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VOLUME XVI: Numbers 392-417 

January 5 -June 29, 1947 



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INDEX 
Volume XVI: Numbers 392-417, January 5 - June 29, 1947 



Abraham, Herbert J., articles on General Conference of 

UNESCO, Paris, 374, 645. 
Acheson, Dean : 

Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Aid to Greece and Turkey, 580, 835, 847. 

American traditions in today's foreign policy, 1221. 

Antarctic claims, U.S. position on, 30. 

Displaced persons in U.S. zone in Germany, 766. 

IRO, U.S. membership in, 425. 

ITO, U.S. interest in, 721. 

Japanese vessels, delivery to Four Powers, 717. 

Post-UNRRA relief program, 755. 

Reconstruction, requirements of, 991. 

Senate Atomic Energy Committee, protest of U.S.S.R. 

to Acheson's remarks to, 392. 
War Powers Act, 2d, extension of, 1173. 
Correspondence : 

Congress, transmitting draft of proposed international 

interchange and infoTmation act, 624. 
Director General of FAO (Orr), on FAO constitution, 

925. 
Former Hungarian Prime Minister (Nagy), regarding 

U.S. relations with Hungary, 1217. 
Governors of States, on Presidents' term of oflSce, 

635. 
President Truman, transmitting reports on — 

Operations of State Department under Public Law 

584: 820. 
Protocol (1946), amending previous agreements on 

narcotic drugs, 817. 
Treaty of friendship, commerce, and navigation with 

China, 672. 
Whaling agreements, international, 771, 772, 1005. 
Vandenberg, Arthur H., on U.S. policy in Italy, 1075. 
Resignation as Under Secretary of State, 1046. 
Ackerson, Garret G., Jr., designation in State Department, 

1047. 
Acquisition and Distribution Division, functions (D.R.), 

507. 
Act of Chapultepec, discussed by Secretary Byrnes, 90. 
Addresses, broadcasts, and statements of the week, listed, 

31, 74, 116, 216, 403, 506, 543, 599, 637, 671. 
Administration and Organization (Committee V of 

ECOSOC), 271. 
Administrative and Budgetary Questions, Advisory Com- 
mittee on, establishment of, 116. 
Administrative sciences, 4th international Congress of, 

931, 1067. 
Administrative sciences, 7th international congress of, 

1113, 1200, 1290. 
Afghanistan, teachers from U.S. in, 50.5. 
Africa and Near East, Division of Research for (D.B.), 

558. 
Agriculture: 
Inter-American Affairs, Institute of, programs for, 1106. 
Relation of foot-and-mouth disease in Mexico to, 710. 
Situation in the Philippines, 719, 1278. 
Unperfected draft convention concerning wages and 
hours of work (1938), withdrawal from Senate, 727. 
Agririilture in the Americas, 777. 
Aid, U.S., to foreign countries: 
Article on aid, since mid-1945 : 9.57. 
Foreign relief liill, negotiations planned for implemen- 
tation of, statement by Secretary Marshall, 1124. 
Aid to Greece and Turkey (.sec also Greece; Turkey) : 
Act authorizing, 1070 ; correspondence on. 1073, 1074. 

Index, January to June 1947 



-Continued. 



1^ ^ v? 



Aid to Greece and Turkey 

Addresses and statements by : Acting Secretary Acheson, 
580 ; Mr. Austin, 538 ; President Truman to Con- 
gress, 534 ; Mr. Vandenberg, 1037 ; Mr. Villard, 997. 
Collection of state papers (Bulletin supplement), 827. 
Coordinator of, appointment of Mr. McGhee, 1303. 
Interim Assistance Committee, establishment of, 777. 
Transfer of personnel to American missions for (Ex. 
Or. 9862), 1125. 
Aid to Italy, economic, statement by Secretary Marshall, 

1160. 
Air. See Aviation. 
Air Coordinating Committee: 

First report of, President Truman's letter of transmittal 

to Congress, 452. 
Provisional agenda for 1st meeting of ICAO, 809. 
Albania : 

Aid from U.S., 960. 

Border incidents. Investigation of. See Investigation, 

Commission of. 
Incidents in Corfu Channel, dispute with U.K. regard- 
ing, 196, 386, 527, 657, 799. 
Treatment as Allied state, statement by Secretary 
Marshall, 608. 
Alek.seev, Kirill (Soviet Trade Representative In Mexico), 
Soviet request for extradition liy U.S., denial of, 212. 
Alemfin, Miguel (President of Mexico), visit to U.S., 823, 

936. 
Alexander, Field Marshal (Canadian Governor General), 

visit to U.S., 257. 
Alexandria protocol for establishment of Arab League, 

text, 966. 
Algiers radio relay stations, closing, 623, 1134. 
Ali, Asaf, credentials as Indian Ambassador to U.S., 450. 
Alien Property, OflBce of, deadline for filing claims for 

property in foreign countries, 1003. 
Aliens entering U.S., effect of Presidential proclama- 
tion on, 217. 
Allen, Richard F,, appointment to U.S. foreign-relief 

program, 1250. 
Allied administration of Austria, U.S. in, article by Mrs. 

Cassidy, 407. 
Allied Commission for Italy, abolition of, 287. 
Allied Commission on Reparations, resignation of Mr. 

Pauley, 505. 
Allied Control Authority in Germany : 
Chart of organization, 226. 

Directive from Council of Foreign Ministers, 567. 
Allied Control Commission for Hungary, position of U.S. 

regarding Soviet activities, 495, 583, 1161, 1215. 
Allied (iJontrol Council. See Control Council. 
Allied Council for Japan, remarks by Mr. Atcheson, 596. 
Allied Military Government, proclamation on Venezia 

Giulia, 1265. 
Ailing, Paul H., appointment as U.S. Minister to Syria, 

823. 
Altmeyer, Arthur J., appointments on UN committees, 155, 

428. 
American Association of School Administrators, Atlantic 

City, N. J., address by Mr. Benton, 500. 
American Marketing Association, New York, address by 

Mr. Thorp, 1235. 
American-Philippine Financial Commission Joint, 130, 218. 
American Republic Affairs, OflBce of Assistant Secretary 
for, appointment of Mr. Armour, 1253. 

1327 



American republics ( see also Commissions ; Conferences ; 
Inter-American ; Pan American ; Treaties ; and the 
individual countries) : 
Aid from U.S. See individual countries. 
Caribbean affairs. See Caribbean. 
Central America and Panama Affairs, Division of 

(D.R.), 258. 
Cultural leaders, visit to U.S. from : Argentina, 1003 ; 
Bolivia, 727 ; Ecuador, 1129 ; Guatemala, 627 ; Haiti, 
1006 ; Honduras, 1314 ; Panama, 257 ; Uruguay, 599. 
Cultural leaders from U.S., to: Colombia, 302; Hon- 
duras, 822 ; Various cultural centers, 1128. 
Division of Research for, (D.R.), 557. 
Educational exchange program. See Education. 
Interim program for sale of non-demllitarized combat 

materiel to, 322. 
Libraries in, responsibility of Department of State 

for, 76. 
Pan American day, anniversary of, statements by Mr. 

Braden and Mr. Briggs, 768. 
Protection of Childhood, American International In- 
stitute for, meeting of council, 823, 1157. 
Students in U.S. : 
Aviation training program, 626. 
U.S. Merchant Marine Academy, 938. 
American-Soviet Commission, Joint. See Korea, Joint 

Commission for. 
Amir Saud (Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia), visit to 

U.S., 167. 
Ammunition, arms, and implements of v?ar, enumeration 

of, proclamation, 327. 
Animal diseases, prevention of spread of, unperfected 
convention between U.S. and Argentina (1935), with- 
drawal from Senate, 726. 
Antarctic claims, U.S. position on, statement by Mr. 

Acheson, 30. 
Arab League, development of, and text of protocol, 963. 
Argentina (see also American republics) : 
Aid from U.S., 958. 

Business firms in, decree regarding, 214. 
Cultural leader, visit to U.S., 1003. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Air transport, with U.S. (1946), signature, 938, 1003. 
Mutual assistance, American republics, negotiations, 

1177. 
Unperfected, with U.S., on prevention of spread of 
plant and animal diseases (1935), 726. 
Armaments, Conventional, UN Commission for : 
Establishment of : 

Article by Mr. Ludlow, 731. 
Security Council resolution, 321. 
First session, discussed by Mr. Johnson, 697, 701. 
U.S. representative (Austin), 475. 
Armour, Norman, appointment as Assistant Secretary for 
European affairs and Assistant Secretary for Ameri- 
can republic affairs, 1253. 
Arms and armed forces : 

Control of exportation and importation of arms, ammu- 
nition, etc., draft bill from President Truman to 
Congress, 750. 
Enumeration of arms, ammunition, etc. (Neutrality Act 

of 1939), proclamation, 327. 
Program, joint, with Canada, 361. 
Statement by President Truman, 125. 
4rms and armed forces, regulation of, discussed by UN : 
Commission for Conventional Armaments, 321, 475, 697, 

701, 731. 
General Assembly action : 
Article by Mr. Boggs, 311. 
Resolution, 50. 

U.S. draft resolution on implementation of, 275. 
Inadvisability of drastic reductions, article by Mr. Aus- 
tin, 474, 475. 
Proposals by representatives of U.S. and U.S.S.R., 114 n. 
Regulation of armaments and lasting peace, address by 

Mr. Johnson, 697. 
Security Council resolution, 321. 

1328 



Arms and armed forces, regulation of, discussed by UN — 
Continued. 
Summaries by Secretary-General (Lie) to Security 
Council, 114, 196, 385, 386, 657, 799. 
Armstrong, Elizabeth H., article on trusteeship system of 

the United Nations, 511. 
Armstrong, W. Park, Jr., designation in State Department, 

219. 
Art, return to country of origin of objects imported into 

U.S. by members of armed forces, 358. 
Artistic and Historic Monuments in War Areas, American 

Commission for Protection and Salvage of, 358. 
Asia, appointment of Mr. Davis to Economic Commission 

for, 1198. 
Assets. See Property. 
Assistant Secretaries of State, provision authorizing ofiBce 

of, date of termination, 1253. 
Atcheson, George, Jr., remarks on U.S. attitude on Allied 

occupation of Japan, 598. 
Atomic energy : 
Agreements on, Security Council resolution regarding, 

572. 
International control, discussed by : Mr. Austin, 475 ; 
Mr. Boggs, 311 ; Mr. Johnson, 700 ; President Tru- 
man, 124. 
International Control of Atomic Energy: Orowth of a 

Policy, publication, 216. 
Japanese research and activity. Par Eastern Commis- 
sion policy on, 434. 
Legal problems relating to, functions in Office of Legal 
Adviser (D.R.), 778. 
Atomic Energy Commission : 
Appointments to, 155, 475, 774. 
General Assembly recommendations, discussed by Mr. 

Boggs, 312. 
Relation to Commission for Conventional Armaments, 

discussed by Mr. Ludlow, 731. 
Reiwrt to Security Council (1st) : 
Letters and excerpts, 105. 
Security Council resolutions, 321, 572. 
Summaries by Secretary-General (Lie), 386, 527. 
Responsibility of, discussed by President Truman, 124. 
U.S. representative: 
Appointment of Mr. Austin, 155. 
Resignation of Mr. Baruch, 47. 
U.S. representative, deputy to (Osborn), appointment, 
475. 
Atomic Energy Committee, Senate, protest of U.S.S.R. to 

Under Secretary Acheson's remarks to, 392. 
Attlee, C. R. ( Prime Minister of U.K. ) : 

Message to President Truman, regarding U.S. aid in fuel 

crisis, 340. 
Statement regarding independence of India, 450. 
Austin, Warren R. : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Aid to Greece and Turkey, 538, 834, 857, 861. 
Armaments, regulation and reduction, 275. 
Collective security, 474. 

Japanese mandated islands, submission of U.S. draft 
trusteeship agreement for, 386, 416. 
Appointments : 

Atomic Energy Commission, 155. 
Commission for Conventional Armaments, 475. 
Security Council, 155. 
Special session of General Assembly, 823. 
United Nations, 155. 
IRO constitution, signature, 423, 425, 427. 
Letter on Greco-Turkish aid bill, 1074. 
Australia : 
Aid from U.S., 960. 
Makin, Norman J. O., president of Security Council of 

UN, 105 n. 
Proposal regarding FAO Constitution, 927. 
Austria : 
Aid from U.S., 962. 

Allied administration of, U.S. in, article by Mrs. Cas- 
sidy, 407. 

Department of State Bulletin 



Austria — Continued. 

Carinthia, question of cession to Tugoslavia, discussed 

by Secretary Marshall, 923. 
Cultural relations with U.S. : 

Exchanges of cultural materials, 540. 
Interchange of persons, 666. 
German assets in, problem of, statements by Secretary 

Marshall, 571, 653, 793, 923. 
Government in, chart showing Allied Council organiza- 
tion plan, 410. 
Legal probleins relating to, function of Office of Legal 

Adviser (D.R.), 778. 
Peace treaty, with Allies : 
Article by Mrs. Cassidy, 407. 

Disagreed questions of. See Four Power Commission. 
Preliminary plans for, by Council of Foreign Minis- 
ters, 186. 
Statements by Secretary Marshall, 497, 571, 793, 923. 
Postal convention (1939), adherence, 304. 
Restitution laws (property), 669. 
Aviation (see also ICAO; PICAO ; Treaties) : 
Air CooTdinating Committee, 452, 809. 
Air-transport agreements, reciprocity principle in, state- 
ment by Secretary Marshall, 1220. 
Airfield at Sault Ste. Marie, U.S.-Canadian agreement 

concerning, 775. 
CITE.JA (Comit<5 International Technique d'Exi)erts 
Juridiques A^riens) : 
Discussed by Mr. Norton, 981. 
Pinal session, 1291. 
Civil aviation, U.S.-Canadian, discussed by Mr. Dougall, 

1190. 
Commercial air rights granted to U.S. by Finland, 725. 
Conferences. See Commissions ; Conferences. 
Inter-American aviation training program for foreign 

students, 626. 
Visit of first U.S. airplane to Yemen, discussed, 1136. 
Axis war criminals. See War criminals. 
Axton, Matilda F., article on Supreme Economic Council 
of Allied and Associated Powers, 1919 : 944. 

Bacher, Robert F., appointment to Atomic Energy Com- 
mission, 774. 
Baghdad, Iraq, elevation of U.S. Mission to rank of Em- 
bassy, 1008. 
Baker, George P., appointment to Transport and Com- 
munications Commission of ECOSOC, 1.55. 
Bangkok, Siam, elevation of U.S. Legation to rank of 

Embassy, 599, 1008. 
Bank and Fund. See International Bank; International 

Monetary Fund. 
Bank, inter-American, establishment of, unperfected con- 
vention (1940), withdrawal from Senate, 727. 
Barron, Bryton, designation in State Department, 455. 
Bartelt, Edward F., appointment to Fiscal Commission of 

ECOSOC, 155. 
Baruch, Bernard M., resignation as U.S. representative on 

Atomic Energy Commission, 47. 
Baylor University, Waco, Tex., address by President Tru- 
man, 481. 
Bays, John W., designation in State Department, 1008. 
/ Beauiac, Willard L., appointment as U.S. Ambassador to 
Colombia, 823. 
Beddie, James S., Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations 
k' of the United States, The Paris Peace Conference, 

r 1919, vols. V, VI, VII, VIII, and IX, review of, 33, 178. 

Belgium, aid from U.S., 960. 

Bellquist, Eric C, designation in State Department, 455. 
Benton, William : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 
Algiers relay station, closing of, 1135. 
Freedom of information, role of State Department, 
352. 
m Greek-language broadcasts, inauguration of, 1036. 

K' International news and international libel, U.S. posl- 

m tion on, 591. 

Index, January to June 1947 



Benton, William — Continued. 
Addresses, statements, etc. — Continued. 

International understanding, an undeveloped human 

resource, 500. 
National defense, 202. 
UNESCO, 20, 662. 

"Voice of America," reception in U.S.S.R., 624. 
American information program, letter to Mr. Cooper of 

Associated Press regarding, 1251. 
Appointment as chairman of international high fre- 
quency broadcasting conference, 749. 
Organization of international broadcasting by U.S., re- 
port to Secretary Marshall on, (518. 
Bernstein, Rabbi Philip S., statement on Jewish displaced 

persons, 1308. 
Berreta, Tomfls : 

Inauguration as President of Uruguay, 403. 
Visit to U.S., 303. 
Beverly Hills Forum, Beverly Hills, Calif., address by 

Mr. Hilldring, 130. 
Biehle, Martha H., article on 6th session of Intergovern- 
mental Committee on Refugees, 200. 
Bill of rights, international, U.S. proposals regarding, 277. 
Biographic Information Division (D.R.), 507. 
Bipartisan foreign policy : 
Discussed by — 

President Truman, 481. 
Secretary Byrnes, 88. 
Resolution by House Committee on Foreign Affairs, 
text of, and letter of Secretary Marshall, 283. 
Bizonal Supplies Committee, British-American, establish- 
ment, 29, 131. 
Black, Eugene R., appointment as U.S. Executive Director 

of International Bank, 533. 
Blair, Mallory B., appointment as member of military tri- 
bunal for US. zone in Germany (Ex. Or. 9827), 447. 
Boggs, Marion William, article on regulation and reduc- 
tion of armaments, action of General Assembly, 311. 
Bolivia (see also American republics) : 
Aid from U.S., 958. 
Cultural leader, visit to U.S., 727. 
Grant-in-aid for U.S. professor (Tylman), 215. 
Rubber agreement, with U.S. (1942), expiration, 75. 
Bonnet, Henri (Ambassador from France), statement on 

closing of Algiers relay station, 1135. 
Boundaries, international : 

Commission of Investigation for alleged violations be- 
tween Greece on the one hand, and Albania, Bul- 
garia, and Yugoslavia on the other, 23, 113, 155, 
385, 657, 799. 
European boundaries, statement by Secretary Marshall 

at Moscow conference, 696. 
Polish-German, problem of : 
Establishment of boundary commission, proposed by 

Secretary Marshall, 694. 
Statements by Secretary Marshall, 693, 922. 
Trieste, map showing, 1264. 

U.S.-Canadian, water resources, discussions on, 216. 
Bracken, Thomas E., designation in State Department, 

455. 
Braden, Spruille : 

Pan-American day, statement on anniversary of, 768. 

Resignation as Assistant Secretary of State, 1180. 

Bradshaw, Mary B., article on military control of Zone 

A in Venezia Giulia, 12.57. 
Brand, James Tenney, appointment as member of mili- 
tary tribunal for U.S. zone in Germany (Ex. Or. 9827), 
447. 
Brazil (.see also American republics) : 
Aid from U.S., 95S. 
Exchange professor from U.S., 132. 
Transportation from U.S. of remains of former Ambas- 
sador (Leao Velloso), 214. 
Bretton Woods agreements. See International Bank ; In- 
ternational Monetary Fund. 
Briggs, Ellis O., address on the inter- American system, 
769. 

1329 



BroaacastinK, International, discussed by Government and 

heads of radio industry, 951. 
Broadcasting agreement, U.S. with Cuba (1937), negotia- 
tions, 770. 
Broadcasting conference, international high frequency : 
Appointment of Mr. Benton as chairman, 749. 
Arrangements, 749, 1034. 
Broadcasting Foundation, International, 618, 1040. 
Broadcasts, addresses, and statements of the week, listed, 

31, 74, 116, 216, 403, 506, 543, 599, 637, 671. 
Brunauer, Esther C, article on General Conference of 

UNESCO, Paris, 1019. 
Bucharest, Rumania, appointment of Mr. Dunham as 

U.S. public affairs officer at, 777. 
Buford, A. Sidney, 3d, designation in State Department, 

1047. 
Building, Civil Engineering and Public Works, ILO Com- 
mittee on, meeting at Brussels, article by Mr. Ross, 
615. 
Bulgaria : 

Border incidents, investigation of. See Investigation, 

Commission of. 
Civil liberties in, U.S. concern over violations of Yalta 

agreement In, 1218. 
Peace treaty, with Allies : 

Letter from President Truman to Secretary Marshall, 

urging approval of, 1075. 
Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, statements 

by Secretary Marshall and Mr. Byrnes, 486. 
Signature by U. S., 199. 
Statement by President Truman on unfulfilled Talta 

commitments, 1214. 
Text : Advance copy of, release, 167 ; completion of, 
article summarizing work of Council of Foreign 
Ministers, 183; summary, ]080. 
Transmittal to Senate, 541. 
Bunche, Ralph .1., appointment as director of trusteeship 

division of UN Secretariat, 1250. 
Burma : 

Aid from U.S., 961. 

Arrival of students in U.S., 626. 

Opium policy in, exchange of notes between U.S. and 

U.K., 1283. 
Rehabilitation efforts in, message from Secretary Mar- 
shall regarding, 1314. 
Self-government in, U.S. attitude toward U.K. settle- 
ment, 258. 
Butler, Hugh, exchange of letters with Under Secretary 

Clayton, regarding Trade Agreements Act, 161. 
Byrnes, James F. : 

Letter to Mr. Baruch, regarding resignation from 

Atomic Energy Commission, 50. 
Peace treaties with Italy, Bulgaria, Kumamia, and 
Hungary : 
Address on U.S. policy, 87. 

Statement before Senate Committee on Foreign Re- 
lations, 486. 
Report to Congress on the Canol-1 project disposition, 

256. 
Reports to President Truman : 

Coffee agreement, inter-American (1940), protocol 

extending, 213. 
Double-taxation convention with France (1946), 174. 
Resignation as Secretary of State, 86. 

Cairo conference of the Interparliamentary Union, article 

by Mr. Dunham, 1115. 
Cale, Edward G., article on international wheat con- 
ference, 1053. 
Calendars. See each issue. 
Canada: 

Aid from U.S., 960. 

Defense, U.S.-Canadian Permanent Joint Board on: 
Continuation of, 361. 
Remarks by President Truman, 1211. 
Economic cooperation between U.S. and, 1941-1947, 
article by Mr. Dougall, 1185. 

1330 



Canada — Continued. 

Field Mar-shal Alexander (Governor General), visit 

to U.S., 257. 
Relations with U.S., common objectives and ideals, ad- 
dress by President Truman, 1210. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Air transport, with U.S. (1945), amendment: 
Discussions, 256. 
Exchange of notes, 775. 
Canol-1 project disposition, with U.S., report to Con- 
gress by Secretary Byrnes, 256. 
Fox-fur quota, supplementary, with U.S. (1940), 

termination, 678. 
Great Lakes fisheries convention, with U.S., signature 

(1946), ratification proposed, 644. 
Hyde Park agreement, with U.S. (1941), discussed by 

Mr. Dougall, 1185. 
Trade, with U.S. (1938), withdrawal of concession on 

linen fire ho.se, 137 ; text of proclamation, 453. 
Unperfected treaties, with U.S., on — 
Great Liikes-St. Lawrence deep waterway (1932), 

726. 
Preservation and improvement of Niagara Falls 
(1929), 726. 
Visit of President Truman, 1166. 

Water resources at U.S.-Canadian boundary, discus- 
sions on, 216. 
Canadian Parliament, Ottawa, address by President Tru- 
man, 1210. 
Canal, interoceanic, construction of, unperfected treaty 
between U.S. and Costa Rica (1923), withdrawal from 
Senate, 726. 
Canal Zone, regulation of radio communications in, 
unperfected convention between U.S. and Panama 
(1930), withdrawal from Senate, 726. 
Canary Islands, U.S. Consulate at Las Palmas de Gran 

Canaria, closing, 1008. 
Canberra conference for establishment of a regional ad- 
visory commission for non-self-governing territories 
in the south and southwest Pacific, 51. 
Cannon, Cavendish W., appointment as U.S. Ambassador 

to Yugoslavia, 823. 
Canol-1 project, disposition of, agreement with Canada, 

report to Congress by Secretary Byrnes, 256. 
Capetown, South Africa, moving of U.S. Legation to Pre- 
toria, 1181. 
Cargo, William I., article on inauguration of trusteeship 

system of the UN, 511. 
Caribbean Affairs, Division of (D.R.), 258. 
Caribbean Commission : 

Appointment of Mr. Hastie as U.S. Commissioner, 1250. 
Functions and organization (D.R. ), 2.59. 
Third meeting (Curagao), agenda, 158. 
Carinthia, question of cession to Yugoslavia, U.S. policy 

discussed by Secretary Marshall, 923. 
Carter, Margaret R. T., designation in State Department, 

1181. 
Caserta, Italy, moving of Office of U.S. Political Adviser 

from, to Leghorn, 1181. 
Cassidy, Velma Hastings, articles: 

Self-government in U.S. zone in Germany, 223. 
U.S. in Allied administration of Austria, 407. 
Central America. See American republics, and the iu~<r 

vidua! countries. 
Central America and Panama Affairs, Division of (D.R.), 

258. 
Central Rhine Commission, 801, 931. 

Cessation of hostilities. World War II, text of proclama- 
tion and statement by President Truman, 77. 
Ceylon, Fifth Freedom air rights agreement, interim, 
granted to U.S. by British Ministry of Civil Aviation, 
449. 
Changchun, China, opening of U.S. Consulate General, 

1181. 
Chapin, Selden, appointment as U.S. Minister to Hungary, 



823. 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



Chapultepec, Act of, discussed by Secretary Byrnes, 90. 
Charnow, John J., article on International Children's 

Emergency Fund, 466. 
Charts. See Maps. 

Children's Emergency Fund, International: 
Article by Mr. Charnow, 466. 
Establishment of, bv General Assembly, 116, 466. 
Relation to ECOSOC, 468, 470, 656. 
Childs, J. Rives, appointment as U.S. Minister to Xemen, 

219. 
Chile («ee also American republics) : 
Aid from U.S., 958. 

Air-transport agreement with U.S., signature, 1044. 
Ambassador to U.S. (Nieto del Rio), credentials, 258. 
Exchange professor from U.S., 627. 
China (see also Far East) : 
Aid from U.S., 962. 
Assistance to, through private contribution, telegram 

from Secretary Marshall, 1313. 
Committee of Three: 
Composition of, 258 n. 
U.S. withdrawal from, 258. 
Evacuees from Communist military area, discussed, 

1178. 
Political situation in, statement by General Marshall, 83. 
Transfer of vessels, material, etc., authorization to 

Secretary of U.S. Navy (Ex. Or. 9843), 821. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Air transport, international (1944), withdrawal. 506. 
Air transport, with U.S., signature, 30. 
Friendship, commerce, and navigation, with U.S., with 

protocol (1946), transmittal to Congress, 672. 
Friendship and alliance, with U.S.S.K., (1945), U.S. 
note, attitude on implementation of provisions 
regarding Dairen, 127. 
Lend-lease settlement, with U.S., negotiations, 948. 
U.S. assistant military attach^ in, returned by Com- 
munist captors, 822. 
U.S. Consulate General at Changchun, opening, 1181. 
U.S. public-affairs officer at Chungking (Hopkins), 777. 
Chistiakov, Guard Colonel General (Commander of 
Soviet Forces in North Korea), exchange of letters 
with General Hodge, on proposals for reopening 
Joint Commission for Korea, 168. 
Christianson, William C, appointment as member of 

militai-y tribunals in Germany, 1133. 
Chungking, China, appointment of Mr. Hopkins as U.S. 

public-affairs oflScer at, 777. 
CITEJA (Comit(5 International Technique d'Experts 
Juridiques A^riens) : 
Discussed by Mr. Norton, 981. 
Final session, 1291. 
Civil aviation. See Aviation. 

Civil Aviation Organization, International. See ICAO. 
Civil liberties in Bulgaria, U.S. concern over violations 

of Yalta agreement, 1218. 
Claims : 

Antarctic, U.S. position on, statement by Mr. Ache- 
son, 30. 
Functions in Office of Legal Adviser relating to legal 

services for (D.R.), 778. 
Instructions for filing claims with Office of Alien Prop- 
erty, 1003. 
U.S.-Italian talks on settlement of, arising out of war, 

1130, 1161. 
U.S. nationals in other countries. See Protection of 
U.S. nationals. 
Olattenburg, Albert E., Jr., article on committee meet- 
ing of International Red Cross, 1205. 
Clay, Lt. Gen. Lucius D. (U.S. Deputy Military Governor 
In Germany) : 
Sponsorship of democratic government in American 

zone, discussed by Mrs. Cassidy, 224. 
Statement by Acting Secretary Acheson regarding Gen- 
eral Clay's announcement on displaced persons, 
766. 



Clayton, William L. : 

Addresses, statements, etc.: 

Aid to Greece and Turkey, 838, 852. 

Economic Commission for Europe, 977. 

Lend-lease arrangements with U.K. and U.S.S.R., 

347. 
Post-UNRRA relief, purpose and method, 440. 
Shipping facilities, extension of Government opera- 
tion of, 1226. 
Trade-agreements act. Congressional hearings on, 627. 
Trade-agreements program, 438. 

Trade Organization, International, draft charter for, 
587. 
Correspondence : 

Representative Cooley, on wool import duties pro- 
posed by Congress, 1084. 
Senate Committee on Appropriations, on defense of 
"pipeline" contracts for sale of lend-lease sup- 
plies, 343. 
Senator Butler, on trade-agreements negotiations, 
161. 
U.S. representative to — 

Economic Commission for Europe, 939. 
Trade and employment conference at Geneva, 528, 
721. 
Cleveland, H. van B., article on economic collaboration 

in Europe, 3. 
Cleveland Council on World Affairs, 21st annual insti- 
tute, address by Secretary Byrnes, 87. 
Coal: 
Europe : 

Sliortage in, comments by Secretary Marshall, 650. 
Transportation in, ECITO resolution on, 60. 
Germany : 

Importance of production in, statements by Secre- 
tary Marshall, 741, 919. 
Western zones of, control of exports in, 822. 
Purchase by Portugal from Poland, U.S. request re- 
garding gold payment, 1002. 
United Kingdom : 

Aid from U.S. in fuel emergency, 340. 
Round-trip fueling for British ships in U.S. ports, 
397. 
U.S. shipments to Italy, 165. 
Coal Mining, ILO Industrial Committee on, 2d meeting, 

806. 
Coal Organization, European (ECO) : 
Functions, article by Mr. Cleveland, 4. 
Reallocation of coal to U.K., discussed by President 

Truman, 340. 
Transfer of functions to Economic Commission for 
Europe, 977, 1031. 
Codification of international law. See International law. 
Coffee agreement, inter-American (1940), protocol ex- 
tending : 
Article by Mr. Havemeyer, 378. 
Proclamation, 727. 

Transmittal to Senate, with report, 213. 
Cohen, Benjamin V., address on the people's stake in 

maintaining peace, 1230. 
Cohen, Wilbur J., article on meeting of Medical and 
Statistical Commissions of Inter-American Commit- 
tee on Social Security, 337. 
Colbert, Rear Adm. Leo O., article on 5th international 

hydrographic conference, 1203. 
Collins, Capt. John W., returned by Communist captors 

in China, 822. 
Colombia (see also American republics) : 
Aid from U.S., 958. 
Ambassador to U.S. (Restrepo-Jaramillo), credentials, 

452. 
International Bank for Reconstruction and Develop- 
ment, articles of agreement, signature, 24, 198. 
U.S. Ambassador (Beaulac), appointment, 823. 
Visiting professor from U.S., 302. 
Colorado Mining Association, Denver, Colo., address by 
Mr. Nitze, 300. 



Index, January to June 1947 



1331 



Combat materiel, non-demilitarized, sales and transfer of : 
Letter of transmittal to Congress and report by Sec- 
retary Marshall, 322. 
Tables showing, 1140. 
Oomit^ International Technique d'Experts Juridiques 

A^riens. See CITBJA. 
Commerce. See Trade. 
Commercial Activities in the Foreign Service, Advisory 

Committee on, 439. 
Commercial agreements, U.S. and : 
India, question of, 208. 
Italy, proposed, 165. 
Commercial policy committee, general (Committee II of 

ECOSOC), 100, 191 n, 234. 
Commercial-policy provisions in peace treaties with Italy, 
Bulgaria, Rumania, Hungary, and Finland, action of 
Foreign Ministers on, 185. 
Commission for Korea, Joint. See Korea. 
Commissions, committees, etc., international (.5ee aUo 
name of commission; United Nations) : 
Allied Commission for Italy, 287. 
Allied Control Authority in Germany, 226, 567. 
Allied Control Commission for Hungary, 495, 583, 1161. 

1215. 
Allied Control Council for Germany, 523, 568, 569. 
Allied Council for Japan, 596. 
American-Philippine Financial Commission, Joint, 130. 

218. 
Bizonal Supplies, British-American, 29, 131. 
Caribbean Commission, 158, 259, 1250. 
Coal Organization, European (ECO), 4, 340, 977, 1031. 
Committee of Three, 258. 

Conciliation, International Commission of, 254. 
Econometric Society, 034. 
Emergency Economic Committee for Europe, 4, 974, 977, 

1031. 
Emergency Pood Council, 46, 263, 334, 585, 943. 
European Central Inland Transport Organization, 4, 60, 

977, 1031. 
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization), 46, 247, 
263, 334, 471, 585, 661, 925, 943, 973, 976, 1090, 
1317. 
Far Eastern Commission, 433, 434, 574, 611, 612, 674, 

708, 986. 

Foreign Ministers, Council of, 694, 985, 1083, 1129. 

Meetings in New Yorli, 167, 183, 186, 486. 

Moscow conference, 186, 199, 286, 350, 407, 432, 497, 
522, 526, 563, 564, 571, 607, 649, 652, 693, 741, 793, 
919. 
Four Power Commission, 985, 1083. 
Four Power Naval Commission, 815. 
German National Council, proposed, 570. 
Health, Public, International Office of, 332, 381. 
H.ydrographic Bureau, International, 1204. 
ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organization), 530, 

709, 808, 979, 1025. 1110, 1113, 1120, 1145, 1293. 
ILO (International Labor Organization), 24, 27, 120, 282, 

387, 576, 613, 615, 726, 727, 806, 982, 1110, 1111. 

Inter-Allied Reparation Agency, 609. 

Inter-American Commission of Women, 5th assembly, 
59. 

Inter-American Committee on Social Security, 337. 

Inter-American Statistical Institute, 933. 

Intergovernmental Committee on Refugees, 200. 

International Bank for Reconstruction and Develop- 
ment, 24, 152, 198, 217, 248, 450, 533, 749, 1042, 
1236. 

International Broadcasting Foundation, 618, 1040. 

International Monetary Fund, 24, 152, 217, 429, 533, 749, 
1236, 1250. 

International Statistical Institute, 933. 

Interparliamentary Council, 1119. 

Interparliamentary Union, 1115. 

IRO (International Refugee Organization), 423, 424, 
425, 428, 526, 748, 1165. 

1332 



Commissions, committees, etc., international — Continued. 

ITO (International Trade Organization), 68, 104, 163, 
187, 190, 234, 239, 257, 266, 271, 280, 288, 372, 389, 
471, 483, 528, 586, 587, 631, 660, 721, 722, 763, 932. 
989, 1041, 1195, 1208, 1236. 

Journ6es M^dicales, 1292. 

Korea, Joint Commission for, 168, 173, 210, 716, 812, 947, 
995, 1043, 1240, 1247. 

Maritime Consultative Council, Provisional, 1035. 

Meteorological Organization, International, 479. 

Petroleum Commission, International, 1168, 1172. 

PICAO. See PICAO. 

Postal Union, Universal, 934. 

Protection of Childhood, American International Insti- 
tute for, council of, 11-57. 

Protection of Industrial Property, International Union 
for, 250. 

Red Cross, International, 1205. 

Relief Needs, Special Technical Committee on, 23. 

Rubber Study Group, 1292. 

South Pacific Commission, 51, 459. 

Tin Study Group, 748. 

Trieste Commission, 609. 

Tripartite Commission for Restitution of Monetary Gold, 
668. 

UNESCO, 20, 53, 155, 206, 250, 353, 374, 429, 502, 645, 
062, 749, 973, 978, 1019, 1022, 1090, 1120, 1317. 

UNRRA, 4, 159, 177, 215, 440, 755, 957, 1045, 1236. 

U.S.-Canadian Permanent Joint Board on Defense, 361, 
1211. 

Wheat Council, International, 61, 250, 471, 532, 639, 1053, 
1057. 

WHO (World Health Organization), 27, 53, 333, 384, 
702, 809, 971, 1022. 

Wool Study Group, International, 612, 659, 987. 

World Food Council, proposed, 249, 928. 
Commissions, committees, etc., national : 

Air Coordinating Committee, 4.52, 809. 

Artistic and Historic Monuments in War Areas, Ameri- 
can Commission for Protection and Salvage of, 358. 

Board of Foreign Service, 439. 

Commercial Activities in the Foreign Service, Advisory 
Committee on, 439. 

Committee for Reciprocity Information, 399. 

Copyriglit, International, Policy Committee on, 1316. 

Economic Advisers, Council of, 1297. 

Educational Reconstruction, International, Commission 
for, 654. 

Federal Communications Commission, 448. 

Greece-Turkey Assistance Committee, Interim, 777. 

Immigration and Naturalization, Policy Committee on, 
1316. 

Maritime Commission, 340, 1007, 1225, 1227. 

Monetary and Financial Problems, National Advisory 
Council on, 152. 

Munitions Control Board, National, 327, 752. 

Prisoners of War Committee, Interdepartmental, 1205. 

Protection of Childliood, Executive Council of American 
International Institute for, 823, 1157. 

Radio Advisory Committee, 1038, 1039. 

Radio Technical Commission for Marine Services, pro- 
posed, 935. 

Tariff Commission, 436. 

Telecommunications Coordinating Committee, 550, 677. 

Trade Agreements, Interdepartmental Committee on, 
437. 

UNESCO, National Commission for, 647, 662, 978. 

Universal Training, Advisory Commission on, 125, 1181. 

War Communications, Board of, 448. 
Committee of Experts. See Four Power Commission. 
Committee of Three: 

Composition of, 258 n. 

U.S. withdrawal from, 258. 
Commodities, list of, for tariff concessions in U.S. trade- 
agreement negotiations with other countries. 399. 
Commodity Arrangements, Intergovernmental (Commit- 
tee IV of ECOSOC), 266. 

Deparfment of State Bulletin 



Commiinicatious Commission, Federal, transfer of prop- 
erty and records of Board of War Communications 
to (Ex. Or. 9831), 448. 
Conciliation, International Commission of_, establishment, 

254. 
Conciliation treaty, U.S. and Philippines (1946), trans- 
mittal to Senate, with report, 254. 
Conferences, congresses, etc. (See also name of confer- 
ence; United Nations) : 
Broadcasting, international high frequency, 749, 1034. 
Canberra, 51. 

European-Mediterranean region, air-traflBc control meet- 
ing for, 709. 
Health Congress of Royal Sanitary Institute, 1069. 
Health education, 2d Pan American conference on, 

26. 
Hydrographic conference, international (5th), 575, 1203. 
International conference of American states, 0th, pro- 
posed, 768, 769, 1157. 
Leprosy, 2d Pan American conference on, 331. 
Marine radio aids to navigation, international meeting 

on, 330, 807. 
Military medicine and pharmacy, 11th international 

congress on, 1114. 
Moscow conference of Council of Foreign Ministers. 

See Foreign Ministers under Commissions. 
Pan American Child Congress (9th), 1157. 
Pan American consultation on cartography (3d), 62. 
Pan American Institute of Geograpliy and History, 

4tli General Assembly, 62. 
Pan American sanitary conference (12th), 26, 119, 

809. 
Pan American sanitary education conference (2d), 119. 
Paris Peace Conference (1919), 33, 178, 944. 
Participation of the United States Oovernment in In- 
ternational Conferences, 307. 
Passport and frontier formalities, world conference on, 

preparatory meeting for, 748, 1201. 
Peace conference for drawing up German treaty, pro- 
posed, 607, 742. 
Pediatrics, 1st Pan American congress of, 1114. 
Pediatrics, 5th international congress of, 1114. 
PICAO conferences, listed. See PICAO. 
Radio conference, international, 749, 1034. 
Radiology, inter-American congress (2d) 199. 
South American regional air-navigation meeting, 1293. 
South Atlantic regional air-navigation meeting, 1293. 
South Pacific regional air-navigation meeting (see also 

PICAO), 157, 713. 
South Seas conference, 459. 
Telecommunications, international plenirwtentiarv, 282, 

749, 1034. 
Timber conference, international, 661, 976. 
Trade and employment. Preparatory Committee of, 
meeting at Geneva, 288, 471, 528, 660, 7G3, 932, 989, 
1208. 
Tuberculosis, 7th Pan American congress on, 575. 
Wheat conference, international, 61, 2.50, 471, 532, 639, 
1053, 1057. 
Congress, U.S. : 

Aid to Greece and Turkey : 
Act providing for, text, 1071. 
Comments released by the Senate Foreign Relations 

Committee, 866. 
Letter from Secretary Marshall to Senator Vanden- 

berg, 897. 
Senate and House committee hearings on, 580, 835. 
838, 842, 847, 852, 896. 
Aid to Mexico against foot-and-mouth disease, legisla- 
tion, 454. 
Canol-1 project disposition, report by Secretary 

Byrnes, 256. 
Congressional Standing Committee of Correspondents, 
meeting with State Department representatives, 
on representation at Moscow conference, 286 n. 
Constitution, proposed amendment on President's term 
of office, 636. 

Index, January to June 1947 

757696 — 47 2 



Congress, U.S. — Continued. 

Department of Peace, Senator Wiley's bill for, discussed 

by Mr. Benton, 203. 
House Foreign Affairs Committee: 

Aid to Greece and Turkey, statement by Acting Sec- 
retary Acheson, 580. 
Cooperation with State Department on bipartisan for- 
eign policy, and resolution, 283. 
Post-UNRRA relief, statement by Under Secretary 
Clayton, 440. 
House Subcommittee on Immigration and Naturaliza- 
tion, statement by Rabbi Bernstein on Jewish dis- 
placed persons, 1308. 
Inter-American Affairs, Institute of, draft of bill to 
extend, and letter from Secretary Marshall, 1099. 
Inter-American military cooperation, draft of bill, and 

letter from President Truman, 1121. 
International interchange and information act, draft, 

letter from Acting Secretary Acheson, 624. 
Legislation, listed, 139, 219, 366, 455, 506, 600, 776, 816, 

1008, 1047, 1181, 1224, 1317. 
Liaison between State Department and Congress (D.R.), 

398. 
Messages from President Truman : 
Aid to Greece and Turkey, 534, 829. 
Air Coordinating Committee, 1st report, 452. 
Annual message, 123. 
Coffee agreement, inter-American (1940), protocol 

extending, 213. 
Conciliation treaty, with Philippines (1946), 254. 
Consular convention, with Philippines, 1179. 
Control of export and import of arms, ammunition, 

etc., draft of bill, 750. 
Double-taxation convention, with France (1946), 

174. 
Economic report, letter of transmittal and excerpts, 

125. 
Export Control Act, 676. 
Friendship, commerce, and navigation, treaty with 

China, and protocol (1946), 672. 
Guam, Samoa, and Pacific islands, administration of, 

with report, 1312. 
IRQ, U.S. participation in, 423. 
Lend-lease report (23d), 32. 

Narcotic drugs, previous agreements, protocol amend- 
ing (1946), 817. 
Relief appropriation for people of liberated countries, 

395. 
Sugar agreement, protocol prolonging, 552. 
Surplus property, report, 820. 
UNRRA, 9th and 10th quarterly reports, 215, 1045. 
War Powers Act, 2d, extension of, 362. 
Whaling, international agreement (1937), protocols 

amending (19i6 and 1947), 771, 772, 1005. 
WHO, participation of U.S. in, 702. 
Non-demilitarized combat materiel, sale and transfer of, 

report by Secretaiy Marshall, 322. 
Peace Division in State Department, Congressman Dirk- 
sen's bill for, discussed by Mr. Benton, 203. 
Publications. See Legislation snpra. 
Senate Appropriations Committee, letter from Under 
Secretary Clayton, on sale of lend-lease supplies, 
343. 
Senate Atomic Energy Committee, prote.st to U.S.S.R. to 

Under Secretary Acheson's remarks, 392. 
Senate Committee on Appropriations, letter from Mr. 
Lane, regarding contracts for lend-lease supplies, 
344. 
Senate Committees on Appropriations, Banking and Cur- 
rency, and Armed Services, statement by Mr. Hill- 
dring on use of occupation currency, 1304. 
Senate Finance Counnittee, statement by Under Secre- 
tary Clayton to, regarding ITO draft cliarter, 587. 
Senate Foreign Relations Committee: 
IRO, U.S. participation : 
Letter from Secretary Marshall, 424. 

1333 



Congress, U.S. — Continued. 

- Senate Foreign Relations Committee — Continued. 
IRO, U.S. participation — Continued. 

Statement by Under Secretary Aclieson, 425. 
Items suljmitted for consideration, from State Depart- 
ment, 284. 
Oil agreement, Anglo-American (1944), support urged, 
1167, 1169. 
Senate confirmation of Gen. George C. Marshall as Sec- 
retary of State, 83. 
Surplus-proiierty disposal, 4tli and 5th reports on, trans- 
mittal by Secretary Marshall, 255, 952. 
Trade Agreements Act, statement by Under Secretary 
Clayton before House Committee on Ways and 
Means, 627. 
United Nations activities and U.S. participation in, an- 
nual report (1st), letter of President Truman trans- 
mitting, 193. 
Wool bill, letters from Secretary Marshall and others, 
1228. 
Constitution of U.S. : 
Letter of Acting Secretary Acheson to Governors of 

States, 635. 
Text of joint resolution proposing amendment to, re- 
garding term of office of the President, 636. 
Consular convention, U.S. and Philippines, transmittal to 

Senate, with report, 1179. 
Contributions, Committee on, establishment of, by Gen- 
eral Assembly, 116. 
Control Council for Germany, Allied : 
Appointment of members to Military Tribunal pursuant 
to quadripartite agreement between U.S., U.K., 
France, and U.S.S.R. (1945), 133. 
Report of, statements by Secretary Marshall, 523. 
U.S. proposal for provisional government for Germany, 
569. 
Conventions. See Conferences ; Treaties. 
Copenliagen, Denmark : 
Appointment of Mr. Edman as U.S. public affairs officer 

at, 777. 
Elevation of U.S. Legation to Embassy, 1008. 
Copyright : 
Extension agreements, U.S. and — 
France, exchange of notes, 632. 
New Zealand, exchange of notes, 948. 
Inter-American copyright convention, ratification by 

Dominican Republic, and entry into force, 953. 
Unperfected convention regarding revising the conven- 
tion of Berne (1928), withdrawal from Senate, 726. 
Copyright, International, Policy Committee on, functions, 

1316. 
Corfu Channel, dispute between U.K. and Albania regard- 
ing incidents in, 196, 386, 527, 657, 799. 
Costa Rica : 
Aid from U.S., 958. 

Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences, ex- 
change-student fellowships, 1.314. 
Unperfected agreement with U.S., on interoceanic canal 

(1923), 726. 
U.S. Ambassador (Donnelly), appointment, 823. 
Cotton Advisory Committee, International, 6th meeting, 

708, 985, 1067, 1155. 
Council of Foreign Ministers. See Foreign Ministers. 
Credentials. See Diplomatic representatives in U.S. 
Grossman, Edgar G., appointment as co-chairman of Joint 
American-Philippine Financial Commission, with rank 
of Minister, 130. 
Cuba (sec also American republics) : 
Aid from U.S., 958. 
Appointment of Mr. Stewart as U.S. public affairs officer, 

579. 
Broadcasting agreement, with U.S. (1937), negotiations, 

770. 
Exchange professor, visit to U.S., 770. 
Cultural, Educational, and Scientific Cooperation, U.S. 
National Commission. See ECOSOC. 



Cultural cooperation (see also Education; Radio) : 

Cultural exchanges, U.S. and : Austria, 540, 666 ; Bolivia, 
727 ; Germany, 666 ; Honduras, 1314 ; Mexico, 1004 ; 
other foreign countries, 626; U.S.S.R. 252, 393, 395. 

Inter- American Affairs, Institute of (IIAA) accomplish- 
ments and plans, 634, 1099. 

Inter-American prograiu, map of location of activities, 
1105. 

International interchange and information act, pro- 
posed, 624. 

Libraries in Mexico, Nicaragua, and Uruguay, respon- 
sibility of Department of State, 76. 

Program with Haiti, continuation, 634. 

Russian-language broadcasts, 252, 395. 

Visitors from U.S. to: Colombia, 302; Honduras, 822; 
other American republics, 1128. 

Visitors to U.S. from: Argentina, 1003: Ecuador, 1129; 
Guatemala, 627; Haiti, 1006: Honduras, 1314; 
Panama, 257 ; New Zealand, 217 ; Uruguay, 599. 
Cultural objects imported by members of U.S. armed 

forces, return to country of origin, 358. 
Currency («ee also Finance) : 

Occupied areas, Allied military currency in, statement 
by Mr. Hilldring, 1305. 

Removal of controls on importation of, 671. 
Customs. See Tariff. 
Czechoslovakia (see also Europe) : 

Aid from U.S., 960. 

Enterprises nationalized in, compensation to U.S. 
claimants for, 397, 1133. 

Dairen, China, Sino-Soviet agreement (1945), implemen- 
tation of provisions regarding U.S. attitude, 127. 

Damages. See Claims ; Reparation. 

Daniels, Paul C, appointment as U.S. Ambassador to 
Honduras, 823. 

Danube, free navigation on, question of : 
Action of Foreign Ministers regarding, 185. 
Statements yby — 
Mr. Byrnes, 491. 
Secretary Marshall, 543. 

Daspit, Alexander B., appointment as deputy U.S. mem- 
ber of Tripartite Commission for Restitution of 
Monetary Gold, 668. 

Davis, Monnett B., appointment as U.S. representative 
on Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East, 
1198. 

Dawson, Allan, designation in State Department, 367. 

Decartelization law for U.S. zone in Germany, text, 443. 

Defense, U.S. -Canadian Permanent Joint Board on, con- 
tinuation of, 361, 1211. 

Defense sites in Panama, use of, new agreement between 
U.S. and Panama (1942), proposed, 1003. 

Deficiency Appropriation Act, 3d, difficulties regarding 
"pipe-line" contracts for sale of lend-lease supplies, 
343. 

de Gasperi. Alcide (Prime Minister of Italy) : 

Italy, postwar needs in relation to U.S., discussed, 165. 
Visit to U.S., 76, 165. 

Deimel, Henry L., Jr., designation in State Department, 
1008. 

de La Rue, Sidney, address on U.S. relations with Liberia, 
548. 

Delta Council, Cleveland, Miss., address by Under Secre- 
tary Acheson, 991. 

Demilitarization. See Germany; Japan. 

Deming, Olcott H., designation in State Department, 455. 

Denazification in U.S. zone in Germany, statement by 
Secretary Marshall, 522. 

Dendramis, Vassili, credentials as Greek Ambassador to 
U.S., text, 1302. 

Denmark : 

Aid from U.S., 960. 

Ambassador to U.S. (Kauffmann), credentials. 499. 
Appointment of Mr. Edman as U.S. public affairs offi- 
cer at Copenhagen, 777. 



1334 



Department of State Bulletin 



Denmark — Continued. 
Double taxation, agreement with U.S., negotiations, 138, 

360. 
Elevation of U.S. Legation at Copenhagen to Embassy, 

299, lOOS. 
Greenland, defense of, agreement with U.S. (1941), 
revision proposed, statement by Secretary Mar- 
shall, 1130. 
U.S. Ambassador (Marvel), appointment, 45.5. 
Denny, Charles R., Jr., appointment as chairman of in- 
ternational radio conference, 749. 
Department of Justice, contacts with Department of State 
regarding immigration and visa matters (D.R.), 78. 
Department of National Defense, question of establish- 
ment, 125. 
Departmental regulations (D.R.) : 

Acquisition and Distribution Division (13331), 507. 
Africa and Near East, Division of Research for 

(133.24), 558. 
American Republics, Division of Research for (133.21), 

557. 
Biographic Information Division (133.33), 507. 
Caribbean Affairs, Division of (142.12), 258. 
Caribbean Commission (181.1), 259. 
Central America and Panama Affairs, Division of 

(142.11), 258. 
Contacts with Department of Justice regarding immi- 
gration and visa matters (232.2), 78. 
Europe, Division of Research for (133.22), 558. 
Far East, Division of Research for (133.23), 558. 
Foreign Activity Correlation, Division of (123.5), 639. 
Intelligence, Advisory Committee on (183.5), 600. 
Intelligence Activities, Interdepartmental, Department 

of State participation in (182.4), 600. 
Intelligence and Research, Special Assistant to Secre- 
tary for (133.1), 556. 
Intelligence Collection and Dissemination, Office of 

(133.30), 507. 
Intelligence Research, Office of (183.20), 5.57. 
Legal Adviser, Office of (116.1), 398, 778. 
Liaison with National Archives (232.1), 78. 
Map Intelligence Division (133.34), 556. 
Near East and Africa, Division of Research for (133.24) , 

558. 
Northeast Asian Affairs, Division of (141.22), 600. 
Original records of the Department of State, use of 

(420.1), 638, 1047. 
Panama and Central America Affairs, Division of 

(142.11), 2.58. 
Reference Division (133.32), 507. 

Research and Intelligence, Special Assistant to Secre- 
tary for (133.1), 556. 
Devastated areas : 

Economic reconstruction of, temporary subcommission 

on, discussed in article by Mr. Cleveland, 5. 
Transfer of Japanese industrial facilities to, state- 
ment by General McCoy, 674. 
Diplomatic mission to Nepal, 598. 
Diplomatic representatives in U.S., credentials, 258, 298, 

450, 452, 499, 719, 767, 1302, 1316. 
Dirksen bill for Peace Division in State Department, dis- 
cussed by Mr. Benton, 203. 
Disarmament. See Arms. 

Displaced persons and refugees (see also Palestine) : 
Admittance to U.S., discussed by President Truman, 

124. 
Discussion at UNRRA Council session, 177. 
Intergovernmental Committee on Refugees, 200. 
International Refugee Organization. See Refugee Or- 
ganization. 
Polish refugee camp in Mexico, closing, 138. 
Prisoners of war, 136, 165, 524, 539, 1205. 
Problem in Germany, statement by Secretary Mar- 
shall, 526. 
Repatriation of, statement by Secretary Marshall, 

1085. 
Resettlement of, statement by Mr. Hilldring, 1162. 

Index, January to June 1947 



Displaced persons and refugees — Continued. 
Resolution of Cairo conference of Interparliamentary 

Union, regarding, text, 1117. 
Status of Jews, statement by Rabbi Bernstein, 1308. 
U.S. zone in Germany, policy regarding new arrivals in, 
statement by Acting Secretary Acheson, 766. 
Dixon, Richard Dillard, appointment as member of mili- 
tary tribunals in Germany, 1133. 
Djibouti, French Somali Coast, closing of U.S. Con- 
sulate, 1008. 
Documents, German. See Germany. 
Doeument.s, Covernment, salesroom for, opening, 727, 

823, 1009, 1082. 
Dodge, Joseph M. : 

Appointment as head of U.S. delegation to Four Power 

Commission, 985. 
Statement on delay of work of Pour Power Commission, 
1083. 
Dominican Republic {see also American republics) : 
Aid from U.S., 958. 

Ambassador to U.S. (Ortega Frier), credentials, 452. 
Copyright convention, inter-American, ratification, 
953. 
Donnelly, Walter J., appointment as U.S. Ambassador 

to Costa Rica, 823. 
Donovan, Howard, designation in State Department, 

455. 
Double-taxation conventions, U.S. and 
Denmark, negotiations, 138, 3(50. 
France (1946), 174. 
Mexico, negotiations, 937. 
South Africa, signature, 727. 
New Zealand, negotiations, 1046. 
Dougall, Richardson, article on economic cooperation 

with Canada, 1941-1947: 1185. 
Douglas, Lewis W., appointment as U.S. Ambassador to 

U.K., 499. 
Dreier, John C., designation in State Department, 2.59. 
Dunham, Donald Carl, appointment as public affairs offi- 
cer at Bucharest, Rumania, 777. 
Dunham, Franklin, article on the Cairo conference of the 
Interparliamentary Union, 1115. 

ECITO. See European Central Inland Transport Organi- 
zation. 
Econometric Society, meeting, proposed, 934. 
Economic Advisers, Council of, appointment, statement 

by President Truman, 1297. 
Economic Affairs, appointment of Mr. Thorp as Assistant 

Secretary of State for, 258. 
Economic and Employment Commission of ECOSOC, 155, 

656. 
Economic and Social Council of United Nations. See 

ECOSOC. 
Economic Club of Detroit, Detroit, Mich., address by Mr. 

Hilldring, 544. 
Economic Club of New York, New York City, address by 

Mr. Thorp, 758. 
Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East : 
Discussed by Mr. Stinebower, 655. 
U.S. representative (Davis), 1198. 
Economic Commission for Europe : 

Appointment of Under Secretary Clayton as U.S. rep- 
resentative to, 939. 
Discussed by Mr. Stinebower, 655. 
Transfer of other agencies to, 977, 1031. 
Economic Foreign Policy. Executive Committee on, spon- 
sorship of hearings on proposed charter for ITO, 68, 
257, 280, 389, 721, 722. 
Economics (see also Finance) : 
Aid, U.S. to foreign countries, 957. 
Convention and protocol relating to economic statistics, 

unperfected (1928) withdrawal from Senate, 726. 
Cooperation with Canada, 1941-1947, article by Mr. 

Dougall, 1185. 
Cooperation with Mexico, .ioint statement by Presidents 
Truman and Alemfln, 937. 

1335 



Economics — Continued. 
Domestic, effect of foreign aid on, committee to study, 

statement by President Truman, 1297. 
Domestic economy and foreign affairs, address by Mr. 

Thorp, 758. 
Econometric Society, international, meeting proposed, 

934 
Economic strength in U.S. and abroad, discussed by 

Mr. Austin, 474. 
Europe: . .. , >, „, 

Collaboration among the countries of, article by Mr. 

Cleveland, 3. 
Recovery of economics in, U.S. policy, 1159. 
Europe and Japan, instability of, address by Under 

Secretary Acheson, 901. 
Germany, principles regarding, statements by Secretary 

Marshall, 564, 649, 741, 920. 
Greece : 

Situation in, 29, 341. 

U.S. mission to, 29, 136, 494, 823, 898, 943. 
Hungary, situation in, 341, SS-^. 

Hyde Park agreement, U.S. with Canada (1941), dis- 
cussed by Mr. Dougall, 1185. 
Italy : 
Needs in, 165. 

U S. aid to, statement by Secretary Marshall, 1160. 
U.S. policy on, letter from Under Secretary Acheson 
to Mr. Vandenberg, 1075. 
Minerals as factor in U.S. foreign policy, address by 

Mr. Nitze, 300. 
Peace in the "interim period," economics of, article by 

Mr. McGhee, 1193. 
Report of President Truman to Congress, 125. 
Situation in Korea, discussed by Mr. Hilldring. 546. 
State trading and totalitarian economies, article by Mr. 

McGliee, 371. 
Sugar, economic aspects of, article by Mrs. MuUiken, 

43, 533. 
Supreme Economic Council of Allied and Associated 

Powers, 1919, article by Miss Axton, 944. 
Trade agreements in relation to, discussed by Under 

Secretary Clayton, 628. 
United Nations program in settlement of economic dif- 
ferences, discussed in address by President Truman, 
482. 
U.S. mission to Liberia, discussed by Mr. de La Rue, 549. 
ECOSOC (Economic and Social Council of UN) : 

Children's Emergency Fund, International, relation to 

ECOSOC, 468, 470, 656. 
Commissions, committees, etc. : 

Economic and Employment Commission, 155, 656. 
Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East, 655, 

1198. 
Economic Commission for Europe, 655, 939, 977, 1031. 
Economic development, subcommission on, 656. 
Economic reconstruction of devastated areas, tempo- 
rary subcommission on, 5. 
Employment and economic stability, subcommission 

on, 656. 
Fiscal Commission, appointment of Mr. Bartelt as U.S. 

representative, 155. 
Freedom of information and of the press, subcommis- 
sion on, 243, 244, 656. 
Human Rights Commission, 154, 155, 243, 244, 277, 

278, 656. 
Narcotic Drugs, Commission on, 91, 687, 817. 
Negotiations With Specialized Agencies, Standing 

Committee on, 118. 
Non-Governmental Organizations Committee, 26. 
Population Commission, appointment of Mr. Hauser 

as U.S. representative, 155. 
Preparatory Committee of ITO. See Preparatory 

Committee. 
Prevention of discrimination and protection of minori- 
ties, subcommission on, 656. 

1336 



ECOSOC — Continued. 

Commissions, committees, etc.— Continued. 

Social Commission, appointment of Mr. Altmeyer as 

U.S. representative, 155. 
Statistical Commission, 1.55, 934. 
Transport and Communications Commission, appoint- 
ment of Mr. Baker as U.S. representative, 155. 
Women, Status of, 59, 155. 
Coordinating authority between UN and: FAO, 250; 

ILO, 24 ; UNESCO, 250. 
Council session (4th), accomplishments of, statement 
by acting U.S. representative (Stinebower), 655. 
Resignation of U.S. Representative (Winant) 52. 
Resource conservation and utilization, scientific con- 
ference on, resolution proposing, 476. 
Trusteeship Council, relation to, 1097. 
World Statistical Congress, proposed, 656. 
Ecuador (see also American republics) : 

Aid from U.S., 958. c , , o-,a 

Air-transport agreement, with U.S., signature, 214. 
Cultural leader, visit to U.S., 1129. 
Exchange professor from U.S., 627. 
Rubber agreement, with U.S. (1942), expiration, 75. 
US. Ambassador (Simmons), appointment, 823. 
Visit to U.S. of Foreign Minister (TrujiUo), 76. 
Edman, George W., appointment as public affairs officer 

at Copenhagen, Denmark, 777. 
Education (see also Conferences; UNESCO) : 
Afghanistan, request for U.S. teachers, 505. 
Commission for International Educational Reconstruc- 
tion, functions in relation to UNESCO, discussed 
by Mr. Abraham, 654. 
Exchange program: 

Administrative arrangements regarding, report ot 

Acting Secretary of State, 820. 
Agreements concerning, under Pulbright act, 364. 
Statement by Secretary Marshall regarding, 1250- 
Exchange program, with : Bolivia, 215, 727 ; Brazil, 
13'^ ■ Central and South America, 626; Chile, 027; 
Colombia, 302 ; Costa Rica, 1314 ; Cuba, 770 ; Ecua- 
dor 627 ; Europe, 1133 ; Germany and Austria, 666 ; 
Haiti, 1006; Honduras, 822, 1314; Mexico, 1004; 
Middle East and Far East, 626; other American 
republics, 938, 1128; Sweden, 253; Uruguay, 599; 
U.S.S.R., 393. ^^^ ^„^ 

Foreign Service, U.S., examinations, 40.5, b37. 
Foreign Service Institute, 549, 579, 718. 
German youth, U.S. policy on, 294. 

Inter-American Eilucational Foundation, cooperative- 
action programs, 1108. 
International Exchange of Persons, Division of: 
Arrangements for instruction of students from other 
American republics at U.S. Merchant Marine 
Academy, 938. 
Travel grants, 132, 727, 1314. , .^tt. 

International interchange and Information act (H.K. 

3342), 624, 1315. 
International understanding, importance of education 

in, address by Mr. Benton, 500. 
Japan : . 

Par Eastern Commission policy, 746. 
Remarks bv Mr. Atcheson, 598. 
Philippine Foreign Affairs Training Program, 718. 
Public education, 10th international conference on, 

1290. 
Schools in Venezia Giulia under AMG, 1268. 
U.S. aid to Liberia, discussed by Mr. de La Rue, 549. 
Vocational training, ILO resolution on, 578. 
Educational, scientific and cultural cooperation with 

Mexico, program for, 1004. 
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization of 

United Nations. See UNESCO. 
Edwards, Herbert T., designation in State Department. 

1047. 
Egypt: 

Aid from U.S., 961. 

Arab League, membership, 963. 

Department of State Bulletin 



Egypt — Continued. 
Palestine situation. See Palestine. 
U.S. Ambassador (TucIj), appointment, 219. 
Eisenhower, Milton S., appointment to UNESCO, 429, 749. 
Eisler, Gerhnrt, denial by State Department of alleged 

difterences with FBI concerning, 3U5. 
Elections, Polish : 

U.S. notes, and Soviet reply, 134, 164. 
U.S. position on conduct of, 251, 298. 
El Salvador {see also American republics) : 
Aid from U.S., 959. 

U.S. Ambassador (Nufer), appointment, 823. 
Embassies, U.S. See Foreign Service. 
Embassy rank for representation between U.S. and Den- 
mark, 299. 
Emergency Economic Committee for Europe : 
Discussed by Mr. Cleveland, 4. 
Timber Subcommittee, discussed by Mr. Whitehouse, 

974. 
Transfer of functions to Economic Commission for 
Europe, 977, 1031. 
Emergency Food Council, International. See Food 

Council. 
Employment and economic activity (Committee I of 

ECOSOC), 1S7, 190 n. 
Employment and trade conference, international. See 

Trade and employment. 
English, Benedict M., designation in State Department, 

455. 
Enochs, Elisabeth S. : 

Appointment as delegate to American International In- 
stitute for Protection of Childhood, 823. 
Article by, 1157. 
Estate taxes, conventions on. See Double taxation. 
Ethiopia, aid from U.S., 961. 

Ethridge, Mark, appointment as U.S. representative on 
Commission of Investigation of Security Council, 
113, 155. 
Europe : 

Aid from U. S. See individual countries. 
Boundaries, statement by Secretary Marshall, 696. 
Displaced persons and refugees in. See Displaced per- 
sons anil refugees. 
Economic collaboration in, article by Mr. Cleveland, 3. 
Economic Commission for, 939, 974, 977, 1031. 
Economic reconstruction : 

Address by Secretary Marshall, 1159. 
Remarks by Mr. Cohen, 1230. 
Exchange of students and teachers with U.S., resumed, 

1133. 
Pleasure travel of U. S. citizens to, lifting of passport 

restrictions for, 342. 
UNRRA activities. See UNERA. 

U.S. position on a United States of Europe, letter from 
Secretary Marshall, 1213. 
Europe, Division of Research for, (D. R.), 558. 
European Affairs, Office of Assistant Secretary for, ap- 
pointment of Mr. Armour, 1253. 
European Central Inland Transport Organization: 
Council of, 6th session, 60. 

Transfer of functions to Economic Commission for 
Europe, 977, 1031. 
European Coal Organization. See Coal Organization, 

European. 
European-Mediterranean region (ICAO), air-traffic con- 
trol meeting for, 709. 
Everitt, William L., appointment as chairman of inter- 
national meeting on marine radio aids to navigation, 
807. 
Exchanges, cultural and educational. See Cultural coop- 
eration ; Education. 
Executive orders : 

Aid to Greece and Turkey : 

Regulations for carrying out provisions of act for (Ex. 

Or. 9857), 1070. 
Transfer of personnel to American missions for (Ex. 
Or. 9862), 1125. 



Executive orders — Continued. 
Designating the U.S. Mission to the United Nations (Ex. 

Or. 9844), 798. 
Military tribunal for trial of German war criminals 

(Ex. Or. 9819), 133. 
Military tribunals for U.S. zone in Germany (Ex. Or. 

9827 and Ex. Or. 98.58), 447, 1133. 
Philippine Alien , Property Administration, establish- 
ment (Ex. Or. 9818), 130. 
Protection abroad of U.S. inventions (Ex. Or. 9865), 

1316. 
Public international organizations entitled to enjoy cer- 
tain privileges, exemptions, and immunities, desig- 
nation of (Ex. Or. 9863), 1120. 
Reciprocal trade-agreements program, administration 

of (Ex. Or. 9832), 436. 
Relief aid to people of war-devastated countries (Ex. 

Or. 9864), 1125. 
Transfer of vessels and material and furnishing of cer- 
tain aid to the Republic of China, authorization of 
(Ex. Or. 9843), 821. 
United States Maritime Commi.ssion, disposal of for- 
eign merchant vessels (Ex. Or. 9848), 1007. 
War Communications, Board of, abolishment of (Ex. 
Or. 9831), 448. 
Export Control Act, necessity for extension of, message 

from President Truman to Congress, 676. 
Export-Import Bank of Washington : 
Credit to Mexico, proposed, 937. 
Loans and credits to foreign countries, 957. 
Export-import expansion, U.S. economic foreign policy 

on, discussed by Mr. McGhee, 1194. 
Export-import plan for Germany, status of, discussed by 

Secretary Marshall, 566. 
Exter, John, appointment on .Joint American-Philippine 

Financial Commission, 218. 
External Auditors, Board of, establishment of, by Gen- 
eral Assembly, 116. 
Extradition of former Soviet trade representative in Mex- 
ico, denial by U.S., 212. 

Fahy, Charles, memorandum urging support of Anglo- 
American oil agreement, 1167. 
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of UN) : 
Constitution of, amendment to, proposals by U.S., U^., 

and Australia, texts, 925. 
Emergency Food Council, International, 46, 263, 334, 

585, 943. 
Establishment as specialized agency of UN, signature of 

protocol, 250, 1317. 
Preparatory Commission on World Food Proposals: 
Recommendations on international wheat agreement, 

471. 
Report on world food proposals, 247. 
Timber conference, 661, 976. 
Trusteeship Council, relation to, 1090. 
WHO, relation to, 973. 
World Food Council, proposed, 249, 928. 
Far East (see also Far Eastern Commission; and the irir 
dividual countries) : 
Aid from U.S. See individual countries. 
Division of Research for (D.R.), 558. 
Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East, 655, 

1198. 
Students in U.S., 626. 

War criminals in, apprehension, trial, and punishment 
of. Far Eastern Commission policy regarding, 804. 
Far Eastern Commission, policy in Japan, on : 
Allied looted property, 708. 
Allied trade representatives, 611. 
Atomic-energy research and activity, 434. 
Destination of exports, 1068. 
Educational system, revision of, 746. 
Japanese Constitution, new, 612, 802, 803, 804. 
Peaceful needs, 806. 



Index, January fo June 1947 



1337 



Far Eastern Commission, policy in Japan, on — Continued. 
Plants for reparations removals, destruction or reten- 
tion, selection of, 1201. 
Reparation goods, delivery to claimant countries, 433. 
Reparation shares, division of, 1069. 
Source of imports, 1067. 
Transfer of Japanese industrial facilities to devastated 

countries, statement by General McCoy, 674. 
United Nations property, destruction or removal of, 986. 
War criminals, 804. 

World shortages, controls for relief of, 574, 1041. 
Federal Bureau of Investigation, denial by State Depart- 
ment of alleged differences with, in Gerhart Eisler 
case, 365. 
Federal Communications Commission, transfer of prop- 
erty and records of Board of War Communications 
to "(Ex. Or. 9831), 448. 
Fifth Freedom air rights in Ceylon, interim, granted to 

U.S., 449. 
Finance {see also Economics) : 

Aid to Greece and Turkey. See Aid ; Greece. 
Commercial banking in Japan, establishment by SCAP, 

718. 
Credit to Hungary, 341, 1166. 
Foreign loans, discnissed in article, 957. 
Funds from sales of surplus war property, discussed by 

Secretary Marshall, 255. 
International Bank and Fund. See International Bank ; 

International Monetai'y Fund. 
Italian blocked accounts in U.S., partial release of. 1129. 
Italian negotiations with U.S. for settlement of war 

claims, 1130, 1161. 
Italian payment (2d) for costs of maintaining U.S. 

forces, 165. 
Joint American-Philippine Financial Commission, 130, 

218. 
Non-demilitarized combat materiel, funds from sales and 

transfer of, 322. 
Occupation currency in occupied areas, use of, statement 

by Mr. Hilldring, 1304. 
Occupied areas, costs to U.S., discussed by Mr. Hill- 
dring, 131. 
Philippine bonds, pre-1934, delivered to U.S. for destruc- 
tion, 767. 
Polish gold and assets in U.S., release of, 28. 
Stabilization of U.S. dollar-Mexican peso rate of 
exchange : 
Agreement concerning, 1043. 

Joint statement by Presidents Truman and Alem.ln, 
937. 
U.S. appropriation to WHO, 702. 
Financial Commission, Joint American-Philippine: 
Co-chairman, appointment of Mr. Grossman, 130. 
Members, 218. 
Finland : 
Aid from U.S., 960. 

Commercial air rights granted to U.S. by, 725. 
Peace treaty, with Allies : 

Completion of text, by Council of Foreign Ministers, 

183. 
Release of advance copy of, 167. 
Fiscal Commission of ECOSOC, 155. 
Fisheries convention. Great Lakes, article by Mr. Smith, 

643. 
Fite, Katherine B., article on Niirnberg judgment, 9. 
Flournoy, Richard W., designation in State Department, 

455. 
Food (see also FAO; UNRRA) : 

Emergency Food Council, International: 

Cereals Committee, approval of grain supplies for 

Hungary, 585. 
Recent actions of, article by Mr. Salisbury, 334. 
Report on U.S. shipments to France, 943. 
Work of, discussed, 46, 263. 
Extension of food-supply agreement. Institute of Inter- 
American Affairs and Haiti (1944), 75. 

1338 



Food — Continued. 

Fishing industry, discussed by Mr. Smith, 643. 
Grain. See Wheat. 

International distribution of, relation of 2d War Powers 

Act to, statement by Under Secretary Acheson, 1174. 

Products considered for possible tariff concessions in 

U.S. trade-agreement negotiations with certain other 

countries, 399. 

Rumania, supplies from American Red Cross to, 396, 448. 

Sugar. See Sugar. 

War powers control over, need for extension of, dis- 
cussed in President Truman's message to Congress, 
1138. 
Wheat. See Wheat. 

World shortages, controls on Japan to relieve, 574, 
1041. 
Pood Products, Stored, Meeting of Specialists on the 

Control of Infestation of, 1112. 
Foot-and-mouth disease in Mexico : 

Joint U.S.-Mexiean campaign against, article by Mr. 

Hopkins, 710. 
U.S. aid in fighting, 454. 
Foreign Activity Correlation, DivLsion of, (D.R.), 639. 
Foreign affairs, U.S. policy, discussed by President Tru- 
man, 123. 
Foreign affairs and our domestic economy, address by 

Mr. Thorp, 758. 
Foreign Agriculture, 78. 

Foreign Commerce Weekly, 138, 219, 255, 360, 599, 677, 820. 
Foreign Liquidation Commissioner: 

Air-rights agreements, involving surplus war property, 

conclusion, 766. 
Canol-1 project, disposition, report, 256. 
Ifesignation of Mi'. Lane as Deputy, 579. 
Sale of surplus property abroad, report, 255. 
Foreign Ministers, Council of: 

Moscow conference (Mar. 10- Apr. 24, 1047) : 
Arrangements for, 186, 286, 497. 
Austria : 

Draft treaty for, 407, 497, 793. 
German assets in, 653, 793. 
Questions relating to, 571, 985, 1083. 
Reestablishment, question of, 793. 
Germany : 

Assets in Austria, 653, 793. 

Conference to draw up peace treaty for, proposed, 

607, 742, 020. 
Disarmament and demilitarization, 742, 793, 922. 
Economic unity, 564, 649, 741. 
Polish-German frontier, 693, 694, 922. 
Press and radio coverage. 199, 286, 350, 526. 
Problem of boundaries, 696. 

Reparation : statements by Secretary Marshall, 
503, 652, 921 ; summary statement by U.S. dele- 
gation, 609. 
Report of Secretary Marshall on return, 919. 
Secretary Marshall, delegate to, 432, 497. 
Statements by Secretary Marshall, 522, 563, 607, 649, 

693, 741, 793, 919. 
U.S. delegation, 286, 432. 

U.S. support of participation in peace conference by 
Allied states, statement by Secretary Marshall, 
60S. 
New York conference (Nov. 4-Dec. 12, 1946) : 
Peace treaties : 

Austria and Germany, preliminary plans, 186. 
Bulgaria, Finland, .Hungary, Italy, and Rumania 
(see also individual countries), 167, 183, 486. 
Foreign Ministers, Council of. Committee of Experts, to 
examine disagreed questions of Austrian treaty. See 
Four Power Commission. 
Foreign Ministers, Council of. Deputies of : 

Direction of boundary commission, proposed, 694. 
Meeting of, proposed, on disposition of Italian colonies, 
1129. 

Department of Stale Bulletin 



Foreign policy, U.S. : 

American traditions in, address by Under Secretary 

Acheson, 1221. 
Conference of civic leaders for discussion of, 953. 
Transport and communication, objectives in, address by 

Mr. Norton, 1241. 
War Powers Act, 2d, extension of, relationship to, state- 
ment by Under Secretary Aclieson, 1173. 
Foreign Press Association, New York, N. X., address by 

Mr. Benton, 591. 
Foreign Relations Committee, Senate, items submitted 

for consideration by, from State Department, 284. 
Foreign Relations of the United States, The Paris Peace 

Conference, 1919, vols. V to X : 33, 178, 944. 
Foreign Service, Philippine, training of officers in U.S., 

718. 
Foreign Service, U.S. (see also Diplomatic) : 
Advisory Committee on Commercial Activities in, 439. 
Ambassadors : 
Appointment: Colombia (Beaulac), 823; Costa Rica 
(Donnelly), 823; Denmark (Marvel), 455; Ecua- 
dor (Simmons), 823; Egypt (Tuck), 219; El Sal- 
vador (Nufer), 823; Honduras (Daniels), 823; 
India ( Grady ) , 823, 1044 ; Iraq ( Wadsworth ) , 219 ; 
Paraguay (Warren), 823; Philippines (O'Neal), 
1240; Portugal (Wiley), 823; Siam (Stanton), 
823; U.K. (Douglas), 499; U.K. (Gardner), 219; 
Uruguay (Howell), 823; Yugoslavia (Cannon), 
823. 
Resignation: Poland (Lane), 636; Yugoslavia (Pat- 
terson), 636. 
Board of, 439. 

Consular offices : Baghdad, Iraq, elevation to rank of 
Embassy, 1008; Bangkok, Siam, elevation to rank 
of Embassy, 599, 1008; Capetown, South Africa, 
moved to Pretoria, 1181 ; Changchun, China, open- 
ing, 1181 ; Copenhagen, Denmark, elevation to rank 
of Embassy, 1008; Djibouti, French Somali Coast, 
closing, 1008; Hanoi, French Indochina, opening, 
1008 ; Krakow, Poland, closing, 1008 ; Lahore, India, 
opening, 1044 ; Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary 
Islands, closing, 1008; Leningrad, U.S.S.R., opening, 
proposed, 1307 ; New Delhi, India, opening of con- 
sular section in Embassy, 1181 ; Poznan, Poland, 
elevation to Vice Consulate, 1181 ; Zagreb, Yugo- 
slavia, opening, 219. 
Deputy Director General of, appointment of Mr. Ravn- 

dal, 455. 
Embassy rank for representation between U.S. and — • 
Denmark, 299. 
Iraq, 1008. 
Siam, 599, 1008. 
Examinations for appointment to, resumption, 403. 
Ministers, apixjintment : Hungary (Chapin), 823; Ire- 
land (Garrett), 823; Lebanon (Pinkerton), 219; 
Syria (Ailing), 823 ; Yemen (Childs), 219. 
Office of, appointment of Mr. Ravndal as Director, 455. 
Oral examinations for, world-wide, 637. 
Political adviser to USAF in Korea, appointment of Mr. 

Jacobs, 1178. 
Public-affairs officers, appointment : Bucharest, Rumania 
(Dunham), 777; Chungking, China (Hopkins), 777; 
Copenhagen, Denmark (Edman), 777; Habana, 
Cuba (Stewart), .579. 
U.S. assistant military attaches in China, returned by 

Communist captors, 822. 
U.S. Political Adviser, Office of, moved from Caserta, 
Italy, to Leghorn, Italy, 1181. 
Foreign Service Institute : 
Appointment of Director (Maddox) , and officers, 549, 579. 
Establishment, .549. 

Officer-training courses for Philippine trainees, 718. 
Four Power Commission : 
Appointment of Mr. Dodge as head of U.S. Delegation, 

985. 
Composition, 986. 
Statement by Mr. Dodge on delay of work of, 1083. 



Pour Power Naval Commission, protocol on establishment 

of, 815. 
Fox-fur quota agreement, supplementary, U.S. and Can- 
ada (1940), termination, 678. 
France (see also Europe) : 
Aid from U.S., 960. 

Bread grain shipments from U.&., 943, 1042, 1130. 
Loan from International Bank, 1042. 
Nondemilitarized combat materiel, purchase from U.S., 

322. 
Participation in German war documents project, pro- 
posed, 1136. 
Property of U.S. nationals in, instructions for filing 

claims, 166, 253, 632. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Copyright extension, with U.S.. negotiations, 632. 
Double taxation, with U.S. (1946), ratification by 

U.S., transmittal to Senate, with report, 174. 
Four Power Naval Commission, establishment of, dis- 
posal of Italian fleet, and return by U.S.S.R. of 
warships on loan, protocol on, signature, 815. 
Industrial property, restoration of certain rights af- 
fected by World War II, with U.S., signature, 
725. 
Patent agreement, with U.S., di.scussions, 449. 
Radio relay stations at Algiers, closing of, negotia- 
tions with U.S., 623. 
Repatriation of German prisoners of war in France, 
with U.S., conclusion, 539. 
Franco y Bahamonde, Gen. Francisco, resolutions adopted 
by General Assembly of UN regarding, replies to 
Mr. Lie's telegram on (texts), 115. 
Frank, Isaiah, article on U.S. policy concerning German 

monopolies, 913. 
Free, Lloyd A., designation in State Department, 367. 
Free Territory of Trieste. See Trieste. 
Freedom of information and of the press: 
Addresses by Mr. Benton, 3.52, 591. 

Conference called, pursuant to General Assembly reso- 
lution, 244. 
Subcommission on, 243, 244, 656. 
Freedom of speech, international bill of rights on, 277. 
French Indochina, opening of U.S. Consulate at Hanoi, 

1008. 
Friendship and alliance, treaty, China and U.S.S.R. 
(1945), U.S. note, attitude on implementation of 
provisions regarding Dairen, 127. 
Friendship, commerce, and consular rights, agreement be- 
tween U.S. and Nepal, signature, 949. 
Friendship, commerce, and navigation, treaty on: 

U.S. and China, with protocol (1946), transmittal to 

Congress by President Truman, and report, 672. 

U.S. and India, question of, letter from Under Secretary 

Clayton to Representative Celler, 208. 

Frontier. See Boundaries; Passports. 

Fulbright Act, agreements for U.S. students to study 

abroad, negotiation of, 364. 
Fund, International Monetary. See International Mone- 
tary Fund. 

Gardner, O. Max, appointment as U.S. Ambassador to 

U.K., 219. 
Garrett, George A., appointment as U.S. Minister to Ire- 
land, 823. 
Gases and bacteriological methods of warfare, unper- 
fected protocol for prohibition of use (1925), with- 
drawal from Senate, 720. 
Gasperi, Alcide de (Prime Minister of Italy), 76, 165. 
General Assembly of UN : 

Armaments, regulation and reduction of. See Arma- 
ments ; Arms. 
Bodies established by, 116. 
Committee on progressive development of international 

law and its codification. See International law. 
International Children's Emergency Fund, establish- 
ment, 116, 466. 



Index, January fo June 7947 



1339 



General Assembly of UN — Continued. 

Japanese mandated islands, position regarding, dis- 
cussed by Mr. Austin, 416. 
Palestine question, special session on. See Special ses- 
sion infra. 
Spanisii situation, position of UN members, 115. 
Special session, on Palestine question : 
Agenda : 

Items for, texts of notes requesting, 795. 
Procedural questions with relation to, article by 
Mr. Kaplan and Miss Gougli, 1013. 
Appeal to citizens to refrain from hazardous activi- 
ties relating to Palestine, 1110, 1154. 
Calling of session, 795, 796. 
Special Committee on Palestine : 
Resolution establishing, 1024. 
Resolution of Committee, 1110, 1154. 
U.S. delegation : 
Listed, 798. 

Representative (Austin), and alternate (Johnson), 
appointment, 823. 
Trusteeship Council, establishment, article by Miss 
Armstrong and Mr. Cargo, 511. 
Geography and history assembly in Caracas, article by 

Mr. Simonpletri, 62. 
Germany : 
Aid from U.S., 962. 
Allied Control Authority, 226, 567. 
Allied Control Council, 133, 523, 569. 
Assets in Austria, statements by Secretary Marshall, 

571, 653, 793. 
Coal mines in, rehabilitation of, discussed by Secretary 

Marshall, 919. 
Communications, U.S. restrictions relaxed, 74, 496. 
Disarmament measures for, statements by Secretary 

Mar.shall, 742, 793. 
Documents removed from diplomatic establishments in 

U.S., control of (Ex. Or. 9760), 211. 
Economic unity, discussed by Secretary Marshall, 564, 

649, 741, 920. 
Ex-members of German armed forces in U.S. custody, 

statement by Secretary Marshall, 524. 
External property negotiations with Portugal, Spain, 

and Turkey, dates of meetings, 984, 1199. 
Four-Power pact for disarmament of, U.S. proposal, 

discussed by Secretary Marshall, 742, 793, 922. 
German National Council, establishment of, proiwsed 
by U.S. delegation to Council of Foreign Ministers, 
570. 
German-owned patents, multilateral agreement, accord 

on treatment of (1946), entry Into force, 434. 
Interchange of persons between U.S. and, joint pro- 
gram of State, War, and Navy Departments, re- 
garding, 666. 
Legal problems on, functions in OflBce of Legal Adviser 

relating to (D.R.), 778. 
Military tribunals. See Zones, infra. 
Monopolies in, U.S. policy concerning, article by Mr. 

Frank, 913. 
Narcotic drugs, ECOSOC action on control of, 691. 
Nationals in Tanganyika, petitions to Trusteeship Coun- 
cil of United Nations, discussed, 1094. 
Niirnberg trial, 9, 447. 

Peace treaty, with Allies, proceedings at Moscow con- 
ference : 
Boundaries, 696. 
Conference to draw up peace treaty for, proposed, 

607, 742, 920. 
Reparations, statements by U.S. delegation, 563, (509, 

652, 921. 
Statements by Secretary Marshall, 522, 563, 607, 649, 
693, 741, 793, 919. 
Polish-German frontier question, 693, 694, 922. 
Prisoners of war : 
In France, repatriation of, U.S.-French agreement, 539. 
In U.S. zone, statement by Secretary Marshall, 524. 
Transfer to Netherlands, 539. 

1340 



Germany — Continued. 
Property owned by U.S. nationals, restrictions on direct 

negotiations lifted, 209. 
Provisional government for, proposal regarding, state- 
ment by Secretary Marshall, 651. 
Trade with U.S., license restrictions lifted, 496. 
War criminals in U.S. zone, 524. 
World War II documents, Anglo-American project on 

publication of, 211, 1136. 
Youth activities, U.S. policy on, statement by Depart- 
ments of State, War, and Navy, 294. 
Zone of occupation, U.S. : 

Beginnings of self-government in, article by Mrs. 

Cassidy, 223. 
Decartelization law for, 443. 
Denazification in, 522. 

Displaced persons, additional, policy on, 766. 
Military governor (McNarney), 224. 
Military tribunals, 133, 447, 1047, 1133. 
Organization plan, chart, 228. 
War plants, 523, 563. 
Zones of occupation, U.S. and British : 
Economic merger, 29, 131. 

Law for deconcentration of industry, discussed, 917. 
Postal regulations, 448. 
Telephone and telegraph service, 671. 
Zones of occupation, U.S., British, and French, coal ex- 
ports, 822. 
Gilbert, Glen A., appointments as U.S. delegate to aviation 

meetings, 709, 713. 
Glover, Rear Admiral Robert O., article on 5th interna- 
tional hydrographic conference, 1203. 
Gold: 
Payment in, by Portugal to Poland, requests from U.S., 

France, and U.K. regarding, 1002. 
Restitution of Monetary Gold, Tripartite Commission 
for, appointment of Mr. Daspit as deputy U.S. 
member of, 668. 
Restitution to Poland of gold in U.S. custody, 28. 
Good-neighbor policy : 
Address by President Truman, 498. 
Discussed in connection with Institute of Inter-Ameri- 
can Affairs, 1103. 
Good-will mission from Haiti to U.S., 634. 
Gough, Betty C, article on 1st special session of General 

Assembly of UN, 1013. 
Government in India, U.S. interest in, 450. 
Government in Nicaragua, present, attitude of U.S., 1177. 
Government specialists, assignment abroad, proposed, 624. 
Grady, Henry F., appointment as U.S. Ambassador to 

India, 823. 
Grain. See Wheat. 
Great Britain. See United Kingdom. 
Great Lakes fisheries convention, article by Mr. Smith, 643. 
Great Lakes-St. Lawrence deep waterway : 
Statement by Secretary Marshall, 1126. 
Unperfected treaty between U.S. and Canada (1932), 
withdrawal from Senate, 726. 
Greece : 
Aid from U.S. : 

Act authorizing, 1070. 

Correspondence on, 1073, 1074. 

Program for utilization of, U.S. and Greek notes 

regarding, 1298. 
Text of agreement, 1300. 
Addresses and statements by : Acting Secretary Ache- 
son, 580, 756; Mr. Austin, 538; Secretary Mar- 
shall, 494, 1036; President Truman to Congress, 
534; Mr. Vandenberg, 1037; Mr. Villard, 997. 
Chief of American Mission (Griswold), 1219. 
Collection of State papers (Bulletin supplement), 

827. 
Coordinator of, appointment of Mr. McGhee, 1303. 
Discussed in article by Mr. McGhee, 1193. 
Interim Assistance Committee, 777. 

Department of State Bulletin 



Greece — Continued. 

Aid from U.S. — Continued. 
Messages to U.S., from— 

Foreign Minister Tsaldaris, 493, S27. 

Leader of Parliamentary Opposition (Sophoulis), 

coo OQ4 

Prime Mini.ster Maximos, 493, 537, 827, 833. 
Transfer of personnel to American mission for (Ex. 
Or. 9S62), 1125. 
Aid from U.S., since mid-1945, summary, 960. 
Air-transport agreement, with U.S. (1946), entry into 

force, 1166. 
Ambassador to U.S. (Dendramis), credentials, text, 

1302. 
Border incidents, investigation of. See Investigation, 

Commission of. 
Government, broadening' of, statement by Secretary Mar- 
shall, 341. 
Prime Minister Tsaldaris, visit to U.S., 29. 
U.S. economic mission to : 

Membership of, and terms of reference, 29, 136. 
Resignation of Mr. Porter as chief, 823. 
Statement by Secretary Marshall, 494. 
Summary and recommendations of, S9S, 943. 
"Voice of America" bi-oadcasts to, inauguration of, 
statements by Secretary Marshall, Mr. Benton, and 
Mr. Vandenberg, 1036. 
Greece-Turkey Assistance Committee, Interim, establish- 
ment, 777. 
Greenland, defense of, statement by Secretary Marshall, 

1130. 
Griswold, Dwight P., appointment as chief of American 

Mission for Aid to Greece, 1219. 
Gromyko, Andrei A., position of U.S.S.R. on regulation 

and reduction of armaments, 114 n., 321. 
Gro.ss, Ernest A., designation in State Department, 259. 
Guam, administration of, proposed, report by Secretary 

Marshall, 1312. 
Guatemala {see also American republics) : 
Agriculturist, visit to U.S., 627. 
Aid from U.S., 959. 

Haiti (see also American republics) : 
Agricultural program in, 1106. 
Aid from U.S., 959. 

Food-supply agreement, with U.S. (1944), extension, 75. 
Good-will mission to U.S., 634. 

Rubber agreement, with U.S. (1942), expiration, 75. 
Visit to U.S. of Haitian professor, 1006. 
Hamilton, Kingsley W., designation in State Department, 

1008. 
Hanoi, French Indochina, opening of U.S. Consulate, 

1008. 
Harding, Justin Woodward, appointment to military 
tribunal for U.S. zone in Germany (Ex. Or. 9827), 
447. 
Harvard University, address by Secretary Marshall, 1159. 
Hastie, William H., appointment on Caribbean Commis- 
sion, 1250. 
Hauser, Philip M., appointment on Population Commis- 
sion of ECOSOC, 155. 
Havemeyer, John K., article on inter-American coffee 

agreement (1940), 378. 
Headquarters Advisory Committee, establishment of, by 

General Assembly, 116. 
Health, Public, International Office of (Office Interna- 
tional d'Hygi&ne publique) : 
Dissolution of Office, meeting of Permanent Committee, 

to arrange, 332. 
Transfer of functions to WHO, protocol on, transmittal 
to Congress, with report, 381. 
Health and Sanitation, Division of, 1107. 
Health Congress of Royal Sanitary Institute, 1069. 
Health education, 2d Pan American conference on, 26. 
Health Organization, World. See WHO. 

Index, January to June 1947 

757696—47 3 



Health program in Liberia, discussed by Mr. de la Rue, 

548. 
Eermitage, made available to Italy by U.S., for repatria- 
tion of prisoners of war, 136, 1(55. 
Highby, L. Ingemann, article on world distribution of 

grain exports, 263. 
Hilldring, John H. : 

Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Occupation currency, use of, by four occupying pow- 
ers, 1.304. 
Occupation policies, 130. 
Occupation problems in Korea, 544. 
Resettlement of displaced persons, 1162. 
Chairman of British-American Bi-Zoual Supplies Com- 
mittee, 29. 
Resignation as Assistant Secretary of State for occu- 
pied areas, 1307. 
Historic and Artistic Monuments in War Areas, Amer- 
ican Commission for Protection and Salvage of, let- 
ter regarding return of looted objects of art, 358. 
Hodge, Lt. Gen. John R. : 

Exchange of letters with General Chistiakov, on re- 
opening Joint Commission, 168. 
Statements on Korea : 
Dissident groups, 210. 

U.S. policy toward unified government in Southern 
Korea, 128. 
Honduras (sec also American republics) : 
Agriculturist, visit to U.S., 1314. 
Aid from U.S., 959. 
Exchange professor from U.S., 822. 
U.S. Ambassador (Daniels), appointment, 823. 
Hopkins, Artliur H., Jr., appointment as public affairs 

officer at Chungking, China, 777. 
Hopkins, Frank S., designation in State Department, 579. 
Hopkins, John A., article on campaign against foot-and- 
mouth disease in Mexico, 710. 
Howard, Harrv N., article on developments in the problem 

of the Turkish straits, 1045-1946; 143. 
Howard, John B., designation in State Department, 455. 
Howell, Williamson S., Jr., appointment as U.S. Ambassa- 
dor to Uruguay, 823. 
Hull, Cordell, letter to Secretary Marshall, regarding 

wool bill, 1229. 
Hulten, Charles M., designations in State Department, 

219, 3C6. 
Human Rights, Commission on: 

Appointment of Mrs. Roosevelt to, 155. 
Bill of rights, international, U.S. proposals, 277. 
Combination of Subcommissions on Protection of Mi- 
norities and Prevention of Discrimination, proposal 
by U.S. representative (Roosevelt), 278. 
Freedom of Information and of the Press, Subcommis- 

sion on, 243, 244, 656. 
Program for 1st session, 154. 
Hungary : 

Aid from U.S., 962. 

Former Prime Minister Nagy : 

Resignation of, U.S. request for information relating 

to, 1161. 
U.S. relations with, exchange of notes with Under 
Secretary Acheson, 1217. 
Grain for, approved by Emergency Food Council, 585. 
Kovilcs, Bela (Smallholders Party Leader), U.S-So- 

viet notes regarding arrest of, 1215. 
Peace treaty, with Allies : 
Letter from President Truman to Secretary Mar- 
shall, urging approval of, 1075. 
Senate Foreign Relations Committee, statements by 

Secretary Marshall and Mr. Byrnes, 486. 
Signature by U.S., 199. 
Statement by President Truman, on unfulfilled Yalta 

commitments, 1214. 
Text: advance copy of, release, 167; completion of, 
article summarizing work of Council of Foreign 
Ministers, 183 ; summary, 1082. 

1341 



Hungary — Continued. 

Peace treaty, with Allies — Continuecl. 

Transmittal to Senate, 541. 
Soviet activities, exchange of notes between U.S. and 

U.S.S.R. regarding, 495, 583, 1215. 
Surplus war property credit from U.S., Increased, 341 ; 

suspended, 1166. 
U.S. Minister (Chapin), appointment, 823. 
Visit to U.S. of Minister of Finance (Nyaradi), 585. 
Huxley, Dr. Julian, elected Director-General of UNESCO, 

53. 
Hyde, H. van Zile, article on Interim Commission of World 

Health Organization, 3d session, 971. 
Hyde Park agreement, U.S. and Canada (1941), discussed 

in article by Mr. Dougall, 1185. 
Hydrographic Bureau, International, relationship to 

United Nations maritime activities, 1204. 
Hydrographic conference, international (5th) : 
Arrangements, 575. 
Article by Rear Admirals Glover and Colbert, 1203. 

ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organization) : 
Aerodromes, Air Routes and Ground Aids Division, 1113. 
Convention establishing as permanent organization to 
replace PICAO, entry into force, and status, 530. 
Debarment of Spain, 1025, 1147. 
Designation as organization entitled to enjoy certain 

privileges, exemptions, etc. (Ex. Or. 9863), 1120. 
Draft agreement with UN, action of Commission on, 

1025. 
European-Mediterranean region, alr-traflSc control meet- 
ing for, 709. 
First assembly : 

Address by Mr. Norton, 979. 
Arrangements, 809. 
Article by Mr. Prentice, 1145. 
Statement by Secretary Marshall, 1110. 
U.S. delegation, listed, 808. 
South American regional air-navigation meeting, 1293. 
South Atlantic regional air-navigation meeting, 1293. 
Iceland, aid from U.S., 960. 
Illegal entry of Mexican workers into U.S., discussions 

with Mexico on, 303. 
Illinois Oil and Gas Association, Mt. Vernon, 111., ad- 
dress by Mr. Rayner, 554. 
ILO. See International Labor Organization. 
Immigration (see also Displaced persons ; Palestine ; Pass- 
ports) : 
Contacts with Department of Justice on matters con- 
cerning (D.R.), 78. 
Relation to IRO, statement by Mr. Hilldring, 1165. 
Immigration and Naturalization, Policy Committee on 

(PIN), establishment, 1316. 
Import-export expansion, U.S. policy on, discussed by Mr. 

McGhee, 1194. 
Import restrictions, U.S.-Swedish discussions on, 633, 767, 

938, 939, 1311. 
Income taxes, conventions on. See Double taxation. 
India: 

Aid from U.S., 961. 

Ambassador to U.S. (Ali), credentials, 450. 

Cairo Conference of Interparliamentary Union, article 

by Mr. Dunham, 1115. 
Friendship, commerce, and navigation treaty with U.S., 
question of, letter from Under Secretary Clayton 
to Representative Celler, 208. 
Lahore (Punjab), opening of U.S. Consulate General, 

proposed, 1044. 
Self-government in, U.S. interest in, 450, 1249. 
U.S. Ambassador (Grady), appointment, 823. 1044. 
U.S. consular section in U.S. Embassy at New Delhi, 
opening, 1181. 
Indonesia, representative administration for, U.S. position, 

1314. 
Industrial Committee on Coal Mining, ILO, 806. 
Industrial Committee on Inland Transport, ILO, 982. 

1342 



Industrial Development, Joint Committee on (ECOSOC), 

article on, 190. 
Industrial property : 

Protection of. International Union for, meeting, restora- 
tion of rights affected by World War II, proposed, 
250. 
Protection of U.S. inventions abroad, 1316. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Copyright, inter-American, entry Into force, 953. 
Copyright extension, U.S. with France, negotiations, 

632. 
Copyright extension, U.S. with New Zealand, 948. 
Patents, German-owned, accord on (1946), entry into 

force, 434. 
Patents, U.S. with France, signature, 449, 725. 
Trade-marks, inter-American registration of (1929), 
denunciation of protocol by Panama, 257. 
Information (see also Press; Radio) : 
American program of, letter from Mr. Benton to Mr. 

Cooper of Associated Press, 1251. 
Freedom of : 
Addresses by Mr. Benton, 352, 591. 
Conference called, pursuant to General Assembly reso- 
lution, 244. 
Subcommission on Freedom of Information and of the 
Press, 243, 244, 656. 
International interchange and information act (H.R. 
3342) : 
Letter from Secretary Marshall to Representative 

Mundt, 1315. 
Transmittal to Congress by Acting Secretary Acheson, 
624. 
Information, establishment of ad hoc Committee to Or- 
ganize, by General Assembly, 116. 
Information and Cultural Affairs, International, OfQce of : 
Appointment of Mr. Free to, 367. 
Program of, discus.sed by Mr. Benton, 206. 
Ingraham, Henry, designation in State Department, 455. 
Institute of Inter-American Affairs. See Inter-American 

Affairs. 
Intelligence, Advisory Committee on (D.R.), 600. 
Intelligence, International and Functional, Division of 

(D.R.), 559. 
Intelligence Activities, Interdepartmental, Department of 

State participation in (D.R.), 600. 
Intelligence and Research, Special Assistant to Secretary 

for (D.R.), 556. 
Intelligence and research units of State Department, re- 
organization of, 366. 
Intelligence Collection and Dissemination, Office of (D.R.), 

507. 
Intelligence Research, Office of (D.R.), 557. 
Inter-Allied Reparation Agency, summary of German prop- 
erty received by, 609. 
Inter-American Affairs, Institute of (IIAA) : 
Accomplishments and plans, discussed, 1102. 
Cooperative action programs, discussed, 1106. 
Draft of bill for reincoriwratlon of, 1100. 
Joint agricultural program with Haiti, continuation, 634. 
Proposed continuation of, letter from Secretai-y Mar- 
shall to Mr. Vandenberg, 1099. 
Inter-American bank, establishment of, unperfected con- 
vention (1940), withdrawal from Senate, 727. 
Inter- American coffee agreement (1940), 378. 
Inter-American CommLssion of Women, 5th assembly, 59. 
Inter-American cooperative program, map of location of 

activities, 1105. 
Inter-American Educational Foundation, 1108. 
Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences, fellow- 
ships for graduate students, 1314. 
Inter-American military cooperation, proposed, President 

Truman's message to Congress, 1121. 
Inter-American Statistical Institute, 1st session, arrange- 
ments, 933. 
Intergovernmental Committee on Refugees, sixth plenary 
session, article by Miss Biehle, 200. 

Deparfmenf of State Bulletin 



Intergovernmental Commodity Arrangements (Committee 

IVof BCOSOC),266. 
International Agencies in Which the United States Partici- 
pates, publication, 307. 
International and Functional Intelligence, Division of 

(DR.), 559. 
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development: 
Articles of agreement : 

Countries eligible to but failing to sign before Jan. 1, 

1947 : 198. 
Signatures and acceptances: Colombia, 24, 198; Italy, 
Lebanon, and Syria, 749 ; Turkey, 533 ; Vene- 
zuela, 24, 217. 
Status of, 533. 
Effectiveness of, discussed by Mr. Thorp, 1236. 
Executive Director (Black), appointment, 533. 
Loan to France, 1042. 
President (McCloy), election, 450. 
Relation to FAO, 248. 

U.S. participation in, report to Congress, 152. 
International Broadcasting Foundation, 618, 1040. 
International Bureau for Protection of Industrial Prop- 
erty, 250. 
International Civil Aviation Organization. See ICAO. 
International conference of American states, 9th, pro- 
posed, 768, 769, 1157. 
International Conferences, Participation of the United 

States Governmeiit in, publication, 307. 
International Court of Justice of UN, submission of dis- 
putes to, discussed by Secretary Marshall in report, 
254. 
International Exchange of Persons, Division of: 
Arrangements for instruction of students from other 
American republics at U.S. Merchant Marine Acad- 
emy, 938. 
Travel grants, 727, 1314. 
International interchange and information act (H.R. 

3342), 624, 1315. 
International Labor Organization : 
Committees : 

Building, Civil Engineering and Public Works, 615. 
Coal Mining, Industrial Committee on, 806. 
Committee of Experts on Application of Conven- 
tions, 58. 
Committee on Social Policy In Dependent Territories, 

58. 
Industrial Committee on Inland Transport, 982. 
Industrial Committee on Iron and Steel Production, 

1113. 
Labor Statisticians, 6th International Conference, 

1113. 
Permanent Agriculture Committee, 930. 
Permanent Migration Committee, 120. 
Petroleum, 27, 282, 576. 

Statistical Experts, Preparatory Meeting of, 198. 
Textiles, 613. 
Establishment as specialized agency of UN, signature 

of protocol, 24. 
International Labor Conference: 
30th session, 1110. 

Unperfected draft conventions, vcithdravpal from 
Senate, 726, 727. 
International Labor Office, meetings of Governing 
Body: 
101st session, 27, 387. 
102d session, 1111. 
International law : 
Application to individuals, discussed by Mr. Austin, 

475. 
Codification of: 

Draft resolution of Inter-Parliamentary Conference, 

1118. 
Legal groups invited to discuss, 1007. 
Committee on the Progressive Development of Interna- 
tional Law and Its Codification, 116, 953, 1026, 1152. 



International Caw and Its Codification, Committee on 
the Progressive Development of: 
Establishment of, 116. 
Meetings of: 

Statement by Mr. Jessup, 1026. 

Suggestions by U.S., on formulation of principles, 1152. 
U.S. representative (Jessup), 953. 
International Monetary and Financial Problems, National 
Advisory Council on, report on U.S. participation In 
World Bank, 152. 
International Monetary Fund: 

Appointment of Mr. Overby as Executive Director, 

1250. 
Articles of agreement : 

Signatures and acceptances: Italy, Lebanon, and 

Syria, 749 ; Turkey, 533 ; Venezuela, 24, 217. 
Status of, 533. 
Effectiveness of, discussed by Mr. Thorp, 1236. 
U.S. participation in, report to Congress, 152. 
U.S. payment to, completion, 429. 
International Office of Public Health, 332, 381. 
International Statistical Institute, relationship to Sta- 
tistical Commission of ECOSOC, discussed, 934. 
International Technical Committee of Aerial Legal Ex- 
perts. See CITEJA. 
International Trade Organization. See Trade Organi- 
zation. 
International Wheat Council. See Wheat Council. 
Interparliamentary Council, establishment, 1119. 
Interparliamentary Union, Cairo conference of, article 

by Mr. Dunham, 1115. 
Investigation, Commission of: 

Establishment of, by Security Council, text of resolu- 
tion, 23. 
Summary statements by Secretary-General (Lie), 385, 

657, 799. 
Technical arrangements for investigation of border in- 
cidents, 113. 
U.S. representative (Ethrldge), 155. 
Iran: 
Agreements drawn up at Chicago (1944), Interim agree- 
ment, acceptance, 506. 
Aid from U.S., 961. 
Purchasing mission to U. S., 720. 
Iraq: 
Aid from U.S., 961. 

Ambassador to U.S. (Jawdat), credentials, 719. 
Arab League, membership, 963. 

Elevation of U.S. Mission at Baghdad to Embassy, 1008. 
Palestine situation, letter to UN, 796. 
U.S. Ambassador (Wadsworth), appointment, 219. 
Ireland : 
Air-transport agreement, with U.S. (1945), exchange 

of notes regarding designation of routes, 11C6. 
Minister to U.S. (Nunan), credentials, 1316. 
U.S. Minister (Garrett), appointment, 823. 
IRO. See Refugee Organization, International. 
Italy: 
Aid from U.S., 960. 

Allied Commission for, abolition of, message from Pres- 
ident Truman to Rear Admiral Stone, 287. 
Blocked accounts in U.S., partial release of, 1129. 
Colonies, disposition of, meeting of Special Deputies of 

Council of Foreign Ministers to discuss, 1129. 
Disposal of excess units of Italian fleet, protocol on, 
signature by U.S., U.K., U.S.S.R., and France, 815. 
Economic aid from U.S., statement by SecTCtary Mar- 
shall, IICO. 
Grain shipments from U.S., 212. 

ICAO, membership in, discussed by Mr. Prentice, 1174. 
International Bank and Fund, signature and acceptance 

of articles of agreement, 749. 
Ofiice of U.S. Political Adviser, moved from Caserta to 

Legliorn, 1181. 
Peace treaty, with Allies : 
Letter from President Truman to Secretary Marshall, 
urging approval of, 1075. 



Index, January to June 1947 



1343 



Italy — Continued. 

Peace treaty, with Allies — Continued. 

Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, statements 

bv Secretary Marshall and Mr. Byrnes, 486. 
Signature by U.S., 199. 
Statement by President Truman, on unfulfilled Yalta 

commitments, 1214. 
Text: advance copy of, release, 1G7; completion of, 
article summarizing work of Council of Foreign 
Ministers, 183; summary, 1076. 
Transmittal to Senate, 541. 

U.S. poUcj- toward, letter from Under Secretary Ache- 
son to Mr. Vandenberg, 1075. 
Trieste. See Trieste. 
Vessels, U.S., made available to, for repatriation of 

prisoners of war and emigration, 136, 16.5. 
Visit to U.S. of Prime Minister (de Gasperi), 76, 165. 
War claims, U.S.-Italian talks on settlement of, 1130, 
1161. 
ITO. See Trade Organization, International. 
Ives, J. Kussell, article on first international Wool Study 
Group meeting, 987. 

Jacobs, Joseph E., appointment as political adviser to 

USAF in Korea, 1178. 
Japan (.see also Far East ; Far Eastern Commission) : 
Aid from U.S., 962. 
Allied Council for Japan, 596. 
Allied occupation of : 

Cost to U.S., discussed by Mr. Hilldring, 131. 
U.S. attitude, address by Mr. Atcheson, 596. 
Banking, commercial, with U.S., established by SCAP, 

718. 
Communications, U.S. restrictions relaxed, 74, 496. 
Industrial facilities of, transfer to devastated coun- 
tries, interim directive from U.S. Government to 
SCAP, statement by General McCoy, 674. 
Mandated islands, former, trusteeship for. See Man- 
dated islands. 
Narcotic drugs, ECOSOC action on control of, 691. 
Non-military activities in, reports of General Head- 
quarters, SCAP. 129, 507. 
Property owned by U.S. nationals, restrictions on direct 

negotiations lifted, 209. 
Reparation, policy decision of Far Eastern Commis- 
sion on, 433, 1060, 1201. 
Territory of the Pacilic Islands. See Mandated islands. 
Trade Board for, Inter-Allied, 25, 478, SOO. 1289. 
Trade with U.S., license restrictions lifted, 496. 
U.S. radio broadcast on, announcement of, 403. 
Vessels of, division among four ijowers, 717. 
Jawdat, All, credentials as Ambassador from Iraq to 

U.S., 719. 
Jean, Arch K., designation in State Department, 1181. 
Jessup, Philip C, U.S. repre.sentative on UN committee 
on international law and its codification, 953, 1026. 
Jews (see also Displaced persons), Nazi persecution of, 

discussed by Miss Fite, 14. 18. 
Johnson, Herschel V., appointment as U. S. alternate rep- 
resentative to special session of General Assembly 
of UN, 823. 
Johnson, Joseph E., address on regulation of armaments 

and lasting peace, 697. 
Joint Board on Defense, U.S.-Canadian, continuation of, 

361, 1211. 
Joint Soviet-American Commission. See Korea, Joint 

Commission for. 
Journalists. See Press. 
Journees M^dicales, 21st session, 1292. 

Kantorowicz, Alfred, cooperation between State Depart- 
ment and FBI concerning, 36."). 
Kaplan, Sheldon Z., article on 1st special session of Gen- 
eral Assembly of UN, 1013. 
KanfTmann, Henrik de: 

Chairman of 6th .session of Council of UNRRA, 1.59. 
Chairman of UN committee on relief needs, 24. 



Kauffmann, Henrik de — Continued. 

Credentials as Danish Ambassador to U.S., 499. 
Kennan, Geoi-ge F., designation as director of Policy 

Planning Staff, 1007. 
Kennedy, Donald D., appointment as U.S. delegate to 

International Tin Study Group, 748. 
Kenyon, Dorothy, appointment as U. S. representative on 

Commission on Status of Women of ECOSOC, 155. 
Korea (sec also Far Ea.st) : 
Aid from U.S., 062, 1177. 
Dissident groups in, statement by Lieutenant General 

Hodge, 210. 
Government in : 

Statements by Lieutenant General Hodge, 128, 210. 
Statement by Secretarv Marshall, 1249. 
Joint Conmiission for, 168, 173, 210, 716, 812, 947, 995, 

1043, 1240, 1247. 
Military Government activities in, summation of SCAP 

reports, 209, 5(J7. 
Political adviser to USAF in, appointment of Mr. Jacobs, 

1178. 
Problems in occupation of, address by Mr. Hilldring, 544. 
Korea. Joint Commission for : 

Consultation with democratic parties and social or- 
ganizations, decision regarding, 173. 
Consultation with Koreans, procedure for, text of de- 
cision, 1247. 
Function in establishment of Korean government, state- 
ment by Lieutenant General Hodge, 210. 
Reconvening of: 

Proposals for, exchange of letters between Generals 

Hodge and Chistiakov, 168. 
Soviet position, notes from Soviet Minister Molotov, 

812, 995, 1240. 
U.S. position, notes from Secretary Marshall, 716, 
947, 1043. 
Krakow, Poland, closing of U.S. Consulate, 1008. 
Kurth, Harry M., designation in State Department, 366. 

Labor Organization. International. See International 

Labor Organization. 
La Guardia, Fiorello, resignation as Director General of 

UNRRA, 177. 
Lahore (Punjab). India, opening of U.S. Consulate Gen- 
eral, proposed. 1044. 
Land-Leathers agreement, U.S. with U.K. (1944), state- 
ment by Under Secretary Clayton regarding legal 
aspects of, 347. 
Lane, Arthur Bliss, resignation as U.S. Ambassador to 

Poland, 636. 
Lane, Chester T. : 
Letter regarding validity of "pipeline" contracts, 344. 
Resignation as Lend-Lease Administrator and Deputy 
Foreign Liquidation Commissioner, 579. 
Las Pnlnias de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, closing of 

U.S. Consulate, 1008. 
Latin American countries. See American republics. 
Laves, Walter H. C, appointment as Deputy Director- 
General of UNESCO, 155. 
Law: 

Decartelization, for U.S. zone in Germany, text, 443. 
International. See International law. 
League of Nations, ti'ansfer to UN of functions relating 

to narcotic drugs, 690. 
Leiio Velloso, Pedro (former Brazilian Ambassador), 

transportation of remains from U.S., 214. 
Lebanon : 

Aid from U.S., 961. 
Palestine situation, letter to UN, 797. 
U.S. Minister (Pinkerton), appointment, 219. 
World Bank and Fund, articles of agreement, signa- 
ture, 749. 
Legal Advisor, Office of: (D.R.), 398, 778. 
Lejrations, U.S. See Foreign Service. 
Leghorn, Italy, moving of Office of U.S. Political Adviser 

from Caserta to, llSl. 
Legislation. See Congress, U.S. 



