuch as special commissions of the United 
Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration 
will be sent to the Ukrainian S.S.R. and Byelo- 
russian S.S.R., American official circles and the 
public will have the possibility of receiving infor- 
mation of interest to them concerning the utiliza- 
tion and distribution of the supplies and services 
of the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation 
Administration through these commissions. 

With reference to the request of the State De- 
partment for granting representatives of the Amer- 
ican press and radio the possibility for full and 
free execution of their functions in accordance 
with the desire expressed by the Congress of the 
United States, representatives of the American 
press and radio on the territories of the Ukrainian 
S.S.R. and the Byelorussian S.S.R. should be 
guided by the rules in effect on all the territory of 
the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and for 
that reason the establishment of any special rules 
regulating the activities of representatives of the 
American press and radio on the territories of the 
Ukrainian S.S.R. and the Byelorussian S.S.R. is 
not contemplated. 

Embassy of the Union of 

Soviet Socialist Republics 
Washington. March 12, 19^6 



38 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



LETTER FROM THE PRESIDENT TO THE 
PRESIDENT OF THE SENATE ^ 
The White House, 
Washington, June 21, 19^6. 
To the President of the Senate : 

In accordance with the recommendation in para- 
graph B of Public Law 262, 79th Congress, I have, 
through appropriate channels, taken steps to ad- 
vise countries receiving UNRRA assistance of the 
desire of the United States Government that the 
admission to those countries of properly accredited 
members of the American press and radio be facil- 
itated in order that they might be permitted to 
report without censorship on the utilization and 
distribution of UNRRA supplies and services. 

I am advised that satisfactory arrangements are 
in effect to permit American press and radio rep- 
resentatives to report without censorship on the 
UNRRA programs in all UNRRA receiving coun- 
tries except the Union of Soviet Socialist Repub- 
lics. There is attached a translation of a commu- 
nication dated March 12, 1946, to the Secretaiy of 
State from the Charge d'Affaires ^ of the U.S.S.R. 
with reference to the situation in that country, 
whicli in effect states that the censorship rules in 
force for all correspondents in the Soviet Union 
will be applied to correspondents desiring to 
report on the utilization and distribution of 
UNRRA supplies. 

I am also advised that accredited representatives 
of UNRRA have been given necessai-y facilities 
for observing and reporting on the distribution of 

' An identical letter was addressed to the Speaker of the 
House. 

- Printed above. 



UNRRA supplies in all receiving countries includ- 
ing LTkrainian and Byelo-Russian Soviet Socialist 
Republics and have submitted extensive and 
detailed reports. 

Harry S. Truman 

At Acting Secretaiy of State Acheson's press 
and radio news conference on June 25 a corre- 
spondent asked for information concerning the 
American note requesting complete freedom from 
news censorship in countries receiving UNRRA 
aid. Mr. Acheson referred to the letter from 
President Truman to the Congress, dated June 21, 
which was in accordance with provisions of an 
Act which appropriated funds for UNRRA and 
which required the President to work out with 
countries receiving UNRRA aid complete freedom 
from censorship. Mr. Acheson pointed out that 
the President had reported that such arrange- 
ments had been made with all countries except the 
Soviet Union. The Soviet reply to the American 
note, Mr. Acheson explained, had said that the 
same provision will apply on filing of news within 
the two Soviet republics receiving UNRRA aid — 
Byelorussia and the Ukraine — as applies else- 
where in the Soviet Union. 

Mr. Acheson said that so far as is known, no 
reports have yet been censored, but that the Soviet 
Government has not stated that it will not in the 
future take some action. 

Mr. Acheson said also that a group of 
newspapermen which included Americans — Mr. 
Middleton of the New York Times, Mr. James of 
the Associated Press, and Mr. Fowle of N&wsweek 
magazine — had made tours of the Ukraine and 
Byelorussia and were about to make another. 



Treaty Obligations and Philippine Independence 

REPLY OF NORWEGIAN GOVERNMENT TO U.S. NOTE 



Norwegian Embassy, 

Washington, D. G., 
Excellency: -luly 8,191fi. 

I have the honor to refer to your note of May 
4th, 1946 in which you proposed that the most- 
favored-nations provisions of the Treaty of 
Friendship, Commerce and Consular Rights be- 
tween Norway and the United States of America 
signed June 5th, 1928, shall not be understood to 
require the extension to Norway of advantages 

' U.S. note is similar to note sent to Bolivian (iovern- 
inent as printed in Bulletin of .June \^>, 1!)4(;, ji. 10-19. 



accorded by the United States to the Philippines 
during a transitional period following the procla- 
mation of Philippine independence. 

I am happy to reply that in appreciat ion of the 
need for such concessions and as an act of friend- 
ship toward the Republic of the Philippines my 
Government has instructed me to accept your 
Excellency's proposal. 

Please accept [etc.] AV. Morgenstierne 

His Excellency Dean Acheson. 
Acting Secretary of State, 
Washington 2-5, D.C . 



Inquiry on Palestine Situation 

[Released to the press June i;'J] 

In response to inquiries whether this Govern- 
ment had advance information regarding the raid 
on the Jewish Agency Headquarters in Palestine, 
the Department of State stated on June 29 that it 
received no information until after the raid ap- 
parently had taken place. 

The British Embassy in Washington on June 2d 
informed tlie Dejiartment that it was proposed to 
raid the Jewish Agency in Palestine early that 
morning. 

The Department is not in possession of suffi- 
cient information to enable it to make any com- 
ment with regard to this matter. 



Procedure for Furnishing 
Affidavits for Immigration 
Visas 

[Released to the press June 25] 

The Department of State is informed by the 
American Consulate General in Munich, Germany, 
that it has received many affidavits of support for 
use by individuals applying for immigration 
visas. Addresses given of the persons for whom 
the affidavits are intended are usually either in- 
sufficient or inaccurate. As a result of this situa- 
tion, less tiian 10 percent of these affidavits can be 
delivered to the persons for whom they are 
intended. 

Affidavits should be forwarded in support of 
applications of only those persons who are eligible 
for visas under the present immigration program; 
that is, either displaced persons who are sponsored 
by persons in the United States, or wives, hus- 
bands, minor children, mothers, and fathers of 
citizens of the United States. 

The Department suggests that, since mails are 
open, affidavits in each case should be forwarded 
directly to the person at interest for his use in filing 
an application for an immigration visa. No useful 
purpose will be served in forwarding the affidavits, 
either to the individuals or to the Consulate Gen- 
eral, unless the local addresses of the persons at 
interest are known. The Consulate General has 



39 



no way of determining such addresses,. and in most 
cases the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation 
Administration does not have sufficient data in any 
central file to determine the whereabouts of such 
jjersons. 



Appointment of Allan Nevins 
as Public Affairs Officer in 
London 

The appointment of Allan Nevins as Public Af- 
fairs Officer in charge of information and cultural 
a if airs at the American Embassy in London was 
announced on June 28 by AVilliam T. Stone, Direc- 
tor of the Office of International Information and 
Cultural Affairs. He will siucceed Herbert S. 
Agar, former editor of the Louisville (Ky.) Cour- 
ier-Journal, who had accepted the post on a tem- 
porary basis. 

Twice winner of the Pulitzer Prize for biog- 
raphy, Dr. Nevins has been serving as professor 
of American history at Columbia University. He 
will go to London shortly but will return to this 
country to meet his teaching engagements at Co- 
lumbia for the fall term before resuming his duties 
as Public Affairs Officer in England. 



Assistant Secretary Russell To 
Inspect Foreign Service 
Installations 

[Released to the press June 28] 

Donald R. Russell, Assistant Secretary of State 
for Administration, left on "Wednesday, June 26, 
for a long-deferred inspection trip of Foreign 
Service installations in Europe. 

Accompanied by a Foreign Service inspector, he 
will visit a number of Foreign Service posts in- 
cluding Paris. Berlin, and Moscow. The purpose 
of his trip, which is coincident with the end of the 
fiscal year, is to check on administrative operations 
in the field. 



40 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Proposed Double-Taxation Convention With France 



[Released to the press June 12] 

As a result of ad referendum negotiations which 
took place in Washington during March and 
April/ a convention between the United States and 
France for the avoidance of double taxation and 
tlie i^revention of fiscal evasion in the case of taxes 
on estates and inheritances and for the purf)ose 
of modifying and supplementing certain p)rovi- 
sions of the convention relating to income taxa- 
tion signed at Paris on July 25, 1939, has been 
drafted by representatives of the United States 
Government and representatives of the French 
Government. 

The draft convention is being submitted by the 
representatives to their respective governments 
for consideration with a view to signature, if pos- 
sible, in the near future. 

The negotiations were conducted for the 
United States by Eklon P. King, Special Deputy 
Commissioner of Internal Eevenue, and officers of 
the Departments of State and Treasury and of the 
Bureau of Internal Kevenue; for France by Adeo- 
dat Boissard, Director General in the Ministry of 
Finance; Philip Perier, Director of Administra- 
tive Conventions ; and Jean Deciry, of tlie Foreign 
Office ; and Jacques Certeux and Marcel Serre, of 
the Ministry of Finance. 

In the course of the exploratory conversations 
attention was given also to certain current ques- 
tions concerning the interpretation and admin- 
istration of French taxes in their application to 
American nationals. The position of the French 
Government, pending the signature and coming 
into force of the new convention, with respect 
thereto, and with respect to the application of 
certain provisions of the 1939 convention has been 
made the subject of record in correspondence be- 
tween the French Ambassador in Washington and 
the Secretary of State. 

The texts of the notes exchanged are as follows : 

[Translation] 

French Embassy to the United States 

Washington, May 6, IB'iG 
Dear Mr. Secretary of State : 

At tlte request of the Government of the United States 
of America, conversations took place in Paris between the 
10th and 18th of October, 1945, between an American dele- 

' BtTLLETiN of Mar. 17, 1946, p. 451. 



gat ion and representatives of the Ministry of Foreign 
Affairs and the Ministry of Finance with a view to modi- 
fying and supplementing certain provisions of the Con- 
vention of July 25, 1939 relating to income taxation, and 
to laying the bases of a new Convention for the avoidance 
of double taxation in the field of estate and inheritance 
taxes and for the prevention of fiscal evasion. 

During these conversations the question of determining 
the scope of application of the National Solidarity Tax 
to American nationals was also examined. 

These questions have recently been the subject of new 
exchanges of views in Washington between a French dele- 
gation and an American delegation. 

I am happy to find that, as Your Excellency knows, the 
two delegations have agreed on a draft of a new Conven- 
tion for the avoidance of double taxation with respect to es- 
tate and inheritance taxes, for the purpose of modifying 
and supplementing certain provisions of the Convention 
of July 25, 1939, and for the prevention of fiscal evasion. 

Pending signature and ratification of this Convention 
by our two governments, I have the honor to communi- 
cate at once to Your Excellency, with a view to imme- 
diate application, the agreement of the French Govern- 
ment on the following points. 

(1) Article 7 of the Convention of July 25, 1939 pro- 
vides that royalties paid in France to an American natural 
or juridical person are exempt from taxation in France, 
provided that the natural or juridical person does not 
have a permanent establishment in France. 

It is understood that these provisions shall be applicable 
in the case of royalties paid to American producers of 
films for the exploitation in France of these films, pro- 
vided that the income arising from the exploitation of 
the films in question cannot be considered as belonging 
to a permanent establishment in France of the American 
producer. 

(2) According to Article 9 of the Convention of July 25, 
1939, income from labor or personal services, with the 
exception of the income referred to In Article 8, is taxable 
only in the State where the taxpayer carries on his per- 
sonal activity. 

It is understood that Article 9 applies only when a 
taxpayer is in the position of being taxed by both con- 
tracting states. 

This interpretation follows the principle established by 
Article VI of the Protocol annexed to the Convention of 
1939 according to which the provisions of the Convention 
must not have the effect of increasing the tax burden of 
the taxpayer. 

(3) The American delegation has called the attention 
of the French delegation to the case of American business- 
men whom American companies by which they are em- 
ployed send to France in order to carry on an activity 
paid for by these companies. 

It has been taken into consideration that American 
businessmen who establish themselves in France receive 
because of this establishment a higher salary than they 
would have received if they had stayed in the United 



JULY 7, 1946 



41 



States. This higher salary is justified by increased cost 
(maintenance of their establishment in the United States, 
education of their children, etc.). Consequently it has 
been agreed that the Direction Generale des Contributions 
Directes will proceed in a liberal spirit at the request 
of the interested persons to examine each particular case 
in order to establish, if necessary before the establish- 
ment of the American companies in France, exactly what 
will be the situation of their personnel with regard to 
the Schedular Tax on salaries and wages (having regard 
in particular to the importance of the professional ex- 
penses the deduction of which might be authorized in 
the comjjutation of the tax). 

On the other hand, the members of the French delega- 
tion, on behalf of the French Fiscal Administration, have 
re.served the possibility of calling the attention of the 
competent American authorities to the case of French 
nationals who might feel that they are excessively taxed 
in the United States. 

(4) The American delegation has asked that deroga- 
tions from the French exchange regulations be permitted 
in favor of the American nationals referred to above who 
may not desire to transfer into France income obtained 
outside of France. 

The French exchange regulations do in fact put foreign 
nationals domiciled in France under obligation to repa- 
triate income received outside of French territory. 

The American delegation has been advised that no deci- 
sion of principle could be taken but that each particular 
case will be examined in as liberal a spirit as possible, 
taking into account the length of the sojourn in France 
of the interested persons. 

(5) With respect to Article 14, Ba of the Convention 
of July 2rj, 1H.39, it has been agreed to increase to 2.5% 
the lump sum reduction of 12% to be imputed to the 
French income tax rate on income from securities, debts 
and trusts having its source in the United States of 
America, under conditions fixed by French law without 
the necessity of establishing the nationality of the bene- 
ficiary of the said income. 

(6) The American delegation has called to the atten- 
tion of the French delegation the case of an American 
wife, married to a Frenchman, who has kept her American 
citlzensliip. Hy virtue of the French law the income hav- 
itiii its siiinci' in the Uiiilcil Shifcs wliicli she receives is 
mixi'd Willi tlic inconic "t her liusl)an(l and taxed in the 
name of the latter. Altliim.^h this iueoiue has been sub- 
jected to American taxation, the deduction which would 
otlierwise be allowed by the provisions of Article 114 of 
the Code General Francais des Impots Directs is not appli- 
cable since only taxpayers of foreign nationality taxable 
in France are authorized to exclude income of foreign 
origin from their taxable income if they prove that it 
was subjected to a personal tax on global income in the 
country from which they originate. 

It has been recognized that the solution of this difficulty 
can be found within the framework of Article 25 of the 
Convention of 1939 and that it will be the task of the 
Administration des Contributions Direetes to take all 
measures which are useful for the prevention of the double 
taxation in question. 

(7) The Franco-American Convention of April 27, 1932 



provides that American corporations which have perma- 
nent establishments in France and are subject to the 
French Income Tax can elect to be taxed on only % of 
the profits which they withdraw from these establish- 
ments. Similarly (Article VI) an American company has 
the option within six months after the Convention be- 
came effective to be exempted from income tax liability 
in respect of participation in the management or the cap- 
ital of a French company on condition that the indirect 
advantages which it draws from this participation be 
merged with the profits distributed by the French company 
and become subject to tlie French tax on income from 
securities. This option, wliicli had to be exercised jointly 
with the French company, was to be effective within a 
period of six months after the coming into force of the 
Convention or within six months after the acquisition of 
the participation in the French company. 

Article 17 of the Convention of July 25, 1939 accorded 
tlie companies referred to above a new period of six 
months to exercise the option referred to by the provisions 
in question. 

The American delegation has stated that in numerous 
cases this additional period could not be availed of be- 
cause of war conditions. 

Under these conditions it seemed to the French delega- 
tion both logical and equitable to grant the American com- 
panies a supplementary period which will run from the 
date of the present note to the date of the tjoming into 
force of tlie new Convention which will settle this matter. 

(8) Article 4 cpf the Ordinance of August 15, 1945 pro- 
vides lli.il llii- National Solidarity Tax is applicable in the 
case <if persons having either a domicile or habitual resi- 
dence in France. 

The American delegation expressed a desire to know 
the meaning of the words "habitual residence". 

It is hereby confirmed that the words "habitual resi- 
dence" will be interpreted by the French Fiscal Adminis- 
tration as being identical with domicile de facto. 

(9) Witli regard to the application of the National 
Solidarity Tax established by the Ordinance of August 15, 
1945 it is confirmed that : 

(a) funds brought into France by American nationals 
after the liberation of French territory will be subject 
to the laiiil.-il tax after deduction of the abatements al- 
lowed li\ ilir ( iniiiiance without distinction as to whether 
tlie fiuHls w eic brought by natural or juridical persons, an 
exception being made in the ca.se of juridical persons 
exempt from the tax ; 

(6) such funds are subject to tlie tax on enrichment 
only when in the hands of natural persons, juridical per- 
sons being exempt. However, it is recognized that the 
application to such funds of the tax on enrichment would 
not be in harmony with the spirit of the Ordinance of 
August 15, 1945 and that there would be no occasion to 
apply it. 

(10) American holdings blocked in France during the 
war cannot be exempted from the tax on capital estab- 
ILshed by the Ordinance of August 15, 1945. However, a 
distinction must be made between the tax on enrichment 
and the tax on capital. 

The French delegation has agreed that if the blocking 



42 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



in FrancP of holdings of citizens of the United States not 
resident In France has been effectuated at the Instigation 
of the French or German authorities, the French Admin- 
istration will not talie advantage of the measure which 
Ijrevented the transfer of these holdings to the United 
States so as ultimately to attribute to them the cliaracter 
of an enrichment. Consequently these funds will be ex- 
empt from the tax on enrichment and will be subject only 
to the capital tax. 

It is understood that, as indicated under number (9) 
above, juridical persons are not subject to the tax on 
enrichment. 

11) With reference to the bonds of the French Reijublic 
payable in dollars, sometimes called the Morgan b'.nds, 
which are exempt from present and all future taxes, it is 
hereby confirmed that these bonds, and indeed all bonds 
liMving the same fi.scal advantages, will be exempt from 
the National Solidarity Tax when held by nationals of 
tlie United States, including both natural and juridical 
persons, whether or not domiciled in France. 

I have the honor to inform Tour Excellency that my 
Government will consider this note, together with your 
note in reply thereto as confirming the understanding of 
onr two Governments in relation to the application of the 
principles outlined above. 

I take this occasion [etc.] H. Bonnet 

Hay 31, 19J,G 

EXCELLKNCY : 

I have the honor to acknowledge your note of May 6, 
10-16, in which you refer to conversations which have taken 
phice in I'aris and Washington between officials of the 
Government of the United States of America and officials 
of the French Government, and to the draft of a new 
convention for the avoidance of double taxation with 
respect to estate and inheritance taxes, for the purpose 
of modifyin'4' and supplementing certain provisions of 
the Convention of July. 25, 1939 relating to income taxa- 
tion, and for the prevention of fiscal evasion in respect 
of such taxation. 

With a view to immediate application, you have been 
kind enough to communicate througli me to my Govern- 
ment a confirmation of the position of the French Gov- 
ernment with respect to the treatment to be accorded 
American nationals by the French Government in regard 
to certain matters, including the interpretation and ap- 
plication of certain p)iivisi.pns of the Convention of July 
1!5, 1939, and the scopr of Mpplicntion to American nation- 
als of the French National SciUdarity Tax established by 
the Ordinance of August l.">, 1945. 

On behalf of the Government of the United States of 
America, I have the honor to express appreciation for the 
confirmationj given in Your Excellency's note, with re- 
spect to the position of the French Government as out- 
lined therein. 

Accept [etcl Dean Acheson 

His Excellency 
Henri Bonnet, 

Ambassador of the French Rfiiiihlir. 



The Department 



Appointment of Officers 

Just Lunning as Chief, Division of Management Plan- 
nitig, effective June 25, 1946. 

William T. Stone, Director of the Office of International 
Information and Cultural Affairs of the State Depart- 
ment, announced on June 26 the appointment of Fitzhugh 
Granger as Chief of OIC Area Division IV (the American 
Republics). Mr. Granger was formerly Public Affaire 
Officer in Argentina for the OIC. 

William Schurz, who has been Acting Chief of the Divi- 
sion, will continue as Associate Chief. 



The Foreign Service 



Consular Offices 

The American Consulate at Dairen, China, was opened 
to the public May 20, 1946. 

The American Consulate General at Brazzaville, French 
Equatorial Africa, was closed to the public June 16, 1946. 

The American Consulate at Tapachula, Mexico, was 
closed June 25, 1946. 



Foreign Commerce Weekly 

The following article of interest to readers of 
the Bulletin appeared in the June 8 issue of 
the Foreign Commerce Weekly, a publication of 
the Department of Commerce, copies of which 
may be obtained from the Superintendent of 
Documents, Government Printing Office, for 10 
cents each : 

"Paper Business Today In France and Low 
Countries", based on reports from Winslow La- 
mont Gooch, Senior Economic Analyst, American 
Embassy, Paris. 



The Congress 



T(i Deny Admission to the United States of Certain 
Aliens and to Reduce Immigration Quotas : Hearings Be- 
fore tlie Committee on Immigration and Naturalization, 
House of Ilepresentatives, Seventy-ninth Congress, second 
session, on H.R. 3663, a bill to amend the immigration and 
naturalization laws to deny admission to the United States 
of certain aliens who have served in the armed forces 
of countries at war with the United States, also members 
of certain parties and organizations, and to deny naturali- 
zation to such persons, and to reduce immigration quotas. 
Part 2, March 20, 27, May 8, 1946. iii, 68 pp. [Department 
of State, pp. 103-125.] 

Administration of Alien Property: Hearings Before 
Subcommittee No. 1 of the Committee on the Judiciary, 
House of Representatives, Seventy-ninth Congress, second 
.session, on H.R. 5089, a bill to amend the first War Powers 
Act, 1941. February 7, May 16, 21, and 23, 1946. Serial 
No. 20. iii, 159 pp. [Department of State, pp. 28-30, 97- 
99.] 

To Amend the Surplus Property Act : Hearings Before 
the Committee on Expenditures in the Executive Depart- 



ments, House of Representatives, Seventy-ninth Congress, 
second session, on H.R. 5329, H.R. 5517, H.R. 4432, and 
Others relating to the disposition of Surplus Property. 
February 14, 15, 19, 20, 21, 27, March 1, 5, 6, 7, 8, 12, and 
13, 1046. iii, 583 pp. [Department of State, p. 363.] 

Extension of Second War Powers Act, 1942, as Amended 
(Re: Transportation, Rationing, Priorities, etc.): Hear- 
ing Before a Subcommittee of the Committee on the 
Judiciary, United States Senate, Seventy-ninth Congress, 
second session, on H.R. 5716, an act to amend the Second 
War Powers Act, 1942, as Amended. May 31, 1946. iii, 
52 pp. 

Departments of State, Justice, Commerce, and the Ju- 
diciary Appropriation Bill for 1»47: Hearings Before the 
Subcommittee of the Committee on Appropriations, United 
States Senate, Seventy-ninth Congress, second session, on 
H.R. 6056, a bill making appropriations for the Depart- 
ments of State, Justice, Commerce, and the Judiciary for 
the fiscal year ending June 30, 1947, and for other pur- 
poses. Part 2 : State Department — Informational and 
Cultural Program, World Wide Broadcasting Foundation, 
ii, 23 pp. [Indexed.] 



Training Annonncements 



Foreign Service Officer Training 

"Economic Objectives of American Foreign 
Policy": Fisher Howe, Special Assistant to the 
Assistant Secretary of State for economic afCaire, 
will outline the economic objectives of American 
foreign policy at 9 a.m., Thur.sday, July IS, in 
Room 474. main State Department building, as a 
part of the Foreign Service Orientation Series. 



Training Course in Budget Preparation 

Through the cooperation of the Office of Budget 
and Finance, the Office of Departmental Admin- 
istration, the Division of Management Planning, 
the Division of Training Services, and the Bureau 
of the Budget, a training cour.se in budget prep- 
aration was conducted Monday through Friday, 
June 24-28, in the main State Department build- 
ing. 

The first meeting, a one-hour session on Monday 



for all offices and divisions, provided a general 
introduction to the budget process by the Assist- 
ant Director of OBF. 

On Tuesday a representative of the Bureau of 
the Budget presented a two-hour exposition on 
budget preparation, examination, and presenta- 
tion from the point of view of the Bureau of the 
Budget. The sessions on Wednesday, Thursday, 
and Friday consisted of five sessions of one hour 
each, on each day, in which examiners of the 
Bureau of the Budget discu.ssed with appropri- 
ately grouped offices the specific problems of 
budget justification as represented by excerpts 
from the 1947 budget. 

The emphasis throughout the course was upon 
programming as the basis of budget preparation 
and upon the necessity for clear Indication of 
quantitative factors in budget justifications. 
Budget preparation was treated as an important, 
but only one, aspect of administrative manage- 
ment. 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

mnii] 



Independence of the Philippines 

Messages of THE PRESIDENT AND ACTING SECRETARY ACHESON . Page 66 

American Policy in Occupied Areas 

Article by ASSISTANT SECRETARY HTLLDRING .... Page 47 

The Present Status of German Youth (Part I) 

Article by HENRY J. KELLERMANN Page 49 

German Documents: Conferences With Axis 
Leaders page 57 

Reparation for Non-Repatriables 

Article by ELI GINZBERG Page 56 



For complete contents v53i^sioW^i:^^fe5r 

see inside cover * 







U. S. SUPERINTENDENT OF OOCUMENTj 

AUG 13 1943 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



BULLETIN 



Vol. XV 'No. 367 




July 14, 1946 



For sale by the Superintendent of Docui 

U. S. GoTernment Printing Office 

Washington 25, D. C. 

Subscription: 

52 issues, $3.50; single copy. 10 cent 

Special offer: 13 weeks for $1.00 

(renewable only on yearly basis) 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Research and 
Publication, Office of Public Affairs, 
provides the public and interested 
agencies of the Government with 
information on developments in the 
field of foreign relations and on the 
work of the Department of State and 
the Foreign Service. The BULLETIN 
includes press releases on foreign 
policy issued by the White House and 
the Department, and statements and 
addresses made by the President and 
by the Secretary of State and other 
officers of the Department, as well as 
special articles on various phases of 
international affairs and thefunctions 
of the Department. Information con- 
cerning treaties and international 
agreements to ivhich the United States 
is or may become a party and treaties 
of general international interest is 
included. 

Publications of the Department, cu- 
mulative lists of which are published 
at the end of each quarter, as well as 
legisla t ive ma terial in I he field of in ter- 
national relations, are listed currently. 



American Policy in Occupied Areas 



Article by ASSISTANT SECRETARY HILLDRING 



THE Department of State is responsible for 
the development and promulgation of Amer- 
ican policy with respect to occupied areas. The 
War and Navy Departments are responsible for 
the execution of the over-all policy as formulated 
by the Department of State. The term occupied 
areas includes Germany, Austria, Japan, Korea, 
and the Venezia Giulia area of Italy; and the 
term American policy applies to all policy which 
i-equires concerted study, consideration, or coordi- 
nation by the State, War, and Navy Departments. 
The Office of the Assistant Secretary of State 
for Occupied Areas is charged by the Secretary of 
State with coordinating all Departmental policy 
for occupied enemy territories. In accordance 
with the purpose of the establishment of this office, 
we are not makers of policy, but coordinators and 
expediters of Departmental policy. The political, 
economic, and cultural questions concerning the 
occupied areas are still just as much the problems 
of the same divisions in the Department as they 
have always been. The advent of this new office 
has made no changes in their functions. This 
office coordinates the activities of all divisions that 
deal with occupied territories and directs their 
activities toward a common objective. Our pur- 
pose is simply to siphon off a coordinated policy 
in time for it to be useful and to leave the policy 
functions undisturbed. The need for such a point 
of contact from which the armed services might 
get policy decisions and get them on time has 
existed for the past three years. Unless the occu- 
pied areas are represented by a single unit in the 
State Department, it will never be possible for 
the Department to exercise leadership in this im- 
portant field. Since 70-85 percent of the occupa- 
tion problems presented to the State, War, and 
Navy Departments are political, the Department 
of State should occupy the position of leadership. 



The machinery for the coordination of Depart- 
mental policy dealing with the occupied areas in 
Europe and in the Far East is provided through 
two State Department Secretariats, which are re- 
sponsible to me for producing on time the Depart- 
ment's policy regarding the respective areas : the 
Germany-Austria Secretariat, presided over by 
James W. Riddleberger, Chief of the Division of 
Central European Affairs; and the Japan-Korea 
Secretariat, presided over by John C. Vincent, 
Director of the Office of Far Eastern Affairs. 
Each Secretariat includes membership from the 
Offices of the Department concerned with occu- 
pation affairs, whether political, economic, or cul- 
tural. 

Some sort of device is essential for coordinating 
the State Department's political functions and the 
service departments' administrative functions. 
That device is "SWNCC", the State- War-Navy 
Coordinating Committee, of which I am Chairman. 
SWNCC was created in December 1944 as a very 
active committee which provided a much-needed 
working link between the armed services and those 
responsible for foreign policy, and its existence 
until the end of hostilities was classified as confi- 
dential. Secretary Byrnes' directive of April 8, 
1946 provided that I should be the State Depart- 
ment member of the Committee on all matters of 
occupation policy and should take the initiative in 
submitting to SWNCC such policy matters as may 
require concerted study, consideration, or action.^ 

There is a need for coordination of many matters 
of policy which are not worthy of detailed con- 

' For article on SWNCC see Buixetin of Nov. 11, 1945, 
p. 745, and for text of the Secretary of State's directive, 
see Bulletin of Apr. 28, 1946, p. 734. James C. Dunn Is 
Chairman of SWNCC for matters not pertaining to occu- 
pied areas ; H. Freeman Matthews is Acting Chairman In 
Mr. Dunn's absence. 

47 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



sideration by the Secretaries of State, War, and 
the Navy in person. That type of coordination is 
one of the functions of the SWNCC Directorate. 
To aid in coordinating the inter-agency aspects 
of occupied-areas policy, the SWNCC Directorate 
was created in April 1946. 

Although the Department of State does not re; 
linquish in any way or share the authority or 
responsibility for policy decisions in these matters, 
my office is responsible for enlisting the support 
of all civilian agencies of the Government which 
have an interest in and know-how concerning 
phases of the occupational program. Policy deci- 
sions, for instance, involving financial, food-sup- 
ply, or industrial problems, profit from consulta- 
tion with such departments as the Treasury, Agri- 
culture, and Commerce. Although at present there 
is no formal machinery for coordination of this 
nature, I am engaged in devising a procedure for 
obtaining the cooperation of other Federal 
agencies without putting the burden of policy 
responsibility on their shoulders. 

One other agency involved in the occupation or 
government of occupied areas is the Far Eastern 
Commission, which was established in December 
1945 at the Moscow Conference of the three For- 
eign Ministei-s. The Commission has authority to 
formulate the jDolicies, principles, and standards 
in conformity with which the fulfilment by Japan 
of its obligations under the terms of surrender may 
be accomplished. In accordance with the policy 



decisions of the Commission, the United States 
Government is charged with preparing directives 
and transmitting them to the Supreme Comman- 
der through the appropriate agency of the United 
States Government. The Supreme Commander is 
charged with the im^jlementation of the directives 
which express the policy decisions of the Commis- 
sion. Coordination between tlie United States 
Government and the Far Eastern Commission is a 
responsibility of the State Department. The 
American member and Chairman of the Commis- 
sion is Major General Frank R. McCo}', and I am 
his alternate. 

The office of the Assistant Secretary of State for 
Occupied Areas was created on April 8, 1946. The 
cooperation this office has received in the Depart- 
ment since that date has been supei'b. The best 
testimony of the success of our program is found 
in the fact that we have accomplished more in two 
months than had been planned for four months. 
Reports from the field indicate deep appreciation 
of the increased vigor which is being applied in 
Washington to the prompt solution of occupation 
problems. The Department of State is thus en- 
abled to make a distinct contribution to military 
government at its roots and to attain a clearly 
recognized position of leadership with respect to 
the occupied areas. 

fEiJiri r.'.s mite: Two otlipr articles on American policy 
in occupied areas will appear in later issues of the 
BULLErriN.] 



The Present Status of German Youth 



Article by HENRY J. KELLERMANN 



PART I 
Statement of the Problem 

RECENT APPEARANCES of resistaiice movements 
have again focused attention on the laroblem 
of German youth. Although the reported in- 
cidents are significant primarily from the point of 
view of long-range policy, they have strengthened 
the belief of students of the German problem that 
the i-e-education of German youth is a prerequisite 
to political recovery in general. 

Re-education is generally understood as a sys- 
tematic attempt at removing certain mental and 
moral weaknesses prevalent among German youth. 
Contemporary analyses suggest that German youth 
is characterized by a set of attitudes which may 
be either helpful or prejudicial, but thus far have 
been predominantly hurtful, to Allied-German 
efforts to establish democratic policies and pro- 
cedures. German youth is depicted as being physi- 
cally, mentally, and morally sick. Contaminated 
by the traces of a discredited (Nazi) ideology and 
indifferent to the standards of the Western tradi- 
tion, German youth is further described as deeply 
distrustful of other philosophies and incapable of 
forming new allegiances. 

Treatment of these weaknesses is allegedly made 
difficult by German youth's preoccupation with 
personal, often purely physical, needs, their tend- 
ency toward escapism, and their indifference 
toward all social standards, particularly in matters 
of property, sex, and work. German youth is said 
to lack moral initiative and to be unable to ap- 
preciate truth as a guide for human relations. 
Allowance is made for certain differentiations 
among young peoples depending on their home en- 



An analysis and description of the problems of German 
youth after the collapse, the policies pursued by the 
several occupying powers in meeting these problems, 
and a survey of current conditions among youth organi- 
zations. 

vironment, war experience, sex, and age. A youth 
editor of a South German paper, for instance, 
believes that the most difficult group includes those 
in the 20-25 age bracket, whose adolescent years 
were spent entirely under Nazi influence and who 
now seem encumbered with all the prejudices and 
resentments of a lost generation. He describes 
youth below age 17 as a more malleable group, 
anxious to learn and reform. Another factor com- 
plicating a balanced appraisal of the situation is 
the proportion of the sexes. It appears that the 
war has decimated the male population in the 
crucial age groups under 21. A recent census in 
Berlin revealed that among the 15,000 inhabitants 
of one particular district there were only 81 young 
men in the bracket of 16-21 years ; in another dis- 
trict, the number of girls between the ages 18-21 
was 717 as against 71 boys in the same age group. 
All these analyses are limited, in that they 
fasten attention on symptoms rather than on 
causes. German youth today is the product of a 
number of circumstances. All of them have gone 
through the indoctrination system of the Hitler 
Youth and have received nothing to supplant this 
experience. As their nationalism is partly a 
legacy from the Nazi ideology, so their nihilism 
is largely the result of the break-down of the Nazi 
system. Political and moral excesses are at- 
tributable to a number of factors, some of which 

Dr. Kellermann is a Research Analyst in the Division 
of Europe, Near East, and African Intelligence, Office of 
Research and Intelligence, Department of State. This 
study is partially based on observations made during a 
recent stay in Germany when Mr. Kellermann served as 
Chief of Research and Consultant to the Office of Chief 
of Coun.sel for the Prosecution of Axis Criminality. 

49 



50 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIIV 



were in existence before the break-down. Politi- 
cal extremism, which is a relatively minor problem 
at this point, may stem in part from organized 
efforts, planned prior to defeat, to continue re- 
sistance after the cessation of hostilities. But it 
may also directly reflect a general break-down of 
civic, social, and educational controls, which be- 
gan long before the end of the war and only in- 
creased in extent after the collapse. The same 
cause can be held responsible for the progressive 
demoralization of German youth and for the re- 
jection of all authority imposed by adult groups 
and institutions. 

The prevailing social and economic conditions 
obviously contribute to the rise of waywardness, 
vagrancy, and delinquency. Outstanding among 
these conditions are the scarcity of foodstuffs, the 
housing shortage, and the resulting crowded living 
conditions, deterioration of family relations, and 
unemployment. Finally, political apathy and 
moral indolence are characteristic of young people 
who consider themselves outcasts or dissenters 
from society. 

This indifference to political matters is likely to 
increase, if the authorities fail in their attempts to 
regain the confidence and the cooperation of youth. 
For, inasmuch as German youth is the product of a 
political system that failed, only the establishment 
of a better system will restore youth to a place in 
German soriety. The rehabilitation of German 
youth will depend on provisions made by the ruling 
groups to afford youth a chance for active partici- 
pation in the process of reconstruction. The 
present state of political apathy or opposition on 
the part of German youth suggests either that a 
social order sufficiently attractive to enlist the ma- 
jority of German youth does not exist, or that those 
who bid for the cooperation of youth have not yet 
succeeded in convincing German youth of the 
soundness of their program. In the light of these 
facts and so long as the attack is upon symptoms 
rather than causes, all efforts by Allied and Ger- 
man authorities to combat the rise in demoraliza- 
tion and delinquency are palliatives useful but of 
necessity limited in effect. 

The following analysis of attitudes and trends 
in German youth and of Allied and German efforts 
to cope with the problem attempts to describe cer- 
tain types of attitudes now prevalent and to ex- 
amine various methods of treatment. Quantitative 
estimates as to the prevalence of these attitudes are 



not possible at this time, but it is probable that 
extreme attitudes are shared by only a minority of 
youths. Although nationalistic trends are com- 
mon, moreover, opposition and resistance to the 
Allied occupation are confined to a relatively small 
number of political activists. The overwhelming 
number of juveniles, even when tainted with rem- 
nants of Nazi thinking, are passive and usually 
still uninterested in and unresponsive to any ap- 
proach by political groups. Those youths who 
take advantage of the present lack of adequate 
social and educational controls are more likely to 
engage in common offenses against public order 
than in subversive activities. However, it should 
be remembered that the scope of the problem re- 
mains variable. It is responsive to changes in the 
political and economic situation. If efforts to as- 
sure a subsistence economic level and to establish 
a workable political order should fail, demoraliza- 
tion and political radicalization of German youth 
toward the Right or Left may increase in direct 
proportion to the failure of the authorities in main- 
taining the appropriate controls. 

General Attitudes and Trends 

Nationcdism and Nazi Residues 

Of the political attitudes held by German youth, 
the most conspicuous is a reactionary type of na- 
tionalism. But although nationalism remains the 
most spectacular feature of their ideology, it is not 
always jiredominant nor does it assume the ex- 
treme, massive, and aggressive form of National 
Socialism. By comparison, the present national- 
ism of German youth is, in fact, much more com- 
plex and subtle than its predecessor. It springs 
from a number of sources of which Nazi indoc- 
trination is only one. Other factors are the 
wartime intellectual isolation of Germany, the in- 
dividual experiences of combat soldiers, and the 
conditions of defeat and occupation. For many 
youths nationalism is a purely negative form of 
political expression. To them it offers both a ref- 
uge and a platform from which to reject foreign 
and unfamiliar political ideologies. The presence 
of nationalism in these roles attests to the absence 
or to the inadequacy of efforts by the authorities 
and political parties to replace National Socialism 
with a new political creed. In other cases, nation- 
alism appears as sublimized and takes the form of 
sabotage and organized crime. 



]ULY 14, 1946 



The lingering effects of Nazism have produced 
in youth a state of social fossilization, i. e. a gen- 
eral inability to shake off the effects of Nazi teach- 
ings and to adapt themselves to the consequences 
of defeat and the exigencies of social change. Po- 
litical thinking does not seem to have progressed 
much beyond the Nazi pattern. Allied observers 
have reported that large numbers of German 
young people, violently nationalistic in their feel- 
ings and outlook, continue to harbor sentiments 
of racial superiority, defend salient principles of 
Nazi doctrine, and insist on the sincerity of the 
original developers of the Nazi program. These 
same elements also reject the theory of collective 
guilt, attribute the origins of the war to a lack of 
Lebensrawm (or to the Jews, the British, or the 
Poles), ascribe military defeat to treason, believe 
in a recurrence or future vindication of National 
Socialism, inveigh against the Soviet Union, and 
remain unsympathetic toward the victims of 
Nazism. A recent poll among 134 high-school 
students coming from upper- and middle-class 
families, taken by MG officers, revealed that more 
than half of them retained attitudes unmistakably 
Nazi or at least strongly nationalistic or chau- 
vinistic. 

Residues of Nazi thinking are particularly 
strong among students and returning veterans. 
Recent disturbances on German campuses have 
shown that a certain type of German student is 
highly sensitive to attacks on Nazi leadership or 
militarism, objects to a discussion of German war 
guilt, and vilifies those persons who admit German 
failure and guilt. Student sensibilities center on 
such problems as "national honor" and "student 
honor." Manifestations of nationalism are marked 
by threats of vengeance against liberals and by de- 
mands for a revival of Feine courts. This demand 
is a relapse into nationalistic tendencies which 
emerged after the last war, when the so-called Free 
Corps, founded by veterans, meted out punishment 
through Feme courts, whose prototype had first ap- 
peared in medieval times. The introduction of 
"Christian" principles into student activities is 
interpreted in a discriminatory sense, primarily to 
bar Marxist or other "materialist" elements. 

Most of the arguments advanced by these stu- 
dents clearly derive from Nazi thought. In a num- 
ber of instances, however, Nazi teachings are sup- 
plemented by the type of Free Corps [Freikorps) 
spirit which grows out of an inability to accept 



military defeat as final. Returning veterans feel 
that their sacrifices at the front may remain un- 
recognized. As a compensation, they have initi- 
ated a cult of military virtues and have fanned 
the fires of revenge. In letters to newspapers, for 
example, veterans have denounced attempts to at- 
tribute human qualities to the enemy and have re- 
vived the charges of alleged atrocities committed 
by the other side.^ Other individuals have revived 
the stab-in-the-back legend,^ a traditional device of 
German nationalists to rationalize defeat. Oc- 
casionally, German defeat is blamed on the fact 
that the Germans w!ere late in developing the 
atomic bomb; the delay is laid to the treason of 
German scientists.^ 

Nationalism, of course, receives new impetus 
from the fact that the Germans live under a 
military occupation. Inability to accept defeat is 
coupled with a resentment of the controls estab- 
lished by the occupying powers. The German re- 
action, however, assumes mostly an indirect form. 
In the absence of organized opposition, resistance 
takes the form of small-scale sabotage, civil dis- 
obedience, rumor-mongering, and the formation of 
small, secret groups to serve as the nuclei for fu- 
ture action. Resentment, furthermore, appears 
mainly to be leveled at secondary targets — Ger- 
man authorities and private individuals suspected 
of collaboration with occupying powers. Disaf- 
fection to Allied authorities, the primary target, 
is couched in cautious warnings that one must 
"respect" but not "love" them.^ Those persons 
who "idolize" the occupants are admonished not to 
deny their "Germanism" and to remember that "to 
remain a German, even in [the days of] our his- 
tory's deepest humiliation, is the duty of each 
of us." ^ 

In a more active phase, youthful gangs have en- 
gaged in smear campaigns against collaboration- 
ists, notably women, and formed so-called "barber 
clubs," i. e. gangs which specialize in cutting off 
the hair of German girls who fraternize with Al- 

' Frankfurter Rundschau, Feb. 19, 1946. 

= FuUlaer Volkszeitung, Feb. 13, 1946. 

'Cf. Main Post (Wttrzburg), Mar. 2, 1946, quoting con- 
tributions of school children on the subject, "Hitler and 
the War". Lurid accounts are frequently given of what 
would have happened to the Allies had Germany perfected 
the atomic bomb first. 

' Frankfurter Rundschau, Feb. 19, 1946, quoting the let- 
ter of a nationalist student. 

' Ibid. 



52 



lied soldiers; other gangs apparently have even 
plotted the assassination of leading personalities 
in public life through Feme courts. 

Disagreement with Allied policies has, so far, 
not led to organized violence, but there has been 
much resentment over the handling of such mat- 
ters as the distribution of food and de-Nazifica- 
tion. For instance, when asked by Allied officers 
to describe the difference between Allied de- 
Nazification and Nazi Gleichschaltung — the 
word refers to the National Socialist practice of 
removing from public and private positions "non- 
Aryans" and other persons considered undesirable 
to the regime and replacing them with supporters 
of Nazi policy — German youths have said that 
there are three chief distinctions : 

1. Persons affected by Gleichschaltung retained 
their claims to pensions; 

2. Such persons had the right to emigrate ; 

3. Gleichschaltimg was a measure adopted by 
German authorities for German subjects and was 
not imposed by foreign powers. 

Fundamentally, the contemptuous attitude to- 
ward Allied policies and procedures is based on a 
wide-spread tendency to see the present dilemma as 
the result of a victory undeserved by the Allies 
rather than as the consequence of a war caused and 
lost by Germany. This fact i s pa rticularly evident 
in the frequent objections made by students and 
veterans against submitting to the jurisdiction and 
verdicts of Allied courts. They characterize the 
Niirnberg trial as a manifestation of "the right of 
the victor"' and do not consider it as an instrument 
for establishing international principles of law and 
order.® 

The attitude of the more serious and perhaps 
more dangerous elements among the nationalist 
forces is best summarized in the student's letter " 
referred to above. It is characterized bj' profound 
pessimism, even cynicism, toward all supranational 
values, and presupposes the recognition only of 
such standards as are based on common history and 
loyalty to one's own group. Outward manifesta- 
tions of the attitude expressed by this particular 
individual include nationalistic self -righteousness, 
protestations of unrewarded sacrifice, unwilling- 
ness to submit to the moral or political judgment of 
non-German authorities except under duress, de- 

'Franfurter Rundschau, Feb. 19, 1946. 

' Ibid. 

' nochUind-Botc (Garmisch-P;u-tenkirclien) . Jiiii. 0, 194C. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

nial of guilt and responsibility (except toward 
members of one's own group) , and abstention from 
all allegiances postulated by foreign powers. The 
latter position implies a deep distrust of democracy 
as a political cure-all. Any persons who freely 
accept new ideologies or who, in their acceptance of 
the new rulers, go beyond the minimum officially 
required, in the opinion of nationalists deserve to 
be ostracized and threatened. The non-conform- 
ism, self-indulgence, and even the vernacular of 
the neo-patriots about whom the letter writer has 
spoken, bring to mind slogans popular in the years 
following the Napoleonic victories over Prussia. 
They also recall the "spirit of Langemarck" fos- 
tered by German nationalists after 1918 to keep 
alive the self-sacrifice of Germany's youngest bat- 
talions in World War I. 

The danger of this attitude lies in the serious 
obstacle which any type of nihilism and wilful 
isolation presents to political recovery and re-edu- 
cation. In addition, it offers an opportunity to 
reactionary elements bent upon using German 
youth for ulterior purposes. It is not surprising, 
therefore, that the Liberal Democratic Party, 
whose leadership is at least partly suspect of strong 
nationalist leanings, has already approached the 
letter writer quoted above with the promise of 
wider opportunities for political agitation. 
Political Apathy and Non-Conformism 

Sensational accounts of subversive attempts by 
nationalistic elements must not be construed as 
signs of a wide-spread politicalization of German 
youth. On the contrary, the vast majority of 
German youth is politically unformed. That is 
to say, German youth is characterized by an atti- 
tude of indifference and ambivalence toward all 
traditional beliefs, notably political ones. The 
Nazi system kept them in total ignorance of any 
set of values other than National Socialist, and the 
collapse of National Socialism has left them with 
no creed whatever. In fact, large numbers of 
youths appear to have lost not only their belief 
but even their faculty to believe in anything. A 
seventeen-year-old youth confesses, possibly with 
a touch of self-dramatization : "I envy those who 
have still the ability to believe in something, even 
those who believe in Hitler. They at least have 
something to which they can cling. I have noth- 
ing, simply nothing." * 

The disillusionment of Geiinan youth, by and 
large, manifests itself in apathy toward all matters 



JULY 14, 1946 

political aiul fmiueiilly in total abstention from 
IJolitical activity." However, juvenile apathy is 
not always restricted only to politics. Based on a 
deep distrust of civil, social, and moral controls 
in general, it reveals itself in tendencies toward 
escapism and "ieneral non-conformism. What 
appear to be acts of political sabotage against 
German or Allied authority quite frequently are 
part of a general pattern of antisc.cial behavior. 
Gangs of "criminal jnvenilcs are ri'ported to he 
operating under the cloak of ■•patiiotism." In 
sucli cases, political non-confctrniisni is merely a 
symptom of, or a pietext for, the wilful rejection 
of all social controls. 

Depending on external influences, however, gen- 
eral apathy may become the point of departure for 
a number of attitudes and actions which may have 
definite and even dangerous political implications. 
If deflected toward non-conformism, apathy may 
develop, in its extreme form, into nihilism and an- 
archy; it may lead to crime with or without politi- 
cal cloak; it may produce passive resistance, and, 
finally, if cleverly exploited by political agents, it 
may be turned into active political opposition to 
all authorities and groups responsible for military 
and civilian controls. These various stages have, 
however, been reached only by small sectors of 
German youth. Among the majority of German 
youth, non-conformism has not progressed beyond 
the verbal phase. It emerges in detVition from the 
former system and the controls established by it, 
in rejection of or, at best, in abstention from the 
present set of controls, and in incipient attempts 
to formulate, independently, a new approach to 
society. 

It is well to remember that apathy and non- 
conformism are the effects rather than the cause 
of the social break-down. They ai-e, above all, 
the result of the collapse of a system which art- 
fully undermined the authority of the traditional 
controls guaranteed by family, school, and church. 
Logically, the failure of a regime which monopo- 
lized all authority and was based on a theory of 
power and success was bound to result in the com- 
plete disillusionment of those who unconditionally 
accepted both the theory and the authority behind 
it. 

Thus, while many youths still cling to a belief 
in Nazism, a number of the more disillusioned 
have begun to question some of the principles of 
Nazism and the motives of its leaders; others have 



53 



gone so far as to denounce National Socialism. 
Individual youths claim in letters published in the 
press that they feel cheated by Nazism and that 
they have turned their backs on their past. Former 
members of the party and the Hitler Youth who 
were born after 1920 resent being asked by employ- 
ment offices about their past affiliations, express 
indignation at being labeled "little Nazis", and 
refuse to be placed on the same level with "old- 
timers." " They protest that they were the vic- 
tims rather than the sup^Dorters of a system which 
had eliminated all choice of political alternatives. 
Some even claim that "the majority of the former 
Hitler Youth recognize today that they were mis- 
led. . . ."'1 Young people in the U. S. zone of 
occupation have objected to the procedures of a 
political system which they allege "treats [them] 
just as badly as did Nazism."^- They demand 
that American authorities abandon such "injus- 
tices".'-' 

To judge from some utterances by youths, the 
fight over the responsibility for the war and 
Nazism often emerges as a genuine conflict between 
the generations. Denials of guilt are associated at 
times with furious attacks against parents. One 
young person writes: "Youth today stands aside, 
because the older generation shirks its responsi- 
bility. Today, all of a sudden, none of the elders 
will admit that he, by his very attii ude. supplied a 
model, that he helped sway the ixMiple into this 
insane war and into the megalomania of the party 
leaders."" Furthermore, this personal antag- 
onism is transferred to a whole set of values which 
formed the cultural background of the older gener- 
ation. The same correspondent quoted above 
says : "Cheated out of their hopes . . . youth 

"An inquiry in a youth magazine asljing its readers 
"Sliall we organize ourselves politically?" was answered 
by only 1 percent (Frankfurter Neue Presse, Apr. 25, 1946) . 

^"Frankfurter Rundschau, Feb. 15; Main Post (Wiirz- 
burg). Mar. 2, 1946. 

" Main-Post. Mar. 2, 1946. 

" Frankfurter Rundschau, Feb. 15, 1946. 

" Foreign Bi-oadcasting Intelligence Service : ticker, July 
2, 1946. In answer to proposals originating with youth 
and adult authorities in the U. S. zone, General McNarney 
has now approved a general political amnesty for German 
young men and women l)orn after January 1, 1919. Only 
Nazi activists and war criminals will be exempt from 
this pardon, which is awaiting final recommendation by 
the German Council of States in the U. S. zone and ap- 
proval by the Military Government. 

"Die Neue Zeitung (Munich), Apr. 1, 1946. 



54 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



must, of sheer necessity, doubt the fundamental 
ethical laws of human existence. Neither Mozart's 
Magic Flute, nor a church concert, nor (xoethe's 
/phiffenie can help youth overcome their doubts." '^ 

There can be little doubt that many of those 
who reject or deny their former association with 
the Nazi system and who now espouse the ideals 
of democracy do so for opportunistic reasons. In 
fairness to a large number of genuine doubters it 
must be said, however, that many refuse to trans- 
fer their allegiance to democracy or to any other 
new philosophy out of sheer personal honesty. 
Some concede frankly their total ignorance in 
matters political. Others, e(|nally honest, explain 
their hesitancy in terms of fear of wvw ilisa])]ioiut- 
ments. The fiasco of the Nazi system lias left them 
with psychological traumas which may be difficult 
to heal. One youth confesses: "Our so-called 
ideals . . . were distorted, the best has been 
dragged through tilth, and our conlidence has 
been bitterly disappointed. Now we are . . . 
afraid that the same thing may lnii)piMi to us once 
more. Today we are told of ideals the realization 
of which we can nowhere detect." '" The elections 
held in the American zone, for example, were re- 
garded by many young jieople as a test for which 
they were insufficiently prepared. Api)eals of the 
parties directed to youth elicited comments which 
indicated that they placed little confidence in the 
promises of candidates or in the democratic prin- 
ciple of reaching political decisions by popular 
vote. 

Distrust of democracy does not arise from Nazi 
teachings only. It is nourished by a fallacious 
tendency on the part of many to accept the present 
political system under Military Government as 
full-fledged democracy and to regard bureaucratic 
difficulties and many of the current political and 
economic calamities as a logical concomitant of 
democratic procedures. Thus, difficulties incurred 
in obtaining jobs are atti'ibuted to the new system. 

With few exceptions neithei' jHiblic authorities 
nor political parties have tried to o\ercome such 
misunderstandings, nor have they tried to counter- 

'" This opinion Is not shared by all returning veterans, 
some of whom give evidence that the degrading aspects of 
front-line life helped them rediscover the humanitarian 
values of thp (Sfrman classics. 

" \laiii I'nsl. Mar. 2, 1946. 

" Main r„sl. Mar. 2, 1946. 

'\s'(/i»u/y/.s(//r Donnu-Zpitntig (Ulm), Feb. 10; Main 
Poxt, Mar. 2, l!)4(i. 



act such impressions through the development of 
projects and programs exemplifying the true 
meaning of democratic action. Consequently, 
juvenile interest in democracy is determined quite 
often by external factors as elementary as food, 
jobs, and the like. In Berlin, for instance, school 
children have interrupted their teacher's discus- 
sion of democratic principles by shouting : "Non- 
sense ! Democracy means hunger. We'd rather 
eat. Under Hitler there was no democracy, but 
we were better off." Or youths are reported to 
have put up posters reading : 

"Gebt uns mehr zu essen, 
Sonst konnen wir Hitler nicht vesgessen." 

These negative attitudes are only slightly bal- 
anced by positions which range from watchful 
waiting to outright approval. At times, Ger- 
man youth appears to be willing to admit democ- 
racy on a trial basis. Nevertheless, participation 
in politics, e. g, elections, remains conditional. 
Young voters have said that they "are not by any 
means persuaded that the parties and men for 
whom we voted will actually represent our inter- 
ests. We have voted for the party which we 
deemed relatively best. . . ." '' 

Those individuals who are seriously groping 
their way toward democratic concepts reveal a 
peculiar naivete in their definitions. In some 
cases democracy is identified with such recognized 
criteria as "objectivity", "tolerance", respect to- 
ward minorities, freedom of .speech, and the like. 
Quite fie(|uently, however, acceptance of demo- 
cracy is qualified by outspoken distrust of party 
politics or by demands for what is called an 
"authoritarian" democracy — exemplified, alleg- 
edly, by England and the United States. Above 
all, there is a tendency to regard democracy as 
another governmental system (Staatsform) intro- 
duced by authorities from on high,'* This re- 
stricted interpretation of democracy may be at- 
tributed to a general ignorance of historical 
patterns in democratic countries, a profound un- 
awareness of the applicability of democratic 
methods to the small community and to group life 
in general, and an inability to relate democratic 
standards to economic and social issues. Oc- 
casionally, young people realize and admit frankly 
their fundamental lack of knowledge and ask 
openly for moi'e systematic efforts by German and 
Allied authorities to teach them the elements of 
democratic thinking. 



JULY 14, 1946 



55 



Definitions wliicli reveal a certain degree of 
maturity come from those j'ouths who are active 
in political organizations, and from workers and 
veterans. A suggestion made by a participant at 
a round-table conference of former prisoners of 
war in Munich merits attention. He demanded 
that the parties should inform youth about their 
objectives and that the press assist youth and treat 
youth problems in a conciliatory and informative 
fashion. He recommended that young people 
regularly exchange their opinions with the youth 
of democratic countries at conferences and pro- 
posed that German youth be allowed to visit the 
United States and England so that they could 
gather experience to be used in the reconstruction 
of Germany.'^ 

Demoralization and Cnminality 

The immediate consequejice of the desire of 
juveniles to escape from social controls is non- 
l)olitical. It is reflected in the over-all picture of 
progressive demoralization and, more specifically, 
in the stati-stics of the criminal police. Among an 
increasing number of juveniles, political apathy 
and non-conformism has produced an escape into 
superficial pleasures and mass loafing, and has led 
to a lowering of moral standards and to perpetra- 
tion of a series of minor and major crimes. All 
these things, of course, are synijitonis of social dis- 
orders which are caused liy the fdotj and liousing 
shortages, the scarcity of jobs and opportunities 
of training,-" the laclv of educational and recrea- 
tional facilities, and the absence of adequate super- 
vision and moral, social, and intellectual stimuli. 

Inadequate schooling and training under the 
Nazis has pi-oduced a youth which not only lacks 

"Die JJeue ZeUunri, Apr. 5, 1946. 

-" A report of the Bavarian Minister of Labor discloses 
that of sl,(MHi iiivi'iiiles who will leave the schools in July 
1946 only ITi lurct'iit can be provided with apprenticeships 
(Sii(lo.'<t-Kiirirr. May 10, 1946). 

-' A similar investigation made in Frankfurt-am-Main 
revealed that 65 percent of all juveniles preferred tech- 
nical, academic, or commercial vocations, whereas 22 per- 
cent indicated interest in becoming mechanics, bakers, 
butchers, cooks, and pastry-cooks (Stuttgarter Zeitung. 
May 4, 1946). 

-'Fiildaer VolkszeitiuHi. Feb. 1.S; Der Alh/iiiier (Kemp- 
ten), Feb. 19, 1946. 

-^ Hikldeutsche Zeitung (Munich), Mar. 1, 1946. 

-* Marhuiger Presse, Jan. 15, 1946. 

■'Fuldaer Volkszeitung, Feb. 13; Siiddeutsche Zcitiiiiii. 
Mar. 1, 1946. 



the most elementary qualifications for the resump- 
tion of employment, but no longer possesses the 
energy and desire to work. Uncounted numbers 
of juveniles, instead of applying for regular em- 
]:)loyment, choose the black market and barter to 
procure the needed minimum of food. Many girls 
do not work but prefer to obtain their rations 
through fraternization with occupation troops. 
In the words of one youth, "all work is considered 
forced labor." A poll conducted in one Berlin 
district revealed that the local youth were totally 
indifferent toward reconstruction woi'k. None 
was interested in the building trades or in any of 
the other trades which urgently need labor. The 
fact that 80 percent of those polled said they 
wanted to become butchers or bakers suggests the 
current preoccupation with the food problem ; the 
others wanted to become electricians or radio me- 
chanics.-' Furthermore, the quality of perform- 
ance by youth occupied in the labor service was so 
unsatisfactory that the City of Berlin proposed to 
stop paying for it. Outdoor work was finally dis- 
continued in winter on account of its unproductive- 
ness. 

Interest in organized youth activities is small. 
For instance, youth committees in the Soviet zone 
have noticed :i wide-spread preference for social 
activities, espcrially drinking and dancing. A 
large part of youth finds an outlet in crime and 
underground activity, ranging from waylaying 
of and gang warfare on Allied soldiers and pro- 
Allied Germans to black-market operations. Both 
the Berlin police and the Bavarian Minister of 
the Inteiior have reported a mounting wave of 
juveniU' (lelin(iui'iicy in recent months.-- The ages 
of these delinquents range from 8 to 23 years, with 
the highest frequency between 18 and 20. On 
January 15, 168 juveniles were reported in custody 
in a Berlin jail. The Juvenile Court in Munich 
registered a record figure of 700 criminal cases 
against juveniles in the first months of 1946.-^ 
Since existing facilities no longer met the need, 
the establishment of a new house of detention was 
being planned. A similar situation is rej^orted 
from Frankfurt-am-Main, where '.KV.) juveniles 
were detained and arrested from Scptenilier i:^ to 
October 30, 1945, of whom 492 were convicted by 
military courts.^* The majority of these cases — 
four fifths of the more serious ones in Bavaria — 
involved thefts and burglaries.^' The balance in- 
( Continued on page 63 ) 



Reparation for Non-Repatriables 



Article by ELI GINZBERG 



THE Agreement of the Paris Conference on 
lieiJiU-iition - signed in January was concluded 
among 18 Allied Powers whose reparation claims 
are to be met from the western occupation zones 
of Germany and from appropriate German exter- 
nal assets. Article 8 of the Agreement made 
certain assets available for persons who had suf- 
fered heavily at tlie hands of the Nazis and who 
stood in dire need of aid to promote their rehabili- 
tation and resettleni,ent but were luiable to claim 
the assistance of any goverinnent receiving repa- 
ration from Germany. 

The specific assets made available were $25,000,- 
000 to be secured from the liquidation of German 
assets in neutral countries; all the "non-monetary 
gold" found by the Allies in Germany ; and all the 
assets in neutral countries of victims of German 
action who died without heirs. It is estimated that 
the "non-monetary gold" and the "heirless funds" 
will amount to millions of dollars. 

The Paris Conference on Reparation cliarged 
the Governments of the United States, France, the 
United Kingdom, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia 
in consultation with the Intergovernmental 
Committee on Refugees to work out, in common 
agreement, a plan to aid in the rehabilitation and 
resettlement of these non-repatriable vii'tinis of 
German action. 

In accordance with this mandate, a conference 
of the Five Powers was held in Paris early in 
June, at which was reached an "Agreement Per- 
taining to Reparation Funds for Non-Repatriable 
Victims of German Action." ^ 

' U.S. Representative to the Five-Power Conference on 
Reparations for Non-Repatriable Victims of German Ac- 
tion. Dr. Ginzberg was lent for this assignment frani 
his post as Special Assistant to the Surgeon General. He 
is a professor of economics at Columbia University. 

' For list of signatory governments, see Bulletin of 
June 16, 1946, p. 1023. 

' Printed in this issue, p. 71. 

56 



After the signing of tlie Paris Agreement on 
Reparation, but before the calling of the Five- 
Power Conference on Reparation for Non-Repa- 
triables, the Allied Governments had decided to 
establish priority for the $-2.5,000,000 sum to be 
made available from the liquidation of German 
assets in neutral countries. The "non-monetary 
gold" is likewise available and awaits only liquida- 
tion. The overwhelming part of this "non-mone- 
tary gold", which includes wedding rings, tooth 
fillings, jewelry, and other personal possessions 
that are not restitutable, is in the United States 
zone in Germany. 

The "heirless funds" represent assets of victims 
of Nazi action who died without leaving heirs. 
Although private international law provides in 
most cases for the disposition of heirless assets, 
the Allied Powers held that since these particular 
"heirless funds" arose as a result of the wilful mur- 
der <if six million Jews, morality and equity de- 
mand that the proceeds from the liquidation of 
these assets be made available to rehabilitate and 
resettle the survivors of the Hitler holocaust. Ex- 
ploratory negotiations with the Neutral Powers 
indicate that they will take a sympathetic point 
of view on this problem. However the successful 
litjuidation of these assets, which are estimated to 
amount to many millions of dollars, can succeed 
only if the Neutral Powers take all necessary steps, 
including special legislation, to overcome the legal, 
administrative, and fiscal obstacles which stand 
in tlie way of identifying, collecting, and li(iuidat- 
ing tliem. 

Displaced persons, as such, are not eligible for 
benefit under the terms of article 8 of the Final 
Act of the Paris Conference on Reparation and 
of the Agreement just concluded. Eligible per- 
sons have been specifically defined as those Jewish 
and non-Jewish nationals of (iermanv and Aus- 



JILY U, 1946 



German Documents: 
With Axis Leaders 



Conferences 



MEMORANDUM OF THE CONVERSATION BETWEEN THE FtJHRER AND THE DUCE, WITH 
THE REICH FOREIGN MINISTER AND COUNT CIANO ALSO PRESENT, AT SCHLOSS 
KLESSHEIM NEAR SALZBURG, APRIL 29, 1942 



At tlie beginning of the interview between the 
four, the Fiihrer reported briefly about questions 
wliich lie had discussed previously with the Duce 
in private. He had informed the latter in detail 
about the general military situation during the 
winter months. Severe battles had had to be 
fought under tlic most difficult weather conditions. 
In that coini('ctii)ii it appeared now, looked at 
from after the event, thiit it had been a piece of 
good fortune that the (iiTinan Army had not 
pressed further forward into Russia in October, 
for with its long lines of communications it would 
have suffered still more from the effects of the 
extraordinarily severe winter, in the course of 
which the teniixTalure liad descended to depths 
which had not been readied for the past hundred 
years, and the transportation difficulties wdiich 
would have arisen therefrom would have produced 
a catastrophe. 

The Duce on his part reported to the two repie- 
sentatives that the Fiihrer had told him what had 
happened in Russia in the last months. He (the 
Duce) was convinced that it was a very fortunate 
idea that the Fiihrer had taken tlie conduct of 
military operations into his own h;iii(ls. This luul 
happened at a moment when teclmical skill alone 
no longer sufficed for the solution of tlie problems. 
In addition to sncli skill, faith and will power had 
to be employed by which the difficulties could be 
o\ercome. AVhen he had read the report of the 
Fiihrer 's taking over the supreme command, he 
had been much pleased, for he had known at once 
tliat now all difficulties would be overcome. He 
believed that the Russian winter offensive was 
broken and he had the impression that this point 
of view prevailed in other countries as well. 

The Russians at the beginning of the November 
offensive had had a large-scale program, a more 
moderate program, and a small-scale program in 
view. The large-scale program envisaged driv- 
ing the Germans back to the old frontiers of Rus- 
sia. The more moderate program had the goal 



of giving Moscow and Petrograd some breath- 
ing space. This goal the Russians had not at- 
tained. Only Rostov had fallen back into their 
hands, but Kiev and Kharkov and other impoi-tant 
places were now as before in German possession. 
The characicr of the whole Russian counter-offen- 
sive cdiild bf seen from the fact that the Russians 
could ii'fcr ti) no names of places which they had 
recaptured. The Russians were probably them- 
selves convinced that their winter offensive had 
been shattered. Tliey ivgaided iheiiisclves prin- 
cipally lis winter sdldii'i-s, iiiid had at I lie bcoiiming 
of the offensive hoped for a repetition of the fate 
of Napoleon. This expectation, however, had 
proved false, for methods of warfare and human 
resources and other circumstances were on this 
occasion completely different from the time of 
Napoleon, who was in command of a disunited 
army thrown together from all soits of nationali- 
ties, while the German Army was an integrated 
and pui'poseful instrument. The German Army 
during this winter had written the finest pages of 
its history. Only the Gei'man soldier could have 
met the severe tasks imiDosed upon him during this 
winter. He (the Duce) had never doubted the 
endurance of the (Jeniiaii sdldier. He had always 
believed in that soldier's siijierior qualities. With- 
out the direct leadership of tlie Fiihrer and the 

These are translations of documents on Italian-German 
cDnversations, secured from German Government files, 
and are among the German official papers which the 
Bulletin is currently publishing. They have been selected 
and translated by J. S. Beddie, an oflicer in the Division 
<if Research and Publication, Ofiiee of Public Affairs, 
Department of State. 

For excerpts from a German handbook of propaganda 
directives, sec Bulletin of Mar. 3, p. 311, and Mar. 10, 
p. 365. The following are other German documents that 
have been published in the Bui.letin in the issues cited : 
"Relations Between the Spanish Government and Euro- 
Ijean Axis", Mar. 17, p. 413; "Sumner Welles Mission, 
1040", Mar. 24, p. 4.59; "Invasion of Norway", Apr. 28, p. 
G99 ; "Hitler's Plans for Norway and Denmark, 1942", 
.lune 2, p. 936 ; "Documents on Hungary", .Tune 9, p. 984 ; 
"Relations with Japan". June 16, p. 10.38; "Conferences 
with Axis Leaders", June .30, p. 1103. 



58 

Fiihrer's influence, however, the situation would 
have been bad indeed. 

The Fiihrer added, in that connection, that in 
the past winter there had been days where purely 
technical leadership had failed and a stout heart 
had been necessary to overcome the difficulties. 
The German troops had had great teachers in 
the Finns, who had had a remarkable experience 
in the struggle with nature under winter fighting 
ronditions. 

Continuing, the Duce declared that the end of 
the Russian ability to resist was at hand. Also 
the supplies which Russia had received from 
abroad were very slight. They amounted to some 
2,000 motor trucks, a number of pieces of artillery, 
and only a few airplanes. The Americans very 
likely had no further illusions about the condi- 
tion of the Russians. The New York Herald 
Tribune had recently, in describing the Russian 
forces, referred to them as "a dying army". 

The Japanese in the meantime were assailing 
the English extraordinarily severely. Following 
the loss of Malaya and Burma, India was now 
threatened. If the Japanese entered Calcutta, in 
spite of the internal disunity among the Indians, 
an uprising in India would be likely. 

The American produdion program was pure 
bluff. They could not p.i--ibly biiil.l -JOd.ooo air- 
planes or two ships per day as Roosevelt had pro- 
posed. The internal situation in America was 
not good. People now saw what war meant, and 
had to suliinit to many restrictions. Especially 
notal)le weic those aflVctiiig aiitiiiuolnles in a coun- 
try whicli before the war had measured its su- 
perior living standard by the fact that there was 
one auto to every three or four persons. 

Passing to tlie sulijccf of France, tlie Duce re- 
marked tliat thciv. in ^|,ili' (if the ivni-aiiization of 
the cabinet, the siluatioii had not changed. The 
changes were based only on shifting relations be- 
t ween Laval, Petain, and Darlan. The Axis should 
in any case undertake no initiative with respect to 
France. 

The Fiihrer remarked in this connection that 
Laval might well receive some assistance in the 
economic field and in the question of hostages. 
Besides, an official memorandum of Benoit-Mechin 
liad recently come to his attention in which it was 
clearly stated that if France wished to recover 
her power she would have to have arms and that 
the only way to secure them was through Laval 
and the iiath of collaboration. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

The Duce added that one of the mo.st influential 
advisers of Marshal Petain, Charles Maurras, was 
an arch chauvinist and that the French in their 
hearts really did not believe in collaboration at all. 

In connection with the Italian demands on 
France, the Duce remarked that the Fiihrer had 
just told him that they were very moderate. The 
Fiihrer had also said that for total control of the 
Mediterranean the possession of both shores was 
necessary. Therefore, Italy must secure Bizerte 
along with Tunis, which was a sort of creation of 
Italy, or "an Italian colony ruled by the French", 
as a French newspaper had put it. Corsica lay 
in the Italian zone and should naturally go to 
Italy. The total of the Italian demands on France, 
the Duce said, amounted to 6,000 square kilometers, 
which in comparison to France's area of 500,000 
square kilometers, represented a very small de- 
mand. If Italy got these territories, then he would 
have nothing further to request. If, however, 
these minimum requirements should not be ful- 
filled then Italy would have fought the war with- 
out any gain. 

With regard to the internal situation in Italy 
the Duce remarked that the Italian people had 
put a very severe winter behind them in which 
they had experienced mucli suffering. Since the 
Italians ate a great deal of bi'ead and vegetables, 
but very little meat, they had taken the shortage 
of foodstuffs very hard. However, the morale of 
the people was secure. The Party would control 
any situation. In this connection the Duce stated 
further that he had built up a sort of SS from re- 
liable Party members. The general crisis which 
had arisen after the loss of Cyrenaica had been 
completely overcome. Badoglio and Graziani had 
been I'elieved. No one spoke of them any longei-. 
In addition the Duce had taken certain measures 
against some of the old generals who had adopted 
an attitude of reserve toward Fascism and he had 
imdertaken a rejuvenation of the higher military 
command. 

To sum matters up, the Duce stated that the sit- 
uation could be described as good, and that if Italy 
had the raw materials, she would be able to take 
part in the eastern campaign to a much greater 
extent than previously. 

From the point of view of popidation Italy 
included some 24,000.000 peasants and 5,000,000 to 
6,000,000 tillers of small holdings living in smaller 
cities, for whom the food pi-oblem was of no im- 
portance. Oidy 12,000.000 or 13.000.000 inhabit- 



JULY 14, 1946 

ants of tlie largei- cities, employed persons, officials, 
and the like were directly affected by the shortage 
of food. In the spring, however, some improve- 
ment would be produced there also by a larger 
supply of vegetables. Bread was especially neces- 
sary in the soutliern provinces. 

The Duce concluded his observations by trans- 
mitting the greetings of the King of Italy to the 
Fiihrer. He declared, with a smile, that this was 
the first time that tlu> King of Italy had allowed 
him to coiivey a grci't iiig to tlie Fiihrer. This was 
an event for the boolv [chie ''C'hro/t/kepisode"^. 

The Fiihrer, on the question of grain deliveries, 
replied that he was -convinced that in the autumn 
the Ukraine woidd be completely available for 
tillage and that in the next year a minimum of 
7,000,000 but much more likely 10,000,000 to 12,- 
000,000 tons of grain could be harvested there. 
Germany would be able to release a corresponding 
amount of her own grain supply. Labor was 
available in the Ukraine in sufficient quantity. 
The tractors for the most part had been already 
repaired and were ready for operation again. A 
fuel reserve for their use had been assembled. 
Germany would, by syntlietic jn'oduction and by 
increased Hungarian and liunianian deliveries, 
have an appreciably larger quantity of fuel avail- 
able and by the repair of the 9,000 to 10,000 un- 
serviceable locomotives would have her coal trans- 
port again in full swing and would also be able 
to cut down fuel use by the employment of gen- 
erators. The transpoi-t problem would be solved 
under any circumstances. Some 2,.500 new loco- 
motives would soon be put into service and later 
some 7,000 more would be added. 

The Fiihrer came next to a discussion of the re- 
lationship between Hungary and Rumania. Both 
sides misunderstood the situation. Personally he 
had great regard for Mai'shal Antonescu, but he 
had no confidence in Mihai Antonescu. He had 
stated to the Rumanians and Hungarians that if, 
at all costs, they wanted to wage war between 
themselves, he would not hinder them, but they 
u-oidd both lose by it. However, it would be a 
problem if both countries now withheld petroleum 
for the war which they wanted to fight between 
themselves later. It would be the duty of the 
Foreign Ministers of the Axis to deal with both 
countries persuasively and calmly so as to pi'event 
an open break. 

Hungary and Rumania could not complain of 
what they had tints far received by way of enlarge- 



59 



ments of territory. The Fiihrer recalled that in 
the Czech crisis the Hungarian Prime Minister, 
Imredy, had visited him to warn him against war 
and had told him that Hungary could wage war 
for only three days before she would be exhausted. 
In the course of events, Hungary had, inclusive of 
the Siebenbiirgen and by means of the Balkan 
campaign, received some 80,000 square kilometers. 

The Duce remarked here how moderate were the 
Italian claims on France, which amounted to only 
6,000 square kilometers. 

Continuing, the Fiihrer declared that Hungary 
had received so much new territory that she could 
not absoi'b much more. 

Rumania also had not fared badly and had not 
only regained Bessarabia, but had even received 
the Transdniester territory. Rumania therefore 
must help especially in tlie matter of petroleum, 
effecting savings so that she could supply 100,000 
to 150,000 tons more. Thereby anxiety about re- 
quirements for the Navy could be removed, al- 
though apparently the British Navy also had simi- 
lar difficulties following the loss of various English 
oil-supplying areas. 

In tlie further course of the conversation the 
Fiihrer declared that the war could only be ended 
by victory and success. There must be no com- 
promise peace. The sacrifices on the part of the 
Axis, which had been made in such great extent, 
must be paid for. He had spoken from this point 
of view very frankly to the German people before 
the Reichstag. 

England would discontinue the war if she saw 
that she had no chance to win it. If the allies of 
the Tlu-ee Power Pact could sink or otherwise 
destroy 600,000 or 700,000 to 1,000,000 tons of 
shipping monthly for a year, England would col- 
lapse. That moment would arrive with absolute 
certainty. Neither English bluff nor purposeless 
bombings could conceal it. The Fiihrer had the 
deepest conviction that tlie English would fail be- 
cause of the transport difficulty. 

On the subject of the much-discussed landing 
of the English in the west, the Fiihrer remarked 
that the danger would perhaps exist for two or 
three months longer, but not thereafter. On the 
west front everything was in the highest degree 
of readiness. The Channel Islands had been 
fortified and numerous batteries along the coast 
had been strengthened. In view of the most re- 
cent English propaganda offensive in the Channel 
area, the Fiihrer expressed the opinion that more 



60 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



than likely no large-scale attack from tUe English 
side was imminent, for if any one proceeded to 
maneuvers of the sort, it was highly unlikely that 
lie intended to make a serious effort. In two or 
three months the English, because of the steadily 
increasing rate of sinking and destruction of ships, 
would no longer possess the necessary tonnage to 
carry out a large-scale attack on the European 
Continent. It must be considered that for the 
transjiort of a division 35 ships were necessary. 
In addition the English division required still 
more shipping space, since they took with them 
much more for their comfort and maintenance than 
would German divisions. For an undertaking on 
a grand scale the English would require at least 
20 divisions. 

To an interjection of the Duce that the English, 
in connection with their undertaking, were count- 
ing upon revolts on the Continent, the Fiihrer 
replied that that would be a complete miscalcula- 
tion. In Germany he no longer had any opposi- 
tion. In a large city such as Berlin there was 
only a small element of perhaps 2,000 persons who 
were hostile to the regime. 

In this connection the Fiihrer spoke of what he 
had recently read about the Fascist revolution. He 
had been extraordinarily strongly impressed by 
the parallelism of the developments. The de- 
scription of the citizenry in Italy sounded exactly 
like what he had had experience with in Germany. 

The German people, together with the Army, 
stood united behind him. They were imbued with 
a true fanaticism and the firm conviction that only 
victory could end the war. Those who had lost 
relatives— and there was now scarcely a family 
where this was not the case — were the most ener- 
getic champions of a peace througli victory. Any- 
one who would now speak of appeasement would 
be in danger of his life. An absolute and definite 
victory was the motto of the entire people. 

Returning to questions of foreign policy, the 
Fiihrer emphasized that Hungary and Rumania 
were now participating to a noteworthy degree in 
tlie war in the east. 

Turkey was moving slowly but surely over to the 
Axis. The Turks' hatred of the Russians was es- 
pecially favorable to this development. The 
firmer attitude of Turkey as against the enemies 
of the Axis could be seen in the trial of those who 
had attempted the assassination of Von Papen. 
Also the Turkish Ambassador had been I'ecalled 
from Kuibyshev. The Turks were especially dis- 



turl)ed on account of the Russian aspirations for the 
Dardanelles. It was also interesting that a Turkish 
Court had condemned the English Minister in 
Bulgaria, whose luggage had exploded in the Pera 
Hotel in Constantinople, to the payment of dam- 
ages in the amount of 420,000 pounds. Turkey 
would never be an enemy of the Axis. At most 
she would remain neutral up to the end of the 
war. In any event, the indications were increasing 
that Turkey also was becoming affected by the 
general desire for increases in tei-ritory, and would 
abandon the passive attitude which she had pre- 
viously adopted toward these questions, especially 
now when she felt herself threatened by the Rus- 
sians. However, it was difficult in Turkey to de- 
termine who was promoting Turkish policy and 
who was promoting English policy, having been 
paid by England. In part the Turkish attitude 
would be influenced by the hatred of the Moham- 
medans for England, which had broken out anew 
as a result of the Palestine conflict. 

To a question of the Duce on the subject of Tur- 
kish claims the Fiihrer replied that he had obtained 
through unofficial channels an idea of Turkish 
desires, which were directed principally toward 
the railroad lines, that is, frontier adjustments in 
the neighborhood of Adrianople, and along the 
Baghdad railroad. Also the Turks would like to 
have Russia as far removed as possible from their 
own territories. The negotiations between Cripps, 
Eden, and Stalin had doubtlesss dealt also with the 
Dardanelles question and had disturbed Turkey 
very much. The telegram from Ambassador von 
der Schulenburg, which the Reich Foreign Minis- 
ter had brought to their attention at the time in its 
original form, had been very enlightening, as it 
had outlined the claims of the Russians with re- 
spect to Turkey as they had been presented at 
that time by Molotov in Berlin. 

The Duce remarked in that connection tliat lie 
had let the Turks know that Italy had no demands 
on Turkey, but that on the contrary she intended 
to give up to Turkey the Island of Castel Rosso, 
which lay within Turkish national waters, as a 
sign of her friendship for Turkey. He had made 
the vmofficial arrangement with Turkey thi'ough a 
major wlui was a friend of >^aiac(>glu and who 
was likewise a Young Turk. 

The Reich Foreign Minister remarked in the 
same connection that his brother-in-law, who had 
just returned from Turkey to (Tcrmany, had also 



JULY 14, 1946 

coiifiniied to liiiu tliat tlie attitude ot tlie Turks 
was becoming more favoi'able to the Axis. 

Next the cx)nversation turned to France. The 
Fiilirer declared that the French constantly came 
with new requests and, in reply to an interjected 
remark of the Reich Foreign Minister to the ef- 
fect that they had thus far received very slight 
concessions from Germany, he referred to the re- 
lease of French prisoners, whose number had de- 
creased from 1,960,000 to 1,100,000. The French 
had to be treated carefully, especially because 
North Africa had to be prevented from going over 
to the opposite side. This could have been brought 
about most effectively by the capture of Gibraltar 
and the occupation of the area across from it. 
Tills plan, however, had failed because of the 
Spanish. Now the English had so strengthened 
Gibraltar that its capture was no longer feasible. 
In this way Franco had allowed a favorable op- 
liortunity to escape from his hands. Any Spanish 
contribution was no longer in question. 

^Vbout the disturbances in Yugoslavia the Fiihrer 
remarked that only the sternest action would lead 
to success. The revolts, which because of their 
Communistic infection were especially dangerous, 
nuist be stamped out by employing all possible 
means. He would be happy if the uprising could 
be quickly beaten down, since the four divisions 
stationed in Yugoslavia were needed on the eastern 
front. 

Tlie Duce remarked that the situation in the 
former Yugoslav territory had improved, espe- 
<'ially because of the split between the Chetniks and 
tlie Communists. Only in Bosnia in the region 
around Sarajevo Avas the situation still critical. 
Tliere energetic action would have to be taken. It 
was a good thing that quiet prevailed in Albania. 

The Fiihrer declared that the war with Yugo- 
slavia had brought great advantages with it. It 
was through it that the plans of the Russians, by 
which they undoubtedly had the intention of over- 
running Rumania, had been crossed. If, however, 
tliere had been no disorders in the Balkans, no 
German troops would have been stationed in Ru- 
mania. For these reasons he was now also very 
glad of the Italian expedition again.st Greece, for 
thereby the entire Balkan question had been set in 
motion, and as a result Germany had dispatched 
her troops into the Balkan countries, especially 
to Rumania. Because of this a Russian attack on 
Rumania for the purpose of overrunning the Bal- 
kans had had no prospect of success. Providence 



61 

liad been clearly on the side of the Axis, just as 
when in the Russian campaign, as a result of the 
bad weather and the softening of the ground, op- 
erations had had to be broken off in October, and 
thus the long lines of communications which would 
have had to have been set up as a result of further 
advances and which during the winter would have 
led to an absolute catastrophe had been avoided. 
Also in the case of the discovery of the Belgian and 
Dutch machinations directed against Germany by 
the arrest of English and Dutch agents at Venlo, 
the hand of Providence was again recognizable, 
for by this event the operations which had been 
originally set for an earlier date had been post- 
poned, and could then be planned and carried out 
on a larger scale, to include Holland and Belgium. 

At the remark of the Fiihrer that it seemed that 
all of the problems interesting Italy and Germany 
had been brought up for discussion, tlie Reich For- 
eign Minister recalled that only the question of 
the joint declaration of the Three Powers with 
regard to India and Arabia remained to be 
taken up. 

On this point tlie Fiihrer declared that his at- 
titude had been determined by his recollection of 
the World War. Germany would, at that time, 
probably have been able to conclude a separate 
peace with Russia had not the declaration estab- 
lishing Poland as an independent kingdom come 
up to prevent it. If there were now issued a dec- 
laration by the Three Powers on the subject of 
India and Arabia it could easily result in notably 
increasing the English will to resistance because 
of the threat arising from such a declaration to 
the whole English world empire. Churchill could 
then tell his people it now was clear that the en- 
emies of England wished to destroy her world 
empire and that there remained nothing but to 
continue the struggle. On the other hand a decla- 
ration on the subject of India and Arabia might 
also be the thing to give the last blow to England 
and to cause her to give in. This latter was the 
opinion of the Reich Foreign Minister. 

To a question from the Duce as to whether 
Japan had made any proposal on her own account 
the Reich Foreign Minister replied in the affirma- 
tive, whereupon the Duce declai-ed that the matter 
did not seem pressing to him and that it could 
lie allowed to wait. 

The Reich Foreign Minister declared that in 
his view England would only conclude peace if 
slu' were so backed up against the wall that she 



62 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



liiul IK) longer any chance of winning the war and 
that, accordingly, a common declaration on the 
subject of India and Arabia would make the war 
of the Three Powers against England easier. 

The Fiihrer replied that everything depended 
on the militai-y develoiDments. A declaration of 
the soit described could only be effective from a 
military point of view if the troops of the Axis 
I'owers stood south of the Caucasus. In such a 
case an uprising which might break out in the 
Arab areas as a result of such a declaration might 
be militarily useful and could be supported mili- 
tarily. If, on the contrary, the declaration re- 
garding Arabia were to be issued at the moment 
there were two possibilities. On the one hand the 
Arabs might take no notice of it. In such case, a 
declaration of that sort would be useless for the 
Axis. On the contrary, it would even be harmful, 
since our enemies would conclude that the influ- 
ence of the Axis Powers was declining in those 
areas. The other possibility was tliat the Arabs 
would take notice of the declaration and would 
commence an uprising, which under present con- 
ditions would be suppressed by the English, who 
would thus capture the most effective exponents 
of an Arab policy friendly to the Axis and the 
Axis interests in Arabia would thereby suffer se- 
vere damage. Only if the Axis troops were south 
of the Caucasus could developments of this sort 
be prevented. The Fiihrer had the greatest con- 
cern lest a proclamation released at the present 
moment carry with it no possibility of military 
assistance. 

In the case of India the Japanese could, of 
course, intervene militarily. The Axis Powers 
were intei'ested only theoretically in that country. 

The Duce replied that he was entirely of the 
Fiihrer's opinion. Japan could issue a declaration 
on her own accord, to which the Axis Powers 
might adhere. If, however, Germany and Italy 
issued a declaration with regard to the Arabs at 
the present moment it would be completely pla- 
tonic. He did not value platonic affairs very 
highly. In addition under present circumstances 
a declaration of such a sort would be reminiscent 
of the democratic style and for that reason also 
should be rejected. 

The Reich Foreign Minister replied that a joint 
declaration on the subject of India would mean 
an acknowledgment on the part of Japan that the 
Axis Powers must have a voice on this question. 



In the same connection the Fiihrer expressed the 
opinion that Japan was shying off from India, 
since the occupation of India would be a large- 
scale undertaking and there was the danger that 
Soviet Russia might also turn in the direction of 
India. Jajjan feared the Soviet influence par- 
ticularly since no people seemed so predestined for 
Bolshevism as the Indians. The Duce also agreed 
with this view. After her experiences in China, 
Japan might well be of the opinion that the solu- 
tion of the Indian question was beyond her powers. 

After tiie Fiihrer had once more stated that the 
Arab-Indian declaration would only be a prac- 
tical matter when the Axis troops stood south of 
the Caucasus, the Reich Foreign Minister added 
that Japan had made her proposal for a joint 
declaration some time ago and perhaps would be- 
come irritated if an answer on the part of the Axis 
Powers was delayed. For, just as ever, Japan's 
sole fear was that the Axis would still in some 
way become reconciled with England. Under these 
circumstances it seemed best to him to make a 
complete answer to Japan, to the effect that the 
Axis Powers were considering thoroughly the ques- 
tion of a joint statement concerning India and 
Arabia and that they would take a positive posi- 
tion on the point, but that the time for issuing 
such a statement must be left open. 

The Duce remarked that Japan could be allowed 
to issue a declaration on India by herself. 

The Fiihrer replied that the Japanese should 
be told that the whole matter was being considered 
by the Axis Powers, but that from the Axis view- 
point the present moment did not seem suitable 
for such a declaration, since a premature appeal 
could have no military effect but rather might 
even be unfavorable to Axis interests. 

The Duce stated that a misstep such as had 
been taken in connection with the Iraq declara- 
tion must be avoided, and that the limits of 
"Arabia" must be first carefully defined before 
assurances were given to the Arabs. By Arabia 
lie understood only Palestine, Syria, Iraq, und 
Transjordania. 

The Fiihrer agreed with the Duce's last line 
of thought and the Reich Foreign Minister re- 
marked that it would not be difficult to find a 
suitable formula. 

In comiection with the previous I'emark of tlie 
Reich Foreign Minister on the subject of the 
concern which might be caused to the Japanese 



JULY 14, 1946 



by a negative attitude of the Axis Powers to their 
proi^osal, the Fiihrer thought that it was question- 
able whether the Japanese would take oifense if 
the Axis came to an arrangement with England. 
They had finally attained everything which they 
had planned for. Wlieii the Reich Foreign Min- 
ister expressed his doultts as to whether the Jap- 
anese were yet of this opinion, the Fiihrer replied 
that he could well believe that the Japanese would 
be hapi)y if tlir limits of the conflict wei-e reduced. 

IJeturnini:- !'> ilic question of a joint declaration, 
the Duce reiiiarkcd that such a declaration could 
only be issued if a new situation arose with respect 
to Turkey. Lastly he asked the Eeich Foreign 
Minister when an answer must be given to the 
Japanese. The latter replied that time was press- 
ing, but the Fiihrer did not believe that an answer 
was so urgent, since the Japanese had often let 
the Axis Powers wait for a considerable time. 
Finally the proposal of the Reich Foreign Min- 
ister was adopted, according to which the matter 
was to be discussed verbally with Oshima in the 
sense favored by the Fiihrer and the Duce. 

In the further course of the conversation the 
question came up as to whether a conflict between 
Japan and Russia was in the interests of the Axis. 
Both the Fiihrer and the Duce held the view that, 
at least for the moment, an energetic attack on 



the Anglo-Saxons by Japan was the most desirable 
activity for the latter, from which Japan should 
not be diverted by an attack on Soviet Russia. In 
this connection the Fiihrer emphasized the numer- 
ous military obligations which Japan had already 
taken upon herself on her extended fronts. Too 
much could not be asked of her and by the creation 
of an additional Russian front her powers would 
be overtaxed. Besides, by a Japanese-Russian 
conflict no immediate relief would result on the 
(ierman-Russian front. The divisions which Rus- 
sia had stationed in Siberia for defense against 
Japan would remain, even if conflict did not break 
out there, since the lines of communication with 
the European front were far too long. In the 
same way, in the case of an outbreak of a Japanese- 
Russian conflict, no withdrawal of troops from the 
European front would take place. Rather, an im- 
portant part of the military striking force of 
Japan would be absorbed in the conflict with Rus- 
sia. For the interests of the Axis it would be better 
if this part also of the Japanese military forces 
were employed exclusively against the Anglo- 
Saxons. 

At the conclusion of the discussion a dinner was 
held for a small company. 

Schmidt 

Berlin, iJ/ay £, 1942. 



PRESENT STATUS OF GERMAN \OVTB-~Continued from page 55. 



eluded a large number of sexual and economic 
crimes. The 969 young people in Frankfurt in- 
cluded 112 girls under 18 who were carriers of 
venereal diseases. According to a report by the 
Berlin Municipal Police,-" many of the boys ap- 
prehended appeared to be more interested in the 
procurement of food than of money. The Berlin 
police president also reported that former mem- 
bers of the Hitler Youth comprised 90 percent of 
all juveniles punished in Berlin for robbery, house- 
breaking, or theft.-' According to later official 
estimates, the year 1946 will produce over 11,000 

■" Foreign Broadcasting Intelligence Service : ticker, Oct. 
2.5, 1945. 

"Political Intelligence Division of the British Foreign 
Office: Digest for Oermany and Austria, Jan. 22, 1946. 

^"Foreign Broadcasting Intelligence Service: ticker. 
May 8, 1946. 

'^Main-Echo (Aschaffenburg), Apr. 18, 1946. 

'"Der Tagesspiegel (Berlin), Mar. 23, 1946. 



juvenile prosecutions, a figure which exceeds sub- 
stantially the total of such actions during 1942, 
when the number reached a maximum of 7,600.^* 
Dr. Hille, director of the Main Labor Office in 
Munich, quoted a figure of 80 percent in describing 
the scope of criminality among juveniles under 22 
years of age.-' 

The fact is undeniable that the rate of juvenile 
delinquency is progi-essive. Statistics from Berlin 
indicate a rise of more than 100 percent over the 
final months of 194.5 in the number of individual 
youths officially indicted.^" 

[Editok'8 Note: In Part II of "The Present Status of 
German Youth", which will appear in the Bulletin of 
July 21, Dr. Kellermann will continue the discussion of 
general attitudes and trends, taking up subversive activi- 
ties and organizations including Nazi partisans and succes- 
sors, Christian Pathfinders, student groups, and non- 
political gangs. Also discussed in Part II will be security 
and welfare measures and certain youth organizations 
relating to rehabilitation.] 



International Organizations and Conferences 



Calendar of Meetings 



Far Eastern Commission 
Council of Foreign Ministers: 

Meeting of Foreign Ministers 

Meeting of Deputies 
Allied-Swedisii Negotiations for German External 
Proposed International Emergency Food Council 
U.S.-Mexican Discussions on Air Services Agreement 
International Institute of Agriculture: Meeting of the 

General Assembly 
Caribbean Commission 

Conference on German-Owned Patents Outside Germany 
International Meeting of the Sugar Council 
International Council of Scientific Unions: Meeting of the 

General Assembly 
International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics: Extraor- 
dinary General Assembly 
UNRRA: Second Half of Fifth Session 
The United Nations: 

Security Council 

Military Staff Committee 

Economic and Social Council 

Commission on Atomic Energy 

International Health Conference 

UNESCO: Preparatory Commission 

General Assembly: Second Part of First Session 



Washington 


February 26 


Paris 


June 15 


Paris 


May 27— temporarily adj 


Washington 


May 31 


Washington 


June 20 


Mexico City 


June 24 


Rome 


July 8 


Washington 


July 8-14 


London 


July 10 


London 


July 15 


London 


July 24-27 


Cambridge, England 


July 29 


Geneva 


August 5 


New York 


March 25 


New York 


March 25 


New York 


May 25 


New York 


June 14 


New York 


June 19 


London 


July 5-13 


New York 


September 3 



The dates in the calenda 



as of Julv 7. 



Activities and Developments 



The First Session of the United Maritime Con- 
sultative Council, held in Amsterdam, terminated 
oil Jum- 24, 1946. The following nations were 
represented: Austialia, IJclgiiiiii, Canada, Chile, 
Denmark, France, Grcerc, India, the Netherlands, 
New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Sonth Africa, 
Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United 
States. Czechoslovakian observers were present 
at the meetings. 

Under the chairmanship of Mr. Oyevaar (Neth- 
erlands) the Council reviewed the work of the 
6-1 



Contributory Nations Committee in Washington 
and the Shipping Coordinating and Review Com- 
mittee in London since their inception in March 
1946. These committees were established by agree- 
ment among the governments concerned to facili- 
tate the provision of shipping for the require- 
ments of UNRRA and liberated nations. The 
Council concluded that the arrangements made in 
March were working effectively to secure the ob- 
ject for which they were established and to tlie 
satisfaction of the nations concerned. 



JULY 14, 1946 



65 



The Council ulso heard and discussed statements 
by delegations on current shipping policy of their 
governments. The Council had on its agenda the 
question of the establishment of an intergovern- 
mental organization dealing with international 
shipping matters. The view generally expressed 
was that an international governmental body is 
likely to be required to provide for consultation on 
all matters suitable for intergovernmental dis- 
cussion as regards shipping, and the Council con- 
cluded the examination of this item of their 
agenda by resolving to appoint a committee to 
consider in more detail the po.ssible constitution, 
scope, and procedure of such a body and to draw 
up a draft report on the subject for further con- 
sideration by the Council. Arrangements are 
l)eing made for this committee to begin its work 
in the course of the next few weeks. Represented 
on the committee will be the following nations: 
Belgium, Canada, France, the Netherlands, Nor- 
way, Poland, the United Kingdom, and the United 
States. There will be opportunity for other gov- 
ernments who are members of the Council to state 
views to the committee. 

Since the UMCC was established as a transi- 
tional organization and by its terms of reference 
is due to terminate not later than October 31, 1916, 
it is expected to meet again in the autumn to con- 
sider the report of the committee. 

In the meantime the Netherlands Government 
has accepted the invitation of the Council to per- 
form the secretarial duties of the Council. 

In the course of the session delegations had the 
opportunity of seeing the great progress made 
in restoring facilities in the ports of Amsterdam 
and Rotterdam. 

[Releasetl to the press July 3] 

Caribbean Commission. Representatives of the 
Governments of France, the Netherlands, the 
United Kingdom, and the United States of Amer- 
ica will meet in Washington July 8-14 to consider 
plans for the establishiiiciit of a Secretariat for 
the Caribbean Connni^idii in the Caribbean area, 
its organization and location, and the selection of 
a Secretary General. 



A meeting of the expanded Caribbean Com- 
mission, which now includes France and the Neth- 
erlands in addition to the United Kingdom and 
tlie United States, will be held during the same 
period, to discuss the implementation of certain 
recommendations of the Second Session of the 
West Indian Conference. 

The metropolitan governments will be repre- 
sented as follows: Governor Georges H. Parisot, 
Ministry of French Overseas Territories and 
Commissioner, French Section, Caribbean Com- 
mission; Professor Dr. J. C. Kielstra, Nether- 
lands ]\Iinister to Mexico and Co-Chairman, 
Netherlands Section, Caribbean Commission; 
G. F. Seel, C.M.G., Assistant Under Secretary of 
State, United Kingdom Colonial Office; and 
Charles W. Taussig, Co-Chairman of the United 
States Section of the Caribbean Commission, who 
will preside over the meetings. 

Also participating will be the Commissioners of 
the four national sections of the Caribbean Com- 
inission : France — Jean de la Roche ; the Nether- 
lands — L. A. H. Peters; the United Kingdom — 
Sir John Macpherson, K.C.M.G., R. D. H. 
Arundell, O.B.E., Norman W. Manley, K.C.; 
the United States — Ralph J. Bunche, Rafael Pico, 
and Governor Rexford G. Tugwell. 

International Bank for Reconstruction and 
Development: The following executive nomina- 
tions wei-e confirmed by the Senate on July 3, 1946 : 

Jolm W. Snyder to be United States Governor 
of the International Monetary Fund and United 
States Governor of the International Bank for 
Reconstruction and Development for a term of five 
years. 

John S. Hooker to be United States Alternate 
Executive Director of the International Bank for 
Reconstruction and Development for a term of 
two years and until his successor has been 
appointed. 

George F. Luthringer to be United States Alter- 
nate to the Executive Director of the International 
Monetai-y Fund for a term of tMo ye;irs and until 
his successor has been appointed. 



Record of the Week 



Independence of the Philippines 



[ReleasiMl to the press by the White House July -J] 

By the President of the United States of America 
A PROCLAMATION 

Whereas the United States of America by the 
Treaty of Peace with Spain of December 10, 1898, 
commonly known as the Treaty of Paris, and by 
the Treaty with Spain of November 7, 1900, did 
acquire sovereignty over the Philippines, and by 
tlie Convention of January 2, 1930, with Great 
Britain did delimit the boundary between the Phil- 
il)pine Archipelago and the State of North Bor- 
neo; and 

Whereas the United States of America has con- 
sistently and faithfully during the past forty -eight 
years exercised jurisdiction and control over the 
Philippines and its people; and 

Whereas it has been the repeated declaration of 
the legislative and executive brandies of the Gov- 
ernment of the United States of America that full 
independence would be granted the Philippines as 
soon as the people of the Philippines were pre- 
l^ared to assume tliis obligation ; and 

AVhereas the people of the Philippines have 
clearly demonstrated their capacity for self-gov- 
ernment; and 

Whereas the Act of Congress approved March 
24, 193-t, known its the Philippine Independence 
Act, directed that, on the 4th Day of July immedi- 
ately following a ten-year transitional period lead- 
ing to tlie independence of the Philippines, the 
President of the United States of America should 
by proclamation withdraw and surrender all rights 
of possession, supervision, jurisdiction, control, or 
sovereignty of the United States of America in 
and over the territory and people of the Philip- 
pines, except certain reservations therein or there- 
66 



after authorized to be made, and, on behalf of the 
United States of America, should recognize the 
independence of the Philippines: 

Now, therefore, I, Harry S. Truman, President 
of the United States of America, acting under and 
by virtue of the authority vested in me by the 
aforesaid act of Congress, do proclaim that, in 
accord with and subject to the reservations pro- 
vided for in the applicable statutes of the United 
States, 

The United States of America hereby withdraws 
and surrenders all rights of possession, supervi- 
sion, jurisdiction, control, or sovereignty now ex- 
isting and exercised by the United States of Amer- 
ica in and over the territory and people of the 
Philippines ; and, 

On behalf of the United States of America, I do 
liereby recognize the independence of the Philip- 
pines as a separate and self-governing nation and 
acknowledge the authority and control over the 
same of the government instituted by the people 
thereof, under the constitution now in force. 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my 
hand and caused the seal of the United States of 
America to be affixed. 

Done at the City of Washington this Fourth day 
of July in the year of our Lord, nine- 
teen hundred and forty-six, and of 

[seal] the Independence of the United 
States of America the one Inuulred 
and seventy-first. 



Hai{r\- S. Tiu man 



By the President: 
Dean Acheson 
Acting Secretai-y of State. 



JULY 14, 1946 



67 



PRESIDENT TRUMAN'S STATEMENT ON 
PHILIPPINE INDEPENDENCE 

[Released to the press by the White House July 3] 

The independence achieved today by the Philip- 
pines comes after a period of 48 years of American 
sovereignty over the Islands. Throughout this 
period it has been the consistently expressed policy 
of tiiisOovcrnnuMit. as revealed in the Instriii-tions 
of President McKinley to the Pliilippine Commis- 
sion, the Jones Law, and the Tydings-McDuffie 
Law, to prepare the people of the Philippines for 
independence. An ever increasing measure of 
self-government has been granted to tlie Filijiino 
people as year after year they demonstrated tiieir 
capacity for democratic self-government. 

With independence, the Republic of the Philip- 
jiines is admittedly confronted with many difficidt 
problems. Almost any new nation facing inde- 
])endence would be confronted with similar prob- 
lems. 

I am confident, however, that the Filipino 
people will meet the challenge of independence 
with courage and determination. The United 
States stands ready to assist the Philippines in 
evei'y way possible during the' years to come. To- 
gether, solutions will be found for the problems 
which the Philippines will encounter. 

It is more tlian symbolic that our two countries 
should be jointly celebrating July 4 as Independ- 
ence Day. It is my hope that each succeeding 
July 4 will constitute a milestone of progress along 
the path of mutual cooperation for the achieve- 
ment of international understanding and well- 
being. 

STATEMENT BY ACTING SECRETARY 
ACHESON 

[Released to the press .Tuly 31 

I am happy to be able to extend my greetings to 
the people of the Philippines on this the occasion 
of the formal establishment of the independent 
Republic of the Philippines. 

The United States first acquired a significant 
interest in the Philippines at the close of the last 
century. At that time, by the Treaty of Paris, 
the United States acquired sovereignty over the 
Philippines. During the next 48 years the United 
States held the sovereign responsibility for the 
Islands. 

Throughout the period of American sovereignty 
in the Philippines the United States has worked to 



])iei)are the Philippines for independence. The 
Filipino people worked diligently to prepare 
themselves for independence and they responded 
eagerly to the efforts of the United States Govern- 
ment to transfer to them the institutions of self- 
government. They have displayed a fealty to the 
principles of democratic government which mate- 
rially aided them on the road to independence. 
Together, the American and Filipino peoples con- 
tributed to the Iniilding of Philippine independ- 
ence. 

Today, when the proclamation of Philippine 
independence is read in Manila, the dream of the 
Filipino people for independence will at last have 
been realized. 

Out of independence many new problems will 
tlevelop for the Philijjpines. The United States 
would be falling short of its duty to its sister 
Republic if we were not to assist the Philippines 
in every way to meet these new problems. 

May there be born out of this new relationship 
between the American and Filipino peoples a 
spirit of friendship which will cause the two coun- 
tries to work harmoniously together in promoting 
world peace and security. 

SPECIAL RADIO PROGRAM CELEBRATING 
PHILIPPINE INDEPENDENCE 

[Released to the press July 3] 

A special 65-minute short-wave radio program 
saluting the granting of independence to the Re- 
public of the Philippines by the United States was 
beamed to the Islands on July 3 at 4:05 p.m., 
Pacific Standard Time (7:05 p.m.. Eastern 
Standard Time, and 8 : 05 a.m., July 4, Manila 
Time) by the Office of International Information 
and Cultural Aifairs of the State Department. 
The program was repeated to the Philipjiines the 
following morning. 

A message by I'roith'iit Truman to the Philip- 
pines was carried on lii' transmitters from the east 
and west coasts. It was heard in 25 countries of 
South America and Europe, as well as in the 
Philippines, Xetherlands East Indies, Japan, 
China, and India. 

Other voices heard on the San Francisco pro- 
gram included : Acting Secretary of State Dean 
Acheson ; Frank Murphy, Associate Justice of the 
United States Supreme Court; Admiral Chester 
Nimitz; Trygve Lie, Secretary-General of the 
United Nations; Frank Lockhart, Chief of the 



68 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Division of Philippine Affaii's. State Department ; 
Carlos P. Romulo, former Resident Commissioner 
of the Philippine Commonwealth; Senator Mil- 
lard E. Tydings of Maryland; Representatives 
Karl Stefan of Nebraska and C. Jasper Bell of 
Missouri ; General of the Army Dwight D. Eisen- 
hower; and General Jonathan W. Wainwripht. 
A message from Secretary of War Robert P. Pat- 
terson was read. 

Others heard on programs from the New York 
office of OIC were Dorothy Canfield Fisher, 
Sgt. Irving Strobin, who broadcast tlu> description 
of the fall of Corregidor and spent more than 
three years as a prisoner of tlie Japanese: Dr. 
Francisco Castillo Niijera, Mexico's Foreign Min- 
ister: Gene Manuel, representing the Filipinos in 
New York, speaking to his conjitrymen. 

At 4:30 p.m.. Pacific Standard Time, two ad- 
ditional transmitters joined those beamed to the 
Far East and President Truman's message went 
on the air as the climax of the official presenta- 
tion, which closed with the Star Spangled Ban- 
ner. The Philippines national anthem opened the 
program. 

A repeat release was given at 2 : 05 a.m., Pacific 
Standard Time, July 4 from San Francisco. 

The transmissions to Europe began at 12 : 30 
p.m., Eastern Standard Time, July 4. 

Texts of two of the messages follow : 

Message of the President ^ 

To THE PEOPIJ2 OF THE PHILIPPINES : 

I am indeed happy to be able to join with you in 
the formal inauguration of the Republic of the 
Philippines. 

This is a proud day for our two countries. For 
the Philippines it marks the end of a centuries-old 
struggle for freedom. For the United States it 
marks the end of a period of almost fifty years of 
cooperation Avith the Philippines looking toward 
independence. 

Now the new Republic faces the problems of in- 
dependent nationhood. These problems will be 
difficult and trying. The road to independence has 
not l)een an easy one. The road of independence 
will likewise not be an easy one. The mettle of a 

" Tlie message was broadcast to the Pliilippines by the 
Intel-national Broadcasting Division of the Department of 
State in a program beginning at 7 : 30 p.m., E. S. T., on 
.Inly 3. 1946. The message was released for publication or 
riidio announcement at tliat time. The broadcast was by 
short wiive from San Friuicisoo at 4 : m p.m., P. O. T. 



people, the mettle of a nation, are on trial before 
the world. 

But the United States has faith in the ability and 
in the determination of the Philippine people to 
solve the problems confronting their country. The 
men who defied Magellan, who fought for a Re- 
public in 1898, and who more recently on Bataan, 
Corregidor, and at a hundred other unsung battle- 
grounds in the Philippines flung back the Japanese 
challenge, wnll not lack the courage which is neces- 
sary to make government work in peace as well as 
in war. The will to succeeed, I am sure, will con- 
tinue to govern the actions of the Philippine 
people. 

The United States, moreover, will continue to as- 
sist the Philippines in every way possible. A for- 
mal compact is being dissolved. The compact of 
faith and understanding between the two peoples 
can never be dissolved. We recognize that fact and 
propose to do all within our power to make Philip- 
pine independence effective and meaningful. 

Our two countries will be closely bound together 
for many years to come. We of the United States 
feel that we are merely entering into a new partner- 
ship with the Philippines — a partnership of two 
free and sovereign nations working in harmony 
and understanding. The United States and its 
partner of the Pacific, the Philippine Republic, 
have already charted a pattern of relationships for 
all the world to study. Together in the future, our 
two countries must prove the soundness and the 
wisdom of this great experiment in Pacific democ- 
racy. 

May God protect and preserve the Republic of 
the Philippines ! 

Message of Acting Secretary of State Acheson 

On July the fourth, the people of the United 
States are celebrating their one hundred and sev- 
enty-first Independence Day. Some seven thou- 
sand miles across the Pacific, you, the people of 
the Philippine Islands have gathered to celebrate 
your first Independence Day. Representatives of 
the United States and Philippine Governments are 
met now to proclaim the dawn of Philippine in- 
dependence and the establishment of the Republic 
of the Philippines. 

This is a proud and glorious day in tlie history 
of our two countries. It is a day which I would 
like to tliink has been achieved l)y the joint efforts 
and sacrifices of the two peoples. 



JULY U, 1946 

History records few more consistent etforts on 
the part of a peo])le for inilcpeiKhMit slatiis than 
the efforts of the Filipino people lor iihh'pcndence 
during the past forty-eight years. Likewise his- 
tory records few such consistent efforts on the 
l^art of a sovereign power to bring about the in- 
dependence of a dependent area as in the case of 
the United States toward the Philippines. When 
the United States flag replaced the Spanish flag 
in the Philippines in 1898, some Filipinos feared 
that the hopes of the Filipino people for indejiend- 
enee were to be indefinitely delayetl. But from 
the beginning American administrators showed 
that we had come to the Philippines with the in- 
terest> of the Filipino people at heart. Step by 
step the institiitionsof self-government were trans- 
ferred to the F'ilipino people and the way cleared 
for independence. 

The Filipino people almost at the outset were 
given control over their own municipal govern- 
ments. Soon, through the suffrage, they were 
given the power to select most of their provincial 
governments. -In due course Filipino control ex- 
tended to the central government. Powers origi- 
nally given the American (Jovernor ( Jenei-al were 
gradually transferred to Filipino hands. Filipino 
judges were chosen for the bench, Filipinos were 
given the posts of heads of the executive depart- 
ments, and the Philippine legislature consisting 
of a House of Representatives and Senate was an 
exclusively Filipino institution. The policy enun- 
ciated by the United States Congress in the Jones 
Law of 1916 when it stated that "it was desirable to 
place in the hands of the jieojile of the Philippines 
as large a control in their domest ic all'airs as .-in he 
given them . . ." was consistently followe<l by 
this Government and to such an extent that at times 
some Americans feared we had gone beyond the 
bounds of reasonable discretion. 

With the passing of each year the capacity of 
the Filipino people for independence became more 
manifest. When the Congress of the United 
States in the Tydings-McDuffie Act of 19.3-i de- 
clared that the PhHippincs was to be granted its 



69 



independence in 1940, the goal of the Filipino 
people was at last in sight. Now on July 4, 194G, 
that goal has been achieved. 

Independence for the Philippines brings with it 
great satisfaction and joy. But no one would deny 
that independence also brings with it new and 
heavy responsibilities. A few days ago the Resi- 
dent t'onnnissioner of the Philippines in his fare- 
well address to the United States Congress stated, 
" Y(ni in America may ask, in these unsettled times, 
where we in the Philippines shall stand ? And we 
ans\\-er. /<// i/mir side! Not in slavish iniitat ion. not 
because of pre-sure, but by profound eon\ieiioii 
that we belong beside America." We in the United 
States welcome this pledge of comradeship on the 
part of the Filipino people. We intend to assist 
your country in every way possible to meet the 
cluillenging problems of independence. 

The Department of State will be interested in 
the economic well-being and the military security 
of the Philippines, and already we have joined 
our efforts with those of other agencies of this 
(irovernment to seek the attainment of these objec- 
tives. We are also, as the depai-tment I'esponsible 
for the conduct of foreign affairs, keenly inter- 
ested in the foreign affairs establishment which 
you will now create. Through our Philippine 
Foreign Affairs Training Program, which we hope 
to continue after independence, we have sought 
to provide you with the nucleus of personnel for a 
Philippine Foreign Service. During the early 
days of Philippine independence we plan also to 
assist you in handling Philippine interests abroad. 
Your new Department of Foreign Affairs and our 
State Department should work closely together. 

In these and many other ways the Philippines 
and the United States will join hands to insure 
the perpetuation and advancement of the ideals 
and objectives which have animated our two coun- 
tries in the past and will, I believe, continue to 
animate our two countries in the future. An inde- 
pendent and a democratic Philippines now and 
forever ! 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BVLLETIN 



Policy of Transferring 100,000 Jewish Immigrants to Palestine 

CONFERENCE BETWEEN THE PRESIDENT AND MEMBERS OF JEWISH AGENCY FOR 

PALESTINE 



[Released to the press by the White House July 2] 

The President conferred on July 2 with the fol- 
lowing American members of the Jewish Agency 
Executive: Rabbi Stephen S. Wise, Dr. Nahum 
Goldmann, Mr. Louis Lipsky, and Rabbi Abba H. 
Silver. 

The representatives of the Jewish Agency gave 
the President their views of recent events in Pales- 
tine. 

The President exinessed his regret at these 
developments in Palestine. He informed the rep- 
resentatives of the Jewish Agency that the Gov- 
ernment of the United States had not been con- 
sulted on these measures prior to their adoption 
by the British Government. He expressed the 
hope that the leaders of the Jewish community in 
Palestine would soon be released and that the 
situation would soon return to normal. 



The President added further that it was his de- 
termination that these most recent events should 
mean no delay in pushing forward with a policy 
of transferring 100,000 Jewish immigrants to 
Palestine with all dispatch, in accordance with the 
statement he made upon the receipt of the report 
of the Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry. 
The President indicated that the Government of 
the United States was prepared to assume techni- 
cal and financial responsibility for the transporta- 
tion of these immigrants from Europe to Pales- 
tine. 

He expressed his thanks for the workmanlike 
suggestions embodied in the letter which the 
American members of the Jewish Agency Execu- 
tive sent him on June 14 with respect to the techni- 
cal and financial problems involved in the transfer 
and resettlement of the lOO.OOO iiiunigrants. 



REMARKS MADE AT ACTING SECRETARY ACHESON'S PRESS CONFERENCE 



On July 2 Acting Secretary Ache.son at his 
press and radio news conference told newsmen 
that United States technical experts who went to 
London to discuss implementation of the Palestine 
report, and who returned last weekend, had re- 
ported progress. 

The Acting Secretary made it clear that the 
task of the experts in London was to study tech- 
nical aspects of the problem and not to make 
decisions. He said they were now conferring with 
the special cabinet committee, headed by Henry V. 

' For text of the Report of the Anglo-American Commit- 
tee of In(|viir,v, .see I leiiiiitnieiit of State I'ulitication i>it!. 



Grady, named as the Secretary of State's alternate. 
Mr. Acheson also stated that the committee plans 
to leave for London on about July 15, though there 
is possibility of an earlier departure. 

The Acting Seci'etary said experts were work- 
ing mainly on details of moving 100,000 Jews into 
Palestine, as recommended in Anglo-American 
Palestine report,^ and that they did not discuss 
the subject of United States military aid to 
British in Palestine. 

The Acting Secretary reiterated that the State 
Department had not received information in ail- 
vance of what action the Bi'itish planned to take 
in Palestine. 



JULY 14, 1946 



Agreement Pertaining to Reparation Funds for Non- 
Repatriable Victims of German Action' 



[Released to tbe press June 19] 

Agreement has been reached by the Govern- 
ments of the United States, the United Kingdom, 
France, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoshiviii in confer- 
ence at Paris concerning matters pertaining to 
making available certain reparation funds for the 
rehabilitation and resettlement of non-repatriable 
victims of German action. 

The agreement was worked out in accordance 
with the provisions of Article VIII of the final Act 
of the Paris Conference on Reparation, signed by 
18 nations on January 14, 19-16, which made avail- 
able a fund of $25,000,000 out of Gennan assets in 
neutral countries, out of all the non-monetary gold 
found by the Allies in Germany, and out of all the 
assets in neutral countries of victims of Nazi action 
who died without heirs.- The conferring powers 
are of the opinion that the non-monetary gold and 
tile "heirless funds" will amount to a few million 
dollars. 

Since the overwhelming group of eligible vic- 
tims were Jewish, the conference allocated $22,- 
500,000 out of German assets in neutral countries, 
90 i^ercent of the non-monetary gold, and 95 per- 
cent of the "heirless funds" for the rehabilitation 
and resettlement of Jews. The remaining part of 
the fund was made available for those German and 
Austrian non-Jewish victims who were persecuted 
by the Nazis for religious, political, or racial rea- 
sons and who are in need of resettlement. The 
agreement gave general administrative responsi- 
bility to the Director of the Inter-governmental 
Committee on Refugees, who will make funds 
available to authorized field organizations. 

It is expected that the authorized Jewish field 
organizations will use a large part of these funds 
for the rehabilitation of refugees and for the reset- 
tlement in Palestine. 

The United States representative was Dr. Eli 
Ginzberg of Columbia University. He was as- 
sisted by Irwin Mason and Jacob Kaplan of the 
Department of State. 
Text of agreement 

In accordance with the provisions of Article 
VIII of the final Act of the Paris Conference on 
Reparation, the Governments of the United States 
of America, France, the United Kingdom, Czecho- 



slovakia and Yugoslavia, in consultation with the 
Inter-governmental Committee on Refugees, have 
worked out, in common agreement, the following 
plan to aid in tlie rehabilitation and resettlement 
of non-repatriable victims of German action. In 
working out this plan the signatory powers have 
been guided by the intent of Article VIII and the 
procedures outlined below are based on its terms : 

In recognition of special and urgent circum- 
stances, the sum of $25,000,000 having been made 
available by the Allied Governments as a priority 
on the proceeds of the liquidation of German 
assets in neutral countries, is hereby placed at the 
disposal of the Intergovernmental Committee on 
Refugees or its successor organization for distri- 
bution to appropriate public and private field 
organizations as soon as they have submitted 
IDracticable programs in accordance with this 
agieement. 

{A) It is the unanimous and considered opinion 
of the Five Powers that in light of paragraph H 
of Article VIII of the Paris Agreement on Repa- 
ration, tlie assets becoming available should be 
used not for the compensation of individual vic- 
tims but for the rehabilitation and i-esettlement of 
persons in eligible classes, and that expenditures 
on rehabilitation shall be considered as essential 
preparatory outlays to resettlement. Since all 
available statistics indicate beyond any reasonable 
doubt that the overwhelming majority of eligible 
persons under the provisions of Article VIII are 
Jewish, all assets except as specified in paragraph 
B below are allocated for the rehabilitation and 
resettlement of eligible Jewish victims of Nazi 
action, among whom children should receive pref- 
erential assistance. Eligible Jewish victims of 
Nazi action are either refugees from Germany or 
Austria who do not desire to i-eturn to these coun- 
tries, or German and Austrian Jews now resident 
in Germany or Austria who desire to emigrate, 
or Jews who were nationals or former nationals of 
previously occupied countries and who were vic- 
tims of Nazi concentration camps or concentra- 

' Telegraphic text. 

^ For text of final act see Bulletin of Jan. 27, 1946, 
p. 114. 



72 

tion camps established by regimes uiuler Nazi 
influence. 

[B) The sum of $2,500,000, amounting to 10 per- 
cent, arising out of the $25,000,000 priority on the 
proceeds of German assets in neutral countries, 
10 percent of the proceeds of the "non-monetary 
gold," and 5 percent of the "heirless funds" shall 
be administered by the Inter-governmental Com- 
mittee on Refugees or its successor organization 
through appropriate public and private organi- 
zations for the rehabilitation and resettlement of 
the relatively small numbers of non-Jewinh victims 
of Nazi action who are in need of resettlement. 
Eligible non-Jewish victims of Nazi action are 
refugees f I'om Germany and Austria who cafl dem- 
onstrate that they were persecuted by the Nazis 
for religious, political, or racial reasons and who 
do not (li'sirc to return, or German and Austrian 
nationals, similarly persecuted, who desire to 
emigrate. 

(C) The Director of the Inter-governmental 
Committee on Refugees or the Director General 
of the successor organization shall under the man- 
date of this agreement make funds available for 
programs submitted by the appropriate field oi-- 
ganizations referred to in paragraphs A and B 
above as soon as he has satisfied himself that the 
programs are consistent with the foregoing. Only 
in exceptional circumstances may the cost of re- 
settlement programs exceed a maximum of $1,000 
per adult and $2,500 per child under 12 years of 
age. The action of the Inter-governmental Com- 
mittee on Refugees or its successor oi'ganization 
shall be guided by the intent of Article VIII and 
by this agreement which is to place into operation 
as quickly as possible practicable programs of re- 
habilitation and resettlement submitted by the 
appropriate Held organizations. 

(/>) In addition to the $25,000,000 the Inter- 
govei'nmental Committee on Refugees or its suc- 
cessor oi'ganization is hereby authorized to take 
title from the appi-opriate authorities to all "non- 
monetary gold" found by the Allies in Germany 
and to take such steps as may be needed to liquidate 
these as.sets as promptly as possible, due considera- 
tion being given to secure the highest possible 
realizable value. As these assets are liquidated, 
the funds shall be distributed in accordance with 
paragraphs A and B above. 

(E) Furthermore, pui-suant to paragraphs C 
and E of Article VIII, in the interest of justice, 
the French Government on behalf of the five gov- 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETm 

ernments concluding this agreement, are making 
representations to the neutral powers to make 
available all assets of victims of Nazi action who 
died without heirs. The governments of the 
United States of America, the United Kingdom, 
Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia are associating 
themselves with the French Government in mak- 
ing such representations to the neutral powers. 
The conclusion that 95 percent of the "heirless 
funds" thus made available should be allocated for 
the rehabilitation and resettlement of Jewish vic- 
tims takes cognizance of the fact that these funds 
are overwhelmingly Jewish in origin, and the 5 
percent made available for non-Jewish victims is 
based upon a liberal- presumption of "heirless 
funds" non- Jewish in origin. The "heirless funds'' 
to be used for the rehabilitation and resettlement 
of Jewish victims of Nazi action should be made 
available to appropriate field organizations. The 
"heirless funds" to be used for the rehabilitation 
and resettlement of non-Jev^ish victims of Nazi 
action should be made available to the Inter-gov- 
ernmental Committee on Refugees or its successor 
organization for distribution to appropriate pub- 
lic and private field organizations. In making 
these joint representations, the signatories are re- 
questing the neutral countries to take all necessary 
action to facilitate the identification, collection, 
and distribution of these assets which have arisen 
out of a unique condition in international law and 
morality. If further representations are indicated 
the governments of the United States of America, 
France and the United Kingdom will pursue the 
matter on behalf of the signatory powers. 

(F) To insure that all funds made available 
shall inure to the greatest possible benefit of the 
victims whom it is desired to assist, all funds shall 
be retained in the currency from which they arise 
and shall be transferred therefrom only upon the 
instructions of the organization to which the Inter- 
governmental Committee on Refugees or its suc- 
cessor organization has allocated the funds for 
expenditure. 

(G) The Director of the Inter-governmental 
Committee on Refugees shall carry out his respon- 
sibilities to the five governments in respect of this 
agreement in accordance with the terms of the let- 
ter of instruction which is being transmitted to 
him by the French Government on behalf of the 
governments concluding this agreement. 

In witness whereof the undersigned have sigiied 
the present agreement. 



JULY 14, 1946 

Done in Paris, on the fourteenth day of June, 
1946, in llie English and French languages, the 
two texts being equally authentic, in a single orig- 
inal which shall be deposited in the archives of 
the Government of the French Republic, certified 
copies thereof being furnished by that government 
to the signatories of this present agreement. 

Delegate of the United States of America. 
Eli Ginzberg 

Delegate of Czechoslovakia. 
D. Klvana 

Delegate of France. 
Philippe Perler 

Delegate of the United Kingdom of Great Britain 
& Northern Ireland. 

Douglas MacKillop 
Delegate of Yugoslavia. 

M. D. Jaksic. 



73 

Annex to the Agreement on a Plan for Alloca- 
tion of a Reparation Share to Non-Repatria- 
ble Victims of German Action : 

In accepting the phrasing of paragraph E of 
the agreement, the Czechoslovak and Yugoslav del- 
egates have declared that the Eepublic of Czecho- 
slovakia and the Eepublic of Yugoslavia have not 
by so accepting given up their claim to the forth- 
coming inheritances mentioned therein which, ac- 
cording to the provisions of international law, be- 
long to their respective states. 

Paris, JJ^fh June, 1946. 
The Czechoslovak Delegate 

D. Klvana 

The Yugoslav Delegate 
M. D. Jaksic 



Negotiations for Double-Tax Treaties With Belgium, 
Luxembourg, and the Netherlands 



[Released to the press July 31 

The United States Government is preparing to 
send a delegation to Belgium, Luxembourg, and 
the Netherlands to negotiate double-tax treaties 
with those countries. The delegation is expected 
to leave Washington July 22. Prior to that time 
the delegation would be glad to confer with in- 
terested parties or to receive statements and sug- 
gestions from them concerning problems in tax 
I'elations with those countries. Communications 
in this connection should be addressed to Eldon 
P. King, Special Deputy Commissioner, Bureau 
of Internal Revenue, Washington, D.C., who will 
head the delegation. 

The United States has treaties with Sweden and 
France for the avoidance of double income taxes 
and for administrative cooperation and has trea- 
ties with Canada for the avoidance of double tax- 
ation on incomes and estates and for administrative 
cooperation. It is expected that ratifications of 
similar treaties witli the United Kingdom and 



Northern Ireland relating to income and estate 
taxes will be exchanged in the near future. Nego- 
tiations for a new treaty with France and for 
treaties with the Union of South Africa have been 
announced and are in an advanced stage. The 
treaties which it is hoped will be negotiated with 
Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netlierlands will 
be of the same general type. 

The United States Delegation is as follows • 

Eldon P. King, Special Deputy Commissioner, Bureau of 

Internal Revenue, Chief of Delegation 
Roy Blough, Director, Division of Tax Research, Treasury 

Department 
.Stanley S. Surrey, Tax Legislative Counsel, Treasury 

Department 
Henry S. Bloch, Division of Tax Research, Treasury 

Department 
Cyril E. Heilemann, Office of the Legislative Counsel, 

Treasury Department 
Peter J. Mitchell, Office of the Chief Counsel, Bureau of 

Internal Revenue 
William V. Whittington, Treaty Adviser, Treaty Branch, 

Division of Research and Publication, Department of 

State 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Protocol Dissolving Rome Institute of Agriculture' 

THE PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE OF TRANSMITTAL TO THE SENATE 



To the Senate of the United /States : 

With a view to receiving the advice and con- 
sent of the Senate to ratification, I transmit here- 
with a certified photostatic copy of a protocol 
dated at Kome March 30, 1946, terminating the 
Rome convention of June 7, 1905, and transfer- 
ring the functions and assets of the International 
Institute of Agriculture to the Food and Agricul- 
tui'e Organization of the United Nations. 

The protocol has been signed, "Subject to rati- 
fication," by the American Charge d'Affaires ad 
interim at Rome for the Government of the 



United States of America (including Hawaii, the 
Philippines, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands). 
I also transmit herewith, for the information 
of the Senate, the report of the Acting Secretary 
of State with respect to the protocol. 

Harry S. Texjman 
The White House, 
July 1, 191,6. 

(Enclosures: (1) Report of the Acting Secretary of 
State; (2) Protocol dated at Rome, March 30, 1946, 
terminating Rome convention of June 7, 1905, and 
transferring functions and assets of International In- 
stitute of Agriculture to Food and Agriculture Organiza- 
tion of the United Nations.)' 



REPORT OF THE ACTING SECRETARY OF STATE 



June 27, 1946. 
The Pkesident, 

The White Hoit^e: 

The undersigned, the Acting Secretary of State, 
has the honor to lay before the President, with a 
view to its transmission to the Senate to receive the 
advice and consent of that body to ratification, if 
his judgment approve thereof, a certified photo- 
static copy of a protocol dated at Rome, March 30, 
1946, terminating the Rome convention of June 7, 
1905, and transferring the functions and assets of 
the International Institute of Agriculture to the 
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United 
Nations. 

The protocol has been signed by the American 
Charge d'Affaires ad interim at Rome for the Gov- 
ernment of the United States of America (includ- 
ing Hawaii, the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and the 
Virgin Islands) "Subject to ratification." The 
protocol has been signed also by the plenipoten- 
tiaries of a number of other countries, and it is 
anticipated that additional signatures will be 
affixed by August 1, 1946. 

' S. Exec. H. 
' Not printed. 



The convention for the creation of an Interna- 
tional Institute of Agriculture was signed at Rome, 
June 7, 1905, by the plenipotentiaries of the United 
States of America and a number of other countries. 
The United States of America became a party to 
that convention by the deposit of its instrument 
of ratification with the Italian Government on 
August 13, 1906. The official citation of the con- 
vention is 35 Statutes, part 2, 1918. 

In 1924, at the request of the Government of the 
United States of America, and in conformity with 
the last jDaragraph of article 10 of the convention 
of 1905, Hawaii, the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and 
the Virgin Islands were admitted to participation 
in the International Institute of Agriculture. 

On April 21, 1926, there was signed at Rome on 
behalf of a number of countries, not including the 
United States of America, a protocol amending 
the convention of 1905. The United States of 
America became a party to that protocol on Au- 
gust 25, 1934, by adherence. In depositing the 
instrument of adherence, the American Ambassa- 
dor at Rome informed the Italian Foreign Office 
that the adherence of the United States of America 
to tlie protocol extends to and embraces Hawaii, 
the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Is- 



JULY 14, 1946 

lands. The official citation of that protocol is 49 
Statutes, part 2, 3350. 

By joint resolution of the Congress of the United 
States of America, approved July 31, 1945 (Public 
Law 174, 79th Cong.), the President was author- 
ized to accejDt membership for the United States 
of America in the Food and Agriculture Organiza- 
tion of the United Nations. Section 3 of that joint 
resolution refers to the contemplated dissolution 
of the International Institute of Agriculture at 
Rome and the merger of its functions and assets 
with those of the Food and Agriculture Organiza- 
tion. Section 3 reads as follows : 

In adopting this joint resolution, it is tlie sense of the 
Congress that the Government of the United States should 
use its best efforts to bring about, as soon as practicable, 
the integration of the functions and resources of the Inter- 
national Institute of Agriculture with those of the Organi- 
zation, in a legal and orderly manner, to effect one united 
institution in such form as to provide an adequate re- 
search, informational, and statistical service for the indus- 
try of agriculture. 

At the first meeting of the Food and Agriculture 
Organization of the United Nations, at Quebec, 
October 16 to November 1, 1945, the Conference 
(the governing body of the Organization) adopted 
unanimously a resolution requesting that those 
governments which are members of both the Food 
and Agriculture Organization and the Interna- 
tional Institute of Agriculture take action for the 
purpose of bringing to an end the affairs of the 
Institute and of transferring the library, archives, 
and other property of the Institute to the Organi- 
zation. 

The Director-General of the Food and Agricul- 
ture Organization, by a letter dated November 10, 
1945, requested that the Governments of the United 
States of America, the United Kingdom of Great 
Britain and Northern Ireland, Canada, France, the 
Netherlands, and Belgium work together to 
give effect to the Quebec resolution relating to 
the dissohition of the International Institute of 
Agriculture. 

During January and February 1946 the Govern- 
ment of the United States of America, after prior 
consultation with the British Government, com- 
municated with the other governments, members 
of both the Organization and the Institute, urging 
the cooperation of those governments in the adop- 



75 



tion of procedure for the dissolution of the Insti- 
tute and the merger of its functions and assets 
with those of the Organization. 

On March 30, 1946, the Permanent Committee 
of the International Institute of Agriculture, meet- 
ing in Rome, adopted without dissenting vote a 
resolution prepared by the United States Govern- 
ment and presented to the Committee by the Amer- 
ican and British representatives on the Committee. 
This resolution urged that each of the governments 
concerned authorize the signing on its behalf of a 
protocol for the purpose of dissolving the Institute, 
terminating the convention which created it, and 
transferring its functions and assets to the Food 
and Agriculture Organization of the United Na- 
tions. The resolution also urged that the General 
Assembly of the Institute take action to authorize 
the Permanent Committee to take the necessary 
steps for this purpose. 

The protocol, as recommended by the Perma- 
nent Committee of the Institute, was opened for 
signature on March 30, 1946, and bears that date. 
It is this protocol of which a certified photostatic 
copy is enclosed herewith. 

Article I of the protocol provides that from a 
date which is to be announced by the Permanent 
Committee of the Institute, in accordance with 
article III, the convention of 1905 shall be no 
longer effective as between the parties to the pro- 
tocol, and the Institute (including the Interna- 
tional Forestry Center) thereupon shall be brought 
to an end. 

Article III provides for the giving of a notifica- 
tion by the Permanent Committee to the members 
of the Institute when the duties assigned by article 
II of the protocol have been completed. It is pro- 
vided further that the date of such notification 
shall be deemed to be the date of termination of 
the convention of 1905 and also the date of the dis- 
solution of the Institute (including the Center) . 

Article IV provides for the transfer to the Food 
and Agriculture Organization of the jjowers, 
rights, or duties attributed to the Institute (in- 
cluding the Center) by the provisions of certain 
international conventions, as listed in an annex to 
the protocol. 

Article V sets forth the procedure by which a 
member of the Institute which is not a signatory 
to the protocol may accede to the protocol. 

Article VI contains provisions relating to the 



16 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



coming into force of the protocol. Pursuant to 
this article, the protocol shall come into force when 
it has been accepted by at least 35 governments, 
members of the Institute. Such acceptance may 
be effected by any one of three methods, namely, 
by signature alone when such signature is without 
a reservation in regard to ratification, by the de- 
posit of an instrument of ratification in the case 
of signature with a reservation in regard to ratifi- 
cation, or by notice of accession in accordance with 
article V. The coming into force of the protocol 
for other governments, after the protocol has come 
into force, as provided in the second paragraph of 
article VI, is governed by the third paragraph. 

In the opinion of the Department of State, this 
protocol, together with the action to be taken by 
the General Assembly and the Permanent Com- 
mittee of the Institute, would accomplish the ob- 
ject mentioned in section 3 of the joint resolution 



of July 31. 1945, namely, the integration of the 
functions and resources of the Institute with those 
of the Organization, in a legal and orderly manner, 
effecting — 

one united institution in such form as to provide an ade- 
quate research and statistical service for the industry of 
agriculture. 

It is believed tliat, in order to be fully effective, 
the action of the United States of America with 
respect to this protocol should be completed as 
soon as practicable. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Dean Aciieson, 
Acting Secretary of State. 

(Enclosure: Protocol dated at Rome, March 30, 1946, 
terminating Rome convention of June 7, 1905, and trans- 
ferring functions and assets of International Institute of 
Agriculture to Food and Agriculture Organization of the 

United Nations.) i 



REPARATION FOR NON-REPATRIABLES— CoMiirw/eS from page 56. 



tria who do not desire to be repatriated, or who 
are still in Germany and Austria and should be 
assisted to emigrate because of the persecution 
which they suffered at the hands of the Nazis. 
Also eligible are Jews who were nationals or for- 
mer nationals of previously occupied countries 
and who were victims of Nazi concentration camps 
or concentration camps established by regimes 
under Nazi influence. The total number of eli- 
gibles is estimated to be in excess of 200,000, the 
vast majority of M'hom are Jews. 

The funds to be made available cannot be used 
for relief but must be spent on the rehabilitation 
and resettlement of eligible persons. The Agree- 
ment provides that the Director of the Intergov- 
ernmental Committee on Refugees, who has been 
given general administrative responsibility, will 
make the funds available to appropriate field or- 
ganizations as soon as they have submitted prac- 
tical programs for the rehabilitation and resettle- 
ment of the eligible victims. It is expected that 
the authorized Jewish field organizations will use 
a large part of these funds for the rehabilitation 
of refugees and for their resettlement in Palestine. 

The United States has played a leading role in 
securing reparations for non-repatriables. The 

1 Not printed. 



United States Delegation to the Paris Conference 
on Reparation first advanced the proposal in No- 
vember 1945 and secured its adoption by the other 
powers. The United States took the lead in mak- 
ing the $25,000,000 sum a priority charge on the 
liquidation of German assets in neutral countries. 
The United States pressed for an early meeting of 
the Five-Power Conference. The draft agree- 
ment submitted to the Conference was prepared 
by the United States representative. 

Despite the many difficulties encountered in deal- 
ing with refugee problems in the several United 
Nations conmiittees and conferences, the Paris 
Conference on Reparation for Non-Repatriables 
was able to proceed in an atmosphere of harmoni- 
ous understanding and reach a unanimous agree- 
ment at the end of two days. All the delegates 
were impressed with the fact that no matter what 
differences separated them on the general refugee 
problem, it was their obligation to act expedi- 
tiously and efficiently with regard to those non- 
repatriables eligible for assistance under the pro- 
visions of article 8. Most of them are Jews whose 
suffering under the Nazis had been without par- 
allel. The Conference recognized that their re- 
habilitation and resettlement was the obligation 
of all civilized nations. 



JULY 14, 1946 

Ceremonies Commemorating 
Liberation of Belgium 

[Released to the press July 3] 

Tlie Belgian Ambassador has informed the De- 
partment that on July 4 ceremonies will take place 
at Bastogne under the auspices of the Belgian 
American Association and in the presence of high 
officials of the Belgian Government to commemo- 
rate the gallant stand of the American Armies 
and the liberation of Belgium. The first stone of 
a monument is to be laid. Earth is to be placed in 
an urn made of Belgian Congo malachite, handed 
to the American Ambassador, and later flown to 
the United States by a C-54 of Belgium to arrive 
in Washington on July 8. 

The Belgian Embassy states that the following 
will accompany the urn : 

Col. Raoul Defraiteur, Minister of National Defense 

Senator Paul van Zeeland, President, Belgo-American 
Association 

Mr. .Jacques LaGrange, Secretary, Belgo-American Associ- 
ation 

Group Capt. Leon Desoomer, aide-de-camp 

The State and War Departments have made the 
following arrangements to receive the urn in 
Washington : 

Brig. Gen. Gerald J. Higgins, an officer of the 
101st Airborne Division during the Battle of 
Bastogne, has been sent to Belgium to attend the 
ceremony and fly back with the urn. 

Full military honors are to be rendered upon 
arrival at the Washington National Airport on 
July 8, 3 p. m. 



Visit of Egyptian Journalists 

[Released to the press June 29] 

Four distinguished Egyptian journalists, rep- 
resenting government, opposition, and independ- 
ent newspajjers, arrived here June 29 on the final 
phase of a seven weeks' inspection tour of the 
United States as guests of the Departmeitt of 
State. The tour has taken the visitors from the 
Atlantic to the Pacific and from the Canadian to 
the Mexican boi-ders. 

The journalists are Galal el Hamamsi, managing 
editor of Al Kotla, Bloc Wafdist daily; Nagib 



77 



Canaan, foreign editor of the leading independ- 
ent daily, ^4^ Ahrain; Abdel Kader Hamza, as- 
sociate editor of Al Balagh, leading Wafdist (Na- 
tionalist) daily; and Fahmy Samaha, vice pres- 
ident of the weekly magazine, Al Mussawar, who 
also represents the magazines Al Itnein, Ulmage, 
and Parade — all published by the El Hilal Pub- 
lishing House. 

This week-end the party plans to visit such 
points of interest as the Tomb of the Unknown 
Soldier at Arlington National Cemetery, the Li- 
brary of Congress, the Supreme Court Building, 
and Mount Vernon. 

Appointments have been arranged for them to 
meet J. Edgar Hoover, Chief of the Federal 
Bureau of Investigation; Joseph Mack, Deputy 
Director of Field Operations, Department of Com- 
merce; Vice Admiral Richard L. Connolly, 
Deputy Chief Naval Operations for Achninistra- 
tion ; and other high Government officials. They 
have expressed a desire to visit the Senate Foreign 
Relations Committee and the House Foreign 
Aifairs Committee and meet members of Congress 
who have taken an active interest in Near Eastern 
affairs. They also hope to attend a presidential 
press conference and a press conference for Secre- 
tary of War Patterson, and to meet Senators James 
M. Mead and Claude Pepper and Representative 
Karl Mundt. 

Wliile in Washington, the visitors will be guests 
of honor at receptions and teas given for them by 
the Egyptian Legation and American friends. 

The journalists have inspected newspaper plants, 
publishing houses, and radio studios in New York 
City. They have observed American farming 
methods in several sections of the country, ex- 
pressing particular interest in irrigation and land- 
reclamation projects and in cotton growing and 
textile development. They have been impres-ed 
by Detroit's automotive industry, West Coast ship- 
yards and aircraft plants, and the Hollywood film 
studios. 

Several groups of European journalists have 
recently completed tours of the United States, 
observing America's scientific, economic, and cul- 
tural achievements as well as the handling of re- 
conversion and demobilization problems. 

The Egyptian journalists plan to spend six days 
in Washington before returning to Ne^v Yoik 
prior to embarking on their trip home. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Mail and Gift Parcel Services Resumed With Korea 



[Released to the press July 1] 

Effective on July 4, restricted mail and gift 
parcel services were resumed with Korea. The 
service will include letters, post cards, and printed 
matter, as well as ordinary (unregistered and 
uninsui'ed) gift parcels. 

Mail addressed for delivery in Korea may be in 
any of the following languages : Korean, English, 
Russian, French, Spanish, Chinese, or Japanese. 
Mail should bear the name of the addressee, street, 
district, town, and province in Korea. The ad- 
dress should be shown also in Korean characters, 
if known. Registration, air mail, money order 
and special delivery services are not available 
at this time. 

The gift parcel service will be subject to the 
following restrictions : 

Parcels may not exceed 11 pounds in weight. 

Only one parcel per week may be sent by or 



on behalf of the same sender to or for the same 
addressee. •**' 

Contents of parcels will be limited to essential 
relief items, such as non-perishable foods, cloth- 
ing, soap, and mailable medicines. 

The parcels and relative customs declaration 
must be conspicuously marked " Gift Parcel" by 
the senders who must itemize the contents and 
value on the customs declaration. 