1344 



Department of State Bulletin 



Lend-lease : 
Certain aspects of arrangements with U.K. and U.S.S.R., 

statements by Under Secretary Clayton, 347. 
Pipeline agreement, U.S. and U.S.S.R. (19-15), negotia- 
tions for payment of articles under, 814. 
Pipeline contracts, defense of, 343. 
Report of operations (2od), letter of transmittal from 

President Truman to Congre.ss, 32. 
Resignation of Administrator (Lane), 579. 
Settlement agreements, U.S. and — 
China, negotiations, 948. 
Italy, negotiations, 1130. 
Netherlands, signature, 1131. 
U.K. (Land-Leathers agreement, 1942), legal asjjeets 

of, 347. 
U.S.S.R., negotiations, 343. 348, 767, 814. 
Yugoslavia, negotiations, 1041. 
U.S. aid to foreign countries, 957. 
Leningrad, opening of U.S. Consulate General, proposed, 

1307. 
Leprosy, 2d Pan American conference on, 331. 
Lilterated areas: 
Europe : 

Arrangements for control of coal exports from west- 
ern zones of Germany to, 822. 
Post-UNRRA relief to, statement by Acting Secretary 
Acheson, 755. 
People of, relief approjoriation for, letter from Presi- 
dent Truman to Congress, 395. 
Liberia : 

Aid from U.S., 961. 

U.S. relations with, address by Mr. de La Rue, 548. 
Libraries in Mexico, Nicaragua, and Uruguay, responsi- 
bility of Department of State, 76. 
Lie, Trygve (Secretary-General of UN) : 

Cable convoking special session of General Assembly, 

795. 
Notes on U.S. proposal for a UN scientific conference 
on resource conservation and utilization, 476, 477. 
Summaries of matters under consideration by Security 

Council, 114, 196, 385, 527, 657, 799. 
Transmittal of resolutions from General Assembly to 
Security Council, 50, 115. 
Lilientbal, David E., appointment as member of Atomic 

Energy Commission, 774. 
Linen tire hose, concession on, in trade agreement with 
Canada (1938) : 
Proposed termination, 137. 

Text of proclamation by President Truman, 453. 
Linvllle, Francis A., article on draft memorandum on 

international wheat agreement, 471. 
Livestock diseases in Mexico, U.S. aid in fighting, 454, 710. 
Livestock exposition and fair, national, 280, 329. 
Loans and credits from U.S. to foreign countries, article 

on, 957. 
Loftus, ,lohn A., article on ILO Petroleum Industi-y Com- 
mittee meeting, 576. 
Loot, return of objects of art to countries of origin, mem- 
orandum by State Department member of SWNCC, 
358. 
Lovett, Robert A., appointment as Under Secretary of 

State, 1181. 
Lubin, Isador, appointment as U.S. representative on Eco- 
nomic and Employment Commission of ECOSOC, 155. 
Ludlow, James M., article on establishment of the Com- 
mission for Conventional Armaments, 731. 
Lumber, world shortage of, international cooperation 

during, article by Mr. Whitehouse, 974. 
Lyon, Cecil B., designation in State Department, 579. 

MacArthur, Gen. Douglas. See SCAP. 
MacCoy, W. Pierce, designation in State Department, 1181. 
MMcLcish, Archibald, resignation from UNESCO, 749. 
Maddox, William P., appointment as first director of 

Foreign Service Institute, 549, 579. 
Mail. See Postal service. 



Maine, Legislature of State of, ratification of projiosed 

Constitutional amendment relating to terms of office 

of President, 725. 

Makin, Norman ,T. O., president of Security Council, 105 n. 

Malenbaum, Wilfred, designation in State Department, 

259. 
Mandated islands, former .Japanese, trusteeship for: 
Addresses and articles : Miss Armstrong and Mr. Cargo, 

521 ; Mr. Austin, 475 ; Mr. Robbins, 783. 
Agreement : 

Text, as approved by Security Council, 791. 
U.S. draft : 
Agenda of Security Council, 386. 
Explanatory comments on, 420. 
Statement by Mr. Austin, on submitting, 416. 
Summaries by Secretary-General (Lie), 527, 657. 
Report by Secretary Marshall on proposed administra- 
tion of the Pacific Islands, Guam, and Samoa, 1312. 
Map Intelligence Division (D.R.), 556. 
Blaps and charts : 
Arab League, 964. 
Austrian Government, chart showing Allied Council 

organization plan, 410. 
German civil administration, U.S. zone, 228. 
Inter -American cooperative program, location of 

activities, 1105. 
Trade Organization, International, proposed, 273. 
Trieste, boundaries of, 1264. 
United Nations conferences, 1198. 
Marine Jumper, transportation of students and teachers 

to Europe, 1133. 
Marine radio aids to navigation, international meeting on : 
Arrangements, 330, 807. 
U.S. delegation, listed, 807. 
Marine Services, Radio Technical Commission for, pro- 
posed, 935. 
Marine Tiger, transportation of students and teachers to 

Europe, 1133. 
Maritime. See Shipping. 
Maritime CommLssion, U.S. : 

Disposal of foreign vessels (Ex. Or. 9848), 1007. 
Extension of authority, proposed, statements by: 
President Truman, 340. 
Secretary Marshall, 1225. 
Under Secretary Clayton, 1226. 
Maritime Consultative Council, Provisional, 1st session 
1035. 

Marshall, Carrington Tanner, appointment as member 
of military tribunal for U.S. zone in Germany (Ex. 
Or. 9827), 447. 
Marshall, George C. : 

Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Aid to Greece and Turkey, 494, 828. 

Aid to Italy, economic, 1160. 

Air-transport agreements, reciprocity principle in, 

1220. 
Argentine policy, 287. 
Mr. Armour to assHme duties of two Assistant 

Secretaryships, 1253. 
China, political situation in, 83. 
Disarmament, policy on, 286. 

Displaced persons, polic.v on repatriation of, 1085. 
Educational exchange program, position on, 1250. 
European initiative essential to economic recovery, 

1159. 
Foreign relief 1)111, negotiations for implementation 

of, 1124. 
Greece, aid to, 341, 494, 1036. 
Greenland, defense of, position on possible revision 

agreement on, 1130. 
Indonesia, representative administration for, 1314. 
International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), 

1st meeting, 1110. 
ITO charter, relationship to economic stability, 1041. 
Korea, early provisional government for, 1249. 



Index, January to June 1947 



1345 



Marshall, George C. — Continued. 

Addresses, statements, etc. — Continued. 
Military and naval missions, request for Presidential 

auttiorit.v to detail, 1175. 
Netherlands-U.S. war accounts settlements, 1131. 
Peace treaties with Italy, Bulgaria, Rumania, and 

Hungary, Senate hearings, 4S6. 
Polish Government. U.S. attitude toward, 298. 
Reorganization, policy on, 287. 
St. Lawrence seaway and power project, 1126. 
Shipping facilities, extension of Government operation 

of, 1225. 
United Nations, policy, 286. 
Wool import duty, position of State Department on, 

1137. 
World order and security, youth's responsibilities, 
390. 
Appointment as Secretary of State, 83, 177. 
Biographic sketch, 305. 
Correspondence: 
Aiken, George D., on wool bill, 1228. 
Burma Constituent Assembly, rehabilitation, 1314. 
Eaton, Charles A., on — 

Bipartisan foreign policy, 283. 
Greco-Turkish aid bill, 1073. 
Molotov, Vyacheslav, M., on — 

Joint Commission for Korea, 716, 947, 1043. 
Soviet protest to Under Secretary Acheson's state- 
ment before Senate Atomic Energy Committee, 
392. 
Mundt, Karl E., on international information pro- 

giam, 1315. 
Reed, Philip D., on economic stability as basis for 

political harmony, 996. 
United Service to China, on assistance to China, 1313. 
Vandenberg, Arthur H., on — 
Aid to Greece and Turkey, 897. 
Congressional hearings on IRO constitution, 424. 
Proposed legislation for continuation of Institute 

of Inter-American Affairs, 1099. 
U.S. position on a United States of Europe, 1213. 
Directive to Allied Control Council for Germany on es- 
tablishment of provisional government for Ger- 
many, 569. 
Moscow conference, delegate to. See Foreign Min- 
isters, Council of. 
Oath of office as Secretary of State, 177. 
Report on proposed administration of Guam, Samoa, 

and the Pacific Islands, 1312. 
Report on sales and transfer of non-demilitarized com- 

l)at raati?riel, 322. 
Reports (4th and 5th) on foreign surplus disposal, 255, 

952. 
Reports on treaties : 

Conciliation treaty with Philippines, 254. 
Consular convention with Philippines, 1179. 
International Office of Public Healtii, protocol con- 
cerning, 381. 
Peace treaties with Italy, Rumania, Bulgaria, and 

Hungary, 541. 
Sugar, protocol prolonging international agreement, 
552. 
WHO, memorandum on U.S. membership in, 703. 
Martin Bchrman. U.S. statement regarding detention by 

Netherlands Indies Government, 720. 
Marvel, Josiah, Jr., appointment as U.S. Ambassador to 

Denmark, 455. 
Maximos, D. (Prime Minister of Greece), request for U.S. 

financial aid to Greece, 493, 537. 
McClov, John J., election as president of International 

Bank, 4.50. 
McCoy, Gen. Frank R., statement on transfer of Japanese 

industrial facilities to devastated countries, 674. 
McGhee, George C: 
Articles : 

Economics of peace in "interim period", 1193. 

1346 



McGhee, George C. — Continued. 
Articles — Continued. 

State trading and totalitarian economies, 371. 
Coordinator of aid to Greece and Turkey, 1303. 
McGurk, Joseph F., special representative of President 
Truman at Inauguration of President of Uruguay 
(Berreta), 403. 
McMahon, Francis E., press credentials of, U.S. protest to 

Spain regarding treatment, 764, 940. 
McNarney, Gen. Joseph T., statement defining decentral- 
ized government in Germany, 224. 
Medical and Statistical Commissions of Inter-American 
Committee on Social Security, meeting of, article by 
Mr. Cohen, 337. 
Medicine, program between U.S. and U.S.S.R., 393. 
Medicine and pharmacy, military, 11th international con- 
gress on, 1114. 
Meetings, dates of. See each issue. 
Meteorological Organization, International, conference of 

directors of, 479. 
Mexico (see also American republics) : 
Aid from U.S., 959. 
Educational, scientific, and cultural cooperation with 

U.S. program for, 1004. 
Embezzlement of funds by former employee of Soviet 
Trade Representative in, alleged, question of ex- 
tradition, 212. 
Exchange of mes.sages between President Alemdn and 
President Truman, regarding U.S.-Mexican friend- 
ship, 1043. 
Foot-and-mouth disease, U.S. aid against, 454, 710. 
Good-neighbor policy, address by President Truman, 

delivered in, 498. 
Illegal entry of workers into U.S., U.S.-Mexican dis- 
cussions on, 303. 
Library, U.S.-supported, 76. 
President Aleman awarded Legion of Merit degree of 

Chief Commander by U.S., 937. 
Rate of exchange between U.S. and Mexico, planned 
stabilization of, joint statement by President Ale- 
mdu and President Truman, 937. 
Refugee camp for Poles, closing, 138. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Double taxation, with U. S., negotiations, 937. 
Immigration arrangements, with U.S., recommenda- 
tions, 303. 
Lease of railway-mounted power train from U.S., 
with U.S., Presidential directive authorizing 
218. 
Refugee camp for Poles in Mexico, agreement with 

Poland (1942), termination, 138. 
Stabilization of rate of exchange, with U.S. (1941), 
negotiations, 937, 1043. 
Visit of President Alemdn to U.S., 823, 936. 
Visit of President Truman to Mexico, 498. 
Microbiology, 4th international congress on, 1200, 1290. 
Middle East, students in U.S., 626. 
Military bases, establishment by U.S., agreement with 

Philippines, signature, 554. 
Military cooperation, Inter-American, proposed, Presi- 
dent Truman's message to Congress, 1121. 
Military equipment, sales and transfer of non-demili- 
tarized combat materiel : 
Report to Congress, 322. 
Tables showing, 1140. 
Military Governor for U.S. zone in Germany (McNarney), 

224. 
Military holdings agreement, U.S.-U.K. (1946), report to 

Congress on lend-lease retransfers under, 324. 
Military medicine and pharmacy, 11th International 

congress on, 1114. 
Military missions : 
Presidential authority for, statement by Secretary 

Marshall requesting, 1175. 
U.S. mission to Philippines, proposed, .554. 
Military policy, U.S., discussed by President Truman, 124. 

Deparfmenf of State Bulletin 



Military Staff Committee of UN, 821. 
Military training, universal: 
Address by President Truman, 1294. 
Advisory Commission on : 

Appointment of, 125. 

Publication of report by, 1181. 
Article by Mr. Austin, 474. 
Military Tribunal, International, the judgment at Niirn- 

berg, article by Miss Flte, 9. 
Military tribunals for Germany, appointments to, 133, 

447, 1047, 1133. 
Mill, Edward W., article on the Philippine Republic, 1273. 
Miller, Frieda S., designation at ILO meeting, 387. 
Minerals, factor in U.S. foreign economic policy, address 

by Mr. Nitze, 300. 
Mining and manufacturing industries, wages and hours of 

work in, unperfected draft convention concerning 

(1938), withdrawal from Senate, 727. 
Missions, U.S., military and naval, request for Presidential 

authority to detail, statement by Secretary Marshall, 

1175. 
Missions, U.S. {see also Foreign Service), to: 
Greece : 

American Mission for Aid to, 1125, 1219. 

Economic, 29, 136, 494, 823, 898, 943. 
India, trade, question of, 208. 
Nepal, diplomatic, 598. 
Philippines, military, 554. 
United Nations (Ex. Or. 9844), 798. 
Missions of Trusteeship Council of UN, 1091. 
Missions to U.S., from : 
Haiti, good-will, 634. 
Iran, purchasing, 720. 
Molotov, Vyacheslav M. (Soviet Foreign Minister), 164, 

392, 812, 995. 
Monetary and Financial Problems, National Advisory 

Council on, report on U.S. participation in World 

Bank, 152. 
Monetary Fund, International. See International Mone- 
tary Fund. 
Monetary Gold, Tripartite Commission for Restitution 

of, 668. 
Monopolies, German, policy of U.S. concerning, article by 

Mr. Frank, 913. 
Monticello, made available to Italy by U.S., for repatria- 
tion of prisoners of war, 136, 165. 
Montreux convention of the Straits, question of revision, 

article by Mr. Howard, 143. 
Morlock, George A., articles : 

Accomplishments of Commission on Narcotic Drugs, 91. 
Resolutions adopted by ECOSOC, relating to narcotic 
drugs, 687. 
Moscow conference of Council of Foreign Ministers. See 

Foreign Ministers. 
Motion pictures, transmission of educational films to 

Austria, 540. 
Mulliken, Jean, article on economic aspects of sugar. 43. 

533. 
Mulliken, Otis E., designation in State Department, 778. 
Mundt 1)111, statement by Secretary Marshall regarding, 

1250. 
Munitions Control Act of 1947, proposed legislation sub- 
mitted by President Truman, with message to Con- 
gress, 750. 
Munitions Control Board, National, 327, 752. 
Musmanno, Capt. Michael A., appointment by President 

Truman as member of Military Tribunal for war 

criminals in Germany, 183. 
Mutual assistance treaty, American republics, negotiations 

with Argentina, 1177. 

Narcotic drugs: 

Opium policy In Burma, exchange of notes between U.S. 
and U.K. 1283. 

Protocol amending previous agreements (1946), trans- 
mittal to Senate, with report, 817. 

Index, January fo June 1947 



Narcotic drugs — Continued. 
Resolutions adopted by ECOSOC relating to, article by 

Mr. Morlock, 687. 
UN Commission on, accomplishments of, article by Mr. 
Morlock, 91. 
National Advisory Council on International Monetary and 
Financial Problems, report on U.S. participation in 
World Bank, 152. 
National Archives, liaison with State Department (D.R.), 

78. 
National Commission for UNESCO: 
Article by Mr. Abraham, 647. 
Chairman of (Eisenhower), 429. 
National conference, 429, C62. 
Organizations invited to membership, 978. 
Regional conference (1st), 978. 
National defense, address by Mr. Benton, 202. 
National Defense, Department of, question of establish- 
ment of, discussed by President Truman, 125. 
National Security, May 29, 19Ji7, a Program for. Report 
of the President's Advisory Commission on Universal 
training, 1181. 
Nature protection and wildlife preservation in Western 
Hemisphere, convention on (1940), ratification by 
Peru, 302. 
Naturalization and Immigration, Policy Committee on 

(PIN), establishment, 1316. 
Naval Commission, Four Power, protocol for establish- 
ment of, signature, 815. 
Naval missions, statement by Secretary Marshall, request- 
ing Presidential authority for, 1175. 
Navy Department : 
Administration, proposed, of Guam, Samoa, and the 

Pacific Islands, joint report, 1312. 
Authorization to Secretary of, for transfer of vessels 
and material and furnishing of certain aid to China 
(Ex. Or. 9843), 821. 
Interchange of U.S. persons with Germany and Austria, 

joint program, 666. 
Naval missions, joint request, 1175. 
SWNCC, 358. 

U.S. policy on German youth activities, joint statement, 
294. 
Naxi Conspiracy and Aggression, publication of vols. II 

and VIII : 678, 1008. 
Nazi war criminals. See War criminals. 
Near East : 

Aid from U.S. See individual countries. 
Arab League, development of, 963. 
Near East and Africa, Division of Research for (D.R. ), 558. 
Nepal : 
Diplomatic mission from U.S., 598. 
Treaty of commerce and friendship, with U.S., 598, 949. 
Netherlands : 

Aid from U.S., 960. 

Lend-lease and surplus-property, settlement, with U.S., 

signature, 1131. 
Property of U.S. nationals in, instructions for filing 

claims, 632, 939. 
Transfer of German prisoners of war to, 539. 
Netherlands Indies, detention of U.S. vessel (Martin 

Bchrman), 720. 
New Delhi, India, opening of consular section in U.S. Em- 
bassy, 1181. 
New Zealand : 

Aid from U.S., 961. 

Copyright agreement, with U.S., exchange of notes for 

extension of time on, 948. 
Double-taxation, agreement with U.S., negotiations, 

1046. 
Students visit U.S., 217. 
Newbegin, Robert, designation in State Department, 259. 
Newspapermen. See Press. 

Niagara Falls, preservation and improvement of, unper- 
fected convention and protocol, U.S. and Canada 
(1929), withdrawal from Senate, 726. 

1347 



Nicaragua {see also American republics) : 
Aid from U.S., 959. 
Library supported by U.S., 76. 
Regime in, attitude of U.S., 1177. 
Nieto del Rio, Felix, credentials as Chilean Ambassadur to 

U.S., 258. 
Nitze, Paul H., address on minerals as factor in U.S. 

foreign economic policy, 300. 
Noble, G. Bernard, designation in State Department, 219. 
Non-self-governing territories. See Trusteeship. 
Northeast Asian Affairs, Division of (D.R.), 600. 
Norton, Gari-ison : 
Addresses : 

International Civil Aviation Organization, 1st assem- 
bly, 979. 
Relation of transport and communications to world 
understanding, 1241. 
Appointment as Assistant Secretary of State for trans- 
port and communications, 637. 
Appointments at conferences, 749, 807, 808. 
Norway, aid from U.S., 961. 

Nufer, Albert P.. appointment as U.S. Ambassador to El 
Salvador, 823, , 

Nunan, Sean, credentials as Irish Minister to U.S., 1316. 
Niirnberg trial {see also War criminals), U.S. suggestions 
at UN in accordance with principles recognized at, 
1152. 
Nyaradi, Miklos (Hungarian Minister of Finance), visit 
to U.S., 585. 

Obscene publications, unperfected convention on suppres- 
sion of (1923), withdrawal from Senate, 726. 
Occupied areas {see also Austria; Germany; Japan; 
Korea) : 
Aid from U.S. See individual countries. 
Cost to U.S., discussed by Mr. Hilldring, 131. 
Currency in, use of, statement by Mr. Hilldring, 1304. 
Displaced persons in, problem of, 424. 
Functions of Office of Legal Adviser relating to legal 

services for (D.R.), 779 
Policies in : 

Address by Mr. Hilldring, 130. 
Discussed by Mrs. Cassidy, 223. 
Resignation of Mr. Hilldring as Assistant Secretary of 

State for, 1307. 
Venezia Giulia, military control of Zone A, article by 
Miss Bradshaw, 1257. 
Office International d'Hygi^ne publique. See Health. 
OIC. See Information and Cultural Affairs. 
Oil: 

Anglo-American petroleum agreement: 
Memorandum of Mr. Fahy, 1167. 
Statement by Mr. Rayner, 1169. 
Canol-1 pro.iect, disposition of, report of Secretary 

Byrnes, 256. 
ILO petroleum committee, meeting of, 27, 282, 576. 
International picture, address by Mr. Rayner, 554. 
Soviet interest in, statement by Mr. Dodge, 1083. 
O'Neal, Emmet, appointment as U.S. Ambassador to the 

Philippines, 1240. 
Opium Board, Permanent Central, 691. 
Opium policv in Burma, exchange of notes between U.S. 

and U.K., 1283. 
Oppenheimer, Fritz E., designation in State Department, 

455. 
Orr, Sir John (Director General of FAO), statement on 

objectives of world food proposals, 247. 
Ortega Frier, Julio, credentials as Ambassador to U.S. 

from the Dominican Republic, 452. 
Osborn, Frederick H., appointment as deputy to U.S. 
representative on UN Atomic Energy Commission, 475. 
Overby, Andrew N., appointment as Executive Director 
of International Monetary Fund, 1250. 

Pacific islands (.see also Mandated islands), administra- 
tion of, proposed, report by Secretary Marshall, 1312. 



Palestine situation : 

Special Committee on Palestine: 
Establishment, 1024. 

General Assembly resolutions, 1024, 1110. 
Special session of General Assembly: 
Article on, by Mr. Kaplan and Miss Gough, 1013. 
Calling of, 795. 
Statements of President Truman, 449, 1154. 
U.S. delegation to special session, 798. 
Pan American Child Congress (9th), proposed, 1157. 
Pan American conference on leprosy, 331. 
Pan American congress of pediatrics ( 1st ) , proposed, 1114. 
Pan American consultation on cartography (3d), 62. 
Pan American day, anniversary of, statement by Mr. 

Braden, 768. 
Pan American Institute of Geography and History, 4th 

General Assembly, 62. 
Pan American League, Miami, Fla., address by Mr. Briggs, 

769. 
Pan American sanitary conference (12th) : 
Agenda, 27, 119. 
Proceedings 809. 
U.S. delegation, 119. 
Pan American .sanitary education conference (2d), 119. 
Panama (see also American republics) : 
Aid from U.S., fl.W. 

Immigration, director of (Linee), visit to U.S., 257. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Defense sites in Panama, use of, with U.S. (1942), 

new agreement proposed, 1003. 
Trade-marks, inter- American registration of (1929), 

denunciation of protocol of, 257. 
Unperfected, with U.S., on regulation of radio com- 
munications (19.36), 726. 
Panama and Central America Affairs, Division of (D.R.), 

258. 
Papers Relating to Foreign Relations of the United States, 
The Paris Peace Conference, 1919, publication of vols. 
V, VII, VIII, IX, and X : 33, 178, 944. 
Paraguay (see also American republics) : 
Agricultural program in, discussed, 1106. 
Aid from U.S., 959. 

Air-transport agreement, with U.S., signature, 504. 
Trade agreement, with U.S. (1946), entry into force, 

543. 
U.S. Ambassador (Warren), appointment, 823. 
Paris Peace Conference, 1919, publication of vols. V to 

X : 33, 178, 944. 
Passports : 

Denial by State Department of alleged differences with 

FBI in Gerhart Eisler case, 365. 
Europe, pleasure travel for U.S. citizens to, lifting of 

restrictions, 342. 
Mexican entrance to U.S., U.S.-Mexican discussions on, 

303. 
U.S. relatives and fiances, entrance to U.S., effect of 

Presidential proclamation on, 217. 
Visa and immigration matters, contacts with Depart- 
ment of Justice regarding (D.R.), 78. 
Visa limitation for U.S. press and radio representation 
at Moscow conference, letters of protest to Secre- 
tary of State, 350. 
World conference on passports and frontier formalities, 
preparatory meeting for, 748, 1201. 
Pate, Maurice, apixiintment to International Emergency 

Children's Fimd, 469. 
Patents: 
Agreement, U.S. — French, signature, 449, 725. 
German-owned, multilateral agreement, accord on treat- 
ment of (1946), entry into force, 434. 
Protection abroad of U.S. inventions (Ex. Or. 9865), 

1316. 
Regulations concerning, meeting on, 250. 
Patterson, Richard C, Jr., resignation as U.S. Ambas- 
sador to Yugoslavia, 636. 



1348 



Deparfment of State Bulletin 



Patterson, Robert P., letter to Secretary Marshall, regard- 
ing effect of Great Lakes-St. Lawrence seaway and 
power projects on national security, 1128. 
Pauley, Edwin W., resignation as President Truman's 
personal representative on reparation matters and 
as US. representative on Allied Commission on Rep- 
arations, 505. 
Peace : 

Addresses and remarks, by : Secretary Byrnes, 87 ; Mr. 
Cohen, 1230; Secretary Marshall, 390, 607, 608; 
Pre.sident Truman, 481 ; Mr. Villard, 1001. 
Crimes against, charged in Niirnberg indictment, 9. 
Preservation of, relation of U.S. policy to United Na- 
tions, discussed by Mr. Austin, 474. 
Proposed conference for drawing up German treaty, 

607, 742. 
U.S.-Canadian Permanent Joint Board on Defense, 361. 
Peace, Department of. Senator Wiley's bill for, discu.ssed 

by Mr. Benton, 203. 
Peace Division in State Department, Congressman Dirk- 
sen's bill on, discussed by Mr. Benton, 203. 
Peace treaties. See Austria, Bulgaria, Ifinland, Germany, 

Hungary, Italy, Rumania. 
Pediatrics, 1st Pan American congress of, proiwsed, 1114. 
Pediatrics, 5th international congress of, 1114. 
Permanent Court of Inteinational Justice, unperfected 
protocols (1920, 1929), withdrawal from Senate, 726. 
Persinger, David, article on 6th session of Council of 

UNRRA, 159. 
Peru {see also American republics) : 
Agricultural program iu, discussed, 1106. 
Aid from U.S., 959. 

Air-transport, agreement with U.S., signature, 31. 
Nature protection and wildlife preservation in Western 
Hemisphere (1940), ratification, 302. 
Petroleum. See Oil. 

Petroleum Commission, International, 1168, 1172. 
Petroleum Industry Committee (ILO) : 
Announcement of meeting, 27. 
Delegation from U.S., listed, 282. 
Report of meeting, by Mr. Loftus, 576. 
Peurifoy, John E, appointment as Deputy Assistant 

Secretary of State for administration, 215. 
Philippine Alien Property Administration, establishment 

(Ex, Or. 9818), 130. 
Philippines: 
Agriculture situation in, summai^y of report by Mr. 

Boonstra, 719. 
Aid from U.S., 962. 

Bonds, pre-1934, delivered to U.S. for destraction, 767. 
Corporations in, holders of securities required to pre- 
sent records, 451. 
Financial Commission, American-Philippine, Joint, ap- 
pointments, 130, 218. 
Foreign Affairs Training Program in U.S., 718. 
Military mission from U.S., proposed, 554. 
Non-demilitarized combat materiel, purchase from U.S., 

322. 
Property of U.S. nationals removed by the enemy, re- 
quest for proof of ownership, 675. 
Republic of, one year of, article by Mr. Mill, 1273. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 
Conciliation, with U.S. (1946), transmittal to Senate, 

with report, 254. 
Consular convention, with U.S., transmittal to Senate, 

with report, 1179. 
Military bases, establishment of, with U.S., signature, 

554. 
Trade, with U.S. (1946), and protocol, entry into 
force, 129. 
U.S. Ambassador (O'Neal), appointment, 1240. 
Vessels entering from U.S., smallpox vaccination re- 
quirements on, 177. 
Visit to U.S. of Vice President and Secretary of Foreign 
Affairs (Quirino), proposed, 822. 
Phillips, Fitzroy Donald, appointment as member of Mili- 
tary Tribunal for war criminals in Germany, 133. 

Index, January to June J 947 



PICAO (Provisional International Civil Aviation Organi- 
zation) : 
Conferences, dates of meetings, for — 

Accident Investigation Division, 26, 198, 329. 
Aeronautical Maps and Charts Division, 58, 279. 
Air Transport Committee, 6th session, 197, 610. 
Airline Operating Practices Division, 26, 329. 
Airworthiness Division, 26, 118, 388, 610. 
European-Mediterranean Special Air Traffic Control 

Conference, 329, 432, 659, 984. 
Interim Council, 117, 431, 610. 
Personnel Licensing Division, 25, 117, 197. 
Rules of the Air and Air Traffic Control Division, 
25, 57. 
Permanent organization to replace. See ICAO. 
South Pacific regional air-navigation meeting : 
Article by Colonel Swyter, 713. 
U.S. delegation, 157. 
Pike, Sumner T., appointment to Atomic Energy Com- 
mission, 774. 
Pinkerton, Lowell C, appointment as U.S. Minister to 

Lebanon, 219. 
Pipeline agreement for sale of lend-lease supplies to 

U.S.S.R., payment for articles covered by, 815. 
Pipeline contracts for sale of lend-lease supplies, defense 
of, letter from Under Secretary Clayton to Senate 
Appropriations Committee, 343. 
Plant and Animal Stocks, Subcommittee on (FAO), 1033. 
Plant diseases, prevention of spread of, unperfected con- 
vention between U.S. and Argentina (1935), with- 
drawal from Senate, 726. 
Poland : 
Aid from U.S., 961. 

Ambassador to U.S. (Winlewicz), credentials, 298. 
Elections : 

U.S. notes, and Soviet reply, 134, 164. 
U.S. position on conduct of, 251, 298. 
Gold from Portugal, requests from U.S., France, and 

U.K. regarding, 1002. 
Nationalization of industry, 28, 252. 
Polish-German frontier question : 

Establishment of boundary commission, proposed by 

Secretary Marshall, 694. 
Statements by Secretary Marshall, 693, 922. 
Polish Provisional Government of National Unity, 164, 

251. 
Property in, U.S. and other foreign, 28, 494. 
Refugee camp in Mexico, closing, 138. 
Relief to, U.S. position on, statement by Acting Secre- 
tary Acheson, 756. 
U.S. Ambassador (Lane), resignation, 636. 
U.S. attitude toward, statement by Secretary Marshall, 

298. 
U.S. Consulate at Krakow, closing, 1008. 
U.S. Consulate at Poznan, elevation to status of Vice 
Consulate, 1181. 
Policy Committee on Immigration and Naturalization 

(PIN), 1316. 
Policy Committee on International Copyright (PCC), 1316. 
Policy Planning Staff, establishment, 1007. 
Population Commission of ECOSOC, appointment of Mr. 

Hauser as U.S. representative, 155. 
Port Holart, transport of New Zealand students to U.S., 

217. 
Porter, Paul A: 

Head of U.S. economic mission to Greece, 29, 136; res- 
ignation, 823. 
Statement on aid to Greece and Turkey, 842. 
Portugal : 
Aid from U.S., f!61. 
Gold to Poland, requests from U.S., France, and U.K. 

regarding, 1002. 
U.S. Ambassador (Wiley), appointment, 823. 
Postal convention (1939), adherence by Austria, 304. 
Postal service: 
Extension of, for interchange of cultural materials be- 
tween U.S. and Austria, 540. 

1349 



Postal service — Continued. 
Non-commercial printed matter, regulations for, to U.S. 
and British zones in Germany, 448. 
Postal Union, Universal : 
Congress of, 12tli. 034. 

Convention (1939), adherence by Austria, 304. 
Potsdam agreement, U. S. position on, statement by Sec- 
retary Marshall, 564. 
Powell, Boiling R., Jr., designation in State Department, 

1008. 
Power train, lease to Mexico by U.S., agreement author- 
ized by Presidential directive, 218. 
Poznan, Poland, elevation of U. S. Consulate to status of 

Vice Consulate, 1181. 
Prentice, Edward S., article on 1st assembly of Interna- 
tional Civil Aviation Organization, 114.5. 
Preparatory Commission for IRO. See Refugee Organiza- 
tion. 
Preparatory Commission on World Food Proposals (FAO), 

247, 471. 
Preparatory Committee (of ECOSOC) for international 
conference on trade and employment: 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 
Acting Secretary Acheson, 721. 
Mr. Clayton. .587, 680. 
Mr. Thorp, 761. 
Mr. Wilcox, 288, 763. 
Articles on — 

Commercial policy, 234. 
Employment and economic activity, 187. 
Intergovernmental commodity arrangements, 266. 
Industrial development, 190. 
Organizational questions, 271. 
Restrictive business practices, 239. 
Delegations, listed, 528, 660. 
Function, 68, 630. 
Reports, 932, 989, 1208. 
President, U.S. See Truman, Harry S. 
President's term of office, proposed amendment to Con- 
stitution for : 
Letter of Acting Secretary Acheson to Governors of 

States, 635. 
Ratification by Legislature of State of Maine, 725. 
Text of joint resolution, 636. 
Press (see also Radio) : 
Coverage for Council of Foreign Ministers at Moscow : 
Soviet attitude, 199. 
U.S. repre.sentation, 286, 350. 
Freedom of: 

Addresses by Mr. Benton, 352, 591. 

Conference called, pursuant to General Assembly 

resolution, 244. 
Subcommission (of ECOSOC) on Freedom of Infor- 
mation and of the Press, 243, 244, 656. 
Information program, American, letter from Mr. Ben- 
ton to Mr. Cooper of Associated Press, 1251. 
U.S. correspondent in Spain (McMahon), U.S. protest 
to Spain regarding treatment of press credentials, 
764, 940. 
Press Association, Inland Daily, Chicago, address by Mr. 

Benton, 352. 
Press Club, Overseas, New York, address by Mr. Austin, 

474. 
Pretoria, South Africa, moving of U.S. Legation from 

Capetown to, 1181. 
Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities 

(Subcommissions on, of ECOSOC), 278, 6.56. 
Price, Bvron. appointment as Assistant Secretary-General 

of UN, 384. 
Princeton Unlveri^ity : 
Address by President Truman, 1294. 
Address by Secretary Marshall at alumni luncheon, 390. 
Printed matter, non-commercial, postal regulations for, 
to U.S. and British zones in Germany, 448. 



Prisoners of war : 

Conventions relating to treatment of, international, pro- 
posed revision, 1205. 
German : 

In France, agreement between U.S. and France on 

repatriation of, 539. 
In U.S. zone in Germany, statement by Secretary 

Marshall, 524. 
Transfer to Netherlands, 539. 
U.S. vessels made available to Italy for, 136, 165. 
Procedures and Organization, Committee on, establish- 
ment of, by General Assembly, 116. 
Proclamations : 

Arms, ammunition, and implements of war, enumeration 

of, 327. 
Fire-hose concession, withdrawal from trade agree- 
ment with Canada (1938), text, 453. 
Sugar protocol (1946), 1132. 
World War II, cessation of hostilities, 77. 
Property {see also Surplus war property) : 

Allied looted property in Japan, restitution, policy of 

Par Eastern Commission, 708. 
German, in Austria, statements by Secretary Marshall, 

571, 653. 
German diplomatic, in U.S., control of, 211. 
German external assets, discussed in summary state- 
ment by U.S. delegation at meeting of Council of 
Foreign Ministers, 609. 
Italian, in U.S., negotiations for settlement of, 1130, 

1161. 
Philippine Alien Property Administration, establish- 
ment (Ex. Or. 9818), 130. 
Polish assets in U.S., release of, 28. 
Taxation on, exemption if connected with defense, un- 
perfected convention between U.S. and U.K. (1941), 
withdrawal from Senate, 727. 
United Nations, in Japan, Far Eastern Commission 

policy regarding removal or destruction of, 986. 
U.S., in other countries. See Protection of U.S. na- 
tionals. 
Yugoslavia, negotiations with U.S. on mutual restora- 
tion of civil, 1041. 
Protection and Salvage of Artistic and Historic Monu- 
ments in War Areas, American Commission of, 358. 
Protection of Childhood, American International Institute 
for: 
Appointment of Mrs. Enochs as delegate to Council 

meeting, 823. 
Article by Mrs. Enochs, 1157. 
Protection of Foreign Interests: A Study in Diplomatic and 

Consular Practice, 1139. 
Protection of Industrial Property, International Union 

for, 250. 
Protection of Minorities and Prevention of Discrimination, 

Subcommi.ssions on, U.S. proposal on, 278. 
Protection of U.S. nationals and property (see also United 
States citizens) : 
Alien Property, Office of, instructions for filing claims 

for property in foreign countries, 1003. 
Austria, instructions for filing claims, 669. 
Czechoslovakia, enterprises nationalized in, compensa- 
tion for, 397, 1133. 
Evacuation of citizens and other nationals from Chinese 

Communist military areas, 1178. 
France, instructions for filing claims, 166, 253, 632. 
Germanv and .Tapan, restrictions on direct negotiations 

lifted, 209. 
Netherlands, in.structions for filing claims for, 632, 939. 
Philippines : 

Holders of securities in, proof of ownership requested, 

451. 
Property in, removed b.v the enemy, instructions for 
filing claims, 675. 
Poland : 
Nationalization of firms in, protests on, 252. 
Property in, instructions for filing claims, 28, 494. 



1350 



Departmenf of Stale Bulletin 



Protection of U.S. nationals and property — Continued. 
Rumanian National Bank, registration of shares In, 

133, 668. 
U.S. property in ex-enemy countries, instructions for 

filing requests for, 1161. 
Yugoslavia : 

Civil property, negotiations for mutual restoration, 

1041. 
Securities in, instructions on, 75, 133, 1219. 
Public Health Service, U.S., mission in Liberia, discussed 

by Mr. de La Rue, 548. 
Publications: 

Agriculture in the Americas, 777. 

Foreign Agriculture, 78. 

Foreign Commerce Weekly, 138, 219, 255, 360, 599, 677, 

820. 
German war documents, Anglo-American project on, 

211, 1136. 
Lists : 

Congress, U.S., 139, 219, 366, 455, 506, 600, 776, 816, 

1008, 1047, 1181, 1224, 1317. 
Department of State, 79, 270, 601, 1318. 
National Security, May 29, 1947, a Program for, Report 
of the President's Advisory Commission on Uni- 
versal Training, 1181. 
Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression, vols. II and VIII, 678, 

1008. 
NUrnlierg verdict, oflScial text of, 447. 
Peace treaties. Allies with Italy, Bulgaria, Finland, 
Hungary, and Rumania, release of advance copies, 
167. 
Protection of Foreign Interests: A Study in Diplo- 
matic and Consular Practice, 1139. 
State Department : 

Aid to Greece and Turkey, 639, 827, 943, 1001. 
Foreign Relations of the United States, The Paris 
Peace Conference, 1919, vols. V to X, 33, 178, 944. 
International Agencies in Which the United States 

Participates, 307. 
International Control of Atomic Energy: Growth of 

a Policy, 216. 
Participation of the United States Government in 

International Conferences, 307. 
Salesroom for publications, opening, 727, 823, 1009, 

1082. 
Seal of the United States, 139. 
Treaty of Versailles and After : Annotations of the 

Text of the Treaty, 504. 
United States and Non-Self -Governing Territories, 
774. 
Suppression of obscene publications, unperfected con- 
vention for (1923), withdrawal from Senate, 726. 
United Nations Documents, 929, 082, 1018, 1074, 1098, 
1154, 1198, 1272. 

Quirino, Elpidio (Vice President and Secretary of Foreign 
Affairs of the Philippines), proposed visit to U.S., 822. 

Radio : 

Algiers relay station, closing of, 623, 1134, 1135. 
Broadcasting agreement, U.S. with Cuba, negotiations, 

770. 
Broadcasting Foundation, International, 618, 1040. 
Conferences : 

Government and radio officials discuss international 

broadcasting, 951. 
International high frequency broadcasting, 749, 1034. 
International radio conference, 749, 1034. 
Marine radio aids to navigation, international meeting 

on, 330, 807. 
Telecommunications conferences. 282, 749, 1034. 
Coverage for Council of Foreign Ministers at Moscow, 

199, 350, r,2P>. 
Freedom of information, role of State Department in, 
address by Mr. Benton, 352. 

Index, January to June 1947 



Radio — Continued. 
International interchange and information act (H.R. 

3342), 624, 1315. 
Regulation of radio communications in Panama and 
Canal Zone, unperfected convention between U.S. 
and Panama (1936), withdrawn from Senate, 726. 
"Voice of America", State Department broadcasts : 
Algiers relay station, closing, 623, 1134, 1135. 
Greek-language broadcasts, inauguration of, state- 
ments by Secretary Jlarshall and others, 1036. 
Program schedules distributed for, 052. 
Recommendations and report of Radio Advisoi-y Com- 
mittee, 1038, 1039. 
Reports on Moscow conference, 526. 
U.S.S.R. : 
Russian-language broadcasts to, 252, 395. 
Statement by Mr. Benton, 624. 
Radio Advi-sory Committee : 
Membership, 1038. 

Recommendations regarding "Voice of America" pro- 
grams, and report, 1038, 1039. 
Radio Technical Commission for Marine Services 

(RTCM), proposed, 935. 
Radiology, inter-American congress of (2d), 199. 
Radius, Walter A., designation in State Department, 637. 
Railway-mounted power train to Mexico, lease of. Presi- 
dential directive authorizing agreement with Mexico, 
218. 
Ravndal, Christian M., designation in State Department, 

4.55. 
Raw materials, ECOSOC action on limitation of produc- 
tion, 690. 
Rayner, Charles B. : 

Address on international oil picture, 554. 
Statement on Anglo-American petroleum agreement, 
1169. 
Reciprocal aid. See Lend-lease. 
Reciprocal trade agreements. See Trade. 
Reciprocity Information, Committee for : 

Pulilic hearings on U.S. trade-agreement negotiations: 
Lists of products for possible tariff concessions. 399. 
Public notice, 402. 
Reconstruction, requirements of, address by Under Secre- 
tary Acheson, 991. 
Red Cross, American, food supplies to Rumania, 396, 448. 
Red Cross Committee, International, meeting of, article 

by Mr. Clattenburg, 1205. 
Reference Division, (D.R.), .507. 
Refugee Organization, International (IRQ) : 
Preparatory Commission : 
Executive Secretary (Altmeyer), 428. 
Meeting at Lausanne, designation of U.S. representa- 
tive (Warren), and delegation, 748. 
Relation to immigration, statement by Mr. Hilldring, 

1165. 
Senate Committee on Foreign Relations : 
Letter from Secretary Marshall to chairman of, 424. 
Statement by Under Secretary Acheson before, 425. 
U.S. participation in, recommendation to Congress by 

President Truman, 423. 
U.S. support of, discussed by Secretary Marsliall, 526. 
Refugees, Intergovernmental Committee on, 200. 
Refugees and displaced persons. See Displaced persons. 
Relief and rehabilitation (see also Di.splaced persons; 
Food; UNRRA) : 
Aid to Greece and Turkey. See Aid to Greece and Tur- 
key. 
Aid to people of war-devastated countries (Ex. Or. 

9864), 112.'i. 
Burma, efforts in, message from Secretary Marshall re- 
garding, 1314. 
Foreign relief bill, statement by Secretary Marshall, 

1124. 
Foreign relief program, U.S., appointment of Mr. Allen 
as field a<lministrator of, 12.")0. 

1351 



Relief and rehabilitation — Continued. 

Philippines, progress of rehabilitation program, dis- 
cussed by Mr. Mill, 1276, 1277. 
Poland, position of U.S. regarding, statement by Acting 

Secretary Acheson, 756. 
U.S. appropriation for people of liberated countries, let- 
ter from President Truman to Congress, 395. 
Yugoslavia, position of U.S., regarding, 585. 
Relief Needs, Special Technical Committee on, 23. 
Religion, freedom of. See Human Rights, Commission on. 
Reparation : 
Action of Foreign Ministers with respect to Italy, Bul- 
garia, Rumania, Hungary, and Finland, 18-1. 
Germany, statements by Secretary Marshall regarding, 

523, 563, 609, 652, 921. 
Inter-Allied Reparation Agency, 609. 
Italy, policy on, letter from Under Secretary Acheson 

to Mr. Vandenberg, 1075. 
Japan : 

Far Eastern Commission, policy decision, 433, 1069, 

1201. 
Industrial facilities, U.S. directive to SOAP on, state- 
ment by General McCoy, 674. 
Resignation of Mr. Pauley as President's personal repre- 
sentative on reparation matters, and as U.S. repre- 
sentative on Allied Commission on Reparations, 505. 
Resolution of Interparliamentary Union, 1118. 
Repatriation. See Displaced persons ; Intergovernmental 
Committee on Refugees ; Refugee Organization ; 
Prisoners of war. 
Research and Intelligence, Special Assistant to Secretary 

for (D.R.), 556. 
Research and intelligence units of State Department, re- 
organization of, 366. 
Resource conservation and utilization, scientific confer- 
ence on, U.S. draft resolution on, 476. 
Resources, national, appointment of committee to study, 

statement by President Truman, 1297. 
Restitution laws in Austria, for return of property owned 

by foreigners, 669. 
Restrepo-Jaramillo, Gonzalo, credentials as Colombian 

Ambassador to U.S., 452. 
Restrictive business practices (Committee III of 

ECOSOC), article on, 239. 
Rice, Stuart A., appointment on Statistical Commission 

of ECOSOC, 155. 
Rice Study Group (FAG), 574. 
Richraan, Frank N., appointment as member of military 

tribunals in Germany, 1133. 
Rigg, Maj. Robert B., returned by Communist captors, 

822. 
River transportation, international congress, 1067, 1200, 

1289. 
Road congresses, permanent international association of, 

1289. 
Robbins, Robert R., article on the U.S. trusteeship for 

Territory of Pacific Islands, 783. 
Robinson, Hamilton, designation in State Department, 

778. 
Rooks, Lowell W., election as Director General of UNRRA, 

177. 
Roosevelt, Mrs. Franklin D. : 
Appointment to Human Rights Commission of ECOSOC, 

155. 
Proposal on combining subcommissions. 278. 
Ross, John C, appointment as deputy to U.S. Representa- 
tive at seat of UN, 475. 
Ross, Murray, articles on meetings of ILO committees, 

120, 613. 
Rotary district, 194th, annual district conference of, Char- 
lotte, N.C., address by Mr. Villard, 997. 
Rubber : 
Agreements, between U.S. and Ecuador, Haiti, and Bo- 
livia (1942), expiration, 75. 
Necessity for continuing controls on, 364. 
Rubber Study Group, International. 1292. 
Rubin, Seymour J., designation in State Department, 455. 

1352 



Rumania : 
Aid from U.S., 062. 
Appointment of Mr. Dunham as U.S. public affairs 

ofBcer at Bucharest, 777. 
Food supplies from American Red Cross, 396, 448. 
National Bank, registration of shares by U.S. citizens, 

133, 668. 
Nationalization of industry in, 1218. 
Peace treaty, with Allies : 

Letter froiu President Truman to Secretary Marshall, 

urging approval of, 1075. 
Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, statements 

by Secretary Marshall and Mr. Byrnes, 486. 
Signature by U.S., 199. 
Statement by President Truman, on unfulfilled Yalta 

commitments, 1214. 
Text : Advance copy of, release, 167 ; completion of, 
article summarizing work of Council of Foreign 
Ministers, 183; summary, 1081. 
Transmittal to Senate, 541. 
Rusk, Dean, appointment as Director of Office of Special 
Political Affairs, 475, 579. 

Sady, Emil J., report on the South Seas conference, and 
analysis of agreement establishing South Pacific 
Commission, 459. 
St. Lawrence seaway and power project : 
Relation to national security, 1126, 1128. 
Remarks by President Truman, 1212. 
Salisbury, Morse, article on International Emergency 

Food Council, 334. 
Salt Fish Working I'arty, ad hoc (FAO), 707. 
Samoa, report to Congress by Secretary Marshall on pro- 
posed administration of, 1312. 
Samoa, Western, proposed Trusteeship Council mission 

to, 1091. 
Sandifer, Durward V., designation in State Department, 

366. 
Sanitary Bureau, Pan American, 27, 809. 
Sanitary conferences, Pan American. See Pan American. 
Sanitary convention concerning maritime travel (1926), 
unperfected modification of (1938), withdrawal from 
Senate, 727. 
Sanitary Institute, Royal, 51st congress, 1067, 1113. 
Satterthwaite, Joseph C, appointment as chief of diplo- 
matic mission to Nepal, and as President's personal 
representative with rank of Minister, 598. 
Saudi Arabia : 
Aid from U.S., 962. 
Arab League, membership, 963. 
Crown Prince (Amir Saud), visit to U.S., 167. 
Palestine situation, letter from Minister (Al-Faqih), 
to UN, regarding special session of General As- 
sembly for, 797. 
Railroad pro.lect by U.S. firm, in, approval, 506. 
Sault Ste. Marie, airfield at, U.S.-Canadian agreement 

concerning, 775. 
Savage, Carlton, designation in Policy Planning Staff, 

1007. 
Sayre, Francis B., appointment as U.S. representative on 

Trusteeship Council of UN, 430, 521, 1090. 
SCAP (Supreme Commander for Allied Powers) : 
Commercial banking in Japan, 718. 
Delivery of Japanese vessels to Four Powers, 717. 
Implementation of policies of Far Eastern Commission, 
on — 
Allied trade representatives in Japan, 611. 
Atomic-energy research and activity in Japan, 434. 
Controls for Japan to relieve world shortages, 574, 

1041. 
Destination of Japanese exports, 1068. 
Destruction or removal of UN property in Japan, 986. 
Japanese constitution, new, 612, 802, 804. 
Japanese educational system, revision of, 746. 
Japanese imports, source of, 1067. 
Peaceful needs of Japan, 806. 

Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



SOAP— Continued. 
Implementation of policies of Far Eastern Commission, 
on — Continued. 
Reparation, 433, 1069, 1201. 
War criminals in Far East, 804. 
Interim directive from U.S. Government regarding 
transfer of Japanese industrial facilities to de- 
vastated countries, discussed by General McCoy, 
674. 
Non-military activities in Japan and Korea, reports of 

General Headquarters, 129, 209, 507. 
Progress of occupation of Japan under, discussed by 

Mr. Atcheson, 596. 
Searcli in Japan for property removed from Philippines 
by the enemy, 675. 
Science, exchange of information between U.S. and 
U.S.S.R., letter from Ambassador Smith to Foreign 
Minister Molotov, 393. 
Scientific, educational, and cultural cooperation program, 

U.S., in Mexico, 1004. 
Scientific and Cultural Cooperation, Inter-Departmental 
Committee on, aviation training program for foreign 
students, 626. 
Scientific conference on resource conservation and utiliza- 
tion, 476. 
Scientific services, joint, outside Western Hemisphere, 
proposed in international interchange and information 
act, 624. 
Scientific Unions, international council of. Executive 

Committee, 931, 1113, 1290. 
Seal of the United States, relea.se of publication, 139. 
Seamen, sickness insurance for, unperfected draft con- 
vention concerning (1936), withdrawal from Senate, 
726. 
Sears, Charles B., appointment as member of military 

tribunals in Germany, 1133. 
Secretary of State. See Byrnes, James F. ; Marshall, 

George C. 
Secretary of State, control of German diplomatic docu- 

- ments (under Ex. Or. 9760), 211. 
Securities. See Property. 
Security Council of UN : 
Armaments and armed forces, regulation and reduction 
of, action of Council on. See Armaments ; Arms. 
Atomic energy agreements, resolution for drafting, text 
of letter of transmittal from president of Security 
Council to chairman of Atomic Energy Commission, 
572. 
Atomic Energy Commission, 1st report : 
Excerpts from, and letters, 105, 106. 
Summary by Secretary-General (Lie), 386. 
Corfu Channel, incidents in, summary statements by 

Secretary-General (Lie), 196, 386, 527, 6.57, 799. 
Greek border incidents, commission of investigation for. 

See Investigation, Commission of. 
Transportation of remains from U.S., of former Brazil- 
ian representative (Leao Velloso), 214. 
Trusteeship of former Japanese mandated islands. See 

Mandated islands. 
U.S. representative, (Austin). See Austin, Warren R. 
Voting procedure, resolution on, 115. 
Selective Service Act, functions of Office of Legal Adviser 
relating to legal services for administration of (D.R.), 
779. 
Senate, U.S. See Congress. 
Sharman, Col. C. H. L., remarks at 4th .session of ECOSOC, 

687. 
Ship sales act, proposal for extension of, 1225, 1226. 
Shipping (.fee also Vessels) : 
Danube, free navigation on, 491, .543. 
Maritime Consultative Council, Provisional, 1st meet- 
ing, 103.5. 
Red Cross, American, facilities for mission in Rumania, 

448. 
U.S. Maritime Commission, 340, 1007. 1225, 1226. 
Short-wave broadcasting conference, plans for, 282. 

Index, January to June 1947 



Siam : 
Air-transport agreement, with U.S., signature, 450. 
Ambassador to U.S. (Prince Wan Waithayakon), cre- 
dentials, 767. 
Elevation of U.S. Legation at Bangkok to Embassy, 599, 

1008. 
U.S. Ambassador (Stanton), appointment, 823. 
Simmons, John P., appointment as U.S. Ambassador to 

Ecuador, 823. 
Simonpietri, Andr^, article on geography and history as- 
sembly in Caracas, 62. 
Smallpox vaccination certificates, requirements for per- 
sons on U.S. vessels entering Philippine ports, 177. 
Smith, Durand, article on Great Lakes fisheries conven- 
tion, 643. 
Smith, Henry Lee, Jr., designation iu State Department, 

579. 
Smith, W. Bedell (U.S. Ambassador to U.S.S.R.), letter to 
Foreign Minister Molotov, on cultural exchanges with 
U.S.S.R., 393. 
Snow, Conrad E., designation in State Department, 455. 
Social Commission of ECOSOC, 155. 

Social Security, Inter-American Committee on, meeting of 
Medical and Statistical Commissions on, article by 
Mr. Cohen, 337. 
Soil Erosion Control, Panel on (PAG), 931. 
Sophoulis, Themistocles (Leader of Greek Parliamentary- 
Opposition), message to President Truman, regard- 
ing U.S. aid to Greece, text, 538. 
South Africa, double-taxation convention, with U.S., sig- 
nature, 727. 
South American regional air-navigation meeting (ICAO), 

1293. 
South Atlantic regional air-navigation meeting (ICAO), 

1293. 
South Pacific Commission, establishment of, 51, 459. 
South Pacific regional air-navigation meeting (PICAO) : 
Article by Colonel Swyter, 713. 
U.S. delegation, 157. 
South Seas conference, report by Mr. Sady, 459. 
Soviet-American Commission, Joint. See Korea, Joint 

Commission for. 
Soviet Union. See Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. 
Spain : 
Aid from U.S., 961. 
Debarment from ICAO, 1025, 1147. 
Fi-anco regime, position of UN members on, 115. 
Press credentials of U.S. correspondent (McMahon), 
U.S. protest on Spanish treatment, 764, 940. 
Speight, John Joshua, appointment to Military Tribunal 

for major war criminals in Germany, 133. 
Spencer, Richard, appointment as U.S. observer at con- 
ference of International Union for the Protection of 
Industrial Property, 250. 
Stabilization of rate of exchange agreement between U.S. 

and Mexico (1941), negotiations, 937, 1043. 
Staff Benefits, Committee on, establishment of, by Gen- 
eral Assembly, 116. 
Stanton, Edward F., appointment as U.S. Ambassador to 

Siam, 823. 
State Department (see also Departmental regulations; 
Executive orders; Radio) : 
Appointment of — 
Armour, Norman, as Assistant Secretary for European 
affairs and for American republic affairs, 1253. 
Lovett, Robert A., as Under Secretary, 1181. 
Marshal], George C, as Secretary of S'tate, S3, 177. 
Norton, Garrison, as Assistant Secretary, 637. 
Peurifoy, John E., as Deputy Assistant, 215. 
Thorp, Willard L., as Assistant Secretary, 258. 
Contacts with Department of Justice regarding immi- 
gration and visa matters (D. R.), 78. 
Items submitted to Senate Committee on Foreign Re- 
lations for consideration, listed, 284. 
Joint agreement, with War, Navy, and Interior Depart- 
ments, on proposed administration of Guam, Samoa, 
and Pacific Islands, 1312. 

1353 



state Department — Continued. 
Joint program, with War and Navy Departments, for 
interchange of U.S. persons with Germany and 
Austria, 666. 
Joint request, with War and Navy Departments, for 
Presidential authority to detail military and naval 
missions, statement by Secretary Marshall, 1175. 
Joint statement, with War and Navy Departments, on 

U.S. policy on German youth activities, 294. 
Eesignation of — 
Acheson, Dean, as Under Secretary, 1046. 
Braden, Spruille, as Assistant Secretary, 1180. 
Byrnes, James F., as Secretary of State, 86. 
Hilldring, John H., as Assistant Secretary, 1307. 
Secretary of State, resignation of Mr. Byrnes and ap- 
pointment of Mr. Marshall, 83, 86, 177. 
Under Secretaries and Assistant Secretaries of, provi- 
sions authorizing offices of, dates of termination, 
1253. 
State trading and totalitarian economies, article bv Mr 

McGhee, 371. 
Statements, addresses, and broadcasts of the week listed 

31, 74, 116, 216, 403, 506, 543, 599, 637, 671. 
State- War-Navy Coordinating Committee (SWNCC), 358 
Statistical Commission of ECOSOC, 155, 934. 
Statistical Commission of Inter-American Committee on 
Social Security, meeting of, article by Mr. Cohen, 337 
Statistical Institute, International, 25th session, 933. 
Statistics, economic, unperfected convention relating to 

and protocol (1928), withdrawal from Senate, 726. 
Stelle, Charles C, designation in State Department, 1181. 
Stevens, Arthur G., designation in State Department, 1008. 
Stewart, Allan, appointment as public-affairs officer in 

Cuba, 579. 
Stimson, Henry L., telegram to Secretary Marshall re- 
garding wool bill, 1229. 
Stinebower, Leroy D., statements on accomplishments of 

4th session of ECOSOC, 655. 
Stone. Rear Admiral Ellery W., commendation by Presi- 
dent Truman on service in Italy, 287. 
Strauss, Lewis L:, appointment as member of Atomic 

Energy Commission, 774. 
Stuart, Arthur W., appointment on Joint American- 
Philippine Financial Commission, 218. 
Sugar: 

International cooperation in, article by Mrs. Mulliken, 

43, 533. 
Status of industry in Philippines, 719. 
World shortage, discussed by President Truman, 363 
Sugar, regulation of production and marketing, interna- 
tional agreement (1937), protocol prolonging (1946) : 
Proclamation, 1132. 

Transmittal to Senate, with report, .552 
Sugar Council, International, 1033, 1156, 1289. 
Summers, Lionel M., designation in State Department 

455. 
Supreme Commander for Allied Powers. See SCAP. 
Supreme Economic Council of Allied and Associated Pow- 
ers, 1019, article by Mi.ss Axton, 944 
Surplus Property Act, 256, 820. 

Surplus war property, disposal {see also Lend-lease) : 
Air rights, conclusion of agreements with various coun- 
tries, 766. 
Conversations with Iranian mission, 720 
Credit to Hungary, 341, 1166. 
Discussed in study of aid to foreign countries, 957. 
Foreign Liquidation Commi-ssioner, investigation of 
Canol-1 pro.1ect, report by Secretary Byrnes to 
Congress, 256. 
Funds from sales abroad, to finance exchange-student 

program under Fulbright Act, 364. 
Non-demilitarized combat matfn-iel, sales and transfer 
of, report of, transmittal to Congress by Secretary 
Marshall, 322. 
Reports to Congress, 255, 820, 952. 
Ship Sales Act, extension of, statement by Under Secre- 
tary Clayton, 1226. 

1354 



Surplus war property, disposal — Continued. 

U.S. vessels to be made available to Italy, 136, 165. 
Sweden : 
Agreements, with U.S. : 

Non-immigrant visa agreement, with U.S. (1947), 

entry into force, 1203. 
Reciprocal trade agreement, with U.S. (1935), dis- 
cussion of Swedish import restrictions, 633, 767, 
938, 939, 1311. 
Import restrictions, discussions with U.S. regarding, 

633, 767, 938, 039, 1311. 
Students from U.S., to study in, 253. 
SWNCC, memorandum of State Department member of, 
regarding return of looted objects of art to country 
of origin, 358. 
Swyter, Col. Carl, article on PICAO South Pacific regional 

air navigation meeting, 713. 
Syria : 
Aid from U.S., 962. 

Air-transport agreement, with U.S., signature, 948, 996. 
Arab League, membership, 963. 
Articles of agreement of International Bank and Fund, 

signature and acceptance, 749. 
Palestine situation, telegram to UN regarding special 

session of General Assembly for, 797. 
U.S. Minister (Ailing), appointment, 823. 

Tanganyika, foreign nationals in, petition to Trusteeship 
Council, discussed in article by Mr. Wellons and Mr. 
Yeomans, 1094. 
Tariff : 

Draft agreement, drawn up by ITO Preparatory Com- 
mission, 1208. 
Possible concessions on products, by U.S. in trade- 
agreement negotiations with certain other countries, 
399. 
Reduction of, U.S. policy on : 
Address by Mr. Wilcox, 289. 

Exchange of letters between Under Secretary Clayton 
and Senator Butler, 161. 
U.S.-Canadian, discussed by Mr. Dougall, 1189. 
Tariff Commission, U.S., powers of, regarding administra- 
tion of reciprocal trade-agreements program (Ex. Or. 
9832), 436. 
Tax, property. See Property. 
Taxation. See Double taxation. 

Taxation, exemption if connected with defense, unper- 
fected convention between U.S. and U.K. (1941), with- 
drawal from Senate. 727. 
Taxation, U.S.-Canadian agreements concerning, dis- 
cussed by Mr. Dougall, 1189. 
Taylor, Laurence W., designation in State Department, 

579. 
TCC (Telecommunications Coordinating Committee), 

550, 677. 
Technical Committee, Special, establishment of, by Gen- 
eral Assembly, 116. 
Telecommunication Union, International : 

Designation as organization entitled to enjoy certain 
privileges, exemptions, and immunities (Ex. Or. 
9863), 1120. 
International Bureau of, conferences to revise telecom- 
munications agreements. See Telecommunications 
conferences. 
Telecommunications (see also Radio) : 

Civilian communication service between United States 
and British and U.S. zones in Germanv, opening, 
671. 
Conferences : 
Experts on, Preparatory Conference of, 658. 
International plenipotentiary : 
Appointment of Mr. Norton as chairman, 749. 
Arrangements. 282. 749, 1034. 
World telecommunications conferences, plans for, 282. 
Telecommunications Advisory Committee, 25, 245, 431, 
707. 

Department of Stale Bulletin 



Telecommunications Coordinating Committee, discussions 
on merger of U.S. carriers engaged in international 
communication service, 55(), 677. 
Territory of the Pacific Islands. See Mandated islands; 

Trusteeship. 
Textile indu.stry, reduction of hours of work in, unper- 
fecfted draft convention concerning (1937), with- 
drawal from Senate, 726. 
Textiles Committee of ILO, meeting at Brussels, article 

by Mr. Ross, 613. 
Thayer, Charles W., head of staff for Russian-language 

broadcasts to U.S.S.R., 252. 
Thompson, Tyler, designation in State Department, 367. 
Thorp, Willard L. : 
Addresses : 

Domestic economy and foreign affairs, 758. 
Foreign trade, future of, 1235. 
Appointment as Assistant Secretary of State for eco- 
nomics, 258. 
Correspondence : 
Acting Secretary Acheson, on hearings on ITO 

Charter, 721. 
Representative Eaton, on total assistance program 
to foreign countries, 896. 
Timber conference, international, 661, 976. 
Tin Study Group, International, U.S. delegation, listed, 

748. 
Tobacco, status of industry in the Philippines, 719. 
Toms, Robert Morrell, appointment by President Truman 
as member of Military Tribunal for major war crim- 
inals in Germany, 133. 
Totalitarian economies and state trading, article by Mr. 

McGhee, 371. 
Trade, international : 

Allied trade representatives in Japan, policy of Far 

Eastern Commission regarding, 611. 
AMTORG Trading Corporation, operations of, discussed 

by Mr. McGhee, 373. 
Argentine business firms, decree eliminating enemy 

control, 214. 
Conference at Geneva. See Preparatory Committee for 

international conference. 
-Decartelization law for U.S. zone in Germany, text, 443. 
Development of trade in Korea, remarks by Mr. Hill- 

dring, 546. 
Export Control Act, necessity for extension of, message 

from President Truman to Congress, 676. 
Export-import plan for Germany, status of, discussed 

by Secretary Marshall, 566. 
Export-import plan for Japan, Far Eastern Commission 

policy regarding, 1067. 
Exportation and importation of arms, ammunition, and 
implements of war, message from President Tru- 
man to Congress, transmitting draft of bill, 750. 
Germany and Japan, relaxation of restrictions by U.S. 

74, 496. 
Government and business groups discuss foreign trade, 

439. 
Import duties proposed by Congress on wool, executive 
position on, letter from Under Secretary Clayton to 
Mr. Cooley, 1084. 
Italy, revival of trade in, discussed, 165. 
Progress in Pliilippines, discussed by Mr. Mill, 1274. 
Reciprocal trade-agreements program : 
Administration of (Ex. Or. 9832), 436. 
Statements by President Truman and Under Secre- 
tary Clayton, 438. 
Restrictive business practices, article on, 239. 
Resumption of U.S. private business relations with 

Germany and .Japan, preparation for, 209. 
State trading and totalitarian economies, article by Mr. 

McGhee, 371. 
Trade Agreements Act : 

Congressional hearings on, statement by Under Sec- 
retary Clayton, 627. 

Index, January to June 1947 



Trade, international — Continued. 
Trade Agreements Act — Continued. 
Negotiations under: 

Discussed by Mr. Wilcox, 289. 

Exchange of letters between Senator Butler and 
Under Secretary Clayton, 161. 
Trade unions in Japan, discussed by Mr. Atcheson, 597. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. (see also Treaties) : 

U.S. and: Canada, 137, 453; Paraguay, 543; Philip- 
pines, 129; Sweden, 633, 767, 938, 939, 1311. 
U.S. and other countries, public hearings on nego- 
tiations, and supplementary lists of products, 399. 
U.S. policy, addresses and statements, by : Mr. Nitze, 
301 ; Mr. Thorp, 701, 12.35 ; President Truman, 124, 
481 ; Mr. Wilcox, 288. 
Trade Agreements, Interdepartmental Committee on, (Ex. 

Or. 9832), 437. 
Trade Organization, International (ITO) : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 
Acting Secretary Acheson, 721. 
Secretary Byrnes, 104. 
Mr. Clayton. 587, 630. 
Secretary Marshall, 1041. 
Mr. Thorp, 1236. 
President Truman. 483. 
Mr. Wilcox, 288, 586. 
Charter: 

Articles by Mr. McGhee, 372, 1195. 

Draft, suggested by U.S., 271. 

Hearings: announcement of, 68, 257, 280, 389; report 

on, 721, 722. 
Redrafted at London, summary of provisions, 69. 
Organization chart, proposed, 273. 
Preparatory Committee of ECOSOC. See Preparatory 

Committee. 
Trade-agreements negotiations, relation to, exchange of 
letters between Senator Butler and Under Secre- 
tary Clayton, 163. 
Trade-marks. See Industrial property. 
Trade mission to India, question of, letter from Under 

Secretary Clayton to Representative Celler, 208. 
Trading With the Enemy Act, lifting of license restrictions 
for trade and communication with Germany and 
Japan, under, 496. 
Training Services, Division of, transfer of functions and 

personnel to Foreign Service Institute, 549. 
Transjordan, Arab League, membership, 963. 
Transport, ILO Industrial Committee on Inland, 2d ses- 
sion, U.S. Delegation listed, 982. 
Transport and communications : 

Assistant Secretary of State for, appointment of Mr. 

Norton, 637. 
Director of Office of, appointment of Mr. Radius, 637. 
Promotion of world understanding through, address by 
Mr. Norton, 1241. 
Transport and Communications Commission of ECOSOC, 

155. \ 

Transportation : 

Danube, free navigation on, 491, 543. 

European Central Inland Transport Organization 

(ECITO), 4, 60, 977, 1031. 
Lease of railway-mounted power train to Mexico, agree- 
ment with U. S., Presidential directive authorizing, 
218. 
Railroad project in Saudi Arabia, 506. 
Travel grants. See Education. 

Travel to Europe, lifting of passport restrictions for pleas- 
ure trips of U.S. citizens to, 342. 
Treasury Department : 

Destruction of pre-1934 Philippine bonds, 767. 
Removal of controls on importation of currency, 671. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Aid to Greece, with Greece, text, 1300. 

Arab League, establishment of (1945), texts, 966. 

1355 



Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued. 
Atomic energy agreements, resolution for drafting, 
transmittal from president of Security Council 
(Aranha), to chairman of Atomic Energy Commis- 
sion (Gromyko), 572. 
Aviation : 

Air rights, involving disposal of surplus war prop- 
erty, with various countries, conclusion, 766. 
Air transport, U.S. with: Argentina (1946), signature, 
938, 1003; Canada (1945), modifications, 256, 775; 
Chile, signature, 1044 ; China, signature, 30; Ecua- 
dor, signature, 214; Greece (1946), entry into 
force, 1166; Ireland (1945), exchange of notes, 
1166 ; Paraguay, signature, 504 ; Peru, signature, 
31 ; Siam, signature, 450 ; South Africa, signature, 
1137 ; Syria, signature, 948, 996. 
Air-transport agreements, reciprocity principle in, dis- 
cussed by Secretary Marshall, 1220. 
Chicago aviation agreements : 
Air transport (1944), withdrawal by China, 506. 
Interim agreement (1944), acceptance by Iran, 506. 
Fifth Freedom air rights at Ceylon, interim agree- 
ment, approval by British Ministry of Civil Avia- 
tion, 449. 
ICAO, entry into force, and status, 530. 
Broadcasting agreement, with Cuba (1937), negotia- 
tions, 770. 
Canol-1 project, disposition of, with Canada, report to 

Congress by Secretary Byrnes, 256. 
Coffee agreement, inter- American (1940), protocol ex- 
tending: 
Article by Mr. Havemeyer, 378. 
Proclamation, 727. 

Transmittal to Senate, with report, 213. 
Commerce and friendship, with Nepal, signature, 598, 

949. 
Commercial treaty, new, with Italy, proposed, 16.5. 
Conciliation treaty, with Philippines (1946), transmittal 

to Senate, with report, 254. 
Consular convention, with Philippines, transmittal to 

Senate, with report, 1179. 
Copyright agreement, with New Zealand, exchange of 

notes for extension of time on, 948. 
Copyright convention, inter-American, entry into force, 

953. 
Copyright extension, with France, negotiations, 632. 
Defense sites in Panama, use of, with Panama (1942), 

new agreement proposed, 1003. 
Double-taxation conventions, U.S. and — 

Denmark, draft convention, negotiations, 138, 360. 
Prance (1946), ratification, transmittal to Senate, 

with report, 174. 
Mexico, negotiations, 937. 
New Zealand, negotiations, 1046. 
South Africa, signature, 727. 
Exchange-student program agreements, with foreign 

countries, negotiations, 364. 
Food supply, with Haiti (1944), extension, signature, 75. 
Four Power Naval Commission, establishment of, dis- 
posal of excess units of Italian fleet, and return 
by U.S.S.R. of warships on loan, protocol, signature, 
815. 
Four Power pact for disarmament of Germany, U.S. 
proposal, discussed by Secretary Marshall, 742, 
793, 922. 
Fox-fur quota, supplementary, with Canada (1940), 

termination, 678. 
Friendship, commerce, and navigation, with China, 
with protocol (1946), transmittal to Congress, with 
report, 672. 
Friendship, commerce, and navigation, with India, 
question of, letter from Under Secretary Clayton to 
Representative Celler, 208. 
Friendship and alliance, China and U.S.S.R. (1945), 
U.S. attitude on implementation of provisions re- 
garding Dairen, 127. 

1356 



Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued. 

Functions in Office of Legal Adviser relating to legal 

services for (D.R.), 779. 
German disarmament and demilitarization, U.S. pro- 
posals for a Four Power treaty reiterated, 742, 793, 
922. 
Great Lakes fisheries convention, with Canada, signa- 
ture (1946), ratification awaited, 644. 
Greenland, defense of, with Denmark (1941), revision 

proposed, statement by Secretary Marshall, 1130. 
Health, Public, International Ofiice of, Rome agreement 
(1907), protocol concerning termination of, and 
transfer of functions to WHO, transmittal to Con- 
gress, with report, 381. 
Hyde Park agreement, with Canada (1941), discussed 

by Mr. Dougall, 1185. 
Immigration arrangements, with Mexico, recommenda- 
tions, 303. 
Industrial property, restoration of certain rights af- 
fected bv World War II, with France, signature, 
725. 
International Bank for Reconstruction and Develoj)- 
ment, articles of agreement of: 
Countries eligible to but failing to sign before Jan. 

1, 1947 : 198. 
Signatures and acceptances, by: Colombia, 24, 198; 
Italy, Lebanon, and Syria, 749; Turkey, 533; 
Venezuela, 24, 217. 
Status, 533. 
International Monetary Fund, articles of agreement : 
Signatures and acceptances, by : Italy, Lebanon, and 

Syria, 749 ; Turkey, 533 ; Venezuela, 24, 217. 
Status, 533. 
Land-Leathers, with U.K. (1944), statement by Under 

Secretary Clayton on legal aspects of, 347. 
Lend-lease, settlement of, with — 
China, negotiations, 948. 
Italy, negotiations, 1130. 
Netherlands, signature, 1131. 
U.K. (Land-Leathers agreement, 1942), legal aspects 

of, 347. 
U.S.S.R., negotiations, 343, 348, 767, 814. 
Yugoslavia, negotiations, 1041. 
Military bases, establishment of, with Philippines, 

signature, 554. 
Military holdings agreement, with U.K. (1946), report 
to Congress on lend-lease retransfers under, 324. 
Montreaux convention (1936), proposals for revision 

of, discussed by Mr. Howard, 143. 
Mutual assistance, American republics, attitude of 

Argentina, 1177. 
Narcotic drugs, protocol amending previous agreements 

(1946), transmittal to Senate, with report, 817. 
Nature protection and wildlife preservation in Western 

Hemisphere (1940), ratification by Peru, 302. 
Nonimmigrant visa agreement, with Sweden (1947), 

entry into force, 1203. 
Obsolete treaties, list of, withdrawal from Senate, 726. 
Patent, with France, discussions, 449. 
Patent and trade-mark regulations, extension of time 

limits involved, proposed, 2.50. 
Patents, German-owned, multilateral agreement, ac- 
cord on treatment of (1946), entry into force, and 
signatories, 434. 
Peace treaties. See Austria, Bulgaria, Finland, Ger- 
many, Hungary, Italy, Rumania. 
Petroleum agreement, with U.K. (1944), testimony 
before Senate Foreign Relations Committee, 1167, 
1169. 
Pipeline, for sale of lend-lease supplies, with U.S.S.R. 
(1945), negotiations for payment of articles under, 
814. 
Postal convention (1939), adherence by Austria, 304. 
Radio relay stations at Algiers, closing of, negotiations 
with France, 623. 

Department of State Bulletin 



Treaties, agreements, etc. — Continued. 
Bailway-mounted power train to Mexico, lease of, witli 

Mexico, Presidential directive authorizing, 218. 
Refugee camp for Poles in Mexico, agreement between 

Poland and Mexico (1942), termination, 138. 
Repatriation of German prisoners of war in France, 

with France, conclusion, 539. 
Rubber purchasing agreements, with Bolivia, Ecuador, 

and Haiti (1942), expiration, 75. 
South Pacific Commission, establishment of, signature, 

and analysis of agreement by Mr. Sady, 459. 
Stabilization of rate of exchange, with Mexico (1941), 

negotiations, 937, 1043. 
Sugar, international agreement regarding production 
and marketing (1937), protocol prolonging (1946) : 
Proclamation, 1132. 

Transmittal to Senate, with report, 552. 
Surplus war property, with : Hungary, 341, 1166; Neth- 
erlands, signature, 1131 ; Various countries, regard- 
ing air rights, conclusion, 766. 
Telecommunication agreements, revision of, world tele- 
communications conferences on, 282, 749, 1034. 
Trade, with Canada (1938), withdrawal of concession 

on linen fire hose, 137 ; text of proclamation, 453. 
Trade, with Paraguay (1946), entry into force, 543. 
Trade, with Philippines (1946), and protocol, entry into 

force, 129. 
Trade agreement, with Sweden (1935), discussion of 
Swedish import restrictions, 633, 767, 938, 939, 1311. 
Trade agreements : 

Act, exchange of letters between Senator Butler and 

Under Secretary Clayton, 161. 
Administration (Ex. Or. 9832), 436. 
Hearings, 399. 

Statement by Under Secretary Clayton, 627. 
Trade negotiations, action by Preparatory Committee 
for international conference on trade and employ- 
ment, 933, 9S9, 1208. 
Trade-marks, inter- American registration of (1920), 

denunciation of protocol by Panama, 257. 
Trusteeship agreements. See Trusteeship. 
United Nations, specialized agencies of, signature of pro- 
tocol establishing: 
FAO, 250, 1317. 
ILO, 24. 

UNESCO, 250, 1317. 
Unperfected treaties, list of, withdrawal from Senate, 

726. 
Whaling, international agreement (1937), protocols 
amending (1946 and 1947), transmittal to Senate, 
with reports, 771, 772, 1005. 
Wheat, international, negotiations on, 61, 250, 471, 533, 

1057. 
Wildlife preservation and nature protection in Western 
Hemisphere (1940), ratification by Peru, 302. 
Treaty of Versailles and After: Annotoftions of the Text 

of the Treaty, publication, 504. 
Trieste : 
Map showing boundaries of, 1264. 

Regime of Free Territory of, attitude of Foreign Min- 
isters toward recommendations of Paris Peace Con- 
ference, 184. 
Report of Trieste Commission, 609. 
Settlement, U.S. position, discussed by Mr. Byrnes, 488. 
Tripartite Commission for Restitution of Monetary Gold, 
appointment of Mr. Daspit as deputy U.S. member 
of, 668. 
Trujillo, Jos^ Vicent (Foreign Minister of Ecuador), 

visit to U.S., 76. 
Truman, Harry S. : 
Addresses, statements, etc. : 

Baylor University, on receiving degree of Doctor of 

Laws, 481. 
Britisli fuel emergency, 340. 
Canada, relations with, 1210. 

Index, January to June 1947 



Truman, Harry S. — Continued. 

Addresses, statements, etc. — Continued. 
Effect of foreign aid on domestic economy, committee 

to study, creation of, 1297. 
Good-neighbor policy, 498. 
Greece and Turkey, aid to, 537, 833, 1070. 
Italy, new era for, 1214. 
Mexico : 

Aid to, in fighting foot-and-mouth disease, 454. 
Greeting to President Alemdn, 936. 
Stabilization of rate of exchange, 937. 
Palestine problem, 449, 1154. 
Poland, credentials of Ambassador to U.S. (Winie- 

wicz), 299. 
Rumania, food supplies to, 396. 
Rumania, Hungary, and Bulgaria, ratification of 

peace treaties, 1214. 
Trade, world, 481. 

Trade-agreements program, reciprocal, 438. 
Universal training, 1294. 
World War II, cessation of hostilities, 77. 
Correspondence : 

Greek Ambassador to U.S. (Dendramis), on accept- 
ing credentials, 1303. 
President AlemSn of Mexico, on friendship with 

Mexico, 1043. 
Provisional President of Italian Republic (Enrico de 

Nicola), on grain shipments to Italy, 212. 
Resignation of — 

Acheson, Dean, as Under Secretary, 1046. 

Baruch, Bernard, as U.S. representative on Atomic 

Energy Commission, 49. 
Braden, Spruille, as Assistant Secretary, 1180. 
Byrnes, James F., as Secretary of State, 87. 
Hilldring, John H., as Assistant Secretary, 1307. 
Winant, John G., as U.S. representative on 
ECOSOC, 52. 
Secretary Marshall, urging approval of peace treaties 
with Italy, Rumania, Bulgaria, and Hungary, 
1075. 
Stone, Rear Admiral Ellery W., on abolition of Allied 
Commission for Italy, 287. 
Executive orders. Kee Executive orders. 
Messages to Congress : 
Aid to Greece and Turkey, 534, 829. 
Annual message, 123. 
Congress, transmitting — 

Air Coordinating Committee, 1st report, 452. 
Draft of bill to control the exportation and impor- 
tation of arms, ammunition, and implements of 
war, text, 750. 
Economic report, 125. 

Export Control Act, necessity for extension of, 676. 
Inter-American military cooperation, proposed, 

1121. 
International Refugee Organization, U.S. partici- 
pation in, recommendation on, 423. 
Lend-lease report (23d), 32. 

Relief appropriation for people of liberated coun- 
tries, 395. 
Report of operations of Department of State (under 

Public Law 584), 820. 
Report of Secretary of State on proposed adminis- 
tration of Guam, Samoa, and Pacific Islands, 
1312. 
Report of UN activities and U.S. participation, 193. 
Report on International Bank and Fund, 152. 
Suggested resolution on U.S. membership and par- 
ticipation in WHO, 702. 
UNRRA quarterly reports (9th and 10th), 215, 

1045. 
War Powers Act, 2d, extension of, 362, 1138. 
Senate, transmitting — 
Coffee agreement, inter-American (IWO), protocol 

extending, with reiwrt, 213. 
Conciliation treaty with the Philippines (1946), 
with report, 254. 

1357 



Tnimau, Harry S. — Continued. 
Messages to Congress — Continued. 
Senate, transmitting — Continued. 
Consular convention with the Philippines, with re- 
port, 1179. 
Doulile-taxation convention with France (1946) for 

ratification, with report, 174. 
FrieiKlship, commerce, and navigation treaty, with 

China, with report, 672. 
International Oflace of Public Health, protocol, with 

report, 381. 
Narcotic drugs, protocol amending previous agree- 
ments on (1946), with report, 817. 
Peace treaties, with Italy, Rumania, Bulgaria, and 

Hungary, with report, 541. 
Sugar, international agreement regarding (1946), 

with report, 552. 
Unperfected treaties, withdrawal plan for, 726. 
Whaling agreements, with reports, 771, 772, 10O5. 
Proclamations: 
Arms, ammunition, and implements of war, enumera- 
tion of, 327. 
Fire-hose concession, withdrawal from trade agree- 
ment witli Canada (1938), text, 453. 
Sugar protocol (1946), 1132. 
World War II, cessation of hostilities, 77. 
Visit to Canada, 1166. 
Trusteeship : 
Administration, proposed, of Guam, Samoa, and the 
Pacific Islands, letter from President Truman to 
Congress, with report, 1312. 
Inauguration of UN system, article by Miss Armstrong 

and Mr. Cargo, 511. 
Information From Non-Self -Governing Territories, Com- 
mittee on, 1200. 
Mandated islands, former Japanese. See Mandated is- 
lands, former Japanese, trusteeship for. 
South Pacific Commission, establishment of, 51, 459. 
Territories under trusteeship, listed, 520. 
United mates and Non-Self-Governing Territories, pub- 
lication, 774. 
Trusteeship Council of UN : 
Establishment of, 116, 511. 
First session of, article by Mr. Wellons and Mr. Yeo- 

mans, 1089. 
Inauguration of UN system, article by Miss Armstrong 

and Mr. Cargo, 511. 
U.S. representative (Sayre), 430. 
Tsaldaris, Constantine (Foreign Minister of Greece), 
message to President Truman and Secretary Mar- 
shall, requesting U.S. financial aid for Greece, 493. 
Tuberculosis, Expert Committee on, 1st meeting (WHO), 

1290. 
Tuberculosis, 7th Pan American congress on, 575. 
Tuck, S. Pinkney, appointment as U.S. Ambassador to 

Egypt, 219. 
Turkey : 
Aid from U.S. See Aid to Greece and Turkey. 
Articles of agreement of International Bank and Fund, 

signature and acceptance, 533. 
Turkish straits, developments in 1945-1946, article by 

Mr. Howard, 143. 
U.S. assistance to, since V-E Day, 962. 

Under Secretary of State for economic affairs, provision 

authorizing oiBce of, date of termination, 1253. 
UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cul- 
tural Organization) : 
Deputy Director-General (Laves), 155. 
Designation as organization entitled to enjoy certain 
privileges, exemptions, and immunities (Ex. Or. 
9863), 1120. 
Director-General (Huxley), 53. 
Discussed by Mr. Benton, 206. 

Establishment as specialized agency of UN, signature 
of protocol, 250, 1317. 



UNESCO— Continued. 
Executive Board : 

Meeting witli Negotiating Committee of WHO, re- 
port, 1022. 
Resignation of Mr. MacLeish, and appointment of 
Mr. Eisenhower as U.S. member, 749. 
Freedom of information, promotion of, discussed by Mr. 

Benton, 353. 
General Conference, meeting at Paris : 
Article by Dr. Brunauer, 1019. 
Program of, articles by Mr. Abraham, 374, 645. 
Reports : 

Mr. Benton, 20 . 
UNESCO Relations Staff, 53. 
National Commission for, 429, 647, 662, 978. 
Objectives of, discussed by Mr. Benton, 502, 662. 
Role of national commissions in relation to, 646. 
Trusteeship Council relation to, 1090. 
WHO, relation to, 53, 973, 1022. 
Union of South Africa : 
Air-transport agreement, with U.S., signature, 1137. 
U.S. Legation at Capetown moved to Pretoria, 1181. 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics : 

Activities in Hungary, exchange of notes with U.S. 

regarding, 495, 583, 1215. 
Aid from U.S., 961. 
Armaments and armed forces, reduction of, attitude on, 

114 n., 321, 698, 731. 
Cultural exchange with U.S., letter from Ambassador 

Smith to Foreign Minister Molotov, 393. 
Gromyko, Andrei A. (Soviet representative to UN), 

114 n., 321. 
Joint Soviet-American Commission. See Korea, Joint 

Commission for. 
Molotov, Vvacheslav M. (Soviet Foreign Minister), 164, 

392, 812, 905. 
Moscow conference of Council of Foreign Ministers. See 

Foreign Ministers. 
Polish elections, reply to U.S. note on, 164. 
Protest to Under Secretary Aeheson's remarks before 

Senate Atomic Energy Committee, 392. 
Request for extradition by U.S. of former Soviet Trade 

Repre.sentative in Mexico denied, 212. 
State trading, discussed by Mr. McGhee, 371. 
Treaties, agreements, etc. : 

Four Power Naval Commission, establishment of, 
disposal of Italian fleet, and return by U.S.S.R. 
of warships on loan, protocol, 815. 
Friendship and alliance, with China (1945), U.S. note 

regarding control of Dairen, 127. 
liend-lease settlement, with U.S., negotiations, 343, 

348, 767, 814. 
Pipeline agreement, for purchase of lend-lease sup- 
plies, with U.S. (1945), negotiations for payment 
of articles under, 814. 
U. S. Consulate General at Leningrad, opening, pro- 
posed, 1307. 
Vessels transferred to, by U.S., under Lend Lease Act., 

question of. 348. 
"Voice of America" broadcasts, 252, 395, 624. 
Warships on loan from U.S., protocol for return of, 
signature, 815. 
United Kingdom : 
Aid from U.S., 960. 
Attlee, C. R. (Prime Minister) : 

Message to President Truman, regarding U.S. aid in 

fuel crisis, 340. 
Statement regarding independence of India, 450. 
Bread rations, 263. 
Burma : 

Government in, settlement regarding, 2.58. 
Opium policy in, exchange of notes with U. S. on, 1283. 
Fifth Freedom air rights at Ceylon, interim, granted to 

U.S. by British Ministry of Civil Aviation^ 449. 
Fuel emergency, U.S. aid in, 340. 

German war documents, Anglo-American project on 
publication of, 211. 



1358 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



United Kingdom — Continued. 

Health Congress of Royal Sanitary Institute, 10G9. 
Incidents in Corfu Cliannel, disijute with Albania re- 
garding, 196, 3S6. 527, 657, 799. 
Non-demilitarized combat materiel, purchase from U.S., 

322. 
I'alestine situation, letter to UN regarding General 

Assembly special session on, 795. 
Proposal on FAO Constitution, 927. 
Representative to UN (Cadogan), 795. 
Tanganyika, policy in, in relationship to Trusteeship 

Council, discussed, 1094. 
Treaties, agi-eements, etc. : 

Economic merger of U.S. and British zones in Ger- 
many, with U.S. (1946), functions of British- 
American Bi-Zonal Supplies Committee in ac- 
cordance with, 29. 
Four Power Naval Commission, establishment of, dis- 
posal of Italian fleet, and return by U.S.S.R. of 
warships on loan, protocol, signature, 815. 
Land-Leathers, with U.S. (1944), statement by Under 
Secretary Clayton regarding legal aspects of, 
347. 
Lend-lease agreement, with U.S. (1944), application 

of Lend Lease Act to, 343, 347. 
Military holdings, with U.S. (1946), report on lend- 
lease retrausfers under, 324. 
Petroleum agreement, with U.S. (1944) : 
Memorandum by Mr. Fahy, 1167. 
Statement by Mr. Rayner, 1169. 
Unperfected, with U.S., on taxation exemption if con- 
nected with defense, (1941), 727. 
U.S. Ambassador (Douglas), appointment, 499. 
U.S. Ambassador (Gardner), appointment, 219. 
Vessels : 

Round-trip fueling for, in U.S. ports, 397. 
Transfer by U.S. to, under Land-Leathers agreement, 
question of, 347. 
Zone in Germany: 

BritLsh-American Bi-Zonal Supplies Committee, 29, 

131. 
Postal regulations for printed matter to, 448. 
Telecommunication service with U.S., 671. 
United Nations : 
Agreements with FAO, ILO, and UNESCO, as specialized 

agencies of, signature of protocols, 24, 250, 1317. 
Aid to Greece and Turkey from U.S., statements by Mr. 

Au.stin, 538, 834, 857,. 861, 1074. 
Armaments, Conventional, Commission for. See Arma- 
ments. 
Assistant Secretary-General, appointment of Mr. Price, 

384. 
Atomic Energy Commission. See Atomic Energy Com- 
mission. 
Cliarter of, U.S. officials meet with civic leaders in ac- 
cordance with, 953. 
Conferences, chart of, 1198. 

Coordinating Committee, Temporary, proposed, 249. 
Draft agreement with International Civil Aviation Or- 
ganization, acceptance by Commission of, 1025. 
Economic and Social Council. See ECOSOC. 
Functions in Office of Legal Adviser relating to legal 

services for (D.R.), 778. 
General Assembly. See General Assembly. 
Human Rights, Commission on. See Human Rights. 
International Court of Justice, submission of disputes 
to, discussed by Secretary Marshall in report to 
Senate, 254. 
Maritime activities of, relation to International Hydro- 
graphic Bureau, article by Rear Admirals Glover 
and Colbert, 1204. 
Military Staff Committee, 321. 
Nationals of members of. Far Eastea-n Commission 

policy on property in Japan belonging to, 986. 
Passports and frontier formalities, world conference, 
preparatory meeting for, 748, 1201. 



United Nations — Continued. 

Relief needs, special technical committee on, 23. 
Secretariat, director of Trusteeship Division of 

(Bunche), 1250. 
Secretary-General (Trygve Lie), 50, 114, 196, 385, 476, 

527, 657, 795, 799. 
Security Council. See Security Council. 
Trusteeship Council. Sec Trusteeship Council. 
Trusteeship system of, inauguration of, article by Miss 

Armstrong and Mr. Cargo, 511. 
U.S. deputy representative (Ross), 475. 
U.S. Mission to (Ex. Or. 9844), 798. 
U.S. participation in, report to Congress, 193. 
U.S. representative (Austin), 155. 
United Nations documents, 929, 982, 1018, 1074, 1098, 1154, 

1198, 1272. 
United Nations Forum, Washington, address by Mr. Wil- 
cox, 586. 
United States and Noyi-Self-Ooverning Territories, pub- 
lication, 774. 
United States citizens: 
Evacuation from Chinese Communist military areas, 

1178. 
Pleasure travel to Europe, restrictions lifted, 342. 
Property in — 
Allied countries, instructions for filing requests, 1161. 
Austria, instructions for tiling claims, 669. 
Czechoslovakia, enterprises nationalized in, compen- 
sation for, 397, 1133. 
Foreign countries, instructions for flling claims, 1003. 
France, instructions for filing claims, 166, 253, 632. 
Germany and Japan, restrictions on direct negotia- 
tions lifted, 209. 
Netherlands, instructions for filing claims, 632, 939. 
Philippines, proof of ownership requested, 451, 675. 
Poland : 

Instructions for filing claims, 28, 494. 
Nationalization of firms in, protests on, 252. 
Rumanian National Bank, registration of shares in, 

133, 668. 
Yugoslavia : 

Civil property, negotiations for mutual restoration, 

1041. 
Securities in, instructions on, 75, 133, 1219. 
Relatives and fiances of, effect of Presidential proclama- 
tion on, regarding entrance to U.S., 217. 
United States Merchant Marine Academy, 938. 
Universal military training. See Military training. 
Unperfected treaties, withdrawal from Senate, listed, 726. 
Under Secretary of State, Office of, establishment of 

Policy Planning Staff, 1007. 
UNRRA : 

Accomplishments, discussed by Mr. Thoi-p, 1236. 
Aid from U.S. distributed through, 957. 
Council sessions : 

Sixth session, article by Mr. Persinger. 159. 
Seventh session, dates, 745, 985, 1113. 
Director General of, resignation of Mr. La Guardia and 

election of General Rooks, 177. 
Post-UNRRA relief program, statements by- 
Acting Secretary Acheson, 755. 
Under Secretary Clayton, 440. 
Quarterly reports (9th and 10th), transmittal to Con- 
gress by President Truman, 215, 1045. 
UNRRA-Intergovernmental Committee on Refugees 

(IGCR), Joint Planning Committee, 25, 156, 245. 
Uruguay (see also American republics) : 
Aid from U.S., 959. 
Berreta, Tomds: 

Inauguration as President, selection of Ambassador 

McGurk to represent President Truman, 403. 
Visit to U.S., 303. 
Exchange professor, visit to U.S., 599. 
Library, U.S. — supported, 76. 
U.S. Ambassador (Howell), appointment, 823. 



Index, January to June 1947 



1359 



U.S. Junior Chamber of Commerce, national convention 
of, Long Beach, Calif., addresses by Mr. Cohen and 
Mr. Norton, 1230, 1241. 

U.S.-U.S.S.B. Commission for Korea. See Korea, Joint 
Commission for. 

Vandenberg, Arthur H., address on inauguration of Greek- 
language broadcasts, 1037. 
Venezia Giulia, military control of Zone A in, article by 

Miss Bradshaw, 1257. 
Venezuela {see also American republics) : 
Aid from U.S., 959. 

Articles of agreement of International Fund and Bank, 
signature and acceptance, 24, 217. 
Versailles, publication of treaty, 504. 
Vessels : 
Allegheny Victory, transportation of students from 

Burma, 626. 
Allocation of, by Inter-Allied Reparation Agency, dis- 
cussed, 609. 
British, in U.S. ports, round-trip fueling for, 397. 
Collisions at sea, unperfected convention regarding 

(1910), withrawal from Senate, 726. 
Disposal of excess units of Italian fleet, protocol for, 

signature, 815. 
Japanese, delivery to four powers, statement by Acting 

Secretary Acheson, 717. 
Lend-lease, to U.K. and U.S.S.R., 347, 814. 
Marine Corps LCI. evacuation of persons from Chinese 

Communist military area, 1178. 
Marine Jumper, transportation of students and teach- 
ers to Europe, 1133. 
Marine Tiger, transportation of students and teachers 

to Europe, 1133. 
Martin Behrman, U.S. statement regarding detention 

by Netherlands Indies Government, 720. 
Merchant, foreign, di.spo.sal of (Ex. Or. 9848), 1007. 
Port Hobart, transport of Nev? Zealand students to 

U.S., 217. 
Ship sales act, proposal to extend charter and sales 

authority of, 1225, 1226. 
Transfer to China, authorization to Secretary of 

Navy for (Ex. Or. 9843), 821. 
U.S. vessels entering Philippine ports, smallpox vac- 
cination requirements on, 177. 
U.S. vessels made available to Italy, 136, 165. 
Warships on loan, return by U.S.S.R., protocol for, 
signature, 815. 
Veterans, Philippine, aid to, discussed in article by Mr. 

Mill, 1280. 
Veto question in Security Council, 115. 
Villard, Henry S., address on U.S. policy in Greece and 

Turkey, 997. 
Virginia State College, Petersburg, Va., address by Mr. 

de La Rue, 548. 
Visas. See Passports. 
"Voice of America" (radio broadcasts) : 
Greek-language broadcasts, inauguration of, 1036. 
Program schedules distributed for, 952. 
Radio AdvLsory Committee, recommendations and re- 
port, 1038. 
Relay station in Algiers, closing of, 1134. 
Reports of meeting of Council of Foreign Ministers, 

526. 
Russian-langtiage broadcasts, 252, 395, 624. 
Voting procedure in Security Council, 115. 

Wadsworth, George, appointment as U.S. Ambassador to 

Iraq, 219. 
Waithayakon, Prince Wan, credentials as Siamese Am- 
bassador to U.S., 767. 
War Communications, Board of, abolishment of (Ex. Or. 

9831), 448. 
War criminals. Axis : 
Apprehension, trial, and punishment of. Far Eastern 
Commission policy on, 804. 

1360 



War criminals. Axis — Continued. 
German, number of, in U.S. zone, statement by Secre- 
tary Marshall, 524. 
Military tribunals for Germany, appointments to, 133, 

447, 1047, 1133. 
Ntirnberg trial : 

Article by Miss Fite, 9. 
Official text of verdict, publication of, 447. 
War Department : 

Exchanges of cultural materials with Austria, joint 

statement on, 540. 
Interchange of U.S. persons with Germany and Austria, 

joint program for, 666. 
Military missions, joint requests for, 1175. 
SWNCC, State Department member of, memorandum on 
return of looted objects of art to countries of origin, 
358. 
U.S. policy on German youth activities, joint statement 
on, 294. 
War documents, German, publication of: 
Anglo-American project on, 211. 

Participation of French Government in project, pro- 
posed, 1136. 
War Powers Act, 2d, extension of : 

Messages of President Truman to Congress, 362, 676, 

1138. 
Statement by Under Secretary Acheson, 1173. 
Warren, Fletcher, appointment as U.S. Ambassador to 

Paraguay, 823. 
Warren, George L., appointment as U.S. representative 

on Preparatory Commission of IRO, 748. 
Water resources, U.S.-Canadian discussions on employ- 
ment of, 216. 
Waterways, U.S.-Canadian, agreements concerning, dis- 
cussed in article by Mr. Dougall, 1191. 
Waymack, William W., appointment as member of Atomic 

Energy Commission, 774. 
Weather services, arrangements for conference of directors 

of International Meteorological Organization, 479. 
Weems, Brig. Gen. George H., U.S. representative on 
Allied Control Commission for Hungary, notes on 
Soviet activities in Hungary, 583, 1215. 
Wellons, Alfred E., article on the 1st session of the Trus- 
teeship Council, 1089. 
Wennerstrum, Charles F., appointment as member of 
military tribunal for U.S. zone of occupation in Ger- 
many, 1047. 
Wesleyan University, Middletown, Conn., address by 

Under Secretary Acheson, 1221. 
Whaling, international agreement (1937), protocols 

amending (1946 and 1947), transmittal to Senate, ■ 
with reports, 771, 772, 1005. ^ 

Whaling, international agreement for regulation of (1937), 
as amended, imperfected supplementary protocol 
amending (1945), withdrawal from Senate, 727. 
Wheat (see also Wheat Council) : 

Shipments from U.S., to: Prance, 943, 1042, 1130; Hun- 
gary, 585 ; Italy, 165, 212. 
U.S. crops for 1946: 263, 265. 

U.S. position on requests for relief shipments by Yugo- 
slavia, 585. 
U.S. sale of cereal grains to Rumania, po-ssibilities for, 

statement by President Truman, 396. 
World distribution of, article by Mr. Highby, 263. 
World needs, discus.sed in letter of President Truman to 
Congress, 363. 
Wheat Council, International : 

Conference at London to negotiate agreement : 
Arrangements, 2.50. 
Draft memorandum of agreement, article bv Mr. Lin- 

ville, 471. 
Report on conference, by Mr. Cale, 10.53. 
Text of proposed agreement, 10.57. 
U.S. delegation, 532, 639. 
Meeting at Washington (15th session), 61. 
Wheeler, Leslie A., appointment as chairman of U.S. dele- 
gation to international wheat conference, 532, 612. 

Department of State Bulletin 



Whitehouse, Frank, article on international cooperation 

(luring world shortage of lumber, 974. 
Whitelaw, John B., designation in State Department, 579. 
WHO (World Health Organization) : 

Interim Commission, 3d session, at Geneva : 
Agenda, 572. 

Article by Dr. Hyde, 971. 

Negotiating Committee, meeting with Executive Board 
of UNESCO, report, 1022. 
Pan American Sanitary Bureau, relation to, 27, 809. 
Progress report of, summary, 384. 
Transfer of functions of International Office of Public 

Health to, 333. 
UNESCO, relation to, 53, 973, 1022. 
U.S. participation in, President's transmittal of joint 
resolution to Congress, and memorandum from 
Secretary of State, 702. 
Wilcox, Clair: 

Addresses on U.S. trade program, and ITO, 288, 586, 763. 
Appointment as vice chairman of U.S. delegation to 
UN Preparatory Committee on trade and employ- 
ment, 528. 
Wildlife preservation and nature protection in Western 
Hemisphere, convention on (1940), ratification by 
Peru, 302. 
Wiley, John C, appointment as U.S. Ambassador to Por- 
tugal, 823. 
Wiley bill for Department of Peace, discussed by Mr. 

Benton, 203. 
Wilson, Carroll L., appointment as General Manager 

within Atomic Energy Commission, 774. 
Wiuant, John G., exchange of letters with President Trur 
man regarding resignation as U.S. Representative on 
BCOSOC, 52. 
Winiewicz, Josef, credentials as Polish Ambassador to 

U.S., 298. 
Women, ECOSOC Commission on Status of, 59, 155. 
Women, Inter-American Commission of, 5th assembly, 59. 
Women, traffic in, unperfected convention for suppression 

of (1933), withdrawal from Senate, 726. 
Women's Patriotic Conference on National Defense (21st), 

address by Mr. Benton, 202. 
Wood, C. Tj'ler : 
Designation in State Department, 259. 
U.S. repre.sentative at 6th session of UNRRA, 160. 
Woodward, Robert W., designation in State Department, 

778. 
Wool bill (S. 814) : 

House version of, position of — 
Hull, Cordell, letter to Secretary Marshall, 1229. 
Marshall, Secretary, letter to Mr. Aiken, 1228. 
Stimson, Henry L., telegram to Secretary Marshall, 
1229. 
State Department position : 
Letter from Under Secretary Clayton to Mr. Cooley, 
1084. 



Wool bill — Continued. 

State Department ix>sition — Continued. 
Statement by Secretary Marshall, 1137. 
Wool Study Group, International, 1st meeting: 
Article by Mr. Ives, 987. 
Proceedings, 659. 
U.S. delegation, listed, 612. 
World Affairs, 21st annual institute of Cleveland Council 

on, address by Secretary Byrnes, 87. 
World Bank. See International Bank for Reconstruction 

and Development. 
World Food Council of FAO, proposed, 249, 928. 
World Fund. See International Monetary Fund. 
World Statistical Congress, proposed in report of 4th 

session of ECOSOC, 656. 
World Trade Conference, Chicago, 111., address by Mr. 

Wilcox, 288. 
World War II : 

Cessation of hostilities, text of proclamation and state- 
ment by President Truman, 77. 
Effect of proclamation on aliens seeking entrance to 

U.S., 217. 
German war documents on, Anglo-American project on 
publication, 211, 1136. 

Yalta agreement, U.S. concern over violations of, in civil 

liberties in Bulgaria, 1218. 
Yalta commitments, unfulfilled, statement by President 
Truman, upon ratification of peace treaties with Hun- 
gary, Rumania, and Bulgaria, 1214. 
Yemen : 

U.S. Minister (Childs), appointment, 219. 
Visit of first U.S. airplane to, discussed, 1136. 
Yeomans, William L., article on the 1st session of Trus- 
teeship Council, 1089. 
Yingling, Raymund T., designation in State Department. 

455. 
Yugoslavia : 

Aid from U.S., 961. 

Border incidents, investigation of. See Investigation, 

Commission of. 
Cession of Carinthia to, question of, 923. 
Property, civil, negotiations with U.S. for mutual res- 
toration of, 1041. 
Relief to, U.S. position, 585. 

Representation at meeting of Council of Foreign Min- 
isters, statement by Secretary Marshall, 609. 
Securities of U.S. nationals in, instructions on, 75, 133, 

1219. 
U.S. Ambassador (Cannon), appointment, 825. 
U.S. Ambassador (Patterson), resignation, 636. 
U.S. Consulate at Zagreb, opening, 219. 

Zagreb, Yugoslavia, opening of U.S. Consulate, 219. 
Zones of occupation. See under Germany. 



Index, January to June 1947 



1361 



U. S, GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1947 



I 



I 



^A& ^eAa7^t7^^en{/ /(w t/iate/ 




)RT ON THE FIRST GENERAL CONFERENCE OF 

UNESCO • By Assistant Secretary Benton 20 

THE NURNBERG JUDGMENT: A SUMMARY • Article 

by Katherine B. Fite ...: 9 

THE UNITED STATES AND ECONOMIC COLLABORA- 
TION AMONG THE COUNTRIES OF EUROPE 

Article by H. van B. Cleveland 3 



Fur complete conten 



Vol. XVI, No. 392 
January 5 




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the public and interested agencies of 
the Government with information on 
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THE UNITED STATES AND ECONOMIC COLLABORATION 
AMONG THE COUNTRIES OF EUROPE 



hy E. van B. Cleveland 



The Europe-uncle character of the ■probleim of recomtruc- 
tion have given the countnes of Europe a renewed interest 
in economic collaboration. The constellation of post-tmr 
politics has given the major powers a compelling interest in 
the unity and neutrality of continental Europe. These mutu- 
ally supporting tendencies have found expression in the Eu- 
ropean emergency economic organizations and in ECOSOCs 
Temporary Subcommission on Ecoiwmi<; Recomtruction of 
Devastated Areas. Recognizing the need for a permanent 
European economic body affiliated with the United Nations, 
the United States and certain European countries have pro- 
posed the establishment of an economic commission for Eu- 
rope, under ECOSOC, to deal with the immediate problems 
of European reconstruction. This proposal was unanimously 
approved by the General Assembly and will be acted on by 
ECOSOC at its Febntary session. 



The idea of close economic collaboration among 
the nations of Europe, expressed through regional 
economic bodies of various kinds, is an old one. 
And this is not an accident. Despite the economic 
dependence of continental Europe on trade with 
the United Kingdom and with the major overseas 
trading countries, tlie intensity of international 
economic interdependence in Europe is far greater 
than in any other part of the world. Per capita, 
the people of Europe are several times more de- 
pendent on international trade than the people of 
any other continent. Before the war more than 
half of the total international trade of European 
countries was among themselves; for the countries 
of eastern and central Europe, the proportion was 
nearer three fourths. 

In spite of the compelling reality of their eco- 
nomic interdependence, tlie countries of Europe 
have for the past generation been moving in the 
opposite direction, toward economic nationalism. 
This development has been but one symptom of 
the hypernationalism and of the accompanying 
break-down of the political and economic order of 
nineteenth-century Europe which produced tlie 



two World Wars. It is worth recalling, perhaps, 
that this break-down was the result of both po- 
litical and economic factors. The growth of in- 
dustrial and military strength in Europe, the in- 
creasing range of activity of national governments 
in economic affairs, the search for economic self- 
sufficiency for militaiy reasons, and the desire to 
insulate national economies from world-wide eco- 
nomic disturbances— all contributed to the centrif- 
ugal tendencies of twentieth-centui-y European 
nationalism. 

Europe has paid dearly for its economic dis- 
unity. Despite the density of its population, the 
abundance and variety of its resources, and the 
skill of its manpower, lack of economic integi-a- 
tion has been an important factor in retarding 
the economic development of eastern and south'^ 
eastern Europe and in liolding down the average 
level of European productivity and living stand- 
ards far below those of the United Kingdom and 
North America. Thus, in 19:59, the average Amer- 
ican employed in mining and in industry produced 
goods worth two and one-half times those produced 
by the average European employed in comparable 
European industries. 



The economic condition of Europe at the end of 
World War II has given European countries a re- 
newed interest and faith in the possibilities of 
European economic collaboration. At the same 
time the post-war constellation of world politics 
has given the major powers a compelling interest 
in the unity and the neutrality of continental 
Europe. The concrete expression of these mutually 
supporting tendencies in post-war Europe in the 
18 months since liberation is the subject of this 

article. 

On V-E Day most of the continent of Europe 
was economically prostrate. In the war-devas- 
tated countries the 1945 food crop averaged only 
about 50 percent of pre-war crops. Industrial 
output was unbelievably low, and much of what 
was being produced was absorbed by the Allied 
military. Trade was at a standstill, not only be- 
cause production was so low but also because tradi- 
tional trade relations had been severed by the 
war and, in many countries, disrupted by political 
and social upheavals that wrenched control not 
only of government but also of industry and com- 
merce, from the former ruling and commercial 

classes. 

As the devastated countries of Europe set about 
the task of reviving agricultural and industrial 
production and began the physical rebuilding of 
their national capital, they were all faced with 
similar economic problems. The initial concern 
of each country was to recreate a working econ- 
omy and to provide its population with the neces- 
sities of life. Government action was concen- 
trated on the removal of the most immediate 
obstacles to essential production, such as emer- 
gency repair and rehabilitation of transport; 
Tncreased coal output; collection of food from the 
farms; and reestablishing of rationing and dis- 
tribution controls and monetary and fiscal meas- 
ures to check inflation and thus to permit revival 
of domestic commercial activity. 

There were, however, three of the most pressing 
economic problems which could be solved only by 
cooperative international action. These were the 
problems of relief, coal, and transport. The re- 
lief problem became the responsibility of UNRRA, 
shared to some extent by the Allied military 
forces. The coal and transportation problems re- 
quired the establishment of emergency machinery 

~ > For article by Wayne Jackson on the European Coal 
Organization, see Bm-T.ETiN of Deo. 2. 1945, p. 879. 



for economic collaboration among the European 
countries and the major powers. 

The coal problem was in essence the division of 
a very inadequate supply from Germany, the 
United States, the United Kingdom, and Poland, 
among the coal-importing coimtries of northern, 
western, and southern Europe, each of which re- 
quired much more coal than it had any hope of 
receiving. Shortly after V-E Day, the western 
European countries, the United States, and the 
United Kingdom established the European Coal 
Organization (ECO)^ which undertook the job 
of dividing among European countries, by mutual 
agreement, the German and American coal ex- 
ports available for Europe. Poland and Czecho- 
slovakia later joined the ECO, and a large part 
of Polish coal exports became subject to ECO 
allocation. 

The immediate international transport prob- 
lem in Europe following liberation was to re- 
establish a system of free interchange of railway 
cars across international boundaries, to arrange for 
the return of displaced rolling stock (including 
restitution of looted stock) to the owning coun- 
tries, and to allocate equitably among European 
countries surpluses of military rolling stock. 
The European Central Inland Transport Organ- 
ization (ECITO) was set up to take care of this 
job and has handled it effectively. Most European 
countries, as well as the United States, the United 
Kingdom, and the Union of Soviet Socialist Re- 
publics, are members. 

The need for equitable distribution among 
European countries of other commodities in seri- 
ously short supply (e. g. timber and alkalis) sug- 
gested the desirability of establishing the Emer- 
gency Economic Committee for Europe (EECE). 
EECE has established specialized working groups 
representing interested countries, which have 
recommended equitable methods of dividing up 
allocations of available supplies in Europe of 
timber, alkalis, oil cake, fertilizers, and other 
commodities; have arranged for the marketing of 
surplus fish supplies; and have made a small start 
in the complex problem of reviving trade between 
Germany and the rest of Europe. Through its 
public-utilities panel the EECE has been provid- 
ing coordination of electrical supplies over the 
"grid" in most of northwestern Europe, and 
has assisted in the reconstruction of lines for the 
export of power from Germany to her neighbors 

Deparfment of Stafe BuUetin • January 5, 1947 



and with measures to increase the amount of Ger- 
man power available for export. Formal mem- 
bership in EECE is confined to western and north- 
ern European countries, Greece, and Turkey, but 
Poland, Czechoslovakia, and more recently, Yugo- 
slavia, participate actively in the woi-k of its sub- 
committees. Effective working relations have 
been established with European countries which 
are not formally members. Membership in the 
EECE and ECO has always been open to the 
Union of Soviet Socialist Eepublics, which, so 
far, has not joined. 

The organizational pattern of the three "E" or- 
ganizations is significant — membership of in- 
terested continental countries plus some or all of 
the major powers. This pattern is the institu- 
tional expression, not only of the necessity for 
solving these particular economic problems on a 
Europe-wide basis and of the contribution which 
the major powers can make to their solution, but 
also of a political policy first articulated in the 
Yalta declaration : that the three major powers 
"declare their mutual agi-eement to concert . . . 
the policies of their three governments in assisting 
the peoples liberated from the domination of Nazi 
Germany and the peoples of the former Axis satel- 
lite states of Europe to solve by democratic means 
their pressing political and economic problems". 
Behind this policy lies a fundamental conviction — 
that economic collaboration among all the coun- 
tries of Europe and the practice of joint responsi- 
bility for European economic reconstruction by 
the major powers will make an important contri- 
bution to the political unity of the major powers; 
that, conversely, economic disunity in Europe, po- 
larized into an East-West split through competi- 
tive economic action by the major powers, threat- 
ens world peace. 

Although Europe is no longer a main center of 
world power, it remains the key area of friction 
and potential conflict between the great powers. 
Behind the structure of the E organizations and 
the proposed United Nations economic commis- 
sion for Europe discussed below lies the desire to 
lessen the possibilities of such conflict by pro- 
moting collaboration in economic matters among 
the major powers, together with European coun- 
tries. The same objective may also be seen in the 
provisions of the Potsdam Declaration, which 
calls for the economic unity of Germany under 
quadripartite control. The United States has 



made this principle a keystone of its German 
policy. 

The Economic and Social Council of the United 
Nations (ECOSOC) at its second session in June 
1946 took an active interest in the economic re- 
construction of Europe. A proposal, originally 
put forward by Isador Lubin, was on its agenda : 
to establish under ECOSOC a Temporary Sub- 
commission on Economic Reconstruction of Devas- 
tated Areas. This proposal, which was strongly 
supported by the United States, was unanimously 
approved by ECOSOC on June 20, and the sub- 
commission was instructed to advise ECOSOC at 
its next session concerning: 

"(a) the nature and scope of the economic re- 
construction problems [of the war-devastated 
countries of Europe and Asia], and 

"(6) the progress of reconstruction and the 
measures of international cooperation by which 
reconstruction in those countries might be effec- 
tively facilitated and accelerated". 