Parcels which are undeliverable will not be 
returned to senders, but will be turned over to 
authorized Korean relief agencies. 

Parcels should bear the name of the addressee, 
street, district, town, and province in Korea. The 
address should be shown also in Korean char- 
acters, if known. 

The export control regulations of the Office of 
International Trade are applicable for parcels 
for deliverv in Korea. 



Aviation Agreements 

The following action has been taken on the In- 
terim Agreement on International Civil Aviation, 
the International Air Services Transit Agreement, 
and the Convention on International Civil Avia- 
tion formulated at the International Civil Aviation 
Conference in Chicago on December 7, 1944 : 

Mexico 

The Ambassador of Mexico deposited with the 
Department of State on June 25 the Mexican in- 
strument of ratification of the Convention and the 
accejjtance of the. Transit Agreement. 

Argentina 

The Charge d'Affaires ad interim of Argentina 
informed the Secretary of State by a note received 
in the Department of State on June 4 that the 
Government of Argentina accepts the Interim and 
Transit Agreements and adheres to the Convention. 



Bolivia 

The Ambassador of Bolivia informed the Sec- 
retary of State by a note received in the Depart- 
ment of State on May 17 that the Bolivian 
Government "have accepted the Interim Agree- 
ment on International Civil Aviation, and the 
same has been put in force provisionally until it is 
approved by Congress." 
New Zealand 

The Minister of New Zealand informed the Sec- 
retary of State by a note dated April 29 that the 
reservation made by the New Zealand Government 
in accepting the Interim Agreement is withdrawn 
with respect to Denmark. The reservation was: 
"the New Zealand Government does not regard 
Denmark or Thailand as being parties to the 
Agreements mentioned (Interim and Transit) and 
does not regard itself as being in treaty relation 
with either of those countries with reference to 
these Agreements." 



JULY 14, 1946 



Treaty Obligations and Philippine Independence 



REPLY OF BELGIAN GOVERNMENT TO U.S. NOTE 



Sir: 



Ambassade de Belgique, 
Washington, July 11th, 1946. 



I liave the honour to aclaiowledge receipt of 
your letter of May ith, by which you kindly ad- 
vised me that the Government of the United States 
of America considers that provision for a transi- 
tional period for dealing with the special tariff 
position which the Philippines products have 
occupied for many years in the United States, is 
an essential accompaniment to Philippine inde- 
pendence. 

Accordingly, under the Philippine Trade Act 
approved April 30, 1946, goods the gi'owth, pro- 
duce or manufacture of the Philippines, will enter 
the United States free of duty until 1954, after 
which they will be subject to gradually and regu- 
larly increasing rates of duty or decreasing duty- 
free quotas until 1974 when general rates will be- 



come applicable and all preferences will be com- 
pletely eliminated. 

Upon instructions received from my Govern- 
ment, I am pleased to advise you that, on behalf of 
the Belgian-Luxembourg Economic Union, they 
agree that the most- favoured-national provisions 
of the Reciprocal Trade Agreement between the 
United States of America and the Belgo-Luxem- 
bourg Economic Union, signed February 27, 1935, 
shall not be understood to require during the above 
mentioned period, the extension to the Economic 
Union of advantages accorded by the United 
States of America to the Philippines. 
Accept [etc.] 

Silvercruts 
The Belgian Ambassador 
The Honorable Dean Acheson 
Acting Secretary of State 
Washington, D.C. 



Visit of Brazilian Judge 

Joao Del Nero, judge of the Juvenile Court of 
Igarapava, Sao Paulo, Brazil, is in the United 
States at the invitation of the Department of State. 
He will visit juvenile courts and confer with col- 
leagues in the field of juvenile delinquency. 

His chief interests are juvenile delinquency and 
social problems. He has worked closely with the 
Y.M.C.A., which in 1938 invited him to visit 
Buenos Aires and Montevideo. 

While in the United States he hopes to visit some 
of the penitentiaries and will write of his experi- 
ences to the State of Sao Paulo, newspaper in Sao 
Paulo. 

During his three months in the United States, 
Dr. Del Nero plans to visit New York City, Boston, 
Pittsburgh, Detroit, Chicago, Omaha (Boys 
Town) , Denver, Los Angeles, and San Francisco, 
in addition to Washington. 



The Congress 



Investigation of Exports of Cotton Cloth and Other 
Cotton Products : Hearings before a Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, United States 
Senate, Seventy-ninth Congress, second session, on S. Res. 
221, a resolution authorizing an investigation of exports 
of cotton cloth and other cotton products. February 26, 
27, 28, March 1, 25, and 26, 1»46. iii, 350 pp. 

Foreign War Damage Claims : Hearings Before a Sub- 
committee of the Committee on the Judiciary, United 
States Senate, Seventy-ninth Congress, second session, on 
S. Res. 1322, a bill to amend the Trading with the Enemy 
Act, as amended, and for other purposes. April 17, 1946. 
iii, 67 pp. [Department of State, pp. 4-5, 62-65.] 

To Permit the Shipment of Relief Supplies; Hearings 
Before the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Sen- 
ate, Seventy-ninth Congress, second session, on S. 2101, a 
bill to amend the Trading with the Enemy Act, as amended, 
to permit the shipment of relief supplies. April 25 and 26, 
1946. iii, 99 pp. 

' U.S. note is similar to note sent to Bolivian Govern- 
ment as printed in Bulletin of June 16, 1946, p. 1049. 



Contents 



Occupation Matters Pr.ge 

American Policy in Occupied Areas. Article by 

Assistant Secretary Hilldring 47 

The Present Status of German Youth. Article 

by Henry J. Kellermann 49 

General Policy 

Reparation for Non-Repatriables. Article by 

Eli Ginzberg 56 

Caribbean Commission 65 

Independence of the Philippines: 

Proclamation by the President of the United 

States of America 66 

President Truman's Statement on Philippine 

Independence 67 

Statement by Acting Secretary Acheson ... 67 

Special Radio Program Celebrating Philippine 

Independence 67 

Policy of Transferring 100,000 Jewish Immi- 
grants to Palestine: 
Conference Between the President and Mem- 
bers of Jewish Agency for Palestine ... 70 
Remarks Made at Acting Secretary Acheson's 

Press Conference 70 

Ceremonies Commemorating Liberation of Bel- 

gium 77 

Mail and Gift Parcel Services Resumed With 

Korea 78 

German Documents 

German Documents: Conferences with Axis 

Leaders 57 



Economic Affairs Page 

First Session of United Maritime Consultative 

Council 64 

International Bank for Reconstruction and 

Development 65 

Treaty Information 

Reparation for Non-Repatriables. Article by 

Eli Ginzberg 56 

Agreement Pertaining to Reparation Funds for 
Non-Repatriable Victims of German Ac- 
tion 71 

Negotiations for Double-Tax Treaties With 

Belgium, Luxembourg, and Netherlands . . 73 

Aviation Agreements: Mexico, Argentina, Bo- 
livia, New Zealand 78 

Protocol Dissolving Rome Institute of Agricul- 
ture: 
The President's Message of Transmittal to the 

Senate 74 

Report of the Acting Secretary of State ... 74 

Treaty Obligations and Philippine Independence: 

Reply of Belgian Government to U.S. Note . 79 

Cultural Cooperation 

Visit of Egyptian Journalists 77 

Visit of Brazilian Judge 79 

International Organizations and Conferences 

Calendar of Meetings 64 

Activities and Developments 64 

The Congress 79 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

iMHH] 

VOL. XV. NO. 368 Jtl^V 21, 1946 



Preliminary Reports on the First Bikini Atom 

Bomb Test Page 115 

U. S. Memoranda on Control of Atomic Energy page 96 

Exchange of Specialists Between U.8. and Other 
American Republics 

Article by J. MANUEL ESPINOSA Page 89 

The Present Status of German Youth (Part II) 

Article by HENRY J. KELLERMANN Page 83 



Vl«^NT o^ 






For complete contents 
see inside cover 




U. S. SUPERIffTENDENT OF W)CUME«I5> 

AUG 13 1946 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



BULLETIN 



Vot,. XV . No. 368 • 



July 21, 1946 




y the Superintendent of DocumenlB 
" iting Office 



, S3. 50; single copy, 10 cent 
Special oBfer: 13 weeks for $1.00 
(renewable only on yearly basis) 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Research and 
Publication, Office of Public Affairs, 
provides the public and interested 
agencies of the Government with 
information on developments in the 
field of foreign relations and on the 
work of the Department of State and 
the Foreign Service. The BVLLETIIS 
includes press releases on foreign 
policy issued by the White House and 
the Department, and statements and 
addresses made by the President and 
by the Secretary of State and other 
officers of the Department, as well as 
special articles on various phases of 
international affairs and the functions 
of the Department. Information con- 
cerning treaties and international 
agreements towhich the UnitedStates 
is or may become a party and treaties 
of general international interest is 
included. 

Publications of the Department, cu- 
mulative lists of which are published 
at the end of each (piarter, as well as 
legislative material in thefield of inter- 
national relations, are listed currently. 



Contents 



Occupation Matters 

The Present Status of German Youth (Part II). Article by 

Henry J. Kellermann 83 

Summary of Non-MiHtary Activities in Japan for May 1946. 127 

General Policy 

The President's Cabinet Committee on Palestine and Re- 
lated Problems 107 

Executive Order Designating Public International Organiza- 
tiiiiis Entitled to Enjoy Certain Privileges, Exemptions, 

and Immunities lOS 

Preliminary Keports on the First Bikini Atom-Bomb Test: 

Report of the Joint Chief of Staff's Evaluation Board 115 

Report of the President's Evaluation Commission 116 

Duty of Higher Education in Creating International Under- 
standing. Remarks by the President US 

Report to the President on 1945-46 Famine-Relief Food 
Shipments: 

Statement by the President US 

Text of Report of Clinton Anderson 119 

U. S. Prepared to Renounce Its Share in German Assets in 

Austria 123 

Military Assistance to China 125 

Inter-American Military Cooperation. Statement by 

George H. Butler 131 

The United Nations 

Meeting of the Atomic Energy Commission: 

U. S. Memordandum 1 : Control and Development of 

Atomic Energy 96 

U. S. Memorandum 2: Functions and Powers of Proposed 

Atomic Development Authority 9S 

U. S. Memorandum 3: Relations Between the Atomic 
Development Authority and the Organs of the United 

Nations 102 

First Meeting of Atomic Commission's Working Committee. 106 
U. S. Representative to. UN Accorded Rank of Ambassador. 106 

Economic Affairs 

UNRRA Tour 107 

Importance of British Financial Agreement to International 
Economic Cooperation: 
Letter From the President to the Chairman of the House 

Committee on Banking and Currency 109 

Cablegram From the Secretary of State 109 

Constitutionality of Negotiating British Financial Agree- 
ment: 
Exchange of Letters Between Senator Forrest C. Donneli 

and the Secretary of State 110 

Functions of Committee for Financing Foreign Trade. 

Statement by Winthrop W. Aldrich, Chairman 111 

The Proclaimed List of Certain Blocked Nationals: 

Announcement of Withdrawal of List 112 

History and Scope of the Proclaimed List 113 



The Present Status of German Youth 



Article by HENRY J. KELLERMANN 



PART II 

Subversive Activities and Organisations 

The danger of political unrest and upheaval 
remains by and large a potential rather than an 
actual one. in Germany, notwithstanding recent 
reports of large-scale conspiracies among German 
youth. On the whole, the numbers involved are 
small and the progress made by some of the groups 
does not go much beyond the preparatory stage. 
It is significant that the majority of subversive 
groups, such as the one unearthed by British and 
American authorities in the so-called "Operation 
Nursery", have not appeared spontaneously, but 
were planned prior to defeat and are led by party, 
SS, or Hitler Youth leaders. Other groups con- 
sisting largely of non-party members, such as the 
Edehveiss-Piraten, are essentially non-political in 
purpose and character. But, although the mem- 
bership of most illegal groups is made up of non- 
political elements, their ignorance of politics and 
dissatisfaction with the current state of affairs 
make them susceptible to the blandishments of 
political agents. It is this growing radicalization 
toward the Eight of non-conformist youth under 
expert leadership, rather than the re-emergence of 
specifically Nazi groups, which confronts Allied 
and German authorities alike with a real problem. 

With this type of organization of youth for 
ulterior purposes, political agents have initiated 
the first phase of subversion. The danger is rec- 
ognized by U. S. authorities, at least in effect, if 
not in principle. Repoi'ts from the field have 
warned that the lack of overt acts of resistance 
such as sabotage and attacks against U. S. per- 
sonnel is a deceptive lull which serves to conceal 
the organizing functions of any subversive ele- 
ments. Statements of this type do not appear to 
be based merely on a noticeable increase in the 
number of cases of civil disobedience but on re- 
poi-ts indicating "a definite trend toward organiza- 
tion of subversive elements." ^^ 



Tliere are several types of groups, employing 
various techniques for subversive purposes, which 
may be distinguished on the following bases: (1) 
organiations which were specifically established 
by National Socialists for the purpose of perpetu- 
ating or reviving the Nazi system, e. g. partisans 
like the Werewolves; (2) organizations which 
were not originally Nazi but which are being used 
by Nazi agents as a cover for subversive purposes, 
e.g. the Christian Pathfinders; (3) organizations 
which are nationalist and revolutionary but are 
not necessarily Nazi, e.g. certain student groups; 
(4) organizations whose political activities are 
incidental only, e.g. gangs such as the Edelweiss- 
Piraten. Each of these types will be examined in 
detail. 

Nazi Partisans and Successors. Nazi partisan 
organizations have been formed by and from 
members of the Nazi Party, the SS, the SA, the 
Hitler Youth, the Gestapo, and officers of the 
Wehrmacht. Among the most prominent of these 
groups, so far revealed, are a reduced and remod- 
eled Hitler Youth, the Werewolves, the SS Jagd- 
verhdnde, the Freikorps Adolf Hitler, the Aktion 
Bundschuh, the Sonderkommando Renndorfer 
und EJsa, the Eagle Eye, the Grey Wolves, and 
others. At least some of them were established 

' Dr. Kellermann is a Research Analyst in the Division 
of Europe, Near East, and African Intelligence, Office of 
Research and Intelligence, Department of State. This 
study is partially based on observations made during a 
recent stay in Germany when Dr. Kellermann served as 
Chief of Research and Consultant to the Office of Chief of 
Counsel for the Prosecution of Axis Criminality. 

For Part I of this article see BinxETiN of July 14, 1946, 
p. 49 ; Part III will appear in the next issue of the Buixetin. 

'" The completion of "Operation Nursery" by U. S. and 
British Intelligence and the systematic raid on the Edel- 
tveiss-Piraten in Hannover by British agents have fur- 
nished new evidence of the existence of subversive groups. 
Moreover, Gen. Joseph T. McNarney and Bavarian Prime 
Minister Wilhelm Hoegner have confirmed the danger in 
official statements to the press. (Foreign Broadcast In- 
telligence Service: Daily, Mar. 25, 1946.) 



83 



84 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



before the colhipse for the ehuil purpose of creat- 
ing disorders in the enemy rear and, after defeat, 
of obstructing the efforts of Militaiy Government 
and of German authorities. 

Phmned and organized in haste, hardly any of 
these organizations have achieved more than local 
successes. They failed to impede the Allied ad- 
vance, and after defeat, most of them quickly lost 
support and contact. But some of them are re- 
ported to be continuing operations. 

Evidence of a new type of underground tech- 
nique was furnished by the widely publicized cam- 
paign, the so-called "Operation Nursery", con- 
ducted by U. S. and British intelligence in west- 
ern Germany. The underground plan, revealing 
an embryonic stage of Nazi subversion, was con- 
ceived before the defeat by the Hitler Youth. It 
was intended to maintain contacts between Hitler 
Youth leaders and other "good German elements" 
under the camouflage of a legitimate business en- 
terprise. Ultimately, the scheme was to provide 
for the restoration of Germany on a pre-lOS.") 
level under slightly modified Nazi auspices. The 
immediate aim was to preserve "the solidarity of 
National Socialists and of the militaristic masses." 
Of all subversive grou^Js so far unearthed, this 
Hitler Youth plan was probably the most ram- 
fied, extensive, and dangerous. 

Christian Pathfinders. This group represents 
atype of subversive orgaiiizal ion which, in prepar- 
ing the ground for future resistance, prefers to 
start on a local scale. Instead of creating a new 
apparatus through which to organize and channel 
illegal activities, some agents use well-known or- 
ganizations or the titles of such organizations 
to camouflage their intentions and operations. 

In Coburg, Bavaria, twelve youths were con- 
victed by a U. S. military court of possessing con- 
cealed explosives and of having tried to organize 
a National Socialist movement under the guise of 
the Christian Pathfinders. Evidence showed that 
the Pathfinders, a group unlicensed by Military 
Government, had sprung originally from an or- 
ganization known as the Protestant Parish Youth. 
The new organization, supported by a Catholic 
Youth leader, used symbols and techniques bor- 
rowed from both the Hitler Youth and the Nazi 
Storm Troops (SA). The members engaged in 
semi-military drill, sang SA songs, informed on 
civic officials, and blacklisted, defamed, and at- 

"Nene Pressc (Coburg), Feb. 6, 19-16. 



tacked girls who associated with American 
soldiers, so-called Schokoladcnweiher. "Chris- 
tian" teachings were mixed with Nazi and Teu- 
tonic romanticism. After the court had sentenced 
the chief culj^rits to jarison terms ranging from 
five to fifteen years, a German press correspondent 
overheard a spectator remark : "What does it all 
matter? Sentenced today, these boys will be 
declared martyrs perhaps two years hence." - 

In Wiesbaden (U. S. zone), a Hitler Youth 
group of some 50 members was discovered which, 
under the cloak of a Protestant Boy Scout move- 
ment, planned to engage in activities directed 
against the occupation forces. The group pub- 
lished a periodicah Scha-i'rse Front, which copied 
Nazi style and preached hatred of "Germany's 
enemies". Evidence of the wider ramifications of 
this movement was established, although there was 
no proof of contact with the Coburg group. 

Student Groups. Intransigent nationalism and 
political intolerance are attitudes which especially 
tend to crystallize on university campuses. Re- 
cent disturbances by students in Ei'langen, Gottin- 
gen, Hamburg, Aachen, and Jena did not, in the 
majority of cases, prove the existence of an 
organized eifort to pre^jare for large-scale resist- 
ance, but they did reflect these attitudes. In the 
meantime it has become clearer that reactionary 
tendencies among German students are attribut- 
able, in large part, to the traditional registration 
system in the British ,and U. S. zones, which 
favored, in effect, the enrollment of sons of the 
upper and upper middle classes. Consequently, a 
large number of former Wehrmacht officers have 
gained admission to campuses and are now using 
the classroom as a platform for airing their mili- 
tai'istic and chauvinistic views. 

In the majority of instances, the nationalism of 
the students appears purely negative. It mirrors 
a fundamental inability to face realities, an un- 
willingness to reform, and a fanatic adhei'ence to 
the status quo ante. In a few cases, however, polit- 
ical opposition has assumed a more concrete 
shape. The existence of a National Bolshevik 
group is reported from Hamburg. Here two for- 
mer members of Otto Strasser's Sch u-arsc Front ( a 
dissident Nazi group with Nat ional Bolshevik tend- 
encies, which appeared in the early 1930*s) are 
reported to have started a new student organiza- 
tion under the slogan: "Unity of the Reich, na- 
tional and military spirit". The group is allegedly 



JILY 21, 1946 

composed niiiinly of young discharged officers. At 
the Technische IlochschuJc in Darmstadt, the dis- 
covery of a plot to assassinate Pastor Martin Nie- 
moller led to the detection of an incipient subver- 
sive group among the students, called the Acht xund 
Acht. Inscriptions reading "88" are being found 
with increasing frequency on German walls. 
The name Acht untl Acht is a device referring to 
the eighth letter of the alphabet, H, and is supposed 
to recall Heil Hitler. 

Developments of this type within student bodies 
bear close scrutiny, because it was precisely this 
category of malcontent nationalistic elements 
which, after the last war, produced a substantial 
number of Feme murderers and Free Corps 
members. 

The N on- Political Gangs. The greatest threat, 
numerically as well as potentially, appears to lie 
in the mounting number of gangs of wayward 
juveniles, who, living the life of freebooters, are 
roaming the cities and countryside. It is they who 
contribute a high percentage to the current crime 
wave and to the rising curve of venereal diseases. 
They engage in felonies and crimes ranging from 
petty thefts and black-market operations to oi'gan- 
ized looting and burglary. Many of them, fugi- 
tives from parental control, hide in the ruins of 
bombed-out houses. In some cases, however, 
parents have been convicted of inciting their off- 
spring to crime and acting as "fences". 

Some of these hoodlums carry brass knuckles and 
firearms of various types. The favorite scenes 
for their robberies are bakeries and butcher shops. 
Although some of the gangs profess that their aim 
is to "liquidate fascism"', the majority are un- 
doubtedly non-political in principle and character, 
interested mainly in augmenting their food supply 
or in introducing elements of thrill into otherwise 
drab existences. 

The most important of this type of non-political 
gang is the so-called Edelweiss-Piraten of Nazi 
days, whose reappearance now takes on new im- 
portance. Prior to the defeat this organization was 
reported to have carried on anti-Nazi resistance. 
The group appeared to have developed out of a 
situation which was characterized by the progres- 
sive break-down of all social and educational con- 
trols, rather than to have been a genuine and well- 
led political organization with defined objectives. 
Today the Edelweiss-Piraten., maintaining their 
dislike of organized authority, seem to have turned 
Nazi in manner. They seem to indulge in a wide 



85 

range of activities including the hazing of German 
women accused of fi-aternizing with Allied troops, 
efforts to embarrass U. S. authorities in the eyes 
of the other occupation powers, the discrediting 
of German officials, and in planning to prepare the 
Germans for the acceptance of a powerful Nazi- 
like state. 

Actually, the Edelweiss-Piraten appear to oper- 
ate as individual, unrelated gangs with different 
emblems and names; the existence of a central 
leadersliip is doubtful. Communications between 
the groups seem poorly organized, although at- 
tempts appear to have been made to establish 
liaison between groups situated along major rail- 
road trunk lines, e.g. from Munich via Niirnberg, 
Frankfurt, and Kassel to Hannover. Member- 
ship consists of delinquent juveniles, veterans (in- 
cluding former PW's), homeless wanderers of 
various types, and foreign PW's unwilling to re- 
turn to their former areas of residence. The 
upper age limit is set at 22.' 

The Edelweiss-Piraten., unquestionably, are not 
a genuine Nazi resistance group. The political 
significance of their activities is incidental. Re- 
sistance may be a real issue to some of the mem- 
bers, or even groups, but to most it is, no doubt, 
an alibi to explain immoral and asocial activities. 
On the whole, the E d chvciss-P iraten appears to 
be a rallying point for youths who are fugitives 
from social ccmtrols. Faced with total frustra- 
tion, they romanticize their present state of law- 

3 They have also conducted large-scale black market op- 
erations, stolen quantities of food and money, harassed dis- 
placed persons, particularly Poles, beaten up former in- 
mates of concentration camps, assisted in escapes of 
former SS men from prison stockades, and blown up 
bridges. Individual members frequently deny having any 
knowledge of political objectives but at times, admit that 
they brag about their membership in order to impress their 
friends. Munich, Frankfurt, and Hannover have each 
been described as the headquarters of the organization. 
Edelweiss-Piraten may cooperate with other subversive 
groups. It has lic^ii ri]i,,itcil that they have received as- 
signments from (Milsidc tjn'ir own circle. For instance, 
in one case Fdi Jiri ixx I'initrii are said to have aided, 
possibly supplied, a group of fugitive Waffeii-SS members 
hiding in the mountains around Regen.sburg. According 
to a statement by Bavarian Minister Schmitt, the dis- 
covery and arrest of a group of Edelweiss-Piraten in 
Bavaria produced evidence of a conspiracy of definite 
political implications ; 80 German Wehrmacht officers had 
camouflaged themselves as Edelweiss-Piraten members in 
order to prepare more safely a plot against 400 leading 
personalities including members of the Bavarian Gov- 
ernment {Schwdbisehe Landesxcitung, Apr. 0. 1846). 



86 



DEPARTMEM OF STATE BLLLETIN 



and seek to perpetuate anarchy as the 
only means of survival. "Wliile they cannot be ex- 
pected to take the lead in any political movement, 
such youths represent ideal material for political 
groups and individuals on the lookout for ex- 
pendable followers. There is, in fact, evidence 
that some of the groups are led by men previously 
trained in espionage and sabotage. 

Measures of Rehabilitation 

The problem of German youth described has 
been generally recognized by Allied and German 
authorities and by native political factions. A 
variety of palliative measures have been adopted, 
none of which, however, has as yet produced con- 
clusive results. This fact is due primarily to rea- 
sons not inherent in the specific youth measures. 
To a considerable extent the present predicament 
of German youth must be understood as a reflec- 
tion of the political and economic situation as a 
whole. Pending a process of general recovery, 
e.g. improvement in the food situation, the em- 
ployment market, and housing facilities, and 
pending, particularly, a restoration of adequate 
schooling and training programs, all efforts to re- 
habilitate German youth will necessarily remain 
makeshift. 

Ultimately, however, the rehabilitation of Ger- 
man youth will depend on the degree to which 
youth can be drawn into the general process of 
political revival. Here again it will be important 
whether young people are treated as social charges 
with emphasis placed on social prevention and 
therapy, or whether rehabilitation is understood 
as a mobilization of all active elements for the 
purpose of joining the positive forces within the 
community in the task of political, economic, and 
physical reconstruction. These two approaches 
are, of course, not mutually exclusive but comple- 
mentary. It is, however, characteristic of the cur- 
rent situation that German and non-German 
authorities and political parties within the four 
zones differ in the waj' in which they focus main 
attention either on the preventive-therapeutic or 
on the socio-political form of rehabilitation. 

In the Soviet zone and in Bei'lin, efforts of 
Soviet and German authorities have been directed, 
almost from the very beginning, to giving youth 

' Suddeutgche Zeitung, Mar. 1, 1946. The Youth Office at 
Darmstadt reported a case load of more than 600 at the 
beginning of the year (Darmstadter Echo. Jan. 30, 1946) . 

'Main-Echo (Aschaflfenburg), Apr. 6, 1946. 



an active part in the general process of reconstruc- 
tion and by virtue of their participation, a func- 
tion within the zonal, regional, and local adminis- 
tration as well. Youth not only shares responsi- 
bility in official policies and measures inaugurated 
for its specific benefit, but also shares in the pro- 
grams and functions of such adult groups as the 
trade unions. However, while the integration of 
youth into public life proceeds, avowedly, under 
non-political auspices, it has led to youth's becom- 
ing an integral part of Communist plans to use 
the organization of diverse elements as a means 
of political expansion. 

In the western zones, military governments and 
German authorities have focused their attention 
with speed and consistency upon the field of social 
prevention and therapy. Attempts on the part 
of political parties and of youth to participate in 
politics through organization along part}' lines 
were discouraged, at least in the beginning. The 
military governments thus are in agreement with 
church groups and the conservative political par- 
ties in their efforts to keep j'outh clear of politics. 
In practice, however, measures taken by the "West- 
ern Allies have not been uniform, sometimes not 
even within the same zone. Lately, the protective 
attitude of U. S. and British authorities aiming 
at the segregation of youth from politics seems 
to have undergone certain modifications. In the 
British and American zones, Militai\v Govern- 
ment has come to support and to create youth or- 
ganizations not only for recreational purposes 
but also for the tasks of reconstruction; in some 
places it has also permitted the formation of 
youth groups with j^olitical affinities, although 
with certain qualifications. 
Security and Welfare Measures 

In all zones immediate steps have been taken to 
combat the worst symptoms of demoralization and 
social decay. For example. Juvenile Court (Ju- 
gemlgerichte) and Juvenile Offices (Jugenddm- 
ter) have been reopened in various places to deal 
with wayward, vagrant, and criminal youth.^ 
Recreation centers {Jugendheime) have been set up 
in many cities. In Bavaria one Father Neumaier, 
a classmate of the famed American Father Flana- 
gan, has established a Bavarian copy of "Boys' 
Town" for 200 juvenile delinquents.^ In various 
cities, furthermore, private agencies such as the 
Catholic Youth Welfare, Protestant Youth Aid, 
and the Association for the Protection of Children 



JULY 21, 1946 

lend their assistance to the public agencies.^ To 
meet an urgent problem curfews have been set for 
youths.' Juvenile Courts using Juvenile Offices 
as their executive organs have begun to sentence 
wayward and delinquent youth to perform clear- 
ance work.* A Law for the Protection of Youth 
{Jugendschutzverordiwng) is being prepared by 
the Legal Committee of the Coimcil of State 
{Ldndei'vat) in the U. S. zoue.^ 

To bridge the current period of inactivity and 
unemployment, Allied authorities in all zones have 
used youth for clearance and reconstruction work. 
Emergency farm and garden projects have been 
organized in the U. S. zone; some 30,000 yoimg 
people have been occupied in workshops and sewing 
classes in Berlin.^" In Saxony (Soviet zone), the 
authorities are planning to set up agricultural 
projects and a "youth village"," which youth will 
build as well as achninister. Troops everywhere 
have taught various sports to German young 
people and have arranged dual sporting events. 

Most of these projects are temporary in nature, 
but there have also been attempts to introduce re- 
forms as part of a permanent training system. For 
example, in the British zone all girls between the 
ages of 14 and 21, following their graduation from 
school and prior to their learning a trade or voca- 
tion, are required to spend a year in domestic serv- 
ice. This so-called "house year" (Hausjahr or 
Haushaltsjahr) ^ for which the girls receive pay- 
ment and vacations, is spent in a household as- 
signed by the employment office.^ A similar plan 
is exfjected to be introduced by decree in the U. S. 
zone,^^ with the term of service to be spent either 
in households, including the parental one, hospi- 
tals, or welfare institutions. The employment 
offices are to give preference to those girls who 
have completed their j'ear of service. A plan is 
also under consideration for young males." 

The "house year" has been widely discussed in 
the German press. Critics have denounced its 
compulsory nature as a "Xazi method", but sup- 
porters, both public and private, have underscored 
the need for official measures to insure the employ- 
ment and allocation of juvenile labor.*^ Indeed, 
there have been proposals for a "state service 
year", in lieu of military training, during which 
time boys would be emploj-ed in the rebuilding of 
cities and girls would be engaged in agricultural 
and domestic work. This labor was to be accom- 
panied by courses of instruction in political, eco- 
nomic, and historical subjects.^^ 



Both British and American policies seem in part 
formulated with the view to extending the period 
of pre-training and, possibly, with the purpose of 
postponing a final vocational decision.^' Soviet 
policies, ill contrast, seem to encourage an early 
choice of occupation. Moreover, local and pro- 
vincial authorities have inaugurated immediate 
plans for vocational training.^* 

Aside from efforts to use vocational training as 
a basis for political reforms, appeals have been 
made for a broad educational program for youth 
on an extra-curricular level. Parties, chuixhes, 
and public agencies are being asked to institute 
general educational projects {allgemeines Bil- 
dwngswerk) for youth similar to the International 
People's Academy {Internationale Volksahade- 
mie) established at Coburg.^' Emphasis has been 
placed, specifically, on the need for literature to 
enlighten youth on the values of true humanitari- 
anism and democracy .=" In the So\'iet zone, so- 
called "youth schools" have been inaugurated un- 
der the auspices of regional and local youth com- 

' Siiddewtsche Zeitung, Mar. 1, 1946. 

' 2iews of Oermany, Oct. 29, 1945 : Rhein^Neckar-Zeitung 
(Heidelberg), Feb. 9, 1946; WiesJ^adener Kurier (Wies- 
baden), Feb. 23, 1946. 

' ilittelbayerische Zeitung (Regensburg), Mar. 3, 1946. 

" Stuttgarter Zeitung, Apr. 6, 1946. 

'"Die Xetie Zeitung, Jan. 4, 1946. 

"Political Intelligence Division of the British Foreign 
OflBce: Dailp Digest for Germanij and Austria, Feb. 14, 
1946. 

'^Frankfurter Rundschau, Jan. 31, 1946. 

" Die Xeue Zeitung. Jan. 11, 1946. 

" It is reported that the Bavarian Ministry of Labor is 
planning to organize the "Bavarian Youth Work 1916/47" 
in order to employ youths in domestic, agricultural, and 
social work prior to their formal apprenticeships. See 
Donau-Kurier (Ingolstadt), Apr. 5; Main-Echo, Apr. 6, 
1946. According to latest reports this plan has not been 
put in effect. 

'^ ilariurger Presse (Marburg), Jan. 15, 1946; Schtrah- 
ische Donau-Zeitung (Ulm), Feb. 23, 1946. 

" Schiciiiische Donau-Zeitung. Feb. 23, 1946. 

'"By the same token, authorities in tlie western zones 
are considering the institution of a ninth school year. 

" For instance, the provincial administration of Saxony 
is reported to have set up a central committee for voca- 
tional training, composed of representatives of the various 
chambers of trade, the provincial government, and the 
Free German Trade-Union Association. Its aims include : 
reorganization of apprenticeships, development of new 
teaching methods, practical application of industrial psy- 
chology, etc. See PID: Daily Digest for Germany and 
Austria, Feb. 7, 1946. 

"Neue Presse (Coburg), Feb. 2, 1946. 

-°Der Tagesspicgel (Berlin). Feb. 8, 1946. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BLLLETIN 



niittees. In at least two zones special magazines 
have been issued for youth and books for youths 
and children have been published. 

Finally, newspapers in all zones have asked for 
the reestablishment of contact between German 
youth and the youth of democratic countries.^^ 
German youths have already participated as ob- 
servers in the World Youth Conference held in 
London in early November 1945." One of the Ger- 
man spokesmen submitted a resolution asking for 
foreign study of the German youth movement and 
outside aid in meeting the problems and in helping 
its democratic members. British, Canadian, and 
Soviet Delegates supported the motion. The 
AVorld Youth Council has since asked the Central 
Youth Committee of Berlin to send an official ob- 
server to its meetings. Heinz Kessler, head of the 
Main Youth Committee, was chosen. Leaders of 
the British youth movement have already met with 
officials of German youth offices and representa- 
tives of German youth organizations to discuss 
fundamental problems and practical devices.^' In 
addition, a number of British officers are working 
with German youth organizations and clubs. 
Likewise, American Scout leaders serving with the 
U. S. forces have helped organize the new Boy 
Scout movement within the American zone. 
Youth Committees in the American zone with the 
assistance of MG Youth Officers are now prepar- 
ing educational and recreational programs for 
youth. 

Youth O iganisatioiis . 

The role of youth organizations within German 
society has always been hotly debated by youth 
and adults. During the Weimar period, and be- 
fore, opinion was split into two major camps, one 
represented by the members of the so-called "youth 
moA'ement" (Jugendhewegung) , the other by sup- 
porters of the institution of "youth care" {Ju- 
gendpfige) . The youth movement was a common 
denominator for all youth, which was recruited, 
organized, and led by youth in accordance with 

" md. 

--Deutsche Yolkszcitung (Berlin), Nov. 14, 1945. 

-'Neue Rheinische Zeitung (Dusseldorf ), Feb. 13, 1£W6. 

"-* Hocaland-Bote (Garmisch-Partenkirchen), Jan. 9, 
1946. 

'^Dcr Tagcsspirycl, Dec. 28, 1945 and Feb. 6, 1946; 
^cliirrihUrh, DomtiiZritnng, Feb. 16, 1946. 

''•' s, hir„hisrh, Itumiii-Zritung, Feb. 16, 1946. 

''■ /l'.rl,l.,,i,l-j!„l, ..]nu. ;M946. 



forms and principles created by them. It re- 
flected the will of youth to live independently 
fi'om, and, if need be, in opposition to, the rules 
established by a society that was torn by political 
and social strife. The asocial and non-political 
character of this youth, its romanticism patterned 
on medieval symbols (Landsknechts-Romantik), 
its irresponsibility in matters of concern to the 
community as a whole, and its claim to complete 
integration of the individual into the group, made 
some of its members particularly susceptible to 
National Socialism. 

Youth care, on the other hand, represented the 
organized effort by such adult groups as churches, 
social and cultural associations, and political par- 
ties to sponsor and control the activities of youth, 
generall}^ with a view to insuring the future sup- 
port of their group interests. Wlien started under 
the auspices of public agencies, youth organiza- 
tions not infrequently complemented parental and 
school controls through supervision of organized 
leisure-time activities. 

The Hitler Yiaith adopted elements of both 
types of youth organizations. It took over certain 
romantic symbols of the youth movement and 
transformed the principle of group integration 
into total subordination. On the other hand, as 
the exclusive reservoir for the Nazi Party, the 
army, and the bureaucracy, the Hitler Youth car- 
ried the principle of adult tutelage to the extreme 
of state monopoly and thus became an oversized 
form of youth care. 

The new type of organizations introduced in all 
zones by Military Government, although preserv- 
ing certain minor elements of the youth move- 
ment, unquestionably gravitates toward youth 
care. Concepts and methods varj-, but they con- 
form to the extent that all powers have conceded 
to youth a limited right to organize. Whether the 
reconstitution of youth organizations corresponds 
to a general desire on the part of youth to be or- 
ganized is open to doubt. Observers in both east- 
ern and western zones find that the vast majority 
of youth remains distristful, even hostile, or at 
best indifferent towar dall forms of organization.-* 
Where individual youths have a more positive at- 
titude, they produce varying demands. Some 
clamor for a free and autonomous youth move- 
ment,^ some for a state-instituted "youth project" 
{Jugendwerk),-^ some for youth organizations 
sponsored by, or affiliated with, political parties.-' 



JULY 21, 1946 



Exchange Of Professors Between U. S. and 
Other American RepubHcs 



Fiscal year 1946 



Article by J. MANUEL ESPINOSA 




FOR MANY TEARS some of the larger universities 
tliroughout the Western Hemisphere have in- 
vited visiting professors from Europe to conduct 
reguhir courses in most of the important fields of 
science, the arts, and the humanities. This inter- 
change lias contributed greatly in broadening the 
international cultural panorama throughout this 
hemisphere. Political turmoil abroad also has 
brought many distinguished i^rofessors to our 
shores. But frequently these men and women have 
preferred to remain in America to help enrich 
their international cultural outlook and have not 
returned to their homelands. True cultural inter- 
change is a two-way affair. 



The exchange of professors between the United 
States and the other republics of this hemisphere is 
a much more recent development. The United 
States Government has been a pioneer in encour- 
aging on a large scale such exchanges throughout 
the Western Hemisphere. By offei'ing to institu- 
tions of higher learning — both here and south of 
the Rio Grande — information and services and, 
when necessary, grants-in-aid to meet unusual ex- 
penses, the Department of State, through funds 
appropriated by Congress, has played a most sig- 



Mr. Espinosa is Divisional Assistant in the Division of 
International Exchange of Persons, Office of International 
Information and Cultural Affairs, Department of State. 



90 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



nificant role in facilitating and in increasing the 
direct exchange of knowledge and information of 
mutual interest throughout this hemisphere. 

In recent years this program has greatly 
accelerated the development of similar bilateral 
cooperative educational agreements between the 
governments of tlie other American republics 
themselves. Occasionally exchanges of visiting 
professors have been arranged directly by univer- 
sities and individual professors or have been made 
possible by private foundations and scientific insti- 
tutions in this country and the other American 
republics. Thus fostered, strengthened, and re- 
inforced, the exchange of professors has become 
a permanent feature of inter-American coopera- 
tion — a two-way, face-to-face exchange of accu- 
rate knowledge of the progress of science, the 
humanities, technology, and the artistic achieve- 
ments of the sister nations of the Americas. 

The term visiting professor, as used here, is 
applied only to the recipients of grants-in-aid 
from the Department of State whose primary pur- 
pose has been to conduct courses, deliver lectures, 
direct research, or otherwise serve in a specific 
professorial capacity at institutions of higher 
learning in one or more of the 21 American repub- 
lics. There has been a striking increase in the 
number of visiting professors under this program 
during the last two years. This increase is espe- 
cially significant when one realizes that virtually 
all of the visiting professors were specifically i"e- 
quested by the host universities. The preponder- 
ance of visiting professors from this country to 
the other American republics represents the pro- 
portionate number of requests from universities 
in this country and in the other American repub- 
lics for assistance from the Department of State 
in facilitating such cooperative projects. 

"Since most of these were accompanied by offers 
from the universities to pay the visitors the same 
salaries their own professors receive (tlie Depart- 
ment's grants cover travel and the differences 
between United States and foreign salary stand- 
ards and monetary values), it is clear that such a 



' Francis J. CoUigan, "Exchange of Specialists and Dis- 
tinguished Leaders in the Western Hemisphere" (Depart- 
ment of State publication 2414, Government Printing 
Office, Washington, D. C, 1945), p. 9. Pages 8-9 of this 
article describe briefly the visiting-professors program of 
the Department of State for the 1945 fiscal year. See 
BuiXETiN of Sept. 9, 1945, p. 366. 



movement ... is not a cultural 'invasion' but 
simply a warm response to an offer of intellectual 
fellowship." ^ 

The first important landmark in the history of 
the exchange of professors between the nations 
of the Western Hemisphere was the Convention 
for the Promotion of Inter-American Cultural 
Relations, signed by all the American republics 
at the Inter-American Conference for the Main- 
tenance of Peace, Buenos Aires, December 23, 1936. 
The Buenos Aires convention, which has since been 
ratified by all of the American republics except 
Argentina, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador, and 
Uruguay, makes provision for the exchange of 
professors and students. With reference to the 
exchange of professors, the convention provides 
that : 

"Each High Contracting Party shall communi- 
cate to each of the other High Contracting Parties 
through diplomatic channels, on the first of Janu- 
ary of every alternate year, a complete list of the 
full professors available for exchange serv- 
ice. . . . From this list each one of the other High 
Contracting Parties shall arrange to select a visit- 
ing professor who shall either give lectures in 
various centers, or conduct regular courses of in- 
struction, or pursue special research in some desig- 
nated institution and who shall in other appro- 
priate ways promote better understanding between 
the parties cooperating, it being understood, how- 
ever, that preference shall be given to teaching 
rather than to research work." 
The sending government is required to provide all 
the expenses and salary of its exchange professors. 
Several years passed before the United States 
Government was prepared to attempt to carry out 
the provisions of the Buenos Aires convention. 
The traditional attitude in the United States that 
cultural interchange belonged properly within the 
sphere of private initiative, and the fact tJiat 
hitherto there was no agency in the Federal Gov- 
ernment to deal with such international cultural 
relations, explain in part the late participation of 
the United States Government in actively imple- 
menting the convention. 

In order to make it possible for the Govern- 
ment to coordinate and make more effective the 
important role of private agencies in this country 
in the development of both national and interna- 
tional cooperation in cultural relations, the Divi- 
sion of Cultural Relations was established in the 



JULY 21, 1946 



91 



Department of State by Departmental Order 768 
issued on July 28, 1938. The Department of 
State has said : 

"The broad purpose of the Division of Cultural 
Relations is to make friends for the United States 
abroad through the development of a greater un- 
derstanding and appreciation of the best contri- 
butions which this country may exchange with 
other nations. . . . 

"As an official agency charged with this type of 
exchange, the Division seeks to coordinate activi- 
ties within the Government and works closely with 
the important j^rivate organizations and institu- 
tions of the country which are engaged in intel- 
lectual cooperation. It is the view of the 
Department that in this country the primary re- 
sponsibility for cultural exchange properly resides 
with private agencies and institutions and the 
major functions of the Division are to make the 
good offices of the Government available to pri- 
vate enterprise and to serve as a clearing house 
for the activities of private organizations." - 

One of the first concerns of the newly estab- 
lished Division of Cultural Relations was to ful- 
fil the obligations of the Buenos Aires convention. 
In 1940 and again in 1942, in accordance with the 
terms of the convention, lists of all the i^ersons 
who had expressed interest in being ..-onsidered 
for exchange service were prepared and communi- 
,cated to each of the other ratifying countries 
through the American diplomatic and consular 
missions. To assist in the selection of a visiting 
professor from these lists, each government was 
sent a supplementary list of professors who had 
expressed interest in teaching in the particular 
country concerned. The Appropriation Act of 
the Department of State for the 1941 fiscal year 
(54 Stat. 181) provided funds necessary for meet- 
ing the obligations of the United States under the 
convention, and in the fall of 1940 and early in 
1941 the first appointments of United States ex- 
change professors were made. 

Meanwhile, two other important developments 
contributed greatly toward reinforcing the general 
program for the exchange of professors in this 
hemisphere. The first was the inauguration of the 
now well-established travel-grant program of the 
Department of State, made possible by funds pro- 
vided in the Second Deficiency Appropriation Act, 
1940. This travel-grant program has made pos- 
sible the exchange of specialists, public officials, 



leaders of thought and opinion, and distinguished 
persons in almost every field of mutual interest, 
for special study, observation, and consultation 
in a particular field of interest, or to enable them 
to serve as consultants, make special surveys, pre- 
sent programs, or deliver lectures in one or more 
countries. Under this program, over 350 such per- 
sons have visited the United States, and a lesser 
number from this country have visited the other 
American republics. Many others, traveling on 
their own or under private auspices, upon the rec- 
ommendation of the American foreign missions 
concerned or the Department of State, are given 
advice, direction, and assistance in planning their 
program of activities and in facilitating the con- 
tacts whch would be most helpful to them. This 
type of interchange under private auspices, al- 
though limited, has been continuous since the early 
nineteenth century. 

The second important development was the ap- 
pointment in 1941 of the first cultural-relations 
officers of the Department of State, who are at- 
tached to American missions abroad and who 
supervise cultural-relations activities in the field ; 
they serve as the operating link of the Government 
abroad in facilitating cultural cooperation between 
the people of the Other American republics and 
the people of this country. 

The significance of the Buenos Aires convention 
in furthering the exchange of visiting professors 
throughout the Americas cannot be overempha- 
sized, since it gave spirit and life to a program 
which has become a permanent feature of inter- 
American relations. 

The specific pi'ovisions of the convention, how- 
ever, proved impracticable, and only eight ex- 
change professors from the United States, and one 
from below the Rio Grande, have served under the 
convention. First, the provisions of the conven- 
tion were cumbersome and unwieldy. By the time 
a professor signed the necessary application forms, 
was listed on a panel, had his name submitted to 
the signatory nations, and was selected by a par- 

' The Program of the Department of State in Cultural 
Relations (Department of State publication 1441, Gov- 
erniuent Printing Office, Wasliington, D.C., 1940) . 

The Division of Cultural Relations was abolished and 
the New Division of Science, Education, and Art organized 
in 1944. Later in 1944 the title was changed to "Division 
of Cultural Cooiieration." The travel-grant program of 
the Department is now administered by the Division of 
International Exchange of Persons. 



92 

ticular country, the original date of his availabil- 
ity had long passed. Secondly, the provision that 
all the expenses of a visiting professor should be 
borne by the sending government proved a handi- 
cap to those countries with currency at unfavor- 
able exchange rates. Thirdly, the procedure pre- 
scribed by tlie convention for the selection of 
exchange professors was too rigid. Universities 
seeking a visiting professor from abroad usually 
have a specific field of study or a specific indi- 
vidual in mind and therefore prefer not to limit 
their choice to a prepared list drawn up without 
any I'elation to their specific situation and needs. 

Beginning on July 1, 1941, as a part of the 
travel-grant program, the Department of State, 
adapting itself realistically to needs and circum- 
stances, arranged to assist in sending and receiv- 
ing visiting professors on a bilateral cooperative 
basis, outside of the convention. At first, because 
of the limited funds available and the delays in- 
volved in inaugurating new i^rocedures, only a veiy 
few arrangements could be worked out. During the 
1941 fiscal year there had been four United States 
visiting professors under the convention. During 
the 1942 fiscal year there were two under the con- 
vention and four under the new arrangement. The 
American diplomatic and consular missions in 
the other American republics were given detailed 
information regarding this new program in the 
fall of the year 1942. 

There were 16 exchange professorships during 
the 1943 fiscal year under the new cooperative ar- 
rangement, an increase of 6 over the combined total 
of the two previous years. Perhaps more signifi- 
cant was the fact that for the first time the exchange 
was a two-way affair, 5 visiting professors from 
the other Ameiican republics receiving teaching 
positions in the United States and 11 from this 
country going to various of the other American 
republics. There were 15 exchanges in the 1944 
fiscal year, and the ratio was virtually the same. 
Henceforth there was to be only one exchange 
professor specifically under the terms of the con- 
vention. Gradually the Department of State in- 
tegrated the professorial program under the 
Buenos Aires convention with the cooperatively 
financed one now successfully in operation. 

The visiting-professors program came into its 
own during the years 1944-46. Grants-in-aid were 
made to 54 visiting jjrofessors during the 1945 
fiscal year, 47 fr-om the United States to the other 
American republics and 7 fi-om the other Ameri- 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

can republics to the United States. For the first 
time the funds available for this cooperative pro- 
gram were exhausted several months before the 
termination of the fiscal year, and it was necessary 
to reject some 40 requests (which were almost en- 
tirely from universities in the other American re- 
publics) for financial assistance which, combined 
with the amount their universities were able to 
contribute, would have made possible the obtaining 
of visiting pi'ofessors. During the 1946 fiscal year 
the Department extended grants-in-aid to 62 visit- 
ing professors. Of these, 53 were from the United 
States to the other American republics and 9 were 
from the other American republics to this country. 

In planning, initiating, and cari-ying into effect 
these international exchanges, the Department of 
State relies upon the advice and exi^erience of 
other Government agencies and private educa- 
tional research, and philanthropic institutions and 
organizations, in the United States and abroad, 
which are interested or engaged in the program. 
It cooperates with such gi-oups in order to prevent 
unnecessary duijlication of effort and to coordinate 
their international activities. In the selection of 
visiting professors, aj^art from the primary re- 
quirement of professional competence, proficiency 
in the languages of the other American republics 
is required sufficient to enable the professor to con- 
duct classes or direct research in Spanish, Portu- 
guese, or Frencli, as the case may be. At the same 
time the professors selected are considered to be 
something more than intellectuals cooperating 
solely as specialists in a particular field. Wher- 
ever possible they are chosen from those American 
citizens, of varied experience, who can represent 
their country faithfully abroad. The ability to 
speak naturally and without fear of misunder- 
standing in the language of the country visited is 
therefore doubly important. 

Visiting professors from the United States re- 
ceive advice and assistance in arranging their 
travel and their proper reception abroad and are 
asked to spend a period of time in Washington 
prior to their departure, in order that they may 
become acquainted with the latest developments 
in the program. During the course of their as- 
signments necessary contacts are maintained 
through correspondence, periodic reports, and di- 
rectives through the American diplomatic and 
consular missions. Similar guidance and super- 
vision is given to visiting professors from the 
other American republics by the ajipi-opriate offi- 



JULY 21, 1946 



93 



cers of the American missions abroad, and by the 
Deisartment of State during their stay in this 
country. 

Grants-in-aid for visiting professorsliips are 
limited, wherever possible, to supplementing or 
facilitating private and governmental efforts at 
home and in the other American republics and in 
eliminating financial obstacles to effective interna- 
tional exchange, such as adverse rates of exchange, 
costs of international travel, and the discrepancies 
in national public and private financial resources. 
In general, visiting professors are considered only 
when requested by the host university and when 
that institution offers at least the equivalent of 
the compensation received by its own professors. 
The grants-in-aid of the Department of State aim 
to supplement the amount provided by the host 
institution and the amount received by the visit- 
ing professor from other sources during the course 
of his visiting professorship. In the case of visit- 
ing professors from the United States, such 
grants include a sum for necessary textbooks and 
teaching materials, which are ordered through the 
Department of State and are donated to the host 
university as a gift of the United States Govern- 
ment upon the termination of the visiting pro- 
fessorship. 

During the period from July 1, 1940 to July 1, 
1946, 157 visiting professors received gi-ants-in-aid 
from the Department of State; 31 universities 
and colleges in all but one of the other American 
republics and 49 institutions of higher learning 
in 25 States in the United States and the Dis- 
trict of Columbia participated in this program. 
Approximately one third of these visiting pro- 
fessorships were full-year appointments. Pro- 
fessors from the other American republics have 
taught in this country in the fields of language, 
literature, history, medicine, art, and music. Pro- 
fessors from the United States have taught in the 
other American republics in the fields of language, 
literature, history, law, government, sociology, 
economics, mathematics, statistics, psychology, 
philosophy, anthropology, folklore, music, art, 
architecture, ceramics, medicine, dentistry, phys- 
ics, biology, genetics, chemistry, geology, engineer- 
ing, botany, zoology, agriculture, education, 
library science, home economics, and physical 
education. Of the number, 13 were women — 2 
from the other American republics and 11 from 
the United States. They taught courses, or con- 



ducted research in the fields of, chemistry, library 
science, art, language, literature, home economics, 
and physical education. 

Frequently the most important and valuable 
contributions of visiting professors have proved 
to be outside the classroom or laboratory: pub- 
lishing articles for newspapers and periodicals, 
class outlines, even textbooks in the language of 
the country visited; delivering public lectures 
before school or civic groups or over the radio in 
the university community and in the surrounding 
area, in some cases even in neighboring countries; 
serving as consultants and advisers to public and 
private institutions and agencies requesting such 
assistance; collaborating with the authorities of 
the institutions visited in their efforts to broaden 
their departments, laboratories, and programs 
and to establish wider professional contacts, ob- 
tain gifts, or purchase scientific literature, labora- 
tory equipment, and other teaching materials. 

"Teaching, writing, and undertaking research, 
all tliese professors make friends and lasting con- 
tacts for themselves, their home universities, their 
professional societies, and the people of the United 
States. This making of friends for the United 
States is, in fact, the usual by-product of the travel 
abroad wliich the Department of State has en- 
couraged and aided." ^ 

It would be futile here to attempt to present a full 
account and evaluation of the contributions of 
these visiting professorships in strengthening the 
bonds of cultural unity in this hemisphere. That 
story would require a sizable volume. 

Assistant Secretary of State William Benton 
alluded to the significance of this type of supple- 
mentary and facilitative Government service in 
furthering international cultural relations when 
he wrote : 

"The exchange of skills, knowledge, students, 
scientists, and other specialists is a relatively new 
idea and hence, to some, unorthodox. We should 
not close our minds because of that. We should, 
on the contrai'y, with the development of the 
atomic bomb and other terrifying weapons of 
destruction, place our small and inconspicuous 
bets on these long-range measures wliich hold 
some reasonable hope and promise that the world 
can learn to live together in peace and under- 
standing." * 

^ BtJiiETiN Of Sept. 9, 1945, p. 369. 
' Bulletin of Oct. 21, 1945, p. 591. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Agreement Between the U. S. and the Kingdom of the Yemen ^ 



Sana'a, May 4, ISIfl). 
Excellency : 

I have the honor to make the following state- 
ment of my Government's understanding of the 
agreement reached through conversations held at 
Sana'a April 14 to May 4 by representatives of 
the Government of the United States of America 
and the Government of the Kingdom of the 
Yemen with reference to diplomatic and consular 
representation, juridical protection, commerce and 
navigation as hereafter defined. These two Gov- 
ernments, having in mind the letter dated March 4, 
1946, from the President of the United States of 
America to the Inman Yehya Bin INIohamed Ham- 
id-un-din. King of the Yemen, by which the United 
States of America recognized the complete and ab- 
solute independence of the Kingdom of tlie Yemen, 
and desiring to strengthen the friendly rela- 
tions happily existing between the two countries, 
and to respect the rights of this independence rec- 
ognized by the above-mentioned letter as the basis 
for all their relations and to maintain the most- 
favored-nation principle in its unconditional and 
unlimited form as the basis of their commercial 
relations, agree to the following pi'ovisions: 

Aeticle I 
The United States of America and the Kingdom 
of the Yemen will exchange diplomatic represent- 
atives and consular officers at a date which shall 
be fixed by mutual agreement between the two 
Governments. 

Article II 
The diplomatic representatives of each Party 
accredited to the Government of the other Party 
shall enjoy in the territories of such other Party 
the rights, privileges, exemptions and immunities 
accorded under generally recognized principles of 
international law. The consular officers of each 
Party who are assigned to the Government of the 

' An identical text was signed by Aljdul Karim Mutali- 
har, Deputy Foreign Minister of the Yemen, at Sana'a on 
May 4, 1940. 



other Party, and are duly provided with exequa- 
turs, shall be permitted to reside in the territories 
of such other Party at the places where consular 
officers are permitted by the applicable laws to re- 
side; they shall enjoy the honorary privileges and 
the immunities accorded to officers of their rank 
by general international usage ; and they shall not, 
in any event, be treated in a manner less favorable 
than similar officers of any third country. 

Article III 

Subjects of His Majesty the King of the Yemen 
in the United States of America and nationals of 
the United States of America in the Kingdom of 
the Yemen shall be received and treated in accord- 
ance with the requirements and practices of gener- 
ally recognized international law. In respect of 
their persons, possessions and rights, such subjects 
or nationals shall enjoy the fullest protection of the 
laws and authorities of the country, and shall not 
be treated in any manner less favorable than the 
nationals of any third counti-y. Subjects of His 
Majesty in the United States of America and na- 
tionals of the United States of America in the 
Kingdom of the Yemen shall be subject to the local 
laws and regulations, and shall enjoy the rights 
and privileges accorded in this third Article. 

Article IV 

In all matters relating to customs duties and 
charges of any land imposed on or in connection 
with importation or exportation or otherwise af- 
fecting commerce and navigation, to the method of 
levying such duties and charges, to all rules and 
formalities in connection with impoi'tation or ex- 
portation, and to transit, warehousing and other 
facilities, each Party shall accord imconditional 
and unrestricted most-favored-nation treatment to 
art ides the growth, produce or manufacture of the 
otlier Party, from whatever place arriving, or to 
articles destined for exportation to the territories 
of such other Party, by whatever route. Any ad- 
vantage, favor, privilege or immunity with respect 
to any duty, charge or regulation affecting com- 



JULY 21, 1946 



meice or navigation now or hereafter accorded by 
the United States of America or by the Kingdom of 
the Yemen to any third country will be accorded 
immediately and unconditionally to the commerce 
and navigation of the Kingdom of the Yemen and 
of the United States of America, respectively. 
The advantages i-elating to customs duties now or 
hereafter accorded by the United States of Amer- 
ica to the Republic of Cuba shall be excepted from 
the provisions of this Agreement. 

Article V 

There shall be excepted from the provisions of 
Article IV of this Agreement advantages now or 
hereafter accorded : by virtue of a customs union of 
which either Party may become a member ; to adja- 
cent countries in order to facilitate frontier traffic ; 
and by the United States of America or its terri- 
tories or possessions to one another or to the Pan- 
ama Canal Zone. 

The last clause shall continue to apply in respect 
of any advantages now or hereafter accorded by 
the United States of America or its territories or 
possessions to one another irrespective of any 
change in the political status of any such terri- 
tories or possessions. Nothing in this Agreement 
shall prevent the adoption or enforcement by 
either Party within the area of its jurisdiction; of 
measures relating to the importation or exporta- 
tion of gold or silver or the traffic in arms, ammu- 
nition, and implements of war, and, in exceptional 
circumstances, all other military supplies: of 
measures necessary in pursuance of obligations for 
the maintenance of international peace and secu- 
rity or necessary for the protection of the essential 
interests of such Party in time of national emer- 
gency; or of statutes in relation to immigration 
and travel. Subject to the requirement that, under 
like circumstances and conditions, there shall be 



no arbitrary discrimination by either Party 
against the subjects, nationals, commerce or navi- 
gation of the other Party in favor of the subjects, 
nationals, commerce or navigation of any third 
country, the provisions of this Agreement shall 
not extend to prohibitions or restrictions : imposed 
on moral or humanitarian grounds; designed to 
protect human, animal, or plant life or health; 
relating to prison-made goods ; or relating to the 
enforcement of police or revenue law. 

Article VI 
Tlie provisions of this Agreement shall apply to 
all territory under the sovereignty or authority of 
either of the parties, except the Panama Canal 
Zone. 

Article VII 
This Agreement shall continue in force until 
superseded by a more comprehensive commercial 
agreement, or until thirty days from the date of a 
written notice of termination given by either 
Party to the otlier Party, whichever is the earlier. 
Moreover, either Party may terminate Articles I, 
II, III or IV on thirty days' written notice. 

If the above provisions are acceptable to the 
Government of the Kingdom of the Yemen this 
note and the rejjly signifying assent thereto shall, 
if agreeable to that Government, be regarded as 
constituting an agreement between two Govern- 
ments which shall become effective on the date of 
such acceptance. 
Accept [etc.] 

William A. Eddy 
Chief, Special U.S. Diplomatic 
Mission to the Kingdom of the Yemen 

Al Qadi Abdul Karim Mutahhar 
Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs 
Kingdom of the Yemen 



The United Nations 



Meeting of the Atomic Energy Commission 

U. S. MEMORANDUM 1 : CONTROL AND DEVELOPMENT OF ATOMIC ENERGY 



After giving careful consideration to the views 
expressed by the Chairman of our Subcommittee 
at its first meeting yesterday and to the comments 
of the other members of this Subcommittee, the 
American Delegation has concluded that the rec- 
ommendations of the Chairman of our Subcom- 
mittee offer a sound and expeditious approach to 
the solution of our problems. Accordingly, the 
American Delegation concurs in and endorses 
them. 

In furtherance thereof, we submit this memo- 
randum in the hope that it may aid the Subcommit- 
tee in conducting its deliberations and reaching its 
conclusions. The memorandum is an attempt to 
outline in logical sequence a number of the more 
important points upon which the Commission it- 
self will undoubtedly desire the views of this Sub- 
committee. It does not purpart to be complete. 
There will certainly be many additional points 
requiring this Subcommittee's consideration. 

A. The control and development of atomic 
energy must be international and should be en- 
trusted to an agency which for present purposes 
is called the Atomic Development Authority. 

B. The Authority would be created by a treaty, 
which should include a form of chailer for the 
Authority and some very important additional 
provisions. 

C. The preamble of the treaty should express 
the following principles : 

1. The preservation of international peace and 
security in accordance with the purposes and prin- 
ciples stated in the Preamble and Chapter I of the 
Charter of the United Nations ; 

' Submitted to Subcommittee 1 of the United Nations 
Atomic Energy Commission pn July 2 by the associate 
member on the U. S. delegation to the United Nations 
Atomic Energy Commission, Ferdinand Eberstadt, and 
released to tlie press by the U. S. delegation on the same 
date. 



2. The safeguarding of all peoples against the 
use of atomic weapons ; 

3. The development and wide distribution of 
atomic energy and its by-products for purposes of 
raising the welfare and standard of life of the 
peoples of the world and of contributing to their 
science and cidture; and 

4. The realization of these ends through inter- 
national cooperation, through an international 
agency for the development and control of atomic 
energy, and through a system of international 
enforcement. 

D. The treaty should contain provisions : 

1. Defining the relations between the Authority 
and the Security Council, the General Assembly, 
the International Court of Justice, and the other 
organs of the United Nations ; 

2. Defining the mutual rights and obligations of 
the several signatory States and the Authority, in- 
cluding the relations between the Authority and 
any atomic energy control agencies of the signa- 
tory States; 

3. Governing the sequence and timing of the 
steps in the transition from the present conditions 
to the conditions which will prevail once the Au- 
thority is in effective control of atomic energy; 

4. Specifying the time when and the conditions 
under which the national and private possession, 
manufacture, and use of atomic weapons shall be 
outlawed; 

5. Defining the violations which shall constitute 
international crimes and specifying the sanctions 
to be employed for such violations ; 

6. Relating to signature, ratification, entry into 
force and amendment of the treaty; and 

7. Concerning any necessary amendment of the 
charter of the United Nations. 

E. The charter of the Atomic Development Au- 



96 



JILY 21, 1946 



thority should state the following purposes of the 
Authority : 

1. To prevent the possession, manufacture or 
use of atomic weapons for mass destruction ; 

•2. To foster the beneficial, non-dangerous uses 
of atomic energy ; 

?>. To ha\e managerial control or ownership of 
all :itt)mic energy activities potentially dangerous 
to world security; 

4. To control, inspect, and license all other 
atomic energy activities; 

5. To engage in atomic energy research and de- 
velopment; and 

6. To assure that the benefits derived from such 
research and development shall be available to the 
peoples of all the signatory States so long as each 
State and its people support the Authority and 
observe their obligations under the treaty, and 
charter. 

F. The charter should contain specific provi- 
sions governing topics under the following prin- 
cipal headings: 

1. Fwictions andPoicers of the Atomic Develop- 
ment Authority. Subject to application in the 
manner to be defined in the charter, the Authority 
should be granted the following powers: 

a. To obtain and maintain complete and ex- 
clusive control or ownership of all uranium, 
thorium, and other material which may be a 
source of atomic energy wherever present in 
potentially dangerous quantities whether in 
raw^ material, by-product, processed, or other 
form ; 

i. To conduct continuous investigations and 
surveys of sources of atomic energy through- 
out the world, in aid of the proper exercise of 
the foregoing and the Authority's other func- 
tions and powers; 

c. To acquire, construct, own, and exclusively 
operate all facilities for the production of 
U-235, plutonium, and such other fissionable 
materials as may be specified by the Authority, 
and to maintain supplies of fissionable materials 
adequate to fulfill the purposes of the Authority ; 

d. To define and determine, in the manner set 
forth in the charter, any other facilities or ac- 
tivities in the field of atomic energy which 
would be dangerous unless controlled by the 
Authority, and to supervise and have complete 
managerial control of all such activities and 
facilities: 



€. To have unhindered access to, and power to 
control, license, and insjaect all other facilities 
which possess, utilize or produce materials which 
are a source of atomic energy, and all other activ- 
ities which utilize or produce, or are capable of 
utilizing or producing, atomic energy ; 

/. To have the exclusive right of research in 
the field of atomic explosives; 

g. To foster and promote the non-dangerous 
use and wide distribution of atomic energy for 
beneficial purposes under licenses or other suit- 
able arrangements established by the Authority; 
and 

h. Subject to the provisions of the treaty and 
charter, to have power to take other necessary 
action and to issue rules and regulations. 
2. Composition, Organization, and Location of 
the Atomic Development Authority. 

a. All signatory States to be members of the 
Authority. 

h. Conditions upon which States not Members 
of the United Nations may become parties to the 
treaty. 

c. The Authority to be organized to function 
continuously. 

d. Governing Board. 

( 1) Composition and qualifications. 

(2) Method of nomination and selection. 

(3) Terms of office. 

(4) Voting procedure. 

(5) Powers and duties. 

(6) Compensation. 

e. Executive management. 

(1) Number and titles of executive officers. 

( 2 ) Qualifications and method of selection. 

(3) Terms of office. 

(4) Powers and duties. 

(5) Compensation. 

/. Staff and consultants. 

g. Subordinate boards, divisions, and other 
units. 

h. Location of the Authority. 

G. Provisions for enfoi-cement should be in- 
cluded in the treaty as follows : 

1. Definitions of conduct constituting violations. 

2. Consequences of such violations, including 
the procedures to be followed in detecting, estab- 
lishing, remedying or punishing such violations : 

a. Administrative action by the Authority. 



98 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BLLLETII\ 



(1) Special investigations. 

(2) Revocation or denial of licenses. 

(3) Other action. 

/;. Resort to judicial processes and procedures. 
c. Reference of serious violations to the Secu- 
rity Council of tlie United Nations. 
H. The followino- additional toiiics should be 
provided for iii tiie treaty : 

1. Legal capacity and privileges and immunities 
of the Authority in the territory of each signatory 
State. 

2. Privileges and immunities of officials of the 
Authority. 

3. Accountability of the Authority and its offi- 
cials, and the scope of, and procedure for, review 
of their actions. 

4. Method of financing tlie Authority. 



5. Procedure for dctcrininatio]i of tiie prices 
and quotas which tlic Authority sliould employ in 
the sale or lease of atomic energy materials or 
l)y-products. 

(i. Procedure for determination of the compen- 
sation to be made by the Authority in acquiring 
atomic energy supplies and facilities. 

7. Measures to insure adequate pi-otection and 
strategic location of the premises and property 
of the Authority. 

8. Definitions of terms used in the treaty and 
charter. 

Note on order in wliicli topics siiould be con- 
sidered : 

Consideration of the charter first would ati'ord 
an understanding of the functions to be per- 
formed by the Authority and would facilitate 
agreement upon the otiier provisi(in> of tlie ti'eaty. 



U. S. MEMORANDUM 2: FUNCTIONS AND POWERS OF PROPOSED 
ATOMIC DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY ^ 



1. A fundamental element of the United States 
plan for control of atomic energy- is an interna- 
tional Atomic Development Authority with the 
dual functions of : 

a. preventing the use of atomic energy for de- 
structive purposes ; 

b. promoting the peaceful applications of 
atomic energy and its by-products for the material 
benefit of the peoples of the world and as a contri- 
bution to their science and culture. 

2. A few very basic facts afford the opportunity, 
and determine the pattern, for control of atomic 
energy. One is that the nuclear chain reaction, 
essential to the release of atomic energy in any 
form, requires the presence of uranium alone or in 
combination with thorium to produce fissionable 
material. Available knowledge indicates that this 



' Submitted by the U. S. Representative on the Atomic 
pjnergy Commission, Bernard M. Baruch, on July 5 and 
released to the press by the U. S. Delegation on the same 
date. 

^For the text of the proposals presented to the Aloniie 
Energy Commission by the U. S. Representative on June 14, 
see Bulletin of June 2.'?, 1040, p. 1057. 



re(iuirement is likely to 23revail for a considerable 
time. Another important fact is that all of the 
initial processes in the production of these fission- 
able materials and certain subsequent ones are 
identical whether their intended use or purpose is 
beneficent or dangerous. 

Tlie conclusion to be drawn from these facts is 
tliat I lie 11 ire of any system for control of atomic 
energy is elfeitive dominion over all uranium and 
thorium and their fissionable derivatives. 

The degree of eflfectiveness of such controls over 
these fissionable materials is the measure of the 
success of our undertaking. To be fully effective, 
such controls must attach firmly to all uranium 
and thorium from the moment they are produced 
and must remain in effect so long as they exist in a 
state or quantity susceptible of dangerous use. 
Any uranium or thorium in unauthorized hands is 
a threat to the entire system of control and thus to 
the maintenance of peace. 

Since the exploitation of atouuc energy for 
peaceful purposes necessitates operations which 
are, in the initial stages, identical with those 
needed to make atomic energy available for de- 
structive purposes, both of these functi(ms (la 



JULY 21. 1946 



99 



and lb ubove) .slioukl be assig-ned to the same 
agency. Furthermore, an internal ioinil aj:-enc-y 
with responsibilities for fostering ilic limeticial 
uses of atomic energy, as well as rcspdnsiliilities 
for pi'eventing its misuse, will be more effective, 
constructive, and workable than if it lias merely 
duties of inspei'tiou and i)r)licjnj:-. The ai'tivities 
of such an agency nii^lil rvcn rcsull in oliihlishing 
beneficial patterns of internal ional cooperation of 
a new and hopeful kind. 

In discussing the powers and functions of the 
Authority, it is helpful to distinguish between 
operations which are '"safe" and those which are 
"dangerous'' from the point of view of misappli- 
cation of facilities for the accomplislnnent of 
destructive ends. 

;'). The functions and powi-rs of tlie Authority 
will be exercised in a variety of ways and by vari- 
ous means. It is impossible at this time to cata- 
logue completely the exact forms of control whirh 
the Authority will need to employ. In general, 
they fall into the categories of ownership, mana- 
gerial control supervision, leasing, licensing, and 
inspection. The Authority should, of course, be 
given wide power and discretion as to the particu- 
lar means or combinations thereof which it deems 
best adapted to the accomplishment of its func- 
tions. 

-1:. Section F of the memorandum submitted to 
Subcommittee No. 1 by the United States Delega- 
tion on July 2, 1946, sets forth a partial list of 
functions and powers of the control agency. 

The following, arranged in the order of presen- 
tation contained in said inemorandum, is submit- 
ted, in response to the request of our Chairman, by 
way of explanation and amplification of the oper- 
ation of these controls : 

"a. to obtain and maintain complete and exclu- 
sive conti'ol or ownership of all uranium, thorium, 
and other material which may be a source of atomic 
energy wherever present in potentially dangerous 
quantities whether in raw material, by-product, 
processed, or other form." 