Recognizing the necessity for a regional ap- 
proach to the problems of economic reconstruc- 
tion, ECOSOC authorized the subcommission to 
divide itself into two working groups: one for 
Europe and Africa and the other for the Far 
East. The fii-st meeting of the subcommission was 
convened in London, July 29, 1946, to prepare a 
preliminary report on problems of European re- 
construction, the Far East being left for later con- 
sidei-ation after the third session of ECOSOC. 
The subcommission was composed of delegates 
from Australia, Belgium, Canada, China, Czecho- 
slovakia, Ethiopia, France, Greece, India, the 
Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Peru, Po- 
land, the Republic of the Philippines, the Union 
of Soviet Socialist Republics, the Ukrainian 
S.S.R., the United Kingdom, the United States, 
and Yugoslavia. The Delegate of France, M. 
Baumgartner, was designated by ECOSOC as 
chairman of the subcommission, and the Delegate 
of the United States, Isador Lubin, was elected 
by tlie subcommission as I'apporteur. 

From its first meeting, the work of the subcom- 
mission was characterized by an atmosphere of 
friendly cooperation and of concentration on the 
technical problems of European reconstruction. 
At no time during its work did any split develop 
between East and West, and all important deci- 
sions were reached unanimously. The subcommis- 
sion divided itself into three area subcommittees 



for Europe: one each for eastern, western, and 
southern Europe. From the three subcommittees 
were drawn three field teams which visited re- 
spectively France-Belgium-Luxenibourg-Nether- 
lands, Poland-Czechoslovakia, and Greece- Yugo- 
slavia. All delegations that so wished were 
represented on the teams; the United States 
Delegation was represented on each team. 

The function of the subcommittees and their 
field teams was to study the progi-ess of economic 
recovery and reconstruction in their countries and 
to prepare reports of what they found for inclu- 
sion in the subcommission's report to ECOSOC. 
The teams were instructed to obtain detailed in- 
formation from the coiuitries visited on the re- 
covery of industrial and agricultural production, 
on obstacles to inci-ease of production, on the gov- 
erimient's economic reconstruction and develop- 
ment plans and on the prospects of these plans 
being fulfilled, and, finally, on the measures of 
international collaboration required to speed up 
recovery and reconstruction. 

The field teams received excellent cooperation 
from the governments of the countries visited and 
were given full access to the economic informa- 
tion which these governments had, though in a 
number of the countries the governments found it 
difficult to provide, in the short time available, 
the information requested. The field teams pro- 
duced countrj' reports which, it was agreed by all 
the members, gave in general an objective and 
clear picture of the state of recovery, of recovery 
plans to the extent that such plans had been ac- 
tually formulated, and of the principal obstacles 
to recovery. 

The subcommission reassembled in London on 
September 1. The work of drafting a report and 
formulating recommendations to ECOSOC fell on 
a drafting committee whose membership included 
most of the European delegations and the United 
States. The secretariat of the subcommission, pro- 
vided by the United Nations Secretariat, under the 
guidance of Raoul Aglion of France, did a major 
share of the job. The most active participants in 
the work of drafting the report were the British, 
Polish, Belgian, and American Delegations, though 
all the European delegations participated to a con- 
siderable extent. 



'Copies of this report may be obtained from tbe Uiiilecl 
Natious Secretariat, I-ake Sutcess, N. Y., under tlie desig- 
nation A/147, 2ti October 1SM6. 



The subcommission's report ^ showed that most 
of the devastated coimtries of Europe had made 
remarkable progi-ess; with few exceptions they 
had passed beyond the immediate post-hostilities 
emergency period. Agricultural production had 
risen from an average of 50 percent of pre-war in 
1945 to roughly 70 percent in 1946. Industrial 
production in the more industrialized countries of 
liberated Europe had risen from the very low post- 
liberation levels to an average of 75 percent of 
pre-war in July 1946, though the degree of re- 
covery varied widely between countries. With the 
indispensable assistance of UNRRA and foreign 
credits, imports of most liberated countries were 
near their pre-war level; exports, however, al- 
though increasing more rapidly than had earlier 
been thought possible, were still only a fraction 
of their pre-war volume. Because of the cumula- 
tive shortages of consumer goods, the destruction 
and deterioration of housing, and the necessity of 
diverting a large share of national production to 
the repair and rebuilding of industrial and agri- 
cultural capital, over-all standards of living in the 
liberated countries would be unlikely to reach the 
pre-war level for from five to ten years. 

The subcommission found that the principal 
obstacle to recovery in the industrial countries of 
Euroj^e was still the shortage of coal. Despite 
their success in increasing their domestic coal pro- 
duction, in some cases above the pre-war level, the 
low level of German coal production and exports 
threatened to place an absolute ceiling on indus- 
trial recovery and hence to postpone still further 
the recovery of pre-war living standards. For the 
agricultural countries, the enormous loss of draft 
animals and other livestock and the cumulative 
de23letion of the soil during the war years 
threatened to keep agi-icultural production below 
pre-war levels for several years. In almost all of 
liberated Europe, serious shortages of foreign ex- 
change, particularly dollars, and the difficulties of 
reestablishing trade with other European coun- 
tries constituted serious obstacles to recovery. 

For the immediate future, the subcommission's 
report stressed (he economic difficulties ahead for 
the European countries in reestablishing advan- 
tageous trade relations with Germany, in finding 
new sources of supply for former German exports 
of machinery, iron and steel products, and chem- 
icals, and in finding new markets for part of their 
agricultural surpluses which they had previously 



Deparfment oi Stafe Bulletin 



January 5, 1947 



sold to Germany. For tlie longer run, the subconi- 
niission pointed out that the uncoordinated eco- 
nomic planning being carried on by the countries 
of Europe might cause serious economic malad- 
justments unless the planners worked in close con- 
sultation with each other, with knowledge of each 
other's plans. 

The suhcommission was able to point out these 
basic obstacles to recovery and to propose in gen- 
eral terms methods for overcoming them; it was 
unable, however, in the short time at its disposal 
to formulate a series of concrete recommenda- 
tions for remedial action. It was apparent almost 
from the beginning of the subcommission's work 
that the size and complexity of the task of Euro- 
pean recovery required not a single report and 
a single series of recommendations; continuous 
review and consultation among the European 
countries and the United States concerning means 
for attacking the obstacles to recovery mentioned 
above was needed. This conviction led to a series 
of proposals by the Polish, British, and American 
Delegations to establish an economic commission 
for Europe. These proposals, which were eventu- 
ally consolidated into a single draft, envisaged 
a commission subordinate to ECOSOC, with its 
headquarters on the European Continent, which 
would replace or take over as subordinate bodies 
the ECO, ECITO, and EECE; it would be a 
body composed of the United States and the 
European countries which aie members of the 
United Nations, and would be "charged with the 
task of facilitating concerted action for the eco- 
nomic reconstruction of Europe, and with initiat- 
ing and participating in measures necessary for 
the expansion of European economic activity and 
for the development and integration of the Euro- 
pean economy". This proposal was referred by 
the subcommission, along with its report, to 
ECOSOC for final action. 

At its third session, in October 1946. ECOSOC 
considered the report of the subcommission and 
the proposal for an economic commission for 
Europe. In ECOSOC the proposal received the 
strong support of the majority of the European 
countries represented and of the United States. 
The Soviet and some other delegations were with- 
out final instructions from their governments, and 
it was accordingly agreed that the final decision 
should be held over until the fourth session of 
ECOSOC in February 1947. Because of the im- 



portance of the decision, it was felt desirable to 
give all interested countries ample opportunity 
to consider it. 

In order to give countries not represented on 
ECOSOC an opportunity to express their views 
on the proposed commission, the United King- 
dom raised the proposal for discussion in the 
General Assembly at its session just completed. 
The General Assembly agreed unanimously to a 
resolution originally proposed by the Norwegian 
Delegation, reconmiending to ECOSOC that it 
give "prompt and favorable consideration" at its 
February session to the establishment of an eco- 
nomic commission for Europe. 

Although no detailed work progi-am for the pro- 
posed commission has been formulated or agreed 
to by the governments concerned, it is not difficult 
to foresee the kinds of activities with which the 
commission would be most immediately concerned. 
Measures of international collaboration to assist 
in overcoming the major obstacles to recovery 
which the subcommission found — coal shortage, 
reestablishment of intra-European trade (par- 
ticularly trade with Germany), shortage of for- 
eign exchange, adjustment to the present low level 
of industrial production in Germany and to that 
which would prevail under the Level of Industry 
Plan,^ coordination of European countries' recon- 
struction and development plans — would be first 
on the commission's agenda. 

The commission might be expected to attack the 
European coal shortage along three lines. First, 
it might ari'ange for consultation among the in- 
terested countries as to what measures might be 
taken to increase coal production in Europe, in- 
cluding domestic measures within the coal-export- 
ing countries and external assistance in the form 
of supplies, equipment, and manpower. Sec- 
ondly, the commission might reexamine the pres- 
ent formula used in dividing up the available Ger- 
man, American, and Polish coal exports among 
the coal-importing countries of Europe. Such an 
examination could be expected to show that the 
present allocation foi-mula should be partially re- 
placed with a formula which would reflect to a 
greater extent the relative importance to European 
recovery of different end-uses of coal. The pres- 
ent allocation formula divides up the coal among 
countries with very little regard to the use to which 



' For fxplaiiation of the Level of Industry Plan, see 
Bulletin of Apr. 14. 1946, p. 036. 



the coal is to be put. The commission could con- 
tinue the work that EECE is beginning along these 
lines. 

The third aspect of the European coal problem 
is the division of German coal production between 
consumption in Germany and export to other Eu- 
ropean countries. The way this division is made 
is critical for European economic recovery, since 
the level of German coal exports determines both 
the rate of recovery of the industrial countries of 
Europe and of industry in Germany. It affects 
also the cost of German occupation to the occupy- 
ing powers and the need for loans and relief assist- 
ance to some European countries. The problem 
is complicated by the fact that a minimum indus- 
trial revival of Germany is as essential to some Eu- 
ropean countries as German coal exports are to 
others. The commission might consult with the 
occupation authorities in their task of working out 
a division of German coal output in order to com- 
promise fairly and efficiently the many conflicting 
interests involved. 

Trade among European countries is now at very 
low levels and is conducted almost exclusively on 
strictly bilateral barter terms ; trade with Germany 
is spasmodic and almost at a standstill. The re- 
activation of intra-European trade has two closely 
interrelated aspects : the reestablishment of trade 
with Germany, and the increase of trade and the 
gradual evolution toward multilateral trade and 
away from bilateral barter among other European 
countries. 

In order to reestablish trade between Germany 
and the rest of Europe, the economic commission 
for Europe might facilitate consultation between 
representatives of the foreign trade ministries of 
the countries concerned and trade officials of the 
occupation authorities, with respect to procedures 
for trade with Germany, financial and transport 
aiTangements, German export possibilities, and 
import needs. Maximum emphasis could be 
placed on multilateral as opposed to bilateral bal- 
ancing of accounts. The commission might also 
recommend to the occupation authorities a reason- 
able division among the countries of Europe of 
Gei-man exports of commodities difficult to obtain 
from other sources. 

Although financial assistance to Europe by gov- 
ernment loans and through the International 
Bank and Fund, and the work of the trade con- 
ference (and ultimately the ITO) , may be expected 



gradually to permit intra-European trade to break 
out of the narrow bilateral channels in which it 
is now locked, the commission could accelerate 
this evolution by arranging for the multilateral 
negotiation of short-term multilateral trade agi-ee- 
ments among European countries. 

The commission's contribution to the ability of 
liberated countries to pay for imports needed for 
reconstruction might take the form of a careful 
and detailed analysis of the magnitude and tim- 
ing of financial assistance needed by individual 
countries, the relative urgency of different coun- 
tries' needs from the pomt of view of the recovery 
of Europe as a whole, and the magnitude and in- 
cidence of the repayment problem. Such an inves- 
tigation would be of assistance to needy countries 
in arranging for necessary financial assistance and 
to the lending countries and agencies in making the 
most effective use of their limited funds. 

The pi-evailing low level of industrial produc- 
tion in Germany and the eventual application of 
the Level of Industry Plan, which calls for drastic 
reductions in German production and exports of 
steel products, most kinds of machinery, and heavy 
chemicals, create for Europe the necessity of re- 
placing Germany as a source of supply for these 
commodities, the demand for which will be very 
high over the next few years. For each of these 
industries, some kind of Europe-wide consultative 
machinery is needed to facilitate the distribution 
of available output according to essential needs 
and to work out a rational program for the crea- 
tion of sufficient low-cost production capacity out- 
side of Germany. The commission, working 
through appropriate technical subcommittees, 
might provide the necessary' machinery for this 
consultation. 

Finally, the economic commission for Europe 
would provide the means whereby the economic 
ministries of the European countries could con- 
sult with each other about the many international 
aspects of their various reconstruction and de- 
velopment programs. The close economic interde- 
pendence of the European countries means that 
economic planning in isolated national compart- 
ments can produce only economic chaos or, in self- 
defense, planning for national autarchy. In the 
longer run, only the practice of close economic 
collaboration in Europe can free the chamiels of 
European trade and permit rapidly rising produc- 
tion and living standards. 

Deparfment of State Bulletin • January 5, 1947 



THE NURNBERG JUDGMENT: A SUMMARY 



hy Katherine B. File 



The general definition of the crimes charged against the 
defendants at Nurnherg is contained in the Charter of the 
International Military Tribunal, which describes the Tri- 
bunaPs composition and jurisdiction. Particulars of the 
charges are set forth in the Indictment. The article beloio 
summarizes the TribunaVs judgment against the background 
of the Charter and Indictment. 



The Charter of the International Military 
Tribunal at Niirnberg and the Indictment of the 
24 "major" Nazi war criminals have been widely 
read and publicized.^ By now everyone is familiar 
with the broad outlines of the judgment of the 
Tribunal in terms of the findings of guilt or inno- 
cence of the individual defendants and their sen- 
tences, and in terms of the Tribunal's declaration 
of criminality in the case of certain of the accused 
organizations and its failure to declare other or- 
ganizations criminal. However, little attention 
has been paid publicly to the reasoning of the 
Tribunal's judgment and to its holdings on the 
various charges made in the Indictment. It may 
therefore be of some interest to review the Tribu- 
nal's judgment, which runs into almost 300 mimeo- 
graphed pages, against the background of the 
Charter and the Indictment. 

After quoting article G of the Charter of the 
Tribunal, under which the defendants were in- 
dicted and which defined the crimes that came 
within its jurisdiction, the Tribunal, "for the 
purpose of showing the background of the aggres- 
sive war and war crimes charged in the indict- 
ment" commenced "by reviewing some of the events 
that followed the first world war, and in particu- 
lar, by tracing the growth of the Nazi Party under 



Hitler's leadership to a position of supreme power 
from which it controlled the destiny of the whole 
German people, and paved the way for the alleged 
commission of all the crimes charged against the 
defendants." The sections devoted to this review 
are entitled "The Nazi Regime in Germany ; the 
Origin and Aims of the Nazi Party ; the Seizure 
of Power ; the Consolidation of Power ; Measures 
of Re-armament." 

Crimes Against Peace 

Thereafter the Tribunal considered the crimes 
against peace charged in tlie Indictment which are 
defined in article 6 (a) of the Charter as follows: 

"(a) Crimes against peace: Namely, plamiing, 
preparation, initiation or waging of a war of 
aggression, or a war in violation of international 
treaties, agreements or assurances, or participation 
in a common plan or conspiracy for the accom- 
plishment of any of the foregoing;" 

Count One of the Indictment charged the 24 
defendants with conspiring or having a common 
plan to commit crimes against the peace (as well 
as war crimes and crimes against humanity). 
Count Two charged them with committing specific 
crimes against peace by planning, preparing, initi- 
' Department of State publication 2420. 



726305 — 47- 



ating, and waging wars of aggression against a 
number of other states. The Tribunal considered 
together the question of the existence of a com- 
mon plan and the question of aggressive war. 

The Tribunal opened its discussion of crimes 
against peace with the statement: 

"War is essentially an evil thing. Its conse- 
quences are not confined to the belligerent states 
alone, but affect the whole world. 

"To initiate a war of aggression, therefore, is 
not only an international crime ; it is the supreme 
international crime differing only from other war 
crimes in that it contains witliin itself the accu- 
mulated evil of the whole." 

The preparation and planning for aggi-essive 
war were briefly reviewed as "a deliberate and 
essential part of Nazi foreign policy," and the 
events relating to the seizure of Austria and 
Czechoslovakia were discussed in some detail, the 
former being described as "a pi'e-meditated aggres- 
sive step in furthering the plan to wage aggressive 
wars against other countries." 

After the accomplishment of these seizures in 
March 1939, the Tribunal said the "time had . . . 
come for the German leaders to consider further 
acts of aggression", that is, the aggression against 
Poland. The Tribunal set forth in detail the dip- 
lomatic history preceding the attack on Poland 
and concluded that it was "fully satisfied by the 
evidence that the war initiated by Germany against 
Poland on the 1st of September 1939 was most 
plainly an aggressive war, which was to develop 
in due course into a war which embraced almost 
the whole world, and resulted m the commission 
of countless crimes, both against the laws and cus- 
toms of war, and against humanity." 

Similarly, the Tribunal found that the in- 
vasions of Denmark and Norway were acts of ag- 
gressive war, saying that "in the light of all the 
available evidence" it was unable to accept the con- 
tention that they were defensive. Regarding the 
argument that, in accordance with the reserva- 
tions made by many of the signatory powers on 
the conclusion of the Kellogg-Briand pact, 
Germany alone could decide whether preventive 
action was necessary (to forestall the Allies in 
Norway) and that her judgment was conclusive, 
the Tribunal said: 

"But whether action taken under the claim of 
self-defense was in fact aggressive or defensive 



must ultimately be subject to investigation and 
adjudication if international law is ever to be en- 
forced." 

The invasion of Belgium, Holland, and Luxem- 
bourg were also found "entirely without justifica- 
tion" and "plainly an act of aggressive war." 

In regard to the invasion of Greece and Yugo- 
slavia, the Tribunal said that it was clear "that 
aggressive war against Greece and Yugoslavia had 
long been in contemplation, certainly as early as 
August of 1939." 

In discussing the war against the U.S.S.R. the 
Tribunal referred to the non-aggression pact be- 
tween Germany and that country of August 23, 
1939, stating that the evidence showed "unmis- 
takably that the Soviet Union on their part con- 
formed to the terms of this pact". It pointed out 
that Germany on June 22, 1941, without any dec- 
laration of war, invaded Soviet territory in ac- 
cordance with plans long made. It said : 

"The plans for the economic exploitation of the 
USSR, for the removal of masses of the popula- 
tion, for the murder of Commissars and political 
leaders, were all jjart of the carefully prepared 
scheme launched on the 22nd June without warn- 
ing of any kind, and without the shadow of legal 
excuse. It was plain aggression." 

Finally, the Tribunal referred to the attack on 
Pearl Harbor, stating that Japan "thus made ag- 
gressive war against the United States" which was 
followed by Germany's entering that war on the 
side of Japan by a declaration of war on the 
United States. 

The Tribunal next stated that it had decided 
that certain of the defendants had planned and 
waged aggressive wars and were therefore guilty 
of this series of crimes, so that it was unnecessary 
to consider at any length the extent to which these 
aggressive wars were also "wars in violation of 
international treaties, agreements or assurances" 
within the meaning of the Charter. The prin- 
cipal treaties which Germany had violated were 
noted, namely: the Hague conventions of 1899 
and 1907 for the pacific settlement of international 
disputes, the Hague convention of 1907 relative 
to the opening of hostilities, the Versailles Treaty, 
the Locarno treaties of mutual guaranty and arbi- 
tration, certain other conventions of arbitration 
and conciliation and non-aggression treaties to 
which Germany was a party, and the Kellogg- 
Briand pact (the Pact of Paris). 



10 



Department of State Bulletin • January 5, 1947 



The Tribunal pointed out that the law of the 
Charter defining its jurisdiction and the crimes 
coming within that jurisdiction was decisive and 
binding on the Tribunal. It said : 

"The making of the Charter was the exercise 
of the sovereign legislative power by the countries 
to which the German Reich unconditionally sur- 
rendered ; and the undoubted right of these coun- 
tries to legislate for the occupied territories has 
been recognized by the civilized world. The 
Charter is not an arbitrary exercise of power on 
the part of the victorious nations, but in the view 
of the Tribunal, as will be shown, it is the expres- 
sion of international law existing at the time of its 
creation ; and to that extent is itself a contribution 
to international law." 

In creating the Tribunal, defining the law it 
was to administer, and making regulations for the 
proper conduct of the trial, the signatory powers 
had, the Tribunal stated, done together what any 
one of them might have done singly. With re- 
gard to the court's constitution, it added "all that 
the defendants are entitled to ask is to receive a 
fair trial on the facts and law". 

Since the Charter made planning or waging a 
war of aggression or a war a violation of inter- 
national treaties a crime, it was not strictly neces- 
sary, the Tribunal said, to consider whether and 
to what extent aggressive war was a crime before 
the execution of the agreement of August 8, 1945 
establishing the Tribunal. However, in view of 
the importance of the questions involved, the Tri- 
bunal, having heard full argument from the 
Prosecution and the Defense, expressed its views 
on the matter. 

In regard to the argument made in behalf of 
the defendants that it is a fundamental principle 
of all law that there can be no punishment of 
crime without a preexisting law, the Tribunal 
observed "that the maxim nullum crimen sine lege 
is not a limitation of sovereignty, but is in general 
a principle of justice." It continued : 

"To assert that it is unjust to punish those who 
in defiance of treaties and assurances have at- 
tacked neighboring states without warning is ob- 
viously untrue, for in such circumstances the 
attacker must know that he is doing wrong, and 
so far from it being unjust to punish him, it would 
be unjust if his wrong were allowed to go 
unpunished." 



In the Kellogg-Briand pact (signed August 27, 
1928) the signing and adhering states renounced 
war as an instrument of national policy. Such a 
solemn renunciation in its opinion, the Tribunal 
said, "necessarily involves the proposition that 
such a war [in violation of the pact] is illegal in 
international law; and that those who plan and 
wage such a war, with its inevitable and terrible 
consequences, are committing a crime in so doing", 
and it went on to quote the words of Henry L. 
Stimson, the Secretary of State, in 1932, that as 
a result of the Kellogg-Briand pact war "has be- 
come tUroughout practically the entire world . , . 
an illegal thing." 

As to the argument that the pact did not ex- 
pressly enact that wars were crimes, or set up 
courts to try those who make such wars, the 
Tribunal pointed out that the same is true with 
regard to the laws of war contained in the Hague 
convention of 1907 respecting the laws and cus- 
toms of war on land which contained prohibitions 
many of which had been enforced long before the 
date of the convention. Moreover, the Tribunal 
continued, though the convention nowhere desig- 
nates the prohibited acts criminal, nor prescribes 
sentences, nor mentions any court to try and 
punish offenders, for many years past military 
tribunals had tried and punished individuals 
guilty of violating the rules of land warfare laid 
down by the convention. The Tribunal expressed 
the opinion that "those who wage aggressive war 
are doing that which is equally illegal, and of 
much greater moment than a mere breach of one 
of the rules of the Hague Convention", adding: 

"In interpreting the words of the Pact, it must 
be remembered that international law is not the 
product of an international legislature, and that 
such international agreements as the Pact of Paris 
have to deal with general principles of law, and 
not with administrative matters of procedure. 
The law of war is to be found not only in treaties, 
but in the customs and practices of states which 
gradually obtained universal recognition, and 
from the general principles of justice applied by 
jurists and practised by military courts. This 
law is not static, but by continual adaptation 
follows the needs of a changing world." 

The international history preceding the Kel- 
logg-Briand pact supported the Tribunal's view 
of its true interpretation, the Tribunal continued, 



11 



referring to the draft treaty of mutual assistance 
sponsored by the League of Nations in 1923, the 
preamble to the protocol for the pacific settlement 
of international disputes of 1924 (the Geneva 
protocol), the declaration of the Assembly of the 
League of Nations of 1927 regarding wars of ag- 
gression, and the resolution of the Sixth Pan 
American Conference of 1928, all of which re- 
ferred to aggressive war as "an international 
crime". The Tribunal said : 

"All these expressions of opinion, and others 
that could be cited, so solemnly made, reinforce 
the construction which the Tribunal placed upon 
the Pact of Paris, that resort to a war of aggi-ession 
is not merely illegal, but is criminal. The prohibi- 
tion of aggressive war demanded by the conscience 
of the world, finds its expression in the series of 
Pacts and Treaties to which the Tribunal has just 
referred." 

And it added that it is important to remember 
that the Treaty of Versailles provided for a Tri- 
bunal to try the former German Emperor "for a 
supi'eme offence against international morality and 
the sanctity of treaties", tlie purpose of the trial 
having been expressed to be "to vindicate the sol- 
emn obligations of international undertakings, 
and the validity of international morality". 

The Tribunal rejected the argument that inter- 
national law is concerned with the actions of sov- 
ereign states and provides no punishment for 
individuals and also the argument that, where the 
act in question is an act of state, those who carry 
it out are not personally responsible. It has long 
been recognized, the Tribunal said, "that interna- 
tional law imposes duties and liabilities upon in- 
dividuals as well as upon states." Reference was 
made to the opinion of the Supreme Court of the 
United States in the case of Ex parte Quinn (the 
so-called "saboteurs case") in 1942 (317 U. S. 1) 
in which Chief Justice Stone said that that Court 
had always "applied the law of war as including 
that part of the law of nations which prescribes 
for the conduct of war, the status, rights and duties 
of enemy nations as well as enemy individuals." 
The Tribunal said further : 

"Crimes against international law are com- 
mitted by men, not by abstract entities, and only 
by punishing individuals who commit such crimes 
can the provisions of international law be en- 
forced." 



The principle that protects the representatives 
of a state under certain circumstances "cannot be 
applied", the Tribunal said, "to acts wliich are 
condemned as criminal by international law". It 
pointed out that article 7 of the Charter expressly 
provides: "The official position of defendants 
. . . shall not be considered as freeing them from 
responsibility, or mitigating punishment." 

As to the argument of most of the defendants 
that they acted under the order of Hitler, the 
Tribunal also referred to the specific provision in 
article 8 of the Charter that: "The fact that the 
defendant acted pursuant to order of his Govern- 
ment or of a superior shall not free him from re- 
sponsibility, but may be considered in mitigation 
of punishment." This article, the Tribunal said, 
is in conformity with the law of all nations, and 
added : "The true test, which is found in varying 
degrees in the criminal law of most nations, is not 
the existence of the order, but whether moral 
choice was in fact possible." 

The Common Plan or Conspiracy 

The Tribunal next proceeded to consider "the 
Law as to the Common Plan or Conspiracy" 
(charged in Count One of the Indictment) to 
commit aggi'essive war, war crimes, and crimes 
against humanity. 

Tlie Tribunal briefly summarized that Count, 
as it related to the planning and waging of aggi-es- 
sive war, as follows: "The 'common plan or con- 
spiracy' charged in the Indictment covers twenty- 
five years, from the formation of the Nazi Party 
in 1919 to the end of the war in 1945. The party 
is spoken of as 'the instrument of cohesion among 
the defendants' for carrying out the purposes of 
the conspiracy — the overthrowing of the Treaty of 
Versailles, acquiring territory lost by Germany 
in the last war and lebensraum, in Europe, by the 
use, if necessary, of armed force, of aggressive war. 
The 'seizure of power" by the Nazis, the use of ter- 
ror, the destruction of trade unions, the attack on 
Christian teaching and on churches, the persecu- 
tion of the Jews, tlie regimentation of youth — all 
these are said to be steps deliberately taken to carry 
out the common plan. It found expression, so it is 
alleged, in secret rearmament, the withdrawal by 
Germany from the Disarmament Conference and 
tlie League of Nations, universal military service, 
and seizure of the Rhineland. Finally, according 
to the Indictment, aggressive action was planned 
and carried out against Austria and Czechoslo- 



12 



Department of State Bullefin • January 5, 1947 



vakia in 1936-1938, followed by the planning and 
waging of war against Poland ; and, successively, 
against ten other countries. 

"The prosecution says, in effect, that any sig- 
nificant participation in the affairs of the Nazi 
Party or government is evidence of a participation 
in a conspiracy that is in itself criminal." 

"Conspiracy", the Tribunal pointed out, was not 
defined in the Charter. It expressed the opinion 
that "the conspiracy must be clearly outlined in 
its criminal purpose" and "not be too far removed 
from the time of decision and of action". The 
planning, to be criminal, it said, "must not rest 
merely on the declarations of a party pro- 
gram ... or the political affirmations expressed 
in Mein Kamffy It had to examine, it said, 
"whether a concrete plan to wage war existed, 
and determine the participants in that concrete 
plan". In effect, the Tribunal thus narrowed the 
Prosecution's concept of conspiracy set forth in 
Count One of the Indictment. 

It stated : 

"It is not necessary to decide whether a single 
master conspiracy between the defendants has been 
established by the evidence. The seizure of power 
by the Nazi Party, and the subsequent domination 
by the Nazi State of all spheres of economic and 
social life must of course be remembered when 
the later plans for waging war are examined. 
That plans were made to wage wars, as early as 
November 5th 1937, and probably before that, is 
apparent. And thereafter, such preparations con- 
tinued in many directions, and against the peace 
of many countries. Indeed the threat of war — 
and war itself if necessary — was an integral part 
of the Nazi policy. But the evidence establishes 
with certainty the existence of many separate plans 
rather than a single conspiracy embracing them 
all. That Germany was rapidly moving to com- 
plete dictatorship from the moment that the Nazis 
seized power, and progressively in the direction of 
war, has been overwlielmingly shown in the 
ordered sequence of aggressive acts and wars al- 
ready set out in this Judgment." 

It found that the evidence established "the com- 
mon planning to prepare and wage war by cer- 
tain of the defendants", adding that it was im- 
material to consider whether a single conspiracy 
to the extent and over the time set out in the Indict- 
ment had been conclusively proved. It found 
further that "continued planning, with aggressive 



war as the objective" had been established beyond 
doubt. 

The Tribunal rejected as unsound the argument 
that such common planning could not exist under 
a complete dictatorship, saying that a "plan in the 
execution of which a number of persons participate 
is still a plan, even though conceived by only one 
of them; and those who execute the plan do not 
avoid responsibility by showing that they acted 
under the direction of the man who conceived it." 
Hitler, it was said, could not make aggressive war 
by himself. "He had to have the cooperation of 
statesmen, military leaders, diplomats, and busi- 
ness men. Wlien they, with knowledge of his aims, 
gave him their cooperation, they made themselves 
parties to the plan he had initiated. They are not 
to be deemed innocent because Hitler made use of 
them, if they knew what they were doing .... 
The relation of leader and follower does not pre- 
clude responsibility here any more than it does in 
the comparable tyranny of organized domestic 
crime." 

The Tribunal stated that the Charter (in arti- 
cle 6) did "not define as a separate crime any 
conspiracy except the one to commit acts of aggres- 
sive war." It referred to that paragraph of arti- 
cle 6 providing: "Leaders, organizers, instigators 
and accomplices participating in the formulation 
or execution of a common plan or conspiracy to 
commit any of the foregoing crimes are respon- 
sible for all acts performed by any person in 
execution of such plan." This, the Tribunal said, 
did not add a new and separate crime to those 
already listed, but rather established the respon- 
sibility of persons participating in a common plan. 

Accordingly, it concluded that it would "dis- 
regard the charges in Count One [of the Indict- 
ment] that the defendants conspired to commit 
war crimes and crimes against humanity" and 
"consider only the common plan to prepare, initi- 
ate and wage aggressive war." 

War Crimes and Crimes Against Humanity 

The Tribunal then turned to the consideration 
of war crimes and crimes against humanity. War 
crimes and crimes against humanity were thus de- 
fined in paragraphs (b) and (c) of article 6 of the 
Charter : 

"(b) War crimes: Namely, violations of the 
laws or customs of war. Such violations shall 
include, but not be limited to, murder, ill-treat- 
ment or deportation to slave labor or for any other 



13 



purpose of civilian population of or in occupied 
territory, murder or ill-treatment of prisoners of 
war or pei'sons on the seas, killing of hostages, 
plunder of public or private property, wanton de- 
struction of cities, towns or villages, or devastation 
not justified by military necessity; 

"(c) Crimes against humanity: Namely, mur- 
der, extermination, enslavement, deportation, and 
other inhumane acts committed against any civil- 
ian population, before or during the war, or perse- 
cutions on political, racial or religious grounds in 
execution of or in connection with any crime within 
the jurisdiction of the Tribunal, whether or not 
in violation of the domestic law of the country 
where perpetrated." 

Count Three of the Indictment related to war 
crimes; Count Four to crimes against humanity. 

It was impossible, the Tribunal said, for its 
judgment adequately to review the overwhelming 
evidence presented regarding war crimes, adding: 
"The truth remains that War Crimes were com- 
mitted on a vast scale, never before seen in the 
history of War." The majority arose, it said, out 
of the Nazi conception of "total war" in which 
"the moral ideas underlying the Conventions 
which seek to make war more humane are no 
longer regarded as having force or validity." 
Some war crimes, the Tribunal found, "were de- 
liberately planned long in advance", such as the 
plunder of the territories of the Soviet Union and 
the ill treatment of its civilian population, and 
also the exploitation of the inhabitants of the oc- 
cupied countries for slave labor. Other war 
crimes, such as the murder of recaptured prisoners 
of war, of Commandos or captured airmen, or the 
destruction of the Soviet Commissars, were found 
to be "the result of direct orders circulated through 
the highest official channels". 

As a prelude to its discussion, the Tribunal by 
way of summary said : 

"The Tribunal proposes, therefore, to deal quite 
generally with the question of War Crimes, and 
to refer to them later when examining the respon- 
sibility of the individual defendants in relation 
to them. Prisoners of war were ill-treated and 
tortured and murdered, not only in defiance of the 
well-established rules of international law, but 
in complete disregard of the elementary dictates 
of humanity. Civilian populations in occupied 
territories suffered the same fate. Whole popula- 
tions were deported to Germany for the purposes 



of slave labor upon defence works, armament pro- 
duction and similar tasks connected with the war 
effort. Hostakes were taken m very large num- 
bers from the civilian populations in all the oc- 
cupied countries, and were shot as suited the Ger- 
man purposes. Public and private property was 
systematically plundered and pillaged in order to 
enlarge the resources of Germany at the expense 
of the rest of Europe. Cities and towns and vil- 
lages were wantonly destroyed without military 
justification or necessity." 

It will be noted that in this recital of war 
crimes, the Tribunal omitted any reference to one 
of those listed in article 6 (b) of the Charter, 
namely "murder or ill-treatment of . . . persons 
on the seas", which was also charged in Count 
Three of the Indictment. In the judgment re- 
garding Doenitz, one of the two naval officers in- 
dicted, the Tribunal stated specifically that though 
he was found guilty on Count Three of the Indict- 
ment (relating to war crimes) his sentence was 
"not assessed on the ground of his breaches of the 
international law of submarine warfare" in view of 
"all of the facts proved and in particular of an 
order of the British Admiralty announced on 
8 May 1940 according to which all vessels should 
be sunk at night [sic'] in the Skagerrak, and the 
answers to interrogatories by Admiral Nimitz 
stating that unrestricted submarine warfare was 
carried on in the Pacific Ocean by the United 
States from the first day that nation entered the 
war." 

In the judgment regarding Raeder, the only 
other naval officer indicted, the Tribunal stated 
that in respect to the charge that he carried on 
unrestricted submarine warfare it made the same 
finding as it had concerning Doenitz. 

In its general review of the evidence regarding 
war crimes the Tribunal discussed the "Murder 
and Ill-treatment of Prisoners of War", "Murder 
and Ill-treatment of Civilian Population", and 
"Slave Labor Policy". 

The persecution of the Jews, which was said to 
have been proved before it in the greatest detail, 
was treated in a special section. After briefly 
reviewing the pre-war treatment of the Jews, the 
Tribunal said "The Nazi persecution of Jews in 
Germany before the war, severe and repressive as 
it was, cannot compare, however, with the policy 
pursued during the war in the occupied terri- 
tories." This policy it then reviewed in more 
detail. 



14 



Department of State BuUelin • January 5, 1947 



The next section of the Tribunal's judgment is 
devoted to "the law relating to War Crimes and 
Crimes against Humanity." The Tribunal stated 
that it was of course bound by the Charter in its 
definition of both categories of crime, but pointed 
out that the war crimes defined in the Charter 
"were already recognized as war crimes under in- 
ternational law" and were covered by articles 46, 
50, 52, and 56 of the regulations annexed to the 
Hague convention of 1907 respecting the laws and 
customs of war on land, and articles 2, 3, 4, 46, and 
51 of the Geneva prisoners of war convention of 
1929. The Tribunal found that it was not nec- 
essary to decide the question of whether or not, 
in view of the provision in article 2 of the Hague 
convention that the regulations annexed to the con- 
vention should only apply if all the belligerents 
were parties thereto, the Hague convention ap- 
plied in the case before it, several of the belliger- 
ents in the recent war not having been such parties. 
In support of its view the Tribunal pointed out 
that the 1907 convention expressly purported "to 
revise" the general laws and customs of war 
"which it thus recognized to be then existing". 
It said further that the rules of land warfare, laid 
down in the Hague convention, by 1939 "were 
recognized by all civilized nations, and were re- 
garded as being declaratory of the laws and cus- 
toms of war which are refeiTed to in Article 6(b) 
of the Charter." 

The Tribunal rejected the argument by the de- 
fense that Germany, having completely subju- 
gated many of the countries occupied during the 
war and incorporated them into the German Reich, 
was no longer bound by the rules of land warfare 
but entitled to deal with the occupied countries as 
though tliey were part of Germany. It was un- 
necessary, the Tribunal said, to decide whether the 
doctrine of subjugation "dependent as it is upon 
military conquest, has any application where the 
subjugation is the result of the crime of aggressive 
war." The doctrine was never considered appli- 
cable, it pointed out, "so long as there was an army 
in tlie field attempting to restore the occupied 
countries to their true owners", and accordingly 
could not apply to any territories occupied after 
September 1, 1939. As to the war crimes com- 
mitted in Bohemia and Moravia, the Tribunal said, 
it was "a sufficient answer that these territories 
were never added to the Reich, but a mere pro- 
tectorate was established over them." Their occu- 



pation, it said later, was "a military occupation 
covered by the rule of warfare." 

As to crimes against humanity which were 
charged in the Indictment as having been com- 
mitted before as well as during the war, there was 
no doubt whatever, according to the Tribunal, 
that a policy of persecution, repression, and mur- 
der, in Germany, of civilians potentially hostile 
to the Government, was most ruthlessly carried 
out before the war of 1939. "The persecution of 
Jews during the same period," it said, "is estab- 
lished beyond all doubt." However, the Tribunal 
continued, "to constitute crimes against humanity, 
the acts relied on before the outbreak of war must 
have been in execution of, or in connection with, 
any crime within the jurisdiction of the Tribu- 
nal." The Tribunal found that "revolting and 
horrible as many of these crimes were, it has not 
been satisfactorily proved that they were done in 
execution of, or in connection with, any such 
crime." It therefore concluded that it could not 
"make a general declaration that the acts before 
1939 [charged in the Indictment] were crimes 
against humanity within the meaning of the Char- 
ter, but from the beginning of the war in 1939 war 
crimes were committed on a vast scale, which were 
also crimes against humanity ; and insofar as the 
inhumane acts charged in the Indictment, and 
committed after the beginning of the war, did not 
constitute war crimes, they were all committed in 
execution of, or in connection with, the aggressive 
war, and therefore constituted crimes against 
humanity." 

In a later portion of its judgment regarding the 
defendant Von Schirach, who after July 1940 was 
made Gauleiter of Vienna, the Tribunal held that 
"murder, extermination, enslavement, deportation 
and other inhumane acts" and "persecutions on 
political, racial or religious grounds" in connec- 
tion with the occupation of Austria constituted 
crimes against humanity under article 6 (c) of 
the Charter. This followed, the Tribunal said, 
from the fact that, since Austria was occupied pur- 
suant to a common plan of aggi-ession, its occupa- 
tion was a crime within the Tribunal's jurisdiction 
as that term was used in article 6(c). 

Declaration of Criminality Against Groups or 
Organizations 

For an understanding of the Tribunal's find- 
ings as to the groups or organizations against 
which the Prosecution sought a declaration of 



15 



criminality, one must turn first to the Tribunal's 
charter which provides : 

^^ Article 9. At the trial of any individual mem- 
ber of any group or organization the Tribunal may 
declare (in connection with any act of which the 
individual may be convicted) that the group or 
organization of which the individual was a 
member was a criminal organization. 

"After receipt of the indictment the Tribunal 
shall give such notice as it thinks fit that the prose- 
cution intends to ask the Tribunal to make such 
declaration and any member of the organization 
will be entitled to apply to the Tribunal for leave 
to be heard by the Tribunal upon the question of 
the criminal character of the organization. The 
Tribunal shall have power to allow or reject the 
application. If the application is allowed, the 
Tribunal may direct in what manner the appli- 
cants shall be represented and heard. 

'■''Article 10. In cases where a group or organiza- 
tion is declared criminal by the Tribunal, the 
competent national authority of any signatory 
shall have the right to bring individuals to trial 
for membership therein before national, military 
or occupation courts. In any such case the crim- 
inal nature of the group or organization is con- 
sidered proved and shall not be questioned." 

The prosecution sought a declaration of crim- 
inality against seven groups or organizations, the 
Reich Cabinet, the Leadership Corps of the Nazi 
Party, the SS, the SD, the Gestapo, the SA and 
the General Staff and High Command of the 
German Armed Forces. Each of the groups or 
organizations was charged with responsibility for 
crimes under all four comits of the Indictment. 

. In its introductory remarks regarding the ac- 
cused organizations, the Tribunal pointed out 
that it was vested with discretion as to whether 
it would declare any organization criminal, a dis- 
cretion, it said, which "should be exercised in ac- 
cordance with well settled legal principles, one of 
the most important of which is that criminal guilt 
is personal, and that mass punishments should be 
avoided." If satisfied of the criminal guilt of any 
organization or group, the Tribunal continued, it 
"should not hesitate to declare it to be criminal 
because the theory of 'gi-oup criminality' is new, 
or because it might be unjustly applied by some 
subsequent tribunals." And it said further: "A 
criminal organization is analogous to a criminal 
conspiracy in that the essence of both is coopera- 
tion for criminal purposes. There must be a 



group bound together and organized for a com- 
mon purpose. The group must be formed or used 
in connection with the commission of crimes de- 
nounced by the Charter. Since the declaration 
■with respect to the organizations and groups will, 
as has been pointed out, fix the criminality of its 
members, that definition should exclude persons 
who had no knowledge of the criminal purposes or 
acts of the organization and those who were 
drafted by the State for membership, unless they 
wei'e personally implicated in the commission of 
acts declared criminal by Article 6 of the Charter 
as members of the organization. Membership 
alone is not enough to come within the scope of 
these declarations." 

The first group or organization which the 
Tribunal considered was the Leadership Corps of 
the Nazi Party. This group was defined in the 
indictment as consisting of persons "who were at 
any time, according to common Nazi terminology, 
Politischer Leiter (political leaders) of any grade 
or rank," that is, "the leaders of the various func- 
tional offices of the Party (for example, the Eeichs- 
leitung, or Party Reich Directorate, and the 
Gauleitung, or Party Gau Directorate), as well as 
the territorial leaders of the Party (for example, 
the Gauleiter)." However on February 28, 1946, 
the Prosecution excluded from the declaration 
sought all members of the staffs of the Ortsgrup- 
penleiter and all assistants of the Zellenleiter and 
Blockleiter. There remained, however, included 
within the declaration sought, as the Tribunal 
pointed out : "the Fuehrer, the Reiohsleitung, the 
Gauleiters and their staff officers, the Kreisleiters 
and their staff officers, the Ortsgi-uppenleiters, the 
Zellenleiters, and the Blockleiters, a group esti- 
mated to contain at least 600,000 people." 

After reviewing the activities of the Leadership 
Corps, the Tribunal concluded that it "was used 
for purposes which were criminal under the Char- 
ter and involved the Germanization of incorpo- 
rated territory, the persecution of the Jews, the 
administration of the slave labor program, and the 
mistreatment of prisoners of war." It accord- 
ingly declared criminal the group composed of 
those members of the Leadership Corps who held 
positions as members of the Reichsleitung, persons 
who held positions as Gauleiter, Kreisleiter, and 
Ortsgruppenleiter, as well as the heads of the vari- 
ous staff organizations of the Gauleiter and Kreis- 
leiter. Its decisions on these staff organizations, 
it said, included only the Amtsleiter who were 



16 



Department of %iate Bulletin • January 5, 1947 



heads of offices on the staffs of the Reichsleiter, 
Gauleiter, and Kreisleiter. 

"Witli respect to other staff officers and party 
organizations attached to the Leadership Corps 
otlier than the Amtsleiters referred to above," the 
Tribunal said it would "follow the suggestion of 
the Prosecution in excluding them from the dec- 
laration". This declaration of criminality was 
limited to those "who became or remained mem- 
bers of the organization witli knowledge that it 
was being used for the commission of acts declared 
criminal by Article 6 of the Charter, or who were 
personally implicated as members of the organiza- 
tion in the commission of such crimes." The Tri- 
bunal further limited the scope of its declaration 
by stating: "The basis of this finding is the par- 
ticipation of the organization in war crimes and 
crimes against humanity connected with the war; 
the group declaimed criminal cannot include, there- 
fore, persons who had ceased to hold the positions 
enumerated in the preceding paragraph prior to 
September 1, 1939." 

The Tribunal next considered the Gestapo and 
SD. The SD [Sicherheitsdienst], a department 
of the SS [Schutzstaffeln], was covered in the 
Indictment in the section dealing with the latter 
organization. However, orally, the Prosecution 
presented the cases against the Gestapo and SD 
together because of the close working relationship 
between them. The Tribunal permitted the SD 
to present its defense separately, but, after examin- 
ing the evidence, decided to consider the Gestapo 
and SD together in its judgment. 

In the Indictment the Gestapo was defined as 
consisting of "the headquarters, departments, of- 
fices, branches and all the forces and personnel of 
the Geheime Staatspolizei organized or existing at 
any time after 30 January 1933, including the 
Geheime Staatspolizei of Pi-ussia and equivalent 
secret or political police forces of the Reich and 
the components thereof." The Tribunal found 
that the Gestapo and SD "were used for purposes 
which were criminal under the Charter involving 
the persecution and extermination of the Jews, 
brutalities and killings in concentration camps, 
excesses in the administration of occupied terri- 
tories, the administration of the slave labor pro- 
gram and the mistreatment and murder of pris- 
oners of war." In its declaration of criminality 
regarding the Gestapo, the Tribunal included "all 
executive and administrative officials of Amt IV 
of the RSHA [Reichssicherheitshauptamt ; or 



Reich Security Head Office] or concerned with 
Gestapo administration in other departments of 
the RSHA and all local Gestapo officials serving 
both inside and outside of Germany, including tlie 
members of the Frontier Police, but not including 
the members of the Border and Customs Protec- 
tion or the Secret Field police, except such mem- 
bers as have been specified above." At the sugges- 
tion of the Prosecution, it excluded "persons em- 
ployed by the Gestapo for purely clerical, steno- 
graphic, janitorial or similar unofficial routine 
tasks." In the case of the SD it included those 
persons who held positions in "Amts III, VI, and 
VII of the RSHA and all other members of the 
SD, including all local representatives and agents, 
honorary or otherwise, whether they were tech- 
nically members of the SS or not." 

It excluded honorary informers who were not 
members of the SS, and members of the Abwehr 
who were transferred to the SD, as the Prose- 
cution had done. But, as in the case of the 
Leadership Corps, this finding in respect to the 
Gestapo and SD was limited to the persons enu- 
merated "who became or remained members of the 
organization with knowledge that it was being 
used for the commission of acts declared criminal 
by article 6 of the Charter, or who were personally 
implicated as members of the organization in the 
commission of such crimes." 

And, as it did in the case of the Leadership 
Corps, the Tribunal added that since the basis of 
its findings was participation of the organization 
in war crimes and crimes against humanity con- 
nected with the war, the group declared criminal 
could not include persons who had ceased to hold 
the enumerated positions prior to September 1, 
1939. 

The third organization discussed by the Tri- 
bunal was the SS. This was defined in the indict- 
ment as consisting "of the entire corps of the SS 
and all offices, departments, services, agencies, 
branches, formations, organizations and groups of 
which it was at any time comprised or which 
were at any time integrated in it, including but 
not limited to, the Allgemeine SS, the Waffen SS, 
the SS Totenkopf Verbande, SS Polizei Regimente 
and the Sicherheitsdienst des Reichsfiihrers — SS 
(commonly known as the SD)." (The SD was 
treated separately by the Tribunal with the Ges- 
tapo, as indicated above.) 

After reviewing the activities of the SS, the 
Tribunal said: "It is impossible to single out any 



726305 — 47- 



17 



one portion of the SS which was not involved in 
these criminal activities." It found further that 
knowledge of these activities "was sufficiently 
general to justify declaring that the SS was a 
criminal organization to the extent hereinafter 
described," and that though there was an attempt 
to keep secret some phases of its activities "its 
criminal programs were so widespread, and in- 
volved slaughter on such a gigantic scale, that its 
criminal activities must have been widely known." 

As in the case of the Leadership Corps, the Ges- 
tapo and SD, the Tribunal found that the SS "was 
utilized for purposes which were criminal under 
the Charter involving the persecution and exter- 
mination of the Jews, brutalities and killings in 
concentration camps, excesses in the administra- 
tion of occupied territories, the administration of 
the slave labor program and the mistreatment and 
murder of prisoners of war." 

The Tribunal in its declaration of criminality in- 
cluded "all persons who had been officially ac- 
cepted as members of the SS including the mem- 
bers of the Allgemeine SS, members of the WaflFen 
SS, members of the SS Totenkopf Verbaende and 
the members of any of the different police forces 
who were members of the SS." It did not include 
tlie so-called "SS riding units". It excluded 
fuither "those who were drafted into membership 
by the State in such a way as to give them no 
choice in the matter, and who had committed no 
such crimes [acts declared criminal by article 6 
of the Charter]". 

As in the case of the organizations previously 
discussed, the Tribmial limited its findings to those 
"who had been officially accepted as members of 
the SS as enumerated in the preceding paragraph 
who became or remained members" with knowl- 
edge that it was being used for the commission of 
criminal acts or who were personally implicated 
in the conunission of such acts. And it made the 
same limitation that since the basis of its finding 
was the participation of the organization in war 
crimes and crimes against humanity connected 
with the war, the group declared criminal could 
not include persons who ceased to belong to the 
enumerated organizations prior to September 1, 
1939. 

The Tribunal next considered the SA [Die 
Sturmabteilungen, or Storm Troopers of the Nazi 
Party], described in the Indictment as "a forma- 
tion of the Nazi Party under the immediate juris- 
diction of the Fiihrer, organized on military lines, 



whose membership was composed of volunteers 
serving as political soldiers of the Part}'." 

The Tribunal declined to declare the SA 
a criminal organization, stating that it had not 
been shown that atrocities in which it participated 
up until the purge beginning on June 30, 1934 were 
part of a specific plan to wage aggressive war. 
After the purge, the Tribunal said, the SA was 
reduced to the status of a group of unimportant 
Nazi hangers-on, and "although in specific in- 
stances some units of the SA were used for the 
commission of War Crimes and Crimes against 
Humanity, it cannot be said that its members 
generally participated in or even knew of the 
criminal acts." 

The next organization which the Tribunal re- 
fused to declare criminal (the Soviet member dis- 
senting) was the Reich Cabinet which was defined 
in the indictment to include the members of the 
ordinary cabinet after January 30, 1933, the 
members of tlie Council of Ministers for the De- 
fense of the Reich (established in August 1939), 
and the members of the Secret Cabinet Council 
(setup in 1937). 

The Tribunal gave two reasons for its refusal : 
first, because it had not been shown that after 
1937 the Cabinet ever really acted as a group or 
organization and secondly, because the gi'oup of 
persons charged was so small that the members 
could be conveniently tried in proper cases with- 
out resort to a declaration of group criminality 
by the Tribunal. 

As to the first reason, the Tribunal observed that 
from the time it could be said "that a conspiracy 
to make aggressive war existed", the Reich Cabinet 
did not constitute a governing body, but was 
"merely an aggregation of administrative officers 
subject to the absolute control of Hitler." It 
stated that no meeting of the Reich Cabinet was 
held after 1937, but laws were promulgated in the 
name of one or more of the Cabinet members. It 
pointed out also that the Secret Cabinet Council 
never met at all. A number of Cabinet members 
were undoubtedly involved in the conspiracy to 
make aggressive war, the Tribunal said, but they 
were involved as individuals, and "there is no 
evidence that the cabinet as a group or organi- 
zation took any part in these crimes." The Tri- 
bunal added that though it appeared that various 
laws authorizing acts which were criminal imder 
the Charter were circulated among the members 
of the Reich Cabinet and issued under its author- 



18 



Department of State Bulletin • January 5, 1947 



ity signed by members whose departments were 
concerned, this did not prove that the Cabinet 
after 1937 ever really acted as an organization. 

As to its second reason, the Tribunal stated that 
it was clear the Cabinet members who had been 
guilty of crimes should be brought to trial. It 
estimated that there were 48 members in the group, 
8 of whom were dead, and 17 of whom were on trial 
before the Tribunal (as individual defendants), 
leaving 23 at most as to whom the declaration 
could have an importance. The Tribunal pointed 
out that where an organization with a large mem- 
bership was used for criminal purposes "a declara- 
tion obviates the necessity of inquiring as to its 
criminal character in the later trial of members 
who are accused of participating through member- 
ship in its criminal purposes and thus saves much 
time and trouble." There was, it said, no such 
advantage in the case of a small group like the 
Reich Cabinet. 

Tlie final group or organization considered by 
the Tribunal was the General Staff and High Com- 
mand of the German Armed Forces. The indict- 
ment defined tliis group as consisting "of those 
individuals who between February 1938 and May 
1945 were the highest commanders of the Wehr- 
macht, the Army, tlie Navy, and the Air Forces," 
that is, individuals who held any of ten enumerated 
appointments. 

In declining to make a declaration of criminality 
(the Soviet member dissenting), the Tribunal 
said that the "number of persons charged [about 
130] while larger than that of the Reich Cabinet, 
is still so small that individual trials of these offi- 
cers would accomplish the purpose here sought bet- 
ter than a declaration." It added that a more 
compelling reason was that in its opinion the Gen- 
eral Staff and High Command was neither an 
"organization" nor a "group" within the meaning 
of those terms as used in article 9 of the Charter. 
No serious effort had been made, the Tribunal said, 
to assert that the members composed an "organiza- 
tion," it having been asserted rather that they 
were a "group," a wider and more embracing term. 
It did not so find, it stated, saying that the exist- 
ence of an association or group did not logically 
follow from the pattern of the activities of the 
officers involved. 

The Tribunal found that these officers were 
actually "an aggregation of military men, a num- 
ber of individuals who happen at a given period 
of time to hold the high-ranking military posi- 



tions". It expressed the opinion that whether or 
not membership was voluntary was quite beside 
the point, saying that the General Staff and High 
Command, as defined, had a controlling character- 
istic which distinguished it sharply from the other 
organizations indicted. This was that in the case 
of the General Staff and High Command, the 
individual "could not know he was joining a group 
or organization, for such organization did not exist 
except in the charge of the Indictment." The in- 
dividual could only know, the Tribunal said, that 
he had achieved a certain high rank in one of the 
three services. 

In conclusion the Tribunal stated however that 
it had heard much evidence as to the participation 
of the officers involved in planning and waging 
aggressive war, and in conmiitting war crimes and 
crimes against humanity. The evidence was, it 
said, "as to many of them, clear and convincing". 
It continued : 

"They have been responsible in large measure 
for the miseries and suffering that have fallen on 
millions of men, women and children. They have 
been a disgrace to the honorable profession of 
arms. Without their military guidance the ag- 
gressive ambitions of Hitler and his fellow Nazis 
would have been academic and sterile. Although 
they were not a group falling within the words 
of the Charter, they were certainly a ruthless mili- 
tary caste. The contemporary German militarism 
fiourished briefly with its recent ally. National 
Socialism, as well as or better than it had in the 
generations of the past. 

"Many of these men have made a mockery of 
the soldier's oath of obedience to military orders. 
"When it suits their defense they say they had to 
obey; when confronted with Hitler's brutal 
crimes, which are shown to have been within their 
general knowledge, they say they disobeyed. The 
truth is they actively participated in all these 
crimes, or sat silent and acquiescent, witnessing 
the commission of crimes on a scale larger and 
more shocking than the world has ever had the 
misfortune to know. This must be said. 

"Wliere the facts warrant it, these men should 
be brought to trial so that those among them who 
are guilty of these crimes should not escape 
punislunent." 

The concluding portion of the judgment dealt 
with the Tribunal's findings of guilt or innocence 
in respect to the charges made in the Indictment 
against the individual defendants. 



19 



THE UNITED NATIONS 



Report on First General Conference of UNESCO 



BY ASSISTANT SECRETARY BENTON' 



I am taking the liberty this evening of breaking 
in on your preparations for Christmas with a re- 
port on an international conference. I returned to 
Washington this morning from Paris, where the 
conference was held. The theme of the conference 
is appropriate to this season — peace on earth and 
to men good-will. 

The meeting I have been attending was the first 
general conference of the United Nations Educa- 
tional, Scientific and Cultural Organization — 
UNESCO for short. UNESCO's goal is to help 
build peace on eartli through building the kind 
of good-will among men that springs from a true 
and steady understanding of each other. 

UNESCO is a unique institution. There has 
never been anything like it in history. The con- 
ference itself was unique — at least among recent 
international gatherings — in the absence of funda- 
mental disagreements between countries. 

I am happy to report that the American Delega- 



' An address delivered over the Columbia Broadcasting 
System on Dec. 23, 1946 and released to the press on the 
same date. Mr. Benton was Chairman of the U.S. Dele- 
gation to the first general conference of UNESCO. 



tion which accompanied me feels that this first 
conference of UNESCO was a success — that a 
sound start has been made at Paris. It was one of 
the most successful international conferences since 
the end of the war. 

It was not a highbrow conference, although 
some of the world's best scientists, scholars, and 
educators were there, representing 43 nations. 

It was a hard-headed and down-to-earth con- 
ference. Proposals had come in to the Prepara- 
tory Commission by the bagful during the past 
year. They ranged all the way from the creation 
of a bird sanctuary on Heligoland to an effort 
to eliminate illiteracy throughout the world. 
The Paris conference took a realistic view of 
UNESCO's job — a view stressed by the American 
Delegation : UNESCO's projects should be few in 
number at the start. They should not overtax the 
financial ability of the smaller countries during 
this critical year of financial strain. They should 
be practicable. They should meet squarely the 
test question : will this project contribute to peace ? 

It was also a political conference. That fact is 
of great importance to the American people. 
Power in today's world is not merely economic 



20 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin • January 5, 1947 



THE UNITED NATIONS 



power and military might. It also lies in the field 
of ideas. As older empires lose economic and 
military' power, and as new ones emerge, they are 
eager to gain strength on this new frontier — the 
frontier of the mind — where peace and security 
can be waged, as well as mistrust and war. 

We learned in Paris the great importance that 
the statesmen and politicians of other countries 
attach to the proposed educational, scientific, and 
cultural activities of UNESCO. The problem 
within the United States is to see to it that we 
understand how vital it is to us as well. Poten- 
tially, UNESCO is a political force of the first 
magnitude. It can achieve little unless the polit- 
ical, economic, and military problems which now 
becloud the world's future are resolved. But, in a 
world environment which opens the doors to 
scientific, educational, and cultural exchanges 
between peojjles, UNESCO can contribute might- 
ily to the creation of a world will toward peace. 
It can be a major force in the security program 
of the United States, and in the furtherance of 
the broad objectives of American foreign policy — 
peace and prosperity among all peoples of the 
world. 

I have said that no fundamental disagreements 
about policy or program bedevilled the conference. 
The closest approach was an issue raised by the 
representative of Yugoslavia, Mr. Ribnikar. In 
a thoughtful speech at the opening of the confer- 
ence Mr. Eibnikar inquired whether UNESCO 
proposed to develop a philosophy of its own which 
would be dominated by western thought and would 
exclude or even combat the philosophy of dialecti- 
cal materialism, which is the philosophy of the 
Soviet Union. He was assured that UNESCO is 
committed to no single philosophy ; that it will be 
a free forum of ideas; that its prime purpose is 
to advance understanding, among all peoples, of 
each other's ideas and cultures. 

Mr. Ribnikar also called upon UNESCO to, and 
I quote, "take active measures to suppress any 
attempt to provoke suspicion and hatred between 
the peoples". On this point it was less possible 
to reassure him, since UNESCO has neither a 
policy nor a power of suppression. 

I cite Mr. Ribnikar's speech because it may have 
a bearing upon the decision of the Soviet Union 
to join UNESCO. Russia was the only major 



power absent from the conference. Wliile there is 
great and useful work for UNESCO to do through 
its present roster of members, it cannot realize its 
full potentialities unless and until the Soviet 
Union constructively joins in the work. 

Before the Paris meeting we had heard that 
some of the other nations — particularly some of 
the smaller nations — feared that the United States 
would try to dominate the conference. We were 
told that the small nations feared what they called 
"American cultural imi^erialism". It is the Holly- 
wood motion picture which is feared most of all. 

The American Delegation arrived in Paris de- 
termined to press for maximum use of the mass 
media of communication — motion pictures, radio, 
and the press — because they constitute a potent 
new instrument in the pursuit of peace. We were 
delighted to find other nations taking the lead on 
proposals which we had been prepared to advance. 

In the conference subcommission on mass media, 
mider the chairmanship of a Belgian and the vice- 
chairmanship of a Dane, the British, the French, 
the Canadians and others came forward vigor- 
ously with proposals that coincided closely with 
our own ideas. 

Even after a rigorous effort to screen proposed 
projects, over 100 potential projects emerged in 
the final report of the conference. That was prob- 
ably too many. I shall list briefly five of the 
major projects UNESCO has agreed to begin work 
on during lt)47. You will see that they are im- 
mense undertakings for a young and untried or- 
ganization. 

First, a world-wide attack on the problem of il- 
literacy and the establishment of minimum stand- 
ards of education everywhere. This is a revolu- 
tionary undertaking, but it lies at the heart of 
UNESCO's long-range effort. If UNESCO can 
contribute substantially to its solution, it will have 
justified its existence through this effort alone. 
Well over half the world's population is illiterate. 
Can the world achieve peace through understand- 
ing in the absence of the simplest tools of under- 
standing, the ability to read and write? Illiterate 
men are pawns in a power struggle. They are also 
victims of an inequality so grave as to constitute 
a threat to peace. UNESCO will create a staff of 
its own, supplemented by experts from many na- 



21 



THE UNITED NATIONS 



tions, to recommend progi'ams for combatting il- 
literacy ; to develop educational materials ; and to 
determine how best to use books, pictures, films, 
and radio, as well as the schoolroom. 

Second, UNESCO will undertake a study of 
the psychological and social tensions that lead to 
war. When the tensions that produce unrest, 
suspicion, and hatred among classes, races, and 
peoples have been identified and described we shall 
know better how to attack UNESCO's central 
problem of promoting peace through understand- 
ing. UNESCO will seek to stimulate and coordi- 
nate research on these tensions by social scientists 
of many nations. 

Third, an effort to reduce the barriers that now 
obstruct the free flow of communications among 
peoples. In this UNESCO will cooperate with the 
Commission on Human Rights of the United 
Nations. We know from bitter experience that 
even highly literate peoples, when they are cut off 
from a full, honest, and continuous account of 
developments among other peoples, can be propa- 
gandized and bullied into aggressive belligerency. 
UNESCO will cooperate with the United Nations 
in a report that will survey available facilities 
throughout the world for the printing of news, 
books, and periodicals; the production and distri- 
bution of films ; and the broadcasting and reception 
of radio progi-ams. The report will deal also witli 
copyright restrictions, with the high cost of cable 
and wireless communication — indeed with all the 
i-estrictions on the flow of information and ideas 
across international boundaries, and with the sup- 
pression and distortion of information and ideas 
by any influence. 

Fourth, and again in cooperation with the 
United Nations, UNESCO will explore the possi- 
bility of creating a world-wide broadcasting 
network, under international auspices. Such a 
network might bring to ordinary people every- 
where, and in many languages, an account of the 
history, the achievements, the problems, the hopes 
and the aspirations, the music and the literature of 
other peoples. 

Fifth, and a very different kind of enterprise — 
this one in the field of science — is the proposed 
International Institute of the Amazon. This will 
bring together scientists from many nations and 
from many fields of science to study the problems 
of food, disease, and natural resources of a tropical 



area. The tropical areas of the world have been 
characterized by malnutrition and backwardness. 
An international attack upon this problem will 
offer an opportunity for cooperative action. It 
may open up new possibilities for the development 
of the tropics in such a way as to reduce future 
international tensions. 

I have given five major examples of the scope of 
UNESCO and of the decisions taken at Paris. 
There was unanimous and enthusiastic support for 
the proposed projects for the exchange of students 
and scholars and scientists, and the exchange of 
books and educational films. And although 
UNESCO is not a relief agency, $400,000 was 
voted for a short-term project to stimulate public 
and private organizations to assist in the recon- 
struction of the educational systems of war- 
devastated countries. 

I shall close on a note of hope and caution. 
UNESCO can become one of the most useful in- 
struments ever devised by man. But it can fulfil 
its potentialities only under favorable conditions. 

The winning of peace is largely a political and 
an economic problem. It cannot succeed unless 
the political and economic agencies of the United 
Nations succeed. It can help them to succeed. In 
the long run it can build a firmer foundation of 
understanding, making future political and eco- 
nomic problems easier to solve. 

Do not expect too much of UNESCO too soon. 
UNESCO has no powers to intervene in the cul- 
tural or educational life of any nation and should 
not have. It must do its work chiefly through 
other organizations. Its operating budget for 
1947 — $6,000,000 — though it is as much as many 
small nations could afford in this difficult period — 
is a pittance compared to the task and the 
opportunity. 

The great hope for UNESCO is that its leader- 
ship will learn how to seize and fii'e the imagina- 
tion of ordinary men and women everywhere, 
without producing ultimate disillusion through 
promising too much too fast. If you could have 
joined me in Paris, and seen for yourselves the 
earnestness and the ability that went into the 
launching of this United Nations Educational, 
Scientific and Cultural Organization, I am sure 
you would share my faith that this is a happier 
Christmas because of it. 



22 



Department of State Bulletin • January 5, 1947 



Meeting of the Security Council 



RESOLUTION ESTABLISHING COMMISSION OF INVESTIGATION 
OF GREEK BORDER INCIDENT > 



Whereas, there have been presented to the Se- 
curity Council oral and written statements by the 
Greek, Yugoslav, Albanian and Bulgarian Gov- 
ernments relating to disturbed conditions in 
Northern Greece along the frontier between Greece 
on the one hand and Albania, Bulgaria and Yugo- 
slavia on the other, which conditions, in the opinion 
of the Council, should be investigated before the 
Council attempts to reach any conclusions regard- 
ing the issues involved. 

Resolved: That the Security Council under 
Article 34 of the Charter establish a Commission 
of Investigation to ascertain the facts relating 
to the alleged border violations along the frontier 
between Greece on the one hand and Albania, 
Bulgaria and Yugoslavia on the other. 

That the Commission be composed of a Rep- 
lesentative of each of the Members of the Security 
Council as it will be constituted in 1947. 

That the Commission shall proceed to the area 
not later than January 15, 1947, and shall submit 
to the Security Council at the earliest possible 
date a report of the facts disclosed by its investi- 
gation. The Commission shall, if it deems it ad- 
visable or if requested by the Security Council, 
make preliminary i-eports to the Security Council. 

Tliat the Conamission shall have authority to 
conduct its investigation in Northern Greece and 
in such places in other parts of Greece, in Albania, 
Bulgaria, and Yugoslavia as the Commission con- 
siders should be included in its investigation in 
order to elucidate the causes and nature of 
the above-mentioned border violations and 
disturbances. 

That the Commission shall have the authority 
to call upon the Governments, officials and na- 
tionals of those countries, as well as such other 
sources as the Commission deems necessary, for 
information relevant to its investigation. 

That the Security Council request the Secretary- 
General to communicate with the appropriate 



authorities of the countries named above in order 
to facilitate the Commission's investigation in 
those countries. 

That each Eepresentative on the Commission 
be entitled to select the personnel necessary to 
assist him and that, in addition, the Security 
Council requests the Secretary-General to provide 
such staff and assistance to the Commission as it 
deems necessary for the promiit and effective ful- 
fillment of its task. 

That the Representative of each of the Govern- 
ments of Greece, Albania, Bulgaria and Yugo- 
slavia be invited to assist in the organization of 
the Conmiission in a liaison capacity. 

That the Commission be invited to make any 
proposals that it may deem wise for averting a 
rei^etition of border violations and disturbances 
in these ai'eas. 



Meeting of Special Technical 
Committee on Relief Needs ^ 

The Special Technical Committee on Relief 
Needs, established after the tei-mination of 
UNRRA under a resolution passed by the General 
Assembly, December 11, 194G (Doc. A/213), held 
its first meeting at Lake Success on December 18. 

The Committee consists of 10 experts in the field 
of finance and foreign trade, designated by the 
Governments of Argentina, Brazil, Canada, China, 
Denmark, France, Poland, the United Kingdom, 
the United States and the Union of Soviet Social- 
ist Republics, serving in their individual capaci- 
ties and not as representatives of the Governments 
by which they are designated. 



' Adopted by the Security Council on Dec. 19. For 
text of the U.S. draft resolution submitted to the Security 
Council on Dee. 18, see Bulletin of Dee. 29, 1940, p. 1183. 

' Released to the press by the United Nations on Dec. 18, 
1946. 



23 



THE UNITED NATIONS 

The functions of the Committee are : 

(a) to study the minimum import requirements 
of the basic essentials of life, particularly food 
and supplies for agricultural production of coun- 
tries which the Committee believes miglit require 
assistance in the prevention of suffering or of 
economic retrogression which threatens the supply 
of these basic essentials ; 

(&) to survey the means available to each coun- 
try concerned to finance such imports; 

(c) to report concerning the amount of finan- 
cial assistance which it believes may be required 
in the light of (a) and (b) above. 

The Committee elected as its chairman Mr. 
Henrik Kauffman (Denmark), and adopted its 
rules of procedure and agenda. The Committee 
also discussed its plan of work and timetable up 
to January 15, 1947 when it will have to submit a 
report to the Secretary-General. 

It was agreed that the secretariat communicate 
next Monday to members of the Committee, for 
study, all available data on relief needs and on the 
ability to pay of countries requesting assistance. 

Colombia Signs Articles of Agreement 
of International Bank ^ 

Harold D. Smith, Vice President of the Inter- 
national Bank for Eeconstruction and Develop- 
ment, announced on December 26 that Colombia 
has signed the articles of agreement of the Inter- 
national Bank. Colombia has been a member 
of the International Monetary Fund since its 
inception. 

Colombia is one of the countries which attended 
the Bretton Woods Conference in the summer of 
1944. Under the articles of agreement of the 
Bank, the subscription to the capital of the Bank 
assigned to Colombia is $35,000,000. By action 
of the Board of Governors of the Bank at the 



' Released to the press on Dec. 26, 1946 by the Inter- 
national Bank for Reconstruction and Development. 

'Released to the press jointly by the International 
Monetary Fund and the International Bank for Recon- 
struction and Development on Dec. 30, 1946. 



initial meeting at Savannah, Georgia, in March 
1946, the time during which those countries at- . 
tending the Bretton Woods Conference are en- 1 
titled to accept the articles of agreement was 
extended from December 31, 1945 to December 31, 
1946. Other countries entitled to sign the articles 
of agreement before the end of this year, which 
have not yet done so, are Australia, Liberia, New 
Zealand, the Union of Soviet Socialist Kepublics, 
and Venezuela. 

Venezuela Signs Articles of Agreement 
of International Fund and^lnterna- 
tional Bank^ ■ 

The Articles of Agreement of the International 
Monetary Fund and the International Bank for 
Reconstruction and Development were signed on 
December 3 by Dr. M. A. Falcon-Briceiio on be- | 
half of the Government of Venezuela. " 

Having participated in the Bretton Woods 
monetary and financial conference, Venezuela is 
among the nations entitled to sign the Articles of 
Agreement by December 31, 1946. Venezuela's 
quota in the International Monetary Fund is 
$15,000,000 and its subscription to the Inter- 
national Bank for Reconstruction and Develop- 
ment is $10,500,000. 

Agreement Between the United 
Nations and the ILO Signed m 

[Reluased to the press by the United Nations December 20] 

The protocol bringing into force the agreement 
concluded between the United Nations and the 
Internationnl Labor Organization was signed on 
December 20 in the office of the United Nations 
Secretary-General. Trygve Lie signed for the 
United Nations, and Edward J. Phelan, Director 
General of the ILO, signed for that organization. 

The agreement brings the ILO into official re- 
lationship with the United Nations as a special- 
ized agency under the coordinating authority of 
the Economic and Social Council. Mr. Phelan 
will remain in his post as Director General of the 
ILO office. 



24 



Department of State Bulletin • January 5, 1947 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



Calendar of Meetings 



In Session as of December 29, 1946 

Far Eastern Commission . 



United Nations: 

Security Council 

Military Stafif Committee ' ' ' 

Commission on Atomic Energy 

UNRRA - Intergovernmental Committee on Refugees (IGCR) 

Joint Planning Committee 
Telecommunications Advisory Committee 

German External Property Negotiations: 

With Portugal (Safehaven) 

With Spain (Safehaven) 



Inter-Allied Trade Board for Japan 

FAO: Preparatory Commission To Study World Food Board 
Proposals 

Inter-AUied Reparation Agency (lARA): Meetings on Conflicting 
Custodial Claims 

PICAO: Rules of the Air and Air Traffic Control Division .... 

Intergovernmental Committee on Refugees (IGCR) : Sixth Plenary 
bession 

European Central Inland Transport Organization (ECITO) • Sixth 
bession of the Council 

Scheduled for December 1946 - February 1947 

Meeting of Medical and Statistical Commissions of Inter-American 
Committee on Social Security 

PICAO: 

Divisional 

Personnel Licensing Division 



Washington 



Lalie Success 

Lalie Success 

Lake Success 

Washington and Lake Success 



Lake Success 



Lisbon 
Madrid 



Washington 
Washington 



Brussels 

Montreal 
London . 



Paris 



Washington 



Montreal 



'Prepared in the Division of International Conferences. Department of State. 



Feb. 26 

Mar. 25 
Mar. 25 
June 14 
July 25 

Nov. 10 

Sept. 3 
Nov. 12 

Oct. 24 

Oct. 28 

Nov. 6 

Dec. 3 
Dec. 16-20 

Dec. 18-19 



Jan. 6-11 



Jan. 7 



25 



Calendar oj Meetings — Continued 



PIC AO— Continued 
Divisional — Continued 

Aeronautical Maps and Charts Division 

Accident Investigation Division 

Airworthiness Division 

Airline Operating Practices Division 

Regional 

South Pacific Regional Air Navigation Meeting 

Twelfth Pan American Sanitary Conference 

Second Pan American Conference on Sanitary Education 

International Wheat Council 

United Nations: 
Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) 

Drafting Committee of International Trade Organization, Pre- 
paratory Committee 

Economic and Employment Commission 

Social Commission 

Subcommission on Economic Reconstruction of Devastated 
Areas, Working Group for Europe 

Human Rights Commission 

Statistical Commission 

Population Commission 

Commission on the Status of Women 

Subcommission on Economic Reconstruction of Devastated 
Areas, Working Group for Asia and the Far East 

Transport and Communications Commission 

Non-governmental Organizations Committee 

ECOSOC, Fourth Session of 

Regional Advisory Commission for Non-Self-Governing Territories 
in the South and Southwest Pacific, Conference for the Estab- 
lishment of 

ILO Industrial Committee on Petroleum Production and Refining . 



Montreal . . 

Montreal . . 

Montreal . . 

Montreal . . 

Melbourne . 
Caracas . . 
Caracas . . 
Washington . 

Lake Success 

Lake Success 
Lake Success 
Geneva . . . 

Lake Success 

Lake Success 

Lake Success 
Lake Success 
Lake Success 

Lake Success 
Lake Success 
Lake Success 

Canberra . . 
United States 



Jan. 14 
Feb. 4 
Feb. 18 
Feb. 25 

Feb. 4 
Jan. 12-24 
Jan. 12-24 
Jan. 15 



Jan. 20-Feb. 
28 

Jan. 20-Feb. 5 

Jan. 20-Feb. 5 

Jan. 27-Feb. 
13 (tenta- 
tive) 

Jan. 27-Feb. 
II 

Jan. 27-Feb. 
11 

Feb. 6-20 

Feb. 10 

Feb. 14 

Feb. 17-28 
Feb. 25-27 
Feb. 28 

Jan. 28 



Feb. 3-12 



Activities and Developments » 



TWELFTH PAN AMERICAN SANITARY CONFER- 
ENCE AND SECOND PAN AMERICAN CON- 
FERENCE ON HEALTH EDUCATION' 



The Twelfth Pan American Sanitary Conference 
and the Second Pan American Conference on 
Health Education are scheduled to be held con- 
currently at Caracas, Venezuela, from January 12 
to January 24, 1947. It is expected that all of the 



' Prepared by the Division of International Conferences, 
Department of State. 



26 



Department of State Bulletin • January 5, 1947 



American republics will attend. In addition, 
Canada and the British, French, and Dutch pos- 
sessions in this hemisphere have been invited to 
send observers. • 

The Pan American Sanitary Conference func- 
tions as the governing body of the Pan American 
Sanitary Bureau, which is a central coordinating 
agency for public health in the Western Hemi- 
sphere. The Conference is concerned with mak- 
ing recommendations in regard to the improve- 
ment of sanitary conditions in the American 
republics. The agenda will include, in addition to 
numerous technical subjects, consideration of the 
relationship of the Pan American Sanitary Bu- 
reau to the Woi-ld Health Organization. 

The First Pan American Conference on Health 
Education was held at New York in 1943 for the 
purpose of discussing methods of improving sani- 
tary education, reorganization of programs for 
training personnel, and other related subjects. 
The present Conference, meeting in conjunction 
with the Twelfth Pan American Sanitary Con- 
ference, will undertake a consideration of the fol- 
lowing points: (1) the role of sanitary education 
in a health plan; (2) the organization of an inter- 
American association of sanitary education; (3) 
a critical study of publications and visual aids 
which may be used in sanitary education; (4) a 
critical study of the techniques of sanitary educa- 
tion; (5) coordination of adult and school pro- 
grams of sanitary education ; (6) the contribution 
to sanitary education by other organizations ; and 
(7) the training of health educators and teachers. 
It is expected that the United States Delegation 
will be composed of representatives from the 
United States Public Health Service, the Army, 
the Navy, and the Department of State. 

MEETING OF ILO PETROLEUM COMMITTEE' 

The International Labor Organization's indus- 
trial committee for the petroleum industry will 
meet at Los Angeles February 3, it was announced 
at ILO headquarters in Montreal on December 31. 



ACTIVITIES AND DEVELOPMENTS 

The committee is composed of the representa- 
tives of 12 countries, each national delegation being 
made up of two government membei-s, two man- 
agement representatives, and two representatives 
of labor. The session, the committee's first, will 
conclude February 12. 

The committee is one of eight such bodies which 
form part of the ILO's machinery. Committees 
for the textile and construction industries met 
recently at Brussels, committees for coal mining 
and inland transport will meet for a second time 
at Geneva in March or April, and iron and steel 
and metal trades committees will hold their second 
sessions at Stockliolm in August.^ A date has not 
yet been fixed for the initial meeting of the eighth 
committee, which will deal with the chemical 
industry. 

MEETING OF GOVERNING BODY OF ILO^ 

The governing body of the International Labor 
Organization will hold its 101st session at Geneva, 
Switzerland, March 5 through March 8, it was an- 
nounced at ILO headquarters in Montreal on De- 
cember 27. 

The session will be preceded by meetings of the 
governing-body committees on budgetary alloca- 
tions, staff questions, and finance, and will be fol- 
lowed by a meeting of the standing orders com- 
mittee. The committee meetings will begin Feb- 
ruary 20 and conclude March 11. 

The governing body will deal with a 16-point 
agenda. In addition to considering reports of its 
various committees, it will draft estimates for the 
ILO's 1948 budget for submission to the general 
confei'ence of the Organization beginning June 19 
at Geneva and will fix the date, place, and agenda 
of the 1948 conference. 



' Released to the press by the International Labor Office, 
Montreal, Dec. 31. 

' For article on the first session of the iron and steel and 
metal trades committees in Cleveland, Ohio (Apr. 23-29, 
1946 and May 2-11, 1916, respectively), see Bulletin of 
Sept. 8, 1946, p. 447. 

' Released to the press on Dec. 27 by the International 
Labor Office, Montreal. 



27 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



United States - Polish Agreement on Compensation Claims 



[Released to the press December 27] 

Discussions held at the Department of State 
with the Polish Ministei- of Industry, Hilary Mine, 
on the occasion of his visit to this country as Dele- 
gate to United Nations Assembly and to the 
UNKRA Council session, have resulted in agree- 
ment on several economic and financial problems 
of importance to both countries. 

Agreement was reached on principles in terms 
of which the procedure of compensation to United 
States owners of enterprises taken over under the 
Polish Industries Nationalization Act of January 
3, 1946 will be implemented.^ It was agreed that 
compensation should be effected in dollars for in- 
vestments of United States nationals in dollars 
or in currencies, including zlotys, which at the 
time of investment were convertible. It was fur- 
ther agreed that the terms of payment of such 
compensation should be fixed by agreement of the 
two governments in light of the prospects of the 
Polish balance of pajTnents when the total amount 
of compensation is known. It was agreed that 
the American Embassy in Warsaw shall be able to 
enter valid protests, with or without authorization 
of the affected owners, during a period of 30 days 
following announcement of nationalization but 
that the proofs substantiating claims of American 
owners should be submitted promptly thereafter. 
With respect to protests not filed, by reason of lack 
of knowledge on the part of the American owner, 
it was further agreed that the Polish Government 
would undertake to consider such claims upon the 
petition of the owner. 

Particular attention was paid to claims arising 
out of the nationalization of property physically 
situated in the former territory of the German 
Reich but now part of the administrative area of 
Poland. With respect to such property held by 

' For article on the Polish Nationalization Law, see 
BuixETiN of Oct. 13, 1946, p. 651. 



corporations legally domiciled in the affected terri- 
tory, it was agreed that compensation would be 
made to the extent of the interest of the American 
claimants. With respect to similar properties 
owned by corporations legally domiciled in the 
present administrative area of Germany as defined 
in the Potsdam Declaration of August 1945, it was 
agi'eed that compensation will be made whenever 
the interest of American owners is 51 or more per- 
cent of the corporate voting stock and that, fur- 
thermore, compensation will also be made in cases 
of minority holdings whenever such holdings are 
shown, under regulations to be set up by the Polish- 
American mixed commission, to involve participa- 
tion in the control of such business. 

Under the terms of the agreement this Polish- 
American mixed commission, consisting equally 
of representatives of the two Governments, will 
formulate standards in terms of which, pursuant 
to the provisions of the Polish nationalization act, 
the properties are to be evaluated; provision is 
further made for the i-eview of such standards. 
It was further agreed that should the awards to 
American claimants be found unsatisfactory, the 
two Governments would undertake to settle the 
differ Aices in a spirit of mutual understanding 
and that if such understanding were not obtainable 
within a reasonable time, the differences would be 
referred to an umpire to be designated by the two 
Governments or, failing agreement, by the Secre- 
tary-General of the United Nations. 

Simultaneously, the Secretary of the Treasury 
informed the Polish Minister of Finance that Pol- 
ish assets in the United States will be released 
effective January 7, 1947, through the inclusion 
of Poland in General License No. 95. The Secre- 
tary of State also released the gold and the ac- 
counts in the United States of the Bank of Poland 
by certification under section 25 (b) of the Federal 
Reserve Act, thereby permitting the Bank of 
Poland to earmark or export such gold. 



I 



28 



Department of State Bulletin • January 5, 1947 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



Conversations With Greei< Prime 
Minister During Visit to U.S. 

t Released to the press December 23] 

The Prime Minister of Greece, Constantine 
Tsaldaris, visited Washington as the guest of the 
United States Government from the evening of 
December 19 to December 23. Opportunity for 
the visit was afforded by the Prime Minister's trip 
to the United States to appear before the United 
Nations Security Council at New York. 

The Prime ilinister had talks with the Presi- 
dent, tlie Secretary of State, the Secretary of the 
Treasury, and other high officials of the United 
States Government. During the conversations a 
very useful exchange of views took place. 

The Prime Minister described the economic con- 
dition of Greece with particular reference to the 
]iroblems presented by the imminent cessation of 
UNKRA shipments. The American officials in- 
dicated their recognition of the efforts already 
made by the Greek people for the reconstruction 
of their economy and assured the Prime Minister 
that this Government will urgently explore all 
possibilities of rendering immediate as well as 
long-range economic assistance to Greece. The 
Prime Minister met Paul A. Porter, who is to be 
the head of an American economic mission which 
will go to Greece next month for the purpose of 
studying Greek needs for reconstruction and de- 
velopment and the extent to which these can be 
met by more effective mobilization of Greek re- 
sources as well as by outside assistance. 

Although the talks were primarily on economic 
subjects, it was recognized that the feeling of in- 
security of the Greek people had impeded Greek 
reconstruction. It was felt by the participants 
that the recent action of the Security Council in 
appointing an investigating commission to visit 
Greece and neighboring countries should have an 
important indirect effect on economic rehabilita- 
tion, as it was regarded as the first step toward 
alleviating the tense political situation in that 
area. The United States authorities took the oc- 
casion to i-enew assurances of support, in accord- 
ance with the principles of the United Nations, for 
the independence and integrity of Greece. 



Assistant Secretary Hilldring Elected 
Cliairman of Bi-Zonai Supplies Com- 
mittee 

[Released to the press December 26] 

On December 26 John H. Hilldring, Assistant 
Secretary of State for Occupied Areas, was elected 
chairman of the British-American Bi-Zonal Sup- 
plies Committee at its organization meeting in the 
Department of State. 

The Bi-Zonal Supplies Committee was estab- 
lished under the terms of the recently consum- 
mated Anglo-American agreement merging eco- 
nomically the American and British occupied zones 
of Germany.! The committee, comprised of Amer- 
ican and British representatives, will have its 
headquarters in Washington. 

According to the merger agreement, signed by 
Secretary Byrnes and British Foreign Minister 
Bevin on December 3, functions of the Bi-Zonal 
Supplies Committee will be: 

"(«) In the case of commodities in short supply, 
to support the requirements of the Joint Export- 
Import Agency before the ajipropriate (allocat- 
ing) authorities." (The Joint Export-Import 
Agency has been established in Germany to handle 
all export-import matters for the merged United 
States -British zones.) 

"(Z>) To determine, where necessary, sources of 
supply and to designate procurement agencies hav- 
ing regard to the financial responsibilities and ex- 
change resources of the two Governments." 

Vice chainnan of the Bi-Zonal Supplies Com- 
mittee will be Eoger Makins, British Minister. 
The two other British regular members are R. 
Gordon Munro, British Minister, and Maurice 
Hutton, Chief of the British Food Mission in the 
United States. 

Serving with Mr. Hilldring as American mem- 
bers are Under Secretary of Agriculture Norris 
E. Dodd and Assistant Secretary of War Howard 
C. Petersen. 

Structure of the committee will be "open- 
ended". This will permit flexibility in member- 
ship to include, when necessaiy, representatives of 
other agencies or departments of Government in 
discussions in which they may have an interest. 

' Bui-LETiN of Dec. 15, 1946, p. 1102. 



29 



Clarification of U. S. Position on Antarctic Claims 



STATEMENT BY ACTING SECRETARY ACHESON 



[Released to the press December 27] 

•Acting Secretary Acheson at his news conference 
on December 27, in answer to an inquiry con- 
cerning an alleged international diplomatic dis- 
pute having to do with the British Survey and 
Weath-er-Station Mission which is now at Mar- 
guerite Bay in the Antarctic, said: 

As the press reports from London indicate, 
the State Department has not requested the Brit- 
ish Government to remove the British expedition 
from Marguerite Bay, in the Antarctic. What lias 
happened is this: As you may recall, an official 
exjjedition of the United States Government, 
known as the U.S. Antarctic Service Expedition, 
operated in the Marguerite Bay region in 1939, 
1940, and 1941. The Departments of the Govern- 
ment identified with this expedition were the 
Interior, State, Navy, and Treasury. On leaving 
the Marguerite Bay region this expedition left 
behind considerable property, including huts, 
various types of machinery, and certain supplies. 

As has already been reported, an independent, 
private American expedition led by a reserve 
Navy officer. Commander Finn Eonne, plans to 
depart from the United States some time in Jan- 
uary for the Marguerite Bay region. This is not 
an official Government expedition. However, by 
Act of Congress, this Government has loaned to 
Commander Eonne for this expedition a Navy 
ship. It should be pointed out that this expedi- 
tion, commanded by Commander Eonne, is en- 
tirely separate from the U.S. Navy Exercise just 
now arriving in Antarctic watere. Insofar as 
the State Department knows, this Exercise, led by 
Eear Admiral Cruzon, will not operate in the 
Marguerite Bay region. 

At Commander Eonne's request, the State De- 
partment recently requested the British Govern- 
ment to ascertain and inform us of the condition 
of the property which was left in Marguerite Bay 
in 1941 by the U.S. Antarctic Service Expedition. 

' For text of the agreement see Department of State 
press release 926 of Dec. 23, 1946. 



Such an inquiry was made of the British in view 
of the fact that the British have an expedition 
operating in the Marguerite Bay region. The 
British recently furnished this requested informa- 
tion, and the Department has passed it on to 
Commander Eonne. 

The British have said that while there would 
be insufficient space for two full-sized expeditions 
at Marguerite Bay, and not enough seals for food 
for dogs, they have indicated their willingness to 
work out some arrangements for cooperation be- 
tween the British and American expeditions in 
that area. 

In this connection, the United States Govern- 
ment has not recognized any claims of any other 
nations in the Antarctic and has reserved all 
rights which it may have in those areas. On the 
other hand, the United States has never formally 
asserted any claims, but claims have been asserted 
in its behalf by American citizens. 



Air-Transport Agreements 

China 

The bilateral air-transport agreement between 
the United States and China, which was initialed 
by representatives of the two Governments on 
November 30, was formally signed in Nanking on 
December 20, the Department of State announced 
on December 23.' The agreement is based on the 
standard clauses drawn up at the Chicago aviation 
conference of 1944 and also incorporates the so- 
called "Bermuda principles" contained in the bi- 
lateral air agreement between the United States 
and the United Kingdom and in other subsequent 
agreements. 

The three United States airlines certificated by 
the Civil Aeronautics Board to serve China are 
Pan American World Airways System, Trans- 
World Airline, and Northwest Airlines. Under 
the new agreement Pan American may serve 
Shanghai and Canton on one trans-Pacific route 



30 



Deporfmenf of Sfafe Bo//ef/n • January 5,1947 



THE RECORD Of THE WEEK 



via Honolulu and Tokyo and on another route 
via Honolulu and Manila, in connection with its 
round-the-world service; TWA may serve Canton 
and Shanghai on its route from the United States 
via Europe and the Middle East; and Northwest 
Airlines may serve Tientsin and Shanghai on its 
north Pacific route via Alaska and Tokyo, which 
terminates at Manila. 

Chinese airlines are granted two routes to San 
Francisco via the mid-Pacific and the north 
Pacific, and a third route to New York via Europe. 

The agreement was signed for the two Govern- 
ments by American Ambassador J. Leighton 
Stuart and Chinese Foreign Minister Wang 
Shih-chieh. Boiling R. Powell from the Depart- 
ment of State also assisted the Embassy in the 
negotiations. 

Pet'u 

The Department of State announced on Decem- 
ber 27 that a bilateral air-transport agreement 
between the United States and the Republic of 
Peru was signed on that date at Lima. The agree- 
ment was signed on behalf of the United States 
by the Ambassador, Prentice Cooper, and William 
Mitchell, special representative of the President 
with rank of Minister, and on behalf of the Re- 
public of Peru by Enrique Garcia Sayan, Minister 
for Foreign Affairs, and Enrique Gongora, Min- 



ister of Aeronautics. The Ambassador was as- 
sisted in the negotiations by William Mitchell and 
John O. Bell, Assistant Chief of the Aviation 
Division of the Department of State. 

The body of the agreement expresses the provi- 
sions of the so-called "standard form" drawn up 
at the Chicago aviation conference as well as the 
principles enunciated in the so-called "Bermuda 
agreement" between the United States and the 
United Kingdom.^ 

The Civil Aeronautics Board has previously 
determined that Pan American - Grace Airways 
and Braniff Airways will be the two American 
flag carriers to operate the international air routes 
covered by this agreement. By the agreement, 
American carriers are given rights from the 
United States and/or the Canal Zone to the cities 
of Talara, Chiclayo, Lima, and Arequipa in Peru, 
and beyond to points in Chile and Bolivia or be- 
yond. This constitutes a part of the air-transport 
route patterns contemplated by the Civil Aero- 
nautics Board. Airlines of the Republic of Peru 
are given rights to fly from Peru via the Canal 
Zone and Habana, Cuba, to Washington, New 
York, and, beyond the United States, to Montreal, 
Canada. 



'For text of agreement see Department of State press 
release 933 of Dec. 27, 1946. 



Addresses and Statements of the Week 



William Benton, Assistant Secretary 
for Public Affairs and Chairman 
of the U.S. Delegation to the 
First General Conference of 
UNESCO. 



Hugh Borton, Chief of the Division of 
Japanese Affairs, and 

Edwin M. Martin, Chief of the Divi- 
sion of Japanese and Korean Eco- 
nomic Affairs. 

Acting Secretary Acheson 



On the subject of the UNESCO Confer- 
ence in Paris. Text issued as press 
release 927 of Dec. 23. Printed in 

this issue. 

In commemoration of Woodrow Wilson's 
birthday. Text issued as press release 
934 of Dec. 28. Not printed. 

On the subject of American policy in Korea. 
Text issued as press release 931 of 
Deo. 28. Not printed. 



Statement on U.S. position regarding 
Antarctic claims. Text issued as press 
release 936 of Dec. 27. Printed in 

this issue. 



Broadcast over the CBS system 
on Dec. 23. 



Broadcast over the ABS network 
on Dec. 28, under the aus- 
pices of the Woodrow Wil- 
son Foundation. 

Broadcast over the NBC net- 
work on Dec. 28. 



Made at a news conference 
Dec. 27. 



on 



31 



Lend-Lease Operations: Twenty-Third Report 



PRESIDENT'S LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL > 



[Released to the press by the White House December 27] 

To the Congress of the United States of America: 

I am transmitting herewith to the Congress the 
twenty-third report of operations under the Lend- 
Lease Act. 

Lend-lease operations since V-J Day have been 
limited largely to negotiating final settlement 
agreements and to certain other liquidation activi- 
ties. The principal liquidation activity has related 
to the substantial quantities of lend-lease supplies 
which were in inventory or procurement in the 
United States at the time that direct lend-lease aid 
was terminated. Steps were taken immediately to 
sell to lend-lease countries the supplies which had 
been procured or contracted for on their behalf. 
Such sales agreements were entered into with 13 
countries, the total amount aggregating almost 
$1,200,000,000. Most of these supplies have already 
been shipped and the remainder will be transferred 
to the recipient countries as rapidly as possible. 
This report discusses the terms and provisions of 
the sales agreements. 

In the period covered by this report, agreements 
on final settlement for lend-lease and reciprocal 
aid have been signed with the Governments of 
France, Belgium, Turkey, Australia, New Zealand, 
and India. Detailed accounts of these agreements 
are contained in this report. The first settlement 
agreement was negotiated with the United King- 
dom and was discussed in the twenty-second report. 

Final settlements have been signed with coun- 
tries which received 70 percent of total lend-lease 
aid. Countries with which agreements remain to 
be negotiated include the U. S. S. R., China, Greece, 
the Netherlands, Norway, and the Union of South 

' Filed Dec. 27, 194(5, with the Secretary of the Senate 
and the Clerk of the House of Representatives, as pro- 
vided in Section 5-b of the Lend-Lease Act. 



Africa. Preliminary discussions concerning settle- 
ments are now in progress with several of these 
countries. 

In the negotiation of the settlements the objec- 
tive has been to carry out the provisions of Article 
VII of the Master Lend-Lease Agreements with 
various countries, which provide that ". . . the 
terms and conditions thereof shall be such as not 
to burden conmierce between the two countries but 
to promote mutually advantageous economic rela- 
tions between them and the betterment of world- 
wide economic relations." Viewed in the light of 
the objectives of the Lend-Lease Act and the Mas- 
ter Agreements, I believe that the settlements 
which have been worked out not only are highly 
satisfactory to the United States in the financial 
sense but also serve the long-range interests of this 
country by providing one of the foundations of 
economic stability in the postwar world. 

Although the value of lend-lease can never be 
satisfactorily measured in monetary terms, I think 
it should be noted that return to the United States 
from lend-lease through September 30, 1946 ex- 
ceeded 10 billion dollars, including reverse lend- 
lease aid, cash payments for goods and services 
furnislied under lend-lease, payment made or to 
be made under the final settlement agreements, 
and the sale of supplies in inventory or procure- 
ment. 

Negotiation of the remainder of the final lend- 
lease settlements, fiscal activities in connection 
with the payments due under the various agree- 
ments, and the recording and reporting of fiscal 
operations are the principal continuing lend-lease 
functions. 

Harry S. Truman 

The White House, 
December 27, 19^6. 



32 



Deparfmenf of S/afe Bo//e//n • January 5, 1947 



The Minutes of the Council of Four of the Paris Peace Conference of 1919 



Review by James S. Beddie of Volumes V and VI of 
^•Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United 
States, The Paris Peace Conference, 1,91.9" ' 



With the publication of these two vokimes the 
minutes of tlie meetings of the Council of Four at 
the Paris Peace Conference of 1919 are at last 
made available to the public. Thus, after some- 
what more than a quarter of a century one is able 
to form his own opinion on the basis of the text 
of the original documents of the reasons for and 
the wisdom underlying most of the major deci- 
sions made at Paris. 

The sessions of the Council of Four covered a 
period from their inception in March 1919 to the 
day of the signature of the Treaty of Versailles 
and the departure of President Wilson from Paris 
on June 28, 1919. During that period the Council 
of Four may be regarded as constituting the Su- 
preme Council of the Peace Conference. 

The earlier manifestation of the Supreme Coun- 
cil had been the Council of Ten, established at the 
opening of the sessions of the Peace Conference 
on January 12, 1919. The American representa- 
tives were usually Pi'esident Wilson and Secre- 
tary of State Lansing, and the other Great Powers 
each had two representatives. The Council of Ten 
proceeded with the business of the Conference in 
almost daily sessions. There soon appeared, how- 
ever, certain signs of dissatisfaction with this form 
of organization and its method of doing business. 
It was felt that the Council of Ten was too large 
a body to act effectively and to keep its proceed- 
ings secret. Many also felt that it was not pro- 
gressing rapidly enough with the preparation of 
peace terms, especially those dealing wdth major 
questions which would require decisions by the 
Great Powers. 

Several meetings of groups more limited than 
the Council of Ten were held in the early jjart 
of March, and on March 24 at 3 p.m. a meeting 
was held in advance of the meeting of the Coun- 
cil of Ten on that date. At the advance meeting, 
with President Wilson, M. Clemenceau, Mr. Lloyd 



George, Signor Orlando, and Marshal Foch in at- 
tendance, and with M. Mantoux as interpreter, the 
question of the transport of General Haller's troops 
to Poland was discussed. At the same meeting or 
at the subsequent session of the Ten it was decided 
that no date should be fixed for the next meeting 
of the Council of Ten, and that thereafter the four 
heads of governments should meet by themselves 
twice daily. President Wilson later recalled that 
"it was on his initiative that the meetings of this 
smaU group had been held" ( vol. vi, p. 753 ) . The 
amiouncement of the new arrangement was made 
in the press on the following day. 

Thus the Council of Ten was broken up into 
two bodies; the Council of Four and a new and 
subsidiary body of five members known as the 
Council of Foreign Ministers or Council of Five. 

The Council of Four consisted of President Wil- 
son, Mr. Lloyd George, M. Clemenceau, and Signor 
Orlando or Baron Sonnino. The name, the 
"Council of Four" seems to appear for the first 
time officially in the minutes of the meeting of the 
Council of Foreign Ministers of April 1. At the 
meeting of May 17, 11:10 a.m. the title of the 
"Council of the Principal Allied and Associated 
Powers" was formally adopted. Informally, of 
course, and regularly in the press, the Council 
was referred to as the "Big Four". The group 
was also occasionally referred to as the Council of 
Five when a Japanese representative was pres- 
ent (a Japanese representative was present at 40 
meetings) , but in such cases it is to be distinguished 
from the Council of Foreign Ministers known 
regularly as the Council of Five. During the 
absence of Signor Orlando from Paris the body 
became a Council of Three, although the term 
"Council of Four" is frequently used to cover that 

' To be released on Jan. 11, 1947. These volumes are 
available from the Superintendent of Documents, Gov- 
ernment Printing Office, Wa.shington, D. C, at $2.25 each. 



33 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



I^eriod as well. In one form or another the Coun- 
cil held somewhat over 200 meetmgs. It is impos- 
sible to give an exact figure as some of the meet- 
ings were of an informal character. 

The meetings were most often held at President 
AVilson's house in the Place des Etats-Unis, on 
other occasions at Lloyd George's apartment in 
the Rue Nitot, or at Clemenceau's office. 

During the jjeriod over which its meetings weie 
held the Council of Four was the highest authority 
on all matters before the Conference, and nearly 
all of the i^rincipal decisions concerning the ti'eaty 
with Germany were made by it. Specialists con- 
tinued to be used by the Council of Four and on 
certain problems, such as that of the Saar Basin, 
small committees were appointed to report to the 
Four directly and informally. The concentration 
of power in the Council of Four brought increased 
speed in the work of the Conference. It also 
brought greater secrecy and almost total exclusion 
of representatives of the smaller powers from the 
decisions reached by the Confei'ence. 

The fact that the Council of Four was a council 
of heads of govermnents i-esulted in the elimina- 
tion of regular Japanese representation on the 
Supreme Council, which may have caused some 
resentment, but which helped to speed up the work 
of the Conference as the Japanese were not funda- 
mentally interested in the European aspects of the 
German settlement. On jNIay 26 a letter was re- 
ceived by the Four from the Japanese Delegation 
asking that in oi'dinary circumstances Japan 
might be represented on the Council. A polite 
reply was made to the effect that Japan would be 
invited whenever questions particularly affecting 
her were under consideration (vol. vi, p. 32). 

Since Signor Orlando was the only member of 
the Four who did not understand the English lan- 
guage, the effectiveness of Italian participation in 
the deliberations of the Four was somewhat re- 
duced. Thus, vei-y early in the course of the meet- 
ings of the Four it was reported to the other Amer- 
ican plenipotentiaries by Colonel House that — 

"Orlando was rather worried about the way 
things were going in the Council of Four. There 
were present at the meetings of that Council only 
President Wilson, Lloyd George, Clenienceau and 
Orlando, and the discussions were all held in Eng- 
lish. Mr. Orlando, however, did not understand 
English, and it was therefore necessary for Mr. 



Clemenceau to translate not only what he said, but 
also what President Wilson and Lloyd George 
said. Mr. Orlando was therefore never certain as 
to whether he was being given the correct impres- 
sion in the discussions" {Foreign Relafioiis, Pans 
Peace Cotiference, vol. xi, p. 137). 

It is evident from the minutes that progress toward 
the completion of the terms of the German treaty 
was more I'apid during the period when the Italian 
Delegation had withdrawn from Paris. 

The early meetings of the Council of Four were 
held with only an interpreter, M. Paul Mantoux, 
present in addition to the Four. Brief notes of 
the conversations and decisions were made by M. 
Mantoux, but soon the assistance of a secretary 
became necessary, Sir Maurice (now Lord) Han- 
key of the British Delegation. 

The inconveniences arising from conducting 
business without a secretaiy or a formal record 
had been urged on Lloyd George by Sir Henry 
Wilson, who remai'ked to Lord Eiddell (as the lat- 
ter recorded in his diary) : 

"I have told the Prime Minister that he ought 
to have Hanky-Panky with him. The trouble is 
that the Four meet together and think they have 
decided things, but there is no one to record what 
they have done. The consequence is that misun- 
derstandings often arise and there is no definite 
account of their proceedings and nothing 
happens." 

With the appointment of Sir Maurice Hankey 
as secretary, formal minutes of the meetings and 
a record of the decisions of the Council were kept, 
and from about April 21 the records of meetings 
of the Council are virtually continuous. An 
Italian secretary. Count Aldrovandi, was present 
at most of the later meetings, and portions of a 
diary kept by him have been published. President 
Wilson's secretary, Mr. Close, was present at one 
meeting, and his stenographer attended two meet- 
ings. At three meetings members of the joint 
secretariat were present. 

The decisions of the Coimcil were drawn up in 
formal language and communicated by Sir Mau- 
rice Hankey to the drafting committee, which 
transformed them into articles of the Treaty. 

The minutes of the Council of Four in their 
physical aspects are similar to those which had 
previously been made covering meetings of the 



34 



Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



January 5, 1947 



Council of Ten. They were prepaiecl in mimeo- 
graphed form by the British Delegation, generally 
within a day or two after the meeting Iiad been 
held. 

The minutes are framed in indirect discourse, as 
customary in British reporting of such gatherings, 
and the literary style is dignified and formal. 
From the evidence available it may be concluded 
that the minutes represent adequately and cor- 
rectly the positions taken by the participants in 
the course of the formal discussions amojig the 
Four. 

During the period in which the conversations of 
the Four were held, the minutes of their meetings 
received very limited distribution. On the eve of 
President Wilson's departure Secretary Lansing 
found it necessary to write to President Wilson to 
request a copy for his use after the President's 
departure, stating that no records of these meet- 
ing.s^ were at his disposal. (Foreign Relations, 
Paris Peace Conference, vol. xi, p. 597.) 

The question of what further distribution and 
what degree of publicity should be given to the 
records of the Council of Four Mas discussed at 
one of their last meetings (vol. vi, p. 753). Presi- 
dent Wilson expressed strongly the view that the 
minutes should be treated as records of purely 
private conversations and stated that if he had 
thought that the notes were to be passed on to gov- 
einment departments he would have insisted on 
adhering to the original system of liaving no sec- 
retaries present. He thought that the actual con- 
versations which led up to the conclusions reached 
should be regarded as private. Otiier members of 
the Council disagreed, holding that it might be 
necessary to pass along the minutes for the infor- 
mation of their successors in office, and no final 
decision was reached. Later, at a meeting of the 
Supreme Council (Council of Ministers of For- 
eign AflFairs) on January 13, 1!)20, at which the 
whole question of preservation and publication of 
records of the Peace Conference was discussed, it 
was decided that these minutes should not be 
printed, but that the British and FrencJi Govern- 
ments should preserve the notes which had been 
made and which were in their possession, pledging 
themselves to treat them as .strictly secret. 

Demands for further information about the 
proceedings of the Council of Four began to ap- 
pear in the press almost as soon as the new form 



THE RECORD OF THE IVEEff 

of organization had been aiuiounced and continued 
to appear during the remainder of the life of tbe 
Conference. A number of extracts from the 
minutes were eventually published. Such ex- 
tracts appeared as early as 1922 in Kay Stannard 
Baker's Woodrow Wilson and World Settlement, 
in Lloyd George's The Truth About the Peace 
Treaties in the course of the 30's, in articles by 
Mantoux and others who were present at meetings 
of tlie Four, in the published diaries of Count 
Aldrovandi, in Hunter Miller's Dianj, and else- 
where. 

Public sentiment for publication of the records 
of tlie Peace Conference, including, of course, the 
minutes of the Council of Four, was made evi- 
dent in the resolutions of groups of historians, 
international lawyers, political scientists, and 
others interested in public affairs. Such action 
was taken by the American Historical Association 
as early as 1931. The result was the publication 
of the minutes of the Council of Four among the 
volumes of Foreign Relatioiu containing the" rec- 
ords of the Peace Conference of 1919. 

In spite of the fact that some extracts from 
minutes of certain of the meetings of the Four 
have been published previously, there will be 
found in these volumes a great quantity of mate- 
rial that is new and much that is applicable 
to the problems of the peace treaties now being 
negotiated. 

Possibly readers of these volumes will not find 
among the deliberations of the Four some of the 
tilings which they may expect to find. This is 
especially true of the details of the territorial 
settlement in Europe, the reason being that the 
territorial arrangements were worked out initially 
m the various territorial committees and then 
revised or approved without change by the central 
territorial committee, and .sometimes also by the 
Council of Foreign Ministers, before presentation 
to the Supreme Council. As a result, in the case 
of a number of the territorial settlements the Four 
did little more than to register approval of deci- 
sions already reached on a lower level. Li such 
cases the discussions of territorial questions, the 
positions assumed by the various national delega- 
tions, and the bases for the compromises or other 
settlements reached, must be sought in the minutes 
of the meetings of the territorial committees. On 
the other hand, there wei'e a number of subjects 



35 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



which had been reserved from discussion by the 
territorial committees previously as affecting the 
interests of one of the Great Powers, particularly 
Italy, and which required and received discussion 
at length by the Four. 

The Council began its deliberations in an atmos- 
phere of crisis and throughout its sessions the Four 
were confronted with one crisis of major propor- 
tions after another. The meetings of March 24 
were beclouded with general pessimism over the 
news just received of the Bolshevist revolution in 
Hungary. As William Allen White on that day 
summed uj) the situation to Dr. C. H. Haskins of 
the American Delegation while the latter was 
starting for the session which was destined to be 
the last regular meeting of the Council of Ten : 
"In the race between peace and anarchy, anarchy 
seems ahead today." 

Thei'e followed nearly at once the crisis over the 
Saar and the prolonged discussion of reparations. 
In the latter part of April these were eclipsed by 
the acute crisis over the Italian territorial claims, 
and on April 19, Signor Orlando made a formal 
statement in the Council of the principles under- 
lying Italian claims stating that — 

"He recognised that there was one Power repre- 
sented there today, namely, the United States of 
America, which had not taken any part in the 
Treaty concluded with Italy by France and Great 
Britain. Consequently, he proposed at the mo- 
ment to deal with the subject on the hypothesis 
that no engagements existed. Italy had formu- 
lated three definite and distinct claims. He be- 
lieved these to be in conformity with the general 
principles which had been adopted by the Su- 
preme Council in dealing with the Peace Treaty" 
(vol. V, p. 80). 

President Wilson in reply stated that — 

"It had been his privilege as the spokesman of 
the Associated Powers to initiate the negotiations 
for peace. The bases of the Peace with Germany 
had then been clearly laid down. It was not rea- 
sonable — and he thought his Italian friends would 
admit this — to have one basis of Peace with Ger- 
many and another set of principles for the Peace 
with Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria and Turkey. He 
must assume that the principles in each case would 
be the same. The whole question resolved itself 



into this: We were trying to make peace on an 
entirely new basis and to establish a new order 
of international relations. At every point the 
question had to be asked whether the lines of the 
settlement would square with the new order. No 
greater question had ever been asked in any ne- 
gotiations. No body of statesmen had ever before 
undertaken to make such a settlement. There was 
a certain claim of argument which must be brushed 
aside, namely, the economic and strategic argu- j 
ment" (vol. v, pp. 84-85). 

Clemenceau when giving his views stated that — 
"in listening to President Wilson's speech, he felt 
we were embarking on a most hazardous enter- 
prise, but with a very noble purpose. We were 
seeking to detach Europe and the whole world 
from the old order which had led in the past to 
conflicts and finally to the recent War which had 
been the greatest and most horrible of all. It was 
not possible to change the whole policy of the 
world at one stroke." 

He went on, however, to state that he thought 
the Italians in taking the position they did — 

"were making a great mistake. It would serve 
neither their own use nor the cause of civilisation. 
We French, as he had often said, had had to de- 
plore the treatment given to the Italians in the 
Adriatic. But these moments were past. Now it 
will be necessary to traverse another critical pe- 
riod. He hoped his Italian friends were not count- 
ing too much on the first enthusiasm which would 
ffreet this action. Later on the cold and inevitable 
results would appear when Italy was alienated 
from her friends. He could not speak of such a 
matter without the gravest emotion. He could not 
think of one of the nations who helped to win this 
War separating from their Allies. We should 
suffer much, but Italy would suffer even more 
from such action (M. Orlando interjected 'with- 
out doubt')" (vol. V, p. 90). 

Mr. Lloyd George took the practical position 
that — 

"Great Britain stood by the Treaty, but that she 
stood by the whole of the Treaty. The map which 
he had in his hand attached to the Treaty showed 
Fiume in Croatia. This was known to Serbia. We 
could not break one part of the Treaty while stand- 
ing by the other." 



36 



Departmenf of State Bullefin • January S, 1947 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



He thought Italy — 

"was in the wrong and was making an indefensible 
claim. If war and bloodshed should result, what 
would the position be ? Surely, there must be some 
sanity among statesmen ! To break an Alliance 
over a matter of this kind was inconceivable. If 
Italj' should do so, however, the responsibility 
would not be ours. We stood by our Treaty and 
the responsibility would rest with those who broke 
the Treaty" (vol. v, pp. 91, 93) . 

President Wilson said that — 

"This solution would place a burden on him 
that was quite unfair. He did not know and did 
not feel at liberty to ask whether France and 
Great Britain considered the Treaty as consistent 
with the principles on which the Peace Treaty was 
being based. He was at liberty to say, however, 
that he himself did not. To discuss the matter on 
the basis of the Pact of London would be to adopt 
as a basis a secret treaty. Yet he would be bound 
to say to the world that we were establishing a 
new order in which secret treaties were precluded. 
He could not see his way to make peace with Ger- 
many on one principle and with Austria-Hungary 
on another. The Pact of London was inconsistent 
with the general principles of the settlement. He 
knew perfectly well that the Pact of London had 
been entered into in quite different circumstances, 
and he did not wish to criticise what had been done. 
But to suggest that the decision should be taken on 
the basis of the Treaty of London would draw the 
United States of America into an impossible sit- 
uation" (vol. V, p. 93). 

These points of view, as stated thus in the fii-st 
discussion of the Italian claims among the Four, 
remained the basis of the positions of the members 
of the Council throughout the course of prolonged 
discussions from April 19 to 24 culminating in 
President Wilson's appeal to the Italian people 
and the departure of the Italian Delegation. 
These discussions, some of the most interesting 
and dramatic of those which took place among the 
Four, though earnest, were repetitive and de- 
veloped no new points of view or possible solutions. 

Many of the implications of their decisions for 
future history seem to have been realized by the 
participants in the discussions of the Four. None 
had a more lively realization of this than Clemen- 
ceau, the oldest of the Four. Thus in the course 



of a discussion on reparations on April 29 he said 
that— 

"His thoughts were not only of the necessities of 
the moment, but that here, as always, he was 
thinking of the necessities of the future. Peace 
had not merely to be signed: it had to be lived. 
It must be made of such a kind that it would mould 
the social life of the future. Considerations of 
sentiment might be left aside since they counted for 
little in political life, and it was necessary to ap- 
proach all these problems in a spirit of concilia- 
tion and not to insist too strictly on a full measure 
of concessions or to propose as an alternative a 
definite breach between those who were charged 
with arriving at a solution that would guide the 
tendencies of the future. He himself might oft^n 
have broken off negotiations if he had insisted on 
what he conceived to be his rights. Everyone had 
had to give way on points which appeared to be 
vital, and everyone must be prepared to take pain- 
ful decisions and to bear the bitter reproaches of 
his own supporters" (vol. v, p. 350). 

The return of the Italians did not end the dis- 
cussion of Italian claims in the Adriatic, in Asia 
Minor, and in Africa. In connection with the 
discussion of mandates, Signor Orlando observed 
that by Mr. Lloyd George's scheme — 

"Italy was excluded from participation in the 
mandates in Africa. He had spoken of this ques- 
tion before and had said that if mandates were a 
burden Italy was ready to accept them. If man- 
dates had advantages, then Italy had the right to 
share them" (vol. v, p. 507). 

With the submission of the Conditions of Peace 
to the Germans, anxiety among the Four was 
shifted to the question of action to be taken in the 
event of the Germans declining to sign the Treaty 
and there were frequent discussions with Marshal 
Foch and the military advisers. President Wilson 
favored verbal discussion of the Conditions of 
Peace with the Germans, at least to the extent of 
allowing the Allied experts to — 
"explain the meaning of some parts of the Treaty 
of Peace which, in his view, the Germans had 
failed to understand. If our Experts could show 
that no heavier burden had been laid on the Ger- 
man people than justice required, it might make 
it easier for the German Delegates to explain to 
their own people" (vol. v. pp. 800-801). 



37 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



M. Clemenceau believed that — 

"This would serve the objects of the Germans. 
He agreed that they would probably leave without 
signing, but when troops began to move, they 
would sign soon enough. They wanted some ex- 
cuse with their own people to make them sign'' 
(vol. v, p. 801). 

The size of the military forces to be allowed to 
Germany and the states of Central Europe re- 
ceived prolonged discussion. General Bliss did 
not believe that the armies of the new states of 
Central Europe should be reduced to too small 
proi^ortions and pointed out— 

"the danger of future combinations between Ger- 
manic, Slavonic and Asiatic races, which might 
eventually sweep the civilization of Western 
Europe out of the way. He personally had never 
believed in the possibility of the extinction of all 
traces of Anglo-Latin civilization from Western 
Europe, but he thought that by eliminating the 
possibility of the maintenance of order in Central 
and Southern Europe, the Council were formu- 
lating a possible scheme to bring this about. The 
brilliancy of the military glory which now light- 
ened up certain of these Western nations of 
Europe might in reality not be an evidence of 
health but only the hectic flush of disease which 
would eventually result in the downfall of our 
strip of Latin and Anglo-Saxon civilization along 
the Western coast of Europe" (vol. v, pp. 879-880) . 

Each of the members of the Four remarked on the 
strong impression pi'oduced on him by General 
Bliss' remarks. 

At the beginning of June, Lloyd George ex- 
pressed concern over the character of the peace 
terms which had been preparetl. At the meet ing of 
June 2 he referred to the attitude of British pub- 
lic opinion and to meetings which he had held 
with members of the British Government and of 
the British Empire Delegation. He stated that 
all of those with whom he had consulted — 

"had unanimously agreed that unless certain de- 
fects in the Treaty were put right they could not 



' I'on i(/n RcUitions. Paris Peace Coiifi'rene'e, vol. xi, 
pp. 587-88. 

"For minutes of tlip American meeting of June 3, see 
ibid., pp. lE)7-222. 



advise that the British Army should be allowed 
to march or that the Fleet should take part in the 
blockade" (vol. vi, p. 139). 

He thereupon proposed extensive concessions to 
Germany in the peace terms, all of these conces- 
sions being in fields which did not affect Britain's 
vital interests. M. Clemenceau countered by say- 
ing that — 

"He had to consider the current opinion here in 
France. In England the view seemed to prevail 
that the easiest way to finish the war was by mak- 
ing concessions. In France the contrary view 
was held that it was best to act firmly. The 
French people, unfortunately, knew the Germans 
very intimately and they believed that the more 
concessions we made, the more the Germans would 
demand" (vol. vi, p. 142). J 

At the conclusion of this meeting it was agreed 
that no meeting should be held on the following 
morning, so that the Heads of States might be 
free to consult their own delegations. The other 
four American plenipotentiaries had already coun- 
seled the President ^ to hold such a meeting ^ and 
it might have been of advantage if similar meet- 
ings had been held earlier and moi"e frequently. 
President Wilson's lack of opportunity to consult 
at this time any larger section of American public 
opinion than was comprised in the American Dele- 
gation placed him at a disadvantage compared 
with the others of the Four. 

At the following session of the Four, one con- 
cession after another at the expense of Poland was 
agi-eed upon. Possibly contributing to this result 
was the fact that persistent disregard of the ad- 
monitions of the Four by Polish military leaders 
in the Ula-ainian dispute had vei-y largely ex- 
hausted the stock of good-will felt toward Poland 
by the Four. The powerful impression made by 
M. Paderewski in his appearance before the Coun- 
cil on June .5 was not sufficient to rever.se this trend. 
Mr. Lloyd George frequently displayed impa- 
tience with Central and Eastern European in- 
transigence. On one occasion he thought that — 

"The whole of the trouble in Central Eurojie 
arose from the fact that their friends refused to 
obey the orders issued by the Supreme Council. 
He thought it would be necessary to take strong 
measures with their friends" (vol. vi, p. 257). 



38 



Deparfmenf of Sfafe Bullefin 



January 5, 7947 



President Wilson on the other hand expressed 
sympathy with the peoples of the new states, 
especially the Poles, stating that — 

"As a matter of fact the Germans were far more 
subtle propagandists than the Poles. No one 
could induce him to believe that the Poles who 
were in no political position would be better i)ropa- 
gandists in Upper Silesia than the Germans, who 
were. As against the Germans he was pro-Pole 
with all his heart" (vol. vi, p. 303). 

M. Clemenceau took a strong stand against 
eleventh-hour modifications and concessions to the 
Germans stating that — 

"He must say frankly that he did not believe in 
abandoning the scheme that had been drawn up. 
He probably knew the Germans better than any of 
his colleagues. He had known them very well 
since 1871. We had brought the proposals made 
to Germany before the whole world. To abandon 
them, merely because the Germans had objections, 
was a thing he could not assent to. . . . To do 
this would be to turn the whole world upside down. 
It would be not the conquerors but the conquered 
who came out best. ... He was convinced that 
this or that concession would not make the Germans 
sign. There was much to be said against the 
Germans, but they were a people with gi-eat qual- 
ities even if they had great faults, and at present, 
they were very anxious to put their country on its 
legs again. Of course, if Alsace-Lorraine, the 
Saar, Poland, etc., were abandoned, we could have 
peace tomorrow ... He was willing to accept 
modifications, but he was not willing to compro- 
mise the peace and the victory, which was not 
British, nor French, nor Italian, nor American, 
but a peace secured by all" (vol. vi, pp. 277-78). 

In the event of the Germans refusing to sign 
the treaty, Mr. Lloyd George advocated a renewal 
of the blockade, but President Wilson was opposed 
to the imposition of a blockade. 

"A military occupation was justified, but he did 
not believe in starving women and children. It 
was the last resoit and sliould not be taken at 
first . . . Tlie imposition of the blockade would 
shock the sense of mankind. A military occupa- 
tion was the regular and habitual way of dealino- 
with a situation of this kind. Germany had dis- 
regarded all methods of humanity, but this did not 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 

justify the Allies in doing so" (vol. vi, p. 371). 

After some discussion it was agreed that the Block- 
ade Council should make every preparation for the 
re-imposition of the blockade, but that its actual 
enforcement should not be undertaken, even in the 
event of a refusal by the Germans to sign the 
Treaty of Peace, without a definite decision by the 
Four. In the meantime no actual threat was to 
be nuide public that the blockade was to be re- 
imposed, but short of this, steps were to be taken 
to give the public impression that such prepara- 
tions were in hand. 

Wlien the Four turned to military measures to 
be taken against Germany, they were somewhat 
disconcerted by Marshal Foch's plan to secure the 
signature of various German States separately en 
route to Berlin and Clemenceau showed his dis- 
pleasure with Marshal Foch openly and expressed 
concern about difficulties with the Marshal at such 
a time. 

"He was particularly anxious not to have any 
trouble with Marshal Foch before the Germans 
had given their reply" (vol. vi, p. 524). 

The attitude of the Germans and especially the 
events of Scapa Flow left the Four in the closing 
days of their deliberations with little confidence 
in the Germans' intention to fulfil their obligations 
under the Treaty. In the discussion of Scapa 
Flow. President Wilson prophetically remarked 
that— 

"Difficulties of this kind would often occur in 
connection with the carrying out of the Treaty. 
The Germans would be tricky and would perhaps 
often destroy things that they had undertaken to 
return, alleging that the destruction had been 
perpetrated by irresponsible persons over whom 
they had no control. Hence, it was necessary to 
face the issue as to whether if they did .so, we were 
prepared to renew the war" (vol. vi, p. 657). 

While the minutes as here recorded reflect little 
of whatever element of drama may have sur- 
rounded the meetings of the Council, they do, how- 
ever, record and reemphasize the salient charac- 
teristics of the Four, the lively political sense of 
Lloyd George, the tenacious devotion to Italian 
claims of Orlando, the realism and patriotism of 
Clemenceau, and the lofty idealism of President 
Wilson. 



39 




General Policy I'as" 

The United States and Economic Collabora- 
tion Among the Countries of Europe. 
Article by H. van B. Cleveland ... 3 

Conversations With Greek Prime Minister 

During Visit to U.S 29 

Clarification of U.S. Position on Antarctic 
Claims. Statement by Acting Secre- 
tary Acheson 3" 

Economic Affairs 

Lend-Lease Operations: Twenty-Third Re- 
port. President's Letter of Transmittal. 32 

Occupation Matters 

Assistant Secretary Hilldring Elected Chair- 
man of Bizonal Supplies Committee . . 29 

The United Nations 

Report on First General Conference of 
UNESCO. By Assistant Secretary 
Benton 20 

Meeting of Security Council: Resolution 
Establishing Commission of Investiga- 
tion of Greek Border Incident 23 

Meeting of Special Technical Committee on 

Relief Needs 23 

Colombia Signs Articles of Agreement of 

International Bank 24 



The United Nations — Continued ^»s^« 

Venezuela Signs Articles of Agreement of 
International Fund and International 

Bank 24 

Agreement Between United Nations and ILO 

Signed 24 

Meeting of ILO Petroleum Committee ... 27 

Meetingof Governing Body of ILO 27 

Treaty Information 

The NUrnberg Judgment: A Summary. 

Article by Katherine B. Fite 'i 

U.S. - Polish Agreement on Compensation 

Claims 28 

Air-Transport Agreements: 

China 30 

Peru 3^ 

Educational, ScientiHc, and Cultural 

Cooperation 
Twelfth Pan American Sanitary Conference 
and Second Pan American Conference 
on Health Education 26 

Calendar of International Meetings . 25 
Addresses and Statements of the Week . 31 

Publications 

The Minutes of the Council of Four of the 

Paris Peace Conference of 1919 ... . 33 



%mvl/)wwtc/ii6^ 



Katherine B. Fite, author of the article on the NUrnberg Judgment, 
is Assistant to the Legal Adviser, Department of State, and was tem- 
porarily assigned to Justice Jackson's staff in Loudon and Nurnberg 
during July-December 1945. 

//. van B. Cleveland, author of the article on United States and 
Economic Collaboration Among the Countries of Europe, is Assistant 
Chief of the Division of Investment and Economic Development, Office 
of Financial and Development Policy, Department of State. 



U. SG0VE'»NMENTP«INT1NS OFFICE: 194' 



^Ae/ zl)eha')i{mten{/ /C^ t/tate^ 




PROPOSED CHARTER FOR INTERNATIONAL TRADE 

ORGANIZATION: SUIVIMARY OF PROVISIONS 68 

GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY ASSEMBLY IN CARACAS 

Article by Andr4 C. Simonpietri ...... ••.62 

UNESCO CONFERENCE • REPORT FROM PARIS . . 53 
INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION IN SUGARf,". Article 

by Jean Mulliken 43 



For complete contents see back cover 



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January 12, 1947 




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national relations, are listed currently. 



INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION IN SUGAR 



hy Jean Mvlliken 



The place of sugar m the vwrld economy has called for 
concerted action in time of war and in time of economic 
distress. This article sets forth the steps taken during the 
last several decades to stabilize the world sugar situation as 
related to the economic aspects of this vital commodity. 



With the outbreak of every world war, supply 
lines are cut and sliortages of sugar develop in 
consuming areas while stocks accumulate in the 
cane-producing areas. High prices induce expan- 
sion of production in some areas which could not 
conifwte in world markets under normal condi- 
tions, and if this production fails to contract when 
the low-cost producers return to the market the 
resulting surplus presents a problem as difficult of 
solution as the shortage which preceded it. The 
pressure of shortage is felt by the consumer. The 
burden of surpluses falls primarily on the pro- 
ducer. If consumer and producer are parts of the 
same body politic, their respective problems re- 
ceive hearing at the same court, so to speak, and 
some acceptable compromise can be worked out. 
It is more difficult to achieve a compromise solution 
when producer and consumer are set apart by na- 
tional frontiers. The outlook for international 
cooperation on sugar problems is, nevertheless, 
more promising at the close of World War II than 
it was after World War I. 

Sugar is important in the foreign trade of most 
of the nations of the world. Cane sugar can be 
produced in nearly all tropical areas and was, be- 
fore the war, an important export crop in Cuba, 
Java, the Philippines, Formosa, Australia, the 
Dominican Republic, and the French and British 
Caribbean islands. Many countries in the tem- 



perate zone produce beet sugar, and a few, notably 
Czechoslovakia, Poland, and Germany, normally 
export it, but a large number of the beet areas rely 
on cane sugar to supplement an inadequate pro- 
duction. The tropics hold the world's sugar 
reserve. 

During World War I European beet-sugar pro- 
duction fell from 8,000,000 tons to less than 3,000,- 
000 tons in the course of four years. Cuba was 
the only country which could expand its output 
rapidly to fill the gap, and by 1920 Cuban pro- 
duction had increased by 25 percent. Demand 
continued far in excess of supply, however, and 
upon the removal of government controls in the 
United States, prices in the United States market 
rose rapidly to a peak of 26.5 cents a pound in 
May 1920. Sugar could be produced at a profit 
in almost any country at prices prevailing in the 
early 1920's, and farmers the world over expanded 
production to take advantage of the high returns. 
In the United States, production of beet sugar 
rose from 773,000 tons in 1914 to 1,166,000 tons 
in 1924. In the insular areas, protected by our 
domestic tariff, production expanded as rapidly 
as on the mainland, Philippine production rising 
from 421,000 to 779,000 tons, Puerto Rican from 
346,000 to 660,000, and Hawaiian from 651,000 to 
781,000 tons during the same 10-year period. The 
European beet-sugar industry revived rapidly at 



43 



the conclusion of the war, and the Caribbean 
islands, with their war-expanded production, were 
soon faced everywhere with contracting markets. 
Countries like Cuba, which produce primarily 
for the world market, were the first to suffer from 
this contraction and the first to impose restrictions 
on production. In May 1926, the Cuban Govern- 
ment instituted production controls, providing for 
a 10-percent reduction in the crop then being har- 
vested and empowering the President to restrict 
the crops of 1927 and 1928. These powers were 
later extended to cover the period from 1928 to 
1933. The sugar surplus was too large a problem, 
however, to be solved by a single country. Prices 
continued to fall, and, in May 1931, seven of the 
principal sugar-producing countries combined 
forces in an effort to restrict production and relieve 
the pressure on the market. Cuba, Java, Germany, 
Czechoslovakia, Poland, Hungary, and Belgium 
entered into an agreement, known as the "Chad- 
bourne Agreement", to limit their exports to speci- 
fied annual quotas and to dispose gradually of their 
excess stocks. These countries accounted for ap- 
proximately 40 percent of all sugar produced in 
the world at that time and for almost 90 percent of 
all sugar exported. Still the area of cooperation 
was too small. Each downward revision of export 
quotas was nullified by simultaneous contraction 
of the world market, as consuming countries, 
plagued by a world depression and facing serious 
problems of unemployment at home, reduced their 
consumption and sought to meet their require- 
ments from indigenous supplies so far as possible. 
The United States was no exception. With the 
onset of depression, domestic sugar producers 
called upon Congress for protection against fall- 
ing world prices and succeeded in obtaining an 
increase in the rate of duty to 2.5 cents a pound. 
If this rate had applied against all imported 
sugar, it might have been effective in bolstering 
prices in the domestic market. Sugar from our 
territories and insular possessions is not, however, 
subject to duty, and the maintenance of high 
prices in this market immediately stimulated pro- 
duction in the lower-cost insular areas. In the 
three years following imposition of the Smoot- 
Hawley tariff of 1930, Philippine production rose 
75 percent and Puerto Rican production more 
than 40 percent. With prices in world markets at 
about one-half cent a pound, and the New York 
price of 2.57 cents a pound proved very attractive 
to island producers, the mainland producers dis- 



44 



covered that the high tariff wall was serving to 
encourage insular production. If the mainland 
producers were to be given effective protection 
some method of restricting production in the ter- 
ritories was cleai-ly called for, and the simplest 
device for placing a ceiling on imports was the 
imposition of a quota system. 

The quota system was the principal feature of 
the Jones-Costigan Sugar Act, which was passed 
by Congress in 1934. It established percentage 
quotas for the United States market and offered 
"benefit payments" varying from 30 to 60 cents 
a hundred pounds to growers who would agree to 
restrict their sugar production. The quotas 
established for each area, foreign and domestic, 
were based in large part on their contribution to 
the United States supply during the period sub- 
sequent to the imposition of the Smoot-Hawley 
tariff. This choice of a base period reserved to 
areas inside the tariff wall the benefit of their 
recent gains and maintained Cuba's share at the 
relatively low level which it had reached during 
the depression. 

At the same time that the United States was 
establishing quotas for the domestic market, 
other sugai'-producing countries of the world 
were following a parallel route under force of 
similar circumstances. The depression in the 
sugar industry was so serious that even the lowest- 
cost producers found it impossible to operate at 
a profit and were willing to consider the feasibility 
of cooperative action to stabilize prices which 
would place the industry upon a sounder basis. 
As an outgrowth of the International Monetary 
and Economic Conference of 1933 the principal 
sugar-producing and sugar-consuming nations 
met in London in 1937 in an attempt to reach 
some agreement for the orderly marketing of 
sugar in world markets. At the conclusion of the 
meeting an international sugar agreement was 
signed by 22 nations, 18 of them representing pro- 
ducer interests and 4, the interests of importing 
nations. 

This agreement provided for the establishment 
of export quotas for the world market, and each 
nation which was granted an export quota for its 
cane-producing territories bound itself to limit 
its stocks, at a maximum, to 10 percent of its quota. 
The importing countries agreed, in substance, to 
impose no new restrictions on the participation of 
foreign countries in their domestic markets. That 
this was not a large concession on the part of the 

Department of State Bulletin 



United States is evident from a glance at the 
quotas established under the domestic Sugar Act, 
which had been revised in 1937 and which con- 
tinues in existence to the present time. The 
domestic beet industry is permitted to supply ap- 
proximately 23 percent of all sugar consumed in 
the United States. Domestic cane growers sup- 
ply an additional 6 percent. The quotas assigned 
to Puerto Rico, Hawaii, and the Philippine Is- 
lands are, roughly, 12, 14, and 15 percent, re- 
spectively. Cuba's quota is set at 28.6 percent, 
and the remaining 1 percent is divided among other 
countries. The market for foreign sugar in the 
United States is thus distinctly limited when 
quotas are in effect. Nevertheless, the assurance 
on the part of the United States Goverimient that 
the share of foreign countries would not be re- 
duced below 30 percent was welcomed as a stabil- 
izing factor. During the 1920's Cuba had supplied 
the United States with almost 50 percent of its 
total consumption. Wlien the Cuban quota was 
set at little more than half this figure, the diver- 
sion of Cuban sugar to the world market had dis- 
astrous consequences for all producers selling in 
that market as well as for Cuba. 

Wlien war broke out in Europe in 1939 the inter- 
national sugar agreement had behind it two years 
of successful operation. Sugar prices were rising, 
and an element of stability had returned to the in- 
dustry. Wliether the agreement would have been 
able to weather a depression is a question which 
cannot be answered, for with the outbreak of hos- 
tilities the balance swung again from a surplus 
to a shortage condition and quota restrictions were 
either lifted or ignored. 

Even in this period of impending shortage, 
however, there were areas where sugar was in sur- 
plus supply. Shipping lanes to Europe were 
blocked, and, after the capitulation of France, 
Caribbean sugar which normally found its market 
on the Continent piled up in the producing areas. 
The situation in Cuba became so acute early in 
1941 that it was necessary to arrange a loan from 
the Export-Import Bank to finance the carrying of 
the crop. As it became increasingly evident that 
the war would be of long duration, the price situa- 
tion gradually improved. By midwinter the 400,- 
000 tons of sugar held as collateral for the Cuban 
loan could have been sold to European neutrals 
at a figure well above the United States ceiling 
price of 2.5 cents a pound. The Cuban Govern- 
ment, however, did not release the sugar for sale in 

January 72, 7947 



Europe, preferring to serve the market in this 
country, and when quotas for the United States 
market were lifted by presidential proclamation 
in April 1942 the sugar found a ready market here. 

After Pearl Harbor the Philippines and Java, 
which customarily exported almost 2.5 million tons 
of sugar, were cut off from their western outlets, 
and the sugar shortage in the Western Hemisphere 
and in Europe became increasingly grave. None 
of the Central and South American countries were 
obliged to ration sugar, but most of them suffered 
from recurrent shortages. Canada, the United 
Kingdom, and the United States instituted rigor- 
ous rationing and did everything possible to hus- 
band their stocks and to increase production. The 
loss of Philippine supplies was a serious blow to 
the sugar economy of the United States. Our 
normal consumption was about 6.5 million tons of 
sugar a year. The Philippine Islands customarily 
provided 15 percent of this quantity, but there was 
little possibility of filling a gap of this size from 
domestic production at a time when our agricul- 
tural resources were being taxed to the utmost to 
provide other commodities needed in the prosecu- 
tion of the war. Actually, domestic beet-sugar 
production declined from 1.7 million tons in 1942 
to 1.0 million tons in 1944, although all quota re- 
strictions were suspended early in 1942. If it had 
not been possible to divert the sugar which Cuba 
customarily supplied to Europe into the United 
States market and greatly to increase Cuba's pro- 
duction, the pinch of rationing would have been 
felt here much sooner and would have been much 
more severe. 

The cooperative approach to world sugar prob- 
lems which had been employed so successfully 
before the war in reducing the world surplus was 
now directed toward meeting the sugar shortage. 
The United States and the United Kingdom 
undertook to purchase all available stocks of sugar 
and to guarantee prices wherever necessary to 
maximize production. Great Britain established 
subsidies for cane-sugar production in the British 
colonial areas, and guaranteed minimum prices 
over a period of years. The United States nego- 
tiated with the Cuban Government for purchase of 
its entire exportable sugar supply, beginning in 
1942 and extending through the 1947 crop. It 
also purchased the 1942 and 1943 exportable sur- 
pluses in Haiti and the Dominican Republic. 
Since this sugar was shipped primarily to Canada 
and the United Kingdom, however, the British 



45 



Government negotiated purchases in this area in 
succeeding years. Maximum production -was the 
goal in every year except 1943, when submarine 
activity interfered seriously with shipping in the 
Caribbean and it was deemed advisable to limit 
the underwriting of the Cuban crop to the quantity 
which could be stored in Cuba in the event that it 
could not be moved to the mainland. 

The price incentive offered for increased pro- 
duction in Cuba was relatively modest. The con- 
tract price for the 1942 and 1943 crops was 2.5 
cents a pound. In 1944 the price was raised to 
2.65 cents; in 1945 it was increased to 3.10 cents; 
and the base price under the 1946 contract was 
established at 3.675 cents, subject to adjustment 
for increases in the Food Price Index and the Con- 
sumers' Price Index of the Bureau of Labor Statis- 
tics, and for certain other contingencies. The 
highest price paid for Cuban sugar in 1946 will be 
the base price for the 1947 crop. The rise in the 
cost of living may result in a price in the neighbor- 
hood of 5 cents a pound for Cuban sugar in 1947, 
and also for Haitian and Dominican sugar, since 
their prices have paralleled Cuba's throughout the 
war. This compares with current quotations of 
10 to 15 cents a pound for what little sugar is cur- 
rently available on the world market. 

The 1946-47 Cuban sugar-purchase contract con- 
tains the added proviso, inserted at the request of 
Cuba, that if the United States should enact legis- 
lation extending or modifying the International 
Sugar Act of 1937 in a manner detrimental to the 
position of Cuba as a future supplier of sugar to 
the United States market, the Cuban Sugar In- 
stitute may cancel the unfulfilled portion of the 
contract. 

All sugar acquired by the Governments of the 
United States and the United Kingdom under ex- 
clusive purchase arrangements has been regarded 
as a pool, and supplies have been allocated by 
mutual agreement in accordance with wartime 
necessities. Almost a million tons of the 1945 
Cuban crop was utilized in the production of 
alcohol for the manufacture of synthetic rubber. 
The major portion of each crop has regularly gone 
to meet the food requirements of the United States 
and the other Allied countries and of those coun- 
tries dependent upon them for supplies. During 
the war this group was made up of the active com- 
batants and cooperating neutrals. With the libera- 
tion of Europe, the number of countries dependent 
upon the pool, at least in part, grew rapidly ; for 

46 



much of the European beet acreage had been over- 
run, refineries had been destroyed, and even where 
these remained intact there was a shortage of 
power for processing the beets. The break-down in 
internal transportation also presented a major 
problem, both in getting the beets to the factory 
and in distributing the refined product. Some of 
the liberated countries had been totally without 
sugar for months at a time, and it was essential 
that they be supplied promptly. Early in the war 
the Combined Food Board was set up by the Gov- 
ernments of the United States, the United King- 
dom, and Canada to make recommendations re- 
garding the procurement and distribution of com- 
modities in short supply, and since sugar pre- 
sented one of the more critical supply problems a J 
sugar subcommittee of this Board has operated I 
continuously. 

When, on cessation of hostilities, the world was 
still faced with a serious shortage of sugar, it ap- 
peared desirable to broaden committee representa- 
tion to include all countries with a substantial in- I 
terest in the world trade in each commodity, the 
membership of the Sugar Committee was there- 
upon increased in accordance with this principle. 
The life of the Combined Food Board was first 
extended until June 1946 and then, when it became 
apparent that food shortages would continue 
throughout the following winter, its tasks were 
taken over by an organization set up on the rec- 
ommendation of a special meeting on urgent food 
problems held under the auspices of the Food and 
Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 
This organization, the International Emergency 
Food Council, has a membership of 27 countries, 
8 of which are represented on the Sugar Com- 
mittee. It is anticipated that the Council will con- 
tinue in existence through 1947, although it may 
recommend the dissolution of a commodity com- 
mittee whenever supplies approximate demand, 
there is little likelihood that the need for sugar 
allocations will disappear before the end of 1947. 
In all probability the world sugar shortage will 
continue into 1948. 

As was to be expected, sugar allocations to the 
United States, the United Kingdom, and Canada 
had to be reduced somewhat with the reappearance 
of European demand. Per capita consumption 
in the United States, which had reached a peak 
of 103 pounds in 1941 and averaged 85 pounds 
during the succeeding three years, fell in 1945 
(Continued on page 78) 

Department of State Bulletin 



THE UNITED NATIONS 



Resignation of Bernard M. Baruch as U.S. Representative 
on Atomic Energy Commission 

EXCHANGE OF LETTERS BETWEEN THE PRESIDENT AND MR. BARUCH 



[Released to the press by the White House January 4] 

Dear Mr. President : 

I have the honor to inform you that the first 
phase of the work of the United Nations Atomic 
Energy Commission has been completed. The 
basic principles have been clearly stated in the 
Commission's report which has been submitted to 
the Security Council and exposed to the study of 
the world. 

Accepting the principles, substantially those 
first enunciated by the United States Delegation 
on June 14 last, the Commission, after more than 
a hundred conferences, voted on December 30 (last 
Monday) by 10 to (Russia and Poland abstain- 
ing) to approve the formulae submitted by the 
United States, as in keeping with the desires of 
the nations represented and with the creating Act 
of the General Assembly on January 24, 1946 in 
London.' 

The task of general disarmament, with special 
accent not only on the war use of atomic energy 
but on its peaceful uses, too, previously had been 
set by you in consultation in Washington with the 
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and the 
Prime Minister of Canada in November 1945 ; and 
outlined and fortified by the Conference of For- 
eign Ministers in Moscow in December 1945, the 
personnel being Mr. Secretary Byrnes of the 
United States, Mr. Molotov of the Soviet Repub- 
lics, and Mr. Bevin of the United Kingdom. 

The active undertaking of the problem of Gen- 
eral Disarmament by the Security Council, ex- 
pressed in the Resolution of the United Nations 
General Assembly on December 14, 1946, has 

January 72, 1947 



created a new situation in which our hand would 
be strengthened by an identic representation on 
the Security Council and the Atomic Energy Com- 
mission.^ This country is one of the few whose 
Atomic Energy Commission representative is not 
the same as the representative on the Security 
Council. 

Former Senator Warren Austin, our member in 
that body, is thoroughly equipped to handle this 
business as it develops from now on. In fact, he 
would be handicapped by divided authority. And 
were he to take over the atomic subject, he would 
have the important aid of the United States 
Atomic Energy Commission (dealing with do- 
mestic phases of this matter) , to the head of which 
you recently appointed the Honorable David 
Lilienthal. He would also have the assistance of 
the staff we have built up; of the State Depart- 
ment, which has been kept informed of our pro- 
ceedings; and of the United States membere of the 
United Nations Military Staff Committee. 

So, because of my belief that the work of my 
American associates and myself is over, and be- 
cause I am convinced that the job now should be 
taken over by Senator Austin, I submit my resig- 
nation and those of the men who have worked 
with me — all of whom worked without fee or ex- 
pense allowance, and at considerable sacrifice to 
their personal affairs for nine months. Their ef- 
forts were of inestimable value to the country and 
I hope, to the world. They include Messrs. John 
M. Hancock, Ferdinand Eberstadt, Herbert 

• Bulletin of June 23, 1046, p. 1057. 
' BiTLLETiN of Dec. 22, 1946, p. 1137. 



47 



THE UNITED NATIONS 



Bayard Swope, Fred Searls, Jr., Dr. Richard C. 
Tolman and Maj. Gen. Thomas F. FarrelL 

We had the continuing help of Maj. Gen. Leslie 
R. Groves and his staif — he was the head of the 
atomic project since its militaiy beginnings — and 
the help of our Scientific Panel : Drs. J. R. Oppen- 
heimer, Robert F. Bacher, Harold C. Urey, 
Charles A. Thomas, Arthur H. Compton and 
I. I. Rabi. To this credit list I add the members 
of the United States Delegation to the United 
Nations Military Stail Committee, particularly 
Lt. Gen. M. B. Ridgway, USA, Gen. George C. 
Kenney, USA, and his successor Brig. Gen. C. 
P. Cabell, USA, and Admiral R. K. Turner, 
USN; they represented the Joint Chiefs of Staff 
of the United States. 

We acknowledge the debt we owe to the prelimi- 
nary work done in the Acheson-Lilienthal report 
and, too, I am grateful for the ever present and 
eiScient work of our staff, who gave their minds and 
hearts to the job, at far lesser compensation than 
they could have earned in private pursuits. 

No acknowledgment would be complete without 
recording the unfailing, whole-hearted support 
given at all times by you and Secretary Byrnes. 

Permit me to make certain points : 

In working out the basic principles to govern 
the control of atomic energy, I make bold to suggest 
that I and my associates have carried out the pri- 
mary ordei-s given by you and the Secretary of 
State at the time of my appointment last April. 

I accompany this letter by the full report of the 
work of the Commission. From its text you will 
understand why I see encouragement as to the 
eventual outcome, for with four of the Great 
Powers, permanent members of the Security Coun- 
cil, and six other nations in agreement, the difficulty 
of gaining unanimity has lessened. Wliile unani- 
mous action is important, it must not be gained 
at the expense of principle. To do that would be to 
lull the world into a false sense of security. 

As you and the Secretary of State are aware, 
in all of our insistences that "there shall be no 
legal right by veto or othenvise, whereby a wilful 
violator of the terms of the treaty or convention 
shall be protected from the consequences of viola- 
tion of its terms" (the language of the report) , we 
did not attack the general right of veto in the 
Security Council. We opposed the secondary veto 
upon enforcement or punishment, called for by a 

48 



treaty, if the treaty were approved by the Security 
Council and ratified "by the several nations neces- 
sary to assure its success." 

Let me say a word as to the final vote : 

France, the United Kingdom and China together 
with the United States are the Four Great Powers 
approving the principles that were acted upon by 
the Commission. The six other nations were 
Australia, Mexico, Brazil, Egypt, the Netherlands 
and Canada. Those countries, excepting Canada, 
plus the two abstainers (Russia and Poland) com- 
pose, as you know, the Security Council. (Since 
the first of the year, Mexico, the Netherlands and 
Egypt have been succeeded in the Council and the 
Commission by Belgium, Colombia and Syria.) 

As to the primary principles we have sought to 
enact, they are familiar to you, since they are 
definitely part of your instructions to us. 

I can find no better way of summarizing the work 
of the Commission than to invite your attention to 
the Findings and Recommendations found from 
pages 18 to 27 of the Commission's Report already 
I'eferred to. 

They include, among many others, these most 
important elements : 

(a) the creating of a comprehensive interna- 
tional system of control and inspection, under the 
direction of an agency within the framework of 
the United Nations, by means of an enforceable 
treaty, subject of course, to ratification by our 
Senate ; 

(b) that the control should start with the pro- 
duction of uranium and thorium when they are 
severed from the ground and extend through the 
production of fissionable material, using safe- 
guards at each ste^j, including accounting, inspec- 
tion, supervision, management and licensing, as 
may be appropriate; 

(c) that the powers of the agency should be 
commensurate with its responsibility, with no 
government possessing the right of veto over the 
day-to-day operations of the agency; 

(d) that the agency should have unimpeded 
right of ingress, egress, and access for the per- 
formance of its inspections and other duties ; 

(e) prohibiting the manufacture, possession and 
use of atomic weapons by all nations and provid- 
ing for the disposal of existing stocks of atomic 
weapons and fissionable materials; 

(/) specifying acts constituting international 

Deparfmenf of Stale Bulletin 



crimes, and establishing adequate measures of en- 
forcement and punishment, subject to the condition 
that there shall be no legal right, by veto or other- 
wise, whereby a wilful violator shall be protected 
fi'om the consequences of violating the treaty. 

The international control agency will require 
broad powers commensurate with its great respons- 
ibilities, so that it may possess the requisite 
flexibility to adapt safeguards to a rapidly develop- 
ing technology. The safeguards that have been 
discussed are meant only to be indicative of the 
types of safeguards that must be erected, which 
should be strengthened and never weakened. 

There is one more theme that I must emphasize, 
namely that the Commission's recommendations 
constitute an integrated and indivisible whole, each 
part of which is related to, and dependent upon 
the others. This fact is stressed in the Commis- 
sion's recommendations. It must never be lost 
sight of. No partial plan for the control of atomic 
energy can be effective, or should be accepted by 
this coimtry. 

In the extended debates of the Atomic Commis- 
sion, the original principles of the United States 
Delegation have been tested and the outcome shows 
them to be sound. 

We believe that this beginning, translated into 
action, may begin a broad progi^am to govern 
weapons of mass destruction. In fact, it could 
even include other armaments. Were such a sys- 
tem employed effectively, it might lead us into a 
warless age. 

I know how near to your heart that objective is. 
I know the peoples of the world are yearning for 
the chance to live and work with dignity and with- 
out fear, in Peace and Security. 

To that end I shall hold myself ready to answer 
any call you may make. 

Let me add these final thoughts : 

I see no reason why this country should not con- 
tinue the making of bombs, at least until the ratifi- 
cation of the treaty. 

I have drawn your attention before to the neces- 
sity of preserving the atomic secrets. Particu- 
larly is this wise as to our designs, know-how, 
engineering and equipment. The McMahon law 
carries authority for this protection. If this au- 
thority should be found to be inadequate, it should 
January 12, 1947 



THE UNITED NATIONS 

be broadened to meet any needs, until a treaty is 
ratified by our Senate. 

Wliile science should be free, it should not be 
free to destroy mankind. 

Our gratitude goes to you for the opportunity 
of service you have given us. 
With warm regard. 
Respectfully, 

Bernard M. Baruch 



January 4, J 94-7. 
Dear Mr. Baruch : 

The Secretary of State has handed me your letter 
of resignation as the Representative of the United 
States on the Atomic Energy Commission. 

At first I was reluctant to accept the resignation. 
However, upon reflection, I have to agree with the 
correctness of the conclusions stated in your letter. 
The recent action of the General Assembly of the 
United Nations placed the responsibility for the 
consideration of disarmament proposals primarily 
upon the Security Council, where Senator Austin 
will represent the United States. I am impressed 
by the fact that, with one exception, the govern- 
ments represented on the Security Council have 
the same representatives on the Atomic Energy 
Commission. 

I know how tremendously interested you have 
been in the accomplishment of the task assigned 
you, and when you tell me that you believe your 
task is completed and that the work should now 
be taken over by Senator Austin, I accept your 
decision. 

I wish to congratulate you most heartily on hav- 
ing secured the acceptance by the Commission of 
the United States proposal. It is inevitable that 
members of the Commission representing many 
governments should have differences of opinion as 
to the best approach to a solution of this problem. 
That our proposal should finally be accepted by a 
vote of ten to nothing, with two states abstaining, 
is a tribute to the fairness of our proposal. At the 
same time, it is convincing evidence of your skill 
and patience in presenting the proposal. 

I wish you would extend to those who have been 
associated with you in this most important service 
my sincere appreciation of their efforts. Your 
own efforts in this matter only furnish additional 
evidence of your unselfish devotion to your country. 
Very sincerely yours, 

Harrt S. Truman 

49 



7;;C!)02— 47 



LETTER FROM THE SECRETARY OF STATE TO MR. BARUCH 



[Released to the press by the White House January 4] 

January 4, 19!i7. 
Dear B. M. : 

Eeferring to your note enclosing copy of your 
letter of resignation, I have today handed your 
letter to the President. 

When I urged you to accept the appointment to 
the Atomic Energy Commission, I realized the 
difficulties of the task. At the same time, I real- 
ized that with your service in two wars you were 
deeply and sincerely interested in any proposal 
affecting the security of our country and any pro- 
posal to promote peace. The intelligent and 
courageous manner in which you have represented 
the United States on the Commission is respon- 



sible for the general acceptance of the United 
States proposal. 

Now that you have completed this phase of the 
work, I must agree that you are right in conclud- 
ing that in as much as the subject of disarmament 
will hereafter be the primary duty of Senator 
Austin on the Security Council, it is wise that he 
should also serve on the Atomic Energy Commis- 
sion. 

You and the gentlemen associated with you, who 
have followed your example of serving the Govern- 
ment without compensation, are entitled to and 
I am sure will receive the thanks of a grateful 
people. 

Sincei-ely yours, 

James F. Btrxes 



General Assembly Resolution on information on 
Armed Forces of the United Nations 



LETTER FROM THE SECRETARY-GENERAL TO THE PRESIDENT 
OF THE SECURITY COUNCIL' 



30 December 1946. 
Sir, 

I have the honour to transmit the following 
resolution adopted by the General Assembly at its 
sixty-third plenary meeting held on 14 December 
1946: 

"Information on Armed Forces of the UNriED 
Nations 
The General Assembly, 

Desirijcs of implementing, as soon as pos- 
sible, the resolution of the 14 December 
1946 on the Principles governing the Reg- 
ulation and Reduction of Armaments; 
Calls Upon the Security Council to deter- 



' Security Council Document S/230, Dec. 30, 1946. 



mine, as soon as possible, the information 
which the States Members should be called 
upon to furnish, in order to give effect to 
tliis resolution." 

I have the honour to request you to be so good 
as to bring this resolution to the attention of tlie 
Security Council. 
I have the honour to be, Sir, 
Your oliedient Sei'vant, 

Tetgve Lie 
Secretary-General 

The HonouRcUjle Herschel V. Johnson 
President of the Security Council 
250 West Fifty-seventh Street 
New York, New York 



50 



Department of Slate Bulletin 



Participation in Conference To Consider Establishment of 
Regional Advisory Commission for Non-Self-Governing 
Territories in South Pacific 



[Released to the press January 4] 

The United States has accepted an invitation ex- 
tended by the Governments of Australia and New 
Zealand to attend a conference to be convened at 
Canberra, Australia, on January 28, 1947 to con- 
sider the establishment of a regional advisory 
commission for non-self-governing territories 
located in the Pacific south of the equator and east 
of and including Netherland New Guinea. The 
United States is responsible for the adminis- 
tration of American Samoa (population, 16,000) 
and a number of sparsely populated or uninhabited 
islands in that area. The Governments of France, 
the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom, which 
are also responsible for the administration of non- 
self-governing territories within the area to be 
covered by the proposed commission, have also been 
invited to attend the conference. 

The proposed commission would provide a 
means whereby these Governments might cooper- 
ate more closely with one another to promote the 
social, economic, and educational advancement 
of the inhabitants of their island territories in the 
South Pacific. Establisliment of such a commis- 
sion would accord with the spirit of chapter XI of 
the Charter of the United Nations, in particular 
with article 73(d) relating to international co- 
operation to achieve the purposes of that chapter. 
The inhabitants in this vast region number ap- 
proximately 2,000,000 and, despite certain cultural 
differences, have many common problems which 
may be more effectively and economically solved 
through intergovernmental action. Among pos- 
sible subjects for such action are : collaboration in 
research in the biological, natural, and social 
sciences; development of common facilities for 
teacher training and medical training; cooperation 
in developing transportation and communication 
facilities; improving labor conditions; and other- 
wise promoting the economic and social advance- 
ment of the local inhabitants. The United States 
has concurred in the view of the host Governments 
that the proposed commission should not be em- 
powered to deal in any way with political matters 
or with questions of defense or security. 



It is expected that the experience of the Carib- 
bean Commission will be drawn upon in drafting 
the organization and functions of the proposed 
commission for the South Pacific, particularly in 
view of the fact that all of the membei-s of the 
Caribbean Commission (the United States, France, 
the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom Govern- 
ments) Avill be eligible for membership in the 
South Pacific Commission. It is recalled that the 
Caribbean Commission consists of four commis- 
sioners appointed by each member Government, 
meets twice a year, is served by a central Secre- 
tariat located in the Caribbean, and has affiliated 
with it a Research Council and West Indian Con- 
ference. The Conference is noteworthy since it 
provides a regular means of consultation among 
representatives of the non-self-governing terri- 
tories of the Caribbean on matters of common in- 
terest and concern which lie within the terms of 
reference of the Commission. 

The holding of such regional conferences of 
representatives of non-self-governing territories 
accords with the general spirit of the resolution 
adopted by the General Assembly of the United 
Nations on December 14, 1946. 

The United States Delegation to the Canberra 
Conference will be composed as follows : 

Delegate 

Robert Butler, United States Ambassador to Australia 

Principal Adviser 

Capt. Harold A. Houser, U. S. N., Governor of American 

Samoa and representative of the Navy Department 
Advisers 

James Frederielj Green, Associate Chief, Division of 
Dependent Area Affairs, Department of State 

Roy E. James, Division of Territories and Island Pos- 
sessions, Department of the Interior 

Abbot L. Moffat, Chief, Division of Southeast Asian 
Affairs, Department of State 

Arthur L. Richards, Assistant Chief, Division of British 
Commonwealth Afifair.s, Department of State 

Secretary 

Emil .7. Sady, Division of Dependent .\rea Affairs, De- 
partment of State 



January 12, 1947 



51 



Resignation of John G. Winant as U.S. Representative on ECOSOC 



EXCHANGE OF LETTERS BETWEEN THE PRESIDENT AND MR. WINANT 



[Released to the press by the White House January 2] 

December 19, lOJtG. 
Dear Mr. President : 

At the time of the first assembly meeting in 
London in January 1946 when I was serving as 
Ambassador to Great Britain, you asked me if 
I would also represent the United States at the 
preliminary meeting of the Economic and Social 
Council. I did this and when I resigned from 
the London post, you and Mr. Byrnes asked me to 
continue as the United States Representative on 
the Economic and Social Council. 

We have completed the third meeting of the 
Council and the recommendations made by it to 
the second General Assembly were, in large 
measure, adopted by the Assembly at its session 
which closed last week. The organization of the 
Council has been established, the coordination of 
the Council with the Specialized Agencies is almost 
completed and Commissions have been created in 
the major economic and social fields, appointments 
to them filled and confirmed, and the Commissions 
are now functioning. 

It was my hope to continue with the Council 
until this work had been accomplished. I would 
therefore now respectfully request that you accept 
my resignation. It is nearly ten years ago that I 
accepted service in the foreign field and I would 
like to be free to pick up life again as a private 
citizen in my own country. 

I deeply appreciate the courtesies which you 
and Secretary Byrnes have shown me. It has been 
a privilege to collaborate with the Under Secretary, 
Mr. William Clayton, who has had direct charge 
in the State Department of the economic and social 
program advanced by the United States Delegation 
in the Economic and Social Council. Other de- 
partments have greatly contributed to the success 
of our joint efforts. 



I would also like to say that it is a matter of 
genuine regret that this decision will mean that 
I will not have the opportunity to continue to 
work with Senator Austin who is both a neighbor 
and a friend. 

Thank you for making it possible for me to take 
part in the work of the United Nations which has 
been so well begun and which holds such promise 
for the future of mankind. 
Sincerely, 

John Gilbebt Winant 



January 2, 1947. 

Dear Mr. Winant : 

I have read carefully your letter of December 
nineteenth and note the considerations which 
prompt your desire to relinquish work as United 
States Eepresentative on the Economic and Social 
Council. The work of organization and coordi- 
nation in which you assisted being almost com- 
pleted, I feel that in justice to you I should comply 
with your request. Accordingly, I accept your 
resignation effective at the close of business on 
January 10, 1947. 

I regret to have you leave the service of the 
Government. For almost a decade you have 
served with distinction in various posts of re- 
sponsibility both at home and abroad and by that 
service have earned the right to return to private 
pursuits. I am sure that both Secretary Clayton 
and Senator Austin will regret, as I do, the loss 
of your invaluable counsel and cooperation. 

With best wishes for your continued health and 
happiness. 

Very sincerely yours, 

Harry S. Truman 



52 



Department of Slate Bulletin 



Conference of UNESCO 



PRELIMINARY REPORT FROM PARIS' 



The General Conference of UNESCO ended on 
December 10. Dr. Julian Huxley, who had sei-ved 
as the Secretary-General of the Preparatory Com- 
mission, was elected Director-General. Archibald 
MacLeish of the American Delegation, chairman 
of the Drafting Subcommittee of the Program 
Committee, presented a consolidated report on the 
program, which was adopted. 

Charged with the substantive work of the Con- 
ference, the Commissions on Reconstruction and 
Rehabilitation, on Program, and the Commission 
on Finance, Administration, Legal and External 
relations submitted programs for 1947 prepared 
by their various subcommittees which were ap- 
proved with little change. All commissions and 
subcommissions of the Conference recommended 
that the Secretariat aid where possible and collab- 
orate and cooperate with the specialized agencies 
of the United Nations and with recognized volun- 
tary international institutions and stimulate and 
encourage the activities of voluntary national or- 
ganizations. Summaries of their reports follow : 

Commission on Reconstruction and Rehabilitation 

The Commission recommended that a special 
Committee on Reconstruction, Rehabilitation and 
Equalization be created. Raising funds, procur- 
ing educational materials and equipment, and de- 
veloping training programs for educational per- 
sonnel were mentioned as its specific objectives. 
Countries receiving funds and materials will 
turn them over to a national authority for dis- 
tribution. Only projects of immediate import- 
ance, requiring prompt action, will be financed 
directly by the UNESCO budget while funds re- 
ceived from other sources will be placed in a 
separate category and administered by the special 
committee. 

The activities approved by the commission were : 

(1) UNESCO will serve as the central agency 

in an extensive fund-raising campaign. It will 

formulate relief proposals, secure contributions, 



make arrangements to distribute supplies, and 
stimulate the national commissions and voluntary 
organizations to cooperate in these activities. 

This section of the international secretariat is 
to supply pamphlets, reports, photographs, posters, 
graphs, films, newsletters, statistical data, and 
histories to aid in the campaign to raise funds. It 
should call conferences of relief agencies and if 
necessary facilitate the travel of qualified repre- 
sentatives of voluntary relief organizations and 
maintain UNESCO representatives in the field. 

(2) For needy areas UNESCO will publish 
materials having a direct value to schools and 
institutions, seeking fellowships for qualified lead- 
ers in these areas, and arrange for specialists to 
conduct educational seminars and workshops in 
war-torn sectors. It may underwrite the cost of 
a few "pilot" projects. For the summer of 1947 
it will promote youth service camps in cooperation 
with student organizations. 

(3) UNESCO will set up immediately a limited 
reserve fund or revolving fund to purchase surplus 
war property, especially scientific apparatus, and 
pay for transporting goods in emergencies. 

Resolutions were passed to cooperate with the 
World Health Organization and with the United 
Nations Economic and Social Council in continu- 
ing the UNRRA work for children and the 
UNRRA fellowship training program. Close re- 
lations between children and youth in donor and 
receiving countries were proposed. The govern- 
ments of devastated countries will send concrete 
information on their country's most urgent needs 
and report activities of their international volun- 
tary organizations, and donor countries will report 
on the progress of their contribution to UNESCO. 

Program Commission 

The Program Commission reported its summary 
findings by subcommittees as follows: 

'Prepared by the UNESCO Relations Staff, Office of 
International Information and Cultural Affairs, Depart- 
ment of State. 



January 12, 1947 



53 



THE UNITED NATIONS 

Education 

(1) For education in international understand- 
ing a study is to be made of the present activities 
along these lines in primary and secondary schools 
and colleges in consultation with a panel of ex- 
perts; current training in institutions of higher 
learning will be surveyed ; and a seminar will be 
established for teachers under 35 years of age. 

Other immediate activities are to be the publica- 
tion of a yearbook, formation of a committee on 
educational statistics, establishment of a clearing 
house for the international exchange of persons 
and assistance to international relations clubs. 

(2) In its long-term work for international un- 
derstanding the Secretariat, aided by a panel of 
experts, will begin in 1947 to help establish mini- 
mum fundamental education for all persons 
throughout the world and start the collection of 
data on adult education from member states. To 
improve teaching textbooks and teaching mate- 
rials for international understanding, the Secre- 
tariat will establish a clearing house for revising 
textbooks, help formulate a code of ethics, call a 
world conference, and encourage bilateral agree- 
ments between member states. The Secretariat 
will also seek to improve the status of the teaching 
profession generally. 

A committee of experts in health education, in 
cooperation with the World Health Organization, 
Food and Agriculture Organization, International 
Labor Organization, etc., will be appointed. The 
plight of handicapped children in war-devastated 
countries will be studied ; youth service camps in 
these areas were endorsed because of their educa- 
tional merits. The problem of i-eeducation in for- 
mer enemy countries, the circulation of an inter- 
national education newsletter, and the designation 
of January 1 as World Peace Day are referred to 
the Secretariat for further consideration. Action 
is also postponed on the education of youth along 
general technical and professional lines. 

Mass Communications 

UNESCO will appoint three commissions to 
study the needs of countries in which war has 
caused the loss or shortage of personnel, equip- 
ment, or raw materials and to report within six 
months on immediate measures for improvement. 

The Secretariat will facilitate through fellow- 

54 



ships the pooling of experience by an international 
exchange of instructors and trainees. It will co- 
operate with the Freedom of Information sub- 
commission under the United Nations Commission 
on Human Eights in the preparation of a report 
on the obstacles to the free flow of information and 
ideas. 

A committee of experts is to be appointed to 
study proposals for a world-wide network. It 
will have a program committee and will study the 
possibility of collecting materials for the use of 
those national or international radio facilities 
which become available to UNESCO. The press 
and films will be surveyed to determine the extent, 
range, and trend of production and distribution 
and the nature and degree of public usage. Tele- 
communications and postal services are to be in- 
vestigated to show how their coverage can be ex- 
tended and how the cost of sei'vices to the press and 
radio by cable, wireless, and airmail can be reduced. 
UNESCO will also establish a committee to 
study and formulate recommendations on the re- 
sponsibilities of UNESCO in the copyright field. 
It will request the national commissions to send 
by March 1, 1947, their observations on copyright 
matters and may cooperate with the Belgian Gov- 
ermnent on tlie proposed copyright conference 
during 1947, if the committee so recommends. k 

UNESCO will collect ideas of international sig- " 
nificance and cooperate with experts in selecting 
a major theme of world interest for films, radio 
programs, and pi'ess features. It will either or- 
ganize or stimulate the organization of an inter- 
national forum of press and radio. 

The Secretariat will invite member and non- 
member states to sign a convention facilitating the 
international circulation of visual and auditory 
materials and their importation without duty or 
quantitative restrictions. It will stimulate the 
production generally of international periodicals 
and draw attention of the press to accurate sources 
of information. It will also assist in the formation 
of an international film council and encourage 
national visual councils or institutes. m 

UNESCO will assist in drawing the attention'' 
of film producers to what is required in films for 
educational, scientific, and cultural purposes. 

Natural Science 

The Amazon study of tropical arenas and the 

Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



nutritional-science field project for India, China, 
and the Amazon will be given the highest prior- 
ity. The Secretariat has been instructed to meet 
the needs of devastated areas for scientific ap- 
paratus and equipment, wliere possible, through 
purchases of war surpluses. 

Field offices to assist local scientists in raising 
living standards of non-industrialized peoples 
will be set up, starting in China, India, the Middle 
East, and Latin America. UNESCO will cooper- 
ate with the International Council of Scientific 
Unions, and the creation of international advisory 
engineering and medical councils will be en- 
couraged. 

Specific projects include the improvement of 
scientific literature; preparation for a world 
congress to consider rationalization of scientific 
publication and abstracting; the promotion of 
photolithographs, reproductions, microfilms, and 
photostat services ; and the establishment of uni- 
form scientific terminology. Grants-in-aid and 
the assignment of experts to national institutions ; 
the operation of a scientific-apparatus informa- 
tion bureau ; and the circulation of scientific films 
for researcli, teaching, and popularization are 
other activities proposed. 

The Secretariat will explore the possibilities for 
establishing new international scientific labora- 
tories, observatories, and stockrooms for pure 
substances, new materials, radio-active isotopes, 
etc. It will begin the compilation of a world 
register of scientific institutions and scientists and 
will take the responsibility for the completion of 
the UNRRA fellowship program. And as a con- 
tinuing service the Secretariat will inform the 
public in all countries of new scientific documents 
and will outline their bearings on international 
and social relations. 

Social Science, Philosophy, and Humanities 

In the field of the social sciences, UNESCO 
will prepare a world inventory of research re- 
sources and explore the feasibility of publishing a 
yearbook, abstracts, and bibliographies. 

Home and community planning will be ap- 
proached in consultation with the Economic and 
Social Council and in collaboration with the 
national commissions. International study cen- 
ters are approved, and a small gi-oup of experts 
will study and report on methods of international 
organization. A study of the tensions crucial to 

January 12, 1947 



THE UNITED NATIONS 

peace, in their relationship to nationalism, inter- 
nationalism, population and technological prog- 
ress, will be initiated in 1947. The study of 
national judicial systems and international law to 
acquaint the general public with the rules of law 
will be explored. 

In philosopliy the subcommittee recommends the 
centralization of correspondence exchanged 
between universities, philosophical societies, and 
philosophers; help to the International Institute 
of Philosophy in publishing an international 
bibliography of philosophy and in developing a 
card index of articles in philosophical reviews. 
In cooperation with the United Nations Com- 
mission of the Rights of Man the Secretariat will 
organize an international conference to decide 
upon principles basic to a modern declaration of 
the rights of man. 

In humanistic studies the Secretariat will 
explore basic principles of action and set up 
special commissions to recommend concrete pro- 
posals. In conjunction with a permanent com- 
mittee of linguists the Secretariat will consider 
creating a documentation center for linguistic 
questions. It will prepare an agreement with the 
International Union of Academies for the con- 
tinuation of humanistic studies hitherto prepared 
and published in Germany. The Secretariat will 
also investigate means for reprinting classical 
texts and inquire into the place that studies of the 
past occupy in present-day education. 

The Ci-eativc Arts 

UNESCO should study the role of the creative 
arts in education at all levels, including profes- 
sional schools. Information services, central ex- 
change for artistic products and persons, world- 
wide circulation of products in reproduction as 
well as in original form, international fe.stivals 
and conferences, and experimentation with new 
techniques in teaching creative arts will be organ- 
ized. The Secretariat should help artists to obtain 
tools, methods, and materials, and should initiate 
the recording of folklore and the study of the 
preservation of native arts and culture. The Con- 
ference resolved that: UNESCO will take such 
measures as are open to it under its constitution to 
protect and defend the freedom of the artist 
wherever it is put in danger. 



55 



THE UNITED NATIONS 

In the field of literature the Secretariat will set 
up a translation office, encourage a bibliography of 
translations, list works suitable for translation, 
maintain an active file of translations, and create 
an international literary pool to supply magazines 
and newspapers with material for publication. 
UNESCO will stimulate, or undertake itself if 
necessary, the publication of an anthology of suf- 
fering and resistance. 

The theater, including the ballet and opera, 
should be placed on equal footing with other crea- 
tive arts, and UNESCO will call an interna- 
tional meeting of theater experts to found an in- 
ternational theatrical institution independent of 
UNESCO and supported by private national 
branches and centers. A committee will be named 
in collaboration with mass communication to rec- 
ommend to member states a reduction in postal 
rates, transport charges, students' fares and other 
services which would encourage the work and ex- 
change of creative arts and artists. 

Libraries and Museums 

The rehabilitation of libraries, museums, and 
archives is the first immediate consideration of this 
subcommission of UNESCO. 

The Secretariat will stimulate scientific, cultural, 
and educational activities for adults and children 
in public libraries and museums throughout the 
world. It will help in the protection, rehabilita- 
tion, and restoration of sites, museums, collections, 
documents, and objects affected by the war; to 
these ends it will set up an inventory and create 
funds for outside contribution. 

The Secretariat will encourage free access to all 
museums, sites, and collections, and will establish 
an international clearing house for publications 
and arrange for the distribution of existing stock- 
piles of books in Germany, Czechoslovakia, and 
England. It will also fill in serious gaps in public 
collections and encourage the creation of a 
national lending library in each country to be 
part of an international lending system serviced 

by UNESCO. 

A working center is to be established to coordi- 
nate international bibliographical services; en- 
courage or undertake publication of bibliogi-aphies 
of unfon catalogs, indexes, abstracts ; and encour- 
age uniform terminology. Additional projects 
will include the exchange of personnel, the con- 



tinuation of the work of the International Mu- 
seums Office of the International Institute of In- 
tellectual Cooperation, the study of library and 
museum techniques, the study of current publish- 
ing problems, and the encouragement of an inter- 
national organization of professional archivists. 

Finally, the establishment of a library for the 
UNESCO Secretariat has been recommended and 
referred to the Executive Board for the necessary 
increase in budget funds. 

Commission on Finance, Administration, Legal 
and External Relations 

A budget of $6,000,000 was adopted for the year 
1947, and a revolving fund of $3,000,000 was 
authorized. 

There was considerable debate on this figure. 
David Hardman of the British Delegation pro- 
posed an increase of a million and a half dollars, 
saying, "We should be betraying our trust if, at 
the very outset of UNESCO's career, a move were 
made to reduce its financial resources to a point 
below what we believe necessary to put into execu- 
tion its approved program." 

William Benton of the American Delegation re- 
plied that this higher figure ignored the recom- 
mendation made by the Conference for stream- 
lining the program and that full use must be made 
of temporary employees, working groups, and the 
staff loaned by governments and universities. He 
added that UNESCO would win support most 
effectively by an economical and prudent program 
in the first year. 

France then proposed that the figure be increased 
$550,000, with this amount to be spent exclusively 
on relief and rehabilitation. Mr. Benton warned 
against creating the false impression that 
UNESCO was handling direct relief and pointed 
out that American private sources had donated 
much larger sums than UNESCO could possibly 
obtain. 

In the discussion of the revolving fund Mr. 
Benton stated he could not commit the United 
States Congress, and other delegates made similar 
comments in regard to their governments. The 
chairman of the session ended the discussion by 
saying that all votes on the budget were subject to 
this reservation. 



56 



Deparfmenf of S/ofe Bo//efin 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



Calendar of Meetings 



In Sess on as o3 January 5, 1947 ' 

Far Eastern Commission 



United Nations: 

Security Council 

Military Staff Committee 

Commission on Atomic Energy 

UNRRA- Intergoveinnipntal Committee on Refugees (IGCR): 

Joint Planning Committoc 
Telecommunications Advisory Committee 

German External Property Negotiations : 

With Portugal (Safehaven) 

With Spain . . 

Inter-Allied Trade Board for Japan 

FAO: Preparatory Commission 'lo Study World Food Board 
Proposals 

Inter-Allied Reparation Agency (lARA) : Meetings on Conflicting 
Custodial Claims 

PICAO: Rules of the Air and Air Traffic Control Practices 
Division 

Scheduled January - March 1947 

Meeting of Medical and Statistical Commissions of Inter-American 
Committee on Social Security 

PICAO: 
Divisional 

Personnel Licensing Division 



Washington 



Lake Success 

Lake Success 

Lake Success 

Washington and Lake Success 



Lake Success . 



Lisbon. 
Madrid 



Washington 

Washington 



Brussels . 

Montreal. 



Washington 



Montreal 



^ E;Tef cltuts^fjr ?946!°*"'^'^*"°*^ Conferences, Department of State. 



Feb. 26 

Mar. 25 
Mar. 25 
June 14 
July 25 

Nov. 10 

Sept. 3 
Nov. 12 

Oct. 24 

Oct. 28 

Nov. 6 

Dec. 3 



Jan. 6-11 



Jan. 7 



January 12, 1947 



T20902— 47- 



57 



Calendar of Meetings— Cont'mued 



Aeronautical Maps and Charts Division . . . 

Accident Investigation Division 

Airworthiness Division 

Airline Operating Practices Division 

Regional 

South Pacific Regional Air Navigation Meeting 



Twelfth Pan American Sanitary Conference 

Second Pan American Conference on Sanitary Education 
Council of Foreign Ministers: Meeting of Deputies . . 
International Wheat Council 



United Nations: 

Economic and Social Council 

Drafting Committee of International Trade Organization, 

Preparatory Committee 

Economic and Employment Commission 

Social Commission 

Subcommission on Economic Reconstruction of Devastated 

Areas, Working Group for Europe (tentative) 

Human Rights Commission 

Statistical Commission 

Population Commission 

Commission on the Status of Women 

Subcommission on Economic Reconstruction of Devastated 

Areas, Working Group for Asia and the Far East 

Transport and Communications Commission 

Non-Governmental Organizations Committee 

ECOSOC: Fourth Session of 

Meeting of Experts on Passport and Frontier Formalities . . . 

Regional Advisory Commission for Non-Self-Governing Territories 
in the South and Southwest Pacific, Conference for the 
Establishment of 

ILO: 

Industrial Committee on Petroleum Production and Refinmg 

101st Session of the Governing Body 

Committee on Social Policy in Dependent Territories . . 
Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions . 

Industrial Committee on Coal Mining 

Industrial Committee on Inland Transport 



Signing of Peace Treaties for Italy, Hungary, Bulgaria, Rumania, 
and Finland 



Red Cross Committee, International 

Council of Foreign Ministers 

Tuberculosis, Seventh Pan American Conference on 

Health Organization, World (WHO): Third Session of Interim 
Commission 

European Central Inland Transport Organization (ECITO): 
Seventh Session of the Council 



Montreal 
Montreal 
Montreal 
Montreal 



Melbourne . . 

Caracas . . . 

Caracas . . . 

London . . . 

Washington . 

Lake Success . 

Lake Success . 
Lake Success 
Geneva . . . 



Lake Success 
Lake Success 
Lake Success 
Lake Success 
Lake Success 

Lake Success 
Lake Success 
Lake Success 
Geneva . . . 



Canberra 



Los Angeles . 

Geneva . . . 

London . . 

Geneva . . . 

Geneva . . . 

Geneva . . . 

Paris. . . . 



Geneva 
Moscow 
Lima . 
Geneva 



Paris 



Jan. 14 
Feb. 4 
Feb. 18 
Feb. 25 

Feb. 4 
Jan. 12-24 
Jan. 12-24 
Jan. 15-Feb. 24 
Jan. 15 

Jan. 20-Feb. 28 

Jan. 20-Feb. 5 
Jan. 20-Feb. 5 
Jan. 27-Feb. 13 

Jan. 27-Feb. 11 
Jan. 27-Feb. 11 
Feb. 6-20 
Feb. 10 
Feb. 14 

Feb. 17-28 
Feb. 25-27 
Feb. 28 
Mar. 17 

Jan. 28 



Feb. 3-12 

Mar. 5-8 
Mar. 17-22 
Mar. 24-29 
Mar. or Apr. 
Mar. or Apr. 

Feb. 10 

Mar. 3-15 
Mar. 10 
Mar. 17-22 
Mar. 31 

March 



I 



I 



1 



58 



Department of State Bulletin 



Activities and Developments » 



FIFTH ASSEMBLY OF THE INTER-AMERICAN 
COMMISSION OF WOMEN' 

The fifth assembly of the Inter-American Com- 
mission of Women was held at Washington, D.C., 
from December 2 to December 12, 1946. The 21 
American republics were represented : Argentina, 
Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, 
Dominican Eepublic, Ecuador, El Salvador, 
Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, 
Panama, Paraguay, Peru, United States, Uruguay, 
and Venezuela. This was the first time since 
the organization of the Inter-American Commis- 
sion of Women in 1928 that all 21 American re- 
publics were represented. 

The assembly studied and approved a report on 
the position of women of the American republics 
in their respective national constitutions, civil 
codes, and laws. The study and approval of this 
report was undertaken following the adoption of 
a resolution at the Eighth International Confer- 
ence of American States at Lima in 1938 which 
required that such a report on the status of women 
in the Americas be submitted at the Ninth Inter- 
nationl Conference of American States, which will 
be held at Bogota, Colombia, in December of this 
year. 

Another important matter to come before the 
International Conference of American States will 
be the presentation by the Governing Board of the 
Pan American Union of the constitution and by- 
laws that will definitely establish the position of 
the Inter-American Commission of Women. A 
draft constitution prepared and approved by the 
Commission for presentation at Bogota would 
make the Inter- American Commission of Women 
an integral part of the Pan American Union, de- 
pendent upon its Governing Board. 

It was decided that the chairman and vice chair- 
man of the Commission, together with other dele- 
gates, should visit some of the Latin American re- 
publics in order to awaken and stimulate the in- 
terest of women in the problems that the Commis- 
sion will present to the conference at Bogota, as 



well as to unite women in support of the recom- 
mendations to be made at the conference. 

The Commission agreed to create an emergency 
executive committee with headquarters at the Pan 
American Union building. The emergency execu- 
tive committee is composed of delegates residing 
in Washington. It will act in an advisory capacity 
to the chairman of the Commission on any prob- 
lems requiring prompt solution which may be 
presented in the period between assemblies. 

A program of activities was approved, which 
was to be carried out by the delegates in their own 
countries, working through their governments 
and women's organizations. One of the limited 
number of resolutions approved by the assembly 
pledged the members of the Commission to work 
to establish the principle of equal pay and to 
raise the wages of women on low-paid jobs. 

By unanimous vote the assembly approved a 
resolution to be sent to the Governing Board of 
the Pan American Union requesting that a bust of 
the late Dr. Leo S. Rowe, the great Panamericanist, 
be placed in the Hall of the Americas of the Pan 
American Union as an abiding tribute to his 
memory and to his work in uniting the Americas. 

With respect to the proposals to be submitted to 
the Ninth International Conference of American 
States, the assembly adopted one which was con- 
sidered basic, namely : To insist on the attainment 
of the civil and political rights of women in the 
countries in which these rights have not yet been 
obtained. On this subject, the prevailing opinion 
was that the creation of a treaty on the civil and 
political rights of women should be requested at 
this forthcoming conference. It is believed that 
the recommendations made on previous occasions 
lacked sufficient strength. Furthermore, this 
opinion is based on the fact that the world has 
entered into a period of internationalism which 
annuls the former concept of nationalism. 

An important resolution was passed that a 
request be made to the United Nations, at the first 
meeting of its Commission on the Status of Women 
(February 12 to 27, 1947, Lake Success), for con- 
sideration of the appropriate means for consulta- 

' Prepared by the Division of International Conferences, 
Department of State, in collaboration with the Women's 
Bureau, Department of Labor. 



January 72, 1946 



59 



>»CnV;T/ES AND DEVELOPMENTS 

tioii, coordination, and cooperation through which 
the experience and information of the Inter- Amer- 
ican Commission of Women may be utilized more 
effectively and thereby make the fullest contri- 
bution toward the common goal of promoting 
women's rights throughout the world. 

In compliance with a resolution adopted by the 
Chapultepec conference i— concerning the creation 
of a "Women's and Children's Charter" by the 
Inter- American Conmiission of Women in cooper- 
ation with the American International Institute 
for the Protection of Childhood and the Interna- 
tional Labor Organization— methods to be fol- 
lowed by the Commission in commencing this work 
were established. 

At the fifth assembly of the Inter-American 
Commission of Women one of the most impressive 
features was the evident unity of purpose of a 
group of individuals representing different coun- 
tries and the effective integi'ation of ideas based 
on faith, freedom, tolerance, and mutual respect. 
A list of the delegates to the Assembly and the 
countries they represented is given below : 

Argentina, Sra. Maria Esther Luzuriaga de Desmaras, 
delegate; Braxil, Sra. Leontina Liclnio Cardosa, dele- 
gate; Bolivia, Sra. Carmen B. de Lozada, delegate; Chile, 
Sra. Marta Vergara, delegate; Colombia, Maria Currea de 
Aya, delegate; Costa Rica (Sra. Angela Acufia de Cliac6n, 
dele'gate)2, Srta. Consuelo Reyes, substitute delegate; 
Cuba, Sra. Elena Mederos de Gonzales, delegate ; Domini- 
can RepuMic, Srta. Minerva Barnardino, delegate; Ecua- 
dor, Sra. Piedad Castillo de Levi, delegate; El Salvador, 
Srta. Marta Elena Solano, delegate; Guatemala, Srta. 
Gulllermina Lopez Martinez, delegate; Haiti, Madame 
Fortuna Guery, delegate; Eonduras, Dra. Ofelia Mendoza 
de Barret, delegate; Mejrico, Sra. Amalia C. de Castillo 
Ledon, delegate; Nieanu/ua (Sra. Josefa T. de Aguerri, 
delegate)-, Srta. Olga Nunez Abaunza, substitute dele- 
gate; Panama, Sra. Esther Neira de Calvo, delegate; 
Paraguay (Srta. Maria Adela Garcete Speratti, delegate)^ 



iThe Chapultepec conference (Inter-American Confer- 
ence on Problems of War and Peace) was held at Mexico, 
D.F., Mexico, from Feb. 21 to Mar. 8, 194.'i, and was at- 
tended by delegates of all American republics with the 
single exception of Argentina. 

2 Did not attend fifth assembly ; country represented by 
substitute delegate or observer (as indicated). 

' Prepared by the Division of International Conferences 
in collaboration with the Shipping Division, Department 
of State. 



Srta. Delfina Jimenez, observer ; Peru, Sra. Zoila Aurora 
Caceres, delegate; United States, Miss Mary M. Cannon, 
delegate; Vrmjuay (Dra. Sofia A. de Demichelli, dele- 
gate) 2, Sra. Ofelia Machado de Benvenuto, substitute 
delegate; Venezuela. Sra. Isabel Sanchez de Urdaneta, 
delegate. 

SIXTH SESSION OF THE COUNCIL OF ECITO» 

The sixth session of the Council of the European 
Central Inland Transport Organization (ECITO) 
was held at Paris, France, on December 18 and 19, 
1946. The participating Governments were Bel- 
gium, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, France, Greece, 
Luxembourg, Netherlauds, Norway, Poland, 
United Kingdom, Union of Soviet Socialist Re- 
publics, United States, and Yugoslavia. The 
United States Representative at the meeting was 
Paul Porter, Acting Chief of the Mission for Eco- 
nomic Affairs, London. Mr. Porter was assisted 
by J. Russell McClure, ECITO Liaison Officer on 
the staff of the American Embassy, Paris. 

One of the major problems before the ECITO 
Council was that of the restitution of rolling stock 
to the owning country. A proposed plan for hold- 
ing a special restitution conference to work on 
this complicated problem was turned down, but 
the Council agreed that arrangements for restitu- 
tion on a purely technical basis would be discussed 
at the next meeting of the Council which will be 
held at Paris in March 1947. The determination of 
ownership was considered to be a problem to be 
decided above the level of ECITO, and whatever 
action ECITO would take on restitution would be 
without prejudice to ownership rights to be de- 
termined elsewhere. 

The Council recommended that governments 
and authorities concerned, which have not yet done 
so, should forward to the organization authentic 
and detailed data as to the railway stock and inland 
waterway and harbor craft located in territories 
under their authority or control in continental 

Europe. 

The Council passed a resolution on coal trans- 
port requesting that the Executive Board of the 
Organization, in consultation with interested par- 
ties, explore practical means aimed at the reduction 
of cross-haulage, particularly in the movement of 
coal. The Council further resolved that other 



60 



Department of State Bulletin 



ACTIVITIBS AND DBVELOPfAENTS 



traffic should be reduced to a minimum so far as the 
economic and financial requii-oments of the various 
countries j^ermit. It was decided that the capacity 
of the various means of transport should be in- 
creased to the fullest possible extent : (1) by giving 
highest priority to the supply of raw materials re- 
quired for the repair of rolling stock and tugs ; (2) 
by facilitating the solution of such major problems 
as labor and spare parts; (3) by considering the 
advisability of strengthening and renewing wagon 
stocks by tlie adoption of appropriate programs of 
construction and purchase; (4) by endeavoring to 
find remedies for the financial and other problems 
at present preventing full exploitation of and free- 
dom of movement on waterways as a means of 
transjjort; and (5) by using inland waterways 
when it is not entirely justified on grounds of cost 
or for technical reasons. 

A committee of the Council will meet on Janu- 
ary 20, 1947, to study the desirability of establish- 
ing a coordinating body in the field of transport 
in Europe and to make recommendations as to the 
organization and tasks of such a body. 

THE INTERNATIONAL WHEAT COUNCILi 

The International Wheat Council will hold its 
fifteenth session in Washington on January 15, 
1947 to consider a complete draft of an interna- 
tional wheat agreement. It is expected that rep- 
resentatives from the following 13 countries will 
attend this meeting: Argentina, Australia, Bel- 
gium, Brazil, Canada, China, Denmark, France, 
India, Italy, the Netherlands, the United King- 
dom, and the United States. The Government of 
the United States is represented on the Council 
by Leslie A. Wheeler, Department of Agriculture, 
chairman of the International Wheat Council; 
Leroy K. Smith, Department of Agriculture; 
Carl C. Farrington, Department of Agriculture; 
and Edward G. Cale, Department of State. 

In June 1942 the Governments of Argentina, 
Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, and the 
United States approved a memorandum of agree- 
ment regarding international trade in wheat as 
a first step toward the conclusion of a compre- 
hensive wheat agreement.- The memorandum of 



agreement brought into operation for the war 
emergency period some of the provisions described 
in a di'aft convention which accompanied the 
memoi'andum. These arrangements dealt with the 
establishment of an International Wheat Council; 
the immediate establishment of a pool of wheat for 
intergovernmental relief in war-stricken indigent 
areas; and, pending the determination of more 
comprehensive international arrangements, an 
obligation upon the four exporting countries to 
take such steps as might be necessary to insure 
that a further accumulation of stocks should not 
create insoluble problems for a future conference. 

The International Wheat Council has, since its 
first session on August 3, 1942, kept under review 
the rapidly changing developments in interna- 
tional trade in wheat. Consequent upon these 
changes, the Council recognized in September 1945 
the necessity of revising cei'tain provisions of the 
memorandum of agreement and the advisability of 
broadening membership of the Council by invit- 
ing other wheat-ijnporting and wheat-exporting 
countries to participate in its work. Accordingly, 
the Governments of Belgium, Brazil, China, Den- 
mark, France, India, Italy, and the Netherlands 
joined the Council at its session on July 15, 1946. 
At the same time a preparatory committee was es- 
tablished, comprising representatives of each of 
the 13 member governments, for the purpose of 
revising the draft convention for submission to an 
international wheat conference. 

The preparatory committee met at frequent in- 
tervals during the period from July 17 to Decem- 
ber 9, 1946 and twice reported to the Council. The 
Council at its meeting in December 1946 agreed 
to consider at its forthcoming fifteenth session a 
complete draft of an international wheat agree- 
ment. It was also decided that, subject to recon- 
sideration at its fifteenth session, the Council 
should recommend to the Goveiiunent of the 
United States that it arrange for an international 
wheat conference to give final consideration to the 
proposed international wheat agreement. 



" Prepared by the Division of International Conferences, 
Department of State, in collalwration witli the Office of 
Foreign Agricultnral Relations, Department of Agricul- 
ture. 

- Bui.i.ETiN of Aug. 1, 1942, p. 670. 



January J2, 1947 



61 



Geography and History Assembly in Caracas 



Article iy Andre G. Simonpiein 



The Fourth General Assembly of the Pan 
American Institute of Geography and History and 
the Third Pan American Consultation on Car- 
tography were held concurrently in Caracas from 
August 22 to September 1 of this year at the invi- 
tation of the Government of Venezuela. The joint 
meetings are considered to be possibly the most 
important of the Institute to date from the point 
of view of internal organization and future scien- 
tific programs in the Americas. 

The Caracas meeting aroused unusual interest 
for reasons in addition to those connected with the 
previously announced technical and scientific 
agenda. It was the first assembly since the war; 
it was to be the first simultaneous meeting of a 
consultation sponsored by a commission of the 
Institute and an assembly of the whole Institute; 
and the agenda included such important matters 
as consideration of the creation of a commission 
on geography and a commission on history, prac- 
tical application of the latest electronic develop- 
ments in the field of surveying and mapping, and 
a complete reorganization of the bylaws of the 
organization. 

Participation in this assembly was broader and 
more comprehensive than that in any previous 
meeting. A larger number of ofScial delegates 
attended, more institutions were represented, and 
other international organizations took a more ac- 
tive part. 

Eighteen of the twenty-one American republics 
sent delegates to Caracas. Bolivia, the Dominican 
Republic, and Honduras were not represented for 
I'easons which were extraneous to their relations 
with the Institute; they were all represented at 

^In substitution for John Tate Lanning, professor of 
Latin American history, Dulje University, who was not 
able to attend the assembly. 



previous assemblies and consultations. The Do- 
minion of Canada was invited to take part in a 
general assembly of the Institute for the first time, 
in deference to the established custom of inviting 
that Government to participate in the cartographic 
consultations. Canada had sent technical delega- 
tions to the meetings at Washington and at Rio 
de Janeiro. Canada participated in the Caracas 
meeting by naming its diplomatic representative 
in Caracas as delegate and by sending technical re- I 
ports on its national mapping program. 

Forty governmental agencies, institutions of 
learning, and private societies, including some of 
the oldest and most famous in the Americas, were 
represented at the meeting. The United Nations 
and the International Union of Geodesy and Geo- 
physics sent delegates to Caracas, and the 
Inter-American Society of Anthropology and 
Geography also was represented. The Pan Ameri- 
can Union sent a message of good wishes for 
success. 

The United States Government sent delegations 
to the assembly and to the consultation, since they 
were two separate, but coordinated, international 
conferences. The delegations were composed of 
distinguished scientists and scholars in the various 
fields of interest of the Institute: anthropology, 
archives, cartography, geography, geology, and 
history. 

The United States Representatives were as fol- 
lows: 

Assembly 

Chairman 

Frank P. Corrlgan, U. S. Ambassador, Caracas 

Delegates 

Samuel W. Boggs, Consultant Geographer, Office of the 
Special Assistant to the Secretary for Research and In- 
telligence, Departmont of State 

Allan Dawson,' Counselor of Embassy, American Embassy, 
Caracas 



{ 



62 



Department of Slate Bulletin 



Robert H. Randall, Chairman, Commission on Cartography, 
Pan American Institute of Geography and History 

Joseph T. Singewald, Jr., Chairman, Department of Geol- 
ogy, Johns Hopkins University 

Arthur P. Whitaker, Professor of History, University of 
Pennsylvania 

Advisers 

Wallace W. Atwood, President, Clark University, Worces- 
ter, Massachusetts 

Margaret Ball, Specialist, Division of International Or- 
ganization Affairs, Department of State 

Ralph L,. Beals, Associate Professor of Anthropology, 
University of California, Lqs Angeles 

Arthur P. Biggs, Geographer, Division of Map Intelligence 
and Cartography, Department of State 

George Hammond, Professor of Latin American History, 
University of California, Berkeley 

Roscoe R. Hill, Chief, Division of State Department 
Archives, National Archives 

Carl O. Sauer, Chairman, Department of Geography, Uni- 
versity of California, Berkeley 

Irene A. Wright, Acting Attestation Officer, Office of Inter- 
national Information and Cultural Affairs, Department 
of State 

Sccretaj-ies 

Curtis W. Barnes, Senior Economic Analyst, American 
Embassy, Caracas 

Andr6 C. Simonpietri, Special Adviser, Department of 
State 

Consultation 

Chairman 

Robert H. Randall, Chairman, Commission on Cartography, 
Pan American Institute of Geography and History 

Delegates 

Lt. Col. A. G. Poote, Commanding Officer, Aeronautical 
Chart Service, Air Transport Command, AAF, War 
Department 

Capt. Clement L. Garner (retired), Former Chief, Division 
of Geodesy, U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey 

Charles B. Hitchcock, Assistant Director, American Geo- 
graphical Society; Chairman, U. S. Advisory Com- 
mittee on American Cartography 

W. B. Johnston, Jr., Chief, Foreign Section, Geological 
Branch, U. S. Geological Survey 

Comdr. G. F. Kennedy, Officer in Charge, Division of 
Chart Construction, Hydrographic Office, Navy Depart- 
ment 

Col. William H. Mills, Commanding Officer, Army Map 

Service, Corps of Engineers, War Department 
Adviser and Secretary 

Andr6 C. Simonpietri, Special Adviser, Department of State 
Secretary 

Curtis W. Barnes, Senior Economic Analyst, American 
Embassy, Caracas 



ACTIVITIES AND DEVELOPMENTS 

Besides these official representatives, drawn 
from both governmental and professional ranlfs, 
many other Federal and institutional organiza- 
tions were represented on their own initiative. 

The increasing significance which the member 
states attach to the activities of the Institute is 
evidenced by the size and composition of the official 
delegations to this assembly, as compared with 
those to the meetings in 1935 and 1941 — it being 
borne in mind that governments as a rule send 
specialists only to meetings which they consider 
important. 

Official Delegations 



Assembly 


Total 
dele- 
gates 
named 


Host 
delega- 
tion 


Total delegates 
named by other 
member states 




Scien- 
tists 


others 


Second General Assembly 
Washington, 1935 

Third General Assembly 
Lima, 1941 

Fourth General Assembly 
Caracas, 1946 


39 
89 
181 


15 
40 
74 


6 
24 
97 


18 
25 
10 



Second General Assembly, Washington, 1935 

It will be noted that, exclusive of the host gov- 
ernment's delegation, 24 delegates were named by 
the other member states, and that of these, 18, a 
relatively high percentage, represents the members 
of the diplomatic missions in Washington who 
were named as delegates. 

Third General Assembly, Lima, 19^1 

In this case, 49 delegates were named by the 
member states, other than the host government, 
and of these, 25 were diplomatic representatives, 
nationals of the various countries resident in Lima, 
or, in some cases, nationals of the host country. Of 
those sent to Lima, 10 were from the United States 
and 6 from Mexico. 

Fourth General Assembly, Caracas, 19^6 

The picture changed substantially here for, ex- 
cepting the host delegation, very few Caracas resi- 
dents were named. The great majority of the dele- 
gates were drawn from among the cartographers, 
geographers, and historians of the respective coun- 
tries. Only three of the smaller nations named 



January 72, 1947 



63 



ACTIVITIBS AND DBVELOPMBNTS 



their diplomatic representatives in Caracas as their 
sole delegates. These and the other diplomats 
named as members of the various national dele- 
gations (ten in all) made valuable contributions 
to the work of the assembly, in compliance with the 
express request of the Executive Committee of the 
Institute that since a reorganization of the bylaws 
of the Institute was a major item on the assembly 
agenda, the member states include in their delega- 
tions persons of experience in international organi- 
zation affairs. Three other nations made their 
chiefs of mission in Caracas, scientists of recog- 
nized competence, the chairmen of their delega- 
tions. The remaining delegations were headed by 
cartographers, geographers, or historians, and, in 
one case, by a jurist of international repute. 

The Venezuelan organizing commission was ex- 
ceptionally thorough in its planning. The new 
and modernistic Andres Bello High School served 
as assembly headquarters, providing an auditorium 
for plenary sessions, spacious salons for individual 
section meetings, separate offices for the respective 
delegations, ample quarters for the secretariat, spe- 
cial rooms for the press, post-office facilities, a local 
branch of the national bank, and a small restaurant 
for the convenience of the delegates. 

Besides the many routine conference secretariat 
services, such as stenographic, mimeographing, 
and translating, phonogi-aphic recordings were 
made of all discussions, and a journal of the most 
important items of interest was distributed daily. 

Besides many social events, the program in- 
cluded the inauguration of an exhibition of Vene- 
zuelan books (geographic and historic), of which 
copies were presented to the delegates by the host 
delegation; visits to the geographical and his- 
torical establishments and museums of Caracas; 
and an exhibition of Ajnerican cartography, 
which occupied one entire separate building and 
which was particularly impressive because of the 
completeness of the various national collections 
and of the interesting fashion in which the many 
maps, sketches, instruments, and other technical 
apparatus were arranged. 

The organizing commission also distributed to 
all delegates a handsomely bound Historical Atlas 
of Venezuelan Cartography in full folio size, in- 
corporating copies of some twenty-four maps of 
the country prepared by the most famous Euro- 



pean explorers and a recent map by Venezuelan 
cartographers, covering the years from 1635 to 
1946. 

]\Iore than one hundred papers, abstracts of 
papers, and specific project proposals were pre- 
sented in the course of the meetings of the four 
sections. Nearly all delegations made brief written 
rejDorts on their cartographic progress since the 
19-44 consultation ; some of these were printed and 
distributed to the various delegations. The U. S. 
Joint Committee on Latin American Studies made 
available copies of a recent report on The National 
Archives of Latin America^ which carried on its 
title page a dedication to the Institute "in recog- 
nition of its past accomplishments and potential 
achievements". Other delegations brought mo- 
tion-picture films, with sound accompaniment, il- 
lustrative of various phases of national life of 
interest to geographers and historians. The Com- 
mission on Cartography exhibited its latest color 
training film on "Reconnaissance Mapping by 
Trimetrogon Photography". 

Prior to this assembly, the Institute, through 
its Commission on Cartography, has had a more 
active program in tlaat field than in history or in 
other phases of geogi-aphy. Its activities in the 
two latter fields have been confined mostly to the 
preparation of three regular reviews, one each in 
geography, historj'^, and anthropology; the pub- 
lication of individual monographs on a wide va- 
riety of subjects; and some assistance in specific 
projects. Therefore, the geographers and histo- 
rians at Caracas proposed to stimulate progress in 
these sciences. Owing to their eiforts and plans, a 
Commission on Geography and a Commission on 
History were established and from now on will 
provide active programs in those fields. 

During the past few years, when more attention 
has been drawn to the Institute by virtue of the 
program of the Commission on Cartography, some 
of the member nations have felt that the statutes 
originally drawn up at the First Assembly in 
Rio de Janeiro, 1932, M-ere inadequate for present- 
day operations and that, in fact, certain essential 
considerations were lacking, such as: (a) an in- 
terim governing body providing adequate and 
equal representation for all member states — the 
Executive Committee had only a chairman, vice 
chairman, and two members; (h) the proper suc- 



64 



Oeparfmenf of Sfafe Bulletin 



cession of autliority within the Executive Com- 
mittee itself — the 17 substitute members were not 
eligible to fill the vacancies of the chairman or vice 
chairman; and (c) a close relationship between 
the Executive Committee and the day-to-day op- 
erations of the Institute. These and other de- 
ficiencies are corrected by the new bylaws. 

The national committees, as envisioned by the 
creating resolution of the Sixth International Con- 
ference of American States, Habana, 1928, have 
been, with few exceptions, inactive. They are re- 
activated by the new bylaws and will henceforth 
be known as national sections of the Institute. 

The matter of an adequate retirement system for 
Institute personnel was also given consideration 
and the Executive Committee was charged with 
taking the necessary steps. 

Accordingly, many consider the fourth assembly 
to be the most significant yet held because of the 
fact that as a result of its work the Institute has 
been reorganized, its external and internal re- 
lations reoriented, and more definite programs 
set up in the scientific fields of its interest. 

The final act of the assembly, as distributed by 
the Government of Venezuela in an impressively 
printed volume, contains the delegation lists, the 
officers and committees of the conference, and the 
final decisions in the form of resolutions. 

Resolution I adopts new bylaws. These call for 
more intimate relationships as between the member 
governments and the organization itself and pro- 
vide new mechanisms to govern the Institute's in- 
creasing activities. A brief description of these 
bylaws is given later in this text. 

Resolution II embodies the 48 separate resolu- 
tions on technical matters adopted by the Consulta- 
tion on Cartography, operating as the first section 
of the assembly. The most significant of these deal 
with the establishment of standards of accuracy 
for geodetic operations, for topographic maps, and 
aeronautical charts and represent the culmination 
of three years of study and discussion. They also 
recommend the establishment of hydrographic 
services in those countries which do not have such 
agencies at this time. They lay the groundwork 
for collaborative action of the Commission on 
Cartography and its committees with certain exist- 
ing international organizations, such as the Inter- 



ACTIVITIES AND DBVEiOPMBNTS 

national Union of Geodesy and Geophysics and 
the International Hydrographic Bureau. In ad- 
dition to the separate reports presented by the 
respective national delegations on their current 
surveying and mapping progress and programs, 
some twenty-one technical papers on cartographic 
matters are recommended for publication. 

Resolution TV confirms the creation of the new 
Commission on Geogi-aphy, an action taken origi- 
nally by the Executive Committee at its April 1946 
meeting in Mexico City. 

Other geographic resolutions, the work of the 
second section of the assembly, deal with the crea- 
tion of geographic and cartographic institutes in 
those countries where none exist today. They 
recommend soil-erosion investigation, geoentomo- 
logic studies, the surveying of forest zones, the 
creation of national-park areas and of phytogeo- 
graphic centers, and an intensification of the 
study of seismology and of geographic names. 
They also deal with aids to census operations, 
in connection with the joint program of the 
Pan American Institute of Geography and His- 
tory and the Inter-American Statistical Insti- 
tute, in preparation for the 1950 census of tlie 
Americas. They urge the exchange of information 
between the various national geographic societies, 
the establislunent of special courses in the uni- 
versities and colleges, and the revision of textbooks 
by the national sections of the Institute before their 
official adoption. They recommend collaboration 
with the Internationa] Geographic Union. They 
list, by title and author, a number of geographic 
papers presented to the assembly which are recom- 
mended for publication in the proceedings. 

Resolution XXVII creates the new Commission 
on History and sets forth its program in detail. 

Other historical resolutions of the third and 
fourth sections deal with the many phases of that 
science, such as anthropological, archeological, 
and archival matters. They are concerned with 
the establishment of historical courses in the 
schools, the revision of textbooks, the exchange of 
professors, the creation of centers of historical 
studies, the formation of an adequate body of 
reference material of various types and the organ- 
ization of properly housed and endowed national 
archives, the publication of rare historical works 
and the implementation of pertinent resolutions 



January 12, 1947 



65 



ACTIVITIES AND DEVELOPMENTS 



of a number of previous international conferences, 
representing detailed study of the proceedings of 
the latter and a desire to refresh all on their 
significance, content, and relation to the Insti- 
tute's program. As in the case of the other sec- 
tions, certain historical papers presented to the 
assembly are recommended for publication. 

The two new commissions are to be simihir in 
organization to the Commission on Cartography 
and will have one representative from each nation, 
a traveling secretary to maintain liaison between 
the respective national members and the central 
office, and such committees as are found to be 
necessary. 

Brazil's offer to sponsor the initial period of 
operation of the Commission on Geography by 
placing an adequate budget at its disposal was ac- 
cepted, and Christovam Leite de Castro, Secretary 
General of the National Council of Geography of 
Brazil, was named interim chairman of the new 
commission. Much of the discussion time of the 
Section on Geography was devoted to considera- 
tion of the internal structure and scope of activity 
of the new commission. Delegates from the other 
American republics emphasized their preoccupa- 
tion over the relatively slow development of the 
science in their own countries and were partic- 
ularly desirous that tlie commission's program 
inchide such matters as textboolv preparation and 
the enlargement of present school curricula. 

The Mexican Government offered its sponsorship 
to the Commission on History and, as a result, 
the Mexican member of that commission, Silvio 
Zavala, will be its chairman for the interim period. 
Mr. Zavala has been editor of the Revista de Tlis- 
toria de America of the Institute since its founda- 
tion in 1938 and is a distinguished member of the 
faculty of the National Institute of Anthropology 
and History. Other governments weie interested 
in sponsoring this new commission and the rela- 
tive merits of their respective proposals were con- 
sidered in some detail, the final solution being that 
Venezuela, Argentina, Peru, and Cuba, in that 
order, were authorized to sponsor separate com- 
mittees of the commission. 

The interim chairmen of the commissions will 
hold office until the other nations name their re- 
spective members on those bodies and the latter 
can meet and select chairmen. 

Prior to the convening of the assembly, there 



was some support for a commission on anthro- 
pology and a commission or committee on seis- 
mology, but no action was taken in either case, 
other than to urge the interested commission to 
take the steps compatible with the current demon- 
strated need for such bodies. The future geo- 
graphic and historical programs of the Institute 
were considered bj' two separate groups of inter- 
ested United States scholars in the fall of 1945, 
under the auspices of the American Council of 
Learned Societies and the Conference Board of 
Associated Research Councils. Brazil's desire to 
sponsor a commission on geography was known at 
that time, as was the general interest in a com- 
mission on history and less broad concern in the 
establishment of similar bodies in other fields. 
The findings of these conferences were, in eflfoct, 
crystallized by action of the Executive Committee 
of the Institute at its April 1946 meeting in Mex- 
ico City, where it was decided that caution should 
be exercised in the creation of new bodies. The 
Committee's action was restricted to the creation 
of a commission on geogi-aphy and recommenda- 
tion to the Assembly that the latter decide con- 
cerning a commission on history. 

As a result of the creation of the new commis- 
sions, it is expected that the scientific life of the 
Institute will be carried out from now on in a 
very active sense by the thi-ee commissions. It is 
anticipated that their activities will more and more 
penetrate into the scientific, technical, and aca- 
demic life of the member nations, bringing the 
scientists and scholars into closer touch with each 
other and thus giving them the benefit of their 
mutual experience. Future assemblies will be 
simultaneous consultative meetings of the three 
commissions or consultations on cartography, ge- 
ography, and history, together with the regular 
standing committees on organization, finance, and 
resolutions. 

The Institute now has commissions on cartog- 
raphy, geography, and history. The first inherits 
the surveying and mapping activities of the first 
division on geography ; the second, the remaining 
geographic activities of the Institute; and the 
third, the entire historical program, including 
anthropological, archeological, archival, and re- 
lated activities. Other commissions may be cre- 
ated as the need arises. The existing commis- 
sions may establish the committees and subcom- 



66 



Department of State Bulletin 



mittees deemed desirable, and will meet at one-to- 
two year intervals in consultations. They will 
continue to bring out the three current reviews of 
the Institute, Revista de Eistor-iu de America, 
Bolet'm Bihliogrdfico de Antropologia Americana, 
and Revista Geografca, and will see to it that 
future monograiAs and other publications are in- 
tegrated with their respective programs. 

In the future the headquarters of the Institute 
at Mexico City will be known as the General Sec- 
retariat. It will provide the focal point of all 
operations and will be of particular value because 
the seats of the various commissions will move in 
accordance with the residence of their respective 
chairmen. The Secretariat will serve the various 
organs of the Institute and assist in the coordina- 
tion of their activities. 

Prior to this time, the Mexico City headquarters 
have been under a director, Pedro C. Sanchez, the 
first named to the post. In deference to his great 
service and devotion to the Institute, the Assembly 
designated him director for life. The post of Sec- 
retary General was created to provide a person to 
head the staff of the organization. The new stat- 
utes specify that the present director should serve 
as adviser and counselor. 

The Committee on Finances reported to the As- 
sembly its findings that the present quotas, estab- 
lished in the early thirties during a world 
depression and when the Institute's possibilities 
were as yet unknown, are inadequate today. It 
recommended, however, that no change be effected 
at this time, pending action by the Ninth Inter- 
national Conference of American States to be held 
next year at Bogota, which will consider the prob- 
lem of arriving at an equitable system of quota 
payments for all official inter-American organiza- 
tions. The Resolutions Committee and the As- 
sembly, in plenary session, accepted this recom- 
mendation together with the interim arrangement 
that the various member states make special con- 
tributions to defray the cost of operations of the 
three commissions, pending the time when one 
quota could be established for all Institute 
activities. 

In the short period of the General Assembly, 
much was accomplished both from the organiza- 
tional point of view, one of the two major func- 
tions of the General Assembly, and in matters 
pertaining to the elaboration of a long-range 

January 12, 1947 



^ ACTIVITIES AND DEVELOPMENTS 

program of .scientific endeavor. Some who 
attended the sessions felt that an undue amount of 
time was given to such matters, to the detriment 
of a broader discussion of the announced scientific 
agenda. The majority, however, seemed to be of 
the opinion that the new statutes and the new com- 
missions were the more important at this critical 
moment, when new international and global 
organizations are being created for the purposes 
of peace and a greater cultural interchange and 
understanding. There have been profound 
changes in the world's evaluation of international 
organizations within the past few years, necessitat- 
ing a stock-taking on the part of those already 
established, which was done by the Pan American 
Institute of Geography and History at its meet- 
ing in Caracas. 

The Third Consultation on Cartography, as 
were its predecessors, was an international con- 
ference on surveying and mapping and was con- 
ducted as an open meeting of the Conmiission on 
Cartography. The announced program of this 
first section of the Assembly was veiy closely 
followed. Internal matters of the Commission 
on Cartography were discussed in evening sessions, 
allowing the full time of the morning and after- 
noon sessions to be devoted to the consideration of 
new developments and techniques and to the 
establishment of uniform standards of accuracy. 
The Pan American Institute of Geography and 
History has entered into a period of real signifi- 
cance for the sciences of geography and history in 
the Americas. Its well-wishers are many. It is 
a healthy sign, indeed, and one that augurs well 
for an organization, when nations vie with each 
other for the honor of sponsoring its new scientific 
organs or of being the seat of its next meetings, as 
they did at Caracas in regard to the Institute. 

Santiago, Chile, will be the seat of the Fifth 
Assembly in 1950. Buenos Aires will be the seat 
of the Fourth Consultation on Cartography in 
1947. Cuba has already put in her bid for the 
Fifth Consultation on Cartography in 1948 but 
it may have strong rivalry from other nations. 
The dates and places of meeting of the First Con- 
sultation on Geography and the First Consultation 
on History have not yet been designated, but they 
may conceivably be held in Brazil and Mexico in 
1947 and will most certainly be held not later than 
1948. 



67 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



Proposed Charter for International Trade Organization 



INFORMAL PUBLIC HEARINGS TO DISCUSS CHARTER 



[Released to the press January 2] 

The Department of State announced on January 
2 that a series of informal hearings will be held 
for the purpose of affording all interested persons 
and groups an opportunity to present their views 
regarding the proposed charter for an Interna- 
tional Trade Oi'ganization.^ 

The proposed ITO charter, on which the hear- 
ings will be held, was prepared by the Preparatory 
Committee on Trade and Employment at its first 
meeting in London, October 15-November 26, 1946. 
This Committee was created by the Economic and 
Social Council of the United Nations by resolution 
of Februai-y 18, 1946 and consists of the following 
countries: Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, 
Chile, China, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, France, India, 
Lebanon, Luxembourg, Netherlands, New Zea- 
land, Norway, South Africa, Union of Soviet 
Socialist Eepublics, United Kingdom, and the 
United States. 

The Preparatory Committee used as the basis for 
its work at London a text developed by experts 
within the United States Government and pub- 
lished by the Department of State in September 
1946 under the title of Suggested Charter for an 
International Trade Organization.'^ Both the 
Suggested Charter and the new text issued by the 
Preparatory Committee are based on the funda- 
mental principles of expanded trade and enlarged 
employment set forth in tlie Proposals for Expan- 
sion of World Trade and Employment presented 
by tlie Government of the United States in Decem- 
ber 1945 for consideration by the governments and 
peoples of the world. 

The Preparatory Committee will meet again in 
Geneva, Switzerland, beginning April 8, 1947, at 



' For text of proposed charter, see Department of State 
press release 937 of Dec. 30, 1946. 
''Department of State publication 2598. 



which time it will complete its work on the pro- 
posed charter with a view to making definite rec- 
ommendations to a general international confer- 
ence on trade and employment to be held later. 
The instrument emerging from the general inter- 
national conference will be submitted to the Con- 
gress of the United States. 

The hearings announced on January 2 are in- 
tended to assist the interested agencies of the 
United States Government to obtain a full expres- 
sion of American opinion in preparing for the 
Geneva meeting of the Preparatory Committee. 
These hearings will be conducted under the aus- 
pices of the Executive Committee on Economic 
Foreign Policy, which consists of representatives 
of the Departments of State, Treasury, Agricul- 
ture, Commerce, and Labor and the United States 
Tariff Commission. The chairman of the com- 
mittee is Willard L. Thorp, Assistant Secretary of 
State for economic affairs. 

It should be noted that the hearings on the 
proposed charter are separate and distinct from 
the hearings to be conducted, beginning January 
13, 1947, by tlie Committee for Reciprocity Infor- 
mation in connection with reciprocal trade-agree- 
ment negotiations. 

The hearings on the proposed charter will be 
held at the following times and places : 

Washington, D. C, Room 474, Department of 
State, Seventeenth Street and Pennsylvania 
Avenue NW., beginning at 10 : 30 a.m., E.S.T., 
February 25, 1947. 

Boston, Mass., beginning at 10 : 30 a.m., E.S.T., 
March 3, 1947 at a place to be announced later 
by the Boston office of the Department of 
Commerce. 

Chicago, 111., beginning at 10 : 30 a.m., C.S.T., 
March 3, 1947 at a place to be announced later 
by the Chicago office of the Department of 
Commerce. 



68 



Depat\men\ of State Bulletin 



New Orleans, La., beginning at 10 : 30 a.m., C.S.T., 
March 3, 1947 at a place to be announced later 
by the New Orleans office of the Department 
of Commerce. 

San Francisco, Calif., beginning at 10:30 a.m., 
P.S.T., March 10, 1947 at a place to be an- 
nounced later by the San Francisco office of 
the Department of Commerce. 

Denver, Colo., beginning at 10:30 a.m., M.S.T., 
March 10, 1947 at a place to be announced later 
by the Denver office of the Department of 
Commerce. 

All persons desiring to present oral views at these 
hearings should inform the Executive Secretary, 
Executive Committee on Economic Foreign Policy, 
Room 133, Department of State, Washington, D.C., 
in writing, by February 1, 1947. Each letter 
should state at which of the places listed above 
the writer wishes to present his oral views. All 
persons desiring to present oral views will be ad- 
vised by the Executive Secretary regarding the 



THE RECORD Of THE WEEK 

time of their individual appearances. The meet- 
ings will be open to the public and the press. 

Views in writing regarding the proposed 
charter for an International Trade Organization 
should be transmitted to the Executive Secretary 
of the Committee, Room 133, Department of State, 
Washington, D.C., preferably before February 1, 
1947 and in any event not later than March 1, 1947. 
It would be of assistance to the Committee if per- 
sons submitting written views could supply 10 
copies. 

A preliminary mimeographed draft of the text 
of the proposed ITO charter on which views are 
solicited accompanies this notice. A printed copy 
of the text, together with appropriate explanatory 
material from the report of the first meeting of 
the Preparatory Committee, will be made available 
shortly upon publication of the report. Copies of 
these documents may be obtained from the Depart- 
ment of State, Washington, D.C., or from district 
offices of the Department of Commerce. 



SUMMARY OF PROVISIONS OF PROPOSED CHARTER 



[Released to the press January 2] 

I — Introduction 

In September 1946, the United States Govern- 
ment published a Suggested Charter for an Inter- 
national Trade Organization of the United 
Nations. The Suggested Charter was submitted 
to the Preparatory Committee of the International 
Conference on Trade and Employment (created 
by the Economic and Social Council of the United 
Nations) , which held its first meeting in London 
between October 15 and November 26, 1946. The 
Preparatory Committee used the Suggested 
Charter as the main basis for its discussions. 

Acting as a group of experts, without com- 
mitting the governments represented, the Pre- 
paratory Committee agreed to texts of draft 
articles with respect to about 85 percent of the 
provisions which might be included in a charter 
for an International Trade Organization. In the 
case of other provisions no specific action was taken 
because of the shortage of time. 

The following is a summary of the text of a re- 
drafted charter for an International Trade Organ- 
ization consisting of {a) articles agi-eed upon at 
the London meeting of the Preparatory Com- 

January 12, 7947 



niittee and (h) in cases where the Committee took 
no specific action, articles appearing in the Sug- 
gested Charter originally put forward by the 
United States. Statements summarizing the 
latter articles are shown in square brackets. 

II — The Charter as a Whole 

The ITO charter seeks to accomplish five main 
things: (1) to promote the maintenance of employ- 
ment in member countries; (2) to promote the 
economic development of member countries ; (3) to 
bring about the general relaxation and regula- 
tion of barriers to world trade, whether such bar- 
riers are imposed by governments or private organ- 
izations; (4) to provide an orderly procedure 
under agreed rules for the negotiation of inter- 
governmental commodity arrangements; and (5) 
to create permanent international machinery for 
consultation and collaboration in trade and related 
matters. 

The provisions of the charter are set forth in 
8 chapters and 89 articles, as follows: 

[Chapter I — Establishes the broad purposes of 
the International Trade Organization (article 1)] 

69 



THE RECORD Of THE WEEK 



Chapter II — Regulates membership in the Or- 
ganization (article 2) 

Chapter III — Provides for the maintenance of 
employment, the development of I'esources and 
productivity, and the promotion of labor standards 
(articles 3 through 9) 

Chapter IV — Provides for the promotion of the 
industrial and general economic development of 
member countries (articles 10 through 13) 

Chapter V — Provides for the reduction of gov- 
ernmental barriers of all kinds and for the elimina- 
tion of trade discriminations (articles 14 through 
38) 

Chapter VI — Provides for concerted action to 
eliminate restrictive business practices in inter- 
national trade (articles 39 through 45) 

Chapter VII — Regulates the making of inter- 
governmental commodity agi'eements (articles 46 
through 60) 

Chapter VIII — Creates the machinery for an 
International Trade Organization to facilitate the 
operation of the charter and to promote continuing 
international cooperation in trade and related mat- 
ters (articles Gl through 89) 

III — Summary of Detaiij:d Provisions 
Chapter I — Purposes 

[Chapter I sets forth the broad purposes of the 
ITO. These are : to promote the cooperative solu- 
tion of trade problems; to expand opportunities 
for trade and economic development; to aid the 
industrialization of underdeveloped countries ; and 
in general to promote the expansion of the pro- 
duction, exchange and consumption of goods, the 
reduction of tariffs and other trade barriers, and 
the elimination of trade discriminations.] 

Chapter II — Membership 

Chapter II looks toward broad membership in 
the organization. It provides for two general 
categories of members: oi'iginal members and 
other members. Original members would be all 
those countries which are rej^resented at the pro- 
posed International Conference on Trade and Em- 
ployment and whicli accept the ITO charter by a 
certain date. Other countries would be brought in 
with the approval of the organization after it had 
become established. 

Chapter III — Employment 

Chapter III recognizes that the maintenance of 
employment and of high and rising demand for 



goods and services are essential to achieve the pur- 
poses of the ITO and, reciprocally, that measures 
to promote employment and demand should be 
consistent with these purposes. Accoi'dingly, each 
member of the ITO would agree to take action de- 
signed to achieve and maintain employment and 
demand within its own jurisdiction through meas- 
ures appropriate to its political and economic in- 
stitutions; and to participate in arrangements for 
the collection, analysis, and exchange of informa- 
tion on employment problems and in consultations 
on employment policies. 

The Economic and Social Council would have 
the responsibility for furthering the employment 
objectives of the charter. These matters are 
placed under the Economic and Social Council 
rather than under the ITO because the Council 
has been given the broad function of promoting 
full employment by the Charter of the United 
Nations, and also because the Council, by virtue 
of its authority to coordinate the many special- 
ized international agencies whose activities contri- 
bute to the maintenance of employment, is better 
fitted for this work than the ITO. 

Chapter III also provides that members will 
take action designed to develop their economic re- 
sources and raise their standards of productivity ; 
will take such action as may be appropriate and 
feasible to eliminate substandard labor conditions; 
and will cooperate in action designed to remove 
fundamental maladjustments in balances of pay- 
ments. 

Chapter IV — Economic Development 

Chapter IV recognizes the importance of bring- 
ing about the industrial and general economic 
development of all countries, particularly un- 
derdeveloped countries. Accordingly, members 
would undertake to promote their own develop- 
ment and would agree to cooperate, through the 
Economic and Social Council of the United Na- 
tions and by other means, to promote industrial 
and economic development generally. Members 
would agree on the one hand not to put any un- 
reasonable restraints on the export of facilities, 
such as capital and equipment, which are needed 
for the economic development of other countries, 
and, on the other hand, not to take any unrea- 
sonable action injurious to foreign investors who 
are supplying facilities for development. It 
would be recognized that governmental assistance, 



70 



Deporfmenf of Slafe Bulletin 



including protective measures, may be needed in 
some cases to promote the establishment of parti- 
cular industries; at the same time it would also 
be recognized that the unwise use of protection 
will frustrate sound development and damage in- 
ternational trade. Protective measures which run 
contrary to the provisions of chapter V of the char- 
ter (relating to the relaxation of trade barriers) 
may not be used except with the specific approval 
of the organization and, in appropriate cases, with 
that of countries whose trade may be directly 
affected. 
Chapter F— General Commercial Policy 

Chapter V, the longest in the charter, provides 
for the reduction or elimination of governmental 
barriers to international trade. Broadly, these 
barriers take the form of excessive customs regu- 
lations of all kinds ; tariffs ; embargoes and quotas ; 
exchange restrictions on trade ; governmental sub- 
sidization of production or exports; restrictive 
practices by ^tate-trading enterprises; and! the 
discriminatory application of trade barriers and 
controls generally. 

Chapter V contains provisions relating to all 
these types of trade barriers and to connected mat- 
ters. The chapter is divided into ten sections as 
follows : ' 

SECTION TITLE WITH SHORT DESCRIPTION OF SECTION 

Secti-on A ( General commercial provisiom) 

Establishes equality of treatment in trade gen- 
ierally. [Eliminates or regulates various ad- 
!mmistrutive devices which hamper imports or 
discriminate in trade. Eequires full publication 
|of trade regulations and advance notice of restric- 
tive regulations.] 

Section B (Tariffs and preferences) 

Requires reciprocal negotiations for the sub- 
stantial reduction of tariffs and for the elimina- 
tion of import tariff preferences. 
Section C {Quantitative restrictions) 

Eliminates quotas and embargoes on trade in 
general, but permits them for agreed purposes 
mder defined circumstances. 
Section D {Exchange restrictions) 

Provides that exchange restrictions on trade 
hall not be permitted to frustrate the ITO charter. 
Section E {Subsidies) 

Requires that subsidies affecting trade be re- 
lorted to the ITO ; that those seriously prejudic- 

anuary J 2, J 947 



THE RECORD Of JHC WEEK 

ing trade be subject to negotiated limitation; 
and that export subsidies in general be eliminated 
except under defined circumstances. 
Section F {State trading) 

Requires that state trading enterprises be oper- 
ated in a non-discriminatory manner; that state 
monopolies of individual products negotiate for 
the reduction of protection afforded to domestic 
producers ; [and that complete state monopolies of 
all foreign trade agree to maintain total imports 
of all products at a level to be negotiated 
periodically] . 

Section G {Emergency provisions — Consultation — 
Nullification or impairment) 
Permits withdrawal or modification of tariff or 
other concessions in case of serious injury to 
domestic producers; provides for consultation 
with ITO on all phases of chapter V ; permits mem- 
bers to withdraw concessions from countries which 
do not live up to obligations of charter. 
Section H {Relations t-oith non-memhers) 

[Prohibits agreements with non-members prom- 
ising them benefits of charter ; prevents members, 
after an initial period, from extending tariff con- 
cessions to non-members without ITO approval.] 
Section I {Exceptions) 

[Excerpts from chapter V measures usually ex- 
cepted from commercial agreement (e.g. sanitary 
regulations, traffic in arms, and the like).] 
Section J {Territorial application) 

Applies chapter V to customs territories of mem- 
bers ; permits special advantages to promote fron- 
tier traffic or arising out of customs unions. 
Chapter F/— Restrictive Business Practices 

Under chapter VI members of the ITO would 
agree to take appropriate individual and collective 
measures to eliminate restrictive business prac- 
tices in international trade whenever they have 
harmful effects on the expansion of trade or on 
any of the purposes of the ITO. The chapter 
specifies certain practices which would be subject 
to investigation with a view to their elimination. 
Among these practices would be those which fix 
prices, allocate markets or customers, boycott or 
discriminate against enterprises outside the ar- 
rangement, limit production, suppress technology, 
and improperly use patents, trade-marks, and 
cojjyrights. 