Initial control, at the source, of the basic mate- 
rials on which atomic energy depends provides the 
fundamental basis for protection and facilitates 
control over all subsequent processing of these ma- 
terials. Complete control of such basic materials is 
essential to the successful functioning of the Au- 
thority. Uranium is, so far as we now know, the 



only substance occurring in nature in significant 
quantities which can maintain a chain reaction. 
However, thorium, in combination with uranium 
or its derivative plutonium, may well be useful in 
manufacturing chain-reacting, fissionable mate- 
rial. Therefore, we propose that the Authority 
be empowered to exercise such measures of control 
over the mining and processing of both uranium 
and thorium, as to assure its ownership of all 
stocks of both of these materials. 

In so far as exercising actual control over natural 
deposits of uranium and thorium ores is con- 
cerned, the precise pattern of control suitable for 
various types of deposits of such materials will 
have to depend on the geological, mining, refining, 
and economic facts involved in different situations. 

The Authority, in short, must have such control 
of mining and concentrating operations as will 
assure its complete and absolute ownership of all 
uraniiun and thorium actually produced. There 
must be no possibility of diversion from the mo- 
ment the ore is removed from the ground, and the 
Authority must set up such actual measures of con- 
trol as will assure this result. 

"6. To conduct continuous investigations -and 
surveys of sources of atomic energy throughout 
the world, in aid of the proper exercise of the fore- 
going and the Authority's other functions and 
powers." 

The Authority should have as one of its earliest 
purposes to obtain and maintain complete and ac- 
curate information on world supplies of uranium 
and thorium. Such information as is now avail- 
able is admittedly inadequate. It must be made 
complete and accurate and so maintained. Fur- 
thennore, tlie Authority should be empowered to 
search out new dcjiosits and to cx])and its knowl- 
edge of world supplies of sucli materials through 
such surveying and prospecting activities as it may 
deem necessary. As a result of its own efforts and 
from information furnished to it by others, the 
Authority should keep currently informed on the 
discovery of new deposits. 

"c. To acquire, construct, own, and exclusively 
operate all facilities for the production of U-235, 
plutonium, and such other fissionable materials as 
may be specified by the Authority, and to maintain 
supplies of fissionable materials adequate to fulfill 
the purposes of the Authority." 



100 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



A primary purpose of tlie Authority is to pre- 
vent illicit use of fissionable materials. It can do 
this most certainl}', most easily, and with least in- 
terference with political considerations and indus- 
trial operations if it is the sole manufacturer and 
owner of such materials. Therefore, it should own 
and operate all primary production facilities for 
the manufacture of U-235, plutonium, and such 
other materials as the Authority may determine. 
As an exceiition to the foregoing, the Authority 
ma}' license others to operate facilities which are 
capable of pi'oducing only small quanitites of fis- 
sionable material, and which in the judgment of 
the Authority do not permit the accumulation of 
dangerous stockpiles of atomic explosives. 

The Authority will thus have control of the lo- 
cations of primary production plants and of any 
stockpiles of materials. The geographical distri- 
bution of such plants and stockpiles should be de- 
termined in accordance with principles to be speci- 
fied in the charter. 

With the Authority having the sole right to 
manufacture fissionable materials, any attempt by 
others to carry on such operations, or to seize the 
Authority's facilities, whatever the announced in- 
tent, would, of itself, constitute a grave violation. 

Title to all fissionable materials, and final con- 
trol over their use should remain at all times with 
the Authority. 

The Authority should be empowered to use fis- 
sionable materials for peaceful purposes, and to 
lease such materials for use by others under con- 
ditions which it deems safe, and subject to such 
controls as it deems necessary. 

"c?. To define and determine, in the manner set 
forth in the charter, any other facilities or activi- 
ties in the field of atomic energy which would be 
dangerous unless controlled by the Authority, and 
to supervise and have complete managerial control 
of all such activities and facilities.'' 

The development of atomic energy for peaceful 
purposes follows in much of its course a path paral- 
lel with the development of atomic weapons. 
Therefore, it is essential that the Authority have 
complete control of all operations which might 
facilitate atomic weapon production. This re- 
quires that the Authority also have the power to 
determine, and adjust from time to time, based on 
increased knoM'ledge, the dividing line between 
"safe" and "dangerous" activities as new condi- 
tions demand. It is important to emphasize the 



complicated and varying considerations involved 
in determining this dividing line. 

Control of "dangerous" activities should be car- 
ried out to the greatest extent possible through 
direct operation by the Authority. An organiza- 
tion which is actively carrying out an operation is 
in a much better position to prevent diversion of 
material than one which merely exercises inspec- 
tion and policing functions. Furthermore, while 
the Authority must have full power to conduct 
such inspection and policing activities as are nec- 
essary, the fact that it alone carries on the critical 
operations will reduce inspection to manageable 
scope, and render control of atomic energy less 
burdensome and irritating to nations and their 
citizens. 

"e. To have unhindered access to, and power to 
control, license, and inspect all other facilities 
which possess, utilize, or produce materials which 
are a source of atomic energy, and all other activi- 
ties which utilize or produce, or are capable of 
utilizing or producing, atomic energy." 

As covered under c above, the Authority may 
lease fissionable material exclusively for peaceful 
purposes under proper safeguards. In all such 
instances, the Authority should have unhindered 
access to these installations and such control and 
opportunity for inspection as it deems necessary 
to prevent misuse. 

The Authority may permit others to operate, un- 
der such license and control as it deems suitable, re- 
search, experimental or other installations which 
would produce non-dangei"ous amounts of fission- 
able materials, provided, however, that the Author- 
ity cannot under any circumstances license others 
to conduct research on the utilization of atomic 
energy for explosives. 

"/. To have the exclusive right of research in the 
field of atomic explosives." 

The Authority should have the sole right to con- 
duct research on atomic explosives. Such research 
is necessary in order to keep the Authority in the 
forefront of knowledge in this field. This exclu- 
sive right of research does not carry with it the 
right to stockpile atomic weapons. This is a sepa- 
rate matter to be dealt with in the treaty. 

The above provisions assume that the treaty will 
include agreements forbidding any nation, its 
agents, instrumentalities, and citizens from engag- 
ing in research in the field of atomic explosives. 



JULY 21, 1946 



101 



"■g. To foster aiul promote the non-dangerous 
use and wide distribution of atomic energy for 
beneficial purposes under licenses or other suitable 
arrangements established by the Authority." 

While it is a prime purpose of the Autliority to 
l)revent national development or use of atomic 
armament, it is of importance that it foster and 
promote to the maximum degree scientific research, 
engineering develojnnent. and peaceful utilization 
of atomic eneigy lor the good of mankind. 

To this end, tlio Authority should : 

( 1 ) conduct scientific research in this field with 
its own facilities, and should not only per- 
mit but encourage and actively assist others 
to carry on such work, under such conditions 
as it deems appropriate, 

(2) encourage and assist others to conduct non- 
dangerous developments directed towards 
the useful applications of atomic energy, 
and the advancement of science, and should 
carry on enough such work with its own 
facilities so that it may be fully informed, 
and may assist others at critical points, 

(3) promote the actual beneficial utilization of 
atomic energy. It is obviously impossible 
to foresee at this time what all such uses may 
be. 

One of these which lias been discussed is the gen- 
eration of power. In the operation of nuclear re- 
actors for the production of plutonium, heat is 
produced in considerable quantities. The large 
reactors now in existence are not designed to oper- 
ate at high enough temperatures to produce heat 
energy usable as a source of power. However, it 
seems possible that reactors for production of fis- 
sionable material might be so designed that they 
would produce usable power as a by-product. 
Since the Authority will own and operate all reac- 
tors producing "dangerous" amounts of fissionable 
material, it follows that the Authority may itself 
become a producer of power. Power so produced 
could be turned over or sold to existing or future 
power systems for final distribution. This is a 
very complex problem. It would have to be done 
in accordance with principles contained in the 
charter and in conjunction with the geographical 
distribution of plants referred to in c above. 

The Authority may also be empowered to lease 
to others dilute or so-called "denatured" fissionable 
material in sufficient quantities to permit them to 
operate atonnc power plants without hazard to 



peace. In such cases, the Authority would have 
to exercise conti'ol over the design of the atomic 
energy-producing part of the power plants, to pre- 
vent the possibility of conversion to "dangerous" 
use, to facilitate inspection, and to insure safety to 
personnel. The Authorty should also be prepared 
to render engineering assistance to achieve maxi- 
miun efficiency of power units. Their design, con- 
struction and operation should at all times be under 
Authority inspection. Such power plants must 
operate under license from the Authority and must 
use only active material owned by the Authority, 
and leased to them for this limited and specific 
purpose. 

One of the most immediately useful applications 
of atomic energy is the production and utilization 
of radio-active isotopes. These also are produced 
in nuclear reactors, either as a main or a by-prod- 
uct. Reactors for the production of isotopes which 
are designed as "safe" units — that is, units which 
in the judgment of the Authority do not produce 
or use a dangerous amount or quality of fissionable 
material — may be constructed and operated by 
others than the Authority under conditions similar 
to those described above for "safe" power plants. 

In the interest of preventing an unnecessary 
centralization of operations in the hands of the 
Authority, it seems desirable that the Authority 
should leave to others the field of non-dangerous 
isotope production to the maximum extent con- 
sistent with safety. The uses of isotopes, obtained 
either by irradiation in .reactors, or from the fis- 
sion products of the same, may be among the most 
beneficial results of the development of atomic 
energy. Some such applications are already under 
way and well-known. 

Other important benefits of the release of atomic 
energy will be in directions as yet unpredictable. 
For tliis reason, among others, the charter of the 
Authority should give it enough flexibility and 
discretion so that it mny adjust quickly to new 
conditions as they arise. 

"A. Subject to the provisions of the treaty and 
charter, to have power to take other necessary 
action and to issue rules and regulations." 

In order tliat tlie Authority may properly carry 
out its functions it sliould possess the following 
rights and privileges: (1) the unhindered use of 
established postal, telephone, radio communica- 
tion, and telegraph facilities; (2) the right to 
operate its own system of i-adio communication 



702 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



exclusively for its own business; (3) the unhin- 
dered movement of its personnel in and between 
installations and to any other points, across and 
within national boundaries in connection with 
l^roper discharge of their functions; and (4) the 
use of transportation facilities in and between the 
various nations for the unhindered movement of 
its personnel, supplies and equipment. 

5. Adecjuate performance of its fuuctiuns liy Hie 
Authority requires that national aiiihnrii ii-^ for 
control and development of atomic energy sliould 
be subordinate to the Authority to the extent nec- 
essary for its effective operation. However, in 
carrying out the functions of the Authority, tliere 
should be as little interference as ]H)»ililc witli 
the economic plans and the private, corporate, and 
state relationships in the several countries in- 
volved. 

6. Obviously, the controls outlined in this mem- 
orandum cannot spring into existence full grown 
and complete upon the legal establishment of the 
Authority. The process of putting them into 
effect will necessarily extend over a considerable 
period of time. It will have to be done by stages 
provided in the treaty or charter and according 
to prearranged schedules based on sound and log- 
ical sequence leading to full and effective establish- 
ment of all controls. 

7. The exercise by the Authority of the controls 
refeired to above will call for a wide variety of 
administrative decisions based upon fair, sound 
and responsible judgments. In suggesting the 
conferring of these powers upon tlie Authority, it 
is not intended that their exercise by the Authority 
should be absolute, unlimited and free from re- 
view. Obviously, as to certain specific fields and 
functions to be defined in the treaty, the Author- 
ity's decisions would be final. In others they 



would not. It is our intention in dealing with the 
relation of the Authority to other elements of the 
United Nations to treat this phase of the subject 
more fully, and also to present proposals for en- 
forcement of the provisions of the treaty and 
charter as well as for sanctions for violations. 

8. As a function of its control operations, the 
Authority should make provision for the render- 
ing of IVc(ineiif and detailed iei)<)ils to the appro- 
pi-iatc DigaiiH uf the I'liitcd Nations and to the 
const it iieni nations, embodying tlie results of its 
researches, new discoveries in the atomic field, the 
level of its material stockpiles, new locations of 
ores, and all other important and pertinent infor- 
mation. In addition, properly accredited repre- 
sentatives of the United Nations and of the con- 
stituent nations should be permitted, under suit- 
able regulations, to inspect the plants, properties, 
records and operations of the Authority. 

9. For the effective operation of the Authority 
in the manner contemplated, it is essential that the 
Authority be composed of personnel of the high- 
est character and ability. The affirmative charac- 
ter of the functions of the Authority in dealing 
both with "dangerous" operations and the dis- 
semination of scientific data of a beneficial nature 
require, and should assure, that the Authority at- 
tract .such personnel. 

10. Functions and powers and controls are to 
a certain extent reflections of the same subject 
from different angles. In this memorandum, de- 
voted predominantly to controls, the repressive 
functions of the Authority have received more 
attention than its functions in the stimulation of 
research and of the beneficial uses of atomic en- 
ergy. We want to emphasize, therefore, that we 
lay importance upon the Authority's activities in 
both fields. 



U. S. MEMORANDUM 3: RELATIONS BETWEEN THE ATOMIC DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY 
AND THE ORGANS OF THE UNITED NATIONS ^ 



In response to the request of the Chairman, the 
representative of the United States submits this 
memorandum enlarging upon Paragraph D. 1. 

^ In further exposition of tlie U. S. position, the U. S. 
Representative on the United Nations Atomic Energy 
Commission, Bernard M. Baruch, submitted this memo- 
randum on July 12; it was released to the press by the 
U. S. delegation on the same date. 



of his memorandum of Jtdy '2. r.)4('). which reads 

as follows : 
"D. The treaty should contain provisions : 
1. Defining the relations between the Authority 

and the Security Council, the General Assembly, 

the International Court- of Justice, and tlic oilier 

organs of the United Nations." 

The contents of this memorandum also relate 



JULY 21. 1946 



103 



to tlif iiiMfters dealt with in tlie CliaiiiiianV iiiemo- 
riuulimi, siiliiiiitted at the last inoclin;:- n1 the Sub- 
coniniillcc dii July 8, 1946, which has hccii uf omit 
aid til us in the preparation of this meniorandinn. 

Tlie iial ure of the relations of the Atomic Devel- 
opiuent Authority with the various organs of the 
United Nations obviously will depend upon the 
powers and functions which the Authority receives 
and upon its status within the framework of the 
I'nited Nations. Once these are made clear, the 
pidblems involved in the adjustment of the Au- 
thoi-ity to tlie orfianizal icmal structure of the 
I'nited Nations become clear and can be solved. 

Three general considerations ajjpear at the out- 
set. 

1. The first arises from the fact that the ques- 
tion of control and development of atomic energy 
was neither considered nor dealt with in the fram- 
ing of the Charter of the United Nations. This 
circumstance, however, should not be permitted 
to prevent bringing within the framework of their 
Charter a matter of such vital common concern to 
the members of tlu' United Nations. On the con- 
trary, if the Cliaiier is to surviw. it luust lie su- 

ceptihle rf adajitation to n I new needs dictated 

by new conditions. The control and development 
of atomic eiieigy. therefore, should not lead to the 
formation of an international agency unrelated to, 
or outside of, the I'nited Xalions, but rather to one 
fashioned in sound relationship to the Charter and 
to the organs thereby created. 

2. .Secondh% none of the existing organs of the 
United Nations i^ossesses the managerial, propri- 
etary. ins]>ecl ing. and licensing ])o\vers nei'cssiiry 
to ertective international contr^)l and de-\-elopment 
of atomic energy. A new agency therefore is nec- 
essary. Moreover, even if the Charter could be 
construed to provide for a subsidiary organ cre- 
ated by collective action of several of the existing 
organs and possessing an aggregate of powers del- 
egated by each of them, such subsidiary organ 
would not have adequate powers under the Char- 
ter. Accordingly, the Authority, as a new organ, 
slu)uld l)e established liy treaty granting it all nec- 
essary powers and defining its relation with the 
existing organs of the United Nations. 

?>. The third general consideration concerns the 
degree of autonomy of the Authority. Having 
in mind the essentially non-political character of 
the Authority, the presumably high caliber of its 
personnel, and the necessity for wide discretion 



on its part in order to achieve its purposes of con- 
trol and development, great weight and a consid- 
erable degree of finality should be given to its 
determinations, orders and practices. Wliere their 
consideration is retjuired by another organ, they 
should be accepted unless clearly erroneous or be- 
yond the scope of the Authority's powers. 

Three categories of decisions may be mentioned. 
They will, of course, need careful definition. In 
general they are (1) Administrative matters on 
which the decisions of the Authority are final ; (2) 
Decisions on other matters not of sufficient gravity 
to constitute a threat to the peace. These might 
be subject to review, possildy by a lioard established 
for this jmrpose. Its decisions, in turn, should be 
enforced l)y the Security Coiuicil as procedural 
matters, for, regardless of the original seriousness 
of the offense, failure to respond to the proper or- 
ders of the Authority creates a situation demand- 
ing the attention of the Security Council. We 
consi(U^r, hereinafter, in its appropriate place the 
rehition of the Authority to the International 
Court of Justice ; ( :}) Serious offenses constituting 
a threat to the peace. These, as hei-einafter out- 
lined, fall within the jurisdiction of the Security 
Council and the provision of Article 51 of the 
Charter. 

One further comment is in order before taking 
up in detail the relation of the Authority to the 
several organs of the United Nations. Article 2, 
paragraph 7 of the Charter will not be infringed 
by tlie Autliority. This paragi'aph is confined to 
matters "essentially within the domestic jurisdic- 
tion of any state''. Specific recognition in the 
treaty that control of atomic energy cannot be es- 
sentially domestic but rather predominantly in- 
ternational would be sufficient to render this 
paragraph inapplicable. 

The respective functions of the Authority and 
of the principal organs of the United Nations, 
when viewed in the light of the foregoing consid- 
erations, indicate the general relationships which 
should prevail. 

They are outlined in the following paragraphs. 
a. The General Asscmhly 

The General Assembly is composed of all mem- 
bers of the United Nations. Its Composition, 
Functions and Powers, Voting and Procedure are 
contained in Chapter IV, Articles 9-22 of the 
Charter of the United Nations. Provisions with 
respect to the General Assembly also appear in 
other parts of the Charter. The character of the 



104 

General Assembly and its importance in the whole 
concept of the Charter indicate, amongst others, 
the following i-espects in which the Authority may 
properly be related to it. 

(1) The Authority should submit periodic and, 
when necessary, special reports to the Assembly 
concerning the Authority's activities, programs, 
and information. 

(2) The provisions for discussion and recom- 
mendation by the Assembly contained in the Char- 
ter should be construed to include matters pertain- 
ing to the Authority. 

(3) The Assembly also might appropriately 
have a role in connection with the budget of the 
Authority. 

h. The Security Coiwvcil 

The Charter of the United Nations confers on 
the Security Council primary responsibility' for 
the maintenance of international peace and secu- 
rity. (Chapters V, VI, VII, VIII, and XII). 
Many of the important features of the control and 
development of atomic energy, though by no means 
all of them, are intimately associated with the 
maintenance of international peace and security. 
With respect to these features, the Authority and 
the Security Council must be brought into close 
relationship. 

The following particulars in this regard are 
suggested : 

(1) In the event of an occurrence within the 
area of the Authority's jurisdiction constituting a 
threat to the peace, breach of the peace or act of 
aggression, such occurrence should immediately be 
certified by (lit- Aiitliority to the Security Council, 
the Assembly, mid tlio signatory states. The treaty 
should establish this category of offenses and the 
conditions sunoiiiKling tlicm. For purpose of 
illustration, they might include violations such as 
those specifically mentioned by Mr. Baruch in the 
United States proposal, viz : 

"(a) Illegal possession or use of an atomic 
bomb ; 

"(6) Illegal possession, or separation, of atomic 
material suitable for use in an atomic 
bomb ; 

"(c) Seizure of any plant or other property be- 
longing to, or licensed by, the Authority ; 

"(r/) Wilful interference with the activities of 
the Authority ; 

"(e) Creation or operation of dangerous proj- 
ects in a manner contrary to, or in the 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

absence of a license granted by the 
Authority." 

The controls established by the treaty would be 
wholly ineffectual if, in any such situations, to 
be defined in the treaty, the enforcement of security 
provisions could be prevented by the vote of a state 
which has signed the treaty. Any other concep- 
tion would render the whole principle of veto 
ridiculous. It is intended to be an instrument for 
the i^rotection of nations, not a shield behind 
which decejition and ci'iminal acts can be per- 
formed with impunity. This in no way impairs 
the ([(Htrinc of unanimity. No state need be an 
unwilling party to the treaty. But every state 
which freely and willingly becomes a party to 
the treaty, by this act, solemnly and firmly binds 
itself to abide by its undertakings. Such under- 
takings would become illusory, if the guarantee 
against their breach resided solely in the conscience 
of the one who commits the breach. 

All parties to the treaty and all peoples of the 
world, nuist have protection of a final and de- 
pendable character against the terrible conse- 
quences of the destructive use of atomic energy. 
Such protection requires international machinery 
which can and will function quickly — machinery 
which does not permit the offender to be protected 
by his own or another's negation of the exercise 
of joint power essential to the security of all. Par- 
ticularly is this true, with respect to matters 
which become essentially procedural once the 
Authority has made its certification based on the 
substantive provision of law established by the 
treaty. 

The relation of the Authority to the Security 
Council should recognize this principle. Subject 
to this princijile, the Security Council should have 
full jurisdiction over serious violations certified 
to it by the Authority. This in no manner impairs 
or diminishes the power or the modus operandi of 
the Security Council in any other situation. 

As the United States Representative on the 
Atomic Energy Commission stated at the opening 
session : 

'T want to make very plain that I am concerned 
here with the veto power only as it affects this 
particular problem. There must be no veto to 
protect those who violate their solenm agreements 
not to develop or use atomic energy for destructive 
purposes."' 

Voluntary relinciuishment of the veto on ques- 



JlIA 21, 1946 



105 



tions rt'latiiiii- to a s])tH-ihc weapon |ii-fvioii.'-l_v ou(- 
hnved hy uiiaiiiiuoiis agivenient because of its 
iinicnu'lv (lest met i\c cliaracter, in no wise involves 
any eoniproniisi' (jf the principle of unanimity of 
action as aijplied to (leneral i)ro])lenis or to par- 
ticular situations not foreseeaMe and tlierefoiv nut 
susceptible of advance unanimous ajj,reement. 

AAliat has been said above must be emphasized. 
It is not intended to limit the powers, authority, 
responsil)ility or jurisdiction of the Security Coun- 
cil to maintain international peare and mm iiriiy. 
It is quite possible that in u major case of aggres- 
sion, violation of the atomic treaty and the rules of 
the Authority may play an incidental part. Noth- 
ing herein suggested is intended to restrict or limit 
the overriding powers of the Security Council to 
deal with such matters unaffected by the incidental 
inclusion of atomic energy considerations as part of 
the problems. 

(2) It is impossible to treat this subject without 
reference to Article 51 of the C'hartei-. whiih pro- 
vides as follows: 

'"Nothing in the present Charter shall impair 
the inherent right of individual or collective self- 
defense if an armed attack occurs against a Mem- 
ber of the UnitedNations, until the Security Coun- 
cil has taken the measures necessary to inaiiU;iin 
international peace and security. Measures taken 
by Members in the e.xereise of this right of self- 
defense shall be immediately reported to the Se- 
curity Council". 

Interpretatingitsi)rovisioiis with respect to atomic 
energy matters, it is clear that if atomic weapons 
were employed as part of an "ainn-d attack"", the 
rights reserved by the nations to tliemsehes under 



It 



llv ch 



that 
dif- 



51 would be applii 
an "armed attack"" 
ferent from what it was ]irior to the discovery of 
atomic weapons. It would therefore seem to be 
both important and approi)riate under present 
conditions that the treaty define "armed attack" 
in a maimer a|)]iropriate to atomic w'eapons and 
include in the definition not siiiiply the actual 
dropping of an atomic liomb. but also certain steps 
in themselves preliminary to such action. 

(3) The Authority may be required to carry out 
certain decisions by tlie Secuiity Council with re- 
spect to which the a.-sistance of the Authority is 
deemed appropriate. 

(4) Reports and other information should be 



submitted by the Authority to the Council con- 
cerning the Atithority's activities, programs, and 
information, particularly as they bear upon the 
maintenance of international peace and security. 
(5) Consultation by the .Military Staff Com- 
mittee with tlie Autlinriiy on (jiiestions relating to 
the military repercussions of the Authority's plans 
of action should be provided for in the treaty. 

r. The Intenmtional Court of Justice 

The International Court of Justice is the prin- 
cipal judicial organ of the United Nations. Rela- 
tions between the Authority and the Court are 
worthy of consideration in connection with aiding 
the functioning of the Authoi-ity. It is unfortu- 
nate that the World Court would not l>e fully open 
to the Authority as a litigant without amendment 
to the Charter. However, the field of advisory 
opinions would be open and should l)e availed of in 
appropriate cases. 

In no case should the jurisdiction of the Court 
exclude or delay action by the Security Coimcil 
nor diminish the primary responsibilities of the 
Security Council in maintaining international 
]ieace and security. The following suggestions are 
made witli this understanding. 

(1) The Authority might be authorized to re- 
(juest the Court to give advisory opinions on any 
legal (juestions arising within the scope of the Au- 
thority's actixities: indiiding any questions of 
proper interpi-elat i(jn or a|iplication of provisions 
of the treaty. 

{•!) The Authority might be authorized to be 
a party in case^ befoic the Court involving legal 
<lisputes arising iindei- I he t ivaty. 

(:'i) The treaty iiiii^hi include provisions that 
the .Vuthority and the signatory states would be 
bound to submit to the jurisdiction of the Coiu't in 
all legal disputes detiiie.l by the treaty which are 
referred to the Court in the manner provided, and 
that the judgments of the Court should be enforced 
by the Security Council. 
(J. The Trusteeship Couneil 

Mutual consultation and exchange of informa- 
tion bctireen the Authority and the Trusteeship 
Council should be authorized concernini:- atomic 
energy development and control actix itie<. facili- 
ties, and resources, located in trust tcrnioiies oi- 
closely related to proper administration of such 
territories. 



106 

e. The Secretariat 

Relations between the Authority and the Secre- 
tariat do not seem to require detailed treatment at 
this time. 

In conclusion, the foregoing indicates the man- 
ner in which appropriate relations between the 
Authority and the United States might be estab- 
lished in accordance with the principles stated by 
JMr. Baruch in the United States proposal. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

U. S. Representative to UN 
Accorded Rank of Ambassador 

[Released to the press July 11] 

The President has accorded Herschel V. John- 
son, United States Deputy Representative to the 
United Nations, the personal rank of Ambassador. 



First Meeting of Atomic Commission's 
Working Committee 



The first meeting of the Working Committee of 
the Atomic Energy Commission opened at 10.42 
a.m. on June 28 at Hunter College in the Bronx, 
with the following delegates present : 
Australia Herbert V. Evatt, Chairman 
Brazil 
Canada 
China 

EgJ'Pf 

France 

Mexico 

Nether- 
lands 

Poland 

U.S.S.R. 

U.K. 

U.S. 

Following a bi'ief discussion of working meth- 
ods, Dr. Evatt called on Mr. Baruch as the first 

speaker. 

After urging the Committee to proceed "with 

utmost speed" since "time presses and each day 

finds the world less secure,'' Mr. Baruch presented 

' See accompanying chart folded in tiiis issue of the 



Capt. Alvaro Alberto da Motta Sua-. 

Gen. A. G. L. MgNaughton 

H. R. Wei 

Col. Mohamed Bey Khalifa 

FRANgois Lacoste 

Manuel Sandoval Vallarta 

H. A. Kramers 

Jerzy Michalowski 
Andrei A. Gromtko 
Sir Alexander Cadogan 
Bernard M. Baruch 



to each member a chart,^ based on statements made 
before the Commission, analyzing 20 separate 
I^oints on which the 12 members are in agreement 
or disagreement. He emphasized that this was in 
no sense a U. S. proposal, but merely an effort 
to give members a comprehensive view of ideas 
so far put forth. 

On the suggestion of the chairman, the Work- 
ing Committee agreed unanimously to appoint a 
small "Subcommittee Number I" to be named by 
the chairman after consulting with the delega- 
tions. The task of this subcommittee will be to 
study all proposals put forth and to prepare the 
framework of a possible plan by presenting to the 
Working Committee a li.st of headings or topics 
to be considered. For example, it will study not 
only the best means of controlling raw materials, 
but also the type of control required. Its main 
duty will be to report back to the Woiking Com- 
mittee as soon as possible and thus facilitate the 
work of that body. 

The chairman announced that he would call a 
full meeting of the Atomic Energy Commission 
next Wednesday at 3 p.m. in the Henry Hudson 
Hotel to consider rules of procedure. 

The Working Committee adjourned at 12.08 
p.m. 



AREAS OF AGREEMENT AND DISAGREEMENT ' 



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International Organizations and Conferences 



Calendar of Meetings 



Council of Foreign Ministers: 

Meeting of Foreign Ministers 

Meeting of Deputies 
Far Eastern Commission 

Allied-Swedish Negotiations for German External Assets 
International Emergency Food Council 
U.S.-Mexican Discussions on Air Services Agreement 
International Institute of Agriculture: Meeting of 

the General Assembly 
Conference on German-Owned Patents Outside Germany 
U.S. -British Cabinet Committee on Palestine 

and Related Problems 
International Meeting of the Sugar Council 
Peace Conference 
International Council of Scientific Unions: Meeting of 

the General Assembly 
International Wheat Council 
International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics: 

Extraordinary General Assembly 
UNRRA: Second'Half of Fifth Session 
The United Nations: 

Security Council 

Military Staff Committee 

Economic and Social Council (Second Session) .»- 

Commission on Atomic Energy 

International Health Conference 

UNESCO: Preparatory Commission 

General Assembly: Second Part of First Session 

The dates in the calendar are as of Julv 14. 



Paris 


June 15-Julv 12 


Paris 


July 12 


Washington 


February 26 


Washington 


May 31 


Washington 


June 20 


Mexico City 


June 24 


Rome 


July 8 


London 


July 10 


London 


Julv 12 


London 


Julv 15 


Paris 


July 29 


London 


Julv 24-27 


Wastington 


July 15 


Cambridge, England 


July 29-August 2 


Geneva 


August 5 


New York 


March 25 


New York 


March 25 


New York 


May 25-June 21 


New York 


June 14 


New York 


June 19 


London 


July 5-13 


New York 


September 3 



Activities and Developments 



The President's Cabinet Committee on Pales- 
tine and Related Problems left on July 10 for 
London, where they will discuss with the British 
Cabinet group the implementation of the report by 
the Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry re- 
garding the admission of 100,000 Jews to Pales- 
tine. Henry F. Grady, chairman of the American 
group and alternate for the Secretary of State, was 
accompanied by Goldthwaite H. Dorr and Herbert 
E. Gaston, alternates for the Secretaries of War 
and Treasury. 

Accompanying members of the mission are Les- 
lie L. Rood. Secretary General; Paul L. Hanna, 
Political Adviser; Raymond F. Mikesell and 
Henry H. Villard, Economic and Financial Ad- 
visers ; Frederick V. Loud, Displaced Persons Ad- 



viser; Geoffrey W. Lewis, Transportation 
Adviser; Lt. Col. F. W. Coleman, Military Ad- 
viser ; and C. A. Hathaway, Engineering Adviser. 
The Committee was expected to arrive in Lon- 
don on July 11 and to begin discussions on Friday, 
July 12. 

UNRRA Tour. The Director General of UNRRA, 
F. H. La Guardia, the Soviet Member of the 
UNRRA Council, N. I. Feonov, and the American 
Alternate on the UNRRA Council, C. Tyler Wood, 
left on July 14 for a tour of Europe before the 
meeting of the Fifth Session of the Council in 
Geneva. It is expected that their itinerary will 
include Belgrade, Warsaw, points in Germany, 
Athens, Rome, Cairo, Paris, Trieste, and Arolsen. 

107 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Designating Public International Organ- 
izations Entitled to Enjoy Certain Priv- 
ileges, Exemptions, and Immunities^ 

[Released to the press by the White House July 12] 

By virtue of the authority vested in me by sec- 
tion 1 of the International Organizations Ininiuni- 
ties Act, approved December 29, 1945 (Public Law 
'291, 79th Congress), and having found that the 
United States participates in the following-named 
international organizations pursuant to a treaty 
or under the authority of an act of Congress 
authorizing such participation or making an ap- 
propriation therefor, I hereby designate such or- 
ganizations as public international organizations 
entitled to enjoy the privileges, exemptions, and 
immunities conferred by the said Act : 

Inter- American Coffee Board 

Inter- American Institute of Agricultural Sciences 

Inter-American Statistical Institute 

' Executive Order 9-751 (11 Fed. Ren. 7713). 



International Banlv for Reconstruction and Devel- 
opment 
International Monetary Fund 
Pan American Sanitary Bureau 

The designation of the above-named organiza- 
tions and of those named in Executive Order No. 
!)(;!»8 of February 19, 191:(;. as public international 
organizations within the mcaiiing of the said In- 
ternational Organizations Inununities Act is not 
intended to abridge in any respect privileges and 
immunities which such organizations have ac- 
(piired or may acquire by treaty or Congressional 
action; provided, that with respect to the Interna- 
tional Bank for Reconstruction and Development, 
such designation shall not be construed to affect 
in any way the applicability of the provisions of 
section 3, Article VII, of the Articles of Agree- 
ment of the Bank as adopted by the Congress of 
the United States in the Bretton-Woods Agree- 
ments Act of July 31, 1945 (Public Law 171, 79th 
Congress). 

Harry S. Truman 
The WiiiTE House, 
Juh/ 11, 101^6. 



The Record of the Week 



Importance of British Financial Agreement to 
International Economic Cooperation 

LETTER FROM THE PRESIDENT TO THE CHAIRMAN OF THE HOUSE COMMITTEE ON 
BANKING AND CURRENCY 



Washhigton, June 2!K U'-^i. 
Honorable Brent SrEXCE, Chairman 

Committee on Banking and Currency, 
The House of Representatives 
My Dear Mr. Chairman : 

I ^y;^nt to express my appreciation to you and 
to the Committee on Banliing and Currency for 
the fine spirit in whicli you have considered 
tlie British Financial Agreement which is now 
before the House.^ 

The British Financial Agreement is an integral 
part of the international economic policy of the 
United States. Without this Agreement it will be 
difficult, if not impossible, to proceed with the 
United Nations program for international eco- 



nomic cooperation. This program has had the 
whole-hearted approval of Congress. It is the one 
way we can avoid the danger of a conflict in eco- 
nomic policy between the United States and the 
United Kingdom. Such a conflict would be disas- 
trous to the economic well-being of both countries 
and to the peace and security of the entire world. 



On such inaltiM> <A iiiteri 
must be no partisan ili\i>i()ii 
Your Connnittee has shown 
statesnumship in its hearin« 
British Financial Agreemeii 
ample vou have set will be 
of us. 

Very sincerely A'ours, 



onal policy there 
twccn Americans, 
liigliest degree of 
nd report on the 
The splendid ex- 
inspiration to all 



Harry S. Trum.a 



CABLEGRAM FROM THE SECRETARY OF STATE 



Tha foundations of peace can never be secure if 
they rest exclusively on a political base. 

If nations continue to wage economic warfare 
through discriminatory trade practices and 
through foi'mation of economic blocs, interna- 
tional trade will languish, the standard of living 
will decline, irritations will develop, and there 
will be no peace. 

Here in Paris it is more apparent to me than 
ever that a jirompt return to normal healthy trade 
between nations is essential if we are to lay foun- 
dations for permanent peace and prosperity. 

Tlie British financial agreement should prove a 
powerful instrument to this end. It will dissolve 
a whole vast system of trade controls and discrim- 
inations arising out of the economic dislocations 
of the war. 

Without the agreement, this system, so destruc- 
tive of free enterprise and of friendly relations 



between nations, is almost certain to continue for 
many years to come. 

AVe cannot solve all our problems at once. 

The British loan is the first essential economic 
step toward peace and security. If we permit our- 
selves to be sidetracked by other problems, if we 
attempt to hinge our assistance to Britain on other 
considerations, there is a good chance that our ef- 
forts to secure world trade expansion may fail. 

I do hope that the Congress will recognize the 
stakes that are involved and that it will promptly 
approve the financial agreement with the United 
Kingdom. 



For text of British Financial Agreement, see Bulletin 
of Dee. 9, 1945, p. 907. The U. S. Congress gave final ap- 
proval to the $3,750,000,000 loan to Great Britain on July 
13 when the House Representatives passed the measure 
liy a vote of 219 to 155. 

' Sent by the Secretary of State to the Department of 
State from Paris, tlated July 1, 1946. 

109 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Constitutionality of Negotiating British 



Financial Agreement 



EXCHAGE OF LETTERS BETWEEN SENATOR 
FORREST C. DONNELL AND THE SECRETARY OF STATE 



3/arch 9, 19kG. 
Dear Mr. Secretary : 

There is pending before the Senate of tlie United 
States S. J. R. 138, which is a Joint Resolution 
which by its terms is "To implement further the 
purposes of the Bretton Woods Agreements Act by 
authorizing the Secretary of the Treasury to carry 
out an agreement with the United Kingdom, and 
for other purposes." Said resolution undertakes 
to confer on the Secretary of the Treasury author- 
ity to provide and use an amount not to exceed 
$3,750,000,000 solely for the purpose of carrying 
out "the agreement between the United States and 
the United Kingdom." I understand that the 
agreement so in the course of said resolution men- 
tioned is that which is dated December 6, 1945, 
between the United States and the United King- 
dom and which is earlier mentioned in said 
Resolution. 

Please inform me (a) whether, in j'our opinion, 
the Constitution of the United States vests in Con- 
gress any power which enables Congress to author- 
ize the extension to the Government of the United 
Kingdom by the Government of the United States 
of that certain line of credit of $3,750,000,000 
wliich is specified in the above mentioned agree- 
ment between the United States and the United 
Kingdom and (b) if, in your opinion, the Consti- 
tution of the United States does vest in Congress 
that power, by what specific provision or provi- 
sions of the Constitution of tb.e United States is 
that power vested in Congress. 

Inasmuch as this matter is one of great urgency, 
I shall appreciate your sending me as soon as pos- 
sible a response to this letter. 

Thanking you for giving attention to this com- 
munication, I am 

Yours very truly, 

FoKHEST C. DoNNELL 



My Dear Senator Donnell : 

I have your letter of March 9, 191G, in which you 
ask me whether, in my opinion, the Constitution 
vests in Congi-ess the power to authorize the ex- 
tension to the Government of the United Kingdom 
of a line of credit of $3,750,000,000. You also 
inquire what specific provisions of the Constitu- 
tion can be cited as granting this authority. 

So far as I am aware, the power of Congress to 
provide for loans or grants to foreign governments 
has not been challenged, and, indeed, lias been ex- 
ercised frequently since the adoption of the Con- 
stitution. A very good example of the exercise 
of this power by the Congress is the Export-Import 
Bank legislation, which authorizes loans by this 
Government to foreign governments in time of 
peace as well as in time of war. 

One of the basic principles of constitutional con- 
struction is that the authority of Congress is not 
necessarily to be found in any particular phrase or 
word but may reside in the aggregate of the powers 
granted to the Congress by the Constitution. 

You will recall that article I, section 8, of the 
Constitution provides that "the Congress shall have 
power to lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts, 
and excises, to pay the debts and provide for the 
common defense and general welfare of the United 
States." This section also confers upon the Con- 
gress the power "to borrow money on the credit of 
the United States, ... to regulate Commerce 
Mith foreign nations, and among the several 
States, . . ." and to make all laws which shall be 
necessary and proper for carrying into execution 
any of the powers specifically mentioned. 

The authority of this Government to negotiate 
agreements with foreign governments is surely be- 
yond question, and the provision of fuiuls by the 
Congress to permit such agreements to be carried 



JULY 21, 1946 

out is clearly within tlie aggregate of the provi- 
sions of the Constitution to which I liave referred. 

I am glad to have had this opportunity to assure 
3'ou that I am confident of the propriety of the ac- 
tion of the executive branch of the Government in 
negotiating the Anglo-American financial agi-ee- 
ment and the authority of the Congress to consider 
the implementing legislation now before it. 

May I also take this occasion to express to you 
my conviction that the benefits received by the 
United States from the arrangement are very sub- 
stantial indeed. The Government of the United 
Kingdom has agreed to remove within a short pe- 
riod of time the financial restrictions and controls 
which have prevented the free exchange of British 
currency for the currencies of other countries, so 
that the trade of the world may be unshackled and 



111 



permitted to expand. The British have also agreed 
to support the proposals of this Government for 
expansion of world trade and emjDloyment and 
have concurred in the principles there expressed 
which are fundamental to the commercial policy 
of the United States as expressed repeatedly in the 
declarations and actions of this Government. 

The credit which would be extended to Great 
Britain is to be repaid over a period of years with 
interest. But in addition to the return of the 
money lent, we have every expectation of receiv- 
ing a larger portion of a larger total of world trade 
in the years to come. 

I hope that this will satisfactorily answer the 
questions which you have raised. 

Sincerely yours, 

James F. Byenes 



Functions of Committee for Financing 



Foreign Trade 



STATEMENT BY WINTHROP W. ALDRICH, CHAIRMAN 



[Released to the press b.v the White House July 9] 

Winthrop W. Aldrich, Chairman of the Com- 
mittee for Financing Foreign Trade, recently ap- 
pointed by the President, made the following 
statement on July 9 : 

In his letter appointing the Committee the Pres- 
ident said in part : 

'Tt is of vital imiiortance to our country and to 
the stabilization of the international economy, that 
we proceed as rapidly as possible with another of 
the major objectives of our reconversion program ; 
namely to tie in our national productive capacity 
with the world's reconstruction requirements. 

"The conduct and financing of our foreign trade 
should be handled bj^ private industry with the 
cooperation and such as>istaiiif as is necessary 
from the proper Governnieut agencies." 

Government loans to other governments are 
necessary like many other things done in war or 
tJie aftermatli of war. They cannot be the con- 
tinuing basis of international trade between free 
countries; they should be supplemented and even- 
tually replaced by private international financing. 

The Government is doing its part. The Presi- 
dent has appointed this Committee to encourage 
industry and private capital to do its part. 



The Department of State explained last May 
to the representatives of foreign governments hav- 
ing purchasing missions in this counti-y that the 
policy of the American Government favors the use 
of private commercial channels in international 
trade and proposed that "such trading agencies 
should conduct their trade in accordance with 
usual commercial considerations."' 

The Government has done and is doing, through 
the Export-Import Bank, its part in making the 
wheels of trade begin to move. The Government 
has further subscribed to the International Bank 
and the International Fund set up under the Bret- 
ton Woods Agreement. It has in the Office of 
International Trade in the Department of Com- 
merce, which is primarily concerned with foreign 
trade promotion, a specialized staff to study the 
effects of loans on the expansion of foreign trade 
and our domestic economy. That office has already 
pointed out that while there are less goods of many 
kinds than our own population demands, there are 
already some fields in which surplus capacity is 
looming up. 

Generally speaking, tlie function of the Com- 
mittee, as I see it, will be to devise ways and 
means, in cooperation with the National Advisory 
Council, to accomplish the following purposes : 



112 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



First : to liriiip- into oiderly common effort pub- 
lic and private finance, tlirougli busi- 
nessmen and bankers, in tlie foreign 
field; 

Second: to foster the application of tire produc- 
tive capacity of the United States in the 
most effective manner possible to tlie 
needs of ildincsiic consumption and for- 
eign rccdiislruri ion ; 

Third: to promote relations l)el\vcen Anici-ican 
and foi-eiyii husiness entcri)risc for tlie 
pur])0se of developing and maintaining 
foreign trade, both export and import, 
on a high and expanding level. 

The accomplishment of these purposes would 
not only help in rebuilding the economy of the 
world but would increase and stabilize employ- 
ment in this country. 

The Committee will also work with the Depart- 
ments of State and Commerce in connection with 
the trade promotion aspects of its work. The 



Xational Advisory Council, to which the Commit- 
tee will make its report and recommendations and 
with which it will work on the lending aspects of 
its assignment, includes the heads of the Treasury 
Department, the Department of State, the Depart- 
ment of Connnerce, the Export-Import Bank, and 
the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve 
System. 

I have just come back from attending the meet- 
ings of the Council of the International Chamber 
of Commerce in Paris and have set to work imme- 
diately to get the data together to provide a basis 
for discussions by the Committee. We shall move 
forward under the President's instructions just as 
rapidly as the magnitude of the task permits. 

I had a short letter from the President last Wed- 
nesday in which he said : 

'T shall look to you as Chairman of the Com- 
mittee to call the members together and organize 
the work of the Connnittee." 

I shall lose no time in doing just that. 



The Proclaimed List of Certain Blocked Nationals 



ANNOUNCEMENT OF WITHDRAWAL 
OF LIST 

[Released to the press July 9] 

The Department of State with the concurrence 
of the Departments of Treasury, Justice, and Com- 
merce, announced on July 9 the withdrawal of the 
Proclaimed List of Certain Blocked Xationals, 
generally known as the "American Bhuk IJst". 
The withdrawal is to be effective immediately. 
This measure was decided upon after extensive 
consultation with the British and Canadian Gov- 
ernments, which are taking similar action with 
respect to the British Statutory List and the Cana- 
dian List of Specified Persons. The three lists 
have been virtually identical since shortly after 
the Proclaimed List came into existence on July 
17, 1941. Other governments, including those rec- 
ognizing the list or maintaining lists of their own, 
were informed in advance of the intended measure. 

The Proclaimed List named persons and com- 
panies, i-esident in areas outside of enemy control, 
who directly or indirectly rendered substantial aid 
to the enemy war machine. Those listed were de- 



lege of tradinir with 



United 



nied tlu 
States. 

Before V-E Day the British, Canadian, anil 
U.S. Governments were in consultation with re- 
spect to the continuation of the list after the con- 
clusion of active hostilities. The Goveiuiments 
were in agreement that it would be essential to con- 
tinue the lists but that they should be reduced to a 
"hard core". Thus the Proclaimed List, when 
withdi-awn. consisted of 5,887 names, representing 
a substantial reduction from 15,446 at its peak on 
July "-iS, l!t44. These reductions resulted from 
both the elimination of undesirable influences or 
interests in various listed firms and the deletion of 
the less serious offenders. 

The withdrawal of the Proclaimed List does not 
in any way constitute a termination of or slacking 
in the program for the permanent elimination of 
Axis external influences either in this Hemisi)here 
or in the Eastern Hemisphere. With respect to the 
other American republics, the program for the 
marshaling, liquidation, vesting, and expropria- 
tion or forced sale of Axis spearhead business en- 
terprises is based on various inter- American reso- 



JULY 21, 1946 



113 



lutions, beginning with those adopted at the Rio 
de Janeiro Conference of January 1942, and the 
last of which was at the Mexico City Conference 
(Cliapuhepec) of February-March 19-15. These 
resohitions and the programs to be executed pur- 
suant to them are based on a recognition of the 
importance and urgency of eliminating Axis in- 
fluences in this Hemisphere as essential to inter- 
American security. The Government of the 
United States is prepared to cooperate fully with 
tlie governments of the other American republics 
in carrying out the letter and spirit of these inter- 
American agreements. 

With respect to the Eastern Hemisphere, ar- 
rangements have already been instituted with the 
Goveniments of Switzerland and Sweden. Pur- 
suant to these arrangements German-owned or 
-controlled interests in these countries are being 
marshaled and liquidated and looted property will 
be restored to the rightful owners. The with- 
drawal of the Proclaimed List for these countries 
was facilitated by the conclusion of these arrange- 
ments. 

Similar discussions are currently in progress 
with respect to other areas in the world, and it is 
expected that they will lead to comparable over-all 
arrangements for the elimination of German ex- 
ternal influences, the transfer to the Allies of the 
proceeds realized from the liquidation or sale of 
German holdings to desirable persons, and the 
restitution of looted property. In accordance with 
the Paris Reparation Agreement, the United 
States, together with other United Nations, will 
continue to lend every effort to the achievement 
of sat isfactdiy programs in these areas. 

The with(hM wal of the Proclaimed List does not 
necessarily affect other existing controls. For ex- 
ample, the withdrawal of the Proclaimed List does 
not mean that accounts, where such exist, of all 
persons formerly included in the list are now un- 
frozen in the United States. In certain cases, ac- 
counts will continue to be blocked by reason of 
nationality. Similarly, the withdrawal of the 
Proclaimed List does not imply that all former 
Proclaimed List nationals are regarded as satis- 
factory agents for American business. In this 
connection, reference is made to the Department's 
press release No. 202 of March 29, 1946 in which 
it is stated fliat iiif(irniat inn concerning former 
ProclaiiiKMl Li^t piTsoii- iuid firms is available in 
the CoHinienial Intelligmce Division of the De- 
partment of Commerce. However, the withdrawal 



of the Proclaimed List does represent an im- 
portant step in the United States policy of freeing 
trade from wartime controls as soon as such action 
becomes possible. 

A memorandum describing the history and scope 
of the Proclaimed List is attached to this state- 
ment. 

HISTORY AND SCOPE OF THE PROCLAIMED 
LIST^ 

The British Government on September 3, 1939 
first issued the British Statutory List and on Feb- 
ruary 7, 1940 the Canadian Government issued its 
original List of Specified Persons. During 1940 
and 1941 this Government found it necessary to 
establish certain controls in the interest of the 
defense of the country. Some of these controls 
were of an economic nature and the agencies ad- 
ministering the controls naturally took into ac- 
count the persons involved in the transactions 
subject to control. For example, the prospective 
consignee of a proposed shipment was a factor to 
be considered when deciding whether or not an 
export license could be gi-anted. Similarly, the 
persons participating in a financial transaction 
were factors to be considered when considering 
license applications under foreign-funds controls. 
Various sources of information were available to 
the agencies administering the conti-ols, but there 
was no machinery for coordinating the views of 
the various agencies concerning persons abroad 
nor was there a list which would guide American 
businessmen in their trading witli persons abroad. 
Thus it became necessary to issue a published list 
of undesirable persons with respect to whom all 
transactions with the United States would be sub- 
ject to control. Such a list was fstalilishcd July 17, 
1941 pursuant to the I'lv-i.lmt'^ pidclaination 
of that date. The proclamaticm was issued under 
authority granted to the President by the act of 
October 6, 1917. by the act of July 2, 1940 and by 
virtue of all dtlier authority vested in the Presi- 
dent. The iirdcliuiiaiion instructed the Secretary 
of State, acting in conjunction with the Secretary 
of the Treasury, the Attoi'uey General, the Secre- 
tary of Commerce, tlie Administrator of Export 
Control, and the Coordinator of Commercial and 
Cultural Relati(ms between the American repub- 
lics, to prepare an appropriate list of persons work- 
ing with or for the Axis and persons to whom 

' For an article on the Proclaimed List see Btjlletin of 
Mav 26, 1046, p. 875. 



114 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



exports from the United States were deemed to be 
detrimental to the interests of national defense. 
The Oflice of the Administrator of Export Control 
no longer exists and the Secretary of Commerce 
now has the responsibility for the administration 
of export control. The Office of Inter-American 
Affairs, successor to the Coordinator of Commer- 
cial and Cultural Relations between the American 
republics, was recently terminated. 

The original Proclaimed List issued on July 17. 
1941 consisted of 1,834 names, all of which were 
Western Hemisphere names. On December 9, 
1941. just two days after Pearl Harbor, the Pro- 
claimed List authorities issued a supplement add- 
ing 505 Japanese names to the Proclaimed List. 
On January 14, 1942 the names of 1,824 persons 
and concerns in the Eastern Hemisphere were 
added to the list. From this time on, the British, 
Canadian, and American authorities cooperated 
very closely in the issuance of their respectivi' lists 
so that the lists have been virtually identical since 
that time. 

It was well known that the Nazi Government of 
Germany used German commercial and financial 
concerns abroad as tools to further the Nazi cause. 
German concerns abroad were used as propaganda 
out Ids. liiiaiirial Mizciits. espionage centers, sup- 
pliers of ciii i(:i liy iiffdi'd foreign exchange, sources 
for sumggliug of urgently needed war materials 
to Germany, et cetera. Some of these concerns 
were affiliates of firms in Germany; others were 
concerns owned by locallj' resident Germans. 
Tliese companies also exerted influence over many 
other enterprises which supported the German 
concerns, thus increasing the Nazi economic pene- 
tration to a considerable extent. The issuante of 
the Pi'oclaiiniMl List was a severe blow to this Nazi 
econniiiic iiclwcii'k. 

Attempts to avoid the Proclaimed List controls 
were however made. Numerous expedients were 
devised, such as obtaining material through 
cloaks — Persons or firms who were willing to carry 
on transactions ostensibly for themselves but actu- 
ally for Proclaimed List nationals. In order to en- 
force the list it was therefore necessary to list ad- 
ditional persons and firms. Moreover, additional 
evidence was being found from time to time indi- 
cating other persons whose activities merited in- 
clusion in the Pi'oclaimed List. Thus the list in- 
creased in size until it reached its peak on July 
28, 1944 when it consisted of 15.446 names. 

It should not be assumed tliat while names were 



being added no names were deleted. Proclaimed 
List cases were constantly open for review. Mis- 
takes, always possible, were rectified. Fui-ther- 
more, change in the facts of a case might make de- 
letion possible. If a person could, for example, 
show that he had discontinued a partnership with a 
politically undesiral)le partner and was now on his 
own or in partnershii) with an unobjectionable per- 
son, his name was deleted from the list. Similarly, 
any concern which reorganized itself, ousting the 
mulesirable interests, was eligible for deletion from 
the Proclaimed List. Some of these reorganiza- 
tions were worked out voluntarily by unobjection- 
able partners and in a good many instances they 
\\ere worked out through the cooperation of the 
local government, particularly^ in the other Amer- 
ican republics. 

The American republics early recognized the 
danger of Axis penetration and as earl}- as the Rio 
<le Janeiro Conference in 1942 took measures con- 
tem])]iitiiig the elimination of Axis economic 
penetration in this Hemisphere. The programs 
inaugurated by the various American republics 
accomplished the li(iuidation. forced sale, reorgani- 
zation, or vesi iiig of many Axis enterprises. When 
this occin-re<l, deletion was possible not only of 
the firm which had been eliminated or cleaned 
up but also of the names of any pei'sons or firms 
which had been included in the list primarily be- 
cause of association with, or activities on behalf 
of, the eliminated or reorganized Proclaimed List 
entity. Moreover, as the programs of the various 
American republics progressed, it was possible in 
some cases to remove certain of the lesser offenders 
even though not primarily listed for comiection 
with one of the eliminated or cleaned-up Pro- 
claimed List entities. Such deletions were possible 
because the security reasons for listing changed 
as the local-controls program in many countries 
became more effective. Thus the list had been re- 
duced to 13,784 names on V-E Day. 

Ill tlie suniiner of 1944 the authorities charged 
with the iiiaiiiteiiance of the Proclaimed List gave 
extensive consideration to the policy which should 
be followed upon the cessation of active hostilities 
in the European theater. It was decided at that 
time that the list should be continued after the 
cessation of active hostilities in Europe but that 
it would be possil)le to make a downward adjust- 
ment in the size of (he list on (lie liasis of the 



(Voiifi 



■il iin iHHie IIS) 



JULY 21. 1<)46 



Preliminary Reports on the First Bikini Atom-Bomb Test 

REPORT OF THE JOINT CHIEFS OF STAFF'S EVALUATION BOARD 



[Released to the press by the White House July 11] 

The President has received the following pre- 
liminary report on the First Bikini Atoin-Bonih 
Test from the President's Evaluation Conimis- 
sion, which witnessed the test on July 1st. 

The report, signed in behalf of the commission 
by the chairman, Senator Carl A. Hatch, New 
Mexico, was transmitted by radio from the U.S.S. 
Momit McKinley., flagship of Admiral Blandy, off 
Bikini. 

The other members of the President's Commis- 
sion are : Senator Leverett Saltonstall, Massachu- 
setts; Representative Chet Holifield, California; 
Representative Walter G. Andrews, New York; 
Edward U. Condon, director, U.S. Bureau of 
Standards, Washiiiiilnn. D.C: Karl T. Compton, 
president, MassachuM'tls Institute of Technology, 
Cambridge, Mass.; Bradley Dewey, Cambridge, 
Mass. ; William S. Newell, Bath. Me. ; Fred Searls, 
New York, N. Y. 

Text of the report: 
Dear Mr. President: 

Your Evaluation Commission, divided between 
positions at sea and in the air, witnessed the First 
Bikini Test, at 33 seconds after 9 : 00 A.M. local 
time on July 1st, and has since completed a survey 
of the damage. The Second Test, wherein the 
bomb will be exploded under water, will in some 
respects be of even greater interest, for it will have 
no precedent. 

The report of your Commission required by its 
directive of May ISth must await the assembling 
of considerable data deriving from instrumental 
and photographic measurements and analysis of 
fission product samples. However, we believe that 
it lies within the scope of your directive and may 
be of possible assistance to you, to submit, now, 
the following brief observations made from the 
layman's point of view, but with such accuracy as 
is presently available: 

1. The organization and execution of the opera- 
tion was magnificently handled and has com- 
manded our continuous admiration. The bomb 
was dropped under favorable weather conditions 
about 30 seconds after the time set. The greatest 
credit is due Admiral Blandy and the officers and 
enlisted personnel of both services who, with scien- 



tists and other civilians, have served and are serv- 
ing under him with a display of team work that 
must be seen to be fully appreciated. 

•1. Their conservatively safe distance from the 
burst led many obsciveis (o entertain an initial 
opinion that the bdinb ciniiloyrd was somewhat 
under par. It is now, however, ^ate to state that 
the energy was of the same order of magnitude as 
in the case of previous atomic detonations, between 
the highest and lowest of this bomb's three pred- 



3. The accuracy of the drop was such that the 
explosion occurred within the area included within 
the allowance for the probable error of the eleva- 
tion of drop, and detonation was probably within 
100 feet of the chosen altitude. Nevertheless, the 
explosion actually occurred several hundred yards 
west of a point directly above the target ship 
Nevada and therefore entirely west of the closely 
spaced array of capital ships. 

4. There were 90 targets anchored in the lagoon 
when tlie bomb exploded. These were not in battle 
formation liiit were placed in positions to give the 
largest amount of desired technical information 
with especially close concentration around the cen- 
ter target point. Those ships anchored a mile or 
more from the point of drop liiigely escaped in- 
jury. Those within a inilt- wcic -mdc or suffered 
damage varying with tlie distance from the point 
of detonation and with the type of ship construc- 
tion. On explosion, a destroyer and two trans- 
ports sank promptly. A secoiul destroyer and the 
Japanese cruiser Sakaira sank within twenty- 
seven hours. The light carrier Independence was 
gutted with fire and resultant explosions. The 
submarine Shate was heavily damaged and later 
towed away. All of these were near the point of 
explosion. The other ships, including the only 
two capital ships which were within one-half mile 
of the detonation, received damage that would re- 
quire more or less complete overhaul and in most 
cases repair at major bases before they could again 
be used for combat. A study of this damage will 
point the way to changes in design which should 
minimize damage from blast and heat. Beyond 
these ships there was extensive damage to super- 
structure, radar, and fire control. Had the ships 



776 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



within the damage area been manned, casualties 
and psychological injuries would have required a 
large percentage of replacements. Until the 
readings of complex instruments and the future 
life history of animals within the ships have been 
determined no accurate appraisal of potential dam- 
age to humans within the ships can be made. 

5. No wave or blast damage could be noticed 
on Bikini Island, which is approximately three 
miles from the point of detonation. 

6. We are of the unanimous opinion that the 



first test amply justified the expenditure required 
to conduct it and tliat the second test is equally 
desirable and necessary. You made a wise de- 
cision when you approved the plans for these tests 
and they have been carried out with extraordinary 
skill, diligence and ingenuity. The test just com- 
pleted has again proven that the atomic bomb is 
a weapon of terrific power when used on land or 
sea. 

Most respectfully yours, 

Carl A. Hatch 



REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT'S EVALUATION COMMISSION 



[Rele.ised to the press by the White House July 11] 

In compliance with its directive from the Joint 
Chiefs of Staff, the Evaluation Board for the 
Atomic Bomb Tests has submitted a preliminary 
report of the test held at Bikini Atoll on July 1, 
1946. The members of this Board were : 
Dr. Karl T. Compton, Chairman 
]\Ir. Bradley Dewey, Deputy Chairman 
Mr. Thomas F. Farrell 
Gen. Joseph AV. Stilwell, U.S.A. 
Lt. Gen. Lewis H. Brereton, U.S.A. 
Rear Admiral W. R. Purnell, U.S.N. 
Rear Admiral R. A. Ofstie, U.S.N. 
Tlie report which follows covers the general ob- 
servations of this Board. 
Text of report: 

The members of the Board inspected target ships 
the day before the test, witnessed the explosion 
from an airplane twenty miles distant, and then 
approached to within nine miles of the atoll for 
a brief view. On the following day, as soon as 
safety clearance had been received, the members 
flew to Bikini and began their examination of ship 
damage. Many photographs have been studied, 
and military and scientific specialists interviewed 
in an attempt to obtain an over-all understanding 
of test results prior to the compilation of all the 
data. 

From its previous study of the plans for the 
test, and from its observations in the Bikini area, 
the Board considei's that the test was well con- 
ceived and executed by the services in close coop- 
eration with a large civilian staff. It is satisfied 
that the conditions of the test were well-chosen 
and that the highest skill and ingenuity have been 
used to obtain a maximum amount of data in an 



unbiased, scientific manner. It believes that the 
commander, staff, and iHMS<innel of Task Force 
One deserve high conniiendation for tlieir excel- 
lent performance and tlieir notable cooperative 
spirit. 

Effective precautions appear to have been taken 
to safeguard personnel against radioactivity and 
associated dangers. 

The Board's present information is that the bomb 
exploded, with an intensity which approached the 
best of the three previous atomic bombs, over a 
point 1500 to 2000 feet westerly of the assigned 
target, and at appi'oximately the planned alti- 
tude. 

The target array in no sense represented an 
actual naval disposition but was designed to ob- 
tain the maximum data from a single explosion. 
The most important effects produced by the bomb 
are the following: 

a. A destroyer and two transports sank prompt- 
ly and another destroyer capsized. It later sank, 
and the Japanese cniiser Sukaiim sank the follow- 
ing day. The siiiH'r>lnHtuie of the submarine 
Skate was so badly damaged as to make it unsafe 
to submerge the vessel. The light carrier Inde- 
pendence was badly wrecked by the explosion, 
gutted by fire, and further damaged by internal 
explosions of low order, iiicliuliiig those of tor- 
pedoes. All the above vessels were within one-half 
mile of the explosion point. 

h. Numerous fires wei'e started on other ships, 
including one on a ship two miles distant, which 
was apparently due to some unusual circumstance 
since the other fires were much closer. Here it 
should be remembered that the target ship decks 
carried a great variety of test material not ordi- 
narily exposed on the decks of naval vessels. 



JULY 21, 1946 

e. The only major combatant ships within one- 
lialf mile of the explosion point were the battle- 
ships Nevada and Arkansas and the heavy cruiser 
Pensacola. The blast struck these from the after 
quarter. Apparently little damage was done to 
their hulls or their main turrets but their super- 
structures were badly wrecked. These ships were 
unquestionably put out of action and would, along 
with many others within three-fourths of a mile, 
have required extensive repairs at a principal naval 
base. 

d. Other ships in the target array suffered dam- 
age in varying degree, depending on position and 
type of ship, but there was relatively little dam- 
age at distances greater than three-foui'ths of a 
mile. 

e. The primary material effects noted were due 
to blast, buckling of decks and bulkheads, and 
destruction or deformation of lightly constructed 
exposed objects, including stacks, masts, and anten- 
nae. Secondary effects were due to fire, and it is 
noteworthy that Army Quartermaster stores and 
miscellaneous equipment placed on the decks for 
the test proved more vulnerable than normal naval 
deck gear. It should be pointed out that since 
the targets carried no personnel the fires were un- 
controlled and undoubtedly there was more dam- 
age than there would have been under battle 
conditions. Singularly, although considerable 
amounts of explosive ordnance were exposed on 
decks and in gun turrets, there is no indication 
on ships which remained afloat that any of this 
material was exploded by direct action of the 
atomic bomb. Fire-fighting ships entered the tar- 
get area as soon as they could obtain radiological 
security permission and subdued a number of fires. 
The speed and efficiency with which these ships 
acted preserved for later examination a great deal 
of evidence of bomb action which might otherwise 
have been lost. 

/. Examination of the flashburn effects produced 
by the initial radiation from the explosion indi- 
cates that casualties would have been high among 
exposed personnel. However, it is the opinion 
of the Board that persons sheltered within the 
hull of a ship or even on deck in the shadow of 
radiation from the bomb would not have been im- 
mediately incapacitated by burns alone, whatever 
might have been the subsequent radiological effects. 

g. Within the area of extensive blast damage to 
ship superstructures there is evidence that person- 



117 



nel within the ships wotdd have been exposed to a 
lethal dosage of radiological effects. 

Personnel casualties due to blast would no doubt 
have been high for those in exp(isc<l positions on 
vessels within one-half mile of thf laiizit center. 
Beyond this, any discussion of tlie lilasi cUcit upon 
personnel will have to await the detailed reports 
of the medical specialists. 

In <^rni'ral no significant unex]ici-(<Ml lilicnomena 
occniTi'il. alili(iiiL;h the test was (IrsiLiiHMl (o cope 
with (•(iiisitlcraMe variation frcjiii predictions. 
There was no large water wave formed. The 
radioactive residue dissipated in the manner 
expected. No damage occurred on Bikini Island, 
about three miles from the explosion center. 

From what it has seen and from what it has 
ascertained from data now available, the Board is 
able to make certain general observations: 

a. The atomic bomb dropped at Bikini damaged 
more shijas than have ever before been damaged 
by a single explosion. 

h. The test has provided adequate data of a sort 
necessary for the redesign of naval vessels to min- 
imize damage to superstructures and deck per- 
sonnel from this type of bomb. Because of the 
nature of the first test (air burst) little informa- 
tion has been obtained on hull effects. Damage to 
ships' hulls will be studied specifically in the sec- 
oncl test when a bomb will be exploded under 
water. 

c. A vast amount of data which will prove in- 
valuable throughout scientific and engineering 
fields has been made available by this test. Once 
more the importance of large-scale research has 
been dramatically demonstrated. There can be no 
question that the effort and expense involved in 
this test has been amply justified both by the in- 
formation secured and by greatly narrowing the 
range of speculation and argiunent. Moreover, it 
is clear to the Board that only by further large- 
scale research and development can the United 
States retain its present position of scientific lead- 
ership. This must be done in the interests of 
national safety. 

The Board desires to say that it has had the 
fullest cooperation of the task force commander, 
and that every opportunity has been afforded it in 
carrying out its mission. The members of the 
Board have had access to all data thus far accumu- 
lated and have had every facility for personally 
inspecting the results of the test. 



7/8 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Duty of Hiolier Education in Creating 
International Understanding 



REMARKS BY THE PRESIDENT 



It's a pleasure to me to be able to welcome you 
to Washington this morning. I understand that 
one of your tremendous problems is a result of the 
war. So many people now want education who 
didn't want it before, that you are having a diffi- 
cult time taking care of all of them. Of course. 
I was led to believe that the war would ruin all 
education, but it seems to have stimulated it. 

We don't believe in wars any more, of course, 
but I do believe that if we can implement the 
United Nations Organization with a police force 
behind it sufficient to make its mandates stand up. 
we can have M'orld peace, just as we finally after 
80 years — at the end of the Civil War— obtained 
peace in the United States. We had to take time 
out to fight among ourselves, before we could make 
up our minds that the States ought to live together 
peaceably. 

International dealings are no different from 
those carried on among individuals. Nations rep- 
resent a connnunity of individuals, and there isn't 
any more reason why we can't understand each 
other as nations than why we can't understand 
each other as individuals. 

Now it is your duty, as the educators of the 
country, to get the rising generation to believe 
that; and if you can overcome those prejudices 
which cause wars — I'eligions prejudices, economic 
prejudices, misunderstandings between races and 
people of different languages — we can accomplish 
this. 

You know, it would be as easy as coiild be to 
create a world peace if everybody in the world 
spoke the same language and read the same news- 
papers, and had a code of morals based on the 
necessity for people to live together. Unless we 
have a code of morals which respects the other 
fellow's interests and in which we believe that we 
should act as we would be acted by, you never 
can maintain peace. 

The happiest thing to me is the fact that these 

'Made in Washington on July 11 to the educators at- 
tendiiii,' the Conference on Emergency Problems in Higher 
Education, under the auspices of the American Council 
on Education, and released to the press by the White 
House on the same date. 



returned soldiers an.d sailors, marines, Wacs and 
Waves, and so forth, are giving you such a head- 
ache on education. I hope they will continue to 
do that. And if tliey do. I think the c(nintiT is 
perfectly safe. 

It is a pleasiu-e for me to have you here tliis 
morning, and to lie al)k' to make a few off-the-cuff 
remarks on a s\ibject that is very close to my 
heart. When a man wants an education badly 
enough, he usually manages to get it ; but it has 
been our system to make it easy for him to get that 
education, and we want that to continue — although 
sometimes the struggle for something that is 
worthwhile makes it all the better, after you get it. 

Thank you very much. 

I hope you will have a successful meeting. 



PROCLAIMED LIST— Cmitinucil from page 114 
changed securily situation following V-E Day. 
This revision actually took place in two stages. 

The names of minor otfemlers were culled from 
the list and deleted in June 19-15. In this supple- 
ment 1,98() names were deleted, most of which were 
minor offenders deleted in view of the changed 
security situation rather than on the merits of the 
individual case. These deletions, together with 
certain group deletions, based upon the effective- 
ness of local controls in the Western Hemisphere, 
aiul taking into account certain additions, reduced 
tlie list to 11,443 names on V-J Day. 

After the minor offenders had been deleted and 
certain group deletions had been accomplished 
for the Western Hemisphere, the remaining names 
.were reviewed case by case in order to select the 
worse offenders. After this selection had been 
made all other names were deleted from the list 
in November 1945. The November supplement 
contained 5,081 deletions, leaving a "hard core" 
of G,053 names. Since the deletion to the "hard 
core" there have been relatively few deletions from 
the list, which is quite understandable in view of 
the fact that the whole list was reviewed case by 
case before the issuance of the November supple- 
ment. There were, however, some deletions from 
the list and also some additions, so that the list 
wlicn witlidrawn consisted of 5.887 names. 



JVLY 21. ]9ih 



Report to the President on 1945-46 
Famine-Relief Food Shipments^ 



STATEMENT BY THE PRESIDENT 

[Ueleaseil to tlio press by tlir White II,, use July VI] 

Every American ciin take in'ide in (he record of 
aeeoniplislunent in sliii)i)in<i' food for relief as 
sliown in tlie attael;ed report whicli 1 have re- 
ceived from Secretary t)f Agriculture Clinton P. 
Anderson. 

Only by cooperation and determined effort on 
the part of everyone has it been possible to make 
good on our jtromises — and. in the case of food 
grains, to exceed our commitments. The public 
generally, food [)roducers and handlers, transpor- 
tation companies, organizations, and government 
agencies — all have helped to make this impressive 
record jiossiMe. 

Oidy liy i-ontiiiued cooperation among all of us 
can we as a ualion do our full share in the months 
to come to relieve the hunger that still exists in the 
world. 

The importance of this effort in relieving human 
suffering and establishing world peace cannot be 
overestimated. 

TEXT OF REPORT 

The United States exported more than KiLS mil- 
lion long tons of foodstuffs during the year which 
ended June 30. Th(> great bulk of these shipments 
went to war-tlevaslatcil countries where starva- 
tion threatened. These exports from the United 
States were by far the greatest contribution made 
to the wiiiid's hungry during this first year of 
reconsi riii'tion. 