71 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 

In order to carry out this policy a complaint 
procedure would be set up for taking action against 
particular instances of restrictive business prac- 
tices. Under this procedure the ITO would re- 
ceive complaints from a member, or from persons 
or business organizations within a member's terri- 
tory, that a particular business arrangement is 
restricting international trade with harmful ef- 
fects. If the ITO found that the complaint was 
justified, it could recommend that members take 
appropriate remedial action. 

Members would agree to cooperate with the 
ITO in eliminating restrictive business practices. 
Among other things, they would agree to obtain 
and furnish to the ITO information needed by it 
in connection with particular investigations; to 
consult with the ITO regarding complaints which 
had been filed ; and to take fullest account of ITO 
recommendations in initiating action to eliminate 
particular restrictive arrangements. 
Chapter TV/— Intergovernmental Commodity Ar- 
rangements 
Chapter VII recognizes that in the case of cer- 
tain commodities, usually primary agricultural 
products, special difficulties, such as a world sur- 
plus, may arise which would warrant the adoption 
of intergovernmental commodity agreements, in- 
cluding those which regulate production, trade, or 
prices. Such agreements would have to be con- 
sistent with certain general objectives and would 
need to satisfy certain conditions. 

Regulatory commodity agreements would be 
justified if necessary (1) to enable countries to 
solve difficulties caused by surpluses without taking 
action inconsistent with the purposes of the 
charter, (2) to avoid the serious distress to pro- 
ducers or labor caused by surpluses when produc- 
tion adjustments cannot be made quickly enough 
because of the lack of alternative employment 
opportunities, and (3) to provide a working ar- 
rangement for a transitional period during which 
measures may be taken to increase consumption of 
the surplus product or to facilitate the movement 
of resources and manpower out of the production 
of the surplus product into more remunerative 

lines. 

It would be required that the members concerned 
must formulate and adopt a program of economic 
adjustment designed to make progress toward solv- 
ing the basic problem which gave rise to the pro- 



72 



posal for a regulatory commodity agreement ; that 
such agi-eements be open initially to all ITO mem- 
bers on equal terms and that they afford equitable 
treatment to all members (including those not par- 
ticipating in the agreement) ; that they provide for 
adequate representation by members primarily 
interested in the commodity as consumers, and give 
consuming countries an equal vote with producing 
countries in deciding matters such as the regula- 
tion of prices, trade, production, stocks, and the 
like; that, where practicable, they provide for 
measures to expand consumption of the commodity 
in question ; that they assure supplies of the prod- 
uct adequate to meet world demand at reasonable 
prices; and that they make appropriate provision 
to satisfy world consumption from the most effec- 
tive sources of supply. 

Provision is made that full publicity must at- 
tend all important stages in the making of inter- 
governmental commodity agreements. 
Chafter F///— Organization 

Chapter VIII of the charter sets forth the func- 
tions and structure of the ITO and relates them 
to the substantive undertakings of members pro- 
vided for in the earlier chapters. 

Functio^is. The functions of the ITO largely 
relate to its responsibilities in connection with 
chapter V (Commercial Policy) , chapter VI (Re- 
strictive Business Practices), and chapter Vli 
(Commodity Agreements). In addition to func- 
tions of thfs kind, the ITO would be authorized 
to provide assistance and advice to membere and 
other international organizations in connection 
with specific projects of industrialization or other 
economic development; to promote international 
agreements such as those designed to facilitate 
the international movement of capital, technology, 
art, and skills and those relating to commercial 
travelers, commercial arbitration, and the avoid- 
ance of double taxation ; and to cooperate with the 
United Nations and other organizations on eco- 
nomic and social matters and on measures to main- . 
tain peace and security. 

Structure. The principal organs of the iiU, 
would be a Conference; an Executive Board; 8.| 
Commission on Commercial Policy, a Commission; 
on Business Practices, and a Commodity Commis- 
sion ; and a Secretariat. 

The Conference. The governing body of th« 
ITO would be the Conference on which each coun-. 

Department of State Bulleth 



try belonging to the ITO would be represented. 
The decisions of the Conference on most matters 
■would be taken by a simple majority vote of the 
members present and voting, each country casting 
one vote.^ The Conference would have final 
authority to determine the policies of the ITO. 
It would be authorized to make recommendations 
regarding any matter relating to the purposes of 
the ITO and to elect the members of the Executive 
Board. 

Interim Tariff Committee. An Interim Tariff 
Committee within the ITO would be charged with 
the function of authorizing members to withhold, 
if necessary, tariff reductions from other members 
which failed to meet their obligations to negotiate 
for the substantial reduction of tariffs and the 
elimination of preferences. The Committee 
would consist of those members of the ITO which 
had already fulfilled these requirements among 
themselves.' Other members of the ITO would 
be entitled to join the Committee upon the com- 
pletion by them of adequate negotiations regard- 
ing tariffs and preferences. All decisions of the 
Committee would be taken by majority vote, each 
member casting one vote. 

Executive Board. The Executive Board would 
consist of fifteen members of the ITO elected by 
the Conference every three years. [Note: Under 
alternative drafts of the appropriate article per- 
manent membership on the Board by members 
of chief economic importance would be provided 
for.] Decisions of the Board would be taken by 
a majority of the members present and voting, each 
country casting one vote. The Board would be 
responsible for executing the policies of the ITO 
and for exercising powers delegated to it by the 
Conference. It would be authorized to make rec- 
ommendations to members of the ITO, to the Con- 
ference, and to other international organizations. 
The Board would be required to provide ade- 
quate machinery to review the work of the ITO 
as it relates to industrialization and other economic 
develojiinent. 

The Gommissiom. The Commission on Com- 
mercial Policy, the Commission on Business Prac- 
;ices, and the Commodity Coimnission would be 
jstablished by the Conference and would be re- 
sponsible to the Executive Board. The Conference 
tvould be authorized to establish any other com- 
nissions which might in time be required. 

lanuary 12, 7 947 



THB RECORD Of THE WBEK 

The Commissioners would be expert persons ap- 
pointed by the Board in their personal capacities. 
The chairman of the Commissions could partici- 
pate, without vote, in the meetings of the Board and 
of the Conference. Other international organiza- 
tions having a special interest in the activities of 
one of the commissions might be invited to par- 
ticipate in its work. 

The functions of the three commissions are 
concerned largely with the making of recommen- 
dations to the Executive Board relating to the 
discharge of the ITO's responsibilities in the three 
specialized fields. In addition, the commissions 
would perform any other functions assigned to 
them by the Conference or the Board, including 
such functions in connection with the settlement 
of disputes as the Board might deem appropriate. 

Secretariat. The Secretariat of the ITO would 
consist of a Director General and such staff as 
might be required. 

The Director General would be appointed by 
the Conference upon the recommendation of the 
Board. He could participate in the deliberations 
of the Board, the Conference, and the commissions 
and initiate proposals for consideration by any 
organ of the ITO. 

Miscellaneous provisions. These provisions 
largely parallel similar provisions in the consti- 
tutions of other international organizations. They 
deal with relations between the ITO and other 
organizations, the international responsibilities of 
the staff of the ITO, legal capacity of the ITO, 
privileges and immunities of the ITO, amendments 
to the charter, interpretation and settlement of 
legal questions, contributions of members, entry 
into force of tlie charter, and withdrawal from the 
ITO and termination of the charter. 

^A minority of the Preparatory Committee favored the 
use of a system of weighted voting in the Conference. 

-Initially, the Interim Tariff Committee would consist 
of those members which had made effective the agree- 
ment for concerted reduction of tariffs and trade barriers 
which it is hoped will be concluded by the countries already 
invited by the United States to negotiate for this purpose. 
It is contemplated that the agreement would incorporate 
schedules of tariff concessions and certain of tlie provi- 
sions of chapter V of the charter (e.g. those relating to 
most-favored-nation treatment, to national treatment on 
internal taxes and regulations, to quantitative restric- 
tions, etc.). 



73 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 

Relaxation of Restrictions Against Busi- 
ness and Commercial Communication 
With Germany and Japan 

[Released to the press by the 
Treasury Department January 2] 

The State and Treasury Departments announced 
on January 2 the issuance of Public Circular No. 
34 relaxing certain wartime restrictions against 
business and commercial communication with Ger- 
many and Japan. This action was made possible 
by the decision of the Allied Control Council in 
Germany that postal communications limited to 
the ascertainment of facts and the exchange of in- 
formation should be permitted between Germany 
and other countries. Similar action has been taken 
with respect to Japan by the Supreme Commander 
for the Allied Powers. It was stated, however, 
that all communications will be subject to censor- 
ship in Germany and Japan. Under the regula- 
tions in effect in Germany, correspondence with 
Germans relative to German external assets, even 
of a simple, informational character, will not be 
passed by censorship. A similar restriction is in 
effect in Japan. In addition, telecommunication 
service with Japan with similar limitations as to 
content of communications has now been opened, 
with the provision that payment for messages be 
made in dollars. 

Examples of communications which may freely 
be exchanged are reports concerning the status of 
property located in Germany and Japan, informa- 
tion with respect to trade prospects, and other mes- 
sages looking toward the resumption of business 
relations with Germany and Japan. The trans- 
mission of documents, such as birth, death, or 
marriage certificates, wills, legal notices, etc., is 
also authorized under this action. 

Existing prohibitions on transactional com- 
munications will continue in effect in Germany, 
Japan, and the United States. These prohibitions 
include any communication which constitutes or 
contains authorizations or instructions to effect 
any financial, business, or commercial transaction, 
as well as the transmission of powers of attorney, 
proxies, payment instructions, transfer orders, 
checks, drafts, bills of exchange, currency, money 
orders, and the like. 

74 



Although inquiries with respect to possible trade 
relationships, such as the nature, quantity, and 
availability of goods, are authorized by this action, 
attention was directed to the fact that any trade 
transactions arising out of such conununications 
must be effected through governmental agencies. 
Private commercial transactions will be author- 
ized when arrangements for resumption of private 
trade have been made. 

It was pointed out that, except for the activities 
authorized under Public Circular No. 34, any fi- 
nancial, business, trade, or other commercial activ- 
ity on behalf of enemy nationals who are within 
Germany and Japan continues to be prohibited. 
Outstanding Treasury general licenses do not 
authorize any transactions which involve business 
or commercial communication with Germany or 
Japan unless they contain a waiver of General 
Ruling No. 11. 

A separate announcement is being made by the 
Post Office Department with respect to the postal 
facilities now open .between Germany, Japan, 
Korea, and the United States. Announcement 
will also be made of any changes affecting the 
presently authorized weight of postal communica- 
tions. 

Radio Broadcast on the International 
Trade Organization 

The Economic and Social Council of the United 
Nations resolved to call an international confer- 
ence on trade and employment to consider setting 
up an International Trade Organization. A pre- 
paratory committee of 18 nations was appointed to 
arrange for such a conference, prepare its agenda, 
and draft a charter for the proposed organization. 
This preparatory committee recently ended its first 
meeting in London. 

On January 4 a broadcast was made reporting on 
the London meeting by Clair "Wilcox, Director of 
the Office of International Trade Policy of the 
Department of State, who headed the U.S. Dele- 
gation. Interviewing Mr. Wilcox was CBS corre- 
spondent Robert Lewis. For a complete text of 
the radio program, see Department of State press 
release 4 of January 3, 1947. 

Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



Deposit of Shares in Yugoslav Stock 
Companies for Conversion and/or Reg- 
istration 

[Beleased to the press December 31] 

^ The Department of State again calls the atten- 
tion of United States citizens holding shares in 
iTugoslav corporations to the provisions of the 
Jugoslav decree published June 21, 1946 in "The 
Official Gazette of the Federal People's Republic of 
Tugoslavia" requiring American holders of such 
ihares to deposit them for conversion and/or reg- 
stration with the Yugoslav Embassy at Washing- 
on. 

Although the deposit was supposed to have been 
nade by December 21, 1946, it is suggested that 
American owners who have not already deposited 
heir shares should immediately communicate with 
he Yugoslav Embassy, 1520 Sixteenth Street, 
Vashmgton, D.C., regarding their holdings, since 
t is possible that the Embassy may still be willing 
o accept registration. 

rhree Rubber Purchasing Agreements 
ixpire 

[Released to the press December 31] 

The rubber purchasing agreements with Ecua- 
dor, Haiti, and Bolivia will expire on December 
1, 1946, the Department of State announced on 
hat date. 

The Government of the United States during 
942 concluded exclusive rubber purchasing agree- 
lents with 17 of the rubber-producing countries 
f the Western Hemisphere to facilitate production 
nd purchase of natural crude rubber and its im- 
jortation into the United States. 

The agreements were of an intergovernmental 
^ture, with the Rubber Development Corporation 
tting as the U. S. Government agency responsible 
ar their implementation. 

With the exception of Venezuela, all agreements 
^iginally provided for December 31, 1946 as the 
cpiration date or for earlier cancellation by mu- 
jal consent. In April 1945 the United States of- 
Isred to extend the agreements to June 30 1947. 
welve countries agreed to the extension. 
The offer of further extensions was withdrawn 

August 1945, owing to the end of the war. Be- 
use of the mutual cancellation provisions, the 

inoary J2, 1947 



THE RECORD Of THE WEEK 

agreements with Guatemala, El Salvador, Hon- 
duras, and British Honduras have been canceled. 
The "Venezuela agreement expired October 12, 1946. 
Those with Ecuador, Haiti, and Bolivia expire 
December 31, 1946. 

The remaining nine agreements, with Peru, Co- 
lombia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Panama, 
Mexico, British Guiana, and Trinidad and Tobago, 
will remain in effect until June 30, 1947 unless 
canceled before that time by mutual consent. 

Extension of Food-Supply Agreement 
With Haiti 

[Released to the press January 3] 

The Institute of Inter-American Affairs an- 
nounced on January 3 that William C. Brister, vice 
president in charge of its Food Supply Division, 
has signed with the Government of Haiti at 
Port-au-Prince an extension of the Institute's 
food-supply agreement for assistance to Haitian 
agriculture. 

The extension agreement provides that Insti- 
tute technicians will continue their cooperation 
with Haitian agricultural authorities until June 
30, 1948. For this period of joint operations the 
United States will contribute $50,000 and techni- 
cal and administrative assistance with a value of 
approximately $150,000, while Haiti's contribution 
will be $175,000. This schedule of contributions 
represents a pattern of gradually decreasing 
United States financial assistance and increasing 
responsibility by the local government in the 
program. 

The Cooperative Food Mission initiated its ac- 
tivities in Haiti in 1944 in order to rehabilitate 
lands used in an emergency effort to produce rub- 
ber. In the achievement of this objective, Haitian 
rural families affected by the rubber project were 
assisted in restoring their lands to production of 
food crops during the first year of the mission's 
program. Tools and seeds were distributed, and 
nurseries for the growth of fruit trees were 
established. 

The emergency rehabilitation project was, how- 
ever, only the first phase of operations, since in 
addition to this aspect of the program, water re- 
sources have been developed, livestock improve- 
ment has been studied, soil-conservation projects 
have been installed, and grain-storage facilities 
have been established. Moreover, under the mis- 



75 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 

sion's training program a number of young Haitian 
technicians have received instruction in advanced 
agricultural methods in the United States and 
Puerto Kico. In short, this cooperative action 
program provides a useful medium whereby U.S. 
technicians in joint collaboration with their 
Haitian colleagues are demonstrating in a prac- 
tical way how American agricultural methods and 
techniques can be usefully adapted to the require- 
ments of that country. 

The extension of the agreement will permit con- 
tinuation of the mission's recent emphasis on 
Haiti's long-run agricultural needs, and on the 
training of local agricultural experts qualified to 
supervise activities of this type when the present 
program terminates. 

Responsibility for Administration of 
Libraries in Mexico, Nicaragua, 
and Uruguay 

[Released to the press January 2] 

The Department of State announced that as of 
January 1, 1947 it will undertake the administra- 
tion of the program under which the popular 
United States - supported libraries are operated at 
Mexico, D.F.; Managua, Nicaragua; and Monte- 
video, Uruguay. 

The three libraries were established in 1942 and 
1943 by the former Office of the Coordinator of 
Inter-American Affairs for the purpose of pro- 
moting a better understanding of the United 
States in the other American republics. 

The responsibility for administering the libra- 
ries was assigned to the American Library Associa- 
tion under Government contract to avoid establish- 
ing similar Government facilities which would 
have been necessary to provide professional ad- 
ministration and service required for daily 
operation. 

With the establishment on January 1, 1946 of 
a division within the Department of State charged 
with the peacetime management and servicing of 
the United States Information Libraries estab- 
lished in the Eastern Hemisphere during the war 
by the former Office of War Information, it be- 
came apparent that the three libraries operating 
in Latin America could be administered more 
economically by the Department of State by utiliz- 
ing facilities already in operation for another but 
identical purpose. An offer of the American Li- 

76 



brary Association to terminate its contract ar- 
rangements for the administration of the American 
Libraries at Mexico, D.F., Managua, and Monte- 
video, was therefore accepted by the Department 
as of December 31, 1946. 

Under the administration of the Department the 
three libraries will operate precisely as they have 
under the American Library Association, wliich 
has been requested to continue its overseeing of 
the library progi-am in Latin America in a profes- 
sional advisory capacity. They will remain inte- 
gral parts of the three communities under local 
boards of directors appointed jointly by the Amer- 
ican Library Association and local authorities. 
Library policies and programs in Latin America 
will continue to provide library service of the 
required excellence based upon book collections 
which will bring together accurate information 
about the United States and the American way 
of life. 

These three libraries attract over 485,000 readers 
annually. In addition to answering thousands of 
reference questions about the United States and 
lending over 241,000 books every year, they pro- 
cure for local scholars books obtainable only in 
certain libraries in the United States. They 
place microfilm requests on behalf of Latin Ameri- 
can scholars with the Library of Congress, the 
National Research Council, and with various 
United States universities. They provide libraries 
in the United States with information on Latin 
American publications and also sponsor a variety ; 
of public programs, exhibitions, and lectures, in i 
addition to offering film showings, concerts, and 
art exhibits. 

Visit of Italian Prime Minister , 

His Excellency Alcide de Gasperi, Prime Min-H 
ister of Italy, arrived in Washington on Sunday,' 
January 5, and is staying at the Blair House as ajl 
guest of the Government until Thursday, Jan- 
uary 9. 

Visit of Ecuadoran Foreign Minister 

His Excellency Jose Vicente Trujillo, Foreigrj] 
Minister of Ecuador, and Senora de Trujillo ar-p 
rived in Washington on Sunday, January 5, anc|| 
are staying at the Blair-Lee House as guests o !l 
the Government until Thui-sday, January 9. 

Department of State Bullelh 



Cessation of Hostilities of World War II 



STATEMENT BY THE PRESIDENT 



[Released to the press by the White House December 31] 

I have today issued a proclamation terminating 
he period of hostilities of World War II, as of 
2 o'clock noon today, December 31, 1946. 

Under the law, a number of war and emergency 
tatutes cease to be effective upon the issuance of 
his proclamation. It is my belief that the time 
las come when such a declaration can properly be 
lade, and that it is in the public interest to make 
i. Most of the powers affected by the proclama- 
lon need no longer be exercised by the executive 
ranch of the Government. This is entirely in 
eeping with the policies which I have consistently 
ollowed, in an effort to bring our economy and our 
government back to a peacetime basis as quickly 
s possible. 

The proclamation terminates Government pow- 
rs under some 20 statutes immediately upon its 
suance. It terminates Government powers un- 



der some 33 others at a later date, generally at the 
end of 6 months from the date of the proclamation. 
This follows as a result of provisions made by the 
Congress when the legislation was originally 
passed. In a few instances the statutes affected by 
the proclamation give the Government certain 
powers which in my opinion are desirable in peace- 
time, or for the remainder of the period of recon- 
version. In these instances, recommendations will 
be made to the Congress for additional legislation. 
It should be noted that the proclamation does not 
terminate the states of emergency declared by 
President Eoosevelt on September 8, 1939, and May 
27, 1941. Nor does today's action have the effect 
of terminating the state of war itself. It termi- 
nates merely the period of hostilities. With re- 
spect to the termination of the national emergency 
and the state of war I shall make recommendations 
to the Congress in the near future. 



TEXT OF THE PROCLAMATION ■ 



[Released to the press by the White House December 31] 

With God's help this nation and our allies, 
irough sacrifice and devotion, courage and per- 
iverance, wrung final and unconditional surren- 
3r from our enemies. Thereafter, we, together 
ith the other United Nations, set about building 
world in which justice shall replace force. With 
)int, through faith, with a determination that 
ere shall be no more wars of aggression calcu- 
ted to enslave the peoples of the world and de- 
roy their civilization, and with the guidance of 
Imighty Providence great gains have been made 

translating militaiy victory into permanent 
:ace. Although a state of war still exists, it is 

this time possible to declare, and I find it to be 

the public interest to declare, that hostilities 
ve terminated. 
Now, THEREFORE, I, Harry S. Truman, Presi- 

nuary 12, 1947 



dent of the United States of America, do hereby 
proclaim the cessation of hostilities of World War 
II, effective twelve o'clock noon, December 31, 1946. 
In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my 
hand and caused the seal of the United States of 
America to be affixed. 

Done at the City of Washington this 31st day 

of December in the year of our Lord nine- 

[seal] teen hundred and forty-six, and of the 

Independence of the United States of 

America the one hundred and seventy-first. 

Harry S. Truman 

By the President : 
James F. Byrnes 

The Secretary of State 

' Pioclamation 2714 (12 Federal Register 1). 



77 



THE RECORD Of THE WEEK 

THE DEPARTMENT 



Departmental Regulations 



232.1 Liaison Between the Department of State and 
the National Archives : ( Effective 9-16-46 ) 

I LIAISON RESPONSinlUTY OF THE DIVISION OF HISTORI- 

CAL PoocY RESEARCH (KE). The responsibility for main- 
taining liaison with the National Archives, excepting with 
respect to the Division of the Federal Register of the Na- 
tional Archives, is vested in RE. The Chief of RE serves 
as the Liaison OiBcer for the Department and is desig- 
nated as the alternate of the Secretary of State to serve 
as a member of the National Archives Council. The liai- 
son activities of RE include various functions relating to 
the files of the Department from 1789 to 1929, inclusive, 
and certain groups of post-1929 records, which are in the 
custody of the Division of State Department Archives of 
the National Archives. 

II Procedures for the Use of the Liaison Faciuties 
OF RE Persons desiring to utilize the records in the Na- 
tional Archives, or desiring to transfer or otherwise dis- 
pose of records, will contact RE or the Archives Liaison 
Section thereof in accordance with the procedures out- 
lined below : 

A To obtain information or to borrow records from 
the National Archives (including records of Government 
agencies other than the Department of State), either 
telephone or address a memorandum to the Archives 
Liaison Section. 

B To request RE to perform research based on the 
records now in the National Archives and to prepare 
memoranda incorporating the results of such research, 
either telephone or address a request to the Archives 
liiaison Section. 

O To arrange for the transfer of records to the 
custodv of the National Archives, either address a mem- 
orandum to the Chief of RE or telephone the Archives 
Liaison Section. 

D To arrange for the preparation of disposal lists 
or schedules of records for the purpose of obtaining 
authorization for destruction or other disposal of rec- 
ords, either address a memorandum to the Chief of RE 
or telephone tlie Archives Liaison Section. 

B To return records borrowed from the National 
Archives send the material to the Archives Liaison 
Section Material from the decimal file, 1910-Decem- 
ber 31 1929, borrowed from the Records Branch, Di- 
vision 'of Communications and Records (DC), prior to 
January 1946, will be returned to the Archives Liaison 
Section. 
Ill Liaison Responsibiuty of the Division of Pub- 
lications (PB). The responsibility for maintaining 
liaison with the Division of the Federal Register of the 
National Archives is vested in PB. The Chief of PB serves 
as the Liaison Officer for the Department with the Division 



78 



of the Federal Register of the National Archives. The 
liaison activities of PB include the functions with respect 
to publication of Department documents in the Federal 
Register and the Code of Federal Regulations. 

232.2 Contacts With the Department of Justice Regard- 
ing Immigration and Visa Matters: (Effective 5-1-46) 

The responsibility for maintaining liaison with the De- 
partment of Justice with regard to immigration and visa 
matters is vested in the Visa Division. As questions con- 
cerning these matters are of a highly technical nature and 
require special knowledge of the rules and regulations 
as well as a familiarity with the technical application of 
these rules, all questions which are brought to the atten- 
tion of other officers of the Department, either from for- 
eign embassies or legations or from other sources, will be 
referred to the Visa Division. Officers will not, in any in- 
stance, contact the Department of Justice direct. 

Foreign Agriculture 

The following article of interest to readers of the 
Bulletin appeared in the January issue of Foreign 
Agriculture, a publication of the Department of Agri- 
culture, copies of which may be obtained from the 
Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing 
Office, for 10 cents each : 

'Trends in Brazilian Agriculture", by Kenneth 
Wernimont, agricultural attach^, American Embassy, 
Bogota, Colombia. 



Mulliken— (7on<m«e(i frotn page 46 
and 1946 to approximately 73 pounds, or about 
three fourths of average pre-war consumption.! 
Even at its lowest level, however, consumption injl 
the United States has been maintained at a much 
higher proportion of pre-war usage than in most 
European countries, despite the fact that the. 
average consumption in Europe was normally less 
than half of our own. The disparity in allocations 
might have been expected to lead to evasions and 
an'Imdermining of the allocation system, but such 
has not been the case. Each country which con- 
curs in a recommended allocation accepts respon- 
sibility for implementing it, and actually ver] 
little sugar has moved to destinations other thai 
those approved by the allocating body. This ex j , 
ample of effective international cooperation undeii , 
the most trying circumstances augurs well for tbhl 
possibility of continued collaboration on suga: 
problems in the post-war world. 

Department of Sfafe Bvllem ' 



Publications 

of the DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

For sale l>y the Superintendent of Documents, Govern- 
ment Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C. Address 
requests direct to the Superintendent of Documents, except 
in the case of free publications, ichich may lie obtained 
from the Department of State. 

United States and Italy, 1936-1946. Documentary Record. 
European Series 17. Pub. 2669. 236 pp. 650. 

A collection of documents that gives a chronological 
record of developments in diplomatic relations be- 
tween the U.S. and Italy, 1936-46. (Two maps.) 

United States Economic Policy Toward Germany. 

European Series 15. Pub. 2630. 149 pp. 400. 

Discu.ssion of U.S. economic policy toward Germany : 
disarmament, reparation, reconstruction. Texts of 
documents are included in the appendixes. 

Report of the U.S. Education Mission to Germany. 

European Series 16. Pub. 2664. 50 pp. 150. 

A review of conditions of education in Germany. The 
report contains recommendations of the Mission. 

U.S. Aims and Policies in Europe. Address by the Sec- 
retary of State. Pub. 2670. 12 pp. 54. 

A statement of U.S. determination to cooperate in 
maintaining the peace of Europe. 

Occupation of Japan: Policy and Progress. Far Eastern 
Series 17. Pub. 2671. 173 pp. 35«;. 

An explanation of Allied policy in the fields of politics, 
economics, and education. Appendixes include docu- 
ments on the .Japanese surrender, the texts of SCAP 
and SWNCC directives, and the text of the Japanese 
draft constitution. 

foreign Policies: Their Formulation and Enforcement. 

Address by Loy W. Henderson, Department of State 
''ub. 2651. 20 pp. 100. 

Includes an outline of the present organization of the 
Department of State, in particular that of the Office of 
Near Eastern and Foreign Affairs, and a statement of 
the policy of the U.S. regarding the Near and Middle 
East. 

nndamentals of United States Trade Policy. Address 
y Clair Wilcox, Department of State. Commercial 
olley Series 95. Pub. 2663. 14 pp. 1O0. 

A statement of and comment on the five fundamental 
principles of U.S. international trade policy. 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 

A New Instrument of U.S. Foreign Policy. Address by 
Assistant Secretary Benton. Pub. 2700. 16 pp. 100. 

An explanation of the State Department's informa- 
tion, cultural and scientific cooperation program. 

Private Enterprise in the Development of the Americas. 

Inter-American Series 32. Pub. 2640. 14 pp. 100. 

Address by Assistant Secretary Braden concerning the 
participation of U.S. private enterprise in the develop- 
ment of the other American republics. 

Report on the Paris Peace Conference. By the Secretary 
of State. Conference Series 90. Pub. 2682. 14 pp. 50. 

A report on the worli of the Paris Peace Conference, 
which took place from July 29 to October 15, 1946! 
The report covers problems of the Conference and 
principles which determined the position of the Amer- 
ican Delegation. 

The International Control of Atomic Energy. Speech 
by Bernard M. Baruch, United States Representative, 
United States Atomic Energy Commission. Freedom 
House, New York City, October 8, 1946. Pub. 2681. 8 pp. 

50. 

Discussion of the U.S. position on the international 
control of atomic energy. 

Report of the U.S. National Commission for UNESCO. 

With Letter of Transmittal from Assistant Secretary 
Benton to the Secretary of State, September 27, 1946. 
The United States and the United Nations Report Series 
4. Pub. 2635. 27 pp. 100. 

Final report of the U.S. National Commission for 
UNESCO to the Secretary of State. Includes a list of 
members of the Commission. 

The New Republic of the Philippines. Article by Ed- 
ward W. Mill, Department of State. Far Eastern Series 
16. Pub. 2662. 16 pp. 50. 

Discussion of the various acts of Congress which deal 
with the problems facing the new Philippine Republic. 

Diplomatic List, November 1946. Pub. 2690. 159 pp. 

Subscription, $2 a year; single copy, 200. 

Monthly list of foreign diplomatic representatives in 
Washington, with their addresses, prepared by the 
Division of Protocol of the Department of State. 

The Department of State Bulletin. Subscription, $5.00 
a year ; single copy, 15^. 

Official weekly publication of the Department of State 
on current developments in the field of foreign rela- 
tions ; includes statements and addresses by the Presi- 
dent and the Secretary of State, special articles, and 
texts of all major documents. 

A cumulative list of the publications of the Department of 
State, from October 1, 1929 to July 1, 19J,6 (Pub. 2609), may 
be obtained from the Department of State. 



anuary 12, 1947 



79 



The United Nations 

Resignation of Bernard M. Baruch as U.S. 
Representative on Atomic Energy Com- 
mission: Exchange of Letters Between 
the President and Mr. Baruch 47 

Letter From the Secretary of State to Mr. 

Baruch ^° 

General Assembly Resolution on Information 
on Armed Forces of United Nations: 
Letter From the Secretary-General to 
the President of the Security Council . . 50 

Participation in Conference To Consider 
Establishment of Regional Advisory 
Commission for Non-Self-Governing Ter- 
ritories in South Pacific 51 

Resignation of John G. Winant as U.S. Rep- 
resentative on ECOSOC: Exchange of 
Letters Between the President and Mr. 

Winant ^^ 

Conference of UNESCO: Preliminary Report 

From Paris ^^ 

Treaty Information 

Three Rubber Purchasing Agreements Ex- 

. . . 75 

pire 

Extension of Food-Supply Agreement With 

Haiti '^^ 

Educational, Scientific, and Cultural 
Cooperation 

Responsibility for Administration of Li- 
braries in Mexico, Nicaragua, and 

76 
Uruguay 

Calendar of International Meetings. . . 57 



%(m^/imtd<yyA 



General Policy 

Visit of Italian Prime Minister 76 

Visit of Ecuadoran Foreign Minister .... 76 
Cessation of Hostilities of World War II: 

Statement by the President 77 

Text of Proclamation 77 

Economic Affairs 

International Cooperation in Sugar. Article 

by Jean MuUiken 43 

Fifth Assembly of Inter-American Commis- 
sion of Women °^ 

Sixth Se.ssion of Council of ECITO 60 

International Wheat Council 61 

Geography and History Assembly in Caracas. 

Article by Andr6 C. Simonpietri .... 62 

Proposed Charter for International Trade 
Organization: 
Informal Public Hearings To Discuss 

Charter ^8 

Summary of Provisions of Proposed 

Charter 69 

Relaxation of Restrictions Against Business 
and Commercial Communication With 

Germany and Japan 74 

Radio Broadcast on the International Trade 

Organization 74 

Deposit of Shares in Yugoslav Stock Com- 
panies for Conversion and/or Registra- 
tion "^^ 

The Department 

Departmental Regulations 78 

Publications 

Foreign Agriculture 78 

Department of State 79 



Aniri C. Simonpietri, author of the article on the Geog- 
raphy and History Assembly in Caracas, is Special Ad- 
viser in the Offlce of the Special Assistant to the Secretary 
for Research and Intelligence, Department of State. 

Jean Mulliken, author of the article on International 
Cooperation in Sugar, is Chief of the Food Section, Food- 
stuffs Branch, International Resources Division, Offlce of 
International Trade Policy, Department of State. 



. OOVERNKEKT PRINT1»S OFFICEi \ttt 



^/i€/ ^e^a^i'meni/ xw bnwte/ 




THE SITUATION IN CHINA • Statement hy General George 

C. Marshall 83 

RESIGNATION OF JAMES F. BYRNES AS SECRE- 
TARY OF STATE 86 

"WE MUST DEMONSTRATE OUR CAPACITY IN 

PEACE" . By Secretary Byrnes 87 

ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF THE COMMISSION ON 

NARCOTIC DRUGS • /<rt.cle fay George /I. Morlocfc . . .91 



Vol XVI, No. 394 
January 19, 1947 



For complete contents see back ever 




,jieMT o* 




-••1-.S Ol 



^/le z/)€^ia/ytin€^t /O^ C/tate 



bulletin 

Vol. XVI, No. 394 . Publication 2723 
January 19, 1947 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents 

O. S. Government Printing Office 

Washington 25, D. C. 

SnBSCKiPTiON : 
52 issues, $5.00 ; single copy, 15 cents 

Published with the approval of the 
Director of the Bureau of the Budget 



The Department of State BULLETIIS, 
a ueekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Publications, 
Office of Public Affairs, provides 
the public and interested agencies of 
the Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the De- 
partment of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes 
press releases on foreign policy issued 
by the White House and the Depart- 
ment, and statements and addresses 
made by the President and by the 
Secretary of State and other officers 
of the Department, as well as special 
articles on various phases of inter- 
national aff'airs and the functions of 
the Department. Information con- 
cerning treaties and international 
agreements to which the United States 
is or may become a party and treaties 
of general international interest is 
included. 

Publications of the Department, cu- 
mulative lists of which are published 
at the end of each quarter, as well as 
legislative material in the fieldof inter- 
national relations, are listedcurrently. 



THE SITUATION IN CHINA 



Statement by General George C. Marshall ^ 



The President has recently given a summary 
of the developments in China during the past year 
and the position of the American Government 
toward China.- Circumstances now dictate that 
I should supplement this with impressions gained 
at first hand. 

In this intricate and confused situation, I shall 
merely endeavor here to touch on some of the 
more important considerations— as they appeared 
to me — during my connection with the negotia- 
tions to bring about peace in China and a stable 
democratic form of orovernment. 

In the first place, the greatest obstacle to peace 
has been the complete, almost overwhelming sus- 
picion with which the Chinese Communist Party 
and the Kuomintang regard each other. 

On the one hand, the leaders of the Government 
are strongly opposed to a communistic form of 
government. On the other, the Communists 
frankly state that they are Marxists and intend 
to worlc toward establishing a communistic form 
of government in China, though first advancing 
through the medium of a democratic form of 
government of the American or British type. 

The leaders of the Government are convinced 
in their minds that the Communist-expressed 
desire to participate in a government of the type 
endorsed by the 
Political Consul- 
tative Confer- 
ence last Janu- 
ary had for its 
purpose only a 
destructive in- 



tention. The Communists felt, I believe, that the 
Government was insincere in its apparent accept- 
ance of the PCC resolutions for the formation of 
the new government and intended by coercion of 
military force and the action of secret police 
to obliterate the Communist Party. Combined 
with this mutual deep distrust was the conspicu- 
ous error by both parties of ignoring the effect of 
the fears and suspicions of the other party in es- 
timating the reason for proposals or opposition 
regarding the settlement of various matters under 
negotiation. They each sought only to take coun- 
sel of their own fears. They both, therefore, to 
that extent took a rather lopsided view of each 
situation and were susceptible to every evil sug- 
gestion or possibility. This complication was 
exaggerated to an explosive degree by the con- 
fused reports of fighting on the distant and 
tremendous fronts of hostile military contact. 
Patrol clashes were deliberately magnified into 
large offensive actions. The distortion of the 
facts was utilized by both sides to heap condem- 
nation on the other. It was only through the re- 
ports of American officers in the field teams from 
Executive Headquarters that I could get even a 
partial idea of what was actually happening, and 
the incidents wei'e too numerous and the distances 

too great for the 
American per- 
sonnel to cover 



On January 8 the Senate unanimously confirmed the nom- 
ination of General George O. Marshall, formerly personal 
representative of the President to China, with the personal 
rank of Ambassador, to he Secretary of State. 



January 79, 1947 



all of the ground. 

^Released to the 
press January 7. 

' Bulletin of Dec. 
29, 1946, p. 1179. 

83 



I must comment here on the superb courage of 
the officers of our Army and Marines in strug- 
gling against almost insurmountable and mad- 
dening obstacles to bring some measure of peace 
to China. 

I think the most important factors involved in 
the recent break-down of negotiations are these: 
On the side of the National Government, which 
is in effect the Kuomintang, there is a dominant 
group of reactionaries who have been opposed, 
in my opinion, to almost every effort I have made 
to influence the formation of a genuine coalition 
govei'nment. This has usually been under the 
cover of political or party action, but since the 
Party was the Government, this action, though 
subtle or indii'ect, has been devastating in its ef- 
fect. They were quite frank in publicly stating 
their belief that cooperation by the Chinese Com- 
munist Party in the government was inconceiv- 
able and that only a policy of force could definitely 
settle the issue. This group includes military as 
well as political leaders. 

On the side of the Chinese Communist Party 
there are, I believe, liberals as well as radicals, 
though this view is vigorously opposed by many 
who believe that the Chinese Communist Party 
discipline is too rigidly enforced to admit of such 
differences of viewpoint. Nevertheless, it has ap- 
peared to me that there is a definite liberal group 
among the Communists, especially of young men 
who have turned to the Communists in disgust 
at the corruption evident in the local govern- 
ments — men who would put the interest of the 
Chinese people above ruthless measures to estab- 
lish a Communist ideology in the immediate fu- 
ture. The dyed-in-the-wool Communists do not 
hesitate at the most drastic measures to gain their 
end as, for instance, the destruction of communi- 
cations in order to wreck the economy of China and 
produce a situation that would facilitate the over- 
throw or collapse of the Government, without any 
regard to the immediate suffering of the people 
involved. They completely distrust the leaders 
of the Kuomintang and appear convinced that 
every Government proposal is designed to crush 
the Chinese Communist Party. I must say that 
the quite evidently inspired mob actions of last 
February and March, some within a few blocks 



of where I was then engaged in completing nego- 
tiations, gave the Communists good excuse for 
such suspicions. 

However, a very harmful and immensely pro- 
vocative phase of the Chinese Communist Party 
procedure has been in the character of its prop- 
aganda. I wish to state to the American people 
that in the deliberate misrepresentation and abuse 
of the action, policies, and purposes of our Gov- 
ernment this propaganda has been without regard 
for the truth, without any regard whatsoever for 
the facts, and has given plain evidence of a de- 
termined purpose to mislead the Chinese people 
and the world and to arouse a bitter hatred of 
Americans. It has been difficult to remain silent in 
the midst of such public abuse and wholesale dis- 
regard of facts, but a denial would merely lead 
to the necessity of daily denials; an intolerable 
course of action for an American official. In tlie 
interest of fairness, I must state that the National- 
ist Government publicity agency has made numer- 
ous misrepresentations, though not of the vicious 
nature of the Communist propaganda. Inci- 
dentally, the Communist statements regarding the 
Anping incident which resulted in the death of 
three Marines and the wounding of twelve others 
were almost pure fabrication, deliberately repre- | 
senting a carefully arranged ambuscade of a 
Marine convoy with supplies for the maintenance 
of Executive Headquarters and some UNRRA sup- 
plies as a defense against a Marine assault. The 
investigation of this incident was a tortuous pro- 
cedure of delays and maneuvers to disgviise the 
true and privately admitted facts of the case. 

Sincere efforts to achieve settlement have been 
frustrated time and again by extremist elements 
of both sides. The agreements reached by the Po- 
litical Consultative Conference a year ago were a 
liberal and forward-looking charter which then 
offered China a basis for peace and reconstruction. 
However, irreconcilable groups within the Kuo- 
mintang, interested in the preservation of their 
own feudal control of China, evidently had no real 
intention of implementing them. Though I speak 
as a soldier, I must here also deplore the domi- 
nating influence of the military. Their domi- 
nance accentuates the weakness of civil govern- 
ment in China. At the same time, in pondering 



84 



Department of State Bulletin 



the situation in China, one must have clearly in 
mind not the workings of small Communist groups 
or committees to which we are accustomed in 
America, but rather of millions of people and an 
army of more than a million men. 

I have never been in a position to be certain of 
the development of attitudes in the innermost 
Chinese Conununist circles. Most certainly, the 
course which the Chinese Communist Party has 
pursued in recent months indicated an unwilling- 
ness to make a fair compromise. It has been im- 
possible even to get them to sit down at a confer- 
ence table with Government representatives to 
discuss given issues. Now the Communists have 
broken off negotiations by their last offer which 
demanded the dissolution of the National Assem- 
bly and a return to the military positions of Janu- 
ary 1 3 which the Government could not be expected 
to accept. 

Between this dominant reactionary group in the 
Government and the irreconcilable Communists 
who, I must state, did not so appear last February, 
lies the problem of how peace and well-being are 
to be brought to the long-suffering and presently 
inarticulate mass of the people of China. The 
reactionaries in the Government have evidently 
counted on substantial American support regard- 
less of their actions. The Communists by their 
unwillingness to compromise in the national in- 
terest are evidently counting on an economic col- 
lapse to bring about the fall of the Government, 
accelerated by extensive guerrilla action against 
the long lines of rail communications — regardless 
of the cost in suffering to the Chinese people. 

The salvation of the situation, as I see it, would 
be the assumption of leadership by the liberals in 
the Government and in the minority parties, a 
splendid group of men, but who as yet lack the 
political power to exercise a controlling influence. 
Successful action on their part under the leader- 
ship of Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek would, I 
believe, lead to unity through good government. 

In fact, the National Assembly has adopted a 
democratic constitution which in all major re- 
spects is in accordance witli the principles laid 
down by the all-party Political Consultative Con- 



ference of last January. It is unfortunate that 
the Communists did not see fit to participate in 
the Assembly since the constitution that has been 
adopted seems to include every major point that 
they wanted. 

Soon the Government in China will undergo ma- 
jor reorganization pending the coming into force 
of the constitution following elections to be com- 
pleted before Cliristmas Day 1947. Now that the 
form for a democratic China has been laid down 
by the newly adopted constitution, practical meas- 
ures will be the test. It remains to be seen to what 
extent the Government will give substance to the 
form by a genuine welcome of all groups actively 
to share in the responsibility of goverimient. 

The first step will be the reorganization of the 
State Council and the executive branch of Govern- 
ment to carry on administration pending the en- 
forcement of the constitution. The mamier in 
which this is done and the amount of representa- 
tion accorded to liberals and to non-Kuomintang 
members will be significant. It is also to be hoped 
that during this interim period the door will re- 
main open for Communists or other groups to 
participate if they see fit to assume tlieir share 
of responsibility for the future of China. 

It has been stated officially and categorically 
that the period of political tutelage imder the 
Kuomintang is at an end. If the termination of 
one-jDarty rule is to be a reality, the Kuomintang 
should cease to receive financial support from the 
Government. 

I have spoken very frankly because in no other 
way can I hope to bring the people of the United 
States to even a partial understanding of this 
complex problem. I have expressed all these views 
privately in the course of negotiations; they are 
well known, I think, to most of the individuals 
concerned. I express them now publicly, as it is 
my duty, to present my estimate of the situation 
and its possibilities to the American people who 
have a deep interest in the development of condi- 
tions in the Far East promising an enduring peace 
in tlie Pacific. 



January 19, 1947 



85 



Resignation of James F. Byrnes as Secretary of State 



EXCHANGE OF LETTERS BETWEEN THE PRESIDENT AND MR. BYRNES 



[Released to the press by the White House January 7] 

April 16, 1946. 
Dear Mr. President : 

As you know on April 1, 1945, I retired as Di- 
rector of the Office of War Mobilization. I 
thought I had earned the right to take a rest and 
do some of the things I had long wanted to do but 
could not do because of my public service. 

Shortly thereafter President Roosevelt died 
and the responsibilities of the Presidency were 
suddenly thrust upon you. Because of our inti- 
mate friendship I offered my services to you. You 
told me you were going to appoint me Secretary 
of State and did so last Jidy 3rd. 

With the cessation of hostilities the problems 
of the peace necessarily became more important. 
Since that time they have steadily increased in 
number and in importance. I have found it nec- 
essary to work long hours six and at times seven 
days a week. 

Last week I had a medical examination. I was 
advised that 1 must "slow down". I know myself. 
I cannot slow down as long as I hold public office, 
particularly the office of Secretary of State. 

The only way I can comply with the advice of 
the Doctor is to resign. Therefore, I am tender- 
ing my resignation to take effect July first. 

I select that date because there is a meeting of 
the Council of Foreign Ministers in Paris next 
week to be followed by a Peace Conference and it 
is impossible to tell how long those Conferences 
will continue. I think it my duty to attend those 
meetings. Again, by fixing July first, you will 
have time in which to select my successor. 

Some weeks ago several newspapei-s published 
a story that I had resigned and you had selected 
my successor. You. stated it was untrue. It cer- 
tainly was untrue because we had never discussed 
the subject. I presume these newspapers now will 
state that their story was true, but I cannot be 
deterred from doing what I believe to be right 
simply because it may give the appearance of 
truth to that which is false. 

In resigning, I wish to say that since I became 



Secretary of State you have given me your whole- 
hearted sujDport. Wlien I think of the controver- 
sial character of the problems that have confronted 
us, it is rather remarkable that we have never 
failed to agree as to foreign policies. 

Recently I have been made happy by tlie in- 
creasing evidence that the people recognize and 
appreciate the skill and courage with whicli you 
are perfonning your duties. I know what a ter- 
rible task it is and I know too how much you de- 
serve that appreciation. 

I want to assure you that as a private citizen 
I shall give to you my hearty support, — not only 
because of my sincere affection for you personally, 
but because of my honest belief that your splendid 
administration of the office of President deserves 
that support. 

Sincerely yours, 

James F. Byrnes 

December 19, 1946. 
Dear Mr. President : 

On Api'il 16 I submitted to you my resignation J 
to take effect July first. I hoped by that date the 
Peace Conference would have concluded its delib- 
erations and the work upon the five treaties with 
the satellite states would be completed. 

When it became obvious that I was too opti- 
mistic as to the completion of the work upon the 
treaties, I told you I would continue until they 
were finally agreed upon. 

Now that we have reached complete agreement 
and the treaties are scheduled to be signed Febru- 
ary 10, 1 should like to be i-elieved. 

I think it important that the change should 
be made at this time. We have scheduled for 
Alarch 10 the meeting at Moscow when work will 
be started upon the German treaty and the Aus- 
trian peace settlement. That work will continue 
for manj' months and the Secretai'3' who under- 
takes the task should be in office sufficiently far 
in advance of the conference to familiarize him- 
self with the problems. 



86 



Department of State Bulletin 



Therefore, I ask that my resignation become 
effective January 10 or as soon thereafter as my 
successor is appointed and qualified. I fix that 
date because the Senate will then be in session 
and the nomination of my successor can be sent 
to the Senate simultaneously with the announce- 
ment of my resignation. 

I repeat what I said in my letter last April, 
that no man serving as Secretary of State could 
ask or receive greater support and encouragement 
than you have given me. 
Sincerely yours, 

James F. Byrnes 

[Released to the press by the White House January 7] 

January 7, Wlill. 
Mt dear Jim : 

I have weighed carefully the considerations set 
forth in your letter of December 19, 1946, and in 
your letter of April 16, 1946, each emphasizing 
your desire to retire from the office of Secretary of 
State. Because I know how vital these considera- 
tions are, I must accede to your desire. 



I accept therefore, with great reluctance and 
heartfelt regret, your resignation effective at the 
close of business on January 10, 1947, or upon the 
qualification of your successor.^ 

I realize full well how arduous and complex 
have been the problems which have fallen to you 
since you took office in July, 1945. Big events were 
then impending and the months that have ensued 
have presented problems of the utmost moment, 
with all of which you have dealt with rare tact and 
judgment and— when necessary — firmness and 
tenacity of purpose. 

Yours has been a steadying hand as you have 
met the difficult problems which have arisen with 
such unvarying succession. 

For all that j^ou did during the war, and in the 
making of the peace, you have earned the thanks 
of the Nation. So I say: well done, in the hope 
that we can continue to call upon you for the 
counsel which you can give out of so rich and 
varied an experience. 

With every good wish, 
Very sincerely yours, 

Harry S. Truman 



"We Must Demonstrate Our Capacity in Peace" 

BY SECRETARY OF STATE BYRNES' 



Twice in our generation the communities of 
America have learned that they are veiy much a 
part of the world when the world is at war. If 
we are to prevent war and build enduring peace, 
evei7 community in America must realize that it 
is very much a part of the world when the world 
is at peace. 

Our first task is to liquidate the war. We cannot 
think constructively about the building of lasting 
peace and about rising standards of life until we 
give the peoples of this world a chance to live 
again under conditions of peace. We cannot deal 
with the problems of a convalescing world until 
we get the patient off the operating table. 

That is why President Truman and I at Pots- 
dam two months after VE-day proposed to set 
up the Council of Foreign Ministers to start work 
upon the peace treaties as quickly as possible wher- 
ever possible. 

That is why we have persistently urged since 
last winter that deputies should be appointed to 



begin work upon the German and Austrian 
treaties. 

After every great war the victorious Allies have 
found it difficult to adjust their differences in the 
making of peace. At the very outset grave dif- 
ferences between the Allies did arise in the work 
of the Council of Foreign Ministers. But we re- 
fused to abandon the principles for which our 
country stands. And we served notice that we 
would not retreat to a policy of isolation. 

We made it clear that as anxious as we were 
to reduce the burden of occupation, America would 
not evade her responsibility. And we also made it 



* Mr. Byrnes will continue to serve as Secretary of State 
until the administration of the oath of office to General 
Marshall. 

'An address delivered before the Twenty-first Annual 
Institute of the Cleveland Council on World Affairs in 
Cleveland, Ohio, on Jan. 11, 1947, and released to the press 
on the same date. 



January 79, 1947 



87 



clear that as long as our Allies maintained troops 
in Germany and Austria, the United States would 
maintain its troops in those countries. 

We were determined to do our part to bring 
peace to a war- weary world and we have not sought 
any excuse, however plausible, for shirking our 
responsibilities. 

The treaties with Italy and the ex-satellite 
states, as they emerged from months of protracted 
negotiation and debate, are not perfect. But they 
are as good as we can hope to get by general agree- 
ment now or within a reasonable length of time. 

The treaties mark a milestone on the return to 
conditions of peace. The fact that the Allies have 
been able to agree upon these five treaties does give 
hope that they will soon be able to agree upon a 
treaty with Austria. That will make possible the 
removal of occupation troops from all European 
countries except Germany, and will give to mil- 
lions of people relief from the burdens of occupy- 
ing armies. 

Agreement upon these treaties gives assurance 
too that the discussions of the German settlement 
will start imder much more favorable conditions 
than seemed possible until last month. 

During the year or more that these treaties were 
under discussion it was inevitable that the differ- 
ences between the Allies should be emphasized, and 
at times exaggerated. On the other hand, during 
the war some of these differences were minimized 
and overlooked. But peace cannot be made by 
ignoring very real and basic differences and by 
pretending they do not exist. 

By recognizing and bringing out into the open 
our differences and honestly seeking means of rec- 
onciling them, we have advanced and not retarded 
the cause of peace. 

The discussions and debates in the Council of 
Foreign Ministers and in the Security Council dur- 
ing the past year caused a better understanding 
of our problems and contributed much to the sub- 
stantial progress made at the recent Assembly of 
the United Nations. 

But we would never have made the progi'ess that 
we did during the last year if the American peo- 
ple had not been united on a foreign policy. 

For the past year our foreign policy has not 
been the policy of a political party; it has been the 
policy of the United States. 

And I am sure my Democratic friend Senator 
Connally would join me in saying that our bi- 



partisan foreign policy was made possible only by 
the whole-hearted and intelligent cooperation of 
my Republican friend Senator Arthur Van- 
denberg. 

I would issue a word of caution against excessive 
optimism and excessive pessimism. 

We must not let ourselves believe that peace 
can be made secure by any one treaty or series 
of treaties, or by any one resolution or series of 
resolutions. And we must not let ourselves believe 
that the struggle for peace is hopeless because 
we cannot at once find ways and means of recon- 
ciling all our differences. 

Nations, like individuals, differ as to what is 
right and just, and clashing appeals to reason 
may in the long run do more to avert a clash of 
arms than a lot of pious resolutions which conceal 
honest and serious disagreements. 

Never before have the differences between 
nations been brought out into the open and so 
frankly discussed in public as they have during 
the past year in the Council of Foreign Ministers, 
the Security Council, and the General Assembly. 

Of course it is true that public discussion em- 
phasizes differences. But without such public 
discussion the people of the world who want peace 
would not know and understand the differences 
which arise between nations and which threaten 
the peace. 

Wars may start not because the people want 
war, but because they want things that other 
people possess and will not give up without a 
fight. Full and frank discussion of such situa- 
tions may avert armed conflict. 

The struggle for peace is the struggle for law 
and justice. It is a never-ending struggle. Law 
and justice can be developed and applied only 
through living institutions capable of life and 
growth. And these institutions must be backed 
by sufficient force to protect nations which abide 
by the law against nations which violate the law. 

If we are going to build a regime of law among 
nations, we must struggle to create a world in 
which no nation can arbitrarily impose its will 
upon any other nation. Neither the United States 
nor any other state should have the power to 
dominate the world. 

The present power relationships of the great 
states preclude the domination of the world by 
any one of them. Those power relationships can- 
not be substantially altered by the unilateral 



88 



Department of State Bulletin 



action of any one state without profoundly dis- 
turbing the whole structure of the United Nations. 

Tlierefore, if we are going to do our part to 
maintain peace under law, we must maintain, in 
relation to other states, the military strength 
necessary to dischai'ge our obligations. 

Force does not make right, but we must realize 
that in this imperfect world, power as well as 
reason does aifect international decisions. 

The great states are given special responsibility 
under the Charter because they have the military 
strength to maintain peace if they have the will 
to maintain peace. Their strength in relation to 
one another is such that no one of them can safely 
break the peace if the others stand united in 
defense of the Charter. 

We have joined with our Allies in the United 
Nations to put an end to war. We have covenanted 
not to use force except in defense of law. We 
shall keep that covenant. 

As a great power and as a permanent member 
of the Security Council, we have a responsibility, 
veto or no veto, to see that other states do not use 
force except in defense of law. We must discharge 
that responsibility. 

And we must realize that unless the great 
powers are not only prepared to observe the law 
but are prepared to act in defense of the law, the 
United Nations organization cannot prevent war. 

In a world in which people do diifer as to what 
is right and wrong, we must strive to work out 
definite standards of conduct which all can accept. 
We must develop and build through the years a 
common law of nations. 

History informs us that individuals abandoned 
private wars and gave up their arms only as they 
were protected by the common law of their tribe 
and their nation. So I believe that in the long run 
international peace depends upon our ability to 
develop a common law of nations which all nations 
can accept and which no nation can violate with 
impunity. 

In the past international law has concerned it- 
self too much with the rules of war and too little 
with the rules of peace. I am more interested in 
ways and means to prevent war than in ways and 
means to conduct war. 

Unless we are able to develop a common law of 
nations which provides definite and agreed stand- 
ards of conduct such as those wliich govern deci- 
sions within the competence of the International 
Court of Justice and such as those which we hope 

January 19, 1947 

727713—47 2 



may be agreed upon for the control of atomic 
energy, international problems between sovereign 
states must be worked out by agreement between 
sovereign states. 

The United States has taken the lead in pro- 
posing the control and the elimination from 
national armaments of atomic weapons and other 
weapons of mass destruction under agreed rules 
of law. 

These rules of law must carry clear and adequate 
safeguards to protect complying states from the 
hazards of violations and evasions. They must be 
sufficiently definite and explicit to prevent a state 
that violates the law from obstructing the prompt 
and effective enforcement of the law. 

If a nation by solemn treaty agrees to a plan for 
the control of atomic weapons and agrees that a 
violation of that treaty shall be punished, it is 
difficult for me to miderstand why that nation 
cannot agree to waive the right to exercise the 
veto power should it be charged with violating its 
treaty obligation. 

In 1921 while a member of the House I advo- 
cated that the President call a conference for 
the limitation of naval armaments. 

Later the President did call such a conference. 
What happened thereafter influences my thinking 
today. While America scrapped battleships, 
Japan scrapped blueprints. America will not 
again make that mistake. 

We have urged a general limitation of arma- 
ments, but we are not going to disarm while others 
remain ai^med. And we should make certain that 
all governments live up to their agreements to 
disarm. 

We have urged priority for the control of 
atomic weapons because they are the most destruc- 
tive of all weapons, because we have been at work 
on the proposal for more than six months, and 
because it presents concretely the issue of inter- 
national inspection and control. We are con- 
vinced that if there can be agreement on that 
subject, there can be agreement on the control of 
other major weapons and a general reduction of 
armaments. 

But international law in a friendly, peaceful 
world must rest upon something more than mere 
rules, something more than force, and something 
more than fear. It must be made to rest upon the 
growth of a common fellowship, common inter- 
ests, and common ideas among the peoples of this 
earth. 



89 



It was our fostering of a common fellowship that 
gave vitality to the good-neighbor policy in the 
Americas. It was a common fellowship which 
made the Act of Chapultepec possible. 

We are eager to proceed with a negotiation of a 
mutual-assistance treaty in accordance with the 
Act of Chapultepec at the projected Rio de 
Janeiro conference. But we do not wish to pro- 
ceed without Argentina and neither our Ambassa- 
dor nor any official of the State Department is of 
the opinion that Argentina has yet complied with 
the commitments which she as well as the other 
American republics at Chapultepec agreed to 
carry out. 

It is our earnest hope that before long there 
will be such reasonable and substantial compli- 
ance by Argentina with its obligations, that the 
American republics after consultation will con- 
vene the Rio conference. 

A common fellowship does not mean that na- 
tions must in all respects think alike or live alike. 
Inevitably we will differ. But nations like indi- 
viduals must respect and tolerate one another's 
differences. 

Peace in this interdependent world must be 
soinething more than a truce between nations. 
To have peace, nations must learn to live and 
work together for their common good. We live 
in one world. The health of the body politic like 
the health of the human body depends upon the 
health of all its members. 

We cannot whole-heartedly abandon the policy 
of political isolation unless we abandon the policy 
of economic isolation. We are not likely to be 
successful in our efforts to cooperate to prevent 
war, unless we are willing to cooperate to maintain 
freedom and well-being in a world at peace. 

We must learn to cooperate so that the people 
of each country may exchange the products of 
their country easily and fairly with the people of 
other countries. 

Although our general long-run purpose is to 
help raise the living standard, the immediate 
problem during the last two yeai-s in some areas 
has been to maintain life itself. 

Economic distress, starvation, and disease breed 
political unrest, tyranny, and aggression. If we 
are sincere in our efforts to maintain peace, we 
must do our part to assist in the elimination of 
conditions which breed aggression and war. 

If we want people to value freedom and respect 

90 



law we must at least give them a fair chance to 
feed, clothe, and shelter themselves and their 
families. 

The war has devastated many countries and 
disrupted their economies. UNRRA has helped 
these countries through their most critical period. 
Its authority is terminated but some countries 
through no fault of their own will require further 
relief to get upon their feet. And this we must 
not deny them. 

Outright relief by us is necessary in some coun- 
tries. But the countries in need and the extent 
of the need can be determined by the United States 
just as well as it could be determined by a com- 
mittee composed of representatives of other 
governments. 

A permanent place on the relief rolls is not 
the desire of those self-respecting nations which 
have fought for their freedom. But much of 
their productive capacity has been destroyed, and 
they have no working capital in the form of 
foreign exchange to start the flow of needed raw 
materials. 

They do need loans to secure the raw materials, 
capital, equipment, and tools necessary to rebuild 
and resume their ability to produce. The work 
of the International Bank, the International 
Monetary Fund, and our own Export and Import 
Bank must continue to have our whole-hearted 
support. 

Despite the ravages and destruction of the war, 
the advances of science make it possible for us 
and other nations to preserve and increase our 
living standards if we work together with other 
nations to produce what we and other nations 
want and need. 

We must learn that prosperity like freedom 
must be shared, not on the basis of hand-outs but 
on the basis of fair and honest exchange of the 
products of the labor of free men and free women. 

We believe that there should be no unnecessary 
barriei-s to the free exchange of ideas and informa- 
tion among nations. But it is imrealistic to expect 
to have trade in ideas if we are unwilling to have 
trade in goods. 

We must do our part to break down the artifi- 
cial barriers to trade and commerce among 
nations. We must pursue vigorously our recipro- 
cal trade policies which are designed to expand 
American trade and world trade because the world 

{Continued on page 104) 

Deparfment of Sfafe Bulletin 



ACCOMPLISHIVIENTS OF THE COMMISSION ON NARCOTIC DRUGS 



hy George A. Morloch 



Forward strides were taken to solve the narcotics 
prohlem when the Commission on Narcotic Drugs of 
the United Nations, meeting last fall, recommended 
world-wide prohibition of the use of smoking opium, 
the establishment of effective narcotics controls for all 
Germany, and the incorporation in the peace treaties 
with Japan of narcotics-control measures to he super- 
vised hy United Nations inspectors. 



The Commission on Narcotic Drugs of the 
United Nations held its first session at Lake 
Success, New York, from November 27 to Decem- 
ber 13, 1946. It made decisions on a number of 
organizational matters and other general mat- 
ters relating to the limitation of the production 
of raw narcotic materials, the abolition of opium- 
smoking, the illicit traffic, drug addiction, the re- 
establishment at the pre-war level of the inter- 
national control of narcotic drugs, and the control 
of narcotics in Japan and Korea. 

The following representatives and assistants 
were present: 

Canada: Col. C. H. L. Shannan. 

China: P. C. Chang; Szeming Sze; T. H. Liu. 

Eyypt: Molmiued Aniin Zaki ; Amin Ismail. 

France: Gaston Bourgois. 

India: H. Greenfield; N. Sundaresan ; H. N. Tandon. 

Iran: Nazrollah Entezam ; A. G. Panahy. 

Mexico: Jos6 Quevedo Bazan. 

Netherlands: J. H. Delgorge; A. Kruysse. 

Peru: Jorge A. Lazarte. 

Poland: Stanislaw Tubiasz. 

Turkey: Fikret Belbez. 

United Kingdom: Maj. W. H. Coles. 



United States: H. J. Anslinger; George A. Morlock; John 

W. Bulkley ; Julia H. Renfrew. 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics: Vassily Zuev. 
Yugoslavia: Stane Krasovec. 

Col. C. H. L. Sharman (Canada) was elected 
chairman, Stanislaw Tubiasz (Poland) , vice chair- 
man, and Szeming Sze (China), as rapporteur. 

In accordance with the resolution of the Eco- 
nomic and Social Council of February 16, 1946, 
the Commission decided to invite the Permanent 
Central Opium Board and the Drug Supervisory 
Body to send representatives to the meetings of 
the Commission. Herbert L. May, president of 
the Permanent Central Opium Board and a mem- 
ber of the Drug Supervisory Body, attended the 
meetings in a consultative capacity. 

Agenda * 

Among the topics included in the agenda were : 
Invitation to be Sent to the Permanent Central 
Opium Board and to the Supervisory Body Ask- 
ing Them to be Represented at the Session ; Gen- 

' D.N. document E/C.S.7/2 Rev.2 



January 79, 1947 



91 



eral Discussion on the Commission's Terms of 
Reference; Transfer to the United Nations of 
the Activities, Powers and Functions Previously 
Exercised by the League of Nations; Limitation 
of the Production of Raw Materials (Opium and 
Coca Leaf') ; Abolition of Opium-Smoking in the 
Far East ; Illicit Traffic ; Drug Addiction ; Pi'o- 
cedure to be Followed in Making Future Appoint- 
ments to the Permanent Central Board ; The Re- 
establishment at its Pre-war Level of the Inter- 
national Control of Narcotic Drugs. 

Henry Laugier, Assistant Secretary General in 
Charge of the Department of Social Affairs, 
United Nations, opened the session emphasizing 
the principle of universality of international con- 
trol of narcotic drugs. He stated that the United 
Nations would insure the permanence and conti- 
nuity of the control work and that the Secretariat 
would give all possible assistance to the Commis- 
sion on Narcotic Drugs, whose duty it was to safe- 
guard the results already achieved. 

Protocol 

On December 11, IQ-iQ the representatives on 
the Commission attended a ceremony at which the 
representatives of 36 countries signed a protocol 
which had been approved by the Economic and 
Social Council on October 3, 1946 and by the Gen- 
eral Assembly on November 19, 1946, providing 
for the transfer to the United Nations of the 
powers and functions exercised by the League of 
Nations under the international drug conventions. 
A resolution - taking note of the protocol was 
formallj' adopted : 

The Commission on Naecotic Drugs 

Noting the measures adopted by the General Assembly, 
the Economic and Social Council and the Secretary Gen- 
eral with a view to insuring the transfer to the United 
Nations of the powers and functions formerly exercised 
by the League of Nations under the Agreements, Con- 
ventions and Protocols on narcotic drugs; 

Desires to record its thanks to the General Assembly 
and the Economic and Social Council for having taken 
these measures and to the Secretary General for having 
rapidly and effectively taken all steps required to in- 
sure the continuity of the international control of nar- 
cotics ; 

Welcomes the large number of Members of the United 
Nations who have signed the Protocol of the 11th December 
1946; 

Expresses the hope that the Members of the United 



• U.N. document E/C.S.7/55, p. 4. 
' U.N. document E/C.S.7/55, p. 7. 



92 



Nations who have signed the Protocol, subject to approval, 
or approval followed by acceptance, will approve, or ap- 
prove and accept it as soon as possible, and that the Mem- 
bers of the United Nations who have not already taken 
steps to become Parties to the said Protocol will do so at 
an early date; and 

Dkaws the attention of the Economic and Social Coun- 
cil to the fact that a certain number of Parties to the In- 
ternational Agreements, Conventions and Protocols on nar- 
cotic drugs are not Members of the United Nations, and 
requests it to consider the measures nece.ssary to insure 
at an early date their participation in the Protocol of 
the 11th December 1946. 

Budget 

The Coimnission considered the desirability of 
insuring to the Commission and to the Secretary 
General adequate funds to carry out its obligations 
and adopted a resolution ^ embodying its convic- 
tions : 

The Commission on Naecotic Drugs 

CoNSiDERiNo that the Economic and Social Council, the 
Commission on Narcotic Drugs and the Secretary 
General have to fulfil formal and numerous obligations 
arising out of the international Agreements, Conventions 
and Protocols on Narcotic Drugs and out of the decisions 
of the General Assembly and the Economic and Social 
Council ; 

CoNsiDEKiNG that the international control of narcotic 
drugs has been partially interrupted by the war and that 
its full re-establishment is a matter of urgency ; 

CoNSiuEKiNG that the preparatory work for the limita- 
tion of the production of raw materials (opium, coca leaf) 
must be resumed as soon as possible ; 

EsPEESSES its conviction that the Economic and Social 
Council and the General Assembly will supply the Commis- 
sion and the Secretary General with all the means re- 
quired with a view to enabling the United Nations to 
carry out their obligations in the field of narcotic drugs. 

Election of Members of Permanent Central Opium 
Board 

Acting on a resolution of the Economic and So- 
cial Council of October 3, 1946, the Commission 
decided to recommend that the Economic and 
Social Council should follow the procedure suc- 
cessfully followed by the Council of the League of 
Nations in making appointments to the Permanent 
Central Opium Board. The Commission ex- 
pressed the view that the present vacancy on the 
Board should be filled as soon as possible, and 
authorized the chairman, the vice chairman, and 
the rapporteur to forward to the Economic and 
Social Council on its behalf one or more nomina- 1 
tions of persons qualified to fill that vacancy. ^ 

Departmenf of State Bulletin 



Narcotic Raw Materials 

After reviewing the world situation regarding 
the production of narcotic raw materials and the 
work already accomplished in this field by the 
Opium Advisory Committee of the League of Na- 
tions, the Commission unanimously adopted the 
following resolution : * 

The Commission on Narcotic Drugs 

Recognizing the importance of bringing as speedy a so- 
lution as possible to the problem of limitation of produc- 
tion of raw materials from which narcotic drugs are 
manufactured ; 

Noting tlie preparatory work previously accomplished 
in this field ; 

ExPEESsiNO its appreciation of the efforts of both the 
Executive and Legislative branches of the United States 
Government during the war to ensure the continuity of 
this worii with tlie object of arriving at a solution of this 
prolilem ; and 

Realizing on the other hand that changed circumstances 
render it necessary to collect further information in order 
to continue the preparatory work preliminary to an in- 
ternational conference on the limitation of such raw 
materials ; 

Decides, 

Subject to the approval of the Economic and Social 
Council to issue to Governments concerned a question- 
naire calling for such information, this questionnaire now 
to be prepared by the Secretariat in the light of the views 
expressed during the present session of the Commission 
and after the approval by the Chairman, Vice Chairman 
and Rapporteur 

To Instruct the Secretariat to draw up a questionnaire 
on coca leaves for consideration by the Commission at its 
next session. 

Smoking Opium 

The representative of India informed the Com- 
mission that the Government of India had an- 
nounced on November 20, 1946 that opium-smok- 
ing would be prohibited in British India for all 
persons except those addicts in possession of med- 
ical certificates and that the Indian States were 
being approached with a view to their adopting 
similar measures. The representative of the 
United Kingdom reported that the Government 
of Burma had decided to enact legislation making 
illegal the smoking of opium and the possession 
of implements for this purpose, and that the Gov- 
ernment of Burma has also decided to abolish the 
system of licensing shops in Burma and are mak- 
ing administrative arrangements for the control 
of the issue of opium for medicinal, quasi-medic- 
inal, and scientific uses, and for religious and 
ceremonial purposes. 

Following these disclosures, the United States 
representative read a prepared statement. 



From the time the Government of the United 
States took the initiative in bringing about the 
first international conference on the subject of 
narcotic drugs, which was held in Shanghai in 
1909, and proposed the convening of the interna- 
tional conference which resulted in the opium con- 
vention signed at The Hague on January 23, 1912, 
it has been the consistent policy of our Govern- 
ment to cooperate with other nations in the con- 
trol of the legal trade in these dangerous drugs 
and in international efforts to suppress their abuse. 
At those and subsequent conferences representa- 
tives of the Government of the United States 
have clearly stated that the policy of the United 
States Government is to limit the production and 
manufacture of narcotic drugs strictly to medic- 
inal and scientific requirements and to consider 
use for any other purpose as abuse. This policy 
is incorporated in the laws of the United States, 
which prohibit the use of prepared opium. The 
same policy has been pursued wherever the juris- 
diction of the United States Government has ex- 
tended. For example, shortly after our assump- 
tion of control over the Philippine Islands, Con- 
gress enacted legislation prohibiting the importa- 
tion of opium in the Philippines except for medic- 
inal purposes. 

The Government of the United States has on 
every appropriate occasion endeavored very 
earnestly to induce other governments to accept 
the doctrine that the use of opium should be re- 
stricted to medicinal and scientific purposes. A 
number of governments have signified their ac- 
ceptance of this principle, but unfortunately some 
countries have not found it possible, owing to spec- 
ial circumstances, to eliminate completely the use 
of opium for smoking and eating. 

For the purpose of assisting in formulating a 
policy which tlie United States Govermnent and 
other interested governments might adopt as re- 
gards the suppression of the smoking of prepared 
opium in areas then held by Japanese forces in the 
Far East after the successful termination of the 
war with Japan, meetings for informal discussion 
of this subject were held in Washington in the 
winter of 19-12-43. 

As it appeared from those discussions that it 
might be possible for the interested governments 
to agree on a common policy of action to suppress 
the use of smoking opium in the Far East, the Gov- 

* U.N. document E/C.S.7/55, p. 11. 



January 19, 7947 



93 



ernment of the United States decided to bring the 
subject formally to the attention of those govern- 
ments. On September 21, 1943 aide-memoire ° 
were delivered in Washington to the Chinese and 
Netherlands Ambassadors, the Minister of Portu- 
gal and the British Charge d'AflFaires, while copies 
of the aide-memoire to the British Charge 
d'Affaires were sent to the Minister of Australia 
and to the Charge d'Affaires ad interim of Canada 
and of New Zealand. 

In this aide-memoire the United States Govern- 
ment stated that the policy to be pursued by all 
American expeditionary forces under American 
command upon occupation of a part or the whole 
of any one of the territories occupied by Japanese 
forces would be to seize all drugs intended for 
other than medical and scientific jDurposes, which 
might be discovered, and to close existing opium 
monopolies, opium shops, and dens. The Govern- 
ment of the United States proposed to the inter- 
ested governments that consideration be given to 
the question of adopting a similar common policy 
to govern the action of expeditionary forces under 
allied command. The United States Government 
further proposed that the interested governments 
immediately upon the resumption of control over 
a part or the whole of any one of their territories 
then occupied by the Japanese take all measures 
and enact all legislation necessary for the prohibi- 
tion of the importation, manufacture, sale, posses- 
sion or use of prepared opium and other dangerous 
drugs except for medical and scientific purposes. 

The British, Chinese, French, and Netherlands 
Governments subsequently announced their inten- 
tion to suppress the use of smoking opium in their 
Far Eastern territories then occupied by Japanese 
forces, as soon as those territories should be re- 
covered. In 194.5 and 1946 orders were issued 
closing the opium monopolies and suppressing the 
use of smoking opium in Hong Kong, Borneo, 
Singapore, and the Union of Malaya. The Colo- 
nial Government of Macao issued a proclamation 
closing all opium-smoking establishments and all 
traffic in opium effective June 26, 1946. The Fed- 
eral Government of Indochina on June 12, 1946 
issued an ordinance prohibiting the use of opium 
and closing all opium shops and opiimi-smoking 
dens. 



' Bulletin of Dec. 29, 1946, p. 116.5. 

" U.N. document E/C.S.7/55, p. 1.5. [This resolution was 
approved by the Commission unanimously.] 



In harmony with these measures, the Govern- 
ment of Iran on June 21, 1946 published an order 
prohibiting the non-medical use of opium. 

In view of these important developments, my 
Government has authorized me to introduce the 
following resolution : ® 

The Commib.sion on Narcotic Dbugs 

To Fulfil the stipulation embodied in Article 6 of the 
international drug convention signed at The Hague on 
23 January 1912 concerning the suppression of the manu- 
facture, internal traffic in and use of prepared opium ; 

Considering that the Governments of the United King- 
dom, France, the Netherlands and Portugal had decided 
to adopt the policy of complete prohibition of opium 
smoking in all their territories in the Far East and had 
taken measures to give effect to this policy ; 

Recommends that the Economic and Social Council urge 
all countries which still legalize the use of opium for smok- 
ing to take immediate steps to prohibit the manufacture, 
internal traffic in and use of such opium. 

Illicit Traffic 

A detailed study was made of the illicit traffic 
in narcotic drugs. A review of the world situation 
for the period 1940^5, prepared at the request 
of the Secretariat by John W. Bulkley of the 
United States Treasury Department, disclosed that 
India, Iran, Turkey, and Mexico were centers of 
illicit traffic in opium ; Mexico, in prepared opium, 
morphine, heroin, and marihuana; and Syria, in 
hashish. 
Drug Addiction 

The Commission examined many aspects of the 
problem of drug addiction. The United States 
representative reported a large decrease in addic- 
tion in the United States, owing to the interna- 
tional control system which has been developed 
since 1925. He stated that the records of the 
United States Army disclose that there was one 
addict in 1,500 men examined during World War I 
and only one in 10,000 men examined during the 
World War II. The Mexican representative re- 
ported that Mexican physicians were of the opin- 
ion that the use of marihuana produced no ill 
effects. The United States representative cited a 
number of cases and quoted from several acknowl- 
edged authorities to support his contention that i 
there was a definite relation between the use of | 
marihuana and crime. The representative of 
India stated that the effect of cannahis sativa in 
his country depended generally on the nature and 
psychological predisposition of the individual and j 
that on the whole the Indians were moderate in 



94 



Department of State Bulletin 



their use of ganja and bhang. The representative 
of the United States drew attention to the habit- 
forming properties of the synthetic drug, demerol, 
and the need for its control. He also made ref- 
erence to a new synthetic drug called "amidone", 
which is being withheld from the market pending 
a study of its addictive potentialities. The chair- 
man (representative of Canada) stated that, pend- 
ing international action, every country should be 
urged to take action immediately for the control 
of new narcotic drugs. 
Reestablishment of Controls 

In order to reestablish the international control 
of narcotic drugs at the pre-war level, the Com- 
mission decided to request Governments, which 
have not already done so since the termination 
of the war, to furnish information on the function- 
ing of their national narcotics administrations and 
to resume their collaboration with the international 
control organs. The Commission also decided that 
the final date for sending in annual reports should 
be June 30. 

Tlie representative of the United States made 
the following statement regarding the narcotics 
situation in the United States zone of occupation 
in Germany: 

Xarcotic control in the United States zone in 
Germany was initiated in December 1945. It is ex- 
ercised through Opium Offices established in each 
of the three Lander in the zone. They function 
under the Minister President and are located in 
the Interior Ministry, Public Health Department. 
So far as possible all of the reports required 
by the former Opium Offices have been reestab- 
lished, and copies are furnished to the United 
States Militai-y Government. The German law 
of 1929 governing the control of narcotic drugs 
was reestablished with certain changes by Military 
Government regulations. The manufacture and 
sale of heroin have been abolished, the importa- 
tion of narcotics into the zone from outside Ger- 
many lias been prohibited, and shipments from 
the zone for exportation from Germany without 
the approval of the Chief of the Public Health 
Branch are prohibited. Inventories required of 
persons authorized to handle narcotics are being 
received according to the provisions of the law. 
Administration of the Opium Offices is entirely in 
the hands of the German officials, but their activi- 
ties are supervised by the chief narcotic-control 

January 79, 1947 



office of Military Government. All interzonal 
transactions are examined by Military Govern- 
ment, and none are made without approval of that 
Office. While each of the Opium Offices is a sep- 
arate unit, uniformity is achieved by monthly 
meetmgs of the chiefs at which the narcotic control 
officer is present. 

Statistics on addiction are being collected, and 
information on this subject will be kept in the 
files of the three Opium Offices. There are indica- 
tions that large quantities of narcotics scattered 
by bombings and left behind by the retreating 
German armies are in the hands of unauthorized 
individuals at the present time and will eventually 
reach the black market. The reestablishment of 
the inspection sj'stem has revealed an increase in 
the number of addicts, particularly among pro- 
fessional people. There is a desire on the part of 
the authorities to provide institutional treatment 
for addicts, but there is a shortage of facilities for 
such treatments. 

In the United States zone inventories submitted 
on April 30, 1946 disclosed adequate stocks of nar- 
cotics, as follows : 

Kilograms 

Opium, raw and powdered 14, 000 

Morphine base 1, 200 

Morphine hydrochloride 200 

Morphine, raw 1, 600 

Tincture of opium 2, 000 

Codeine 1, 000 

These figures are believed to be correct within 
10 percent. Supplies of other narcotics were in 
proportion. Control of the collection of poppy 
straw was undertaken by the German Land Agri- 
cultural Office, and the allocations of the capsules 
were supervised by the Opium Offices. Surpluses, 
if any, were to be disposed of by sale to licensed 
producers in other zones. It was found that pro- 
duction facilities were not disrupted by the war 
and that the United States zone could supply all of 
Germany with synthetic narcotics. Transactions 
with the other occupation zones have been per- 
mitted in order to meet demands for narcotics for 
medicinal purposes. During the month of July, 
arrangements were made to supply the city of 
Berlin with narcotics, of which there was an acute 
shortage. Tlie first shipment was made in August 
in the amount of 55,000 Reichsmarks to the United 
States Medical Depot, Berlin District. The nar- 
cotics were purchased by the Berlin Health De- 
partment which supervised sales to dealers 

95 



throughout the city. Owing to differences in the 
interpretation of the German opium law of 1929 
and administrative difficukies arising from the 
division of Germany, the distribution of drugs 
is entirely inadequate. There are shortages in 
some areas and surpluses in others. Contributing 
factors are lack of transport and communication. 

The development of the control system has been 
slow and difficult. Each of the three Land Opium 
Offices had to be staffed by inexperienced per- 
sonnel, and an inspection service had to be rees- 
tablished. After much painstaking work on the 
part of the American authorities, an adequate sup- 
ply of narcotics in the United States zone is being 
assured and the illegal traffic and drug addiction 
are being kept at a minimum. Efforts are being 
made for close cooperation between the regulating 
officials and the local police in connection with the 
investigation of violations of the narcotic laws. 
Arrangements have been made to obtain police 
reports of all violations. 

Enforcement is improving rapidly as a result 
of activities of the Public Health and Public 
Safety branches of Military Government. In Ba- 
varia, for instance, arrests in May 1945 numbered 
2 and in June 1946 they numbered 121. 

On the whole the control system in Germany 
is unsatisfactory. In order to improve the situa- 
tion the Uiaited States Delegate submitted a pro- 
posal to the Allied Health Committee for the es- 
tablishment of a Narcotics Control Working Party, 
as follows: 

1. ... It is proposed that a Working Party 
be appointed to study the question of collecting 
certain statistics on narcotic drugs with a view to 
providing such statistics eventually to competent 
authorities designated by United Nations. Such 
statistics would be concerned with : 

(a) Facilities for the production of narcotic 
drugs in Germany. 

(b) Amounts of narcotic drugs required for 
medical use within Germany. 

(e) Quantities of narcotic drugs currently in 
the hands of legitimate dealers in Germany. 

(d) Whatever other information the Working 
Party may deem essential to the problem of nar- 
cotic control. 

2. In the belief that such statistics can best be 
collected by German civil authorities acting un- 



der authority of the German opium law of 1929 
and subsequent provisions, it is further proposed 
that this law be studied by the Working Party 
in order to make recommendations for : 

(a) Changes necessary to adapt said law to 
present circumstances. 

(b) The establishment of qualified German 
civil agencies of uniform structure throughout the 
zones of occupation to regulate trade in narcotics 
under the law. 

(c) The establishment of facilities for gather- 
ing and exchanging information for the suppres- 
sion of illicit traffic in narcotics. 

(d) The establishment of a control office for 
the collection and distribution of the required 
information. 

3. Because of existing variations among the zones 
in the enforcement of the aforesaid German opium 
law, it is believed that the present distribution of 
narcotics is inefficient and inequitable. In those 
areas where drugs are needed for legitimate pur- 
poses and are not available, great hardship is 
caused. It is therefore further proposed that the 
Working Party prepare recommendations which 
will facilitate : 

(a) The distribution of narcotic drags for med- 
ical or scientific needs within the zones. 

(b) The legitimate trade in narcotics between 
the zones. 

It is further proposed that the Working Party 
make recommendations for the reestablishment 
and, where necessary, the expansion of facilities 
for the rehabilitation and cure of addicts by Ger- 
man civil agencies, and for the collection of sta- 
tistics relative to the incidence of addiction in 
Gei-many. 

This proposal was considered at a meeting held 
on September 11, 1946 at Berlin. The Allied 
Health Committee, after discussing the proposal, 
agreed (a) that a AVorking Party be set up; (b) 
that the terms of reference of the Working Party 
will be to consider and submit to the Health Com- 
mittee proposals for the revision of the German 
opium law of 1929 with a view to adapting it 
to present circmnstances as envisaged in the 
United States proposal; and (c) that, with the 
exception of the British member whose name will 
be submitted later, the composition of the Work- 



96 



Department of State Bulletin 



inp: Party will be : United States of America, Mr. 
Giuliani ; Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, 
Mr. Karpov; and France, Mr. Vergougnon. It 
"was agreed that the first meeting would take place 
on September 23, 1946. The establishment of 
a Working Party is gi'atifying. 

The establishment of a Central Agency for 
narcotics control in Germany under quadripartite 
supervision, however, would greatly promote 
efficiency in the control of the traffic in narcotics, 
thereby reducing addiction and illicit traffic. A 
tight control system in Germany would remove 
the possibility of Germany's becoming a potential 
source of addict infection of other countries. 

The cultivation in Germany of vast areas of 
opium poppies from which morpliine can be illic- 
itly extracted, the rise and expansion of black 
markets in every type of consumer goods, the 
division of the country into zones and Berlin 
into sectors, all contribute to making impossible 
tlie fulfilment of the international drug con- 
ventions. 

It is suggested that each occupying Power, pend- 
ing the establishment of centralized controls, 

( 1 ) Secure the most uniform, effective, and cen- 
tralized controls possible within their respective 
areas of responsibility; 

(2) Designate an official to supervise those ac- 
tivities within the respective areas and to act as 
liaison officer with the Commission on Narcotic 
Drugs and with each other ; 

(3) Arrange for the direct and prompt ex- 
change of information between such officials, and 
for the prompt transmission to the Commission on 
Narcotic Drugs of pertinent information regard- 
ing illicit traffickers, seizures of contraband drugs, 
and potential violations connected with traffic 
across national boundaries or between the respec- 
tive zones of occupation ; and 

(4) Report to the Commission on Narcotic 
Drugs and to each other (a) the identity of the of- 
ficer so designated, (J) the stocks of narcotics 
found to be available for the civilian population 
and the requirements which must be met, (c) the 
quantities of each drug which will be required to 
be imported into the respective areas from outside 
the country or from other zones, and (d) the cir- 
cumstances under which such imports will be per- 
mitted and the official titles and addresses of the 
persons authorized to approve them. 



The following resolution ' proposed by the rep- 
resentative of the United States and amended by 
the representative of the Union of Soviet Socialist 
Republics was then adopted unanimously : 

The Commission on Narcotic Drugs 

Desiring 

To ESTABLISH a narcotic control organization which will 
ensure adequate supplies of narcotic drugs for the medic- 
inal and scientific requirements of Germany, 

To PREVENT illicit traffic in narcotic drugs, 

To REDUCE addiction, and 

To ENSURE the full application in German territories 
under Allied Control of all narcotics conventions and the 
execution by the Allied Control Authorities of all ohliga- 
tions thereunder towards the other Parties to these Con- 
ventions and the international control organs (the Com- 
mission on Narcotic Drugs of the United Nations, the Per- 
manent Central Opium Board and the Supervisory Body ) , 

Requests the Economic and Social Council to urge the 
Governments of France, the United Kingdom, the Union 
of Soviet Socialist Republics and the United States to rec- 
ommend to the Allied Control Authority to take the nec- 
essary measures, at the earliest possible moment, for the 
establishment of an efEective control of narcotics for all 
Germany. 

The United States representative made a report 
in regard to conditions in Japan concerning nar- 
cotic drugs, reading : 

The United States Military Government in 
Japan found that opium was produced in limited 
quantities in Japan proper, Formosa, Korea, and 
quite extensively in Manchuria. This report 
deals with Japan proper. The opium produced in 
Japan proper was collected by a government 
monopoly agency, the Tokyo Hygienic Labora- 
tory, and by it distributed to the other monopoly 
agency at Osaka and to the five privately owned 
opium factories. 

No complete figures of opium production are 
available in as much as these wei-e kept at the 
Tokyo Hygienic Laboratory and are alleged to 
have been destroyed by bombings in 1945. 

Figures available at the five factories indicate 
that, exclusive of the quantities used at the Tokyo 
and Osaka Monopoly Agencies, 193,447.514 kilo- 
grams were distributed between 1930 and 1945. 

No information is available from which con- 
clusions as to the probable quantities used at the 
Tokyo and Osaka plants can be safely drawn. 
Coca leaves were not produced in Japan proper 

' U.N. document B/C.S.7/55, p. 25. 



January 19, 7947 



97 



although large quantities were produced in 
Formosa. 

There were six factories in Japan proper manu- 
facturing narcotic drugs from opium and raw 
morphine : 

1. Tokyo Hygienic Laboratory, which produced 
codeine phosphate. 

2. Osaka Hygienic Laboratory, which produced 
medicinal opium. 

3. Hoshi Pharmaceutical Company Industries 
Limited, which produced heroin hydrochloride 
and morphine hydrochloride. 

4. The Takeda Pharmaceutical Industries 
Limited, Tokyo, which produced narcopon and 
morphine hydrochloride. 

5. Sankyo Company, Limited, Tokyo, which 
produced heroin hydrochloride and morphine 
hydrochloride. 

6. The Dai Nippon Pharmaceutical Company, 
Limited, Osaka, which produced heroin hydro- 
chloride and morphine hydrochloride. 

There were five factories producing cocaine 
from coca leaves procured from South America, 
Okinawa, and Formosa, and from crude cocaine 
procured from Formosa: 

1. Hoshi Pharmaceutical Company, Limited, 
Tokyo. 

2. Sankyo Company, Limited, Tokyo. 

3. Koto Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Com- 
pany, Shizuoka Prefecture. 

4. Takeda Pharmaceutical Industries, Limited, 
Osaka. 

5. The Shionogi Pharmaceutical Company, 
Limited, Osaka. 

The total production of heroin hydrochloride 
from 1930 through 1944 was 13,798.830 kilograms, 
or an average of 919.922 kilograms a year. 

The total production of morphine hydrochlo- 
ride from 1930 through 1945 was 14,391.533 kilo- 
gi-ams, or an average of 899.471 kilograms a year. 

The total production of cocaine hydrochloride 
from 1930 through 1945 was 16,851.057 kilograms, 
or an average through 1944 of 1123.404 kilograms 
a year. 

The Hygienic Laboratories at Tokyo and Osaka 
were government-owned and -operated. The pri- 
vately owned factories were licensed annually by 
the Central Government. Factories were required 
to submit quarterly reports of raw materials proc- 



essed and production therefrom. There was no 
limitation as to quantities of narcotic drugs they 
could sell, and no records or reports of sales were 
required. There was no governmental inspection 
or supervision of these plants. 

Jobbers and wholesalers were not licensed by 
the Central Government but obtained authoriza- 
tion annually from the Governor of each prefec- 
ture to deal in narcotic drugs. They were not 
requii'ed to submit reports as to their purchases, 
sales, or inventories. This careless system ac- 
counted for large-scale diversion. 

Any physician or pharmacist duly licensed by 
the Ministry of Health and Social Affairs to en- 
gage in his respective profession was ipso facto 
authorized to purchase, sell, or dispense narcotic 
drugs. No further annual registration was neces- 
sary. He was not required to maintain records of 
his purchases, sales, or inventories. 

No periodical inspection or supervision of manu- 
facturers, wholesalers, physicians, or pharmacists 
was carried out. There was, therefore, no organ- 
ized control over distribution. 

No effort was made by the manufacturers and 
wholesalers to safeguard their crude and finished 
narcotic-drug stocks. These drugs were stored in 
unprotected rooms with glass, paneled, or thin 
wire screen doors, with cheap locks which could be 
easily forced. Crude and processed drugs were 
scattered throughout the laboratories, and in the 
largest plant in Japan women were seen prepar- 
ing packages of morphine under open sheds in 
the yard. 

This situation has been corrected by the installa- 
tion of brick storage vaults, heavy steel doors, and 
dial combination locks. 

The officials of the Japanese Government and 
the manufacturers maintained that their produc- 
tion merely equaled their consumption and that 
the narcotic drugs they produced were only suffi- 
cient to meet their legitimate medical needs. 

No authentic figures were available as to the 
number of addicts in Japan proper; however, it 
has been disclosed that the number is probably con- 
siderably greater than the reports of Japanese offi- 
cials have led us to believe. 

A i-aid on a Geisha House during the summer 
of 1946 disclosed that 4 of the 7 inmates were ad- 
dicted. Some addicts have been found who re- 
quire 10 grains morphine daily. One addicted 



98 



Department of State Bulletin 



practitioner recently arrested had been posing as 
a narcotic official in order to gain access to narcotic 
supplies and had thus robbed 17 hospitals during 
a 3-month period. 

A directive, issued October 12, 1945, prohibited 
the growth and planting of narcotic-drug plants 
or seeds and the importation, exportation, and 
manufacture. It also froze all marihuana and 
heroin stocks and ordered that all records be pre- 
served and maintained. 

A directive, issued November 2, 1945, ordered 
the seizure of all heroin and its derivatives and 
preparations and made it unlawful for the Japa- 
nese to possess, transport, or sell it. 

A directive, issued January 22, 1946, ordered 
the establislmient of an effective narcotic control. 

The American armed forces in Japan seized 
the following amounts of crude and finished nar- 
cotic drugs as of January 19, 1946 : 

Kilograms 

Crude opium 47,838 

Medicinal opium 620 

Morpliine hydrochloride 1, 235 

Morphine sulphate 15 

Crude morphine 871 

Coca leaves 14, 500 

Crude cocaine 888 

Cocaine hydrochloride 775 

Seizure reports will be submitted. 

Eight Japanese were arrested in April 1946 and 
later convicted of an attempt to smuggle into Ja- 
pan approximately seven tons of opium which had 
been removed from army stocks in Manchuria. 

There was no central authority for the suppres- 
sion of the illicit traffic, and the maximum sentence 
under the Home Ordinances was thi-ee months. 
The situation was corrected, on June 19, 1946, by 
the enactment of narcotic legislation similar to the 
American narcotic law which provides for annual 
registration, monthly reports, sales by means of 
order forms or prescriptions, et cetera. The pen- 
alty was increased to five years. As of July 19, 
1945, 77,311 were already registered under the pro- 
visions of the new Act. Enforcement in charge of 
an American official is being carried out by ap- 
proximately 200 native inspectors. Courts are 
now meting out five-year sentences, which inaugu- 
rates a new era in narcotic enforcement in Japan. 
Stocks have been inventoried and those held by 
registrants have been leveled off to a six-month 
supply. 



The Japanese Government wilfully violated its 
treaty obligations. It has been definitely estab- 
lished from a survey of the production records of 
the drug factories and interviews with officials that 
the Japanese Government knowingly submitted to 
the Permanent Central Opium Board false and 
fraudulent reports, gi-ossly imderstating and 
thereby concealing their actual production of nar- 
cotic drugs, particularly heroin. 

Two sets of records were maintained by the Japa- 
nese Government, one false, which was furnished 
the Board, and another containing true production 
figures. One official, when questioned regarding 
these records, stated this falsification was done "to 
save the face of Japan". The official was removed 
from office by the Japanese Government at the 
direction of the Military Government. 

A comparison of true production of heroin with 
the quantities reported to the Board during the 
years 1937 and 1938 is as follows : 

Quantity Reported to Board Actoall; Produced 

Kilograms Kilograms 

1937 200 1673. 965 

1938 200 1392. 469 

On October 27, 1937, the Japanese Government, 
through Eiichi Baba, Minister of Home Affairs, 
issued Directive No. 29, marked "Most Secret" 
directing certain drug manufactui'ers to produce 
stipulated quantities of heroin hydrochloride and 
morphine hydrochloride for the Manchurian Gov- 
ernment. Quoted are articles (1) and (5) of the 
Directive. 

(1) To enforce the Monopoly of narcotic drugs in Man- 
churia, the production for the necessary amount to be sup- 
plied to the Monopoly Bureau of that said country is 
approved. 

(5) Extreme secrecy is to be maintained concerning 
these productions and storings. 

In compliance with this directive, between Octo- 
ber 1937 and August 1938, 1,199,600 kilograms of 
heroin hydrochloride and 300 kilograms of mor- 
phine hydrochloride were produced in Japan and 
shipped to the Opium Monopoly Bureau, Army 
Arsenal, Mukden, Manchuria. Tlie raw morphine 
for the production was furnished by the Formosa 
Government. Neither the production nor the ship- 
ments of the heroin hydrochloride or of the mor- 
phine hydrochloride were reported to the Perma- 
nent Central Opium Board by the Japanese Gov- 
ernment. This vividly demonstrates the need for 
inspection by an international body if treaties con- 
trolling a commodity are to be effective. 



January 79, 7947 



99 



The Permanent Central Opium Board which met 
in London during October of this year stated : 

It is evident that the American occupying authorities 
have talceu great interest in the control of narcotics and 
have talcen especial care to establish a strict centralized 
supervision. The Board desires to express its appreciation 
to the military authorities responsible at Pacific Head- 
quarters for their work . . . 

The United States representative also read a 
statement regarding the indictment of certain 
Japanese for war crimes, as follows : 

The indictment, presented to the International 
Military Tribunal for the Far East, charges 28 
high Japanese officials with certain war crimes. 
During the whole period covered by the indict- 
ment, successive Japanese Governments, through 
their military and naval commanders and civilian 
agents in China and other territories which they 
had occupied or designed to occupy, pursued a 
systematic policy of weakening the native inhabi- 
tants' will to resist by atrocities and cruelties, by 
force and threats of force, by bribery and corrup- 
tion, by intrigue among local politicians and gen- 
erals, by directly and indirectly encouraging in- 
creased production and importation of opium and 
other narcotics, and by promoting the sale and 
consumption of such drugs among such people. 
The Japanese Government secretly provided large 
sums of money, which, together with profits from 
the government-sponsored traffic in opium and 
other narcotics and other trading activities in such 
areas, were used by agents of the Japanese Govern- 
ment for all the above-mentioned purposes. At 
the same time, the Japanese Government was 
actively participating in the proceedings of the 
League of Nations Committee on Traffic in Opium 
and Other Dangerous Drugs and, despite her 
secret activities above-mentioned, professed to the 
world to be cooperating fully with other member 
nations in the enforcement of treaties governing 
traffic in opium and other narcotics to which she 
was a party. 

This participation in and sponsorship of illicit 
traffic in narcotics was effected through a number 
of Japanese governmental organizations such as 
the Manchurian Affairs Board, the China Affairs 
Board, and the Southern Eegion Affairs Board, 
which were combined in 1942 to form the Greater 
East Asia Ministry, and numerous subsidiary or- 
ganizations and trading companies in the various 

100 



occupied and so-called independent (puppet) 
countries which were operated or supervised by 
senior officers or civilian appointees of the Army 
and the Navy. 

Further, revenue from the above-mentioned 
traffic in opium and other narcotics was used to 
finance the preparation for and waging of the wars 
of aggression set forth in the indictment and to 
establish and finance the puppet governments set 
up by the Japanese Government in the various 
occujiied territories. 

The representative of the United States also 
furnished the Commission with the following in- 
formation concerning the narcotics situation in 
the United States occupied zone in Korea: 

Prior to 1921 opium was grown freely and sold 
freely in Korea. In 1921 the Korean Government 
ordered farmers to cultivate opium poppies and 
licensed opium poppy farmers. The Government 
collected and analyzed the opium and sold it on 
contract to the Taisho Drug Companj' of Seoul, 
Korea, which used it to manufacture morphine, 
medicinal opium, and other opium products. Dis- 
tribution of these products was made by the Taisho 
Drug Company. 

In 1929 the Taisho Drug Company illegally ex- 
ported morphine to Manchuria, as a result of which 
their contract was canceled and the drug com- 
pany closed. The Korean Government then under- 
took the manufacture of morphine, medicinal 
opium, and other opium products and opened a 
factory in Seoul, Korea, for this purpose. In 1938 
a factory for collecting and analyzing opium was 
opened in Northern Korea at Hamhung. In April 
1943 the factory at Hamhung was moved to Seoul 
and consolidated with the factory in Seoul, the 
combined factories being known as the Monopoly 
Bureau Medicinal Drug Factory. 

The cultivation and collection of opium showed 
a rapid increase between 1920 and the present time, 
as shown by the following figures taken from avail- 
able records : 

Kilograms 

1920 154. 35 

1930 1, 399. 9 

1935 18, 160. 4 

1941 50,734.8 

1943 39, 433. 

The amount of opium collected was augmented 
by oiDium confiscated by the authorities, which also 

Department of Stale Bulletin 



increased rapidly as indicated by the following 
figures taken from available records : 

Kilograms 

1926 139 

1935 732 

1940 1, 883 

1944 5,296 

The factory at Seoul manufactured morphine, 
heroin, and medicinal opium. A small amount 
of codeine was manufactured in 1945. Some of 
the heroin manufactured was used in Korea, but 
most of it was exported to Manchuria. All the 
medicinal opium manufactured was used in Korea, 
and all the morphine manufactured (except that 
used for heroin) was used in Korea, except 500 
kilograms which were produced for the Japanese 
Army in 1944. All other narcotic drugs used in 
Korea except dihydromorphine hydrochloride 
were imported from Japan. A very large percen- 
tage of the opium produced in Korea was ex- 
jDorted to Manchuria, Kwantung Leased Territory 
(Dairen), and Formosa. The "ammonium chlo- 
ride process" was used to extract morphine from 
opium at the Seoul factor3^ This process leaves 
about 4 percent morphine in the opium residue. 
The residue was mixed with good opium and sold 
to Formosa and Manchuria. 

The figures of the Monopoly Bureau Medicinal 
Drug Factory on morphine differ considerably 
from those submitted by the Japanese Govern- 
ment to the Permanent Central Opium Board 
from 1935 to 1939. For instance, the Japanese 
Government reported no manufacture of mor- 
phine in Korea in 1935, 1936, 1937, and 1938, and 
the manufacture of only 30 kilograms in 1939. 
The Factor}''s records, however, indicate manu- 
facture of 84 kilograms in 1935, 87 kilograms in 

1938, and 141 kilograms in 1939. 

The most significant figures obtained are those 
with regard to heroin manufacture and export. 
The Japanese Government's reports to the Perma- 
nent Central Opium Board showed no manufac- 
ture or exportation of heroin from 1935 through 

1939. The figures obtained from the Monopoly 
Bureau Medicinal Drug Factory, however, reveal 
that 1,244 kilograms of heroin were produced in 
1938, and 1.327.1 kilograms of heroin were pro- 
duced in 1939. In each of those two years, 1,200 
kilograms were shipped to the Manchukuo Monop- 
oly Bureau. No such quantities were manu- 

January 19, 1947 



factured before 1938 or after 1939 — the yeai-s 
during which the Japanese conquest of North 
China took place. The normal annual heroin re- 
quirements for China prior to 1938 were 15 kilo- 
grams, and the total world medicinal needs for 
heroin for 1938 and 1939, according to the annual 
statements of the Drug Supervisory Body, were 
less than 1,200 kilograms for each year. The out- 
put of this one heroin factory was more than the 
world medical needs for heroin, and this was only 
one of a number of factories producing drugs for 
the Japanese. 

Thus the charges made by the American rep- 
resentative before the Opium Advisory Committee 
in 1937, 1938, and 1939 in Geneva are fully sup- 
ported. Not only did the Japanese Government 
deliberately falsify its rejDorts to an international 
control agency set up under a treaty to which it 
was a party, but the Japanese Army committed 
a flagrant violation of article 10 of the 1931 nar- 
cotics limitation convention in the illegal use of 
heroin as a weapon of warfare for the purpose 
of demoralization of the Chinese population in 
conquered areas. 

The Govermnent General of Korea from 1935 
to 1945 licensed the Kyowa Drug Company of 
Seoul to manufacture dihydromorphine hydro- 
chloride (dilaudid). Ten kilograms of dihydro- 
morphine hydrochloride were produced each year 
from 1935 to about 1941, and five kilograms a year 
were produced thereafter until 1945. Reports 
indicated that approximately 18.6 kilograms of 
morphine hydrochloride were used to produce ten 
kilograms of dihydromorphine hydrochloride. 
This drug was marketed in ampules imder the 
trade names "neopedinol" and "mordyne". Ap- 
proximately five kilogi-ams of dihydromorphine 
hydrochloride were used for consumption in Korea 
and, in years when ten kilograms were produced, 
five kilograms of the product w^ere exported or sold 
to the Japanese Army and Navy. "Neopedinol" 
and "mordyne" were considered by the Japanese as 
so-called "exempt preparations". 

Dried poppy pods and poppy seed were also col- 
lected from the opium farmers. The poppy pods 
were sold without restriction to herb doctors and 
drug firms who used them to manufacture cough 
syrups and other pi-eparations. One connnon 
cough preparation made from poppy pods was 
marketed under the name of "apiozol". Poppy 



101 



seeds not needed to plant the next year's crop were 
pressed to produce poppy-seed oil, a highly fla- 
vored vegetable oil which sold at a comparatively 
high price. 

The opium grown in the United States -occu- 
pied zone in Korea (south of 38 degrees north 
latitude) was generally of a poorer grade than that 
grown in the U.S.S.R. - occupied zone in Korea 
(north of 38 degrees north latitude), averaging 
8 to 10 percent morphine content as against 10 to 
14 percent morphine content for opium grown in 
North Korea. According to records available, 
the following table shows the approximate dis- 
tribution of the opium crop between North and 
South Korea for the year of 1943: 



South 
Korea 



North 
Korea 



Total 

Opium collected, kilograms . 5, 698 . . 34, 735 . . 39, 433 
Area of cultivation, acres . . 3, 817 . . 14, 725 . . 18, 542 
Number of licensed farmers . 29, 024 . . 50, 336 . . 79, 360 

The figures for 1944 were similar to those for 
1943, and for the last several years North Korea 
has produced approximately 85 percent of the 
opium crop, and South Korea, 15 percent. 

In 1945 the number of licensed farmers showed 
an increase of about 5,000, but the allotted area for 
opium cultivation remained about the same as in 
1943 and 1944, and, therefore, under normal con- 
ditions the 1945 opiimi crop should have been 
about 40,000 kilogi-ams. However, the summer of 
1945 was reported to have been excessively wet and 
the losses to the opium crop in South Korea due 
to flood and excessive rain during the collecting 
season was estimated as high as 40 percent. It is 
not known whether or not the excessive rain af- 
fected the opium crop in North Korea. Every ef- 
fort was made to collect the 1945 opium crop in 
South Korea in the usual manner. It is not known 
what was done with the opium crop in North 
Korea (U.S. S.E. -occupied territory). This 
crop should have been between 20,000 and 35,000 
kilograms of raw opium. I should like to ask the 
representative of the Union of Soviet Socialist 
Republics whether he is in a position to report on 
the narcotics situation in North Korea, particu- 
larly on the quantity of opium discovered or seized 
and its disposition. 

The approximate quantities of narcotic drugs 
seized in the United States zone in Korea up to 
May 1946, most of which were seized in the Me- 
dicinal Drug Factory and in and near Seoul, are 
as follows : 



102 



Kilograms 

Raw opium 28,035 

Raw and refined morphine 816 

Morphine hydrochloride 104. 8 

Powdered opium, medicinal 23. 5 

All the above drugs were stored under guard at 
the Medicinal Drug Factory. In addition to the 
above-listed narcotic drugs approximately 3,650 
kilograms of low-grade opium and opium residue 
and 3.78 kilograms of heroin were seized and de- 
stroyed. We have asked the United States Army 
to issue seizure reports covering these seizures. I 
shall report briefly on two of the most important. 

Prior to the surrender of the Japanese forces 
in Korea, high Japanese officials there released on 
September 6, 1945, through the Monopoly Bureau 
of the Government General, a large order of 7,999 
kilograms of opium to the Japanese Navy. After 
the surrender of Japan, the same high Govern- 
ment officials released another large order of 8,440 
kilograms of opium to the Japanese Army. 

Through investigation by United States authori- 
ties and Korean Civil Police, of the 7,999 kilo- 
grams of opium released to the Japanese Navy, a 
total of 7,270 kilograms was recovered, leaving 
729 kilograms of opium unaccounted for. Of the 
8,440 kilograms released to the Japanese Army, a 
total of 5,380 kilograms was recovered, leaving 
3,060 kilograms of opium unaccounted for. 

The recovered opium was stored in the Monop- 
oly Bureau Opium Warehouse with other opium 
and narcotic drugs and kept under heavy guard. 
The diversion of the opium from both the Army 
and Navy shipments caused the investigation and 
arrest of some 75 Japanese and Koreans in the 
Seoul district. 

The first case was tried in Korean Civil Court 
on December 3, 1945, where two Japanese each 
received prison terms of eighteen months and one 
Korean received a prison term of four months, 
after conviction. The second case involved two 
Japanese defendants and was tried in Military 
Provost Court on December 10, 1945. They 
pleaded guilty and were sentenced for the sale and 
possession of opium to prison terms of three years 
at hard labor each and fines of 50,000 yen. In 
the event the fines are not paid, they will serve 
additional terms of two years. The remaining 
defendants were either fugitives or incarcerated 
on cases pending trial. 

About 1930, Sagoya Yoshiaki assassinated 
Hamaguchi, Prime Minister of Japan. He was 

Department of State Bulletin 



convicted of this crime and sentenced to death but 
was never executed because of his connection with 
the Japanese Military. About 1940 he was re- 
leased from prison and exiled to Manchuria where 
he worked as an aide for Colonel Hashimoto, doing 
secret work for the Japanese Army. In 1945 
Sagoya was in Seoul, Korea, working as a con- 
tractor for the Japanese Navy and Army. About 
September 1, 1945, Sagoya received from Japanese 
Navy officers approximately 2,600 kilograms of 
raw opium. On September 30, 1945, Sagoya and 
several of his associates were ai-rested by U.S. 
military personnel and Korean police for illegal 
sale of opium. On December 10, 1945, Sagoya and 
others pled guilty before the U.S. Provost Court 
at Seoul, Koi-ea. He was sentenced to serve three 
years at hard labor and fined 50,000 yen, with the 
provision that he serve an additional two years if 
the fine was not paid. Thirty thousand (30,000) 
yen seized from Sagoya at the time of his arrest 
was forfeited to the Government. 

In the spring of 1946 measures had been taken 
or were being taken regarding opium control in 
the United States zone in Korea : 

(a) To prohibit the manufacture, use, exporta- 
tion, and importation of heroin. 

(h) To prohibit the cultivation of opium and 
coca leaves. 

(c) To prohibit the manufacture of opium and 
narcotic drugs. 

(d) To prohibit the exportation of opium and 
narcotic drugs. 

(e) To prohibit the importation of opium and 
narcotic drugs except for legitimate medical and 
scientific purposes under proper import permit. 

(/) To transfer the supervision of the distribu- 
tion of narcotic drugs for medical and scientific 
purposes from the Sanitation Section of the Police 
Bureau to the Department of Public Health. 

iff) To dissolve the Opium Farmers Union and 
the Poppy Associations. 

(h) To close the Monopoly Bureau Medicinal 
Drug Factory, Seoul, Korea. 

In the spring of 1946 the enforcement of nar- 
cotic-drug laws was being carried out by Korean 
police. Enforcement was not too effective, owing 
to the fact that it was a newly formed police or- 
ganization and owing to the lack of experience 
of the members of the organization. However, a 
conscientious effort was being made to enforce all 



laws in the best possible manner with the personnel 
available. 

The extent of drug addiction in Korea is un- 
known, as the Japanese destroyed their addict 
records. A few drug addicts were encountered. 
Some of these ate opium, but most of them in- 
jected hypodermically a mixture of opium alka- 
loids made from raw opium by a crude home- 
refining process. It is understood that it is com- 
mon for Koreans to have a small piece of opium in 
their homes which they eat for different ailments. 
Opium addiction also occurred among the licensed 
opium farmers. The only opium-smoking noted in 
Korea was among the Chinese. 

There were many indications that opium was 
grown secretly in remote areas of Korea and also 
indications that a considerable number of licensed 
opium farmers diverted some of their opium crop 
to illicit channels. The Japanese controlled the 
cultivation and collection of opium through the 
Opium Farmers Union and the Poppy Associa- 
tions. The Opium Farmers Union was actually u 
subsidiary of the Monopoly Bureau, and officials 
of the Monopoly Bureau acted as officials of the 
Opium Farmers Union. The Opium Farmers 
Union had branches in each county or koon where 
opium was grown, and these branches wei'e called 
poppy associations. These associations licensed 
the farmers to grow a certain area of opium pop- 
pies, supervised the cultivation of the poppies and 
the harvesting of the crop, and collected and paid 
for the raw opium. They also collected the poppy 
Ijods and poppy seed. 

The representative of China presented a pro- 
posal ^ regarding the future control of narcotic 
drugs in Japan, reading as follows : 

1. The production of raw materials from which nar- 
cotic drugs are manufactured, and the manufacture or 
conversion of narcotic drugs shall be prohibited in Japan. 

2. A stockpile of narcotic drugs shall be established 
by the United Nations at the proposed Far Eastern Re- 
gional Office of United Nations or at some suitable center 
designated by the Economic and Social Council on the 
recommendations of the Commission on Narcotic Drugs. 

3. The import of narcotic drugs, not exceeding the total 
of the estimates of the Supervisory Body for medical 
and scientific needs, shall be permitted only from the 
United Nations stockpile. 

4. The distribution of narcotic drugs within Japan 
shall be strictly regulated and controlled by the Govern- 
ment of Japan, which shall submit regular reports to 
the United Nations. 



' U.N. document E/C.S.7/14/Rev. 1. 



January J 9, 7947 



103 



5. The keeping of any reserve or Government stocks of 
narcotic drugs in Japan shall be prohibited. 

6. The export of any of the narcotic drugs shall be 
prohibited. 

7. The above-mentioned measures of narcotics con- 
trol shall be supervised by United Nations inspectors. 

The Chinese representative also introduced the 
following resolution,^ which was approved by the 
Commission : 

Tliat an Ad Hoc Committee of seven members be 
appointed : 

(a) to study the proposal of the Delegation of China 
regarding the control of narcotic drugs in Japan ; 

(6) to study the possibility of similar control in respect 
of Korea ; 

(c) to recommend what steps, if any, should be taken 
to have the terms of such control incorporated 

(i) in the Peace Treaties which will be concluded 
between Jajjan and the Powers concerned ; and 
(ii) in the Agreements which will be reached in con- 
nection with the establishment of a government 
in Korea. 

A suggestion by the United States representa- 
tive that the proposed stockpile be established by 
an international authority whose charter would 
be approved by the Economic and Social Council 
was accepted as an amendment to the proposal 
of the Chinese representative. Other representa- 
tives felt that adequate control wovild be effected 
by requiring all imports of narcotic drugs into 
Japan to receive the prior sanction of an inspec- 
torate appointed by the United Nations. These 
alternatives were designated "A" and "B." On a 
roll call, the representatives of China, Egypt, and 
the United States voted for alternative A, while 
the representatives of France, India, Netherlands, 
Peru, Turkey, and the United Kingdom voted for 
alternative B. The rej^resentatives of Canada, 
Iran, Mexico, Poland, U.S.S.R., and Yugoslavia 
abstained from voting. 

The Commission recommended that measures 
of control similar to those adopted in respect of 
Japan should apply to Korea. 

In order that the control measures embodied in 
the proposal of the Chinese representative should 
be incorporated in the peace treaty soon to be con- 
cluded with Japan, the Commission decided to 
recommend ^" that the Economic and Social Coun- 
cil should : 

(a) send its recommendations in regard to Japan to 
the Far Eastern Commission with copies to all govern- 



» U.N. document E/C.S.7/14/Rev. 1. 
" U.N. document E/C.S.7/55, p. 29. 



ments represented on the Commission and to the Allied 
military authorities now in control of Japan; and 

(6) send its recommendations in respect of Korea to 
all governments and authorities concerned. 

Date of Next Session 

The Commission left to the chairman, the vice 
cliairman, and the rapporteur the matter of fixing 
the date of its next session after consultation with 
the Secretariat. 

The business of the Commission, as indicated 
above, was carried on eflSciently and harmoniously. 
There is every reason to believe that the Commis- 
sion in its future sessions will face all problems 
courageously with a view to strengthening con- 
trols and to preventing illicit traffic. 

Byrnes — Continued from page 90 

cannot buy from us if we are not willing to buy 

from the world. 

We must pursue vigorously our proposed 
charter for the establishment of an International 
Trade Organization. That charter is designed to 
avoid economic warfare between nations and to 
insure equality of commercial opportunity for all 
nations, both large and small. We must avoid 
economic blocs if we wish to avoid political blocs. 

After every great war there comes a period 
of disillusionment. Those who fight together 
expect too much from one another and are in- 
clined to give too little to one another. They 
forget that victory in war can only give the oppor- 
tunity which would otherwise be denied, to live 
and work for the fruits of peace and freedom. 

I admit that during the past year there were 
times when I was deeply discouraged. Our re- 
peated efforts to achieve cooperation in a peaceful 
world seemed to be meeting only with constant 
rebuff. But we persisted in our efforts with 
patience and with firmness. 

Today I am happy to say that I am more confi- 
dent than at any time since VJ-day that we can 
achieve a just peace by cooperative effort if we 
persist "with firmness in the right as God gives 
us the power to see the right." 

We have demonstrated our capacity in war. 
We must demonstrate our capacity in peace. If 
we do, our children and the children of men every- 
where can inherit a peaceful world of expanding 
freedom and increased well-being. 

To that goal freedom's past inspires us and 
freedom's future calls us. 



104 



Department of State Bulletin 



THE UNITED NATIONS 



First Report of the Atomic Energy Commission 
to the Security Council 



LETTER FROM THE CHAIRMAN OF THE ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION 
TO THE PRESIDENT OF THE SECURITY COUNCIL' 



To the President of the Security Council: 

Herewith is presented, to the Security Council 
a report dated 31 December 1946 entitled The 
First Report of the Atomic Energy Commission 
TO THE Security Council. This report is sub- 
mitted as required in Section 2(a) of the Resolu- 
tion of the General Assembly of 2-i January 1946, 
establishing the Atomic Energy Commission, 
which directs that the Commission's reports and 
recommendations be submitted to the Security 
Council. 

This report, which carries the document symbol 
AEC/18/Rev. 1, has been prepared in accordance 
with the resolution passed at the sixth meeting of 
the Atomic Energy Commission held on 13 No- 
vember, in which the Commission resolved to sub- 
mit a report containing an account of its proceed- 
ings, findings, and recommendations to date to the 
Security Council by 31 December. At the tenth 
meeting of the Atomic Energy Commission held 
on 30 December, the Commission adopted this re- 
port, with ten Members voting in the affirmative 
and witli the Representative of the Union of Soviet 
Socialist Republics and the Representative of 
Poland abstaining. 

It was also agreed, at the same meeting, that any 
Representative having reservations concerning the 
text of this report should send them, in writing, 
to tlie Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commis- 
sion for transmittal to the Security Council. The 
Representative of Poland, in a letter dated 31 
December addressed to the Chairman of the Com- 

JanuatY 79, ?947 

727713—47 1 



mission, requested that the following observation 
be included in this letter of transmittal : 

"The Re^jresentative of Poland considers it to be 
of paramount importance that the proposals made 
by the Atomic Energy Commission to the Security 
Council be of such a character as to command the 
consent of all permanent Members of the Security 
Council. As some points treated in the above- 
mentioned report do not satisfy this condition, the 
Representative of Poland in the Security Council 
will feel free to propose such amendments as may 
contribute towards promotion of consent among 
the permanent Members, as well as all other Mem- 
bers, of the Security Council." 

Continuing its further work along the lines in- 
dicated in the report, the Commission will proceed 
to the furtlier study of the topics noted in the 
last i^aragraph of Part I of the report and the 
other matters contained in its terms of reference 
with a view to making the specific proposals set 
forth in the Resolution of the General Assembly 
of 24 January 1946 and reaffirmed in the Resolu- 
tion of the General Assembly of 14 December 1946. 
Dr. Manuel Sandoval- Vallaeta, 
Chairman, Atomic Energy Commission 

31 December 194.6 
Lake Success, Long Island 



' Security Council Document S/239, Jan. 3, 1947. Tlie 
President of the Security Council for January 1947 Is 
Norman .1. O. Mnkin, Australian Representative on tlie 
Security Council and Australian Ambassador to the 
United States. 

105 



LETTER FROM THE CHAIRMAN OF THE WORKING COMMITTEE TO THE CHAIRMAN OF THE 
ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION TRANSMITTING THE DRAFT REPORT 



To the Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commis- 
sion : 

Herewith is presented to the Atomic Energy 
Commission a draft report dated 30 December 
1946 and entitled The First Report of the 
Atomic Energy Commission to the Security 
Council. Tliis report has been drafted in accord- 
ance with the instructions of the Atomic Energy 
Commission given to Committee 2 at the Com- 
mission's sixth meeting held on 13 November 1946, 
and the instructions given to tlie Working Com- 
mittee at the Commission's ninth meeting held on 
20 December 1946. 

The Representative of the Union of Soviet 
Socialist Republics, at the fifth meeting of the 
Working Committee held on 27 December 1946, 
stated that he did not participate in the discussion 
of tlie draft report for the reason stated by Ambas- 
sador G-romyko at the ninth meeting of the Atomic 
Energy Commission held on 20 December 1946. 

The Representative of Poland, at the fifth meet- 
ing of the Working Committee held on 27 Decem- 
ber 1946, stated that, in accepting the portion of 
the draft report as agreed upon by the Working 
Committee, the Polish Delegation did not preju- 
dice its attitude towards the report as a whole. 
The Representative of Poland reiterated the view 
of the Polish Delegation that it was not beneficial 
to proceed with any resolution or report before 
complete agreement on principle had been reached 
among the permanent Membere of the Security 
Council. 

The Working Committee in considering Part 
II, C. General Findings, and Part III, Recommen- 
dations, reached agreement on the draft as here- 
with submitted to the Atomic Energy Commission, 
except upon the following points : 

Part III, Recommendations, 3(a), end of first 
paragraph, the amendment submitted by the Rep- 
resentative of Mexico which states : 

"The treaty shall provide that the rule of una- 
nimity of the permanent members, which in cer- 
tain circumstances exists in the Security Council, 
shall have no relation to the work of the authority. 
No government shall possess any right of veto over 

' AEC/18/Eev. 1, .Tan. 3, 1£«7. The complete report will 
be published as Department of State publication 2737. 



the fulfillment by the authority of the obligations 
imposed upon it by the treaty nor shall any gov- 
ernment have the power, through the exercise of 
any right of veto or otherwise, to obstruct the 
course of control or inspection." 

Part III, Recommendations, 3(e), second and 
third paragraphs, reading as follows : 

'' . . . Once the violations constituting inter- 
national crimes have been defined and the measures 
of enforcement and punishment therefor agreed to 
in the treaty or convention, there shall be no legal 
right, by veto or otherwise, whereby a willful 
violator of the terms of the treaty or convention 
shall be protected from the consequences of viola- 
tion of its terms. 

"The enforcement and punisliment provisions of 
the treaty or convention would be ineffectual if, in 
any such situations, they could be rendered nuga- 
tory by the veto of a State which had voluntarily 
signed the treaty." 

Since agreement was not reached on the para- 
graphs from the draft report listed above and since 
it was esjjecially indicated that no agreement was 
reached on the words "by veto or otherwise", the 
Working Committee directed that these points of 
difference be stated specifically in submitting the 
draft report to the Atomic Energy Commission. 

It was understood that all Representatives re- 
served their right to bring up any point with 
respect to this draft report. 

/s/ Dr. Manuel Sandoval-Vallarta 
/t/ Dr. Manuel Sandoval-Vallarta, 
Chairman^ Working Commiittee 

30 Deceniber 19J,6, 
Lake Success, Long Island 



EXCERPTS FROM THE REPORT' 
Introduction 

This report covers the work of the Atomic En- 
ergy Commission from 14 June to 31 December 
1946. Under the Resolution of the General As- 
sembly of 24 January 1946, Section I, paragraph 
2(a), the Commission is directed to submit its re- 
ports and recommendations to the Security Coun- 
cil. The Atomic Energy Commission, on 13 No- 



106 



Department of State Bulletin 



THE UNITBD NATIONS 



vember 1946, resolved to submit to the Security 
Council by 31 December 1946 a report of its pro- 
ceedings, findings, and recommendations based 
uiX)n its deliberations to date. The report that 
follows contains five parts: 

I. Proceedings. 
II. Findings. 
III. Recommendations. 

IV. First Report on Scientific and Technical 
Aspects of the Problem of Control. 
V. First Report on Safeguards Required to 
Ensure the Use of Atomic Energy Only 
for Peaceful Purposes. 

This report is offered as an interim report; its 
{purpose is to set forth in the form of findings and 
recommendations the progi-ess that has been made 
to date in the deliberations of the Atomic Energy 
Commission and its various committees and in- 
formal meetings. 

A chronological calendar of meetings of the 
Commission and its committees is appended 
(Annex 1). 

Part I: Proceedings 

At the seventh meeting of the Commission on 5 
December, the Representative of the United States 
presented certain items which he proposed be adop- 
ted at a subsequent meeting of the Commission 
for inclusion in the findings and recommendations 
contained in its report to the Security Council.^ 
At its eighth and ninth meeting on 17 and 20 De- 
cember, the Commission met to discuss these pro- 
posals.^ On 20 December, the Commission ap- 
proved and accepted the principles on which these 
proposals were based, in the terms of the following 
resolution : 

'■^Resolved that the Commission approves and 
accepts the principles on which the Findings and 
Recommendations, proposed by the Representative 
of the United States of America and contained in 
document AEC/15/Rev.l, are based, and instructs 
the Working Committee to include these Findings 
and Recommendations in the draft of the Commis- 
sion's report to be delivered to the Security Coun- 
cil by 31 Dex-ember 1946, having conformed the 
wording of such portions of these Findings and 
Recommendations as deal with the same subject 
matter to the wording of the relevant parts of the 

Jonoary 19, 1947 



Text of the General Assembly Resolution of 14 
December 1946 on the 'Principles Governing the 
General Regulation and Reduction of Arma- 
ments'." 

Many important questions, which have been 
considered only in broad outline during the course 
of its deliberations, remain to be further studied 
by the Commission. These questions include : the 
detailed powers, characteristics, and functions of 
the international control agency for which the 
need is expressed in the "Fii-st Report on Safe- 
guards Required to Ensure the Use of Atomic 
Energy Only for Peaceful Purposes", including 
such matters as organization, financing and staflF- 
ing; the relationships between the agency, the 
various organs of the United Nations, and the 
participating States ; powei-s of the agency in mat- 
ters of research, development, and planning; the 
provisions for transition to the full operation of 
the international system of control; and other 
specific matters which should be included in the 
international treaty or convention establishing 
control over atomic energy. 

Part II: Findings 

A. Findings on the Scienfifc avd Terhniral 
Aspects of the Prohlem of Control. 

The Report of the Scientific and Technical Com- 
mittee on Scientific and Technical Aspects of the 
Problem of Control, included in its entirety as 
Part IV of this report, was accepted by Commit- 
tee 2 as a basis for its future work. The Com- 
mission now records its approval of that report 
and incorporates in its present findings the con- 
clusions summarized therein in Chapter 6, as 
follows : 

"The substances uranium and thorium play a 
unique role in the domain of atomic energy, since 
as far as we know these are the only raw materials 
from which the nuclear fuel required for the 
development of atomic energy can be obtained. 
There is an intimate relation between the activi- 
ties required for peaceful purposes and those lead- 
ing to the production of atomic weapons; most of 
the stages which are needed for the former are 

' Blxletin of Dec. 15, 1946, p. 1090. 

* Verbatim Records of Meetings of the Atomic Energy 
Commission on 17 and 20 December, documents AEC/ 
PV/8 and AEC/PV/9. 

107 



THE UNfTED NATIONS 



also needed for the latter. The character of the 
different stages of the activities has been discussed 
in order to explore at each stage the elements of 
danger and to some extent the problem of safe- 
guards against these dangers. 

"With respect to mining operations, which are 
of special significance as the first step in these 
activities, it appears hopeful that safeguards are 
not too difficult. Particular attention should be 
paid to the installations in which concentrated 
nuclear fuel is produced since the product lends 
itself inmiediately to the production of bombs. 
Unless appropriate safeguards are taken at each 
of these stages, it will be difficult to ensure that 
no diversion of material or installations will take 
place. 

"With regard to the question posed by Commit- 
tee 2, 'whetlier effective control of atomic energy 
is possible,' we do not find any basis in the avail- 
able scientific facts for supposing that effective 
control is not technologically feasible. Whether 
or not it is politically feasible is not discussed or 
implied in this report, nor is there any recom- 
mendation of the particular system or systems by 
which effective control can be achieved." 

B. Findings on the Safeguards to Ensure th^ Use 
of Atomic Energy Only for Peacefxd Purposes. 

The safeguards required at each stage in the 
production and use of atomic energy for peaceful 
purposes to prevent the possibilities of misuse 
indicated in the report of the Scientific and Tech- 
nical Committee were examined at length in the 
Informal Conversations of Committee 2. A re- 
port on the subject, called the "First Report on 
Safeguards Required to Ensure the Use of Atomic 
Energy Only for Peaceful Purposes," was duly 
prepared, has been approved by the Commission, 
and is incorporated as Part V of this report. 

The summary of the findings of that report is 
given below. These findings have led to the im- 
portant conclusion that an international control 
agency must be responsible for the system of safe- 
guards and control. They also indicate some of 
the essential functions of the agency. The specific 
control measures mentioned in the findings are 
not meant to be definitive but rather to be indic- 
ative of the various types of safeguards appli- 
cable at each stage. In devising a definite system 
of control, provision must be made for flexibility 
in adapting safeguards to a rapidly developing 

108 



technology. Moreover, the findings are inter- 
related and, although the co-ordination of safe- 
guards is discussed to some extent, further meas- 
ures of co-ordination must be considered before 
formulating a comprehensive system of control. 
The findings, therefore, do not represent a plan 
for atomic energy control but only some of the 
elements which should be incorporated in any 
complete and effective plan. 

Summary of Findings 
1. Safeguards Necessary to Detect and Prevent 
Diversion from Declared Activities. 

(a) Diversion of Uranium from Declared Mines 
and Mills. 

Adequate safeguards against diversion from 
declared mines and mills are possible by a system 
of inspection, including guards, similar to nonnal 
managerial operating controls, provided that the 
inspectorate has unrestricted access to all equip- 
ment and operations and has facilities for inde- 
pendent weighing, assay, and analysis. 

(b) Diversion of Thorium from Declared Mines 
and Mills. 

Effective control of the raw material and con- 
centrates of thorium is possible through a system 
of inspection similar to that found adequate for 
uranium. 

(c) Diversion of Uranium and Thorium from 
Declared Refineries and Chemical and Met- 
allurgical Plants. 

Adequate safeguards against diversion from de- 
clared refineries and chemical and metallurgical 
plants are possible by a system of inspection, in- 
cluding guards, similar to normal managerial 
operating controls, provided that the inspectorate 
has unrestricted access to all equipment and opera- 
tions and has facilities for independent weighing, 
assay, and analysis and provided that it has the 
right to require the plant to be shut down for 
purposes of clean-up and accounting at appropri- 
ate times and to require efficient operating pro- 
cedure. 

At those stages, there is no fundamental differ- 
ence between the processes for thorium and for 
uranium. 

(d) Diversion of Uranium from Declared Iso- 
tope Separation Plants. 

At present, it is not possible to place reliance 
on the method of obtaining a material balance of 
uranium isotopes in the case of isotope separation 

Department of Slate Bulletin 



THE UNITED NATIONS 



plants. This is one of the important reasons why 
there must be internal control of such plants by a 
director or manager and why the management 
must be established by and be responsible to the 
international control agency. Even if the material 
balance could be greatly improved, the inherent 
danger of the operation would still require man- 
agement by the international control agency, 
(e) Diversion of Uranium, Thorium, and Plu- 
tonium from Declared Nuclear Reactors 
and Associated Chemical Extraction 
Plants. 
(i) At present, it is not possible to place re- 
liance on the method of obtaining a mate- 
rial balance of plutoniuni in the case of 
reactors and associated chemical extraction 
plants. This is one of the important 
reasons why the chemical extraction plants 
and, in some cases, the reactors should be 
subject to internal control by a director or 
manager and why the management must 
be established by and be responsible to the 
international control agency. Even if the 
material balance could be greatly im- 
proved, the inherent danger of the opera- 
tions would still require management by 
the international control agency, 
(ii) The safeguards required for the control 
of reactors will depend on their size and 
design and especially on their content and 
possible rate of production of nuclear fuel. 
The safeguards available to the interna- 
tional control agency should include 
licensing and inspection, supervision, and 
management of the operation of reactors. 
In addition, close supervision of the de- 
sign and construction of reactors is essen- 
tial in all cases, 
(iii) Periodic inspection, together with licens- 
ing, is an adequate safeguard in the case 
of small research reactors and their asso- 
ciated chemical plants, unless their total 
content of nuclear fuel or potential rate 
of output in any area is of military 
significance, 
(iv) Adequate safeguards for chemical extrac- 
tion plants associated with all except small 
research reactors are only possible through 
management by the international control 
agency. 



(v) Adequate safeguards during the prepara- 
tion of the high-grade or pure nuclear 
fuels in a suitable form for insertion in 
secondary reactors, and, during the stor- 
age and shipment of such fuels, are only 
possible through management by the in- 
ternational control agency. 

2. Safeguards Necessary to Ensure the Detec- 

tion of Clandestine Activities. 

(a) The international control agency will re- 
quire broad privileges of movement and inspection, 
including rights to conduct surveys by ground and 
air. These privileges should, however, be very 
carefully defined to ensure against misuse. 

(b) Reports and returns on relevant matters 
will be required from national governments. 

(c) The international control agency should 
co-ordinate all relevant information to determine 
what areas may be suspected of containing clandes- 
tine activities. 

(d) Isotope separation plants, reactors, and 
chemical extraction plants, as well as mines, have 
distinguishing features which would facilitate the 
detection of clandestine activities at these stages. 

(e) Detection of clandestine refineries and 
chemical and metallurgical plants is more difficult 
than detection of clandestine operations at other 
stages in the processing of nuclear fuel. 

(f) The detection of clandestine bomb manu- 
facture as such is almost impossible; it is, there- 
fore, vital that any unauthorized accumulation of 
essential nuclear fuels be prevented. 

3. Seizure. 

(a) Problems relating to seizure have been con- 
sidered thus far only in preliminary terms. The 
major questions of seizure are political rather than 
technical. It appears, however, that technical 
measures could reduce the military advantages and, 
therefore, the dangei's of seizure. 

4. Co-ordination of Safeguards. 

(a) In addition to material accounting at each 
individual step in atomic energy processes, the 
international control agency should provide for 
material accounting checks between points of ship- 
ment and receipt of material as a means of detect- 
ing possible diversion in transit. 

(b) The international control agency should 
control the storage and shipment of uranium and 
thorium materials to the degree necessary for se- 
curity purposes. 



January 19, 1947 



109 



THE UNITED NATIONS 



(c) The international control agency should 
itself store and itself handle all enriched or pure 
nuclear fuel in transit. This does not necessarily 
imply ownerehip either of the materials or of 
the transit or storage facilities, questions which 
have not yet been discussed. 

(d) Since stocks of concentrated or pure nuclear 
fuel are acutely dangerous, operations at succes- 
sive stages in the production of atomic energy 
should be so scheduled that stocks of materials in 
transit and in storage are minimized, but without 
interfering unduly with the development and ef- 
fectiveness of peaceful activities. 

C. General Findings. 

The findings of the "First Repoi't on Scientific 
and Technical Aspects of the Problem of Con- 
trol" and of the "First Report on Safeguards Re- 
quired to Ensure the Use of Atomic Energy Only 
for Peaceful Purposes," while limited to the more 
technical aspects of the control of atomic energy, 
provide a basis for further progi-ess by the Com- 
mission toward the fulfillment of the terms of ref- 
erence set out in the General Assembly Resolution 
of 24 January 1946, establishing a commission 
to deal with the problems raised by the discovery 
of atomic energy and other related matters. The 
Resolution of 14 December 1946 of the General 
Assembly, entitled "Principles Governing the 
General Regulation and Reduction of Arma- 
ments," provides certain broad and essential polit- 
ical agreements. Based upon the proposals and 
information presented to the Commission, upon 
the hearings, proceedings, and deliberations of 
the Commission to date, and upon the proceed- 
ings, discussions, and reports of its several com- 
mittees and sub-committees, all as set forth in this 
report, the Commission has made the following 
additional findings of a general nature : 

1. That scientifically, technologically, and prac- 
tically, it is feasible, 

(a) to extend among "all nations the exchange 
of basic scientific information" on atomic energ}' 
"for peaceful ends",* 

(b) to control "atomic energy to the extent 
necessary to ensure its use only for peaceful 
purposes",* 

(c) to accomplish "the elimination from na- 
tional armaments of atomic weapons",* and 

♦Commission's terms of reference, Article V, Resolu- 
tion of the General Assembly, 24 January 1946. 

110 



(d) to provide "effective safeguards by way of 
inspection and other means to protect comply- 
ing states against the hazards of violations and 
evasions".* 

2. That effective control of atomic energy de- 
pends upon effective control of the production and 
use of uranium, thorium, and their fissionable 
derivatives. Appropriate mechanisms of control 
to prevent their unauthorized diversion or clan- 
destine production and use and to reduce the 
dangers of seizure — including one or moi-e of the 
following types of safeguards : accounting, inspec- 
tion, supervision, management, and licensing — 
must be applied through the various stages of the 
processes from the time the uranium and thorium 
ores are severed from the ground to the time they 
become nuclear fuel and are used. (Cf. "Findings 
on the Safeguards to Ensure the Use of Atomic 
Energy Only for Peaceful Purposes", Part II B 
of this report.) Ownership by the international 
control agency of mines and of ores still in the 
ground is not to be regarded as mandatory. 

3. That whether the ultimate nuclear fuel be 
destined for peaceful or destructive uses, the pro- 
ductive processes are identical and inseparable up 
to a very advanced state of manufacture. Thus, 
the control of atomic energy to ensure its use for 
peaceful purposes, the elimination of atomic wea- 
pons from national armaments, and the provision 
of effective safeguards to protect complying 
States against the hazards of violations and eva- 
sions must be accomplished through a single uni- 
fied international system of control and inspection 
designed to cari-y out all of these related purposes. 

4. That the development and use of atomic en- 
ergy are not essentially matters of domestic con- 
cern of the individual nations, but rather have 
predominantly international implications and 
repercussions. 

5. That an effective system for the control of 
atomic energy must be international, and must be 
established by an enforceable multilateral treaty 
or convention which in turn must be administered 
and operated by an international organ or agency 
within the United Nations, pdssessing adequate 
powers and properly organized, staffed, and 
equipped for the purpose. 

Only by such an international system of control 
and inspection can the development and use of 
atomic energy be freed from nationalistic rival- 

Deparfmenf of S/afe Bullefin 



THE UNITED NATIONS 



ries with consequent risks to the safety of all j^eo- 
ples. Only by such a system can the benefits, of 
widespread exchange of scientific knowledge ind 
of the peaceful uses of atomic energy be assured. 
Only such a system of control and inspection 
would merit and enjoy the confidence of the people 
of all nations. 

6. That international agreement to outlaw the 
national production, possession, and use of atomic 
weapons is an essential part of any such interna- 
tional system of control and inspection. An in- 
ternational treaty or convention to this effect, if 
standing alone, would fail 

(a) "to ensure" the use of atomic energy "only 
for peaceful purposes",* and 

(b) to provide "for effective safeguards by way 
of inspection and other means to protect comply- 
ing States against the hazards of violations and 
evasions",* 

and thus would fail to meet the requirements of 
the terms of reference of the Conmiission. To be 
effective, sucli agreement must be embodied in a 
treaty or convention providing for a comprehen- 
sive international system of control and inspection 
and including guarantees and safeguards adequate 
to ensure the carrying out of the terms of the 
treaty or convention and "to protect complying 
States against the hazards of violations and 
evasions".* 

Part III: Recommendations 

Based upon the findings of the Commission set 
forth in Part II of this report, the Commission 
makes the following reconamendations to the Se- 
curity Council with respect to certain of the mat- 
ters covered by the terms of reference of the 
Commission, which recommendations are inter- 
dependent and not severable, embodying the fun- 
damental principles and indicating the basic or- 
ganizational mechanisms necessary to attain the 
objectives set forth in Part II C, General Find- 
ings, paragraph l(a)-(d) above. 

1. There should be a strong and comprehensive 
intei-national system of control and inspection 
aimed at attaining the objectives set forth in the 
Commission's terms of reference. 

2. Such an international system of control and 
inspection should be established and its scope and 
functions defined by a treaty or convention in 
which all of the nations Members of the United 



Nations should be entitled to participate on fair 
and equitable terms. 

The international system of control and inspec- 
tion should become operative only when those 
Members of the United Nations necessary to as- 
sure its success by signing and ratifying the treaty 
or convention have bound themselves to accept and 
support it. 

Consideration should be given to the matter of 
participation by non-Members of the United 
Nations. 

3. The treaty or convention should include, 
among others, provisions 

(a) Establishing, in the United Nations, an in- 
ternational control agency possessing powers and 
charged with responsibility necessary and appro- 
priate for the prompt and effective discharge of 
the duties imposed upon it by the terms of the 
treaty or convention. Its rights, powers, and re- 
sponsibilities, as well as its relations to the several 
organs of the United Nations, should be clearly 
established and defuied by the treaty or conven- 
tion. Such powers should be sufficiently broad and 
flexible to enable the international control agency 
to deal with new developments that may hereafter 
arise in the field of atomic energy. The treaty shall 
provide that the rule of unanimity of the perma- 
nent Members, which in certain circumstances ex- 
ists in the Security Council, shall have no relation 
to the work of the international control agency. 
No government shall possess any right of veto over 
the fulfilment by the international control agency 
of the obligations imposed upon it by the treaty 
nor shall any government have the power, through 
the exercise of any right of veto or otherwise, to 
obstruct the course of control or inspection. 

The international control agency shall promote 
among all nations the exchange of basic scientific 
information on atomic energy for peaceful ends, 
and shall be responsible for preventing the use of 
atomic energy for destructive purposes, and for the 
control of atomic energy to the extent necessary 
to ensure its use only for peaceful purposes. 

The international control agency should have 
positive research and developmental responsibili- 
ties in order to remain in the forefront of atomic 
knowledge so as to render the international con- 
trol agency more effective in promoting the bene- 

* Commission's terms of reference, Article V, Resolu- 
tion of the General Assembly, 24 January 1946. 



January 19, 1947 



111 



THE UNITED NATIONS 



ficial uses of atomic energy and in eliminating its 
destructive ones. The exclusive right to carry on 
atomic research for destructive purposes should be 
vested in the international control agency. 

Eesearch in nuclear physics having a direct bear- 
ing on the use of atomic energy should be subject 
to appropriate safeguards established by the in- 
ternational control agency in accordance with the 
treaty or convention. Such safeguards should not 
interfere with the prosecution of pure scientific re- 
search, or the publication of its results, provided 
no dangerous use or purpose is involved. 

Decisions of the international control agency 
pursuant to the powers conferred upon it by the 
treaty or convention should govern the operations 
of national agencies for atomic energy. In carry- 
ing out its prescribed functions, however, the in- 
ternational control agency should interfere as little 
as necessary with the operations of national agen- 
cies for atomic energy, or with the economic plans 
and the private, corporate, and State relationships 
in the several countries. 

(b) Affording the duly accredited representa- 
tives of the international control agency unim- 
peded rights of ingress, egress, and access for the 
performance of their inspections and other duties 
into, from and within the territory of every par- 
ticipating nation, unhindered by national or local 
authorities. 

(c) Prohibiting the manufacture, possession, 
and use of atomic weapons by all nations parties 
thereto and by all persons under their jurisdiction. 

(d) Providing for the disposal of any existing 
stocks of atomic weapons and for the proper use 
of nuclear fuel adaptable for use in weapons. 

(e) Specifying the means and methods of de- 
termining violations of its terms, setting forth such 
violations as shall constitute international crimes, 
and establishing the nature of the measures of en- 
forcement and punishment to be imposed upon per- 
sons and upon nations guilty of violating the terms 
of the treaty or convention. 

The judicial or other processes for determina- 
tion of violations of the treaty or convention, and 
of punishments therefore, should be swift and 
certain. Serious violations of the treaty shall be 
reported immediately by the international control 
agency to the nations parties to the treaty, to the 
General Assembly and to the Security Council. 
Once the violations constituting international 



crimes have been defined and the measures of en- 
forcement and punishment therefore agreed to in 
the treaty or convention, there shall be no legal 
right, by veto or otherwise, whereby a willful vio- 
lator of the terms of the treaty or convention shall 
be jjrotected from the consequences of violation of 
its terms. 

The enforcement and punishment provisions of 
the treaty or convention would be ineffectual if, 
in any such situations, they could be rendered 
nugatory by the veto of a State which had volun- 
tarily signed the treaty. 

4. In consideration of the problem of violation 
of the terms of the treaty or convention, it should 
also be borne in mind that a violation might be 
of so grave a character as to give rise to the in- 
herent right of self-defense recognized in Article 
51 of the Charter of the United Nations. 

5. The treaty or convention should embrace the 
entire programme for putting the international 
system of control and inspection into effect and 
should provide a schedule for the completion of 
the transitional process over a period of time, step 
by step, in an orderly and agreed sequence leading 
to the full and effective establishment of inter- 
national control of atomic energy. In order that 
the transition may be accomplished as rapidly as 
possible and with safety and equity to all, this 
Commission should supervise the transitional proc- 
ess, as prescribed in the treaty or convention, and 
should be empowered to determine when a par- 
ticular stage or stages have been completed and 
subsequent ones are to commence. 

Here follows : 
Part IV: A First Report on the Scientific and Tech- 
nical Aspects of the Probiem of Control, consisting 
of: 

Introduction ; 

Chapter 1. The Production of Nuclear Fuels; 
Chapter 2. Utilization of Nuclear Fuels; 
Chapter .3. Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy and 

Their Bearing on Control ; 
Chapter 4. Clandestine Activities; 
Chapter 5. Futui'e Developments; 
Chapter 6. Summary and Conclusions; 
Appendix 1. Pictorial Chart of the Processes 

Using Uranium to Produce Atomic Energy; 
Appendix 2. Atomic Energy Flow Chart; and 
Appendix 3. Some Relevant Data on Cost and 

Size of the United States Atomic Bomb 

Project. 



112 



Department of State Bvlletin 



THE UNITED NATIONS 



Part V: First Report on Safeguards Required to En- 
sure the Use of Atomic Energy Only for Peaceful 
Purposes, containing eight chapters. (See p. 108 
for summary.) 

Here follow : 

Annex 1. Chronological Calendar of Meetings of 
the Atomic Energy Commission and its Com- 
mittees during the period 14 June to 31 De- 
cember 1946; 

Annex 2. List of Representatives and Advisers 
to tlie United Nations Atomic Energy Com- 
mission 14 June to 31 December 1946; 

Annex 3. Summary Records of Meetings of Sub- 
Committee 1 held on 1, 2, 5, 8, and 11 July 
194() (document AEC/C.l/Sub.1/1-5) ; 

Annex 4. Working Documents Submitted by 
Members of the Atomic Energy Commission 
(documents AEC/C.l.(WC)/2, 17 July 
and AEC/C.l.(WC)/2/Corr.l, 9 September 
1946) ; 

Annex 5. Summary Records of Meetings of Com- 
mittee 2 held on 17, 24, 26, and 31 July and 

6 August 1946 (documents AEC/C.2/1-5 and 
AEC/C.2/4/Corr.l) ; 

Annex 6. Provisional List of Topics for Con- 
sideration by the Legal Advisory Committee 
(Appendices I and II, document AEC/C.4 /3, 

7 August 1946) ; 

Annex 7. A Suggested Progi-amme of Work — 
Committee 2 (Appendix 1, document AEC/ 
C.2/W.1, 14 October 1946) ; and 

Annex 8. List of Experts Participating in the 
Informal Conversations of Committee 2. 

First Meeting of Commission of 
Investigation Scheduled' 

An informal meeting of representatives of mem- 
bers of the Security Council took place on January 
3 at Lake Success under the chairmanship of Mi-. 
Paul Hasluck of Australia. 

The meeting was devoted to a discussion of the 
technical arrangements for the Conunission of In- 
vestigation the Security Council is sending to 
Greece, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, and Albania to in- 
vestigate the frontier incidents which formed the 
basis for the Greek complaint before the Council.' 

It was decided to hold the first meeting of the 
Commission on January 30 in Athens, which is 



to be the meeting point of the members of the 
Commission The Commission will consist of rep- 
resentatives of all 11 members of the Security 
Council and their staffs. The Secretary-General 
expects to receive the names of the representatives 
nominated by the 11 governments within the next 
few days. 

The Secretary-General is going to address a let- 
ter to the Governments of Greece, Yugoslavia, 
Bulgaria, and Albania asking them to supply to 
the Commission transportation, food, and ac- 
commodation, which services and facilities will be 
paid for by the Commission. 

The Secretary-General will also request the four 
governments concerned to accord to all members of 
the Commission and the staff all the privileges and 
immunities necessary for the exercise of the Com- 
mission's functions, in accordance with article 105 
of tlie Charter of the United Nations. 

The Commission will have at its disposal a small 
staff' of members of the United Nations Secre- 
tariat headed by Col. A. Roscher Lund, Special 
Assistant to the Secretary-General. 

This staff will include a press officer from the 
Press Division of the United Nations, Stanley 
Ryan, and a photographer and cameraman. 

U. S. Representatives on Commission 
of Investigation of Greek Border 
Incident 

The Department of State announced on Janu- 
ary 2 that Mark Etheridge, American representa- 
tive on the Commission of Investigation of the 
Greek border incident, would be accompanied by 
Harry N. Howard, Norbert L. Anschuetz, and 
Cyril Black. 

Mr. Howard is Chief of the Near Eastern Branch 
of the Division of Research for Near Eastern and 
African Affairs, and Mr. Anschuetz is Informa- 
tion Officer of the Office of Near Eastern and 
African Affairs, in the Department of State. Mr. 
Black is a member of the Princeton University 
faculty and was formerly an officer in the Division 
of Southern European Affairs, Department of 
State. 



^ Released to the press by the United Nations Jan. 3, 
1947. 

" For text of resolution establishing the Commission, 
see BuixBTiN of Jan. 5, 1947, p. 23. 



January 79, 1947 



113 



Summary Statement by the Secretary-General 



MATTERS OF WHICH THE SECURITY COUNCIL IS SEIZED AND 
OF THE STAGE REACHED IN THEIR CONSIDERATION' 



Pursuant to Rule 11 of the Provisional Rules of 
Procedure of the Security Council, I wish to report 
that as of 3 January 1947 the Security Council is 
seized of the following matters : 

1. The Iranian Question 

2. Special Agreements Under Article 43 of the 
Charter 

3. Rules of Procedure of the Security Council 

4. Statute and Rules of Procedure of the Mili- 
tary Staff Committee 

5. Rules concerning the Admission of New Mem- 
bers 

6. Re-examination of applications for Member- 
ship 

7. The Greek Question 

8. The General Regulation and Reduction of 
Armaments 

The stage reached in the consideration of items 



'Security Council Document S/238, Jan. 3, 1947. For 
statement by Trygve Lie, Secretary-General of the United 
Nations, as of Dec. 13, see Buixetin of Dec. 29, 1946, 
p. 1172. 

' The following is the text of the proposal submitted 
by the U.S.S.R. Representative, Andrei A. Gromyko, in 
a letter to the Secretary-General under date of Dec. 27, 
1946. ( See S/229, Dec. 28, 1946. ) 

Considering that the general regulation and reduction 
of armaments and armed forces is the most important 
measure for the strengthening of international peace and 
security and that the implementation of the General 
Assembly's decision on this question is one of the most 
urgent and most important tasks facing the Security 
Council, the Council resolves : 

1. To proceed with the working out of practical meas- 
ures on the implementation of the General Assembly's 
decision of 14 December 1946, on the general regulation 
and reduction of armaments and armed forces and on 
the establishment of international control assuring the 
reduction of armaments and arme<l forces. 



1 through 7 is set forth in document S/223. The 
stage reached in the consideration of item 8 is as 
follows : 

The General Regulation and Reduction of Arma- 
ments 

By letter dated 28 December 1946 addressed to 
the Secretary-General (docmnent S/229) the 
Representative of the U.S.S.R. submitted a pro- 
posal regarding the implementation of the resolu- 
tion of the General Assembly on the "Principles 
Governing the General Regulation and Reduction 
of Armaments".^ 

At its 88th meeting on 31 December 1946 the 
Council decided to place the U.S.S.R. proposal on 
its agenda and consider this matter at the Coun- 
cil's first meeting in 1947. The Representative of 
the United States submitted a draft resolution for 
consideration at the same meeting.' 



2. To establish a commission of the representatives of 
countries members of the Security Council which has to 
be charged to prepare and submit to the Security Council 
within a period of from one to two months but not later 
than three months its proposals in accordance with Para- 
graph 1 of this decision. 

^ The following is the text of the U.S. resolution sub- 
mitted by the U.S. Representative at the 88th meeting 
of the Security Council. (See S/233, Dec. 31, 1946.) 

The Seoieity Council Resolves Th.\t 

1. Pursuant to the General Assembly Resolution of 
14 December concerning the "Principles Governing the 
General Regulation and Reduction of Armaments", it 
gives first priority to the establishment of international 
control over atomic energy and, accordingly, it will con- 
sider and act upon the forthcoming report of the Atomic 
Energy Commission as soon as received. 

2. It will thereafter consider what further practical 
measures it should take and in what order of priority for 
the implementation of the said General Assembly 
Resolution. 



114 



Department of Slate Bulletin 



Resolution on Voting Procedure in the Security Council 



LETTER FROM THE SECRETARY-GENERAL TO THE 
PRESIDENT OF THE SECURITY COUNCIL^ 



2 January 19Jft 

Sir, 

I have the honour to transmit the following 
resolution adopted by the General Assembly at its 
sixty -first plenary meeting held on 13 December 
1946: 

•'Voting Procedure in the Security Council 

The General Assembly 

Mindful of the purposes and principles of the 
Charter of the United Nations, and having taken 
notice of the divergencies which have arisen in 
regard to the application and interpretation of 
Article 27 of the Charter ; 

Earnestly Requests the permanent members 
of the Security Council to make every effort, in 
consultation with one another and with fellow 
members of the Security Council, to ensure that 
the use of the special voting privilege of its per- 
manent members does not impede the Security 
Council in reaching decisions promptly; 



Recommends to the Security Council the early 
adoption of practices and procedures, consistent 
with the Charter, to assist in reducing the diffi- 
culties in the application of Article 27 and to ensure 
the prompt and effective exercise by the Security 
Council of its functions; and 

Further Recommends that, in developing such 
practices and procedures, the Security Council take 
into consideration the views expressed by Members 
of the United Nations during the second part of 
the first session of the General Assembly." 

I have the honour to request you to be so good 
as to bring this resolution to the attention of the 
Security Council. 

I have the honour to be. Sir, 
Your obedient Servant, 

Trygve Lie 
Secre tary - General 

The Hon. N. J. O. Makin 
President or the Security Council 



Replies From 29 Nations on Action Taken in Accordance 
With Resolution on Spain ^ 



The Secretary-General of the United Nations 
on December 20, 1946 sent a circular telegram to 
the member governments requesting that he be in- 
formed, as soon as possible, of action taken by the 
lespective governments in accordance with the 
recommendation relating to the recall from Madrid 
of ambassadors and ministers plenipotentiary ac- 
credited there contained in the resolution on re- 
lations between Spain and the United Nations, 
adopted by the General Assembly at its 59th 
plenary meeting.^ 



1 Security Council Document S/237, Jan. 3, 1947. 

■ Released to press by the United Nations Jan. 7, 1947. 

= BtXLLETiN of Dec. 22, 1946, p. 1143. 



Up to January 6, 1947, 29 replies have been re- 
ceived and they may be classified as follows : 

1. States which declared that they had no diplo- 
matic relations with the Franco government at the 
time of the adoption of the General Assembly's 
resolution : 

Afghanistan, Australia, Belgium, Bolivia, Can- 
ada, Ethiopia, Guatemala, Iceland, India, Iraq, 
Lebanon, Luxembourg, New Zealand, Norway, Po- 
land, Saudi Arabia, Siam, Union of South Africa, 
Venezuela, Yugoslavia. 

2. States which declared in the following form 
that they had no ambassadors or ministers ac- 

{Coniinued on page 1Z2) 



January 19, 1947 



115 



THE UNITED NATIONS 



Bodies Established by General Assembly 
During Second Part of First Session^ 

Advisory Committee on Administratit-e and Budgetary 

Questions. Doc. No. A/193, approved at 49th meeting, 

11/19/46. 
Aghnides (Greece), Ganem (France), Hsia (China), 

Kabushko (U.S.S.R.), Kirpalani (India), Machado 

(Brazil), Martinez Cabanas (Mexico), Matthews 

(U.K.), Stone (U.S.). 
Board of External Auditors. Doc. A/208, approved at 

50tli meeting, 12/7/46. 
Auditors-General of: Ulirainian S. S. R., Sweden, 

Canada. 

Committee on Contributions ( 3 new members ) . Doc. A/215, 
approved at 50th meeting, 12/7/46. 
Dzung (China), Papanek (Czechoslovakia), Webb 
(U.S.). 

Committee on Progressive Development of International 
Law and its Codifioation. Doc. A/222, approved at 
55th meeting, 12/11/46. 
Argentina, Australia, China, Colombia, Egypt, France, 
India, Netherlands, Panama, Poland, Sweden, 
U.S.S.R., U.K., U.S., Venezuela, Yugoslavia, Brazil. 

International Children's Emergency Fund. Doc. A/230, 
A/230/Corr. 1, approved at 56th meeting 12/11/46. 
Argentina, Australia, Bi-azil, Byelorussian S. S. R., 
Canada, China, Colombia, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, 
Ecuador, France, Greece, Iraq, Netherlands, New 
Zealand, Norway, Peru, Poland, Sweden, Ukrainian 
S.S.R., Union of South Africa, U.S.S.R., U.K., U.S., 
Yugoslavia. 



Special Technical Committee (Post — VNRRA Belief). 
Doc. A/237, approved at 56th meeting, 12/11/46. 

Argentina, Brazil, Canada, China, Denmark, France, 
Poland, U. K., U. S., U. S. S. R. 

Ad hoc Committee to Organize Informntion Transmitted 
under Article 73 (e) of Charter. Doc. A/249, A/249/ 
Corr. 1, A/249/Add. 1, approved at 64th meeting, 
12/14/46. 

Australia, Denmark, U. S., U. K., France, Belgium, New 
Zealand, Netherlands, China, Egypt, India, Brazil, 
U. S. S. R., Philippines, Cuba, Uruguay. 

Trusteeship Council. Doc. A/258, A/258/ Add. 1, A/258/ 
Rev. 1, A/258/Corr. 2, approved at 63d meeting, 
12/14/46. 

Mexico, Iraq, U. S., U. S. S. R., China, Australia, Bel- 
gium, U. K., New Zealand, France. 



Headquarters Advisory Committee. Doc. A/277, 
proved at 65th meeting, 12/14/46. 



ap- 



Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, 
Prance, Greece, India, Norway, Poland, Syria, U. K., 
U. S., U. S. S. R., Yugoslavia. 



Committee on Staff Benefits. 
66th meeting, 12/15/46. 

Belgium, U. S. S. R., U. S. 



Doc. A/262, approved at 



' U.S. Delegation Document US/A/238, Dec. 27, 1946. 



Committee on Procedures and Organization. Doc. A/279, 
approved at 66th meeting, 12/15/46. 

Argentina, Belgium, Canada, China, Cuba, Denmark, 
France, Greece, Haiti, Peru, Ukrainian S. S. R., U. K., 
U. S., U. S. S. R., Yugoslavia. 



Addresses, Statements, and Broadcasts of the Week 



The President 


The State of the Union. Excerpts in this 


Made before a joint session of 




issue. 


Congress on Jan. 6. 


The Secretary of State 


"We Must Demonstrate Our Capacity in 


Address made at Cleveland, 




Peace." In this issue. 


Ohio, on Jan. 11. 


Gen. George C. Marshall 


The Situation in China. In this issue. 


Statement released in Washing- 
ton on Jan. 7. 


Assistant Secretary Benton 


Report on UNESCO. Press release 11 of 


Address made before Chicago 




Jan. 7. Not printed. 


Council of Foreign Relations, 
Chicago, III., on Jan. 9. 


Assistant Secretary Hilldring 


Public Support Necessary for Success of 


Address delivered at Beverly 




Occupation Policies. Excerpts in this 


Hills, Calif., on Jan. 7. 


James K. Penfield, Deputy Director, 


U.S. Policy in Japan. Press release 26 of 


NBC University of the Air pro- 


Office of Far Eastern Affairs. 


Jan. 9. Not printed. 


gram on Jan. 9. 


Lt. Gen. John R. Hodge 


U.S. Policy Toward a Unified Government 


Statement issued at Seoul on 




in Southern Korea. In this issue. 


Jan. 4. 



116 



Depariment of S/afe Bulletin 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



Calendar of Meetings ^ 



In Session as of January 12, 1947 

Far Eastern Commission 

United Nations: 

Security Council 

Military Staff Committee 

Commission on Atomic Energy 

UNRRA - Intergovernmental Committee on Refugees (IGCR), 

Joint Planning Committee 
Telecommunications Advisory Committee 

German External Property Negotiations: 

With Portugal (Safehaven) 

With Spain (Safehaven) 

Inter-Allied Trade Board for Japan 

FAO: Preparatory Commission To Study World Food Board Pro- 
posals 



Inter-Allied Reparation Agency (lARA) : Meetings on Conflicting 
Custodial Claims 



PICAO: 

Interim Council 

Personnel Licensing Division 



Twelfth Pan American Sanitary Conference 

Second Pan American Conference on Sanitary Education 

Scheduled for January - March 1947 

Council of Foreign Ministers: Meeting of Deputies . . . 



PICAO: 

Divisional 

Aeronautical Maps and Charts Division 
Accident Investigation Division . . . 



Washington 



Lake Success 

Lake Success 

Lake Success 

Washington and Lake Success. 

Lake Success 



Lisbon. 
Madrid 



Washington 
Washington 



Brussels 



Montreal 
Montreal 



Caracas 
Caracas 



London 



Montreal 
Montreal 



Feb. 26 

Mar. 25 
Mar. 25 
June 14 
July 25 

Nov. 10 



Sept. 3 
Nov. 12 

Oct. 24 

Oct. 28-Jan. 
17 (tenta- 
tive) 

Nov. 6-Dec. 
17 (Will re- 
sume session. 
Jan. 29) 



Jan. 7 
Jan. 7 



Jan. 12-24 
Jan. 12-24 



Jan. 14-Feb. 24 



Jan. 14 
Feb. 4 



' Prepared in the Division of International Conferences, Department of State. Dates are continuous from 1946. 



January 19, 1947 



117 



Calendar oj Meetings — Continued 



PICAO : Divisional — Continued 

Airworthiness Division 

Airline Operating Practices Division 

Regional 

South Pacific Regional Air Navigation Meeting 

International Wheat Council 

United Nations: 

Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) 

Drafting Committee of International Trade Organization, 
Preparatory Committee 

Economic and Employment Commission 

Social Commission 

Subcommission on Economic Reconstruction of Devastated 
Areas, Working Group for Europe 

Human Rights Commission 

Statistical Commission 

Population Commission 

Commission on the Status of Women 

Subcommission on Economic Reconstruction of Devastated 
Areas, Worlcing Group for Asia and the Far East 

Transport and Communications Commission 

Non-governmental Organizations Committee 

Standing Committee on Negotiations with Specialized 
Agencies 

ECOSOC, Fourth Session of 

Trusteeship Council 

Meeting of Experts on Passport and Frontier Formalities . . 

Regional Advisory Commission for Non-Self-Governing Territories 
in the South and Southwest Pacific, Conference for the Establish- 
ment of 

Subcommission of Emergency Economic Committee for Europe on 
Housing Problems 

ILO: 

Industrial Committee on Petroleum Production and Refining . . 

101st Session of the Governing Body 

Committee on Social Policy in Dependent Territories 

Committee of Experts on the Apjilieation of Conventions . . . 

Industrial Committee on Coal Mining 

Industrial Committee on Inland Transport 

Signing of Peace Treaties with Italy, Hungary, Bulgaria, Rumania, 
and Finland 

International Children's Fund: Executive Board 

International Red Cross Committee 

Council of Foreign Ministers 

Seventh Pan American Conference on Tuberculosis 

World Health Organization (WHO) : Third Session of Interim Com- 
mission 

European Central Inland Transport Organization (ECITO) : Seventh 
Session of the Council 



Montreal . 
Montreal . 

Melbourne . 
Washington 

Lake Success 

Lake Success 
Lake Success 
Geneva . . 

Lake Success 
Lake Success 
Lake Success 
Lake Success 
Lake Success 

Lake Success 
Lake Success 
Lake Success 

Lake Success 
Lake Success 
Geneva . . 

Canberra . 
The Hague 

Los Angeles 
Geneva . . 
London . . 
Geneva . . 
Geneva . . 
Geneva . . 

Paris . . . 

Lake Success 
Geneva . . 
Moscow . . 
Lima . . . 
Geneva . . 

Paris . . . 



Feb. 


18 


Feb. 


25 


Feb. 


4 


Jan. 


15 


Jan. 


20-Feb. 28 


Jan. 


20-Feb. 5 


Jan. 20-Feb. 5 


Jan. 


27-Feb.l3 


(tentative) 


Jan. 27- Feb 11 


Jan.27-Feb.ll 


Feb. 


6-20 


Feb. 


10 


Feb. 


14 


Feb. 


17-28 


Feb. 


25-27 


Feb. 


28 


Feb. 


28 


Before Mar. 15 


Mar 


17 


Jan.28-Feb.l6 


(tentative) 



Jan. 30 



Feb. 3-12 
Mar. 5-S 
Mar. 17-22 
Mar. 24-29 
March or April 
Marcli or April 

Feb. 10 



Feb. 24 
Mar. 3-15 
Mar. 10 

Mar. 17-22 
Mar. 31 

March 



118 



Department of Slate Bulletin 



Activities and Developments-^ 

U. S. DELEGATION TO PAN AMERICAN 
SANITARY CONFERENCES 

[Released to the press January 8] 

Secretary Byrnes announced on January 8 that 
the President had approved the composition of 
the United States Delegation to attend the Twelfth 
Pan American Sanitary Conference and the Second 
Pan American Sanitary Education Conference 
which will be held concurrently at Caracas, Vene- 
zuela, from January 12 to 24, 1947. The nomina- 
tions of the representatives were submitted by the 
Secretary of State upon the recommendation of the 
War and Navy Departments and of the United 
States Puljlic Health Service. 

Twelfth Pan American Sanitary Conference 

Chairman 

Thomas Parran, Surgeon General, United States Public 
Health Service 

Delegates 

John C. Dreier, Division of Special Inter-American Af- 
fairs, Department of State 

Richard J. Plunkett, Director, Division of Health and 
Sanitation, Institute of Inter-American Affairs 

William Sanders, Division of International Organization 
Affairs, Department of State 

Fred L. Soper, International Health Division, Bockefeller 
Foundation 

L. L. Williams, Jr., Division of International Labor, Social 
and Health Affairs, Department of State 

Advisers 

Ward P. Allen, Division of International Organization 
Affairs, Department of State 

Robert H. Coatney, National Institute of Health, United 
States Public Healtli Service 

Col. Wesley C. Cox, M.C., Chief, Army Industrial Hygiene 
Laboratory 

James A. Doull, Chief, Office of International Health Rela- 
tions, United States Public Health Service 

Juan A. Pons, Health Commissioner, Puerto Rico 

Harry H. Stage, Assistant Chief, Division of Insects 
Affecting Man and Animals, Bureau of Entomology and 
Plant Quarantine, Department of Agriculture 

Capt. Van Collier Tipton, M.C., U.S. Navy 

Seeretaries 

Bainbridge C. Davis, first secretary, American Embassy, 

Caracas, Venezuela 
J. Ward Lowe, Division of International Conferences, 

Department of State 



The Pan American Sanitary Conference func- 
tions as the governing body of the Pan American 
Sanitary Bureau, which is a central coordinating 
agency for public health in the Western Hemi- 
sphere. The Conference is concerned with mak- 
ing recommendations in regard to the improve- 
ment of sanitary conditions in the American 
republics. The agenda will include, in addition 
to numerous technical subjects, consideration of 
the relationship of the Pan American Sanitary 
Bureau to the World Health Organization. 

Second Pan American Sanitary Education 
Conference 

Chairman 

Thomas Parran, Surgeon General, United States Public 
Health Service 

Delegates 

Mayhew Derryberry, Chief, Office of Health Education, 

United States Public Health Service 
James A. Doull, Chief, Office of International Health 

Relations, United States Public Health Service 
Juan A. Pons, Health Commissioner, Puerto Rico 
Richard J. Plunkett, Director, Division of Health and 

Sanitation, Institute of Inter-American Affairs 

Secretaries 

Bainbridge C. Davis, first secretary, American Embassy, 

Caracas, Venezuela 
J. Ward Lowe, Division of International Conferences, 

Department of State 

The First Pan American Sanitary Education 
Conference was held at New York in 1943 for the 
purpose of discussing methods of im^^roving 
health education, reorganization of j^rograms for 
training personnel, and other related subjects. 
The present conference, meeting in conjunction 
with the Twelfth Pan American Sanitary Con- 
ference, will undertake a consideration of the fol- 
lowing points: (1) the role of sanitary education 
in a health plan ; (2) the organization of an inter- 
American association of sanitary education; (3) a 
critical study of publications and visual aids which 
may be used in sanitary education ; (4) a critical 
study of the techniques of sanitary education; 
(5) coordination of adult and school programs of 
sanitary education; (6) the contribution to sani- 
tary education by other organizations; and (7) 
the training of health educators and teachers. 

It is expected that all the American republics 
will attend. In addition, Canada and the British, 
Dutch, and French possessions in this hemisphere 
have been invited to send observers. 



January 19, 1947 



119 



International Labor Office Permanent Migration Committee 

Article iy Murray Ross 



The first session of the Permanent Migration 
Committee of the International Labor Office took 
place in Montreal from August 2G to 31, 1946.* 
It was attended by representatives of the follow- 
ing 25 Governments: Australia, Argentina, Bel- 
gium, Chile, Colombia, Denmark, Dominican Re- 
public, Ecuador, Egypt, France, Greece, India, 
Italy, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Pan- 
ama, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Sweden, Switzer- 
land, United States, Uruguay, and Venezuela. 
The Governments of Canada, United Kingdom, 
and Yugoslavia sent observers. The session was 
also attended by three advisory members repre- 
senting the United Nations, UNRRA, and the 
Intergovernmental Committee on Refugees, as 
well as by three expert members : Joseph P. Cham- 
berlain, from the United States; Doria de Vas- 
concelos, from Brazil ; and Paul van Zeeland, from 
Belgium, who was unanimously elected chairman 
of the session. The government, employers', and 
workers' groups of the Governing Body of the 
International Labor Organization (ILO) were 
represented by Messrs. Amado of Brazil, MacDon- 
nell and Bengough of Canada, respectively. 
Robert C. Goodwin, Director of the United States 
Employment Service, served as the United States 
Government member of the Committee. His ad- 
visers included Herman R. Landon of the Depart- 
ment of Justice, Murray Ross of the Department 
of State, and Helen V. Seymour of the Depart- 
ment of Labor. The Committee sessions served 
as the first post-war intergovernmental forum to 
consider problems of migration for both settle- 
ment and employment and to formulate some 
basic principles of international cooperation to 
furtlier long-range migratory movements. 

' Bulletin of Aug. 25, 1946, p. 361. 

'This resolution was dealt witii under item 2 by the 
Committee. The Tliinl Conference of American States 
Members of the International Labor Organization was 
held at Mexico City, Mexico, Apr. 1 to 10, rj46. 



In the course of its deliberations the Committee 
reviewed various as23ects of the migration problem 
and adopted four resolutions looking toward the 
establishment of a greater degree of bilateral and 
multilateral international cooperation in the field 
of post-war migration. The agenda prepared by 
the Governing Body of the ILO for the meeting 
included the following five items: (1) exchange 
of views on post-war migration prospects; (2) 
forms of international cooperation capable of 
facilitating an organized resimiption of migration 
movements after the war; (3) racial discrimina- 
tion in connection with migration; (4) the techni- 
cal selection of immigrants; and (5) the resolu- 
tion concerning migration adopted by the Third 
Conference of American States Members of the 
International Labor Organization." An interest- 
ing exchange of views took place on the subject of 
post-war migration prosjiects. Members of the 
Committee generally expressed views favoring an 
increase in future migration, both in the interest 
of countries of emigration and of immigration 
and as part of the development necessary for the 
improvement of international trade and the rais- 
ing of living standards in the various parts of 
the world. It was stressed, however, by repre- 
sentatives of immigration countries that large- 
scale migration must await elimination of current 
shipping and housing shortages, as well as the 
prej^aration of sufficient projects for agricultural 
settlers and industrial jobs for urban wage earners. 
Representatives of some of the immigration coun- 
tries pointed to their inability to bear the sizeable 
expense involved in population resettlement and 
sti-essed the need for consideration of international 
financing. All these sentiments were given 
adequate expression in the first resolution adopted 
by the meeting. 

Discussion of forms of international coopera- 
tion capable of facilitating an organized resump- 
tion of migration movements after the war 
centered around the three aspects of the problem 



120 



Department of State Bulletin 



ACTIVITIBS AND DEVELOPMENTS 



listed in the International Labor Office report: 
the question of international cooperation in the 
field of financing ; the need of safeguards against 
the lowering of national, social, and economic 
standards by immigrants ; and the ILO migration 
for employment convention (1939) which had not 
been ratified by any government. In accordance 
with the views expressed during the consideration 
of these subjects, an appropriate resolution was 
adopted recommending that the Governing Body 
should consult member governments on the desir- 
ability of revising the ILO convention of 1939 and 
the related ILO recommendations. Furthermore, 
the resolution affirmed the International Labor 
Office program of international action necessary 
to facilitate migration, which covers recruitment, 
placing, and conditions of labor, other aspects of 
the protection of labor, special facilities for assist- 
ing migrants, provisions for financial cooperation, 
safeguards against lowering of national standards 
by immigrants, and the collection of information 
concerning emigration prospects and immigration 
possibilities. As for the role of the International 
Labor Office, the resolution suggests that it con- 
tinue and expand its studies and its assistance to 
governments in respect to the recruitment of per- 
sons for temporary migration for employment 
and, in particular, that it study the question of 
guaranties by the immigration country of a 
reasonable amount of paid employment to such 
persons. 

Similarly, the resolution draws special attention 
to : (a) the importance of organizing migration in 
such a way as to insure equality of treatment in re- 
spect to conditions of labor for immigrants and 
nationals of the counti7 of immigration; (i) the 
opinions expressed by members of the Committee 
that migrants intending permanent residence in 
the country of immigration should be prepared to 
become citizens of that country and should there- 
fore be persons capable of assimilation to its eco- 
nomic and social conditions; (c) the desirability 
of the country of immigration actively helping 
these migrants to become citizens and to conform 
to its economic and social conditions; (d) the im- 
portance of a careful selection of prospective mi- 
grants from the point of view of health, family 
composition, psychological qualifications, and vo- 
cational qualifications; (e) the desirability of 



studying on an international basis, either bilateral 
or multilateral, development schemes involving mi- 
gration including arrangements for transport and 
for the necessary equipment; and (/) the impor- 
tance in large-scale migration operations of assur- 
ing that suitable employment and accommodations 
are available in the country of immigration con- 
cerned. The Governing Body of the ILO is in- 
vited: (a) to place on the agenda of the second 
session of the Permanent Migration Committee, 
with a view to the subsequent consideration of this 
question by the International Labor Conference, 
the question of a model agi-eement for the use of 
governments in negotiating conventions and agi-ee- 
ments regarding migration ; ( 6 ) to authorize the 
International Labor Office, before the next session 
of the Permanent Migration Committee, to consult 
governments on the points that might be inserted 
in such an agreement, including machinery for 
the execution of the agreement such as bilateral 
technical committees. 

Finally, the resolution considers it desirable that 
there should be coordinated international responsi- 
bility for migration problems, more particularly : 
(«) the collection of information from govern- 
ments and other sources concerning migration; 
(J) the sending of suitable study missions at the 
request of the governments concerned, with a view 
to investigating settlement conditions and planned 
migration schemes in individual countries ; (c) the 
giving of advice to emigration and immigration 
countries in formulating and carrying out migi'a- 
tion schemes, and, if they desire, the placing of 
suitable experts at their disposal ; and (d) cooper- 
atinjr with govermnents and with the international 
organizations concerned in promoting and financ- 
ing migration in relation to industrial or agricul- 
tural development schemes. 

The resolution invites the Governing Body to 
study, in cooperation with the Economic and Social 
Council, the best method of insuring such coordi- 
nation through a central coordinating body or 
otherwise, and to authorize the International 
Labor Office to collaborate with the Secretariat of 
the United Nations, the Intergovernmental Com- 
mittee on Refugees, and the International Refugee 
Organization with a view to providing informa- 
tion about migration policies and otherwise assist- 
ing in the work of resettlement of refugees and 
displaced persons. Recognizing that the problem 



January 79, 7947 



121 



ACTIVITIBS AND DEVEiOPMENTS 



of financial assistance is one to which governments 
of certain immigration countries attach great im- 
portance, it invites the Governing Body to urge 
the International Bank for Reconstruction and 
Development: (a) when it considers projects of 
economic development, to take into account the 
extent to which such projects contribute toward 
the solution of migi-ation problems; (i) when it 
makes loans for economic development, to include 
migration costs in appropriate cases within the 
scope of such development. It furthermore ob- 
serves that, whatever arrangements are made for 
international machinery concerned with migration 
problems, the ILO should continue to be respon- 
sible for all migration matters falling within its 
competence, and urges the Governing Body to 
make the necessary provision to insure the develop- 
ment of the migration work of the International 
Labor Office to meet post-war needs. 

The question of racial discrimination in con- 
nection with migration gave rise to a very inter- 
esting discussion, the gist of which indicated that 
countries insisted on maintaining the prerogative 
to select those immigrants whom they regarded as 
best suited for assimilation to their conditions. 
Furthermore, it was pointed out that countries of 
immigration could not accept persons who might 
endanger the standard of living of their own popu- 
lation. Statements were made by several mem- 
bers of the Committee which were designed to re- 
serve the right of each nation to adopt rules and 
regulations aimed at protecting the legitimate in- 
terests of its own population as well as those of the 
immigrants. Wlien it had taken note of these 
statements, the Committee adopted a resolution on 
this subject which unanimously affirmed its belief 
that the principle of non-discrimination in regard 
to race is one of the fundamental conditions of 
progressive and orderly migration movements. 

Detailed consideration of the problem concern- 
ing teclmical selection of migrants brought out 
the desirability of the closest possible inter- 
national collaboration, particularly through bi- 
lateral arrangements, in this field as well as in 
vocational training of migrants. The resolution 
adopted by the Committee on this subject recom- 
mended that immigration countries should estab- 
lish, or improve, criteria for the technical selection 
of migrants on the basis of local conditions of 
climate, production, and social life. Note was 



made that the establishment of relevant criteria 
should be facilitated by utilizing, wherever suf- 
ficient data are available, past experience concern- 
ing the adaptation of migrants. Likewise, the 
resolution urged that there should be technical 
cooperation of the selecting agents and migration 
services of the immigration country with the 
migration services of the emigration country, and, 
in appropriate cases, with international agencies. 
The consensus on the part of both Committee 
members and the Inteniational Labor Office staff 
as expressed in the final Committee report re- 
garded the meeting as a definite success and a 
significant contribution toward the facing of the 
long-run post-war migration problem. At its 
99th session held in Montreal in October 1946, 
the Governing Body approved of the Committee's 
report, reserving action on the resolution dealing 
with racial discrimination until its next session. 

U. N. Spanish Resolution — Continued from page 115 
credited to Spain at the time of the adoption of 
the General Assembly's resolution: 

Brazil — "There is no Brazilian Ambassador in 
Madrid since January last, Brazil being repre- 
sented in Spain by a charge d'affaires as of that 
date. Accordingly, no further action is necessary 
on the part of the Brazilian Government to comply 
with the afore-mentioned resolution." 

Greece — "The Greek Government has left vacant 
the post of Minister to Madrid. The business of 
the Royal Greek Legation is conducted by a charge 
d'affaires." 

Paraguay — "The Government of Paraguay has 
neither an Ambassador nor Minister Plenipoten- 
tiary accredited to the Government of Franco at 
the present time." 

United States — "My Government has instructed 
me to inform you that since the departure of the 
Honorable Norman Armour from Madrid on De- 
cember 1, 1945, the United States has not had an 
Ambassador or Minister Plenipotentiary in 
Spain." 

3. States which simply acknowledge receipt of 
the Secretary-General's telegi'am pending further 
communication : 

Panama, Turkey, Colombia, and Uruguay. 

4. States which reserve their position : 
El Salvador. 



122 



Department of State Bulletin 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



The State of the Union 



MESSAGE OF THE PRESIDENT TO THE CONGRESS' 



Mr. President, Mr. Speaker, Members of the 
Congress of the United States : 

I come before you today to report on the State 
of the Union and, in the words of the Constitution, 
to recommend such measures as I judge necessary 
and expedient. 

I come also to welcome you as you take up your 
duties and to discuss with you the manner in which 
you and I should fulfil our obligations to the 
American people during the next two years. 

The power to mold the future of this Nation lies 
in our hands — yours and mine, joined together. 

If in this year, and in the next, we can find the 
right course to take as each issue arises, and if, 
in spite of all difficulties, we have the courage and 
the resolution to take that course, then we shall 
achieve a state of well-being for our people without 
precedent in history. And if we continue to woi'k 
with the other nations of the world earnestly, pa- 
tiently, and wisely, we can — granting a will for 
peace on the part of our neighbors — make a lasting 
peace for the word. 



Foreign Affairs 

Progress in reaching our domestic goals is close- 
ly related to our conduct of foreign affairs. All 
that I have said about maintaining a sound and 
prosperous economy and improving the welfare 
of our people has greater meaning because of the 
world leadership of the United States. Wliat we 
do, or fail to do, at home affects not only ourselves 
but millions throughout the world. If we are to 
fulfil our responsibilities to ourselves and to other 
peoples, we must make sure that the United States 
is sound economically, socially, and politically. 
Only then will we be able to help bring about 



the elements of peace in other countries — polit- 
ical stability, economic advancement, and social 
progress. 

Peace treaties for Italy, Bulgaria, Rumania, and 
Himgary have finally been prepared. Following 
the signing of these treaties next month in Paris, 
they will be submitted to the Senate for ratifica- 
tion. This Government does not regard the trea- 
ties as completely satisfactory. Whatever their 
defects, however, I am convinced that they are as 
good as we can hope to obtain by agreement among 
the principal wartime Allies. Further dispute 
and delay would gi'avely jeopardize political sta- 
bility in the countries concerned for many years. 

During the long months of debate on these trea- 
ties, we have made it clear to all nations that the 
United States will not consent to settlements at the 
expense of principles we regard as vital to a just 
and enduring peace. We have made it equally 
clear that we will not retreat to isolationism. Our 
policies will be the same during the forthcoming 
negotiations in Moscow on the German and Aus- 
trian treaties, and during future conferences on 
the Japanese treaty. 

The delay in arriving at the first peace settle- 
ments is due partly to the difficulty of reaching 
agreement with the Soviet Union on the terms of 
settlement. Whatever differences there may have 
been between us and the Soviet Union, however, 
should not be allowed to obscure the fact that the 
basic interests of both nations lie in the early mak- 
ing of a peace under which the peoples of all 
countries may return, as free men and women, to 
the essential tasks of production and reconstruc- 
tion. The major concern of each of us should be 



' Excerpts from the message delivered by the President 
before a joint session of the Congress on Jan. 6, 1947 and 
released to the press by the White House on the same data 



January 19, 1947 



123 



THE RECORD Of THE WBBK 



the promotion of collective security, not the ad- 
vancement of individual security. 

Our policy toward the Soviet Union is guided by 
the same principles which determine our policies 
toward all nations. We seek only to uphold the 
principles of international justice which have been 
embodied in the Charter of the United Nations. 

We must now get on with tlie peace settlements. 
The occupying powers should recognize the inde- 
pendence of Austria and withdraw their troops. 
The Germans and the Japanese cannot be left in 
doubt and fear as to their future ; they must know 
their national boundaries, their resources, and 
what reparations they must pay. Without trying 
to manage their internal affairs, we can insure 
that those countries do not rearm. 

International Relief and Displaced Persons 

The United States can be proud of its part in 
caring for peoples reduced to want by the ravages 
of war, and in aiding nations to restore their 
national economies. We have shipped more 
supplies to the hungry peoples of the world 
since the end of the war than all other countries 
combined. 

However, so far as admitting displaced persons 
is concerned, I do not feel that the United States 
has done its part. Only about 5,000 of them have 
entered this country since May 1946. The fact 
is that the executive agencies are now doing all 
that is reasonably possible under the limitation 
of existing law and established quotas. Congres- 
sional assistance in the form of new legislation 
is needed. I urge the Congress to turn its atten- 
tion to this world problem, in an effort to find 
ways whereby we can fulfil our responsibilities to 
these thousands of homeless and suffering refugees 
of all faiths. 

International Trade 

World economic cooperation is essential to world 
political cooperation. We have made a good start 
on economic cooperation through the Interna- 
tional Bank, the International Monetary Fund, 
and the Export-Import Bank. We must now take 
other steps for the reconstruction of world trade, 
and we should continue to strive for an interna- 
tional trade system as free from obstructions as 
possible. 



Atomic Energy 

The United States has taken the lead in the 
endeavor to put atomic energy under effective in- 
ternational control. We seek no monopoly for 
ourselves or for any group of nations. We ask 
only that there be safeguards sufficient to insure 
that no nation will be able to use this power for 
military purposes. So long as all governments 
are not agreed on means of international control 
of atomic energy, the shadow of fear will obscure 
the bright prospects for the peaceful use of this 
enormous power. 

In accordance with the Atomic Energy Act of 
1946, the Commission established under that law 
is assuming full jurisdiction over our domestic 
atomic-energy enterprise. The program of the 
Commission will, of course, be worked out in close 
collaboration with the military services in con- 
formity with the wish of the Congress, but it is 
my fervent hope that the military significance of 
atomic energy will steadily decline. We look to 
the Commission to foster the development of 
atomic energy for industrial use and scientific and 
medical research. In the vigorous and effective 
development of peaceful uses of atomic energy 
rests our hope that this new force may ultimately 
be turned into a blessing for all nations. 

Military Policy 

In 1946 the Army and Navy completed the de- 
mobilization of their wartime forces. They are 
now maintaining the forces which we need for 
national defense and to fulfil our international 
obligations. 

We live in a world in which strength on the part 
of peace-loving nations is still the greatest deter- 
rent to aggression. World stability can be de- 
stroyed when nations with great responsibilities 
neglect to maintain the means of discharging those 
responsibilities. 

This is an age when unforeseen attack could 
come with unprecedented speed. We must be 
strong enough to defeat, and thus to forestall, any 
such attack. In our steady progress toward a more 
rational world order, the need for large armed 
forces is progressively declining ; but the stabiliz- 
ing force of American military strength must not 
be weakened until our hopes are fully realized. 
When a system of collective security under the 
United Nations has been established, we shall be 
willing to lead in collective disarmament, but, 



124 



Department of State Bulletin 



THE RECORD OF THB WEEK 



until such a system becomes a reality, we must not 
again allow our weakness to invite attack. 

For these reasons, we need well-equipped, well- 
trained armed forces and we must be able to mobil- 
ize rapidly our resources in men and material for 
our own defense, should the need arise. 

The Ai-my will be reduced to 1,070,000 officers 
and men by July 1, 1947. Half of the Army will 
be used for occupation duties abroad and most of 
the remainder will be employed at home in the 
suppoit of these overseas forces. 

The Navy is supporting the occupation troops in 
Europe and in the Far East. Its fundamental 
mission — to support our national interests where- 
ever required — is unchanged. The Navy, includ- 
ing the Marine Corps, will average 571,000 officers 
and men during the fiscal year 1948. 

We are encountering serious difficulties in main- 
taining our forces at even these reduced levels. 
Occupation troops are bai'ely sufficient to carry 
out the duties which our foreign policy requires. 
Our forces at home are at a point where further 
reduction is impracticable. We should like an 
Army and a Navy composed entirely of long-term 
volunteers, but in spite of liberal inducements the 
basic needs of the Army are not now being met by 
voluntary enlistments. 

The War Department has advised me that it is 
unable to make an accurate forecast at the present 
time as to whether it will be possible to maintain 
the sti'ength of the Army by relying exclusively 
on volunteers. The situation will be much clearer 
in a few weeks, when the results of the campaign 
for volunteers are known. The War Department 
will make its recommendation as to the need for 
the extension of Selective Service in sufficient time 
to enable the Congress to take action prior to the 
expiration of the present law on March 31. The 
responsibility for maintaining our armed forces 
at the strength necessary for our national safety 
rests with the Congress. 

The development of a trained citizen reserve is 
also vital to our national security. This can best 
be accomplished through universal training. I 
have appointed an Advisory Commission on Uni- 
versal Training to study the various plans for a 
training program, and I expect that the recom- 
mendations of the Commission will be of benefit 
to the Congi'ess and to me in reaching decisions 
on this problem. 



The cost of the military establishment is sub- 
stantial. There is one certain way by which we 
can cut costs and at the same time enhance our 
national security. That is by the establishment of 
a single Department of National Defense. I shall 
communicate with the Congi-ess in the near future 
with reference to the establishment of a single 
Department of National Defense. 

National security does not consist only of an 
army, a navy, and an air force. It rests on a 
much broader base. It depends on a sound economy 
of prices and wages, on a prosperous agriculture, 
on satisfied and productive workers, on a competi- 
tive private enterprise free from monopolistic 
repression, on continued industrial harmony and 
production, on civil liberties and human free- 
doms — on all the forces which create in our men 
and women a strong moral fiber and spiritual 
stamina. 

But we have a higher duty and a greater respon- 
sibility than the attaiiunent of national security. 
Our goal is collective security for all mankind. 

If we can work in a spirit of understanding and 
mutual respect, we can fulfil this solemn obliga- 
tion which rests upon us. 

The spirit of the American people can set the 
course of world history. If we maintain and 
strengthen our cherished ideals, and if we share 
our great bomity with war-stricken people over 
the world, then the faith of our citizens in free- 
dom and democracy will spread over the whole 
earth and free men everywhere will share our 
devotion to these ideals. 

Let us have the will and the patience to do this 
job together. 

May the Lord strengthen us in our faith. 

May He give us wisdom to lead the peoples of 
the world in His ways of peace. 

The Economic Report of the President ^ 

LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 

The White House, 
Washington, D. C. January 8, 1947. 
The Honorable the President or the Senate, 
The Honorable the Speaker of the 
House of Representatives. 
Sirs: I am presenting herewith my Economic 
Report to the Congress, as required under the 
Employment Act of 1946. 

' H. Doc. 49, 80th Cong. 



January ?9, J 947 



125 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



In preparing this report I have had the advice 
and assistance of the Council of Economic Ad- 
visers, members of the Cabinet, and heads of 
independent agencies. 
Respectfully, 

Haery S. Truman 

EXCERPTS FROM THE REPORT 

International Transactions 

The net balance of international transactions in 
1946 was about the same as we can anticipate for 
1947. Some changes in the components of that 
balance and in the methods of financing it, how- 
ever, are both desirable and likely to occur. 

Intense demand of foreign countries for goods 
available only or chiefly in this country has been 
one of the factors accounting for a high level of 
employment, production, and purchasing power 
in the United States during 1946. 

Our receipts from the sales of goods and ser- 
vices abroad have recently been running at a rate 
of about 15 billion dollars a year, compared with 
only 4 billion dollars prior to the war. 

Foreign demand for United States goods at 
present is associated with the incompleteness of 
reconstruction in war-devastated areas, and it 
will continue to be high during 1947, even though 
some countries may be reluctant to purchase at 
our current high prices. Sufficient resources will 
be available to foreign countries to finance ur- 
gently needed purchases from us. Any recession 
in domestic demand would permit us to meet some 
of the now unsatisfied foreign demand, with a 
resulting increase in exports. Even if this should 
be confined to a rise in quantities rather than in 
the dollar values it would be a factor cushioning 
the effects of any dip in domestic production and 
emplojonent. 

Should fears concerning our willingness and 
ability to buy and lend abroad increase, however, 
foreign countries may husband their dollar re- 
sources so as to make them available over a longer 
period. In this event our exports would be 
reduced. 



5. Cooperation in international economic relations 

Wliile most of this Report has necessarily been 
devoted to the domestic aspects of employment, 
production, and purchasing power, we must bear 
in mind that we are part of a world economy. Our 
sales of goods and services abroad, amounting to 
about 15 billion dollars in 1946, played an impor- 
tant role in the maintenance of domestic produc- 
tion, employment, and purchasing power and may 
be expected to do so this year. Such a high level of 
exports reflects in large part the war destruction 
of productive capacity in other countries. If we 
are to maintain a well-balanced prosperity over a 
long period, our foreign trade must be established 
on a more permanent basis. 

In the long run we can sell to other countries only 
if we are willing to buy from them, or to invest our 
funds abroad. 

Both foreign trade and foreign investment are 
vital to maintaining a dynamic economy in this 
comitry. 

The shortages we have suffered during the war 
and are even now experiencing have proved to us 
our need for foreign imports. We will continue to 
need imports not only to add richness and variety 
to our standard of living but also as a means of con- 
serving strategic materials. We do not have to 
fear so-called foreign competition when we have 
maximum production, employment, and purchas- 
ing power. We must not, of course, indulge in 
indiscriminate reduction of barriers to imports. 
Such a policy is not contemplated. 

For a few years we cannot expect to buy as much 
from abroad as other countries buy from us. We 
will find it profitable to invest a part of our savings 
in developing the world's productive resources 
through sound loans and investments of equity 
capital abroad. This is important not only in the 
first instance as an immediate outlet for our goods 
and services, the supply of which will be increas- 
ing in the coming years, but also as a means of 
permanently increasing foreign markets for our 
farmers and businessmen. The quickest demon- 
stration of this can be seen by the fact that nations 
that are industrialized are our best customers. 

Many countries fear economic depression in the 
United States as a threat to their own stability. If 
faced with the alternatives of smaller trade and 
economic insulation on the one hand or close rela- 
tions with an unstable American economy on the 



126 



Deparfmenf of Sfofe Bulletin 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



other, many might prefer some insulation as the 
lesser evil. 

In preference to either of these alternatives, 
these countries would choose closer relations with 
a stable American economy operating at high 
levels. They have already begun to cooperate to- 
ward achieving these related goals : economic sta- 
bility and expansion of world trade. The Inter- 
national Monetary Fund, designed to stabilize ex- 
change rates, and the International Bank for Ee- 
construction and Development, set up to facilitate 
the international flow of capital, have already 
started to operate. At our initiative, experts of 
18 important governments recently worked out a 
tentative charter for an International Trade Or- 
ganization. This charter embodies principles of 
commercial conduct designed to enlarge the bene- 
ficial flow of world trade, to reenf orce the domestic 
employment and development programs of the co- 
operating governments and, by intergovernmental 
commodity agreements, to remove the depressing 
effects of burdensome world surpluses. This char- 
ter represents the first major effort in the field of 
trade to replace unilateral action — which often in- 
jured other countries and provoked retaliation — 
by cooperation and joint action mider a set of 
common principles. Continued progress in the 
foi-mation of the International Trade Organiza- 
tion represents the most important step that we 
can take to reestablish a high volume of foreign 
trade on a sound basis. 

The willingness of many other countries to enter 
the proposed trade organization will depend to a 
gi-eat extent on our attitude in connection with the 
reciprocal tariff negotiations scheduled for this 
year. In return for our own tariff concessions, we 
can hope to secure not only reduction of foreign 
tariffs and discriminations but also elimination of 
a mass of restrictions, in particular, rigid import 
quotas preventing our access to foreign markets. 
Thus we should press forward with our program 
to secure the reciprocal reduction of trade barriers. 

If we fail to do our part in putting international 
economic relations on a healthier basis, it is quite 
likely that some other countries will feel compelled 
to increase their own controls. Such a develop- 
ment would tend to break the world into trading 



blocs and could have profound effects upon world 
politics and the prospects for creating an enduring 
peace. 

U.S. Position on Control of Dairen 

NOTES TO SOVIET AND CHINESE GOVERNMENTS 

[Released to the press January 6] 

Text of note delivered iy the American Etnbassy 
in the Soviet Union on January 3, 19^7 to the 
Soviet Foreign Office. A similar note has also 
been delivered iy the American Emhassy in China 
to the Chinese Foreign Ofp,ce. 

The American Government considers it desir- 
able that the current unsatisfactory situation with 
regard to the status and control of the port of 
Dairen be promptly considered by the Chinese 
and Soviet Governments with a view to the imple- 
mentation of the pertinent provisions of the So- 
viet-Chinese agreement of August 14, 1945, in 
regard to Dairen.^ This Government perceives no 
reason why there should be further delay in re- 
opening the port, under Chinese administration, 
to international commerce as contemplated in the 
aforementioned agreement. 

The Government of the United States, while 
fully appreciating that this is a matter for direct 
negotiation between the Chinese and Soviet Gov- 
ernments, feels that it has a responsibility to 
American interests in general to raise the question 
with the two directly interested Governments. It 
hopes that the abnormal conditions now prevailing 
at Dairen may be terminated at an early date and 
that normal conditions may be established which 
will permit American citizens to visit and reside 
at Dairen in pursuit of their legitimate activities. 

In the foregoing connection this Government 
also wishes to express the hope that agreement 
can be reached soon for the resumption of traffic 
on the Chinese Changchun Kailway. 

It is believed that prompt implementation of 
the agreements with regard to Dairen and the rail- 
way would constitute a major contribution to the 
reestablishment of normal conditions in the Far 
East and the revival of generally beneficial com- 
mercial activity. This Government therefore 
would be glad to have the assurance of the Chinese 
and Soviet Governments that all necessary steps 
to this end will be taken in the near future. 



' Bm.i-ETiN of Feb. 10, 1946, p. 205. 



ianuat^ 79, 7947 



127 



U.S. Policy Toward a Unified Government in Soutliern Korea 



STATEMENT BY LIEUTENANT GENERAL JOHN R. HODGE 



[Released to the press January 7] 

Lieutenant GeneralJohn R. Hodge, Commanding 
General, United States Army Forces in Korea, 
issued the follouring statement at Seoul on 
January ^ 

In Cairo in December 1943 and again at Pots- 
dam in July 1945, the President of the United 
States approved for his country a formal decla- 
ration of the Allied Powers that Korea should in 
due course become free and independent. Realiz- 
ing the insecurity of Korea, a small defenseless 
nation in a troubled post-war world, the United 
States at the Moscow conference in December 
1945 bound itself in an agreement with other 
major powers as to the general procedure by 
which Korean freedom and independence would 
be achieved. This agreement, known as the Mos- 
cow Decision, provides for the development of a 
democratic, unified government for all Korea with 
initial assistance by the United States, the Union 
of Soviet Socialist Republics, England, and China. 
Through this agreement the Allied Powers as- 
sured the world that blood, lives, and resources 
expended bj' them in making possible that libera- 
tion of Korea would bear fruit and not be wasted, 
and that Korea would be independent. 

The Under Secretary of State of the United 
States, speaking for his Government, has recently 
publicly reaffirmed the unchanging intention of 
the United States in the following words : 

"The (State) Department and the Government's 
policy is the same as it always has been and as I 
have stated several times our policy is to bring 
about the unification of a free and democratic 
Korea. We intend to stay there until we have been 
successful in doing it." ^ 

In order to fulfil its commitments to Korea and 
to the Allied Powers, the United States Govern- 
ment placed forces in Korea and has designated the 



' Statement made at a press and radio news conference 
in Washington, D. C, on Dec. 10, 1946. See also Bxjlletin 
of Sept. 8, 1946, p. 462, and Oct. 13, 1946, p. 670. 



Commanding General of these forces to act as its 
agent with broad powers. Included in his direc- 
tives, in addition to his responsibility for com- 
manding of United Forces in Korea, is the require- 
ment that he exercise executive power for govern- 
ing the American Occupied Zone, until the provi- 
sional government of all Korea is established. As 
the executive head of the government within this 
area, the Commanding General, United States 
Armed Forces in Korea, has designated a princi- 
pal assistant as military governor to act as his 
dei^uty in handling the details of the civil govern- 
ment. Either through lack of knowledge of facts 
or through malicious intent to deceive the Korean 
people, certain elements are creating the impres- 
sion that the United States now favors and is ac- 
tively working toward a separate government in 
Southern Korea, and that the Korean Interim 
Legislative Assembly is a completely independent 
body designed as the forerunner of that govern- 
ment. 

Both of the above assumptions are incorrect and 
dangerous conclusions, entirely without justifica- 
tion, and contrary to the announced basic policies 
of the United States and the other great Allied 
Powers who liberated Korea from the Japanese. 
In furtherance of the United States policy and in 
order to prepare South Koreans for democratic 
self-government, the Commanding General, 
through his deputy for military government, has 
been progressively drawing Koreans into govern- 
mental activities in order that they may, to the 
maximum extent possible, gain experience and take 
over governmental responsibility pending estab- 
lishment of their unified govermnent. This does 
not mean that he intends to or that he can under 
his directives shirk his responsibility as executive, 
or completely transfer his executive power to any 
other agency until the provisional government of 
unified Korea is formed. At the same time it is 
the repeatedly announced and continuing intention 
of the American Commander to give to Koreans 
the maximum possible freedom in operation of the 



128 



Department of Slate Bulletin 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



agencies of government, assisted as required by 
American advisers, and to furtlier all legitimate 
and proper aspirations of the people of Southern 
Korea for independence. 

The Legislative Assembly is a body established 
with extensive powers under order No. 118^ 
designed to give Koreans greater influence and 
voice in the affairs of Southern Korea. It is a 
great step forward and offers a great opportunity 
for the Korean people to develop their nation. 
It may draft legislation leading to important 
political, economic, and social reforms pending 
the establishment of the provisional government. 
However, it must remain clear to all that the 
legislature is not a government within itself, nor 
is it the governing body of South Korea. It is 
exactly what its name implies, an Interim Legisla- 
tive Assembly with legislative powers to make 
laws, and enforcement by the executive branch of 
government, and to assist the executive branch in 
carrying out government of South Korea accord- 
ing to the will of the Korean people pending the 
establishment of Korean provisional government 
under the Moscow Decision. 

As previously stated, I and my assistants, in 
accordance with the policy of the United States 
Government, will continue to work for a united 
Korea, governed by a democratic provisional gov- 
ernment created in accordance with recognized 
international agreements and with the expressed 
will of the Korean people which will lead to the 
independence of Korea as a nation united — North 
and South into one. The desire of the Korean 
people to achieve unity, independence, and de- 
mocracy can best be realized by full knowledge 
of and adherence to the foregoing policies. 
Efforts to undermine or oppose these policies for 
selfish political or personal gains can only bring 
harmful results, and delay the progress of your 
nation. The Korean people must know and 
recognize facts as they exist and should not follow 
the will-of-the-wisp of purely wishful thinking. 
Those who support and aid in the development 
of the Korean Government within the framework 
of the policies will make the greatest possible 
contribution to the cause of early Korean 
independence. 

' Not printed. 

' Public Law 371, 79tli Congress. 

= BuutETiN of Dec. 29, 1946, p. 1190. 



Non-Military Activities in Japan 

Summation no. 12 for the month of September 
1946, released to the press simultaneously by Gen- 
eral Headquarters, Supreme Commander for 
Allied Powers, Tokyo, and by the War Depart- 
ment in Washington, and svunmation no. 13 for 
the month of October, released to the press on 
January 5, 1947, outlined the political, economic, 
and social activities carried on in Japan under the 
direction of SCAP. 

Both reports indicate latest developments in 
civil administration, public safety, and prosecu- 
tion of legal and war criminals; production in 
such major industries as agriculture and mining, 
forestry, textile and heavy manufacturing, trans- 
portation and public utilities; conditions with re- 
gard to labor; control of imports and exports; 
rationing and price control ; property control and 
reparations; and accomplishments in the fields of 
public health and welfare, education, religion, and 
media of expression. 

The report for September cites as major develop- 
ments the passage by the Japanese Diet of four 
bills intended to reform local government and the 
resumption of postal service with all countries 
except Germany. 

The report for October was marked by the 
passage of the Rural Land Reform Bill and the 
ratification of the Constitution. 

Agreement on Trade With the 
Philippines 

Supplementary Protocol and Entry Into Force 

[Released to the press January 8] 

The President issued on January 8 a suj^ple- 
mentary proclamation announcing that the agree- 
ment with the Philippines concerning trade and 
related matters, signed on July 4, 1946, and the 
exchange of notes supijlementing that agreement, 
signed October 22, 1946, were proclaimed by the 
President of the Republic of the Philippines on 
January 1, 1947. This supplementary proclama- 
tion recites that, pursuant to its provisions, the 
agreement entered into force on January 2, 1947. 

The agreement, which on the part of the United 
States was entered into under the authority of the 
Philippine Trade Act of 1946 ' was proclaimed by 
the President of the United States on December 
17, 1946.=' 



January 79, 1947 



129 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



Edgar Grossman Appointed to Joint 
American-Pliilippine Financial Com- 
mission 

The Secretary of State on January 7 announced 
the appointment of Edgar G. Grossman as Ameri- 
can co-chairman of the Joint American-Philippine 
Financial Gommission with the personal rank of 
Minister. 

The Commission, which was established by the 
two Governments upon the recommendation of 
the National Advisory Gouncil on International 
Monetary and Financial Problems and with the 
approval of Presidents Truman and Roxas, will 
spend three or four months in Manila studying 



the financial and budgetary problems of the Phil- 
ippine Government and will make recommenda- 
tions to the two Governments based upon the find- 
ings. The American section of the Commission 
will depart for Manila on or about January 11, 
1947. 



Establishment of the Philippine Alien 
Property Administration 

The President on January 7, 1947 issued Execu- 
tive Order 9818, establishing the Philippine alien 
property administration and defining its func- 
tions,^ which supersedes Executive Order 9789 of 
October 14, 1946.^ 



Public Support Necessary for Success of Occupation Policies 



BY ASSISTANT SECRETARY HILLDRING^ 



Our foreign policy commitment is the gi'eatest 
in Germany and Japan. This is true on several 
counts, and I shall mention two specifically. 

First — The resolution of the German problem 
is the most important one we have in Europe. I 
do not mean that if we successfully settle the Ger- 
man problem the rest of the Eui'opean situation 
will fall into place automatically. But I do say 
that unless the German problem is settled, and set- 
tled decisively and correctly, the other parts of the 
picture cannot be forced or maneuvered into place. 
They won't budge. They just won't fit. The same 
in general is true of Japan with respect to a peace- 
ful settlement in the Far East. 

This is one of the reasons why we must concen- 
trate, as Mr. Byrnes is constantly doing, on the 
settlement of the German and Japanese questions. 

A second reason why our foreign policy com- 
mitment is greatest in the occupied areas is this : 
The occupied areas involve us, as Americans, in 
some sacrifices. We Americans have said — and sin- 
cerely 1 believe — that we are no longer going to 
be an isolationist nation. That declaration visits 



' 12 Federal Register 133. 

' Bulletin of Nov. 3, 1946, p. 826. 

' Excerpts from an address delivered before a meeting 
of the Beverly Hills Forum at Beverly Hills, Calif., on 
Jan. 7, 1947 and released to the press on the same date. 



upon us great responsibilities in the international 
scene. It means that we as a nation pledge our- 
selves to discharge the obligations entailed in such 
responsibilities. I think we are now completely 
united in that sentiment. I do not believe there 
is much difference of opinion in the United States 
on that general point. Both of our major political 
parties subscribe to it. The vast majority of 
Americans believe it — in an abstract way. 

However, when all is said and done, these are 
merely attitudes and words. I am very much 
afraid that, as we begin this New Year, we as a 
people may be expressing these sentiments with- 
out meaning them. And we say them without 
meaning them because we do not understand or 
appreciate the commitments to which they obli- 
gate us individually and collectively. 

In Germany today we have 6,000 Americans — 
military and civilian — actively engaged in the 
military government of that country. We have 
another 2,000 in Austria, 5,000 in Japan and about 
1,000 in Korea. This represents a sizable group 
of Americans — Americans who, in the main, are 
making large pereonal sacrifices in the service of 
their country. 

But most important, and most to the point, this 
costs us Americans money, and a lot of money. 



130 



Department of State Bulletin 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



Our bill in the occupied areas was about three 
quarters of a billion dollars last year. That is also 
approximately what it will cost us next year, or 
rather it will cost us that much if we can get the 
money. 

As you know, early in December we concluded 
with the British an agreement to treat the Ameri- 
can and British zones of Germany as an economic 
unit, and today that agreement is in force. Under 
the terms of this merger the American and British 
Governments will share equally the costs of ad- 
ministering the combined zones. This means that 
if we Americans are sincere in our international in- 
tentions, it will cost us a total of 500 million dollars 
spread over the next three years, or an average of 
167 millions a year. 

After three years, however, it is expected that 
the two zones will be self-supporting. Prior to 
this agreement the American taxpayer was putting 
out roughly 200 million dollars a year to maintain 
our zone in Germany, with little prospect of even 
reaching solvency. 

I think it is easy to see that it is cheaper to 
subscribe to this Anglo-American merger than to 
spend 200 million dollars a year indefinitely to 
maintain our own zone separately. This is an 
important step in relieving the American tax- 
payer of a monetary sacrifice he is now making in 
the interests of world stability. But I like to 
think it is much more than that. I like to think 
that it is the underwriting of our foreign policy. 
It is, in fact, a sound investment in lasting peace. 
It is a great step forward. 

However, I am disturbed. I am disturbed by 
what I hear and by what I don't hear; by what 
I read and by what I don't read, in my mail and 
in the press. More than a month has passed since 
the Anglo-American agreement was signed by Mr. 
Bevin and Mr. Byrnes, and the event has passed 
almost without notice. Public discussion is still 
absorbed with policy matters. Currently, the dis- 
cussion is centered on whether we should or should 
not permit reparations payments to Russia out 
of the current industrial production in Germany. 

I said the Fusion Agreement passed almost un- 
noticed. Almost, but not quite. Those who did 
comment cited the cost and doubted that the Con- 
gress would appropriate the funds. 

But very few have risen to the challenge laid 
down by the establishment of this program. Very 



few have shown much interest in implementing 
this policy. Only a handful of thoughtful citizens 
have shown much concern in this 90 percent of 
the problem, and it appears that almost no one is 
interested in whether or not we will be in Germany 
in 1948 to supervise the payment of reparations 
in kind, or to do anything else. 

Are we going to stay in Germany until our job 
is done, even though it may take 25, perhaps 40, 
years? Are we going to stay in Japan until our 
job there is done? I don't know. I can't answer 
those questions tonight, but I can say with the 
utmost sincerity and conviction that it is idle and 
flighty to argue about reparations and denazifica- 
tion and democratization, until that question is 
answered. 

"What," you might ask, "shall we do?" 

In my opinion we must revise our views as to 
what constitutes good citizenship in this country. 
The dilemma we are discussing has historical 
roots. For 300 years we Americans have devoted 
ourselves to conquering a frontier. In conquering 
this frontier we used the best thinking of all 
Americans and the diligent application of all 
America's energy to that task. We concentrated 
on it, and we did a magnificent job. And we 
developed a tradition in the doing. We have 
traditionally turned our backs on the two oceans. 
It is easy for us to do that, even after involvement 
in affairs beyond our borders. It is in our blood. 
We did it after World War I. The great danger 
is that we may do it again, and that is why I 
believe we must reconsider our formula for good 
citizenship. 

At present any man or woman is a good citizen 
if he or she is a useful member of the community ; 
if he votes regularly; if he maintains an interest 
in the kind of schools his children attend and the 
movies they see. In other words, if a man displays 
what might be termed a normal interest in civic 
and national affairs he is adjudged to be a good 
citizen. That is the kind of citizen who says : "I 
believe that we should settle this problem in Ger- 
many". And when we say, "You should support 
your Government's policy in Germany by appro- 
priating 500 million dollars for it," this is the 
same citizen who writes to his Congressman and 
says : "Get that 'visionary' bureaucrat out of there 
before he wrecks the Treasury". 

The problem of United States diplomacy lies 



January 79, 1947 



131 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



principally today at home. Our major difficulty 
today is getting from our citizens a deep-seated 
and understanding interest in what goes on beyond 
our borders. There is too generally an attitude on 
the part of too many of our people in not caring 
much about what we do, or why we do it, or whether 
we do it at all. And so long as that situation exists 
at home, our whole diplomatic program, our whole 
project of international cooperation, is in the direst 
jeopardy. 

And, of course, I think that it is self-evident to 
all of you that no greater disaster could befall the 
world today than to have the United States with- 
draw its participation from Germany and Japan. 

Again, I cannot impress upon you too vigorously 
the desperate need for the cultivation of a pro- 
found interest in your country's affaire abroad. 
This nation was conceived upon the principle that 
every man should have a loud voice in the shaping 
of his own destiny. Contrariwise, we can, in this 
country, do a job with credit to the nation only 
if we have behind the task the warm support of 
the people. We stand today, in the beginning of 
this New Year, upon the threshold of great inter- 
national adventures. We Americans will shape 
our destiny by what we do, or by what we fail 
to do — and, mind you, what we fail to do is as 
important as what we do. 

Our great feats of arms and our crushing vic- 
tories in the war just ended have placed upon us, 
whether we like it or not, great international 
responsibilities. Our economic and moral posi- 
tion in this post-war world places upon us not only 
international responsibilities but, by the same 
token, the opportunity for and the obligation of 
leadership. 

If we truly desire a world of peace and decency 
and fellowship among men we must each of us, 
personally, strive for such a world. If we truly 
desire that there shall not be another war We 
must, personally, act^ as well as think, in a fashion 
that will prevent war. It is not enough simply 
to inveigh against war. This is merely the firet 
feeble step toward the objective. Good deeds, 
hard work, sacrifice — that is the 90 percent of the 
struggle for peace. 

Unless each of us is willing to laljor and sweat 
for such a world, all the elaborate jilans, and pro- 
grams, and projects for a decent, peaceful world 
will, I assure you, be in vain. 



We are todaj% I believe, engaged in an endeavor 
that might properly be described as a "battle for 
peace". After World War I, many of us believed 
we had won the war. But did we really win that 
war? If we fought the war in order to win 
battles, the answer is "yes". But if we engaged 
in that struggle to make democracy secure, and I 
think that is why we fought, then I believe history 
has clearly demonstrated that we did not achieve, 
by the lavish expenditure of our manhood and 
our treasure, the objectives for which we waged 
the war. 

And so, naturally enough, along came World 
War II. By a spontaneous and herculean effort 
on our part, and by the courageous resistance of 
our Allies, notablj' England and Russia, we have 
again won all the decisive battles. All fighting 
ceased more than a year ago. But very regret- 
fully I am forced to exj^ress the opinion that we 
have not as yet achieved any of the main objectives 
for which we fought World War II. The war 
has not been loon. 

The eradication of fascism; the elimination of 
intolerance; the establishment of an enduring 
peace — these are the objectives for which we 
fought, and this is the part of the conflict which 
must be won, if it is won at all, by the people 
themselves under intelligent and forceful leader- 
ship. This is the "battle for peace". So far as 
the United States is concerned, the soldiery for 
this battle is and must be all the men and all the 
women of America. 

We will never accomplish our purpose by nega- 
tive measures. This is not something that can be 
done without jaositive effort and without a great 
deal of intense interest and some sacrifice. 

A. Adrian Albert Appointed Visiting 
Professor at University of Brazil 

Dr. A. Adrian Albert, professor of mathematics. 
University of Chicago, has received a grant-in-aid 
from the Department to enable him to serve as 
visiting professor of mathematics at the Univer- 
sity of Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. He is one 
of a distinguished group of educators who have 
received travel gi-ants under the program ad- 
ministered by the Department of State for the 
exchange of professors and specialists between 
the United States and the other American 
republics. 



132 



Department of State Bulletin 



THE RECORD OF THE WEBK 



Appointment of the IVIembers and the 
Alternate Member of a Military Tribu- 
nal Established for the Trial and Pun- 
ishment of Major War Criminals in 
Germany^ 

By virtue of the authority vested in me bj'^ the 
Constitution and the statutes, and as President 
of the United States and Commander in Chief of 
the Army and Navy of the United States, it is 
ordered as follows: 

1. I hereby designate Fitzroy Donald Phillips, 
Judge of a Superior Court in the State of North 
Carolina, Robert Morrell Toms, Judge of the 
Third Judicial Circuit Court, Detroit, Michigan, 
and Capt. Michael A. Musmanno (S) U.S.N.R., 
086G22, as the members, and John Joshua Speight 
as the alternate member, of one of the several mili- 
tary tribunals established by the Military Gov- 
ernor for the United States zone of occupation 
within Germany pursuant to the quadripartite 
agreement of the Control Council for Germany, 
enacted December 20, 1945, as Control Council 
Law no. 10, and pursuant to articles 10 and 11 
of the Charter of the International Military Tri- 
bunal, which Tribunal was established by the 
Government of the United States of America, the 
Provisional Government of the French Repviblic, 
the Govermnent of the United Kingdom of Great 
Britain and Northern Ireland, and the Govern- 
ment of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, 
for the trial and punislunent of major war crimi- 
nals of the European Axis. Such members and 
alternate member may, at the direction of the 
Military Governor of the United States zone of 
occupation, serve on any of the several military 
tribunals above mentioned. 

■ • • • a 

4. The Secretary of State, the Secretary of War, 
the Attorney General, and the Secretary of the 
Navy are authorized to provide appropriate as- 
sistance to the members and the alternate member 
herein designated in the performance of their 
duties and may assign or detail such peraonnel 
under their respective jurisdictions, including 
members of the armed forces, as may be requested 
for the jjurpose. Personnel so assigned or de- 
tailed shall receive such compensation and allow- 
ances for expenses as may be determined by the 
Secretary of War and as may be payable from 



appropriations or funds available to the War De- 
partment for such purposes, except that personnel 
assigned or detailed from the Navy Department 
shall receive such compensation and allowances 
for expenses to which they may be entitled by rea- 
son of their military rank and service and as may 
be payable from appropriations or funds avail- 
able to the Navy Department for such purposes. 

Harrt S. Truman 

Deposit of Shares in Yugoslav Stock 
Companies for Conversion and/or Regis- 
tration 

[Released to the press January 9] 

The Department of State has been informed by 
the Yugoslav Embassy at Washington that the 
Yugoslav Embassy, 1520 Sixteenth Street, Wash- 
ington, D.C., the Yugoslav Consulate General, 
745 Fifth Avenue, New York, N.Y., and the 
Yugoslav Consulate General, 840 North Michigan 
Avenue, Chicago, 111. will accept, up to and includ- 
ing January 21, 1947, the deposit of shares held 
by United States citizens in Yugoslav corpora- 
tions. 

American holders of such shares are required 
to deposit them for conversion and/or registration, 
pursuant to the provisions of the Yugoslav decree 
published June 21, 1946, in SJuzheni List (the 
official gazette of the Federal People's Republic 
of Yugoslavia). 

Registration of Shares of Rumanian 
National Bank 

[Released to the press January 7] 

The attention of any American citizens who may 
hold shares of the Rumanian National Bank is 
called to the provisions of the law published on 
December 28, 1946 nationalizing that institution, 
which requires that shareholders register their 
shares within 10 days in order to have compensa- 
tion fixed for their holdings. The law as pub- 
lished states that holders who fail to register their 
shares within the prescribed period will be reim- 
bursed in accordance with decisions in cases in 
which filing was done within this period. 

American holders of shares of the National 
Bank of Rumania should therefore immediately 
send to that institution, at Bucharest, Rumania, a 
statement regarding their holdings. 



-Executive Order 9819 (12 Federal Register 205). 



January 19, 1947 



133 



United States Position on PoiisFi Elections 



NOTES DELIVERED TO THE BRITISH, SOVIET, AND POLISH GOVERNMENTS 



[Released to the press January 7] 

Text of note regarding the forthcoming Polish 
elections delivered on January 5, 19Jf7 to Lord 
Inverchapel, British Amhassador in Washington ' 

Excellency : 

The Government of the United States," as a sig- 
natory of the Yalta and Potsdam Agreements, 
■with particular regard to those sections of the two 
agreements which deal with the establishment of 
a representative government in Poland through 
the instrumentality of free and unfettered elec- 
tions, wishes me to inform you of the concern with 
•which it views the pre-election activities of the 
Polish Provisional Government of National 
Unity. My Government is especially perturbed 
by the increasingly frequent reports of repressive 
measures which the Polish Provisional Govern- 
ment has seen fit to employ against those demo- 
cratic elements in Poland which have not aligned 
themselves with the "bloc" parties. 

According to information reaching my Govern- 
ment from various authoritative sources, these 
repressive activities on the part of the Provisional 
Government have now increased in intensity to the 
point where, if they do not cease immediately, 
there is little likelihood that elections can be held 
in accordance with the terms of the Potsdam 
Agreement which call for free and unfettered elec- 
tions "on the basis of imiversal suffrage and secret 
ballot in which all democratic and anti-Nazi par- 
ties shall have the right to take part and put for- 
ward candidates". 

On December 18, 1946, Vice Premier Stanislaw 
Mikolajczyk addressed a communication to the 
American Ambassador in "Warsaw in which he 
called attention to the reprehensible methods em- 
ployed by the Provisional Government in denying 
freedom of political action to the Polish Peasant 
Party. This communicatoin pointed out inter alia 
that the methods used by the Govermnent in its ef - 



"A similar note was delivered on Jan. 5, 1947 to Andrei 
Vyshinslvy, Deputy Minister of the Soviet Union, by U.S. 
Ambassador W. Bedell Smith. 

''In the note to the Soviet Union, "my Government" is 
substituted for "the Government of the United States". 



forts to eliminate the participation by the Polish 
Peasant Party in the elections include political 
arrests and murders, compulsory enrollment of 
Polish Peasant Party members in the "bloc" po- 
litical parties, dismissal of Polish Peasant Party 
members from their employment, searches of 
homes, attacks by secret police and members of 
the Communist Party on Polish Peasant Party 
liremises and party congresses, suspension and re- 
striction by government authorities of Polish 
Peasant Party meetings and suspension of party 
activities in 28 Powiats, suppression of the party 
press and limitation of circulation of party papers, 
and arrest of the editorial staff of the Party Bulle- 
tin and of the Gazeta Ludowa. Authoritative re- 
ports from other quarters in Poland serve to sub- 
stantiate the charges brought by Mr. Mikolajczyk 
in the communication cited. It is understood that 
copies of this communication were also delivered 
to the Soviet and British Ambassadors at Warsaw 
as representatives of the other two Yalta powers. 
In the view of my Government, what is involved 
here is the sanctity of international agreements, 
a principle upon which dei:)ends the establishment 
and maintenance of peace and the reign of justice 
under law. The obligations with respect to the 
Polish elections which my Government assumed 
at Yalta and reiterated at Potsdam, together with 
the Soviet and British Governments, and the obli- 
gations subsequently assumed by the Polish Gov- 
ernment and frequently reiterated, provide for the 
conduct of free and unfettered elections of the 
type and in the manner described above. It is of 
no significance that the subject matter of this in- 
ternational agreement relates to elections in Po- 
land. The essential fact is that it constitutes an 
international agreement on the basis of which all 
four nations concerned have acted. Therefore, my 
Government believes that, for any of the parties to 
this agreement to refrain from the most energetic 
efforts to see to its proper execution would be to 
fail in a most solemn obligation. For this reason, 
it is my Government's view that it is both a duty 
and a right for the three Powers who are parties 
to the Yalta and the Potsdam Agreements to call 



134 



Department of State Bulletin 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



to the attention of the Polish Government in a 
most friendly but in a most insistent manner the 
failure of the Polish Government to perform its 
obligations. 

It is a source of regret to my Government that 
its own efforts in this direction have not resulted 
in any change in the course which the Polish Pro- 
visional Government has pursued in connection 
with pre-election political activities. My Govern- 
ment feels that it would be failing in its duty if it 
did not make further efforts prior to the elections 
to ameliorate the conditions under which certain 
democratic elements of the Polish population are 
now struggling in an effort to take their rightful 
part in the national elections. It intends, there- 
fore, in the immediate future again to approach 
the Polish Government with a reminder of its obli- 
gations in connection with the elections and again 
to call upon it to provide those conditions of secu- 
rity which will enable all democratic and anti-Nazi 
parties to take full part in the elections. I hardly 
need add that my Govei'ument is interested only 
in seeing that the Polish people have the oppor- 
tunity to participate in a free and unfettered elec- 
tion and that my Government does not regard the 
results of such an election as being a proper con- 
cern of anj'one other than the Polish people them- 
selves. 

It is the hope of my Government that the Brit- 
ish Government,^ as a party to the Yalta and Pots- 
dam Agreements, will associate itself with the 
American Government in this approach to the 
Polish Provisional Government of National Unity. 

A similar communication is being addressed 
simultaneously to the Soviet Government.* 

Accept [etc.] 

[Released to the press Jauuary 9] 

Text of a note delivered on January 9 at 12:15 
p. m., Warsaw time, hy Ambassador Arthur Bliss 
Lane to the Polish Foreign Office 

I have the honor to refer to the Embassy's notes 
of Aug. 19^ and Nov. 22, 1946^ regarding the 
Polish National elections, to which no reply has 
yet been received, and pursuant to instructions 
from my Government to inform Your Excellency, 
as a signatory of the Yalta and Potsdam Agree- 
^nents, with particular regard to those sections of 
the two agreements which deal with the establish- 
ment of a government in Poland, through the in- 
strumentality of free and unfettered elections, of 



my Government's continued concern over the pre- 
election activities of the Polish Provisional Gov- 
ernment of National Unity. My Government is 
especially perturbed by the increasingly frequent 
reports of repressive measures which the Polish 
Provisional Government has seen fit to employ 
against those democratic elements in Poland 
which have not aligned themselves with the "bloc" 
parties. 

It is a source of regret to my Government that 
its previous effoi'ts to call the attention of the Po- 
lish Provisional Goverimient to its failure to per- 
form its obligations under the agreements cited 
have not resulted in any change in the course 
which that Govermnent has pursued in connec- 
tion with pre-election political activities. Ac- 
cording to information reaching my Government 
from various authoritative sources, these repres- 
sive activities on the part of the Provisional Gov- 
ernment have now increased in intensity to the 
point where, if they do not cease immediately, 
there is little likelihood that elections can be held 
in accordance with the terms of the Potsdam 
agreement which call for free and unfettered elec- 
tions "on the basis of universal suffrage and secret 
ballot in which all democratic and anti-Nazi par- 
ties shall have the right to take part and put for- 
ward candidates." 

It is the view of my Government that this mat- 
ter involves the sanctity of international agree- 
ments, a principle upon which depends the estab- 
lishment and maintenance of peace and the reign 
of justice under law. The obligations with respect 
to the Polish elections which my Government as- 
sumed at Yalta and reiterated at Potsdam, to- 
gether with the Soviet and British Governments, 
and the obligations subsequently assumed by the 
Polish Goverimient and frequently reiterated, pro- 
vide for the conduct of free and unfettered elec- 
tions of the type and in the manner described 
above. The fact that the subject matter of these 
agreements relates to elections in Poland is in- 
cidental. The essential fact is that they constitute 
an international agreement under which all four 



' In the note to the Soviet Union, "the Soviet Union" is 
substituted for "the British Government". 

* In the note to the Soviet Union, "British Government" 
is substituted for "Soviet Government". 

' Bulletin of Sept. 1, 194G, p. 422. 

' Bulletin of Dec. 8, 1946, p. 1057. 



January J 9, 1947 



135 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



nations concerned have assumed obligations. I 
need hardly say that my Government is interested 
only in seeing that the Polish people have the op- 
portunity to participate in a free and unfettered 
election and that my Government does not regard 
the residts of such an election as being a proper 
concern of anyone other than the Polish people 
themselves. 

My Government would be failing in its duty if it 
did not again point out that the continuation of 
the present policy of suppression, coercion, and 
intimidation as applied to political opposition in 
Poland constitutes a violation of the letter as well 
as the spirit of the Yalta and Potsdam Agree- 
ments. 

American Economic IVIission to Greece 

[Released to the press January 9] 

Ambassador Paul A. Porter announced on Janu- 
ary 9 the completion of the membership of the 
American Economic Mission to Greece, which he 
heads. The Mission left by air from New York 
for Athens at 10 p.m. on Monday, January 13. It 
will examine economic conditions in Greece and 
recommend measures which should be taken by 
the Greek Government for the reconstruction of 
the country. 

John Fitch of Washington, who has just re- 
turned from Guatemala, will serve as engineering 
consultant. Stephen Ailes of the Washington law 
firm of Steptoe and Johnson, who was associated 
with Ambassador Porter at OPA, will be counsel 
to the Mission. Dillon Glendenning will join the 
Mission as financial consultant from his post in 
Cairo. Print Hudson, who until recently was 
agricultural attache at the American Emba^y in 
Athens, is to be the agricultural ex^^ert of the 
Mission. 