The 400 inillion bushel "bread" grain export 
comniitmeiU for the year was met by June 30. 
AVheat and flour exports (10,330,000 tons), plus 
the corn and corn products shipped after May 1 
from stocks acquired under the corn "bonus" plan, 
reached a total of 401 million bushels. 

Of the total bi-ead grain exports, 5,.556,000 tons 
were shipped from January 1 through June 30. 
In addition, enough wheat, flour, corn and corn 
products was at ports on July 1, ready for ship 
loading, to bring the total above the six million 
ton (225 million bushel) "goal" for the half-j'ear 



period. This means that the ful 
have left our shores and be on ll 
areas as soon as ships can be load 
probably by the nud.lle of the 



goal totals will 
■ way to hunger 
d and cleared — 
iionth. During 
ts totaled about 
a record for a 



by thi 
June alone, our bi-ead grain expo 
one and one-half million tons- 
similar period. 

Meeting this full goal means actual shipment of 
417 million bushels for the year. The excess of 
17 million bushels above our commitments will not 
be deducted from the planned export of up to 250 
million bushels of wheat during the 1946-47 year. 

The real extent of this acconii)lislnnent in grain 
export is brought oiU. by the fact that the amount 
shipped is nearly double the original requirement 
for the year which was presented to the Combined 
Food Board a year ago. At that time, it was 
thought that we would be called uptm to export 
only aiiont six inillion tons (ii:i."i million bushels) 
for the entire year. 

Adding rice, oats, rye and barley to the "bread" 
grains of the specific commitments, brings the 
total of all grains cxporled durinii. the year to 
11,747,000 Ion- tnn^-l.y lar 1 lie largest volume in 
the total food shipniciUs. (naiiis, high in calories 
per unit and easily handled, were the greatest need 
of the hungi'y nations. 

Second in importance for relief and in the 
amounts shipped were fats and oils, dairy prod- 
ucts, and meats. The totals for the year W'ere: 
dairy products. 7(;4.oo(i tons; meats, (114,000 tons; 
and fats and <iils. .•',.")<;.oOo tons. 

In addition to ihesc major commodities, a total 
of more (lian :'>.l'0().(i(io tons of other foodstuffs 
were exported during the year. These exports 
included dry beans and peas, potatoes and sweet 
jjotatoes, fruits and vegetables, sugar, eggs, and 
canned fish. 

Our great contribution in meeting world food 
shortages may be measured by the fact that of all 
food distributed from United States supplies in 
1045-40. one out of every six pounds went over- 



' .Submitted b.v Clinton P. An<lers 
culture, on July 8. 



Seci-etary of Agri 



120 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



seas. By major commodity groups, we sent for- 
eign countries more than 40 percent of the wheat 
that was distributed from our supplies during the 
year, more than 35 percent of the rice, more than 
20 percent of the cheese, more than 10 percent of 
the fats and oils, and about 6 percent of the meat. 

The Need 

It is not necessary to review in detail the needs 
that prompted us as a country to carry through this 
tremendous world feeding program. In your call 
for emergency action last February 6, and in many 
other messages, you as President outlined these 
needs clearly. We have all understood that the 
ravages of war left literally hundreds of millions 
of our fellow men in very real danger of starva- 
tion. We have known that droughts cut down 
production in many parts of the world, increasing 
the demands upon those countries fortunate enough 
to have continued large crop production. And we 
have also known that hunger is a fertile ground for 
anarchy, and not for the building of a stable world 
and a durable peace. 

Cooperative Effort 

It has been against tliis background of urgent 
need that this Government has driven through to 
reach export quotas. Tiial t hey luive been reached 
in practically all cases is a tribute to the teamwork 
of all groups involved. Our farmers not only pro- 
duced record or near record crops for one more 
year, but they also cooperated in getting wheat and 
other commodities to market when the emergency 
became acute. The processing, distribution, and 
trausiJortation industries have all made magnifi- 
cent records in handling the foodstuffs which were 
being sliipped to foreign countries. Our consum- 
ers, seriously inconvenienced at times when their 
favoiite foods disappeared from grocers' shelves, 
have in general accepted the situation with a min- 
imum of complaint. They have known that the 
food they could not buy today was on its way to 
maintain life and health in some war-torn country. 

While the Department of Agriculture has had 
the major responsibility for procuring the food, 
and for instituting many of the emergency meas- 
ures which were necessary to make it available, the 
job could not have been done without the efficient 
cooj)eration of many other government agencies. 
The Inter-Departmental Transportation Commit- 
tee directed a coordinated effort which broke grain 
.^hijiping records during recent weeks. Great 



credit is due the War Shipping Administration, 
the Interstate Commerce Cunuiiission, and the 
Office of Defense Trans])<irtati<in fur the work they 
did in making transpditation available. Your 
Famine Emergency Committee has suggested con- 
structive over-all steps needed in the campaign 
effort, and has helped materially in informing the 
nation of the urgent need for food from the United 
States. 

Emergency Measures 

Many emergency measures and special regula- 
tions were necessary in order to meet our export 
commitments and complete the programs. The 
Department of Agriculture ordered set-asides for 
Government purchase of a number of commodities. 
It was necessary to limit the use of wheat and 
other grains in livestock feeding, and to limit the 
amount of flour available for human consumption. 
The special "bonus" programs for wheat and corn 
were necessary in order to get grain to market in 
time to meet shipping schedules. 

Continuing Needs 

While it can be reported that we are nearing the 
end of the most urgent crisis for this year, and 
that the worst of the immediate dangers of famine 
have been forestalled, serious food needs abroad 
will continue for some time. Devastated coun- 
tries cannot return to normal in a single year. 
When this year's harvests are completed for the 
northern hemisphere, we shall know a good deal 
more about the situation. In the meantime, we 
must continue relief shipments and be ready to 
meet at least the miniminn future needs. 

The Department of Agi'iculture has already an- 
nounced that by continuing conservation and wise 
use of supplies at home up to 250 million bushels of 
wheat can be made available for export during the 
1946—47 year. Tentative plans are also being made 
for our shipments of other major commodities. 

Commodity Shipments in 1945-46 

Grains — A year ago it was indicated that the 
United States would be called on to export about 
225 million bushelsi of wheat during -1945—46. 
Later, in the fall, the total was I'aised to 325 
million. By December, UNRRA, France, and 
other claimants had been forced to raise their esti- 
mates of minimum requii-ements several times, and 
the United States agreed to undertake the export of 
a record total of 400 million bushels during the 



JULY 21, 1946 



121 



year. At that time advance estimates placed 
wheat and flour exports at 175 million bushels for 
the last six months of 1945. "We therefore set a 
goal of 225 million for the January-June 1946 
period, to bring the total for the year to the 400 
million bushel commitment. 

Later reports show that 192 million bushels of 
wheat and flour were actually shipped before Jan- 
uary 1, leaving only 208 million to reach the 400 
total. W& chose, however, to stick to the 225 mil- 
lion bushel (six million ton) "goal" figure which 
had already been announced. In effect, therefore, 
we have been working against a 400 million bushel 
commitment for the year, and a 417 million bushel 
goal. We knew from the first that all we could 
ship would not be enough to meet all needs, and we 
therefore have niade every effort to exceed the 
commitment. 

"We have now passed the 400 million commit- 
ment, and will very soon reach the 417 million 
bushel goal. 

Meats — It is estimated that approximately 614,- 
000 long tons of meat and meat products were 
actually shipped to foreign claimants during the 
12 months, not including shipments to U.S. terri- 
tories. This compares with the stated 1946 calen- 
dar year goal of 714,000 long tons. During the 
past 12 months, procurement activities were com- 
plicated by such factors as work stoppages in pro- 
duction, and shortages in supply during at least 
part of the year. The 1945^6 shipments repre- 
sented 5.9 percent of total U.S. meat output during 
the year. 

Of the 614,000 total which went for export, ap- 
proximately 379,000 tons were procured by the 
Department of Agriculture, while 215,000 tons 
came from military stocks for such outlets as 
UNRRA and U.S. military civilian feeding. In 
addition, about 20,000 tons were exported com- 
mercially. 

UNRRA received nearly half the total 614,000 
tons shipped to foreign claimants, exports to this 
outlet accounting for 288,000 tons. "Virtually all 
of the meat which went to UNRRA was for Euro- 
pean destinations. Of the total 614,000 tons of 
meat exported, 588,000 tons went to Europe, in- 
cluding the countries served by UNRRA. The 
remainder was exported to outlets in the Far East, 
Latin American republics, and others. 

Fats and Oils — High on tlie list of food products 
needed for foreign relief feeding and for other es- 
sential exports were fats and oils. It was recog- 



nized at the beginning of the 1945-46 year that 
we would be faced with a continuing world short- 
age of these commodities. Appraisal of the sit- 
uation after the end of the war in the Pacific in- 
dicated little alleviation of the tight supply for 
some months to come. Sources in that area had 
been devastated by the war, and re-establishment 
of supplies has taken more time than had been 
anticipated. The situation called for the most effi- 
cient management of available world supplies, in- 
cluding those from U.S. sources. 

According to our estimates, it is indicated that 
actual shipments to the outlets for which alloca- 
tions were established reached slightly more than 
356,000 long tons of edible fats and oils. The goal 
for the 1946 calendar year was set at 347,000 tons, 
or 375,000 tons including both edible and inedible 
products. 

Of the 356,000 long tons exported, 268,000 went 
to Europe, with the remainder going to countries 
in the Far East, to Latin American republics, and 
others. Approximately 73,000 tons, or 27 percent 
of the total which went to Europe, was for 
UNRRA. Other large recipients included: the 
LTnited Kingdom and British Services Overseas, 
France and French North Africa. 

Dairy products— M.ei\?,\ive([ against a tight sup- 
ply situation in the U.S. was the pressure of rec- 
ord demand — both from the need for these prod- 
ucts in foreign relief programs, and from U.S. 
civilians. Tentative plans for exports, imple- 
mented by allocations, were drawn up for the 1945- 
46 year. The products most in demand for foreign 
use are cheese, and condensed, evaporated, and 
dried milk. 

The estimated export shipments are indicated to 
be 764,000 long tons. The shipments represent 28 
percent of total distribution of these products in 
the fiscal year. 

Of the approximately 764,000 long tons exported 
during the 12-month period, about 88 percent, or 
669,000 tons, went to European countries. Ship- 
ments to UNRRA — in the amount of 316,000 tons — 
made up 14 percent of all shipments to Europe. 
The United Kingdom and British Services Over- 
seas were the next largest recipients, followed by 
such countries as France and French North Africa, 
and Belgium. Relatively small shipments went to 
the Far East, and other outlets. 

The following table gives the preliminary report 
on exports during the year, by major food groups 
and by destination : 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

Table 1: Food Exports" From the United States by Destination, Fiscal Year 1945-46 

(Preliminary) 

(In thousands of long tons] 



Destination 


Total 


Wheatand 

(grain 
equiv.) » 


other 

fSSn 
equiv.) " 


ratsana 

(product 
weight) ■! 


Meat 

we'ight 
equiv.) 


Dairy 
products • 


other 
foods ' 




1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


V 


Total food exports 


16, 700 


10, 336 


1,411 


356 


614 


764 


3,219 


Europe— Total 


11,647 


7,454 


655 


268 


588 


669 


2,013 


UNRRA t 


3,951 

2,351 

1,959 

779 

394 

68 

1,086 

123 

936 

1,400 

164 

573 

315 

300 

48 

1,384 

2,269 


2,624 

1,535 

1,408 

541 

304 

12 

306 

36 

688 

879 

127 

427 

160 

164 

936 
1,067 


227 
64 
80 
74 
17 
30 
26 
11 
126 
346 
i37 
120 
78 
84 
27 
243 
167 


73 
13 
61 
19 
11 

4 
69 

8 
10 

4 



; 


3 
52 
32 


288 
16 
60 
48 
27 

99 
46 
3 
5 


1 

4 

10 
11 


311 
45 
47 
33 
21 

196 
5 
13 
29 
(») 

23 
6 
(^) 
14 
52 


428 


U. S. Military civilian feeding 

France and French North Africa 

Belgium 

Netherlands 

Norway 

U K and B S 


680 
303 
64 
14 
21 
390 


U. S. S. R 


96 
137 


Far East- Total 

UNRRA 


U. S. MiUtary civilian feeding 

Philippines 


26 


India 

Netherlands East Indies 


46 
13 






Other exports 


940 



» Excludes shipments to U. S. Territories except for wheat and flour, amounting to approximately 4 million bushels 
wheat equivalent. 

•> Excludes other wheat products which are less than one half of one percent of total exports. 

" Includes corn and corn products, rice, oats, rye, and barley, including malt. 

•1 Total edible use including a very small quantity of butter. Includes oil equivalent of soybeans shipped as beans 
and of peanuts shipped to UNRRA. 

" Includes cheese, condensed, evaporated, and dried milk. 

' Includes sugar, beans and peas, fish, eggs, poultry, vegetables, fruits, sirups, soups, tea, coffee, cocoa, etc. 

' Less than 500 tons. 

>" May include some food for UNRRA in the Far East. 

' May include a small quantity of rice for UNRRA in Europe. 



Corrigendum 

TREATY OBLIGATIONS AND PHILIPPINE 
INDEPENDENCE 



Reply of Belgian Government to U.S. Note 

In Bulletin of July 14, 1946, p. 79, second col- 
umn, line 6, change "the most-favoured-national 
provisions" to read "the most-favoured-nation 
provisions". 



JULY 21, 1946 



123 



U.S. Prepared to Renounce Its Share 
in German Assets in Austria 



[Released to the press July 10] 

The following is tlie text of a note delivered by 
General Mark W. Clark to the Austrian Govern- 
ment: 

Tlie President of the United States as one of 
the signers of the Potsdam Agreement has directed 
me to inform the Austrian Government that the 
United States Government is now prepared to 



enter into negotiations with other Allied Govern- 
ments and with the Austrian Government look- 
ing towards the renunciation of the United States 
share in German assets in Austria as part of a 
general settlement of German assets in Austria.^ 
While these negotiations are underway the 
United States Government now agrees to turn 
over to the Austrian Government as trustee all 
German assets physically located in the United 



' Following is tlie text of tlie order of the Soviet Com- 
uiaiider in Chief in Austria as quoted by a TASS dispatch 
publislied July 6, 1946 in the Red Army newspaper Oester- 
reichische Zeitung under the headline, "German Assets in 
Austria Have Become Property of Soviet Union" : 

Okder of the Supreme Comma.ndeb of Sovibt OcctJPATiON 
Tboops in ArSTKIA 

Subject: Transfer of German property in eastern Aus- 
tria to the ownership of the U. S. S. R. 

In accordance with the decisions of the Berlin Confer- 
ence of the three powers concerning the transfer of Ger- 
man property in eastern Austria to the Soviet Union as 
partial reparation for the damage inflicted by Germany 
upon the U. S. S. R., I command : 

1. All Austrian authorities and the entire population of 
the Soviet zone of occupation are to be informed that 
German property located in eastern Austria which be- 
longed to the German Reich, to German firms, societies, 
organizations, and any other physical or juridic persons 
have passed into the possession of the Union of the Social- 
ist Soviet Republics as German reparations. 

2. The conduct of the above-mentioned property will be 
handed over to the Administration for Soviet Property in 
eastern Austria. 

3. All authorities, bureaus, organizations, and private 
persons, as well as anyone who has in custody or is ad- 
ministering the property and possessions, which according 
to paragraph 1 of this order have passed into the posses- 
sion of the Soviet Union, have to transfer these to the 
Administration for Soviet Property in eastern Austria 
in the manner and within the period prescribed by said 
Administration. In the course of the transfer and taking 
over of this property the Administration for Soviet Prop- 
erty in eastern Austria, together with the above-mentioned 
organizations and persons must: 

(a) Formulate the transfer of the former German prop- 
erties into the possession of the Soviet Union in a legal 
manner and register the transfer of this property ; 

(6) Prepare documents concerning the transfer and the 
taking over in 4 copies. 

4. The stocks, shares, and mine shares of any value 
whatsoever which belonged to the German owners and 



are not delivered in accordance with this order, are to be 
considered null and void. 

The Administration of Soviet Property in eastern Austria 
is authorized : 

(u) To is.sue new shares and certificates in place of the 
annulled shares, stocks, and mine shares. 

( 6 ) To prepare legal forms concerning the completed 
transfer, as well as to determine the nature, the extent, 
and the legal form in which these properties are in future 
to be administered. 

5. All contracts, business transactions, and other legal 
negotiations which are injurious to the projierty rights 
of the Soviet Union concerning these German properties 
are declared null and void. 

6. The mayors of all cities, the officials of all state or- 
gans, of all bezirks and communities in eastern Austria, in 
whose territory former German property is located which 
has not yet been taken over by the Administration of Soviet 
Property in eastern Austria, are to take the necessary 
steps to safeguard such property and to reijort it to the 
Soviet local commanders within 10 days from the day of 
proclamation of this order. 

7. All ofiicials of bureaus, organizations, firms, facto- 
ries, and all other private individuals who have knowledge 
of former German property which has not yet been taken 
over by the Administration for Soviet Property are ob- 
ligated to make a report within 10 days to the Soviet 
Local Command or directly to the Administration for 
Soviet Property in eastern Austria of such property, 

S. In all factories which have passed into the possession 
uf the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics the existing reg- 
ulations are to be maintained, and the conditions to be 
safeguarded which guarantee the rights and interests of 
workers and employees according to the laws of the 
Austrian Republic. 

9. All persons who under any pretext whatsoever with- 
hold notification of where the above-named property is 
found, wlio attempt to conceal such fact or give misleading 
information, as well as all persons who through their acts 
in any way hinder the application of this order or damage 
the above-named property, are subject to punitive action. 
The Supreme Commander of the 

Occupation Troops in Austria 

Colonel General Kxjrasov. 



124 



States zone. It assures the Austrian Government 
that such assets may immediately be used for jjur- 
Ijoses of reconstruction in Austria without fear of 
removal of the plant and equipment from the 
United States zone in Austria but with the ques- 
tion of ownership to be resolved later. 

The United States Government also wishes to 
make clear that it will recognize no physical trans- 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

fer of propert}' as conforming to the terms of the 
Potsdam Agreement which does not also conform 
to the terms of the United Nations Declaration on 
forced transfer for January 1943 and which does 
not leave to Austria the sovereign control of an 
independent country over the resouixes within its 
borders which was envisaged in the Moscow 
Declaration of 1943. 



Soviet Writers Complete Visit to U.S. 



[Released to the press July 12] 

Assistant Secretary William Benton has re- 
ceived the following letter ' from the three Russian 
writers who recently toured the United States as 
guests of the Department of State : 

Abandoning the shores of the United States we 
wish to express to you our common deep gratitude 
for your excellent attention to us and for that 
attention which the State Department showed us 
in your name. 

We were glad to travel about your country, 
making use of the kind and authoritative help 
of the State Department. We think that mutual 
travels of representatives of culture will assist 
the cooperation and the friendship between our 
countries, and we are very glad that on this trip 
we encountered the aid of the State Department 
in your person. 

We are also glad to have the opportunity to 
write you that your assistants Messrs. Neal, Nel- 
son, and Williams, who kindly gave us help at 
your directions, not only did help us but during the 
time of our joint journeys became our sincere 
friends. 

Once more we heartily thank you. 
Sincerely yours, 

KONSTANTIN SiMINOV, 

Major General M. R. Galaktionov 
Ilta Ehrenburg 

The Soviet writers came to the United States 
in April, at the invitation of the American Society 
of Newspaper Editors, to addi'ess the Society's 
convention. They remained for 10 weeks as guests 
of the Department. 

"I hope that the visit of the Messrs. Ehrenburg, 
Siminov and Galaktionov may symbolize, for the 

' Translation. 



future, increasing interchanges between the schol- 
ars, writers and scientists of the Soviet Union and 
the United States"', Mr. Benton said. "Such in- 
terchanges offer one of the most promising means 
for achieving better understanding among peoples 
everywhere. If favorable action is taken on H.R. 
4982, the basic legislation for our information and 
cidtural exchange program, which is now before 
Congress, it will be possible for us to extend to 
the Eastern hemisphere the systematic progi'am 
for stimulating the exchange of persons which now 
exists for Latin-America." 

The Russian writers were given complete free- 
dom to go wherever in the United States they 
pleased. Representatives of the Department of 
State accompanied them only at such times as they 
requested, helping with travel an-angements and 
serving as interpreters, since none of the three 
speaks English. 

The visitors spent most of their time in New 
York City because they were primarily interested 
in meeting writers and artists. Mr. Ehrenburg, 
who is a correspondent for Isvestia, visited Har- 
vard University with Mr. Siminov, and toured 
the South. 

General Galaktionov, who is military editor of 
Pravda, visited the United States Military Acad- 
emy, and made a trip to Chicago, where he was 
the guest of the Inland Press Association and 
inspected newspaper and printing jDlants. 

Mr. Siminov, who is a member of the Soviet 
Film Committee, visited Los Angeles and Holly- 
wood. In Hollywood he proposed the creation of 
an American-Russian film council to facilitate 
exchanges of movies and of film personnel between 
the United States and the Union of Soviet Social- 
ist Republics. 

All three visited Detroit en route to Canada. 
They sailed from Boston on June 26. 



JULY 21, 1946 



Military Assistance to China ^ 



The following letter from the Secretary of State 
to the Speaker of the Rouse of Representatives, 
londer date June 12, 19Jfi, strongly recoTmnends 
the early enactment of this legislation: ^ 

j\Iy Dear Mr. Speaker : I am transmitting here- 
with a draft of a proposed bill to provide military 
advice and assistance to the Eepublic of China to 
aid it in modernizing its armed forces for the ful- 
fillment of obligations which may devolve upon it 
under the Charter of the United Nations, and for 
other purposes, which the Department recom- 
mends be enacted into law. 

The proposed bill has been prepared in collab- 
oration with the War and Navy Departments, 
and has the full endorsement, of General of the 
Army George C. Marsliall. 

The purpose of the proposed bill is to provide 
advice and assistance to the Republic of China in 
modernizing its armed forces for the fulfillment 
of obligations which may devolve upon the Repub- 
lic of China under international agreements, and 
for other purposes. Under the draft bill the 
President would be authorized, in his discretion, 
to provide to the Republic of China training and 
instruction for Chinese military and naval jjer- 
sonnel, plans and technical advice and informa- 
tion. The training and instruction of Chinese 
military and naval personnel might be carried on 
to a limited extent in service schools in this coun- 
try as well as in China. 

The President would likewise be authorized to 
dispose to the Republic of China of arms and am- 
munition and other property of the United States 
except naval vessels and other naval supplies and 
equipment. Such disposal would be effected by 
sale, exchange, lease, gift or transfer for cash, 
credit, or other property, with or without war- 
ranty, or upon such other terms as the President 
may deem proper. Such disposal may, however, 
be made only if it is consistent with the military 
and naval requirements of the United States. 
Naval vessels and other naval supplies and equip- 
ment have been excepted from the provisions of 
the draft bill relating to the disposal of Govern- 
ment-owned jji'operty, inasmuch as they are the 
subject of separate legislation. The draft bill con- 



tains, in section 2, safeguards for the security of 
any information or property that may be fur- 
nished to the Republic of China by this Govern- 
ment and provisions preventing, except with the 
consent of the President of the United States, the 
retransfer of title to or possession of any property 
transferred to the Republic of China under the 
legislation. 

Section 3 of the proposed bill would authorize 
the President, upon application from the Republic 
of China, to detail officers and enlisted men of the 
United States Army, Navy, and Marine Corps to 
assist the Republic of China by means consonant 
with the purpose of the bill. Provision is made 
concerning the payment of such additional com- 
pensation as might be necessary to make appropri- 
ate adjustments for the increased cost of living 
which would be occasioned by such detail. Per- 
sonnel detailed would receive pay and allowances 
as entitled in the United States Army, Navy, or 
Marine Corps, and would be allowed the same 
credit for longevity, retirement, and all other pur- 
poses that they would receive if they were serving 
with the armed forces of the United States. 

Section 4 of the proposed bill authorizes the 
appropriation of moneys to carry out the provi- 
sions of the bill, provided that ai'ticles or services 
furnished shall be within the limits of appi'opria- 
tions made specifically for that purpose or shall be 
surplus to the needs of the Government of the 
United States. Section 5 gives the President 
authority to promulgate such rules and regulations 
as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of 
the bill, and to exercise his authority under the bill 
through such agencies as he may desire. Section 6 
provides that the provisions of the bill shall termi- 
nate 10 years after the date of its enactment. 

I firmly believe that the national interest, includ- 
ing tliis country's interest in the reestablishment 
and preservation of peace and security in Asia, 
requires that tlie United States give aid to the 
Republic of China by assisting that country to 
organize and maintain modern military forces of 

' Printed from H. Rept. 2361. 
. ^ H. R. 6795, to provide military advice and assistance to 
the Republic of China. 



726 

moderate size which will permit China to make a 
substantial contribution to peace in that part of 
the world. 

The Republic of China has already requested 
that this Government send a mission to China to 
give advice and assistance in military matters. 
Under his wartime powers, the President has 
directed the War and Navy Departments to send a 
small advisory gi'oup to China. Missions to pro- 
vide military advice and assistance have previously 
been sent by this country to many other countries, 
including Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, etc., under 
legislation enacted by the Congress in 19'2G and 
amended in 1935 and 1942. This legislation, how- 
ever, does not make provision for a mission to 
China and unless the draft bill or similar legisla- 
tion is passed, authority for the mission to China 
would end with the tei-mination of the President's 
wartime powers. 

Wliile the Republic of China desires to modern- 
ize its armed forces, at the present time and under 
existing conditions it does not possess the facilities 
for such development nor the technical experts 
who can train and reorganize the armed forces. I 
believe that this Government should continue to 
assist China, which has suffered such severe losses 
during the war. Our present programs of military 
assistance to China will be terminated under pro- 
visions of existing law after June 30, 1946, unless 
the proposed legislation or similar legislation is 
enacted. In the national interest, it is extremely 
important that assistance to China continue with- 
out interruption. 

I have been informed by the War and Navy De- 
partments that the property which it is contem- 
plated would be transferred to the Republic of 
China under the draft bill would consist princi- 
pally of excess military equipment and training- 
aids sufficient to accomplish the basic purpose of 
the proposed legislation. 

A similar communication is being sent to the 
President pro tempore, United States Senate. 

The Department has been informed by the Bu- 
reau of the Budget that there is no objection to the 
submission of this proposal to the Congxess for its 
consideration. 

Sincerely yours, 

James F. Byrnes 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

U. S. and Australia Raise 
Legations at Washington and 
Canberra to Embassies 

[Released to the press by the White House July 91 

Following discussions between the President and 
the Acting Secretary of State, Dean Acheson, and 
the Australian Minister of State for External 
Affairs, H. V. P^vatt, formal arrangements have 
been completed between the United States and 
Australian Governments for raising the rank of 
their legations at Washington and Canberra to 
embassies, and of the office of Minister to that of 
Ambassador. This step is the natural consequence 
of the increasingly close and cordial relations be- 
tween Australia and the United States and reflects 
the added importance of the Pacific area in the 
eyes of both Governments. 

President Truman will submit to the Senate the 
nomination of Rnbeit Butler of St. Paul, Minne- 
sota, as first United States Ambassador to Aus- 
tralia. 

The Minister of State for the Navy, Norman 
Makin, will in due course be acci-edited as the first 
Australian Ambassador to the United States. 



Appointment of 
Public-Affairs Officers 

India 

AVilliam C. Jolmstone, Jr., Washington, D.C., 
educator, lias been appointed chief public-affairs 
officer for India for the Office of International 
Information and Cultural Affairs, William T. 
Stone, Director of that Office, announced on July 
10. 

The Soviet Union 

William T. Stone, Director of the Office of Inter- 
national Information and Cultural Affairs, an- 
nounced on July 12 the appointment of Armond 
D. Willis as chief public-affairs officer for OIC in 
the Soviet Union. Mr. Willis will be attached to 
tlie American Embassy at Moscow. 



JULY 21. 1946 



Summary of Non-Military Activities 
in Japan for May 1946' 



Formation of a new cabinet following Japan's 
first post-war election "marked an important step 
in a continuing democratic process which gave the 
Japanese valuable political experience in parlia- 
mentary government," General MacArthur asserts 
in his latest summary of non-military activities in 
Japan. The report, covering the month of May, 
was made public on July 13. 

Tei-ming the highly publicized negotiations 
which resulted in the evolution of the Yosluda Cab- 
inet "a further advance in the democratization of 
Japanese politics," the report states that they sig- 
nalized a sharp break from methods of the past 
when a new premier was generally chosen "in se- 
cret conferences of an inner clique consisting of 
'elder statesmen' and 'circles close to the throne' ". 

Kesignation of the Shidehara Cabinet "as a di- 
rest result of the pi-essure of public opinion" was in 
itself, according to the SCAP summary, "an en- 
couraging advance in Japan's political develop- 
ment". 

With the disappearance of the "inner clique," 
the report declares, the formation of the cabinet 
"was possible only after protracted negotiations 
among the parties represented in a democratically 
elected Diet. It was conducted openly and to the 
accompaniment of a running fire of critical com- 
ment from the press and the public. A valuable 
precedent was thus created for the future." 

Other important developments noted in the re- 
port were the barring from public office of Ichiro 
Hatoyama, former president of the Liberal Party 
and leading candidate for the premiership; the 
increasing number of public demonstrations and 
the Supreme Commander's precautionary wanting 
against violence inspired by irresponsible minori- 
ties; the food crisis which became acute in all the 
major cities ; and the depressing effect of the coal 
shortage on many phases of Japanese economy. 

The forming of the new cabinet, the summary 
declares, did much to clarify the political situation 
after a protracted cabinet crisis which "marked a 
forward step in Japan's progress toward the de- 
velopment of democratic institutions". 

The action of SCAP on May 3 in barring Hato- 
yama from public office under the Purge Directive 



because of his anti-democratic record, the report 
says, ''had been postponed as long as possible to 
give the Japanese Government the chance to take 
this step on their own initiative. When they failed 
to do so, SCAP was compelled to act". 

The barring of Hatoyama, the summary points 
out, "had a salutary effect in reminding the Jap- 
anese Government of SCAP's insistence on strict 
and thorough compliance with the Purge Direc- 
tive". 

Summarizing the negotiations leading up to the 
final organization of the Yoshida Cabinet, termed 
part of a "continuing process" in the development 
of parliamentary institutions, the report states : 

"The Cabinet represents the more conservative 
forces still active in Japanese political life (the ex- 
treme reactionaries, militarists and their sympa- 
thizers have been eliminated for all practical 
purposes). It thus correctly reflects the present 
balance of political forces in the lower House as 
established by popular vote in the April election. 
Over against the conservative Government is a 
vigorous and progressive opposition which will act 
as watchdog for the liberal groups of the populace 
and as a check on the parties in power. It will 
strive to take advantage of the Government's mis- 
takes to build up its own popular strength with the 
aim of eventually succeeding to office. 

'•This points toward the development of a nor- 
mal and healthy parliamentary situation which 
will provide the Japanese with more valuable po- 
litical experience than would have been possible 
under a 'national' coalition government. If the 
Yoshida Cabinet is able to solve outstanding na- 
tional problems to the satisfaction of the country, 
it may expect to remain in office for some time. If 
it fails to do so, it may have to give way to a new 
combination or, should dissatisfaction become too 
strong, it may have to resort to dissolution of the 
Diet and the calling of new elections." 

Participation of approximately 1,000,000 in Ja- 
pan's first May Day labor celebrations in 10 years 

'This summary, released to the press by the War De- 
partment on July 13, is based on Summation No. 8, Non- 
Military Activities in Japan, from General Headquarters, 
Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers. 



128 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



is called "unprecedented" in the report and is cited 
as evidence of the progress of trade unionism. 
The celebrations, according to the summary, "dem- 
onstrated the new freedom which the occupation 
has given to the Japanese people and the political 
vitality of the working class which, properly 
guided, can be a potent force in the democratic re- 
construction of Japan". 

Demonstrations, however, became increasingly 
frequent during May, the summation adds, and 
indicated a growing restlessness "which was 
shrewdly exploited by left-wing political elements. 
Communists and their sympathizers, together with 
left-wing Social Democrats, appear to have played 
the leading role in organizing most of these demon- 
strations." 

"The temper of the jDeopIe as a whole was clearly 
peaceful," the report continues. "Few instances 
of violence occurred and none of a serious nature, 
but the situation held such possibilities th.at on 20 
May the Supreme Commander issued a strong 
warning against the dangers of mass violence and 
physical processes of intimidation by disorderly 
minorities. 

"His statement was prominently displayed in 
(he Japanese press and reactions indicated that it 
had the desii-ed effect. There was a striking de- 
cline in the number of mass demonstrations fol- 
lowing the message." 

Crimes against Occupation Forces were at a low 
rate, the report shows, the majority involving theft 
or unauthorized possession of Army supplies. 
Four Jai:)anese were given prison terms for as- 
saulting two American soldiers. A plot to assas- 
sinate the Supreme Commander received wide 
attention but no incidents occurred and intelli- 
gence agencies continued detailed investigations. 

Relations between the Occupation Forces and 
the civilian populace on the whole remained satis- 
factory, the summary reports, and were not dis- 
turbed by the demonstrations directed against the 
Japanese Government and the food situation. 

During May, the Japanese Government was or- 
dered to apprehend 96 persons suspected of war 
crimes. In ti'ials held in Japan from April 25 to 
May 24, one accused was sentenced to death, two 
were given life imprisonment, and IG others were 
given lesser prison terms. The indictment and 
arraignment of 28 Japanese leaders accused as 
major war criminals were completed during the 
month. 



Turning to the food situation, the report states 
that urban foodstocks reached unjorecedented low 
levels in May as a result of a sharp decline in inter- 
prefectural shipments of rice. The shipments 
were insufficient for the daily ration requirements 
in Tokyo, Yokohama, Nagoya, Kyoto, Osaka, and 
Kobe. 

In Tokyo, the report states, the delay accumu- 
lated over a six-week period causing a daily allot- 
ment of about 80 percent of the current ration of 
1,042 caloi-ies per person. 

The summary points out that increased supplies 
of vegetables and fish, because of their low caloric 
content, failed to compensate for the reduced staple 
food distribution. 

"Manifestations of the critical situation were 
evidenced in increased turnover, absenteeism and 
general lack of efficiency among heavy laborers. 
Supplementary rations for heavy labor were dras- 
tically reduced in all districts and virtually aban- 
doned in the Tokyo- Yokohama area during the 
emergency." 

Local stocks in most surplus-producing prefec- 
tures were lessened by "deficit transfers" which 
jeopardized reserves beyond July or August. 
Farmers proved extremely reluctant to have addi- 
tional stocks removed from their villages, the re- 
port says, and contended that if the Government's 
rice quotas were filled, their diet would dwindle to 
an inadequate level during the months of intense 
farm labor. Local resistance, the summary adds, 
was "often backed by threats to forcibly intercept 
further shipments". 

Through May 10, the Government reported it 
had bought a total of 2,799,000 metric tons of rice 
from the 1945-46 crop Or 83.4 percent of the estab- 
lished quota of 3,355,000 tons. By the same date 
last year, the Govermnent had purchased 98.6 per- 
cent of its 1944-45 quota of 5,585,000 tons. 

Causes of the food shortage, according to the 
report, are the lack of imports upon which Japan 
used to rely for 15 to 20 percent of her food; the 
poor 1945 rice harvest which was 27 percent less 
than the previous year; and the repatriation pro- 
gram which has boosted the population and re- 
duced the amount of food available per capita. 
The poor harvest was said to have been caused by 
bad weather and shortages of labor and of fer- 
tilizer. 

To relieve the crisis in the Tokyo-Yokohama 
area SCAP released 8,705 long tons of imported 



JULY 21, 1946 

wheat flour for distribution from May 21 to 28. 
Since February, 2-1,349.5 long tons of imported and 
U.S. Army foodstuffs were released to the Jap- 
anese Government. 

"These foodstocks," the report states, "were 
excess or in danger of imminent spoilage. As of 
21 May, 166,791 long tons of imported food was 
being held in storage for future distribution. In 
addition to 42,460 long tons of grain from the 
regular import program, this quantity includes 
27.264 long tons of excess U.S. Army food and 
97,067 tons of Army emergency reserve wheat." 

As a result of his food survey in Japan, the 
summary notes, former President Herbert Hoover 
recommended that 870,000 tons of food be im- 
ported by the end of September, the largest quan- 
tities to arrive during June and July when the 
food shortage was expected to be most critical. 

To combat the food shortage, the Government 
organized a land reclamation project to increase 
the amount of cultivated land; encouraged emer- 
gency gardening; attempted to improve fertilizer 
production and proposed a food conservation pro- 
gram. SCAP spurred the fertilizer production 
campaign with a directive to the Japanese Gov- 
ernment on May 17 to give fertilizer production 
and distribution first priority. SCAP officials, 
the rejjort notes, have assisted also in instructing 
Japanese in proper food handling and storage 
and introducing 17 new varieties of sweet pota- 
toes and six varieties of Irish potatoes having 
greater yield, caloric value, or resistance to disease 
than domestic varieties. 

The Hokkaido herring season accounted for 
most of the increase in fish catches from 48,078 
metric tons in March to 303,236 tons in April, the 
report shows. This permitted substantially in- 
creased fish deliveries to consumers in the large 
cities. SCAP granted the Japanese permission on 
May 13 to start building 416 steel fishing ships 
grossing 48,532 tons, and some of these may be 
ready to operate before the end of the year. 

Lumber production, the report states, has in- 
creased fi-om 154,000,000 board feet in February 
to 193,000,000 in April, but log production fell, 
partly because of lack of transportation to move 
the logs already cut. The plywood industry, ac- 
cording to the summary, will have to cease opera- 
tion unless it receives more soybeans for glue 
manufacture. Because of the food shortage, soy- 
beans cannot be obtained for conversion into glue. 



12<J 



Coal production dropped 39,000 metric tons 
from March to April. The reduction resulted in 
part from insufficient incentives to work plus the 
continual low food supply. 

Another deterrent to coal production, the sum- 
mary finds, is the lack of profit incentive. The 
present price and subsidy were calculated on the 
basis of an estimated 200 yen per metric ton as 
a^'erage cost whereas operators say the actual cost 
is now between 250 and 300 yen. 

Gradual increases continued in lead, zinc, and 
copper mining but production is deterred by 
shortages of food, fuel, and equipment. 

Greatest obstacle to production in all heavy 
iiKhisi lies was found to be the coal shortage. The 
iciiitiiiiicil lack of adequate equipment, labor, and 
raw materials were also important factors, the 
report notes. 

Pig-iron fui-naces were operating at 2.5 pei-cent 
of capacity on May 1. Five more electric furnace 
steel producers resumed operations, adding about 
4,000 metric tons to previous monthly capacity in 
operation. Lead smelting and refining showed in- 
creases, as did copper production, but zinc fell 
about 10 percent for lack of fuel. Cement pro- 
duction in April was the highest since the end of 
the war. The machinery industry registered a 
slight gain. 

Construction of Japanese housing, the report 
indicates, is being carried out at the rate of about 
20,000 new houses monthly with a total of 250,000 
house units expected by the end of the year. 
Foundations were laid in May for the first houses 
to accommodate dependents of Allied forces in the 
Tokyo- Yokohama area. 

Most of the food-processing industries made 
satisfactory production gains, the summary states. 
Pulp and paper production continued to rise and 
there were conspicuous 'increases in glassware, 
optical instruments, aluminum household ware, 
riibber goods, sewing machines, and electrical 
e(iuipment. 

A sui'vey found that about one third of Japan's 
121,138 usuable vehicles were not in operation, 
primarily because of lack of parts. Allocations 
of raw materials to parts manufacturers were in- 
creased. Problems facing the manufacture of 
automotive equipment, the report says, included 
inadequate working capital because of currency 
controls and high-pi-iced materials; transporta- 
tion difficulties; shortage of labor and low labor 
efficiency ; and, above all, shortage of materials. 



130 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Cotton-yarn production dropped 822,000 pounds 
in April because of raw-material shortages, the 
summary reports. Production of short-cut silk 
fiber and waste silk yarns declined in April but 
output of wool and worsted yarn showed increases. 
Tire cotton industry was making adjustments in 
May for tlie new cotton supplies expected from the 
United States. 

Government surveys disclosed that more than 
half of the jobless male employables were not seek- 
ing work because they could not sustain regular 
employment on their low-caloric diet. Absentee- 
ism increased as rationing delays forced workers 
to go to the country in search of food. The re- 
cruiting program for textile workers remained 
behind schedule. 

In the public utilities fields, the gas industry 
demonstrated improvements resulting from exten- 
sive repairs. Electric-power supply proved ade- 
quate to meet present demands. Merchant ship- 
ping between Japanese ports increased with the 
availability of additional vessels. Overseas radio- 
telegraph service was established in May between 
Japan and the Hawaiian Islands, as well as be- 
tween Japan and France. The latter service is 
available for government representatives, press 
and business concerns. Radiotelegraph service 
for business concerns was also established between 
Japan and the United States. 

Tlie May report found increasing organizational 
activity among both workers and employers. On 
May 8 the Japanese Government reported 1,690,985 
workers belonging to 3,739 unions, most of them 
in the transportation, communication, mining, and 
manufacturing fields. On May 4 the Federation 
of Iron and Steel Manufacturers, an employer 
group, came into existence embracing about 70 
percent of the industry. The first permanent 
labor-management committee on production and 
labor administration was set up in a coal mine in 
Hokkaido by collective agreement at the end of 
April. 

Labor disputes declined in May although condi- 
tions in the railroad, communications, and educa- 
tion fields remained delicate, the report asserts. 
Wage rates remained constant in many industries 
"although the cost of living was still rising and 
workers were increasingly reliant on the black 
market for goods". According to a Government 
report, wages had risen 200 to 400 percent since 
the end of the war but living costs had spurted 
850 percent. 



On ^May 18 SCAP ordered the Government to 
retain in its budget a 6,000,000,000 yen appropri- 
ation for a public-works program. The Govern- 
ment also made plans for Japan's first large-scale 
vocational training program to train 600,000 per- 
sons yearly in construction, agriculture, fishing, 
mining, handicrafts, and office work. 

In the first 25 days of May Japan's exports con- 
sisted of timbers and railway ties to China, raw 
silk to the United States, and railway equipment, 
coal, salt, chemicals, drugs, bamboo, paper, and 
electrical equipment to Korea. The only imports 
were various food items from the U. S. A., salt 
from China, fish from Korea and phosphate rock. 

A summary of the national debt of the Japanese 
Government at the end of April showed a total 
indebtedness of 203,013,000,000 yen in govern- 
ment bonds, bank loans, rice bills, and food certifi- 
cates. The daily average increase in note circula- 
tion in the first three weeks of May was about 
250,000,000 yen, reaching a total of 33,437,000,000 
yen on May 21. 

Bullion and precious metals in SCAP custody 
totaled $255,125,646 on May 21. Two additional 
companies with 48 subsidiaries and 22 subsidiaries 
of four other concerns were added to the list of 
restricted concerns during the month in a con- 
tinuation of SCAP's anti-trust program. 

An inventory of all machine tools in aircraft 
plants, arsenals, and laboratories held under cus- 
tody and control by Occupation Forces was 
ordered during the month. The purpose of the 
inventory, the report explains, is to provide a 
detailed machine tool catalogue to help "selectors" 
in nations claiming reparations understand ex- 
actly what is available in Japan. 

In the public-liealth field, the summary notes a 
decline in the incidence of typhus fever and small- 
pox and the inauguration of a campaign to pre- 
vent insect-borne diseases during the summer. 
The Japanese Red Cross is in the process of 
reorganization, and projects for extended nursing 
education are under way in Tokyo and Kyoto. 
Production of medical supplies continued to 
increase. 

A nation-wide census completed at the end of 
April indicated that the total population of Japan 
was 74,000,000. 

In the four weeks before May 26, the report 
notes, 501,233 Japanese were returned to Japan, 
bringing the total number repatriated to 3,081,733. 
{CnntiiiHcil on pngc 1S2^ 



JULY 21, 1946 



Inter- American Military Cooperation 

STATEMENT BY GEORGE H. BUTLER 



[Released to the press July 12] 

Me. Chairman : The bill which you have under 
consideration has been endorsed by the State, War, 
and Navy Departments and recommended to the 
Congress by the President. The purpose of the 
bill itself and of any programs that may be car- 
ried out under it lies primarily in the field of 
military and naval affairs, concerning which rep- 
resentatives of the War and Navy Departments 
are here to speak. I should like to refer only to 
a few aspects of the bill from the viewpoint of 
our foreign relations. 

The military cooperation which this bill en- 
visages is one aspect of the broad range of coop- 
eration among the American states. In this 
broad field the American republics have laid spe- 
cial emphasis upon mutual cooperation for their 
economic, social, and cultural advancement, and 
upon consultation upon all matters of common in- 
terest. Since before the recent war American re- 
publics have also devoted a large part of their 
cooperative efforts to the problem of maintaining 
their mutual security. 

The experience of the war demonstrated the im- 
portance of inter-American security measures. 
It also revealed the handicaps which existed as a 
result of the varying types of military organiza- 
tions and equipment which the different American 
states possessed. Considerable progress was made 
during the war in overcoming some of these handi- 
caps, as well as in building a firmer political foun- 
dation for inter-American peace and security. 

These efforts culminated in 1945 with the adop- 
tion at Mexico City of the Act of Chapultepec, 
which provided that an attack by any state upon 
any one of the American states will be considered 
an attack upon all of them. The act provided for 
consultation to determine measures that should be 
taken in the event of such an attack and specified 
that armed force might be one of those measures. 
The Act of Chapultepec also specifically provided 
that the arrangements contained in it, and in any 
treaty that might be concluded pursuant to its 
recommendations, should be consistent with the 
Charter of the United Nations, which had not at 
that time yet been drawn up. 



Under this regional arrangement for the main- 
tenance of international peace and security in the 
Americas, a close collaboration amongst all the 
American republics is envisaged in all fields relat- 
ing to their mutual security. The standardiza- 
tion of the organization and equipment of the 
armed forces of all republics is recognized by the 
heads of our armed forces as being a highly desir- 
able method of facilitating the close collaboration 
in the military field whicli the Act of Chapultepec 
envisages. This view is shared by military au- 
thorities of other American states. It is also re- 
flected in the recommendations of the Inter- 
American Defense Board, on which all 21 Ameri- 
can republics are represented, and which has urged 
the adoption of similar tables of organization and 
equipment by the armed forces of all its member 
nations. 

Subsequent to the establishment of the inter- 
American regional system, based on the Act of 
Chapultepec and other earlier inter-American 
agreements, the United States and all the other 
American states participated in creating the 
United Nations. The Charter of the United Na- 
tions recognizes that regional arrangements of this 
character might exist. At San Francisco it was 
the view of all countries, however, that the Secu- 
rity Council should be made the unquestionably 
supreme authority for the maintenance of interna- 
tional peace and security anywhere in the world. 
For this reason regional arrangements, such as our 
inter-American system, are specifically barred 
from carrying out any enforcement measures with- 
out authorization of the Security Council. The 
regional system must, according to the Charter, 
obtain the authorization of the Security Council 
for any enforcement action, unless an armed attack 
actually takes place, when states may exercise their 
right of self-defense until the Security Council 
takes the necessary action. 

' Made before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee 
in connection with the Inter-American Military Coopera- 
tion Bill, S-2153. Mr. Butler, Deputy Director of the 
Office of American Republic Affairs of the Department of 
State, was recently confirmed by the Senate as Ambassa- 
dor to the Dominican Republic. 



132 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



I cite the foregoing to indicate that the inter- 
American security arrangements upon which tlie 
proijosed program of military cooperation rests 
are entirely in harmony with the principles and 
provisions of the Charter of the United Nations. 
It is, of course, a paramount objective of American 
foreign policy to support the United Nations fully 
and effectively, and any inter- American agreement 
to which this Government becomes a party would, 
of course, have to be consistent with the Charter of 
the United Nations. 

The activities which the AVar and Navy Depart- 
ments hiivc M|li■g(■^t('d for execution under author- 
ity of this hill arc directed towards working out, 
with the armed forces of other American states, a 
standardization of military organization and 
equipment. As the President stated in his mes- 
sage to Congress concerning this bill, it is not the 
desire of this Government to promote any unnec- 
essary increase in the armed forces of other coun- 
tries or to encourage the imposition upon other 
peoples of a burden of maintaining armed forces 
in excess of what the economy of other countries 
can suj^port. In view of the established purpose 
of the American I'epublics to woi-k towards a se- 
cure peace and to cooperate in the improvement 
of their living standards and in their sound eco- 
nomic development, it would be inconsistent and 
undesirable for the United States to encourage in 
any way an armaments race among the other 
American states. In the administration of any 
programs carried out under this bill, the State 
Department will — and I am sure from statements 
already made that the War and Navy Departments 
agree with this purpose — avoid any action which 
would tend to promote the competitive acquisition 
of arms by other countries. 

In this connection I sliould like to refer to Sec- 
retary Byrnes' statement that it is a purpose of our 
foreign policy to work for a regulation of arma- 
uients in the light of requirements for the main- 
tenance of internal order and of international 
peace and security. Although it has not yet been 
possible to establish any such general system of 
arms regidation, the plan of inter- American mili- 
tary collaboration will be executed with a view to 
working out with the other American republics a 
regulation of armaments which will keep arma- 
ments down to a minimum. Any general interna- 
tional agreement for the regulation of armaments 
to which the United States may subscribe will, ac- 



cording to the bill itself, govern any operations 
which this Government may carry out under the 
bill. 

Although the inter-American regional system, 
to which I have referred, does not include Canada 
as a member, the bill has been drafted with a view 
to making possible the extension to Canada of the 
cooperation which the bill authorizes. Th.e spe- 
cial importance of our relations with Canada in 
all matters including defense makes this eminently 
desirable. 



Visit of Brazilian Jurist 

Waldemar Falciio, a member of the Supreme 
Coui-t and of the Supreme Electoral Tribunal of 
Brazil, arrived in Washington on July 7 on an 
official mission of the Brazilian Government to 
study and observe the U.S. electoral system. 

His itinerary will include Washington, Balti- 
more, Philadelphia, New York, Boston, and 
Chicago. 

JAPANESE ACTIVITIES— Co jiYiM Med from page 130 

In the same four weeks, 21,477 foreign nationals 
left Japan. These comprised 5,825 Formosans, 
15,335 Koreans, and 317 Chinese. A total of 
970,754 foreign nationals had been repatriated 
from Japan as of May 2C. 

Since the close of the war, the Education Min- 
istry reported, 602 persons have resigned or been 
dismissed under the program for the elimination 
of militaristic personnel, and 37 persons previ- 
ously dismissed for liberal views have been rein- 
stated. On May 6 the Japanese Government 
announced tlie rules for the screening of all teacli- 
ers and educational officials to weed out undemo- 
cratic elements. 

Tiie Japanese press gave wide support to the 
aims of the International Military Tribunal as 
the trial of the Japanese leaders for major war 
crimes got under way and expressed the belief 
that the trials would be fair, the summary reports. 
SCAP officials, the report states, continued to 
stress informational programs directed towai'd 
increasing farmer efficiency, encouraging demo- 
ci'atic jDractices among labor organizations, and 
improving the position of women in national life. 



JULY 21, 1946 



The Foreign Service 



Foreign Service Examinations 
Scheduled 

[Released to tlie press July 8] 

The Department of State announced on July S 
plans for the admission by examination of 250 offi- 
cers into the middle and upper grades of the For- 
eign Service of the United States. The new offi- 
cers will be selected from members of the armed 
forces, veterans, and government employees. It 
is planned that appointments will be offered to 120 
during the current fiscal year, and 130 during the 
next fiscal year. 

The Department announced that the recruit- 
ment in the middle and upper grades was required 
as a result of the suspension of admissions during 
the war years and the increased responsibilities 
of the Service. A special act of Congress, signed 
by President Truman on July 3, was necessary to 
make possible these admissions, as normally indi- 
viduals may enter the Foreign Service only in the 
lowest grade. 

Application forms and detailed information will 
be available through the Board of Examiners for 
the Foreign Service, Department of State, Wash- 
ington 25, D.C., early in August. It is contem- 
plated that the first of these Foreign Service ap- 
pointments will be made from among successful 
candidates whose applications are submitted prior 
to October 1, 1946. Candidates passing these ex- 
aminations will be commissioned in the Foreign 
Service in grades appropriate to their ages and 
qualifications. It is expected, however, that due to 
the limited number of vacancies in the upper 
grades, few men over 40 years of age will be com- 
missioned and these will have unusually high 
qualifications. 

Candidates for appointment will be chosen on 
the basis of demonstrated executive, administra- 
tive, commercial, scholastic, or reportorial ability. 
Candidates must be 31 years of age, citizens of the 
United States for at least 15 years, and if married, 
mai-ried to American citizens. 

Appointments will be restricted to veterans of 
World War II, members of the armed forces or the 
Merchant Marine, or to persons with at least two 



133 



years' resjjonsible government experience since De- 
cember 7, 1941. 

Each candidate is required to have either a 
Bachelor's degree from an accredited college, or 
at least two years of college work and two years 
of responsible employment abroad. Candidates 
must have facility in reading at least one major 
foreign language. These languages include Ara- 
bic, Chinese, French, Japanese, German, Portu- 
guese, Kussian, and Spanish. 

The authorizing act pi'ovides: "That the Pi'esi- 
dent is authorized under the provisions of this Act 
to appoint, by and with the advice and consent 
of the Senate, not to exceed two hundred and fifty 
persons to positions as Foreign Service officers. 
Each such appointment shall be by commission to a 
classified grade and shall be in addition to all other 
appointments of Foreign Service officers. 

"A person appointed under this Act may, under 
such regulations as the Board of Foreigii Service 
Personnel for the Foreign Service may prescribe, 
be commissioned as a Foreign Service officer of 
any classified grade, depending upon his age, ex- 
perience, and ability. Upon appointment, any 
such Foreign Service officer shall receive the low- 
est basic salary of the classified grade to which he 
or she is appointed. 

"No person shall be eligible for appointment as 
a Foreign Service officer under this Act unless he or 
she- 

"(a) is an American citizen and has been such at 
least fifteen years ; and 

"(?>) has served (1) in the active military or 
naval j-t'r\ii(' of the United States on or after Sep- 
tember Ki, i;>4(t, ;(iid has been separated or released 
therefrom under honorable conditions after active 
service of ninety days or more, or by reason of an 
injury or disability incurred in service in line of 
duty, or (2) in the merchant marine as such service 
is defined by section 1 of the Act of June 23, 1943 
(57 Stat. 162; 50 U.S.C. 1471), or (3) since De- 
cember 7, 1941, for not less than two years in a posi- 
tion or positions of responsibility as an officer or 
employee of the legislative, executive, or judicial 
branches of the United States Government or of 
arij' corporation, wholly or partly owned by the 
United States, which is an instrumentality of the 
United States, whose service and experience can 
qualify him or her as a Foreign Service officer ; and 

"(c) has been designated by the Secretary of 
State as a candidate for examination for appoint- 



134 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



ment as a Foreign Service officer and has jjassed 
such examination as the Secretary may prescribe ; 
and 

"(fif) was at least thirty-one years of age at the 
time of application. 

"No appointment under this Act shall be made 
after the expiration of two years after the date of 
enactment of this Act." 



Diplomatic and Consular Offi 



ces 



The Vice Consulate at Arica, Chile, was officially closed 
on or before April 5, 1946. 

The American Consulate at Durango, Mexico, was closed 
May 31, 1946. 

The American Consulate at Krakow, Poland, is con- 
sidered to have been formally established on July 1, 1946. 

The American Embassy at Manila, Philippines, was es- 
tablished July 4, 1946. 

The Consulate General at Manila will continue to func- 
tion as a separate establishment until a later date when 
the Embassy and Consulate General will function as a 
combined office. 

Confirmations 

The Senate confirmed on July 11 the following nomina- 
tions : 

Robert Butler to be Ambassador Extraordinary and 
Plenipotentiary of the United States of America to 
Australia. 

J. Leighton Stuart to be Ambassador Extraordinary and 
Plenipotentiary of the United States of America to China. 

Joseph P. McGurk to be Ambassador Extraordinary and 
Plenipotentiary of the United States of America to 
Uruguay. 

Harold H. Tittmann, Jr., to be Ambassador Extraordi- 
nary and Plenipotentiary of the United States of America 
to Haiti. 

George H. Butler to be Ambassador Extraordinary and 
Plenipotentiary of the United States of America to the 
Dominican Republic. 



Foreign Commerce Weekly 

The following article of interest to readers of 
the Bulletin appeared in the June 29 issue of 
the Foreign Commerce WeekliJ, a publication of 
the Department of Commerce, copies of which 
may be obtained from the Superintendent of 
Documents, Government Printing Office, for 10 
cents each : 

"Planning a Trip to Chile To Live or Manage 
Office" based on a report from the Economics 
Division, American Embassy, Santiago. 



Visit of Swiss Journalists 

Four leading Swiss journalists arrived here July 
(i on the final leg of a six-weeks' tour of the United 
States as guests of the Department of State. They 
are Eugen Dietschi, member of Parliament and 
economic editor of the Basle Radical Democratic 
daily Natiotial Zeifung, who represents the Radi- 
cal Democratic press ; Carl Doka, editor of the St. 
Gallen Catholic Conservative daily Ostschiveh, 
and representative of the Conservative press; 
Hugo Kramer, Geneva correspondent of the Swiss- 
German Social Democratic and Labor press, repre- 
sentative of Socialist newspapers ; and Jean Seitz, 
Parliamentary editor of the liberal daily Gazette 
de Lausanne, representing the liberal press. 



The Congress 



Cessation of Hostilities, Termination of the War and 
Emergencies; Hearings Before Subcommittee No. IV of 
the Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives, 
Seventy-ninth Congress, second session, on H. Con. Res. 
85, H. Con. Res. 86, H. Con. Res. 91, Declaring the date 
of termination of hostilities in the present war, H. J. Res. 
245, to declare September 2, 1945, as the date of cessation 
of hostilities in the present war, H. Con. Res. 98, declaring 
the end of the unlimited Emergency, the national emer- 
gency and the termination of hostilities of World War II, 
H. Res. 272, H. Con. Res. 132, H. Con. Res. 133, to declare 
December 7, 1945, as the date of the cessation of hostili- 
ties in, and as the date of the termination of, the present 
war, H. J. Res. 287, to declare the date of termination 
of the wars in which the United States has recently been 
engaged. May 27 and 28, 1946. Serial No. 17, Part 2. 
iii, 100 pp. 

Membership and Participation by the United States in 
the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural 
Organization: Hearings Before the Committee on Foreign 
Affairs, House of Representatives, Seventy-ninth Con- 
gress, second session, on H.J. Res. 305, a joint resolution 
providing for membership and participation by the United 
States in the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and 
Cultural Organization, and authorizing an appropriation 
therefor. April 3, 4, and 5, 1946. iii, 99 pp. [Department 
of State, pp. 3-42, 67-79, 80-88.] 

Investigation of the National Defense Program : Hear- 
ings Before a Special Committee Investigating the Na- 
tional Defense Program, United States Senate, Seventy- 
ninth Congress, first session, pursuant to S. Res. 55 (79th 
Congress), (Extending S. Re.s. 71 — 77th Congress), a reso- 
lution authorizing and directing an investigation of the 
National defense program. Part 32. Tin Shortage. Dis- 



JULY 21, 1946 



135 



posal of Surplus Property (Municipalitie.-;— Small Busi- 
ness—Veterans). Reconversion (AVest Virginia— Aviation 
Industry). Irregularities in Fourteenth Naval District. 
Strategic War Reserves. Merchant Shipping— Pacific. 
September 21, 24, October 4, 10, 11, 22, 23, 25, November 6, 
28, December 12, 14, 21, 1945. xii, 846 pp., xx. [Indexed.] 

Investigation of the Production, Transportation, and 
Marketing of Wool: Hearings Before the Special Com- 
mittee to Investigate the production, transportation, and 
marketing of wool. United States Senate, Seventy-ninth 
Congress, second session, pursuant to S. Res. 58 (79th 
Congress) and S. Res. 160 (74th Congress) resolutions pro- 
viding for an investigation of the production, transpor- 
tation, and marketing of wool, and S. 203.*5. a bill to provide 
support for wool, to amend the agri(iiltui:il niaiketing 
agreement act of 1937 by including wodI a.'; a cdmniodity 
to which orders under such act are applicable, to authorize 
the Secretary of Agriculture to fix wool standards, and 
for other purposes. Part 7. May 13, 14, and 15, 1946. 
lil, 76 pp. 

Retention by the United States Government or Its Agen- 
cies or Instrumentalities of Real and Personal Property 
Within the Philippines. H. Rept. 2296, 79th Cong., to 
accompany H.R. 6801. 3 pp. [Favorable report.] 

Amending the Philippine Rehabilitation Act of 1946 for 
the Purpose of Making a Clerical Correction. H. Rept. 
2297, 79th Cong., to accompany H.R. 6802. 1 p. [Favor- 
able report.] 

Providing for Registration and Protection of Trade- 
Marks Used in Commerce and To Carry Out Provisions of 
Certain International Conventions. H. Rept. 2322, 79th 
Cong., to accompany H.R. 1654. 7 pp. 

Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1946. 
Cong., to accompany H. Con. Res. 155. 
report.] 

Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1946. 
Cong., to accompany H. Con. Res. 151. 
report.] 

Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1946. 
Cong., to accompany H. Con. Res. 154. 
report. ] 

Providing Assistance to the Republic of China in Aug- 
menting and Maintaining a Naval Establishment. H. 
Rept. 2333, 79th Cong., to accompany H.R. 53.56. 3 pp. 

Agreement on Amendments to a Bill Relating to the 
Right of Filipinos and Bast Indians To Become Naturalized 
Citizens of the United States and To Enter the Country 
Under Small Quotas. H. Rept. 2334, 79th Cong., to accom- 
pany H.R. 3517. 2 pp. 

Third Deficiency Appropriation Bill, 1946. H. Rept. 
2345, 79th Cong., to accompany H.R. 6885. 35 pp. [De- 
partment of State, pp. 8-10, 22-23.] 

Authorizing Appointment of Additional Foreign Service 
Officers in the Classified Grades. H. Rept. 2.348, 79th 
Cong., to accompany H.R. 5244. 2 pp. 

Denying Admission to the United States of Certain 
Aliens. H. Rept. 2351, 79th Cong., to accompany H.R. 
6869. 5 pp. [Favorable report.] 

Assist China To Modernize Her Armed Forces. 
H. Rept. 2361, 79th Cong., to accompany H.R. 6795. 5 pp. 
[Favorable report.] 



H. Rept. 2326, 79th 
20 pp. [Favorable 



H. Rept. 2327, 79th 
4 pp. [Favorable 



H. Rept. 2328, 79th 
7 pp. [Favorable 



Amending the Second War Powers Act, 1942, As 
Amended, H. Rept. 2395, 79th Cong., to accompany H.R. 
5716. 2 pp. 

Amending the First War Powers Act, 1941. H. Rept. 
2398, 79th Cong., to accompany H.R. 6890. 28 pp. 
[Favorable report.] 

Providing for the Payment of Pension or Other Bene- 
fits Withheld From Persons for the Period They Were 
Residing in Countries Occupied by the Enemy Forces 
During World War II. H. Rept. 2428, 79th Cong., to 
accompany II. U. .".14^. 5 pp. [Favorable report.] 

Di'pari Ills III State, Justice, Commerce, and the 

.Judiciary Ainiinpri.-iti.in Bill, 1947. H. Rept. 2434, 79th 
Cong., to accompany H.R. 6056. 



Training Announcements 

Appointment of William P. Maddox as Chief of 
Division of Training Services 

Dr. William P. Maddox, formerly of the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania and of the Foreign Policy 
Association, entered July 11 upon his new duties 
as Chief of the Division of Training Services. 
He fills the position which has been vacant since 
Carol H. Foster left for his new assignment as 
Consul General at Capetown. Perry N. Jester 
has been Acting Chief during the interim period. 

Dr. Maddox will undertake the direction of the 
entire training program, which includes the train- 
ing of newly appointed Foreign Service officers, 
in-service and specialist training, the training of 
departmental and Foreign Service clerical and 
administrative personnel, and language training. 
The Division of Training Services has also been 
conducting orientation conferences for depart- 
mental and Foreign Service personnel. 

Foreign Service Officers Training 

Training of newly appointed Foreign Service 
oflScers has been proceeding rapidly on a crowded 
schedule. Classes averaging about 15 officers each 
reported for instruction on June 3, June 17, July 
1. and July 15, and a fifth group was expected 
about the first week in August. Other groups are 
expected at fortnightly intervals. 

Each class has four weeks of classroom orien- 
tation and instruction. At the completion of this 
schedule, officers are routed to appropriate divi- 
sions of the State Department for personal con- 
ferences, as well as to the Department of Com- 
merce and other departments and agencies. The 
period of instruction has had to be held to a 
minimum because of the pressing need for officers 
in the field. 

The training program for this group is under 
the direction of Mr. Jester. Officers in many di- 
visions of the Department have been assisting 
by giving lectures on special subjects. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Contents- 



-Continued 



Treaty Information Page 

Agreement Bewteen the U. S. and the Kingdom of the 

Yemen 94 

Importance of British Financial Agreement to International 
Economic Cooperation: 
Letter Form the President to the Chairman of the House 

Committee on Banking and Currency 109 

Cablegram From the Secretary of State 109 

Constitutionality of Negotiating British Financial Agree- 
ment: 
Exchange of Letters Between Senator Forrest C. Donnell 

and the Secretary of State 110 

Cultural Cooperation 

Echange of Professors Between U. S. and Other American 

Republics. Article by J. Manuel Espinosa 89 

Soviet Writers Complete Visit to U. S 124 

Appointment of Public-Affairs Officers: 

India 126 

The Soviet L'nion 126 

Visit of Brazilian Jurist 132 

Visit of Swiss Journalists 134 

International Organizations and Conferences 

Calendar of Meetings 107 

Activities and Developments 107 

The Foreign Service 

U. S. and Australia Raise Legations at Washington and 

Canl)orra to Embassies 126 

Forciiiii Si-r\ ice I'lxaminations Scheduled 133 

Di|)]nin:iiir and Coii.sular Offices 134 

Confiniuilioiis 134 

Publications 

Foreign Commerce Weelily 134 

The Congress 134 

Training Announcements 135 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

uniin 

VOL. XV, NO. 369 JULY 28, 1946 



The Paris Conference of Foreign Ministers 

Report by THE SECRETARY OF STATE page 167 

Military Control Agreement for Austria . . page 175 
The Present Status of German Youth (Part III) 

Article by HENRY J. KELLERMANN page 139 



For complete contents 
see inside cover 




U. S. SUPERINTENDENT OF D0CUMENT4 

Aug 13 1946 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

BULLETIN 



>'-'^°''., 



Vol. XV • No. 361' 




Publication 2574 



For sale by the Superintendenl of Documei 

U. S. Govermnent Priming Office 

Washington 25. D. C. 

Sdbscription: 

52 iesueB, $3.50; single copy, 10 cents 

Special offer: 13 weeks for $1.00 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a ueekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Research and 
Publication, Office of Public Affairs, 
provides the public and interested 
agencies of the Government with 
information on developments in the 
field of foreign relations and on the 
work of the Department of State and 
the Foreign Service. The BULLETIN 
includes press releases on foreign 
policy issued by the White House and 
the Department, and statements and 
addresses made by the President and 
by the Secretary of State and other 
officers of the Department, as uell as 
tpecial articles on various phases of 
international affairs and the functions 
of the Department. Information con- 
cerning treaties and international 
agreements to which the United States 
is or may become a party and treaties 
of general international interest is 
included. 

Publications of the Department, cu- 
mulative lists of which are published 
at the end of each quarter, as well as 
legislative material in the fieldof inter- 
national relations, are listed currently. 



Contents 



General Policy 

Far Eastern Commis.sion 

Caribbean Commission Agreement Restating Functions 

and Providing for International Secretariat 

Paris Conference of Foreign Ministers, June 1.5- July 12. 

Report by the Secretary of State 

Letters of Credence: China, Yugoslavia 

PAU Governing Board Approves Transmittal of Draft Dec- 
laration on Rights and Duties of American States to 

Their Governments 

Economic Affairs 

The International Wheat Council 

Financial Agreement With Great Britain Approved by 
Congress : 

Statement by the President 

Exchange of Notes Between Acting Secretary Acheson 

and the British Ambassador 

Joint Resolution of the Congress 

Accord Reached With Swedish Delegation on German 

Assets in Sweden 

Procedure for Filing War- Damage Claims: Italy, Bulgaria, 

Rumania, and Hungary 

Procedure for Gasoline Rations to American Motorists in 

Europe 

Occupation Matters 

The Present Status of German Youth (Part III). Article 

by Henry J. Kellermann 

Agreement on Control INIachinery in Austria 

The United Nations 

Discussion of Certain Phases of U.S. Plan for Control of 

Atomic Energy. By John Hancock 

Jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice,: 

Statement by Under Secretary Acheson 

Statement by Charles Fahy 

U.S. Representatives to Second Part of First Session of 
General Assesmbly: The President's Message to the 

Senate 

International Information 

Consolidation of QIC's Radio Operations 

Appointment of Publie-AflFairs Officer to Belgrade .... 
Treaty Information 

Caribbean Commission Agreement Restating Functions 

and Providing for International Secretariat 

Financial Agreement With Great Britain Approved by 
Congress : 

Statement by the President 

Exchange of Note Betweens Acting Secretary Acheson 

and the British Ambassador 

Joint Resolution of the Congress 

U.S. Delegation to Belgium, Luxembourg, and Netherlands 

To Negotiate Double-Tax Treaties 

.\ccord Reached With Swedish Delegation on Cierman 
Assets in Sweden 

{Contitiiied on page 191) 



The Present Status of German Youth 



Article by HENRY J. KELLERMANN 



PART III 

Policies of Milifanj Government 

Although the piu'iDose and form of orciuiiza- 
tion remains disputed among the Allies and inter- 
est among German youth is doubtful, Allied and 
German authorities in all zones have initiated and 
encouraged the formation of youth groups. In 
the Soviet zone, youth organizations take an 
active interest in speeding the process of economic 
and physical recovery. In the British and Ameri- 
can zones, MG policies appear to be motivated by 
the wish to use youth organizations as an ad- 
ditional means of re-education and control. In 
the Soviet, American, and British zones Allied 
authorities, uniformly but for different reasons, 
look askance at the organization of party-spon- 
sored youth groujis. 

Somi;t Zone. Soviet policies in Berlin and 
•within the Soviet zone itself appear to be oriented 
toward long-range objectives. Soviet authorities 
seem to have aimed from the beginning at the es- 
tablishment of a unified youth movement possess- 
ing a political progi-am in harmony with over-all 
Soviet policies, but claiming to be a supra-political 
organization independent of party sponsorship. 
Such a movement has now come into being in the 
shape of the Free German Youth {Freie Deutsche 
Jugend—FDJ). 

Pending this development, youth had been 
granted a limited right of self-administration 
under official (adult) auspices. To this end youth 
committees {JugendJcomitees or Jugendaus- 
schusse), led by and composed of young people, 
were formed in the first months of occupation for 
the purpose of creating a "unified free youth 
movement." ^ These youth committees, reportedly, 
were the successors to local groups which had 
sprung up almost immediately after the military 



collapse. They were led, at least in part, by left- 
wing inmates of concentration camps. 

By a decree of Marshal Gregory Zhukov of July 
31, 1915, a new basis was created for all youth 
activities throughout the zone. The decree au- 
thorized the establishment of anti-fascist youth 
committees at all mayoralties of cities and me- 
dium-sized towns (but not villages). The most 
active anti-fascist boys and girls were to be the 
members and the committees were to be supported 
by public funds. Simultaneously, the creation of 
all other youth organizations, e. g. trade-union, 
Socialist, and sport associations, was prohibited, 
and those already in existence, such as the Boy 
Scouts and church groups,^ were dissolved. The 
organization of youth committees on the zonal, 
regional, and local levels followed rapidly. 

The highest youth authority for the Soviet zone 
is the Central Youth Committee {Zentraljugend- 
ausschuss) in Berlin, which has jurisdiction for 
the whole zone.'' The central committee directs 
and coordinates the work of youth committees on 

'Dr. Kellermann is a Research Analyst in the Division 
of Europe, Near East, and African Intelligence, Office of 
Research and Intelligence, Department of State. This 
study is partially based on observations made during a 
recent stay in Germany vihen Dr. Kellermann served as 
Chief of Research and Consultant to the Office of Chief 
of Counsel for the Prosecution of Axis Criminality. 

For Part I of this article see BtrLLirriN of July 14, 1946, 
p. 49 ; for Part II see issue of July 21, p. 83. 

■ Statement by Walter Ulbricht, member of the execu- 
tive committee of the Communist Party, at the first con- 
ference of party functionaries on June 2.5, 1945, quoted in 
Jiipend auf neuem Wege, publication of the Central Youth 
Committee for the Soviet Occupation Zone. 

^ Foreign Broadcast Intelligence Service : ticker, July 
31, 1945; Jvffend auf neuem Wege, p. 7. 

' Its leading members are Erich Honecker, Kommunist- 
isohe Partei DeutscJilands (KPD), formerly Catholic 
Youth, Chairman; Edith Baumann, Sozialdemokratische 
Partie Deutschlands (SPD) ; Heinz Kessler, Kommunist- 
ische Partei Deutschlands (KPD). 



139 



140 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



the state and provincial levels; the latter are re- 
sponsible for activities in the cities and towns. 
For Berlin itself a Main Youth Committee 
{HmiptjugendoMsschioss)* reports to the Central 
Youth Committee. The Main Youth Committee, 
in turn, supervises the activities of the district 
youth committees {Bezirksjugendau^schusse), 
each of which corresponds geographically to one 
of Berlin's city districts. The autonomy of the 
youth committees is restricted by the fact that all 
of them are ultimately responsible to the Central 
Administration for Popular Education (Zentrul- 
verwaltung fiir V olkshildwng ) . Thus adult super- 
vision is maintained. 

The new policy resulted in a rapid expansion 
of youth organizations throughout the zone. Sev- 
enty-three youth committees were reported in 
January 1946 in Brandenburg Province alone.'^ 
But in terms of membership the picture is reported 
to be less impressive. It has been estimated that 
in Berlin (December 1945) only 10 percent of the 
youth participate in the work of the youth com- 
mittees. Open hostility to the committees has 
been reported. In Thuringia, for instance, youths 
who attended meetings of the youth committees 
went home in groups to avoid being beaten up by 
German protagonists. It is to be assumed also 
that girls constitute the majority of the member- 
ship." 

The political composition of the membership is 
said to be mainly left-wing. Soviet policy and 
the preponderance of left-wing elements — e.g. 
KPD members or children of members — accoinits 
for the complexion of the leadership. The person- 
nel of both the Central Youth Committee and the 
Main Youth Committee consists largely of Com- 
munists and Socialists. In most Berlin districts 

* Its head is Heinz Kessler (KPD). 

" Political Intelligence Division of the British Foreign 
Office : Daily Digest for Germany and Austria, No. 201. 

° In Berlin 70 percent of all youths are said to be 
female ; in Saxony the proportion of boys to girls, between 
the ages of 14 and 21, reportedly, is one to eight. 

' Exceptions are reported from the Tiergarten district, 
where a Catholic is the leader, and from Zehlendorf, where 
denominational youths head the youth committees. 

' Jugcnd auf neuem Wcge, p. 12. 

° FBIS : Daily, Aug. 2, 1945, quoting Radio Berlin : "The 
permission of the occupation authorities for the formation 
of youth committees gives German youth . . . the 
opportunity of organizing itself in democratic unity and 
purging its ranks of all fascist filth." 

'" FBIS : ticker. Mar. 2, 1046. 



the youth committees have been led by Commu- 
nists and, in isolated cases, by Socialists.' Similar 
conditions seem to exist in other parts of the 
Soviet zone. 

Honecker, head of the Central Youth Commit- 
tee, has insisted that the selection of leadership 
was based exclusively on individual merit, that is 
to say on personal initiative and the individual's 
political, i.e. anti-fascist record.* On the other 
hand, the predominance of Communist leaders and 
members would prove to be of distinct advantage 
if it were an over-all policy of the leadership to 
establish a nation-wide youth organization under 
Connnunist auspices. It also apjjears that the 
youth committees were designed to serve as instru- 
ments of political purge and as nuclei for a unified 
youth organization.^ 

It is worth noting that the need for unity in 
youth organization was originally agreed upon by 
all elements. Both Communists and church fol- 
lowers are reported to have agreed upon "United 
(Germany, our Fatherland" as the slogan for a 
united youth organization. However, representa- 
tives of Catholic and Protestant church groups 
have begun to object to the monopolization of 
leader,ship by left-wing elements. Efforts by 
FDJ leaders to effect the unification of all German 
youth within their organization and their attempts 
to extend their influence into the western zones 
have drawn strong protests from representatives 
of church groups and the Christian Democratic 
Youth.^» 

Efforts to consolidate a single youth body have, 
nevertheless, continued and have resulted in the 
formation of the over-all organization known as 
the Free German Youth (Freie Deut><che Ju- 
g,'iid—FT)^). As early as February 11, 1946, it 
was reported that the new organization was al- 
ready getting luider way in the Soviet zone. The 
first intimation of its creation came from Erich 
Honecker, head of the Central Youth Committee, 
who announced that arrangements were being 
made to start the new group. It was to operate 
under a national leadership of 40 "from all parts 
of Germany". Separate sections, Honecker said, 
were planned for the three western occupation 
zones. Its program called for the maintenance 
of the unity of Germany. 

Although information about the formative 
stages is still lacking, it is reported that support 
for the FDJ has come from the Berlin Magistrat 
and from the Soviet authorities. Both Catholic 



JULY 28, 1946 



141 



aiul Protestant groups ai-e reported to have re- 
quested permission to organize confessional 
groups within the FDJ. 

Official sanction for at least parts of the FDJ 
was given in March, an event celebrated in the 
Berlin papers as "anotlier step toward the neAv 
Germany". Accordingly, all youth conunittees in 
the Soviet zone and the Soviet sector of Berlin are 
reported to be in the process of being replaced by 
units of the FDJ. The new organization is said 
to be "magnificently" equipped with slogans, 
badges, and banners. The Executive Board of 
Berlin has been nominated. It is headed by Kess- 
ler (KPD) and is composed of a majority of Com- 
muni.st members. A provisional Reich leadership 
of the FDJ scheduled to be elected on April 26-27 
in Berlin was to include Erich Honecker (KPD) 
as Chairman, Edith Bauraajin (SPD) as Deputy 
Chairman, and a number of Communistic. Social- 
istic, and Christian Democratic members with 
Communists clearly in the numerical lead. 

Inasmuch as the objectives of the youth com- 
mittees and the FDJ are centered on political re- 
construction and economic rehabilitation, the 
youth movement in the Soviet zone seems to hnxe 
detached itself deliberately from the traditional 
aims of the German youth movement. The only 
residues appear in the emphasis placed consciously 
on the cultivation of German cultural values and 
in a continued call for national unity. 

This conscious courting of national feeling is. 
however, as much a part of the Communist over- 
all policy of stressing German unity as a political 
postulate as it is a concession to the sentimental 
traits of the German youth movement. The same 
policy is exemplified in the Communists' outright 
refusal to create a separate Communist youth or- 
ganization or to allow the t'stabli-linicut of any 
other party-affiliated or cluiicli-spousored youth 
groups." The FDJ would therefore seem by im- 
plication an instrument which seeks to use the 
theme of national unification as a means of extend- 
ing political influonce, inside and outside the 
Soviet zone. 

U. S. Zone. Military Govermuent policies to- 
ward youth in the American zone appear dictated 
by a desire to forestall any premature preoccupa- 
tion of youth with matters political. Conse- 
quently, the establishment of youth organizations 
is encouraged primarily as an additional means of 
both recreation and control. Nonetheless, youth 
groups with specific political interests have 



emerged within or outside the legitimate parties. 
Moreover the neutral label adopted by some youth 
organizations does not seem to have discouraged 
the efforts of political groups to influence such in- 
de])endent youth organizations along specific 
political lines. Finally, U. S. policies seem to 
have crystallized gradually. As a result, practices 
ill various regions within the zone have shown 
marked deviations, depending on the individual 
situation as well as on the judgment of the official 
in charge. 

Directives recently issued by MG for the Amer- 
ican zone are making the above tendencies ex- 
plicit. ^^ Support is promised to all "voluntary" 
youth groups devoted to cultural and religious 
education and to recreation. Such organizations 
are considered as instrumental to democratic edu- 
cation. The establishment of branches of such 
international organizations as the Boy Scouts, the 
Y. M. C. A., the Y. W. C. A., and thcY. M. H. A. 
is expressly recommended. On the other hand, the 
creation of youth organizations similar in char- 
acter to the Hitler Youth or to any military organ- 
ization is prohibited. Youth organizations, fur- 
thermore, are not permitted to engage in political 
activities, nor are the members permitted to wear 
uniforms or badges without special permission 
from MG. INIembership is restricted to boys and 
girls from 10 to IS years of age. It must be volun- 
tary and unrestricted. That is to say, while the 
formation of religious and trade-union youth 
groups is permitted, membership cannot be made 
contingent upon racial or economic considerations. 
However, political integrity is made a condition 
for all leaders of youth groups as well as for all 
persons supervising or teaching leaders and mem- 
bers. Before activities are started, MG must ex- 
amine, approve, and license each organization.'^ 

" Jiiffcnd auf neuem Wege, p. 15. 

'■ Mitfclhaiferische Zeitung (Regensburg), Apr. 26, 1946. 

'• T1i( Mdiithhi Rciiort of the Militari/ Government of 
(!< riumni I., I Ijliiriitioii and Religion, of Mar. 20, 1946, lists 
the fc.UowiiiL; ^laiidanls outUned and proposed by German 
civilian agencies for the approval of youth organizations 
liy MG : A comprehensive program of youth activities 
.should (a) provide for adequate play and recreational 
activities under the supervision of voluntary agencies and 
educational leaders; (6) provide, under satisfactory 
sujiervision. for the carrying out of voluntary work proj- 
ects whiili fnrtlier recdnstniction and give the participants 
a sense of nscfnliu'ss: (c) j;ive assurance that minimum 
facilities, siiih as liiiililinss. playgrounds, and simple 
e(iniiinient .nre to be provided; id) jirnvide acceptable 



142 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



To supervise and enforce the directives, Amer- 
ican authorities have created "youtli committees" 
to operate as intermediary agents between MG 
and the youth organizations. Such organizations 
exist on the state level [Landesfugendkomitee) as 
well as on the county level {Krelsjugendkoviitee) . 
However, in contrast to practices prevalent in the 
Soviet zone of having youths form the member- 
ship of such committees, youth committees in the 
U. S. zone are composed mainly of adults, both 
male and female, representing the local adminis- 
tration, the churches, the professions, trades, arts, 
sport, and student associations, as well as person- 
ages from the fields of education, youth welfare, 
and health. Finally, the youth organizations 
themselves are expected to delegate leaders to the 
appropriate youth committees. The Minister of 
Cultural Affairs within each state {Land) is re- 
sponsible for the work of the youth committees. 

The functions of tlie youth committees involve 
political supervision of youth groups, i.e. protec- 
tion of youth oi-ganizations from subversive polit- 
ical influences; counseling and sup^Dorting youth 
organizations with regard to programs ; establish- 
ment of a register of all organizations within 
their jurisdiction ; and examining applications by 

plans for youth leadership training In institutions of 
higher learning and for short conferences and in- 
stitutes to meet immediate leadership requirements, and 
(e) set forth practical plans for increasing the number 
and circulation of youth publications. These criteria 
elaborated by German agencies, although still predomi- 
nantly non-political and patronizing in their approach, 
nevertheless show incipient tendencies to give youth an 
opportunity for participating in larger social projects, 
e.g., in the task of reconstruction. 

"Commanding General, U. S. Forces in the European 
Theater. 

'" Liaison youth officers are to work with the youth com- 
mittees on the following programs: (1) sharing of ath- 
letic fields, gymnasiums, swimming pools, etc., which have 
been requisitioned by U. S. troops; (2) turning over 
equipment and sport supplies to German youth groups; 
(3) assi.sting the county youth committees in setting up 
youth hostels, motion-picture performances, sport com- 
petitions, and crafts, in promoting volunteer work in 
farming, repairing war damage, and in the arrangement 
of meetings at which "German youth can hear about the 
youth of the democratic countries". Of. Frankfurter Neue 
Presse, Apr. 25, 1946. 

'"Weser Kurier (Bremen), Feb. 23, 1946. 

"PID: Digest, No. 167; 'News of Germany, No. 61; 
FBIS : ticker, Nov. 16, 1945. 

" Fuldaer Volkszeitung, Feb. 27, 1946. 

'° Frankfurter Rundschau, Feb. 1, 1946. 



youth organizations for the formation of i-fgional 
federations {Landesjugendveridnde) . With the 
exception of Bavaria, the creation of youth com- 
mittees appears to have been accomplished in 
every county. 

To facilitate the work of the youth committees 
and to maintain relations between youth commit- 
tees and MG, "youth officers" have been, or will 
be, appointed for each state in the American zone. 
Under a directive of General Joseph T. McNar- 
ney," the 11 principal tactical commanders have 
also been ordered to appoint full-time liaison offi- 
cers to cooperate with these youth officers." 

Following the regulation of MG of October 25, 
1945, permitting the establishment of youth 
groups, youth organizations have sprung up in all 
parts of the U. S. zone. The number and type of 
these groups reflect, to some extent, the varying 
practices which existed throughout the U. S. zone 
prior to the final formulation of current policies. 

In the Bremen enclave, youth groups, accord- 
ing to reports,^" were permitted only on a local 
basis. Coordination or unification of local groups 
in a single organization was not considered, al- 
though contact between groups could be estab- 
lished for the purpose of exchanging both leaders 
and experiences. The formation of political 
youth groups was not permitted in the enclave, 
and parties and religious groups were prohibited 
from activities among young people. Former 
groups, such as the Socialist "Workers' Youth, the 
Free German Youth, and the Falcon Movement, 
were dissolved. Youth activities were confined 
to the operation of leisure-time programs, includ- 
ing sports, hiking, dancing, and unpolitical dis- 
cussions. Membership was voluntary, but all lead- 
ers had to submit to a personal examination by 
MG. The institution of training courses for lead- 
ers was planned. 

In Greater Hesse, where MG policies were some- 
what more lenient, the authorities approved the 
organization of religious youth groups, but were 
opposed to the formation of teen-age organiza- 
tions sponsored by political parties or "ideologi- 
cal" groups." All youth organizations, whether 
independent or part of an adult organization, 
must have a license,^^ application for which must 
be accompanied by a declaration that no political 
activity or contact with political parties was in- 
tended." Youth clubs appeared in all cities and 
towns. 



JULY 28, 1946 



143 



Youth committees and organizations in Greater 
Hesse appeared divided in their opinion on the 
prohibition of political groups. Church leaders 
favored a uniform youth group and warned 
against splits.-" Furthermore, the Christian Dem- 
ocratic youth protested against the admission of 
the Free German Youth to Greater Hesse.-^ 

Reports from Hesse indicated that in spite of 
jjrevious rulings a number of youth groujDS with 
specific political interests have been organized. 
Socialist youth groups, an Association of Young 
Christian Democrats,-^ the Free Democratic 
Youth,-^ and the Free German Youth'* all ap- 
peared. In some instances, these groups operate 
within established political parties and seem to be 
restricted to members who are 18 years of age or 
above. In other cases, their affinity to individual 
parties is apparent on ideological grounds only, 
and has not led to actual affiliation. Inasmuch as 
the letter of the law has thus been respected, au- 
thorities appear to have seen no cause for prohibit- 
ing the activities of these groups thereby forcing 
the issue into the open. Consequently, the Free 
Democratic Youth, according to the press,^^ was 
licensed by MG ; the first public meeting in Hesse 
of the FDJ was allegedly attended by representa- 
tives of MG, civic leaders, and delegates of the anti- 
fascist parties.-"' 

In Bavaria, youth committees met under the 
auspices of city authorities. MG directives, as in- 
terpreted by Mayor Karl Scharnagl in Munich,^' 
provided for the formation of voluntary youth 
groups devoted to religious, cultural, or recrea- 
tional activities. It appears that the directives did 
not exclude explicitly the admission of political 
youth organizations. In a number of places or- 
ganizations, some political, most of them non- 
political, came into being.-^ The following groups 
exist in ]\Iunich: the Pfadfinde)', (non-partisan), 
the PfinlpiHhr.srhaft St. Georg (Catholic), the 
JimgsiiriHiHstcii, the Falken (Socialist), the Freie 
Deutsche Jugeml (allegedly non-partisan, pre- 
sumably Coimnunist-supported).^^ Applications 
for licenses have been filed by Catholic, Protestant, 
Democratic, and Social Democratic groups.™ MG 
officials themselves have encouraged the creation of 
such 3'outli groups. 

Public authorities in Bavaria seem to have pre- 
ferred the non-political type of youth organization 
on the Anglo-American model, preferably under 
adult leadership." Of particular importance was 



the establishment of a national scouting movement 
for boys {Reichsschaft deutscher Pfadfinder) P 
Mayor Scharnagl announced that the German 
scouts would be organized and trained with the 
help of leaders from the Boy Scouts of America 
now serving with the occupation forces. Keport- 
edly, suggestions have been advanced to Ameri- 
can authorities that a small number of acceptable 
German youth leaders may also be sent to the 
U. S. for training.^^ 

In Wiirttemberg-Baden U. S. policies appear 
to have been most liberal. The chief objectives of 
the program for the public care of youth have been 
outlined by a spokesman of the Land government : 
(1) to gather all genuine democratic forces on the 
basis of mutual respect; (2) to grant freedom to 
all associations in the performance of their activi- 
ties; (3) to emphasize all elements of common and 
unifying interest; (4) to enroll all youth dis- 
charged from school, without regard to religion, 
party affiliation, or professional status; (5) to pro- 
vide guidance to the sources of knowledge and cul- 
ture; (6) to fight against superficiality, careless- 
ness, and lack of judgment.^* 

The organization of youth along political lines 
has apparently never been barred in Wiirttem- 
berg-Baden. Consequently, a multitude of youth 
groups have sprung up, including party-affiliated 
and church-sponsored organizations as well as 
independent associations, scout groups, and social 
and recreational clubs. In Wiirttemberg six or- 
ganizations had been licensed by February 1946 : 

"■" PID : Digest, Feb. 27, 1946. 
" FBIS : ticker, Mar. 2, 19-16. 

== ma. 

-'' Frankfurter Rundschau, Feb. 19: Wifsbadencr Kurier, 
Feb. 20, 1946. 

"' Wieshadener Kurier, Mar. 6, 1946. 

=" Frankfurter Rundschau, Feb. 19, 1946. 

-° Wiesbadener Kurier, Mar. 6, 1946. 

■' Silddeutsche Zeitung, Dec. 2S, 1945. 

='FBIS: ticker, Oct. 16. 24, 194.5; Dcr Allgiiuer (Kemp- 
ten), Feb. 6, 1946. 

-" Die Xctie Zeitung, Apr. 15 ; Frankenpost, Apr. 13, 1946. 

^' Die Neue Zeitung. Jan. 4, 1946. 

"In Coburg, for instance, the youth committee, with 
tlie support of MG, has assumed responsibility for the 
organization and education of youth through three recre- 
ational groups (Neue Presse, Feb. 16, 1946). 

'■ Oierbayerisches Volksblatt (Rosenheim), Feb. 1, 1946. 
In spite of its name, this scouting movement is confined 
to Bavaria. 
- '" Siiddeutsche Zeitung (Munich), Jan. 20, 1946. 

" Stuttgarter Zeitung, Jan. 9, 1946. 



144 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



the Protestant Youtli. tlit- Catliolic Youth, the 
Trado-Union Youth, the Sport Youth, the Swa- 
biau P('()])l(''s Youth (Schvmblsche Volksjugend), 
and the German Boys {Deutsche Jiongen-schaft).^' 
In Mannheim (Baden) the organizations that are 
said to exist are Catholic Youth, Protestant 
Youth, Democratic People's Pai'ty Youtli (iroup. 
Christian Democratic T'ninn Youth (noup, Sncial 
Democratic Party Youth (Jroup, Connnunist 
Party Youth Group, Trade-Union Youth Organi- 
zation, and Boy Scouts. 

Numerically speaking, the participation of 
youth in these groups is not very strong as yet, 
although their popularity is on the increase. Ac- 
cording to recent ratlier optimistic estimates (Mixy 
1946) a total of 241.0IH) young people ai-c said to 
be enrolled in youth organizations within the 
U. S. zone; that is, 81,000 in Bavaria, 75,000 in 
Greater Hesse, and 85,000 in Wiirttemberg- 
Baden. It should be remembered, however, that 
the number of school children between 6 and 14 in 
elementai-y srliools alone amounts to 1,081,382 in 
P.avaiia. lii'.-J.'.o in (Jreater Hesse, and 41-2,fi(U; in 
AViirtteiubcrg-P.aden. 

Biirnsii Zone. British occupation authorities 
Iiave moved witli considerable caution in permit- 
ting the re-establislnnent of youth organizations. 
Although Field Marslial Montgomery announced 
his support rather earlj', final approval was con- 
ditioned upon the successful completion of a cer- 
tain amount of preparatory work.^" To this end, 
training courses for youth leaders were inaug- 
urated." British experts were to participate in 
seminars for youth leaders and to familiarize 
German youth with the structure and programs 
of youth groups in Great Britain. Members of 
British youth groups have, in fact, come to Ger- 
many to discuss fundamental and practical prob- 
lems with welfare and youth organizations. 
British MG ofHcers have agreed to provide Ger- 

■" The last group is a levival of one of the more radical 
elements of the former .youth movement ; Frdnkischer Tag, 
Mar. 2, 1946. 

'"Die Nrin Zntinn/. .Tan. 4, 1946. 

" Ifaiiihiir,/, r I'n vs( , .Tan. 2 ; PID : Digest, Feb. 27, 1946. 

"VrHc j;i,, ,,iis,ii, Ziiliing (Dlisseldorf ), Feb. 13, 1946. 

■"' FriinkiavlKr Tag (Kamherg), Feb. 9, 1946. 

"PID: Digest. Jan. 25, 1946. 

" Nordirrsl-Nuchrichten (Oldenburg), Mar. 8, l!t46. 

'- Jiuhr-Zfitiing (Dortmund), Mar. 2, 1946. The rela- 
tively high percentage of organized youth in the Rhine- 
land is, at least in part, attributable to the predominance 
of religious, notably Calholic. influcmv and org.-niization. 



man youth groups with the necessary physical 
facilitie.s.='« 

To insure the political reliability of the leaders. 
British authorities have required very high qual- 
ifications for youth leaders, helpers, and edu- 
cators. A special clause in the directive bars all 
l)ersons disqualified for political reasons.^^ Since 
there has been a shortage of leaders and helpers, 
British officers have themselves devoted a great 
deal of their time to the youth groups.^" 

A directive, dated March 6, 1946, of the Olden- 
burg State Youth Office {Landesjugendamt) sum- 
marizes MG regulations on the formation of 
youth groups." Emphasis in this summary is 
placed on the political integrity of programs, 
leadership, and membership. The program must 
be democratic, anti-National Socialistic, and anti- 
militarist. Party politics are excluded. Active 
officers of the Wehrmacht, the police, and semi- 
military organizations are excluded from leader- 
ship, as are personalities who have been "active 
in political life". Leaders of the Hitler Youth are 
barred for the time being. Excluded from mem- 
bership are all who were members of the NSDAP 
or one of its formations before January 30, 1933, 
including the Hitler Youth, and all leaders of the 
Nazi Party above the position of Ortsgnippen- 
leiter, Sturmfuhrer,, or equivalent ranks. All 
members above 18 years of age need the special 
permission of MG. So do all members of adult 
organizations which accept juveniles under IS as 
members. 

Other directives liave placed the responsibility 
for youth groups on state and county youth offi- 
cers {Landesjfugendamt and Kreisjugendamt) . 
The work of these offices and groups has been 
fairly successful. As of the end of February a 
total of '2;')C,952 young people (about 10 percent of 
all school children) were reported to be organized 
in 4,020 groups, 50 percent of which were active 
in the Rhineland alone. ^- 

The drive to get German youth organized has 
met with considerable support on the part of the 
older generation, which has willingly accepted its 
share in the responsibility. Yet the drive is 
hampered by impediments similar to those in other 
zones, above all by the lack of experienced and 
suitable German youtli leaders. Nevertheless, a 
number of new organizations have sprung up, in- 
cluding so-called independent groups, which con- 
centrate their activities on sports and cultural pro- 
grams, occasionally on debates, foreign languages. 



]LLY 28, 1946 



lectures on foreign coimtries and correspondence 
with their j'outh, chamatics, journalism, carpentry, 
dancing, and nature study. Youth groups created 
so far include Protestant and Catholic youth 
leagues, trade-union youth groups, the German 
Free Units (Deutsche Freischar)^ the Free Ger- 
man Youth, and political groups organized within 
or outside political parties, such as the Young 
Socialists {Jungsozialisten), the Falcons [Fal- 
ken), Socialist Labor Youth (SAJ — Sozicdlsfische 
Arbeiterjugend) , the CDU youth, and ethnic 
minority groups, e.g. Danish." 

Socialist groups are said to exist in Essen, Co- 
logne, Flensburg, and other places. Communists 
are reported active in the Ruhr area. Both leftist 
parties are reported to resent what they consider 
the favoritism shown religious groups, and to be 
anxious to organize their own youth on a wider 
scale. 

As a result of their tactics of couching political 
activities for youth in the form of a seemingly 
independent and neutral youth movement, the so- 
called Free German Youth, the Communists have 
succeeded in organizing youth without permission. 
Young Communists under 18 years of age are en- 
couraged to join this group, while the older youth 
is reported to be organized in social groups for the 
purpose of political education and, later on, in cells 
of five, led by experienced party members. 

If Bochum, where five organizations are re- 
ported," can be considered a typical example of 
the administration and operation of youth, then 
the following principles seem to prevail within the 
British zone: At the top of tlio administrative 
hierarchy stands the local rt'incsiMilai idii for youth 
care {Ortsvertretung fur Ju<j<'iiil ppg, )^ which is 
composed of representatives of the city adminis- 
tration, the county school councilors, the leaders 
of the local youth organizations, ami out standing- 
athletes or sportsmen. Theexeculixc luanai^cnient 
is in the hands of the office for schools ( Srii xlnint). 
A youth leadei- is appdinted to maintain liaison 
with all local yciuth niizunizations. All youth or- 
ganizations are permitted to establish sub-groups. 
In Bochum, the five youth organizations have 55 
sub-groups with a total membership of 6,000 young 
people.*^ 

Frexch Zone. There is evidence that the French 
insisted on an initial jjeriod of quiet during which 
careful preparations were made for the resump- 
tion of youth activities. This phase now seems 

703913 — 46 2 



conchided, and the re-establishment of a number 
of youth organizations, political and non-political, 
is expected. Those listed include : the Protestant 
Youth Organization {EvangeUsches Jugend- 
werk), the Y.M.C.A. {C hristUcher Vereki Jwnger 
Manner), the Catholic Swabian Youth [Katho- 
lische Schwaben-Jugend) , and the Young Swab- 
ian League {Bund Jungschwaben), a Social 
Democratic organization.^'^ According to latest 
reports, the formation of a youth council in Frei- 
burg has been interpreted as an official sign of 
French willingness to acknowledge the participa- 
tion of youth in the process of democratic recon- 
struction." 

Proynnn-s of German Gruiipx 

The re-emergence of youth groups with a specific 
religious or ideological affiliation appears to be 
much more the result of efforts by adult groups to 
secure the continuity of their organizations than 
the manifestation of a spontaneous interest in cer- 
tain idcoldgies on the part of the broad masses of 
yoiilli. Youth interested in organization fre- 
(luentiy rejects any i)arty-affiliated youth group as 
a mere reinoduction uf the Hitler Youth. Fur- 
tiiermore. National Socialism and the war robbed 
the democratic forces in Germany of the majority 
of its youth and, in particular, of its trained leader- 
ship ; few leaders are left who remember political 
organizations which were not National S(jcialist. 
Consequently, ideological and, especially, political 
youth groups are weak. In most cases, they are 
not oidy initiated and sponsored by adult groups, 
but a If ;ilso led by adults and may even form, 
organizationally, a part of the parental body. 
Their aims and i)rogranis seldom differ thereby 
from those of their sponsors. 

Religious Youth Groups. Catholic youth 
groups are distinguished by a mcst carefully de- 
vised organizational framework. Central control 
is vested in the bishop of the diocese, who issues the 
regional directives. (Reich, i.e. nation-wide, as- 
sociations are no longer being formed.) Within a 

" Kieler Ktirier (Kiel), Mar. 30, 1946. 

" The Catholic Youth Movement of Greater Bochum, the 
Protestant Youth Movement of Greater Bochum, the 
Protestant Youth League for Resolute Christianity 
("EC"), the Free German Youtli Movement, and the 
Falcons. 

*' Ruhr Zeitung, Mar. 13, 1946. 

'" PID : Digest, Feb. 8, 1948. 

'■ Ibirl.. Apr. 12, 1946. 



146 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



diocese all Catholic youth belongs automatically 
to the so-called Parish Youth [Pfanjugend) ; in 
addition, Catholic youth is free to join the Catholic 
Youth {Katholische Jugend), which is described 
as a "voluntary community of living'' {Freige- 
wollte Lehensgemeinschaft) . The Catholic Youth 
is divided in three age gi'oups, 10 to 14, 14 to 18, and 
18 to 25. The oldest group constitutes the nucleus 
of the organization and is expected to provide 
the leaders for the other two.^* The numerical 
progress of the Catholic Youth in the western zones 
appears to be considerable ; in Munich, the Catho- 
lic youth groups boast of 13,000 members.*" Ob- 
jectives and activities are strictly clerical in their 
orientation. Sports ai-e not planned except for 
games and hiking for the younger members. Em- 
phasis is placed on close collaboration between 
school and church.^" 

Protestant youth groups are less rigidly organ- 
ized. Their activities, howevei", are likewise 
strictly religious. Musical education is stressed. 
Although sports as such play no part, hiking is 
planned. Political discussions are avoided, as are 
all controversial subjects involving Catholic or 
Protestant issues.^^ 

Party Youth Groups. The youth groups of 
the Christian Democratic Union, too, emphasize 
religious education, i.e. education "in a fixed direc- 
tion". Political organization is reserved for those 
over 20 years of age. In Greater Hesse as well as 
Bavaria and probably in the other regions as well, 
the CDU youth groups form no separate organ- 
ization. Although in Frankfurt those over 18 are 
gathered in a special group for the purpose of 
political discussion, CSU youth in Bavaria oper- 
ates through special youth committees but has no 
separate organizational status within the party. 

" Darmstddter Echo, Feb. 23, 1946. Earlier reports in- 
dicated that tlie liead of the organization was Bishop Albert 
Stohr of Mainz. He is snid to be assisted by three priests, 
who report to the Bishops' Conference in Fulda (FBIS: 
ticker, Oct. 10, 1945). 

""Die Netie Zeitung, Apr. 15. According to reports of 
April 1046, Catholic elements within the British zone ap- 
pear to have revived the "Quickborn", a Catholic youth 
movement of pre-Nazi days (Der Tagcxspiegel, Apr. 4, 
1SM6). 

""FBIS: ticker, Oct. 10, 1945. 

" Kieler Kurier (Kiel), Mar. 30, 1946. 

"It is not clear whether the Free Democratic Youth 
recently established in Greater Hesse is affiliated with 
the Democratic Party. 

'■' Marhnrger /'/r.v.sr, Mar. 22. 1946. 



At a recent conference of 150 youth representatives 
in Bavaria, 70 percent of those attending were less 
than 25 years of age. 

The youth of the Democratic Party, while agree- 
ing with the CDU that political maturity is not 
achieved before the age of 24, rejects religious edu- 
cation as the sole subject and proijoses a broad 
professional and scientific as well as moral educa- 
tion until about the twentieth year." 

The youth group of the Social Democratic Party 
pleads for education in a socialist and democratic 
sense. The SPD youth comes out for the organi- 
zation of youth with clearly defined ideological 
bases. Objectives are outlined as follows: (1) the 
reorganization of society on a democratic socialis- 
tic basis; (2) complete eradication of all Fascist 
ideas from German culture; (3) imbuing German 
youth with democratic thoughts and methods of 
democratic thinking; (4) continuous struggle 
against the re-emergence of militarism in any 
form; (5) initiation of sports and recreational 
and cultural activities as a means of overcoming 
the present demoralization of youth. The Social- 
ists are said to be interested in gaining the support 
fir.st of all of veterans and prisoners of war. Lead- 
ership is scarce, consisting chiefly of former So- 
cialist youth leaders. Education is accomplished 
by degrees. In some groups, no attempt is made 
to indoctrinate the members with Marxist teach- 
ings. Even direct attacks on Fascism and militar- 
ism may be avoided. 

In Bavaria, however, young Socialists, operating 
as part of the Social Democratic Party, are taking 
a more active part in regional politics. For exam- 
ple. Minister President Wilhelm Hoegner's con- 
ciliatory attitude toward the Catholic Church was 
sharply criticized by some of the young organized 
Socialists. Othei"s expressed disagreement with 
the policy of not merging with the Communist 
Party. The congress of Young Socialists recently 
held in Frankfurt-am-Main also revealed a grow- 
ing awareness of Socialist youth concerning imme- 
diate problems of national and local significance. 
Resolutions adopted at this congress resembled in 
form and substance those adopted at youth meet- 
ings in the Soviet zone. Emphasis was placed on 
vocational training, employment, the fight against 
juvenile delinquency, international collaboration, 
and political education. '^^ 

Organization appears to take place on two age 
levels. The older group, above IS, is gathered in 



JULY 28, 1946 



the Socialist Education Conununity {Sozialistische 
Erziehungsgemelnschaft) and Young Socialists 
{Jungsozialisten) ; the younger in the Falcon 
Movement {Falken Bewegung) and in youth 
groups called Friendship {Freundschaft). The 
first gi'oup meets in seminars and social gatherings 
to be trained for future political functions. The 
Falcons are active along the lines of the old Wan- 
dervogel mo'vement.^^ 

The Communist youth has not been organized 
under the party label. Communist speakers argue 
that German youth under 18 lacks the maturity, 
discipline, and, above all, the interest prerequisite 
to political organization and action. The last char- 
acterization refers to the apathy and distrust of 
German youth in regard to party jDolitics. Ac- 
cording to Communist politicians, however, the in- 
difference of German youth toward matters polit- 
ical is not merely a result of present-day conditions 
but was characteristic of this youth even before the 
advent of Hitler. Consequently, Communist lead- 
ers spurn the partisan approach. In lieu of 
creating a separate organization these leaders ap- 
peal indiscriminately to the national instincts of 
German youth with demands for the establishment 
of an Einheitsjugend, i.e. a non-party youth move- 
ment. These efforts have resulted in the forma- 
tion of the Free German Youth {Freie Deutsche 
Jugend—FDJ) in the Soviet, U. S., and British 
zones. In the two latter zones, Communist lead- 
ership may not always be firmly established, nor 
may Communist sponsorship be apparent to out- 
siders or even to members of the gxoup. (Inas- 
much as the political purpose remains undeclared, 
authorities have refrained from interfering with 
the activities of the FDJ, just as they have in the 
case of the Falcons and other youth groups which 
are officially neutral but ideologicallj' related to 
certain political jiarties.) 

Little doubt can be entertained that the FDJ has 
its origin, sponsorship, and chief support within 
the Soviet zone. Its program and functions were 
developed by the youth committees in the Soviet 
zone, which in many ways can be thought of as the 
predecessors of the Free German Youth. Repre- 
sentatives of youth committees have demon- 
strated an interest in matters which concern 
the adult community as well. Speeches, state- 
ments of policy, resolutions, and activity reports 
made at local and regional vouth conferences re- 



veal that this section of organized youth wishes to 
participate in such matters as international col- 
laboration, de-Nazification, reconstruction, re-edu- 
cation, increase of production, and vocational 
problems. There is equal concern about the labor 
market, permanent and emergency employment, 
recreational facilities, and cultural activities. 

Invariably a few principal demands recur, 
which are likely to form the eventual ideological 
basis of the FDJ. They are: (1) Unification of 
all youth: "There is only one youth move- 
ment — that of the anti-fascist youth";" (2) 
Education for democracy: "To liquidate Nazi 
ideology . . . re-establish a clean anti-fascist 
order in Germany . . . familiarize youth 
with the culture of the German nation and other 
nations, so long withheld by the Nazis'';^" (3) 
International collaboration : "To educate German 
youth in the spirit of friendship with all nations, 
especially with the Soviet people"; " (4) Social- 
mindedness : "Freedom [means] conscious respon- 
sibility toward the community;"^* (5) Integra- 
tion of youth with the general political life : "Col- 
laboration with the authorities, the political par- 
ties, and trade unions for the development of a 
new cultural life . . . [drawing] on the best 
political personalities, teachers, economists, and 
artists in order to shape the life of youth." =<* 

The Free German Youth has incorporated most 
of these principles into its program. Its mani- 
festo reads : 

"We boys and girls of the Free German Youth 
pledge ourselves in the hour of Germany's most 
bitter suffering to the reconstruction of our father- 
land on an anti-fascist, democratic basis. We are 
drawn together by our devout will to overcome by 
a common effort the misery into which Nazism has 
plunged our people." 

The aims set forth include the following: (1) uni- 
fication of Germany; (2) freedom, humanitarian- 
ism, democracy, peace and friendship among na- 
tions; (3) participation in the task of national 
reconstruction; (4) participation of youth in pub- 
lic affairs, the achievement of professional train- 
ing and status, and of social security without re- 

" Die Neue Zeitu'ng, Apr. 15 ; Kieler Kurwr, Mar. 30, 1946. 

^ FBIS : Daily, Aug. 28, 1945 . 

^Jugend auf neuem Wege, pp. 8, 44. 

" IMd. 

'' Die Triliine (Berlin), Jan. 3, 1946. 

"•'Ibid. 



748 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



gai-d to social, economic, or religious background ; 
(5) the development of an all-inclusive youth 
movement, the Free German Youth. 

A special declaration, promulgated by the Main 
Youth Committee'"' in Berlin, undertakes to ex- 
press the objectives of the Free German Youth in 
the form of a Bill of Rights of Youth (Gmnd- 
rechte der jungen Generation) . It is based on the 
fundamental conception characteristic of Soviet- 
sponsored youtli policies that the Free German 
Youth is founded "not merely on one or another 
political program, or on the cultivation of sports or 
social life, exclusively, but on the merger {Zusmn- 
7nenschluss) of the younger generation for the pur- 
pose of realizing their political, economic, and 
cultural interests." The declaration postulates the 
following: (1) the granting of so-called funda- 
mental political rights, including the right to vote 
at 18 and the I'ight to hold public office; (2) the 
right to work, including a -J:'2-hour week for youth 
of 14-16 years of age and a 45-hour week for youth 
of 16-18; (3) the right to recreation, including 
paid vacations ; (4) the right to education, includ- 
ing grants to needy young people; (5) the "right 
to joy and pleasure," i.e. participation, passive and 
active, in artistic, literary, and other cultural 
activities. 

To judge from press reports, the Free German 
Youth has made considt'iMhlc inojiress in the So- 
viet zone. The total iiiiMiilicislii]) is estimated by 
some sources at 150,0()() vdimj^ piMiple.*'! At a meet- 
ing in Dresden on Manh Jn. Icult-rs of the FDJ 
pointed to an enrollmcni (if liT.oiiU members with- 
in a few days. The local press has reported the 
participation of 12,000 members in voluntary labor 
projects and the like."^- 

In all zones, including the Soviet zone, the FDJ 
remains a hotly debated issue among the German 
public. Demands for unity are strongly suspected 
as efforts by Communist elements to proselytize 
German youth by means of neutral labels and 
nationalistic slogans. Others reject the FDJ as a 
pseudo-political attempt to standardize youth on 
the totalitarian model. Its ultimate appeal in the 
western zones is likely to depend less on the ab- 
.stract merits of its program than on the general 
course of German political and economic develop- 



°" liciJhicr Zeititng (Berlin). Api'. 20, l(14(i, 
" DU- Nriie Zcitiniu, Apr. l."i. lUIO. L;it. 
tho total close to mO.OOO. 

•"Tiii/fichc RiniOschiiu (F.crliiii, Apr. 11, 



■St (igiir.'s 



ment, and particularly on the success of the vari- 
ous independent youth organizations, supported 
by Allied authorities, in filling the moral and 
psychological vacuum created by the Nazi collapse. 

Conclusion 

After one year of Allied occupation, the status 
of German youth remains unsettled. The break- 
down of a totalitarian system and the limited suc- 
cess in enlisting the active cooperation of youth in 
the establishment of political order appear re- 
sponsible in large measure for the current political 
ajjathy and present evidences of opposition to the 
occupation authorities. Food shortages, lack of 
employment, housing conditions, lack of adequate 
controls, and general disillusionment all make for 
a growth of demoralization and criminality. The 
existing social vacuum offers a singular oppor- 
tunity for diverse groups and agents, including 
subversive elements, to bid for leadership and 
control. 

Reports from Germany show that both reaction- 
ary and democratic influences are at work among 
the youth. Attempts to exploit youth for nation- 
alistic purposes have led to the organization of 
incipient resistance groups, to the emergence of 
quasi-political gangs of wayward juveniles and, 
subsequently, to a number of individual disturb- 
ances, none of which, however, has met with more 
tlian preliminary or local success. On the other 
hand, efforts by authorities and organizations to 
control the problem by means of educational 
reform, welfare prdgrams. organized leisure- 
time activities, and pdlitical education have been 
characterized by initial but, so far, inconclusive 
progress. Measures taken in the eastern and in 
the western zones vary in the emphasis placed on 
either political rehabilitation or social readjust- 
ment. Soviet policies attempt to integrate youth 
into the over-all political pattern established for 
the pojiulation as a whole by encouraging partici- 
pation of all youth in the process of reconstruc- 
tion. Policies of the western Allies, by contrast, 
are chiefly focused on welfare and recreational 
measures as a means of reconditioning youth 
morally and socially. Although a certain por- 
tion of German youth appear to respond to Allied 
measures, the majority seem to remain in a politi- 
cal coma — unmoved by general promises, pre- 
occupied with problems of physical survival, and 



JULY 28, 1946 

susceptible to extreme solutions of their present 
dilemma. 

A principal problem confronting Allied mili- 
tary government and German civilian authorities 
is thus to aflirm, to strengthen, and, if possible, 
to extend their influence over German youth. 
Over and above measures designed to ensure the 
absence of political resistance, Allied and German 
l)()licies regarding youth must-be formulated with 
a view toward gaining the cooperation of German 
youth in the attempt to build a new democratic 
system of government and of living. 

The recent announcement b}' American and 
German official quartere of an impending amnesty 
for youth below the age of 27^ quite evidently 
heralds a measure inviting the confidence of Ger- 
man youth by means other than the displaj' of 
strength and, since it will suspend or forestall 
altogether criminal procedures against a substan- 
tial number of German youths, it may well be in- 
terpreted as a conciliatory move intended to give 
German youths a chance for a fresh start. Inas- 
much as it will serve to prevent the wholesale 
stigmatization of ({ei'iuan youths who were com- 
pelled by eirciiiiistances to join the Nazi party, its 
formations, and its affiliates, the anniesty may help 
to remove a potential source of hostility and oppo- 
sition. This effect may at least be true of young 
people who remain in opposition not because tliey 
are unable or unwilling to reform but because they 
claim to be permanently rejected by a society which 
is unwilling to forgive their political past. 

If the amnesty is to exert a maximum affirmative 
influence, it needs to be accompanied l>y a se(iuence 
of safeguards designed to prevent indiscrinjinate 
application and abuse and by projects jilanned to 
utilize the energies of vouth in a constructive man- 



149 

ner. A useful measure in this connection will be 
the initiation of an educational and work program 
for those youths who will enjoy the benefits of the 
amnesty. Such a program, which will have to 
be carefully planned and supervised, must pi'o- 
vide for close observation and examination of 
the progress made liy the youths in the course of 
their participation. Over and above such special 
projects, the amnesty may accomplish desired ob- 
jectives if it is conceived as a part of a general 
program of reeducation which aims at two main 
purposes, namely the eradication of all vestiges of 
Xazi influences from German youth and the prep- 
aration of all youths for active and productive 
participation in democratic processes. Such a 
l)rogram could include, among other things, a 
tliorough reform of the German system of formal 
education, an extensive program of extracurric- 
ular education to supplement the programs of 
schools, a well-supervised plan for leisure-time 
activities, mass and group work pi'ojects for the 
l)urpose of physical and cultural reconstruction, 
and sponsorship and furtherance of organizations 
and activities under the auspices of youth. 
Finally, the recruitment and the employment of 
qualified youths in positions of responsibility may 
go a long way to attract the talented among them 
and to foster new loyalties to a system which they 
have been called to serve. 

Ultimately, the reeducation of German youth is, 
of course, contingent on the improvement and con- 
solidation of the political and economic situation 
as a whole. 



Nation 
5. 1946. 



issified liy the de-Nazi- 
11(1 s(i-(:illeil "activists, 
law lor the liberation 
lit.-irisia was effective 



The United Nations 



Discussion of Certain Phases of U.S. Plan 
for Control of Atomic Energy 

BY JOHN HANCOCK ' 



In the time allotted to me it seems wise that I 
do not attempt to discuss in detail the United 
States plan for the control of atomic energy put 
forward on behalf of the United States by Mr. 
Baruch to the United Nations Atomic Energy 
Commission.^ Incidentally, I should be the last 
person in the world to demur to a reference to 
this plan as the Baruch plan, purely for purposes 
of identification, but I should like to emphasize 
that it is the United States plan. 

I am sure you are all familiar with that pro- 
posal, so I should like to discuss with you some 
general views on this whole problem and touch 
upon certain phases of the plan about which there 
appear to have been some misunderstanding and 
confusion. 



The January 24 resolution of the General As- 
sembly establishing the Atomic Energy Commis- 
sion ^ specifically directed the Commission, among 
other things, to make specific proposals "For 
control of atomic energy to the extent nscessary 
to ensure its use only for peacefvZ furfoses;''^ 
and "For effective safeguards by way of inspec- 
tion and other means to protect complying States 
against the hazards of violations and evasions." 
The resolution did not direct merely the drafting 
of a treaty in which the nations would only ex- 
change promises. 

We have taken these instructions seriously. We 
know that the problem of the control of atomic 
energy is the most crucial problem of our time. 

" An address delivered before the Institute of the Na- 
tional Committee on Atomic Information in Washington 
on July 15 and released to the press on the same date. 
Mr. Hancock is a member of the U.S. Delegation to the 
United Nations Atomic Energy Commission. 

^ Bulletin of June 23, 1946, p. 1057. 

' BtjLiJETiN of Feb. 10, 1946, p. 198. 

150 



It is indeed a matter of making a choice between 
the quick and the dead, between world order and 
world chaos. The problem cannot be solved by 
relying on pious hopes, sanctimonious declara- 
tions, or professions of international amity and 
good-will. They will not be enough. This must 
be a treaty to be kept — a treaty which the world 
will know is being kept or which the world will 
know promptly is not being kept so that the vio- 
lators can be punished immediately. 

The plan put forward by the United States is 
the product of many minds and of many months 
of realistic thinking. Mr. Baruch and his asso- 
ciates are the grateful heirs of the work that 
many groups and individuals have put into this 
problem — scientists, military men, men of indus- 
try, members of Congress, the press, the general 
public and various organized groups such as your 
own. 

From the rubbing together of ideas and of 
different points of view has come the United States 
proposal. From a democratic process has come 
a democratic solution. But more than that, by 
this procedure we have a proposed solution which 
has taken into account the many facets of the prob- 
lem, a plan which looks at the problem as a whole, 
not in the light of specialized interests, a plan that 
will stand examination in its whole and in every 
part. 

I know of no question before us today which is 
more demanding of the best thought of all of 
us. We must all think, think again, and rethink 
about the facts, about the implications that flow 
from the facts, and about the solutions. This, 
if ever, is the time for fully informed, painstak- 
ing, sound — yet imaginative — thinking. This is 
no time for torch bearers with uncompromising 
views on one segment of the problem. And in all 
this we will seek to understand, to synthesize, to 
bi-ing together. We all have much to learn from 



JULY 28, 1946 



151 



each other, whatever our special Held of interest. 
We must all strive to make our utterances re- 
sponsible — rational and not emotional — certainly 
not such as stem from fears or incomplete con- 
sideration of the whole problem. 

The United States plan, while it may startle 
those who seek the easy, the conventional, solution, 
is surely a realistic approach to the hai'd facts of 
the problem. It conforms not only to the facts 
and the needs of the situation but also to the 
mandate of the General Assembly which specifies 
a solution based on proposals for controls and 
effective safeguards. 

In brief, the United States has proposed an 
international authority with unequivocal power 
to exercise full and effective control over atomic 
energy from birth to death and a system of swift 
and certain punishment for violations which shall 
be stigmatized as international crimes. 

II 

We do not expect — and we do not want — other 
nations to accept this plan merely because we are 
convinced it is a sound one. If any plan of con- 
trol is to meet the needs of the world, the nations 
will accept it only if it serves their needs. We do 
feel, however, that, once the implications of the 
problem are fully appreciated by all nations which 
are earnestly and honestly seeking a sound solu- 
tion, the means of handling this problem, finally 
arrived at, will necessarily follow the broad lines 
of the United States plan. So far as I know, every 
thorough student of the problem finally comes to 
the same basic conclusion. 

We do not expect a quick solution. Even the 
most diligent and serious concentration on this 
matter, as has been fully in evidence in the delib- 
erations of the Atomic Energy Commission, can- 
not evolve a ready answer. All nations must think 
this thing through — really come to grips with the 
facts— before they can arrive at a workable solu- 
tion to which each nation will pledge its best en- 
deavors. No matter how essential speed may be 
regarded, a sound plan, an effective control with 
adequate authority, is more essential. Nor is it 
enough simply to sign a treaty outlawing the bomb. 
We do not want a treaty covering atomic energy 
that will have the fate of the Kellogg-Briand 
pact — to mention only one. Further, it is not 
enough to set up a system of control such as is 
envisaged in the American proposal unless the na- 
tions will give it full support and subject them- 



selves to an international inspection to prove they 
are doing so. In recommending an adequate sys- 
tem of control, iiicluding unhindered inspection 
which may be irritating and onerous, we fully 
recognize that the United States will, over a period 
of some years, be the primary country subjected 
to such inspection. 

We must have patience and understanding. We 
must both teach and learn. 

Some may say that our plan is too stiff, too 
novel — so demanding that it is doomed to rejec- 
tion. Some go even so far as to say it was put 
forward in such form as to insure its rejection. 
To this I say it is no stiffer, no more novel, no 
more demanding than the facts of the problem 
itself. The United States wants an effective treaty 
that will command the support and respect of the 
world. That is our only objective. Anything 
less, in our judgment, would be a delusion of tragic 
jiroportions. Any less-than-effective plan for in- 
ternational control of this di'ead force would be 
worse than a simple declaration to outlaw the 
bomb, for it would arouse false hopes of security 
where no security exists. 



Ill 



The fundamental instinct of man is self-preser- 
vation. The fundamental concern of nations — 
their primary resjjonsibility — is also self-preserva- 
tion, and nations have sought it in the concept of 
absolute national sovereignty and national power. 
National power has given a measure of security but 
only up to the point of clash between what nations 
unilaterally consider to be their vital interests and 
aspirations. These clashes have come with in- 
creasing frequency, and when they occur they end 
only in war. 

Wliile in no sense a complete guaranty of self- 
preservation, reliance on national power is, at pres- 
ent, a nation's only final choice. It will not and 
cannot be relinquished until a more effective means 
of assuring self-preservation is found. 

The advent of atomic energy has thrust upon the 
world the imperative necessity of finding a new 
means of assuring self-preservation. It also points 
a way that this may be done. It may be the catalyst 
that might hopefully bring about a new and fruit- 
ful relationship of nations and peoples. We think 
that the plan put forward by the United States 
meets the challenge by making full use of the posi- 
tive, developmental aspects of atomic energy on 



752 

an international basis. Atomic energy fnrnishes 
not only the challenge but also some of the means 
with which the challenge can be met. 

The attitude adojated in developing the United 
States proposal was that it must be a fair-minded 
plan — fair to us and fair to all other nations. We 
would not propose it — and I am sure that the 
American jaeople would not support it — if it were 
not. It is a plan of self-preservation, not for our- 
selves alone but for the entire world. 

IV 

But a plan, a treaty, indeed a system of control, 
is not enougli. Tlie Atomic Devolopnicnt Autlior- 
ity, however skillfidly contrived, cnniiot work mi- 
less it is stattcd witl'i ]iersoinu-l of inuiuestioned 
integrity and competence. It cannot work unless 
it commands respect and confidence throughout the 
woi'ld. It must become an entity firmly implanted 
ill the minds of men, an institution firmly accepted 
as an integral part of our world. This will take 
time. Its stature will grow oidy as it reveals by 
its actual performance integrity, impartiality, and 
conipi'tiMKc. It must develop, if you will, an ef- 
feiiivc system of inlcniiil ional administrative law 
built aiduiid positive excrutive functions. It must 
be something really new — a world agency with ex- 
ecutive powers stemming from a treaty to which 
all nations have subscribed — something never be- 
fore established. 

By its positive, constructive operations it should 
attract men of professional competence, integrity, 
and good-will. By its example, the way may be 
open to a real community of nations founded on 
mutual confidence, and patterns of thought and 
action may be formed which might show the way 
to a successful tackling of the problem of war itself. 

This is the vision that may one day come into 
reality. Is there anyone, anywhere in the world, 
who does not want this vision to come to pass? 

But to coine back to the present. We must not 
outpace ourselves. We must move step by step. 
We must proceed in the full knowledge that the 
vision might fade, that nations might prove un- 
willing to move toward world security at the price 
of a modicum of pride and position. We propose 
to conduct negotiations with this possibility in 
mind. The United States plan fully recognizes 
this possibility by providing for a step-by-step 
establishment of the Atomic Development Author- 
ity with requisite safeguards at every stage. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

These steps and these safeguards must be spe- 
cifically defined in the treaty itself. 



I should like now to comment briefly on certain 
misinterpretations that have arisen concerning the 
plan. 

First — the qnestion of the reto. Our proposal 
is tliis : once nations, by their own voluntary sover- 
eign act, liave become parties to a treaty estab- 
lishing an Atomic Development Authority and 
spelling out its functions and setting up certain 
acts as international crimes, they must be unequiv- 
ocally bound to abide by their undertakings. By 
this we mean bound on pain of severe, swift, am\ 
certain punishment for violations. No nation, 
having once signed the treaty, can suddenly repu- 
diate it and expect to escape iDunishment for its 
acts of violation. It necessarily follows, therefore. 
that in this field — and we are concerned w'ith this 
field alone — action cannot await a second act of 
unanimity, the first one having occurred when the 
treaty was signed. On the other hand, up to the 
point of accept ing a treaty, every nation, including 
the United Siatcs. ^u^renders nothing, but if it 
violates its jirunii^c once freely given it must not 
be a judge of its own guilt, and no other nation may 
be allowed to prevent its punishment. 

Within the general framework of the treaty, the 
ADA must have broad admini.'^trative powers. It 
will carry out policy. It will have to make impor- 
tant decisions and actively operate a large-scale j 
program. It must act. It could not operate if it ^ 
had to secure unanimous approval of its action 
from any other organization. The Authority must 
have power — imequivocal, effective powei- — com- 
mensurate with it responsibilities. What a futile 
thing it would be to assign such heavy responsi- 
bilities to such a body and provide it with less than 
enough authority to insure the carrying out of its 
orders. 

Exactly how the problem of the unanimity rule 
of the Security Council can be met in this field, 
what the precise relationship of the ADA should 
be to the other organs of the United Nations, par- 
ticularly to the Security Council, remains to be 
established. This problem is being given first con- 
sideration, and an acceptable solution «m/.s^ be 
found. The least that must be insisted upon is 
that (1) once violations of the treaty have oc- 
curred, punishment must be swift and certain, and 



}lLy 2H, 1946 



153 



(2) the operatidiis of tlu' ADA canudt he inter- 
fered with by the device of the unaiiiniity rule. 
It \yould seem desirable, if possible, to accomplish 
effective control of atomic energy within the frame- 
work of the United Nations Charter ; but no nation, 
and none of its nationals, can l)e permitted, by 
hiding- beliind tlie shield of any prii\isi(in in the 
Charter, to claim innnunity for wilful violations 
of a solemn agreement voluntai'ily enleretj into, or 
to prevent the effective operati<in of the Atomic 
L>evelopment Authority. 

Second — the status of the United States plan. 
The plan put before the United Nations Atomic 
Energy Connnission on June 14 by Mr. Baruch is 
the ])roiiosal of the United States. That is the 
only ollicial plan. It has the approval of I he Presi- 
dent of the United Slates an<l the S^vretaiy of 
State. Mr. Baruch i^ <,ur go\criinientV represeni - 
ative in conducting negol ial ions based on this plan. 
It is i)erfectly clear, however, that any treaty that 
results from the.se negotiations nnist and will be 
subject to the approval of our Congress. And it 
nnist be a ti-eaty, for neither the General Assembly 
nor the Security Council is so constituted as to 
bring into being such a jilan. The Cnited Stales 
cannot be boiuid by any treaty uidess and tnitil it 
is approved in accordance witli our established 
constitutional processss. This is so oiivimis that 
I hesitate to mention it. I do so only because it 
has been implied by some people that we do not 
seem to recognize this fact. Such people either 
have not read the United States proposal or are 
deliberately attempting to mislead, for Mr. Baruch 
gave his personal word to a Senate conunittee on 
this specific point. Also, in prescni ing I he United 
States plan on June 14tli he expliiity stated : "Let 
me repeat, so as to avoid misunderstanding: ^ly 
country is ready to make its full contribution 
toward tlie end we seek, subject of course to our 
conKtifKfiomtl jiroii ss, .s and to an adequate systen\ 
of control becoming fully effective, as we finally 
work it (tut." 

Third — i.rchdiuje of uiformiitioii. The situa- 
tion on this point is clear. At the opening ses- 
sion of the Atomic Energy Commission Mr. Baruch 
said : ''the United States is prepared to make avail- 
able the information essential to a reasonable un- 
derstanding of the proposals which it advocates.'' 
Only this and nothing more. The period of nego- 
tiation of the treaty is to be sharply distinguished 
from the series of stages in which the ADA will 



come into full possession of all information in this 
field once the treaty is in full force and i ffect. It 
is in this latter series of stages that we propose 
making more and more information available to 
the Authority in step with the progressive estab- 
li.shment of workable safeguards, proven in opera- 
tion, to protect ourselves and the world from the 
misuse of such information by any nation. No na- 
tion can expect us not to be firm on this point. 
National security is not going to be impaired while 
we seek, but have no firm assurance of securing, an 
effective treaty. 

An essential step in the series of stages, yet to 
be specified in detail in the treaty, would be the 
undertaking by the United States to dispose of its 
stock of bomljs. This can come oidy when we and 
all other nations can be fuUv assured that no one 



selves 



"We seek security and peace, not f 
alone but for all men. We believe there is a, way 
to get this and that that way is delineated in the 
U.S. proposal. We pledge our best efforts to at- 
tempt to secure its acceptance by other nations. 
With palieme. understanding, and knowledge of 
the farts, we must iioiie that all nations will come 
lo be convinced as we are convinced that this pro- 
posal in its general objectncs (jth'rs -the last, best 
hope of earth"'. We refuse to consider now what 
we shall do if we fail. 

A sound solution to this problem does not insure 
solutions to the many other problems that beset 
nations. Their solutions, too, require patience and 
uiulerstanding. But if we fail in this one more 
critical problem of our time other problems become 
mere details in a doomed world. 



.)//•. Hancock made the followiiKj 



durtor;/ 
riod: 



(irks at the opening of the question p 
Throughout the deliberations before the Atomic 
nergy Commission, the U.S. Delegation has 
)Ught to give full publicity to all documents con- 
lining our proposals and suggestions. AVe expect 
) continue to do so. We hope that this ])ractice 
is been of real a.ssistance to all who are frying 
irnestly to increase their miderstanding of'tlus 
robleni. As you can well appreciate, we cannot — 
1(1 will not — speculate about the views of other 
It ions oi- about the j^rogress of the negotiations. 



154 



Tliere will be uuim- utlier meiiioraiid;i as tlie days 
go by. It will not seem appropriate now to discuss 
tbeir contents. 

Since I have been thrown into close relationship 
with the Einstein formula that the energy pi'o- 
(luced by atomic fission equals the mass times the 
speed of light squared, perhaps it might be well 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BiLLETiy 

din" the problem 



to state my own observation 
I face in scientific terms. 

I have observed that one's freedom to speak at 
any given time on atomic energy varies inversely 
as the square of his distance from the responsibil- 
ity. Have I stressed enough the time factor in this 
observation i 



Jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice 

STATEMENT BY UNDER SECRETARY ACHESON ^ 



The proposal before the conunittee has as its 
general objective, in mj' view, the active partici- 
pation of the United States in the movement to 
establish an international judiciary. Xn interna- 
tional judiciary -would have the dual fuiutinn nf 
defining the law and its in-opci' ajiplical ion in situ 
ations involving legal issues, and of deciding dis- 
putes of a legal character. In uther words we en- 
vision the judiciary as performing llie function 
in international relations that we ordinarily a»o- 
ciate with the judiciary in tlomestic ati'ai's. 

Of course, qualifications innnediately assert 
themselves. In domestic law, the judiciary is part 
of a larger process, including on the one hand 
procedures for enforcement of decisions and on 



the other hand pi'ocediu'es fc 
throiio], h.oi.huH.n. Ill int. 
enloi-cenient lueasin-es arc gre; 
force and effect of decisions 



langmg 



the law 
•national ivlations. 
tly larking, and I lie 
.ejiend in the main 



upon the good faith of the parties involved. It 
is important to i^ote that all decisions of the Per- 
manent Court of International Justice were car- 
ried out, and that members of the United Nations 
are bound by article 94 of the Charter to comply 
with decisions of the International Court of Jus- 
tice in any cases to which they are parties. 

As to procedures foi' changing the law, there is 
nothing in international relations with legislative 
powers as we understand it in domestic law. The 
placing of disputed questions before tribunals for 
adjudication is one method of achieving the evolu- 
tion of the law. and the establishment of an in- 
ternational jiuliciary facilitates this process. 
Treaty making, especially the making of multi- 
lateral treaties, is also a method of bringing about 

' Both this statement and the following one by Mr. Fahy 
were made on July !."> before the Senate Foreign Uelatlons 
Subcommittee on .Tiu'isdiction of International Court of 
.Tuslice on S..I. Kes. 196. 



of the United Nations, in addition to the Court, 
have powers which will enable them to make im- 
portant contributions. It is to be noted that the 
(xeneral Assembly is especially charged in the 
CI la Iter, article 13, with the task of "encouraging 
the i)rogressive development of international law 
and its codification". The Economic and Social 
Council and the specialized agencies have, per- 
haps, an even more important role, being specifi- 
rally dedicated to the task of promoting equality 
and justice on those basic levels where the root 
causes of inteiiuitional disorders have their 
origins. 

International order thus resembles domestic or- 
der in resting upon a basis of law. and this in 
turn rests ui^on the confidence and support of the 
]5e()ple. The processes in the international society 
are different because of the sovereign character of 
the entities that comprise it : it depends to a much 
greater degree on good faith and intelligence. But 
the central role of the judiciary is in both cases 
the same — it is to make the law a living and vital 
factor through being able, whenever necessary, to 
say what the law is and to give it application. 

A world order based on law would by definition 
mean a world at peace. The participation of the 
ITnited States in this program is, of course, essen- 
tial if the goal is to be achieved. By adopting the 
jiroposal before the conunittee we may very well be 
taking a long and even a decisive step in the direc- 
tion of crossing the line which separates world dis- 
oicler from world order based on law. 

I have endeavored to stress the point that the 
present proposal would, if adopted, be a step to- 
ward the ultimate achievement of a true interna- 
tional judiciary. I will describe the place and im- 
portance of the step as I understand it. 

The development of the idea had its origin sev- 



JULY 28, 1946 

tioiial law. International law devi'loped because it 
was needed, for the same reason that domestic law 
Mas developed. It was needed in order to furnish 
a standard of conduct upon which states could rely 
in their relations with each other. The develop- 
ment of international law has been very laborious 
because the sovereign status of states enables them 
to reject a legal settlement in any case. The law 
has thus been at the mercy of any state which ex- 
ercised its right to jjursue its objectives by po- 
litical means, force, or the threat of force. It is 
tlie purpose of the declarations envisioned by the 
Statute, and here under discussion, to correct this 
situation in so far as it can be done through the 
accejitance of legal obligations within a prescribed 
sphere. 

The next important step in the development of 
the judiciary was the institution of international 
arbitration. States have generally been under no 
general obligation to resort to arbitration, and have 
done so only when they could agree upon this 
method. The United States has taken a leading 
part in the development of arbitration. Through- 
out our history as a nation, in fact, we have prided 
ourselves on our devotion to the principle of peace- 
ful, legal settlement of disputes with other nations. 
From the days of the Jay treaty we have led the 
way in the arbitration of disputes, and we did not 
hesitate to submit to legal decision a case as im- 
portant in our history as the Alahama claims 
against the United Kingdom for depredations on 
our sliips during the Civil War. Throughout the 
nineteenth century, the example of the United 
States was a potent force influencing other nations 
to agree to submit impoi-tant questions to impar- 
tial decision in accordance with law instead of re- 
lying upon the appeal to force. 

A great step forward in the develojjment of an 
international judiciary was the establishment of a 
])ermanent international court in 1920, the Perma- 
nent Court of International Justice. There were 
I litis introduced at one step several of the attributes 
of the judiciary. First there was a court in being, 
available at all times and thus facilitating the sub- 
mission of international disputes. In addition, it 
brought about a greater degree of contimiity in 
the development of intei-national jurisprudence. 

The United Nations ha\c established a new In- 
ternational Court of Justice, the Statute of which 
forms an integral part of the Charter of the United 
Xations. The Court is a truly international organ 
ol the United Xations, being composed of 1.") inde- 



155 



pendent judges elected regardless of their nation- 
ality and bound by solemn declarations to exercise 
their powers impartially and conscientiously. The 
Court's function is to decide in accordance with 
international law such disputes as are submitted 
to it. 

However, the mere existence of a court and the 
existence of a body of laM' does not result in the 
creation of a judiciary as we understand it. The 
Committee of Jurists who drafted the Statute of 
the Permanent Court of International Justice in 
1020 were aware of this and undertook to submit a 
plan which made provision not only for the consti- 
tutional structure of the Court, but also vested in 
it the jurlsd'/rtiuii \\liich would enable it to fulfil 
the role they envisioned for it. Under the proposal 
they submitted, all states adhering to the StatiTte 
would have acceple,] the jiirisdini.ins of the Court 
in much the same terms as the United States is 
asked to accept in the proposal now before this 
committee. 

The far-reaching potentialities of the proposal 
of that Committee of Jurists were of course appar- 
ent. When the draft was submitted to the Council 
of the League, the Italian ivpivsentative correctly 
estimated the sit ual ion in I liese wm-ds : 

"it was unprecedented for one State to bring anoth- 
er State before a tribunal without its assent and to 
condemn it by default ; and such a procedure would 
in practice only be tolerated by the smaller coun- 
tries." 

The jurisdictional features of the Committee 
draft were then rejected in the Council, and also in 
the Assembly, despite the very eloquent appeals of 
representatives of some of the smaller countries 
that it be retained. This of course is the real es- 
sence of the whole problem of the international 
judiciary. The rule of law becomes effective to the 
extent that states agree to submit themselves to 
the decision of the Court in all cases involving ques- 
tions of law. It cannot become effective if states 
may reserve this decision to themselves, regardless 
of the degree of good faith by which they govern 
their actions. It seemed to the Committee of Jur- 
ists in l'.)2(), and it seems to many people today, 
that the appropriate remedy for this situation 
would be the general acceptance of an interna- 
tional judiciary with powers adequate to enable it 
to fulfil the elementary function of a judiciary to 
decide any questions of international law. 

To i-etni'ii to the history of the develojunent of 



156 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



the concept of the international judiciary, it is of 
interest to note that one of the members of the 
19i>() Committee of Jurists, and one who strongly 
advocated the compulsory-jurisdiction provision, 
was the distinguished American, the Honorable 
Elihu l\<iot. former member of the Senate Foreign 
Relations Connnittee, former Secertary of War 
and Secretary of State. The opposition of other 
great powers to these proposals in 1920 was shared 
in the United States to such an extent that, as you 
know, it was never possible for this country even 
to join the Court, much less to submit to its com- 
indsory jurisdiction. However, the proposal to 
join the Court was advocated by every President 
and Secretary of State during the inter-war pe- 
riod, was twice favorably reported by the Senate 
Foreign Relations Committee, and actually had a 
majority of the Senate, but lacked the necessary 
two-thirds. 

In the meantime a considerable development of 
the idea of compulsory jurisdiction took place in 
other countries. 

In rejecting general compulsory jurisdiction the 
League approved in its place a provision enabling 
such states as desired to do so to accept the juris- 
diction of the Court as among themselves in certain 
types of cases. At one time or another 44 states, 
including 3 of our great-power Allies in the recent 
war, China, France, and the United Kingdom, 
availed themselves of this provision — known as the 
Optional Clause. 

In the 1945 Committee of Jurists which met in 
AA'^ashington to prepare proposals for the San Fran- 
cisco conference regarding the Court Statute and 
again at the San Francisco conference, it was evi- 
dent that a great body of world opinion was in 
favor of general compulsory jurisdiction. Some 
of the larger states were, however, opposed, and 
among these the United States took the position 
that such a provision might imperil acceptance of 
the Charter. Consequently, after one of the most 
substantial debates of the entire San Francisco 
conference, the same compromise was adopted as 
had been incorporated in the Statute of the Per- 
manent Court of International Justice. That is, 
it is left to the states individually to deposit dec- 
larations to be effective for this purpose among 
themselves. The Conference went further, how- 
ever, first in providing that declarations made un- 
der the old Statute and remaining in force shall 
as among the parties to the present Statute con- 
tinue in force for so long as they still have to 



run. Some 19 declarations have thu.s been con- 
tinued in force. Secondly, Commission IV of the 
Conference adopted a recommendation that as 
soon as possible the members of the Organization 
make declarations recognizing the obligatory juris- 
diction of the Court. It is the proposal now before 
tlie connnittee that the United States should make 
such a declaration. 

There were also incorporated in the United 
Nations Charter provisions strongly supporting 
the resort to law. In the Preamble the members 
of the United Nations declare their determination 
"to establish conditions inider which justice and 
respect for the obligations arising from treaties 
and other sources of international law can be main- 
tained". Among the purposes of the United Na- 
tions as set forth in article 1, paragraph 1, of the 
Charter is the settlement of international disputes 
"in conformity with the principles of justice and 
international law". 

At the present time we have agreed, in the Char- 
ter of the United Nations, article 2, paragraph 3, 
to settle our "international disputes by peaceful 
means in such a manner that international peace 
and security, and justice, are not endangered." 
We have bound ourselves, by article 37 of the Char- 
ter, to refer a dispute the continuance of which 
is "likely to endanger the maintenance of inter- 
national peace and security" to the Security Coun- 
cil if we fail to settle it by means agreed upon 
with the other party. Under such circumstances, 
the Security Council may either recommend appro- 
priate procedures of adju.stment or may actually 
recommend terms of settlement. In other words, 
by the Charter, we have given up, in the interest 
of our peace and security, the right to be the judge 
of our own case in those situations where the dis- 
pute is likely to endanger the maintenance of inter- 
national peace and security. While it is true that 
the United States is not bound to accept recom- 
mendations of the Security Council, it would be 
embarrassing for the United States to reject pro- 
posals which liad the weight and influences of the 
Security- Coumil behind them. To sum up, we 
might say that at the present time the commit- 
ments of the United States on the political settle- 
ment of disputes are more far-reaching than those 
on judicial settlement. 