The appointments of Leslie L. Eood, executive 
secretary, and Francis F. Lincoln and William 
M. Rountree, economists, were made at the time of 
the appointment of Ambassador Porter. Dorothy 
I. Page, Ellen F. Broom, and Mary Nicholson will 
accompany the Mission as secretaries. 

Ambassador Porter and other members of the 
Mission have been engaged in discussions during 
the last two weeks with officials of the Department 
of State, the Department of Agriculture, and other 
United States Government agencies, and with of- 



ficials of UNRRA, the International Bank, and 
other international organizations. 

The terms of reference of the Mission as an- 
nounced by Secretary Byrnes are as follows : 

1. To examine economic conditions in Greece 
and the functioning of the Greek Government as 
they bear upon the restoration and development 
of the national economy of that country. 

2. To consider measures necessary for the re- 
construction of essential transportation, power, 
manufacturing, agricultural, and other facilities. 

3. To consider the extent to which the Greek 
Government can carry out reconstruction and 
develojiment through the effective use of Greek 
resources at home and abroad, and the extent to 
which Greece will require assistance from foreign 
or international sources. 

4. To make recommendations to the United 
States Government for transmittal to the Greek 
Government of specific measures which should be 
taken by the latter for the improvement of the 
national economy. 

Transport Vessels IViade Available to 
Italian Government 

[Released to the press January 10] 

The Italian Prime Minister's visit to Washing- 
ton has provided occasion for agreement on an 
arrangement designed to serve, as satisfactorily 
as available facilities permit, the needs of the 
United States and of Italy with respect to certain 
current civilian passenger traffic requirements and 
certain other essential ti'ansportation of persons. 

For this purpose the United States will make 
the United States transport vessels Hermitage 
and MonticcUo available for the Italian Govern- 
ment's use in the repatriation of prisoners of war 
from foreign areas, Italian emigration, and 
similar requirements of the Italian national inter- 
est. The Hermitage and MonticeUo, formerly the 
Italian passenger vessels Conte Biancamano and 
Conte Grande, have become surplus to United 
States requirements and are laid up in the Mari- 
time Commission's reserve fleets. 

This will enable the Italian Government to meet 
its transport requirements, referred to above, 
without interrupting the service of urgent civilian 
passenger traffic between New York and Mediter- 
I'anean ports, in which the Italian passenger vessel 
Vulcania has been operated for some months past 



136 



Department of State Bulletin 



THB RECORD OF THE WEEK 



in the United States national interest. Tlie Satur- 
nia, sister-ship to the Vidccmia, is scheduled to 
replace the VuUania in this service shortly, and 
under the arrangement now agreed upon this 
service will continue to be handled by the Ameri- 
can Export Lines, with the Department of State 
continuing to designate ports of call and priority 
of space allocations. This is in order to assure 
space for transportation of passengers in the 
national interest of the United States, including 
particularly the repatriation of United States 
citizens, in connection with which the Department 
of State has certain responsibilities. 

Thus, on the one hand, vessels in United States 
possession and surplus to United States needs will 
be made available for use in meeting certain 
Italian requirements, and, on the other hand, 
certain United States requirements continue to be 
met by more suitable tonnage. At the same time 
the American shipping company by its participa- 
tion in this service is enabled to maintain a position 
in the traffic pending the time when it is able to 
place its own ships in this passenger service. 

The Hermitage and Monticello will be made 
available for the use of the Italian Government 
by the Maritime Commission, at the request of the 
Secretary of State, under a special agency agree- 
ment to be concluded between the Commission and 
the Italian Government's representatives. 

The four ships are all of approximately the 
same size (about 24,000 gross tons), speed (19 to 
20 knots), and age (18 to 22 years). The steam- 
ships Hermitage and Monticello were acquired by 
the United States early in the war and converted 
to troop transports for operation by the U.S. 
Navy. In this capacity they provided valuable 
service in the war effort until they became surplus 
to United States requirements and were placed in 
the Maritime Commission's reserve fleets during 
recent months. The motorships Saturnia and 
Vulcania, which continued under Italian owner- 
ship, also provided valuable services in the war 
effort as part of Italian co-belligerency. They 
were allocated to United States military service 
after their escape from German control, in 1943 
and 1945, respectively, and were returned to 
Italian control in November 1946. Wliile under 
United States control, the Saturnia was ex- 
tensively converted for service as a hospital ship 
for use by the War Department and during 1946 
brought to this countiy a large number of war 



brides. The Vulcania also served as a troop 
transport, but, because it was best fitted for pas- 
senger use, was later placed in the United 
States - Mediterranean service providing urgently 
needed United States passenger service, which was 
continued after its redelivery to Italian control in 
anticipation of the arrangement for the use of the 
four ships now agreed upon. 

Trade Agreement With Canada 

PROPOSED TERMINATION OF CONCESSION 
ON LINEN FIRE HOSE 

[Released to the press January 10] 

It has been ascertained that imports into the 
United States of linen fire hose included in item 
1007 of schedule II of the trade agreement with 
Canada, signed on November 17, 1938, have been 
in major part from countries other than Canada 
and that imports of such hose have increased very 
considerably over the levels obtaining before the 
entry into effect of the reduced duties established 
pursuant to the agreement. 

In the trade agreement, the reduction in duty 
was from the rate provided for in the Tariff iVct of 
1930 of 191/^ cents a pound plus 15 percent ad 
valorem, to 10 cents a pound plus 71/2 percent ad 
valorem. 

Under article XIV of the Canadian agi'eement, 
each country has reserved the right, after consul- 
tation with the Government of the other country, 
to withdraw or to modify the concession gi-anted 
on any article, if, as a result of the extension of 
the concession to other foreign countries, such 
countries obtain the major benefit of the con- 
cession, and if, in consequence, imports of the 
article concerned increase to such an extent as to 
threaten serious injury to domestic producers. 
This Government is considering taking action, 
pursuant to article XIV, to withdraw the con- 
cession granted in item 1007 on "hose, suitable for 
conducting liquids or gases, wholly or in chief 
value of vegetable fiber", the imports under which 
are understood to be almost entirely linen fire hose. 

Unless the action under consideration is modified 
in the light of representations received from in- 
terested persons, it is contemplated that the con- 
cession will be completely withdrawn, with the 
result that the duty on hose described in item 1007 
of schedule II of the trade agreement would return 
to the statutory rate, previously referred to, which 
was in effect prior to the agreement. 



January T9, 1947 



137 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



Any person desiring to submit any information 
or views with respect to the proposed action should 
present them to the Committee for Reciprocity In- 
formation in accordance with the announcement 
issued by that Committee on January 9.^ 

Polish Refugee Camp in Mexico Closes 

The termination on January 1, 1947 of the Po- 
lish refugee camp at the former hacienda. Colonia 
Santa Rosa, near Leon in the state of Guanajuato, 
Mexico, also brought to a close an unusual story of 
international refugee cooperation to which the 
United States contributed over $2,000,000. 

After a fruitless canvass to resettle the Poles in 
British and Belgian colonies, Latin American 
countries, and the United States, an agi'eement was 
reached at the end of 1942 between the representa- 
tives of the Polish Government-in-Exile at London 
and the Mexican Government for the accommoda- 
tion of a large niunber of the refugees in Mexico. 
Premier General Sikorski was instrumental in ef- 
fecting the agreement, as well as in obtaining the 
financial aid from the United States. 

Following the dissolution of the Polish Govern- 
ment-in-Exile, in July 1945, the Government of 
the United States assvmied full responsibility for 
the administration of Colonia Santa Rosa. 

During the jDeriod of operation of the camp, 
1,490 Polish nationals, including 81 children bom 
thei-e, were given haven. By December 15, 1946, 
a total of approximately 1,480 had been processed 
through the camp, 585 had been accepted into the 
United States, including 263 orphan children 
placed in various United States institutions; 69 
were admitted into other countries; 35 had been 
repatriated to Poland; 769 found employment in 
Mexico; and there were 25 deaths at the camp. 

Foreign Commerce Weekly 

The following article of interest to Buixbtin 
readers appeared in tlie January 4 issue of the For- 
eign Commerce Weekly, copies of which may be 
secured from the Superintendent of Documents, Gov- 
ernment Printing Office, for 15 cents each : 

"Shanghai Lumber Market: I^ffect of War's Rav- 
ages", based on consular reports by Loris F. Craig, 
economic analyst, American Consulate General, 
Shanghai, China. 



' For announcement Issued by Committee for Reciprocity 
Information, see Department of State press release 24 of 
Jan. 9, 1947. 



Tax Treaty Negotiations With Denmark 

[Keleased to the press January S] 

A delegation of Danish tax specialists is ex- 
pected to visit Washington at an early date to 
conduct ad referendum negotiations looking to the 
conclusion of treaties between the United States 
and Denmark for the avoidance of double taxation 
and for administrative cooperation in prevention 
of tax evasion with respect to income taxes and to 
taxes on estates of deceased persons. 

If the discussions are successful they will result 
in the preparation of draft treaties which will be 
submitted by the negotiators to their respective 
governments for consideration with a view to 
signing. 

In preparation for the negotiations, the Ameri- 
can delegation will welcome conferences with in- 
terested parties or statements and suggestions 
from them concerning problems in tax relations 
with Denmark. Communications in this connec- 
tion should be addressed to Eldon P. King, Special 
Deputy Commissioner of Internal Revenue, Bu- 
reau of Internal Revenue, Washington 25, D.C. 

Department of State Bulletin Subscrip- 
tion Price Increased 

The annual subscription price of the Depart- 
ment OF State Bxilletin was increased from $3.50 
to $5.00 on January 1, 1947 owing to a combination 
of factors whicli has left the Superintendent of 
Documents, Government Printing Office, no choice 
but to take this action. These factors are the 
constantly expanding size and scope of the BtnxE- 
TiK, as it attempts to cover the vast range of 
American international relations, and the rising 
cost of production. The printing and publishing 
of government publications are affected as much 
by the rising prices of materials and other pro- 
duction factors as any other integral part of the 
national economy. 

The need to take this action is regretted both 
by the Department of State and by the Superin- 
tendent of Documents. After thorough study of 
the problem during recent months the Department 
of State considers that the increase in price is 
preferable to the only alternative, which would 
have been to make drastic reductions in the quan- 
tity of original documentation and other material 
provided readers. 



138 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



THE CONGRESS 

Second Deficiency Appropriation Bill for 1946: Hear- 
ings before the Subcommittee of the Committee on Appro- 
priations, House of Representatives, Seventy-Ninth Cong- 
ress, second session, on the Second Deficiency Appropria- 
tion Bill for 1946. 61G pp. [Department of State, pp. 
450-514.] 

Third Deficiency Appropriation Bill for 1946: Hearings 
before the Subcommittee of the Committee on Appropria- 
tions, House of Representatives, Seventy-Ninth Congress, 
second session, on the Third Deficiency Appropriation Bill 
for 1946. 857 pp. [Department of State, pp. 178-223.] 

Department of State Appropriation Bill for 1947 : Hear- 
ings Before the Subcommittee of the Committee on Ap- 
propriations, House of Representatives, Seventy-ninth 
Congress, second session, on the Department of State 
Appropriation Bill for 1947. ii, 709 pp. [Indexed.] 

Investigations of the National War Effort : Report of 
the Committee on Military Affairs, House of Representa- 
tives, Seventy-ninth Congress, second session, pursuant to 
H. Res. 20, a resolution authorizing the Committee on 
Military Affairs to study the progi'ess of the national war 
effort. Union Calendar No. 866, H. Rept. 2740. v, 46 pp. 

Financial Aid to the Republic of the Philippines : Hear- 
ings Before the Committee on Banking and Currency, 
House of Representatives, Seventy-ninth Congress, second 
session, on H. J. Res. 383, superseded by H. J. Res. 388, a 
joint resolution to authorize the Secretary of the Treasury 
to render financial aid to the Republic of the Philippines, 
and for other purposes. July 24, 1946. ii, 34 pp. 

To Provide for the Rehabilitation of the Philippine 
Islands : Appendix to Hearings Before the Committee on 
Insular Affairs, House of Representatives, Seventy-ninth 
Congress, second session, on S. 1610, a bill to provide for 
the rehabilitation of the Philippine Islands, and for other 
purposes. Part 2, February 26, 27, and 28 ; March 1 and 2 ; 
and April 2, 3, 4, and 5, 1946. Exhibits pertaining to 
testimony appearing in Part 1 (pages 1 to 210) of com- 
mittee hearings, iii, 158 pp. 

The Economic Report of the President. Message from 
the President of the United States transmitting the Presi- 
dent's economic report to the Congress, as required under 
the employment act of 1946. H. Doc. 49, 80th Cong, viii, 
54 pp. 

Report by the Secretary of State on Foreign Service 
Retirement and Disability Fund. Message from the Pres- 
ident of the United States transmitting a report by the 
Secretary of State, showing all receipts and disbursements 
on account of refunds, allowances, and annuities for the 
fiscal year ended June 30, 1946, in connection with the 
Foreign Service retirement and disability system as re- 
quired by section 26 (a) of an act for the grading and 
classification of clerks in the Foreign Service of the United 
States of America, and providing compensation therefor, 
approved February 23, 1931, as amended. H. Doc. 50, 
80th Cong. 2 pp. 



The Seal of the United States 

The American public has displayed a continu- 
ing interest in the official seal of the United States 
as being in a special sense a symbol of the power 
and majesty of the Eepublic. In order to make 
available to the interested segment of the public 
reliable data on the design of the seal, the cutting 
of the several dies, and the use of the seal, the De- 
partment of State has prepared an illustrated his- 
torical leaflet, which, with illustrations of the 
obverse and reverse in full color, has now been 
released. Copies of this leaflet entitled The Seal 
of the United States (Department of State publi- 
cation 2860) may be obtained for 10 cents each 
from the Superintendent of Documents, Govern- 
ment Printing Ofiice, Washington 25, D.C. 



ANNOUNCEMENT 

Official Daily Service: 

FEDERAL^REGISTER 

• The Federal Register presents the only official 
publication of the text of Federal regulations and 
notices restricting or expanding comniercial opera- 
tions. 

• All Federal agencies are required by law to sub- 
mit their documents of general applicability and 
legal effect to the Federal Register for daily publi- 
cation. 

A sample copy and additional information 

on request to the Federal Register, National 

Archives, Washington 25, D. C. 

$15 a year • $1.50 a month 

Order from 
SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS 



January 79, 7947 



U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1947 



139 



^(yyU^rvl^/ 



General Policy 

The Situation in China. Statement by Gen. 
George C. Marshall 

"We Must Demonstrate Our Capacity in 
Peace". By Secretary of State Byrnes . 

The State of the Union. Message of the 
President 

Establishment of the Philippine Alien Prop- 
erty Administration 

TJ. S. Position on Polish Elections 

Transport Vessels to Italian Government . . 

Polish Refugee Camp in Mexico Closes . . 

Economic Affairs 

U. S. Delegation to Pan American Sanitary 
Conferences 

ILO Permanent Migration Committee. Arti- 
cle by Murray Ross 

The Economic Report of the President . . . 

Edgar Grossman Appointed to Joint Ameri- 
can-Philippine Financial Commission . 

Deposit of Shares in Yugoslav Stock Com- 
panies 

Registration of Shares of Rumanian National 
Bank 

American Economic Mission to Greece . . . 

Trade Agreement With Canada. Proposed 
termination of Fire Hose Concession . . 

United Nations 

Accomplishments of the Commission on 
Narcotic Drugs. Article by George A. 
Morloek 

First Report of Atomic Energy Commission 

to Security Council, With Letters . . . 

Excerpts From the Report 

First Meeting of Commission of Investiga- 
tion Scheduled 

U.S. Representatives on Commission of In- 
vestigation of Greek Border Incident . . 

Summary Statement by the Secretary- 
General of Matters of Which the Security 
Council is Seized 



{ornvtv^mtttoM 



Page United Nations — Contiriued page 

Resolution on Voting Procedure in the 

83 Security Council 115 

Replies From 29 Nations on Action Taken in 
87 Accordance With Resolution on Spain. . 115 

Bodies Established by General Assembly 
123 During Second Part of First Session . . 116 

Occupation Matters 

,04. U.S. Position on Control of Dairen 127 

,qc U.S. Policy Toward a Unified Government in 
. „D Southern Korea. Statement by Lieuten- 
ant General John R. Hodge 128 

Non-Military Activities in Japan 129 

Public Support Necessary for Success of Occu- 

119 patiou Policies. By Assistant Secre- 
tary Hilldring 130 

120 Appointment of Members and the Alternate 
126 Member of the Military Tribunal in 

Germany 133 

130 

Treaty Information 

133 Agreement on Trade With the Philippines. . 129 

Tax Treaty Negotiations With Denmark. . 138 

133 Educational, Scientific, and Cultural 

136 Cooperation 

A. Adrian Albert Appointed Visiting Profes- 

137 sor at University of Brazil 132 

Calendar of International Meetings. . . 117 

Addresses, Statements, and Broadcasts 

of the Week. 116 

91 

The Department 

105 Confirmation of General Marshall as Secre- 

106 tary of State 83 

Resignation of James F. Byrnes as Secretary 

113 of State 86 

The Congress 139 

1 lo 

Publications 

Foreign Commerce Weekly 138 

114 The Seal of the U.S 139 

George A. Morloek, author of the article on the Narcotics 
Commission, is Chief of the Narcotics Section, Division of 
International Labor, Social and Health Affairs, Office of Inter- 
national Trade Policy, Department of State. Mr. Morloek was 
a member of the United States Delegation to the Commission 
on Narcotic Drugs of the Economic and Social Council. 

Hurray Ross, author of the article on the ILO Permanent 
Migration Commission, is Assistant Chief, ILO Branch, Division 
of International Labor, Social and Health Affairs, Office of 
International Trade Policy, Department of State. 



ijrie/ ^efia/^f^nteni? A)^ tnate^ 






TRADE AGREEMENTS NEGOTIATIONS • Exchange oj 
Letters Between Senator Butler and Under Secretary- 
Clayton 161 

SIXTH SESSION OF THE UNRRA COUNCIL • Article 

by David Persinger 159 

SOME RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN THE PROBLEM 
OF THE TURKISH STRAITS: 1945-1946 • Article by 

Harry N. Howard 143 



For complete contents see back cover 



Vol. XVI, No. 395 
January 26, 1947 




U. S. S.> "f'T OF DOCUMENTS 

FEB 11 ia47 




^ne z/^e^ia/jf^ine^ ^^ c/ta^ Js^ LI. ± J. \J L J. i 1 



Vol. XVI, No. 395 • Publication 2736 
January 26, 1947 



For sale by the Suporinteiident of Documents 

U. 8. Government Printing Office 

Wasliington 25. D. C. 

StTBSCRIPTION: 

62 issues, $6.00; single copy, 16 cents 

Published with the approval of the 
Director of the Bureau of the Budget 
NOTE: Contents of this publication are 
not copyrighted and items contain- 
ed herein may be reprinted. 
Citation of the Department of 
State Bulletin as the source 
will be appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIN, 
a weekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Publications, 
Office of Public Affairs, provides the 
public and interested agencies of 
the Government with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the De- 
partment of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes 
press releases on foreign policy issued 
by the White House and the Depart- 
ment, and statements and addresses 
made by the President and by the 
Secretary of State and other officers 
of the Department, as well as special 
articles on various phases of inter- 
national affairs and the functions of 
the Department. Information con- 
cerning treaties and interruitional 
agreements to which the United States 
is or may become a party and treaties 
of general international interest is 
included. 

Publications of the Department, cu- 
mulative lists of which are published 
at the end of each quarter, as well as 
legislative material in the field of inter- 
national relations, are listed currently. 



SOME RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN THE PROBLEM 
OF THE TURKISH STRAITS, 1945-1946 



iy Hany N. Howard 



In view of the agreement during the Potsdam Conference 
that the Montreux Convention of the Straits required some 
revision, and of the subsequent exchange of notes on that 
subject during the years lOJiS-lQIfi, it has been thought that 
an article summarizing the recent developments in this prob- 
lem and stating the essential position of the powers primarily 
concerned would he of interest to the American public. 



I. The Potsdam Agreement 

The Montreux Convention of the Straits, signed 
on July 20, 1936, came into force on November 9, 
1936. In accordance with article 29 of the Con- 
vention, it is subject to revision at the expiry of 
each five-year period from the date of entry into 
force/ It was natural, therefore, that consider- 
able discussion of the problem of revision of the 
Straits convention should have taken place during 
the period of 1945 to 1946. In view of the long- 
time American interest in the principle of freedom 
of commerce and navigation, it was also natural 
that the United States should be concerned with 
the question of the Turkish Straits.^ 

In the years following the entry into force of 
the Montreux Convention the new regime of the 
Straits appeared to work well and in the interest 
of all parties concerned. Few questions were 
raised in the years prior to the outbreak of World 
War II. Immediately after the outbreak of the 
great conflict, Turkey became the ally of Great 
Britain and France under the terms of the alliance 
of October 19, 1939, although it remained a non- 
belligerent ally until the final year of the war. 
As early as August 10, 1941, however, Great Bri- 
tain and the Soviet Union pledged their fidelity 
to the Montreux Convention and indicated that 
they had no designs upon Turkish territory. 
President Roosevelt gave an indication of the 

January 26, 1947 



significance of the Turkish position at the Straits 
when he declared on November 7, 1941 that he had 
"found that the defense of the Government of Tur- 
key is vital to the defense of the United States." 
By the end of the war there was a general feeling 
that the Montreux Convention required some kind 
of revision. The problem was discussed at the 
Potsdam Conference during July 1945. In his 
report of August 9, 1945, concerning the confer- 
ence. President Truman declared : ^ 

"One of the persistent causes for wars in Europe 
in the last two centuries has been the selfish control 
of the waterways of Europe. I mean the Danube, 
the Black Sea Straits, the Rhine, the Kiel Canal, 
and all the inland waterways of Europe which 
border on two or more states. 

''The United States proposed at Berlin that 
tliere be free and unrestricted navigation of these 
inland waterways. We think this is important 
to the future pence and security of the world. We 

' For an analysis of the problem see H. N. Howard, "The 
Montreux Convention of the Straits, 1936", BuiXEnN of 
Sept. 8, 194G, p. 435. 

' See H. N. Howard, "The United States and the Question 
of the Turkish Straits", Middle East Journal, vol. I, no. 1, 
of January 1947. See also Dr. Howard's compilation 
"Problem of the Turkish Straits: Principal Treaties and 
Conventions (1774-1936)", Bulletin of Nov. 3, 1946, 
p. 790. 

' Bulletin of Aug. 12, 194.5, p. 212. 

143 



proposed that regulations for such navigation be 
provided by international authorities. 

"The function of the agencies would be to de- 
velop the use of the waterways and assure equal 
treatment on them for all nations. Membership 
on the agencies would include the United States, 
Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and France, plus 
those states which border on the waterways." 

The Potsdam Conference produced no ultimate 
disposition of the problem of the Straits and there 
are two versions of the agreement wliich was 
reached. According to the British version : * 

"The three governments recognize that the Con- 
vention concluded at Montreux should be revised 
as failing to meet present day conditions. It was 
agreed that, as the next step, the matter should be 
the subject of direct conversations between each 
of the three goveriiments and the Turkish Govern- 
ment." 
According to the Soviet version : ^ 

"The three governments declared that the Con- 
vention regarding the Straits, concluded in Mon- 
treux, should be revised, as it does not meet the 
conditions of the present time ; 

"The three governments agreed that as the 
proper course the said question would be the sub- 
ject of direct negotiations between each of the 
thi-ee powers and the Turkish Goverimient." 

II. The American Note of November 2, 1945; 
Reception by the Powers 

In the months which followed the Potsdam Con- 
ference discussion of the problem of the Straits 
continued. Moreover, in line with the traditional 
policy of the United States, President Truman, in 
an address of October 27, 1945," expressed his 
belief "that all nations should have the freedom of 
the seas and equal rights to the navigation of 
boundary rivers and waterways and of rivers and 
waterways which pass through more than one 
country." These remarks were repeated in the 
President's annual message to the Congress on the 
state of the Union on January 21, 1946. 



* See the statement of Foreign Minister Bevin in the 
British House of Commons, Oct. 22, 194G. Parliamentary 
Debates (Hansard). House of Commons. Official Report. 
Vol. 427, no. 201, Oct. 22, 1946, cols. 1500-1502. 

' From tlie Soviet note to Turljey, Aug. 7, 1&16, Buixetin 
of Sept. 1, 194fi, p. 420. 

" Bulletin of Oct. 28, 1945, p. 654. 

' Bulletin of Nov. 11, 1945, p. 766. 

144 



In accordance with the agreement reached at 
Potsdam and in line with the general principles 
as to waterways of international concern which 
the President had enunciated, the United States 
presented a note to the Turkish Government on 
November 2, 1945 embodying the American pro- 
posals for a revision of the Montreux Convention.' 
The American note called attention to the agree- 
ment between the United States, Great Britain, 
and the Soviet Union at Potsdam to the effect that 
the Montreux Convention required revision and 
that the matter should be the subject of direct con- 
versations between each of the three governments 
and the Turkish Government. It was the "earnest 
hope" of the American Government that the prob- 
lem of the "control and use of the Straits" could 
be "solved in a manner which will promote inter- 
national security, will show due consideration for 
the interests of Turkey and all Black Sea riparian 
powers, and will assure the free use of this im- 
portant waterway to the commerce of all nations." 
The American Government understood that the 
Montreux Convention was subject to revision in 
1946, suggested an international conference for 
this purpose, and indicated its willingness to par- 
ticipate if invited to do so. As a basis for an 
equitable solution of the question of the Straits 
the United States set forth the following prin- 
ciples : 

"1. the Straits to be open to the merchant ves- 
sels of all nations at all times ; 

"2. the Straits to be open to the transit of the 
warships of Black Sea powers at all times; 

"3. save for an agreed limited tonnage in time 
of peace, passage through the Straits to be de- 
nied to the wai-ships of non-Black Sea powers at 
all times, except with the specific consent of the 
Black Sea powers or except when acting under 
the authority of the United Nations; and 

"4. certain changes to modernize the Montreux 
Convention, such as the substitution of the United 
Nations system for that of the League of Nations 
and the elimination of Japan as a signatory." 

The British and Soviet Governments were also in- 
formed of the views set forth above. 

On November 21 the British Government pre- 
sented a memorandum to the Turkish Govern- 
ment indicating that it was agreeable to the Amer- 
ican proposals, but adding that the matter did 
not seem urgent. On December 6 Turkey replied 

Department of Stale Bulletin 



to the United States, accepting the note of No- 
vember 2 as a basis of discussion.* The Turkish 
Government welcomed the American note, an- 
nouncing publicly that Turkey would "partici- 
pate in an international conference on the Dar- 
danelles and accept any decisions reached there, 
provided 'Turkey's independence, sovereignty and 
territorial integrity are not infringed.' " * 

Likewise, the British Government was well dis- 
posed toward the principles which had been set 
forth in Washington. In an address before the 
House of Commons on Februaiy 21, 1946" Mr. 
Bevin, the British Foi-eign Minister, seriously 
questioned Soviet desires with respect to the east- 
ern frontiers of Turkey, indicated that any re- 
vision of the Montreux Convention of the Straits 
should keep the international aspect of the Straits 
in view, and declared that Great Britain had "a 
treaty with Turkey". Mr. Bevin further observed 
that he would like to see the treaty of friendship 
between Turkey and the Soviet Union renewed, 
did not feel that this conflicted with the Anglo- 
Turkish alliance, and distinctly did "not want 
Turkey converted into a satellite State". Some 
weeks later, on March 25, 1946," Hector MacNeil, 
British Undersecretary of State for Foreign Af- 
fairs, indicated that the Anglo-Turkish treaty 
of October 19, 1939 obligated Great Britain to 
assist Tui-key in the event of that country being 
involved in hostilities with a European power "in 
consequence of aggi'ession by that Power against 
Turkey", but he had no reason "to believe that 
any such aggi-ession was likely to take place". 

In his Army Day address of April 6, 1946 " 
President Truman reiterated the intention of the 
United States to "press for the elimination of arti- 
ficial barriers to international navigation, in order 
that no nation by accident of geographic location, 
shall be denied unrestricted access to seaports and 
international watei-ways." The President also 
made some pointed remarks as to the significance of 
the Near and Middle East, an area which presented 
"grave problems". He continued: 

"This area contains vast natural resources. It 
lies across the most convenient routes of land, air, 
and water communications. It is consequently an 
area of great economic and strategic importance, 
the nations of which are not strong enough indi- 
vidually or collectively to withstand powerful 
aggression. 



"It is easy to see, therefore, how the Near and 
Middle East might become an arena of intense 
rivalry between outside powers, and how such 
rivalry might suddenly erupt into conflict. 

"No country, great or small, has legitimate inter- 
ests in the Neur and Middle East which cannot be 
reconciled with the interests of other nations 
through the United Nations. The United Nations 
have a right to insist that the sovereignty and in- 
tegrity of the countries of the Near and Middle 
East must not be threatened by coercion or pene- 
tration." 

Apparently the situation in the Near East re- 
mained relatively unchanged, for on May 10 Presi- 
dent Inonii of Turkey declared that the world 
situation continued "darker and even more un- 
settled than could have been foreseen a year ago"."^ 
There appeared to be no new elements in the pic- 
ture. Nevertheless, on June 4, 1946, Foreign Min- 
ister Bevin discussed the Turkish problem in an 
address before the House of Commons." He did 
not believe that there was any real basis for mis- 
understanding or "fimdamental disagreement" 
concerning the Straits, and continued : 

"We have been willing, equally with our pred- 
ecessors, to consider the revision of the Montreux 
Convention. What we are anxious to avoid, and 
I emphasise this, is to do anything, or agree to 
anything, which will undermine the real independ- 
ence of Turkey, or convert her into a mere satellite 
state. But, with the recognition of these prin- 
ciples, I am convinced that these two factors are 
not irreconcilable. Let me go further and say 
that we will always welcome the mercantile fleet of 
the Soviet Union on all the seas of the world. We 
sail the Baltic, but we have not got a base and 

' M. Epstein, the Annual Regixter (London, Longmans, 
Green, 1946) p. 215. 

" Turkish Embassy, Washington, Press Release no. 1, 
Feb. 1, 1946. 

^'Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). House of Com- 
mons. Official Report. Vol. 419, no. 87, Feb. 21, 1946, 
cols. 1357-59. 

'^Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). House of Cotn- 
mons. Official Report. VoL 421, no. 109, Mar. 25, 1946, 
cols. 6-7. 

^ BuiXETiN of Apr. 14, 1940, p. 622. 

" Turkish Embassy, Washington, Press Release no. 8, 
May 17, 1946. 

" ParJiamentanj Debates (Hansard). House of Com- 
mons. Official Report. Vol. 423, no. 153, June 4, 1946, cols. 
1836-37. 



January 26, 1947 



14S 



have not got a port there. We will sail to Odessa 
again, to the Black Sea and Constanza, quite free- 
ly, but we do not ask for a base or military re- 
quirements to enable us to do so. Our aim, as a 
Government, is the free movement of shipping 
and the world's trade. Therefore, whatever re- 
sponsibilities we undertake in the defence scheme 
of the world in any particular area, we give a sol- 
emn undertaking that they will be on a basis of 
freedom to all members of the Peace Club on equal 
terms. I believe that, if such an attitude is ac- 
cepted all round, this great desire for bases can be 
considerably minimised." 

III. The Great Debate: The Exchange of Notes on 
the Straits, 1946 

The Soviet Note, August 7, lOIfi 

The substantial exchange of views concerning 
the problem of the Straits began on August 7, 
1946 when the Soviet Government presented a 
detailed note on the subject to the Turkish Gov- 
ernment.^^ This note was also transmitted to the 
Governments of Great Britain and the United 
States. The Soviet Government called the atten- 
tion of the Turkish Government to the agreement 
at Potsdam as to the revision of the Monti'eux 
Convention, indicating that this question was to be 
"the subject of direct negotiations between each 
of the three powers and the Turkish Government". 
In the course of the note, the Soviet Government 
called attention to a number of incidents which 
had occurred in the Straits during World War 
II, as follows : 

1. On July 9, 1941, the German patrol boat 
Seefalke was sent through the Straits into the 
Black Sea, with a resulting protest from the Soviet 
Government to the Turkish Government. 

2. In August 1941, Turkish authorities per- 
mitted the Italian auxiliary warship Tarvisio to 
pass through the Straits into the Black Sea, with a 
consequent Soviet protest, as an apparent violation 
of the Straits convention. 

3. On November 4, 1942, the Soviet Government 
again called the attention of the Turkish Govern- 
ment to the "fact" that Germany intended to send 
140,000 tons of auxiliary warships through the 
Straits into the Black Sea under the guise of mer- 
chant vessels. 

4. In June 1944, the Soviet Government pro- 

'• Botxetin of Sept. 1, 1946, p. 420. 
" BuLLBmN of Sept. 1, 1946, p. 421. 



tested against a series of passages through the 
Straits toward the end of May and early in June 
1944 of German warships and auxiliary warships 
of varying tonnage of the Ems (8 vessels) and 
Kriegstransfort ( 5 vessels) types, which had taken 
part in naval operations in the Black Sea. 

The Soviet Government, therefore, believed that 
since the Montreux Convention had not, appar- 
ently, prevented the use of the Straits by enemy 
powers, it should be revised — as proposed at the 
Potsdam Conference. The Soviet Government 
also indicated its familiarity with the American 
note of November 2, 1945 and with the British note 
of November 21, 1945 which had been addressed 
to the Turkish Government on this question. For 
its own part, the Soviet Government proposed to 
establish a "new regime" for the Straits, along the 
following lines : 

"1) The Straits should be always open to the 
jjassage of merchant ships of all countries. 

"2) The Straits should be alwaj's open to the 
passage of warships of the Black Sea Powers. 

"3) Passage through the Straits for warships 
not belonging to the Black Sea Powers shall not 
be permitted except in cases specially provided for. 

"4) The establishment of a regime of the Straits, 
as the sole sea passage, leading from the Black 
Sea and to the Black Sea, should come under the 
competence of Turkey and other Black Sea powers. 

"5) Turkey and the Soviet Union, as the powers 
most interested and capable of guaranteeing free- 
dom to commercial navigation and security in the 
Straits, shall organize joint means of defense of 
the Straits for the prevention of the utilization of 
the Straits by other countries for aims hostile to 
the Black Sea Powers." 

The first three of these principles were in 
general agreement with the first three principles 
of the note of the United States Government of 
November 2, 1945. Points 4 and 5, however, called 
for the establishment of a new regime of the 
Straits by the Black Sea powers and the develop- 
ment of a joint Turco-Soviet system of defense 
for the Straits, on the ground that the Black Sea 
powers were primarily concerned and that only 
a joint defense s_vstem could offer genuine security 
to tlie countries of the Black Sea. 

The American Note, August 19, 19^6 

The United States replied to the Soviet note on 
August 19, 1946,^'= substantially reiterating its po- 



146 



Department of State Bulletin 



sition of November 2, 1945 and expressing the 
view that the establishment of a regime of the 
Straits was not the exclusive concern of the Black 
Sea powers — a view which American representa- 
tives had set forth vigorously at the Lausanne 
conference in December 1922. The United States 
note further declared that Turkey should remain 
primarily responsible for the defense of the Straits 
and stated that if this region became the object 
of a threat or an attack on the part of an aggressor, 
the resulting situation "would constitute a threat 
to international security and would clearly be a 
matter for action on the part of the Security Coun- 
cil of the United Nations". The American note 
also declared its position that "the regime of the 
Straits should be brought into appropriate re- 
lationship with the United Nations and should 
function in a manner entirely consistent with the 
principles and aims of the United Nations". In 
conclusion the United States reaffirmed its willing- 
ness to participate in a confei'ence for the revision 
of the Montreux Convention. 

The British Note, August 21, 194.6 

The British note of August 21, 1946 expressed 
views similar to those of the United States. In 
particular, the British note pointed out : 

"that it has for long been internationally recog- 
nized that the regime of the Straits is the concern 
of other States besides the Black Sea powers. His 
Majesty's Government cannot, therefore, agree 
with the Soviet view that the future regime should 
be the concern of the Black Sea powers and Turkey 
alone. 

"As regards the fifth proposal that Turkey and 
the Soviet Union should organize the defense of 
the Straits by joint means His Majesty's Govern- 
ment consider that Turkey, as the territorial power 
concerned, should continue to be responsible for 
defense and control of the Straits." 

The Turkish Note, August 22, 1946 

The Turkish Government replied to the Soviet 
note oir August 22, 1946 in a very detailed state- 
ment," indicating that it had examined the Soviet 
position "with all the more attention" since the 
"international importance" of the question of the 
Straits was "only surpassed by the vital interest" 
which it represented "from the Turkish national 
point of view". After repeating the thesis ad- 
vanced in the Soviet note of August 7, the Turkish 



note gave a detailed answer as to the charges con- 
cerning the passage of Axis vessels through the 
Straits, as follows : '^ 

1. The motor-vessel Seefdike, of 37 tons, flying 
the German commercial flag and not listed in the 
record of war fleets, arrived at the entrance of the 
Dardanelles on July 6, 1941, requesting passage 
to go to Constanza. Since the vessel had none of 
the characteristics of warships listed in annex II 
of the Montreux Convention, it was authorized to 
pass through the Straits. 

2. The Italian vessel Tarvisio passed the Straits 
in June 1941 as a commercial vessel. The passage 
was brought to the attention of the Turkish For- 
eign Ministry as fraudulent since the vessel had 
been listed as an auxiliary warship. Italy ex- 
plained, however, that it had been removed from 
this list. Nevertheless the Turkish Government 
ordered that passage be stopped on the next at- 
tempt of the Tarvisio. When it appeared on 
August 9, 1941 at the Dardanelles passage was 
refused. After remaining at ^anakkale for 25 
days with its radio apparatus sealed, the Tarvisio 
turned back into the Mediterranean on September 
2, 1941. The Ambassador of the Soviet Union, 
on August 25, 1941, expressed his gratitude for the 
decision of the Turkish Government in this case 
and "confirmed that his government fully shared 
the Turkish point of view as regards the admis- 
sibility of the right to change auxiliary war vessels 
into commercial vessels." 

3. During November and December 1942 no 
German merchant vessels passed the Straits to- 
ward the Black Sea. From Januai-y 1, 1943 to 
January 1, 1944 only 10 German merchant ships, 
displacing in all 19,476 tons, passed through the 
Straits into the Black Sea. 



" Among other places, the Turkish note of Aug. 22 was 
published in the New York Times, Aug. 23, 1946. 

" See also Cemil Bilsel, "International Law in Turkey," 
American Journal of International Law, October 1944, 
vol. xxxviii, no. 4, pp. 553-556. Ahmed Siikrii Esmer, "The 
Straits : Crux of World Politics," Foreign Affairs, January 
1947, vol. XXV, no. 2, pp. 290-302. It may also be noted 
that at this time the Soviet Government published a 
series of captured German documents bearing on 
Turkey, a review of which appeared in Pravda, 
Aug. 11, 1946, and in the Neiv Times, Aug. 15, 
1946, no. 16, pp. 26-30. The full publication consisting 
of 36 documents is: Arkhivnoe Upravlcnie ilinisterstva 
Inostrannikh Did Soiuza SSR. Dokumenti Ministerstva 
Inostrannikh Diet Oermanii. Vipusk II. Gennanskaia Po- 
litika V. Turtsii {19il-19J,S) . OGIZ— Gospolitizdat. 1&46. 



ianuary 26, 7947 



147 



4. Ships of the Ems type each displaced less 
than 100 tons, were not armed, had freight holds, 
and carried wood, coal or fodder. Ships of the 
Kriegstransport type had the character of mer- 
chant ships, were not represented in the list of 
German auxiliary warships, and could not be in- 
cluded in any of the categories of annex II of 
the convention. Wlien the British Embassy in- 
formed the Turkish Foreign Ministry that the 
Enegstrans'port type were in the service of the 
German navy, passage was refused.^^ 

Although the Turkish Government could not 
accept the Soviet charges concerning its alleged 
conduct during the war, it was prepared to admit 
that the definitions of warehips in annex II of 
the Montreux Convention and provisions "by- 
passed by events and weakened by experience, 
need to be adapted to technical progress and pres- 
ent conditions". It was, indeed, prepared for a 
revision of the Montreux Convention through an 
international conference including the signatories 
and the United States of America. 

But the Tuikish Government was unable to 
accept point 4 of the Soviet note of August 7, 
which called for the establishment of a regime of 
the Straits by Turkey and the other Black Sea 
powers. Nor could the Turkish Government ac- 
cept point 5 as to the setting up of a joint Turco- 
Soviet system of defense for the Straits. From 
the Turkish point of view, the Soviet proposal was 
"not compatible with the inalienable rights of 
sovereignty of Turkey nor with its security, which 
brooks no restriction". Moreover, it was felt that 
from the international point of view, the Soviet 
proposal raised the "gravest objections". In the 
Turkish view, the surest guaranty for the security 
of the U.S.S.R. in the Black Sea lay "not in the 
search for a privileged strategic position in the 
Straits, a position incompatible with the dignity 
and sovereign rights of an independent country, 
but in the restoration of friendly and trusting rela- 
tions with a strong Turkey," determined to in- 
augurate the happy era of friendly relations, "but 
whose efforts in this direction must be seconded 



'° For Mr. Eden's statement in the House of Commons on 
this subject see Parliamentary Debates. House of Com- 
mons. Official Report. Vol. 400, no. 90, June 14, 1944, cols. 
198&-88. 

" For texts see Bulletin of Nov. 3, 1946, p. 791. 

" For details as to the Ooclen and Breslau see Foreign 
Relations, 1914, Supp., pp. 62, passim. 

148 



by an equal good will coming from its northern 
neighbor." The Turkish Government also felt 
that the security of each country was under the 
guaranty of the United Nations, of which both 
Turkey and the U.S.S.R. were members. 

The Soviet Note, September £4, 19Ji6 

The Soviet Government answered the Turkish 
note on September 24, 1946, substantially reiter- 
ating the position taken in the Soviet statement 
of August 7, 1946. The second note repeated the 
charges of violations of the Montreux Convention 
during the recent war. It took account of the 
Turkish acceptance of the first three principles set 
forth in the August 7 note concerning commercial 
freedom in the Straits, opening of the Straits to 
the warships of Black Sea powers, and closure to 
warships of non-riparian powers "except in cases 
especially provided for". These principles had 
been enunciated in the American note of November 
2, 1945. 

In view of the Turkish objections, the Soviet 
note discussed points 4 and 5, involving the estab- 
lishment of a regime of the Straits by the Black 
Sea powers and Turkey and the setting up of a 
joint Turco-Soviet system of defense for the 
Straits, at some length. In the opinion of the So- 
viet Government, since the Straits led into the 
closed Black Sea and differed, therefore, from 
world seaways like Gibraltar or the Suez Canal, 
it was necessary that a regime of the Straits which 
would above all meet the special situation and the 
security of Turkey, the U. S. S. R., and the other 
Black Sea powers sliould be established. The 
note indicated that Turkey had accepted the prin- 
ciple of the elaboration of a regime of the Straits 
by Turkey and the Black Sea powers in the treaties 
of Moscow (March 16, 1921) and Kars (October 
13, 1921) and in the Turco-Ukrainian agreement 
of January 2, 1922.=° 

The Soviet Government also elaborated on the 
theme of joint Turco-Soviet defense of the Straits, 
pointing, among other things, to the passage of the 
German cruisers Goehen and Breslau in August 
1914 through the Straits as well as to alleged inci- 
dents during World "War II." The fact that the 
Soviet Union had a shoreline of some 1,100 miles 
along the Black Sea which gave access to important 
regions of the U. S. S. R. was also cited as a reason 
for direct participation of the Soviet Union in the 
defense of the Turkish Straits. In the Soviet view, 

Department of State Bulletin 



only a joint system of defense could ofl'er genuine 
security to all parties directly concerned, namely 
Turkey and the Black Sea states. 

The Soviet Government also expi-essed the view 
that its position as to joint defense was entirely 
consonant with the principles of the Charter of 
the United Nations since the proposal was intended 
to serve not only the general interests of interna- 
tional conmierce but to create the conditions for 
the maintenance of the security of the powers of 
the Black Sea and to contribute to the consolida- 
tion of the general peace. 

Finally, the Soviet note stated the Soviet view, 
in the light of the Potsdam Conference, that the 
Montreux Convention should be revised to meet 
present conditions and that the calling of a con- 
ference for this pur]Dose should be preceded by a 
discussion of the question through direct four- 
parlers between governments. 

The American Note of October 9, WJfi 

Although the Soviet note of September 24 was 
not addressed to the United States, the American 
Government again expressed its views in a note of 
October 9, 1946,°^ reiterating its earlier position, 
expressed on November 2, 1945 and August 19, 
1946. The United States Government recalled — 

"that in the Protocol of the proceedings of the 
Potsdam Conference, signed by the U.S.S.R., 
Great Britain and the United States, the three 
Governments recognized that the Convention on 
the Straits concluded at Montreux should be re- 
vised as failing to meet present-day conditions. It 
was further agreed in the Protocol that as the next 
step the matter should be the subject of direct con- 
versations between each of the three Governments 
and the Tui-kish Government." 

The American Government understood that the 
three governments, in agreement with each other 
as to the desirability of revision of the Montreux 
Convention, "mutally recognized that all three 
signatories of the Protocol have an interest in the 
regime of the Straits and in any changes which 
might be made in that regime". Although the 
United States, in its note of August 19, 1946, had 
indicated that the regime of the Straits was a mat- 
ter of concern not only to the Black Sea powers 
but to other powers, including the United States, 
the Soviet Government had reiterated its position 
as to the establishment of a new regime of the 

ianuarf 26, 7947 

728503 — 47 2 



Straits by the Black Sea powers in the Soviet note 
of September 24. 

The American Government did not believe the 
Potsdam agreement contemplated that the "direct 
conversations" envisaged in the protocol "should 
have the effect of prejudicing the participation of 
tlie other two nignatory powers in the revision 
of the regime of the Straits". On the contrary, 
the United States considered that the Potsdam 
agreement "definitely contemplated only an ex- 
change of views with the Turkish Government as 
a useful preliminary to a conference of all the in- 
terested powers, including the United States, to 
consider the revision of the Montreux Conven- 
tion". Finally, the United States reiterated its 
view that "the Government of Turkey should con- 
tinue to be primarily responsible for the defense of 
the Straits and that should the Straits become the 
object of attack or threat of attack by an aggressor, 
the resulting situation would be a matter for action 
on the part of the Security Council of the United 
Nations". 

The British Note of October 9, WJfi 

The British Government replied to the Soviet 
Government on the same day, October 9. Like 
the American Government, Great Britain indi- 
cated that the Potsdam agreement "laid it down 
that as the next step" the problem of revision of 
the Montreux Convention should be "the subject 
of direct conversations between each of the three 
Governments and the Turkish Government". 
In addition, however, the British Government 
stressed that the "next step" had already been 
completed "by the exchange of views which have 
now taken place between these Governments". It, 
therefore, saw "no need for or purpose in continu- 
ing direct corresi^ondence on the subject". Al- 
though the British attitude towards points 4 and 
5 of the Soviet note of August 7 remained as the 
Foreign Office had stated it on August 21, Great 
Britain was ready to attend a conference of the 
Soviet Union, the United States, the United King- 
dom, France, and all other signatories of the 
Montreux Convention, with the exception of Ja- 
pan, "to consider a revision of that Convention". 

The Turkish Note of October 18, 19^6 

In its note of October 18, 1946 the Turkish Gov- 
ernment reaffirmed its earlier position, once more 



'= Bulletin of Oct. 20, 1946, p. 722. 



149 



replying iDoint by point to the Soviet charges of 
misconduct during the recent war. The note re- 
iterated certain difficulties in the technical distinc- 
tions of annex II of the Montreux Convention be- 
tween warships and commercial vessels. The note 
stressed, however, that the "real threat to the 
security of the Soviet Black Sea shores came from 
the occupation of a large part of the shore of that 
Sea by the German Armies, from the German 
possession of the Kumanian and Bulgarian fleets 
and from the presence of German and Italian 
ships sent to the Black Sea ports by rail or through 
the Danube." The Turkish Government believed, 
however, that the Montreux Convention required 
revision. In the first place, annex II, which de- 
fined warships, required technical revision. More- 
over, the provisions of the Montreux Convention 
relative to the League of Nations would have to 
give way to the system established by the United 
Nations, "in its task of preserving the peace of 
the world". Finally, Japan should be removed 
from the list of contracting parties, and the United 
States should become a signatoiy of the revised 
convention. It was within this framework that the 
Turkish Government envisaged an eventual revi- 
sion of the Montreux Convention and was willing 
to be represented at a conference for revision of 
the convention. It would, therefore, make no dif- 
ficulty concerning such a conference. Neverthe- 
less, the Turkish Government could not admit 
"unfounded complaints tending to justify this re- 
vision on the basis of an alleged responsibility on 
its part, born of pretended violations of the re- 
gime of the Straits in the course of the Second 
World War". 

Once more, the Turkish Government took special 
note of the Soviet contention that the regime of 
the Straits should be elaborated by Turkey and the 
Black Sea powers, in view of their special interests 
and in view of the fact that, in the Soviet view, the 
Black Sea was a "closed sea". In reply the Turkish 
Government pointed out that the Montreux 
Convention had already established "a preferen- 
tial regime in favor of the riverain Powers". But 
it was unable to accejjt the Soviet reasoning based 
on the 1921-1922 treaties or the argument as to the 
"closed sea". Moreover, it pointed out that, in 
accordance with the Montreux Convention revision 
could take place "in an international conference 
uniting the contracting States and in accordance 



with a procedure foreseen by the text of the con- 
vention itself". 

Tlie Turkish Government agreed with the Soviet 
Goveriunent that the Montreux Convention went 
further than the Lausanne Convention of the 
Straits and established "a sharply-defined system 
of preference" for the benefit of the Black Sea 
powers. Nevertheless, it was also clear to the 
Turkish Government that the three principles for 
revision of the convention proposed by the United 
States, supported by Great Britain, Turkey, and 
the Soviet Union offered the possibility "of giving 
greater satisfaction to the Soviet desiderata". 

Likewise, the Turkish Government could not ac- 
cept point 5 as to the establishment of a joint 
Turco- Soviet system for defense of the Straits, 
which it continued to regard "as incompatible with 
the sovereignty and the security of Turkey, with- 
out previously having examined the concrete sug- 
gestions of the Soviet Government on this subject". 
The question had been discussed in the Saracoglu- 
Molotov discussions in September and October 
1939. Acceptance by Turkey of a joint system 
of defense of the Straits "would mean no less than 
the sharing of her sovereignty with a foreign 
power". Turkey was anxious for friendship with 
the Soviet Union, however, and it urged stress on 
the United Nations as the hope for the security 
and peace of all nations. 

Relying on the explanations of its attitude, the 
Turkish Government was convinced that it had 
established tangible proof of its good-will and of 
its spirit of conciliation in agreeing to participate 
in a conference for revision of the Montreux Con- 
vention. It appealed to the Soviet Government 
to study, in its turn, the reflections which the 
Turkish proposals might evoke, with the same 
good-will and objectivity. The Turkish Govern- 
ment felt that the direct convei'sations contem- 
plated by the Potsdam Conference had been ful- 
filled, and doubted the usefulness and advisability 
of continuing to follow the same procedure as to 
exchange of views by corresi:)ondence. It there- 
fore declared its readiness to attend a conference 
for revision of the Straits convention at which 
i-epresentatives of the Soviet Union, the United 
States, Great Britain, and France, and the signa- 
tories of the Montreux Convention, with the ex- 
ception of Japan, would attend. 



150 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



IV. Toward the End of the Great Debate 

By the fall of 1946 the great debate over the 
question of the Turkish Straits, in which the 
United States, the Soviet Union, Great Britain, 
and Turkey had outlined their fundamental posi- 
tion concerning the problem, appeared to be draw- 
ing to a close. There was no indication, however, 
that the argument was really over. 

On October 22, 1946,-^ Mr. Bevin summarized 
the British position as it stood after the exchange 
of notes which had taken place since August 7. 
He advised the House of Commons of the Potsdam 
agreement, adding that he thought ''there should 
be a discussion between the great powers and 
Turkey, in order to consider a revision of the 
Montreux Convention". The basic British posi- 
tion was more or less as follows, according to the 
British Foreign Minister : 

"At the various international conferences during 
the last three or four years, and in their latest cor- 
respondence with the Turkish Government, the 
Soviet Government have made it clear that they 
are anxious to obtain a base in the Straits, which 
would ensure, in effect, that the control of this 
waterway would rest in the hands of the Soviet 
Union and not in the hands of the territorial Power 
most clearly concerned. His Majesty's Government 
have made it clear that in their view, if this were 
adopted, it would involve an unwarrantable inter- 
ference with the sovereignty of Turkey, and the 
effect of it would be to put her really under foreign 
domination, and would also represent an improper 
interference with the rights of other Powers con- 
cerned. During the last two months, the Soviet 
Government have placed their views publicly on 
record in two Notes to the Turkish Government, 
which have received wide publicity. I repeat that 
His Majesty's Government do not dispute that the 
existing Convention requires modification in cer- 
tain respects to bring it into accord with present 
day conditions. For instance, at present Japan 
is one of the signatories. The Convention itself 
contains a number of references to the League of 
Nations and the definition of warships given in an 
annex to the Convention is clearly out of date. We 
agreed at Potsdam with the United States and the 
Soviet Government that as a next step matters 



^' ParUamentnrii Dehatcs {Ilansard). House of Com- 
mons. Official Report. Vol. 427, no. 201, Oct. 22, 1946, 
cols. 1500-1.502. 



should be the subject of direct conversations be- 
tween each of the three governments concerned, 
and the Turkish Government. But, while recog- 
nising that revision is necessary, His Majesty's 
Government are very anxious to keep the inter- 
national aspect of this waterway always in view." 

Mr. Bevin took note of the Soviet charges that the 
Montreux Convention had not prevented enemy 
powers "from using the Straits for hostile pur- 
poses against the Soviet Union, and other Allied 
States". The British Government, although it had 
had "some difference of opinion with the Turkish 
Government about the interpretation of the Con- 
vention, held that, on the whole, its terms had 
been conscientiously observed". The British Gov- 
ernment was unable to accept the position that the 
regime of the Straits should be reserved to the 
Black Sea powers alone and that Turkey and the 
Soviet Union should jointly organize the defense 
of the Straits. Against this view. Great Britain 
had pointed out the international character of the 
Straits and had declared that the proposal for a 
joint Turco-Soviet system of defense "was not ac- 
ceptable". As the territorial power, Turkey 
"should continue to be responsible for the defence 
and control of the Straits". This view was similar 
to that of the United States. Mr. Bevin now felt, 
in view of the exchange of notes, in which the 
jDowers had outlined their basic positions, in ac- 
cordance with the Potsdam Agreement, "any fur- 
ther discussions should . . . take place at 
an international conference" for the revision of 
the Montreux Convention. If such a conference 
were called, of the United States, Great Britain, 
France, the Soviet Union, and all the other sig- 
natories of the Montreux Convention, other than 
Japan, Great Britain would be glad to join, "and 
to strive hard for an agreed solution of this 
difficult problem". A solution of the problem 
should take into account "the legitimate interests 
of Turkey and the Soviet Union", with both of 
which Great Britain had treaties of alliance. But 
any solution should "respect the sovereignty of 
Turkey and the interest of other Powers concerned 
outside the Black Sea". The British Foreign Min- 
ister believed that if the case were "not pushed uni- 
laterally, and is dealt with on an international 
basis," a solution would be found. Matters had, 
nevertheless, been made much more awkward by 
"the war of nerves" which had been carried on, 
(Continued on page 167) 



January 26, 1947 



151 



THE UNITED NATIONS 



Report on United States Participation in World Bank ^ 



THE PRESIDENT'S LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 

To the Congress of the United States: 

In accordance with section 4 (b) (5) of the Bret- 
ton Woods Agreements Act, thei-e is transmitted 
herewith a report by the National Advisory Coun- 
cil on International Monetary and Financial Prob- 
lems with respect to the participation of the United 
States in the International Bank for Reconstruc- 
tion and Development and in the International 
Monetary Fund to October 31, 1946. 

Haekt S. Truman 
The White House, 
January IS, 194.7. 



EXCERPTS FROM THE REPORT 

III. Payments Made by the United States to the 
Fund and the Bank 

In accordance with the articles of agreement of 
the fund, each government signing the agreement 
paid one one-hundredth of 1 percent of its total 
subscription to the fund in gold or United States 
dollars. These payments were held in a special 
deposit account in the Treasury until the inaug- 
ural meeting of the Board of Governors of the 
fund, and on March 29, 1946, they were transferred 
to the fund. The fund has received a total of 
$737,250 from these payments by members. The 
United States paid $275,000 to the fund under this 
clause. 

The balance of the subscription of the United 
States to the fund will be paid in accordance with 
article III, section 3, and article XX, section 4 (c) , 
of the agreement, which provide for full payment 



' H. Doc. 53, 80th Cong. 



152 



on or before the date when the fund begins ex- 
change transactions. Funds for this purpose have 
already been provided by section 7 of the Bretton 
Woods Agreements Act. In accordance with sec- 
tion 7 (c) of the Bretton Woods Agreements Act, 
the United States intends to exercise its option 
under article III, section 5, of the fund agreement, 
to deliver special nonnegotiable, non-interest- 
bearing notes of the United States payable on 
demand in exchange for dollars not needed by the 
fund for its operations. 

The articles of agreement of the bank (art. XI, 
sec. 2 (d)) require the payment of one one-hun- 
dredth of 1 percent of the capital subscription of 
each member country at the time of signature of 
the articles. These payments were treated in the 
same way as the initial payments to the fund noted 
above. Accordingly, the United States paid the 
bank $317,500 under this clause. Total payments 
by all member countries aggregated $767,000. 

Under article II, sections 7 and 8, the balance 
of 2 percent of the capital subscription became 
payable within 60 days after the bank began op- 
erations — i. e., on or before August 24, 1946. The 
United States accordingly paid an additional $63,- 
182,500 to the bank on June 28, 1946. The bank, 
in accordance with article II, sections 5, 7, and 8, 
called for an additional 3 percent ($95,250,000) 
as of June 25, 1946, payable on or before Novem- 
ber 25, 1946. This call was likewise paid on June 
28, 1946. The total paid to the bank by the United 
States as of October 31, 1946, amounted, there- 
fore, to $158,750,000. 

As of September 25, 1946, the bank called an ad- 
ditional 5 percent of the capital subscription of 
all members payable by November 25, 1946, and 
it has also given notice that it intends to make two 

Department of Stale Bulletin 



additional calls of 6 percent each, payable by Feb- 
ruary 25, 1947, and May 26, 1947, respectively. 
The United States payment on each of these calls 
will be $158,750,000, so that a total of $635,000,000 
will be paid in on capital subscription by the 
United States. The remainder of the United 
States subscription to the capital stock of the bank 
will not be called unless funds are needed to make 
payments to investors to meet obligations of the 
bank. 

In accordance with the Bretton Woods Agree- 
ments Act, the United States will exercise its op- 
tion to deliver nonnegotiable, non-interest-bear- 
ing demand notes in exchange for dollars not 
needed in the bank's operations, as provided in 
article V, section 12, of the bank agreement. 

VI. Principal Actions of the Bank and Fund 

The Executive Directors fixed June 25, 1946, as 
the date upon which the bank would formally be- 
gin operations and called for the balance of the 
initial 2 percent of the capital subscription. Mr. 
Eugene Meyer (United States) was elected Presi- 
dent and took office on June 18, 1946. 

The Executive Directors of the fund at their 
first meeting on May 6, 1946, elected Mr. Camille 
Gutt (Belgium) as Managing Director. On Sep- 
tember 12, 1946, the fund announced that "it will 
shortly be in a position to begin exchange trans- 
actions'' (art. XX, sec. 4) and requested the mem- 
bers to communicate the par values of their cur- 
rencies. The fund may begin exchange transac- 
tions after the exchange parities have been agreed 
with the fund by members having an aggregate 
of at least 65 percent of the quotas established at 
Bretton Woods. 

A. Admission of members 

The United States has favored the early admis- 
sion to membership in the bank and fund of all 
peace-loving nations. The United States Govern- 
ment supported the extension until December 31, 
1946, of the period of time during which countries 
represented at Bretton Woods might accept mem- 
bership in these institutions on the same terms as 
the original signatories. During the Savannah 
meeting, or shortly thereafter, five membei's joined 
both the fund and the bank, viz, Cuba, Denmark, 
Nicaragua, Panama, and El Salvador. The ex- 
tension still applies to Australia, Haiti, Liberia, 
New Zealand, the Union of Soviet Socialist Ke- 



THE UNITED NATIONS 

publics and Venezuela. Colombia joined the fund 
but not the bank and is also eligible under this ex- 
tension to join the bank. 

The United States has also supported the ad- 
mission of new members, and at the first annual 
meeting of the Boards of Governors in Washing- 
ton applications were accepted from Italy, Leb- 
anon, Syria, and Turkey. Quotas in the fund for 
the new members were fixed at this time (Italy, 
180 million dollars; Lebanon, 4.5 million dollars; 
Syi'ia, 6.5 million dollars ; and Turkey, 43 million 
dollars). Subscriptions to the capital stock of 
the bank are in the same amount as the fund quota 
for each country. 

B. Revisions of quotas and subscriptions 

The Board of Governors of the fund, with the 
concurrence of the United States, voted during 
the Washington meeting to increase the quota of 
France in the fund from 450 million dollars to 525 
million dollars, and of Paraguay from 2 million 
dollars to 3.5 million dollars, conditional upon ap- 
plication for proportionate increases in their sub- 
scriptions to the bank. The Board of Governors 
of the bank approved increases in the bank sub- 
scription of France to 525 million dollare and of 
Paraguay to 1.4 million dollars. 

C. Functions and rem/wneration of the executive 
directors 

The United States has favored a broad delega- 
tion of powers to the Boards of Executive Direc- 
tors of both the bank and the fund and has sup- 
ported the principle that the offices of Executive 
Directors (and their alternates) should be full- 
time positions. It is provided in the bylaws of the 
bank and of the fund that — 

It shall be the duty of an Executive Director and his 
alternate to devote all the time and attention to the busi- 
ness of the bank [fund] that its interests require, and, be- 
tween them, to be continuously available at the principal 
office of the bank [fund]. 

The Boards of Governors of the bank and of the 
fund decided to fix the remuneration of Executive 
Directors (and their alternates) on the basis of 
full-time service, but where a director or alternate 
serves only on a part-time basis his remimeration is 
to be prorated according to the proportion of his 
time devoted to the institution. 

The following resolution concerning national 
taxes on salaries and allowances was passed at the 



January 26, 1947 



153 



THE UNITBD NATIONS 

Savannah meeting by the Boards of Governors of 

the bank and the fund. 

Appropriate measures for the elimination or equalization 
of the burden of national taxes upon salaries and allow- 
ances paid by the International Bank for Reconstruction 
and Development [International Monetary Fund] are in- 
dispensable to the achievement of equity among its mem- 
bers and equality among its personnel — 

Therefore — 

The Board of Governors of the International Bank for 
Reconstruction and Development [International Monetary 
Fund] recommends to the members of the bank [fund] that 
necessary action be taken by them to exempt from national 
taxation salaries and allowances paid out of the budget of 
the bank [fund] to the President [Managing Director], the 
Executive Directors and their alternates and to the staff 
of the bank [fund]. 

Wlien the Congress is again in session, the Coun- 
cil will give consideration to the problem raised by 
this resolution insofar as the United States is con- 
cerned, in the light of the similar problem which 
has arisen in the case of American citizens em- 
ployed by the United Nations and other interna- 
tional bodies of which the United States is a 
member. 

D. Other actions of the bank and fvxnd 

The articles of agreement of the bank and of the 
fund provide that their principal offices are to be 
located in the country with the largest subscription 
and quota, respectively. Since these institutions 
are intergovernmental bodies, the United States 
delegation favored the location of their principal 
offices in Washington. This view prevailed at the 
Savannah Conference. 

The United States representatives have shared a 
substantial identity of view with the representa- 
tives of the other members of the bank and the 
fund on many other matters which have been 
considered. 

At the first annual meeting the Governors of the 
fund also adopted a resolution on silver introduced 



' Prepared by the Division of International Organiza- 
tion Affairs, Office of Special Political Affairs, Department 
of State. 

^ The experts were : Mr. Borsio (U. S. S. R.) ; Mr. Brkish 
(Yugoslavia) ; Prof. Cassin (France) ; Dr. Hsia (China) ; 
Mr. Neogi (India) ; and Mrs. Roosevelt (United States). 
The following were unable to attend : Mr. Berg (Norway) ; 
Mr. Dehousse (Belgium) ; and Mr. Haya de la Torre 
(Peru). 



by the Governor for Mexico. The conclusion of 
this resolution is as follows: 

The fund shall gather whatever material is available 
and obtainable on the monetary uses of silver ; the real 
function of silver coins ; risks and uncertainties of its 
monetary uses ; possibilities of cooperation in the use of 
silver for monetary purposes, etc. In general, the fund 
shall gather material, statistical or otherwise, which could 
be useful in facilitating discussions on the subject in 
an international conference among interested member 
countries. 

The Boards of Governors decided to hold their 
next annual meetings at London in September 
1947. Officers were elected to hold office until the 
end of the second annual meeting. The Governor 
for the United Kingdom was elected Chairman, 
and the Governors for China, France, India, and 
the United States were elected Vice Chairmen for 
the ensuing year. 

First Session of the Commission on 
Human Rights^ 

The first session of the Commission on Human 
Rights is scheduled to convene on January 27, 
1947 and is expected to last two weeks. The Com- 
mission was established by the United Nations 
Economic and Social Council at its first session 
in recognition of the gi'eat concern with which the 
United Nations Charter regards "human rights 
and fundamental freedoms" (Articles 1 (3), 13 
(l,b), 55 (6), 62 (2), and 76 (6). | 

In April 1946, a nuclear group composed of 
experts from six countries^ under the chairman- , 
ship of Mrs. Franklin D. Roosevelt set forth prin- I 
ciples which might guide the operations of the 
full Commission. As amended by the Economic 
and Social Council at its second session the most 
important of these principles dealt with machinery 
for the drafting and possible implementation of 
an international bill of rights and the authoriza- 
tion of subcommissions on freedom of information 
and of the press, protection of minorities, and pre- 
vention of discrimination. At its forthcoming 
meeting the full Commission of 18 members 
coming from Australia, Belgium, Byelorussian 
S. S. R., Chile, China, Egypt, France, Iran, Leb- 
anon, Panama, Philippine Republic, Ukrainian 
S. S. R., United Kingdom, United States, Union 
of Soviet Socialist Republics, Uruguay, and 



154 



DBpartment of State Bulletin 



Yugoslavia will consider these proposals in 
further detail. In addition it will consider mat- 
ters such as communications received by the 
United Nations Secretariat dealing with alleged 
violation of human rights, and relations with other 
organizations. 

Recognition of human rights on the broad scale 
implied in the United Nations Charter is regarded 
as a new development in international affairs. No 
counterpart existed in the League of Nations Cov- 
enant. The interest of United Nations members 
in the subject was recently shown in the General 
Assembly when the following human rights ques- 
tions were given the most serious attention: (1) 
racial persecution and discrimination (resolution 
proposed by Egypt) ; (2) alleged discriminations 
of Indians in South Africa (question raised by 
India) ; (3) adoption of an international bill of 
rights (proposed by Panama) ; (4) declaration 
that genocide is an international crime (resolution 
proposed by Cuba, India, and Panama) ; and (5) 
International Conference on Freedom of Informa- 
tion (proposed by the Philippine Republic) . 

Operating in a field where precedents are few 
and far between, and under the eyes of a world 
which expects definite accomplishments, the task 
of the Commission on Human Rights is one of the 
most difficult assigned to the United Nations. 

Appointment of Deputy Director- 
General of UNESCO 

The Department of State has been informed by 
the American Embassy in Paris that Dr. Walter 
H. C. Laves has been appointed Deputy Director- 
General of the United Nations Educational, Scien- 
tific and Cultural Organization. The appoint- 
ment was made by the Standing Committee of the 
Executive Board of UNESCO. Dr. Laves, ad- 
ministrative consultant on international affairs in 
the Bureau of the Budget, served as an adviser to 
the American Delegation to the General Confer- 
ence to UNESCO, held in Paris November 19-De- 
cember 10, 1946. 



THE UNITED NATIONS 

Confirmations of U.S. Representatives 
to United Nations 

The Senate on January 13 confirmed the follow- 
ing nominations of representatives of the United 
States to the United Nations : 

Warren R. Austin, to be the representative of the 
United States of America to the United Nations, 
with the rank and status of Ambassador Extraor- 
dinary and Plenipotentiary, and the representa- 
tive of the United States in the Security Council 
of the United Nations. 

Mark Foster Etheridge, to be the United States 
representative on the Commission of Investigation 
established by the Security Council of the United 
Nations on December 19, 1946 to ascertain the facts 
relating to alleged border violations along the 
frontier between Greece on the one hand and Al- 
bania, Bulgaria, and Yugoslavia on the other. 

The Senate on January 17 confirmed the nomi- 
nation of Warren R. Austin to be the representa- 
tive of the United States on the United Nations 
Commission on Atomic Energy. 

The Senate on January 17 confirmed the follow- 
ing nominations to be members of the Economic 
and Social Council of the United Nations : 

Isador Lnbin to be a member of the Economic and 
Employment Commission of the Economic and Social Coun- 
cil for a term of 4 years. 

Edward F. Bartelt to be a member of the Fiscal Com- 
mission of the Economic and Social Council of the United 
Nations for a term of 2 years. 

Mrs. Anna Eleanor Roosevelt to be a member of the 
Human Rights Commission of the Economic and Social 
Council of the United Nations for a term of 4 years. 

Philip M. Hauser to be a member of the Population 
Commission of the Economic and Social Council of the 
United Nations for a term of 2 years. 

Stuart A. Rice to be a member of the Statistical Com- 
mission of the Economic and Social Council of the United 
Nations for a term of 2 years. 

Miss Dorothy Kenyon to be a member of the Commission 
on Status of Women of the Economic and Social Council 
of the United Nations for a term of 3 years. 

Arthur J. Altmeyer to be a member of the Social Com- 
mission of the Economic and Social Council of the United 
Nations for a term of 2 years. 

George P. Baker to be a member of the Transport and 
Communications Commission of the Economic and Social 
Council of the United Nations for a term of 4 years. 



January 26, 7947 



155 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 

Calendar of Meetings ^ 



In Session as of January 19, 1947 

Far Eastern Commission 



United Nations: 

Security Council 

Military Staff Committee 

Commission on Atomic Energy 

UNRRA - Intergovernmental Committee on Refugees (IGCR) : 
Joint Planning Committee 

Telecommunications Advisory Committee 

Committee To Study Relief Data 

German External Property Negotiations (Safehaven) : 

With Portugal 

With Spain 

Inter-Allied Trade Board for Japan 



FAO: Preparatory Commission To Study World Food Board Pro- 
posals 

Inter-Allied Reparation Agency (lARA) : Meetings on Conflicting 
Custodial Claims 

PICAO: 

Interim Council 

Personnel Licensing Division 



Aeronautical Maps and Charts Division 

Twelfth Pan American Sanitary Conference 

Second Pan American Conference on Sanitary Education 
Council of Foreign Ministers: Meeting of Deputies . . . 
International Wheat Council 



Scheduled for January - March 1947 

United Nations: 

Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) 

Drafting Committee of International Trade Organization, 

Preparatory Committee. 

Economic and Employment Commission 

Social Commission 

Human Rights Commission 

Statistical Commission 

Population Commission 

Transport and Communications Commission 

Commission on the Status of Women 

Subcommission on Economic Reconstruction of Devastated 

Areas, Working Group for Asia and the Far East 



Washington 



Lake Success 

Lake Success 

Lake Success 

Washington and Lake 
Success 

Lake Success 

Lake Success . . . , . 



Lisbon. 
Madrid 



Washington 
Washington 

Brussels . . 



Montreal 
Montreal 



Montreal . 
Caracas . . 
Caracas . . 
London . . 
Washington 



Lake Success . 



Lake 
Lake 
Lake 
Lake 
Lake 
Lake 
Lake 
Lake 



Success . 
Success . 
Success . 
Success . 
Success . 
Success . 
Success . 
Success . 



1946 

Feb. 26 

Mar. 25 
Mar. 25 
June 14 
July 25 

Nov. 10 
Dec. 19 

Sept. 3 
Nov. 12 

Oct. 24 

Oct. 28 

Nov. 6-Dec. 17 ' 

1947 

Jan. 7 
Jan. 7-24 

(tentative) 
Jan. 14 

Jan. 12-24 

Jan. 12-24 

Jan. 14-Feb. 24 

Jan. 15 



Jan. 20-Feb. 28 

Jan. 20-Feb. 1 
Jan. 20-Feb. 1 
Jan. 27-Feb. 8 
Jan. 27-Feb. 8 
Feb. 6-19 
Feb. 6-19 
Feb. 10-22 
Feb. 14 



' Prepared in the Division of International Conferences, Department of State. 
' Will resume session Jan. 29. 



156 



Department of State Bulletin 



Calendar oj Meetings — Continued 



United Nations — Continued 

Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) — Continued 

Non-governmental Organizations Committee 

Standing Committee on Negotiations with Specialized Agencies . 

ECOSOC, Fourth Session of 

Trusteeship Council 

Meeting of Experts on Passport and Frontier Formalities . . . . 
Committee on Progressive Development and Codification of 
International Law 

Conference for the Establishment of a Regional Advisory Commis- 
sion for Non-Self-Governing Territories in the South and South- 
west Pacific 

Subcommittee of Emergency Economic Committee for Europe on 
Housing Problems 

ILO: 

Industrial Committee on Petroleum Production and Refining . . 

101st Session of the Governing Body 

Committee on Social Policy in Dependent Territories 

Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions . . . . 

Industrial Committee on Coal Mining 

Industrial Committee on Inland Transport 

PICAO: 
Divisional 

Accident Investigation Division 

Airworthiness Division 

Airline Operating Practices Division 

Regional 

South Pacific Regional Air Navigation Meeting 

Conference of the International Union for Protection of Industrial 
Property 

Signing of Peace Treaties with Italy, Hungary, Bulgaria, Rumania, 
and Finland 

International Refugee Organization: Preparatory Commission . . . 

International Children's Fund: Executive Board 

Council of Foreign Ministers 

World Health Organization (WHO): Third Session of Interim Com- 
mission 

European Central Inland Transport Organization (ECITO) : Seventh 
Session of the Council 



Lake Success 
Lake Success 
Lake Success 
Lake Success 
Geneva . . 
Lake Success 

Canberra . 

The Hague 

Los Angeles 
Geneva . . 
London . . 
Geneva . . 
Geneva . . 
Geneva . . 

Montreal. . 
Montreal. . 
Montreal. . 

Melbourne . 
NeufchStel . 

Paris . . . 

Geneva . . 
Lake Success 
Moscow . . 
Geneva . . 

Paris . . . 



1947 

Feb. 25-27 

Feb. 28 
Feb. 28 

Before Mar. 15 
Mar. 17 
March 



Jan. 28-Feb. 16 

(tentative) 

Jan. 30 



Feb. 


3-12 


Mar 


5-8 


Mar 


17-22 


Mar 


24-29 


Mar 


or Apr 


Mar 


or Apr 


Feb. 


4 


Feb. 


18 


Feb. 


25 


Feb. 


4 


Feb. 


5 



Feb. 10 

Feb. 11 
Feb. 24 
Mar. 10 
Mar. 31 

March 



Activities and Developments » 



January 26, 1947 

728503—47 3 



U. S. DELEGATION TO SOUTH PACIFIC 
REGIONAL AIR NAVIGATION MEETING 
OF PICAO 

The Secretary of State announced on January 
18 that the President has approved tlie composi- 
tion of the United States Delegation to the South 
Pacific Kegional Air Navigation Meeting of the 
Provisional International Civil Aviation Organ- 
ization (PICAO) scheduled to convene at Mel- 
bourne, Australia, on February 4, 1947. 

157 



ACTIVITIBS AND DEVELOPMENTS 

This conference is the fifth regional meeting 
scheduled in a series of conferences called by 
PICAO to determine international requirements 
for the safety of aerial flights and related matters, 
including aviation communications, air-traffic con- 
trol, search and rescue, airdromes and ground aids, 
and meteorology. The first of these conferences 
was held at Dublin in March 1946 and covered the 
North Atlantic area ; the second at Paris in April 
covered the European and Mediterranean areas; 
the third at Washington, D. C, in August covered 
the Caribbean air routes ; and the fourth at Cairo 
in October covered the Middle East area. 

The Australian Government, at the request of 
PICAO, has invited some 15 countries and 4 inter- 
national organizations to send delegates to the 
Melbourne meeting. 

The membership of the official United States 
Delegation is as follows : 

Delegate 

Glen A. Gilbert, Consultant to the Administrator, Civil 
Aeronautics Administration 

Alternate Delegate 

Capt. A. S. Heyward, U.S.N., PICAO Coordinator, Navy 
Department 

Advisers 

James F. Angler, Representative for Aerodromes, Air 
Routes and Ground Aids, Office of tlie Administrator, 
Civil Aeronautics Administration 

Clifford P. Burton, Representative of Air Traffic Control, 
Office of the Administrator, Civil Aeronautics 
Administration 

Leo G. Cyr, Aviation Division, Department of State 

James D. Durkee, Chief, International Aviation Section, 
Engineering Division, Federal Communications Com- 
mission 

R. L. Froman, Technical Assistant to the Director, Safety 
Bureau, Civil Aeronautics Board 

L. Ross Hayes, Representative for Telecommunications 
and Radio Aids to Air Navigation, Office of the Ad- 
ministrator, Civil Aeronautics Administration 

D. M. Little, Assistant Chief of Bureau for Technical 
Services, U.S. Weather Bureau 

Lt. Comdr. J. D. McCubbin, Search and Rescue Agency, 
United States Coast Guard 

Ray F. Nicholson, Representative for Flight Oi)erations, 
Office of the Administrator, Civil Aeronautics Admin- 
istration 

Col. Carl Swyter, U.S.A., PICAO Representative, War 
Department 

Secretary 

Effingham P. Humphrey, Jr., Division of International 
Conferences, Department of State 

Administrative Assistant 

Mary Bean, Civil Aeronautics Administration 



CARIBBEAN COMMISSION > 

The Caribbean Commission held its third meet- 
ing in Willemstad, Curasao, Netherlands West 
Indies, from December 10 through December 14, 
1946 on the site of the former United States naval 
base, which has been returned to the local govern- 
ment and refurbished as a hotel for government 
officials. Dr. J. C. Kielstra, Chairman of the 
Netherlands Section, presided at the meeting — the 
first to be held on Netherlands soil. The Caribbean 
Commission is comprised of France, the Nether- 
lands, the United Kingdom, and the United States. 

The major work of the six sessions of the meeting 
fell into two categories: (1) organizational and 
procedural matters involved in establishing the 
Central Secretariat in Trinidad; and (2) imple- 
mentation of recommendations made by the sec- 
ond session of the West Indian conference held 
in February-March 1946. 

The machinery for the effective operation of this 
four-nation body was put into effect less than six 
months after the formulation of the agreement 
by which it was established, and less than three 
months after the formal signing of the agreement, 
by the establishment in Trinidad of the Central 
Secretariat. Details of the organization and opera- 
tion of the Secretariat were worked out and a 
directive on these matters issued to the Secretary 
General. All members of the senior staff were ap- 
pointed from among the four nations represented 
on the Conmiission. A detailed budget was ap- 
proved which, in addition to being an agreement on 
finances, provides a general outline for the work 
of the Secretariat for its first fiscal year. 

Recommendations made by the second session of 
the West Indian conference had been accepted in 
principle by the Commission. For the purpose 
of careful analysis and ultimate presentation to 
the metropolitan governments, the recommenda- 
tions had been divided into : (1) those which could 
be recommended to the metropolitan governments 
immediately; (2) those which first must be re- 
ferred to the territorial govenunents concerned; 
(3) those on which the Caribbean Research Coun- 
cil should give advice; and (4) those which re- 



' Prepared by the Caribbean Commission. U. S. Section, 
Department of State. 



158 



Department of State Bu4let'm 



quired prior investigation and consideration by 
the Central Secretariat. The four national sec- 
tions reported to the full Commission the action 
that had been taken on these matters. 

The Secretary General advised the Commission 
that the industrial survey of existing industries 
and industrial potentials of the Caribbean region 
would shortly be under way. The study is pre- 
liminary to the calling of a conference on indus- 
trial development recommended by the West 
Indian conference, and is in line with the long- 
range objectives of the Commission to raise the 



ACTIVITIES AND DEVELOPMENTS 

standard of living in the area through increased 
employment opportunities. 

Commissioners attending the Curasao meeting 
were: France, Pierre Pelieu (Co-Chairman), 
Madame Eugenie Eboue Tell, Antoine Wiltord, 
C. Beauregard; Netherlands, Minister Dr. J. C. 
Kielstra (Co-Chairman) , L. A. H. Peters, C. H. H. 
Jongbaw, W. D. de la Try Ellis ; United Kingdom, 
Sir John Macpherson (Co-Chairman), R. D. H. 
Arundell, Garnet H. Gordon; United States, 
Charles W. Taussig (Co-Chairman), Eexford G. 
Tugwell, Rafael Pico. 



Sixth Session of the UNRRA Council 

Article iy David Per singer 



The sixth session of the UNRRA Council was 
held at the Shoreham Hotel, Washington, D. C, 
December 10 to December 13, 1946. Of the 48 
member governments, 43 were represented at the 
session.^ In addition to the delegates there were 
official observers present from United Nations, 
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cul- 
tural Organization (UNESCO), Food and Agri- 
culture Organization (FAO), Intergovernmental 
Committee on Refugees (IGCR), International 
Monetary Fund, International Bank, Interna- 
tional Labor Organization (ILO), Interim Com- 
mission of the World Health Organization 
(WHO), Emergency Economic Committee for 
Europe (EECE), International Emergency Food 
Oouncil (lEFC), World Federation of Tradei 
Unions (WFTU), and Albania, Austria, Finland, 
Hungary, and Italy. Special visitors representing 
the American Council of Voluntary Agencies for 
Foreign Service, the Advisory Committee on Vol- 
untary Foreign Aid, and Portugal, Sweden, 
Switzerland, and the Vatican also attended. 

The principal subjects debated were: (1) the 
extent to which UNRRA should attempt to fulfil 
country programs as approved in June 1946, and 
the dates by which shipments are to cease; (2) 
whether a furtTier session should be held and, if 
not, the delegation of the Council's authority to the 
Central Conunittee; (3) the continued encourage- 
ment of the repatriation of displaced persons ; and 
(4) acceptance of the resignation of the Dii-ector 
General and the selection of his successor. 



The Director General, F. H. La Guardia, opened 
the session on December 10. Acting Secretary 
Dean Acheson, on behalf of the United States, wel- 
comed the delegates. The Council elected Henrik 
Kauffman, member for Demnark, chairman of the 
session. The members for Poland, Chile, and 
France were elected first, second, and third vice 
chairmen, respectively. The session was by far the 
shortest in UNRRA's history, largely because the 
problem of relief financing in 1947, a problem 
which had been debated for a full week at the fifth 
session,^ had just been decided by the United Na- 
tions General Assembly at New York where the 
advocates of an international relief fund had 
finally lost. 

It was clear, therefore, at the sixth session of 
UNRRA that all that remained to be done was to 
settle the few problems relating to the closing out 
of operations. 



1 The following member goveiuments were represented : 
Australia, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Byelorussian S.S.R., 
Canada, Chile, China, Culumbia, Cuslu Rica, Cuba, 
Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, 
Egypt, El Salvador, Ethiopia, France, Greece, Guatemala, 
Haiti, Honduras, Iceland, India, Iran, Luxembourg, Mexi- 
co, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Panama, Peru, 
Poland, Philippine Republic, Turkey, Ukrainian S.S.R., 
Union of South Africa, U.S.S.R., United Kingdom, United 
States, Venezuela, and Yugoslavia. The five member gov- 
ernments which were not represented were : Iraq, Liberia, 
Paraguay, Nicaragua, and Uruguay. 

^ For an article by Mr. Persinger on the accomplish- 
ments of the fifth session of the Council of UNRRA, see 
Bulletin of Sept. 22, 1940, p. 523. 



January 26, 1947 



159 



ACTIVITIES AND DEVELOPMENTS 

Completion of Programs 

The most extended debate revolved about a 
United States proposal that the country programs 
as approved by the Central Coimnittee in June 
1946 should now be reviewed and, if desirable, 
modified. The United States position was that 
the Central Committee had approved the progi-ams 
on the basis of information available in June but 
had expressly reserved the right of review should 
changed conditions later warrant it; that condi- 
tions had changed in a number of receiving coun- 
tries, some for the better, some for the worse ; that 
conditions had also changed in the United States 
so that pi'ograms wliich once appeared feasible 
could no longer be so regarded because some of the 
approved supplies could not now be procured with- 
in the time limits fixed by Congressional legisla- 
tion ; tliat unforeseen needs for foodstuffs in some 
countries outweiglied the continued need for non- 
food items in other countries ; that since UNRRA 
funds were the only funds immediately available 
for relief they should be used in the manner most 
equitable under present circumstances. 

The opposition was vigorous. It was led by the 
Director General who cited Resolution 101, 
adopted at the fifth session, as his principal sup- 
port. Resolution 101 recites : '■'■Resolved: 1. That 
the Administration should make every effort to 
complete procurement and shipments against ap- 
proved programs of operation within tlie dates 
specified . . ." The Director General insisted 
tliat it referred to programs as approved at the 
time of the fifth session (August 1946) ; the United 
States representative, C. Tyler Wood, insisted that 
it referred to programs as approved by the Central 
Committee from time to time. 

Mr. Wood had gone on record many times as 
citing that approval by the Central Committee 
does not constitute a commitment to a receiving 
country. His statement at the sixth session was 
consistent with his previous statements to the 
Central Committee and to the Council. On the 
other liand, the Director General, at the fifth 
session, in reply to a question from the floor, had 
promised that the programs as then approved 
would be fulfilled. It thus appeare that there had 
been no real meeting of minds at the fifth session. 

After intermittent debate, the Council finally 
adopted Resolution 114, which provides in part 
that, "In view of the desirability of bringing ap- 
proved programs to an early conclusion, such pro- 



grams shall not be altered by the Central Commit- 
tee except when circumstances clearly warrant such 
action." 

Resolution 114 extends the termination dates of 
shipments to March 31, 1947 in the case of Europe 
and to June 30, 1947 in the case of the Far East. 
In agreeing to this resolution, Mr. Wood empha- 
sized that, so far as the United States is concerned, 
he could not promise full compliance with the 
wishes of the Council, because the final authority 
rested with tlie Congress, not with the Executive 
Branch of the Govermnent. He urged that the 
Administration make strenuous efforts to complete 
shipments as soon as possible after December 31, 
1946. 

The importance of the foregoing debate and 
resolution becomes apparent when it is recognized 
that more than $600,000,000 of UNRRA funds re- 
mained uncommitted on January 1, 1947. 

A Seventh Session of the Council 

The second item on the Council agenda raised 
the question whether the sixth session sliould be 
the last, and if so, what instructions the Council 
should give the Central Committee when it turned 
over its functions to the Committee. The United 
States supported the proposal that no further ses- 
sion was needed, largely on the ground that the 
sixth session could establish all policies necessary 
for the winding up of UNRRA's operations, and 
therefore it would be desirable to save the money 
which would otherwise be spent on a seventh 
session. 

There was little support for this proposal and 
much opposition, led by the Union of the Soviet 
Socialist Republics representative, who graphi- 
cally remarked that it would "bury the Council 
prematurely and alive". The Soviet representa- 
tive then pointed out that a decision to waive an- 
other meeting of the Council would constitute an 
amendment of the UNRRA agreement and that 
such an action required the unanimous consent of 
tlie Central Committee of which the Union of 
Soviet Socialist Republics is a member. The 
Council adopted Resolution 115 which provides 
that a seventh session shall be convened prior to 
June 30, 1947, unless the Central Committee shall 
unanimously agree that another session is un- 
necessary, in which case all the powers of the 
Council shall be vested in the Central Committee. 
{Continued on page 177) 



160 



Department of State Bulletin 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 

Trade Agreements Negotiations 

EXCHANGE OF LETTERS BETWEEN SENATOR BUTLER AND UNDER SECRETARY CLAYTON 



[Released to the press January 17] 

Correspondence between Hugh Butler^ United 
States Senator from Nebraska, and William L. 
Clayton, Under Secretary of State for Economic 
Affairs, concerning negotiations under the Recip- 
rocal Trade Agreements Act 

December 19, 19Ii6. 
Dear Mr. Claytost: 

Reference is made to the recent announcement of 
intention to negotiate Trade Agreements with 18 
foreign countries.^ I am writing to ui'ge that these 
negotiations be temporai'ily suspended until the 
new Congress shall have an opportunity to write 
a new foreign trade policy. This announcement 
apparently indicates an intention to continue with 
the i^resent tariff-reduction progi-am, despite the 
repudiation of this Administration by the voters. 
Such an intention is amazing to me. 

The Trade Agreements Program in its present 
form is a lame-duck policy. The attempt to use 
the authority of the Trade Agreements Act, previ- 
ously wrested from a Democratic Congress, to de- 
stroy our system of tariff protection, seems to me a 
direct affront to the popular will expressed last 
month. 

The list of products on which tariff reductions 
may be made during these negotiations covers 56 
pages, and appears to include at least three fourths 
of our total import trade. On the list are dozens of 
items in which the people of ray state are vitally 
interested. Among them are cattle, hogs, and 
meat; cheese, butter, and other dairy products; 
wheat, and other grains ; wool ; and a long list of 
fruits and vegetables. In a tremendous number of 
cases, tariff reductions of 40 or 50 percent have 
already been made in the past 12 years. Appar- 
ently you propose to further reduce the rates even 
on these items by some substantial amount, up to 
50 percent of what protection is left. 

January 26, 1947 



Reductions already made under the Trade 
Agreements Program have reduced the protection 
to approximately half of our producers benefited 
by tariffs, and such reductions have averaged 30 to 
40 percent. In other words, your program to date 
has constituted a substantial revision of our sys- 
tem of protection, as far-reaching as was the Tariff 
Act of 1930. The announcement of the new pro- 
posed treaties leads me to believe that a second 
sweeping downward revision of our tariff system 
is planned. 

My views are in accord with the ostensible pro- 
gram of the Trade Agreements Act, that our for- 
eign trade should be expanded by securing advan- 
tageous concessions from foreign nations, without 
doing substantial injury to domestic agriculture 
and industry. The conduct of the program to 
date, however, has not been in accord with this 
pretended goal. On the contraiy, it appears that 
the progi-am is being used as a cloak in an attempt 
to commit this country to a policy of veiy low tar- 
iffs. On the other hand, supj^osedly valuable con- 
cessions secured from foreign countries have been 
nullified by blocked exchanges, "pool-buying", and 
various other devices. There is nothing to indi- 
cate that renewed negotiation on the present basis 
will reverse this trend. 

It is for these reasons that I protest your ap- 
joarent decision to continue with this progi-am, 
when the American people have just spoken so 
emphatically in the reverse direction. Coopera- 

' Bulletin of Nov. 17, 1946, p. 907. The Acting Secretary 
of State on November 9 issued formal notice of intention 
to conduct trade-agreement negotiations witli Australia, 
Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Cliile, China, Cuba, Czechoslo- 
vakia, France, India, Lebanon ( Syro-Lebanese Customs 
Union), Luxembourg, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, 
Union of South Africa, Union of Soviet Socialist Repub- 
lics, the United Kingdom, and the areas for which these 
countries have authority to negotiate. Invitations to most 
of these nations were announced in December 1945. The 
negotiations will probably begin in April 1947. 

161 



THE RECORD Of THE WEEK 

tion between the Democratic Administration and 
the Republican Congress in the interests of the 
national welfare will be difficult at best. A deter- 
mination on your part to proceed with tliis pro- 
gram, in defiance of the wishes of the people, will 
make it almost impossible. 

Your comments on any changes in your plans 
with respect to this program, in view of the change 
in the control of Congress, will be awaited with 
interest. 

Yours very truly, 

Hugh Btjtler 



January 16, 1947. 
My dear Senator Btjtler: 

In your letter of December 19, which was ac- 
knowledged by my secretary during my absence 
from the city, you urge that negotiations under the 
Reciprocal Trade Agi-eements Act be suspended. 
You advance four arguments in support of this 
request. First, you contend that the trade agree- 
ments program was repudiated by the voters in the 
November election and that its continuation would 
be "a direct affront to the popular will". Second, 
you refer to the "pretended goal" of this "ostensible 
program" and suggest that the concessions ob- 
tained in past negotiations have been valueless. 
Third, you complain that the list of products luider 
consideration in connection with the pending nego- 
tiations is long. Fourth, you conclude that the 
administration intends "to destroy our system of 
tariff pi'otection". 

On none of these points do I find it possible to 
agree. 

First, there is no evidence to support your con- 
tention that the trade agreements program was 
repudiated by the voters in the November election. 
Certainly, it would have been impossible for any 
voter to suppose that this program was an issue in 
the campaign. The American people had been 
repeatedly assured that there was no partisanship 
in foreign policy; that politics stopped at the 
water's edge. The Trade Agreements Act, first 
passed in 1934, had been renewed four times, each 
time with a substantial number of Republican 
votes. On the last renewal, which involved an 
increase in the authority of the President to nego- 
tiate agreements, the Republican vote in the Sen- 
ate had been practically a tie: 15 for and 16 
against. The three last Republican candidates for 

162 



the Presidency — Mr. Landon, Mr. Willkie and Mr. 
Dewey — had each explicitly endorsed the prin- 
ciple of tariff reductions through reciprocal agree- 
ments. You may recall that this principle had 
been advanced, many years before, by President 
McKinley, President Theodore Roosevelt and 
President Taft. 

It is not without significance that the Recip- 
rocal Trade Agi'eements Act was not raised as a 
national issue in the campaign. Before the last 
renewal in 1945, the extension of the law with 
increased power was specifically supported and 
vigorously urged by leading organizations repre- 
senting American business, farm and labor groups. 
This program has always had, and it continues to 
have, a broad basis of popular support. Any party 
that sought to destroy it would tar itself with the 
brush of economic isolationism and it is well 
known that isolationism is a liability rather than 
an asset in contemporary politics. 

Second, I shall not comment on your use of 
the words "pretended" and "ostensible" in discuss- 
ing the administration of the Trade Agreements 
Act. I should like, however, to call your attention 
to one indisputable fact. Between 1934-35 and 
1938-39 our imports from countries with which 
we did not have trade agreements increased 12^/2 
percent; our imports from countries with which 
we did have trade agreements increased 22 per- 
cent. In the same period our exports to countries 
with which we did not have trade agreements in- 
creased 32 percent ; our exports to countries with 
which we had trade agreements increased 63 per- 
cent. It seems to me that this disposes of your 
contention that the concessions obtained through 
trade agreement negotiations have been valueless 
to the United States. 

Third, it is true that the list of products on 
which tariff concessions are now being considered 
is a long one. This list was issued for the purpose 
of assembling information on these products and 
in order to give all interested parties a full oppor- 
tunity to present their views. But it should not be 
inferred that the tariff on all of these products 
will be reduced or that the tariff on any particular 
product will be reduced by the full amount per- 
mitted by the law. It should be noted, moreover, 
that the countries with which we are planning to 
negotiate represent not only a substantial percent- 
age of our imports but also a substantial percent- 
age of our exports and that the list of products on 

Department of State Bulletin 



which we plan to seek concessions from other 
countries will be quite as long and as important as 
the list on which Ave would consider making con- 
cessions in return. 

It should not be overlooked that the projected 
negotiations are but one part of a larger program 
of international economic cooperation which 
stems from the Atlantic Charter and includes our 
participation in the Economic and Social Council, 
the International Monetary Fund and the Bank 
for Eeconstruction and Development, the Food 
and Agriculture Organization, and other agencies 
which both parties in Congress have already 
approved by overwhelmmg votes. 

These negotiations are a necessaiy prerequisite 
to the establishment of the International Trade 
Organization proposed by the United States and 
this Organization in turn is essential to the whole 
structure of international cooperation in eco- 
nomic and political affairs. The trade negotiations 
and the ITO are part and parcel of a program that 
is designed to promote the prosperity of the United 
States by obtaining international agreements 
which will commit the other countries of the world 
against closing their markets to our goods. It is 
also designed to promote the peace by substituting 
consultation and cooperation for aggression and 
conflict in International economic relations. 

Fourth, the Administration has never sought 
"to destroy our system of tariff protection". It 
does not seek to do so now. Changes in tariffs have 
been made onlj' after thorough investigation and 
full hearings. During four successive renewals of 
the Trade Agreements Act, both houses of Con- 
gress have built up a voluminous record that covers, 
in detail, every criticism that has been raised con- 
cerning the operation of the Act. If you will 
examine this record you will find that particular 
groups have expressed their fears concerning what 
might happen to them at some future time. But 
you will find no demonstration that these fears 
have ever been justified. If any industry in the 
United States has suffered serious injury as a result 
of the operation of the trade agreements program, 
the record does not disclose it. In the absence of 
any such evidence you will understand why it is 
difficult for me to give weight to the vague fears of 
groups who have never been hurt and who, I am 
confident, will never be hurt by the operation of 
this Act. 

I am glad to learn that you believe that "our 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 

foreign trade should be expanded by securing 
advantageous concessions from foreign nations 
without doing substantial injury to domestic 
agriculture and industry". This is the way in 
which the Trade Agreements Act has been ad- 
ministered in the past. This is the way in which 
it will be administered in the months to come. 

As you know. President Truman assured Speak- 
er Rayburn, at the time when the Trade Agree- 
ments Act was extended in 1945, that no action 
would be taken during his administration which 
would result in grave injury to any essential 
American industry or agricultural activity. 
Moreover, the Department of State has announced 
that all future trade agreements will contain an 
escape clause similar to that contained in the 
agreement with Mexico which will permit the 
President to take appropriate action to protect 
any industry or agricultural activity which is 
seriously threatened by the operation of such 
agreements. 

Far from intending "to destroy our system of 
tariff protection", our Government is entering in- 
to the projected trade negotiations for the pur- 
pose of insuring that tariffs, rather than discrim- 
inatory import quotas, exchange controls, and 
bilateral barter deals, shall be the accepted method 
by which nations regulate their foreign trade. If 
it were not for the initiative which our Govern- 
ment has taken in this matter, the world would be 
headed straight toward the deliberate strangula- 
tion of its commerce through the imposition of 
detailed administrative controls. I need hardly 
tell you that such a development would be seri- 
ously prejudicial to the essential interests of the 
United States. Throigh a judicious exercise of 
the bargaining power which the Trade Agree- 
ments Act has placed in our hands, I am confident 
that we shall be able to reverse tliis trend. With- 
out that power, there is little hope that we should 
be able to do so. 

We are fighting for the preservation of the sort 
of a world in which Americans want to live — a 
world which holds out some promise for the future 
of private enterprise, of economic freedom, of ris- 
ing standards of living, of international coopera- 
tion, of security and peace. The trade agreements 
program is an instnunent whose aid we need if 
we are to achieve these ends. 
Very truly yours, 

W. L. Clayton 



January 26, 1947 



163 



Reply From U.S.S.R. to U.S. Note on Polish Elections 



[Released to the press January 16] 

Translation of substance of Soviet note on Polish 
elections. The note, dated January 13, IBlfl and 
signed by Foreign Minister Molotov, was delivered 
to the American Embassy at Moscow on January 

u, m7 

In connection with your note of January 5, 1947, 
regarding the unpending elections in Poland, I 
consider it necessary to inform you of the follow- 
ing: 

The Soviet Government cannot agree with the 
accusations contained in the note under reference 
against the Polish Provisional Government of Na- 
tional Unity of violating the obligations imposed 
on it by the decisions of the Yalta and Berlin con- 
ferences envisaging the holding in Poland of free 
and unfettered elections on the basis of universal 
suffrage, by secret ballot, in which all democratic 
and anti-Nazi parties will have the right to take 
part and put forward candidates. 

The Government of the United States of Amer- 
ica advancing in its note of January 5,^ a series of 
accusations against the Polish Government, states 
that the basis therefor are reports coming to the 
American Government, and makes reference to the 
sole source of the information received — to the 
communication of the Vice Premier of the Polish 
Government, S. Mikolajczyk, who transmitted to 
the American Ambassador in Warsaw reports of 
the above character, which the American Govern- 
ment considered possible to reproduce in its note. 

In the note are repeated the accusations against 
the Polish Provisional Govermnent contained in 
Mikolajczyk's statement of repressive measures 
directed against certain members of the party he 
represents. In this connection, however, there are 
completely ignored widely known facts concerning 
the participation of certain of the members of 
Mikolajczyk's party in the activities of under- 
ground organizations, who resort to every kind of 
threat, to violence, and to murder in order to 



" Bulletin of Jan. 19, 1947, p. 134. 



interfere with the normal conduct of the electoral 
campaign for the Sejm. 

Among other things, numerous facts are known 
concerning bandit attacks on electoral districts, 
terrorization of electors with threats in respect of 
adherents of the government and of the demo- 
cratic bloc and even a whole series of murders of 
members of the electoral commissions. 

In this situation, the Polish Government cannot 
remain indifferent and not undertake decisive 
measures with respect to the criminal elements 
who are endeavoring to disrupt the free and un- 
fettered elections for the Sejm, even though cer- 
tain members of Mikolajczyk's party should be 
guilty in this. 

As is known, Poland suffered gi'ievious years of 
German occupation, the consequences of which are 
still apparent at the present time both in the diffi- 
cult economic conditions as well as in the diffi- 
culties in overcoming the remnants of the banditry 
generated in the period of occupation of Polish 
territory by German troops. 

It is impossible also to ignore the criminal ac- 
tivities of fascist emigi-ee circles endeavoring to 
base themselves on their underground organiza- 
tions in Poland, particularly, having in view the 
connection of these underground organizations 
\\\ih the bandit elements who avail themselves of 
every kind of violence, even of murder of repre- 
sentatives of the Polish authorities and leaders of 
the democratic parties. In these circumstances the 
Polish Government would not be fulfilling its duty 
to the people if it did not take measures against 
these criminal elements to assure the conditions 
necessary for the holding of free democratic elec- 
tions. To interfere with the carrying out of such 
measures would be inadmissable particularly on 
the part of foreign governments. 

In view of the foregoing, the Soviet Govermnent 
does not perceive any basis for the taking of any 
such steps, as the Government of the United States 
of America projjoses, with respect to the Polish 
Government in connection with the impending 
elections in Poland and thereby in this fashion 
bringing about interference in the internal affairs 
of Poland on the part of the powers who signed 
the Yalta and Berlin agreements. 



164 



Department of State Bulletin 



Exchange of Views With Italian Prime Minister on Italy's Needs 



[Released to the press January 15] 

The Prime Minister of Italy, His Excellency 
Alcide de Gasperi, was the guest of the United 
States Government in Washington from January 
5 to January 9. Following visits to Chicago, 
Cleveland, and New York, he returned to Wash- 
ington on January 14 and left for Italy on January 
15. During his visit the Italian Prime Minister 
met with the President, the Secretary of State, 
the Secretaries of Treasury, Agriculture, and Com- 
merce, and other high officials to discuss questions 
of mutual interest to the Italian and United States 
Governments. 

These conversations have afforded an oppor- 
tunity for American officials to receive directly 
from the head of the Italian Government a detailed 
picture on the problems now facing the Italian 
people in their difficult task of rehabilitating their 
war-torn country. The Prime Minister has given 
a full account also of the very real progress that 
the new Italian Republic has made in this great 
work and in the restoration of democratic govern- 
ment in Italy. The exchange of views made pos- 
sible by Signor de Gasperi's visit has emphasized, 
on the one hand, Italy's economic needs, including 
credits for the purchase of raw materials, and 
on the other, the determination and ability of 
the Italian Government and people to overcome 
their present difficulties and rebuild a stable and 
democratic Italy which will once again play an 
important role in a peaceful and prosperous 
world. 

Signor de Gasperi was assured by this Govern- 
ment of its continuing concern for the early resto- 
ration of the Italian economy and of its desire to 
assist the Prime Minister's Government in its work 
of reconstruction. The American officials dis- 
cussed with Signor de Gasperi a number of impor- 
tant measures being undertaken in this regard. It 
was found possible to make available to the Italian 
Government from the United States Treasury De- 
partment a second payment of $50,000,000 cover- 
ing services, supplies, and facilities obtained by 
United States forces in Italy. Arrangements were 



also made for the use by the Italian Government 
of two transport vessels for the repatriation of 
prisoners of war and for Italian emigration. Fur- 
thermore, the Prime Minister was assured that 
favorable consideration would be given to the ap- 
plication of the Italian Government to purchase 
50 additional surplus ships from the United States, 
although the specific types of ships requested may 
not be available in a few cases. 

It was considered that the revival of trade be- 
tween the two countries thus far was most en- 
couraging, and agreement was reached that nego- 
tiations should begin as soon as possible for a new 
commercial treaty to replace the -modus vivendi of 
1937.^ The Italian officials emphasized their 
agreement with the principles of the program for 
expansion of world trade through a reduction of 
trade barriers, and agreement was reached on the 
desirability of Italian participation in this pro- 
gram at the earliest possible opportunity. 

It was further agreed that within the framework 
of the definitive peace settlements there should be 
a general settlement between the two Governments 
of financial and related problems arising out of 
the war. The United States Government indicated 
that, subject to mutually satisfactory agreement 
on this settlement, it would be prepared to waive 
claims for repayment for food and relief supplies 
furnished the Italian people through military 
channels prior to the period of UNERA opera- 
tions. Discussions will begin as soon as possible 
and will include reference to the question of the 
unblocking of Italian assets in the United States. 

In the field of post-UNRRA relief, the Prime 
Minister was informed that Italy's needs will be 
included in the direct relief program soon to be 
submitted to the Congress. He was also assured 
that this Government has every expectation of in- 
creasing scheduled shipments of wheat to Italy 
beginning February 1; also, every effort will be 
made to maintain, and if possible to increase, ship- 
ments of coal, in order to meet the Italian essential 
requirements for these two important commodities. 

^ Executive Agreement Series 116. 



January 26, 1947 



165 



THE RECORD OF THE WBBK 

War Damage Compensation for 
American Nationals in France 

[Released to the press January 15] 

American nationals who suffered damage to 
property in France on account of the war are ac- 
corded the benefits of French war-damage compen- 
sation legislation on a basis of equality with 
French nationals under article 7 of the agreement 
of May 28, 1946, between the United States and 
France on commercial policy and related matters. 

The Department of State has received from the 
American Embassy at Paris information concern- 
ing the French offices where claims under the 
French laws are to be filed, the time limits for 
filing claims, the places where forms and informa- 
tion may be obtained, and the evidence required to 
prove the nationality of individual and corporate 
claimants. 

The time limit for the filing of claims is May 1, 
1947 for Americans residing in France and June 
30, 1947 for Americans residing in the United 
States. Claims should be filed, for damage to 
property in Paris, with the Delegation Departe- 
mentale du Ministere de la Eeconstruction et de 
I'Urbanisme, 45 Avenue George V, Paris, and for 
damage to property outside of Paris, with the 
Delegation Departementale du Ministere de la 
Reconstruction et de I'Urbanisme at the prefecture 
in the Department in which the damage occurred. 

The American Embassy at Paris and the French 
Embassy and French Consulates in the United 
States are supplied with forms and information 
necessary to enable American citizens to prepare 
their claims. A pamphlet of instructions and ad- 
vice, issued by the French Ministry for Recon- 
struction and Urbanism, may be obtained from the 
Office of the Ministry at 28 Cours Albert ler, 
Paris, and from its offices at the prefectures in the 
provinces. The Embassy and American Consu- 
lates in France and the Protection of American 
Property Section, Division of Foreign Service 
Administration, Department of State, in Wash- 
ington will furnish the names and addresses of 
attorneys, both Frencli and American, to claimants 
wishing to consult legal advisers before filing 
declarations. 

Each American claimant will be required to 
present to the appropriate French office, in addi- 
tion to other documents in suppoi't of his claim, an 
official statement certifying to his American na- 

166 



tionality. Such a statement may be obtained, upon 
the presentation of satisfactory evidence of na- 
tionality, by claimants residing in the United 
States from the Passport Division of the Depart- 
ment of State, and by claimants residing abroad 
from the nearest American Consul. 

The required evidence of nationality will be the 
same as that necessary to obtain a passport. A 
claimant who has previously obtained a passport 
should indicate its date of issue and number and 
should state the periods and places of his residence 
abroad since the passport was issued. A claimant 
who has not previously been issued or included 
in an American passport should present evidence 
along the following lines. He should state the 
date and mamier in which he acquired American 
citizenship and the periods and places of his for- 
eign residence since he became a citizen. If he is 
native-born he should submit a certified copy of his 
birth certificate or, upon explaining why such a 
certificate is not obtainable, a baptismal certificate 
or the affidavits of persons having personal knowl- 
edge of his place and date of birth, setting forth 
the basis of the affiant's knowledge. If he is a 
naturalized citizen he should submit a certificate 
of naturalization. If he derives citizenship 
through the citizenship of a husband or parent 
he should present proof of the I'elationship and 
evidence sufficient to establish the citizenship of 
the husband or parent. 

The Department is informed that corporations 
and associations are entitled to make claim if a 
majority of the shares represented at general meet- 
ings of the corporation or association which were 
held immediately prior to September 1, 1939, and 
also immediately prior to the date of the casualty, 
were owned by American nationals or by French 
and American nationals. All juristic persons, in- 
cluding partnerships, will be required to furnish 
a list of the managers, directors, partners, or as- 
sociates, proof of their nationality, and the num- 
ber of shares held by each of them as of Septem- 
ber 1, 1939, and at the time of the casualty. Stock 
companies are required to submit a copy of the 
articles of incorpoi-ation, of the power given to the 
representatives of the company, and the original 
or certified copies of the lists of persons who 
attended the last general meetings held before the 
two dates referred to above, with indication of 
the nationality of the holders present or repre- 
sented and of the number of shares held by each. 

Department of State Bulletin 



Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia Visits U.S. 

His Royal Highness Amir Saud, Crown Prince 
of Saudi Arabia, arrived in Washington on Janu- 
ary 13 and remained at the Blair House until 
January 18 as a guest of the Govermnent. His 
Highness was accompanied by His Excellency 
Sheikh Fuad Hamza, with rank of Ambassador; 
Sheikli Suleiman Hamid al-Suleiman, with rank 
of Minister; Sheikli Ali Abdullah Alireza, with 
rank of Counselor of Legation ; Sheikh Fahad Bin 
Kureidis, with rank of Counselor of Legation ; Dr. 
Adib Intabi, with rank of Counselor of Legation; 
and Major Mohamed Al-Nimlah, aide-de-camp to 
the Crown Prince. The itinerary of the party 
includes visits to New York City, Kansas City, 
Houston, Phoenix, Pasadena and Los Angeles, San 
Francisco, Salt Lake City, Denver, Chicago, and 
Detroit. 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 

Advance Copies of Peace Treaties 
Released 

[Released to the press by the Council 
of Foreign Ministers January 17] 

The Secretary General of the Council of Foreign 
Ministers released on January 17 advance copies 
of the treaties of peace with Italy, Bulgaria, Fin- 
land, Hungary, and Rumania, which are sched- 
uled to be signed at Paris on February 10, 1947. 

These are duplicates of those which were deliv- 
ered on January 16 to the representatives at 
Washington of the powers signatory to each of 
the treaties. 

It is by decision of the Council itself that the 
texts of the five treaties are being released for 
publication the day following delivery of copies 
to the diplomatic representatives at Washington. 



The Problem of the Turkish Straits — Continued from page 151 



and the British Government was convinced that if 
this ceased, "a new atmosphere would be created 
which would enable the matter £o be dealt with on 
a much better footing". 

There was a similar note in the address of 
President Inonii to the Turkish Grand National 
Assembly on November 1, 1946 ^* in which the 
question of security was listed as the first among 
Turkish problems. President Inonii desired to 
see the war followed by a general settlement 
among nations, and noted especially the fact that 
Turkey was now faced with the question of a re- 
vision of the Montreux Convention of the Straits. 
In particular, President Inonii declared : 

"We agree that it is necessary to improve the 
Montreux Convention in a manner conforming to 
new conditions, in keeping with the methods and 
within the limits clearly foreseen by Montreux. 
We are considering with good-will that the Con- 
vention in question should become the subject of 
conversations at an international conference. We 
shall welcome wholeheartedly any modifications 
which take into consideration the legitimate in- 
terests of each of the interested parties on the 
basis of ensuring the territorial integrity and 
sovereign rights of Turkey. We are convinced 
with a perfectly clear conscience that, during the 



second world war, the Montreux Convention was 
ai^plied by us with the greatest attention ; and the 
allegation to the effect that the Montreux Con- 
vention was applied with a bias in favor of the 
Axis Powers is manifestly unjust. We have 
nothing to fear from submitting our actions to ex- 
amination and decision by arbitration. Inasmuch 
as concerns the question of the Straits, too, we per- 
ceive in the United Nations Charter every pos- 
sible guarantee for ourselves and for every other 
nation concerned. So long as the clauses of the 
United Nations Charter concerning territorial in- 
tegrity and sovereign rights are respected, no 
obstacle should exist to prevent the adjustment 
and improvement of relations between ourselves 
and the Soviet Union. It is our well-considered 
and sincere desire to have friendly and confidence- 
inspiring relations with the Soviet Union, as be- 
fits two neighbors." 



" Turkish Embassy, Washington, Press Release, no. 13, 
Nov. 13, 1946. See also the more general remarks of 
Ambassador Huseyln K. Baydur in the United Nations 
General Assembly on Oct. 26, 1946 in which he indicated 
that "Arms and military might are powerful weapons, 
but the force of world opinion is far more potent. It may 
be defied for a time, but it cannot be flaunted always and 
forever." {Journal of the United Nations, no. 16, p. 89.) 



January 26, 7947 



167 



Proposals for Reopening Joint Commission 



EXCHANGE OF LETTERS BETWEEN LIEUTENANT GENERAL JOHN R. HODGE 
AND GUARD COLONEL GENERAL CHISTIAKOV 



[Released to the press January 10] 

Lt. Gen. John R. Hodge, Commanding General, 
United States Army Forces in South Korea, an- 
nounced today a new exchange of letters between 
him and Guard Colonel General Chistiakov, Com- 
manding the Soviet Forces in North Korea, con- 
cerning the reopening of the Joint Commission. 

Contents of a previous exchange of a Soviet 
letter dated October 26 and a United States letter 
dated November 1, were made public in Korea 
early in November. The last exchange of letters 
was the Soviet Commander's letter dated Novem- 
ber 26, answered by the United States Commander 
on December 24. 