This, it seems to me, is an anomalous position 
for a country like the United States which sets 
great store by legal tradition. Americans from 
the time of tlie Revolution have contended that 



ILIA 2S, 1946 



tiieirs was a govoriiiiient of laws and nut of nu'ii. 
Wlien our international obligations may result in 
recommendations by a political body instead of 
decision by a court in accordance with law, it seems 
that the time has come to accept the jurisdiction 
of a court wliich can give as a legal decision on a 
legal case. 

It is difficult to see how any harm could come 
to the United States from agreeing to submit to 
the International Court of Justice the types of 
disputes covered by the resolution in question. 
which provides safeguards for special situations. 
Professor Jessup has said : 

•'The experience of fifty-one states including 
such great powers as Great Britain and France, 
which made declarations under Article 36 of the 
old Statute [of the Permanent Court of Interna- 
tional Justice] demonstrates that this is no dan- 
gerous venture." (Philip C. Jessup. "Ar(c|itance 
by the United States of the Optional ( JauM. ,,f the 
International Court of Justice", . 1 mrricun .ItninKil 
of Infernatioiuil Lau\ vol. 39 (1945), p. 750.) 



It seems clear that positive advantages would 
accrue to the United States from agreeing to ac- 
cept the judgment of a court bound to decide in 
accordance with international law. A correlative 
advantage would of course accrue to the United 
States in being able to bring before the Court a 
dispute with another state which was likewise 
bound. There is much to be said for being able 
definitively to put an end to disputes through legal 
processes. The record of the United States in its 
international dealings is such that it should not 
dread to have its acts reviewed by a court of law. 
Furthermore, and this cannot be overemphasized, 
the United States stands to gain as much as any 
nation from the advancement of the rule of law 
in international relations. 

I will conclude by stating that the President and 
the Secretary of State have carefully weighed the 
pioposal before the committee and have recom- 
mended that the United States should deposit its 
declaration and accept the jurisdiction of the Court. 



STATEMENT BY CHARLES FAHY 



Purpose of Declaration 

The purpose of the Resolution pending before 
the Committee is for the United States, on its part, 
to confer on the International Court of Justice a 
clearly defined jurisdiction, broad and yet limited. 
This would be done in the exercise of an option 
which all parties to the Statute of the Court have 
under article 36, paragraph 2. 

By virtue of their sovereign status, states cannot 
be sued without their consent. The effort to obtain 
this consent on a general scale was made as long 
ago as 1920, when the advisory Committee of Jur- 
ists, which drafted the older Statute of the Perma- 
nent Court of International Justice, incorporated 
in its draft a provision for general compulsory 
jurisdiction with respect to legal questions. Elihu 
Root, the United States member, joined in this 
recommendation that such provision be incor^jo- 
rated. This effort failed, however, in the League 
Council and Assembly, and was renewed, again 
unsuccessfully, by the Committee of Jurists who 
met in AVashington last year prior to the San 
Francisco Conference and again at the San Fran- 
cisco Conference itself, when the present Statute 
was adopted. 



The basic jurisdiction of the Court is thus volun- 
tary as to disputes between states. States may, by 
agreement, however, consent to he proceeded 
against in any given case. They may by the same 
token refuse such consent, thus barring the possi- 
bility of a judicial determination. 

The optional provision of article 3G, paragraph 
2, was incorporated in the Statutes of both the 
former Court and the present Court, to enable 
such states as desire to do so to agree among them- 
selves in advance that they will accc|it the Court's 
jurisdiction in certain types of (lispiilcs and for 
certain periods of time. While the Statute ap- 
proved at San Francisco left the matter in this 
situation, the Conference itself approved a recom- 
mendation urging that members of the United 
Nations deposit declarations under this Article as 
soon as possible. 
Movement for Compulsory Jurisdiction 

Mr. Acheson has already sketched the evolution 
of the "optional clause" of the Statute of the 



'Mr. Fahy is Legal Advis. 
This statement was made In 
tions Subcoinruittee on .Iiiii? 
of .TustifP, nn S. .1. Res. irHl. 



I lie Iiepartiuent of State, 
tilt' Senate Foreign Reta- 
in of International Court 



158 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Permanent Court of International Justice and 
mentioned that during tlie life of that Court 44 
states made declarations accepting compulsory 
jurisdiction. 

After the Dumbarton Oaks Conversations, pro- 
fessional legal groups in this country and Canada 
took the view that the Court to be established as 
the principal judicial organ of the United Nations 
should have compulsory jurisdiction over enu- 
merated kinds of cases. At the sessions of the 
Committee of Jurists -which assembled in Wash- 
ington in April 1945 to draft the Statute of the 
Court preparatory to the San Francisco Confer- 
ence, there was keen interest in the question of the 
Court's jurisdiction. Representatives from Aus- 
tralia, Urazil. Canada, China, Costa Rica, Czech- 
oslovakia, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Ethiopia, 
Guatemala, Honduras, Iran, Iraq, Mexico, New 
Zealand, Peru, Turkey, Uruguay, and Venezuela 
stated that tliey favored a provision in the Statute 
itself granting compulsory jurisdiction. Of these, 
the re])resentatives from Austi-alia, Brazil, Can- 
ada, Czechoslovakia, E'i Salvadcir. Ethiopia, New 
Zealand, and Turkey qualified their support in 
some way. The retention of article 36, paragraph 
2, as it stood under the old Statute, leaving the 
matter to tlie ojition of each state to be separately 
exercised. \\:i< -ii|i|Mui('d by representatives from 
Belginni. Fiaii.'e. 11a ili, the Netherlands, Norway, 
the Soviet Union, and the United Kiiigdom. The 
representative of the United Stale- poiiited out 
that the inclusion of compulsory jurisdiction in 
the Statute itself might make it difficult for some 
states to accept the Statute. 

After nuich discussion, the Connnittee decided 
to submit to the United Nations Conference at 
San Francisco alternate drafts of article 36, para- 
graph 2, one embracing the optional principle and 
the other providing for compulsory jurisdiction 
in four classes of legal disputes. The Committee 
took this course in the belief that the question of 
compulsory jurisdiction was tied up with political 
consideraticms as to the acceptability of the 
Statute. 

At the San Francisco Conference, in Committee 
1 of Commission IV. which dealt with the Court's 
Statute, in the deliberations of which I partici- 
))ated on behalf of the United States Delegation 
and at all times followed the work and debate 
closely even though not always sitting, the )ua- 
jority of the United Nations favored a provision 
in the Statute itself conferrin-i' iurisdiction over 



certain kinds of cases. A number indicated how- 
e\er, that they would not press their preference 
if compulsory jurisdiction could not receive unani- 
mous approval. The United States preferred the 
optional procedure in the belief that compulsory 
jurisdiction might make acceptance of the Charter 
and the Statute more difficult. The decisive two- 
thirds vote in favor of article 36, paragraph 2, the 
optional clause of the Statute as it now stands, was 
attained only by the votes of certain states which 
specifically recorded that they favored compul- 
sory jurisdiction but voted for the "optional 
clause" in the interests of harmony. 

In view of the support manifested for compul- 
sory jurisdiction, the United Nations Conference 
in plenary session adopted the resolution recom- 
mending that members of the United Nations 
which had not made declarations accepting the 
jurisdiction of the Court under article 3G, jaara- 
graph 2, should do so as soon as possible. 

In assisting ISIr. Ilackworth as adviser when he 
was Chairman of llie ('onmiittee of Jurists, and 
in participating closely in the work of the San 
Francisco Conference regarding the Court, I was 
deeply impressed by the strong feeling of the 
majority of the United Nations that the larger 
powers should not withhold judicial or legal ques- 
tions from judicial decision by the International 
Court which all were agreed should be established. 
There was the strong feeling that impartial judi- 
cial settlement pointed the road to a rule of law 
in the international world, the ideal of our do- 
mestic order. They felt that for great powers to 
withhold from the Court assent to jurisdiction 
over legal questions was a means to the exercise 
of power without justice; and that justice under 
the law was not only an instrument of peace but 
a substitution of law for force. It seems to me 
to need no argument now that the United States 
should take a leading part in demonstrating the 
correctness of these sentinients and use the present 
ojiportunity to adxance between nations the de- 
velopment of peat'cful judicial processes. It would 
be a boon to good relations: and it would place 
our country where it should be in the scluine of 
world order. 

There has been strong sentiment in favoi' of the 
acceptance of compulsory jurisdiction amonu l)ro- 
fessional groups in the United States, as indicated 
by resolutions of such organizations as the Ameri- 
can Bar Association, the Fe.leral Bar Association, 



Jl LY 2R, 1946 



159 



Anu 



'i-Aiiu'iic 
11 Society 



J5ar A^M. 
Iiit.'niatiiiii 



La 



Limitations on Jurisdiction Conferred 

Lrf/„n/l.y>uf,.—Thv jurisdictidii wllidl llu- ivs- 
olutidii would <;r;,iii to the Court is not unlimited. 
The first and most imixirtanl limitation imd'n- the 
l)roposed declaration is that it will apply only 
to cases suitable for judicial determination, that 
is to say legal cases. This limitation is not only 
spelled out in the proposed resolution but is ex- 
plicit in article m. )iai-ai;ra|)h -J. of the Statute. 
Jn addition, article .".s states that it is the function 
<d' the Couit to decide in accordance with inter- 
national law. It is therefore clear that the Court 
caiuiot deride any ipiest ion other than a legal ques- 
tion nidess authorized in a special additional 
agreement by the parties to a given case. Neither 
article 36, paragraph 2. nor the declaration pro- 
l)osed by this resolution authorizes the Court to do 
anything but decide legal questions in accordance 
with international law. 

/?,77>/Y«7Yy— Under the pi'oposed declaration 
the United States w.nild a<'(|uire rights and obli- 
gations only as t,, slides which have un,l<Tt aken 
similar obligat i..iis ; that is. we w,,ul<l not a-srni 
to be sued, for example, by a state which did not 
also so assent. The requirement of reciinocity 
is incorporated in the Statute itself in article 3,1, 
paragraph 2. as well as in the present resolution. 
A similar condition incorporated in the Statute 
(if the Permanent Court of International Justice 
was held by that Coui't to mean that a limitation 
interposed in the declaration by one party to a 
suit can be I'elied on by the other, even though the 
latter has not made the same limitation in its 
declaration. (PJio^plidtes case and Elect licity 
Company case.) In the words of Professor Hud- 
son "The Court's jurisdiction applies only to the 
common ground covered by the applicant's and 
respondent's declarations." (Hudson, The Per- 
itiaiieiit Court of Intcrnatin]uil Justice, 1920-1942, 
p. 406.) 

The limitative clause in the Statute is in article 
36, paragraph 2: ''in relation to any other state 
accepting the same obligation". Paragraph 3 of 
the same article states that declarations may be 
made unconditionally or on the basis of reciprocity, 
on the part of several or certain states, or for a 
certain time. For example. Brazil made the opera- 
tive effect of its declaration in 1921 dependent upon 
certain other states filinsr declarations. 



('i/.s,.s iiris'iiKj ill p<is' — Under tiie proposed dec- 
laration the United States would be bound only as 
todisputesansing in the future. 

Othrr inoilr.s of ,.,///,/,„/(/— Under the proposed 
declaration the United States would l)e able to 
agree with the other i)arty to a disjnite to seek a 
settlement by some other means. A provision to 
this effect is already found in the Charter (art. 95). 

Domestic jurisdiction — The declaration would 
exclude disputes with regard to matters which are 
essentially wnthin the domestic jurisdiction of the 
United States. This makes explicit for this pur- 
pose a principle already incorporated in the 
Charter as article 2, paragraph 7, which reads: 
"Nothing contained in the present Charter shall 
authorize the Ignited Nations to intervene in mat- 
ters which are essentially within the domestic juris- 
diction of any state", etc. 

Time JImlttitlon — The derlaiation envisaged 
could be terminated after five years, oi- at any time 
thereafter provided six months' notice is given. 

States as to which U. >S. would he iound — The 
Ignited States would, by depositing a declaration, 
ac(|uii-e the right and duty to sue. or be sued by, any 
(ilher slate having a valid declaration in force, 
accepting the same obligation. The right to file 
declai'ations or carry them over from the old Court 
is confined to states w'hich are parties to the 
Statute. 

A group of declarations are already in force by 
virtue of article 36, paragraph 5, of the Statute 
which provides that declaraticms made under the 
corresponding article of the Statute of the Perma- 
nent Court of International Justice and still in 
force, shall be deemed, as among the parties to the 
liresent Statute, to be acceptances of the compul- 
sory jurisdiction of the new Court for such periods 
as they still have to run. Declarations of the 
following 19 states thus came into force : Australia, 
Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Denmark, 
Dominican Republic. Haiti. India, Iran, Luxem- 
bourg, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Pan- 
ama, El Salvador, South Africa, United Kingdom, 
and Uruguay. 

It is to be anticipated that a great many other 
states will deposit declarations. Under the old 
Court Statute the total number who did this at 
one time or another was 44. In addition to the 19 
mentioned above, whose declarations continue in 
force, this number included : Albania, Austi-ia, Bel- 
gium. Bulgaria. China. Erie. Estonia. Ethojna, 



160 



DEHARTMt:.\T OF STATE BLLLETIi\ 



Finland. France. (Jennany, Greece, Hungary, 
Italy, Latvia, Lithnania, Paraguay, Peru, Portu- 
gal, Euniania, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Thail- 
and, and Yugoslavia. 

States not now memhers — Under the Statute, the 
states entitled to file declarations in accordance 
with article 36, paragraph 2, are "the states parties 
to the present Statute"'. Thus, under the Statute, 
any state becoming a party to that instrument in 
the future will, if it is admitted on a basis of 
equality with other parties, have the right to de- 
posit a declaration. 

Determination of Court's Jurisdiction 

The Court determines its own jiirisdict ion in any 
case which it has under consideration ( art. :'('>. par. 
6, of the Statute). If one party claims that the 
Court is not properly seized of the case or that it 
does not have jurisdiction of a certain aspect of 
the case, the Court will decide. This is true 
whether the case is brought before I he Court under 
a special agreement, a treaty, or a general agree- 
ment such as the one here under consideration. 

Obligation to Comply with Decisions 

The United States and all other members of the 
United Nations are bound by the Charter (art. 94, 
par. 1) to comply with decisions of the Court in 
cases to which they are parties. This obligation 
applies to all cases wlu'ther brought before the 
Court under a declaration of I his kind or not. (It 
does not apply to advisory opinions, since there 
are no parties in such cases.) 

Enforcement of Decisions 

Although parties to cases are oljligated to com- 
ply with the decisions of the Court, there is no 
provision foi- the enforcement of such decisions un- 
less the failure to comply constitutes a threat to the 
peace or breach of the peace under article 39 of the 
Charter. There is an article in the Charter (art. 
94, par. 2) which provides that a party may resort 
to the Security Council if the other party fails to 
carry out the judgment and that the Security 
Council may, if it deems necessary, make recom- 
mendations or decide upon measures to be taken to 
give effect to the judgment. This Government 
takes the position that the Security Council's ac- 
tion under this article is limited by the scope of 
its i)owers as defined in article 39, that is, it must 
Hi-st be determined by the Security Council that 
the breach constitutes a threat to oi- breach of the 



peace or an act of aggression. {Heanngs on the 
United Nations Charter, Senate Foreign Relations 
Committee: Pasvolsky testimony, pj). 285-287; 
Hackwortii testimony, pp. 330-332.) 

Cases Brought Under Compulsoi-y Jurisdiction 

During tlie life of the Permanent Court of In- 
ternational Justice, applicant states invoked decla- 
rations made under article 36, paragraph 2, in 11 
cases. In two of these 11 cases, jurisdiction was 
exercised by the Court without objection. In -1 
of the 11, the jui'isdiction of the Court was chal- 
lenged. The Court sustained the objections to its 
jurisdiction in two of these cases and in jDart in a 
tiiird. In the fourth, the applicant state with- 
drew its reliance upon the declaration. 

The two cases which resulted in substantive deci- 
sions were the Eastern Greenland cases between 
Denmark and Norway and the Diversion of Water 
from the Meuse River case between the Nether- 
lands and Belgium. In the Eastern Greenland 
case, Denmark asked the Court to decide that a 
Norwegian decree of July 10, 1931, asserting 
sovereignty over a large area of Greenland, vio- 
lated the prior claims of Denmark to sovereignty 
over this territory. The Court sustained Den- 
mark's contention and Norway witlidrew the de- 
cree. In the Meuse case, the Netherlands entered 
a claim because of diversion of water by Belgium. 
The case involved the interpretation of a treaty 
governing such diversions. Belgium raised no 
objection to the jurisdiction. The Court rejected 
both the Netherlands claim and a counterclaim 
entered by Belgium. 

The two cases in which the Permanent Court of 
Internatitmal Justice ruled that it did not have 
jurisdiction under the "optional clause" were the 
Phosphates in Morocco case between Italy and 
France and the Panevesys-Saldutishis Railway 
case between Estonia and Lithuania. In the Phos- 
phates case, the French Government put forward 
various objections to the Court's jurisdiction, in- 
cluding the contention that the Italian application 
related to situations and facts which preceded the 
ratification of the French declaration accepting 
compulsory jurisdiction and which, therefore, did 
not fall within its terms. The Court upheld this 
contention and decided that it had no jurisdiction. 
In the Panevesi/s case, the Lithuanian Government 
contended, on grounds of general international 
law, that the private claim espoused by Estonia 
was not national in character and tiiat local 



JULY 28, 1946 



161 



remedies had not been exhansted. The Court 
held that the hitter objection was well-foiiiuU'd. 

In the Electricity Company of Sofa diid Jiul- 
garia case between Belgium and Bulgaria, the 
Court ruled out one of Belgium's claims on the 
ground that it had not been a subject of dispute 
prior to the filing of the Belgian application under 
article 36, paragraph 2. The Court, however, sus- 
tained its jurisdiction in another aspect of the case, 
involving the question whether the dispute had 
arisen prior or siiliscinu-iit to tlie filing of declara- 
tions under article :'.<',. iiaiMiziaph 2. 

In the A'/e-v, < '•^"/•■.'/, /'■■•<f< rfnizy case between 
Hungary and Yugoslavia, the Hungarian agent 
withdrew its application under ar^iicle 36, para- 
graph 2, because Yugoslavia's declaration had ex- 
pired and had not been renewed as expected. 

In the remaining five cases, proceedings did not 
advance to the point where the Court had to con- 
sider the question of its jurisdiction. 

To sum up, the Court delivered judgment in two 
cases brought under article 36, paragraph 2. Of 
the five other cases which were carried to the ])oint 
wlicrc tlic Court liad (o consider its own jurisdic- 



tion, the Court ruled in two cases that it had juris- 
diction, in two other cases that it did not, and in 
the fifth case that one of the objections to its juris- 
diction was well-founded. 

Judges of the International Court of Justice 

The judges of the International Coui't of Justice 



name 



Country 



Term 
(Years) 
Salvador 



Dr. .Tos6 Gu.stavo Giierrei-d, 

PrcKiiiriit 

M. .Jules liasilevant, Vice France 9 

PnMdciit 

Dr. Alejandro Alvarez Chile 9 

Dr. .T. Philadelpho de Barros Brazil 

Azevedo 

Dr. Abdel Hainld Badawi Pasha Egypt 3 

Lie. Isidro Fabela AJfaro Mexico fi 

Mr. Green H. Hackworth United States (i 

Dr. Hsu Mo China 3 

Dr. Helge Klaestad Norway 6 

Prof. Sergei Borisovich Krylov U.S.S.R. 6 

Sir Arnold Duncan McNair United Kingdom 9 

Mr. John E. Read Canada .3 

M. Charles de Visscher Belgium 6 

Dr. Bohdan Winiarski Poland 3 

Dr. Medoran Zorlcic Yugoslavia 3 



U. S. Representatives to Second Part of 
First Session of General Assembly 



THE PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE TO THE SENATE 



[Released to the press by the White House .Tuly IS] 

To the Senate of the United States: 

In conformity with the provisions of the United 
Nations Participation Act of 1945, I am sending 
to the Senate herewith for its advice and consent 
nominations of the United States representatives 
and four alternate representatives for the second 
part of the first session of the General Assembly 
of the United Nations which is now scheduled to 
convene in New York in September 1946. 

Section 2'(e) of the above mentioned Act pro- 
vides that the President, or the Secretary of State 
at the direction of the President, may represent 
the United States at any meeting of the United 
Nations regardless of those provisions which call 
for the appointment of representatives by and with 
the advice and consent of the Senate. At my re- 
quest, the Secretary of State will probably attend 
for at least a portion of this session of the General 



Assemblv. 



Harry S. Truman 



Nominations to the Senate on July 18, 1946 

The following-named persons to be representa- 
tives of the United States of America to the sec- 
ond part of the first session of the General Assem- 
bly of the United Nations to be held in New York 
City, September 1946: 
Warren R. Austin, United States Senator from 

the State of Vermont 
Tom Connallt, United States Senator from the 

State of Texas 
Arthur H. Vandenberg, United States Senator 

from the State of Michigan 
Mrs. Anna Eleanor Roosevelt, of New York 
Sol Bloom, a Member of the United States House 

of Representatives fi-om the State of New 

York 
In the absence of the President or the Secretary 

{Continued on page 178) 



International Organizations and Conferences 



Calendar of Meetings ' 



Far Eastern Conmussioii 

Allied-Swedisli Negotiations for German External Assets " 

International Emergency Food Council 

U.S. Mexican Discussions on Air Services Agreement 

International Institute of Agriculture: Meeting of the 

General Assembly 
Conference on German-Owned Patents Outside Germany 
Council of Foreign Ministers: Meeting of Deputies 
r. S.-Britlsh Cabinet Conunittee on Palestine and Related 

Problems 
International Meeting of the Sugar Council 
International Wheat Council 
International Council of Scientific Unions: Meeting of the 

General Assembly 
Peace Conference 
International Union of Geodesy and Gfophysics : 

Extraordinary General Assembly 

UNRRA: Second Half of Fifth Session 
The United Nations : 

Security Council 

Military StafC Committee 

Commission on Atomic Energy 

International Health Conference 

General Assembly: Second Part of First Session 



Washington 


February lifi 


Washlngt.in 


May 31-July l.s 


Washington 


June 20 


Mexico City 


June 24 


Rome 


July 8 


London 


July 1(1 


Paris 


July 12 


London 


July 12 


London 


July 17, 


Washington 


July ir, 


London 


July 24-27 


Paris 


July 20 


Cambridge, England 


July 2t>-August 


Geneva 


August 5 


New York 


March 25 


New York 


March 25 


New York 


June 14 


New York 


June 19-22 


New York 


September 23 



Activities and Developments 



Far Eastern Commission 



,).\i-. 



1. No Japan 
against aliens. 

2. No capital 



be levied by the Jap- 



' Tlie dates in the calendar are as of July 2 
■ For discussion of accord reached with Swt 
l(m on (iprman assets in Sweden, see p. 174. 



anese authorities in reypect to property in or out- 
side Japan owned by United Nations nationals. 
Any capital levy on corporations and unincorpo- 
rated associations should be so devised as to exempt 
from the etfects of the levy, the shares and inter- 
e.sts in the said corporations and Hnincor|)orated 
iiiSSociations held by Uniled Nations nationals. 
If in the opinion of tiie Su[)reme Conunander for 
the Allied Powers, exceptional circumstances jus- 
tify the im])osition of any such capital levy, he 
shoidd rcfci- the matter for consideration of the 
Far Eastern Conunissioii. 



JULY 211. I'm 

Restituiion of Looted Property ^ 

1. Immediate steins should be taken to restore to 
Allied countries objects in the four catefrories 
listed below which are found in Japan and which 
are identified as having been located in an Allied 
(•(lunliT at the time of occupation of that country, 
and wliich were removed by fraud or duress by the 
Japanese or their agents. The fact that payment 
was made should be disregarded unless there is 
conclusive evidence tliat fi'aud or duress did not 
Inkc i>hice. Restitiilinii ,,f any .il.ject inchide.l in 
caleg<.ry ,/ which follows should he dctVnvd, liow- 
ever, so long as its retention is rccinii'cd for the 
safety of the occupation forces. In such cases 
the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers 
sliould provide an explanation of reasons for re- 
tention and an estimated date of rest oration. - 

I The four categories referred to above are:] 

(/. Industrial and transportation machinery and 
(■([ni]iment. 

/'. (iold. other precious metals, precious gems, 
foreign securities, foreign currencies, and other 
foreign exchange assets. 

c. Cultural objects. 

d. Agricultural products and industrial raw 
materials. 

■2. Steps should be taken to restore to Allied 
countries ships of all types and sizes found in 
Japanese waters which are identified as luiviiig 
been registered in an Allied country at the time 
of seizure or sinking by the Japanese or their 
agents, or at the time of a((|uisition by the Japa- 
nese or their agents by fraud or chire>-. The fact 
that payment was made should be di>regarded un- 
less tliere is conclusive evidence that fraud or 
duress di,l not take jilace. Restitution of such 
Allied vessels siiouhl be accomplished as rapidly 
as conditions permit aiul shotdd be completed not 
later than De<-enil)er ni, IWG. 

:]. Within the limits of feasibility, ships dam- 
aged or sunk and found in Japanese waters, on the 
request of the claimant country .should as a matter 
of priority be salvaged, repaired, or refitted as 
may be necessary to permit their return in a con- 
dition substantially suuilar to that at the time 
they came into Japanese hands. The costs of nec- 
essary salvage, repair and refitting in Japan 
should be borne by the Japanese Cn)vernment but 
should be applied against the reparation ap[)or- 
tiomnent to the claimant country. 

4. The processing of claims for industrial and 



163 

transportation machinery and equipment found 
in Ja])an should not be permitted in general to 
delay removals oi machinery and equipment on 
reparations account, but no item for which restitu- 
tion claim has been received by the Supreme 
Commander for the Allied Powers should be al- 
located on reparations account until the claim 
has been acted upon. On the other hand, no 
restitution claim should be recognized for articles 
already allocated to particular countries on 
reparations account. 

.5. The claimant govermuent slioidd lake de- 
livery at a point in Japan desijiuated by the Su- 
preme Commander for tlie Allied Powers except 
that in the case of Allied vessels subject to restitu- 
tion the Supreme Commander may at his discre- 
tion make delivery at Western Pacific points out- 
side Japan whenever delivery will thereby be 
facilitated. Expenses incurred after delivery to 
the claimant government should be borne by that 
government, exce^jt that in the case of delivery 
within Japan, relevant transportation expenses 
within Japan and any disinantling. packing and 
repairs necessary for propei- transpoit.'ilion, in- 
cluding the necessary manpower, materials and 
organization, should be borne by Japan and be in- 
cluded in restitution. The recipient government 
sliould indemnify the Supreme Conunander for 
the Allied Powers against all claims made in 
respect of the property received. 

6. Restitution claims for property other than 
ships should be made by the government of the 
Allied country from whose territory the property 
claimed was removed; and i'e.stitution made to 
that government. In the case of ships restitution 
claims should be filed by, and restitution made to, 
the government of the country whose flag the ves- 
sels were wearing or on whose register of shipping 

.Tnly IS, 1(146. 



'Poll 


ry statemeu 


It aiii.niverl l,y F: 


' The 


I'.iit...! .Si.-i 


les K,.|,n's,.|ilali 


Assist;! 


111 Secrelar 


■y uf Slair Icr 


altenia 


((■ Ici (ieiier; 


il McCey ou the 


fellewi 


lis statemeii 


t for tUe record 



-At tlie twenty-third meetiug of C<,iiiiiiill(r \o. 1 : 
liepaiutions the United States memlier agreed to the re- 
jection to his amendment for the insertion of the words 
'by the Supreme Commander for tlie Allied Powers' In 
paragraph 1 and 2 of the document liut asl^ed that it be 
recorded In the minutes of the eomniittee and subsequently 
in the minutes of tlie ('dinniisskjii meeting that it is recog- 
nized th.-it ilic Sii|iri'iiic (■ aiidcr Icir ihc Allied Powers 

is the linal iiiiiileiiirni i n;; aullii.iiiy of pclicy decisions of 
the F:ir Knstein ( ■(niiniissi.iii." 



164 

the vessels were borne at the time of sinking, sei- 
zure or acquisition as specified in paragraph 2. 

7. No items should be included in Japanese 
export 231'ograms which the Supreme Commander 
for the Allied Powers considers as probably sub- 
ject to restitution as defined above. If items later 
found to be subject to restitution should be ex- 
ported, equitable compensation should be made to 
that country to which the items exported should 
liave been restored. 

S. Without prejudice to other arrangements 
wliich may be made between the interested parties, 
the foregoing restitution policies especially those 
in paragraph 6, are not intended to give the Allied 
government cDiicenu'cl (lie li^lit (o withhold from 
a person wIki is a natidiial of aimilicr Allied Power 
any property as lo wliich iir may cslablish a legiti- 
mate title. 

9. The Far Eastern Connnission sliould recom- 
mend to the Government of those countries within 
whose territories may be found looted objects 
such as : 

a. Industrial and transportation machinery and 
equipment. 

h. Gold, other precious metals, precious gems, 
foreign securities, foreign currencies, and other 
foreign exchange assets. 

c. Cultural objects. 

d. Agricultural products and industrial raw 
materials. 

e. Ships. 

that bilateral arrangements be drawn up provid- 
ing for restitution according to these principles. 

10. The Far Eastern Commission should re- 
(juest the U.S. Government to forward this state- 
ment of policy through the usual channels to States 
which are not represented on the Far Eastern 
Commission and within whose territories such 
looted objects may be found. 

Liaison With the St-U'reme Comjiander for the 
Allied Powers ^ 

1. The following arrangements for liaison be- 
tween the Far Eastern Commission and the Su- 
preme Commander for the Allied Powers are 
presently in operation : 

a. Regular Information, from Japan. The Com- 
' Policy statement appvoved by FEC on July 18, 1946. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

mission now receives regularly from the Supreme 
Commander his monthly ovei'all report entitled 
"Summation of Non-Military Activities in Japan," 
minutes of the meetings of the Allied Council for 
Japan, written reports of special missions to 
Japan, such as the Educational and Textile Mis- 
sions, a weekly summary of developments pre- 
pared especially for the Commission by the Civil 
Affairs Division of the War Department, certain 
newspapers and magazines published in Japan, 
and other miscellaneous reports emanating from 
the headquarters of the Supreme Commander and 
from various United States Government agencies 
in Washington. 

b. Spot Inforinaiioii. As suggested in [para- 
graph 4 of FEC-067/2, Standard Procedures for 
Formal Commission Actions, the Secretariat has 
worked out arrangements to get sucli factual in- 
formation as is specifically requested by commit- 
tees of the Commission and is pertinent to the 
work of the Commission, through appropriate 
United States governmental agencies in Wash- 
ington, and if necessary from Japan. 

c. Consultation. On matters where the personal 
views of the Supreme Commander are desired, the 
Commission requests its Chairman, according to 
Article VI, 1 of its Terms of Reference, to arrange 
for apjDroiiriate consultation with the Supreme 
Commander. 

d. Special Reports. As arranged with the State 
and War Departments, personnel returning from 
Japan are made available for personal and in- 
formal appearances with the Commission or ap- 
piopriate committee, as the case may be. 

e. FEC Activities. The Secretariat forwards 
each week a selected group of Commission papers 
via the War Department to the Supreme Com- 
mander and a second set to the Chairman, Allied 
Council for Japan. These include minutes of 
Commission, Steering Committee and other com- 
mittee meetings, the Weekly Summary of Com- 
mission Business, and all "FEC-designated pa- 
pers. Furthermore, the United States Govern- 
ment ascertains the views of the Supreme Com- 
mander on issues before the Commission prior to 
furnishing the U.S. Representative on the Com- 
mission the expression of the U.S. Government's 
position on these issues. 

/. Allied Person ncl on SCAP^s Staff. Arrange- 
ments have been completed and appropriate in- 
formation circulated to the Commission (FEC- 
069) whereby governments represented on the 



JULY 28, 1946 



165 



FEC may nominate personnel for service on the 
staff of the Supreme Commander. 

g. SCAP Request for Pollcij &mdance. As 
new matters arise in the administration of the oc- 
cupation of Japan on which the Supreme Com- 
mander needs policy guidance but does not have it 
within the framework of his existing directives, 
he refers these matters to the United States Gov- 
ernment for such guidance, and, where the matter 
is within the co,<iiiizaiicc uf the Far Eastern Com- 
mission, the Uiiilccl States (iovcniinciil in turn 
i-efers it to the Cdnimission for policy decision. 
Ill these matters, with the exception of the three 
reserved questions, the United States Goveriunent 
reserves its right, according to Article III, 'A of the 
Terms of Reference, to issue interim directives in 
the event that the issue is urgent, pending the 
formulation of policy by the Commission. In this 
ronnection, from time to time at his disci-etion, 
tlie Supreme Commander may summarize the work 
left to be done in the occupation and the problems 
unanswered, with an indication of pi'inrity for 
(•(msideration by the Commission. 

2. In addition to the above, sliould llie Far East- 
ern Commission so desire, there is no objection on 
the part of the United States Government to the 
ilesignation from time to time of a personal em- 
issaiy of the Commission to make a short trip 
hy air to Japan. Such officer might be empowered 
by the Commission to indicate directly to the 
Supreme Commander as well as to his staff the 
current status of activity on the Commission; and 
in return to convey back to the Commission the 
views of the Supreme Commander and any other 
pertinent information which he may gatlier. 

The International Wheat Council, which was 
established in August llU-J to administer the Inter- 
national Wheat Agreement between Argentina, 
Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, and the 
United States, held its twelfth session at the De- 
])artinent of Agriculture, Washington, on July 15. 
The Chairman, L. A. Wheeler (U.S.), welcomed 
the representatives of the Governments of Bel- 
gium, Brazil, China, Denmark, France, India, 
Italy, and the Netherlands, and of the Food and 
Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 
Tiiese eight Governments, together with the Gov- 
ernments of the Union of Soviet Socialist Repub- 
lics and Yugoslavia, had been invited to join the 
Council in order to make it more fully representa- 



tive of both wheat-imi)orting and wheat-exporting 
countries. 

The Chairman gave, for the benefit of the new 
members of the Council, a resume of its work to 
date. This included a statement of the reasons 
why the Governments of Argentina, Australia, 
Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United 
States had agreed to amend the Memorandum of 
Agreement of June 1942 by the deletion of para- 
graphs T). (•). 7, and 8 thereof and the substitution 
tlierefor of paragraph 5 as folh>\vs: 

•'."i. The International Wheat Council, referred 
to in Article VII of the Draft Convention, shall 
remain in being jjending the conclusions of the in- 
ternational wheat conferejice referred to in para- 
graph 3 above or until such time as the govern- 
ments represented on that Council may determine." 

The principal item of business of the meeting 
was the appointment of a Preparatory Connnittee 
to revise the draft convention drawn up in 1941-42 
for submission to an international wheat confer- 
ence. The Council invited each of the 13 govern- 
ments now c'oni|)rising its membership to appoint 
a re]n-esenta(i\e on the T'ri'pin-atoiy Connnittee. 
The Conn, il .■i,-Tee,l lo invite ivprcMMital i ves of the 
Foo.l and Aancnliure Organization aiul the Eco- 
nomic and Social ( ouncil of the United Nations to 
attend its niei'iings and those of its committees. 
The Prei^aratory Committee will hold its first 
meeting on July 17 to elect its chairman and or- 
ganize its work with a view to reporting thereon to 
the Council at its next session, which will l)e lield in 
Washington on August 19, 1946. 

Caribbean Commission Agreement Restating- 
Functions and Providing for International 
Secretariat.^ An agreement restating the pur- 
po.ses and functions of the Cai-ibbean Commission 
and providing it with an international Secretar- 
iat, to be located in the West Indies, was initialed 
on July 16 at the end of conversations in Wash- 
ington among special repre.sentatives of the four 
Governments concerned — France, the Nether- 
lands, the United Kingdom, and tlie United 
States. 

It was decided that the S(>ci-etariat should be 
established in Trinidad. P)iiiisli West Indies. 
Tlie Caribbean Commission lias selected Lawrence 



'Released to the prt 
July 16. 



by the Caribbean Commission 



166 



DEPART MENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



W. Cramer, former Governor of the Virgin 
Islands of the United States, to be the first Secre- 
tary General. 

It was further agreed that a Deputy Secretary 
General should be appointed who should be 
either a French or Netherlands national. The 
appointment of three assistants to the Secretary- 
General — one Fi-ench, one Netherlands, and one 
British — was also decided upon. A clause in the 
agreement states that the staff of the Secretariat 
"si Kill be recruited as largely as possible Avithin 
the Caribbean area and with a view to obtaining 
a balanced national representation". 

The Caribbean Commission is an advisory in- 
ternational body. It has grown out of the origi- 
nal Anglo-American Caribbean Commission estab- 
lished by the United States and British Govern- 
ments in March 1942, and was expanded at the 
end of last year when the French and Nether- 
lands Governments accepted invitations to join 
the Commission as full members. 

The preamble to the agreement just initialed 
states that the member governments liave sub- 
scribed to the document, 

"being desirous of encouraging and strengthening 
cooperation among themselves and their terri- 
tories with a view toward improving the economic 
and social well-being of the peoples of those ter- 
ritories, and 

"Being desirous of promoting scientific, tech- 
nological, and economic tlcveiopiiifnt in the Car- 
ibbean area and facilitating the use of resources 
and conceited treatment of mutual problems, 
avoiding duplication in the work of existing re- 
search agencies, surveying needs, ascertaining 
what research has been done, facilitating research 
on a cooperative basis and recommending further 
research, and 

"Having agreed that the objectives herein set 



forth are in accord with the principle of the 
Charter of the United Nations." 

The French Government was represented at the 
Washington conversations by Georges H. Parisot 
of the French Ministry of Overseas Territories 
and until recently Governor of Martinique, French 
West Indies, who is also French Co-Chairman of 
the Caribbean Commission. The French Commis- 
sioners present were Georges Orselli, present Gov- 
ernor of Martinique, and Jean de la Koche and 
Pierre Pelieu, Colonial Administrators. Henri 
Claudel of the French Embassy in Washington 
was also present as an adviser. 

The representative of the Netherlands Govern- 
ment was J. C. Kielstra, Netherlands Minister to 
Mexico and Netherlands Co-Chaii-man, Caribbean 
Commission. L. A. H. Peters of the Netherlands 
Embassy in Washington attended as a Commis- 
sioner. 

The British Government representative was 
George F. Seel, Assistant Under Secretary of State 
in charge of West Indian matters in the Colonial 
Office. The British Commissioners consisted of 
Sir John Macpherson, Conipl roller for Develop- 
ment and Welfare in the British AW'st Indies and 
British Co-Chairnian of the Caribbean Commis- 
sion, R. D. H. Arundell, Resident British Com- 
missioner in Wasliington, and Norman W. Mauley, 
K.C., of Jamaica. 

The Chairman of the Conference was Charles 
W. Taussig, United States Co-Chairman of the 
Caribbean Commission, who represented the 
United States Government. The three other 
United States Commissioners also attended the 
meeting — Rexford G. Tugwell, Governor of Puerto 
Rico, Ralph J. Bunche, Department of State, and 
Rafael Pico, Chairman of the Puerto Rico Plan- 
ning Board. Oscar L. Chapman, Under Secretary 
of the Interior, acted as an adviser to the United 
States representative. 



Paris Conference of Foreign Ministers, Jnne 15-July 12 

REPORT BY THE SECRETARY OF STATE ' 



After every great war the victors find the mak- 
ing of peace difficult and disappointing. It took 
the 13 American states more than 5 years after 
winning their independence to agree upon a con- 
stitution which promised anything like a durable 
peace among themselves. 

To build world peace, bridging differences in 
ideas, values, cddcs of itmduct, and deeply cher- 
islied asiiiratiniis. iciiuiio even greater tolerance, 
patience, and understanding. It requires the will 
and ability to seek the best, to accept the best ob- 
tainahlc, and then to make the best obtainable 
work. As war breeds war so peace can be made 
to breed peace. 

That is why President Truman and I were de- 
termined at Potsdam last summer two months 
after V-E Day to set up the Council of Foreign 
Ministers. We were eager to have the Council 
start the making of peace and to make peace as 
quickly as possible wherever possible. 

It was obvious then that the making of peace 
with Germany would take time. There was no 
German government to deal with, and no agree- 
ment as to how soon we should permit a German 
government to function. It was equally obvious 
that a start could be made toward making peace 
witli Italy and the states which were satellites of 
the Axis. They had governments. So we started 
there. 

The whole world knows how great the struggle 
has been during the last 10 months to harmonize 
the views of the great powers so as to make pos- 
sible the presentation of tentative drafts of treaties 
to a peace conference. That struggle has now been 
brought to a successful conclusion and the Peace 
Conference has been called to meet in Paris on 
July 29. 

In addition to the Soviet Union, the United 
Kingdom, France, China, and the United States, 
the states which are represented on the Council of 
]VLY 28, 1946 



Foreign Ministers, the 16 other states which took 
an active part in the fighting against the European 
Axis will be represented at the Conference. 

While tiie Council of Foreign Ministers has 
made some suggestions as to the organization and 
procedure of the Conference, the Conference will 
be free to determine its own oi'ganization and 
procedure. 

It was proposed that the meetings of subcom- 
mittees should be secret. But on our objection this 
provision was eliminated. I gave notice that, so 
far as the United States is concerned, it will use 
its influence to open to the press the meetings of 
the Conference and of its committees. 

The Conference will make only recommenda- 
tions. But the members of the Council are com- 
mitted, in drafting the final texts of the treaties, 
to consider the recommendations of the Confer- 
ence and not to reject any of them arbitrarily. 

It is my hope that the Council of Foreign ^lin- 
isters will consider the recommendations and agree 
upon the final text so that the treaties may be 
signed by the delegates before the Conference 
adjourns. 

The drafts of treaties agreed upon are not the 
best which human wit could devise. But they are 
the best which human wit could get the four prin- 
cipal Allies to agree upon. They reincscnt ,i> sat- 
isfactory an approach to the return of piacr as we 
could hope for in this imperfect and war-«cary 
world. 

The attitude of the United States in these mat- 
ters represented not only the judgment of the Pres- 

' MadP on the occasion of the ivturn of the Secretary of 
State from the Paris conference of the Foreign Ministers 
of France, the V. 8. S. R., U. K.. and U. S., which took 
place hetween .Time l." and .Jnly 12, 1946. The address 
was lii'iiailcast nvcr tlie national networks of the American 

Bi Icastini; Conipaiiy, tlie Columbia Broadcasting Sys- 

lein. and llie .Mutual Uroadcasting System at 9 p.m. on 
.Inly l."i and was released to the press on the same date, 

167 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



ident and the Secretary of State but also the 
judgment of Senator Connally and Senator Van- 
denberg, wliose long experience in our foreign re- 
lations and intimate knowledge of the specific is- 
sues made their counsel invaluable. 

The greatest struggle was over the Italian treaty, 
and the greatest issue involved in that treaty was 
tlie fate of Trieste and adjacent territory along the 
western shore of the Istrian Peninsula. The Amer- 
ican Delegation, supported by the French and Brit- 
ish, urged that Trieste and adjacent territory which 
are predominantly Italian should remain with 
Italy, and the predominantly Slavic hinterland 
should go to Yugoslavia. 

The Soviet Union argued strongly that Trieste 
and adjacent territory sliould not be cut off from 
its immediate liinterland. While it admitted that 
a few cities and towns along the coast were pre- 
dominantly Italian, it urged that the Isti-ian Pen- 
insula should be i-egarded as a whole and that so 
regarded it was predominantly Yugoslav. This 
view was also urged by CVjH'huslnxalvia. 

The Soviet Union further urged that greater 
consideration should be given to the Yugoslav 
claims than to tlie Italian claims because, while 
Italy as one of the Axis jiartiiei-s was responsible 
for bringing on tlic wai- againsl the Allies and 
forthelossof thousan.lsof Allied lives. Yugoslavia 
had fought on the Allied side throughout the war 
and suftVred from the attacks of Italy. 

As neither the Soviets nor ourselves were pre- 
pared to yield, we then proposed that the issue 
be left to the Peace Conference, but the Soviets 
would not agree. 

This left us in a more serious dilennna than most 
people realize. We could make a separate peace 
with Italy, leaving her 'i'lieslc, but the Soviet and 
Yugoslav Governments and possibly <ithers would 
not accept that treaty. 

If we made a separate peace, the Soviet and 
Yugoslav Governniciil- would undoubtedly de- 
mand that Italy make a Mpaiate peace with them, 
ceding Trieste to Yugoslavia. If Italy refused, 
it is not difficult to foresee the difficulties which 
would arise. 

Even if no one of us presented a treaty to Italy, 
a disarmed Italy could hold Trieste against the 
Ai-my of Yugoslavia oidy so long as our troops 
hel.l'it for her. 

In an effort to break (his deadlock the Fi'ench 
informally suggested that Tricsic and adjacent 
territory be separated from Italy but not <eded to 



Yugoslavia, and that its security and integi-ity be 
internationally guaranteed. 

At first no one liked this proposal. But the 
more it was studied the more it seemed to offer a 
reasonable basis for agreement. It was recalled 
that before Italy entered World War I she had 
pi'oposed that the Trieste area should become an 
autonomous state. 

Our delegation insisted that the area should be 
protected by the United Nations and not by joint 
agreement between Italy and Yugoslavia as the 
Soviets proposed, and not by the four principal 
Allied powers as suggested by the French. Our 
proposals were accepted. 

The proposal as finally agreed upon leaves Go- 
rizia and Montefalcone with Italy in the north and 
includes within the Fi'ee Territory of Trieste the 
rest of the area west of the agreed ethnic line. 

It is true that the Free Territory of Trieste is 
predominantly Italian in the city and predomi- 
nantly Slav outside of the city. But neither the 
Italians nor the Slavs in this territory are placed 
imder alien rule. They are given home rule. The 
jieople will elect their own Assembly and the As- 
sembly will elect the officials tn administer the 
laws. They will be subject lo >upfi\ision oidy by 
the United Nations Secnrily Council and by an 
impartial governor appointed by the Security 
Council. 

The prosperity and welfare of Trieste are 
linked not only with Italy but with Yugoslavia 
and the countries of central Europe. It is the nat- 
ural outlet of central Europe to the Mediterranean. 
The only railroads entering Trieste come through 
Yugoslavia and are controlled by Yugoslavia. 
Representatives of that Government asserted that 
if Trieste were given to Italy they would divert 
traffic to Fiume or some other port in Yugoslavia. 

Because of the bad feeling between the two 
peoples in that area, the control by the United 
Nations may prove to be the best means of pre- 
venting armed conflict and relieving tension. 

If the area were joined either with Italy or 
Yugoslavia, its political and economic relations 
with the other would suffer. Its industries might 
be unable to attract the necessary capital, and labor 
might have difficulty finding employment. 

If friendly relations are maintained between the 
Free Territory of Trieste and her neighbors, this 
little territory may enjoy greater prosj^erity and 
be a source of greater prosperity to its neighbors 



JULY 28, 1946 



than would be the case if it were joined either with 
Italy or Yugoslavia. 

I am convinced that the agreed solution to the 
problem of Trieste is fair and workable if the 
peoples most concerned work together to make it 
so. Unless they work together, there can be no 
solution. 

No final decision was reached on the disposition 
of the Italian colonies. 

It will be recalled that originally the Soviets 
had requested the trusteeship of Tripolitania. 
They stated they wanted a base in the Mediter- 
ranean for their merchant ships. The French fav- 
ored Italy as trustee for all the colonies, and at the 
April session the Soviets expressed their willing- 
ness to accept the French proposal. Except for 
certain reservations in respect of Cyrenaica, the 
British were walling to accept our proposal to 
have all the colonies placed under the trusteeship 
of the United Nations. 

In view of the difficulty the Foreign Ministers 
were having in reaching agreement and the dan- 
ger of the colonial question becoming a pawn in 
the settlement of other issues, I suggested that we 
defer a final decision. 

It was finally agreed that the ultimate disposi- 
tion of the colonies should be made by the four 
principal Allied powers in light of the wishes and 
welfare of the inhabitants and world peace and 
security, taking into account the views of other 
interested governments. 

If the four principal Allied powers do not agree 
upon the disposition to be made of the colonies 
within a year after the coming into force of the 
treaty, they have bound llicmselves to make such 
disposition of them as may l)e recommended by 
the General Assembly of the United Nations. 

The four powers have further agreed to send 
commissions to the colonies to ascertain the wishes 
of the local population. 

Pending the final disposition of the colonies, they 
will remain under the existing British military 
administration. 

The thing I like about tlir- agrooment on the col- 
onies is that the ultimate ilccisidii ilnos not require 
unanimity. Failing agrci'mi'iit among the four 
powers, the decision rests with the United Nations. 

The Soviets finally withdrew their objection to 
the cession of the Dodecanese to Greece and to the 
permanent demilitarization of the Islands. 

It was, however, extremely difficult for us to 
reach agreement on reparations. Tlie Soviets in- 



sisted that they were entitled to at least $100,000,- 
000 reparations for the devastation of their terri- 
tory by the Italian armies. 

Moreover, under the armistice agreements with 
Hungary, Rumania, and Finland reparations pay- 
ments of $300,000,000 from each had been imposed. 
The Soviets found it difficult to reconcile them- 
selves to a more lenient reparations policy in the 
case of Italy. 

We on the other hand were more deeply con- 
scious of the help that Italy gave us in the last 
months of the war and opposed putting on her a 
reparations burden which would delay her eco- 
nomic recovery. 

We had previously agreed that reparations could 
be taken in war plants not needed for Italian peace- 
time economy and could be paid out of Italian 
assets in Hungary, Rumania, and Bulgaria. But 
the Soviets insisted that part of the reparations 
should come from current or future production of 
Italian factories and shipyards. 

We reluctantly agreed that the Soviets could 
receive reparations up to $100,000,000. But we re- 
quired them to agree that, in so far as reparations 
were taken from Italian production, the deliveries 
must be arranged so as to avoid interference with 
economic reconstruction. 

We further required the Soviets to agree that 
such deliveries should not commence for two years. 
In order to avoid our having to finance Italy's 
purchase of raw materials to furnish manufac- 
tured products to the Soviets, we also required 
agreement that the imported materials needed by 
Italy to make these deliveries should be supplied 
by the Soviets. 

There remain some questions in the Italian 
treaty and other treaties on which we were unable 
to reach final agreement. As the Soviet Delega- 
tion took the position that they would not agree 
to the calling of the Peace Conference until the 
four governments had harmonized their views on 
fundamental questions, we assume that the Soviets 
do not regard these issues as fundamental and 
will accept the decisions of the Peace Confei'ence. 

I admit that prior to our meeting in April I 
had little hope we would ever reach agreement. 
After our April meeting I had less hope. Now 
the prospect for peace treaties with five countries 
is bright. Ninety days after ratification of those 
treaties occupation armies must be withdrawn ex- 
cept where they protect a line of communications. 
Then the people of the occupied states can live 



170 



DEI'ARTME\r OF STATE BILLETIN 



;iiul breathe as free people. AVe are on the mad 
back to peace. 

I liave no desire to conceal from the American 
people the great struggle and tremendous difficul- 
ties the four governments had in harmonizing 
their views to the extent they did on these treaties. 
In the long run we shall have a much better 
chance to work out our problems if we and our 
Allies recognize the basic differences in our ideas, 
standards, and methods instead of trying to make 
ourselves believe that they do not exist or that 
they are less important than they really are. 

Wiiile tlie Council made real progress toward 
peat'e with Italy and the ex-satellite states, it 
made no progress at all on the German and Aus- 
trian questions. Perhaps the time taken in dis- 
cussion was not wholly lost, because our experi- 
ence suggests that imderstandings, particularly 
with our Soviet friends, cannot be ivnclicd until 
we have gone through rounds of vei-b:il coihImI. in 
which old complaints are repeated, past pn>iti(ius 
reaffirmed, differences accentuated, and ci'ises pro- 
voked. 

I am ready to believe it is difficult for tliem to 
understand us, just as it is difficult for us to 
understand them. But I sometimes think our 
Soviet friends fear we woidd think them weak 
and soft if they agreed without a struggle on 
anything we wanted, even though they wanted it 
too. Constant struggle, however, is not always 
helpful in a world longing for peace. 

The Soviets started the German discussion with 
a prepared statement on the draft treaty we had 
proposed to guarantee the continued demilitariza- 
tion and disarmament of Germany for at least a 
fjuarter of a century. The Soviet statement re- 
veals how hard-pressed the Soviets were to find 
real objection to a treaty which gives them the as- 
.surancc that Germany should never again become a 
threat to their security or to the security of Europe. 

I do not believe that the Soviets realize the 
doubts and suspicions Avhich they have raised in 
the minds of those in other countries who want to 
be their friends by the aloofness, coohiess, and hos- 
tility with which they have received America's offer 
to guarantee jointly the continued disarmament of 
Germany. 

Had America been a party to s\i<ii a guaranty 
after World War I, World War II would never 
have occurred, and the Soviet Union would never 
liavc been attacked and devastated. 



Is German militarism going to be used as a pawn 
in a struggle between the East and the West, and 
is German militarism again to be given the chance 
to divide and conquer? 

To that question there must be an unequivocal 
answer, for equivocation will increase unbearably 
the tensions and strains which men of good-will 
everywhere are striving to relieve. 

The Soviets stated that our proposed treaty was 
inadequate; that it did not assure the de-Nazifica- 
tion and democratization of Germany ; that it did 
not assure them reparations. But these are politi- 
cal matters which are already dealt with in the 
Potsdam Agreement. 

Our military agreement of J une 5, 1945 provided 
for tlie prompt disarmament of armed forces and 
demilitarization of war plants. By our 25-year 
treaty we propose that when Germany is once dis- 
armed we sliall see that slie stays disarmed. We 
camiot understand Soviet opjiosit ion. especially as 
CJeneralissinio Stalin on la>t December 24th agreed 
with me in principle on this subject. 

The Soviet representative stated he had reports 
that in the British zone tlie disarming of military 
forces was not being carried out. The British rep- 
resentative stated he had reports that in the Soviet 
zone German war plants were being operated. 

We asked that the Control Commission inves- 
tigate the accuracy of both reports. The British 
and the French agreed. But the Soviet Govern- 
ment would not agree to the investigation unless we 
limited it to the disarmament of armed forces. 

I certainly made clear in our earlier meeting in 
Paris that the proposed guaranty of German de- 
militarization was only a part of the German set- 
tlement. I proposed then and I proposed again at 
our recent meeting that deputies be appointed to 
start work on the whole settlement which the Al- 
lies expect the Germans to accept. The British 
and French accejjted the proposal. The Soviets 
rejected it. 

The Soviets suggested that we have a special 
session of the Council on the German problem. I 
agreed and insisted on setting a date. But from 
my experience with the Italian and Balkan settle- 
ments I fear that, until the Soviets are willing 
lo have i-esponsible deputies mIio are in close touch 
with the Foreign Ministers sit together continu- 
ously over a period of time and find out just what 
is the area of our agreement and our disagreement, 
the exchanoo of views l)(>twecn the Ministers on 



7[ XV 28, 1946 



171 



the complicated problems of the German settle- 
ment will not be sufiicient. 

It is no secret that the four-power control of 
Germany on a zonal basis is not working well from 
tlie point of view of any of the four powers. Under 
tlie Potsdam Agreement Germany was to be ad- 
ministered as an economic unit and central admin- 
istrative departments were to be established for 
tliis pur^Dose. 

But in fact Germany is being administered in 
four closed compartments with the movement of 
people, trade, and ideas between the zones more 
narrowly restricted than between most independ- 
ent countries. 

In consequence none of the zones is self-support- 
ing. Our zone costs our taxpayers $200,000,000 
a year. And despite the heavy financial burden 
being borne by ourselves and other occupying pow- 
ers, the country is threatened with inflation and 
economic paralysis. 

This condition must not continue. At Paris we 
proposed that the Control Commission be in- 
structed to establish the central administrative 
agencies necessary to administer Germany as an 
economic unit, and to arrange for the exchange 
of products between the zones and for a balanced 
program of imports and exports. 

The French Government, which had previously 
opposed the establishment of central administra- 
tive agencies, indicated their willingness to accept 
our proposal when we suggested that the Saar be 
excluded from the jurisdiction of these agencies. 
The British agreed. 

But the Soviets said that they could not agree 
to the exclusion of the Saar without further study, 
and therefore no immediate progress was possible. 

I made clear that Ave were unwilling to share 
responsibility for the economic paralysis and suf- 
fering we felt certain would follow a continuance 
of present conditions in Germany. 

I then announced that as a last resort we were 
prepared to administer our zone in con] unction 
with any one or more of the other zones as an 
economic unit. I indicated that recently we had 
secured cooperation with the Soviet zone in one 
matter and with the British in another. I ex- 
plained that our offer was made not in an effort to 
divide Germany but to bring it together. 

I stated that whatever arrangements were made 
with one government would be open on equal terms 
to the governments of the other zones at any time 
they were prepared to participate. 



The British stateil that tliey would consitler our 
proposal and indicated they hoped to agree. 
Neither the Soviets nor the French expressed any 
view. 

Our military representative in Germany will 
this week be instructed to cooperate with any one 
or all of the three governments in essential admin- 
istrative matters like finance, transportation, com- 
nninication, trade, and industry. We will either 
secure economic cooperation between the zones or 
place the responsibility for the violation of the 
I*()ts(hun Agreement. 

Finally we came to a discussion of the Austrian 
Itroblem. On June 1, I had circulated a proposed 
draft treaty recognizing the independence of Aus- 
tria and providing for the withdrawal of the occu- 
pying trooijs. The British also had submitted a 
draft for consideration. I asked that the Deputies 
be directed to prepare the treaty. 

The Soviets submitted a counterjiroposal calling 
first for further action to insure the de-Nazifica- 
tion of Austria and the removal of a large number 
of displaced persons from Austria whom they 
regard as unfriendly to them. 

The British aiul Frent-h were willing to join 
us in submitting to the Deputies the consideration 
of the treaty and in requesting the Control Council 
to investigate and report on the progress of de- 
Nazification and on the problem of the displaced 
persons. But the Soviets Mere unwilling to agree 
to the Deputies' taking up the Austrian treaty until 
more tangible action was taken on tJiese other two 
problems. 

We recognize the seriousness of these problems 
and have been grappling with them. The prob- 
lem of displaced persons is particularly difficult 
to solve. Where they are willing, we help them 
to return to their homes. But many refuse to 
return to their own countries because they fear 
death or imprisonment for their political views. 
Our tradition of protecting political refugees is 
too precious for us to consent to the mass expul- 
sion of these people from our zone. The United 
Nations has a committee studying the problem, 
and we shall continue to do our part to try to find 
a solution, but it cannot be a cruel solution that 
will reflect discredit upon the American people. 

It would be a tragedy to hold up the peace 
treaty with Austria because she is obliged to 
afford temporary refuge to these people until 
homes can be found for them in other countries. 

We sliall press on in session and out of session 



772 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



to restore conditions of peace to this war-sick 
world, to bring soldiers back to their homes and 
to their families, to beat our swords into plow- 
shares. The war has left woimds, but we must 
work to heal those wounds. 

We do not believe in a peace based on a desire 



for vengeance. We believe in justice, charity, 
and mercy. If we act with charity and mercy, 
those we fear as enemies may become our friends. 
We must trust to the healing processes of peace 
and pray that God in His mercy will give peace 
to the world. 



Financial Agreement With Great Britain 
Approved by Congress 



STATEMENT BY THE PRESIDENT 



[Released tu the press b.v the White House July 13] 

The approval by the Congress of the Financial 
Agreement with Great Britain is a major step in 
carrying out our program for reviving and ex- 
panding international trade. 'Jhe wide discus- 
sion of the measure which has taken place on 
both sides of the Atlantic emphasizes its impor- 
tance. Full and frank debate is a basic principle 
of the democratic system, and I Ix'lit'vc that the 
time and care gixcii to tlic oun^idfraticm of the 
agreement are insurance that our approval rests on 
full understanding. 

The loan serves our immediate and long-range 
intcivMs l)y lielpiiig (o restore world ti-ade. At the 
.same I Mil.. II ,Mialilr> (iival Hiilaiii to .•(»)i)('i-atc in 



relations among tlie nations of the world. It goes 
far to remove the danger of rival and antagonistic 
economic blocs. No one should think that this 
agreement between the United States and Great 
Britain is directed against any other country. It 
IS not. The system of trade we seek is open on the 
same fair terms to all the United Nations. 

While considerations of broad self-interest un- 
deilie our action, this does not mean that we have 
forgotten the circumstances which gave rise to 
Britain's present i:)robIems. It is fortunate and 
gratifying that this action both serves our own 
interests and helps to solve the problems which 
Britain faces as the direct consequence of having 
devoted her human, spiritual, and material re- 
sources so fully to the common cause. 



EXCHANGE OF NOTES BETWEEN ACTING SECRETARY ACHESON 
AND THE BRITISH AMBASSADOR 



[Rele-ised to the press July 15] 

July 15, WJfG. 
Excellency : 

I have the honor to inform you that on July 15, 
1946 there were made available by an Act of Con- 
gress of the United States, approved by the Pres- 
ident, the funds necessary to extend to the Govern- 
ment of the United Kingdom the line of credit in 
accordance with the provisions of the Financial 
Agreement of December 6, 1945 between the Gov- 
ernments of the United States and the United 
Kingdom. 

The effective date of the Agreement, pursuant 
to Section 1 thereof, is therefore July 15, 104(). 

May T reiiuest tliat anv communications con- 



concerning the operation of the Agreement be ad- 
dressed to the Secretary of the Treasury and that 
a copy of such communications be sent to the 
Secretary of State. 

Accept [etc.] De.^x Acheson 

Juh/ l.'i. lU'^G. 
Excellency : 

I have the honour to refer to your note of July 
15th, 1946. in which you were so good as to inform 
me that on July 15th, 1946 there were made avail- 
able by an Act of Congress of the United States, 
api^roved by the President, the funds necessary 
to extend to His Majesty's Government in the 
Tnited Kingdom the line of credit in accordance 



JIU 28, 1946 

witli the i^rovisions of the Financial Agreement of 
December 6th, 1945, between the Governments of 
the United States and the United Kingdom, and 
that the etfective date of the Agreement, pursuant 
to Section 1 thereof, is July 15th, 1946. 

2. I have noted your request that any communi- 
cations concerning the operation of this Agreement 
sliould be addressed to the Secretary of the Treas- 
ury and that a copy of such communications 
should be sent to Your Excellency. 

Accept [etc.] Ix^•ERCHAPEL 



JOINT RESOLUTION OF THE CONGRESS ' 

Joint Resolution to implement further the pur- 
poses of the Bretton AVoods Agreements Act by 
autiiorizing the Secretary of the Treasury to carry 
out an agreement with the United Kingdom, and 
for otlier purposes. 

AVhereas in the Bretton AVoods Agreements Act 
the Congress has declared it to be the policy of the 
I'nited States "to seek to bring about further 
agreement and cooperation among nations and 
international bodies, as soon as possible, on ways 
and means which will best reduce obstacles to and 
restrictions upon international trade, eliminate un- 
fair trade practices, promote mutually advantage- 
ous commercial relations, and otherwise facilitate 
the expansion and balanced growth of interna- 
tional trade and promote the stability of interna- 
tional economic relations"; and 

AA'hereas in further implementation of the pur- 
[joses of the Bretton AA'oods Agreements, the Gov- 
ermnents of tlie United States and the United 
Kingdom liave negotiated an agreement dated De- 
cember 6, 1945, designed to expedite the achieve- 
ment of stable and orderly exchange arrange- 
ments, the prompt elimination of exchange 
restrictions and discrimination, and other objec- 
tives of the above-mentioned policy declared by 
the Congress: Therefore be it 

R(',<ioJved by the Senate and House of Repre- 
sentatives of the United States of Ajnerica in Con- 
gress assembled^ That the Secretary of the Treas- 
ury, in consultation with the National Advisory 
Cimncil on International Monetarv and Financial 



77J 

Trolilems, is lieieby authorized to carry out the 
agreement dated December 6, 1945, between the 
United States and the United Kingdom which was 
transmitted by the President to the Congress on 
January 30, 1946. 

Sec. 2. For the purpose of carrying out the 
agreement dated December 6, 1945, between the 
United States and the United Kingdom, the Sec- 
retary of the Treasury is authorized to use as a 
public-debt transaction not to exceed $3,750,000,- 
000 of the proceeds of any securities hereafter 
issued under the Second Liberty Bond Act, as 
amended, and the purposes for which securities 
may be issued under that Act are extended to in- 
clude such purpose. Payments to the United 
Kingdom under this joint resolution and pursuant 
to the agreement and repayments thereof shall be 
treated as public-debt transactions of the United 
States. Payments of interest to the United States 
under the agreement shall be covered into the 
Treasury as miscellaneous receipts. 

Approved Julv 15, 1946. 



U.S. Delegation to Belgium 
Luxembourg, and Netherlands 
To Negotiate Double -Tax 
Treaties 

[Released to the press July 18] 

Eidon P. King and certain other members of 
the Delegation to Belgium, Luxembourg, and the 
Netherlands to negotiate double-tax treaties are 
leaving for Brussels July 21 and 22 as announced 
on July 3.= 

Presentations by interested members of the pub- 
lic relating to tax problems with Belgium. Luxem- 
bourg, and the Netherlands may continue to be 
addres.sed to Eldon P. King, Special Deputy Com- 
missioner of Internal Revenue, Bureau of Interna! 
Revenue. AVashington. D.C., and will receive 
consideration by the Delegation. 

' S. .1. Res. 138 (Public Law 509, eh. .",77, 79th Cong., 20 
sess. ) . 

- Rttxetin of .Tilly 14, l!)-!6. p. 7.S, 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BlLLETiy 



Accord Reached With Swedish Delegation 
on German Assets in Sweden 



Delegations representing the United States, 
France, and the United Kingdom have arrived at 
an accord witli a Swedish Delegation on subjects 
toucliing German assets in Sweden and related 
questions which they have been studying together 
in Washington for the past six weeks at the in- 
vitation of the United States Goverinnent. The 
following statement has been agreed between the 
delegations : 

German assets in Sweden, the nature and extent 
of which have been carefully examined, M'ill be 
liquidated, in continuation of Sweden's policy of 
the elimination of Gernum economic intei-ests in 
Sweden. 

Existing procedures for mutual exchange of in- 
formation between the Allies and Sweden will be 
maintained. The proceeds of the liciuidation of 
tlie (ierman assets are now estimated to be approxi- 
mately •Mr> million kroner. Of this amount l.Vl 
million, wliich sluiU be considered to be the re- 
mainder left after clearing of these proceeds 
against certain Swedish claims, will be made avail- 
able by the Swedish ({overmnent to be used for 
purchase of commodities for the ( ierman economy. 
These purchases, which wouhl otherwise be at the 
expense of the Allies, are not limited to the Swed- 
ish market but can be made in any other country. 
Provision will be made by the Allies for compensa- 
tion in German money of German owners con- 
cerned by these measures. « 

In accordance with its policy to restitute looted 
property, the Swedish Government agrees to re- 
store monetary gold acquired by Sweden and 
proved to have been looted by Germany. Provi- 
sionally the amount now traced and to be restored 
is about 7 tons. 

Provision will be made for equitable comitensii- 
tion in Germany for removals or other dispositions 
by the Allied authorities of propei'ty belonging to 
Swedish nationals or property in which there is a 
substantial Swedish ownership interest. 

In pursuance of its policy to participate in the 
work of reconstruction and rehabilitation the 

' U.S. note is similar to note sent to Bolivian Govern- 
ment as iii-irileil ill I'.T-i.i.KTiN of .lime 1(5. l!;4(i, ii. 10-10. 



Swedish (ioveninient proposed to make the follow- 
ing contributions: 

(1) 50 million kroner to the Intergovernmental 
Committee on Refugees for use in rehabilitation 
and resettlement of non-repatriable victims of 
German action ; 

(2) 75 million kroner for the aid and rehabili- 
tation of countries devastated by the war who 
were rei^resented at the Paris Reparation 
Conference. 

The Government of the Uniteil States has under- 
taken to unblock Swedish funds in the United 
States according to a procedure which is being 
worked out. The Allies have already eliminated 
the "blacklists". 

Other matters of common interest have been 
satisfactorily settled between the negotiators. 

The accord is subject to ratification by the Swed- 
ish Parliament. 

Mr. Seymour Rubin represented the United 
States in the negotiations; Mr. Christian Valensi, 
France; Mr. Francis W. McCombe, the United 
Kingdom; and Justice Emil Sandstrom. Sweden. 



Treaty Ohligations and 
Philippine Independence 

REPLY OF SPANISH GOVERNMENT 
TO U.S. NOTE • 

[Traiislati..i.l 

No. 170 W.\siiix(iTox. /(//// 77. W^^'. 

Mr. Secketahy: 

With reference to your Excellency's courteous 
note dated May i last, on preferences which will 
be accorded by the United States to the Philip- 
l)ines as required by the ''Philippine Trade Act" 
of April 30, 194(5, I have the honor to inform yon 
that the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Madrid 
has just instructed me to inform the Department 
of State that the Spanish (iovernmeitt agrees to 
the customs preferences on the occasion of the 
independence of the Philip])ines. 

I avail [etc.l 

JUAX F. 1)K C.VROENAS 

ADihdxxiidor of S/xihi 



JULY 2H, 1146 



Agreement on Control Machinery in Austria ' 

AGREEMENT BET\^ EEN THE GOVERNMENTS OF THE UNITED KINGDOM, THE UNITED 
STATES OF AMERICA, THE UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS AND THE 
GOVERNMENT OF THE FRENCH REPUBLIC ON THE MACHINERY OF CONTROL IN 
AUSTRIA 



The Governnieiit ■ (if tlie United Kingdom of 
Great Britain and Northein Ireland, the United 
States of America, the Union of Soviet Socialist 
Republics and the Govermnent of the French Re- 
public (hereinafter called the Four Powers) ; 

In view of the declaration issued at Moscow on 
1st November, 1943. in the name of the Govern- 
ments of the United Kingdom, the United States 
of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Re- 
publics, whereby the three Governments an- 
nounced their agi-eement that Austria should be 
liberated from German domination, and declared 
that (lu'v wi^lied to see reestablished a free and 
indeiiciidcni Austria,- and in view of the subse- 
(juenl declaration issued at Algiers on 16th No- 
vembei', 1943 by the Frenrh ( 'ninmittee of National 
Liberation concerning the independence of Aus- 
tria; 

Considering it necessary, in view of the estab- 
lishment, as a result of free elections held in Aus- 
tria on 25th November. 1945, of an Austrian 
Government recognized by the Four Powers, to 
redefine the nature and extent of the authority 
of the Austrian Government and of the functions 
of the Allied organization and forces in Austria 
and thereby to give effect to Article 14 of the 
Agreement signed in the European Advisory Com- 
mission on 4th July, 1945 ; 

Have agreed as follows : 

Article 1 

The authority of the Austrian Government shall 
extend fully throughout Austria, subject only to 
the following reservations: 

(a) The Austrian Government and all subordi- 
nate Austrian authorities shall carry out such di- 
rections as they may receive from the Allied 
Commission ; 

(b) In regard to the matters specified in Article 
5 below neither the Austrian Government nor any 
subordinate Austrian authority shall take action 
without the prior wi'itten consent of the Allied 
Connnission. 



Airnci.K li 

(a) The Allied organization in Austria shall 
consist of 

(/) an Allied Council, consisting of four 
High Commissioners, one appointed by each of 
the Four Powers; 

(//) an Executive Committee, consisting of 
one high ranking representative of each of the 
High Commissioners; 

(///) Staffs appointed respectively by the 
Four Powers, the whole organization being known 
as the Allied Commission for Austria. 

ih) (!) The authority of the Allied Commis- 
sion in matters affecting Austria as a whole shall 
be cxcivisi'd by tln' Allied Council or the Execu- 
tive Committee or the Staffs appointed by the 
Four Powers when acting jointly. 