The Soviet letter of November 26 proposed re- 
opening the Joint Commission based on conditions 
of consultation with Korean groups. The pro- 
posals are : 

1. The Joint Commission must consult with 
those democratic parties and organizations which 
uphold fully the Moscow Decision on Korea. 

2. Parties or social organizations invited for 
consultation with the Joint Commission must not 
nominate for consultation those representatives 
who have compromised themselves by actively 
voicing opposition to the Moscow Decision. 

3. Parties and social organizations invited for 
consultation with the Joint Commission must not 
and will not voice opposition nor will they incite 
others to voice opposition to the Moscow Decision 
and the work of the Joint Commission. If such 
be the case such parties and social organizations, 
by mutual agreement of both delegations, will be 
excluded from further consultations with the 
Joint Commission. 

The United States answer of December 24 fol- 
lows the announced policy of the American Com- 
mander and proposed modification of the sug- 
gested conditions to give greater freedom of ex- 
pression to the Korean people concerning the 
formation of their provisional government. This 
was summarized as follows: 

Proposal Nwmber 1. To be interpreted as fol- 
lows: Signing the Declaration in communique 

168 



number 5 will be accepted as a declaration of 
good faith with respect to upholding fully the 
Moscow Decision and will make the signatory 
party or organization eligible for initial consul- 
tation. 

Proposal Number 2. It is considered the right 
of a declarant party or organization to appoint 
the representative which it believes will best pre- 
sent to the Joint Commission its views on the im- 
plementation of the Moscow Decision. However, 
should such representative for good reason be be- 
lieved to be antagonistic to the implementation of 
the Moscow Decision or to either of the Allied 
Powers, the Joint Commission may, after mutual 
agreement, require the declarant party to name 
a substitute spokesman. 

Proposal Number 3. It is suggested that the 
proposal be reworded as follows: Individuals, 
parties and social organizations, shall not, after 
signing the declaration contained in communique 
number 5, foment or instigate active opposition 
to the work of the Joint Commission or to either 
of the Allied Powers or to the fulfilment of the 
Moscow Decision. Those individuals, parties and 
social organizations which after signing the dec- 
laration contained in communique number 5 do 
foment or instigate active opposition to the work 
of the Joint Commission or to either of the Allied 
Powers or to the fulfilment of the Moscow Deci- 
sion shall be excluded from further consultation 
with the Joint Commission. The decision ex- 
cluding such individuals, parties and social or- 
ganizations shall be by agreement of the Joint 
Commission. 

Full texts of the letters follow : 

General Chistiakov to Genei'ol Hodge 

November 26, 19^6. 

I acknowledge the receipt of your letter dated 
November 1, 1946. 

It is with regret that I have to conclude that 
the conditions upon which you propose to renew 
the negotiations of the Joint Soviet-American 

Department of State Bulletin 



Commission in substance do not differ from the 
position laid down in your previous letter, which, 
in the opinion of the Soviet delegation is in con- 
tradiction to the Moscow Decision on Korea. 

Actually, you propose that the Joint Commis- 
sion should consult with anj' person, political party 
or social organization which adliei'es to and aided 
by the declaration published in commmiique num- 
ber 5, moreover, such persons, parties or social 
organizations must not and will not instigate or 
foment mass opposition to the work of the Joint 
Commission or the fulfillment of the Moscow 
Decision. 

Thus, according to this formula, the Joint Com- 
mission must consult not only with democratic 
parties and social organizations which uphold the 
Moscow Decision, but also with those parties and 
organizations which are hostile to this Decision. 
Furthermore, these latter parties and organiza- 
tions are even given an opportunity to continue 
these activities directly against the Moscow Deci- 
sion with the exception that they should not insti- 
gate or foment mass opposition to the work of the 
Joint Commission or the fulfillment of the Moscow 
Decision. 

The acceptance of such proposal would appear, 
rather as call to reactionary parties and groups 
not to retreat from their hostile position towards 
the Moscow Decision, but merely to curtail tem- 
porarily their activities directed against this Deci- 
sion so that they may have an opportunity to take 
part in the consultations with the Joint Commis- 
sion. I must remind you that it was precisely in 
such manner that these parties accepted your pub- 
lic announcement of April 27, 1946 which con- 
tained an analagous interpretation of the agree- 
ment embodied in communique number 5. 

The result was that the parties and organiza- 
tions which had voiced their opposition to the 
Moscow Decision agreed to sign the declaration, 
but on the very second day after the termination 
of the work of the Joint Commission, prominent 
leaders of these parties and organizations again 
returned to an active fight against the Moscow De- 
cision and its supportei-s. 

There is no doubt that participation by those 
elements in the consultations would be utilized by 
them with the aim of sabotaging the fulfillment 
of the Moscow Decision and would only facilitate 
their activities in that direction. I must again 
declare that if we are aiming at actual and com- 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 

plete realization of the Moscow Decision on Korea, 
then, in the opinion of the Soviet delegation, it 
is impossible to consult on the question of methods 
of fulfilling this Decision with those persons, 
parties and organizations who voice opposition to 
the above mentioned Decision and who are aiming 
at sabotaging its fulfillment, whom, for tactical 
considerations, may for the period of consultation 
with the Joint Commission temporarily and in 
2)art limit their activities directed against the 
Moscow Decision in order that they may renew 
these activities in full force as soon as consultation 
with Joint Commission is terminated. 

The foregoing in no way limits the freedom of 
Korean democratic parties, social organizations 
or individuals to express their position regarding 
the formation of the Korean Government or other 
questions connected with the realization of the 
Moscow Decision on Korea. 

In my previous letter I have already directed 
your attention to the fact that the Soviet delega- 
tion has never made proposals directed against 
the freedom of individuals, parties or organiza- 
tions to express anywhere their views on these 
questions and it is accordingly understood that 
any party or social organization as well as an 
individual Korean citizen can express similar 
views or present them to the Joint Commission. 

Desiring to fulfill the IMoscow Decision on Korea 
speedily and as definitely as possible, the Soviet 
side advances the following proposals as basis for 
the resumption of the work of the Joint Soviet- 
American Commission. 

1. The Joint Commission must consult those 
democratic parties and organizations which up- 
hold fully the Moscow Decision on Korea. 

2. Parties or social organizations invited for 
consultation with the Joint Coimnission must not 
nominate for consultation those representatives 
who have compromised themselves by actively 
voicing opposition to the Moscow Decision. 

3. Parties and social organizations invited for 
consultation with the Joint Commission must not 
and will not voice opposition nor will they incite 
others to voice opposition to the Moscow Decision 
and the work of the Joint Commission. If such 
be the case such parties and social organizations, 
by mutual agreement of both delegations, will be 
excluded from further consultations with the 
Joint Commission. 

In the event you should agree to the foregoing 



January 26, 7947 



169 



THE RECORD Of THE WEBK 

proposals the Soviet delegation is prepared, with- 
out delay, to arrive in Seoul for the resumption 
of the negotiations of the Joint Commission. 

Chistiakov 

General Modge, to General Chistiakov 

December ^, 1946. 

I wish to acknowledge receipt of your letter of 
November 26, 1946. 

I have had attached to this letter a copy of your 
letter of November 26, 1946 with paragraphs num- 
bered to facilitate reference. (Paragraph num- 
bers follow paragraphs of letter as passed by you.) 

From a careful reading of Paragraphs II to 
VIII, both inclusive, the impression I receive is 
that the Soviet delegation believes that proposals 
previously submitted by the United States delega- 
tion appear to encourage "reactionary parties and 
groups" to continue hostile opposition to the Mos- 
cow Decision. I assure you that the United States 
delegation has no such intention and desires to co- 
operate with you in preventing such hostile opposi- 
tion. Paragraphs IX and X of your letter guaran- 
tee on the part of the Soviet delegation complete 
freedom of expression to Korean political parties, 
social oi'ganizations and individuals "i-egarding 
the formation of the Korean Government and 
other questions connected with the realization of 
the Moscow Decision on Korea". The views ex- 
pressed in these paragraphs are identical with the 
position assumed by the United States delegation. 

The last three paragi-aphs of your letter num- 
bered 1 to 3, although apparently in conflict with 
paragi'aphs IX and X nevertheless provide a basis 
for further discussion. 

In view of the closeness of our position, I sug- 
gest that your proposals and the following modi- 
fications be made the basis for reconvening the 
Joint Commission. 

Proposal number 1 to be interpreted as follows : 
Signing the Declaration in communique number 5 
will be accepted as a declaration of good faith with 
respect to upholding fully the Moscow Decision 
and will make the signatory party or organization 
eligible for initial consultation. 

Proposal number 2, I consider it the right of a 
declarant party or organization to appoint the 
representative which it believes will best present 
to the Joint Commission its views of the implemen- 
tation of the Moscow Decision. However, should 

170 



such representative for good reason be believed to 
be antagonistic to the implementation of the Mos- 
cow Decision or to either of the Allied Powers, the 
Joint Commission may, after mutual agreement, 
require the declarant party to name a substitute 
si^okesman. 

Proposal number 3, it is suggested that it be re- 
worded as follows : "Individuals, parties and social 
organizations invited for consultation with the 
Joint Commission shall not after signing the dec- 
laration contained in communique number 5 fo- 
ment or instigate active opposition to the work of 
the Joint Commission or to either of the Allied 
Powers or the fulfillment of the Moscow Decision. 
Those individuals, parties and social organizations 
which after signing the declaration contained in 
communique number 5 do foment or instigate ac- 
tive opposition to the work of the Joint Commis- 
sion or to either of the Allied Powers or to the ful- 
fillment of the Moscow Decision shall be excluded 
from further consultation with the Joint Commis- 
sion. The decision excluding such individuals, 
parties and social organizations shall be by agree- 
ment of the Joint Commission". 

I trust that the basis proposed above will be 
acceptable to you and trust you will notify me so 
that I may make the necessary preliminaiy ar- 
rangements for reconvening the Joint Commission. 

Hodge 

Translation of a letter from Soviet CoTmnander 
Chistiakov dated October 26, Wlfi 

In your letter of August 1, 1946 concerning the 
resumption of the work of the Joint Soviet- Amer- 
ican Commission, you, speaking of the intentions 
of the American delegation to resume the discus- 
sions of the Joint Commission, at the same time 
have advised the Soviet delegation to restudy its 
position. 

In answer to this, I must declare that the Soviet 
delegation is guided in its work by the terms of 
the Moscow decision of the three Foreign Min- 
isters on Korea and intends to steadfastly adhere 
to this decision. 

I again assure you that the Soviet delegation 
is always ready to resume the work of the Joint 
Commission on the basis of strict fulfilment of the 
Moscow decision on Korea. 

As far as the question of the discontinuing of 
the work of the Joint Commission is concerned, 

X)epat\men\ of Sfate Bulletin 



as you will know it was the American delegation 
itself which after a time in the course of the dis- 
cussions suggested that the work of the Joint Com- 
mission be suspended, and finally at its suggestion 
the work of the Commission was suspended May 
5, 194G. In your letter you stated that "the exact 
fulfilment of the Moscow decision is and always 
has been the mission of the American delegation." 

I must, however, note that during the work of 
the Joint Commission the American delegation did 
not, in fact, evidence such a readiness and many 
times even declared that it did not quite under- 
stand the Moscow decision on Korea. 

Your assertion that the Soviet delegation al- 
legedly interprets unilaterally the Moscow de- 
cision concerning the creation of a Provisional 
Korean Democratic Government and the consulta- 
tion on the subject with Korean political parties 
and social organizations is unfounded. 

In the decision on Korea reached by the Mos- 
cow Conference of the thi'ee Foreign Ministers, a 
series of measui'es were laid out which aim at the 
reestablishment of Korea as an independent state, 
the creation of conditions for the development of 
the country on democi'atic principles and the 
speedy liquidation of the ruinous after-effects of 
long Japanese domination in Korea. Therefore, 
the Soviet delegation, being guided by the aims 
and spirit of the Moscow decision, deems that it 
would not be right to consult on the question of 
methods of fulfilling the Moscow decision with 
those parties and those, who for tactical consid- 
erations, although declaring their support of the 
decision, at the same time make such stipulations 
which convert their statement of support of the 
Moscow decision into an empty declaration. 

In regard to that part of your letter concerning 
the definition of the word democratic, the Soviet 
delegation would like to point out that in this 
question it is necessary to consider not the declara- 
tive announcements of the party, and not the 
names of separate parties and organizations, but 
the actual policies pursued by a given paity. 

In as much as the Moscow decision has outlined 
the necessary measures for the democratic recon- 
struction of Korea, it is the opinion of the Soviet 
delegation that the attitude of difi'erent parties 
and groups toward the Moscow decision is the 
most important criterion of their true democratic 
nature and of their striving to see Korea a demo- 
cratic state. 



JHB RECORD OF 1H£ WEEK 

Thus, the position of the Soviet delegation on 
the question of consultation of the Joint Commis- 
sion with the Korean democratic parties and 
organizations fully corresponds to the Moscow 
decision. 

At the same time it is impossible not to note 
that there is an obvious contradiction between the 
interpretation in your letter of the word democracy 
and the actual position which the American dele- 
gation assumed during the period of the work of 
the Joint Commission. 

It is well known that the American delegation 
has included in the list of political parties and 
organizations for consultation with the Joint Com- 
mission on the question of the creation of the pro- 
visional Korean democratic government, all politi- 
cal parties and organizations which had voiced 
their opposition against the Moscow decision and 
only three democratic parties which upheld the 
Moscow decision. It is completely obvious that 
the American delegation, when it excluded from 
participation in consultation with the Joint Com- 
mission such democratic parties and organizations 
of mass character as the Korean national revolu- 
tionary party, the all-Korean Confederation of 
Labor, the all-Korean Women's Union, the all- 
Korean Youth Union, the all-Korean Farmers 
Union and a number of other organizations, 
guided by other than their democratic principles. 

As regards the freedom for the Koreans to ex- 
press their position toward formation of the 
Korean Government or the realization of the 
Moscow decision on Korea, the Soviet delegation 
has never anywhere made proposals directed 
against the freedom of expression by the repre- 
sentatives of Korean parties and organizations, 
wherever they may be, and it is accordingly under- 
stood that any part or group as well as any in- 
dividual Korean citizen can express similar ideas 
or present them to the Joint Commission. 

I cannot agree with the interpretation set forth 
in your letter on the question of trusteeship be- 
cause such an interpretation actually places in 
doubt the decision of the Moscow Conference on 
this question, as it is known the Moscow decision 
states : "it shall be the task of the Joint Commis- 
sion with the participation of the Pi-ovisional 
Korean Government and of the Korean democratic 
organizations to also work out measures for help- 
ing and assisting (non-trusteeship) the political, 
economic, and social progress of the Korean 



January 26, 1947 



171 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 

people, the development of democratic self-govern- 
ment and the establishment of the national inde- 
pendence of Korea." 

Thus, among the tasks of the Joint Commission 
is included the preparation of proiaosals dealing 
with the establishment of a trusteeship in regard 
to Korea with the stipulation that these proposals 
relating to Korea for a period up to five years, will, 
after consultation with the Provisional Korean 
Government be submitted for joint consideration 
to the governments of the four powers. 

From the above it is clear that the question of 
the establishment of the trusteeship as a measure 
which must aid in the democratic transformation 
of Korea has been definitely decided by the Mos- 
cow Conference and on this basis there must be 
prepared concrete proposals for the eventual work- 
ing out of the agreement of trusteeship. 

During the interruption in the work of the Joint 
Soviet-American Commission many events have 
occurred in South as well as in North Korea. All 
these events testify that the Korean people are 
striving to unite their country, to have a demo- 
cratic government and to carry out their demo- 
cratic transformation. 

It is the opinion of the Soviet delegation that 
the delay in the formation of the Korean Pro- 
visional Democratic Government impedes the so 
necessaiy unification of Korea into a single state; 
it is having a negative effect on the economic and 
political situation of the Korean people and is 
holding back the realization of democratic trans- 
formation in all Korea. 

The Soviet delegation is greatly concerned that 
the negotiations of the Joint Commission, inter- 
rupted on the initiative of the American Dele- 
gation in May 1946 have not yet been resumed and 
wishes to resume those negotiations as soon as 
IDOssible on the basis of exact fulfilment of the 
Moscow decision. 

If after taking this into account, along with 
the foregoing statement, you will express your 
consent to resume the work of the Joint Com- 
mission, the Soviet delegation will always be ready 
to resume the work. 

Text of General Hodge's reply to Soviet Com- 
mander Chistidkov's letter of October 26 

November 1, 1946. 

Dear General Chistiakov: 

I thank you for your letter of October 26, 1946, 

and agree with you that the continuation of the 

172 



division of Koi'ea into two parts works great 
hardshij) on the Korean people. It also weakens 
the prestige of two great Allies who cooperated 
so fully to bring a victorious end to the bitterest 
war in history. Each added month of this di- 
vision tends to make more difficult the implemen- 
tation of the Moscow decision on Korea made by 
the Foreign Ministers of the Allies last December. 

For the purposes of reconciling the differences 
between the United States and the U.S.S.R. dele- 
gations, which are not fully resolved in your 
letter, I propose that the following basis of agree- 
ment for reconvening the joint U.S. - U.S.S.K. 
Commission be accepted by both the Soviet and 
American delegations with view to the early re- 
sumption of the sessions of the Joint Commission. 
It is agi'eed to interpret paragraphs Two and 
Three of the declaration in communique no. 5 of 
the U.S. - U.S.S.R. Joint Commission dated April 
17th, 194G, to mean that such individuals, parties 
and social organizations shall not foment or insti- 
gate mass opposition to the work of the Joint 
Commission or the fulfilment of the Moscow de- 
cision. Those individuals, parties, and social 
organizations which do foment or instigate such 
opposition shall be excluded from further consul- 
tation with the Joint Commission. The decision 
excluding such individuals, parties, and social or- 
ganizations shall be by agi-eement of the Joint 
Commission. 

. In consideration of this interpretation of the 
declaration established in communique no. 5 of 
the Joint Commission, dated April 17th, 1946, 
both delegations agi'ee that they will not op- 
pose consultation with any individual, political 
party, or social organization which subscribes to 
and abides by the declaration published in joint 
communique no. 5. 

In order to eliminate any possible future mis- 
understanding, I believe it is advisable briefly 
to restate the position of the United States at this 
time. 

(A) The United States has always favored the 
exact fulfilment of the Moscow decision by the 
Joint Commission. This decision obviously in- 
cludes the preparation of proposals "for the work- 
ing out of an agreement concerning a Four Power 
trusteeship of Korea for a period of up to five 
years" which "shall be submitted for the joint 
consideration" of the Four Powers "following 

Department of State Bulletin 



consultation with the provisional Korean Govern- 
ment". However, there is nothing in the Moscow 
decision which predetermines the terms or nature 
of a Four Power trusteeship except that it shall 
be a method "for helping and assisting (trustee- 
ship) the political, economic and social progress 
of the Korean people, the development of demo- 
cratic self-government, and the establishnient of 
the national independence of Korea" to be worked 
out "with the participation of the Provisional 
Korean Democratic Government," and a limita- 
tion placed upon its duration. 

(B) The United States has always favored the 
exercise of freedom of speech in Korea. The 
United States believes that all Korean democratic 
parties and social organizations should be per- 
mitted to make known their desires in the forma- 
tion of their own government. The representa- 
tives of the United States see a great difference 



THE RECORD OF THE WBBK 

between (1) the instigation of mass opposition to 
the work of the Joint Commission and the ful- 
filment of the Moscow decision, and (2) the 
proper exercise of freedom of expression by Ko- 
rean individuals, democratic parties, and groups 
concerning their wishes and desires in the forma- 
tion of their own government. 

On the basis of the United States' position 
herein stated and the suggested interpretation of 
paragraphs Two and Three of the declaration in 
communique no. 5 to the Joint Conunission which 
is approved for the United States delegation, the 
American Command proposes that the Joint Com- 
mission resume its work without delay and I again 
cordially invite Soviet delegation to return to 
Seoul at an early date for the purpose of resum- 
ing negotiations. I shall be pleased to hear from 
you as early as possible in order that the necessary 
preliminary arrangements can be effected." 



COMMUNIQUE ISSUED BY U.S.-SOVIET JOINT COMMISSION ON APRIL 18, 1946> 



The U.S. - Soviet Joint Commission continued 
discussion on the question of conditions of consul- 
tation with democratic parties and social organi- 
zations. Col. Gen. T. F. Shtikov, Chief of the 
Soviet Delegation, was chairman on sessions held 
on April 8, 9, 11, and 13, 1946, in the Tuk Soo 
Palace, Seoul, Korea, and Maj. Gen. A. V. Arnold, 
chief of the U.S. delegation, was chairman at the 
session, April 17, 1946. 

As a result of a thorough investigation and 
analysis of the points of view of the Soviet delega- 
tion and the delegation of the United States, the 
Joint Commission reached the following decision 
on the first point of the joint program of work 
covering the conditions of the consultation with 
democratic parties and social organizations : 

"DECISION 
"The Joint Commission will consult with Ko- 
rean democratic parties and social organizations 
which are truly democratic in their aims and meth- 
ods and which will subscribe to the following 
declarations : 

"We declare that we will uphold 

the aims of the Moscow Decision on Korea as 
stated in paragi-aph 1 of this decision, namely : 



"The reestablishment of Korea as an indepen- 
dent state, the creation of conditions for develop- 
ing the country on democratic principles, and the 
earliest possible liquidation of the disastrous re- 
sults of the protracted Japanese domination in 
Korea. Further, we will abide by the decisions of 
the Joint Commission in its fulfilment of para- 
graph 2 of the Moscow decision in the formation 
of a Provisional Korean Democratic Goveinment ; 
further, we will cooperate with the Joint Com- 
mission in the working out by it with the partici- 
pation of the Provisional Korean Democratic Gov- 
ernment of jDroposals concerning measures fore- 
seen by paragraph 3 of the Moscow decision. 

"Signed 

Representing the 

Party or Organization" 

The procedure for inviting representatives of 
Korean democratic parties and social organiza- 
tions to consult with the Joint Commission is being 
worked out by Joint Sub-Commission No. 1. 
Wlien details of the procedure are completed it 
will be amiounced publicly. 



^ Issued in Seoul over the signatures of Col. Gen. T. F. 
Shtikov and Maj. Gen. A. V. Arnold. 



January 26, 1947 



173 



Convention With France on Double Taxation ^ 



THE PRESIDENT'S LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 



The White House, January 10, 1947. 

To the Senate of the United States: 

With a view to receiving the advice and consent 
of the Senate to ratification, I transmit herewith 
the convention between the United States of 
America and France, signed at Paris on October 
18, 1946, for the avoidance of double taxation and 
the prevention of evasion in tlie case of taxes on 
estates and inheritances, and for the purpose of 
modifying and supplementing certain provisions 
of the convention between the two Governments 



relating to income taxation signed at Paris on 
July 25, 1939. 

I also transmit for the information of the Senate 
the report by the Secretary of State with respect 
to the convention. 

The convention has the approval of the Depart- 
ment of State and the Treasury Department. 

Harry S. Truman 

(Enclosures: (1) Report of the Secretary of 
State; (2) convention of October 18, 1946, between 
the United States and France for the avoidance 
of double taxation.)^ 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF STATE 



Department of State, 
Washington, January 8, 19^7. 
The President, 

The White House : 

The undersigned, the Secretary of State, has 
the honor to lay before the President, with a view 
to its transmission to the Senate to receive the 
advice and consent of that body to ratification, if 
his judgment approve thereof, the convention be- 
tween the United States of America and France, 
signed at Paris on October 18, 1946, for the avoid- 
ance of double taxation and the prevention of 
evasion in the case of taxes on estates and in- 
heritances, and for the purpose of modifying and 
supplementing certain provisions of the convention 
between the two Governments relating to income 
taxation signed at Paris on July 25, 1939. 

The Department of State and the Treasury De- 
partment collaborated in the negotiation of the 
convention of October 18, 1946, which was formu- 
lated as a result of technical discussions between 
representatives of this Government and repre- 
sentatives of the French Govermnent. A public 
announcement regarding the negotiations was 
made by the Department of State, the aimounce- 
ment referring also to the fact that attention was 
given to certain current questions concerning the 

' S. Exec. A, 80th Cong., 1st sess. 
' Convention not printed. 

174 



interpretation and administration of French taxes 
in their application to American nationals. The 
position of the French Government regarding such 
matters and regarding the application of certain 
provisions of the 1939 convention, pending the sig- 
nature and coming into force of the proposed new 
convention, was made the subject of record in 
diplomatic notes, the texts of which were made 
public. 

The new convention is in four parts, called titles. 
Title I (arts. 1 to 6) contains substantive provi- 
sions for the avoidance of double taxation with 
respect to the United States estate tax and the 
French tax on inheritances. As in the cases of 
the existing conventions on this subject with Can- 
ada and the United Kingdom, the convention with 
France extends in its application, insofar as the 
United States is concerned, only to estate taxes 
imposed by the Federal Government. The impo- ■ 
sition and collection of inheritance or estate taxes 
by States or Territories of the United States or 
by the District of Columbia are not restricted by 
the convention. As to France, the convention is 
applicable to the tax on inheritances, which cor- 
responds with the Federal estate tax in the United 
States. 

Title II (art. 7) contains six lettered subpara- 
graphs, each of which involves some modification 
or supplementation of provisions of the conven- 
tion of July 25, 1939, now in force between the two 
countries, relating to income taxation. 

Departmenf of Sfafe Bulletin 



Title III (arts. 8 to 15) contains provisions re- 
lating to mutual administrative assistance through 
the exchange of information and for the collection 
of taxes in certain cases, with a view to discourag- 
ing tax evasion. Pursuant to article 16, upon the 
coming into force of the convention, the provisions 
of title III would apply with respect to taxes on 
estates or inheritances and also with respect to 
income taxes, the corresponding provisions of the 
1939 convention being for that purpose superseded 
and replaced. 

Title IV (arts. 16 to 19) contains provisions 
relating to the procedure for bringing the conven- 
tion into force and the procedure for terminating 
the convention. 

The provisions relating to taxes on estates or 
inheritances are similar, in substantial respects, to 
provisions in the existing convention of June 8, 
1944, between the United States and Canada and 
the existing convention of April 16, 1945, between 
the United States and the United Kingdom, 
relating to taxes on the estates of deceased persons. 
As in the case of the convention with Canada and 
the convention with the United Kingdom, double 
taxation is avoided principally by means of a 
credit. The country imposing the tax in the case 
of a deceased person who, at the time of death, 
was domiciled in that country (or was a citizen 
thereof if that country be the United States) 
allows a credit for the tax imposed by the other 
country with respect to property situated in such 
other country and included by both countries for 
the purpose of computing the tax. A further 
credit is provided in the event that each of the two 
countries determines that the decedent was domi- 
ciled in its territory at the time of death. Other 
important provisions in title I are those relating 
to rules of situs of property, exemptions, and a 
provision that the country which imposes the tax 
solely on the basis of property situated therein 
shall not take into account, for determining the 
amount or rate of tax, property situated outside 
its territory. As in the convention with the United 
Kingdom, but unlike the convention with Canada, 
title I of the new convention with France contains 
no provision for the exemption of real or immov- 
able property situated outside the taxing country. 
However, under the laws of both the United States 
and France such property is now exempt from 
tax on the estate or inheritance. France also 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 

exempts corporeal movables (tangible personal 
property) situated outside France. 

The provisions of the convention which modify 
or supplement the 1939 convention with France 
are designed primarily to take into consideration 
certain changes in the laws or practices of one or 
the other of the two countries in regard to income 
taxation. Article 7, which constitutes title II of 
the convention, contains specific amendments to 
the 1939 convention, as set forth in six lettered 
subparagraphs, summarized as follows: 

(a) Tlie reference to the French national tax 
on undistributed profits as being among the taxes 
to which the 1939 convention relates is eliminated, 
inasmuch as that tax has been abolished. 

(b) The first sentence is designed to embody in 
the convention with France the principle of article 
IX of the income-tax convention between the 
United States and the United Kingdom. The 
second sentence, whereby the term "royalties" shall 
be deemed to include rentals in respect to motion- 
picture films, is consistent with article VIII (3) 
of the convention between the United States and 
the United Kingdom. 

(c) This amenchnent has the effect of making 
article 8 of the 1939 convention reciprocal and has 
its origin in the desire of the French Government 
to be free to subject to its schedular taxation its 
own nationals who are employed by the United 
States Government in France. Under the 1939 
convention France waived taxation of such in- 
dividuals, although the United States reserved its 
right to tax United States citizens employed by 
the French Government in the United States. 

(d) The amendments here provided are designed 
to accomplish more adequately the object of avoid- 
ance from double taxation. Under the 1939 con- 
vention France, in effect, allows a credit against 
its securities tax for 12 percent of the amount of 
income from securities derived by taxpayers in 
France from United States sources. At the time 
of the conclusion of the 1939 convention the United 
States tax generally imposed was at the rate of 
10 percent upon such income. Since that time 
the rate of such tax has increased to 30 percent in 
the case of nonresident aliens and even higher rates 
where tlie income exceeds $15,400. Under these 
circumstances, the 12-percent credit allowed by 
France became inadequate to avoid double taxa- 
tion. In recognition of this fact the French Gov- 
ernment has agreed to raise the credit to 25 percent 



January 26, 1947 



175 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 

of the income taxes, effective retroactively to Janu- 
ary 1, 1945, with respect to the taxation of income 
acquired since that date on which the French tax 
has not been collected. The second part of sub- 
paragraph (d) would make applicable to aliens 
resident in France, including United States citi- 
zens, technical changes made in article 114 of the 
French Code on Direct Taxation. These changes 
do not involve any real departui-e with respect to 
the taxation of United States citizens in France. 
Like other aliens in the same situation, a United 
States citizen resident but not domiciled in France 
will continue to be taxed, insofar as the French 
general income tax is concerned, upon a sum equal 
to five times the rental value of the residence or 
residences maintained by such citizen in France. 
This basis is deemed to be as favorable to the tax- 
payer as can be reasonably expected. 

(e) The new article 17A here set forth will have 
the effect of permitting American business in 
France a further opportunity to obtain the bene- 
fits which were accorded by article 17 of the 1939 
convention. 

(f) This amendment merely changes the desig- 
nations of the respective officials of the two coun- 
tries who shall be deemed to be the "competent 
authority" or "competent authorities" for the pur- 
pose of carrying out the provisions of the 1939 
convention. In this respect the 1939 convention is 
made consistent with the corresponding provisions 
in tax conventions of the United States with other 
countries. 

Title III, relating to administrative coopera- 
tion, corresponds with title II of the 1939 conven- 
tion and supersedes that title II insofar as the 
provisions of title III of the new convention may 
be applicable to income taxation. This is designed 
primarily to achieve uniformity, as far as possible, 
in the provisions for administrative cooperation 
in respect of both estate taxation and income taxa- 
tion. The provisions of title III are substantially 
similar to provisions on the same subject in the 
tax conventions which have entered into force re- 
cently between the United States and Canada and 
the United Kingdom. There are the usual safe- 
guards that the provisions do not impose upon 
either country the obligation to carry out measures 
contrary to the regulations and practice of either 
country or to supply information not procurable 
under its legislation, as well as other safeguards 
found in corresponding provisions of other tax 

176 



conventions of the United States. The changes 
which are effected in relation to the 1939 conven- 
tion are considered desirable in the interest of a 
more efficient fiscal cooperation between the rev- 
enue services of the two countries. 

It is anticipated that in the course of considera- 
tion of the convention by the Senate the appro- 
jDriate officials of the Treasury Department will be 
called upon to furnish, and will furnish, a more 
detailed statement with respect to the purpose and 
application of the substantive provisions of the 
convention, including those relating to exchange 
of information and assistance in collection. 

Article 17 is similar to article XXII of the 
income-tax convention between the United States 
and the United Kingdom, in that it lays the basis 
for application of the convention to colonies, over- 
seas territories, protectorates, or territories under 
mandate or trusteeship. Article 17 does not of 
itself extend the provisions of the convention to 
such colonies or other territories, but makes it pos- 
sible, in the case of French colonies or other ter- 
ritories which have tax systems closely analogous 
to that existing in France, for the convention to 
be extended in its application without the neces- 
sity for entering into a separate convention cover- 
ing each of the colonies or other territories. This, 
of course, will be possible only on the conditions 
specified in article 17. As pointed out in connec- 
tion with the submission to the Senate of the in- 
come-tax convention with the United Kingdom, 
the United States revenue laws do not extend to 
overseas possessions, such as Puerto Rico. Such 
possessions will be fi-ee to elect, under article 17, 
to have the conventions with France extended in 
application to them, subject to the requirement for 
the giving of a notification to that effect by the 
United States Government to the French Govern- 
ment and the right of the latter to give notice that 
it does not accept such notification. Adequate 
provision is made also with respect to the termina- 
tion of the convention as to any of the colonies or 
other territories to which it may have become 
applicable under article 17. 

Article 18 provides for ratification and for the 
exchange of instruments of ratification and pre- 
scribes the effective dates of the convention. As 
to title I and other provisions of the convention 
applicable with respect to taxes on estates and 
inheritances, the convention will enter into force 
on the day of the exchange of instruments of rati- 

Departmenf of State Bulletin 



fication and shall be applicable solely to estates 
or inheritances in the case of persons who die on 
or after that date. As to title II and other provi- 
sions of the convention applicable with respect 
to tuxes on income, the convention will (except 
as otherwise provided for special purposes, as in 
arts. 7 and 17) enter into force on the first day of 
January following the exchange of instruments of 
ratification. 

It is provided in article 19 that the Convention 
shall remain in force for a minimum period of 5 
years, but may be terminated by the giving of 
written notice by one of the contracting countries 
to the other contracting country, according t6 the 
procedure and with the effect specified in that 
article. 

Respectfully submitted. 

James F. Byrnes 

(Enclosure: Convention of October 18, 1946, 
between the United States and France for the 
avoidance of double taxation.^) 

Smallpox Vaccination Certificate Re- 
quired of Persons on U.S. Vessels 
Entering Philippine Ports 

[Released to the press January 15] 

Information has been received from the Re- 
public of the Philippines that officers, crew mem- 
bers, and passengers of all vessels cleai'ing from 
United States ports for the Philippines are re- 
quired to present a satisfactory certificate of re- 
cent smallpox vaccination. A satisfactory cer- 
tificate of vaccination means evidence of successful 
vaccination or evidence of immune reaction not 
more than one year prior to the actual date of 
presentation of the certificate. Vaccination cer- 
tificates will be accepted if issued by the United 
States Public Health Service, medical officers of 
the United Stales armed forces, or other Govern- 
ment agencies. Vaccination certificates issued by 
private physicians are also acceptable when signed 
on the professional stationery of the physician. 

The above-mentioned regulation will be effec- 
tive on and after January 24, 1947. 



THB RECORD Of THE WBBK 

George C. Marshall Takes Oath of 
Office as Secretay of State 

On January 21 George C. Marshall took the 
oath of office as Secretary of State. The oath was 
administered at the White House, in the presence 
of the President, by the Chief Justice of the 
Supreme Court, Fred M. Vinson. 

UNRRA COUHCIL—Contimied from page 160 

Continued Encouragement of Repatriation 

The Soviet delegate, supported by the Polish 
delegate, expressed dissatisfaction with the prog- 
ress of repatriation and called for renewed ef- 
forts to persuade displaced persons to return to 
their homelands. The United States representa- 
tive said that he was convinced by protests now 
coming in from various organizations in this 
country "against the fact that repatriation is being 
so strongly emphasized". The contrary protest 
was by the Soviet delegate to the effect that the 
military authorities and UNRRA are doing a just 
and competent job of encouraging without forcing 
repatriation. There was little debate, and the 
Council adopted Resolution 122, which merely 
called for a report by the Administration to the 
Central Committee on the measures taken to en- 
courage repatriation. 

Resignation of Mr. La Guardia 

Director General La Guardia tendered his res- 
ignation, to become effective as of December 31, 
1946, that being the end of the period which he 
and the Council had had in mind when he was 
elected in March 1946. The Council accepted his 
resignation with expressions of regret and com- 
mendation and elected General Lowell W. Rooks as 
his successor. General Rooks had been appointed 
Deputy Director General in January 1946 by Her- 
bert H. Lehman and had continued to hold that 
position under Mr. La Guardia. His principal 
tasks will be to complete the shipment of UNRRA 
supplies and liquidate the Administration. 



January 26, 1947 



Ml 



The Minutes of the Council of Heads of Delegations 



Review by James S. Beddie of Volumes VII, VIII, and IX 
of ''''Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United 
States, The Paris Peace Conference, 1919" 



The Department of State has just released the 
last of three volumes containing the minutes of the 
Council of Heads of Delegations at the Paris Peace 
Conference of 1919.^ 

The Council of Heads of Delegations is the 
designation given to the Supreme Council of the 
Peace Conference in the form it assumed after the 
signing of the Treaty of Versailles with Germany 
on June 28, 1919 and the return home of President 
Wilson and Prime Minister Lloyd George. The 
Supreme Council in the earlier days of the Peace 
Conference had taken the forms of the Council of 
Ten and the Council of Four. Following the de- 
parture from Paris of Pi'esident Wilson and Lloyd 
George their places were taken by the Heads of the 
American and British Delegations. Secretary of 
State Robert Lansing represented the United 
States until his own return home on July 12. He 
was succeeded for a few sessions by Henry Wliite 
and later by Under Secretary of State Frank L. 
Polk. Arthur Balfour and later Sir Eyre Crowe 
usually represented Great Britain. Mr. Clemen- 
ceau continued as Head of the French Delegation, 
though M. Pichon often replaced him at the ses- 
sions of the Council. Italy and Japan were also 
represented on the Council. The sessions were 
usually held in M. Pichon's room at the Quai 
d'Orsay, some 115 meetings taking place up to the 
departure from Paris on December 9, 1919 of the 
American Commission to Negotiate Peace. 

Though the decisions reached by the Heads of 
Delegations were to be final, the absence of Presi- 
dent Wilson and Lloyd George, and the necessity 
of frequently consulting the home governments 
left the Heads of Delegations with much less 
weight of authority than had been exercised by 
the earlier Council of Ten or Council of Four. 



■ Vol. VII was released on May 19, 1946. 
178 



It was determined at the first session of the 
Heads of Delegations that their meetings should 
be a council of five, with but one delegate repre- 
senting each country, rather than two, although 
Mr. Lansing would have preferred the latter ar- 
rangement on the jDattern of the earlier sessions of 
the Conference, which he had attended as a mem- 
ber of the Council of Ten. In practice there were 
frequently a number of experts of each nationality 
present at the sessions in addition to the delegates. 
Mr. Lansing also spoke strongly in favor of having 
enough secretaries present to make a full and 
agreed record of what took place. The inadequacy 
of the records of the early sessions of the Council 
of Four had been one of Mr. Lansing's objections 
to the procedure of that body. As a result there 
were usually jjresent secretaries representing each 
of the national delegations, as well as represent- 
atives of the joint secretariat. Professor P. J. 
Mantoux continued to act as interpreter. 

As a result the sessions were well documented. 
The minutes jDublished in these volumes were pi-e- 
pared by the joint secretariat and were then dupli- 
cated and distributed to the national delegations. 

No communiques regarding the proceedings of 
the Council were issued to the press. At the meet- 
ing of July 2, Mr. Lansing proposed that such 
communiques be issued. He was opposed by ]\Ir. 
Balfour on the ground that the Council was the 
lawful heir of the Council of Four which had is- 
sued no communique, although Mr. Balfour said 
that "if the communique was so judiciously framed 
as to contain no information", he was indifferent. 
After further discussion it was decided that com- 
muniques should not be issued. 

The second half of the Peace Conference of 1919, 
due to the absence of the great leaders from the ses- 
sions and the completion of the treaty with Ger- 

Depattment of State Bulletin 



many, does not possess the same dramatic interest 
as the earlier period. Possibly, as a result, not 
nearly so much has been published on this portion 
of the Conference and a much smaller proportion 
of the Conference records from this period have 
become public. Most of the material contained in 
these three volumes of minutes is, accordingly, 
being now made public for the first time. 

While by July 1, 1919 the treaty with Germany 
had been signed, the treaty with Austria was only 
partially completed, and discussion of treaties 
with Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey had scarcely 
begun. The other treaties comprising the peace 
settlement, including several of the minorities 
treaties, had still to be completed. Steps had to 
be taken for carrying out the provisions of the 
Treaty of "Versailles and the political and economic 
problems arising at the time in war-toi"n Europe 
and the Near East had to be faced. All of these 
tasks confronted the Heads of Delegations. 

Among the subjects receiving particular atten- 
tion at the meetings of the Heads of Delegations 
were the following : the Adriatic question ; the de- 
termination of Austrian frontiers ; the Allied ob- 
jection to reference to Austria in the new German 
constitution ; the activities of the Bolshevist Gov- 
ernment in Hungai-y; the troubled relations be- 
tween Eumania and Hungary ; the drafting of the 
treaty with Bulgaria; unsettled conditions in the 
Baltic provinces; the sad plight of Armenia; the 
establishment of commissions of control in Ger- 
many and other measures necessary to put the 
Treaty of Versailles into force; disputed fron- 
tiers in many parts of Europe, including Thrace, 
Dobrudja, Teschen, Upper Silesia, Galicia, and 
elsewhere, with preparations for plebiscites in 
some of these areas ; and the question of the con- 
vocation of the League of Nations. 

In their efforts to settle these questions the mem- 
bers of the Council frequently were hampered not 
only by the natural difficulties of post-war con- 
fusion, but by stubbornness and recalcitrance on 
the part of both former enemy and Allied states. 
The minutes contain many expressions of exas- 
peration on the part of the Heads of Delegations 
and their advisers at such obstacles and of em- 



JHE RECORD OF THE WEEK 

phasis on the necessity for a stronger stand on the 
part of the peacemakers. Thus, for example, in 
discussing the Hungarian situation in the meet- 
ing of August 21, 1919 Mr. Hoover remarked 
that — 

"Eastern Europe was past the blandishments of 
polite suggestion. Human life in those parts had 
declined in value to an extent not realized in Paris. 
Very energetic action was required." 

At the middle of September 1919 Lloyd George 
made a brief visit to Paris and at the meeting of 
September 15 brought up the matter of the ter- 
mination of the labors of the Peace Conference. 
He spoke of the difficulty of providing a British 
representative of the first rank for further ses- 
sions in Paris. The immediate termination of the 
Conference was opposed by Mr. Polk and M. 
Clemenceau and actually it was not found pos- 
sible to wind up the Conference for some months 
more. The American Delegation in the ensuing 
period was hampered by uncertainties connected 
with the serious illness of President "Wilson and 
the vicissitudes of the Versailles Treaty in the 
Senate. The last meeting at which the United 
States was officially represented was that of De- 
cember 9, 1919, and the American Commission to 
Negotiate Peace left Paris the same day. The 
Heads of Delegations, with the United States rep- 
resented only by an observer, Hugh Wallace, the 
American Ambassador to France, continued to 
hold sessions until January 10, 1920. 

Also included in the volumes now released are 
the minutes of those sessions of the International 
Council of Premiers, held at London and Paris in 
December 1919 and January 1920, at which the 
United States was represented by an observer, and 
the minutes of the three meetings of the Council of 
Ministers of Foreign Affairs, held at Pai-is on 
January 10, 13 and 21, 1920, at two of which the 
United States had an observer. These bodies may 
also be considered as manifestations of the Su- 
preme Council of the Peace Conference and it was 
at their sessions that the last obsequies over the 
Paris Peace Conference were performed. Busi- 
ness still left over was dealt with by the Confer- 
ence of Ambassadors. 



January 26, 1947 



179 



lo/yUem^' 



General Policy Paga 

Some Recent Developments in the Problem 
of the Turkish Straits, 1945-1946. Arti- 
cle by Harry N. Howard 143 

Reply From U.S.S.R. to U.S. Note on Polish 

Elections 164 

Exchange of Views With Italian Prime Minis- 
ter on Italy's Needs 165 

Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia Visits U.S. . . 167 

Smallpox Vaccination Certificate Required of 
Persons on U.S. Vessels Entering Philip- 
pine Ports 177 

Economic Affairs 

U.S. Delegation to South Pacific Regional 

Air Navigation Meeting of PICAO . . . 157 

Caribbean Commission 158 

Sixth Session of the UNRRA Council. Arti- 
cle by David Persinger 159 

War Damage Compensation for American 

Nationals in France 166 

The United Nations 

Report on U.S. Participation in World Bank: 

The President's Letter of Transmittal . . 152 

Excerpts From the Report 152 

First Session of the Commission on Human 

Rights 154 

Appointment of Deputy Director-General of 

UNESCO 155 

Confirmations of U.S. Representatives to 

United Nations 155 



Occupation Matters page 

Proposals for Reopening Joint Commission: 
Exchange of Letters Between Lt. Gen. 
John R. Hodge and Guard Colonel 

General Chistiakov 168 

Communique Issued by U.S.-Soviet Joint 

Commission on April 18, 1946 .... 173 

Treaty Information 

Trade Agreements Negotiations. Exchange 
of Letters Between Senator Butler and 

Under Secretary Clayton 161 

Convention With France on Double Taxation: 

The President's Letter of Transmittal . . 174 
Report of the Secretary of State 174 

Council of Foreign Ministers 

Advance Copies of Peace Treaties Released . 167 

Calendar of International Meetings . . 156 

The Department 

George C. Marshall Takes Oath of Office as 

Secretary of State 177 

Publications 

The IMinutes of the Council of Heads of 

Delegations 178 



'^ 



David Persinger, anther of the article on the Sixth Council Ses- 
sion of UNRRA, is Secretary to the United States Delegation to 
UNRRA, Department of State. 

Harry N. Hoicard, author of the article on the recent develop- 
ments in the problem of the Turkish Straits, is Chief of the Near 
Eastern Branch of the Division of Research for Near East and 
Africa, Office of Near Eastern and African Affairs, Department of 
State. 



U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1947 



tJrie/ ^e^a^t7}^eni/ /(w t/taie^ 




THIRD SESSION OF THE COUNCIL OF FOREIGN 
MINISTERS 183 

PRELIMINARY PROPOSALS FOR AN INTERNATIONAL 
TRADE ORGANIZATION: 
Employment and Economic Activity ■ Axi anirle . . . 187 
Industrial Development - An article 190 



FoL XVI, No. 396 
February 2, 1947 



For comolete contents tee back cover 




.eMT c» 



OF DOCUfi'itKTS 

FEb jib ^y47 




*.^^wy^.. bulletin 



Vol. XVI, No. 396 . Publication 2744 
February 2,1947 



For Bale by the Superintendent of Documents 

(J. S. Government Printing Office 

Washington 25, D. C. 

Sdbsceiption : 
52 IsBues, J5.00 ; single copy, 15 cents 

Pabllabed with the approval of the 
Director of the Bureau of the Budget 

NOTE: 

Contents of this publication are not 
copyrighted and items contained herein 
may be reprinted. Citation of the 
Department op State Bulletin as 
the source will be appreciated. 



The Department of State BULLETIIS, 
a tceekly publication compiled and 
edited in the Division of Publications, 
Office of Public Affairs, provides 
the public and interested agencies of 
the Covernment with information on 
developments in the field of foreign 
relations and on the work of the De- 
partment of State and the Foreign 
Service. The BULLETIN includes 
press releases on foreign policy issued 
by the White House and the Depart- 
ment, and statements and addresses 
made by the President and by the 
Secretary of State and other officers 
of the Department, cts well as special 
articles on various phases of inter- 
national affairs and the functions of 
the Department. Information con- 
cerning treaties and international 
agreements to which the United States 
is or may become a party and treaties 
of general international interest is 
included. 

Publications of the Department, cu- 
mulative lists of which are published 
at the end of each quarter, as well as 
legislative material in the field of inter- 
national relations,arelistedcurrently. 



THIRD SESSION OF THE COUNCIL OF FOREIGN MINISTERS, 
NEW YORK CITY, NOVEMBER 4-DECEMBER 12' 



The writing of the peace treaties with Bulgaria, Finland, 
Hungary, Italy, and Rumania has heen concluded hy the Coun- 
cil of Foreign Ministers. The article presented helow sum- 
Tnarizes the Oou/nciVs discussions in New York City, after 
previous sessions in London and in Paris, and reviews the plan 
for peace settlements with Germany and Austria which the 
Council of Foreign Ministers will consider at its next meeting 
in Moscow, to begin on March 10, 19^7. 



I. COMPLETION OF TEXTS OF TREATIES OF 

PEACE WITH ITALY, RUMANIA, BULGARIA, 

HUNGARY. AND FINLAND 

The third session of the Council of Foreign 
Ministers which was held in New York City at the 
Waldorf-Astoria Hotel from November 4 to De- 
cember 12, 1946, finally completed the texts of the 
treaties of peace with Italy, Rumania, Bulgaria, 
Hungary, and Finland. These texts have now 
been published and will be presented on February 
10, 1947, for signature by the representatives of 
the states which participated in the Paris Peace 
Conference and which were at war with the enemy 
states in question. The United States was not at 
war with Finland and consequently will not be a 
party to the peace treaty with Finland. The 
treaties will enter into force immediately upon 
ratification by the Allied states signatories to the 
respective armistices and by France in the case of 
Italy. 

Although it had been hoped that time would per- 
mit the Council of Foreign Ministers to draw up 
final texts of these treaties in Paris following the 
close of the Paris Peace Conference, this task 
proved to be impossible in view of the forthcom- 
ing meeting of the General Assembly of the United 
Nations in New York, which certain of the Foreign 
Ministers desired to attend in person. Secretaiy 
of State Byrnes therefore invited the Council of 
Foreign Ministers to meet in New York concur- 

February 2, 1947 



rently with the General Assembly in order to avoid 
any further delay in the completion of these five 
peace treaties. The purpose of this session of the 
Council of Foreign Ministers, which was the third 
devoted to the drafting of these peace treaties, was 
to consider the recommendations of the Paris 
Peace Conference and to endeavor to agree upon 
the final texts. 

Secretary Byrnes had since the April-May 
meeting of the Council of Foreign Ministers 
urged the calling of the Paris Peace Conference, 
which met from July 29 until October 15, believing 
that all members of the United Nations who had 
participated actively in militaiy operations 
against the European members of the Axis were 
entitled to be given a full opportunity to make 
known their views and to have those views taken 
into consideration. Furthermore, the members 
of the Council of Foreign Ministers had solemnly 
agreed to "give the fullest consideration" to and 
"not reject arbitrarily" the recommendations from 
this Conference. Secretary Byrnes had also 
pointed out on a number of occasions that the rec- 
ommendations of this Conference should be of 
great assistance to the Council of Foreign Minis- 
ters in finding solutions to the issues on which they 
had been unable to agree. 



'This article will be printed as Department of State 
publication 2747, Conference Series 93. 

183 



The Paris Peace Conference, through- long dis- 
cussion both in the commissions and in plenary 
sessions, had given the fullest possible considera- 
tion to every aspect of the peace treaties and had 
adopted 59 recommendations by two-thirds major- 
ity and 48 recommendations by a simple majority. 
For the most part, these recommendations related 
to questions which the Council of Foreign Minis- 
ters, despite protracted negotiation and discus- 
sion, had left in disagreement or had not 
considered. Thus the third session of the Council 
of Foreign Ministers in considering those issues 
which had previously divided the Council and 
Conference had the advantage of formal recom- 
mendations on these and other issues by the 21 
nations at the Paris Conference. These recom- 
mendations and especially those backed by two- 
thirds of the members of the Conference were a 
new factor in the work of the Council of Foreign 
Ministers and played a large if not determinant 
pai-t in settling the still unsolved issues in these 
treaties. In effect the final texts of these treaties 
reveal that on the majority of issues final agree- 
ment was based upon the recommendations 
returned to the Council of Foreign Ministers by 
the Paris Conference. 

This agreement was particularly evident in 
regard to the draft statute of the Free Territory 
of Trieste. Although the Council of Foreign 
Ministers last July had reached an agreement on 
the internationalization under the United Nations 
of this territory and on its proposed boundaries, 
no agreement had been reached by the special 
Commission on Trieste appointed by the Council 
of Foreign Ministers on the principles which were 
to govern the temporary regime and on the per- 
manent statute for the area. Secretary Byrnes 
had made it clear that the United States, having 
agreed — contrary to its original position — to the 
internationalization of this area, was determined 
that the proposed Free Territory should be 
genuinely international in character and not a 
hotbed of friction and dispute between Italy and 
Yugoslavia. In view of the tension existing in 
the area and the rivalry between these two coun- 
tries, the United States believed it to be essential 
that the representatives of the Security Council 
and the United Nations who were to assume re- 
sponsibility for the integrity and security of this 
area must have adequate powers to discliarge these 
responsibilities. As a neutral figure — representa- 



tive of the United Nations as a whole — the pro- 
posed Governor for the Free Territory of Trieste 
would have no interest except to safeguard the se- 
curity of the area and to promote the well-being 
and preserve the rights and freedoms of the inhab- 
itants. The representatives of Great Britain and 
France had held similar views. The Soviet repre- 
sentative, however, had supported the claims of 
Yugoslavia to a special and privileged position in 
this territory and had opposed the granting to the 
Governor and to the United Nations what the 
United States regarded as absolutely essential 
powers for the maintenance of the international 
character and stability of the area. By a two- 
thirds vote the Paris Conference recommended the 
adoption of a French compromise proposal setting 
forth the principles for the organization of the 
Free Territory of Trieste, which were in basic 
accord with the views of the British and Ameri- 
can Governments. 

At the New York session of the Council of For- 
eign Ministers the principles for the permanent 
statute and provisional regime of the Free Terri- 
tory of Trieste as recommended by the Conference 
were incorporated in a final draft after protracted 
negotiation. The statute as finally agi-eed upon 
has been incorporated as an annex to the peace 
treaty for Italy. If backed by an honest intention 
on the part of the states directly concerned to im- 
plement this statute as written, it provides the 
framework for the creation and maintenance of a 
genuine international regime for this troublesome 
and disputed area. 

After agreement on the statute for the Free Ter- 
ritory of Trieste had been reached, the only other 
questions of imjiortance still in dispute related to 
reparations, other economic clauses, and the ques- 
tion of freedom of navigation on the Danube 
River. 

The reparation problem proved to be one of the 
most difficult. Marked difference in attitude ex- 
isted between countries which had been devastated 
by one or another of these ex-enemy states and 
which therefore felt entitled to the maximum 
amounts possible, and between countries like the 
United States which felt that the most important 
thing was to build for a future in which the ex- 
enemy states would have some prospect of eco- 
nomic recovery. In the cases of Rumania, Hun- 
gary, and Finland, the reparation terms as set 
forth in their armistices provided for $300,000,000 



184 



Department of State Bulletin 



of commodities at 1938 prices. Although the 
United States argued at great length that these 
three countries were not identical in the degree 
of their aggi-ession nor equal in their capacity to 
pay, this Government was unable to obtain any 
change in the established arrangements which had 
already been implemented by bilateral agreements. 
In the case of Bulgaria, where the reparation 
terms were not fixed in the armistice, the situation 
was reversed, the Soviet Union arguing for an 
extremely low reparation obligation. Actually, 
the figure of $70,000,000 which was agreed on is 
not far out of line when compared with the obli- 
gation of Riunania, but it does throw into sharp 
contrast the burden of reparations placed on Hun- 
gary and Finland. 

The problem of reparation is much simpler 
in the case of those four countries which were 
all net exporters than in the case of Italy. In 
order to find a practical means for payment 
by Italy, the formula previously agreed upon 
for Italian reparation to the Union of Soviet 
Socialist Republics — namely, that the repara- 
tion-receiving country must supply the required 
raw material — was utilized in connection with 
the other recipients. There were two particu- 
larly difficult problems; that of the relative 
treatment of Greece and Yugoslavia and that 
of whether Albania should be included at all. 
The first problem was resolved by giving 
Greece and Yugoslavia each the same total 
amount of $150,000,000 from Bulgaria and Italy. 
The second problem was resolved by giving a 
smaller payment of $5,000,000 to Albania. 

It is also important to note that the com- 
mercial-policy provisions which this Government 
has urged from the very start are now incor- 
porated in the treaties. These provisions estab- 
lish, for a period of 18 months, an obligation 
on the part of the ex-enemy state not to discrimi- 
nate among nations in matters pertaining to com- 
merce and industry. This requirement is limited 
to 18 months in order to permit the concluding 
of commercial treaties. Furthermore, that period 
of time should determine whether international 
trade throughout the world will follow the 
liberal principles outlined in the American pro- 
posals for the expansion of world trade or whether 
various countries themselves will revert to dis- 
criminatory and restrictive trade regulation. A 
similar provision with respect to aviation rights, 



including the first two freedoms of the air, is 
included in each treaty. 

The question of including a clause expressing 
acceptance of the principle of free navigation on 
that great European waterway in the peace trea- 
ties with tlie ex-enemy states bordering on the 
Danube had been the subject of long dispute and 
acrimonious debate at previous sessions of the 
Council of Foreign Ministers, particularly at the 
Paris Peace Conference. In this case again the 
Conference had voted by a two-thirds majority for 
the inclusion in the appropriate treaties of some 
statement of the important principle of free navi- 
gation. It is gratifying to report that at the New 
York meeting the Soviet objections on this score 
were overcome, and the three Balkan treaties in- 
clude the following statement of principle : "Navi- 
gation on the Danube shall be free and open for the 
nationals, vessels of commerce and goods of all 
States on the footing of equality with regard to 
port and navigation charges and conditions for 
merchant shipping." In order to reduce this gen- 
eral principle to specific operation, the Council of 
Foreign Ministers has agreed to call a conference 
within six months in which the United States, 
Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and France would 
particijjate, as well as the countries in the Dan- 
ubian basin, for the purpose of establishing an 
international regime with respect to the Danube. 
The United States has very little direct interest 
in the Danube as such. The great concern of the 
United States has been to do all that it could to 
remove artificial barriers and discriminatory prac- 
tices both from national trade i-egulations and 
specifically from this vital waterway in south- 
eastern Europe. 

Other economic articles which dealt with such 
problems as restitution, compensation for damages, 
ex-enemy property in the United Nations, and the 
reinstatement of debt obligations posed certain 
difficulties of one kind or another; however, it is 
believed that the interests of the United States 
have been safeguarded so far as possible under the 
circumstances. 

After more than 15 months since the opening 
session of the Council of Foreign Ministers set 
up by the Potsdam Conference to draft (in the 
first instance) treaties of peace with Italy and 
the former satellite states, the final texts of these 
treaties have now been completed. It cannot be 
said that the treaties themselves are entirely satis- 



February 2, 1947 



185 



factory, and, as Secretary Byrnes said in dis- 
cussing the drafts presented to the Peace 
Conference, they are "not the best which human 
wit could devise", but they do represent the best 
which could be reached by unanimous agreement 
among the members of the Council of Foreign 
Ministers. Wlien they enter into effect, despite 
their imperfections, they will be the first real step 
forward toward the return to normal peacetime 
conditions for these countries. They will bring 
to an end armistice regimes giving to the occupy- 
ing power almost unlimited control over the 
national life of these countries, and they will, in 
some cases, mean the complete withdrawal of and, 
in others, major reduction in the occupying forces 
which, since the end of the war, have imposed such 
heavy burdens on their national economies. Final- 
ly, the treaties will permit Italy, Rvmiania, 
Bulgaria, Hungary, and Finland to reassume 
their responsibilities as sovereign states in 
international affairs and will afford them an 
opportunity to qualify for membership in the 
organization of the United Nations. 

II. PRELIMINARY PLANS FOR PEACE SETTLE- 
MENTS WITH GERMANY AND AUSTRIA 

In addition to completing final texts of the five 
peace treaties the Council of Foreign Ministers 
as had been agi'eed in Paris devoted several meet- 
ings of its New York session to the German and 
Austrian questions. As early as May 1946 Secre- 
tary Byrnes had endeavored without success to ob- 
tain agreement for the settmg up of special depu- 
ties to start the preliminary work for the eventual 
peace settlement with Germany and to prepare a 
draft settlement with Austria so that without un- 
due delay the Council of Foreign Ministers could 
take up these two questions vital to the entire 
future of Europe. The Soviet Government in May 
and again in July had been unwilling to agree to 
these proposals and had maintained that further 
study was required before deputies could be ap- 
pointed to begin actual work concerning either a 
future German settlement or an Austrian treaty. 
At the New York session, however, these objections 
were overcome and the following are the main 
points in the agenda adopted for the next meeting 
of the Council of Foreign Ministers to be held in 
Moscow on March 10, 1947 : 



1. Consideration of the report from the Allied 
Control Council; 

2. Consideration of the form and scope of the 
provisional political organization of Germany; 

3. Preparation of a peace treaty with Germany, 
taking into account the report to be received from 
the deputies and also including consideration of 
boundary questions, questions of the Ruhr and 
Ehineland, and others ; 

4. United States draft disarmament and de- 
militarization treaty and other measures for polit- 
ical, economic, and military control of Germany; 

5. Consideration of the re^Tort already submitted 
by the Committee of Coal Experts ; and 

6. Consideration of the report of the deputies 
on the Austrian treaty. 

The deputies appointed for discussion of Ger- 
man questions, who are now meeting in London, 
were instructed to : {a) hear the views of govern- 
ments of neighboring Allied states and of other 
Allied states who participated with their ai-med 
forces in the common struggle against Germany 
and who wish to present their views on the Ger- 
man problem; (&) consider questions of proce- 
dure with regard to the preparation of a peace 
treaty for Germany; and (c) submit a report on 
the above matters to the Council of Foreign Min- 
isters by February 25, 1947. 

The deputies appointed for Austria were in- 
structed to: {a) proceed with the preparation of 
a treaty recognizing the independence of Austria, 
taking into consideration the proposals already 
submitted by the Governments of the United 
States and the United Kingdom, as well as any 
further proposals which may be submitted by any 
member of the Council of Foreign Ministers; (J) 
hear the views of the governments of neighboring 
Allied states and of other Allied states who par- 
ticipated with their armed forces in the common 
struggle against Germany and who wish to pre- 
sent their views on the Austrian problem ; and (<?) 
submit proposals on the above matters to the Coun- 
cil of Foreign Ministers by February 25, 1947. 

Thus, in addition to the completion of the five 
peace treaties which was its primary charge, the 
Council of Foreign Ministers at its third session in 
New York made the first real progress in the di- 
rection of the consideration of the even more 
important problems regarding the future of Ger- 
many and Austria. 



186 



Department of Stale Bulletin 



PRELIMINARY PROPOSALS FOR AN INTERNATIONAL 
TRADE ORGANIZATION 



The two articles 'presented helow on employment and 
economic activity and on industrial developm^ent are the -first 
in a series of articles on the work of the Preparatory Com- 
mittee of the Economic and Social Council for the establish- 
ment of an international trade organisation of the United 
Nations. The Preparatory Committee held its first meeting 
in London from October 16 to November 26., 19Jfi. In suc- 
cessive issues of the Buixetin will appear articles on 
commercial policy, restinctive business practices, intergovem- 
mentai commodity arrangements, and adrrunistration and 
organisation. 



Employment and Economic Activity 

An Article 



The initial decision to hold a conference dealing 
with both trade and employment reflects the close 
connection between the two subjects. It is clear 
that a two-way relationship is involved. No matter 
how satisfactory employment levels may be in 
the various countries, higher standards of liv- 
ing will not be obtained if barriers are allowed to 
block the flow of international trade. Conversely, 
in the face of serious unemployment in one or more 
of the major industrial and trading countries, a 
reduced level of trade barriers might fail to secure 
high standards of living or even a large volume of 
trade. For example, the fact that tariffs are low 
will not by itself prevent a decline in income and 
demand which communicates itself from counti-y 
to country through international markets. 

The United States draft charter ^ accordingly 
contained a chapter on employment provisions 
which in five articles recognized the relation of em- 
ployment to the purposes of the International 
Trade Organization ; pledged each Member to take 
action designed to achieve and maintain full 
employment within its own jurisdiction through 
measures appropriate to its political and economic 
institutions; stated that employment measures 
should not be of such a character as to create un- 



employment in other countries or to conflict with 
trade objectives ; provided for consultation and ex- 
change of information on matters relating to em- 
ployment; and assigned the relevant functions to 
the Economic and Social Council. 

At the London meeting, Committee I was as- 
signed the topic of employment and economic 
activity and adopted the following agenda: "In- 
ternational agreement relating to the achievement- 
and maintenance of high and steadily rising levels 
of effective demand, employment, and economic 
activity. (1) General undertakings of Members. 

( 2) Eecourse in case a Member is damaged by fail- 
ure of another Member to fulfil undertakings. 

(3) Consultation and exchange of information. 

(4) Assignment of functions." ^ The final report 
on its work included a series of draft articles con- 
siderably broader in scope than the original United 



' The work of Committee I : Employment and Economic 
Activity. 

' Suggested Charter for an International Trade Organiza^ 
tion of the United Nationg, published in September 1946 
(Department of State publication 2598, Commercial Policy 
Series 93). 

' Its agenda also included the following Item : "Inter- 
national agreement relating to industrial development. 
(To be considered jointly with Committee II.)" 



February 2, 7947 



187 



States draft but consistent in form and spirit with 
that document, together with a draft resohition for 
the attention of the Economic and Social Council. 

Undertakings With Respect to Levels of 
Employment and Effective Demand 

The central problem confronting Committee I 
involved the drafting of provisions that would 
contain an expression of policy as to the mainte- 
nance of employment levels and levels of effective 
demand; that would adequately recognize the 
possible need of Members to adoj)t protective 
measures if their economies should be threatened 
as a result of a serious decline in employment and 
effective demand beyond their borders; and that 
would at the same time support rather than con- 
flict with the commercial-policy provisions of the 
charter. 

The ends sought were agreed to be a high level 
of emjDloyment — already recognized in article 55 
of the United Nations Charter to be a main pur- 
pose of the United Nations — and high and stable 
levels of effective demand for goods and services. 
The second of these conditions tends to create and 
also to follow from the first, but adequate demand 
may in certain circumstances nevertheless fail to 
be transmitted internationally by an economy 
in which employment levels are satisfactory. 

It was recognized that Members could not guar- 
antee high and stable levels of employment and de- 
mand, but it was agreed that they could and should 
undertake to "take action designed to achieve and 
maintain" these conditions within their respective 
.jurisdictions. Each country would, of course, be 
expected to use measures "appropriate to their 
political and economic institutions". To this was 
added the proviso that the measures adopted 
should be "compatible with the other purposes of 
the Organization" ; i. e., in promoting employment, 
Members should not use methods that would be in 
violation of their commitments looking to the re- 
duction of trade barriers and to the elimination of 
trade discriminations. 

Particular attention was directed to the fact that 
a country might be maintaining employment, 
by measures in harmony with accepted principles 
of trade, and might nevertheless unwittingly con- 
tribute to or be the agent of balance-of-payments 
difficulties and consequent deflationary pressure 
experienced by other countries. This situation 
could occur if it were to sell considerably more 



than it bought and invested abroad, making up 
the balance by accumulating monetary reserves. 
Conversely, it was recognized that responsibility 
for the maladjustment might also rest with the 
countries experiencing the balance-of-payments 
difficulties; such difficulties might, for example, be 
caused by a flight of capital from the cun-encies 
of those countries. In the light of these various 
considerations, it was the Committee's belief that 
each country should agree "that in case of a funda- 
mental disequilibrium in their balance of payments 
[terminology borrowed from the Articles of Agi-ee- 
ment of the International Monetary Fund] involv- 
ing other countries in persistent balance of pay- 
ments difficulties which handicap them in main- 
taining employment, they will make their full 
contribution to action designed to correct the 
maladjustment". 

Discussion turned next to the recourse that 
Members might have if economic difficidties should 
be created for them as a result of inability on the 
part of other Members to maintain high and stable 
levels of employment and high levels of effective 
demand as intended. One view was that the chap- 
ter dealing with employment should grant any 
Member so affected a broad release fi'om other 
obligations under the charter. It was noted, how- 
ever, that other parts of tlie charter already car- 
ried provisions designed to meet such contingen- 
cies. For example, a Member experiencing bal- 
ance-of-payments difficulties — the form in which 
deflationary pressure originating abroad would 
ordinarily become apparent — could protect itself 
by imposing restrictions, in accordance with rules 
and procedures set forth in the chapter on com- 
mercial policy, on the quantity of goods imported. 
It was therefore concluded that the problem was 
one of assuring that the relevant exceptions or re- 
leases from obligations provided elsewhere in the 
charter and the machinery established to bring 
those provisions into effect should be adequate to 
cover deflationary situations created by a failure of 
another Member to maintain its employment and 
its effective demand. This problem was regarded 
as the responsibility of other committees. Com- 
mittee I, however, expressly stipulated that the 
Organization "shall have regard, in the exercise 
of its functions as defined in the other Articles of 
this Charter, to the need of Members to take action 
within the provisions of the Charter to safeguard 
their economies" in such situations. 



1S8 



^eparimen\ of Sfafe Bulletin 



other Issues and Undertakings 

Committee I dealt with five other significant 
issues and it reached conclusions on:* (1) de- 
velopment of resources and productivity;^ (2) 
labor standards; (3) consultation and informa- 
tion; (4) international (as contrasted with Mem- 
ber govei'nment) action relating to employment; 
and (5) the form that the employment provisions 
should take — i.e., their precise relation to the 
charter of the International Trade Organization. 

Without questioning the importance of main- 
taining high and stable levels of employment in 
the major industrial and trading countries, spokes- 
men for a number of relatively underdeveloped 
countries pointed out that the prosperity of their 
economies would depend less on their ability to 
keep everyone at work than on their ability to im- 
prove the quality and productiveness of the work 
done. The acquisition of a modern technology 
was thus regarded as their greatest need. The 
Committee recognized the validity of this point in 
two ways : by making clear throughout its report 
and recommendations that the objective is "pro- 
ductive" as well as quantitatively high-level em- 
ployment, or, in other words, that "under-em- 
ployment" should be avoided as well as "unem- 
ployment"; and by adding a new draft article in 
which, "recognizing that all countries have a com- 
mon interest in the productive use of the world's 
resources", each Member would "agree to take ac- 
tion designed progressively to develop economic 
resources and to raise standards of productivity 
within their jurisdiction" — this action, again, to 
take the form of "measures compatible with the 
other purposes of the Organization". 

The issue of labor standards was raised by a 
Member who pointed out that wage rates and 
other labor conditions not only affect the quality 
or suitability of employment and have an impor- 
tant bearing by way of the distribution of pur- 
chasing power upon the ability to maintain em- 
ployment but also must be taken into account 
in connection with trade because of the possibility 
of unfair competition in export markets based on 
exploitation of labor. In the discussion of this 
question, full recognition was given to the general 
jurisdiction of the International Labor Organiza- 
tion in the labor-standards field. At the same 
time, a large majority favored adding to the em- 
ployment provisions in the charter of the Inter- 
national Trade Organization an article in which, 

February 2, 1947 

729S93 — 47 2 



"recognizing that all countries have a common 
interest in the maintenance of fair labor stand- 
ards" — these standards being of necessity "re- 
lated to national productivity" — each Member 
"agrees to take whatever action may be appro- 
priate and feasible to eliminate substandard con- 
ditions of labor in production for export and gen- 
erally throughout their jurisdiction". Two dele- 
gations reserved their votes when Committee I 
adopted this article. 

With respect to the functions relating to em- 
ployment to be performed by international bodies, 
provision was made for agreement by Members to 
participate in arrangements undertaken or spon- 
sored by the Economic and Social Council, with 
mention also of cooperation on the part of the 
appropriate intergovernmental specialized agen- 
cies. It was decided that the information ex- 
changed on domestic employment problems, 
trends, and policies should at least include "as far 
as possible information relating to national in- 
come, demand, and the balance of payments". 
Arrangements should furthermore be made to con- 
sult "with a view to concerted action on the part of 
governments and inter-governmental organiza- 
tions in the field of employment policies". 

It was agreed that the maintenance of effective 
demand and employment must depend primarily 
on measures that, although they may involve co- 
operation or parallel action on the part of various 
countries, are nevertheless of a domestic rather 
than an international character. The Committee 
felt, however, that the possibilities of interna- 
tional action in support of the same objectives 
should not be overlooked. A separate Draft Reso- 
lution on International Action Relating to Em- 
ployment was therefore prepared, requesting the 
Economic and Social Council "to undertake at an 
early date, in consultation with the appropriate 
inter-governmental specialized agencies, special 
studies of the form which such international ac- 
tion might take". It was suggested that the Coun- 
cil, in addition to investigating the effects on em- 
ployment and production of an expansion of trade 
through a lowering of trade barriers and progres- 



* With reservations entered in the case of labor stand- 
ards, as noted below. 

' This subject was later discussed at length by the Joint 
Committee on Industrial Development, which drafted a 
new chapter for the charter. Cf. footnote 2 above. 

189 



sive elimination of discrimination, should include 
in its consideration measures relating to timing of 
capital expenditures and credit conditions, to 
stabilization of the incomes of primary producers, 
and to the support in periods of world deflationary 
pressure of the balance-of-payments position of 
countries pursuing domestic policies for full 
employment. 

The final issue dealt with by Committee I con- 
cerned the form in which the agreement on em- 
ployment should ultimately appear. The fact 
that employment functions were to be centered 
in the Economic and Social Council, and that con- 
sequently no separate commission to handle such 
functions was contemplated for the International 



Trade Organization, raised a question of whether 
the employment provisions should not be embodied 
in some instrument partly or wholly separate from 
the Organization's charter. On the other hand, 
the important connections between employment 
and trade, and particularly the difficulty that 
countries might have in assuming international 
commitments in the one field unless such commit- 
ments were associated with obligations binding all 
signatories in the other field as well, made it ap- 
pear desirable to link these agreements together 
as closely as possible. It was therefore decided 
that it would be most appropriate to include the 
employment undertakings as a chapter in the 
charter of the International Trade Organization. 



Industrial Development^ 

An Article 



Article 1 of the United States draft charter ^ 
stated that one of the general purposes of the In- 
ternational Trade Organization would be "To en- 
courage and assist the industrial and general 
economic development of Member countries, par- 
ticularly of those still in the early stages of indus- 
trial development." In article 50, the Organiza- 
tion would be given the function of collecting, 
analyzing, and publishing information, and of 
consulting with and making recommendations and 
reports to members on this subject. 

At the opening of the London meeting of the 
Preparatory Committee, a number of countries 
emphasized their interest in industrialization and 
other aspects of economic development, indicated 
that in their view the provisions in the draft 
charter were inadequate to meet the needs of under- 
developed countries, and asked that the provisional 
agenda be modified to allow full discussion of this 
subject. Because of the close connection with 
both employment and commercial policy, the mat- 



'This concerns the work of the Joint Committee on 
Industrial Development which was established by the 
General Commercial Policy Committee and the Committee 
on Employment and Economic Activity. 

' Suggested Charter for an International Trade Organ- 
ization of the United Nations, published in September 1*16 
(Department of State publication 2598, Commercial Policy 
Series 93). 

190 



ter of industrialization was referred to Committees 
I and II for their joint consideration. These com- 
mittees in turn established a Joint Committee on 
Industrial Development, which at the conclusion 
of its deliberations submitted to the Conference 
a report containing draft articles for a new chap- 
ter of the charter and a draft resolution to be 
brought to the attention of the Economic and 
Social Council. The Joint Committee also trans- 
mitted a formal request to Committee II to take 
due account of certain problems relating to in- 
dustrialization in connection with two of the arti- 
cles in the commercial-policy chapter. 

Recognition of the Importance of Economic 
Development 

The first question considered by the Joint Com- 
mittee was the manner in which appropriate rec- 
ognition might be given to industrial and general 
economic development as one of the basic objectives 
of the International Trade Organization. The 
importance of the subject warranted expanding 
the charter to mclude a chapter on economic de- 
velopment. The provision, it was agreed, shoidd 
be broad enough to apply to all countries (for 
example, countries already industrialized but en- 
gaged in programs of post-war reconstruction, as 
well as underdeveloped countries) and to all 
aspects of development (for example, moderniza- 

Department of Sfafe Bulletin 



tion of agi-iculture, as well as the introduction of 
manufacturing industries). The first article of 
this new draft chapter states (art. 10) that "Mem- 
bers recognize that the industrial and general eco- 
nomic development of all countries and in par- 
ticular of those countries whose resources are as 
yet relatively undeveloped will improve opportu- 
nities for employment, enhance the productivity 
of labor, increase the demand for goods and serv- 
ices, contribute to economic stability, expand inter- 
national trade, and raise levels of real income, thus 
strengthening the ties of international under- 
standing and accord." 

Positive Aids to Economic Development 

A point on which great stress was laid in the 
Joint Committee's discussions was that progressive 
economic development cannot take place without 
adequate supplies of capital funds, materials, 
equipment, advanced technology, trained workers, 
and managerial skill. It was agreed, moreover, 
that unless capital funds are available it may often 
be impossible to obtain the various other facilities 
in question. 

Since it was recognized that the relatively unde- 
veloped countries will usually need to look abroad 
for assistance in obtaining those means or facili- 
ties required for their development, the problem 
as viewed by delegations from those countries was 
one of securing agreement that such facilities 
would be obtainable from other countries on as 
favorable terms as possible. At the same time, it 
was clear that the interests of the other countries 
had likewise to be considered. The Committee 
which accordingly agreed upon a text recognized 
the reciprocal obligations of countries providing 
and countries receiving assistance. It was stipu- 
lated that (1) the Members should "impose no un- 
reasonable impediments that would prevent other 
Members from obtaining access to facilities re- 
quired for their economic development", and that 
they should also cooperate with the appropriate in- 
ternational specialized agencies of which they were 
members in the provision of such facilities; and 
(2) that Members should not only, in their treat- 
ment of foreign suppliers of such facilities, con- 
form to the provisions of their relevant interna- 
tional obligations, but should also in general "take 



no unreasonable action injurious to the interests 
of such other Members, business entities or per- 
sons". Finally, it was provided that the Interna- 
tional Trade Organization should receive com- 
plaints of failure to adhere to any of the above 
obligations, and, "In the event of such complaint 
. . . may, at its discretion, request the Mem- 
bers concerned to enter into consultation with a 
view to reaching a mutually satisfactoi-y settle- 
ment and lend its good offices to this end." 



Government Measures To Assist Development 

Another issue of major importance had to do 
with "legitimate protection", or the manner in 
which the objective of providing a maximum of 
encouragement for industrial and general eco- 
nomic development could be carried out along 
with the jjrogram for expanding trade through re- 
duction of trade barriers. Various approaches to 
this problem were expressed, representing a wide 
diversity of views. 

In the process of accommodating these differing 
views, it was decided that allowance for excep- 
tional treatment for new or reconstructed indus- 
tries should be made within the chapter on eco- 
nomic development in prefei'ence to having a series 
of special exceptions written into the various sec- 
tions of the chapter on commercial policy.* An 
article was accordingly drafted providing for (1) 
the recognition that special governmental assist- 
ance, which may take the form of protective meas- 
ui-es, may be required to promote the establishment 
or reconstruction of particular industries ; (2) rec- 



'A message was, however, sent to Committee II re- 
questing it to make the following provisions: (1) in art. 
18, "so that the Organization and other Members should, 
when considering the contribution which a Member can 
make to a reduction in tariffs, talie into account the height 
of the tariff of that Member, and the need, if any, of that 
Member to use protective measures in order to promote 
Industrial and general economic development" ; (2) in art. 
20, "to cover the position of a Member who, as a result 
of its plans for industrial development or reconstruction, 
anticipates that its accruing international monetary 
resources will be inadequate to finance the needed imports 
of goods, for example, capital goods, for the carrying out 
of such plans unless it imposes regulations restricting the 
import of certain classes of goods, for example, consumer 
goods". 



February 2, 1947 



191 



ognition "that an unwise use of such protection 
would impose undue burdens on their own econ- 
omies and unwarranted restrictions on interna- 
tional trade, and might increase unnecessarily the 
diiSculties of adjustment for the economies of 
other countries"; and (3) a procedure whereby a 
Member with a legitimate case for granting special 
protection to certain industries, in order to assist 
its economic development, may enlist the support 
of the International Trade Organization and 
avoid retaliatory action on the part of other 
Members. 

This procedure was made to depend on the kind 
of obligation from which release may be sought. 
In all cases — if a Member proposes to employ any 
protective measures that would conflict with any 
of its obligations under or pursuant to the char- 
ter — it must first inform the Organization, which 
in turn shall promptly notify other Members sub- 
stantially affected, give them an opportunity to 
present their views, and "then promptly examine 
the proposal in the light of the provisions of this 
chapter, the findings presented by the applicant 
Member, the views presented by Members sub- 
stantially affected, and such criteria as to produc- 
tivity and other factors as it may establish, taking 
into account the stage of economic development or 
reconstruction of the Member." The next step, 
however, assuming the Organization might con- 
cur in the proposal, would differ according to cir- 
cumstances. Conceivably, permission might be 
sought to raise a tariff that had been bound as a 
result of tariff negotiations with other Members, 
or to impose some other form of protection that 
would impair the value to other Members of an 
agreement negotiated with respect to a tariff, or 
would otherwise not be permitted under agree- 
ments negotiated pursuant to chapter V. In such 
a case the Organization should, as a pre-condition 
for granting the release, "sponsor and assist in 
negotiations between the applicant Member and 
other Members substantially affected, with a view 
to obtaining substantial agreement". On the other 
hand, if the requested release is one that would not 
impair a negotiated tariff concession or other com- 
mitments negotiated pursuant to chapter V, the 
Organization, after taking the earlier steps, may 
give final approval at its own discretion. In either 
type of case, a release when granted is "subject to 
such limitations as the Organization may impose." 



Allocation of Functions 

The final item on the agenda of the Joint Com- 
mittee concerned the part that the International 
Trade Organization itself should play in carrying 
out the various functions relating to development. 
It was recognized that requests for permission to 
impose special protective measures in the interests 
of development should be handled by the Organi- 
zation's Commission on Commercial Policy, since 
such requests would involve obtaining release from 
commercial-policy obligations. It was also agreed 
that Members themselves should "undei-take to 
promote the continuing industrial and ' general 
economic development of their respective countries 
and territories" and in that connection should "co- 
operate through the Economic and Social Council 
of the United Nations and the appropriate inter- 
governmental organizations". With these ques- 
tions settled, however, an issue arose which the 
Committee was unable to resolve. This point in- 
volved deciding how far the International Trade 
Organization should go in assisting Members to 
obtain technical and other assistance in connection 
with their development programs. 

One view was that the Organization should itself 
undertake certain of the positive functions in- 
volved, particularly in helping Members to obtain 
teclinical aid in the formulation and execution 
of plans for development. In support of this posi- 
tion it was urged that the task was essentially ad- 
ministrative in character and hence appropriate 
to a specialized agency; that its performance by 
the International Trade Organization would pro- 
vide a useful means of cooperation with Members ; 
and that the best way to secure a balanced point 
of view within the Organization would be to pro- 
vide its personnel with continuous experience with 
the positive as well as the protective aspects of na- 
tional development policies. On the other side it 
was pointed out that there were already several 
international agencies concerned with various as- 
pects of industrial development, including the 
newly created Sub-Commission on Economic De- 
velopment of the Economic and Social Council, 
the International Bank for Reconstruction and 
Development, the International Labor Organiza- 
tion, the Food and Agriculture Organization, and 
the United Nations Educational, Scientific and 
(Continued on page 207) 



192 



Department of State Bulletin 



THE UNITED NATIONS 



Report to Congress of U.S. Participation in the United Nations' 

THE PRESIDENT'S LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 



To the Congress of the United States : 

In accordance with the provisions of the United 
Nations Participation Act of 1945 I submit here- 
with my first annual report to the Congress on the 
activities of the United Nations and the Participa- 
tion of the United States therein.^ 

The Charter of the United Nations came into 
force as a fundamental law for the peoples of the 
world on October 24, 1945. The General Assem- 
bly convened for the first time in London in Janu- 
ary 1946. It elected the Secretary-General and 
brought into being the Security Council, the Econ- 
omic and Social Council and the International 
Court of Justice. 

In December 1946, at the Second Part of its 
First Session, in New York, the General Assembly 
completed its main organizational tasks by estab- 
lishing the Trusteeship Council. Thus all of the 
principal organs of the United Nations have now 
been established. All of them, except the Trustee- 
ship Council, have been working on their ap- 
pointed tasks during most of the past year. 

The policy of the United States, as I told the 
General Assembly in New York on October 23, 
1946, is to "support the United Nations with all the 
resources that we possess . . . not as a tempor- 
ary expedient but as a permanent partnership". 

That policy — in season and out — in the face of 
temporary failure as well as in moments of suc- 
cess — has the support of the overwhelming major- 
ity of the American people. It must continue to 
have this support if the United States is to fulfill 
its appointed role in the United Nations, if the 
United Nations is to fulfill its purposes and if our 
land is to be preserved from the disaster of another 
and far more terrible war. 

In the work of the United Nations during the 
past year the United States has sought constantly 
to carry out that policy. Our representatives have 

februarY 2, J 947 



spoken for the whole nation. They have been 
Democrats and Republicans, members of both the 
executive and legislative branches of our govern- 
ment, men and women from private life. 

The work of the United Nations during the past 
year has been the work of building foundations for 
the future. 

First of all, there have been the structural foun- 
dations. The Assembly, the Councils, the Court 
and the Secretariat have had a vast amount of or- 
ganizational work to do in order to establish them- 
selves as functioning agencies of the international 
community. Much of this has been pioneering 
work. The whole structure of the United Nations 
is a far more extensive endeavor in international 
cooperation than the nations have ever before 
attempted. 

The essential parts of this structure include not 
only the pi-incipal organs established by the 
Charter. They include equally the specialized 
agencies, such as the Food and Agriculture Organi- 
zation, the International Labor Organization, the 
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cul- 
tural Organization, the International Civil Avia- 
tion Organization, the International Banlc for 
Reconstruction and Development, the Interna- 
tional Monetary Fund, the proposed World 
Health Organization and International Trade 
Organization and several others. Each of these 
specialized agencies operates in a specific field 
under its own constitution. Each is or will be 
related to the central structure of the United 
Nations through the Economic and Social Coun- 



' For the entire report see Department of State publica- 
tion 2735 (The United States and the United Nations Re- 
ports Series 7). 

■ On Mar. 19, 1946, I transmitted to the Congress the 
Report submitted to me by the Secretary of State on the 
First Part of the First Session of the General Assembly in 
London. [See Department of State publication 2484.] 

193 



THE UNITCD NATIONS 

cil and the General Assembly. There is scarcely 
a field of activity having a common interest for 
the peoples of the world for which continuing 
instruments of international cooperation have not 
been developed during the past year. 

Perhaps the most immediately significant de- 
velopment of the past year in this direction was 
the General Assembly's demonstration of its power 
to influence the policies of nations and to bring 
about greater understanding among them. The 
Assembly possesses few definitive powers. It 
makes recommendations that can be translated into 
effective law only by the action of the nations con- 
cerned. But the Assembly during its meetings in 
New York expressed a higher sovereignty of the 
people's will in a manner which promises much 
for its development as a dominant power for peace 
and progress in the world. 

The building of the structural foundations of 
the United Nations during the past year has been 
accompanied by action over a very broad field 
toward giving life and meaning to the purposes 
and principles of the Charter. 

There has been progress toward building security 
from war. Step by step we have advanced the first 
part of the way toward agreement on the essential 
principles of a truly effective international system 
of control over the means of destruction that 
science has placed in the hands of mankind. 

The initiative in the control of atomic energy 
and other major weapons adaptable to mass de- 
struction was taken by the United States. The 
resolution creating the Atomic Energy Commis- 
sion was adopted at the first meeting of the Gen- 
eral Assembly in London. The United States 
presented in the Atomic Energy Commission 
last June its proposals for international con- 
trol of atomic energy. The Soviet Union opposed 
these proposals, but the Commission worked 
throughout the sunrmer and fall to build the bases 
for agreement. 

In October the Soviet Union introduced in the 
General Assembly proposals on the general regu- 
lation and reduction of armaments that seemed at 
first far removed from the United States position. 
Nevertheless, seven weeks later the Assembly was 
able to adopt unanimously a resolution reaffirming 
all the principles of the Atomic Energy Resolution 
and reflecting for the first time unanimous agree- 
ment on the essential principle of a system of 
international control and inspection established by 

194 



treaty and not subject to any veto in its operations. 

Two and a half weeks later, on December 31, the 
Atomic Energy Commission transmitted its first 
report to the Security Council. The report had 
been adopted by the Commission by a vote of 
10 to 0, the Soviet Union and Poland abstaining. 

Many months of hard work and difficult negoti- 
ation in the Security Council and the Atomic 
Energy Commission lie ahead. Not all the es- 
sential principles have yet been agreed upon. The 
problem of enforcement must still be resolved. 
All the principles must be given specific and 
practical application in treaties and conventions 
unanimously agreed upon. 

This is one of the main tasks before the United 
Nations in the coming year. To succeed, we must 
at the same time build the other essential founda- 
tions of a general system of collective security. 
The nations can safely lay aside their arms only in 
so far as their security is protected by other means. 

An essential element of collective security will be 
the ability of the Security Council to fulfill its 
primary responsibility for the maintenance of 
international peace and security. In its consider- 
ation of international disputes during its first year 
the Council demonstrated increasing power to 
ameliorate situations that otherwise might have 
become dangerous, and to influence the policies of 
nations in the direction of upholding the purposes 
and principles of the Charter. This was gen- 
erally true even when the five permanent members 
failed to reach the required unanimity for defini- 
tive action. The Security Council's application 
on a continuing basis of the public and peaceful 
methods of the council chamber to the settlement 
of disputes between nations is a new development 
in international relations, the significance of which 
gives every promise of becoming more apparent in 
the year ahead. 

Important steps have been taken by the United 
Nations during the past year toward economic re- 
construction and toward establishing the neces- 
sary basis for an expanding peace-time trade and 
employment. 

A draft Trade Charter establishing principles 
and practices aimed at increasing the volume of 
world trade and employment by reducing or elimi- 
nating artificial trade barriers and restrictions has 
been proposed by the United States and is now 
being developed by a Preparatory Committee of 
eighteen nations. One of the primary United 

Department of State Bulletin 



Nations' tasks of the year ahead is the adoption of 
such a Charter and the creation of an Inter- 
national Trade Organization to carry it out. 

The General Assembly has unanimously asked 
the Economic and Social Council to act on recom- 
mendations for the reconstruction and integration 
of the European economy and establishment of an 
Economic Commission for Europe. This Com- 
mission would unite all the interested countries, in- 
cluding the Soviet Union on the East and the 
United States on the West, in a common program. 
Steps toward economic reconstruction and devel- 
opment in the Far East will also be undertaken by 
the Economic and Social Council this year. 

Progress has also been made by the Economic 
and Social Council and the specialized agencies 
during the past year in many other respects. It is 
not too much to say that the establishment and 
maintenance of lasting peace will depend in large 
part upon the ability of the United Nations to 
carry through to a successful conclusion the work 
it has begun toward world economic recovery and 
cooperation. 

The promotion and protection of basic human 
rights for all peoples is a fundamental purpose of 
the United Nations. Active support for the wider 
realization of these rights and freedoms has been 
and should continue to be a primary objective of 
United States policy in the United Nations. 

During the past year our representatives in the 
Assembly and the Economic and Social Council 
took the initiative in writing a charter for the 
International Refugee Organization under which 
the right to freedom and another chance for a 
decent life of a million victims of war and racial, 
political, or religious oppression would be pre- 
served. I shall recommend to the Congress prompt 
acceptance of the constitution of the IRO and 
appropriation of our share of the expenses of its 
program. 

The tJnited States believes that freedom of in- 
formation must be realized on a far wider basis 
than exists in the world today if the United Na- 
tions is to succeed. We have strongly supported 
the policy of public debate of all issues in the 
United Nations because this promotes public 
knowledge and understanding and gives the 
peoples of the world a more direct opportunity to 
influence the results. We have also asked for action 
to break down the barriers to a wider, freer flow 

February 2, 1947 



THE UNITED NATIONS 

of information in the world. Preparations are 
now going forward for a world conference on free- 
dom of information before the end of this year as 
one step in this direction. 

The provisions of the Charter relating to de- 
pendent peoples offer to those hundreds of millions 
who do not yet govern themselves their best hope 
for attainment of this and other basic human 
rights and freedoms. The United States repre- 
sentatives took a leading part in the General As- 
sembly in bringing about the establishment of the 
Trusteeship System in the face of sharp disagree- 
m.ents and other major difficulties that might have 
caused indefinite delay. The United States will 
support further steps during the coming year 
toward strengthening the Trusteeship System. 

America has long been a symbol of freedom and 
democratic progress to peoples less favored than 
we have been. We must maintain their belief in 
us by our policies and our acts. 

One of the important long-range achievements 
of the General Assembly's first session was the 
adoption of resolutions introduced by the United 
States on the codification and development of 
international law. 

The General Assembly unanimously directed its 
committee on codification to give first attention to 
the charter and the decision of the Nuremberg 
Tribunal, under which aggressive war is a crime 
against humanity for which individuals as well as 
states must be punished. The Assembly also 
agreed that genocide — the deliberate policy of 
extermination of a race or class or any other 
human group — was a crime under international 
law. These developments toward the application 
of international law to individuals as well as to 
states are of profound significance to the state. We 
cannot have lasting peace unless a genuine rule of 
world law is established and enforced. 

The justifiable hope and confidence to which the 
great progress of the United Nations in the past 
year has given rise can be betrayed and lost. The 
difficulties and dangers that lie before us are many 
and serious. They are strewn across the road that 
leads to the final peace settlements, to the estab- 
lishment and maintenance of collective security, to 
the control of atomic energy and regulation and 
reduction of other arms, to the attainment of 
economic recovery and an expanding world econ- 
omy, and to the wider realization of human rights. 

Our policy of supporting the United Nations 

195 



THE UNITED NATIONS 

"with all the resources that we possess" must be 
given effective practical application on a genuinely 
national, bipartisan basis in every activity of the 
United Nations. This is just as necessary in the 
economic and social field as it is in the political 
field. We must pursue without hesitation biparti- 
san policies of economic cooperation with the rest 
of the world in such mattei-s as economic recon- 
struction and development and the expansion of 
world trade and employment. Because of the inter- 
dependence of the economy of nations, it will also 



be vital to world recovery as well as to our own 
prosperity that we maintain at home a stable econ- 
omy of high employment. 

The responsibility of the United States is a par- 
ticularly heavy one because of the power and in- 
fluence that our history and our material resources 
have placed in our hands. No nation has a higher 
stake in the outcome than our own. 

Harry S. TKUMAif 

The WnrrE House 
February 6, 19^7 



Summary Statement by the Secretary-General of Matters of which the Security 
Council is Seized and of the Stage Reached in their Consideration ^ 



Pursuant to Rule 11 of the Provisional Rules of 
Procedure of the Security Council, I wish to report 
that as of 24 January 1947 the Security Council 
is seized of the following matters : 

1. The Iranian Question 

2. Special Agreements Under Article 43 of the Charter 

3. Rules of Procedure of the Security Council 

4. Statute and Rules of Procedure of the Military Staff 

Committee 

5. Rules concerning the Admission of New Members 

6. Re-examination of applications for Membership 

7. The Greelf Question 

8. The General Regulation and Reduction of Armaments 

9. Information on Armed Forces of the United Nations 

10. First Report of the Atomic Energy Commission 

11. Incidents in the Corfu Channel 

The stage reached in the consideration of Items 
1 through 7 is set forth in document S/223. Items 
9 and 10 have been placed on the Council's Agenda 
but not discussed. The stage reached in the con- 
sideration of Items 8 and 11 is as follows: 

8. The General Regulation and Reduction of 
Armaments 
By letter dated 28 December 1946 addressed to 
the Secretary-General (document S/229) , the Rep- 
resentative of the USSR submitted a proposal 
regarding the implementation of the resolution of 
the General Assembly on the "Principles Govern- 
ing the General Regulation and Reduction of 
Armaments" (document S/231). At its eighty- 
eighth meeting on 31 December 194G the Council 
placed the USSR proposal on its agenda, and at 
the ninetieth meeting on 9 January 1947 it was 



' Security Council document S/257 of Jan. 24, 1947. For 
statement by Trygve Lie, Secretary-General of the United 
Nations, as of Jan. 3, 1947, see Bulletin of Jan. 19, 1947, 
p. 114. 



agreed to formally accept the Resolution of the 
General Assembly and proceed to the question of 
its implementation. 

Further discussion took place at the ninety-sec- 
ond and ninety-third meetings on 15 January and 
the ninety-fifth meeting on 20 January. Draft 
Resolutions regarding the implementation of the 
General Assembly Resolution have been suljmitted 
by the Representatives of the United States 
(S/233), France (S/243), Australia (S/249) and 
Colombia (S/251). 

At its ninety-fifth meeting on 20 January the 
Council adojited by nine votes to two a resolution 
submitted by the Representative of the United 
States to defer consideration of items 8, 9, and 10 
above until 4 February 1947. 

11. Incidents in the Corfu Channel 

By letter dated 10 January 1947, addressed to 
the Secretary-General (document S/247) the Rep- 
resentative of the United Kingdom forwarded 
copies of an exchange of notes between the Gov- 
ernments of the United Kingdom and Albania 
regarding incidents in the Corfu Channel. He 
stated that his Government had instructed him to 
bring this dispute to the early attention of the 
Security Council under Article 35 of the Charter. 

At its ninety-fifth meeting on 20 January the 
Council passed this question on its Agenda. It 
was decided to invite Albania to participate with- 
out vote in the discussion relating to the dispute 
and to ask the Albanian Government, if it chose 
to accept this invitation, to accept for the purposes 
of the discussion of this case all those obligations 
which would fall upon a Member of the United 
Nations. 



196 



Deparfmenf of Sfafe Bulletin 



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES 



Calendar of Meetings ^ 



In Session as of January 26, 1947 
Far Eastern Commission 



United Nations: 

Security Council 

Military Staff Committee . .* 

Commission on Atomic Energy 

UNRRA - Intergovernmental Committee on Refugees (IGCR): 
Joint Planning Committee 

Telecommunications Advisory Committee 

Committee To Study Post-UNRRA Relief 

Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC): 

Drafting Committee of International Trade Organization, Pre- 
paratory Committee 

Economic and Employment Commission 

Social Commission 



German External Property Negotiations (Safehaven) : 

With Portugal 

With Spain 



Inter-Allied Trade Board for Japan 

FAO: Preparatory Commission To Study World Food Board Pro- 
posals 

Inter- Allied Reparation Agency (lARA): Meetings on Conflicting 
Custodial Claims 



PICAO: 

Interim Council 

Personnel Licensing Division 

Air-Transport Committee: Sixth Session. 
Aeronautical Maps and Charts Division . 



Council of Foreign Ministers: Meeting of Deputies 
International Wheat Council 



Scheduled January-March 1947 

United Nations: 

Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) : 

Human Rights Commission 

Statistical Commission 

Population Commission 

Transport and Communications Commission 

Commission on the Status of Women 

Subcommission on Economic Reconstruction of Devastated 
Areas, Working Group for Asia and the Far East 



Washington 



Lake Success 

Lake Success 

Lake Success 

Washington and Lake Success 



Lake Success . 
Lake Success . 



Lake Success . 



Lake Success . 
Lake Success . 



Lisbon 
Madrid 



Washington 
Washington 



Brussels , 



Montreal 
Montreal 
Montreal 
Montreal 



London . . 
Washington 



Lake 
Lake 
Lake 
Lake 
Lake 
Lake 



Success . 
Success . 
Success . 
Success . 
Success . 
Success . 



' Prepared in the Division of International Conferences, Department of State. 
february 2, 1947 

729393 — 47 3 



Feb. 26, 1946 

Mar. 25, 1946 

Mar. 25, 1946 

June 14, 1946 

July 25, 1946 

Nov. 10, 1946 

Dec. 19, 1946- 

Jan. 19, 1947 

Jan. 20-Feb.28 

Jan. 20-Feb. 1 
Jan. 20-Feb. 1 

Sept. 3, 1946 
Nov. 12, 1946 

Oct. 24, 1946 

Oct. 28, 1946- 
Jan. 24, 1947 

Nov. 6-Dec. 
17, 1946. To 
resume Jan. 
29 

Jan. 7 
Jan. 7-25 
Jan. 13 
Jan. 14 

Jan. 14-Feb. 24 

Jan. 15 



Jan. 27-Feb. 8 
Jan. 27-Feb. 8 
Feb. 6-19 
Feb. 6-19 
Feb. 10-22 
Feb. 14 



197 



Calendar of Meetings — Continued 



United Nations: ECOSOC— Continued 

Non-Governmental Organizations Committee 

Standing Committee on Negotiations with Specialized Agencies . 

Fourth Session 

Meeting of Experts on Passport and Frontier Formalities . . 

International Court of Justice 

Trusteeship Council 



Conference for the Establishment of a Regional Advisory Commission 
for Non-Self-Governing Territories in the South and Southwest 
Pacific 



Interim Emergency Food Council 

ILO: 

Industrial Committee on Petroleum Production and Refining 

101st Session of the Governing Body 

Committee on Social Policy in Dependent Territories . . . 
Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions . 
Preparatory Meeting of Statistical Experts 



PICAO: 
Divisional 

Accident Investigation Division 

Airworthiness Division 

Airline Operating Practices Division 

Regional 

South Pacific Regional Air Navigation Meeting . 



Conference of the International Union for Protection of Industrial 
Property 

Signing of Peace Treaties with Italy, Hungary, Bulgaria, Rumania, 
and Finland 

International Refugee Organization: Preparatory Commission . . . 

Emergency Economic Committee for Europe (EECE) : Subcommittee 
on Emergency Housing Problems 

International Children's Fund: Executive Board and Special Com- 
mittee Meeting 



Council of Foreign Ministers 



World Health Organization (WHO) : Third Session of Interim Com- 
mission 

European Central Inland Transport Organization (ECITO) : Seventh 
Session of the Council 



Lake Success . 
Lake Success . 
Lake Success . 
Geneva . . . 
The Hague . 
Lake Success . 

Canberra . . 



Washington 

Los Angeles 
Geneva . . 
London . . 
Geneva . . 
Montreal . 



Montreal . 
Montreal . 

Montreal . 

Melbourne . 
NeufchStel . 



Paris 



Geneva . . . 
The Hague . 

Lake Success 



Moscow , 
Geneva 



Paris 



Feb. 


25-27 


Feb. 


28 


Feb. 


28 


Mar 


17 


Feb. 


10 


Mar 


26 


Jan.28-Feb. 16 


(tentative) 


Jan 


. 30-31 


Feb. 


3-12 


Mar 


5-8 


Mar 


17-22 


Mar 


24-29 


March 


Feb. 


4 


Feb. 


18 


Feb. 


25 


Feb. 


4 


Feb. 


5 



Feb. 10 

Feb. 11 
Feb. 13-15 

Feb. 24 

Mar. 10 
Mar. 31 

March 



Activities and Developments » 



SIGNING OF ARTICLES OF AGREEMENT 
OF INTERNATIONAL BANK 

On December 24, 1946, Colombia signed and 
accepted the articles of agreement of the Inter- 
national Bank for Reconstruction and Develop- 
ment. 

Those countries which were entitled to sign 
the articles of agreement before January 1, 1947 
but failed to do so are: Australia, Liberia, New 
Zealand, Haiti, and the Union of Soviet Socialist 
Republics. 



198 



Deparfment of State Bulletin 



SECOND INTER-AMERICAN CONGRESS 
OF RADIOLOGY' 

The Second Inter-American Congress of Ra- 
diology was held at Habaua, Cuba, from November 
17 to November 22, 19-16, to permit tlie exchange 
of radiological information among physicians of 
all the Americas. The Congress of Radiology was 
created by interested physicians in 1913 following 
correspondence between leading members of the 
medical specialty of radiologj' in North and South 
America. 

The first congress was held in Buenos Aires in 
1913. Because of traveling restrictions created 
by the war, no delegates were able to attend from 
North America. At the recent congress physicians 
from all the American republics were invited to 
attend, and nearly all were represented. Scientific 
papers dealing with radiological research and 
procedure were presented, and exhibits, including 
both scientific and commercial displays, were set 
upon the site of the congress. Papers were deliv- 
ered on such topics as the use of X-ray and radio- 
active substances in the diagnosis, treatment, and 
prevention of disease and on Roentgen therapy. 

At the closing session of the congress on Novem- 
ber 22, a new organization, the Inter-American 
College of Radiology, was founded. Its head- 
quarters office will be in Buenos Aires, Argentina. 
The Third Inter-American Congi'ess of Radiology 
is scheduled to be held in Santiago, Chile, in 1949. 

The following were members of the United 
States Delegation : from the American College of 
Radiology, Eugene P. Pendergrass, M.D., E. C. 
Ernst, M.D., Ross Golden, M.D., Leon J. Menville, 
M.D., and Benjamin H. Orndoff, M.D. ; from the 
American Roentgen Ray Society, Vincent W. 
Archer, M.D., J. Bennett Edwards, M.D., Ray- 
mond C Beeler, M.D., Mac F. Cahal, J.D., George 
E. Pf abler, M.D. ; from the Radiological Society 
of North America, Inc., W. Edward Chamberlain, 
M.D., Lowell S. Goin, M.D., Maurice Lenz, M.D., 
Edgar P. McNamee, M.D., Frederick W. O'Brien, 
M.D., and Edith H. Quimby, M.D. ; from the U.S. 
Public Health Service, Herman E. Hillboe, M.D., 
and Russell H. Morgan, M.D. 



ACTIVnieS AND DEVEIOPMBNTS 

PRESS AND RADIO COVERAGE FOR COUNCIL 
OF FOREIGN MINISTERS IN MOSCOW 

[Released to the press January 21] 

Ambassador Bedell Smith reported from Mos- 
cow on January 18 that he and Deputy Minister 
for Foreign Affairs Vyshinsky conferred on sub- 
jects relating to press coverage, radio broadcasting 
facilities, and so forth for the forthcoming meet- 
ing of the Council of Foreign Ministers at Moscow. 
Ambassador Smith reported that the Soviet posi- 
tion is as follows : 

The primary consideration of the Soviet Gov- 
ernment is to provide suitable quarters and office 
space for the delegations. Delegations and cor- 
respondents will be quartered in the Moscow Hotel, 
the larger part of which is now being cleared for 
the purpose. The Soviet Government is unable to 
determine the total number of correspondents who 
can be admitted until they know the size of the 
official delegations. 

The Soviet Government is unable to make a ten- 
tative estimate of the ceiling on the number of 
corresi^ondents at this time. 

No difficulty about the arrival of correspondents 
by United States air transport is anticipated. 

Ambassador Smith further reported that a de- 
cision has not yet been made as to whether broad- 
casting facilities will be available. He pointed out 
to Mr. Vyshinsky the importance of making such 
facilities available. 

The Soviet Government will permit correspond- 
ents to write with complete freedom on conference 
matters. 

SIGNING OF PEACE TREATIES 

On January 20, 1917 Secretary of State James 
F. Byrnes signed on behalf of the United States of 
America the treaties of peace with Bulgaria, Hun- 
gary, Italy, and Rumania, which were formulated 
by the Council of Foreign Ministers. Those trea- 
ties will be signed in Paris on February 10 by the 
American Ambassador to France and representa- 
tives of the other governments concerned. 

' Prepared by the Division of International Conferences, 
Department of State. 



February 2, 1947 



199 



Sixth Plenary Session of Intergovernmental Committee on Refugees 

Article by Martha H. Blehle 



The Sixth Plenary Session of the Intergovern- 
mental Committee on Eefugees met in London 
from December 16 to 20, 1946 with re^jresentatives 
of 32 of the 36 member governments in attendance. 
Seiior Don Manuel Bianchi, Ambassador in Lon- 
don for the Governnaent of Chile, was elected 
chairman of the session. The Delegate of the 
United States Government to the meetings was 
George L. Warren, adviser on refugees and dis- 
placed persons to the Department of State. 

The major items for consideration by the Com- 
mittee were the rejjort of the director on activities 
in 1946, the administrative and operational budgets 
for 1947, and the proposals for adoption of ;ui 
international scale for contributions of all member 
governments to the operational budget. 

Sir Herbert W. Emei'son, director, reporting on 
the work of the Committee during 1946, stated 
that although the program of maintenance and 
relief of refugees has continued in Belgium, 
France, Holland, Portugal, and Spain, and to a 
small extent in Italy and the Middle East, the 
emphasis of the Committee in the past six months 
has been on emigration and resettlement. On July 
16, 1946 the Executive Committee voted to extend 
the Committee's program to include activities 
leading to resettlemeiit of those displaced persons 
who are unwilling or unable to return to their 
countries of former habitual residence. It was 
understood that such activities are regarded as 
preliminary to the assumption of responsibility 
for refugees by the proposed new International 
Refugee Organization. The Intergovernmental 
Committee has sent four missions to South Ameri- 
can countries to explore the possibilities for immi- 
gration of displaced persons. The Committee is 
also taking up the matter of establishing resident 
representatives in Shanghai to aid in the emigra- 
tion of European refugees temporarily resident in 
China, and representatives in countries of recep- 
tion in the Western Hemisphere. 



' The United States Government has not yet signed 
the agreement. 



During the discussion of the director's report 
the question was raised whether the Committee's 
work on behalf of the resettlement of refugees is 
compatible with the desired encouragement of re- 
patriation. In response the fact was stressed that, 
although the Committee desires to see as many 
displaced persons repatriated as possible, it is rec- 
ognized that a number will refuse to be repatriated 
voluntarily. Therefore, it is necessary, on hu- 
manitarian grounds and in order to prevent a 
growth of bitterness that might possibly result in 
a new fascism, to make provision for such persons 
in new areas of settlement. It was also suggested 
that many displaced persons who are uncertain 
about their plans may prefer repatriation when 
they see clearly that resettlement will not result 
in an easy mode of life. The Committee's exten- 
sion of activities in the matter of resettlement, in 
preparation for the International Refugee Organi- 
zation, was approved by most members present. 

During 1946 the Committee undertook various 
measures for the legal and political protection of 
stateless persons. Prominent among these was 
the calling of an international conference of gov- 
ernments to consider proposals for an interna- 
tionally acceptable travel document for issue to 
stateless persons. This conference concluded with 
the approval on October 16, 1946 of an interna- 
tional agreement which was signed by 15 govern- 
ments and which provides the conditions for the 
issuance of the travel document by a signatory 
government to stateless persons temporarily resi- 
dent in that country.^ 

The director reported that according to article 
VIII of the final act of the Paris Conference on 
Reparation, the Governments of Czechoslovakia, 
France, United Kingdom, United States, and 
Yugoslavia had been designated to work out a 
plan for the use of certain funds from German 
reparations for the rehabilitation and resettle- 
ment of non-repatriable victims of German action. 
xVccordinglj', these five governments met in Paris 
in June 1046 and asked the Intergovernmental 



200 



Department of Stafe Bullefin 



Committee on Refugees to administer these funds 
through appropriate public and private organiza- 
tions. The director of the Intergovernmautal 
Committee is to make funds available to these 
organizations for programs submitted by them, as 
soon as he has satisfied himself that such programs 
aie consistent with the purposes of the reparation 
fund.' The conditions of the use of these funds 
are specifically defined in a letter of instructions 
transmitted to the director of the Intergovern- 
mental Committee on Refugees by the French 
Government on behalf of the five governments 
participating in the Conference. These instruc- 
tions designate the American Jewish Joint Dis- 
tribution Committee and the Jewish Agency for 
Palestine as the field agencies to which the direc- 
tor, after satisfying himself that the projects sub- 
mitted by them meet the intent of the reparation 
fund, shall make available that portion of the fund 
which is for Jewish victims of Nazi action. The 
organizations to administer the funds available 
for non-Jewish victims are to be selected by the 
director of the Intergovernmental Connnittee 
from among the appropriate field organizations 
competent to perform these functions. The re- 
striction of eligibility to very specific categories 
of refugees, most of whom are German and Aus- 
trian Jewish victims of persecution, and to few 
types of services, means that the reparation fund 
may be used to aid in the resettlement of less than 
20 percent of the total number of displaced 
persons. 

An administrative budget of approximately 
$471,000 was approved for the year 1947. In 
presenting the operational budget it was stated 
that the Executive Committee had sugg&sted that 
estimates should be based on the assumption that 
the new International Refugee Organization 
would commence operations on or about July 1, 
1947. The proposed budget for the Intergovern- 
mental Committee for the first half of 1947 was 
$14,490,000. This included $394,450 for overseas 
offices and missions, $1,457,050 for current pro- 
grams of assistance other than transportation 
(chiefly in Belgium, France, Holland, Portugal, 
and Spain), $9,257,500 for the emigration of in- 
dividuals and family units, $2,012,500 for group 
settlement, and $1,368,500 for unforeseen expendi- 
tures. The proposed figures for emigration and 
resettlement were closely related to the expendi- 
tures estimated for the International Refugee 



ACTIVtTIBS AND DBVBLOPMBNTS 

Organization in these fields. After some discus- 
sion, the budget estimates were reduced by 
$2,012,500 in the case of individual and family 
emigration, and by $402,500 in the case of group 
settlement, with the result that the operational 
budget appi-oved by the plenary session for the 
first six months of 1947 is a total of $12,075,000. 

A resolution passed by a majority vote recom- 
mended that member governments contribute to- 
ward the Committee's operational expenditure 
according to an intergovernmental scale which 
was also approved. Members were asked to com- 
municate their intentions on this matter before 
February 15, 1947. The new scale is based on the 
scale for contributions to the operational expen- 
diture of the International Refugee Organization, 
and the largest contributions under it are : Anglo- 
American, C9.S4 percent (the division of which 
as left to bilateral discussions between the two 
countries); French, 4.73 percent; Canadian, 4.04 
percent; Swedish, 2.54 percent; Swiss, 2.19 per- 
cent; and Austi-alian, 2.03 percent. Until the 
adoption of this proposal the operational expenses 
of the Committee were underwritten in equal 
amount by the Governments of the United States 
and the United Kingdom, with other member 
governments asked to contribute voluntarily.. 

The plenary session also adopted resolutions re- 
lating the work of the Committee and its financial 
provisions to those of the International Refugee 
Organization, and recommending that as many as 
possible of the suitable members of the Committee's 
staff be employed by that Organization. 

During the session, the Italian Government and 
the Government of Liechtenstein were admitted 
into membership of the Committee. The Govern- 
ments of Argentina, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, 
France, Poland, Switzerland, United States, and 
United Kingdom were elected to constitute the 
Executive Committee. The Governments repre- 
sented at the plenary session were : Argentina, Aus- 
tralia, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, 
Colombia, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Dominican 
Republic, Egypt, Eire, France, Greece, Iceland, 
India, Italy, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Mexico, 
Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Norway, 
Paraguay, Peru, Poland, Sweden, Switzerland, 
Union of South Africa, United Kingdom, United 
States of America, and Venezuela. 

' Bulletin of Jan. 27, 1946, p. 114, and of July 14, 1946, 
p. 71. 



February 2, 1947 



201 



THE RECORD OF THE WEEK 



National Defense and National Reputation 



ADDRESS BY ASSISTANT SECRETARY BENTON' 



You have dedicated this conference to the sub- 
ject of national defense. I shall dedicate this talk 
to the theme of national def