(//) The High Commissioners shall within 
their r('s]n'(tive zones ensure the execution of the 
deci>ioiis of th.' Allied Commission and supervise 
the execution of the directions of the central Aus- 
trian authorities. 

(///) The High Connnissioners shall also en- 
sure within their respective zones that the actions 
of the Austrian provincial authorities deriving 
from their autonomous functions do not conflict 
witii the |M]licy of the Allied Commission. 

('•) The Allied Couunission shall act only 
through the Austrian Government or other appro- 
priate Austrian authorities except : 

(') to maintain law and order if the Aus- 
trian authorities are unable to do so; 

{ii) if the Austrian Government or other ap- 
propriate Aivstrian authorities do not carry out 
directions received from the Allied Commission; 

(in) where, in the case of any of the subjects 
detailed in Article ."> below, the Allied Connnission 
acts directly. 

'Released to the press, with iieriiiissioii of the Allied 
Coinmissidii fm- Austria, on .July If). 
'Brt.LETiM of Nov. (i, 1!)48, 11. :',1(), 



176 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



((I) In the absence of action l)y the Allied Coun- 
cil, the four several High Commissioners may act 
independently in their respective zones in any 
matter covered by subparagraphs (/) and {ii) of 
paragraph (<?) of this Article and by Article 5, 
and in any matter in respect of which power is 
conferred on them by the agreement to be made 
under Article 8 (a) of the agreement. 

(e) Forces of occupation furnished by the Four 
Powers will be stationed in the respective zones of 
occupation in Austria and Vienna as defined in 
the Agreement on Zones of Occupation in Austria 
and the administration of the City of Vienna, 
signed in the European Advisory Commission on 
0th July, 1945.^ Decisions of the Allied Count-il 
which require implementation by the forces of 
occupation will be implemented by the latter in 
accordance with instructions from their respective 
High Commissioners. 

Article 3 

The primary tasks of the Allied Commission for 
Austria shall be : 

( a) To ensure the enforcement in Austria of the 
provisions of the Declaration on the Defeat of 
Germany signed at Berlin on 5th June, 1945 ; * 

( &) To complete the separation of Austria from 
Germany, and to maintain the independent ex- 
istence and integrity of the xVustrian State, and 
pending the final definition of its frontiers to 
ensure respect for them as they were on 31st De- 
cember, 1937; 

{(') To assist the Austrian Government to re- 
create a sound and dcnioi ratic national life based 
on an efficient admiuisti'ation, stable economic and 
financial conditions and respect for law and order ; 

(d) To assist the freely elected Government of 
Austria to assume as quickly as possible full con- 
trol of the affairs of state in Austria; 

(e) To ensure the institution of a progressive 
long-term educational program designed to eradi- 
cate all traces of Nazi ideology and to instill into 
Austrian youth democratic principles. 

Article 4 

(<i) In order to facilitate the full exercise of 
the Austrian (iovernment's authority equally in 
all zones and to promote the economic unity of 

' Bulletin of Aug. 12, 194.5, p. 221. 
' BiT.LETiN f.f .June m, 1945, p. 1051. 



Austria, the Allied Council will from the date of 
signature of this Agreement ensure the removal 
of all remaining restrictions on the movement with- 
in Austria of persons, goods, or other traffic, ex- 
cept such as may be specifically prescribed by the 
Allied Council or required in frontier areas for 
the maintenance of effective control of interna- 
t ional movements. The zonal boundaries will then 
have no other effect than as boundaries of the 
sjiheres of authority and responsibility of the re- 
spective High Connnissioners and the location of 
occupation troops. 

(b) The Austrian Goverimient may organize a 
customs aiul frontier administration, and the 
Allied Commission will take steps as soon as prac- 
ticable to transfer to it customs and travel control 
functions concerning Austria which do not inter- 
fere with the military needs of the occupation 
foi'ces. 

Article 5 

The following arc the matters in regai'd to which 
the Allied Connni-sion may act directly as pro- 
vided in Article i' (<■) (///) above: 

(/) Demilitarization and disarmament 
(military, economic, industrial, technical and 
scientific). 

(//) The protection and security of the 
Allied forces in Austria, and the fulfilment of 
their military needs in accordance with the Agree- 
ment to be negotiated under Article 8 (a). 

(Hi) The protection, care and restitution of 
property belonging to the Governments of any of 
the United Nations or their nationals. 

{ir) The disposal of German property in ac- 
cordance with the existing agreements between the 
Allies. 

((') The care and evacuation of, and exer- 
cise of judicial authority over prisoners of war and 
displaced persons. 

(?'/) The control of travel into and out of 
Austria until Austrian travel controls can be 
established. 

(vii) (a) The tracing, arrest and handing- 
over of any person wanted by one of the Four 
Powers or by the International Court for War 
Crimes and Crimes against Humanity. 

(h) The tracing, arrest and handing- 
over of any person wanted by other United Na- 
tions for the crimes specified in the preceding 
]iaragraph and included in the lists of the United 
Nations Commission for AA'ar Crimes. 



JULY 28, 1946 

Tlie Austrian Government will remain compe- 
tent to try any other person accused of such crimes 
and coming within its jurisdiction, subject to the 
Allied Council's right of control over prosecution 
and punishment for such crimes. 

Article 6 

{(i) All legislative measures, as defined by the 
Allied Council, and international agreements 
which the Austrian Government wishes to make 
except agreements with one of the 4 Powers, shall, 
before they take effect or are published in the 
State Gazette be submitted by the Austrian Gov- 
ernment to the Allied Council. In the case of 
constitutional laws, the written approval of the 
Allied Council is required, before any such law 
may be published and put into effect. In the 
case of all other legislative measures and inter- 
national agreements it may be assumed that the 
Allied Council has given its approval if within 
thirty-one days of the time of receipt by the Allied 
Commission it has not informed the Austrian 
Government that it objects to a legislative measure 
or an international agreement. Such legislative 
measure or international agreement may then be 
published and put into effect. The Austrian Gov- 
ernment will inform the Allied Council of all in- 
ternational agreements entered into with one or 
more of the 4 Powers. 

( h ) The Allied Council may at any time inform 
the Austrian Government or the appropriate Aus- 
trian authority of its disapproval of any of the 
Legislative measures or administrative actions of 
tlie Government or of such authority, and may 
direct that the action in question shall be cancelled 
f)r amended. 

Article 7 

The Austrian Government is free to establish 
diplonuitic and consular relations with the Gov- 
ernments of the United Nations. The establish- 
ment of diplomatic and consular relations with 
other Governments shall be subject to the prior 
approval of the Allied Council. Diplomatic Mis- 
sions in Vienna shall have the right to communi- 
cate directly with the Allied Council. Military 
Missions accredited to the Allied Council shall be 
withdrawn as soon as their respective Govern- 
ments establish diplomatic relations with the 
Austrian Government, and in any case within two 
months of the signature of this agreement. 



Article 8 

(«) A further agreement between the Four 
Powers shall be drawn up and communicated to 
tlie Austrian Government as soon as possible, and 
within three months of this day's date defining the 
immunities of the members of the Allied Commis- 
sion and of the forces in Austria of the Four Pow- 
ers and the rights they shall enjoy to ensure their 
security and protection and the fulfilment of their 
military needs. 

( b ) Pending the conclusion of the further agree- 
ment required by Article 8 (a) the existing rights 
and innnunities of members of the Allied Commis- 
sion and of the forces in Austria of the Four Pow- 
ers, dt'iiviiii;- cither from the Declaration on the 
Defeat of (icriiiany or from the powers of a Com- 
mander-in-Chief in the field, shall remain unim- 
paired. 

Article 9 

(a) Members of the Allied Council, the Execu- 
tive Committee and other staffs appointed by each 
of the Four Powers as part of the Allied Commis- 
sion may be either civilian or military. 

(b) Each of the Four Powers may appoint as 
its High Commissioner either the Commander- 
in-Chief of its forces in Austria or its diplomatic 
or political i-epresentative in Austria or such other 
official as it may care to nominate. 

(c) Each High Commissioner may appoint a 
deputy to act for him in his absence. 

(d) A High Commissioner may be assisted in 
the Allied Council by a political adviser and/or a 
military adviser who may be respectively the dip- 
lomatic or political representative of his Govern- 
ment in Vienna or the Commander-in-Cliief of 
the forces in Austria of his Government. 

(c) The Allied Council shall meet at least twice 
in each month or at the request of any member. 

Article 10 

( a) Members of the Executive Committee shall, 
when necessary, attend meetings of the Allied 
Council ; 

(b) The Executive Committee shall act on be- 
half of the Allied Council in matters delegated to 
it by the Council; 

(c) The Executive Committee shall ensure that 
the deci-sions of the Allied Council and its own 
decisions are carried out; 

((I) The Executive Committee shall coordinate 
the activities of the Staffs of the Allied Commis- 
sion. 



178 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Article 11 

(a) The staifs of the Allied Commission in 
Vienna shall be organized in Divisions matching 
one or more of the Austrian Ministries or Depart- 
ments with the addition of certain Divisions not 
corresponding to any Austrian Ministry or De- 
partment. The List of Divisions is given in An- 
nex I to this Agreement ; this organization may be 
changed at any time by the Allied Council; 

(b) The Divisions shall maintain contact with 
tlie appropriate Departments of the Austrian Gov- 
ernment and shall take such action and issue such 
directions as are within the policy approved by 
the Allied Council or the Executive Committee; 

(c) Tlie Divisions shall report as necessary to 
the Executive Committee; 

(d) At the Head of each Division there shall be 
four Directors, one from each of the Four Powers, 
to be collectively known as the Directorate of that 
Division. Directors of Divisions or their repre- 
sentatives may attend meetings of the Allied Coun- 
cil or of the Executive Committee in which mat- 
ters affecting the work of their Divisions are being 
discussed. The four officials acting as the head of 
each Division may appoint such temporary sub- 
committees as the}' deem desirable. 

Article 12 

The decisions of the Allied Council, Executive 
Committee, and other constituted bodies of the 
Allied Commission shall be unanimous. 

The Chairmanship of the Allied Council, Execu- 
tive Committee and Dii-ectorates shall be held in 
rotation. 

Article 13 

The existing Inter- Allied Command in Vienna, 
formerly known as the Kommendatura, shall, con- 
tinue to act as the instrument of the Allied Com- 
mission for affairs concerning Vienna as a whole 
until its functions in connection with civil adminis- 
tration can be handed over to the Vienna Munici- 
pality. These will be handed over progressively 
and as rapidly as possible. The form of super- 
vision which will then be applied will be decided 
by the Allied Council. Meanwliile the Vienna 
Inter-Allied Command shall have the same rela- 
tion to the Municipal Administration of Vienna as 
the Allied Commission has to the Austrian 
Government. 

Article 14 

The present Agreement shall come into opera- 



tion as from this day's date and shall remain in 
force until it is revised or abrogated by agreement 
between the Four Powers. On the coming into 
effect of the present Agreement the Agreement 
signed in the European Advisory Commission on 
4th July 1945, shall be abrogated. The Four 
Powers shall consult together not more than six 
months from this day's date with a view to its 
revision. 

In witness whereof the present. Agreement has 
been signed on behalf of each of the Four Powers 
by its High Commissioner in Austria. 

Done this twenty-eighth day of June 1946 at 
Vienna in quadruplicate in English, in French and 
in Russian each text being equally authentic. A 
translation into German shall be agreed between 
the four High Commissioners and communicated 
by them as soon as possible to the Austrian 
Government. 

For the Government of the United Kingdom : 
Lieutenant General J. S. Steele 

For the Government of the United States of 
America : 

General Mark W. Clark 
For the Government of the Union of Soviet Social- 
ist Republics : 

Colonel General L. V. Kaueasov 
For the Government of the French Republic : 
General de Corps cFArmee 
M. E. Bethouart 



GENERAL ASSEMBLY— Co ntimied from page 161 
of State, Mr. Austin will be the senior representa- 
tive of the United States of America to the second 
part of the first session of the General Assembly. 

The following-named persons to be alternate 
reiDresentatives of the United States of America 
to the second part of the first session of the Gen- 
eral Assembly of the United Nations to be held in 
New York City, September 1946 : 
Charles A. Eaton, a Member of the United States 

House of Representatives from the State of 

New Jei-sey 

Helen Gahagan Douglas, a Member of the 

United States House of Representatives from 

the State of California 
John Foster Dulles, of New York 
Adlai E. Stevenson, of Illinois 



JULY 28, 1946 



179 



Consolidation of OIC's Radio 
Operations 

[Released to the press July 18] 

Consolidation of the New York and San Fran- 
cisco radio operations of the State Department's 
Office of International Information and Cultural 
Affairs was announced on July 18 by Assistant 
Secretary of State William Benton. 

The transfer from San Francisco to New York 
of apjn-oximately 50 specially qualified jjersons 
began Wednesday, July 17. and is scheduled to be 
completed late in August. The first program 
from New York in the State Department's 8- 
language Far Eastern broadcasting schedule will 
be moved by land line to west-coast transmitters 
on August 1. 

As a consequence of this operational merger, all 
State Dejjartment foreign voice broadcasts will 
originate in New York under the direction of 
Kenneth D. Fry, Acting Chief of the International 
Broadcasting Division. The State Department 
currently has 36 transmitters carrying voice broad- 
casts and Morse transmissions to other countries, 
and 10 of these are situated on the Pacific coast. 
All 10 are used for Far Eastern purposes, and in 
addition 6 of them carry shows to the west coast 
of Latin America. 

The 50 persons being transferred from San 
Francisco to New York are language and technical 
experts whose qualifications OIC so far has been 
unable to duplicate in recruiting efforts in the east, 
and they will be considered for employment be- 
yond the period of the transfer. They are all that 
will be retained of the present San Francisco radio 
force of 185. The latter figure in turn represents 
the remainder of an operation that totaled 900 
radio, Morse, and administrative employees at its 
wartime peak under the Office of War Information. 

After August 1, Far Eastern programs will be 
broadcast in English, French, Siamese, Annamese, 
Dutch, Chinese, Korean, and Malay. These pro- 
grams cover news, commentaries, music, and in- 
formational Americana programs, many of which 
are taken from American domestic networks and 
specially revised for overseas listeners. There 
will be seven hours of air time daily, beginning at 
.'i a.m.. Eastern Daylight Time. There are trans- 
mittei-s in Honolulu and Manila to boost delivery 
to Cliina, Indonesia, Siam, French Indochina and 
other Asiatic areas. 



Samuel H. Rickard, former president of Ameri- 
can University in Rangoon and a veteran of the 
San Francisco office, will head the Far East Sec- 
tion in the merged set-up. 

Recordings are to be made to sustain the various 
programs on the air while engineers and language 
contingents of announcers, writers, and editors are 
traveling to New York. 



Procedure for Filing 
War -Damage Claims 

Italy, Bulgaria, Rumania, and Hungary^ 

[Released to the press July 17] 

The Department of State is urgently in need of 
pi-eliminary information from American nationals 
relating to war losses or damage to their properties 
located in Italy, Bulgaria, Rumania, and Hungary. 
All such nationals are requested to furnish a brief 
statement regarding such losses or damage, even 
though such information may have been heretofore 
submitted to a governmental agency. The state- 
ment should contain available information on the 
following points : 

(a) Name of owner 

(6) Nature and location of proj^erty 

((?) Estimated amount (in U.S. dollars) of loss 
or damage 

{d) Cause of loss or damage — whether as a con- 
sequence of military operations, requisition, sei- 
zure as enemy property, looting, removal, etc. 

[e) Nationality of authorities causing the loss 
or damage. 

Claimants possessing properties in more than 
one of the above-mentioned countries should sub- 
mit a separate statement with respect to each such 
country. The statement should be submitted im- 
mediately to the Office of the Legal Adviser, De- 
partment of State, Washington 25, D.C., and 
should in any event reach the Department not later 
than July 26, 1946. 

This announcement does not relate to properties 
in countries other than those named, nor to claims 
arising out of agrarian or nationalization pro- 
grams. 

'For procedure for filing war-damage claims for prop- 
erties located in Poland and the Netherlands, see Bui,LEJriN 
of June 23, 1946, p. 1083. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Procedure for Gasoline Rations 
to American Motorists in 
Europe 

[Released to the press July 15] 

A plan for providing a limited amount of gaso- 
line to United States motorists traveling in five 
European countries on essential business, effective 
immediately, was announced jointly at Washing- 
ton on July 15 by the T'niled States Department 
of State and the JEuropean Central Inland Trans- 
port Organization (ECITO). 

The plan was developed by ECITO, an inter- 
governmental organization with headquarters at 
Paris, France, in which the United States Gov- 
ernment has membership, to meet a demand from 
business travelers for a guaranteed quantity of 
gasoline to be used in traveling with their own 
automobiles in certain countries which still ration 
motor fuel. The countries participating are: 
Belgium. Czechoslovakia. France. Luxembourg, 
and Norway. 

Operation of the plan was outlined as follows: 
a United States resident who desires to take his 
automobile to one or more of the five countries 
listed above and who will have need for gasoline 
for essential travel (as attested by his possession 
of United States passport and visas) makes ap- 
plication for "ECITO Motor Fuel Letter of 
Credit" to an accredited travel agency at the time 
he obtains other necessary documents for inter- 
national travel with his car. When other docu- 
ments are issued he is given a letter of credit 
which .specifically identifies the applicant and his 
car and contains from one to five coupons (de- 
I)ending on his needs), each good for 100 liters 
(approximately 261/2 U.S. gallons) for a three 
months" period. Upon arrival in the foreign 
country, he presents his letter of credit to an 
office designated by the foreign government and 
is issued local rationing coupons which he gives 
to gasoline stations when purchasing fuel. This 
plan does not apply to cars rented or purchased 
abroad, fueling arrangements for which would 
have to be made in the country concerned. 

The Department of State empliasized that only 
a traveler who obtains a U.S. passport and the 
necessary foreign visas for the countries listed, 
and who has the i-equired documents admitting 
his car to international travel, is eligible to re- 
ceive the gasoline letter of credit. It also cau- 



tioned travelers on tlie lack of spare parts and 
tires in European countries, which is still greatly 
handicapping travel by all motorists there. 

It is estimated that less than 1,500 United States 
residents will take their cars abroad during the 
year 1946. At an average of 15 miles a gallon, 
the maximum permissible allowance of 132 gal- 
lons would represent about 2.000 miles for three 
months' travel. 

Tlie Department of State has asked the Ameri- 
can Automobile Association and the American 
Automobile Tourists Alliance to handle the de- 
tails of issuing these gasoline letters of credit to 
motorists at the same time they receive the other 
documents required for international motoring. 



Visit of Indian Labor Welfare 
Officer 

Kanji Dwarkadas, labor and welfare officer of 
the Indian United Mills of Bombay, India, has 
recently come to the United States. 

As a guest of the Department of State he will be 
in Washington two more weeks and will spend 
about five months in other parts of the country. 
Concerned with various aspects of industrial 
workers' living and working conditions, he has 
expressed interest in learning all he can in the 
United States which will be of help to India, 
whose leaders are devoting increasing attention to 
problems of social justice, social security, and 
economic progress. 



Letters of Credence 

Ambassador of China 

The newly appointed Ambassador of China. 
V. K. Wellington Koo, presented his letters of 
credence to the President on July 16. For the 
texts of the Ambassador's remarks on the occa- 
sion of the presentation of his credentials and the 
President's reply, see Department of State press 
release 488. 

Ambassador of Yugoslavia 

The newly appointed Ambassador of Yugo- 
slavia, Sava N. Kosanovic, presented his cre- 
dentials to the President on July 18. For texts of 
the Ambassador's remarks and the President's 
reply, see Department of Stale press release 494. 



181 



Lend-Lease Settlement and Surplus-Property 
Agreement With New Zealand 



[Kelensed to the press July 10] 

Representatives of the Government of the 
United States and the Government of New Zea- 
huul on July 10 signed an agreement representing 
an over-all settlement of lend-lease and reciprocal 
aid and providing for the sale of certain United 
States surplus property. The agreement was 
signed at Washington on behalf of the Govern- 
ment of tile United States by Dean Acheson, the 
Acting Secretary of State, and on behalf of the 
Government of New Zealand by Walter Nash, 
Minister of Finance. 

The agreement constitutes a final settlement for 
lend-lease and reciprocal aid and for the financial 
claims of each Government arising as a result of 
the war. New Zealand made a notable contribu- 
tion to the war effort of the United Nations meas- 
ured in both sacrifice of niMHiinwcr and material. 
This is especially Inie cniisKlci-iiig the relatively 
small population of that Dominion. Throughout 
tiie war New Zealand provided an important 
source of supplies for the Pacific area, all of which 
supplies were made available under reverse lend- 
lease without charge to the United States. This 
contribution by New Zealand relieved the United 
States of the need to supply very considerable 
(liiantities of food and equipment to its armed 
forces in the Pacific areas, resulting in an impor- 
tant saving in our own supplies and in shipping 
space. 

In the settlement just concluded it has been 
agreed that neither Government will make any 
l»ayment to the other for lend-lease and reciprocal- 
aid ai'ticles and services used in the achievement 
of victory. New Zealand has undertaken to pur- 
chase certain United States surplus war property 
composed of capital equipment and of non-combat 
aircraft and spares remaining in the Pacific area. 
The payment to be made by New Zealand under 
this agreement amounts to approximately $5,500,- 
000. This amount in New Zealand currency is to 
be used by the United States (iuM-rnment for the 
acquisition of real estate and the construction of 
I'nited States Government buildings and for the 
furtherance of cultural relations of mutual benefit 
to the two countries. 



This settlement is in accord with the princi|)les 
of tlie Recii)r(jcal Aid Agreement between New 
Zealand and the United States. That agreement 
subscribed to the principles that settlement for 
lend-lease and reverse lend-lease should be such as 
not to burden the commerce between the two coun- 
tries but to promote mutually advantageous trade 
relations between them and better world-wide eco- 
nomic relations. Tiie settlement of the war ac- 
counts just completed thus opens the way for 
further coUaltoration between the two countries in 
the sphei-e of world economics. 

The two Governments are in full accord on the 
objectives of a high level of employment and in- 
creased international commerce. New Zealand 
will take part in the forthcoming international 
trade and employment conference, proposed by the 
United States, the [)urpose of which is to work 
out agreed measures for the expansion of world 
ti-ade, employment, and production and to estab- 
lish ijermanent international machinery to foster 
these purposes. New Zealand has also accepted 
the invitation of the United States to take part in 
a further conference to be held early next year at 
which a group of major trade countries will con- 
sider specific reciprocal-trade arrangements for 
the nuitual reduction of trade barriers and active 
promotion of wider trade between themselves and 
other countries. Furthermore, inirsuant to this 
settlement both Governments will continue to dis- 
cuss arrangements for agreed action for the attain- 
ment of the economic objectives referred to in 
article VII of the Mutual Aid Agreement. 

The Government of the United States of Amer- 
ica and the Government of New Zealand have 
reached agreement as set forth below regarding 
settlement for lend-lease and reciprocal aid, for 
certain surplus war property, and for the financial 
claims of each. Government against the other aris- 
ing as a result of Wnrld War II. This settlement 
is complete and final. Both ( iovernments, in ar- 
riving at this settlement, have taken full cogni- 
zance of the benefits already received by them in 
the defeat of their common enemies, and of the aid 
furnished by each Government to the other in the 



182 



course of the war. No further benefits will be 
sought as consideration for lend-lease and recipro- 
cal aid, for surplus war property covered by this 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 

Agreement, or for the settlement of other financial 
claims arising as a result of World War II, except 
as herein specifically provided. 



TEXT OF AGREEMENT ' 



Lend-Lease and Reciprocal Aid 

1. (a) The term "lend-lease article" as used in 
this Agreement means any article heretofore trans- 
ferred by the Government of the United States un- 
der the Act of March 11, 1941 ['] 

(1) to the Government of New Zealand, or 

(2) to any other government and heretofore re- 
transferred to the Government of New 
Zealand. 

(b) The term "reciprocal aid article" as used in 
this Agreement means any article heretofore trans- 
ferred by the Government of New Zealand to the 
Government of the United States under reciprocal 
aid. 

2. In recognition of the mutual benefits received 
by the two Governments from the interchange of 
lend-lease and reciprocal aid, neither Government 
will be required to make any payment to the other 
for lend-lease and reciprocal aid articles and serv- 
ices used in the achievement of the common 
victory. 

3. (a) The Government of New Zealand hereby 
acquires, and shall be deemed to have acquired as 
of September 2, 1945, full title, without qualifica- 
tion as to disposition or use, to all lend-lease arti- 
cles in the possession of the Government of New 
Zealand, its agents or transferees, on September 2, 
1945, and not subsequently returned to the Govern- 
ment of the United States, other than lend-lease 
articles which on that date were in the possession 
of the armed forces of the Government of New 
Zealand. 

(b) The Government of New Zealand hereby 
acquires, and shall be deemed to have acquired as 
of the date of loading on board ocean vessel for 
shipment to New Zealand, full title, without 
qualification as to disposition or use, to all lend- 
lease articles transferred to the Government of 
New Zealand on or after September 2, 1945, pur- 



suant to lend-lease requisitions filed by the Gov- 
ermnent of New Zealand, and not subsequently 
returned to the Government of the United States, 
which articles constituted tlie lend-lease pipeline 
for the Government of New Zealand and in respect 
of which no further deliveries remain to be made. 

(e) The Government of New Zealand hereby ac- 
quires, and shall be deemed to have acquired as of 
the date of delivery to the custody of the Govern- 
ment of New Zealand, full title, without qualifica- 
tion as to disposition or use, to all lend-lease ar- 
ticles, other than arms, ammunition and other 
lethal weapons, in addition to the articles covered 
by sub-paragi-aph (b) hereof, transferred to the 
Government of New Zealand between September 
2, 1945, and December 31, 1945, both dates inclu- 
sive, and not subsequently returned to the Govern- 
ment of the United States. 

(d) In consideration of the mutual undertak- 
ings of this Agreement, no payment shall be re- 
quired from the Government of New Zealand with 
respect to the articles covered by sub-paragraphs 
(a), (b) and (c) hereof. 

4. (a) The Government of the United States 
hereby acquires, and shall be deemed to have ac- 
quired as of September 2, 1945, full title, without 
qualification as to disposition or use, to all recipro- 
cal aid articles in the possession of the Government 
of the United States, its agents or transferees, on 
September 2, 1945, and not subsequently returned 
to the Government of New Zealand, other than 
reciprocal aid articles which on that date M-ere 
in the possession of the armed forces of the Gov- 
ernment of the United States. 

(b) The Government of the United States 
hereby acquii'es, and shall be deemed to have ac- 
quired as of the date of delivery to United States 
depot in New Zealand, or of loading aboard ocean 
vessel for shipment from New Zealand, whichever 
is the earlier, full title, without qualification as to 
disposition or use, to all reciprocal aid articles 
transferred to the Government of tlie United 
States between September 2, 1945, and December 
31, 1945, both dates inclusive, and not subsequently 
returned to the Government of New Zealand, 



JULY 28, 1946 



183 



which articles constituted the reciprocal aid pipe- 
line for the Government of the United States and 
in i-espect of which no further deliveries remain to 
be made. 

(c) The Government of the United States 
hereby acquires, and shall be deemed to have ac- 
quired as of the date of delivery to the custody 
of the Government of the United States, full title, 
without qualification as to disposition or use, to all 
reciprocal aid articles, other than arms, ammuni- 
tion and other lethal weapons, in addition to the 
articles covered by sub-paragraph (J) hereof, 
transferred to the Government of the United 
States between September 2, 1945, and December 
31, 1915, both dates inclusive, and not subsequently 
returned to the Government of New Zealand. 

(d) In consideration of the mutual undertak- 
ings of this Agreement, no payment shall be re- 
quirerl from the Government of the United States 
with respect to articles covered by sub-paragraphs 
(a), (b) and (c) hereof. 

5. (a) The Government of the United States, 
with respect to lend-lease articles, and the Gov- 
ernment of New Zealand, with respect to recipro- 
cal aid articles, reserve a right to recapture, at any 
time after September 1, 1945, any such articles 
other than those to which title is passed pursuant 
to paragraphs 3 and 4 hereof, which are now in the 
possession of the armed forces of the other Gov- 
ernment and, as of the date upon which notice 
requesting return is communicated to the other 
Government, are in the possession of or under the 
control of such other Government, although 
neither Government intends to exercise generally 
this right of recapture. Wliere either Govern- 
ment wishes from time to time to exercise this 
right of recapture, such Government will give 
reasonable notice of its intention and, without 
limiting the right of recapture, will provide full 
opportunity to the other Government for discus- 
sion of that Government's need for the articles in 
question. 

(b) The Government of New Zealand may, ex- 
cept as provided in paragraph 8 hereof, divert any 
such lend-lease articles covered by paragraph 
5 (a) hereof to any uses in or outsitle of New 
Zealand or its territories, but will not, without 
the prior consent of the Government of the United 
States and without payment of any proceeds to 
the Government of the United States, transfer to 
any third country any such lend-lease articles in 



the categories of arms, ammunition and other 
lethal weapons. 

(c) The Government of the United States may 
divert any such reciprocal aid articles covered by 
paragraph 5 (a) hereof to any uses in or outside 
of the United States, its territories or possessions, 
but will not, without the prior consent of the Gov- 
ernment of New Zealand and without payment of 
any proceeds to the Government of New Zealand, 
transfer to any third country any such reciprocal 
aid articles in the categories of arms, ammunition 
and other lethal weapons. 

(d) The Government of the United States, with 
respect to vessels transferred to the United States 
Navy under reciprocal aid, and the Government 
of New Zealand, with respect to vessels trans- 
ferred by the United States Navy under lend-lease, 
will, unless otherwise agreed, each return to the 
other Government any such vessels in the posses- 
sion of the recipient Government on the date when 
the request for return is communicated to such 
Government. 

6. Both Governments agree that, when they dis- 
pose of articles acquired pursuant to paragraphs 
3 and 4 hereof, they will use their best endeavors 
to avoid discrimination against the legitimate 
interests of the manufacturers or producers of 
such articles, or their agents or distributors, in 
each countrj'. 

II 

Surplus War Property 

7. The Govermnent of New Zealand, in consid- 
eration of the value of surplus non-combat lend- 
lease aircraft and related spares diverted to 
civilian use, and of the other surplus property 
covered by the contract between the Government 
of the United States and the Government of New 
Zealand dated December 18, 1945, as amended in 
this Agreement, and in order to further educa- 
tional and cultural relationships between the two 
countries by means of scholarships or otherwise in 
a manner mutually agreeable, will pay to the 
Government of the United States the value of 
such aircraft and related spares and surplus prop- 
erty as provided in paragraphs 8 and 9 hereof, by 
any of the following methods or any combination 
thereof designated by the Government of the 
United States, employing in every case the rate of 
3.2442 United States dollars to one New Zealand 
pound : 



184 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



(!) (a) by delivery of title to the Government 
of the United States by the Government of New- 
Zealand of such real property and improvements 
to real i^roperty in New Zealand as may be selected 
and determined by agreement between the two 
Governinents, aggregating in value not more than 
$1,200,000; 

(b) by establishment of a fund in New Zealand 
pounds, equivalent to not more than the remaining 
amount due to the Government of the United 
States hereunder, for expenditure in accordance 
M-ith agreements to be reached between the two 
Governments for carrying out educational and 
cultural programs of benefit to the two countries ; 

(//) by delivery to the Government of the 
United States of such other property or services 
in New Zealand as may be selected and determined 
by agreement between the two Governments, ag- 
gregating in value not more than such part of the 
amount due to the Government of the United 
States as may not have been expended under the, 
provisions of subparagraphs (/)(«) and (/)(&) 
hereof ; 

{Hi) in the event that, after three years from 
the date of this Agreement the two Governments 
have been unable to agree that the purposes 
described in subparagraphs (/) and (//) above 
hereof can be carried out to the full extent now 
contemplated, any residue will be paid by the Gov- 
ernment of New Zealand to the Government of the 
United States in United States dollars. 

8. The Government of New Zealand will not 
divert to any civilian use any lend-lease non- 
combat aircraft or related spares in the possession 
of the Government of New Zealand except those 
acquired by the Government of New Zealand pur- 
suant to separate agreement or agreements of sale 
between the two Governments. The Government 
of the United States will accept the return of, and 
will declare as surplus, all lend-lease non-combat 
aircraft and related spares now in the possession 
of the Government of New Zealand which may be 
seliTted by the Government of New Zealand for 
diversion to civilian use. The Government of the 
United States will sell and the Government of 
New Zealand will purchase such aircraft and re- 
lated spares under the terms and conditions of the 
coiitnut dated December 18. 1945, described and 
amended in paragraph 9 hereof. The considera- 
tion for any such sales shall be calculated at the 
world disposal prices as determined by the Gov- 
ernineiit of the United States for aircr-ift and re- 



lated spares of the types covered by such sales. 
Payment for any such aircraft and related spares 
shall be made in accordance with paragraphs 7 
and 9 of this Agreement. 

9. In the contract dated December 18, 1945, the 
Government of the United States agreed to sell 
and the Government of New Zealand agreed to 
purchase certain surplus property described 
therein up to a total value of four million dollars. 
The terms and conditions of that contract shall 
remain in full force with the following amend- 
ments : 

(a) additional schedules listing non-combat air- 
craft and related spares and meteorological, com- 
munication, navigational and other airport arti- 
cles and equipment shall be added to the contract; 

( b ) the amount of four million dollars shall be 
increased by an amount up to $750,000 to cover the 
value of non-combat aircraft and related spares 
and by a further amount sufficient to cover the 
value of the meteorological, communication, navi- 
gational and other airport articles and equipment 
described in sub-paragraph (a) hereof; 

(c) in lieu of the method of payment provided 
for in that contract, payment shall be made in 
accordance with paragraph 7 of this Agreement. 

Ill 
Other Financial Claims 

10. (a) The Government of New Zealand 
hereby assumes responsibility for the settlement 
and payment of all claims against the Govern- 
ment of the United States or members of the armed 
forces of the Government of the United States, 
arising from acts or omissions of members of the 
armed forces of the Government of the United 
States occurring in New Zealand before June 30, 
1946. 

(b) The following financial claims between the 
two Govei'nments, arising out of existing arrange- 
ments in which the liability for payment has here- 
tofore been acknowledged and the method of com- 
putation mutually agreed upon, are not covered by 
this settlement, as they will be settled in accord- 
ance with such arrangements : 

(i) Claims by either Government arising out 
of lend-lease requisitions filed by the Government 
of New Zealand in which the Government of New 
Zealand agreed to make direct cash reimbursement 

{Conthniiil on ixii/r /S.O) 



JULY 28, 1946 



Surplus-Property Agreement With Brazil 



[Released to tlie press July 12] 

A contract lias been signed between the United 
States of America and the United States of Brazil 
whereby Brazil will purchase the remainder of the 
United States surplus property located in Brazil. 

The United States of America has extended 
credit to Brazil for a sum not to exceed eight 
million United States dollars to enable Brazil to 
purchase this property. Brazil has agreed to repay 
it in five equal annual instalments, beginning July 
1. 1947. Interest was fixed at the rate of 23/g 
percent a year on the outstanding unpaid balance 
of the total purchase price. 

A major factor in the agreement is to facilitate 
the withdrawal of small United States troop de- 
tachments still at air bases in Brazil. 

TEXT OF AGREEMENT 

This contract made and entered into this 5 day 
of July 1946, in the city of Rio de Janeiro, by 
General de Divisao Alvaeo Fiuza de Castro, in 
the building of the Ministry of War, representing 
the Government of the United States of Brazil, 
and by Field Commissioner Lehman Wellington 
Miller, representing the Government of the 
United States of America, witnesseth: 

Whereas the United States of America desires 
to sell and the United States of Brazil desires to 
buy, surplus war propei'ties brought into the 
United States of Brazil for use in connertion with 
the prosecution of World War II, and 

Whereas the United States of America has des- 
ignated the Foreign Liquidation Commissioner 
and his representative, the Field Coniinissioner for 
Latin America, Eastern Division, as its authorized 
and acting agent to dispose of such surplus prop- 
erties located in the United States of Brazil, and 

AVhereas it is mutually advantageous to dispose 
of such properties as rapidly as possible, in order 
to relieve the caretaking personnel of the United 
States of America and to provide goods needed by 
tlie United States of Brazil: 

Now, THEREFORE, iu Consideration of the mutual 
covenants herein entered into, it is agreed as fol- 
lows : 

Article I 

Tlie United States of America agrees to sell and 



the United States of Brazil agrees to buy the 
remainder of the movable jiroperty owned by, and 
which will be derlaivd sui-i)liis to tlie needs of, 
agencies of tlie Goveniiiieiit of the United States 
of America, and located on, or in the vicinity of, 
air bases in the United States of Brazil, for a sum 
to be arrived at in the following manner : 

(a) All of such surplus property will be cata- 
logued by the Field Commissioner, showing the 
(]uantity, condition, location, costs to the United 
States of America, and purchase prices of each 
item or gi-oup of items as explained in sub-Para- 
graph (h) below. As and when each catalog is 
roiiipiled it will be attached hereto and become a 
part hereof. The total purchase price, therefore, 
will become the aggregate purchase prices of all of 
the completed catalogs, less any adjustments made 
as a result of Paragraph (d) Art. I. 

(b) 1.) The sum to be paid for all spare parts 
and components for tact ii^al-typi- airphiiies used 
by the Government of the United Stales of Brazil 
will be computed at 15% (fifteen percent) of orig- 
inal cost to the United States of America less de- 
preciation, and for all .spare parts and romponents 
for commercial-type aiiphine^ at 7.i' , (>eventy- 
five percent) of the original co^t less depieciation, 
and will appear in the catalog under the column 
headed ''Purchase Price"'. 

2.) For the six vessels listed in Appendix A. 
and such other surplus vessels as may be agreed 
upon by the contracting parti 
chase price shall Ije computed ; 
cent) of the original cost to tl 
America. 

o.) For all other movable goods the purchase 
price will be 50% (fifty percent) of the landed 
cost to the United States of America, such cost 
being less depreciation for quality, condition, and 
usefulness. 

(c) Within twenty days of the date of signing 
tliis contract an inventory will be commenced of 
the properties listed in such catalogs as the Foreign 
Liquidation Commissioner has currently prepared. 
Other inventories will be commenced thereafter as 
expeditiously as catalogs can be prepared by the 
Field Commissioner. The inventory will be made 



liereto, the pur- 
lin' , ( ihirty per- 
riiile.l States of 



186 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



jointly by representatives of the two Governments. 
Each Government will furnish the personnel and 
material which it deems necessary for the com- 
pletion and verification of the inventory. 

(d) Any variations between the quantity and 
condition disclosed as a result of the joint inven- 
tory and the quantity and condition stated in the 
catalog will be adjusted on the basis of the unit 
purchase price. Where items are listed as "more 
or less," no adjustment will be made as long as 
the variation does not exceed 5% (five percent). 

Article II 

The United States of America agrees to extend 
credit to the United States of Brazil for an amount 
not in excess of US $8,000,000 (eight million 
United States dollars), subject to the following 
conditions and terms of payment: 

(a) A sum in United States dollars, equal to 
the total i^urchase price arrived at pursuant to 
Article I above, shall be paid in five equal annual 
installments, beginning on 1 July 1947 and con- 
tinuing thereafter on 1 July of each year up to 
and including 1 July 1951, subject to the provisions 
of sub-Paragraph (d) of this Article. 

(b) Interest shall accrue from the respective 
dates of determination of the amount due the 
United States of America for each catalog in con- 
formity with Article I hereof, and shall be paid 
on the outstanding unpaid balance of the total 
purchase price. The rate of interest shall be 2%% 
(two and three-eighths percent) per annum, pay- 
able on the first day of July of each year, the first 
payment to be made on 1 July 1947. 

(c) All payments shall be made in United 
States dollars, to the Treasurer of the United 
States, through the Federal Reserve Bank of New 
York. 

(d) The Government of the United States of 
Brazil may anticipate the payment, in United 
States dollars, of any installment of principal, or 
any part thereof, provided that this right of an- 
ticipation may not be exercised when any install- 
ment of principal or interest is past due and 
unpaid. 

Article III 

It is understood and agreed by the parties here- 
to that all of the property sold hereunder is con- 
veyed on a "where is", "as is" basis. Delivery shall 
be made at the present location of the property 



as and when each item is inventoried, and removal 
or transfer of custody shall be completed for all 
items in each location and in each catalog, by the 
Government of the United States of Brazil, at its 
expense, within thirty (30) days after the com- 
pletion of the inventory. If the United States of 
Brazil is unable to remove or accept custody of 
said property within the thirty-day period, there- 
after all cost of care and handling and the respon- 
sibility for any losses whatsoever will be borne by 
the Brazilian Government. The United States of 
America guarantees the title to the property 
herein conveyed. 

Article IV 

In the event of any resale of the surplus prop- 
erty sold hereunder the United States of Brazil 
imdertakes to restrict the right of purchasers to 
export such property to the United States of 
America. 

Aeticle V 

In the case of any technical disagreements 
within this contract, each Government will appoint 
one representative and these two will agree upon, 
and appoint, an expert, who, with them, will con- 
sider all disputes, and their decisions will be final 
on any questions of fact. 

Article VI 

This contract shall have a supplement, signed 
by authorized representatives of the two Govern- 
ments, which will set forth : ( 1 ) the purchase price 
of each catalog as adjusted according to the pro- 
visions of Article I (d), (2) the annual payments 
due the United States of America under terms of 
this agreement, and (3) the respective dates on 
which the adjusted purchase price of each catalog 
was determined. 

In witness whereof, the parties hereto have 
signed and sealed this contract, written in English 
and Portuguese, on the day and year first above 
written. 

Alvaro FitrzA de Castro 
General de Divisao, representing the Govern- 
ment of the United States of Brazil 

Lehman Wellington Miller, 
Field Commissioner, representing the Govern- 
ment of the United States of America 

{Confinued on page ISO) 



JULY 28, 1946 



Lend-Lease Agreement With Brazil 



[Released to the press June 28] 

An agreement has been signed between the 
United States of America and the United States 
of Brazil on the disposition of approximately 
$2,000,000 of lend-lease supplies in inventory or 
procurement in the United States prior to Septem- 
ber 2, 1945. 

The agreement takes effect immediately. It was 
signed by Chester T. Lane, Deputy Foreign Liqui- 
dation Commissioner, Department of State, and 
by Colonel Joao Valdetaro, Chief of the Brazilian 
Military Commission, Commander Heitor Bap- 
tista Coelho, Chief of the Brazilian Naval Commis- 
sion, and Lt. Col. Jose Vincente de Faria Lima, 
Chief of the Brazilian Aeronavitical Commission. 

The approximate value and the general catego- 
ries of the articles to be transferred are as follows : 
industrial ecjuipnient, $1,014,000; air-forces equip- 
ment, $137,000 ; and ordnance equipment, $898,000. 

Brazil has agreed to pay for this equipment ac- 
cording to terms stipulated in agreements made 
during the war to provide mutual-defense aid to 
the United States of Brazil. Brazil further agreed 
to pay all inland and ocean freight and other 
transportation expenses, and has agreed that this 
property shall not be retransferred to the govern- 
ment of any third country without the prior con- 
sent of the President of the United States of 
America. 

TEXT OF AGREEMENT 

The United States of America and the United 
States of Brazil in order to provide for the orderly 
disposition in their mutual interests of the unde- 
livered articles which were in inventory or pro- 
curement in the United States of America, prior 
to September 2, 1945, for the purpose of pro- 
viding mutual defense aid to the United States 
of Brazil under the Act of March 11, 1941, as 
amended, agree as follows: 

Article I 

All articles and services undertaken to be pro- 
vided by the United States of America under this 
Agreement shall be made available under the 
authority and subject to the terms and conditions 



of the Act of March 11, 1941, as amended, and 
any acts supplementary thereto. 

Article II 
Within such periods as may be authorized by 
law, the United States of America agrees to trans- 
fer to the United States of Brazil and the United 
States of Brazil agrees to accept those articles 
which are or will be available to the United States 
of America for transfer to the United States of 
Brazil out of articles that were in inventory or 
procurement in the United States of America 
prior to September 2, 1945, for the purpose of 
providing defense aid under the Act of March 11, 
1941, to the United States of Brazil, but were not 
transferred prior to the date of the signature of 
this Agreement. 

Article III 

The United States of Brazil agrees to pay the 
United States of America for the articles trans- 
ferred under Article II hereof at a time and in 
an amount determined as provided in Article III 
of the Agreement between the United States of 
America and the United States of Brazil on the 
subject of defense aid dated March 3, 1942. It is 
understood that accessorial charges, inland and 
ocean freight and other expenses connected with 
the transportation to the United States of Brazil 
of the articles transferred will be paid by the 
United States of Brazil. 

Article IV 
Without limitation upon the provisions of Ai'- 
ticle II hereof, it is agreed that the approximate 
value and the general categories of the articles 
to be transferred hereunder are as follows : 

Industrial equipment $1, 014, 000 

Air Forces equipment 137, 000 

Ordnance equipment 898, 000 

Article V 

It is agreed that the articles transferred to the 
United States of Brazil under this Agreement 
shall not be retransferred to the Government of 
any third country without the consent of the 
President of the United States of America. 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



Article VI 
It is agreed that transfers under this Agree- 
ment and articles so transferred are further sub- 
ject to the provisions of Article VII of the Agree- 
ment between the United States of America and 
the United States of Brazil dated March 3, 1942. 

Article YIl 

Tlie provisions of this Agreement shall not 
apply to articles covered by requisitions calling 
for full cash payment by the United States of 
Brazil or to articles requisitioned under Brazilian 
Project Number 4 for the airplane engine factory 
at Xerem. 

Artic'le nil 

This Agreement does not constitute a final set- 
tlement of the terms and conditions upon which 
tlie United States of Brazil has received aid under 
the Act of March 11. 1941, except for the articles 
made available under the provisions hereof. 

Article IX 
It is understood that the articles comprising the 
category "Ordnance equipment" referred to in 
Article IV hereof are incomplete and that their 



completion is not contemplated under the terms of 
Article II hereof; nevertheless the United States 
of America agrees to undertake the completion of 
the said articles at the option and expense of the 
United States of Brazil. 

Article X 

This Agreement shall take effect as from this 
day's date. 

Done in duplicate, at Washington, this 28th day 
of June, 1946. 

For the United States of America 
Chester T. Lane 

Deputy Foreign Liquidation Conunissioner 
Department of State 

¥ov the United States of Brazil 
JoAO Valdetaro, Col. 

Chief of the Brazilian Military Commission 
H. Baptista Coelho 

Chief of the Brazilian Naval Commission 
Jose V. de F. Lima, Ten Cel Ar 

Chief of the Brazilian Aeronautical 
Comnii,ssion 



PAU Governing Board Approves Transmittal 
of Draft Declaration on Rights and Duties 
of American States to their Governments 



[Releasea to the press by the Pan American Union July 17 J 

The Committee on the Organization of the Inter- 
American System ' submitted on July 17 to a spe- 
cial Governing Board session of the Pan American 
Union a report and draft Declaration on the 
Rights and Duties of American States. Upon 
approval of the Board it was decided to transmit 
the declaration to the respective govermnents for 
observations and comments. The governments 
were requested to send their comments to the Pan 
American Union on or before October 15, 194G in 

' Members of the Committee include the following dele- 
gates to the Pan American Union ; Guillermo Sevilla 
Sacasji. of Nicaragua; Antonio Rocha ,of Colombia; Joao 
Carlos Muniz, of Brazil; William Sanders, of the United 
States ; Julifln R. Ctlceres, of Honduras ; Victor Andrade, 
of Bolivia; Luis Quintanilla, of Mexico; J. B. de Lavalle, 
of Peru. 



order that a definitive draft may be prepared for 
submissidu t(i tlie Bogota conference. 

The (lot'iiiueiit contains I'-J articles, the first 5 of 
which stress the juridical ecjuality of all states, 
good faith, and a common belief in republican and 
democratic principles. 

The declaration, which emphasizes the faithful 
observance of treaties, bans intervention and ter- 
ritorial acquisition by unfair means, and outlaws 
armed force, establishes that if disputes should 
arise they are to be settled. 

On the question of recognition, the declaration 
states that ''the political existence of a new state 
is independent of its recognition by other states"', 
but further clarifies that : "Recognition — which is 
unconditional and irrevocable — .signifies that the 
states which recognize the new state accept its 



JULY 28, 1946 



189 



personality with all the rights and duties which 
international law prescribes." 

The declaration contains no article on the recog- 
nition of governments. The Committee realized 
the fact that a principle on this subject should be 
included in order that the declaration might be 
complete, but refrained from undertaking its for- 
mulation since the Inter- American Juridical Com- 
mittee of Rio de Janeiro is at present completing 
a study on this subject. 

Economic cooperation is held to be essential to 
the common welfare of the American peoples, be- 
lief is reaffirmed in the good-neighbor policy, and 
the American republics pledge themselves to un- 
swerving loyalty to the inter-American system and 
to the strengthening of continental solidarity, as 
well as to the fulfilment of their obligations as 
members of the world organization. 



NEW ZEALAND — Continued from page 184 

to the Government of the United States for the 
material therein i-equisitioned and at the time of 
filing such requisitions deposited with the Govern- 
ment of the United States the estimated cost of 
such material ; 

( i.i) Claims arising out of the agreement by the 
Government of the United States to pay the Gov- 
ernment of New Zealand for the articles and serv- 
ices furnished by the Government of New Zealand 
to the Government of the United States not eligible 
for reciprocal aid, and for the articles and services 
furnished by the Government of New Zealand to 
the Government of the United States after Decem- 
ber 31, 1945. 

(c) In consideration of the mutual undertak- 
ings described in this Agreement, and with the 
objective of arriving at as comprehensive a settle- 
ment as possible and of obviating protracted nego- 
tiations between the two Governments, all other 
financial claims whatsoever of one Government 
against the other which arose out of lend-lease or 
reciprocal aid or otherwise arose on or after Sep- 
tember 3, 1939, and prior to September 2, 1945, 
out of or incidental to the conduct of World War 
II, and which are not otherwise dealt with in this 
Agreement, are hereby waived, and neither Gov- 
ernment will hereafter raise or pursue any such 
claims against the other. 

11. This Agreement shall take effect on the date 
of signature. 



Signed at Washington in duplicate this 10th day 
of July, 194G. 

For the Government of the United States of 
America : 

De.\n Acmeson 
Acting Secretary of State of the United 
States of America 
For the Government of New Zealand : 

W. Nash 
Minister of Finance of the Government of 
Ne-W' Zealand 

Visit of Argentine Educator 

Luis Reissig, cofounder and Secretary of the 
Colegio Libre de Estudios Superiores of Buenos 
Aires, is visiting the United States at the invita- 
tion of the Department of State. 

A graduate of the school of law and social 
sciences of the University of Buenos Aires, Dr. 
Reissig is interested in liberal social theories, edu- 
cational reform, and contemporary literary 
trends. He has chosen adult education as the 
subject of his observations and hopes to visit 
schools and other educational institutions, in as 
many regions as possible, in order to determine 
how the different geographical influences and the 
social needs of the various communities are 
handled. 

Dr. Reissig has been invited to Middlebury Col- 
lege, Vermont, wliere he will lecture on Educa- 
tion of the People. 

Among other cities to be visited are New York 
City ; Altoona, Pa. ; Ann Arbor, Mich. ; Chicago, 
111.; Gary, Ind.; Chapel Hill, N. C; Denver, 
Colo. ; Los Angeles and San Francisco. Calif. 



SURPLUS PROPERTY — Continued from page 
186 



APPENDIX A 



I 'essd 

1. Sea Rescue Boat— 104 ft. 

2. Aircraft Rescue Boat— 63 ft. 

3. Aircraft Rescue Boat— 63 ft. 

4. Line Handling Boat— 17 ft. 

5. Plane Rearming Boat— 33 ft. 
b. Bomb Target Boat— 65 ft. 



Original Co^t Location 

$190,000.00 Natal 

85,000.00 Natal 

85,000.00 Natal 

2,500.00 Natal 

5,000.00 Natal 

75,000.00 Baliia 



Total Original Co.st . $442,500.00 
Purchase Price . . . $132,750.00 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



The Foreign Service 



William Walton Butterworth, Jr. 
Given Rank of Minister 

The Department of State announced on July 
18 that William Walton Butterworth, Jr., of New 
Orleans, La., Counselor of Embassy at Nanking, 
China, has been given the personal rank of Minis- 
ter, by direction of President Truman. 

Appointment of Public-Affairs 
Officer to Belgrade 

The State Department announced on July 18 
the appointment of E. Bigelow Thompson of Bos- 
ton, Mass., as chief public-affairs officer for the 
United States in Yugoslavia. He will be on the 
staff of the American Embassy at Belgrade. 

Consular Offices 

The name of the American Vice Consulate at 
Puerto de la Cruz, Venezuela, has been changed to 
Puerto la Ciuz to conform with official Venezuelan 
usage. 

The Consulate at Durango, Mexico, was officially 
closed on July 12, 1946. 



The Department 



Appointment of Officers 

Fitzhugh Granger as Chief, Area Division IV (American 
Republics), in the Office of International Information and 
Cultural Affairs, effective July 1, 1046. 



The Congress 



Twenty-second Report to Congress on Lend-Lease 
Operations. Message From the President of the United 
States Transmitting the Twenty-Second Report of Opera- 



tions Under the Lend-Lease Act for the Period Ending 
December 31, 194.5. H. Doc. 663, 79th Cong. 89 pp. 

Seventh Report to Congress on Operations of UNRRA. 
Message From the President of the United States Trans- 
mitting the Seventh Quarterly Report on the Operations 
of UNRRA and Expenditure of Funds Appropriated by 
the Congress. H. Doc. 670, 79th Cong, iii, 62 pp. 

Departments of State, Justice, Commerce, and the 
Judiciary Aiipropriation Bill, 1947. S. Rept. 1510, 79th 
Cong., to accompany H.R. 6056. 24 pp. [Department of 
State, pp. 1-7.] 

Amending the Philippine Rehabilitation Act of 1946, for 
the Puriwse of Making a Clerical Correction. S. Rept. 
1577, 79th Cong., to accompany S. 2259. 1 p. [Favorable 
report.] 

Providing for the Retention by the United States Gov- 
ernment or Its Agencies or Instrumentalities of Real and 
Personal Property Within the Philippines Now Owned or 
Later Acquired and for the Administration of the Trad- 
ing With the Enemy Act of October 6, 1917, as Amended, 
in the Philippines, Subsequent to Independence. S. Rept. 
157S, 79th Cong., to accompany S. 2345. 4 pp. [Favorable 
report.] 

Authorizing the Continuance of the Acceptance by the 
Treasury of Deposits of Public Moneys from the Philippine 
Islands. S. Rept. 1579, 79th Cong., to accompany S. 2348. 
2 pp. [Favorable report.] 

Making Appropriations for Government Corporations 
and Indeijendent Executive Agencies for the Fiscal Year 
Ending June 30, 1947. S. Rept. 1617, 79th Cong., to 
accompany H.R. 6777. 7 pp. [Department of State, p. 2.] 

Amending the Law Relating to Larceny in Interstate 
or Foreign Commerce. S. Rept. 1632, 79th Cong., to accom- 
pany H.R. 4180. 5 pp. [Favorable report.] 

Administrative Expenses in Government Departments. 
S. Rept. 1636, 79th Cong., to accompany H.R. 6533. 11 pp. 
[Favorable report.] 

Restoration of Certain Currency Destroyed in the Phil- 
ippine Islands. S. Rept. 1646, 79th Cong., to accompany 
11. J. Res. 321. 2 pp. [Favorable report.] 

United States Membership and Participation in the 
United Nations Educational, Scientitie, and Cultural Or- 
ganization. S. Rept. 1649, 79th Cong., to accompany H.J. 
Res. 305. 6 pp. 

Nationality Act of 1940, with Amendments Through 
March 31, 1946. S. Doc. 207, 79tii Cong, iv., 114 pp. 
[Indexed.] 

Supplemental Estimate — Department of State. Com- 
munication from the President of the United States Trans- 
mitting Supplemental Estimate of Appropriation for the 
Department of State, Fiscal Year 1&47, Amounting to 
$339,853.60. S. Doc. 233, 79th Cong. 2 pp. 

An Act Reducing or further reducing certain appro- 
priations and contractual authorizations available for the 
fiscal year 1946, and for other purposes. Approved May 
27,1940. [H.R. 5604.] Public Law 391, 79th Cong. 9 pp. 

Joint Resolution To provide for United States participa- 
tion in the Philippine independence ceremonies on July 4, 
1946. Approved June 15, 1946. [H.J. Res. 360.] Public 
Law 414, 79th Cong. 1 p. 

An Act To provide military assistance to the Republic 
of the riiilippines in establishing and maintaining national 



JULY 28, 1946 



191 



security and to fonu a basis for jiarticipation by tliat 
goverument in such defensive military operations as the 
future may require. Approved June 26, 1946. [H.R. 
6572.] Public Law 434, 79th Cong. 2 pp. 

An Act To facilitate the admission into the United 
States of the alien fiancees or fiances of members of the 
armed forces of the United States. Approved June 29, 
1946. [S. 2122.] Public Law 471, 79th Cong. 2 pp. 

An Act To amend the Second War Powers Act, 1942, as 
amended. Approved June 29, 1946. [H.R. 5716.] Public 
Law 475. 79th Cong. 1 p. 

An Act To authorize the admission into the United 
States of persons of races indigenous to India, and per- 
sons of races indigenous to the Philippine Islands, to make 
them racially eligible for naturalization, and for other 
purpo.ses. Approved July 2, 1946. [H.R. 3517.] Public 
Law 483, 79th Cong. 2 pp- 



.\n Act To provide for the retention liy the United States 
Government or its agencies or instrumentalities of real 
and personal property witliin the Philippines now owned 
or later acquired and for the administration of the Trad- 
ing With the Enemy Act of October 6, 1917, as amended, 
in the Philippines, subsequent to independence. Approved 
July 3, 1946. [S. 2345.] Public Law 48.5, 79th Cong. 
3 pp. 

An Act To authorize the appointment of additional For- 
eign Service officers in the classified grades. Approved 
July 3, 1946. [H.R. 5244.] Public Law 4S8, 79th Cong. 
2 pp. 

An Act Making appropriations for the Departments of 
State, Justice, Commerce, and the Judiciary, for the fiscal 
year ending June 30, 1947, and for other purposes. Ap- 
proved July 5, 1946. [H.R. 6056.] Public Law 490, 79th 
Cong. 39 pp. 



Contents— c^ 



Treaty Information — Continued Paso 
Treaty Obligations and Philippine Independence: Reply 

of Spanish Government to U.S. Note 174 

Agreement on Control Machinery in Austria 175 

Lend-Lease Settlement and Surplus-Property Agreement 

With New Zealand 181 

Surplus-Property Agreement With Brazil 185 

Lend-Lease Agreement With Brazil 187 

International Organizations and Conferences 

Calendar of Meetings 162 

Activities and Developments 162 

Cultural Cooperation 

Visit of Indian Labor Welfare Officer 180 

Visit of Argentine Educator 189 

The Department 

Appointment of Officers 190 

The Foreign Service 

William Walton Butterworth, Jr., Given Rank of Minister . 190 

Appointment of Public-Affairs Officer to Belgrade .... 190 

Consular Offices 190 

The Congress 190 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

mnnD 

VOL. XV. N(l. H7(l AUGUST 4. 1946 



The rari8 Peace Conference 

Statement l)y THE SECRETARY OF STATE l>aue 20v 

Radio Broadcast by SENATORS TOM CONNALLY and 

SCOTT W. LUCAS paiie 2(1.- 



German Documents : Conferences With 

Axis Leaders (1948) paw 197 

Tin in the Transitional Period 

Article bv JOHN VV. BARNET . pa^e 195 



a'' 



For complete contents 
see inside cover 




^A-TES O^ 



u 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

BULLETIN 



Vol. XV • No. 370 • W^fjAJW ' Publication 2578 




August 4, 1946 



For Ba'e by tbe Superintei denl of Uocu 
U. S. Government Printing Office 
Washington 25, D. C. 



52 iseuee, J3.50: single copy. 10 c 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a tteekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Research and 
Publication, Office of Public Affairs, 
provides the public and interested 
agencies of the Government with 
information on developments in the 
field of foreign relations and on the 
work of the Department of State and 
the Foreign Service. The BULLETIN 
includes press releases on foreign 
policy issued by the White House and 
the Department, and statements and 
addresses made by the President and 
by the Secretary of State and other 
officers of the Department, as well as 
special articles on various phases of 
international affairs and thefunctions 
of the Deparlmen t. Information con- 
cerning treaties and international 
agreements to which the United States 
is or may become a party and trea'ics 
of general international interest is 
included. 

Publicnliimsof the Department, cu- 
mulative lists of which are published 
at the end of each quarter, as well as 
legislative material in the field of inter- 
national relations,are listed currently. 



5 V^pt-H^ Ufrt^x-KW4^.L. 

Contents 

The Paris Peace Conference p^,^,^ 

Statement by tlie Secretary of State 202 

Delegation to the Conference 202 

\"iew.'3 on Representation of World War II Veteran.s at 

Peace Conference: Correspondence 203 

The Prcspect for Peace in Europe: A Radio Broadcast . . . 205 
General Policy 

Act of Terrorism in Palestine. Statement by the President . 228 

Yugoslavia Deprives U.S. Citizens of Rights 232 

Letters of Credence: Republic of the Philippines 234 

Standards of Social Policy in Dependent Areas. President's 

Message to Congress 23S 

Control of German and Japanese Diplomatic Property in 

U.S " . . 237 

Occupation Matters 

Substance of Instructions to General McXarney on German 

Economic Unity 227 

U.S. Requests Action To Halt Hungarian Economic Disin- 
tegration 22C 

Survey of Resources in Manchuria and Korea and the 
European Reparation Program. Statement by Edwin 

W. Pauley 233 

The United Nations 

Constitution of the World Health Organization 211 

Postponement of the General Assembly: 

Letter From the Secretary-General of UN to the Four 

Foreign Ministers in Paris 22C 

Text of Telegram to 51 Member Nations 22C 

Announcement of Convocation of General Assembly . . 220 
U.S. Membership in Subcommission on Economic Recon- 
struction of Devastated Areas 221 

Confirmations: U.S. Delegation to the General Assembly . . 221 

Economic Affairs 

Tin in the Transitional Period. Article b.v John W. Bar- 
net 195 

Consideration of Future UNRRA Policy in the Field of 

Supiily Oprnitiens 222 

U.S. DelenaiMi, i,, I ill li Session of the Council of UNRRA . 226 

Substance of In^l ruci ions to General McNarney on German 

Economic Unity 227 

U.S. Requests Action To Halt Hungarian Economic Dis- 
integration 22S 

Deadline Postponed for Converting Italian Stock Securities . 232 

Survey of Resources in Manchuria and Korea and the 
European Reparation Program. Statement by Edwin 
W. Pauley 233 

Strategic and Critical Materials Stockpiling Act. State- 
ment by the President 234 

U.S. Withdraws From Air-Transport Agreement 23(5 

German Documents 

German Documents: Conferences With Axis Leaders 

(1943) 197 

Treaty Information 

Constitution of the World Health Organization 211 

{Continued on page S40) 



Tin in the Transitional Period 



Article by JOHN W. BARNET ' 



Tix IS A VITAL ELEMENT ill the econoiiiy of many 
nations because of its use in babbitt, solder, 
bronze, and other engineering materials as well 
as in the familiar tin can. It was recognized 
even before the war ended that special action 
would be needed to insure adequate tin supplies for 
the expanding requirements of reconversion pro- 
grams in the United States and other countries, 
some of which had suffered serious depletion in 
working stocks during the German occupation. 
The task was greatly complicated by the techno- 
logical, economic, and political problems arising 
as an aftermath of Japanese control over the 
principal tin-mining zone during more than three 
years. 

The Department of State, while having no direct 
procurement or supply function, has taken con- 
siderable interest in the campaign to improve the 
tin situation during the critical post-war period. 
This work has been done, of course, through the 
cooperation of all United States agencies and the 
foreign governments involved as well as various 
industries concerned. Some of the progress 
achieved to date will be outlined below, together 
with a discussion of future problems. 

The Combined Tin Committee 

During the war, tin was allocated internation- 
ally by the Combined Baw Materials Board. 
When it became apparent soon after V-J Day that 
CE.MB would terminate shortly, negotiations were 
begun for the continuance of tin allocations 
through a combined committee mechanism, suit- 
ably modified to include other producing and con- 
suming countries.- As a result, the Combined Tin 
Committee, composed of membei's from the Gov- 
ernments of the United States, United Kingdom, 
France, Belgium, and the Netherlands, was formed 
with headquarters in Washington. This Commit- 
tee's objective is to insure that each of the various 
consuming countries in the woi-ld receives a fair 
share of tin during the emergency period. Tin 
is now the only metal so allocated internationally. 



Although the Committee's official scope is tin in 
/nefal form, due account is taken of the flow of tin 
concentrates. 

Missions to tlie Far East 

Although the United States Government lias 
continued to purcjiasc laifjc tin supplies from 
other areas, it has iccooni/.i.,! (he importance to 
all consumers of reluihilKating the Far Eastern 
mines as quickly as possible. Soon after the war 
ended, arrangements were made through the 
British for the appointment of an American min- 
ing engineer to the special inspection committee 
sponsored by the Malayan Chamber of Mines. In 
addition, official representatives of the United 
States were sent to imestigate the mining, smelt- 
ing, and stock situation in a number of Far East- 
ern territories including Malaya, Siam, the 
Netherlands East Indies, and Japan. These mis- 
sions, in order that assistance migiit be given later 
in making necessary items available, cooperated 
with the government agencies of the tin-produc- 



' Mr. Barnet is Minerals Sperialisl in tljc International 
Resources Division, Office of Iiiii'iiiaiiniiMl Trade Policy, 
Department of State. For anoilicr ailulr liy Mr. Barnet, 
"Tin in the Far East", see Bulletin of Sept. 16, 1945, 
p. 401. 

" In a joint statement on Dec. 10, 1945 (see Bulletin of 
Dec. 16, 1945, p. 975) the President and the Prime Min- 
isters of Great Britain and Canada agreed to terminate 
the Combined Raw Materials Board on Dec. 31, 1945. 
The statement also announced that a few commodities 
remain "which call for continued attention in as much as 
they are in global short supply in relation to tlie needs in 
consuming countries. For cotton lextilps. tin, rubber, and 
hides and leather it is proposed llial llic ((imiiiittees set up 
under the Boards which are concerned with these supplies 
should be continued during such period as the shortage of 
supply in relation to needs renders necessary. It is also 
proposed that in all cases representation on the commit- 
tees should be on the appropriate international basis 
having regard to their independent status following the 
dissolution of the Boards. In most cases committee mem- 
bership already includes countries having a major interest 
in the problems involved." 



195 



196 



DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN 



iiig areas in detenuiiiiiig tlieir requiienieiits for 
mining and transportation equipment. 

The American experts sent to the Far East also 
pirfoiiiiod an impoi-tant function in checking tlie 
(jiiiiiitii irs (if tin stocks available for export. Sev- 
eial tlidusancl tons of tin metal were located in 
each of the tliree largest producing areas, plus a 
somewhat larger aggregate tonnage of tin as con- 
centrates. In addition, 10,000 tons of tin metal 
were discovered in Japan and subsequently 
cleared for shipment by arrangement there with 
the American military authorities. 

Equipment for Tin Mining 

Following the initial surveys of mines and 
stocks, efforts were made to select the particular 
equipment and materials judged essential for re- 
sumption of operations. One of the first neces- 
sities was adequate transportation. The Civilian 
Production Administration accordingly fur- 
nished priority assistance on deliveries of trucks 
requested for Malayan mines. Also, landing craft 
and tractors for the Netherlands East Indies tin 
islands were made available from the Philippines 
through the efforts of tlie Foreign Liquidation 
Commission. 

A program for the construction of dredges to 
be used in Netherlands East Indies tin mines was 
begun before V-J Day in the United States under 
a special Government directive. Assistance has 
been given the Dutch in coordinating this pro- 
gram Mith a complementary one under way in the 
Netherlands. Materials have also been shipped 
from the United States for use in the restoration 
of damaged equipment left by the Japanese. 
American engineers have visited the Netherlands 
East Indies to aid in integrating the over-all plan 
through proper scheduling of components. 

Incentive Goods Program 

The resumption of large-scale tin production 
depends not only on equipment for mining but 
also on adequate supplies of food, clothing, and 
other consumer goods. This need has been recog- 
nized in connection with the program for the 
Netherlands East Indies, where the United States 
has aided in the furnishing of textiles and other 
"inducement" materials. 

In Siam, the United States and United King- 
dom have developed a broad program to acceler- 
ate the movement of rice, a commodity basic to the 
Siamese economy, to deficit areas throughoiit tlie 



Far East. Siam is being furnished trucks from 
American military supplies abroad, in addition 
to tires, locomotives, and cars from U.S. lend-lease 
sources; large quantities of used clothing, barges, 
and pumps have also been made available from 
surplus military supjalies in the United States. To 
aid the Siamese in obtaining foreign exchange for 
the purchase of equipment and consumer goods, the 
American and British Governments have coop- 
erated in the preparation of arrangements to 
expedite the flow of tin from Siam to consuming 
countries, including the United States. 

The Present Supply Situation 

Although tin is still in short supply, the con- 
certed efforts expended by industry and govern- 
ment during the current period have helped make 
possible some initial relaxation of control orders 
in the United States and elsewhere. It is note- 
worthy that about half the tin metal so far allo- 
cated to the United States by the Combined Tin 
Committee will probably come from southeast 
Asia. A substantial portion of this amount is ex- 
pected from the Netherlands East Indies, where 
American procurement authorities have con- 
tracted out of immediate supplies for up to 3,000 
toiLs each of tin metal and concentrates. The 
United States is further designated to receive at 
least 2,000 tons of tin metal from Siam along with 
a prospective share of the tin concentrates now on 
hand there. As might be anticipated, the tin sup- 
plies presently obtainable in southeast Asia con- 
sist very largely of .stocks remaining from the 
period of JapancM' occupation. Resumption of 
new production i> |ii(» ceding at a slow but accel- 
erated pace as adtlitional equipment and other re- 
sources become available. 

Tin in the Future 

It is now believed that tliere will be a gradual 
return to a})proximate pre-war production in the 
Far Eastern tinfields, perhaps as early as 1!)4S. 
A further prospect is that potential outjjut of the 
other tin areas will total somewhat more than be- 
fore the war. Against this restored woi-ld pio- 
ductive capacity must be measured the probable 
future level of tin c(iiisinu|)ti(in. In the case of 
tin plate, which Horiiially ii'iircsents the major 
usage of tin, tiiere has been a trend toward thin- 
ner tin coatings accentuated by the development 
of electro-deijosition methods. However, the 



German Documents: Conferences With Axis Leaders (1943) 

MEMORANDUM OF THE INTERVIEW BETWEEN THE FOHRER AND MINISTER 
PRESIDENT LAVAL, IN THE PRESENCE OF THE REICH FOREIGN MINISTER AND 
THE ITALIAN UNDER SECRETARY OF STATE BASTIANINI, AT THE OBERSALZ- 
BERG APRIL 29. 1943 



Fuhrcrs .Mi-nioraiulum 31/43 — State Secret 

Tlie Fiihrer opened the interview with the 
remark tli.it he had invited Laval to the Obersalz- 
berg because reports had reached him from Ger- 
man sources in France, according to which 
Marshal Petain was planning a new change in 
government. He (the Fiihrer) had considered 
the presence of a representative of the Italian 
Government at this meeting as necessary and ac- 
cordingly he had requested Under Secretary of 
State Bastianini to take part. 

At the outset of the interview he wished to make 
the following remark: Germany, Italy and their 
allies in this war which had been forced on them 
against their will had made enormous sacrifices. 
Tliere Mas no doubt that if the